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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 4 - "G" to "Gaskell, Elizabeth"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GABEL, KRISTOFFER: "See Carl Frederik Bricka, Dansk.
      Biograf. Lex. art "Gabel" (Copenhagen, 1887, &c.); Danmarks Riges
      Historie (Copenhagen, 1897-1905), vol. v." '1905' amended from
      '1005'.

    ARTICLE GALLS: "The same authority (loc. cit. p. 550) mentions a
      willow-gall which provides no less than sixteen insects with food
      and protection; these are preyed upon by about eight others, so
      that altogether some twenty-four insects, ..." 'altogether' amended
      from 'alltogether'.

    ARTICLE GANNET: "... and orderly takes its place in the rear of the
      string, to repeat its headlong plunge so soon as it again finds
      itself above its prey." 'its' amended from 'is'.

    ARTICLE GARDNER, PERCY: "... an account of excavations in Greece
      and Asia Minor; Manual of Greek Antiquities (with F.B. Jevons, 2nd
      ed. 1898); ..." 'Asia' amended from 'Aisa'.

    ARTICLE GARNET, HENRY: "... by the Jesuit L'Heureux, under the
      pseudonym Eudaemon-Joannes, and Dr Robert Abbot's reply, Antilogia
      versus Apologiam Eudaemon-Joannes, ..." 'Eudaemon' amended from
      'Endaemon'.

    ARTICLE GARTH, SIR SAMUEL: "He wrote little besides his best-known
      work The Dispensary and Claremont, a moral epistle in verse."
      'epistle' amended from 'espistle'.

    ARTICLE GAS ENGINE: "The Westinghouse Co. of Pittsburgh have also
      built large engines, several of which are in operation at the
      various works of the Carnegie Steel Co." 'Pittsburgh' amended from
      'Pittsburg'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XI, SLICE IV

          G to Gaskell, Elizabeth



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  G                                 GALLUPPI, PASQUALE
  GABBRO                            GALLUS, CORNELIUS
  GABEL, KRISTOFFER                 GALLUS, GAIUS AELIUS
  GABELENTZ, HANS CONON VON DER     GALLUS, GAIUS CESTIUS
  GABELLE                           GALLUS, GAIUS SULPICIUS
  GABERDINE                         GALOIS, EVARISTE
  GABES                             GALSTON
  GABII                             GALT, SIR ALEXANDER TILLOCH
  GABINIUS, AULUS                   GALT, JOHN
  GABION                            GALT
  GABLE                             GALTON, SIR FRANCIS
  GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS             GALUPPI, BALDASSARE
  GABLER, JOHANN PHILIPP            GALVANI, LUIGI
  GABLETS                           GALVANIZED IRON
  GABLONZ                           GALVANOMETER
  GABORIAU, ÉMILE                   GALVESTON
  GABRIEL                           GALWAY (county of Ireland)
  GABRIEL HOUNDS                    GALWAY (town of Ireland)
  GABRIELI, GIOVANNI                GAMA, VASCO DA
  GABUN                             GAMALIEL
  GACE BRULÉ                        GAMBETTA, LÉON
  GACHARD, LOUIS PROSPER            GAMBIA (river of West Africa)
  GAD                               GAMBIA (country of West Africa)
  GADAG                             GAMBIER, JAMES GAMBIER,
  GADARA                            GAMBIER
  GADDI                             GAMBOGE
  GADE, NIELS WILHELM               GAMBRINUS
  GADOLINIUM                        GAME
  GADSDEN, CHRISTOPHER              GAME LAWS
  GADSDEN, JAMES                    GAMES, CLASSICAL
  GADWALL                           GAMING AND WAGERING
  GAEKWAR                           GAMUT
  GAETA                             GANDAK
  GAETANI                           GANDAMAK
  GAETULIA                          GANDERSHEIM
  GAGE, LYMAN JUDSON                GANDHARVA
  GAGE, THOMAS                      GANDÍA
  GAGE                              GANDO
  GAGERN, HANS CHRISTOPH ERNST      GANESA
  GAHANBAR                          GANGES
  GAIGNIÈRES, FRANÇOIS ROGER DE     GANGOTRI
  GAIL, JEAN BAPTISTE               GANGPUR
  GAILLAC                           GANGRENE
  GAILLARD, GABRIEL HENRI           GANILH, CHARLES
  GAINESVILLE (Florida, U.S.A.)     GANJAM
  GAINESVILLE (Texas, U.S.A.)       GANNAL, JEAN NICOLAS
  GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS              GANNET
  GAINSBOROUGH                      GANODONTA
  GAIRDNER, JAMES                   GANS, EDUARD
  GAIRLOCH                          GÄNSBACHER, JOHANN BAPTIST
  GAISERIC                          GANTÉ
  GAISFORD, THOMAS                  GANYMEDE
  GAIUS                             GAO
  GAIUS CAESAR                      GAOL
  GALAGO                            GAON
  GALANGAL                          GAP
  GALAPAGOS ISLANDS                 GAPAN
  GALASHIELS                        GARARISH
  GALATIA                           GARASHANIN, ILIYA
  GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE         GARAT, DOMINIQUE JOSEPH
  GALATINA                          GARAT, PIERRE-JEAN
  GALATZ                            GARAY, JÁNOS
  GALAXY                            GARBLE
  GALBA, SULPICIUS (Roman general)  GARÇÃO, PEDRO ANTONIO JOAQUIM CORRÊA
  GALBA, SULPICIUS (Roman emperor)  GARCIA (DEL POPOLO VICENTO), MANOEL
  GALBANUM                          GARCÍA DE LA HUERTA, VICENTE ANTONIO
  GALCHAS                           GARCÍA DE PAREDES, DIEGO
  GALE, THEOPHILUS                  GARCÍA GUTIÉRREZ, ANTONIO
  GALE, THOMAS                      GARD
  GALE                              GARDA, LAKE OF
  GALEN, CHRISTOPH BERNHARD         GARDANE, CLAUDE MATTHIEU
  GALEN, CLAUDIUS                   GARDELEGEN
  GALENA (Illinois, U.S.A.)         GARDEN
  GALENA (Kansas, U.S.A.)           GARDENIA
  GALENA (ore of lead)              GARDINER, JAMES
  GALEOPITHECUS                     GARDINER, SAMUEL RAWSON
  GALERIUS                          GARDINER, STEPHEN
  GALESBURG                         GARDINER
  GALGACUS                          GARDNER, PERCY
  GALIANI, FERDINANDO               GARDNER
  GALICIA (crownland of Austria)    GARE-FOWL
  GALICIA (province of Spain)       GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM
  GALIGNANI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO       GAR-FISH
  GALILEE (province of Palestine)   GARGANEY
  GALILEE (architectural term)      GARGANO, MONTE
  GALILEE, SEA OF                   GARGOYLE
  GALILEO GALILEI                   GARHWAL
  GALION                            GARIBALDI, GIUSEPPE
  GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH                GARIN LE LOHERAIN
  GALL                              GARLAND, JOHN
  GALLABAT                          GARLIC
  GALLAIT, LOUIS                    GARNET, HENRY
  GALLAND, ANTOINE                  GARNET
  GALLARATE                         GARNETT, RICHARD
  GALLARS, NICOLAS DES              GARNIER, CLÉMENT JOSEPH
  GALLAS, MATTHIAS                  GARNIER, GERMAIN
  GALLAS                            GARNIER, JEAN LOUIS CHARLES
  GALLATIN, ALBERT                  GARNIER, MARIE JOSEPH FRANÇOIS
  GALLAUDET, THOMAS HOPKINS         GARNIER, ROBERT
  GALLE                             GARNIER-PAGÈS, ÉTIENNE JOSEPH LOUIS
  GALLENGA, ANTONIO CARLO NAPOLEONE GARNISH
  GALLERY                           GARO HILLS
  GALLEY                            GARONNE
  GALLIA CISALPINA                  GARRET
  GALLIC ACID                       GARRETT, JOÃO BAPTISTA DE ALMEIDA
  GALLICANISM                       GARRETTING
  GALLIENI, JOSEPH SIMON            GARRICK, DAVID
  GALLIENUS, PUBLIUS EGNATIUS       GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD
  GALLIFFET, GASTON AUGUSTE         GARRISON
  GALLIO, JUNIUS ANNAEUS            GARROTE
  GALLIPOLI (Italy)                 GARRUCHA
  GALLIPOLI (Turkey)                GARSTON
  GALLIPOLIS                        GARTH, SIR SAMUEL
  GALLITZIN, DEMETRIUS AUGUSTINE    GARTOK
  GALLIUM                           GARY
  GALLON                            GAS
  GALLOWAY, JOSEPH                  GASCOIGNE, GEORGE
  GALLOWAY, THOMAS                  GASCOIGNE, SIR WILLIAM
  GALLOWAY                          GASCONY
  GALLOWS                           GAS ENGINE
  GALLS                             GASKELL, ELIZABETH CLEGHORN



G    The form of this letter which is familiar to us is an invention of
the Romans, who had previously converted the third symbol of the
alphabet into a representative of a _k_-sound (see C). Throughout the
whole of Roman history C remained as the symbol for G in the
abbreviations C and Cn. for the proper names Gaius and Gnaeus. According
to Plutarch (_Roman Questions_, 54, 59) the symbol for G was invented by
Spurius Carvilius Ruga about 293 B.C. This probably means that he was
the first person to spell his cognomen RVGA instead of RVCA. G came to
occupy the seventh place in the Roman alphabet which had earlier been
taken by Z, because between 450 B.C. and 350 B.C. the z-sounds of Latin
passed into r, names like _Papisius_ and _Fusius_ in that period
becoming Papirius and Furius (see Z), so that the letter z had become
superfluous. According to the late writer Martianus Capella z was
removed from the alphabet by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus in 312
B.C. To Claudius the insertion of G into the alphabet is also sometimes
ascribed.

In the earliest form the difference from C is very slight, the lower lip
of the crescent merely rising up in a straight line [symbol], but
[symbol] and [symbol] are found also in republican times. In the
earliest Roman inscription which was found in the Forum in 1899 the form
is [symbol] written from right to left, but the hollow at the bottom lip
of the crescent is an accidental pit in the stone and not a diacritical
mark. The unvoiced sound in this inscription is represented by K. The
use of the new form was not firmly established till after the middle of
the 3rd century B.C.

In the Latin alphabet the sound was always the voiced stop (as in _gig_)
in classical times. Later, before _e_, _g_ passed into a sound like the
English _y_, so that words begin indifferently with _g_ or _j_; hence
from the Lat. _generum_ (accusative) and _Ianuarium_ we have in Ital.
_genero_ and _Gennajo_, Fr. _gendre_ and _janvier_. In the ancient
Umbrian dialect _g_ had made this change between vowels before the
Christian era, the inhabitant of _Iguvium_ (the modern Gubbio) being in
the later form of his native speech _Iuvins_, Lat. _Iguvinus_. In most
cases in Mid. Eng. also _g_ passed into a _y_ sound; hence the old
prefix _ge_ of the past participle appears only as _y_ in _yclept_ and
the like. But _ng_ and _gg_ took a different course, the _g_ becoming an
affricate d_z_ (_dzh_), as in _singe_, _ridge_, _sedge_, which in
English before 1500 were _senge_, _rigge_, _segge_, and in Scotch are
still pronounced _sing_, _rig_, _seg_. The affricate in words like
_gaol_ is of French origin (_geôle_), from a Late Lat. _gabiola_, out of
_caveola_, a diminutive of the Lat. _cavea_.

The composite origin of English makes it impossible to lay down rules
for the pronunciation of English _g_; thus there are in the language
five words _Gill_, three of which have the _g_ hard, while two have it
soft: viz. (1) _gill_ of a fish, (2) _gill_, a ravine, both of which are
Norse, and (3) _Gill_, the surname, which is mostly Gaelic = White; and
(4) _gill_ a liquid measure, from O. Fr. _gelle_, Late Lat. _gella_ in
the same sense, and (5) _Gill_, a girl's name, shortened from _Gillian_,
_Juliana_ (see Skeat's _Etymological Dictionary_). No one of these words
is of native origin; otherwise the initial _g_ would have changed to
_y_, as in Eng. _yell_ from the O. Eng. _gellan_, _giellan_.
     (P. Gi.)



GABBRO, in petrology, a group of plutonic basic rocks, holocrystalline
and usually rather coarse-grained, consisting essentially of a basic
plagioclase felspar and one or more ferromagnesian minerals (such as
augite, hornblende, hypersthene and olivine). The name was given
originally in north Italy to certain coarsely crystalline dark green
rocks, some of which are true gabbros, while others are serpentines. The
gabbros are the plutonic or deep-seated representatives of the
dolerites, basalts and diabases (also of some varieties of andesite)
with which they agree closely in mineral composition, but not in minute
structure. Of their minerals felspar Is usually the most abundant, and
is principally labradorite and bytownite, though anorthite occurs in
some, while oligoclase and orthoclase have been found in others. The
felspar is sometimes very clear and fresh, its crystals being for the
most part short and broad, with rather irregular or rounded outlines.
Albite twinning is very frequent, but in these rocks it is often
accompanied by pericline twinning by which the broad or narrow albite
plates are cut transversely by many thin, bright and dark bars as seen
in polarized light. Equally characteristic of the gabbros is the
alteration of the felspars to cloudy, semi-opaque masses of saussurite.
These are compact, tough, devoid of cleavage, and have a waxy lustre and
usually a greenish-white colour. When this substance can be resolved by
the microscope it proves to consist usually of zoisite or epidote, with
garnet and albite, but mixed with it are also chlorite, amphibole,
serpentine, prehnite, sericite and other minerals. The augite is usually
brown, but greenish, violet and colourless varieties may occur.
Hypersthene, when present, is often strikingly pleochroic in colours
varying from pink to bright green. It weathers readily to
platy-pseudomorphs of bastite which are soft and yield low polarization
colours. The olivine is colourless in itself, but in most cases is
altered to green or yellow serpentine, often with bands of dark
magnetite granules along its cleavages and cracks. Hornblende when
primary is often brown, and may surround augite or be perthitically
intergrown with it; original green hornblende probably occurs also,
though it is more frequently secondary. Dark-brown biotite, although by
no means an important constituent of these rocks, occurs in many of
them. Quartz is rare, but is occasionally seen intergrown with felspar
as micropegmatite. Among the accessory minerals may be mentioned
apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, picotite and garnet.

A peculiar feature, repeated so constantly in many of the minerals of
these rocks as to be almost typical of them, is the occurrence of small
black or dark brown enclosures often regularly arranged parallel to
certain crystallographic planes. Reflection of light from the surfaces
of these minute enclosures produces a shimmering or _Schiller_. In
augite or hypersthene the effect is that the surface of the mineral has
a bronzy sub-metallic appearance, and polished plates seen at a definite
angle yield a bright coppery-red reflection, but polished sections of
the felspars may exhibit a brilliant play of colours, as is well seen in
the Labrador spar, which is used as an ornamental or semi-precious
stone. In olivine the black enclosures are not thin laminae, but
branching growths resembling pieces of moss. The phenomenon is known as
"schillerization"; its origin has been much discussed, some holding that
it is secondary, while others regard these enclosures as original.

In many gabbros there is a tendency to a centric arrangement of the
minerals, the first crystallized forming nuclei around which the others
grow. Thus magnetite, apatite and picotite, with olivine, may be
enclosed in augite, hornblende, and hypersthene, sometimes with a later
growth of biotite, while the felspars occupy the interspaces between the
clusters of ferromagnesian minerals. In some cases there are borders
around olivine consisting of fibrous hornblende or tremolite and rhombic
pyroxene (kelyphitic or ocellar structures); spinels and garnet may
occur in this zone, and as it is developed most frequently where olivine
is in contact with felspar it may be due to a chemical resorption at a
late stage in the solidification of the rock. In some gabbros and
norites reaction rims of fibrous hornblende are found around both
hypersthene and diallage where these are in contact with felspar.
Typical orbicular structure such as characterizes some granites and
diorites is rare in the gabbros, though it has been observed in a few
instances in Norway, California, &c.

  In a very large number of the rocks of this group the plagioclase
  felspar has crystallized in large measure before the pyroxene, and is
  enveloped by it in ophitic manner exactly as occurs in the diabases.
  When these rocks become fine-grained they pass gradually into ophitic
  diabase and dolerite; only very rarely does olivine enclose felspar
  in this way. A fluxion structure or flow banding also can be observed
  in some of the rocks of this series, and is characterized by the
  occurrence of parallel sinuous bands of dark colour, rich in
  ferromagnesian minerals, and of lighter shades in which felspars
  predominate.

  These basic holocrystalline rocks form a large and numerous class
  which can be subdivided into many groups according to their mineral
  composition; if we take it that typical gabbro consists of plagioclase
  and augites or diallage, norite of plagioclase and hypersthene, and
  troctolite of plagioclase and olivine, we must add to these
  olivine-gabbro and olivine-norite in which that mineral occurs in
  addition to those enumerated above. Hornblende-gabbros are distinctly
  rare, except when the hornblende has been developed from pyroxene by
  pressure and shearing, but many rocks may be described as hornblende-
  or biotite-bearing gabbro and norite, when they contain these
  ingredients in addition to the normal minerals plagioclase, augite and
  hypersthene. We may recognize also quartz-gabbro and quartz-norite
  (containing primary quartz or micropegmatite) and orthoclase-gabbro
  (with a little orthoclase). The name eucrite has been given to gabbros
  in which the felspar is mainly anorthite; many of them also contain
  hypersthene or enstatite and olivine, while allivalites are
  anorthite-olivine rocks in which the two minerals occur in nearly
  equal proportions; harrisites have preponderating olivine, anorthite
  felspar and a little pyroxene. In areas of gabbro there are often
  masses consisting nearly entirely of a single mineral, for example,
  felspar rocks (anorthosites), augite or hornblende rocks (pyroxenites
  and hornblendites) and olivine rocks (dunites or peridotites).
  Segregations of iron ores, such as ilmenite, usually with pyroxene or
  olivine, occur in association with some gabbro and anorthosite masses.

  Some gabbros are exceedingly coarse-grained and consist of individual
  crystals several inches in length; such a type often form dikes or
  veins in serpentine or gabbro, and may be called gabbro-pegmatite.
  Very fine-grained gabbros, on the other hand, have been distinguished
  as beerbachites. Still more common is the occurrence of sheared,
  foliated or schistose forms of gabbro. In these the minerals have a
  parallel arrangement, the felspars are often broken down by pressure
  into a mosaic of irregular grains, while greenish fibrous or bladed
  amphibole takes the place of pyroxene and olivine. The diallage may be
  present as rounded or oval crystals around which the crushed felspar
  has flowed (augen-gabbro); or the whole rock may have a well-foliated
  structure (hornblende-schists and amphibolites). Very often a mass of
  normal gabbro with typical igneous character passes at its margins or
  along localized zones into foliated rocks of this kind, and every
  transition can be found between the different types. Some authors
  believe that the development of saussurite from felspar is also
  dependent on pressure rather than on weathering, and an analogous
  change may affect the olivine, replacing it by talc, chlorite,
  actinolite and garnet. Rocks showing changes of the latter type have
  been described from Switzerland under the name allalinites.

  Rocks of the gabbro group, though perhaps not so common nor occurring
  in so great masses as granites, are exceedingly widespread. In Great
  Britain, for example, there are areas of gabbro in Shetland,
  Aberdeenshire, and other parts of the Highlands, Ayrshire, the Lizard
  (Cornwall), Carrock Fell (Cumberland) and St David's (Wales). Most of
  these occur along with troctolites, norites, serpentine and
  peridotite. In Skye an interesting group of fresh olivine-gabbros is
  found in the Cuillin Hills; here also peridotites occur and there are
  sills and dikes of olivine-dolerite, while a great series of basaltic
  lavas and ash beds marks the site of volcanic outbursts in early
  Tertiary time. In this case it is clearly seen that the gabbros are
  the deep-seated and slowly crystallized representatives of the basalts
  which were poured out at the surfaces, and the dolerites which
  consolidated in fissures. The older gabbros of Britain, such as those
  of the Lizard, Aberdeenshire and Ayrshire, are often more or less
  foliated and show a tendency to pass into hornblende-schists and
  amphibolites. In Germany gabbros are well known in the Harz Mountains,
  Saxony, the Odenwald and the Black Forest. Many outcrops of similar
  rocks have been traced in the northern zones of the Alps, often with
  serpentine and hornblende-schist. They occupy considerable tracts of
  country in Norway and Sweden, as for instance in the vicinity of
  Bergen. The Pyrenees, Ligurian Alps, Dauphiné and Tuscany are other
  European localities for gabbro. In Canada great portions of the
  eastern portion of the Dominion are formed of gabbros, norite,
  anorthosite and allied rock types. In the United States gabbros and
  norites occur near Baltimore and near Peekskill on the Hudson river.
  As a rule each of these occurrences contains a diversity of
  petrographical types, which appear also in certain of the others; but
  there is often a well-marked individuality about the rocks of the
  various districts in which gabbros are found.

  From an economic standpoint gabbros are not of great importance. They
  are used locally for building and for road-metal, but are too dark in
  colour, too tough and difficult to dress, to be popular as building
  stones, and, though occasionally polished, are not to be compared for
  beauty with the serpentines and the granites. Segregations of iron
  ores are found in connexion with many of them (Norway and Sweden) and
  are sometimes mined as sources of the metal.

  Chemically the gabbros are typical rocks of the basic subdivision and
  show the characters of that group in the clearest way. They have low
  silica, much iron and magnesia, and the abundance of lime
  distinguishes them in a marked fashion from both the granites and the
  peridotites. A few analyses of well-known gabbros are cited here.

    +-----+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |     | SiO2  | TiO2 | Ab2O3 | FeO  | Fe2O3| MgO  | CaO  | Na2O | K2O  | H2O  |
    +-----+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |  I. | 49.63 | 1.75 | 16.18 |12.03 | 1.92 | 5.38 | 9.33 | 1.89 | 0.81 | 0.55 |
    | II. | 49.90 |  ..  | 16.04 |  ..  | 7.81 |10.08 |14.48 | 1.69 | 0.55 | 1.46 |
    |III. | 45.73 |  ..  | 22.10 | 3.51 | 0.71 |11.16 | 9.26 | 2.54 | 0.34 | 4.38 |
    | IV. | 46.24 |  ..  | 29.85 | 2.12 | 1.30 | 2.41 |16.24 | 1.98 | 0.18 |  ..  |
    +-----+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

  I. Gabbro, Radanthal, Harzburg; II. Gabbro, Penig, Saxony; III.
  Troctolite, Coverack, Cornwall; IV. Anorthosite, mouth of the Seine
  river, Bad Vermilion lake, Ontario, Canada.     (J. S. F.)



GABEL, KRISTOFFER (1617-1673), Danish statesman, was born at Glückstadt,
on the 6th of January 1617. His father, Wulbern, originally a landscape
painter and subsequently recorder of Glückstadt, was killed at the siege
of that fortress by the Imperialists in 1628. Kristoffer is first heard
of in 1639, as overseer and accountant at the court of Duke Frederick.
When the duke ascended the Danish throne as Frederick III., Gabel
followed him to Copenhagen as his private secretary and man of business.
Gabel, who veiled under a mysterious reticence considerable financial
ability and uncommon shrewdness, had great influence over the irresolute
king. During the brief interval between King Charles X.'s first and
second attack upon Denmark, Gabel was employed in several secret
missions to Sweden; and he took a part in the intrigues which resulted
in the autocratic revolution of 1660 (see DENMARK: _History_). His
services on this occasion have certainly been exaggerated; but if not
the originator of the revolution, he was certainly the chief
intermediary between Frederick III. and the conjoined Estates in the
mysterious conspiracy which established absolutism in Denmark. His
activity on this occasion won the king's lifelong gratitude. He was
enriched, ennobled, and in 1664 made governor of Copenhagen. From this
year must be dated his open and official influence and power, and from
1660 to 1670 he was the most considerable personage at court, and very
largely employed in financial and diplomatic affairs. When Frederick
III. died, in February 1670, Gabel's power was at an end. The new ruler,
Christian V., hated him, and accusations against him poured in from
every quarter. When, on the 18th of April 1670, he was dismissed, nobody
sympathized with the man who had grown wealthy at a time when other
people found it hard to live. He died on the 13th of October 1673.

  See Carl Frederik Bricka, _Dansk. Biograf. Lex._ art "Gabel"
  (Copenhagen, 1887, &c.); _Danmarks Riges Historie_ (Copenhagen,
  1897-1905), vol. v.



GABELENTZ, HANS CONON VON DER (1807-1874), German linguist and
ethnologist, born at Altenburg on the 13th of October 1807, was the only
son of Hans Karl Leopold von der Gabelentz, chancellor and
privy-councillor of the duchy of Altenburg. From 1821 to 1825 he
attended the gymnasium of his native town, where he had Matthiae (the
eminent Greek scholar) for teacher, and Hermann Brockhaus and Julius
Löbe for schoolfellows. Here, in addition to ordinary school-work, he
carried on the private study of Arabic and Chinese; and the latter
language continued especially to engage his attention during his
undergraduate course, from 1825 to 1828, at the universities of Leipzig
and Göttingen. In 1830 he entered the public service of the duchy of
Altenburg, where he attained to the rank of privy-councillor in 1843.
Four years later he was chosen to fill the post of _Landmarschall_ in
the grand-duchy of Weimar, and in 1848 he attended the Frankfort
parliament, and represented the Saxon duchies on the commission for
drafting an imperial constitution for Germany. In November of the same
year he became president of the Altenburg ministry, but he resigned
office in the following August. From 1851 to 1868 he was president of
the second chamber of the duchy of Altenburg; but in the latter year he
withdrew entirely from public life, that he might give undivided
attention to his learned researches. He died on his estate of Lemnitz,
in Saxe-Weimar, on the 3rd of September 1874.

In the course of his life he is said to have learned no fewer than
eighty languages, thirty of which he spoke with fluency and elegance.
But he was less remarkable for his power of acquisition than for the
higher talent which enabled him to turn his knowledge to the genuine
advancement of linguistic science. Immediately after quitting the
university, he followed up his Chinese researches by a study of the
Finno-Ugrian languages, which resulted in the publication of his
_Éléments de la grammaire mandchoue_ in 1832. In 1837 he became one of
the promoters, and a joint-editor, of the _Zeitschrift für die Kunde des
Morgenlandes_, and through this medium he gave to the world his _Versuch
einer mordwinischen Grammatik_ and other valuable contributions. His
_Grundzüge der syrjänischen Grammatik_ appeared in 1841. In conjunction
with his old school friend, Julius Löbe, he brought out a complete
edition, with translation, glossary and grammar, of Ulfilas's Gothic
version of the Bible (1843-1846); and from 1847 he began to contribute
to the _Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft_ the
fruits of his researches into the languages of the Swahilis, the
Samoyedes, the Hazaras, the Aimaks, the Formosans and other
widely-separated tribes. The _Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde_ (1852) contain
Dyak, Dakota, and Kiriri grammars; to these were added in 1857 a
_Grammatik u. Wörterbuch der Kassiasprache_, and in 1860 a treatise in
universal grammar (_Über das Passivum_). In 1864 he edited the Manchu
translations of the Chinese Sse-shu, Shu-king and Shi-king, along with a
dictionary; and in 1873 he completed the work which constitutes his most
important contribution to philology, _Die melanesischen Sprachen nach
ihrem grammatischen Bau und ihrer Verwandschaft unter sich und mit den
malaiisch-polynesischen Sprachen untersucht_ (1860-1873). It treats of
the language of the Fiji Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, New
Caledonia, &c., and shows their radical affinity with the Polynesian
class. He also contributed most of the linguistic articles in Pierer's
_Conversations-Lexicon_.



GABELLE (French, from the Med. Lat. _gabulum_, _gablum_, a tax, for the
origin of which see GAVELKIND), a term which, in France, was originally
applied to taxes on all commodities, but was gradually limited to the
tax on salt. In process of time it became one of the most hated and most
grossly unequal taxes in the country, but, though condemned by all
supporters of reform, it was not abolished until 1790. First imposed in
1286, in the reign of Philip IV., as a temporary expedient, it was made
a permanent tax by Charles V. Repressive as a state monopoly, it was
made doubly so from the fact that the government obliged every
individual above the age of eight years to purchase weekly a minimum
amount of salt at a fixed price. When first instituted, it was levied
uniformly on all the provinces in France, but for the greater part of
its history the price varied in different provinces. There were five
distinct groups of provinces, classified as follows: (a) the _Pays de
grandes gabelles_, in which the tax was heaviest; (b) the _Pays de
petites gabelles_, which paid a tax of about half the rate of the
former; (c) the _Pays de salines_, in which the tax was levied on the
salt extracted from the salt marshes; (d) the _Pays rédimés_, which had
purchased redemption in 1549; and (e) the _Pays exempts_, which had
stipulated for exemption on entering into union with the kingdom of
France. _Greniers à sel_ (dating from 1342) were established in each
province, and to these all salt had to be taken by the producer on
penalty of confiscation. The _grenier_ fixed the price which it paid for
the salt and then sold it to retail dealers at a higher rate.

  See J.J. Clamagéran, _Histoire de l'impôt en France_ (1876); A.
  Gasquet, _Précis des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France_
  (1885); Necker, _Compte rendu_ (1781).



GABERDINE, or GABARDINE, any long, loose over-garment, reaching to the
feet and girt round the waist. It was, when made of coarse material,
commonly worn in the middle ages by pilgrims, beggars and almsmen. The
Jews, conservatively attached to the loose and flowing garments of the
East, continued to wear the long upper garment to which the name
"gaberdine" could be applied, long after it had ceased to be a common
form as worn by non-Jews, and to this day in some parts of Europe, e.g.
in Poland, it is still worn, while the tendency to wear the frock-coat
very long and loose is a marked characteristic of the race. The fact
that in the middle ages the Jews were forbidden to engage in handicrafts
also, no doubt, tended to stereotype a form of dress unfitted for manual
labour. The idea of the "gaberdine" being enforced by law upon the Jews
as a distinctive garment is probably due to Shakespeare's use in the
_Merchant of Venice_, I. iii. 113. The mark that the Jews were obliged
to wear generally on the outer garment was the badge. This was first
enforced by the fourth Lateran Council of 1215. The "badge" (Lat.
_rota_; Fr. _rouelle_, wheel) took generally the shape of a circle of
cloth worn on the breast. It varied in colour at different times. In
France it was of yellow, later of red and white; in England it took the
form of two bands or stripes, first of white, then of yellow. In Edward
I.'s reign it was made in the shape of the Tables of the Law (see the
_Jewish Encyclopedia_, s.v. "Costume" and "Badge"). The derivation of
the word is obscure. It apparently occurs first in O. Fr. in the forms
_gauverdine_, _galvardine_, and thence into Ital. as _gavardina_, and
Span. _gabardina_, a form which has influenced the English word. The
_New English Dictionary_ suggests a connexion with the O.H. Ger.
_wallevart_, pilgrimage. Skeat (_Etym. Dict._, 1898) refers it to Span.
_gaban_, coat, cloak; _cabaña_, hut, cabin.



GABES, a town of Tunisia, at the head of the gulf of the same name, and
70 m. by sea S.W. of Sfax. It occupies the site of the Tacape of the
Romans and consists of an open port and European quarter and several
small Arab towns built in an oasis of date palms. This oasis is
copiously watered by a stream called the Wad Gabes. The European quarter
is situated on the right bank of the Wad near its mouth, and adjacent
are the Arab towns of Jara and Menzel. The houses of the native towns
are built largely of dressed stones and broken columns from the ruins of
Tacape. Gabes is the military headquarters for southern Tunisia. The
population of the oasis is about 20,000, including some 1500 Europeans.
There is a considerable export trade in dates.

Gabes lies at the head of the shat country of Tunisia and is intimately
connected with the scheme of Commandant Roudaire to create a Saharan sea
by making a channel from the Mediterranean to these shats (large salt
lakes below the level of the sea). Roudaire proposed to cut a canal
through the belt of high ground between Gabes and the shats, and fixed
on Wad Melah, a spot 10 m. N. of Gabes, for the sea end of the channel
(see SAHARA). The company formed to execute his project became simply an
agricultural concern and by the sinking of artesian wells created an
oasis of olive and palm trees.

The Gulf of Gabes, the _Syrtis Minor_ of the ancients, is a
semi-circular shallow indentation of the Mediterranean, about 50 m.
across from the Kerkenna Islands, opposite Sfax on its northern shore,
to Jerba Island, which lies at its southern end. The waters of the gulf
abound in fish and sponge.



GABII, an ancient city of Latium, between 12 and 13 m. E. of Rome, on
the Via Praenestina, which was in early times known as the Via Gabina.
The part played by it in the story of the expulsion of the Tarquins is
well known; but its importance in the earliest history of Rome rests
upon other evidence--the continuance of certain ancient usages which
imply a period of hostility between the two cities, such as the adoption
of the _cinctus Gabinus_ by the consul when war was to be declared. We
hear of a treaty of alliance with Rome in the time of Tarquinius
Superbus, the original text of which, written on a bullock's skin, was
said by Dionysius of Halicarnassus to be still extant in his day. Its
subsequent history is obscure, and we only hear of it again in the 1st
century B.C. as a small and insignificant place, though its desolation
is no doubt exaggerated by the poets. From inscriptions we learn that
from the time of Augustus or Tiberius onwards it enjoyed a municipal
organization. Its baths were well known, and Hadrian, who was
responsible for much of the renewed prosperity of the small towns of
Latium, appears to have been a very liberal patron, building a
senate-house (_Curia Aelia Augusta_) and an aqueduct. After the 3rd
century Gabii practically disappears from history, though its bishops
continue to be mentioned in ecclesiastical documents till the close of
the 9th. The primitive city occupied the eastern bank of the lake, the
citadel being now marked by the ruins of the medieval fortress of
Castiglione, while the Roman town extended farther to the south. The
most conspicuous relic of the latter is a ruined temple, generally
attributed to Juno, which had six columns in the front and six on each
side. The plan is interesting, but the style of architecture was
apparently mixed. To the east of the temple lay the Forum, where
excavations were made by Gavin Hamilton in 1792. All the objects found
were placed in the Villa Borghese, but many of them were carried off to
Paris by Napoleon, and still remain in the Louvre. The statues and busts
are especially numerous and interesting; besides the deities Venus,
Diana, Nemesis, &c., they comprise Agrippa, Tiberius, Germanicus,
Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Trajan and Plotina, Hadrian and Sabina, M.
Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Geta, Gordianus Pius and others. The
inscriptions relate mainly to local and municipal matters.

  See E.Q. Visconti, _Monumenti Gabini della Villa Pinciana_ (Rome,
  1797, and Milan, 1835); T. Ashby in _Papers of the British School at
  Rome_, i. 180 seq.; G. Pinza in _Bull. Com._ (1903), 321 seq.
       (T. As.)



GABINIUS, AULUS, Roman statesman and general, and supporter of Pompey, a
prominent figure in the later days of the Roman republic. In 67 B.C.,
when tribune of the people, he brought forward the famous law (_Lex
Gabinia_) conferring upon Pompey the command in the war against the
Mediterranean pirates, with extensive powers which gave him absolute
control over that sea and the coasts for 50 m. inland. By two other
measures of Gabinius loans of money to foreign ambassadors in Rome were
made non-actionable (as a check on the corruption of the senate) and the
senate was ordered to give audience to foreign envoys on certain fixed
days (1st of Feb.-1st of March). In 61 Gabinius, then praetor,
endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of
unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not
without suspicion of bribery. During his term of office he aided Publius
Clodius in bringing about the exile of Cicero. In 57 Gabinius went as
proconsul to Syria. On his arrival he reinstated Hyrcanus in the
high-priesthood at Jerusalem, suppressed revolts, introduced important
changes in the government of Judaea, and rebuilt several towns. During
his absence in Egypt, whither he had been sent by Pompey, without the
consent of the senate, to restore Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, Syria
had been devastated by robbers, and Alexander, son of Aristobulus, had
again taken up arms with the object of depriving Hyrcanus of the
high-priesthood. With some difficulty Gabinius restored order, and in 54
handed over the province to his successor, M. Licinius Crassus. The
knights, who as farmers of the taxes had suffered heavy losses during
the disturbances in Syria, were greatly embittered against Gabinius,
and, when he appeared in the senate to give an account of his
governorship, he was brought to trial on three counts, all involving a
capital offence. On the charge of _majestas_ (high treason) incurred by
having left his province for Egypt without the consent of the senate and
in defiance of the Sibylline books, he was acquitted; it is said that
the judges were bribed, and even Cicero, who had recently attacked
Gabinius with the utmost virulence, was persuaded by Pompey to say as
little as he could in his evidence to damage his former enemy. On the
second charge, that of _repetundae_ (extortion during the administration
of his province), with especial reference to the 10,000 talents paid by
Ptolemy for his restoration, he was found guilty, in spite of evidence
offered on his behalf by Pompey and witnesses from Alexandria and the
eloquence of Cicero, who had been induced to plead his cause. Nothing
but Cicero's wish to do a favour to Pompey could have induced him to
take up what must have been a distasteful task; indeed, it is hinted
that the half-heartedness of the defence materially contributed to
Gabinius's condemnation. The third charge, that of _ambitus_
(illegalities committed during his canvass for the consulship), was
consequently dropped; Gabinius went into exile, and his property was
confiscated. After the outbreak of the civil war, he was recalled by
Caesar in 49, and entered his service, but took no active part against
his old patron Pompey. After the battle of Pharsalus, he was
commissioned to transport some recently levied troops to Illyricum. On
his way thither by land, he was attacked by the Dalmatians and with
difficulty made his way to Salonae (Dalmatia). Here he bravely defended
himself against the attacks of the Pompeian commander, Marcus Octavius,
but in a few months died of illness (48 or the beginning of 47).

  See Dio Cassius xxxvi. 23-36, xxxviii. 13. 30, xxxix. 55-63; Plutarch,
  _Pompey_, 25. 48; Josephus, _Antiq._ xiv. 4-6; Appian, _Illyrica_, 12,
  _Bell. Civ._ ii. 24. 59; Cicero, _ad Att._ vi. 2, _ad Q. Fratrem_, ii.
  13, _Post reditum in senatu_, 4-8, _Pro lege Manilia_, 17, 18, 19;
  exhaustive article by Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine
  Encyclopädie_; and monograph by G. Stocchi, _Aulo Gabinio e i suoi
  processi_ (1892).



GABION (a French word derived through Ital. _gabbione_, _gabbia_, from
Lat. _cavea_, a cage), a cylindrical basket without top or bottom, used
in revetting fortifications and for numerous other purposes of military
engineering. The gabion is filled with earth when in position. The
ordinary brushwood gabion in the British service has a diameter of 2 ft.
and a height of 2 ft. 9 in. There are several forms of gabion in use,
the best known being the Willesden paper band gabion and the Jones iron
or steel band gabion.



GABLE, in architecture, the upper portion of a wall from the level of
the eaves or gutter to the ridge of the roof. The word is a southern
English form of the Scottish _gavel_, or of an O. Fr. word _gable_ or
_jable_, both ultimately derived from O. Norwegian _gafl_. In other
Teutonic languages, similar words, such as Ger. _Gabel_ and Dutch
_gaffel_, mean "fork," cf. Lat. _gabalus_, gallows, which is Teutonic in
origin; "gable" is represented by such forms as Ger. _Giebel_ and Dutch
_gevel_. According to the _New English Dictionary_ the primary meaning
of all these words is probably "top" or "head," cf. Gr. [Greek:
kephalê], and refers to the forking timbers at the end of a roof. The
gable corresponds to the pediment in classic buildings where the roof
was of low pitch. If the roof is carried across on the top of the wall
so that the purlins project beyond its face, they are masked or hidden
by a "barge board," but as a rule the roof butts up against the back of
the wall which is raised so as to form a parapet. In the middle ages the
gable end was invariably parallel to the roof and was crowned by coping
stones properly weathered on both sides to throw off the rain. In the
16th century in England variety was given to the outline of the gable by
a series of alternating semi-circular and ogee curves. In Holland,
Belgium and Scotland a succession of steps was employed, which in the
latter country are known as crow gables or corbie steps. In Germany and
the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries the step gables assume
very elaborate forms of an extremely rococo character, and they are
sometimes of immense size, with windows in two or three storeys. Designs
of a similar rococo character are found in England, but only in
crestings such as those which surmount the towers of Wollaton and the
gatehouse of Hardwick Hall.

_Gabled Towers_, in architecture, are those towers which are finished
with gables instead of parapets, as at Sompting, Sussex. Many of the
German Romanesque towers are gabled.



GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS (1786-1853), German Hegelian philosopher, son of
J.P. Gabler (below), was born on the 30th of July 1786, at Altdorf in
Bavaria. In 1804 he accompanied his father to Jena, where he completed
his studies in philosophy and law, and became an enthusiastic disciple
of Hegel. After holding various educational appointments, he was in 1821
appointed rector of the Bayreuth gymnasium, and in 1830 general
superintendent of schools. In 1835 he succeeded Hegel in the Berlin
chair. He died at Teplitz on the 13th of September 1853. His works
include _Lehrbuch d. philos. Propädeutik_ (1st vol., Erlangen, 1827), a
popular exposition of the Hegelian system; _De verae philosophiae erga
religionem Christianam pietate_ (Berlin, 1836), and _Die Hegel'sche
Philosophie_ (ib., 1843), a defence of the Hegelian philosophy against
Trendelenburg.



GABLER, JOHANN PHILIPP (1753-1826), German Protestant theologian of the
school of J.J. Griesbach and J.G. Eichhorn, was born at
Frankfort-on-Main on the 4th of June 1753. In 1772 he entered the
university of Jena as a theological student. In 1776 he was on the point
of abandoning theological pursuits, when the arrival of Griesbach
inspired him with new ardour. After having been successively _Repetent_
in Göttingen and teacher in the public schools of Dortmund (Westphalia)
and Altdorf (Bavaria), he was, in 1785, appointed second professor of
theology in the university of Altdorf, whence he was translated to a
chair in Jena in 1804, where he succeeded Griesbach in 1812. Here he
died on the 17th of February 1826. At Altdorf Gabler published
(1791-1793) a new edition, with introduction and notes, of Eichhorn's
_Urgeschichte_; this was followed, two years afterwards, by a supplement
entitled _Neuer Versuch über die mosaische Schöpfungsgeschichte_. He was
also the author of many essays which were characterized by much critical
acumen, and which had considerable influence on the course of German
thought on theological and Biblical questions. From 1798 to 1800 he was
editor of the _Neuestes theologisches Journal_, first conjointly with
H.K.A. Hänlein (1762-1829), C.F. von Ammon (1766-1850) and H.E.G.
Paulus, and afterwards unassisted; from 1801 to 1804 of the _Journal für
theologische Litteratur_; and from 1805 to 1811 of the _Journal für
auserlesene theologische Litteratur_.

  Some of his essays were published by his sons (2 vols., 1831); and a
  memoir appeared in 1827 by W. Schröter.



GABLETS (diminutive of "gable"), in architecture, triangular
terminations to buttresses, much in use in the Early English and
Decorated periods, after which the buttresses generally terminated in
pinnacles. The Early English gablets are generally plain, and very sharp
in pitch. In the Decorated period they are often enriched with panelling
and crockets. They are sometimes finished with small crosses, but of
oftener with finials.



GABLONZ (Czech, _Jablonec_), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 94 m. N.E. of
Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 21,086, mostly German. It is the chief seat
of the glass pearl and imitation jewelry manufacture, and has also an
important textile industry, and produces large quantities of hardware,
papier mâché and other paper goods.



GABORIAU, ÉMILE (1833-1873), French novelist, was born at Saujon
(Charente Inférieure) on the 9th of November 1833. He became secretary
to Paul Féval, and, after publishing some novels and miscellaneous
writings, found his real gift in _L'Affaire Lerouge_ (1866), a detective
novel which was published in the _Pays_ and at once made his reputation.
The story was produced on the stage in 1872. A long series of novels
dealing with the annals of the police court followed, and proved very
popular. Among them are: _Le Crime d'Orcival_ (1867), _Monsieur Lecoq_
(1869), _La Vie infernale_ (1870), _Les Esclaves de Paris_ (1869),
_L'Argent des autres_ (1874). Gaboriau died in Paris on the 28th of
September 1873.



GABRIEL (Heb. [Hebrew: Gavriel], man of God), in the Bible, the heavenly
messenger (see Angel) sent to Daniel to explain the vision of the ram
and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the Seventy Weeks
(Dan. viii. 16, ix. 21). He was also employed to announce the birth of
John the Baptist to Zacharias, and that of the Messiah to the Virgin
Mary (Luke i. 19, 26). Because he stood in the divine presence (see Luke
i. 19; Rev. viii. 2; and cf. Tobit xii. 15), both Jewish and Christian
writers generally speak of him as an archangel. In the _Book of Enoch_
"the four great archangels" are Michael, Uriel, Suriel or Raphael, and
Gabriel, who is set over "all the powers" and shares the work of
intercession. His name frequently occurs in the Jewish literature of the
later post-Biblical period. Thus, according to the Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan, he was the man who showed the way to Joseph (Gen.
xxxvii. 15); and in Deut. xxxiv. 6 it is affirmed that he, along with
Michael, Uriel, Jophiel, Jephephiah and the Metatron, buried the body of
Moses. In the Targum on 2 Chron. xxxii. 21 he is named as the angel who
destroyed the host of Sennacherib; and in similar writings of a still
later period he is spoken of as the spirit who presides over fire,
thunder, the ripening of the fruits of the earth and similar processes.
In the Koran great prominence is given to his function as the medium of
divine revelation, and, according to the Mahommedan interpreters, he it
is who is referred to by the appellations "Holy Spirit" and "Spirit of
Truth." He is specially commemorated in the calendars of the Greek,
Coptic and Armenian churches.



GABRIEL HOUNDS, a spectral pack supposed in the North of England to
foretell death by their yelping at night. The legend is that they are
the souls of unbaptized children wandering through the air till the day
of judgment. They are also sometimes called Gabriel or Gabble Ratchet. A
very prosaic explanation of this nocturnal noise is given by J.C.
Atkinson in his _Cleveland Glossary_ (1868). "This," he writes, "is the
name for a yelping sound heard at night, more or less resembling the cry
of hounds or yelping of dogs, probably due to large flocks of wild geese
which chance to be flying by night."

  See further Joseph Lucas, _Studies in Nidderdale_ (1882), pp. 156-157.



GABRIELI, GIOVANNI (1557-1612?), Italian musical composer, was born at
Venice in 1557, and was a pupil of his uncle Andrea, a distinguished
musician of the contrapuntal school and organist of St Mark's. He
succeeded Claudio Merulo as first organist of the same church in 1585,
and died at Venice either in 1612 or 1613. He was remarkable for his
compositions for several choirs, writing frequently for 12 or 16 voices,
and is important as an early experimenter in chromatic harmony. It was
probably for this reason that he made a special point of combining
voices with instruments, being thus one of the founders of choral and
orchestral composition. Among his pupils was Heinrich Schütz; and the
church of St Mark, from the time of the Gabrielis onwards down to that
of Lotti, became one of the most important musical schools in Europe.

  See also Winterfeld, _Johann Gabrieli und seine Zeit_ (1834).



GABUN, a district on the west coast of Africa, one of the colonies
forming French Congo (q.v.). It derives its designation from the
settlements on the Gabun river or Rio de Gabão. The Gabun, in reality an
estuary of the sea, lies immediately north of the equator. At the
entrance, between Cape Joinville or Santa Clara on the N. and Cape
Pangara or Sandy Point on the S., it has a width of about 10 m. It
maintains a breadth of some 7 m. for a distance of 40 m. inland, when it
contracts into what is known as the Rio Olambo, which is not more than 2
or 3 m. from bank to bank. Several rivers, of which the Komo is the
chief, discharge their waters into the estuary. The Gabun was discovered
by Portuguese navigators towards the close of the 15th century, and was
named from its fanciful resemblance to a _gabão_ or cabin. On the small
island of Koniké, which lies about the centre of the estuary, scanty
remains of a Portuguese fort have been discovered. The three principal
tribes in the Gabun are the Mpongwe, the Fang and the Bakalai.



GACE BRULÉ (d. c. 1220), French _trouvère_, was a native of Champagne.
It has generally been asserted that he taught Thibaut of Champagne the
art of verse, an assumption which is based on a statement in the
_Chroniques de Saint-Denis_: "Si fist entre lui [Thibaut] et Gace Brulé
les plus belles chançons et les plus délitables et melodieuses qui onque
fussent oïes." This has been taken as evidence of collaboration between
the two poets. The passage will bear the interpretation that with those
of Gace the songs of Thibaut were the best hitherto known. Paulin Paris,
in the _Histoire littéraire de la France_ (vol. xxiii.), quotes a number
of facts that fix an earlier date for Gace's songs. Gace is the author
of the earliest known _jeu parti_. The interlocutors are Gace and a
count of Brittany who is identified with Geoffrey of Brittany, son of
Henry II. of England. Gace appears to have been banished from Champagne
and to have found refuge in Brittany. A deed dated 1212 attests a
contract between Gatho Bruslé (Gace Brulé) and the Templars for a piece
of land in Dreux. It seems most probable that Gace died before 1220, at
the latest in 1225.

  See Gédéon Busken Huet, _Chansons de Gace Brulé_, edited for the
  Société des anciens textes français (1902), with an exhaustive
  introduction. Dante quotes a song by Gace, _Ire d'amor qui en mon cuer
  repaire_, which he attributes erroneously to Thibaut of Navarre (_De
  vulgari eloquentia_, p. 151, ed. P. Rajna, Florence, 1895).



GACHARD, LOUIS PROSPER (1800-1885), Belgian man of letters, was born in
Paris on the 12th of March 1800. He entered the administration of the
royal archives in 1826, and was appointed director-general, a post which
he held for fifty-five years. During this long period he reorganized the
service, added to the records by copies taken in other European
collections, travelled for purposes of study, and carried on a wide
correspondence with other keepers of records, and with historical
scholars. He also edited and published many valuable collections of
state papers; a full list of his various publications was printed in the
_Annuaire de l'académie royale de Belgique_ by Ch. Piot in 1888, pp.
220-236. It includes 246 entries. He was the author of several
historical writings, of which the best known are _Don Carlos et Philippe
II_ (1867), _Études et notices historiques concernant l'histoire des
Pays-Bas_ (1863), _Histoire de la Belgique au commencement du XVIII^e
siècle_ (1880), _Histoire politique et diplomatique de P.P. Rubens_
(1877), all published at Brussels. His chief editorial works are the
_Actes des états généraux des Pays-Bas 1576-1585_ (Brussels, 1861-1866),
_Collection de documents inédits concernant l'histoire de la Belgique_
(Brussels, 1833-1835), and the _Relations des ambassadeurs Vénitiens sur
Charles V et Philippe II_ (Brussels, 1855). Gachard died in Brussels on
the 24th of December 1885.



GAD, in the Bible. 1. A prophet or rather a "seer" (cp. 1 Sam. ix. 9),
who was a companion of David from his early days. He is first mentioned
in 1 Sam. xxii. 5 as having warned David to take refuge in Judah, and
appears again in 2 Sam. xxiv. 11 seq. to make known Yahweh's displeasure
at the numbering of the people. Together with Nathan he is represented
in post-exilic tradition as assisting to organize the musical service of
the temple (2 Chron. xxix. 25), and like Nathan and Samuel he is said to
have written an account of David's deeds (1 Chron. xxix. 29); a history
of David in accordance with later tradition and upon the lines of later
prophetic ideas is far from improbable.

2. Son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's maid; a tribe of Israel (Gen. xxx.
11). The name is that of the god of "luck" or fortune, mentioned in Isa.
lxv. 11 (R.V. mg.), and in several names of places, e.g. Baal-Gad (Josh.
xi. 17, xii. 7), and possibly also in Dibon-Gad, Migdol-Gad and
Nahal-Gad.[1] There is another etymology in Gen. xlix. 19, where the
name is played on: "Gad, a plundering troop (_gedûd_) shall plunder him
(_yegudennu_), but he shall plunder at their heels." There are no
traditions of the personal history of Gad. One of the earliest
references to the name is the statement on the inscription of Mesha,
king of Moab (about 850 B.C.), that the "men of Gad" had occupied
Ataroth (E. of Dead Sea) from of old, and that the king of Israel had
fortified the city. This is in the district ascribed to Reuben, with
which tribe the fortunes of Gad were very closely connected. In Numbers
xxxii. 34 sqq., the cities of Gad appear to lie chiefly to the south of
Heshbon; in Joshua xiii. 24-28 they lie almost wholly to the north;
while other texts present discrepancies which are not easily reconciled
with either passage. Possibly some cities were common to both Reuben and
Gad, and perhaps others more than once changed hands. That Gad, at one
time at least, held territory as far south as Pisgah and Nebo would
follow from Deut. xxxiii. 21, if the rendering of the Targums be
accepted, "and he looked out the first part for himself, because there
was the portion of the buried law-giver." It is certain, however, that,
at a late period, this tribe was localized chiefly in Gilead, in the
district which now goes by the name of Jebel Jil'ad. The traditions
encircling this district point, it would seem, to the tribe having been
of Aramaean origin (see the story of Jacob); at all events its position
was extremely exposed, and its population at the best must have been a
mixed one. Its richness and fertility made it a prey to the marauding
nomads of the desert; but the allusion in the Blessing of Jacob gives
the tribe a character for bravery, and David's men of Gad (1 Chron. xii.
8) were famous in tradition. Although rarely mentioned by name (the
geographical term Gilead is usual), the history of Gad enters into the
lives of Jephthah and Saul, and in the wars of Ammon and Moab it must
have played some part. It followed Jeroboam in the great revolt against
the house of David, and its later fortunes until 734 B.C. (1 Chron. v.
26) would be those of the northern kingdom.

  See, for a critical discussion of the data, H.W. Hogg, _Ency. Bib._
  cols. 1579 sqq.; also GILEAD; MANASSEH; REUBEN.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See G.B. Gray, _Heb. Proper Names_, pp. 134 seq., 145.



GADAG, or GARAG, a town of British India, in the Dharwar district of
Bombay, 43 m. E. of Dharwar town. Pop. (1901) 30,652. It is an important
railway junction on the Southern Mahratta system, with a growing trade
in raw cotton, and also in the weaving of cotton and silk. There are
factories for ginning and pressing cotton, and a spinning mill. The town
contains remains of a number of temples, some of which exhibit fine
carving, while inscriptions in them indicate the existence of Gadag as
early as the 10th century.



GADARA, an ancient town of the Syrian Decapolis, the capital of Peraea,
and the political centre of the small district of Gadaris. It was a
Greek city, probably entirely non-Syrian in origin. The earliest
recorded event in its history is its capture by Antiochus III. of Syria
in 218 B.C.; how long it may have existed before this date is unknown.
About twenty years later it was besieged for ten months by Alexander
Jannaeus. It was restored by Pompey, and in 30 B.C. was presented by
Augustus to Herod the Great; on Herod's death it was reunited to Syria.
The coins of the place bear Greek legends, and such inscriptions as have
been found on its site are Greek. Its governing and wealthy classes were
probably Greek, the common people being Hellenized and Judaized
Aramaeans. The community was Hellenistically organized, and though
dependent on Syria and acknowledging the supremacy of Rome it was
governed by a democratic senate and managed its own internal affairs. In
the Jewish war it surrendered to Vespasian, but in the Byzantine period
it again flourished and was the seat of a bishop. It was renowned for
its hot sulphur baths; the springs still exist and show the remains of
bath-houses. The temperature of the springs is 110° F. This town was the
birthplace of Meleager the anthologist. There is a confusion in the
narrative of the healing of the demoniac between the very similar names
_Gadara_, _Gerasa_ and _Gergesa_; but the probabilities, both textual
and geographical, are in favour of the reading of Mark (_Gerasenes_, ch.
v. 1, revised version); and that the miracle has nothing to do with
Gadara, but took place at _Kersa_, on the eastern shore of the Sea of
Galilee.

Gadara is now represented by _Umm Kais_, a group of ruins about 6 m.
S.E. of the Sea of Galilee, and 1194 ft. above the sea-level. There are
very fine tombs with carved sarcophagi in the neighbourhood. There are
the remains of two theatres and (probably) a temple, and many heaps of
carved stones, representing ancient buildings of various kinds. The
walls are, or were, traceable for a circuit of 2 m., and there are also
the remains of a street of columns. The natives are rapidly destroying
the ruins by quarrying building material out of them.     (R. A. S. M.)



GADDI. Four painters of the early Florentine school--father, son and two
grandsons--bore this name.

1. GADDO GADDI was, according to Vasari, an intimate friend of Cimabue,
and afterwards of Giotto. The dates of birth and death have been given
as 1239 and about 1312; these are probably too early; he may have been
born towards 1260, and may have died in or about 1333. He was a painter
and mosaicist, is said to have executed the great mosaic inside the
portal of the cathedral of Florence, representing the coronation of the
Virgin, and may with more certainty be credited with the mosaics inside
the portico of the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, relating to the
legend of the foundation of that church; their date is probably 1308. In
the original cathedral of St Peter in Rome he also executed the mosaics
of the choir, and those of the front representing on a colossal scale
God the Father, with many other figures; likewise an altarpiece in the
church of S. Maria Novella, Florence; these works no longer exist. It is
ordinarily held that no picture (as distinct from mosaics) by Gaddo
Gaddi is now extant. Messrs Crowe & Cavalcaselle, however, consider that
the mosaics of S. Maria Maggiore bear so strong a resemblance in style
to four of the frescoes in the upper church of Assisi, representing
incidents in the life of St Francis (frescoes 2, 3, 4 and especially 5,
which shows Francis stripping himself, and protected by the bishop),
that those frescoes likewise may, with considerable confidence, be
ascribed to Gaddi. Some other extant mosaics are attributed to him, but
without full authentication. This artist laid the foundation of a very
large fortune, which continued increasing, and placed his progeny in a
highly distinguished worldly position.

2. TADDEO GADDI (about 1300-1366, or later), son of Gaddo, was born in
Florence, and is usually said to have been one of Giotto's most
industrious assistants for a period of 24 years. This can hardly be
other than an exaggeration; it is probable that he began painting on his
own account towards 1330, when Giotto went to Naples. Taddeo also traded
as a merchant, and had a branch establishment in Venice. He was a
painter, mosaicist and architect. He executed in fresco, in the
Baroncelli (now Giugni) chapel, in the Florentine church of S. Croce,
the "Virgin and Child between Four Prophets," on the funeral monument at
the entrance, and on the walls various incidents in the legend of the
Virgin, from the expulsion of Joachim from the Temple up to the
Nativity. In the subject of the "Presentation of the Virgin in the
Temple" are the two heads traditionally accepted as portraits of Gaddo
Gaddi and Andrea Tafi; they, at any rate, are not likely to be portraits
of those artists from the life. On the ceiling of the same chapel are
the "Eight Virtues." In the museum of Berlin is an altarpiece by Taddeo,
the "Virgin and Child," and some other subjects, dated 1334; in the
Naples gallery, a triptych, dated 1336, of the "Virgin enthroned along
with Four Saints," the "Baptism of Jesus," and his "Deposition from the
Cross"; in the sacristy of S. Pietro a Megognano, near Poggibonsi, an
altarpiece dated 1355, the "Virgin and Child enthroned amid Angels." A
series of paintings, partly from the life of St Francis, which Taddeo
executed for the presses in S. Croce, are now divided between the
Florentine Academy and the Berlin Museum; the compositions are taken
from or founded on Giotto, to whom, indeed, the Berlin authorities have
ascribed their examples. Taddeo also painted some frescoes still extant
in Pisa, besides many in S. Croce and other Florentine buildings, which
have perished. He deservedly ranks as one of the most eminent successors
of Giotto; it may be said that he continued working up the material
furnished by that great painter, with comparatively feeble inspiration
of his own. His figures are vehement in action, long and slender in
form; his execution rapid and somewhat conventional. To Taddeo are
generally ascribed the celebrated frescoes--those of the ceiling and
left or western wall--in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli, in the church of
S. Maria Novella, Florence; this is, however, open to considerable
doubt, although it may perhaps be conceded that the designs for the
ceiling were furnished by Taddeo. Dubious also are the three pictures
ascribed to him in the National Gallery, London. In mosaic he has left
some work in the baptistery of Florence. As an architect he supplied in
1336 the plans for the present Ponte Vecchio, and those for the original
(not the present) Ponte S. Trinita; in 1337 he was engaged on the church
of Or San Michele; and he carried on after Giotto's death the work of
the unrivalled Campanile.

3. AGNOLO GADDI, born in Florence, was the son of Taddeo; the date of
his birth has been given as 1326, but possibly 1350 is nearer the mark.
He was a painter and mosaicist, trained by his father, and a merchant as
well; in middle age he settled down to commercial life in Venice, and he
added greatly to the family wealth. He died in Florence in October 1396.
His paintings show much early promise, hardly sustained as he advanced
in life. One of the earliest, at S. Jacopo tra' Fossi, Florence,
represents the "Resurrection of Lazarus." Another probably youthful
performance is the series of frescoes of the Pieve di Prato--legends of
the Virgin and of her Sacred Girdle, bestowed upon St Thomas, and
brought to Prato in the 11th century by Michele dei Dagomari; the
"Marriage of Mary" is one of the best of this series, the later
compositions in which have suffered much by renewals. In S. Croce he
painted, in eight frescoes, the legend of the Cross, beginning with the
archangel Michael giving Seth a branch from the tree of knowledge, and
ending with the emperor Heraclius carrying the Cross as he enters
Jerusalem; in this picture is a portrait of the painter himself. Agnolo
composed his subjects better than Taddeo; he had more dignity and
individuality in the figures, and was a clear and bold colourist; the
general effect is laudably decorative, but the drawing is poor, and the
works show best from a distance. Various other productions of this
master exist, and many have perished. Cennino Cennini, the author of the
celebrated treatise on painting, was one of his pupils.

4. GIOVANNI GADDI, brother of Agnolo, was also a painter of promise. He
died young in 1383.

  Vasari, and Crowe and Cavelcaselle can be consulted as to the Gaddi.
  Other notices appear here and there--such as _La Cappella de'
  Rinuccini in S. Croce di Firenze_, by G. Ajazzi (1845).     (W. M. R.)



GADE, NIELS WILHELM (1817-1890), Danish composer, was born at
Copenhagen, on the 22nd of February 1817, his father being a musical
instrument maker. He was intended for his father's trade, but his
passion for a musician's career, made evident by the ease and skill with
which he learnt to play upon a number of instruments, was not to be
denied. Though he became proficient on the violin under Wexschall, and
in the elements of theory under Weyse and Berggreen, he was to a great
extent self-taught. His opportunities of hearing and playing in the
great masterpieces were many, since he was a member of the court band.
In 1840 his _Aladdin_ and his overture of _Ossian_ attracted attention,
and in 1841 his _Nachklänge aus Ossian_ overture gained the local
musical society's prize, the judges being Spohr and Schneider. This work
also attracted the notice of the king, who gave the composer a stipend
which enabled him to go to Leipzig and Italy. In 1844 Gade conducted the
Gewandhaus concerts in Leipzig during Mendelssohn's absence, and on the
latter's death became chief conductor. In 1848, on the outbreak of the
Holstein War, he returned to Copenhagen, where he was appointed organist
and conductor of the Musik-Verein. In 1852 he married a daughter of the
composer J.P.E. Hartmann. He became court conductor in 1861, and was
pensioned by the government in 1876--the year in which he visited
Birmingham to conduct his _Crusaders_. This work, and the
_Frühlingsfantasie_, the _Erlkönigs Tochter_, _Frühlingsbotschaft_ and
_Psyche_ (written for Birmingham in 1882) have enjoyed a wide
popularity. Indeed, they represent the strength and the weakness of
Gade's musical ability quite as well as any of his eight symphonies (the
best of which are the first and fourth, while the fifth has an obbligato
pianoforte part). Gade was distinctly a romanticist, but his music is
highly polished and beautifully finished, lyrical rather than dramatic
and effective. Much of the pianoforte music, _Aquarellen_, _Spring
Flowers_, for instance, enjoyed a considerable vogue, as did the
_Novelletten_ trio; but Gade's opera _Mariotta_ has not been heard
outside the Copenhagen opera house. He died at Copenhagen on the 21st of
December 1890.



GADOLINIUM (symbol Gd., atomic weight 157.3), one of the rare earth
metals (see ERBIUM). The element was discovered in 1880 in the mineral
samarskite by C. Marignac (_Comptes rendus_, 1880, 90, p. 899; _Ann.
chim. phys._, 1880 [5] 20, p. 535). G. Urbain (_Comptes rendus_, 1905,
140, p. 583) separates the metal by crystallizing the double nitrate of
nickel and gadolinium. The salts show absorption bands in the
ultra-violet. The oxide Gd2O3 is colourless (Lecoq de Boisbaudran).



GADSDEN, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805), American patriot, was born in
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1724. His father, Thomas Gadsden, was for
a time the king's collector for the port of Charleston. Christopher went
to school near Bristol, in England, returned to America in 1741, was
afterwards employed in a counting house in Philadelphia, and became a
merchant and planter at Charleston. In 1759 he was captain of an
artillery company in an expedition against the Cherokees. He was a
member of the South Carolina legislature almost continuously from 1760
to 1780, and represented his province in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765
and in the Continental Congress in 1774-1776. In February 1776 he was
placed in command of all the military forces of South Carolina, and in
October of the same year was commissioned a brigadier-general and was
taken into the Continental service; but on account of a dispute arising
out of a conflict between state and Federal authority resigned his
command in 1777. He was lieutenant-governor of his state in 1780, when
Charleston was surrendered to the British. For about three months
following this event he was held as a prisoner on parole within the
limits of Charleston; then, because of his influence in deterring others
from exchanging their paroles for the privileges of British subjects, he
was seized, taken to St Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would
not give another parole to those who had violated the former agreement
affecting him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon. In 1782
Gadsden was again elected a member of his state legislature; he was also
elected governor, but declined to serve on the ground that he was too
old and infirm; in 1788 he was a member of the convention which ratified
for South Carolina the Federal constitution; and in 1790 he was a member
of the convention which framed the new state constitution. He died in
Charleston on the 28th of August 1805. From the time that Governor
Thomas Boone, in 1762, pronounced his election to the legislature
improper, and dissolved the House in consequence, Gadsden was hostile to
the British administration. He was an ardent leader of the opposition to
the Stamp Act, advocating even then a separation of the colonies from
the mother country; and in the Continental Congress of 1774 he discussed
the situation on the basis of inalienable rights and liberties, and
urged an immediate attack on General Thomas Gage, that he might be
defeated before receiving reinforcements.



GADSDEN, JAMES (1788-1858), American soldier and diplomat, was born at
Charleston, S.C., on the 15th of May 1788, the grandson of Christopher
Gadsden. He graduated at Yale in 1806, became a merchant in his native
city, and in the war of 1812 served in the regular U.S. Army as a
lieutenant of engineers. In 1818 he served against the Seminoles, with
the rank of captain, as aide on the staff of Gen. Andrew Jackson. In
October 1820 he became inspector-general of the Southern Division, with
the rank of colonel, and as such assisted in the occupation and the
establishment of posts in Florida after its acquisition. From August
1821 to March 1822 he was adjutant-general, but, his appointment not
being confirmed by the Senate, he left the army and became a planter in
Florida. He served in the Territorial legislature, and as Federal
commissioner superintended in 1823 the removal of the Seminole Indians
to South Florida. In 1832 he negotiated with the Seminoles a treaty
which provided for their removal within three years to lands in what is
now the state of Oklahoma; but the Seminoles refused to move,
hostilities again broke out, and in the second Seminole War Gadsden was
quartermaster-general of the Florida Volunteers from February to April
1836. Returning to South Carolina he became a rice planter, and was
president of the South Carolina railway. In 1853 President Franklin
Pierce appointed him minister to Mexico, with which country he
negotiated the so-called "Gadsden treaty" (signed the 30th of December
1853), which gave to the United States freedom of transit for mails,
merchandise and troops across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and provided
for a readjustment of the boundary established by the treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States acquiring 45,535 sq. m. of land,
since known as the "Gadsden Purchase," in what is now New Mexico and
Arizona. In addition, Article XI. of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
which bound the United States to prevent incursions of Indians from the
United States into Mexico, and to restore Mexican prisoners captured by
such Indians, was abrogated, and for these considerations the United
States paid to Mexico the sum of $10,000,000. Ratifications of the
treaty, slightly modified by the Senate, were exchanged on the 30th of
June 1854; before this, however, Gadsden had retired from his post. The
boundary line between Mexico and the "Gadsden Purchase" was marked by
joint commissions appointed in 1855 and 1891, the second commission
publishing its report in 1899. Gadsden died at Charleston, South
Carolina, on the 25th of December 1858.

An elder brother, CHRISTOPHER EDWARDS GADSDEN (1785-1852), was
Protestant Episcopal bishop of South Carolina in 1839-1852.



GADWALL, a word of obscure origin,[1] the common English name of the
duck, called by Linnaeus _Anas strepera_, but considered by many modern
ornithologists to require removal from the genus _Anas_ to that of
_Chaulelasmus_ or _Ctenorhynchus_, of either of which it is almost the
sole species. Its geographical distribution is almost identical with
that of the common wild duck or mallard (see DUCK), since it is found
over the greater part of the northern hemisphere; but, save in India,
where it is one of the most abundant species of duck during the cold
weather, it is hardly anywhere so numerous, and both in the eastern
parts of the United States and in the British Islands it is rather rare
than otherwise. Its habits also, so far as they have been observed,
greatly resemble those of the wild duck; but its appearance on the water
is very different, its small head, flat back, elongated form and
elevated stern rendering it recognizable by the fowler even at such a
distance as hinders him from seeing its very distinct plumage. In
coloration the two sexes appear almost equally sombre; but on closer
inspection the drake exhibits a pencilled grey coloration and upper
wing-coverts of a deep chestnut, which are almost wanting in his soberly
clad partner. She closely resembles the female of the mallard in colour,
but has, like her own male, some of the secondary quills of a pure
white, presenting a patch of that colour which forms one of the most
readily perceived distinctive characters of the species. The gadwall is
a bird of some interest in England, since it is one of the few that have
been induced, by the protection afforded them in certain localities, to
resume the indigenous position they once filled, but had, through the
draining and reclaiming of marshy lands, long since abandoned. In regard
to the present species, this fact was due to the efforts of Andrew
Fountaine, on whose property, in West Norfolk and its immediate
neighbourhood, the gadwall, from 1850, annually bred in increasing
numbers. It has been always esteemed one of the best of wild fowl for
the table.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The _New English Dictionary_ has nothing to say. Webster gives
    the etymology _gad well_ = go about well. Dr R.G. Latham suggested
    that it was taken from the syllables _quedul_, of the Lat.
    _querquedula_, a teal. The spelling "gadwall" seems to be first found
    in Willughby in 1676, and has been generally adopted by later
    writers; but Merrett, in 1667, has "gaddel" (_Pinax rerum naturalium
    Britannicarum_, p. 180), saying that it was so called by
    bird-dealers. The synonym "gray," given by Willughby and Ray, is
    doubtless derived from the general colour of the species, and has its
    analogue in the Icelandic _Gráönd_, applied almost indifferently, or
    with some distinguishing epithet, to the female of any of the
    freshwater ducks, and especially to both sexes of the present, in
    which, as stated in the text, there is comparatively little
    conspicuous difference of plumage in drake and duck.



GAEKWAR, or GUICOWAR, the family name of the Mahratta rulers of Baroda
(q.v.) in western India, which has been converted by the English into a
dynastic title. It is derived from the vernacular word for the cow, but
it is a mistake to suppose that the family are of the cowherd caste;
they belong to the upper class of Mahrattas proper, sometimes claiming a
Rajput origin. The dynasty was founded by a succession of three
warriors, Damaji I., Pilaji and Damaji II., who established Mahratta
supremacy throughout Gujarat during the first half of the 18th century.
The present style of the ruler is Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda.



GAETA (anc. _Caietae Portus_), a seaport and episcopal see of Campania,
Italy, in the province of Caserta, from which it is 53 m. W.N.W. by rail
via Sparanise. Pop. (1901) 5528. It occupies a lower projecting point of
the promontory which forms the S.W. extremity of the Bay of Gaeta. The
tomb of Munatius Plancus, on the summit of the promontory (see CAIETAE
PORTUS), is now a naval signal station, and lies in the centre of the
extensive earthworks of the modern fortifications. The harbour is well
sheltered except on the E., but has little commercial importance, being
mainly a naval station. To the N.W. is the suburb of Elena (formerly
Borgo di Gaeta). Pop. (1901) 10,369. Above the town is a castle erected
by the Angevin kings, and strengthened at various periods. The cathedral
of St Erasmus (S. Elmo), consecrated in 1106, has a fine campanile begun
in 860 and completed in 1279, and a nave and four aisles; the interior
has, however, been modernized. Opposite the door of the cathedral is a
candelabrum with interesting sculptures of the end of the 13th century,
consisting of 48 panels in bas-relief, with 24 representations from the
life of Christ, and 24 of the life of St Erasmus (A. Venturi, _Storia
dell' arte Italiana_, iii. Milan, 1904, 642 seq.). The cathedral
possesses three fine _Exultet_ rolls, with miniatures dating from the
11th to the beginning of the 13th century. Behind the high altar is the
banner sent by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the victor of
Lepanto. The constable of Bourbon, who fell in the sack of Rome of 1527,
is buried here. The other churches are of minor interest; close to that
of La Trinità is the Montagna Spaccata, where a vertical fissure from 6
to 15 ft. wide runs right down to the sea-level. Over the chasm is a
chapel _del Crocefisso_, the mountain having split, it is said, at the
death of Christ.

During the break-up of the Roman empire, Gaeta, like Amalfi and Naples,
would seem to have established itself as a practically independent port
and to have carried on a thriving trade with the Levant. Its history,
however, is obscure until, in 823, it appears as a lordship ruled by
hereditary _hypati_ or consuls. In 844 the town fell into the hands of
the Arabs, but four years later they were driven out with help supplied
by Pope Leo IV. In 875 the town was in the hands of Pope John VIII., who
gave it to the count of Capua as a fief of the Holy See, which had long
claimed jurisdiction over it. In 877, however, the _hypatus_ John
(Ioannes) II. succeeded in recovering the lordship, which he established
as a duchy under the suzerainty of the East Roman emperors. In the 11th
century the duchy fell into the hands of the Norman counts of Aversa,
afterwards princes of Capua, and in 1135 it was definitively annexed to
his kingdom by Roger of Sicily. The town, however, had its own coinage
as late as 1229.

In military history the town has played a conspicuous part. Its
fortifications were strengthened in the 15th century. On the 30th of
September 1707 it was stormed, after a three months' siege, by the
Austrians under Daun; and on the 6th of August 1734 it was taken, after
a siege of four months, by French, Spanish and Sardinian troops under
the future King Charles of Naples. The fortifications were again
strengthened; and in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French. On
the 18th of July 1806 it was captured, after an heroic defence, by the
French under Masséna; and on the 18th of July 1815 it capitulated, after
a three months' siege, to the Austrians. In November 1848 Pope Pius IX.,
after his flight in disguise from Rome, found a refuge at Gaeta, where
he remained till the 4th of September 1849. Finally, in 1860, it was the
scene of the last stand of Francis II. of Naples against the forces of
United Italy. Shut up in the fortress with 12,000 men, after Garibaldi's
occupation of Naples, the king, inspired by the heroic example of Queen
Maria, offered a stubborn resistance, and it was not till the 13th of
February 1861 that, the withdrawal of the French fleet having made
bombardment from the sea possible, he was forced to capitulate.

  See G.B. Federici, _Degli antichi duchi, consoli o ipati della città
  di Gaeta_ (Naples, 1791); Onorato Gaetani d' Aragona, _Mem. stor.
  della città di Gaeta_ (Milan, 1879); C. Ravizza, _Il Golfo di Gaeta_
  (Novara, 1876).     (T. As.)



GAETANI, or CAETANI, the name of the oldest of the Roman princely
families which played a great part in the history of the city and of the
papacy. The Gaetani are of Longobard origin, and the founder of the
house is said to be one Dominus Constantinus Cagetanus, who flourished
in the 10th century, but the family had no great importance until the
election of Benedetto Gaetani to the papacy as Boniface VIII. in 1294,
when they at once became the most notable in the city. The pope
conferred on them the fiefs of Sermoneta, Bassiano, Ninfa and San Donato
(1297-1300), and the marquisate of Ancona in 1300, while Charles II. of
Anjou created the pope's brother count of Caserta. Giordano Loffredo
Gaetani by his marriage with Giovanna dell' Aquila, heiress of the
counts of Fondi and Traetto, in 1297 added the name of Aquila to his
own, and his grandson Giacomo acquired the lordships of Piedimonte and
Gioia. The Gaetani proved brave warriors and formed a bodyguard to
protect Boniface VIII. from his many foes. During the 14th and 15th
centuries their feuds with the Colonna caused frequent disturbances in
Rome and the Campagna, sometimes amounting to civil war. They also
played an important rôle as Neapolitan nobles. In 1500 Alexander VI., in
his attempt to crush the great Roman feudal nobility, confiscated the
Gaetani fiefs and gave them to his daughter Lucrezia Borgia (q.v.); but
they afterwards regained them.

At present there are two lines of Gaetani: (1) Gaetani, princes of Teano
and dukes of Sermoneta, founded by Giacobello Gaetani, whose grandson,
Guglielmo Gaetani, was granted the duchy of Sermoneta by Pius III. in
1503, the marquisate of Cisterna being conferred on the family by Sixtus
V. in 1585. In 1642, Francesco, the 7th duke of Sermoneta, acquired by
marriage the county of Caserta, which was exchanged for the principality
of Teano in 1750. The present head of the house, Onorato Gaetani, 14th
duke of Sermoneta, 4th prince of Teano, duke of San Marco, marquis of
Cisterna, &c., is a senator of the kingdom of Italy, and was minister
for foreign affairs for a short time. (2) Gaetani dell' Aquila
d'Aragona, princes of Piedimonte, and dukes of Laurenzana, founded by
Onorato Gaetani dell' Aquila, count of Fondi, Traetto, Alife and
Morcone, lord of Piedimonte and Gioia, in 1454. The additional surname
of Aragona was assumed after the marriage of Onorato Gaetani, duke of
Traetto (d. 1529), with Lucrezia of Aragon, natural daughter of King
Ferdinand I. of Naples. The duchy of Laurenzana, in the kingdom of
Naples, was acquired by Alfonso Gaetani by his marriage in 1606 with
Giulia di Ruggiero, duchess of Laurenzana. The lordship of Piedimonte
was raised to a principality in 1715. The present (1908) head of the
house is Nicola Gaetani dell' Aquila d'Aragona (b. 1857), 7th prince of
Piedimonte and 12th duke of Laurenzana.

  See A. von Reumont, _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_ (Berlin, 1868); F.
  Gregorovius, _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_ (Stuttgart, 1872); _Almanach
  de Gotha_ (1907 and 1908).



GAETULIA, an ancient district in northern Africa, which in the usage of
Roman writers comprised the wandering tribes of the southern slopes of
Mount Aures and the Atlas, as far as the Atlantic, and the oases in the
northern part of the Sahara. They were always distinguished from the
Negro people to the south, and beyond doubt belonged to the same Berber
race which formed the basis of the population of Numidia and Mauretania
(q.v.). The tribes to be found there at the present day are probably of
the same race, and retain the same wandering habits; and it is possible
that they still bear in certain places the name of their Gaetulian
ancestors (see Vivien St Martin, _Le Nord de l'Afrique_, 1863). A few
only seem to have mingled with the Negroes of the Sahara, if we may thus
interpret Ptolemy's allusion to Melano-Gaetuli (4. 6. 5.). They were
noted for the rearing of horses, and according to Strabo had 100,000
foals in a single year. They were clad in skins, lived on flesh and
milk, and the only manufacture connected with their name is that of the
purple dye which became famous from the time of Augustus onwards, and
was made from the purple fish found on the coast, apparently both in the
Syrtes and on the Atlantic.

We first hear of this people in the Jugurthine War (111-106 B.C.), when,
as Sallust tells us, they did not even know the name of Rome. They took
part with Jugurtha against Rome; but when we next hear of them they are
in alliance with Caesar against Juba I. (_Bell. Afr._ 32). In 25 B.C.
Augustus seems to have given a part of Gaetulia to Juba II., together
with his kingdom of Mauretania, doubtless with the object of controlling
the turbulent tribes; but the Gaetulians rose and massacred the Roman
residents, and it was not till a severe defeat had been inflicted on
them by Lentulus Cossus (who thus acquired the surname Gaetulicus) in
A.D. 6 that they submitted to the king. After Mauretania became a Roman
province in A.D. 40, the Roman governors made frequent expeditions into
the Gaetulian territory to the south, and the official view seems to be
expressed by Pliny (v. 4. 30) when he says that all Gaetulia as far as
the Niger and the Ethiopian frontier was reckoned as subject to the
Empire. How far this represents the fact is not clear; but inscriptions
prove that Gaetulians served in the auxiliary troops of the empire, and
it may be assumed that the country passed within the sphere of Roman
influence, though hardly within the pale of Roman civilization.

  For bibliography see AFRICA, ROMAN.



GAGE, LYMAN JUDSON (1836- ), American financier, was born at De Ruyter,
Madison county, New York, on the 28th of June 1836. He was educated at
an academy at Rome, New York, where at the age of seventeen he became a
bank clerk. In 1855 he removed to Chicago, served for three years as
book-keeper in a planing-mill, and in 1858 entered the banking house of
the Merchant's Loan and Trust Company, of which he was cashier in
1861-1868. Afterwards he became successively assistant cashier (1868),
vice-president (1882), and president (1891) of the First National Bank
of Chicago, one of the strongest financial institutions in the middle
west. He was chosen in 1892 president of the board of directors of the
World's Columbian Exposition, the successful financing of which was due
more to him than to any other man. In politics he was originally a
Republican, and was a delegate to the national convention of the party
in 1880, and chairman of its finance committee. In 1884, however, he
supported Grover Cleveland for the presidency, and came to be looked
upon as a Democrat. In 1892 President Cleveland, after his second
election, offered Gage the post of secretary of the treasury, but the
offer was declined. In the "free-silver" campaign of 1896 Gage laboured
effectively for the election of William McKinley, and from March 1897
until January 1902 he was secretary of the treasury in the cabinets
successively of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt. From April 1902 until
1906 he was president of the United States Trust Company in New York
City. His administration of the treasury department, through a more than
ordinarily trying period, was marked by a conservative policy, looking
toward the strengthening of the gold standard, the securing of greater
flexibility in the currency, and a more perfect adjustment of the
relations between the government and the National banks.



GAGE, THOMAS (1721-1787), British general and governor of Massachusetts,
second son of the first Viscount Gage, was born in 1721. He entered the
army in 1741 and saw service in Flanders and in the campaign of
Culloden, becoming lieutenant-colonel in the 44th foot in March 1751. In
1754 he served in America, and he took part in the following year in
General Braddock's disastrous expedition. In 1758 he became colonel of a
new regiment, and served in Amherst's operations against Montreal. He
was made governor of Montreal, and promoted major-general in 1761, and
in 1763 succeeded Amherst in the command of the British forces in
America; in 1770 he was made a lieutenant-general. In 1774 he was
appointed governor of Massachusetts, and in that capacity was entrusted
with carrying into effect the Boston Port Act. The difficulties which
surrounded him in the execution of his office at this time of the
gravest unrest culminated in 1775, and the action of the 19th of April
at Lexington initiated the American War of Independence. After the
battle of Bunker Hill, Gage was superseded by General (Sir William)
Howe, and returned to England. He became general in 1782, and died on
the 2nd of April 1787.



GAGE, a pledge, something deposited as security for the performance of
an agreement, and liable to be forfeited on failure to carry it out. The
word also appears in "engage," and is taken from the O. Fr., as are
"wage," payment for services, and "wager," bet, stake, from the
collateral O. Fr. _waige_. These two words are from the Low Lat.
_wadiare_, _vadiare_, to pledge, _vadium_, classical Lat. _vas_,
_vadis_, but may be from the old Teutonic cognate base seen in Gothic
_wadi_, a pledge (cf. Ger. _wetten_, to wager); this Teutonic base is
seen in Eng. "wed," to marry, i.e. to engage by a pledge (cf. Goth,
_gawadjon_, to betrothe). A particular form of giving a "gage" or pledge
was that of throwing down a glove or gauntlet as a challenge to a
judicial combat, the glove being the "pledge" that the parties would
appear on the field; hence the common phrase "to throw down the gage of
defiance" for any challenge (see GLOVE and WAGER).



GAGERN, HANS CHRISTOPH ERNST, BARON VON (1766-1852), German statesman
and political writer, was born at Kleinniedesheim, near Worms, on the
25th of January 1766. After studying law at the universities of Leipzig
and Göttingen, he entered the service of the prince of Nassau-Weilburg,
whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet. He was afterwards
appointed the prince's envoy at Paris, where he remained till the decree
of Napoleon, forbidding all persons born on the left side of the Rhine
to serve any other state than France, compelled him to resign his office
(1811). He then retired to Vienna, and in 1812 he took part in the
attempt to excite a second insurrection against Napoleon in Tirol. On
the failure of this attempt he left Austria and joined the headquarters
of the Prussian army (1813), and became a member of the board of
administration for north Germany. In 1814 he was appointed administrator
of the Orange principalities; and, when the prince of Orange became king
of the Netherlands, Baron Gagern became his prime minister. In 1815 he
represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining
for the Netherlands a considerable augmentation of territory. From 1816
to 1818 he was Luxemburg envoy at the German diet, but was recalled, at
the instance of Metternich, owing to his too independent advocacy of
state constitutions. In 1820 he retired with a pension to his estate at
Hornau, near Höchst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first
chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take an active
share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of his country. He
retired from public life in 1848, and died at Hornau on the 22nd of
October 1852. Baron von Gagern wrote a history of the German nation
(Vienna, 1813; 2nd ed., 2 vols., Frankfort, 1825-1826), and several
other books on subjects connected with history and social and political
science. Of most permanent value, however, is his autobiography, _Mein
Anteil an der Politik_, 5 vols. (Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1823-1845).

Of Hans Christoph von Gagern's sons three attained considerable
eminence:--

FRIEDRICH BALDUIN, Freiherr von Gagern (1794-1848), the eldest, was born
at Weilburg on the 24th of October 1794. He entered the university of
Göttingen, but soon left, and, taking service in the Austrian army, took
part in the Russian campaign of 1812, and fought in the following year
at Dresden, Kulm and Leipzig. He then entered the Dutch service, took
part in the campaigns of 1815, and, after studying another year at
Heidelberg, was member for Luxemburg of the military commission of the
German federal diet (1824, 1825). In 1830 and 1831 he took part in the
Dutch campaign in Belgium, and in 1844, after being promoted to the rank
of general, was sent on an important mission to the Dutch East Indies to
inquire into the state of their military defences. In 1847 he was
appointed governor at the Hague, and commandant in South Holland. In the
spring of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the
revolutionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government of
Baden to take the command against the insurgent "free companies"
(_Freischaaren_). At Kandern, on the 20th of April, he made a vain
effort to persuade the leaders to submit, and was about to order his
troops to attack when he was mortally wounded by the bullets of the
insurgents. His _Life_, in 3 vols. (Heidelberg and Leipzig, 1856-1857),
was written by his brother Heinrich von Gagern.

HEINRICH WILHELM AUGUST, Freiherr von Gagern (1799-1880), the third son,
was born at Bayreuth on the 20th of August 1799, educated at the
military academy at Munich, and, as an officer in the service of the
duke of Nassau, fought at Waterloo. Leaving the service after the war,
he studied jurisprudence at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Jena, and in 1819
went for a while to Geneva to complete his studies. In 1821 he began his
official career as a lawyer in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and in 1832 was
elected to the second chamber. Already at the universities he had
proclaimed his Liberal sympathies as a member of the _Burschenschaft_,
and he now threw himself into open opposition to the unconstitutional
spirit of the Hessian government, an attitude which led to his dismissal
from the state service in 1833. Henceforth he lived in comparative
retirement, cultivating a farm rented by his father at Monsheim, and
occasionally publishing criticisms of public affairs, until the February
revolution of 1848 and its echoes in Germany recalled him to active
political life. For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian
administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation of a
united Germany. At the Heidelberg meeting and the preliminary convention
(_Vorparlament_) of Frankfort he deeply impressed the assemblies with
the breadth and moderation of his views; with the result that when the
German national parliament met (May 18), he was elected its first
president. His influence was at first paramount, both with the Unionist
party and with the more moderate elements of the Left, and it was he who
was mainly instrumental in imposing the principle of a united empire
with a common parliament, and in carrying the election of the Archduke
John as regent. With the growing split between the Great Germans
(_Grossdeutschen_), who wished the new empire to include the Austrian
provinces, and the Little Germans (_Kleindeutschen_), who realized that
German unity could only be attained by excluding them, his position was
shaken. On the 15th of December, when Schmerling and the Austrian
members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the imperial
ministry, and on the 18th he introduced a programme (known as the
_Gagernsche Programm_) according to which Austria was to be excluded
from the new federal state, but bound to it by a treaty of union. After
a severe struggle this proposal was accepted; but the academic
discussion on the constitution continued for weary months, and on the
20th of May, realizing the hopelessness of coming to terms with the
ultra-democrats, Gagern and his friends resigned. Later on he attempted
to influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the
national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt
parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good results
from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from the contest,
and, as a major in the service of the Schleswig-Holstein government,
took part in the Danish War of 1850. After the war he retired into
private life at Heidelberg. In 1862, misled by the constitutional
tendency of Austrian politics, he publicly declared in favour of the
Great German party. In 1864 he went as Hessian envoy to Vienna, retiring
in 1872 when the post was abolished. He died at Darmstadt on the 22nd of
May 1880.

MAXIMILIAN, Freiherr von Gagern (1810-1889), the youngest son, was born
at Weilburg on the 26th of March 1810. Up to 1848 he was a government
official in Nassau; in that year he became a member of the German
national parliament and under-secretary of state for foreign affairs.
Throughout the revolutionary years he supported his brother's policy,
became a member of the Erfurt parliament, and, after the collapse of the
national movement, returned to the service of the duchy of Nassau. In
1855 he turned Roman Catholic and entered the Austrian service as court
and ministerial councillor in the department of foreign affairs. In 1871
he retired, and in 1881 was nominated a life member of the Upper Chamber
(_Herrenhaus_). He died at Vienna on the 17th of October 1889.

  See _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_, Band viii. p. 301, &c. (1878)
  and Band xlix. p. 654 (1904).



GAHANBAR, festivals of the ancient Avesta calendar celebrated by the
Parsees at six seasons of the year which correspond with the six periods
of creation: (1) _Maidhyozaremaya_ (mid spring), (2) _Maidhyoshema_
(midsummer), (3) _Paitishahya_ (season of corn), (4) _Ayathrema_ (season
of flocks), (5) _Maidhyarya_ (winter solstice), (6) _Hamaspathmaedha_
(festival of sacrifices).



GAIGNIÈRES, FRANÇOIS ROGER DE (1642-1715), French genealogist, antiquary
and collector, was the son of Aimé de Gaignières, secretary to the
governor of Burgundy, and was born on the 30th of December 1642. He
became écuyer (esquire) to Louis Joseph, duke of Guise, and afterwards
to Louis Joseph's aunt, Marie of Guise, by whom in 1679 he was appointed
governor of her principality of Joinville. At an early age he began to
make a collection of original materials for history generally, and, in
particular, for that of the French church and court. He brought together
a large collection of original letters and other documents, together
with portraits and prints, and had copies made of a great number of the
most curious antiquarian objects, such as seals, tombstones, stained
glass, miniatures and tapestry. In 1711 he presented the whole of his
collections to the king. The bulk of them is preserved in the
Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, and a certain number in the Bodleian
library at Oxford.

  See G. Duplessis, _Roger de Gaignières_ (Paris, 1870); L. Delisle,
  _Cabinet des manuscrits_, t. i. pp. 335-356; H. Bouchot, _Les
  Portraits aux crayon des XVI^e et XVII^e siècles_ (Paris, 1884); Ch.
  de Grandmaison, _Gaignières, ses correspondants et ses collections de
  portraits_ (Niort, 1892).



GAIL, JEAN BAPTISTE (1755-1829), French hellenist, was born in Paris on
the 4th of July 1755. In 1791 he was appointed deputy, and in 1792
titular professor at the Collège de France. During the Revolution he
quietly performed his professional duties, taking no part in politics,
although he possessed the faculty of ingratiating himself with those in
authority. In 1815 he was appointed by the king keeper of Greek MSS. in
the royal library over the heads of the candidates proposed by the other
conservators, an appointment which made him many enemies. Gail imagined
that there was an organized conspiracy to belittle his learning and
professional success, and there was a standing quarrel between him and
his literary opponents, the most distinguished of whom was P.L. Courier.
He died on the 5th of February 1829. Without being a great Greek
scholar, Gail was a man of unwearied industry, whose whole life was
devoted to his favourite studies, and he deserves every credit for
having rescued Greek from the neglect into which it had fallen during
the troublous times in which he lived. The list of Gail's published
works filled 500 quarto pages of the introduction to his edition of
Xenophon. The best of these is his edition of Theocritus (1828). He also
wrote a number of elementary educational works, based on the principles
of the school of Port Royal. His communications to the Académie des
Inscriptions being coldly received and seldom accorded the honour of
print, he inserted them in a vast compilation in 24 volumes, which he
called _Le Philologue_, containing a mass of ill-digested notes on Greek
grammar, geography, archaeology, and various authors.

  See "Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de J. B. G.," in
  _Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions_, ix.; the articles in _Biographie
  universelle_ (by A. Pillon) and Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine
  Encyclopädie_ (by C.F. Bähr); a list of his works will be found in
  J.M. Quérard, _La France littéraire_ (1829), including the contents of
  the volumes of _Le Philologue_.



GAILLAC, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in
the department of Tarn, on the right bank of the Tarn, 15 m. W. of Albi
on the railway from that city to Toulouse. Pop. (1906) town, 5388;
commune, 7535. The churches of St Michel and St Pierre, both dating from
the 13th and 14th centuries, have little architectural importance. There
are some interesting houses, one of which, the Maison Yversen, of the
Renaissance, is remarkable for the rich carving of its doors. The public
institutions include the sub-prefecture, a tribunal of first instance,
and a communal college. Its industries include the manufacture of lime
and wooden shoes, while dyeing, wood-sawing and flour-milling are also
carried on; it has a considerable trade in grain, flour, vegetables,
dried plums, anise, coriander, &c., and in wine, the white and red wines
of the arrondissement having a high reputation. Gaillac grew up round
the Benedictine abbey of St Michel, founded in the 10th century.



GAILLARD, GABRIEL HENRI (1726-1806), French historian, was born at
Ostel, Picardy, in 1726. He was educated for the bar, but after
finishing his studies adopted a literary career, ultimately devoting his
chief attention to history. He was already a member of the Academy of
Inscriptions and Belles-lettres (1760), when, after the publication of
the three first volumes of his _Histoire de la rivalité de la France et
d'Angleterre_, he was elected to the French Academy (1771); and when
Napoleon created the Institute he was admitted into its third class
(_Académie française_) in 1803. For forty years he was the intimate
friend of Malesherbes, whose life (1805) he wrote. He died at St Firmin,
near Chantilly, on the 13th of February 1806. Gaillard is painstaking
and impartial in his statement of facts, and his style is correct and
elegant, but the unity of his narrative is somewhat destroyed by
digressions, and by his method of treating war, politics, civil
administration, and ecclesiastical affairs under separate heads. His
most important work is his _Histoire de la rivalité de la France et de
l'Angleterre_ (in 11 vols., 1771-1777); and among his other works may be
mentioned _Essai de rhétorique française, à l'usage des jeunes
demoiselles_ (1745), often reprinted, and in 1822 with a life of the
author; _Histoire de Marie de Bourgogne_ (1757); _Histoire de François
I^er_ (7 vols., 1776-1779); _Histoire des grandes querelles entre
Charles V. et François I^er_ (2 vols., 1777); _Histoire de Charlemagne_
(2 vols., 1782); _Histoire de la rivalité de la France et de l'Espagne_
(8 vols., 1801); _Dictionnaire historique_ (6 vols., 1789-1804), making
part of the _Encyclopédie méthodique_; and _Mélanges littéraires_,
containing _éloges_ on Charles V., Henry IV., Descartes, Corneille, La
Fontaine, Malesherbes and others.



GAINESVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Alachua county, Florida,
U.S.A., about 70 m. S.W. of Jacksonville. Pop. (1890) 2790; (1900) 3633,
of whom 1803 were negroes; (1905) 5413; (1910) 6183. Gainesville is
served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air Line, and the Tampa
& Jacksonville railways, and is an important railway junction. It is the
seat of the University of the State of Florida, established at Lake City
in 1905 and removed to Gainesville in 1906. The university includes a
school of language and literature, a general scientific school, a school
of agriculture, a technological school, a school of pedagogy, a normal
school, and an agricultural experiment station. In 1908 the university
had 15 instructors and 103 students. The Florida Winter Bible Conference
and Chautauqua is held here. Gainesville is well known as a winter
resort, and its climate is especially beneficial to persons affected by
pulmonary troubles. In the neighbourhood are the Alachua Sink, Payne's
Prairie, Newman's Lake, the Devil's Mill Hopper and other objects of
interest. The surrounding country produces Sea Island cotton, melons,
citrus and other fruits, vegetables and naval stores. About 15 m. W. of
the city there is a rich phosphate mining district. The city has
bottling works, and manufactures fertilizers, lumber, coffins, ice, &c.
The municipality owns and operates the water-works; the water-supply
comes from a spring 2 m. from the city, and the water closely resembles
that of the Poland Springs in Maine. Gainesville is in the midst of the
famous Seminole country. The first settlement was made here about 1850;
and Gainesville, named in honour of General E.P. Gaines, was
incorporated as a town in 1869, and was chartered as a city in 1907.



GAINESVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Cooke county, Texas, U.S.A.,
about 6 m. S. of the Red river, and about 60 m. N. of Fort Worth. Pop.
(1890) 6594; (1900) 7874 (1201 negroes and 269 foreign-born); (1910)
7624. The city is served by the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fé, and the
Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways, and by an interurban electric
railway. Gainesville is a trading centre and market for the surrounding
country, in which cotton, grains, garden truck, fruit and alfalfa are
grown and live-stock is raised; and a wholesale distributing point for
the neighbouring region in Texas and Oklahoma. The city has
cotton-compresses and cotton-gins, and among its manufactures are
cotton-seed oil, flour, cement blocks, pressed bricks, canned goods,
foundry products, waggon-beds and creamery products. Gainesville was
settled about 1851, was incorporated in 1873, and was chartered as a
city in 1879; it was named in honour of General Edmund Pendleton Gaines
(1777-1849), who served with distinction in the War of 1812, becoming a
brigadier-general in March 1814 and receiving the brevet of
major-general and the thanks of Congress for his defence of Fort Erie in
August 1814. Gaines took a prominent part in the operations against the
Seminoles in Florida in 1817 (when he was in command of the Southern
Military District) and in 1836 and during the Mexican War commanded the
department of the South-West, with headquarters at New Orleans.



GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS (1727-1788), English painter, one of the greatest
masters of the English school in portraiture, and only less so in
landscape, was born at Sudbury, Suffolk, in the spring of 1727. His
father, who carried on the business of a woollen crape-maker in that
town, was of a respectable character and family, and was noted for his
skill in fencing; his mother excelled in flower-painting, and encouraged
her son in the use of the pencil. There were nine children of the
marriage, two of the painter's brothers being of a very ingenious turn.

At ten years old, Gainsborough "had sketched every fine tree and
picturesque cottage near Sudbury," and at fourteen, having filled his
task-books with caricatures of his schoolmaster, and sketched the
portrait of a man whom he had detected on the watch for robbing his
father's orchard, he was allowed to follow the bent of his genius in
London, with some instruction in etching from Gravelot, and under such
advantages as Hayman, the historical painter, and the academy in St
Martin's Lane could afford. Three years of study in the metropolis,
where he did some modelling and a few landscapes, were succeeded by two
years in the country. Here he fell in love with Margaret Burr, a young
lady of many charms, including an annuity of £200, married her after
painting her portrait, and a short courtship, and, at the age of twenty,
became a householder in Ipswich, his rent being £6 a year. The annuity
was reported to come from Margaret's real (not her putative) father, who
was one of the exiled Stuart princes or else the duke of Bedford. She
was sister of a young man employed by Gainsborough's father as a
traveller. At Ipswich, Gainsborough tells us, he was "chiefly in the
face-way"; his sitters were not so numerous as to prevent him from often
rambling with his friend Joshua Kirby (president of the Society of
Artists) on the banks of the Orwell, from painting many landscapes with
an attention to details which his later works never exhibited, or from
joining a musical club and entertaining himself and his fellow-townsmen
by giving concerts. As he advanced in years he became ambitious of
advancing in reputation. Bath was then the general resort of wealth and
fashion, and to that city, towards the close of the year 1759, he
removed with his wife and two daughters, the only issue of their
marriage. His studio in the circus was soon thronged with visitors; he
gradually raised his price for a half-length portrait from 5 to 40
guineas, and for a whole-length from 8 to 100 guineas; and he rapidly
developed beyond the comparatively plain and humdrum quality of his
Ipswich paintings. Among his sitters at this period were the authors
Sterne and Richardson, and the actors Quin, Henderson and Garrick.
Meanwhile he contributed both portraits and landscapes to the annual
exhibitions in London. He indulged his taste for music by learning to
play the viol-di-gamba, the harp, the hautboy, the violoncello. His
house harboured Italian, German, French and English musicians. He
haunted the green-room of Palmer's theatre, and painted gratuitously the
portraits of many of the actors: he constantly gave away his sketches
and landscapes. In the summer of 1774, having already attained a
position of great prosperity, he took his departure for London, and
fixed his residence at Schomberg House, Pall Mall, a noble mansion still
standing, for a part of which the artist paid £300 a year.

Gainsborough had not been many months in London ere he received a
summons to the palace, and to the end of his career he divided with West
the favour of the court, and with Reynolds the favour of the town.
Sheridan, Burke, Johnson, Franklin, Canning, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu,
Mrs Siddons, Clive, Blackstone, Hurd, were among the number of those who
sat to him. But in London as in Bath his landscapes were exhibited, were
commended, and were year after year returned to him, "till they stood,"
says Sir William Beechey, "ranged in long lines from his hall to his
painting-room." Gainsborough was a member of the Royal Academy, one of
the original 36 elected in 1768; but in 1784, being dissatisfied with
the position assigned on the exhibition walls to his portrait of the
three princesses, he withdrew that and his other pictures, and he never
afterwards exhibited there. Even before this he had taken no part in the
business of the Institution. After seceding he got up an exhibition in
his own house, not successfully. In February 1788, while witnessing the
trial of Warren Hastings, he felt an extraordinary chill at the back of
his neck; this was the beginning of a cancer (or, as some say, a
malignant wen) which proved fatal on the 2nd of August of the same year.
He lies buried at Kew.

Gainsborough was tall, fair and handsome, generous, impulsive to the
point of capriciousness, easily irritated, not of bookish likings, a
lively talker, good at repartee. He was a most thorough embodiment of
the artistic temperament; delighting in nature and "the look of things,"
insatiable in working, fond of music and the theatre hardly less than of
painting--a warm, rich personality, to whom severe principle was perhaps
as foreign as deliberate wrong-doing. The property which he left at his
death was not large. One of his daughters, Mary, had married the
musician Fischer contrary to his wishes, and was subject to fits of
mental aberration. The other daughter, Margaret, died unmarried. Mrs
Gainsborough, an extremely sweet-tempered woman, survived her husband
ten years. There is a pretty anecdote that Gainsborough, if he ever had
a tiff with her, would write a pacifying note, confiding it to his dog
Fox, who delivered it to the lady's pet spaniel Tristram. The note was
worded as in the person of Fox to Tristram, and Mrs Gainsborough replied
in the best of humours, as from Tristram to Fox.

Gainsborough and Reynolds rank side by side as the greatest
portrait-painters of the English school. They were at variance; but
Gainsborough on his death-bed sought and obtained a reconciliation. It
is difficult to say which stands the higher of the two, although
Reynolds may claim to have worked with a nearer approach to even and
demonstrable excellence. In grace, spirit, and lightness of insight and
of touch, Gainsborough is peculiarly eminent. His handling was slight
for the most part, and somewhat arbitrary, but in a high degree
masterly; and his landscapes and rustic compositions are not less gifted
than his portraits. Among his finest works are portraits of "Lady
Ligonier," "Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire," "Master Buttall (the Blue
Boy)," now in Grosvenor House, "Mrs Sheridan and Mrs Tickell," "Orpin,
the parish clerk" (National Gallery), "the Hon. Mrs Graham" (Scottish
National Gallery), his own portrait (Royal Academy), "Mrs Siddons"
(National Gallery); also "the Cottage Door," "the Market Cart," "the
Return from Harvest," "the Woodman and his Dog in a Storm" (destroyed by
fire), and "Waggon and Horses passing a Brook" (National Gallery--this
was a favourite with its painter). He made a vast number of drawings and
sketches.

A few observations may be added: (1) as to individual works by
Gainsborough, and (2) as to his general characteristics as a painter.

Two of his first portraits, executed when he was settled at Ipswich,
were separate likenesses of Mr and Mrs Hingeston. His first great hit
was made at Bath with a portrait of Lord Nugent. With a likeness of Mr
Poyntz, 1762, we find a decided advance in artistic type, and his style
became fixed towards 1768. The date of the "Blue Boy" is somewhat
uncertain: most accounts name 1779, but perhaps 1770 is nearer the mark.
This point is not without interest for dilettanti; because it is said
that Gainsborough painted the picture with a view to confuting a dictum
of Reynolds, to the effect that blue was a colour unsuitable for the
main light of a work. But, if the picture was produced before 1778, the
date of Reynolds's dictum, this long-cherished and often-repeated
tradition must be given up. A full-length of the duke of Norfolk was
perhaps the latest work to which Gainsborough set his hand. His portrait
of Elizabeth, duchess of Devonshire, famous for its long disappearance,
has aroused much controversy; whether this painting, produced not long
after Gainsborough had settled in London, and termed "the Duchess of
Devonshire," does really represent that lady, is by no means certain. It
was mysteriously stolen in 1876 in London immediately after it had been
purchased by Messrs Agnew at the Wynn Ellis sale at a huge price, and a
long time elapsed before it was retraced. The picture was taken to New
York, and eventually to Chicago; and in April 1901, through the agency
of a man named Pat Sheedy, it was given up to the American detectives
working for Messrs Agnew; it was then sold to Mr Pierpont Morgan.

Gainsborough's total output of paintings exceeded 300, including 220
portraits: he also etched at least 18 plates, and 3 in aquatint. At the
date of his death 56 paintings remained on hand: these, along with 148
drawings, were then exhibited. In his earlier days he made a practice of
copying works by Vandyck (the object of his more special admiration),
Titian, Rubens, Teniers, Hobbema, Claude and some others, but not in a
spirit of servile reproduction.

Gainsborough was pre-eminent in that very essential element of
portraiture--truthful likeness. In process of time he advanced in the
rendering of immediate expression, while he somewhat receded in general
character. He always made his sitters look pleasant, and, after a while,
distinguished. Unity of impression is one of the most marked qualities
in his work; he seems to have seen his subject as an integer, and he
wrought at the various parts of it together, every touch (and very
wilful some of his touches look) tending towards the foreseen result. He
painted with arrowy speed, more especially in his later years. For
portraits he used at times brushes upon sticks 6 ft. long; there was but
little light in his painting-room, and he often worked in the evenings.
He kept his landscape work distinct from his portraiture, not ever
adding to the latter a fully realized landscape background; his views he
never signed or dated--his likenesses only once or twice. His skies are
constantly cloudy, the country represented is rough and broken; the
scenes are of a pastoral kind, with an effect generally of coming rain,
or else of calm sun-setting. The prevalent feeling of his landscapes is
somewhat sad, and to children, whether in subject-groups or in
portraits, he mostly lent an expression rather plaintive than mirthful.
It should be acknowledged that, whether in portraiture or in landscape,
the painter's mannerisms of execution increased in process of
time--patchings of the brush, tufty foliage, &c.; some of his portraits
are hurried and flimsy, with a minimum of solid content, though not
other than artistic in feeling. Here are a few of his axioms:--"What
makes the difference between man and man is real performance, and not
genius or conception." "I don't think it would be more ridiculous for a
person to put his nose close to the canvas and say the colours smelt
offensive than to say how rough the paint lies, for one is just as
material as the other with regard to hurting the effect and drawing of a
picture." "The eye is the only perspective-master needed by a
landscape-painter."

  AUTHORITIES.--In 1788 Philip Thicknesse, Lieutenant-Governor of
  Landguard Fort, Ipswich, who had been active in promoting the artist's
  fortunes at starting, published A _Sketch of the Life and Paintings of
  Thomas Gainsborough_. He had quarrelled with the painter at Bath,
  partly because the latter had undertaken to do a portrait of him as a
  gift, and then neglected the work, and finally, in a huff, bundled it
  off only half done. The crucial question here is whether or not
  Gainsborough was reasonably pledged to perform any such gratuitous
  work, and this point has been contested. Thicknesse's book is in part
  adverse to Gainsborough, and more particularly so to his wife.
  Reynolds's "Lecture" on Gainsborough, replete with critical insight,
  should never be lost sight of as a leading document. In 1856 a
  heedfully compiled _Life of Thomas Gainsborough_ was brought out by
  T.W. Fulcher. This was the first substantial work about him subsequent
  to Allan Cunningham's lively account (1829) in his _Lives of the
  Painters_. Of late years a great deal has been written, mainly but not
  by any means exclusively from the critical or technical point of
  view:--Sir Walter Armstrong (two works, 1896 and 1898); Mrs Arthur
  Bell (1902); Sir W.M. Conway, _Artistic Development of Reynolds and
  Gainsborough_ (1886); Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower (1903); G.M.
  Brock-Arnold (1881). G. Pauli has brought out an illustrated work in
  Germany (1904) under the title _Gainsborough_.     (W. M. R.)



GAINSBOROUGH, a market town in the W. Lindsey or Gainsborough
parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England; on the right (E.) bank
of the Trent. Pop. of urban district (1901) 17,660. It is served by the
Lincoln-Doncaster joint line of the Great Northern and Great Eastern
railways, by which it is 16 m. N.W. of Lincoln, and by the Great Central
railway. The parish church of All Saints is classic of the 18th century,
excepting the Perpendicular tower. The two other parish churches are
modern. The Old Hall, of the 15th century, enlarged in the 16th, is a
picturesque building, forming three sides of a quadrangle, partially
timber-framed, but having a beautiful oriel window and other parts of
stone. There is also a Tudor tower of brick. A literary and scientific
institute occupy part of the building. Gainsborough possesses a grammar
school (founded in 1589 by a charter of Queen Elizabeth) and other
schools, town-hall, county court-house, Albert Hall and Church of
England Institute. There is a large carrying trade by water on the Trent
and neighbouring canals. Shipbuilding and iron-founding are carried on,
and there are manufactures of linseed cake, and agricultural and other
machinery.

Gainsborough (_Gegnesburh_) was probably inhabited by the Saxons on
account of the fishing in the Trent. The _Saxon Chronicle_ states that
in 1013 the Danish king Sweyn landed here and subjugated the
inhabitants. Gainsborough, though not a chartered borough, was probably
one by prescription, for mention is made of burghal tenure in 1280. The
privilege of the return of writs was conferred on the lord of the manor,
Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, in 1323, and confirmed to Ralph de
Percy in 1383. Mention is made in 1204 of a Wednesday market, but there
is no extant grant before 1258, when Henry III. granted a Tuesday market
to William de Valence, earl of Pembroke, who also obtained from Edward
I. in 1291 licence for an annual fair on All Saints' Day, and the seven
preceding and eight following days. In 1243 Henry III. granted to John
Talbot licence for a yearly fair on the eve, day and morrow of St James
the Apostle. Queen Elizabeth in 1592 granted to Thomas Lord Burgh two
fairs, to begin on Easter Monday and on the 9th of October, each lasting
three days. Charles I. in 1635-1636 extended the duration of each to
nine days. The Tuesday market is still held, and the fair days are
Tuesday and Wednesday in Easter-week, and the Tuesday and Wednesday
after the 20th of October.

  See Adam Stark, _History and Antiquities of Gainsburgh_ (London,
  1843).



GAIRDNER, JAMES (1828-   ), English historian, son of John Gairdner,
M.D., was born in Edinburgh on the 22nd of March 1828. Educated in his
native city, he entered the Public Record Office in London in 1846,
becoming assistant keeper of the public records (1859-1893). Gairdner's
valuable and painstaking contributions to English history relate chiefly
to the reigns of Richard III., Henry VII. and Henry VIII. For the "Rolls
Series" he edited _Letters and Papers illustrative of the Reigns of
Richard III. and Henry VII._ (London, 1861-1863), and _Memorials of
Henry VII._ (London, 1858); and he succeeded J.S. Brewer in editing the
_Letters and Papers_, foreign and domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII.
(London, 1862-1905). He brought out the best edition of the _Paston
Letters_ (London, 1872-1875, and again 1896), for which he wrote a
valuable introduction; and for the Camden Society he edited the
_Historical collections of a Citizen of London_ (London, 1876), and
_Three 15th-century Chronicles_ (London, 1880). His other works include
excellent monographs on _Richard III._ (London, 1878, new and enlarged
edition, Cambridge, 1898), and on _Henry VII._ (London, 1889, and
subsequently); _The Houses of Lancaster and York_ (London, 1874, and
other editions); _The English Church in the 16th century_ (London,
1902); _Lollardy and the Reformation in England_ (1908); and
contributions to the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, the _Dictionary of
National Biography_, the _Cambridge Modern History_, and the _English
Historical Review_. Gairdner received the honorary degree of LL.D. from
the university of Edinburgh in 1897, and was made a C.B. in 1900.



GAIRLOCH (Gaelic _geàrr_, short), a sea loch, village and parish in the
west of the county of Ross and Cromarty, Scotland. Pop. of parish (1901)
3797. The parish covers a large district on the coast, and stretches
inland beyond the farther banks of Loch Maree, the whole of which lies
within its bounds. It also includes the islands of Dry and Horisdale in
the loch, and Ewe in Loch Ewe, and occupies a total area of 200,646
acres. The place and loch must not be confounded with Gareloch in
Dumbartonshire. Formerly an appanage of the earldom of Ross, Gairloch
has belonged to the Mackenzies since the end of the 15th century.
Flowerdale, an 18th-century house in the pretty little glen of the same
name, lying close to the village, is the chief seat of the Gairloch
branch of the clan Mackenzie. William Ross (1762-1790), the Gaelic
poet, who was schoolmaster of Gairloch, of which his mother was a
native, was buried in the old kirkyard, where a monument commemorates
him.



GAISERIC, or GENSERIC (c. 390-477), king of the Vandals, was a son of
King Godegisel (d. 406), and was born about 390. Though lame and only of
moderate stature, he won renown as a warrior, and became king on the
death of his brother Gonderic in 428. In 428 or 429 he led a great host
of Vandals from Spain into Roman Africa, and took possession of
Mauretania. This step is said to have been taken at the instigation of
Boniface, the Roman general in Africa; if true, Boniface soon repented
of his action, and was found resisting the Vandals and defending Hippo
Regius against them. At the end of fourteen months Gaiseric raised the
siege of Hippo; but Boniface was forced to fly to Italy, and the city
afterwards fell into the hands of the Vandals. Having pillaged and
conquered almost the whole of Roman Africa, the Vandal king concluded a
treaty with the emperor Valentinian III. in 435, by which he was allowed
to retain his conquests; this peace, however, did not last long, and in
October 439 he captured Carthage, which he made the capital of his
kingdom. According to some authorities Gaiseric at this time first
actually assumed the title of king. In religious matters he was an
Arian, and persecuted the members of the orthodox church in Africa,
although his religious policy varied with his relations to the Roman
empire. Turning his attention in another direction he built a fleet, and
the ravages of the Vandals soon made them known and feared along the
shores of the Mediterranean. "Let us make," said Gaiseric, "for the
dwellings of the men with whom God is angry," and he left the conduct of
his marauding ships to wind and wave. In 455, however, he led an
expedition to Rome, stormed the city, which for fourteen days his troops
were permitted to plunder, and then returned to Africa laden with spoil.
He also carried with him many captives, including the empress Eudoxia,
who is said to have invited the Vandals into Italy. The Romans made two
attempts to avenge themselves, one by the Western emperor, Majorianus,
in 460, and the other by the Eastern emperor, Leo I., eight years later;
but both enterprises failed, owing principally to the genius of
Gaiseric. Continuing his course on the sea the king brought Sicily,
Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands under his rule, and even
extended his conquests into Thrace, Egypt and Asia Minor. Having made
peace with the eastern emperor Zeno in 476, he died on the 25th of
January 477. Gaiseric was a cruel and cunning man, possessing great
military talents and superior mental gifts. Though the effect of his
victories was afterwards neutralized by the successes of Belisarius, his
name long remained the glory of the Vandals. The name Gaiseric is said
to be derived from _gais_, a javelin, and _reiks_, a king.

  See VANDALS; also T. Hodgkin, _Italy and her Invaders_, vol. ii.
  (London, 1892); E. Gibbon, _Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_ (ed.
  J.B. Bury, 1896-1900); L. Schmidt, _Geschichte der Vandalen_ (Leipzig,
  1901); and F. Martroye, _Genseric; La Conquête vandale en Afrique_
  (Paris, 1907).



GAISFORD, THOMAS (1779-1855), English classical scholar, was born at
Iford, Wiltshire, on the 22nd of December 1779. Proceeding to Oxford in
1797, he became successively student and tutor of Christ Church, and was
in 1811 appointed regius professor of Greek in the university. Taking
orders, he held (1815-1847) the college living of Westwell, in
Oxfordshire, and other ecclesiastical preferments simultaneously with
his professorship. From 1831 until his death on the 2nd of June 1855, he
was dean of Christ Church. As curator of the Bodleian and principal
delegate of the University Press he was instrumental in securing the
co-operation of distinguished European scholars as collators, notably
Bekker and Dindorf. Among his numerous contributions to Greek literature
may be mentioned, Hephaestion's _Encheiridion_ (1810); _Poëtae Graeci
minores_ (1814-1820); Stobaeus' _Florilegium_ (1822); _Herodotus_, with
variorum notes (1824); Suidas' _Lexicon_ (1834); _Etymologicon magnum_
(1848); Eusebius's _Praeparatio_ (1843) and _Demonstratio evangelica_
(1852). In 1856 the Gaisford prizes, for Greek composition, were founded
at Oxford to perpetuate his memory.



GAIUS, a celebrated Roman jurist. Of his personal history very little is
known. It is impossible to discover even his full name, Gaius or Caius
being merely the personal name (praenomen) so common in Rome. From
internal evidence in his works it may be gathered that he flourished in
the reigns of the emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and
Commodus. His works were thus composed between the years 130 and 180, at
the time when the Roman empire was most prosperous, and its government
the best. Most probably Gaius lived in some provincial town, and hence
we find no contemporary notices of his life or works. After his death,
however, his writings were recognized as of great authority, and the
emperor Valentinian named him, along with Papinian, Ulpian, Modestinus
and Paulus, as one of the five jurists whose opinions were to be
followed by judicial officers in deciding cases. The works of these
jurists accordingly became most important sources of Roman law.

Besides the _Institutes_, which are a complete exposition of the
elements of Roman law, Gaius was the author of a treatise on the _Edicts
of the Magistrates_, of _Commentaries on the Twelve Tables_, and on the
important _Lex Papia Poppaea_, and several other works. His interest in
the antiquities of Roman law is apparent, and for this reason his work
is most valuable to the historian of early institutions. In the disputes
between the two schools of Roman jurists he generally attached himself
to that of the Sabinians, who were said to be followers of Ateius
Capito, of whose life we have some account in the _Annals_ of Tacitus,
and to advocate a strict adherence as far as possible to ancient rules,
and to resist innovation. Many quotations from the works of Gaius occur
in the _Digest_ of Justinian, and so acquired a permanent place in the
system of Roman law; while a comparison of the _Institutes_ of Justinian
with those of Gaius shows that the whole method and arrangement of the
later work were copied from that of the earlier, and very numerous
passages are word for word the same. Probably, for the greater part of
the period of three centuries which elapsed between Gaius and Justinian,
the _Institutes_ of the former had been the familiar textbook of all
students of Roman law.

Unfortunately the work was lost to modern scholars, until, in 1816, a
manuscript was discovered by B.G. Niebuhr in the chapter library of
Verona, in which certain of the works of St Jerome were written over
some earlier writings, which proved to be the lost work of Gaius. The
greater part of the palimpsest has, however, been deciphered and the
text is now fairly complete. This discovery has thrown a flood of light
on portions of the history of Roman law which had previously been most
obscure. Much of the historical information given by Gaius is wanting in
the compilations of Justinian, and, in particular, the account of the
ancient forms of procedure in actions. In these forms can be traced
"survivals" from the most primitive times, which provide the science of
comparative law with valuable illustrations, which may explain the
strange forms of legal procedure found in other early systems. Another
circumstance which renders the work of Gaius more interesting to the
historical student than that of Justinian, is that Gaius lived at a time
when actions were tried by the system of formulae, or formal directions
given by the praetor before whom the case first came, to the judex to
whom he referred it. Without a knowledge of the terms of these formulae
it is impossible to solve the most interesting question in the history
of Roman law, and show how the rigid rules peculiar to the ancient law
of Rome were modified by what has been called the equitable jurisdiction
of the praetors, and made applicable to new conditions, and brought into
harmony with the notions and the needs of a more developed society. It
is clear from evidence of Gaius that this result was obtained, not by an
independent set of courts administering, as in England previous to the
Judicature Acts, a system different from that of the ordinary courts,
but by the manipulation of the formulae. In the time of Justinian the
work was complete, and the formulary system had disappeared.

The _Institutes_ of Gaius are divided into four books--the first
treating of persons and the differences of the status they may occupy in
the eye of the law; the second of things, and the modes in which rights
over them may be acquired, including the law relating to wills; the
third of intestate succession and of obligations; the fourth of actions
and their forms.

  There are several carefully prepared editions of the _Institutes_,
  starting from that of Göschen (1820), down to that of Studemund and
  Krüger (1900). The most complete English edition is that of E. Poste,
  which includes beside the text an English translation and copious
  commentary (1885). A comparison of the early forms of actions
  mentioned by Gaius with those used by other primitive societies will
  be found in Sir H. Maine's _Early Institutions_, cap. 9. For further
  information see M. Glasson, _Étude sur Gaius et sur le jus
  respondendi_; also ROMAN LAW.



GAIUS CAESAR (A.D. 12-41), surnamed CALIGULA, Roman emperor from 37-41,
youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina the elder, was born on the 31st
of August A.D. 12. He was brought up in his father's camp on the Rhine
among the soldiers, and received the name Caligula from the _caligae_,
or foot-soldiers' boots, which he used to wear. He also accompanied his
father to Syria, and after his death returned to Rome. In 32 he was
summoned by Tiberius to Capreae, and by skilful flattery managed to
escape the fate of his relatives. After the murder of Tiberius by
Naevius Sertorius Macro, the prefect of the praetorian guards, which was
probably due to his instigation, Caligula ascended the throne amidst the
rejoicings of the people. The senate conferred the imperial power upon
him alone, although Tiberius Gemellus, the grandson of the preceding
emperor, had been designated as his co-heir. He entered on his first
consulship in July 37. For the first eight months of his reign he did
not disappoint the popular expectation; but after his recovery from a
severe illness his true character showed itself. His extravagance,
cruelty and profligacy can hardly be explained except on the assumption
that he was out of his mind. According to Pelham, much of his conduct
was due to the atmosphere in which he was brought up, and the ideas of
sovereignty instilled into him, which led him to pose as a monarch of
the Graeco-oriental type. To fill his exhausted treasury he put to death
his wealthy subjects and confiscated their property; even the poor fell
victims to his thirst for blood. He bestowed the priesthood and a
consulship upon his horse Incitatus, and demanded that sacrifice should
be offered to himself. He openly declared that he wished the whole Roman
people had only one head, that he might cut it off at a single stroke.
In 39 he set out with an army to Gaul, nominally to punish the Germans
for having invaded Roman territory, but in reality to get money by
plunder and confiscation. Before leaving, he led his troops to the coast
opposite Britain, and ordered them to pick up shells on the seashore, to
be dedicated to the gods at Rome as the spoils of ocean. On his return
he entered Rome with an ovation (a minor form of triumph), temples were
built, statues erected in his honour, and a special priesthood
instituted to attend to his worship. The people were ground down by new
forms of taxation and every kind of extortion, but on the whole Rome was
free from internal disturbances during his reign; some insignificant
conspiracies were discovered and rendered abortive. A personal insult to
Cassius Chaerea, tribune of a praetorian cohort, led to Caligula's
assassination on the 24th of January 41.

  See Suetonius, _Caligula_; Tacitus, _Annals_, vi. 20 ff.; Dio Cassius
  lix.; see also S. Baring Gould, _The Tragedy of the Caesars_ (3rd ed.,
  1892); H.F. Pelham in _Quarterly Review_ (April, 1905); H. Willrich,
  _Beiträge zur alten Geschichte_ (1903); H. Schiller, _Geschichte der
  römischen Kaiserzeit_, i. pt. 1; J.B. Bury, _Student's Hist. of the
  Roman Empire_ (1893); Merivale, _History of the Romans under the
  Empire_, ch. 48; H. Furneaux's _Annals_ of Tacitus, ii.
  (introduction). Mention may also be made of the famous pamphlet by L.
  Quidde, _Caligula_. _Eine Studie über römischen Cäsarenwahnsinn_ and
  an anonymous supplement, _1st Caligula mit unserer Zeit vergleichbar?_
  (both 1894); and a reply, _Fin-de-Siècle-Geschichtsschreibung_, by G.
  Sommerfeldt (1895).



GALAGO, the Senegal name of the long-tailed African representatives of
the lemur-like Primates, which has been adopted as their technical
designation. Till recently the galagos have been included in the family
_Lemuridae_; but this is restricted to the lemurs of Madagascar, and
they are now classed with the lorises and pottos in the family
_Nycticebidae_, of which they form the section _Galaginae_,
characterized by the great elongation of the upper portion of the feet
(tarsus) and the power of folding the large ears. Throughout the greater
part of Africa south of the Sahara galagos are widely distributed in
the wooded districts, from Senegambia in the west to Abyssinia in the
east, and as far south as Natal. They pass the day in sleep, but are
very active at night, feeding on fruits, insects and small birds. When
they descend to the ground they sit upright, and move about by jumping
with their hind-legs like jerboas. They are pretty little animals,
varying from the size of a small cat to less than that of a rat, with
large eyes and ears, soft woolly fur and long tails. There are several
species, of which _G. crassicaudatus_ from Mozambique is the largest;
together with _G. garnetti_ of Natal, _G. agisymbanus_ of Zanzibar, and
_G. monteiroi_ of Angola, this represents the subgenus _Otolemur_. The
typical group includes _G. senegalensis_ (or _galago_) of Senegal, _G.
alleni_ of West and Central Africa, and _G. moholi_ of South Africa;
while _G. demidoffi_ of West and Central Africa and _G. anomurus_ of
French Congoland represent the subgenus _Hemigalago_. (R. L.*)



GALANGAL, formerly written "galingale," and sometimes "garingal,"
_rhizoma galangae_ (Arab. _Kholínjan_;[1] Ger. _Galgantwurzel_; Fr.
_Racine de Galanga_), a drug, now obsolete, with an aromatic taste like
that of mingled ginger and pepper. Lesser galangal root, _radix galangae
minoris_, the ordinary galangal of commerce, is the dried rhizome of
_Alpinia officinarum_, a plant of the natural order Zingiberaceae,
growing in the Chinese island of Hainan, where it is cultivated, and
probably also in the woods of the southern provinces of China. The plant
is closely allied to _Alpinia calcarata_, the rhizome of which is sold
in the bazaars of some parts of India as a sort of galangal. Its stems
attain a length of about 4 ft., and its leaves are slender, lanceolate
and light-green, and have a hot taste; the flowers are white with red
veins, and in simple racemes; the roots form dense masses, sometimes
more than a foot in diameter; and the rhizomes grow horizontally, and
are ¾ in. or less in thickness. Galangal seems to have been unknown to
the ancient Greeks and Romans, and to have been first introduced into
Europe by Arabian physicians. It is mentioned in the writings of Ibn
Khurdádbah, an Arabian geographer who flourished in the latter half of
the 9th century, and "gallengar" (gallingale or galangal) is one of the
ingredients in an Anglo-Saxon receipt for a "wen salve" (see O.
Cockayne, _Saxon Leechdoms_, vol. iii. p. 13). In the middle ages, as at
present in Livonia, Esthonia and central Russia, galangal was in esteem
in Europe both as a medicine and a spice, and in China it is still
employed as a therapeutic agent. Its chief consumption is in Russia,
where it is used as a cattle-medicine, and as a flavouring for liqueurs.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Apparently derived from the Chinese _Kau-liang-Kiang_, i.e.
    Kau-liang ginger, the term applied by the Chinese to galangal, after
    the prefecture Kau-chau fu in Canton province, formerly called
    Kau-liang (see F. Porter Smith, _Contrib. to the Materia Medica ...
    of China_, p. 9, 1871).



GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, an archipelago of five larger and ten smaller islands
in the Pacific Ocean, exactly under the equator. The nearest island to
the South American coast lies 580 m. W. of Ecuador, to which country
they belong. The name is derived from _galápago_, a tortoise, on account
of the giant species, the characteristic feature of the fauna. The
islands were discovered early in the 16th century by Spaniards, who gave
them their present name. They were then uninhabited. The English names
of the individual islands were probably given by buccaneers, for whom
the group formed a convenient retreat.

The larger members of the group, several of which attain an elevation of
2000 to 2500 ft., are Albemarle or Isabela (100 m. long, 28 m. in
extreme breadth, with an area of 1650 sq. m. and an extreme elevation of
5000 ft.), Narborough or Fernandina, Indefatigable or Santa Cruz,
Chatham or San Cristobal, James or San Salvador, and Charles or Santa
Maria. The total land area is estimated at about 2870 sq. m. (about that
of the West Riding of Yorkshire). The extraordinary number of craters, a
few of which are reported still to be active, gives evidence that the
archipelago is the result of volcanic action. The number of main craters
may be about twenty-five, but there are very many small eruptive cones
on the flanks of the old volcanoes. There is a convict settlement on
Chatham with some 300 inhabitants living in low thatched or iron-roofed
huts, under the supervision of a police commissioner and other officials
of Ecuador, by which country the group was annexed in 1832, when General
Villamil founded Floreana on Charles Island, naming it in honour of Juan
José Flores, president of Ecuador. A governor has been appointed since
1885, some importance being foreseen for the islands in connexion with
the cutting of the Panama canal, as the group lies on the route to
Australia opened up by that scheme. Charles Island, the most valuable of
the group, is cultivated by a small colony. On many of the islets
numerous tropical fruits are found growing wild, but they are no doubt
escapes from cultivation, just as the large herds of wild cattle,
horses, donkeys, pigs, goats and dogs--the last large and fierce--which
occur abundantly on most of the islands have escaped from domestication.

The shores of the larger islands are fringed in some parts with a dense
barrier of mangroves, backed by an often impenetrable thicket of
tropical undergrowth, which, as the ridges are ascended, give place to
taller trees and deep green bushes which are covered with orchids and
trailing moss (_orchilla_), and from which creepers hang down
interlacing the vegetation. But generally the low grounds are parched
and rocky, presenting only a few thickets of Peruvian cactus and stunted
shrubs, and a most uninviting shore. The contrast between this low zone
and the upper zone of rich vegetation (above about 800 ft.) is curiously
marked. From July to November the clouds hang low on the mountains, and
give moisture to the upper zone, while the climate of the lower is dry.
Rain in the lower zone is scanty, and from May to January does not
occur. The porous soil absorbs the moisture, and fresh water is scarce.
Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely
hot, as it is tempered by cold currents from the Antarctic sea, which,
having followed the coast of Peru as far as Cape Blanco, bear off to the
N.W. towards and through the Galapagos. The mean temperature of the
lower zone is about 71° F., that of the upper from 66° to 62°.

The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to Ecuador, on
account of the guano and the orchilla moss found on them and exported to
Europe. Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest,
little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group;
still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the
vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period
greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.

The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so distinctly
oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importance to this
archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in the "Beagle." The
Galapagos archipelago possesses a rare advantage from its isolated
situation, and from the fact that its history has never been interfered
with by any aborigines of the human race. Of the seven species of giant
tortoises known to science (although at the discovery of the islands
there were probably fifteen) all are indigenous, and each is confined to
its own islet. There also occurs a peculiar genus of lizards with two
species, the one marine, the other terrestrial. The majority of the
birds are of endemic species peculiar to different islets, while more
than half belong to peculiar genera. More than half of the flora is
unknown elsewhere.

  Since 1860 several visits have been paid to the group by scientific
  investigators--by Dr Habel in 1868; Messrs Baur and Adams, and the
  naturalists of the "Albatross," between 1888 and 1891; and in
  1897-1898 by Mr Charles Harris, whose journey was specially undertaken
  at the instance of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. Very complete
  collections have therefore, as a result of these expeditions, been
  brought together; but their examination does not materially change the
  facts upon which the conclusions arrived at by Darwin, from the
  evidence of the birds and plants, were based; though he "no doubt
  would have paid more attention to [the evidence afforded by
  Land-tortoises], if he had been in possession of facts with which we
  are acquainted now" (Günther). His conclusions were that the group
  "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its
  members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of
  the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from
  America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in
  their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and
  ways from their ancestors. Equally indecisive is the further
  exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists
  that the endemic species of the different islands have resulted from
  subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large
  island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species
  became differentiated during their isolation. The presence of these
  giant reptiles on the group is the chief fact on which a former land
  connexion with the continent of America may be sustained. "Nearly all
  authorities agree that it is not probable that they have crossed the
  wide sea between the Galapagos Islands and the American continent,
  although, while they are helpless, and quite unable to swim, they can
  float on the water. If their ancestors had been carried out to sea
  once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as the Galapagos
  Islands" (Wallace), "they must have been numerous on the continent"
  (Rothschild and Hartert). No remains, and of course no living species,
  of these tortoises are known to exist or have existed on the mainland.
  Rothschild and Hartert think "it is more natural to assume the
  disappearance of a great stock of animals, the remains of which have
  survived, ... than to assume the disappearance in comparatively recent
  times (i.e. in the Eocene period or later) of enormous land masses."
  Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great
  subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and
  the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the
  Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of
  giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.

  AUTHORITIES.--Darwin, _Voyage of the "Beagle"_; O. Salvin, "On the
  Avifauna of the Galapagos Archipelago," _Trans. Zool. Soc._ part ix.
  (1876); Sclater and Salvin, "Characters of New Species collected by Dr
  Habel in the Galapagos Islands," _Proc. Zool. Soc. London_, 1870, pp.
  322-327; A.R. Wallace, _Geographical Distribution of Animals_ (New
  York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, _Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln_
  (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in _Geographical Journal_, vi. 560
  (1895); W.L. and P.L. Sclater, _The Geography of Mammals_ (London,
  1899); Ridgway, "Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago," _Proc. U.S. Nat.
  Mus._ vol. xix. pp. 459-670 (1897); Baur, "New Observations on the
  Origin of the Galapagos Islands," _Amer. Nat._ (1897), pp. 661-680,
  864-896; A. Agassiz, "The Galapagos Islands," _Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool._
  vol. xxiii. pp. 56-75; A. Günther, _Proc. Linn. Soc._ (London
  (President's Address), October 1898), pp. 14-29 (with bibliography
  from 1875 to 1898 on gigantic land-tortoises); Rothschild and Hartert,
  "Review of the Ornithology of the Galapagos Islands," _Novitates
  zoologicae_, vi. pp. 85-205; B.L. Robinson, "Flora of the Galapagos
  Islands," _Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sciences_, xxxviii. (1902).



GALASHIELS, a municipal and police burgh of Selkirkshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1891) 17,367; (1901) 13,615. It is situated on Gala Water, within a
short distance of its junction with the Tweed, 33½ m. S.S.E. of
Edinburgh by the North British railway. The town stretches for more than
2 m. along both banks of the river, the mills and factories occupying
the valley by the stream, the villas and better-class houses the
high-lying ground on either side. The principal structures include the
municipal buildings, corn exchange, library, public hall, and the market
cross. The town is under the control of a provost, bailies and council,
and, along with Hawick and Selkirk, forms the Hawick (or Border) group
of parliamentary burghs. The woollen manufactures, dating from the close
of the 16th century, are the most important in Scotland, though now
mainly confined to the weaving of tweeds. Other leading industries are
hosiery, tanning (with the largest yards in Scotland), dyeing, iron and
brass founding, engineering and boot-making. Originally a village built
for the accommodation of pilgrims to Melrose Abbey (4 m. E. by S.), it
became, early in the 15th century, an occasional residence of the
Douglases, who were then keepers of Ettrick Forest, and whose peel-tower
was not demolished till 1814. Galashiels was created into a burgh of
barony in 1599. The Catrail or Picts' Work begins near the town and
passes immediately to the west. Clovenfords, 3½ m. W., is noted for the
Tweed vineries, which are heated by 5 m. of water-pipes, and supply the
London market throughout the winter. Two miles farther W. by S. is
Ashestiel, where Sir Walter Scott resided from 1804 to 1812, where he
wrote his most famous poems and began _Waverley_, and which he left for
Abbotsford.



GALATIA. I. In the strict sense (Galatia Proper, Roman _Gallograecia_)
this is the name applied by Greek-speaking peoples to a large inland
district of Asia Minor since its occupation by Gaulish tribes in the 3rd
century B.C. Bounded on the N. by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, W. by
Phrygia, S. by Lycaonia and Cappadocia, E. by Pontus, it included the
greater part of the modern vilayet of Angora, stretching from Pessinus
eastwards to Tavium and from the Paphlagonian hills N. of Ancyra
southwards to the N. end of the salt lake Tatta (but probably including
the plains W. of the lake during the greater part of its history),--a
rough oblong about 200 m. long and 100 (to 130) broad.

Galatia is part of the great central plateau of Asia Minor, here ranging
from 2000 to 3000 ft. above sea-level, and falls geographically into two
parts separated by the Halys (Kizil Irmak),--a small eastern district
lying chiefly in the basin of the Delije Irmak, the principal affluent
of the Halys, and a large western region drained almost entirely by the
Sangarius (Sakaria) and its tributaries. On the N. side Galatia consists
of a series of plains with fairly fertile soil, lying between bare
hills. But the greater part is a dreary stretch of barren, undulating
uplands, intersected by tiny streams and passing gradually into the vast
level waste of treeless (anc. _Axylon_) plain that runs S. to Lycaonia;
these uplands are little cultivated and only afford extensive pasturage
for large flocks of sheep and goats. Cities are few and far apart, and
the climate is one of extremes of heat and cold. The general condition
and aspect of the country was much the same in ancient as in modern
times.

The Gaulish invaders appeared in Asia Minor in 278-277 B.C. They
numbered 20,000, of which only one-half were fighting men, the rest
being doubtless women and children; and not long after their arrival we
find them divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistobogii and
Tectosages, each of which claimed a separate sphere of operations. They
had split off from the army which invaded Greece under Brennus in 279
B.C., and, marching into Thrace under Leonnorius and Lutarius, crossed
over to Asia at the invitation of Nicomedes I. of Bithynia, who required
help in his struggle against his brother. For about 46 years they were
the scourge of the western half of Asia Minor, ravaging the country, as
allies of one or other of the warring princes, without any serious
check, until Attalus I., king of Pergamum (241-197), inflicted several
severe defeats upon them, and about 232 B.C. forced them to settle
permanently in the region to which they gave their name. Probably they
already occupied parts of Galatia, but definite limits were now fixed
and their right to the district was formally recognized. The tribes were
settled where they afterwards remained, the Tectosages round Ancyra, the
Tolistobogii round Pessinus, and the Trocmi round Tavium. The
constitution of the Galatian state is described by Strabo: conformably
to Gaulish custom, each tribe was divided into four cantons (Gr. [Greek:
tetrarchiai]), each governed by a chief ("tetrarch") of its own with a
judge under him, whose powers were unlimited except in cases of murder,
which were tried before a council of 300 drawn from the twelve cantons
and meeting at a holy place called Drynemeton. But the power of the
Gauls was not yet broken. They proved a formidable foe to the Romans in
their wars with Antiochus, and after Attalus' death their raids into W.
Asia Minor forced Rome in 189 B.C. to send an expedition against them
under Cn. Manlius Vulso, who taught them a severe lesson. Henceforward
their military power declined and they fell at times under Pontic
ascendancy, from which they were finally freed by the Mithradatic wars,
in which they heartily supported Rome. In the settlement of 64 B.C.
Galatia became a client-state of the empire, the old constitution
disappeared, and three chiefs (wrongly styled "tetrarchs") were
appointed, one for each tribe. But this arrangement soon gave way before
the ambition of one of these tetrarchs, Deiotarus, the contemporary of
Cicero and Caesar, who made himself master of the other two tetrarchies
and was finally recognized by the Romans as king of Galatia. On the
death of the third king Amyntas in 25 B.C., Galatia was incorporated by
Augustus in the Roman empire, and few of the provinces were more
enthusiastically loyal.

The population of Galatia was not entirely Gallic. Before the arrival of
the Gauls, western Galatia up to the Halys was inhabited by Phrygians,
and eastern Galatia by Cappadocians and other native races. This native
population remained, and constituted the majority of the inhabitants of
the rural parts and almost the sole inhabitants of the towns. They were
left in possession of two-thirds of the land (cf. Caesar, _B.G._ i. 31)
on condition of paying part of the produce to their new lords, who took
the other third, and agriculture and commerce with all the arts and
crafts of peaceful life remained entirely in their hands. They were
henceforth ranked as "Galatians" by the outside world equally with their
overlords, and it was from their numbers that the "Galatian" slaves who
figure in the markets of the ancient world were drawn. The conquerors,
who were few in number, formed a small military aristocracy, living not
in the towns, but in fortified villages, where the chiefs in their
castles kept up a barbaric state, surrounded by their tribesmen. With
the decline of their warlike vigour they began gradually to mix with the
natives and to adopt at least their religion: the amalgamation was
accelerated under Roman influence and ultimately became as complete as
that of the Normans with the Saxons in England, but they gave to the
mixed race a distinctive tone and spirit, and long retained their
national characteristics and social customs, as well as their language
(which continued in use, side by side with Greek, in the 4th century
after Christ). In the 1st century, when St Paul made his missionary
journeys, even the towns Ancyra, Pessinus and Tavium (where Gauls were
few) were not Hellenized, though Greek, the language of government and
trade, was spoken there; while the rural population was unaffected by
Greek civilization. Hellenic ways and modes of thought begin to appear
in the towns only in the later 2nd century. In the rustic parts a
knowledge of Greek begins to spread in the 3rd century; but only in the
4th and 5th centuries, after the transference of the centre of
government first to Nicomedia and then to Constantinople placed Galatia
on the highway of imperial communication, was Hellenism in its Christian
form gradually diffused over the country. (See also ANCYRA; PESSINUS;
GORDIUM.)

II. The Roman province of Galatia, constituted 25 B.C., included the
greater part of the country ruled by Amyntas, viz. Galatia Proper, part
of Phrygia towards Pisidia (Apollonia, Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia,
part of Lycaonia (including Lystra and Derbe) and Isauria. For nearly
100 years it was the frontier province, and the changes in its
boundaries are an epitome of the stages of Roman advance to the
Euphrates, one client-state after another being annexed: Paphlagonia in
6-5 B.C.; Sebastopolis, 3-2 B.C.; Amasia, A.D. 1-2; Comana, A.D.
34-35,--together forming Pontus Galaticus,--the Pontic kingdom of
Polemon, A.D. 64, under the name Pontus Polemoniacus. In A.D. 70
Cappadocia (a procuratorial province since A.D. 17) with Armenia Minor
became the centre of the forward movement and Galatia lost its
importance, being merged with Cappadocia in a vast double governorship
until A.D. 114 (probably), when Trajan separated the two parts, making
Galatia an inferior province of diminished size, while Cappadocia with
Armenia Minor and Pontus became a great consular military province,
charged with the defence of the frontier. Under Diocletian's
reorganization Galatia was divided, about 295, into two parts and the
name retained for the northern (now nearly identical with the Galatia of
Deiotarus); and about 390 this province, amplified by the addition of a
few towns in the west, was divided into Galatia Prima and Secunda or
Salutaris, the division indicating the renewed importance of Galatia in
the Byzantine empire. After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids,
Galatia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century and passed
to the Ottoman Turks in the middle of the 14th.

The question whether the "Churches of Galatia," to which St Paul
addressed his Epistle, were situated in the northern or southern part of
the province has been much discussed, and in England Prof. Sir W.M.
Ramsay has been the principal advocate of the adoption of the
South-Galatian theory, which maintains that they were the churches
planted in Derbe, Lystra, Iconium and Antioch (see GALATIANS). In the
present writer's opinion this is supported by the study of the
historical and geographical facts.[1]

  AUTHORITIES.--Van Gelder, _De Gallis in Graecia et Asia_ (1888);
  Staehelin, _Gesch. d. kleinasiat. Galater_ (1897); Perrot, _De Galatia
  prov. Rom._ (1867); Sir W.M. Ramsay, _Histor. Geogr._ (1890), _St
  Paul_ (1898), and Introd. to _Histor. Commentary on Galatians_ (1899).
  For antiquities generally, Perrot, _Explor. archéol. de la Galatie_
  (1862); K. Humann and O. Puchstein, _Reisen in Kleinasien_ (1890);
  Koerte, _Athen. Mitteilungen_ (1897); Anderson and Crowfoot, _Journ.
  of Hellenic Studies_ (1899); and Anderson, _Map of Asia Minor_
  (London, Murray, 1903).     (J. G. C. A.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In the unsettled state of this controversy, weight naturally
    attaches to the opinion of experts on either side; and the above
    statement, while opposed to the view taken in the following article
    on the epistle, must be taken on its merits.--Ed. _E.B._



GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, one of the books of the New Testament. This
early Christian scripture is one of the books militant in the world's
literature. Its usefulness to Luther in his propaganda was no accident
in its history; it originated in a controversy, and the varying views of
the momentous struggle depicted in Gal. ii. and Acts xv. have naturally
determined, from time to time, the conception of the epistle's aim and
date. Details of the long critical discussion of this problem cannot be
given here. (See PAUL.) It must suffice to say that to the present
writer the identification of Gal. ii. 1-10 with Acts xi. 28 f. and not
with Acts xv. appears quite untenable, while a fair exegesis of Acts
xvi. 1-6 implies a distinction between such towns as Lystra, Derbe and
Iconium on the one hand and the Galatian [Greek: chôra] with Phrygia
upon the other.[1] A further visit to the latter country is mentioned,
upon this view, in Acts xviii. 23. The Christians to whom the epistle
was addressed were thus inhabitants, for the most part (iv. 8) of pagan
birth, belonging to the northern section of the province, perhaps mainly
in its south-western district adjoining Bithynia and the province of
Asia. The scanty allusions to this mission in Acts cannot be taken as
any objection to the theory. Nor is there any valid geographical
difficulty. The country was quite accessible from Antioch. Least of all
does the historical evidence at our disposal justify the inference that
the civilization of north Galatia, during the 1st century A.D., was
Romano-Gallic rather than Hellenic; for, as the coins and inscriptions
indicate, the Anatolian culture which predominated throughout the
province did not exclude the infusion either of Greek religious
conceptions or of the Greek language. The degree of elementary Greek
culture needful for the understanding of Galatians cannot be shown to
have been foreign to the inhabitants of north Galatia. So far as any
trustworthy evidence is available, such Hellenic notions as are
presupposed in this epistle might well have been intelligible to the
Galatians of the northern provinces. Still less does the acquaintance
with Roman jurisprudence in iii. 15-iv. 2 imply, as Halmel contends
(_Über röm. Recht im Galaterbrief_, 1895), not merely that Paul must
have acquired such knowledge in Italy but that he wrote the epistle
there. A popular acquaintance with the outstanding features of Roman law
was widely diffused by this time in Asia Minor.

The epistle can hardly have been written therefore until after the
period described in Acts xviii. 22, but the _terminus ad quem_ is more
difficult to fix.[2] The composition may be placed (cf. the present
writer's _Historical New Testament_, pp. 124 f. for details) either
during the earlier part of Paul's residence at Ephesus (Acts xix. 1, 10,
so most editors and scholars), or on his way from Ephesus to Corinth, or
at Corinth itself (so Lightfoot, Bleek, Salmon).

The epistle was not written until Paul had visited Thessalonica, but
the Galatian churches owed their origin to a mission of Paul undertaken
some time before he crossed from Asia to Europe. When he composed this
letter, he had visited the churches twice. On the former of these visits
(iv. 13 [Greek: to proteron]), though broken down by illness (2 Cor.
xii. 7-9?) he had been enthusiastically welcomed, and the immediate
result of his mission was an outburst of religious fervour (iii. 1-5,
iv. 14 f.). The local Christians made a most promising start (v. 7). But
they failed to maintain their ardour. On his second visit (iv. 13, i. 7,
v. 21) the apostle found in many of them a disheartening slackness, due
to discord and incipient legalism. His plain-speaking gave offence in
some quarters (iv. 16), though it was not wholly ineffective. Otherwise,
this second visit is left in the shadow.[3] So far as it was accompanied
by warnings, these were evidently general rather than elicited by any
definite and imminent peril to the churches. Not long afterwards,
however, some judaizing opponents of the apostle (note the contemptuous
anonymity of the [Greek: tines] in i. 7, as in Col. ii. 4 f.), headed by
one prominent and influential individual (v. 10), made their appearance
among the Galatians, promulgating a "gospel" which meant fidelity to,
not freedom from, the Law (i. 6-10). Arguing from the Old Testament,
they represented Paul's gospel as an imperfect creed which required to
be supplemented by legal exactitude,[4] including ritual observance (iv.
10) and even circumcision,[5] while at the same time they sought to
undermine his authority[6] by pointing out that it was derived from the
apostles at Jerusalem and therefore that his teaching must be open to
the checks and tests of that orthodox primitive standard which they
themselves claimed to embody. The sole valid charter to Messianic
privileges was observance of the Mosaic law, which remained obligatory
upon pagan converts (iii. 6-9, 16).

When the news of this relapse reached Paul, matters had evidently not
yet gone too far. Only a few had been circumcised. It was not too late
to arrest the Galatians on their downward plane, and the apostle, unable
or unwilling to re-visit them, despatched this epistle. How or when the
information came to him, we do not know. But the gravity of the
situation renders it unlikely that he would delay for any length of time
in writing to counteract the intrigues of his opponents; to judge from
allusions like those in i. 6 ([Greek: tacheôs] and [Greek:
metatithesthe]--the lapse still in progress), we may conclude that the
interval between the reception of the news and the composition of the
letter must have been comparatively brief.

After a short introduction[7] (i. 1-5), instead of giving his usual word
of commendation, he plunges into a personal and historical
vindication[8] of his apostolic independence, which, developed
negatively and positively, forms the first of the three main sections
in the epistle (i. 6-ii. 21). In the closing passage he drifts over from
an account of this interview with Peter into a sort of monologue upon
the incompatibility of the Mosaic law with the Christian gospel (ii.
15-21),[9] and this starts him afresh upon a trenchant expostulation and
appeal (iii. 1-v. 12) regarding the alternatives of law and spirit.
Faith dominates this section; faith in its historical career and as the
vantage-ground of Christianity. The much-vaunted law is shown to be
merely a provisional episode[10] culminating in the gospel (iii. 7-28)
as a message of filial confidence and freedom (iii. 29-iv. 11). The
genuine "sons of Abraham" are not legalistic Jewish Christians but those
who simply possess faith in Jesus Christ. A passionate outburst then
follows (iv. 12 f.), and, harping still on Abraham, the apostle essays,
with fresh rabbinic dialectic, to establish Christianity over legalism
as the free and final religion for men, applying this to the moral
situation of the Galatians themselves (v. 1-12). This conception of
freedom then leads him to define the moral responsibilities of the faith
(v. 13-vi. 10), in order to prevent misconception and to enforce the
claims of the gospel upon the individual and social life of the
Galatians. The epilogue (vi. 11-21) reiterates, in a handful of abrupt,
emphatic sentences, the main points of the epistle.

The allusion in vi. 11 [Greek: (idete pêlikois hymin grammasin egrapsa
tê emê cheiri)] is to the large bold size[11] of the letters in Paul's
handwriting, but the object and scope of the reference are matters of
dispute. It is "a sensational heading" (Findlay), but it may either
refer[12] to the whole epistle (so Augustine, Chrysostom, &c., followed
by Zahn) or, as most hold (with Jerome) to the postscript (vi. 11-18).
Paul commonly dictated his letters. His use of the autograph here may
have been to prevent any suspicion of a forgery or to mark the personal
emphasis of his message. In any case it is assumed that the Galatians
knew his handwriting. It is unlikely that he inserted this postscript
from a feeling of ironical playfulness, to make the Galatians realize
that, after the sternness of the early chapters, he was now treating
them like children, "playfully hinting that surely the large letters
will touch their hearts" (so Deissmann, _Bible-Studies_ (1901), 346 f.).

The earliest allusion to the epistle[13] is the notice of its inclusion
in Marcion's canon, but almost verbal echoes of iii. 10-13 are to be
heard in Justin Martyr's _Dial._ xciv.-xcv.; it was certainly known to
Polycarp, and as the 2nd century advances the evidence of its popularity
multiplies on all sides, from Ptolemaeus and the Ophites to Irenaeus and
the Muratorian canon (cf. Gregory's _Canon and Text of N.T._, 1907, pp.
201-203). It is no longer necessary for serious criticism to refute the
objections to its authenticity raised during the 19th century in certain
quarters;[14] as Macaulay said of the authenticity of Caesar's
commentaries, "to doubt on that subject is the mere rage of scepticism."
Even the problems of its integrity are quite secondary. Marcion (cf.
Tert. _Adv. Marc._ 2-4) removed what he judged to be some
interpolations, but van Manen's attempt to prove that Marcion's text is
more original than the canonical (_Theolog. Tijdschrift_, 1887, 400 f.
451 f.) has won no support (cf. C. Clemen's refutation in _Die
Einheitlichkeit der paulin_. _Briefe_, 1894, pp. 100 f. and Zahn's
_Geschichte d. N. T. lichen Kanons_, ii. 409 f.), and little or no
weight attaches to the attempts made (e.g. by J.A. Cramer) to
disentangle a Pauline nucleus from later accretions. Even D. Völter, who
applies this method to the other Pauline epistles, admits that
Galatians, whether authentic or not, is substantially a literary unity
(_Paulus und seine Briefe_, 1905, pp. 229-285). The frequent roughnesses
of the traditional text suggest, however, that here and there marginal
glosses may have crept in. Thus iv. 25a ([Greek: to gar Sina oros estin
en tê Arabia]) probably represents the explanatory and prosaic gloss of
a later editor, as many scholars have seen from Bentley (_Opuscula
philologica_, 1781, pp. 533 f.) to H.A. Schott, J.A. Cramer, J.M.S.
Baljon and C. Holsten. The general style of the epistle is vigorous and
unpremeditated, "one continuous rush, a veritable torrent of genuine and
inimitable Paulinism, like a mountain stream in full flood, such as may
often have been seen by his Galatians" (J. Macgregor). But there is a
certain rhythmical balance, especially in the first chapter (cf. J.
Weiss, _Beiträge zur paulin. Rhetorik_, 1897, 8 f.); here as elsewhere
the rush and flow of feeling carry with them some care for rhetorical
form, in the shape of antitheses, such as a pupil of the schools might
more or less unconsciously retain.[15] All through, the letter shows the
breaks and pauses of a mind in direct contact with some personal crisis.
Hurried, unconnected sentences, rather than sustained argument, are its
most characteristic features.[16] The trenchant remonstrances and fiery
outbursts make it indeed "read like a dithyramb from beginning to end."

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Of more modern editions in English, the most competent
  are those of C.J. Ellicott (4th ed., 1867, strong in linguistic and
  grammatical material), Prof. Eadie (Edinburgh, 1869), J.B. Lightfoot
  (11th ed., 1892), Dean Alford (3rd ed., 1862) and F. Rendall
  (_Expositor's Greek Testament_, 1903) on the Greek text; Dr Sanday (in
  Ellicott's _Commentary_, 1879), Dr Jas. Macgregor (Edinburgh, 1879),
  B. Jowett (3rd ed., 1894), Huxtable (_Pulpit Comment._, 1885), Dr Agar
  Beet (London, 1885, &c.), Dr W.F. Adeney (_Century Bible_), Dr E.H.
  Perowne (_Cambridge Bible_, 1890) and Dr James Drummond (_Internat.
  Handbooks to N.T._, 1899) also comment on the English text. The
  editions of Lightfoot and Jowett are especially valuable for their
  subsidiary essays, and Sir W.M. Ramsay's _Historical Commentary on
  Galatians_ (1899) contains archaeological and historical material
  which is often illuminating. The French editions are few and minor,
  those by A. Sardinoux (Valence, 1837) and E. Reuss (1878) being
  adequate, however. In Germany the two most up-to-date editions are by
  F. Sieffert (in Meyer's _Comment._, 1899) and Th. Zahn (2nd ed.,
  1907); these supersede most of the earlier works, but H.A. Schott
  (1834), A. Wieseler (Göttingen, 1859), G.B. Winer (4th ed., 1859),
  J.C.K. von Hofmann (2nd ed., 1872), Philippi (1884), R.A. Lipsius (2nd
  ed., _Hand.-Commentar_, 1892), and Zöckler (2nd ed., 1894) may still
  be consulted with advantage, while Hilgenfeld's commentary (1852)
  discusses acutely the historical problems of the epistle from the
  standpoint of Baur's criticism. The works of A. Schlatter (2nd ed.,
  1894) and W. Bousset (_in Die Schriften des N.T._, 2nd ed., 1907) are
  more popular in character. F. Windischmann (Mayence, 1843), F.X.
  Reithmayr (1865), A. Schäfer (Münster, 1890) and F. Cornely (1892,
  also in _Cursus scripturae sacrae_, 1907) are the most satisfactory
  modern editors, from the Roman Catholic church, but it should not be
  forgotten that the 16th century produced the _Literalis expositio_ of
  Cajetan (Rome, 1529) and the similar work of Pierre Barahona
  (Salamanca, 1590), no less than the epoch-making edition of Luther
  (Latin, 1519, &c.; German, 1525 f.; English, 1575 f.). After Calvin
  and Grotius, H.E.G. Paulus (_Des Apostel P. Lehrbriefe an die Gal. u.
  Römer Christen_, 1831) was perhaps the most independent interpreter.
  For the patristic editions, see the introductory sections in Zahn and
  Lightfoot. The religious thought of the epistle is admirably
  expounded from different standpoints by C. Holsten (_Das Evangelium
  Paulus_, Teil I., i., 1880), A.B. Bruce (_St Paul's Conception of
  Christianity_, 1894, pp. 49-70) and Prof. G.G. Findlay (_Expositor's
  Bible_). On the historical aspects, Zimmer (_Galat. und
  Apostelgeschichte_, 1882) and M. Thomas (_Mélanges d'histoire et de
  litt. religieuse_, Paris, 1899, pp. 1-195) are excellent; E.H.
  Askwith's essay (_Epistle to the Galatians, its Destination and Date_,
  1899) advocates ingeniously the south Galatian theory, and W.S. Wood
  (_Studies in St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians_, 1887) criticizes
  Lightfoot. General studies of the epistle will be found in all
  biographies of Paul and histories of the apostolic age, as well as in
  works like Sabatier's _The Apostle Paul_ (pp. 187 f.), B.W. Bacon's
  _Story of St Paul_ (pp. 116 f.), Dr R.D. Shaw's _The Pauline Epistles_
  (2nd ed., pp. 60 f.), R. Mariano, _Il Cristianesimo nei primi secoli_
  (1902), i. pp. 111 f., and Volkmar's _Paulus vom Damaskus bis zum
  Galaterbrief_ (1887), to which may be added a series of papers by
  Haupt in _Deutsche Evang.-Blätter_ (1904), 1-16, 89-108, 161-183,
  238-259, and an earlier set by Hilgenfeld in the _Zeitschrift für
  wiss. Theologie_ ("Zur Vorgeschichte des Gal." 1860, pp. 206 f., 1866,
  pp. 301 f., 1884, pp. 303 f.). Other monographs and essays have been
  noted in the course of this article. See further under PAUL.
       (J. Mt.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The historical and geographical facts concerning Galatia, which
    lead other writers to support the south Galatian theory, are stated
    in the preceding article on Galatia; and the question is still a
    matter of controversy, the division of opinion being to some extent
    dependent on whether it is approached from the point of view of the
    archaeologist or the Biblical critic. The ablest re-statements of the
    north Galatian theory, in the light of recent pleas for south Galatia
    as the destination of this epistle, may be found by the English
    reader in P.W. Schmiedel's exhaustive article in _Encycl. Biblica_
    (1592-1616) and Prof. G.H. Gilbert's _Student's Life of Paul_ (1902),
    pp. 260-272. Schmiedel's arguments are mainly directed against Sir
    W.M. Ramsay, but a recent Roman Catholic scholar, Dr A. Steinmann,
    takes a wider survey in a pamphlet on the north Galatian side of the
    controversy (_Die Abfassungszeit des Galaterbriefes_, Münster, i. W.,
    1906), carrying forward the points already urged by Sieffert and
    Zöckler amongst others, and especially refuting his fellow-churchman,
    Prof. Valentine Weber.

  [2] The tendency among adherents of the south Galatian theory is to
    put the epistle as early as possible, making it contemporaneous with,
    if not prior to, 1 Thessalonians. So Douglass Round in _The Date of
    St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians_ (1906).

  [3] It is not quite clear whether traces of the Judaistic agitation
    were already found by Paul on this visit (so especially Holsten,
    Lipsius, Sieffert, Pfleiderer, Weiss and Weizsäcker) or whether they
    are to be dated subsequent to his departure (so Philippi, Renan and
    Hofmann, among others). The tone of surprise which marks the opening
    of the epistle tells in favour of the latter theory. Paul seems to
    have been taken aback by the news of the Galatians' defection.

  [4] Apparently they were clever enough to keep the Galatians in
    ignorance that the entire law would require to be obeyed (v. 3).

  [5] The critical dubiety about [Greek: oude] in ii. 5 (cf. Zahn's
    excursus and Prof. Lake in _Expositor_, March 1906, p. 236 f.) throws
    a slight doubt on the interpretation of ii. 3, but it is clear that
    the agitators had quoted Paul's practice as an authoritative sanction
    of the rite.

  [6] This depreciation is voiced in their catch-word [Greek: oi
    dokountes] ("those of repute," ii. 6), while other echoes of their
    talk can be overheard in such phrases as "we are Abraham's seed"
    (iii. 16), "sinners of Gentiles" (ii. 15) and "Jerusalem which is our
    mother" (iv. 26), as well as in their charges against Paul of
    "seeking to please men" (i. 10) and "preaching circumcision" (v. 11).

  [7] Not only is the address "to the churches of Galatia" unusually
    bare, but Paul associates no one with himself, either because he was
    on a journey or because, as the attacked party, he desired to
    concentrate attention upon his personal commission. Yet the [Greek:
    hêmeis] of i. 8 indicates colleagues like Silas and Timothy.

  [8] Cf. Hausrath's _History of the N.T. Times_ (iii. pp. 181-199),
    with the fine remarks, on vi. 17, that "Paul stands before us like an
    ancient general who bares his breast before his mutinous legions, and
    shows them the scars of the wounds that proclaim him not unworthy to
    be called Imperator."

  [9] Cf. T.H. Green's _Works_, iii. 186 f. Verses 15-17 are the
    indirect abstract of the speech's argument, but in verses 18-21 the
    apostle, carried away by the thought and barrier of the moment as he
    dictates to his amanuensis, forgets the original situation.

  [10] Thus Paul reverses the ordinary rabbinic doctrine which taught
    (cf. Kiddushim, 30, b) that the law was given as the divine remedy
    for the evil _yezer_ of man. So far from being a remedy, he argues,
    it is an aggravation.

  [11] According to Plutarch, Cato the elder wrote histories for the
    use of his son, [Greek: idia cheiri kai megalois grammasin] (cf.
    Field's _Notes on Translation of the New Testament_, p. 191). If the
    point of Gal. vi. 11 lies in the size of the letters, Paul cannot
    have contemplated copies of the epistle being made. He must have
    assumed that the autograph would reach all the local churches (cf. 2
    Thess. iii. 17, with E.A. Abbott, _Johannine Grammar_, pp. 530-532).

  [12] For [Greek: egrapsa], the epistolary aorist, at the close of a
    letter, cf. Xen. _Anab._ i. 9. 25, Thuc. i. 129. 3, Ezra iv. 14 (LXX)
    and Lucian, _Dial. Meretr._ x.

  [13] Hermann Schulze's attempt to bring out the filiation of the
    later N.T. literature to Galatians (_Die Ursprünglichkeit des
    Galaterbriefes_, Leipzig, 1903) involves repeated exaggerations of
    the literary evidence.

  [14] Cf. especially J. Gloe's _Die jüngste Kritik des Galaterbriefes_
    (Leipzig, 1890) and Baljon's reply to Steck and Loman
    (_Exeg.-kritische verhandeling over den Brief van P. aan de Gal._,
    1889). The English reader may consult Schmiedel's article (already
    referred to) and Dr R.J. Knowling's _The Testimony of St Paul to
    Christ_ (1905), 28 f.

  [15] Compare the minute analysis of the whole epistle in F. Blass,
    _Die Rhythmen der asianischen und römischen Kunstprosa_ (1905), pp.
    43-53, 204-216, where, however, this feature is exaggerated into
    unreality. The comic trimeter in Philipp. iii. 1 ([Greek: emoi men
    ouk oknêron, hymin d' asphales]) may well be, like that in 1 Cor. xv.
    33, a reminiscence of Menander.

  [16] This affects even the vocabulary which has also "einen gewissen
    vulgären Zug" (Nägeli, _Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus_, 1905,
    pp. 78-79).



GALATINA, a town of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, from which
it is 14 m. S. by rail, 233 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 12,917
(town); 14,086 (commune). It is chiefly remarkable for the fine Gothic
church of St Caterina, built in 1390 by Raimondello del Balzo Orsini,
count of Soleto, with a fine portal and rose-window. The interior
contains frescoes by Francesco d' Arezzo (1435). The apse contains the
fine mausoleum of the son of the founder (d. 1454), a canopy supported
by four columns, with his statue beneath it.



GALATZ (_Galatii_), a city of Rumania, capital of the department of
Covurlui; on the left bank of the river Danube, 90 m. W. by N. of its
mouth at Sulina. Pop. (1900) 62,678, including 12,000 Jews. The Danube
is joined by the Sereth 3 m. S.W. of Galatz, and by the Pruth 10 m. E.
Galatz is built on a slight eminence among the marshes which line the
intervening shore and form, beside the western bank of the Pruth, the
shallow mere called Lake Bratych (_Bratesul_), more than 50 sq. m. in
extent. With the disappearance, towards the close of the 19th century,
of most of its older quarters in which the crooked, ill-paved streets
and insanitary houses were liable to be flooded every year, the city
improved rapidly. Embankments and fine quays were constructed along the
Danube; electric tramways were opened in the main streets, which were
lighted by gas or electricity, and pure water was supplied. The higher,
or north-western part of the city, which is the more open and
comfortable, contains many of the chief buildings. These include the
prefecture, consulate, prison, barracks, civil and military hospitals
and the offices of the international commission for the control of the
Danube (q.v.). The bishop of the lower Danube resides at Galatz. There
are many Orthodox Greek, Roman Catholic and other churches; the most
interesting being the cathedral, and St Mary's church, in which is the
tomb of the famous Cossack chief, Mazeppa (1644-1709), said to have been
rifled of its contents by the Russians. Galatz is a naval station, and
the headquarters of the III. army corps, protected by a line of
fortifications which extends for 45 m. E. to Focshani and is known as
the Sereth line. But the main importance of the city is commercial.
Galatz is the chief Moldavian port of entry, approached by three
waterways, the Danube, Sereth and Pruth, down which there is a continual
volume of traffic, except in mid-winter; and by the railways which
intersect all the richest portions of the country. Textiles, machinery,
and coal make up the bulk of imports. Besides a large trade in petroleum
and salt, Galatz ranks first among Rumanian cities in its export of
timber, and second to Braila in its export of grain. It possesses many
saw-mills, paste-mills, flour-mills, roperies, chemical works and
petroleum refineries; manufacturing also metal ware, wire, nails, soap
and candles. Vessels of 2500 tons can discharge at the quays, but
cargoes consigned to Galatz are often transhipped into lighters at
Sulina. The shipping trade is largely in foreign hands, the principal
owners being British.



GALAXY, properly the MILKY WAY, from the Greek name [Greek: ho
galaxias], sc. [Greek: kyklos], from [Greek: gala], milk, cf. the Lat.
_via lactea_ (see STAR). The word is more generally employed in its
figurative or transferred sense, to describe a gathering of brilliant
or distinguished persons or objects.



GALBA, SERVIUS SULPICIUS, Roman general and orator. He served under
Lucius Aemilius Paulus in the third Macedonian War. As praetor in 151
B.C. in farther Spain he made himself infamous by the treacherous murder
of a number of Lusitanians, with their wives and children, after
inducing them to surrender by the promise of grants of land. For this in
149 he was brought to trial, but secured an acquittal by bribery and by
holding up his little children before the people to gain their sympathy.
He was consul in 144, and must have been alive in 138. He was an
eloquent speaker, noted for his violent gesticulations, and, in Cicero's
opinion, was the first of the Roman orators. His speeches, however, were
almost forgotten in Cicero's time.

  Livy xlv. 35; Appian, _Hisp._ 58-60; Cicero, _De orat._ i. 53, iii. 7;
  Brutus 21.



GALBA, SERVIUS SULPICIUS, Roman emperor (June A.D. 68 to January 69),
born near Terracina, on the 24th of December 5 B.C. He came of a noble
family and was a man of great wealth, but unconnected either by birth or
by adoption with the first six Caesars. In his early years he was
regarded as a youth of remarkable abilities, and it is said that both
Augustus and Tiberius prophesied his future eminence (Tacitus, _Annals_,
vi. 20; Suetonius, _Galba_, 4). Praetor in 20, and consul in 33, he
acquired a well-merited reputation in the provinces of Gaul, Germany,
Africa and Spain by his military capability, strictness and
impartiality. On the death of Caligula, he refused the invitation of his
friends to make a bid for empire, and loyally served Claudius. For the
first half of Nero's reign he lived in retirement, till, in 61, the
emperor bestowed on him the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. In the
spring of 68 Galba was informed of Nero's intention to put him to death,
and of the insurrection of Julius Vindex in Gaul. He was at first
inclined to follow the example of Vindex, but the defeat and suicide of
the latter renewed his hesitation. The news that Nymphidius Sabinus, the
praefect of the praetorians, had declared in his favour revived Galba's
spirits. Hitherto, he had only dared to call himself the legate of the
senate and Roman people; after the murder of Nero, he assumed the title
of Caesar, and marched straight for Rome. At first he was welcomed by
the senate and the party of order, but he was never popular with the
soldiers or the people. He incurred the hatred of the praetorians by
scornfully refusing to pay them the reward promised in his name, and
disgusted the mob by his meanness and dislike of pomp and display. His
advanced age had destroyed his energy, and he was entirely in the hands
of favourites. An outbreak amongst the legions of Germany, who demanded
that the senate should choose another emperor, first made him aware of
his own unpopularity and the general discontent. In order to check the
rising storm, he adopted as his coadjutor and successor L. Calpurnius
Piso Frugi Licinianus, a man in every way worthy of the honour. His
choice was wise and patriotic; but the populace regarded it as a sign of
fear, and the praetorians were indignant, because the usual donative was
not forthcoming. M. Salvius Otho, formerly governor of Lusitania, and
one of Galba's earliest supporters, disappointed at not being chosen
instead of Piso, entered into communication with the discontented
praetorians, and was adopted by them as their emperor. Galba, who at
once set out to meet the rebels--he was so feeble that he had to be
carried in a litter--was met by a troop of cavalry and butchered near
the Lacus Curtius. During the later period of his provincial
administration he was indolent and apathetic, but this was due either to
a desire not to attract the notice of Nero or to the growing infirmities
of age. Tacitus rightly says that all would have pronounced him worthy
of empire if he had never been emperor ("omnium consensu capax imperii
nisi imperasset").

  See his life by Plutarch and Suetonius; Tacitus, _Histories_, i. 7-49;
  Dio Cassius lxiii. 23-lxiv. 6; B.W. Henderson, _Civil War and
  Rebellion in the Roman Empire, A.D. 69-70_ (1908); W.A. Spooner, _On
  the Characters of Galba, Otho and Vitellius_ in Introd. to his edition
  (1891) of the _Histories_ of Tacitus.



GALBANUM (Heb. _Helbenah_; Gr. [Greek: chalbanê]), a gum-resin, the
product of _Ferula galbaniflua_, indigenous to Persia, and perhaps also
of other umbelliferous plants. It occurs usually in hard or soft,
irregular, more or less translucent and shining lumps, or occasionally
in separate tears, of a light-brown, yellowish or greenish-yellow
colour, and has a disagreeable, bitter taste, a peculiar, somewhat musky
odour, and a specific gravity of 1.212. It contains about 8% of terpene;
about 65% of a resin which contains sulphur; about 20% of gum; and a
very small quantity of the colourless crystalline substance
_umbelliferone_, C9H6O3. Galbanum is one of the oldest of drugs. In
Exodus xxx. 34 it is mentioned as a sweet spice, to be used in the
making of a perfume for the tabernacle. Hippocrates employed it in
medicine, and Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ xxiv. 13) ascribes to it extraordinary
curative powers, concluding his account of it with the assertion that
"the very touch of it mixed with oil of spondylium is sufficient to kill
a serpent." The drug is occasionally given in modern medicine, in doses
of from five to fifteen grains. It has the actions common to substances
containing a resin and a volatile oil. Its use in medicine is, however,
obsolescent.



GALCHAS, the name given to the highland tribes of Ferghana, Kohistan and
Wakhan. These Aryans of the Pamir and Hindu Kush, kinsmen of the Tajiks,
are identified with the _Calcienses populi_ of the lay Jesuit Benedict
Goes, who crossed the Pamir in 1603 and described them as "of light hair
and beard like the Belgians." The word "Galcha," which has been
explained as meaning "the hungry raven who has withdrawn to the
mountains," in allusion to the retreat of this branch of the Tajik
family to the mountains to escape the Tatar hordes, is probably simply
the Persian _galcha_, "clown" or "rustic," in reference to their uncouth
manners. The Galchas conform physically to what has been called the
"Alpine or Celtic European race," so much so that French anthropologists
have termed them "those belated Savoyards of Kohistan." D'Ujfalvy
describes them as tall, brown or bronzed and even white, with ruddy
cheeks, black, chestnut, sometimes red hair, brown, blue or grey eyes,
never oblique, well-shaped, slightly curved nose, thin lips, oval face
and round head. Thus it seems reasonable to hold that the Galchas
represent the most eastern extension of the Alpine race through Armenia
and the Bakhtiari uplands into central Asia. The Galchas for the most
part profess Sunnite Mahommedanism.

  See Robert Shaw, "On the Galtchah Languages," in _Journ. As. Soc.
  Bengal_, xlv. (1876), and xlvi. (1877); Major J. Biddulph, _Tribes of
  the Hindoo-Koosh_ (Calcutta, 1880); Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, _An
  Account of the Kingdom of Caubul_ (1815); _Bull. de la société
  d'anthropologie de Paris_ (1887); Charles Eugene D'Ujfalvy de
  Mezoe-Koevesd, _Les Aryens_ (1896), and in _Revue d'anthropologie_
  (1879), and _Bull. de la soc. de géogr._ (June 1878); W.Z. Ripley,
  _Races of Europe_ (New York, 1899).



GALE, THEOPHILUS (1628-1678), English nonconformist divine, was born in
1628 at Kingsteignton, in Devonshire, where his father was vicar. In
1647 he was entered at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he took his B.A.
degree in 1649, and M.A. in 1652. In 1650 he was made fellow and tutor
of his college. He remained some years at Oxford, discharging actively
the duties of tutor, and was in 1657 appointed as preacher in Winchester
cathedral. In 1662 he refused to submit to the Act of Uniformity, and
was ejected. He became tutor to the sons of Lord Wharton, whom he
accompanied to the Protestant college of Caen, in Normandy, returning to
England in 1665. The latter portion of his life he passed in London as
assistant to John Rowe, an Independent minister who had charge of an
important church in Holborn; Gale succeeded Rowe in 1677, and died in
the following year. His principal work, _The Court of the Gentiles_,
which appeared in parts in 1669, 1671 and 1676, is a strange storehouse
of miscellaneous philosophical learning. It resembles the _Intellectual
System_ of Ralph Cudworth, though much inferior to that work both in
general construction and in fundamental idea. Gale's endeavour (based on
a hint of Grotius in _De veritate_, i. 16) is to prove that the whole
philosophy of the Gentiles is a distorted or mangled reproduction of
Biblical truths. Just as Cudworth referred the Democritean doctrine of
atoms to Moses as the original author, so Gale tries to show that the
various systems of Greek thought may be traced back to Biblical sources.
Like so many of the learned works of the 17th century, the _Court of
the Gentiles_ is chaotic and unsystematic, while its erudition is
rendered almost valueless by the complete absence of any critical
discrimination.

  His other writings are: _A True Idea of Jansenism_ (1669); _Theophil,
  or a Discourse of the Saint's Amitie with God in Christ_ (1671);
  _Anatomie of Infidelitie_ (1672); _Idea theologiae_ (1673);
  _Philosophia generalis_ (1676).



GALE, THOMAS (?1636-1702), English classical scholar and antiquarian,
was born at Scruton, Yorkshire. He was educated at Westminster school
and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. In 1666 he
was appointed regius professor of Greek at Cambridge, in 1672 high
master of St Paul's school, in 1676 prebendary of St Paul's, in 1677 a
fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1697 dean of York. He died at York
on the 7th (or 8th) of April 1702. He published a collection, _Opuscula
mythologica, ethica, et physica_, and editions of several Greek and
Latin authors, but his fame rests chiefly on his collection of old works
bearing on Early English history, entitled _Historiae Anglicanae
scriptores_ and _Historiae Britannicae, Saxonicae, Anglo-Danicae
scriptores XV_. He was the author of the inscription on the London
Monument in which the Roman Catholics were accused of having originated
the great fire.

  See J.E.B. Mayor, _Cambridge in the Time of Queen Anne_, 448-450.



GALE. 1. (A word of obscure origin; possibly derived from Dan. _gal_,
mad or furious, sometimes applied to wind, in the sense of boisterous) a
wind of considerable power, considerably stronger than a breeze, but not
severe enough to be called a storm. In nautical language it is usually
combined with some qualifying word, as "half a gale," a "stiff gale." In
poetical and figurative language "gale" is often used in a pleasant
sense, as in "favouring gale"; in America, it is used in a slang sense
for boisterous or excited behaviour.

2. The payment of rent, customs or duty at regular intervals; a "hanging
gale" is an arrear of rent left over after each successive "gale" or
rent day. The term survives in the Forest of Dean, for leases granted to
the "free miners" of the forest, granted by the "gaveller" or agent of
the crown, and the term is also applied to the royalty paid to the
crown, and to the area mined. The word is a contracted form of the O.
Eng. _gafol_, which survives in "gavel," in gavelkind (q.v.), and in the
name of the office mentioned above. The root from which these words
derive is that of "give." Through Latinized forms it appears in
_gabelle_ (q.v.).

3. The popular name of a plant, also known as the sweet gale or gaul,
sweet willow, bog or Dutch myrtle. The Old English form of the word is
_gagel_. It is a small, twiggy, resinous fragrant shrub found on bogs
and moors in the British Islands, and widely distributed in the north
temperate zone. It has narrow, short-stalked leaves and inconspicuous,
apetalous, unisexual flowers borne in short spikes. The small drupe-like
fruit is attached to the persistent bracts. The leaves are used as tea
and as a country medicine. John Gerard (_Herball_, p. 1228) describes it
as sweet willow or gaule, and refers to its use in beer or ale. The
genus _Myrica_ is the type of a small, but widely distributed order,
_Myricaceae_, which is placed among the apetalous families of
Dicotyledons, and is perhaps most nearly allied to the willow family.
_Myrica cerifera_ is the candleberry, wax-myrtle or wax-tree (q.v.).



GALEN, CHRISTOPH BERNHARD, FREIHERR VON (1606-1678), prince bishop of
Münster, belonged to a noble Westphalian family, and was born on the
12th of October 1606. Reduced to poverty through the loss of his
paternal inheritance, he took holy orders; but this did not prevent him
from fighting on the side of the emperor Ferdinand III. during the
concluding stages of the Thirty Years' War. In 1650 he succeeded
Ferdinand of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne, as bishop of Münster. After
restoring some degree of peace and prosperity in his principality, Galen
had to contend with a formidable insurrection on the part of the
citizens of Münster; but at length this was crushed, and the bellicose
bishop, who maintained a strong army, became an important personage in
Europe. In 1664 he was chosen one of the directors of the imperial army
raised to fight the Turk; and after the peace which followed the
Christian victory at St Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English
king Charles II. in his war with the Dutch, until the intervention of
Louis XIV. and Frederick William I. of Brandenburg compelled him to make
a disadvantageous peace in 1666. When Galen again attacked Holland six
years later he was in alliance with Louis, but he soon deserted his new
friend, and fought for the emperor Leopold I. against France. Afterwards
in conjunction with Brandenburg and Denmark he attacked Charles XI. of
Sweden, and conquered the duchy of Bremen. He died at Ahaus on the 19th
of September 1678. Galen showed himself anxious to reform the church,
but his chief energies were directed to increasing his power and
prestige.

  See K. Tücking, _Geschichte des Stifts Münster unter C.B. von Galen_
  (Münster, 1865); P. Corstiens, _Bernard van Galen, Vorst-Bisschop van
  Munster_ (Rotterdam, 1872); A. Hüsing, _Fürstbischof C.B. von Galen_
  (Münster, 1887); and C. Brinkmann in the _English Historical Review_,
  vol. xxi. (1906). There is in the British Museum a poem printed in
  1666, entitled _Letter to the bishop of Munster containing a
  Panegyrick of his heroick achievements in heroick verse_.



GALEN (or GALENUS), CLAUDIUS, called Gallien by Chaucer and other
writers of the middle ages, the most celebrated of ancient medical
writers, was born at Pergamus, in Mysia, about A.D. 130. His father
Nicon, from whom he received his early education, is described as
remarkable both for excellence of natural disposition and for mental
culture; his mother, on the other hand, appears to have been a second
Xanthippe. In 146 Galen began the study of medicine, and in about his
twentieth year he left Pergamus for Smyrna, in order to place himself
under the instruction of the anatomist and physician Pelops, and of the
peripatetic philosopher Albinus. He subsequently visited other cities,
and in 158 returned from Alexandria to Pergamus. A few years later he
went for the first time to Rome. There he healed Eudemus, a celebrated
peripatetic philosopher, and other persons of distinction; and ere long,
by his learning and unparalleled success as a physician, earned for
himself the titles of "Paradoxologus," the wonder-speaker, and
"Paradoxopoeus," the wonder-worker, thereby incurring the jealousy and
envy of his fellow-practitioners. Leaving Rome in 168, he repaired to
his native city, whence he was soon sent for to Aquileia, in Venetia, by
the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius. In 170 he returned to
Rome with the latter, who, on departing thence to conduct the war on the
Danube, having with difficulty been persuaded to dispense with his
personal attendance, appointed him medical guardian of his son Commodus.
In Rome Galen remained for some years, greatly extending his reputation
as a physician, and writing some of his most important treatises. It
would appear that he eventually betook himself to Pergamus, after
spending some time at the island of Lemnos, where he learned the method
of preparing a certain popular medicine, the "terra lemnia" or
"sigillata." Whether he ever revisited Rome is uncertain, as also are
the time and place of his death. According to Suidas, he died at the age
of seventy, or in the year 200, in the reign of Septimius Severus. If,
however, we are to trust the testimony of Abul-faraj, his decease took
place in Sicily, when he was in his eightieth year. Galen was one of the
most versatile and accomplished writers of his age. He composed, it is
said, nearly 500 treatises on various subjects, including logic, ethics
and grammar. Of the published works attributed to him, 83 are recognized
as genuine, 19 are of doubtful authenticity, 45 are confessedly
spurious, 19 are fragments, and 15 are notes on the writings of
Hippocrates.

Galen, who in his youth was carefully trained in the Stoic philosophy,
was an unusually prolific writer on logic. Of the numerous commentaries
and original treatises, a catalogue of which is given in his work _De
propriis libris_, one only has come down to us, the treatise on
_Fallacies in dictione_ ([Greek: Peri tôn kata tên lexin sophismatôn]).
Many points of logical theory, however, are discussed in his medical and
scientific writings. His name is perhaps best known in the history of
logic in connexion with the fourth syllogistic figure, the first
distinct statement of which was ascribed to him by Averroes. There is no
evidence from Galen's own works that he did make this addition to the
doctrines of syllogism, and the remarkable passage quoted by Minoides
Minas from a Greek commentator on the _Analytics_, referring the fourth
figure to Galen, clearly shows that the addition did not, as generally
supposed, rest on a new principle, but was merely an amplification or
alteration of the indirect moods of the first figure already noted by
Theophrastus and the earlier Peripatetics.

In 1844 Minas published a work, avowedly from a MS. with the
superscription _Galenus_, entitled [Greek: Galênou eisagôgê dialektikê].
Of this work, which contains no direct intimation of a fourth figure,
and which in general exhibits an astonishing mixture of the Aristotelian
and Stoic logic, Prantl speaks with the bitterest contempt. He shows
demonstratively that it cannot be regarded as a writing of Galen's, and
ascribes it to some one or other of the later Greek logicians. A full
summary of its contents will be found in the 1st vol. of the _Geschichte
der Logik_ (pp. 591-610), and a notice of the logical theories of the
true Galen in the same work, pp. 559-577.

  There have been numerous issues of the whole or parts of Galen's
  works, among the editors or illustrators of which may be mentioned Jo.
  Bapt. Opizo, N. Leonicenus, L. Fuchs, A. Lacuna, Ant. Musa
  Brassavolus, Aug. Gadaldinus, Conrad Gesner, Sylvius, Cornarius,
  Joannes Montanus, Joannes Caius, Thomas Linacre, Theodore Goulston,
  Caspar Hoffman, René Chartier, Haller and Kühn. Of Latin translations
  Choulant mentions one in the 15th and twenty-two in the following
  century. The Greek text was edited at Venice, in 1525, 5 vols. fol.;
  at Basel, in 1538, 5 vols. fol.; at Paris, with Latin version by René
  Chartier, in 1639, and in 1679, 13 vols. fol.; and at Leipzig, in
  1821-1833, by C.G. Kühn, considered to be the best, 20 vols. 8vo. An
  epitome in English of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, by J.R.
  Coxe, was published at Philadelphia in 1846. A new edition of Galen's
  smaller works by J. Marquardt, Iwan Müller and G. Helmreich was
  published in three volumes at Leipzig in 1884-1909.

  Further details as to the life and an account of the anatomical and
  medical knowledge of Galen will be found in the historical articles
  under the headings of ANATOMY and MEDICINE. See also René Chartier's
  Life, in his edition of Galen's works; N.F.J. Eloy, _Dictionnaire
  historique de la médecine_, s.v. "Galien," tom. i. (1778); F. Adams's
  "Commentary" in his _Medical Works of Paulus Aegineta_ (London and
  Aberdeen, 1834); J. Kidd, "A Cursory Analysis of the Works of Galen,
  so far as they relate to Anatomy and Physiology," _Trans. Provincial
  Med. and Surg. Assoc._ vi., 1837, pp. 299-336; C.V. Daremberg,
  _Exposition des connaissances de Galien sur l'anatomie, la physiologie
  et la pathologie du système nerveux_ (Thèse pour le Doctorat en
  Médecine) (Paris, 1841); J.R. Gasquet, "The Practical Medicine of
  Galen and his Time," _The British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical
  Rev._, vol. xi., 1867, pp. 472-488; and Ilberg, "Die Schriften des
  Claudius Galenos," _Rheinisches Museum für Philologie_, 1889, 1892 and
  1896.



GALENA, a city and the county-seat of Jo Daviess county, Illinois,
U.S.A., in the N.W. part of the state, on the Galena (formerly the
Fever) river, near its junction with the Mississippi, about 165 m.
W.N.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1900) 5005, of whom 918 were foreign-born;
(1910) 4835. It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the
Chicago & North-Western and the Illinois Central railways; the Galena
river has been made navigable by government locks at the mouth of the
river, but the river traffic is unimportant. The city is built on rocky
limestone bluffs, which rise rather abruptly on each side of the river,
and a number of the parallel streets, of different levels, are connected
by flights of steps. In Grant Park there is a statue of General U.S.
Grant, who was a resident of Galena at the outbreak of the Civil War. In
the vicinity there are the most important deposits of zinc and lead in
the state, and the city derives its name from the deposits of sulphide
of lead (galena), which were the first worked about here; below the
galena is a zone of zinc carbonate (or smithsonite) ores, which was the
main zone worked between 1860 and 1890; still lower is a zone of blende,
or zinc sulphide, now the principal source of the mineral wealth of the
region. The production of zinc is increasing, but that of lead is
unimportant. The principal manufactures are mining pumps and machinery,
flour, woollen goods, lumber and furniture. Water power is afforded by
the river. Galena was originally a trading post, called by the French
"La Pointe" and by the English "Fever River," the river having been
named after le Fevre, a French trader who settled near its mouth. In
1826 Galena was laid out as a town and received its present name; it was
incorporated in 1835 and was reincorporated in 1882. In 1838 a theatre
was opened, one of whose proprietors was Joseph Jefferson, the father
of the celebrated actor of that name.



GALENA, a city of Cherokee county, Kansas, U.S.A., in the extreme S.E.
part of the state, on Short Creek and near Spring river. Pop. (1890)
2496; (1900) 10,155, of whom 580 were negroes and 251 were foreign-born;
(1905) 6449; (1910) 6096. It is situated at the intersection of the
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis
("Frisco System") railways, in the midst of a lead and zinc region,
extremely valuable deposits of these metals having been discovered in
1877. Smelters and foundries are its principal manufacturing
establishments. Water power in abundance is furnished by the Spring
river. After the discovery of the ore deposits two rival companies
founded Galena and Empire City (pop. in 1905, 982), the former S. of
Short Creek and the latter N. of it. Galena was incorporated in 1877,
and in 1907 Empire City was annexed to it.



GALENA, an important ore of lead, consisting of lead sulphide (PbS). The
mineral was mentioned by Pliny under this name, and it is sometimes now
known as lead-glance (Ger. _Bleiglanz_). It crystallizes in the cubic
system, and well-developed crystals are of common occurrence; the usual
form is the cube or the cubo-octahedron (fig.). An important character,
and one by which the mineral may always be recognized, is the perfect
cubical cleavage, on which the lustre is brilliant and metallic. The
colour of the mineral and of its streak is lead-grey; it is opaque; the
hardness is 2½ and the specific gravity 7.5. Twinned crystals are not
common, but the presence of polysynthetic twinning is sometimes shown by
fine striations running diagonally or obliquely across the cleavage
surfaces. Large masses with a coarse or fine granular structure are of
common occurrence; the fractured surfaces of such masses present a
spangled appearance owing to the numerous bright cleavages.

[Illustration]

The formula PbS corresponds with lead 86.6 and sulphur 13.4%. The
mineral nearly always contains a small amount of silver, and sometimes
antimony, arsenic, copper, gold, selenium, &c. Argentiferous galena is
an important source of silver; this metal is present in amounts rarely
exceeding 1%, and often less than 0.03% (equivalent to 10¾ ounces per
ton). Since argentite (Ag2S) is isomorphous with galena, it is probable
that the silver isomorphously replaces lead, but it is to be noted that
native silver has been detected as an enclosure in galena.

Galena is of wide distribution, and occurs usually in metalliferous
veins traversing crystalline rocks, clay-slates and limestones, and also
as pockets in limestones. It is often associated with blende and
pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and
pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the
deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products. The
mineral has occasionally been observed as a recent formation replacing
organic matter, such as wood; and it is sometimes found in beds of coal.
As small concretionary nodules, it occurs disseminated through sandstone
at Kommern in the Eifel. In the lead-mining districts of Derbyshire and
the north of England the ore occurs as veins and flats in the
Carboniferous Limestone series, whilst in Cornwall the veins traverse
clay-slates. In the Upper Mississippi lead region of Missouri, Illinois,
Iowa and Wisconsin the ore fills large cavities or chambers in
limestone.

Galena is met with at all places where lead is mined; of localities
which have yielded finely crystallized specimens the following may be
selected for mention: Derbyshire, Alston in Cumberland, Laxey in the
Isle of Man (where crystals measuring almost a foot across have been
found), Neudorf in the Harz, Rossie in New York and Joplin in Missouri.
Good crystals have also been obtained as a furnace product.

Coarsely grained galena is used for glazing pottery, and is then known
as "potters' ore" or alquifoux.

The galena group includes several other cubic minerals, such as
argentite (q.v.). Mention may also be made here of clausthalite (lead
selenide, PbSe) and altaite (lead telluride, PbTe), which, with their
lead-grey colour and perfect cubic cleavage, closely resemble galena in
appearance; these species are named after the localities at which they
were originally found, namely, Klausthal in the Harz and the Altai
mountains in Asiatic Russia. Altaite is of interest as being one of the
tellurides found associated with gold.     (L. J. S.)



GALEOPITHECUS, the scientific designation of the Colugo (q.v.) or
Cobego, commonly known as the flying-lemur, and alone representing the
family _Galeopithecidae_. Much uncertainty has prevailed among
naturalists as to the systematic position of this animal, or rather
these animals (for there are two species); and while some have referred
it to the lemurs, others have placed it with the bats, and others again
among the _Insectivora_, as the representative of a special subordinal
group, the _Dermoptera_. Dr H.C. Chapman, who has made a special study
of the creature, writes, however, as follows: "It appears, at least in
the judgment of the author, that _Galeopithecus_ cannot be regarded as
being either a lemur, or insectivore, or bat, but that it stands alone,
the sole representative of an ancient group, _Galeopithecidae_, as
_Hyrax_ does of _Hyracoidea_. While _Galeopithecus_ is but remotely
related to the _Lemuroidea_ and _Insectivora_, it is so closely related
to _Chiroptera_, more particularly in regard to the structure of its
patagium, brain, alimentary canal, genito-urinal apparatus, &c., that
there can be but little doubt that the Chiroptera are the descendants of
Galeopithecus, or, more probably, that both are the descendants of a
Galeopithecus-like ancestor." Without going quite so far as this, it may
be definitely admitted that the colugo is entitled to represent an order
by itself, the characters of which will be as follows: Herbivorous,
climbing, unguiculate mammals, provided with a very extensive
flying-membrane, and having the dental formula i. 2/2, c. 0/1, p. 3/3,
m. 3/3, total 34. The lower incisors are directed forwards and have a
comb-like structure of their crowns, while the outermost of these teeth
and the canines are double-rooted, being in these respects, taken
together, quite unlike those of all other mammals; the cheek-teeth have
numerous sharp cusps; and there is the normal replacement of milk-molars
by premolars. In the skull the orbit is surrounded by bone, and the
tympanic has a bulla and an ossified external meatus. The ulna and
fibula are to some extent inclined backwards; the carpus has a
scapho-lunar; and the feet are five-toed. The hemispheres of the brain
are short and but slightly convoluted; the stomach is simple; there is a
large caecum; the testes are received into inguinal pouches; the uterus
is two-horned; the placenta is discoidal; and there are two pairs of
pectoral teats. A single offspring is produced at a birth.

[Illustration: Feet of Philippine Colugo, or Flying-Lemur
(_Galeopithecus philippinensis_).]

It will be obvious that if other representatives of the _Dermoptera_
were discovered, some of these features might apply only to the family
_Galeopithecidae_.

There are two species, _Galeopithecus volans_, ranging from Burma, Siam
and the Malay Peninsula to Borneo, Sumatra and Java, and _G.
philippinensis_ of the Philippine group. The former, which is nearly 2
ft. in total length, is distinguished by its larger upper incisors,
shorter ears and smaller skull. In both species not only are the long
and slender limbs connected by a broad integumentary expansion
extending outwards from the sides of the neck and body, but there is
also a web between the fingers and toes as far as the base of the claws
(fig.); and the hind-limbs are further connected by a similar expansion
passing outwards along the back of the feet to the base of the claws,
and, inwardly, involving the long tail to the tip, forming a true
interfemoral membrane, as in bats. Besides differing from bats
altogether in the form of the anterior limbs and of the double-rooted
outer incisors and canines, _Galeopithecus_ contrasts strongly with that
order in the presence of a large sacculated caecum, and in the great
length of the colon, which is so remarkably short in _Chiroptera_. From
the lemurs, on the other hand, the form of the brain, the character of
the teeth, the structure of the skull, and the deciduate discoidal
placenta at once separate the group.     (R. L.*)



GALERIUS [GALERIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS], Roman emperor from A.D. 305 to
311, was born near Sardica in Thrace. He originally followed his
father's occupation, that of a herdsman, whence his surname of
_Armentarius_ (Lat. _armentum_, herd). He served with distinction as a
soldier under Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 was designated Caesar
along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's
daughter Valeria, and at the same time being entrusted with the care of
the Illyrian provinces. In 296, at the beginning of the Persian War, he
was removed from the Danube to the Euphrates; his first campaign ended
in a crushing defeat, near Callinicum, but in 297, advancing through the
mountains of Armenia, he gained a decisive victory over Narses (q.v.)
and compelled him to make peace. In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian
and Maximianus, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with
Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to
the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and
Daia (Maximinus), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to
become sole master of the Roman world. This scheme, however, was
defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) on
the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and Maxentius
in Italy. After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307 he elevated his
friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and, moderating his ambition,
devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of
pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility." It was
at the instance of Galerius that the first of the celebrated edicts of
persecution against the Christians was published, on the 24th of
February 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until
the appearance of the general edict of toleration (311), issued in his
own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. He died in May 311
A.D.

  See Zosimus ii. 8-11; Zonaras xii. 31-34; Eutropius ix. 24, x. 1.



GALESBURG, a city and the county-seat of Knox county, Illinois, U.S.A.,
in the N.W. part of the state, 163 m. S.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1890)
15,264; (1900) 18,607; of whom 3602 were foreign-born; (census, 1910)
22,089. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, and the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railways. Knox College (non-sectarian and
coeducational), which was chartered here in 1837 as the "Knox Manual
Labor College" (the present name was adopted in 1857), was opened in
1841, and had in 1907-1908, 31 instructors and 628 students, of whom
more than half were in the Conservatory of Music, a department of the
college, and 79 were in the Academy. Lombard College (coeducational;
Universalist), which was chartered as the "Illinois Liberal Institute"
in 1851, was known as Lombard University (in honour of Benjamin Lombard,
a benefactor) from 1855 to 1899; it includes a College of Liberal Arts,
the Ryder Divinity School (1881), and departments of music and domestic
science, and in 1907-1908 had 18 instructors and 117 students. Here also
are Corpus Christi College (Roman Catholic), St Joseph's Academy (Roman
Catholic) and Brown's Business College (1874). There is a public
library, founded in 1874. The industries consist mainly of the
construction and repairing of steam railway cars (in the shops of the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway) and the manufacture of foundry and
machine-shop products, vitrified brick, agricultural implements and
machinery. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was
$2,217,772, being 52.9% more than in 1900. Galesburg was named in honour
of the Rev. George Washington Gale (1789-1862), a prominent Presbyterian
preacher, who in 1827-1834 had founded the Oneida Manual Labor Institute
at Whitestown, Oneida county, New York. Desiring to establish a college
in the Mississippi Valley to supply "an evangelical and able ministry"
to "spread the Gospel throughout the world," and also wishing to
counteract the influence of pro-slavery men in Illinois, he interested a
number of people in the project, formed a society for colonization, and
in 1836 led the first settlers to Galesburg, the "Mesopotamia in the
West." Knox College was founded to fulfil his educational purpose.
Galesburg was an important "station" of the Underground Railroad, one of
the conditions of membership in the "Presbyterian Church of Galesburg"
(the name of Mr Gale's society) being opposition to slavery; and in 1855
this caused the church to withdraw from the Presbytery. Galesburg was
chartered as a city in 1857. On the 7th of October 1858 one of the
famous Lincoln-Douglas debates was held in the grounds of Knox College.



GALGACUS, or perhaps rather CALGACUS, a Caledonian chief who led the
tribes of North Britain against the invading Roman army under Cn. Julius
Agricola about A.D. 85 and was defeated at the battle of Mons Graupius
(Tac. _Agric._ 29). The name recurs much later, in Adamnan's _Life of
Columba_, in the name of a wood near Londonderry, Daire-Calgaich or
Roboretum Calgachi, "the wood of Calgacus": it may be Celtic and denote
"the man with the sword."



GALIANI, FERDINANDO (1728-1787), Italian economist, was born at Chieti
on the 2nd of December 1728. He was carefully educated by his uncle
Monsignor C. Galiani at Naples and Rome with a view to entering the
Church. Galiani gave early promise of distinction as an economist, and
even more as a wit. At the age of twenty-two, after he had taken orders,
he had produced two works by which his name became widely known far
beyond the bounds of his own Naples. The one, his _Trattato della
moneta_, in which he shows himself a strong supporter of the mercantile
school, deals with many aspects of the question of exchange, but always
with a special reference to the state of confusion then presented by the
whole monetary system of the Neapolitan government. The other, _Raccolta
in Morte del Boia_, established his fame as a humorist, and was highly
popular in Italian literary circles at the end of the 18th century. In
this volume Galiani parodied with exquisite felicity, in a series of
discourses on the death of the public hangman, the styles of the most
pompous and pedantic Neapolitan writers of the day. Galiani's political
knowledge and social qualities now pointed him out to the discriminating
eye of King Charles, afterwards Charles III. of Spain, and his liberal
minister Tanucci, and he was appointed in 1759 secretary to the
Neapolitan embassy at Paris. This post he held for ten years, when he
returned to Naples and was made a councillor of the tribunal of
commerce, and in 1777, minister of the royal domains. His economic
reputation was made by a book written in French and published in Paris,
namely, his _Dialogues sur le commerce des blés_. This work, by its
light and pleasing style, and the vivacious wit with which it abounded,
delighted Voltaire, who spoke of it as a book in the production of which
Plato and Molière might have been combined! The author, says Pecchio,
treated his arid subject as Fontenelle did the vortices of Descartes, or
Algarotti the Newtonian system of the world. The question at issue was
that of the freedom of the corn trade, then much agitated, and, in
particular, the policy of the royal edict of 1764, which permitted the
exportation of grain so long as the price had not arrived at a certain
height. The general principle he maintains is that the best system in
regard to this trade is to have no system--countries differently
circumstanced requiring, according to him, different modes of treatment.
He fell, however, into some of the most serious errors of the
mercantilists--holding, as indeed did also Voltaire and even Verri, that
one country cannot gain without another losing, and in his earlier
treatise going so far as to defend the action of governments in debasing
the currency. Until his death at Naples on the 30th of October 1787,
Galiani kept up with his old Parisian friends a correspondence, which
was published in 1818.

  See _L'Abate Galiani_, by Alberto Marghieri (1878), and his
  correspondence with Tanucci in Viesseux's _L'Archivio storico_
  (Florence, 1878).



GALICIA (Ger. _Galizien_; Pol. _Halicz_), a crownland of Austria,
bounded E. and N. by Russia, S. by Bukovina and Hungary, and W. by
Austrian and Prussian Silesia. It has an area of 30,299 sq. m., and is
the largest Austrian province. It comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia
and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand duchy
of Cracow.

Galicia lies on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, which with their
offshoots cover about a third of the whole area of the country. The
surface gradually sinks down by undulating terraces to the valleys of
the Vistula and Dniester. To the N. and E. of these rivers Galicia forms
a continuation of the great plains of Russia, intersected only by a few
hills, which descend from the plateaus of Poland and Podolia, and which
attain in some places an altitude of 1300 to 1500 ft. The Carpathians,
which, extending in the form of an arc, form the boundary between
Galicia and Hungary, are divided into the West and the East Beskides,
which are separated by the northern ramifications of the massif of the
Tatra. The highest peaks are the Babia Góra (5650 ft.), the Wolowiec
(6773 ft.) and the Cserna Góra (6505 ft.). The principal passes are
those of Zdjar over the Tatra, and of Dukla, Vereczke Körösmezö or
Delatyn in the East Beskides. The river Vistula, which becomes navigable
at Cracow, and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia,
receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with its affluents
the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San and the Bug. The
Dniester, which rises in the Carpathians, within the territory of
Galicia, becomes navigable at Sambor, and receives on the right the
Stryj, the Swica, the Lomnica and the Bystrzyca, and on the left the
Lipa, the Strypa, the Sereth and the Zbrucz, the boundary river towards
Russia. The Pruth, which also rises in the Carpathians, within the
territory of Galicia, traverses its south-eastern corner and receives
the Czeremosz, the boundary river towards Bukovina. There are few lakes
in the country except mountain tarns; but considerable morasses exist
about the Upper Dneister, the Vistula and the San, while the ponds or
dams in the Podolian valleys are estimated to cover an area of over 200
sq. m. The most frequented mineral springs are the alkaline springs at
Szczawnica and Krynica, the sulphur springs at Krzesowice, Szklo and
Lubian, and the iodine springs at Iwonicz.

Exposed to the cold northern and north-eastern winds, and shut out by
the Carpathians from the warm southerly winds, Galicia has the severest
climate in Austria. It has long winters, with an abundant snowfall,
short and wet springs, hot summers and long and steady autumns. The mean
annual temperature at Lemberg is 46.2° F., and at Tarnopol only 43° F.

Of the total area 48.45% is occupied by arable land, 11.16% by meadows,
9.19% by pastures, 1.39% by gardens and 25.76% by forests. The soil is
generally fertile, but agriculture is still backward. The principal
products are barley, oats, rye, wheat, maize and leguminous plants.
Galicia has the largest area under potatoes and legumes in the whole of
Austria, and hemp, flax, tobacco and hops are of considerable
importance. The principal mineral products are salt, coal and petroleum.
Salt is extracted at Wieliczka, Bochnia, Bolechow, Dolina, Kalusz and
Kosow. Coals are found in the Cracow district at Jaworzno, at Siersza
near Trzebinia and at Dabrowa. Some of the richest petroleum fields in
Europe are spread in the region of the Carpathians, and are worked at
Boryslaw and Schodnica near Drohobycz, Bobrka and Potok near Krosno,
Sloboda-Rungurska near Kolomea, &c. Great quantities of ozocerite are
also extracted in the petroliferous region of the Carpathians. Other
mineral products are zinc, extracted at Trzebionka and Wodna in the
Cracow region, amounting to 40% of the total zinc production in Austria,
iron ore, marble and various stones for construction. The sulphur mines
of Swoszowice near Cracow, which had been worked since 1598, were
abandoned in 1884.

The manufacturing industries of Galicia are not highly developed. The
first place is occupied by the distilleries, whose output amounts to
nearly 40% of the total production of spirits in Austria. Then follow
the petroleum refineries and kindred industries, saw-mills and the
fabrication of various wood articles, paper and milling. The sugar
factory at Tlumacz and the tobacco factory at Winniki are amongst the
largest establishments of their kind in Austria. Cloth manufacture is
concentrated at Biala, while the weaving of linen and of woollens is
pursued as a household industry, the former in the Carpathian region,
the latter in eastern Galicia. The commerce, which is mainly in the
hands of the Jews, is very active, and the transit trade to Russia and
to the East is also of considerable importance.

Galicia had in 1900 a population of 7,295,538, which is equivalent to
241 inhabitants per sq. m. The two principal nationalities are the Poles
(45%) and the Ruthenians (42%), the former predominating in the west and
in the big towns, and the latter in the east. The Poles who inhabit the
Carpathians are distinguished as Goralians (from _góry_, mountain), and
those of the lower regions as Mazures and Cracoviaks. The Ruthenian
highlanders bear the name of Huzulians. The Poles are mostly Roman
Catholics, the Ruthenians are Greek Catholics, and there are over
770,000 Jews, and about 2500 Armenians, who are Catholics and stand
under the jurisdiction of an Armenian archbishop at Lemberg.

The Roman Catholic Church has an archbishop, at Lemberg, and three
bishops, at Cracow, at Przemysl and at Tarnow, and the Greek Catholic
Church is represented by an archbishop, at Lemberg, and two bishops, at
Przemysl and at Stanislau. At the head of the educational institutions
stand the two universities of Lemberg and Cracow, and the Polish academy
of science at Cracow.

The local Diet is composed of 151 members, including the 3 archbishops,
the 5 bishops, and the 2 rectors of the universities, and Galicia sends
78 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes, the
province is divided into 78 districts and 2 autonomous
municipalities--Lemberg (pop. 159,618), the capital, and Cracow
(91,310). Other principal towns are: Przemysl (46,439), Kolomea
(34,188), Tarnów (31,548), Tarnopol (30,368), Stanislau (29,628), Stryj
(23,673), Jaroslau (22,614), Drohobycz (19,146), Podgórze (18,142),
Brody (17,360), Sambor (17,027), Neusandec (15,724), Rzeszów (14,714),
Zloczow (12,209), Grodek (11,845), Horodenka (11,615), Buczacz (11,504),
Sniatyn (11,498), Brzezany (11,244), Kuty (11,127), Boryslaw (10,671),
Chrzanów (10,170), Jaworów (10,090), Bochnia (10,049) and Biala (8265).

Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise, along with the neighbouring
principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir), in the course of the 12th
century--the seat of the ruling dynasty being Halicz or Halitch.
Disputes between the Galician and Lodomerian houses led to the
interference of the king of Hungary, Bela III., who in 1190 assumed the
title of king, and appointed his son Andreas lieutenant of the kingdom.
Polish assistance, however, enabled Vladimir, the former possessor, to
expel Andreas, and in 1198 Roman, prince of Lodomeria, made himself
master of Galicia also. On his death in 1205 the struggle between Poland
and Hungary for supremacy in the country was resumed; but in 1215 it was
arranged that Daniel (1205-1264), son of Roman, should be invested with
Lodomeria, and Coloman, son of the Hungarian king, with Galicia.
Coloman, however, was expelled by Mstislav of Novgorod; and in his turn
Andreas, Mstislav's nominee, was expelled by Daniel of Lodomeria, a
powerful prince, who by a flexible policy succeeded in maintaining his
position. Though in 1235 he had recognized the overlordship of Hungary,
yet, when he found himself hard pressed by the Mongolian general Batu,
he called in the assistance of Innocent IV., and accepted the crown of
Galicia from the hands of a papal legate; and again, when Innocent
disappointed his expectation, he returned to his former connexion with
the Greek Church. On the extinction of his line in 1340 Casimir III. of
Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; on Casimir's death in 1370
Louis the Great of Hungary, in accordance with previous treaties, became
king of Poland, Galicia and Lodomeria; and in 1382, by the marriage of
Louis's daughter with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as
part of his Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became
definitively assigned to Poland. On the first partition of Poland, in
1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this
was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace
of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the
grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including
Tarnopol, was made over to Russia. This latter portion was recovered by
Austria at the peace of Paris (1814), and the former came back on the
suppression of the independent republic of Cracow in 1846. After the
introduction of the constitution of February 1861, Galicia gained a
larger degree of autonomy than any other province in the Austrian
empire.

  See _Die österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild_, vol.
  19 (Wien, 1885-1902, 24 vols.); _Die Länder Österreich-Ungarns in Wort
  und Bild_, vol. 10 (Wien, 1881-1886, 15 vols.). Remarkable sketches of
  Galician life are to be found in the works of the German novelist
  Sacher-Masoch (1835-1895).



GALICIA (the ancient _Gallaecia_ or _Callaecia_, [Greek: Kallaikia] or
[Greek: Kalaikia]), a captaincy-general, and formerly a kingdom,
countship and province, in the north-western angle of Spain; bounded on
the N. by the Bay of Biscay, E. by Leon and Asturias, S. by Portugal,
and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1900) 1,980,515; area, 11,254 sq. m.
In 1833 Galicia was divided for administrative purposes into the
provinces of Corunna, Lugo, Orense and Pontevedra.

Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded as a
continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken
in the east by the westernmost ridges of that system, which, running in
a south-westerly direction, rise above the basin of the Miño. The high
land north of the headwaters of the Miño forms the sole connecting link
between the Cantabrians properly so-called and the mountains of central
and western Galicia. The average elevation of the province is
considerable, and the maximum height (6593 ft.) is reached in the Peña
Trevinca on the eastern border of Orense.

The principal river is the Miño (Portuguese _Minho_; Lat. _Minius_; so
named, it is said, from the _minium_ or vermilion found in its bed).
Rising near Mondoñedo, within 25 m. of the northern coast, the Miño
enters the Atlantic near the port of Guardia, after a course of 170 m.
S. and S.W. Its lower reaches are navigable by small vessels. Of its
numerous affluents the most important is the Sil, which rises among the
lofty mountains between Leon and Asturias. Among other rivers having a
westerly direction may be mentioned the Tambre, the Ulla and the Lerez
or Ler, which falls into the Atlantic by estuaries or _rias_ called
respectively Ria de Muros y Noya, Ria de Arosa and Ria de Pontevedra.
The rivers of the northern versant, such as the Nera, are, like those of
Asturias, for the most part short, rapid and subject to violent floods.

The coast-line of Galicia, extending to about 240 m., is everywhere bold
and deeply indented, presenting a large number of secure harbours, and
in this respect forming a marked contrast to the neighbouring province.
The Eo, which bounds Galicia on the east, has a deep estuary, the
Rivadeo or Ribadeo, which offers a safe and commodious anchorage. Vivero
Bay and the Ria del Barquero y Váres are of a similar character; while
the harbour of Ferrol ranks among the best in Europe, and is the chief
naval station on the northern coast of Spain. On the opposite side of
Betanzos Bay (the [Greek: megas limên] or _Portus Magnus_ of the
ancients) is the great port of Corunna or Coruña. The principal port on
the western coast is that formed by the deep and sheltered bay of Vigo,
but there are also good roadsteads at Corcubion under Cape Finisterre,
at Marin and at Carril.

The climate of the Galician coast is mild and equable, but the interior,
owing to the great elevation (the town of Lugo is 1500 ft. above
sea-level), has a wide range of temperature. The rainfall is
exceptionally large, and snow lies on some of the loftier elevations for
a considerable portion of the year. The soil is on the whole fertile,
and the produce very varied. A considerable quantity of timber is grown
on the high lands, and the rich valley pastures support large herds of
cattle, while the abundance of oaks and chestnuts favours the rearing of
swine. In the lowland districts good crops of maize, wheat, barley, oats
and rye, as well as of turnips and potatoes, are obtained. The fruit
also is of excellent quality and in great variety, although the culture
of the vine is limited to some of the warmer valleys in the southern
districts. The _dehesas_ or moorlands abound in game, and fish are
plentiful in all the streams. The mineral resources of the province,
which are considerable, were known to some extent to the ancients.
Strabo (c. 63 B.C.-A.D. 21) speaks of its gold and tin, and Pliny (A.D.
23-79) mentions the _gemma Gallaica_, a precious stone. Galicia is also
remarkable for the number of its sulphur and other warm springs, the
most important of which are those at Lugo, and those from which Orense
is said to take its name (_Aquae urentes_).

Ethnologically the Galicians (_Gallegos_) are allied to the Portuguese,
whom they resemble in dialect, in appearance and in habits more than the
other inhabitants of the peninsula. The men are well known all over
Spain and Portugal as hardy, honest and industrious, but for the most
part somewhat unskilled, labourers; indeed the word _Gallego_ has come
to be almost a synonym in Madrid for a "hewer of wood and drawer of
water." It is also used as a term of abuse, meaning "boor." Agriculture
engages the greater part of the resident population, both male and
female; other industries, except the fisheries, are little developed.
The largest town in Galicia is Corunna (pop. 1900, 43,971); Santiago de
Compostela is the ancient capital and an archiepiscopal see; Lugo, Tuy,
Mondoñedo and Orense are bishoprics.

_Gallaecia_, the country of the Galacci, _Callaici_ or _Gallaici_, seems
to have been very imperfectly known to the earlier geographers.
According to Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) the entire population of the
peninsula were at one time called _Galatae_. The region properly called
by their name, bounded on the south by the Douro and on the east by the
Navia, was first entered by the Roman legions under Decius Junius Brutus
in 137-136 B.C. (Livy lv., lvi., _Epit._); but the final subjugation
cannot be placed earlier than the time of Augustus (31 B.C.-A.D. 14). On
the partition of Spain, which followed the successful invasions of the
Suevi, Alans and Vandals, Gallaecia fell to the lot of the first named
(A.D. 411). After an independent subsistence of nearly 200 years, the
Suevian kingdom was annexed to the Visigothic dominions under Leovigild
in 585. In 734 it was occupied by the Moors, who in turn were driven out
by Alphonso I. of Asturias, in 739. During the 9th and 10th centuries it
was the subject of dispute between more than one count of Galicia and
the suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Normans.
When Ferdinand I. divided his kingdom among his sons in 1063, Galicia
was the portion allotted to Garcia, the youngest of the three. In 1072
it was forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother Alphonso VI. of Castile
and thenceforward it remained an integral part of the kingdom of Castile
or of Leon. The honorary title of count of Galicia has frequently been
borne by younger sons of the Spanish sovereign.

  See Annette B. Meakin, _Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain_ (London,
  1909).



GALIGNANI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO (1752-1821), newspaper publisher, was born
at Brescia, Italy, in 1752. After living some time in London, he went to
Paris, where he started in 1800 an English library, and in 1808 a
monthly publication, the _Repertory of English Literature_. In 1814 he
began to publish, in Paris, _Galignani's Messenger_, a daily paper
printed in English. At his death in 1821 the paper was carried on by his
two sons, Jean-Antoine (1796-1873) and Guillaume (1798-1882). Under
their management it enjoyed a high reputation. Its policy was to promote
good feeling between England and France. The brothers established and
endowed hospitals at Corbeil and at Neuilly-sur-Seine. In recognition of
their generosity the city of Corbeil erected a monument in their honour.
In 1884 the Galignani family disposed of their interest in _Galignani's
Messenger_, and from that date until 1904, when it was discontinued, the
paper appeared under the title of the _Daily Messenger_.



GALILEE (Heb. [Hebrew: Galil], "border" or "ring," Gr. [Greek:
Galilaia]), a Roman province of Palestine north of Samaria, bounded S.
by Samaria and the Carmel range, E. by the Jordan, N. by the Leontes
(Litani), and W. by the Mediterranean and part of Phoenicia. Its maximum
extent was about 60 m. north to south and 30 east to west. The name in
the Hebrew Scriptures hardly had a definite territorial significance. It
literally means a ring or circuit, and, like analogous words in English,
could be applied to various districts. Thus Joshua (xiii. 2) and Joel
(iii. 4) refer to the _Geliloth_ ("borders, coast") of the Philistines
or of Palestine; Joshua again (xxii. 10, 11) and Ezekiel (xlvii. 8)
mention the Jordan valley plain as the "Geliloth of Jordan" in "the
Eastern Gelilah." In its more restricted connotation, denoting the
district to which it is usually applied or a part thereof, it is found
in Joshua xx. 7, xxi. 32, 1 Chr. vi. 76, as the place where was situated
the town of Kadesh; and in 1 Kings ix. 11, the district of "worthless"
cities given by Solomon to Hiram. In Isa. ix. 1 we find the full name of
the district, Galil ha-Goyim, literally "the ring, circuit or border of
the foreigners"--referring to the Phoenicians, Syrians and Aramaeans, by
whose country the province was on three sides surrounded. In 1 Kings xv.
29 it is specified as one of the districts whose population was deported
by Tiglath-Pileser. Throughout the Old Testament history, however,
Galilee as a whole cannot be said to have a history; the unit of
territorial subdivision was tribal rather than provincial, and though
such important events as those associated with the names of Barak,
Gideon, Gilboa, Armageddon, took place within its borders, yet these
belong rather to the histories of Issachar, Zebulon, Asher or Naphtali,
whose territories together almost correspond with Galilee, than to the
province itself.

After the Jewish return from exile the population confined itself to
Judaea, and Galilee was left in the possession of the mixed multitude of
successors established there by the Assyrians. When it once more came
into Israelite hands is uncertain; it is generally supposed that its
reconquest was due to John Hyrcanus. Before very long it developed a
nationalism and patriotism as intense as that of Judaea itself,
notwithstanding the contempt with which the metropolitans of Jerusalem
looked down upon the Galilean provincials. Stock proverbial sayings such
as "Out of Galilee cometh no prophet" (though Deborah, Jonah, Elisha,
and probably Hosea, were Galileans) were apparently common.
Provincialism of speech (Matt. xxvi. 73) distinguished the Galileans; it
appears that they confused the gutturals in pronunciation.

Under the Roman domination Galilee was made a tetrarchate governed by
members of the Herod family. Herod the Great was tetrarch of Galilee in
47 B.C.; in 4 B.C. he was succeeded by his son Antipas. Galilee was the
land of Christ's boyhood and the chief centre of His active work, and in
His various ministries here some of His chief discourses were uttered
(as the Sermon on the Mount, Matt. v.) and some of His chief miracles
performed.

After the destruction of Jerusalem the Judaean Rabbinic schools took
refuge in the Galilee they had heretofore despised. No ancient remains
of Jewish synagogues exist except those that have been identified in
some of the ancient Galilean towns, such as Tell Hum (Talhum), Kerazeh,
Kefr Bir'im, and elsewhere. One of the chief centres of Rabbinism was
Safed, still a sacred city of the Jews and largely inhabited by members
of that faith. Near here is Meirun, a place much revered by the Jews as
containing the tombs of Hillel, Shammai and Simon ben Yohai; a yearly
festival in honour of these rabbis is here celebrated. At Tiberias also
are the tombs of distinguished Jewish teachers, including Maimonides.

  The province was subdivided into two parts, Upper and Lower Galilee,
  the two being divided by a ridge running west to east, which prolonged
  would cut the Jordan about midway between Huleh and the Sea of
  Galilee. Lower Galilee includes the plains of Buttauf and Esdraelon.


    Lower Galilee.

  The whole of Galilee presents country more or less disturbed by
  volcanic action. In the lower division the hills are all tilted up
  towards the east, and broad streams of lava have flowed over the
  plateau above the sea of Galilee. In this district the highest hills
  are only about 1800 ft. above the sea. The ridge of Nazareth rises
  north of the great plain of Esdraelon, and north of this again is the
  fertile basin of the Buttauf, separated from the sea-coast plains by
  low hills. East of the Buttauf extends the basaltic plateau called
  Sahel el Ahma ("the inaccessible plain"), rising 1700 ft. above the
  Sea of Galilee. North of the Buttauf is a confused hill country, the
  spurs falling towards a broad valley which lies at the foot of the
  mountains of Upper Galilee. This broad valley, running westwards to
  the coast, is perhaps the old boundary of Zebulun--the valley of
  Jiphthah-el (Josh, xix. 14). The great plain of Esdraelon is of
  triangular form, bounded by Gilboa on the east and by the ridge which
  runs to Carmel on the west. It is 14 m. long from Jenin to the
  Nazareth hills, and its southern border is about 20 m. long. It rises
  200 ft. above the sea, the hills on both sides being some 1500 ft.
  higher. The whole drainage is collected by the Kishon, which runs
  through a narrow gorge at the north-west corner of the plain,
  descending beside the ridge of Carmel to the sea. The broad valley of
  Jezreel on the east, descending towards the Jordan valley, forms the
  gate by which Palestine is entered from beyond Jordan. Mount Tabor
  stands isolated in the plain at the north-east corner, and rather
  farther south the conical hill called Nebi Duhi rises between Tabor
  and Gilboa. The whole of Lower Galilee is well watered. The Kishon is
  fed by springs from near Tabor and from a copious stream from the west
  side of the plain of Esdraelon. North-west of Nazareth is Wadi el
  Melek, an open valley full of springs. The river Belus, just south of
  Acre, rising in the sea-coast marshes, drains the whole valley above
  identified with Jiphthah-el. On the east the broad valley of Jezreel
  is full of magnificent springs, many of which are thermal. The plains
  of Esdraelon, and the Buttauf, and the plateau of el-Ahma are all
  remarkable for the rich basaltic soil which covers them, in which
  corn, cotton, maize, sesame, tobacco, millet and various kinds of
  vegetable are grown, while indigo and sugar-cane were cultivated in
  former times. The Nazareth hills and Gilboa are bare and white, but
  west of Nazareth is a fine oak wood, and another thick wood spreads
  over the northern slopes of Tabor. The hills west of the great plain
  are partly of bare white chalk, partly covered with dense thickets.
  The mountains north of the Buttauf are rugged and covered with scrub,
  except near the villages, where fine olive groves exist. The principal
  places of importance in Lower Galilee are Nazareth (10,000
  inhabitants), Sepphoris (now Seffuria), a large village standing above
  the Buttauf on the spurs of the southern hills, and Jenin (En Gannim),
  a flourishing village, with a palm garden (3000 inhabitants). The
  ancient capital, Jezreel (Zerin), is now a miserable village on a
  precipitous spur of Gilboa; north of this are the small mud hamlets,
  Solam (Shunem), Endur (Endor), Nein (Nain); on the west side of the
  plain is the ruin of Lejjun (the Legio of the 4th century, which was
  then a place of importance). In the hills north of the Buttauf is
  Jefat, situated on a steep hill-top, and representing the Jotapata
  defended by Josephus. Kefr Kenna, now a flourishing Christian village
  at the foot of the Nazareth hills, south of the Buttauf, is one of the
  sites identified with Cana of Galilee, and the ruin Kana, on the north
  side of the same plain, represents the site pointed out to the
  pilgrims of the 12th and 13th centuries.


    Upper Galilee.

  The mountains are tilted up towards the Sea of Galilee, and the
  drainage of the district is towards the north-west. On the south the
  rocky range of Jebel Jarmuk rises to nearly 4000 ft. above the sea; on
  the east a narrow ridge 2800 ft. high forms the watershed, with steep
  eastern slopes falling towards Jordan. Immediately west of the
  watershed are two small plateaus covered with basaltic débris, near
  el-Jish and Kades. On the west are rugged mountains with deep
  intricate valleys. The main drains of the country are--first, Wadi el
  'Ayun, rising north of Jebel Jarmuk, and running north-west as an open
  valley; and secondly, Wadi el Ahjar, a rugged precipitous gorge
  running north to join the Leontes. The district is well provided with
  springs throughout, and the valleys are full of water in the
  spring-time. Though rocky and difficult, Upper Galilee is not barren,
  the soil of the plateaus is rich, and the vine flourishes in the
  higher hills, especially in the neighbourhood of Kefr Bir'im. The
  principal town is Safed, perched on a white mountain 2700 ft. above
  the sea. It has a population of about 9000, including Jews, Christians
  and Moslems.

Josephus gives a good description of the Galilee of his time in _Wars_,
iii. 3. 2: "The Galileans are inured to war from their infancy, and have
been always very numerous; nor hath the country been ever destitute of
men of courage or wanted a numerous set of them; for their soil is
universally rich and fruitful, and full of plantations of trees of all
sorts, insomuch that it invites the most slothful to take pains in its
cultivation.... Moreover, the cities lie here very thick, and the very
many villages there are here are everywhere full of people." Though the
population is diminished and the cities ruinous, the country is still
remarkable for fertility, thanks to the copiousness of its water-supply
draining from the Lebanon mountains.

The principal products of the country are corn, wine, oil and soap (from
the olives), with every species of pulse and gourd.

The antiquities of Galilee include dolmens and rude stone monuments,
rock-cut tombs, and wine-presses, with numerous remains of Byzantine
monasteries and fine churches of the time of the crusades. There are
also remains of Greek architecture in various places; but the most
interesting buildings are the ancient synagogues, of which some eleven
examples are now known. They are rectangular, with the door to the
south, and two rows of columns forming aisles east and west. The
architecture is a peculiar and debased imitation of classic style,
attributed by architects to the 2nd century A.D. In Kefr Bir'im there
were remains of two synagogues, but early in the 20th century one of
them was completely destroyed by a local stone-mason. At Irbid, above
Tiberias, is another synagogue of rather different character. Traces of
synagogues have also been found on Carmel, and at Tireh, west of
Nazareth. It is curious to find the representation of various animals in
relief on the lintels of these buildings. Hebrew inscriptions also
occur, and the carved work of the cornices and capitals is rich though
debased.

In the 12th century Galilee was the outpost of the Christian kingdom of
Jerusalem, and its borders were strongly protected by fortresses, the
magnificent remains of which still crown the most important strategical
points. Toron (mod. _Tibnin_) was built in 1104, the first fortress
erected by the crusaders, and standing on the summit of the mountains of
Upper Galilee. Beauvoir (Kaukab el-Hawa, built in 1182) stood on a
precipice above Jordan south-west of the Sea of Galilee, and guarded the
advance by the valley of Jezreel; and about the same time Château Neuf
(Hunin) was erected above the Hüleh lake. Belfort (esh Shukif), on the
north bank of the Leontes, the finest and most important, dates somewhat
earlier; and Montfort (Kalat el Kurn) stood on a narrow spur north-east
of Acre, completing the chain of frontier fortresses. The town of
Banias, with its castle, formed also a strong outpost against Damascus,
and was the scene, in common with the other strongholds, of many
desperate encounters between Moslems and Christians. Lower Galilee was
the last remaining portion of the Holy Land held by the Christians. In
1250 the knights of the Teutonic order owned lands extending round Acre
as far east as the Sea of Galilee, and including Safed. These
possessions were lost in 1291, on the fall of Acre.

The population of Galilee is mixed. In Lower Galilee the peasants are
principally Moslem, with a sprinkling of Greek Christians round
Nazareth, which is a Christian town. In Upper Galilee, however, there is
a mixture of Jews and Maronites, Druses and Moslems (natives or Algerine
settlers), while the slopes above the Jordan are inhabited by wandering
Arabs. The Jews are engaged in trade, and the Christians, Druses and
Moslems in agriculture; and the Arabs are an entirely pastoral people.
     (C. R. C.; R. A. S. M.)



GALILEE, an architectural term sometimes given to a porch or chapel
which formed the entrance to a church. This is the case at Durham and
Ely cathedrals, and in Lincoln cathedral the name is sometimes given to
the south-west porch. The name is said to be derived from the scriptural
expression "Galilee of the Gentiles" (Matt. iv. 15). Galilees are
supposed to have been used sometimes as courts of law, but they probably
served chiefly for penitents not yet admitted to the body of the church.
The Galilee would also appear to have been the vestibule of an abbey
church where women were allowed to see the monks to whom they were
related, or from which they could hear divine service. The foundation of
what is considered to have been a Galilee exists at the west end of
Fountains Abbey. Sometimes also corpses were placed there before
interment.



GALILEE, SEA OF, a lake in Palestine consisting of an expansion of the
Jordan, on the latitude of Mt. Carmel. It is 13 m. long, 8 m. broad, 64
sq. m. in area, 680 ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, and,
according to Merrill and Barrois (who have corrected the excessive depth
said to have been found by Lortet at the northern end), 150 ft. in
maximum depth. It is pear-shaped, the narrow end pointing southward. In
the Hebrew Scriptures it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth
(probably derived from a town of the same name mentioned in Joshua xi. 2
and elsewhere; the etymology that connects it with [Hebrew: kinor], "a
harp," is very doubtful.) In Josephus and the book of Maccabees it is
named Gennesar; while in the Gospels it is usually called Sea of
Galilee, though once it is called Lake of Gennesaret (Luke v. i) and
twice Sea of Tiberias (John vi. 1, xxi. 1). The modern Arabic name is
_Bahr Tubariya_, which is often rendered "Lake of Tiberias." Pliny
refers to it as the Lake of Taricheae.

Like the Dead Sea it is a "rift" lake, being part of the great fault
that formed the Jordan-Araba depression. Deposits show that originally
it formed part of the great inland sea that filled this depression in
Pleistocene times. The district on each side of the lake has a number of
hot springs, at least one of which is beneath the sea itself, and has
always shown indications of volcanic and other subterranean
disturbances. It is especially liable to earthquakes. The water of the
sea, though slightly brackish and not very clear, is generally used for
drinking. The shores are for the greater part formed of fine gravel;
some yards from the shore the bed is uniformly covered with fine greyish
mud. The temperature in summer is tropical, but after noon falls about
10° F. owing to strong north-west winds. This range of temperature
affects the water to a depth of about 49 ft.; below that depth the water
is uniformly about 59° F. The sea is set deep in hills which rise on the
east side to a height of about 2000 ft. Sudden and violent storms (such
as are described in Matt. viii. 23, xiv. 22, and the parallel passages)
are often produced by the changes of temperature in the air resulting
from these great differences of level.

  The Sea of Galilee is best seen from the top of the western
  precipices. It presents a desolate appearance. On the north the hills
  rise gradually from the shore, which is fringed with oleander bushes
  and indented with small bays. The ground is here covered with black
  basalt. On the west the plateau known as Sahel el-Ahma terminates in
  precipices 1700 ft. above the lake, and over these the black rocky
  tops called "the Horns of Hattin" are conspicuous objects. On the
  south is a broad valley through which the Jordan flows. On the east
  are furrowed and rugged slopes, rising to the great plateau of the
  Jaulan (Gaulonitis). The Jordan enters the lake through a narrow gorge
  between lower hills. A marshy plain, 2½ m. long and 1½ broad, called
  el-Batihah, exists immediately east of the Jordan inlet. There is also
  on the west side of the lake a small plain called el-Ghuweir, formed
  by the junction of three large valleys. It measures 3¼ m. along the
  shore, and is 1 m. wide. This plain, naturally fertile, but now almost
  uncultivated, is supposed to be the plain of Gennesareth, described by
  Josephus (B. J. iii. 10, 8). On the east the hills approach in one
  place within 40 ft. of the water, but there is generally a width of
  about ¾ of a mile from the hills to the beach. On the west the flat
  ground at the foot of the hills has an average width of about 200 yds.
  A few scattered palms dot the western shores, and a palm grove is to
  be found near Kefr Harib on the south-east. The hot baths south of
  Tiberias include seven springs, the largest of which has a temperature
  of 137° F. In these springs a distinct rise in temperature was
  observed in 1837, when Tiberias and Safed were destroyed by an
  earthquake. The plain of Gennesareth, with its environs, is the
  best-watered part of the lake-basin. North of this plain are the five
  springs of et-Tabighah, the largest of which was enclosed about a
  century ago in an octagonal reservoir by 'Ali, son of Dhahr el-Amir,
  and the water led off by an aqueduct 52 ft. above the lake. The
  Tabighah springs, though abundant, are warm and brackish. At the north
  end of the plain is 'Ain et-Tineh ("spring of the fig-tree"), also a
  brackish spring with a good stream; south of the plain is 'Ain
  el-Bardeh ("the cold spring"), which is sweet, but scarcely lower in
  temperature than the others. One of the most important springs is 'Ain
  el-Madawwera ("the round spring"), situated 1 m. from the south end of
  the plain and half a mile from the shore. The water rises in a
  circular well 32 ft. in diameter, and is clear and sweet, with a
  temperature of 73° F. The bottom is of loose sand, and the fish called
  _coracinus_ by Josephus (B.J. iii. 10, 8) is here found (see below).
  Dr Tristram was the first explorer to identify this fish, and on
  account of its presence suggested the identification of the "round
  spring" with the fountain of _Capharnaum_, which, according to
  Josephus, watered the plain of Gennesareth. There is, however, a
  difficulty in this identification; there are no ruins at 'Ain
  el-Madawwera.

  _Fauna and Flora._--For half the year the hillsides are bare and
  steppe-like, but in spring are clothed with a subtropical vegetation.
  Oleanders flourish round the lake, and the large papyrus grows at 'Ain
  et-Tin as well as at the mouth of the Jordan. The lake swarms with
  fish, which are caught with nets by a gild of fishermen, whose boats
  are the only representatives of the many ships and boats which plied
  on the lake as late as the 10th century. Fishing was a lucrative
  industry at an early date, and the Jews ascribed the laws regulating
  it to Joshua. The fish, which were classed as clean and unclean, the
  good and bad of the parable (Matt. xiii. 47, 48), belong to the genera
  _Chromis_, _Barbus_, _Capoeta_, _Discognathus_, _Nemachilus_,
  _Blennius_ and _Clarias_; and there is a great affinity between them
  and the fish of the East African lakes and streams. There are eight
  species of _Chromis_, most of which hatch their eggs and raise their
  young in the buccal cavities of the males. The _Chromis simonis_ is
  popularly supposed to be the fish from which Peter took the piece of
  money (Matt. xvii. 27). _Clarias macracanthus_ (Arab. _Burbur_) is the
  _coracinus_ of Josephus. It was found by Lortet in the springs of 'Ain
  el-Madawwera, 'Ain et-Tineh and 'Ain et-Tabighah, on the lake shore
  where muddy, and in Lake Hüleh. It is a scaleless, snake-like fish,
  often nearly 5 ft. long, which resembles the _C. anguillaris_ of
  Egypt. From the absence of scales it was held by the Jews to be
  unclean, and some commentators suppose it to be the serpent of Matt.
  vii. 10 and Luke xi. 11. Large numbers of grebes--great crested,
  eared, and little,--gulls and pelicans frequent the lake. On its
  shores are tortoises, mud-turtles, crayfish and innumerable
  sand-hoppers; and at varying depths in the lake several species of
  _Melania_, _Melanopsis_, _Neritina_, _Corbicula_ and _Unio_ have been
  found.

_Antiquities._--The principal sites of interest round the lake may be
enumerated from north to west and from south to east. Kerazeh, the
undoubted site of Chorazin, stands on a rocky spur 900 ft. above the
lake, 2 m. north of the shore. Foundations and scattered stones cover
the slopes and the flat valley below. On the west is a rugged gorge. In
the middle of the ruins are the scattered remains of a synagogue of
richly ornamental style built of black basalt. A small spring occurs on
the north. Tell Hum (as the name is generally spelt, though _Talhum_
would probably be preferable for several reasons) is an important ruin
on the shore, south of the last-mentioned site. The remains consist of
foundations and piles of stones (in spring concealed by gigantic
thistles) extending about half a mile along the shore. The foundations
of a fine synagogue, measuring 75 ft. by 57, and built in white
limestone, have been excavated. A conspicuous building has been erected
close to the water, from the fragments of the Tell Hum synagogue. Since
the 4th century Tell Hum has been pointed out by all the Christian
writers of importance as the site of Capernaum. Some modern geographers
question this identification, but without sufficient reason (see
CAPERNAUM). Minyeh is a ruined site at the north end of the plain of
Gennesareth, 2½ m. from the last, and close to the shore. There are
extensive ruins on flat ground, consisting of mounds and foundations.
Masonry of well-dressed stones has also been here discovered in course
of excavation. Near the ruins are remains of an old khan, which appears
to have been built in the middle ages. This is another suggested
identification for Capernaum; but all the remains belong to the Arab
period. Between Tell Hum and Minyeh is _Tell 'Oreimeh_, the site of a
forgotten Amorite city.

South of the supposed plain of Gennesareth is Mejdel, commonly supposed
to represent the New Testament town of Magdala. A few lotus trees and
some rock-cut tombs are here found beside a miserable mud hamlet on the
hill slope, with a modern tombhouse (_kubbeh_). Passing beneath rugged
cliffs a recess in the hills is next reached, where stands Tubariya, the
ancient Tiberias or Rakkath, containing 3000 inhabitants, more than half
of whom are Jews. The walls, flanked with round towers, but partly
destroyed by the earthquake of 1837, were built by Dhahr el-Amir, as was
the court-house. The two mosques, now partly ruinous, were erected by
his sons. There are remains of a Crusaders' church, and the tomb of the
celebrated Maimonides is shown in the town, while Rabbi Aqiba and Rabbi
Meir lie buried outside. The ruins of the ancient city, including
granite columns and traces of a sea-wall with towers, stretch southwards
a mile beyond the modern town. An aqueduct in the cliff once brought
water a distance of 9 m. from the south.

Kerak, at the south end of the lake, is an important site on a peninsula
surrounded by the water of the lake, by the Jordan, and by a broad water
ditch, while on the north-west a narrow neck of land remains. The
plateau thus enclosed is partly artificial, and banked up 50 or 60 ft.
above the water. A ruined citadel remains on the north-west, and on the
east was a bridge over the Jordan; broken pottery and fragments of
sculptured stone strew the site. The ruin of Kerak answers to the
description given by Josephus of the city of Taricheae, which lay 30
stadia from Tiberias, the hot baths being between the two cities.
Taricheae was situated, as is Kerak, on the shore below the cliffs, and
partly surrounded by water, while before the city was a plain (the
Ghor). Pliny further informs us that Taricheae was at the south end of
the Sea of Galilee. _Sinn en-Nabreh_, a ruin on a spur of the hills
close to the last-mentioned site, represents the ancient Sennabris,
where Vespasian (Josephus, _B.J._ iii. 9, 7) fixed his camp, advancing
from Scythopolis (Beisen) on Taricheae and Tiberias. Sennabris was 30
stadia from Tiberias, or about the distance of the ruin now existing.

The eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee have been less fully explored
than the western, and the sites are not so perfectly recovered. The site
of Hippos, one of the cities of Decapolis, is fixed by Clermont-Ganneau
at Khurbet Susieh. Kalat el-Hosn ("castle of the stronghold") is a ruin
on a rocky spur opposite Tiberias. Two large ruined buildings remain,
with traces of an old street and fallen columns and capitals. A strong
wall once surrounded the town; a narrow neck of land exists on the east
where the rock has been scarped. Rugged valleys enclose the site on the
north and south; broken sarcophagi and rock-cut tombs are found beneath
the ruin. This site is not identified; the suggestion that it is Gamala
is doubtful, and not borne out by Josephus (_War_, iv. 1, 1), who says
Gamala was over against Taricheae. Kersa, an insignificant ruin north of
the last, is thought to represent the Gerasa or Gergesa of the 4th
century, situated east of the lake; and the projecting spur of hill
south of this ruin is conjectured to be the place where the swine "ran
violently down a steep place" (Matt. viii. 32).
     (C. R. C; C. W. W.; R. A. S. M.)



GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), Italian astronomer and experimental
philosopher, was born at Pisa on the 15th of February 1564. His father,
Vincenzio, was an impoverished descendant of a noble Florentine house,
which had exchanged the surname of Bonajuti for that of Galilei, on the
election, in 1343, of one of its members, Tommaso de' Bonajuti, to the
college of the twelve Buonuomini. The family, which was nineteen times
represented in the signoria, and in 1445 gave a gonfalonier to Florence,
flourished with the republic and declined with its fall. Vincenzio
Galilei was a man of better parts than fortune. He was a competent
mathematician, wrote with considerable ability on the theory and
practice of music, and was especially distinguished amongst his
contemporaries for the grace and skill of his performance upon the lute.
By his wife, Giulia Ammannati of Pescia, he had three sons and four
daughters.

From his earliest childhood Galileo, the eldest of the family, was
remarkable for intellectual aptitude as well as for mechanical
invention. His favourite pastime was the construction of original and
ingenious toy-machines; but his application to literary studies was
equally conspicuous. In the monastery of Vallombrosa, near Florence,
where his education was principally conducted, he not only made himself
acquainted with the best Latin authors, but acquired a fair command of
the Greek tongue, thus laying the foundation of his brilliant and
elegant style. From one of the monks he also received instruction in
logic; but the subtleties of the scholastic science were thoroughly
distasteful to him. A document published by F. Selmi in 1864 proves that
he was at this time so far attracted towards a religious life as to have
joined the novitiate; but his father, who had other designs for him,
seized the opportunity of an attack of ophthalmia to withdraw him
permanently from the care of the monks. Having had personal experience
of the unremunerative character both of music and of mathematics, he
desired that his son should apply himself to the cultivation of
medicine, and, not without some straining of his slender resources,
placed him, before he had completed his eighteenth year, at the
university of Pisa. He accordingly matriculated there on the 5th of
November 1581, and immediately entered upon attendance at the lectures
of the celebrated physician and botanist, Andrea Cesalpino.

The natural gifts of the young student seemed at this time equally ready
to develop in any direction towards which choice or hazard might incline
them. In musical skill and invention he already vied with the best
professors of the art in Italy; his personal taste would have led him to
choose painting as his profession, and one of the most eminent artists
of his day, Lodovico Cigoli, owned that to his judgment and counsel he
was mainly indebted for the success of his works. In 1581, while
watching a lamp set swinging in the cathedral of Pisa, he observed that,
whatever the range of its oscillations, they were invariably executed in
equal times. The experimental verification of this fact led him to the
important discovery of the isochronism of the pendulum. He at first
applied the new principle to pulse-measurement, and more than fifty
years later turned it to account in the construction of an astronomical
clock. Up to this time he was entirely ignorant of mathematics, his
father having carefully held him aloof from a study which he rightly
apprehended would lead to his total alienation from that of medicine.
Accident, however, frustrated this purpose. A lesson in geometry, given
by Ostilio Ricci to the pages of the grand-ducal court, chanced,
tradition avers, to have Galileo for an unseen listener; his attention
was riveted, his dormant genius was roused, and he threw all his
energies into the new pursuit thus unexpectedly presented to him. With
Ricci's assistance, he rapidly mastered the elements of the science, and
eventually extorted his father's reluctant permission to exchange
Hippocrates and Galen for Euclid and Archimedes. In 1585 he was
withdrawn from the university, through lack of means, before he had
taken a degree, and returned to Florence, where his family habitually
resided. We next hear of him as lecturing before the Florentine Academy
on the site and dimensions of Dante's _Inferno_; and he shortly
afterwards published an essay descriptive of his invention of the
hydrostatic balance, which rapidly made his name known throughout Italy.
His first patron was the Marchese Guidubaldo del Monte of Pesaro, a man
equally eminent in science, and influential through family connexions.
At the Marchese's request he wrote, in 1588, a treatise on the centre of
gravity in solids, which obtained for him, together with the title of
"the Archimedes of his time," the honourable though not lucrative post
of mathematical lecturer at the Pisan university. During the ensuing two
years (1589-1591) he carried on that remarkable series of experiments by
which he established the first principles of dynamics and earned the
undying hostility of bigoted Aristotelians. From the leaning tower of
Pisa he afforded to all the professors and students of the university
ocular demonstration of the falsehood of the Peripatetic dictum that
heavy bodies fall with velocities proportional to their weights, and
with unanswerable logic demolished all the time-honoured maxims of the
schools regarding the motion of projectiles, and elemental weight or
levity. But while he convinced, he failed to conciliate his adversaries.
The keen sarcasm of his polished rhetoric was not calculated to soothe
the susceptibilities of men already smarting under the deprivation of
their most cherished illusions. He seems, in addition, to have
compromised his position with the grand-ducal family by the imprudent
candour with which he condemned a machine for clearing the port of
Leghorn, invented by Giovanni de' Medici, an illegitimate son of Cosmo
I. Princely favour being withdrawn, private rancour was free to show
itself. He was publicly hissed at his lecture, and found it prudent to
resign his professorship and withdraw to Florence in 1591. Through the
death of his father in July of that year family cares and
responsibilities devolved upon him, and thus his nomination to the chair
of mathematics at the university of Padua, secured by the influence of
the Marchese Guidubaldo with the Venetian senate, was welcome both as
affording a relief from pecuniary embarrassment and as opening a field
for scientific distinction.

His residence at Padua, which extended over a period of eighteen years,
from 1592 to 1610, was a course of uninterrupted prosperity. His
appointment was three times renewed, on each occasion with the
expressions of the highest esteem on the part of the governing body, and
his yearly salary was progressively raised from 180 to 1000 florins. His
lectures were attended by persons of the highest distinction from all
parts of Europe, and such was the charm of his demonstrations that a
hall capable of containing 2000 people had eventually to be assigned for
the accommodation of the overflowing audiences which they attracted. His
invention of the proportional compass or sector--an implement still used
in geometrical drawing--dates from 1597; and about the same time he
constructed the first thermometer, consisting of a bulb and tube filled
with air and water, and terminating in a vessel of water. In this
instrument the results of varying atmospheric pressure were not
distinguishable from the expansive and contractive effects of heat and
cold, and it became an efficient measure of temperature only when
Rinieri, in 1646, introduced the improvement of hermetically sealing the
liquid in glass. The substitution, in 1670, of mercury for water
completed the modern thermometer.

Galileo seems, at an early period of his life, to have adopted the
Copernican theory of the solar system, and was deterred from avowing his
opinions--as is proved by his letter to Kepler of August 4, 1597--by the
fear of ridicule rather than of persecution. The appearance, in September
1604, of a new star in the constellation Serpentarius afforded him indeed
an opportunity, of which he eagerly availed himself, for making an
onslaught upon the Aristotelian axiom of the incorruptibility of the
heavens; but he continued to conform his public teachings in the main to
Ptolemaic principles, until the discovery of a novel and potent implement
of research in the shape of the telescope (q.v.) placed at his command
startling and hitherto unsuspected evidence as to the constitution and
mutual relations of the heavenly bodies. Galileo was not the original
inventor of the telescope.[1] That honour must be assigned to Johannes
Lippershey, an obscure optician of Middleburg, who, on the 2nd of October
1608, petitioned the states-general of the Low Countries for exclusive
rights in the manufacture of an instrument for increasing the apparent
size of remote objects. A rumour of the new invention, which reached
Venice in June 1609, sufficed to set Galileo on the track; and after one
night's profound meditation on the principles of refraction, he succeeded
in producing a telescope of threefold magnifying power. Upon this first
attempt he rapidly improved, until he attained to a power of thirty-two,
and his instruments, of which he manufactured hundreds with his own
hands, were soon in request in every part of Europe. Two lenses only--a
plano-convex and a plano-concave--were needed for the composition of
each, and this simple principle is that still employed in the
construction of opera-glasses. Galileo's direction of his new instrument
to the heavens formed an era in the history of astronomy. Discoveries
followed upon it with astounding rapidity and in bewildering variety. The
_Sidereus Nuncius_, published at Venice early in 1610, contained the
first-fruits of the new mode of investigation, which were sufficient to
excite learned amazement on both sides of the Alps. The mountainous
configuration of the moon's surface was there first described, and the
so-called "phosphorescence" of the dark portion of our satellite
attributed to its true cause--namely, illumination by sunlight reflected
from the earth.[2] All the time-worn fables and conjectures regarding the
composition of the Milky Way were at once dissipated by the simple
statement that to the eye, reinforced by the telescope, it appeared as a
congeries of lesser stars, while the great nebulae were equally declared
to be resolvable into similar elements. But the discovery which was at
once perceived to be most important in itself, and most revolutionary in
its effects, was that of Jupiter's satellites, first seen by Galileo on
the 7th of January 1610, and by him named _Sidera Medicea_, in honour of
the grand-duke of Tuscany, Cosmo II., who had been his pupil, and was
about to become his employer. An illustration is, with the general run of
mankind, more powerful to convince than an argument; and the cogency of
the visible plea for the Copernican theory offered by the miniature
system, then first disclosed to view, was recognizable in the triumph of
its advocates as well as in the increased acrimony of its opponents.

In September 1610 Galileo finally abandoned Padua for Florence. His
researches with the telescope had been rewarded by the Venetian senate
with the appointment for life to his professorship, at an
unprecedentedly high salary. His discovery of the "Medicean Stars" was
acknowledged by his nomination (July 12, 1610) as philosopher and
mathematician extraordinary to the grand-duke of Tuscany. The emoluments
of this office, which involved no duties save that of continuing his
scientific labours, were fixed at 1000 scudi; and it was the desire of
increased leisure, rather than the promptings of local patriotism, which
induced him to accept an offer the original suggestion of which had
indeed come from himself. Before the close of 1610 the memorable cycle
of discoveries begun in the previous year was completed by the
observation of the ansated or, as it appeared to Galileo, triple form of
Saturn (the ring-formation was first recognized by Christiaan Huygens in
1655), of the phases of Venus, and of the spots upon the sun. As regards
sun-spots, however, Johann Fabricius of Osteel in Friesland can claim
priority of publication, if not of actual detection. In the spring of
1611 Galileo visited Rome, and exhibited in the gardens of the Quirinal
Palace the telescopic wonders of the heavens to the most eminent
personages at the pontifical court. Encouraged by the flattering
reception accorded to him, he ventured, in his _Letters on the Solar
Spots_, printed at Rome in 1613, to take up a more decided position
towards that doctrine on the establishment of which, as he avowed in a
letter to Belisario Vinta, secretary to the grand-duke, "all his life
and being henceforward depended." Even in the time of Copernicus some
well-meaning persons, especially those of the reformed persuasion, had
suspected a discrepancy between the new view of the solar system and
certain passages of Scripture--a suspicion strengthened by the
anti-Christian inferences drawn from it by Giordano Bruno; but the
question was never formally debated until Galileo's brilliant
disclosures, enhanced by his formidable dialectic and enthusiastic zeal,
irresistibly challenged for it the attention of the authorities.
Although he had no desire to raise the theological issue, it must be
admitted that, the discussion once set on foot, he threw himself into it
with characteristic impetuosity, and thus helped to precipitate a
decision which it was his interest to avert. In December 1613 a
Benedictine monk named Benedetto Castelli, at that time professor of
mathematics at the university of Pisa, wrote to inform Galileo of a
recent discussion at the grand-ducal table, in which he had been called
upon to defend the Copernican doctrine against theological objections.
This task Castelli, who was a steady friend and disciple of the Tuscan
astronomer, seems to have discharged with moderation and success.
Galileo's answer, written, as he said himself, _currente calamo_, was an
exposition of a formal theory as to the relations of physical science to
Holy Writ, still further developed in an elaborate apology addressed by
him in the following year (1614) to Christina of Lorraine, dowager
grand-duchess of Tuscany. Not satisfied with explaining adverse texts,
he met his opponents with unwise audacity on their own ground, and
endeavoured to produce scriptural confirmation of a system which seemed
to the ignorant many an incredible paradox, and to the scientific few a
beautiful but daring innovation. The rising agitation on the subject,
fomented for their own purposes by the rabid Aristotelians of the
schools, was heightened rather than allayed by these manifestoes, and on
the fourth Sunday of the following Advent found a voice in the pulpit of
Santa Maria Novella. Padre Caccini's denunciation of the new astronomy
was indeed disavowed and strongly condemned by his superiors;
nevertheless, on the 5th of February 1615, another Dominican monk named
Lorini laid Galileo's letter to Castelli before the Inquisition.

Cardinal Robert Bellarmin was at that time by far the most influential
member of the Sacred College. He was a man of vast learning and upright
piety, but, although personally friendly to Galileo, there is no doubt
that he saw in his scientific teachings a danger to religion. The year
1615 seems to have been a period of suspense. Galileo received, as the
result of a conference between Cardinals Bellarmin and Del Monte, a
semi-official warning to avoid theology, and limit himself to physical
reasoning. "Write freely," he was told by Monsignor Dini, "but keep
outside the sacristy." Unfortunately, he had already committed himself
to dangerous ground. In December he repaired personally to Rome, full of
confidence that the weight of his arguments and the vivacity of his
eloquence could not fail to convert the entire pontifical court to his
views. He was cordially received, and eagerly listened to, but his
imprudent ardour served but to injure his cause. On the 24th of February
1616 the consulting theologians of the Holy Office characterized the two
propositions--that the sun is immovable in the centre of the world, and
that the earth has a diurnal motion of rotation--the first as "absurd in
philosophy, and formally heretical, because expressly contrary to Holy
Scripture," and the second as "open to the same censure in philosophy,
and at least erroneous as to faith." Two days later Galileo was, by
command of the pope (Paul V.), summoned to the palace of Cardinal
Bellarmin, and there officially admonished not thenceforward to "hold,
teach or defend" the condemned doctrine. This injunction he promised to
obey. On the 5th of March the Congregation of the Index issued a decree
reiterating, with the omission of the word "heretical," the censure of
the theologians, suspending, _usque corrigatur_, the great work of
Copernicus, _De revolutionibus orbium coelestium_, and absolutely
prohibiting a treatise by a Carmelite monk named Foscarini, which
treated the same subject from a theological point of view. At the same
time it was given to be understood that the new theory of the solar
system might be held _ex hypothesi_, and the trivial verbal alterations
introduced into the Polish astronomer's book in 1620, when the work of
revision was completed by Cardinal Gaetani, confirmed this
interpretation. This edict, it is essential to observe, the
responsibility for which rests with a disciplinary congregation in no
sense representing the church, was never confirmed by the pope, and was
virtually repealed in 1757 under Benedict XIV.

Galileo returned to Florence three months later, not ill-pleased, as his
letters testify, with the result of his visit to Rome. He brought with
him, for the refutation of calumnious reports circulated by his enemies,
a written certificate from Cardinal Bellarmin, to the effect that no
abjuration had been required of or penance imposed upon him. During a
prolonged audience he had received from the pope assurances of private
esteem and personal protection; and he trusted to his dialectical
ingenuity to find the means of presenting his scientific convictions
under the transparent veil of an hypothesis. Although a sincere
Catholic, he seems to have laid but little stress on the secret
admonition of the Holy Office, which his sanguine temperament encouraged
him gradually to dismiss from his mind. He preserved no written
memorandum of its terms, and it was represented to him, according to his
own deposition in 1633, solely by Cardinal Bellarmin's certificate, in
which, for obvious reasons, it was glossed over rather than expressly
recorded. For seven years, nevertheless, during which he led a life of
studious retirement in the Villa Segni at Bellosguardo, near Florence,
he maintained an almost unbroken silence. At the end of that time he
appeared in public with his _Saggiatore_, a polemical treatise written
in reply to the _Libra astronomica_ of Padre Grassi (under the pseudonym
of Lotario Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano. The
subject in debate was the nature of comets, the conspicuous appearance
of three of which bodies in the year 1618 furnished the occasion of the
controversy. Galileo's views, although erroneous, since he held comets
to be mere atmospheric emanations reflecting sunlight after the
evanescent fashion of a halo or a rainbow, were expressed with such
triumphant vigour, and embellished with such telling sarcasms, that his
opponent did not venture upon a reply. The _Saggiatore_ was printed at
Rome in October 1623 by the Academy of the Lincei, of which Galileo was
a member, with a dedication to the new pope, Urban VIII., and
notwithstanding some passages containing a covert defence of Copernican
opinions, was received with acclamation by ecclesiastical, no less than
by scientific authorities.

Everything seemed now to promise a close of unbroken prosperity to
Galileo's career. Maffeo Barberini, his warmest friend and admirer in
the Sacred College, was, by the election of the 8th of August 1623,
seated on the pontifical throne; and the marked distinction with which
he was received on his visit of congratulation to Rome in 1624
encouraged him to hope for the realization of his utmost wishes. He
received every mark of private favour. The pope admitted him to six long
audiences in the course of two months, wrote an enthusiastic letter to
the grand-duke praising the great astronomer, not only for his
distinguished learning, but also for his exemplary piety, and granted a
pension to his son Vincenzio, which was afterwards transferred to
himself, and paid, with some irregularities, to the end of his life. But
on the subject of the decree of 1616, the revocation of which Galileo
had hoped to obtain through his personal influence, he found him
inexorable. Yet there seemed reason to expect that it would at least be
interpreted in a liberal spirit, and Galileo's friends encouraged his
imprudent confidence by eagerly retailing to him every papal utterance
which it was possible to construe in a favourable sense. To Cardinal
Hohenzollern, Urban was reported to have said that the theory of the
earth's motion had not been and could not be condemned as heretical, but
only as rash; and in 1630 the brilliant Dominican monk Tommaso
Campanella wrote to Galileo that the pope had expressed to him in
conversation his disapproval of the prohibitory decree. Thus, in the
full anticipation of added renown, and without any misgiving as to
ulterior consequences, Galileo set himself, on his return to Florence,
to complete his famous but ill-starred work, the _Dialogo dei due
massimi sistemi del mondo_. Finished in 1630, it was not until January
1632 that it emerged from the presses of Landini at Florence. The book
was originally intended to appear in Rome, but unexpected obstacles
interposed. The Lincean Academy collapsed with the death of Prince
Federigo Cesi, its founder and president; an outbreak of plague impeded
communication between the various Italian cities; and the _imprimatur_
was finally extorted, rather than accorded, under the pressure of
private friendship and powerful interest. A tumult of applause from
every part of Europe followed its publication; and it would be difficult
to find in any language a book in which animation and elegance of style
are so happily combined with strength and clearness of scientific
exposition. Three interlocutors, named respectively Salviati, Sagredo,
and Simplicio, take part in the four dialogues of which the work is
composed. The first-named expounds the views of the author; the second
is an eager and intelligent listener; the third represents a
well-meaning but obtuse Peripatetic, whom the others treat at times with
undisguised contempt. Salviati and Sagredo took their names from two of
Galileo's early friends, the former a learned Florentine, the latter a
distinguished Venetian gentleman; Simplicio ostensibly derived his from
the Cilician commentator of Aristotle, but the choice was doubtless
instigated by a sarcastic regard to the double meaning of the word.
There were not wanting those who insinuated that Galileo intended to
depict the pope himself in the guise of the simpleton of the party; and
the charge, though preposterous in itself, was supported by certain
imprudences of expression, which Urban was not permitted to ignore.

It was at once evident that the whole tenor of this remarkable work was
in flagrant contradiction with the edict passed sixteen years before its
publication, as well as with the author's personal pledge of conformity
to it. The ironical submission with which it opened, and the assumed
indetermination with which it closed, were hardly intended to mask the
vigorous assertion of Copernican principles which formed its substance.
It is a singular circumstance, however, that the argument upon which
Galileo mainly relied as furnishing a physical demonstration of the
truth of the new theory rested on a misconception. The ebb and flow of
the tides were, he asserted, a visible proof of the terrestrial double
movement, since they resulted from inequalities in the absolute
velocities through space of the various parts of the earth's surface,
due to its rotation. To this notion, which took its rise in a confusion
of thought, he attached capital importance, and he treated with scorn
Kepler's suggestion that a certain occult attraction of the moon was in
some way concerned in the phenomenon. The theological censures which the
book did not fail to incur were not slow in making themselves felt.
Towards the end of August the sale was prohibited; on the 1st of
October the author was cited to Rome by the Inquisition. He pleaded his
age, now close upon seventy years, his infirm health, and the obstacles
to travel caused by quarantine regulations; but the pope was sternly
indignant at what he held to be his ingratitude and insubordination, and
no excuse was admitted. At length, on the 13th of February 1633, he
arrived at the residence of Niccolini, the Tuscan ambassador to the
pontifical court, and there abode in retirement for two months. From the
12th to the 30th of April he was detained in the palace of the
Inquisition, where he occupied the best apartments and was treated with
unexampled indulgence. On the 30th he was restored to the hospitality of
Niccolini, his warm partisan. The accusation against him was that he had
written in contravention of the decree of 1616, and in defiance of the
command of the Holy Office communicated to him by Cardinal Bellarmin;
and his defence consisted mainly in a disavowal of his opinions, and an
appeal to his good intentions. On the 21st of June he was finally
examined under menace of torture; but he continued to maintain his
assertion that after its condemnation by the Congregation of the Index,
he had never held the Copernican theory. Since the publication of the
documents relating to this memorable trial, there can no longer be any
doubt, not only that the threat of torture was not carried into
execution, but that it was never intended that it should be. On the 22nd
of June, in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Galileo read his
recantation, and received his sentence. He was condemned, as "vehemently
suspected of heresy," to incarceration at the pleasure of the tribunal,
and by way of penance was enjoined to recite once a week for three years
the seven penitential psalms. This sentence was signed by seven
cardinals, but did not receive the customary papal ratification. The
legend according to which Galileo, rising from his knees after repeating
the formula of abjuration, stamped on the ground, and exclaimed, "_Eppur
si muove!_" is, as may readily be supposed, entirely apocryphal. Its
earliest ascertained appearance is in the Abbé Irailh's _Querelles
littéraires_ (vol. iii. p. 49, 1761).

Galileo remained in the custody of the Inquisition from the 21st to the
24th of June, on which day he was relegated to the Villa Medici on the
Trinità de' Monti. Thence, on the 6th of July, he was permitted to
depart for Siena, where he spent several months in the house of the
archbishop, Ascanio Piccolomini, one of his numerous and trusty friends.
It was not until December that his earnest desire of returning to
Florence was realized, and the remaining eight years of his life were
spent in his villa at Arcetri called "Il Giojello," in the strict
seclusion which was the prescribed condition of his comparative freedom.
Domestic afflictions combined with numerous and painful infirmities to
embitter his old age. His sister-in-law and her whole family, who came
to live with him on his return from Rome, perished shortly afterwards of
the plague; and on the 2nd of April 1634 died, to the inexpressible
grief of her father, his eldest and best-beloved daughter, a nun in the
convent of San Matteo at Arcetri. Galileo was never married; but by a
Venetian woman named Marina Gamba he had three children--a son who
married and left descendants, and two daughters who took the veil at an
early age. His prodigious mental activity continued undiminished to the
last. In 1636 he completed his _Dialoghi delle nuove scienze_, in which
he recapitulated the results of his early experiments and mature
meditations on the principles of mechanics. This in many respects his
most valuable work was printed by the Elzevirs at Leiden in 1638, and
excited admiration equally universal and more lasting than that accorded
to his astronomical treatises. His last telescopic discovery--that of
the moon's diurnal and monthly librations--was made in 1637, only a few
months before his eyes were for ever closed in hopeless blindness. It
was in this condition that Milton found him when he visited him at
Arcetri in 1638. But the fire of his genius was not even yet extinct. He
continued his scientific correspondence with unbroken interest and
undiminished logical acumen; he thought out the application of the
pendulum to the regulation of clockwork, which Huygens successfully
realized fifteen years later; and he was engaged in dictating to his
disciples, Viviani and Torricelli, his latest ideas on the theory of
impact when he was seized with the slow fever which in two months
brought him to the grave. On the 8th of January 1642 he closed his long
life of triumph and humiliation, which just spanned the interval between
the death of Michelangelo and the birth of Isaac Newton.

The direct services which Galileo rendered to astronomy are virtually
summed up in his telescopic discoveries. To the theoretical perfection
of the science he contributed little or nothing. He pointed out indeed
that the so-called "third motion," introduced by Copernicus to account
for the constant parallelism of the earth's axis, was a superfluous
complication. But he substituted the equally unnecessary hypothesis of a
magnetic attraction, and failed to perceive that the phenomenon to be
explained was, in relation to absolute space, not a movement but the
absence of movement. The circumstance, however, which most seriously
detracts from his scientific reputation is his neglect of the
discoveries made during his lifetime by the greatest of his
contemporaries. Kepler's first and second laws were published in 1609,
and his third ten years later. By these momentous inductions the
geometrical theory of the solar system was perfected, and a hitherto
unimagined symmetry was perceived to regulate the mutual relations of
its members. But by Galileo they were passed over in silence. In his
_Dialogo dei massimi sistemi_, printed not less than thirteen years
after the last of the three laws had been given to the world, the
epicycles by which Copernicus, adhering to the ancient postulate of
uniform circular motion, had endeavoured to reduce to theory the
irregularities of the planetary movements, were neither expressly
adopted nor expressly rejected; and the conclusion seems inevitable that
this grave defection from the cause of progress was due to his perhaps
unconscious reluctance to accept discoveries which he had not
originated. His name is nevertheless justly associated with that vast
extension of the bounds of the visible universe which has rendered
modern astronomy the most sublime of sciences, and his telescopic
observations are a standing monument to his sagacity and acumen.

With the sure instinct of genius, he seized the characteristic features
of the phenomena presented to his attention, and his inferences, except
when distorted by polemical exigencies, have been strikingly confirmed
by modern investigations. Of his two capital errors, regarding
respectively the theory of the tides and the nature of comets, the first
was insidiously recommended to him by his passionate desire to find a
physical confirmation of the earth's double motion; the second was
adopted for the purpose of rebutting an anti-Copernican argument founded
on the planetary analogies of those erratic subjects of the sun. Within
two years of their first discovery, he had constructed approximately
accurate tables of the revolutions of Jupiter's satellites, and he
proposed their frequent eclipses as a means of determining longitudes,
not only on land, but at sea. This method, on which he laid great
stress, and for the facilitation of which he invented a binocular glass,
and devised some skilful mechanical contrivances, was offered by him in
1616 to the Spanish government, and afterwards to that of Tuscany, but
in each case unsuccessfully; and the close of his life was occupied with
prolonged but fruitless negotiations on the same subject with the
states-general of Holland. The idea, though ingenious, has been found of
little practical utility at sea.

A series of careful observations made him acquainted with the principal
appearances revealed by modern instruments in the solar spots. He
pointed out that they were limited to a certain defined zone on the
sun's surface; he noted the _faculae_ with which they are associated,
the penumbra by which they are bordered, their slight proper motions and
their rapid changes of form. He inferred from the regularity of their
general movements the rotation of the sun on its axis in a period of
little less than a month; and he grounded on the varying nature of the
paths seemingly traversed by them a plausible, though inconclusive,
argument in favour of the earth's annual revolution. Twice in the year,
he observed, they seem to travel across the solar disk in straight
lines; at other times, in curves. These appearances he referred with
great acuteness to the slight inclination of the sun's axis of rotation
to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, when the earth finds herself in the
plane of the sun's equator, which occurs at two opposite points of her
orbit, the spots, travelling in circles parallel with that plane,
necessarily appear to describe right lines; but when the earth is above
or below the equatorial level, the paths of the spots open out into
curves turned downwards or upwards, according to the direction in which
they are seen. But the explanation of this phenomenon is equally
consistent with the geocentric as with the heliocentric theory of the
solar system. The idea of a universal force of gravitation seems to have
hovered on the borders of this great man's mind, without ever fully
entering it. He perceived the analogy between the power which holds the
moon in the neighbourhood of the earth, and compels Jupiter's satellites
to circulate round their primary, and the attraction exercised by the
earth on bodies at its surface;[3] but he failed to conceive the
combination of central force with tangential velocity, and was disposed
to connect the revolutions of the planets with the axial rotation of the
sun. This notion, it is plain, tended rather towards Descartes's theory
of vortices than towards Newton's theory of gravitation. More valid
instances of the anticipation of modern discoveries may be found in his
prevision that a small annual parallax would eventually be found for
some of the fixed stars, and that extra-Saturnian planets would at some
future time be ascertained to exist, and in his conviction that light
travels with a measurable, although, in relation to terrestrial
distances, infinite velocity.

The invention of the microscope, attributed to Galileo by his first
biographer, Vincenzio Viviani, does not in truth belong to him. Such an
instrument was made as early as 1590 by Zacharias Jansen of Middleburg;
and although Galileo discovered, in 1610, a means of adapting his
telescope to the examination of minute objects, he did not become
acquainted with the compound microscope until 1624 when he saw one of
Drebbel's instruments in Rome, and, with characteristic ingenuity,
immediately introduced some material improvements into its construction.

The most substantial, if not the most brilliant part of his work
consisted undoubtedly in his contributions towards the establishment of
mechanics as a science. Some valuable but isolated facts and theorems
had been previously discovered and proved, but it was he who first
clearly grasped the idea of force as a mechanical agent, and extended to
the external world the conception of the invariability of the relation
between cause and effect. From the time of Archimedes there had existed
a science of equilibrium, but the science of motion began with Galileo.
It is not too much to say that the final triumph of the Copernican
system was due in larger measure to his labours in this department than
to his direct arguments in its favour. The problem of the heavens is
essentially a mechanical one; and without the mechanical conceptions of
the dependence of motion upon force which Galileo familiarized to men's
minds, that problem might have remained a sealed book even to the
intelligence of Newton. The interdependence of motion and force was not
indeed formulated into definite laws by Galileo, but his writings on
dynamics are everywhere suggestive of those laws, and his solutions of
dynamical problems involve their recognition. The extraordinary advances
made by him in this branch of knowledge were owing to his happy method
of applying mathematical analysis to physical problems. As a pure
mathematician he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than
one among his pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative
grasp of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with
Fermat, Descartes or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz.
Still, even in the region of pure mathematics, his powerful and
original mind left notable traces of its working. He studied the
properties of the cycloid, and attempted the problem of its quadrature;
and in the "infinitesimals," which he was one of the first to introduce
into geometrical demonstrations, was contained the fruitful germ of the
differential calculus. But the method which was peculiarly his, and
which still forms the open road to discoveries in natural science,
consisted in the combination of experiment with calculation--in the
transformation of the concrete into the abstract, and the assiduous
comparison of results. The first-fruits of the new system of
investigation was his determination of the laws of falling bodies.
Conceiving that the simplest principle is the most likely to be true, he
assumed as a postulate that bodies falling freely towards the earth
descend with a uniformly accelerated motion, and deduced thence that the
velocities acquired are in the direct, and the spaces traversed in the
duplicate ratio of the times, counted from the beginning of motion;
finally, he proved, by observing the times of descent of bodies falling
down inclined planes, that the postulated law was the true law. Even
here, he was obliged to take for granted that the velocities acquired in
descending from the same height along planes of every inclination are
equal; and it was not until shortly before his death that he found the
mathematical demonstration of this not very obvious principle.

The first law of motion--that which expresses the principle of
inertia--is virtually contained in the idea of uniformly accelerated
velocity. The recognition of the second--that of the independence of
different motions--must be added to form the true theory of projectiles.
This was due to Galileo. Up to his time it was universally held in the
schools that the motion of a body should cease with the impulse
communicated to it, but for the "reaction of the medium" helping it
forward. Galileo showed, on the contrary, that the nature of motion once
impressed is to continue indefinitely in a uniform direction, and that
the effect of the medium is a retarding, not an impelling one. Another
commonly received axiom was that no body could be affected by more than
one movement at one time, and it was thus supposed that a cannon ball,
or other projectile, moves forward in a right line until its first
impulse is exhausted, when it falls vertically to the ground. In the
fourth of Galileo's dialogues on mechanics, he demonstrated that the
path described by a projectile, being the result of the combination of a
uniform transverse motion with a uniformly accelerated vertical motion,
must, apart from the resistance of the air, be a parabola. The
establishment of the principle of the composition of motions formed a
conclusive answer to the most formidable of the arguments used against
the rotation of the earth, and we find it accordingly triumphantly
brought forward by Galileo in the second of his dialogues on the systems
of the world. It was urged by anti-Copernicans that a body flung upward
or cast downward would, if the earth were in motion, be left behind by
the rapid translation of the point from which it started; Galileo proved
on the contrary that the reception of a fresh impulse in no way
interfered with the movement already impressed, and that the rotation of
the earth was insensible, because shared equally by all bodies at its
surface. His theory of the inclined plane, combined with his
satisfactory definition of "momentum," led him towards the third law of
motion. We find Newton's theorem, that "action and reaction are equal
and opposite," stated with approximate precision in his treatise _Della
scienza meccanica_, which contains the substance of lectures delivered
during his professorship at Padua; and the same principle is involved in
the axiom enunciated in the third of his mechanical dialogues, that "the
propensity of a body to fall is equal to the least resistance which
suffices to support it." The problems of percussion, however, received
no definitive solution until after his death.

His services were as conspicuous in the statical as in the kinetical
division of mechanics. He gave the first satisfactory demonstration of
equilibrium on an inclined plane, reducing it to the level by a sound
and ingenious train of reasoning; while, by establishing the theory of
"virtual velocities," he laid down the fundamental principle which, in
the opinion of Lagrange, contains the general expression of the laws of
equilibrium. He studied with attention the still obscure subject of
molecular cohesion, and little has been added to what he ascertained on
the question of transverse strains and the strength of beams, first
brought by him within the scope of mechanical theory. In his _Discorso
intorno alle cose che stanno su l'acqua_, published in 1612, he used the
principle of virtual velocities to demonstrate the more important
theorems of hydrostatics, deducing from it the equilibrium of fluid in a
siphon, and proved against the Aristotelians that the floating of solid
bodies in a liquid depends not upon their form, but upon their specific
gravities relative to such liquid.

In order to form an adequate estimate of the stride made by Galileo in
natural philosophy, it would be necessary to enumerate the confused and
erroneous opinions prevailing on all such subjects in his time. His best
eulogium, it has been truly said, consists in the fallacies which he
exposed. The scholastic distinctions between corruptible and
incorruptible substances, between absolute gravity and absolute levity,
between natural and violent motions, if they did not wholly disappear
from scientific phraseology, ceased thenceforward to hold the place of
honour in the controversies of the learned. Discarding these obscure and
misleading notions, Galileo taught that gravity and levity are relative
terms, and that all bodies are heavy, even those which, like the air,
are invisible; that motion is the result of force, instantaneous or
continuous; that weight is a continuous force, attracting towards the
centre of the earth; that, in a vacuum, all bodies would fall with equal
velocities; that the "inertia of matter" implies the continuance of
motion, as well as the permanence of rest; and that the substance of the
heavenly bodies is equally "corruptible" with that of the earth. These
simple elementary ideas were eminently capable of development and
investigation, and were not only true but the prelude to further truth;
while those they superseded defied inquiry by their vagueness and
obscurity. Galileo was a man born in due time. He was superior to his
contemporaries, but not isolated amongst them. He represented and
intensified a growing tendency of the age in which he lived. It was
beginning to be suspected that from Aristotle an appeal lay to nature,
and some were found who no longer treated the _ipse dixit_ of the
Stagirite as the final authority in matters of science. A vigorous but
ineffectual warfare had already been waged against the blind traditions
of the schools by Ramus and Telesius, by Patricius and Campanella, and
the revolution which Galileo completed had been prepared by his
predecessors. Nevertheless, the task which he so effectually
accomplished demanded the highest and rarest quality of genius. He
struck out for himself the happy middle path between the _a priori_ and
the empirical systems, and exemplified with brilliant success the method
by which experimental science has wrested from nature so many of her
secrets. His mind was eminently practical. He concerned himself above
all with what fell within the range of exact inquiry, and left to others
the larger but less fruitful speculations which can never be brought to
the direct test of experiment. Thus, while far-reaching but hasty
generalizations have had their day and been forgotten, his work has
proved permanent, because he made sure of its foundations. His keen
intuition of truth, his vigour and yet sobriety of argument, his
fertility of illustration and acuteness of sarcasm, made him
irresistible to his antagonists; and the evanescent triumphs of scornful
controversy have given place to the sedate applause of a long-lived
posterity.

  The first complete edition of Galileo's writings was published at
  Florence (1842-1856), in 16 8vo vols., under the supervision of Signor
  Eugenio Albèri. Besides the works already enumerated, it contained the
  _Sermones de motu gravium_ composed at Pisa between 1589 and 1591; his
  letters to his friends, with many of their replies, as well as several
  of the essays of his scientific opponents; his laudatory comments on
  the _Orlando Furioso_, and depreciatory notes on the _Gerusalemme
  Liberata_, some stanzas and sonnets of no great merit, together with
  the sketch of a comedy; finally, a reprint of Viviani's _Life_, with
  valuable notes and corrections. The original documents from the
  archives of the Inquisition, relating to the events of 1616 and 1633,
  recovered from Paris in 1846 by the efforts of Count Rossi, and now in
  the Vatican Library, were to a limited extent made public by Monsignor
  Marino-Marini in 1850, and more unreservedly by M. Henri de l'Épinois,
  in an essay entitled _Galilée, son procès, sa condemnation_,
  published in 1867 in the _Revue des questions historiques_. He was
  followed by M. Karl von Gebler, who, in an able and exhaustive but
  somewhat prejudiced work, _Galileo Galilei und die römische Curie_
  (Stuttgart, 1876), sought to impeach the authenticity of a document of
  prime importance in the trial of 1633. He was victoriously answered by
  Signor Domenico Berti, in _Il Processo originale di Galileo Galilei_
  (Rome, 1876), and by M. de l'Épinois, with _Les pièces du procès de
  Galilée_ (Rome, Paris, 1877). The touching letters of Galileo's eldest
  daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, to her father were printed in 1864 by
  Professor Carlo Arduini, in a publication entitled _La Primogenita di
  Galileo Galilei_.

  The issue of a "national edition" of the Works of Galileo, in 20 large
  volumes, was begun at Florence in 1890. It includes a mass of
  previously inedited correspondence and other documents, collected by
  the indefatigable director, Professor Antonio Favaro, among whose
  numerous publications on Galilean subjects may be mentioned: _Galileo
  e lo studio di Padova_ (2 vols., 1883); _Scampoli Galileani_ (12
  series, 1886-1897); _Nuovi Studii Galileani_ (1891); _Galileo Galilei
  e Suor Maria Celeste_ (1891). See also Th. Henri Martin's _Galilée,
  les droits de la science et la méthode des sciences physiques_ (1868);
  _Private Life of Galileo_ (by Mrs Olney, 1870); J.J. Fahie's _Galileo;
  his Life and Work_ (1903); _Galilée et Marius_, by J.A.C. Oudemans and
  J. Bosscha (1903). The relations of Galileo to the Church are
  temperately and ably discussed by F.R. Wegg-Prosser in _Galileo and
  his Judges_ (1889), and in two articles published in the _American
  Catholic Quarterly_ for April and July 1901.     (A. M. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The word _telescope_, from [Greek: têle], far, [Greek: skopein],
    to view, was invented by Demiscianus, an eminent Greek scholar, at
    the request of Prince Cesi, president of the Lyncean Academy. It was
    used by Galileo as early as 1612, but was not introduced into England
    until much later. In 1655 the word _telescope_ was inserted and
    explained in Bagwell's _Mysteries of Astronomy_, _trunk_ or
    _cylinder_ being the terms until then ordinarily employed.

  [2] Leonardo da Vinci, more than a hundred years earlier, had come to
    the same conclusion.

  [3] The passage is sufficiently remarkable to deserve quotation in
    the original:--"Le parti della Terra hanno tal propensione al centro
    di essa, che quando ella cangiasse luogo, le dette parti, benchè
    lontane dal globo nel tempo delle mutazioni di esso, lo seguirebbero
    per tutto; esempio di ciò sia il seguito perpetuo delle Medicee,
    ancorchè separate continuamente da Giove. L'istesso si deve dire
    della Luna, obbligata a seguir la Terra."--_Dialogo dei massimi
    sistemi_, Giornata terza, p. 351 of Albèri's edition.



GALION, a city of Crawford County, Ohio, U.S.A., about 75 m. S.W. of
Cleveland. Pop. (1890) 6326; (1900) 7282 (703 foreign-born); (1910)
7214. It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and
the Erie railways, and by an interurban electric railway. The city is
about 1165 ft. above sea level, and has extensive railway shops (of the
Erie railway) and manufactories of brick and tile machinery, carriages
and wagons, and grain and seed cleaners. The municipality owns and
operates its electric-lighting plant. Galion was laid out as a town in
1831, was incorporated as a borough in 1840, and was chartered as a city
in 1878.



GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH (1758-1828), anatomist, physiologist, and founder of
phrenology (q.v.), was born at Tiefenbrunn near Pforzheim, Baden, on the
9th of March 1758. After completing the usual literary course at Baden
and Bruchsal, he began the study of medicine under J. Hermann
(1738-1800) at Strassburg, whence, attracted by the names of Gerhard van
Swieten (1700-1772) and Maximilian Stoll (1742-1788), he removed to
Vienna in 1781. Having received his diploma, he began to practise as a
physician there in 1785; but his energies were mainly devoted to the
scientific investigation of problems which had occupied his attention
from boyhood. At a comparatively early period he formed the
generalization that in the human subject at least a powerful memory is
invariably associated with prominent eyes; and further observation
enabled him, as he thought, also to define the external characteristics
indicative of special talents for painting, music and the mechanical
arts. Following out these researches, he gradually reached the strong
conviction, not only that the talents and dispositions of men are
dependent upon the functions of the brain, but also that they may be
inferred with perfect exactitude and precision from the external
appearances of the skull. Gall's first appearance as an author was made
in 1791, when he published the first two chapters of a (never completed)
work entitled _Philosophisch-medicinische Untersuchungen über Natur u.
Kunst im kranken u. gesunden Zustande des Menschen_. The first public
notice of his inquiries in cranioscopy, however, was in the form of a
letter addressed to a friend, which appeared in C.M. Wieland's
_Deutscher Mercur_ in 1798; but two years previously he had begun to
give private courses of phrenological lectures in Vienna, where his
doctrines soon attracted general attention, and met with increasing
success until, in 1802, they were interdicted by the government as being
dangerous to religion. This step on the part of the authorities had the
effect of greatly stimulating public curiosity and increasing Gall's
celebrity.

In March 1805 he finally left Vienna in company with his friend and
associate J.C. Spurzheim, and made a tour through Germany, in the course
of which he lectured in Berlin, Dresden, Magdeburg and several of the
university towns. His expositions, which he knew how to make popular and
attractive, were much resorted to by the public, and excited
considerable controversy in the scientific world. He had almost reached
the zenith of his fame when, in 1807, he repaired to Paris and
established himself there as a medical practitioner, at the same time
continuing his activity as a lecturer and writer. In 1808 appeared his
_Introduction au cours de physiologie du cerveau_, which was followed in
1809 by the _Recherches sur le système nerveux en général, et sur celui
du cerveau en particulier_ (originally laid before the Institute of
France in March 1808), and in 1810 by the first instalment of the
_Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, et du cerveau en
particulier, avec des observations sur la possibilité de reconnaître
plusieurs dispositions intellectuelles et morales de l'homme et des
animaux par la configuration de leurs têtes._ The _Recherches_ and the
first two volumes of the _Anatomie_ bear the conjoint names of Gall and
Spurzheim. The latter work was completed in 1819, and appeared in a
second edition of six volumes in 1822-1825. In 1811 he replied to a
charge of Spinozism or atheism, which had been strongly urged against
him, by a treatise entitled _Des dispositions innées de l'âme et de
l'esprit_, which he afterwards incorporated with his greater work. In
1819 he became a naturalized French subject, but his efforts two years
afterwards to obtain admission to the Academy of Sciences, although
supported by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, were unsuccessful. In 1823 he
visited London with the intention of giving a series of phrenological
lectures, but his reception was not what he had anticipated, and he
speedily abandoned his plans. He continued to lecture and practise in
Paris until the beginning of 1828, when he was disabled by an apoplectic
seizure. His death took place at Montrouge near Paris, on the 22nd of
August 1828.



GALL (a word common to many Teutonic languages, cf. Dutch _gal_, and
Ger. _Galle_; the Indo-European root appears in Gr. [Greek: cholê] and
Lat. _fel_; possibly connected with "yellow," with reference to the
colour of bile), the secretion of the liver known as "bile," the term
being also used of the pear-shaped _diverticulum_ of the bile-duct,
which forms a reservoir for the bile, more generally known as the
"gall-bladder" (see LIVER). From the extreme bitterness of the
secretion, "gall," like the Lat. _fel_, is used for anything extremely
bitter, whether actually or metaphorically. From the idea that the
gall-bladder was the dominating organ of a bitter, sharp temperament,
"gall" was formerly used in English for such a spirit, and also for one
very ready to resent injuries. It thus survives in American slang, with
the meaning "impudence" or "assurance."

"Gall," meaning a sore or painful swelling, especially on a horse, may
be the same word, derived from an early use of the word as meaning
"poison." On the other hand, in Romanic languages, the Fr. _galle_, Sp.
_agalla_, a wind-gall or puffy distension of the synovial bursa on the
fetlock joint of a horse, is derived from the Lat. _galla_, oak-apple,
from which comes the English "gall," meaning an excrescence on trees
caused by certain insects. (See GALLS.)



GALLABAT, or GALABAT, called by the Abyssinians Matemma (Metemma), a
town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, in 13° N. 36° 12' E. It is built, at
the foot of a steep slope, on the left bank of a tributary of the Atbara
called the Khor Abnaheir, which forms here the Sudan-Abyssinian
frontier. Gallabat lies 90 m. W. by N. of Gondar, the capital of Amhara,
and being on the main route from Sennar to Abyssinia, is a trade centre
of some importance. Pop. about 3000. The majority of the buildings are
grass _tukls_. Slaves, beeswax, coffee, cotton and hides were formerly
the chief articles of commerce. The slave market was closed about 1874.
Being on the frontier line, the possession of the town was for long a
matter of dispute between the Sudanese, and later the Egyptians, on the
one hand and the Abyssinians on the other. About 1870 the Egyptians
garrisoned the town, which in 1886 was attacked by the dervishes and
sacked. From Gallabat a dervish raiding party penetrated to Gondar,
which they looted. In revenge an Abyssinian army under King John
attacked the dervishes close to Gallabat in March 1889. The dervishes
suffered very severely, but King John being killed by a stray bullet,
the Abyssinians retired (see EGYPT: _Military Operations_, 1885-1896).
In December 1898 an Anglo-Egyptian force entered Gallabat. The
Abyssinians then held the fort, but as the result of frontier
arrangement the town was definitely included in the Sudan, though
Abyssinia takes half the customs revenue. Since 1899 the trade of the
place has revived, coffee and live stock being the most important items.

The town and district form a small ethnographical island, having been
peopled in the 18th century by a colony of Takruri from Darfur, who,
finding the spot a convenient resting-place for their fellow-pilgrims on
their way to Mecca and back, obtained permission from the negus of
Abyssinia to make a permanent settlement. They are an industrious
agricultural race, and cultivate cotton with considerable success. They
also collect honey in large quantities. The Takruri possess jagged
throwing knives, which are said to have been brought from their original
home in the Upper Congo regions.



GALLAIT, LOUIS (1810-1887), Belgian painter, was born at Tournay, in
Hainaut, Belgium, on the 9th of May 1810. He first studied in his native
town under Hennequin. In 1832 his first picture, "Tribute to Caesar,"
won a prize at the exhibition at Ghent. He then went to Antwerp to
prosecute his studies under Mathieu Ignace Van Brée, and in the
following year exhibited at the Brussels Salon "Christ Healing the
Blind." This picture was purchased by subscription and placed in the
cathedral at Tournay. Gallait next went to Paris, whence he sent to the
Belgian Salons "Job on the Dunghill," "Montaigne Visiting Tasso in
Prison"; and, in 1841, "The Abdication of Charles V.," in the Brussels
Gallery. This was hailed as a triumph, and gained for the painter a
European reputation. Official invitations then caused him to settle at
Brussels, where he died on the 20th of November 1887. Among his greater
works may be named: "The Last Honours paid to Counts Egmont and Horn by
the Corporations of the Town of Brussels," now at Tournay; "The Death of
Egmont," in the Berlin gallery; the "Coronation of Baudouin, Emperor of
Constantinople," painted for Versailles; "The Temptation of St Anthony,"
in the palace at Brussels; "The Siege of Antioch," "Art and Liberty," a
"Portrait of M.B. Dumortier" and "The Plague at Tournay," all in the
Brussels gallery. "A Gipsy Woman and her Children" was painted in 1852.
"M. Gallait has all the gifts that may be acquired by work, taste,
judgment and determination," wrote Théophile Gautier; his art is that of
a man of tact, a skilled painter, happy in his dramatic treatment but
superficial. No doubt, this Walloon artist, following the example of the
Flemings of the Renaissance and the treatment of Belgian classical
painters and the French Romantic school, sincerely aimed at truth;
unfortunately, misled by contemporary taste, he could not conceive of it
excepting as dressed in sentimentality. As an artist employed by the
State he exercised considerable influence, and for a long period he was
the leader of public taste in Brussels.

  See Teichlin, _Louis Gallait und die Malerei in Deutschland_ (1853);
  J. Dujardin, _L'Art flamand_ (1899); C. Lemonnier, _Histoire des
  beaux-arts en Belgique_ (1881).



GALLAND, ANTOINE (1646-1715), French Orientalist and archaeologist, the
first European translator of the _Arabian Nights_, was born on the 4th
of April 1646 at Rollot, in the department of Somme. The completion of
his school education at Noyon was followed by a brief apprenticeship to
a trade, from which, however, he soon escaped, to pursue his linguistic
studies at Paris. After having been employed for some time in making a
catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at the Sorbonne, he was, in 1670,
attached to the French embassy at Constantinople; and in 1673 he
travelled in Syria and the Levant, where he copied a great number of
inscriptions, and sketched, and in some cases removed historical
monuments. After a brief visit to France, where his collection of
ancient coins attracted some attention, Galland returned to the Levant
in 1676; and in 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being commissioned by
the French East India Company to collect for the cabinet of Colbert; on
the expiration of this commission he was instructed by the government to
continue his researches, and had the title of "antiquary to the king"
conferred upon him. During his prolonged residences abroad he acquired a
thorough knowledge of the Arabic, Turkish and Persian languages and
literatures, which, on his final return to France, enabled him to render
valuable assistance to Thevenot, the keeper of the royal library, and to
Barthélemy d'Herbelot. After their deaths he lived for some time at Caen
under the roof of Nicolas Foucault (1643-1721), the intendant of Caen,
himself no mean archaeologist; and there he began the publication (12
vols., 1704-1717) of _Les mille et une nuits_, which excited immense
interest during the time of its appearance, and is still the standard
French translation. It had no pretensions to verbal accuracy, and the
coarseness of the language was modified to suit European taste, but the
narrative was adequately rendered. In 1701 Galland had been admitted
into the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1709 he was appointed to the
chair of Arabic in the Collège de France. He continued to discharge the
duties of this post until his death, which took place on the 17th of
February 1715.

  Besides a number of archaeological works, especially in the department
  of numismatics, he published a compilation from the Arabic, Persian
  and Turkish, entitled _Paroles remarquables, bons mots et maximes des
  orientaux_ (1694), and a translation from an Arabic manuscript, _De
  l'origine et du progrès du café_ (1699). The former of these works
  appeared in an English translation in 1795. His _Contes et fables
  indiennes de Bidpaï et de Lokman_ was published (1724) after his
  death. Among his numerous unpublished manuscripts are a translation of
  the Koran and a _Histoire générale des empereurs turcs_. His _Journal_
  was published by M. Charles Schefer in 1881.



GALLARATE, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Milan, from
which it is 25 m. N.W. by rail. Pop. (1901) 12,002. The town is of
medieval origin. It is remarkable mainly for its textile factories. It
is the junction of railways to Varese, Laveno and Arona (for the
Simplon). Six miles to the W. are the electric works of Vizzola, the
largest in Europe, where 23,000 h.p. are derived from the river Ticino.



GALLARS [in Lat. GALLASIUS], NICOLAS DES (c. 1520-c. 1580), Calvinistic
divine, first appears as author of a _Defensio_ of William Farel,
published at Geneva in 1545, followed (1545-1549) by translations into
French of three tracts by Calvin. In 1551 he was admitted burgess of
Geneva, and in 1553 made pastor of a country church in the
neighbourhood. In 1557 he was sent to minister to the Protestants at
Paris; his conductor, Nicolas du Rousseau, having prohibited books in
his possession, was executed at Dijon; des Gallars, having nothing
suspicious about him, continued his journey. On the revival of the
Strangers' church in London (1560), he, being then minister at Geneva,
came to London to organize the French branch; and in 1561 he published
_La Forme de police ecclésiastique instituée à Londres en l'Église des
François_. In the same year he assisted Beza at the colloquy of Poissy.
He became minister to the Protestants at Orleans in 1564; presided at
the synod of Paris in 1565; was driven out of Orleans with other
Protestants in 1568; and in 1571 was chaplain to Jeanne d'Albret, queen
of Navarre. Calvin held him in high esteem, employing him as amanuensis,
and as editor as well as translator of several of his exegetical and
polemical works. He himself wrote a commentary on Exodus (1560); edited
an annotated French Bible (1562) and New Testament (1562); and published
tracts against Arians (1565-1566). His main work was his edition of
Irenaeus (1570) with prefatory letter to Grindal, then bishop of London,
and giving, for the first time, some fragments of the Greek text. His
collaboration with Beza in the _Histoire des Églises Réformées du
royaume de France_ (1580) is doubted by Bayle.

  See Bayle, _Dictionnaire hist. et crit._; Jean Senebier, _Hist.
  littéraire de Genève_ (1786); _Nouvelle Biog. gén._ (1857),
       (A. Go.*)



GALLAS, MATTHIAS, COUNT OF CAMPO, DUKE OF LUCERA (1584-1647), Austrian
soldier, first saw service in Flanders, and in Savoy with the Spaniards,
and subsequently joined the forces of the Catholic League as captain. On
the general outbreak of hostilities in Germany, Gallas, as colonel of an
infantry regiment, distinguished himself, especially at the battle of
Stadtlohn (1623). In 1630 he was serving as _General-Feldwachtmeister_
under Collalto in Italy, and was mainly instrumental in the capture of
Mantua. Made count of the Empire for this service, he returned to
Germany for the campaign against Gustavus Adolphus. In command of a
corps of Wallenstein's army, he covered Bohemia against the Swedes in
1631-1632, and served at the Alte Veste near Nuremberg, and at Lützen.
Further good service against Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar commended General
Gallas to the notice of the emperor, who made him lieutenant-general in
his own army. He was one of the chief conspirators against Wallenstein,
and after the tragedy of Eger was appointed to the command of the army
which Wallenstein had formed and led. At the great battle of Nördlingen
(23rd of August 1634) in which the army of Sweden was almost
annihilated, Gallas commanded the victorious Imperialists. His next
command was in Lorraine, but even the Moselle valley had suffered so
much from the ravages of war that his army perished of want. Still more
was this the case in northern Germany, where Gallas commanded against
the Swedish general Banér in 1637 and 1638. At first driving the Swedes
before him, in the end he made a complete failure of the campaign, lost
his command, and was subject to much ridicule. It was, however, rather
the indiscipline of his men (the baneful legacy of Wallenstein's
methods) than his own faults which brought about his disastrous retreat
across North Germany, and at a moment of crisis he was recalled to
endeavour to stop Torstenson's victorious advance, only to be shut up in
Magdeburg, whence he escaped with the barest remnant of his forces. Once
more relieved of his command, he was again recalled to make head against
the Swedes in 1645 (after their victory at Jankow). Before long, old and
warworn, he resigned his command, and died in 1647 at Vienna. His army
had earned for itself the reputation of being the most cruel and
rapacious force even in the Thirty Years' War, and his _Merode Brüder_
have survived in the word _marauder_. Like many other generals of that
period, he had acquired much wealth and great territorial possessions
(the latter mostly his share of Wallenstein's estates). He was the
founder of the Austrian family of Clam-Gallas, which furnished many
distinguished soldiers to the Imperial army.



GALLAS, or more correctly GALLA, a powerful Hamitic people of eastern
Africa, scattered over the wide region which extends for about 1000 m.
from the central parts of Abyssinia to the neighbourhood of the river
Sabaki in British East Africa. The name "Galla" or "Gala" appears to be
an Abyssinian nickname, unknown to the people, who call themselves _Ilm'
Orma_, "sons of men" or "sons of Orma," an eponymous hero. In Shoa
(Abyssinia) the word is connected with the river Gála in Guragie, on the
banks of which a great battle is said to have been fought between the
Galla and the Abyssinians. Arnaud d'Abbadie says that the Abyssinian
Moslems recount that, when summoned by the Prophet's messenger to adopt
Islam, the chief of the Galla said "No,"--in Arabic _kal_ (or _gal_)
_la_,--and the Prophet on hearing this said, "Then let their very name
imply their denial of the Faith." Of all Hamitic peoples the Galla are
the most numerous. Dr J. Ludwig Krapf estimated them (c. 1860) at from
six to eight millions; later authorities put them at not much over three
millions. Individual tribes are said to be able to bring 20,000 to
30,000 horsemen into the field.

Hardly anything is definitely known as to the origin and early home of
the race, but it appears to have occupied the southern part of its
present territory since the 16th century. According to Hiob Ludolf and
James Bruce, the Galla invaders first crossed the Abyssinian frontiers
in the year 1537. The Galla of Gojam (a district along the northern side
of the river Abai) tell how their savage forefathers came from the
south-east from a country on the other side of a bahr (lake or river),
and the Yejju and Raia Galla also point towards the east and commemorate
the passage of a bahr. Among the southern Galla tradition appears to be
mainly concerned with the expulsion of the race from the country now
occupied by the Somali. Their original home was possibly in the district
east of Victoria Nyanza, for the tribes near Mount Kenya are stated to
go on periodical pilgrimages to the mountain, making offerings to it as
if to their mother. A theory has been advanced that the great exodus
which it seems certain took place among the peoples throughout eastern
Africa during the 15th century was caused by some great eruption of
Kenya and other volcanoes of equatorial Africa. As a geographical term
Galla-land is now used mainly to denote the south-central regions of the
Abyssinian empire, the country in which the Galla are numerically
strongest. There is no sharp dividing line between the territory
occupied respectively by the Galla and by the Somali.

In any case the Galla must be regarded as members of that vast eastern
Hamitic family which includes their neighbours, the Somali, the Afars
(Danakil) and the Abyssinians. As in all the eastern Hamites, there is a
perceptible strain of Negro blood in the Galla, who are, however,
described by Sir Frederick Lugard as "a wonderfully handsome race, with
high foreheads, brown skins, and soft wavy hair quite different from the
wool of the Bantus." As a rule their features are quite European. Their
colour is dark brown, but many of the northern Galla are of a coffee and
milk tint. The finest men are to be found among the Limmu and Gudru on
the river Abai.

  The Galla are for the most part still in the nomadic and pastoral
  stage, though in Abyssinia they have some agricultural settlements.
  Their dwellings, circles of rough stones roofed with grasses, are
  generally built under trees. Their wealth consists chiefly in cattle
  and horses. Among the southern tribes it is said that about seven or
  eight head of cattle are kept for every man, woman and child; and
  among the northern tribes, as neither man nor woman ever thinks of
  going any distance on foot, the number of horses is very large. The
  ordinary food consists of flesh, blood, milk, butter and honey, the
  last being considered of so much importance by the southern Galla that
  a rude system of bee-keeping is in vogue, and the husband who fails to
  furnish his wife with a sufficient supply of honey may be excluded
  from all conjugal rights. In the south monogamy is the rule, but in
  the north the number of a man's wives is limited only by his wishes
  and his wealth. Marriage-forms are numerous, that of bride-capture
  being common. Each tribe has its own chief, who enjoys the strange
  privilege of being the only merchant for his people, but in all public
  concerns must take the advice of the fathers of families assembled in
  council. The greater proportion of the tribes are still pagan,
  worshipping a supreme god Waka, and the subordinate god and goddess
  Oglieh and Atetieh, whose favour is secured by sacrifices of oxen and
  sheep. With a strange liberality of sentiment, they say that at a
  certain time of the year Waka leaves them and goes to attend to the
  wants of their enemies the Somali, whom also he has created. Some
  tribes, and notably the Wollo Galla, have been converted to
  Mahommedanism and are very bigoted adherents of the Prophet. In the
  north, where the Galla are under Abyssinian rule, a kind of
  superficial Christianization has taken place, to the extent at least
  that the people are familiar with the names of Maremma or Mary,
  Balawold or Jesus, Girgis or St George, &c.; but to all practical
  intents paganism is still in force. The serpent is a special object of
  worship, the northern Galla believing that he is the author of the
  human race. There is a belief in were-wolves (_buda_), and the
  northern Galla have sorcerers who terrorize the people. Though cruel
  in war, all Galla respect their pledged word. They are armed with a
  lance, a two-edged knife, and a shield of buffalo or rhinoceros hide.
  A considerable number find employment in the Abyssinian armies.

  Among the more important tribes in the south (the name in each
  instance being compounded with Galla) are the Ramatta, the Kukatta,
  the Baole, the Aurova, the Wadjole, the Ilani, the Arrar and the
  Kanigo Galla; the Borani, a very powerful tribe, may be considered to
  mark the division between north and south; and in the north we find
  the Amoro, the Jarso, the Toolama, the Wollo, the Ambassil, the Aijjo,
  and the Azobo Galla.

  See C.T. Beke, "On the Origin of the Gallas," in _Trans. of Brit.
  Assoc._ (1847); J. Ludwig Krapf, _Travels in Eastern Africa_ (1860);
  and _Vocabulary of the Galla Language_ (London, 1842); Arnaud
  d'Abbadie, _Douze Ans dans la Haute-Éthiopie_ (1868); Ph. Paulitschke,
  _Ethnographie Nord-Ost-Afrikas_; _Die geistige Kultur der Dan'akil,
  Galla u. Somâl_ (Berlin, 1896); P.M. de Salviac, _Les Galla_ (Paris,
  1901).



GALLATIN, ALBERT (1761-1849), American statesman, was born in Geneva
(Switzerland) on the 29th of January 1761. The Gallatins were both an
old and a noble family. They are first heard of in Savoy in the year
1258, and more than two centuries later they went to Geneva (1510),
united with Calvin in his opposition to Rome, and associated their
fortunes with those of the little Swiss city. Here they remained, and
with one or two other great families governed Geneva, and sent forth
many representatives to seek their fortune and win distinction in the
service of foreign princes, both as soldiers and ministers. On the eve
of the French Revolution the Gallatins were still in Geneva, occupying
the same position which they had held for two hundred years. Albert
Gallatin's father died in 1765, his mother five years later, and his
only sister in 1777. Although left an orphan at nine, he was by no means
lonely or unprotected. His grandparents, a large circle of near
relatives and Mlle Catherine Pictet (d. 1795), an intimate friend of his
mother, cared for him during his boyhood. He was thoroughly educated at
the schools of Geneva, and graduated with honour from the college or
academy there in 1779. His grandmother then wished him to enter the army
of the landgrave of Hesse, but he declined to serve "a tyrant," and a
year later slipped away from Geneva and embarked for the United States.
A competent fortune, good prospects, social position, and a strong
family connexion were all thrown aside in order to tempt fate in the New
World. His relatives very properly opposed his course, but they
nevertheless did all in their power to smooth his way, and continued to
treat him kindly. In after life he himself admitted the justice of their
opinions. The temper of the times, a vague discontent with the
established order of things, and some political enthusiasm imbibed from
the writings of Rousseau, are the best reasons which can now be assigned
for Gallatin's desertion of home and friends.

In July 1780 Gallatin and his friend Henri Serre (d. 1784) landed in
Massachusetts. They brought with them youth, hope and courage, as well
as a little money, and at once entered into business. The times,
however, were unfavourable. The great convulsion of the Revolution was
drawing to a close, and everything was in an unsettled condition. The
young Genevans failed in business, passed a severe winter in the wilds
of Maine, and returned to Boston penniless. Gallatin tried to earn a
living by teaching French in Harvard College, apparently not without
success, but the cold and rigid civilization of New England repelled
him, and he made his way to the South. In the backwoods of Pennsylvania
and Virginia there seemed to be better chances for a young adventurer.
Gallatin engaged in land speculations, and tried to lay the foundation
of his fortune in a frontier farm. In 1789 he married Sophie Allègre,
and every prospect seemed to be brightening. But clouds soon gathered
again. After only a few months of wedlock his wife died, and Gallatin
was once more alone. The solitary and desolate frontier life became now
more dreary than ever; he flung himself into politics, the only outside
resource open to him, and his long, and eventful public career began.

The constitution of 1787 was then before the public, and Gallatin, with
his dislike of strong government still upon him, threw himself into
opposition and became one of the founders of the Anti-Federalist, or, as
it was afterwards called, the Republican party. He was a member of the
Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1789-1790, and of the
Pennsylvania Assembly in 1790, 1791, and 1792, and rose with surprising
rapidity, despite his foreign birth and his inability to speak English
with correctness or fluency. He was helped of course by his sound
education; but the true cause of his success lay in his strong sense,
untiring industry, courage, clear-sightedness and great intellectual
force. In 1793 he was chosen United States senator from Pennsylvania by
the votes of both political parties. No higher tribute was ever paid to
character and ability than that conveyed by this election. But the
staunch Federalists of the senate, who had begun to draw the party lines
rather sharply, found the presence of the young Genevan highly
distasteful. They disliked his French origin, and suspected him to be a
man of levelling principles. His seat was contested on account of a
technical flaw in regard to the duration of his citizenship, and in
February 1794, almost three months after the beginning of the session,
the senate annulled the election and sent him back to Pennsylvania with
all the glory of political martyrdom.

The leading part which Gallatin had taken in the "Whisky Insurrection"
in Western Pennsylvania had, without doubt, been an efficient cause in
his rejection by the senate. He intended fully to restrain within legal
bounds the opposition which the excise on domestic spirits had provoked,
but he made the serious mistake of not allowing sufficiently for the
character of the backwoods population. When legal resistance developed
into insurrection, Gallatin did his best to retrieve his error and
prevent open war. At Redstone Old Fort (Brownsville) on the 29th of
August 1794, before the "Committee of Sixty" who were appointed to
represent the disaffected people, he opposed with vigorous eloquence the
use of force against the government, and refused to be intimidated by an
excited band of riflemen who happened to be in the vicinity and
represented the radical element. He effectively checked the excitement,
and when a month later an overwhelming Federal force began moving upon
the western counties, the insurrection collapsed without bloodshed. Of
all the men who took part in the opposition to the excise, Gallatin
alone came out with credit. He was at once elected to the national house
of representatives, and took his seat in December 1795. There, by sheer
force of ability and industry, he wrested from all competitors the
leadership of the Republicans, and became the most dangerous opponent
whom the Federalists had ever encountered in congress. Inflamed with a
hatred of France just then rising to the dignity of a party principle,
they found in Gallatin an enemy who was both by origin and opinion
peculiarly obnoxious to them. They attacked him unsparingly, but in
vain. His perfect command of temper, his moderation of speech and
action, in a bitterly personal age, never failed, and were his most
effective weapons; but he made his power felt in other ways. His clear
mind and industrious habits drew him to questions of finance. He became
the financier of his party, preached unceasingly his cardinal doctrines
of simplicity and economy, and was an effective critic of the measures
of government. Cool and temperate, Gallatin, when following his own
theories, was usually in the right, although accused by his followers of
trimming. Thus, in regard to the Jay treaty, he defended the
constitutional right of the house to consider the treaty, but he did not
urge rejection in this specific case. On the other hand, when following
a purely party policy he generally erred. He resisted the navy, the
mainspring of Washington's foreign policy; he opposed commercial
treaties and diplomatic intercourse in a similar fashion. On these
points he was grievously wrong, and on all he changed his views after a
good deal of bitter experience.

The greatest period of Gallatin's career in congress was in 1798, after
the publication of the famous X.Y.Z. despatches. The insults of
Talleyrand, and his shameless attempts to extort bribes from the
American commissioners, roused the deep anger of the people against
France. The Federalists swept all before them, and the members of the
opposition either retired from Philadelphia or went over to the
government. Alone and single-handed, Gallatin carried on the fight in
congress. The Federalists bore down on him unmercifully, and even
attempted (1798) a constitutional amendment in regard to citizenship,
partly, it appears, in order to drive him from office. Still he held on,
making a national struggle in the national legislature, and relying very
little upon the rights of States so eagerly grasped by Jefferson and
Madison. But even then the tide was turning. The strong measures of the
Federalists shocked the country; the leaders of the dominant party
quarrelled fiercely among themselves; and the Republicans carried the
elections of 1800. In the exciting contest for the presidency in the
house of representatives between Jefferson and Burr, it was Gallatin who
led the Republicans.

When, after this contest, Jefferson became president (1801), there were
two men whose commanding abilities marked them for the first places in
the cabinet. James Madison became secretary of state, and Albert
Gallatin secretary of the treasury. Wise, prudent and conservative,
Gallatin made few changes in Hamilton's arrangements, and for twelve
years administered the national finances with the greatest skill. He and
Jefferson were both imbued with the idea that government could be
carried on upon a priori principles resting on the assumed perfectness
of human nature, and the chief burden of carrying out this theory fell
upon Gallatin. His guiding principles were still simplicity of
administration and speedy extinction of all debt, and everything bent to
these objects. Fighting or bribing the Barbary pirates was a mere
question of expense. It was cheaper to seize Louisiana than to await the
settlement of doubtful points. Commercial warfare was to be avoided
because of the cost. All wars were bad, but if they could not be evaded
it was less extravagant to be ready than to rush to arms unprepared.
Amid many difficulties, and thwarted even by Jefferson himself in the
matter of the navy, Gallatin pushed on; and after six years the public
debt was decreased (in spite of the Louisiana purchase) by $14,260,000,
a large surplus was on hand, a comprehensive and beneficent scheme of
internal improvements was ready for execution, and the promised land
seemed in sight. Then came the stress of war in Europe, a wretched
neutrality at home, fierce outbreaks of human passions, and the fair
structure of government by a priori theories based on the goodness of
unoppressed humanity came to the ground. Gallatin was thrown helplessly
back upon the rejected Federalist doctrine of government according to
circumstances. He uttered no vain regrets, but the position was a trying
one. The sworn foe of strong government, he was compelled, in pursuance
of Jefferson's policy, to put into execution the Embargo and other
radical and stringent measures. He did his best, but all was in vain.
Commercial warfare failed, the Embargo was repealed, and Jefferson,
having entangled foreign relations and brought the country to the verge
of civil war, retired to private life, leaving to his successor Madison,
and to Gallatin, the task of extricating the nation from its
difficulties. From 1809 the new administration, drifting steadily
towards war, struggled on from one abortive and exasperating negotiation
to another. It was a period of sore trial to Gallatin. The peace policy
had failed, and nothing else replaced it. He had lost his hold upon
Pennsylvania and his support in the house, while a cabal in the senate,
bitterly and personally hostile to the treasury, crippled the
administration and reduced every government measure to mere inanity. At
last, however, in June 1812, congress on Madison's recommendation
declared war against England.

Gallatin never wasted time in futile complaints. His cherished schemes
were shattered. War and extravagant expenditure had come, and he
believed both to be fatal to the prosperity and progress of America. He
therefore put the finances in the best order he could, and set himself
to mitigate the evil effects of the war by obtaining an early peace.
With this end in view he grasped eagerly at the proffered mediation of
Russia, and without resigning the treasury sailed for Europe in May
1813.

Russian mediation proved barren, but Gallatin persevered, catching at
every opportunity for negotiation. In the midst of his labours came the
news that the senate had refused to confirm his appointment as peace
commissioner. He still toiled on unofficially until, the objection of
the senate having been met by the appointment of a new secretary of the
treasury, his second nomination was approved, and he was able to proceed
with direct negotiations. The English and American commissioners finally
met at Ghent, and in the tedious and irritating discussions which ensued
Gallatin took the leading part. His great difficulty lay in managing his
colleagues, who were, especially Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams, able
men of strong wills and jarring tempers. He succeeded in preserving
harmony, and thus established his own reputation as an able diplomatist.
Peace was his reward; on the 24th of December 1814 the treaty was
signed; and after visiting Geneva for the first time since his boyhood,
and assisting in negotiating a commercial convention (1815) with England
by which all discriminating duties were abolished, Gallatin in July 1815
returned to America.

While still in Europe he had been asked by Madison to become minister to
France; this appointment he accepted in January 1816, and adhered to his
acceptance in spite of his being asked in April 1816 to serve once more
as secretary of the treasury. He remained in France for the next seven
years. He passed his time in thoroughly congenial society, seeing
everybody of note or merit in Europe. He did not neglect the duties of
his official position, but strove assiduously and with his wonted
patience to settle the commercial relations of his adopted country with
the nations of Europe, and in 1818 assisted Richard Rush, then United
States minister in London, in negotiating a commercial convention with
Great Britain to take the place of that negotiated in 1815.

In June 1823 he returned to the United States, where he found himself
plunged at once into the bitter struggle then in progress for the
presidency. His favourite candidate was his personal friend William H.
Crawford, whom he regarded as the true heir and representative of the
old Jeffersonian principles. With these feelings he consented in May
1824 to stand for the vice-presidency on the Crawford ticket. But
Gallatin had come home to new scenes and new actors, and he did not
fully appreciate the situation. The contest was bitter, personal,
factious and full of intrigue. Martin Van Buren, then in the Crawford
interest, came to the conclusion that the candidate for the second
place, by his foreign origin, weakened the ticket, and in October
Gallatin retired from the contest. The election, undecided by the
popular vote, was thrown into the house, and resulted in the choice of
John Quincy Adams, who in 1826 drew Gallatin from his retirement and
sent him as minister to England to conduct another complicated and
arduous negotiation. Gallatin worked at his new task with his usual
industry, tact and patience, but the results were meagre, although an
open breach on the delicate question of the north-east boundary of the
United States was avoided by referring it to the arbitration of the king
of the Netherlands. In November 1827 he once more returned to the United
States and bade farewell to public life.

Taking up his residence in New York, he was in 1832-1839 president of
the National Bank (afterwards the Gallatin Bank) of New York, but his
duties were light, and he devoted himself chiefly to the congenial
pursuits of science and literature. In both fields he displayed much
talent, and by writing his _Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the
United States East of the Rocky Mountains and in the British and Russian
Possessions in North America_ (1836), and by founding the American
Ethnological Society of New York in 1842, he earned the title of "Father
of American Ethnology." He continued, of course, to interest himself in
public affairs, although no longer an active participant, and in all
financial questions, especially in regard to the bank charter, the
resumption of specie payments, and the panic of 1837, he exerted a
powerful influence. The rise of the slavery question touched him nearly.
Gallatin had always been a consistent opponent of slavery; he felt
keenly, therefore, the attempts of the South to extend the slave power
and confirm its existence, and the remnant of his strength was devoted
in his last days to writing and distributing two able pamphlets against
the war with Mexico. Almost his last public act was a speech, on the
24th of April 1844, in New York City, against the annexation of Texas;
and in his eighty-fourth year he confronted a howling New York mob with
the same cool, unflinching courage which he had displayed half a century
before when he faced the armed frontiersmen of Redstone Old Fort. During
the winter of 1848-1849 his health failed, and on the 12th of August
1849, at the home of his daughter in Astoria, Long Island, he passed
peacefully away.

Gallatin was twice married. His second wife, whom he married in November
1793, was Miss Hannah Nicholson, of New York, the daughter of Com. James
Nicholson (1737-1804), an American naval officer, commander-in-chief of
the navy from 1777 until August 1781, when with his ship the "Virginia,"
he was taken by the British "Iris" and "General Monk." By her he had
three children, two sons and a daughter, who all survived him. In
personal appearance he was above middle height, with strongly-marked
features, indicating great strength of intellect and character. He was
reserved and very reticent, cold in manner and not sympathetic. There
was, too, a certain Calvinistic austerity about him. But he was much
beloved by his family. He was never a popular man, nor did he ever have
a strong personal following or many attached friends. He stood, with
Jefferson and Madison, at the head of his party, and won his place by
force of character, courage, application and intellectual power. His
eminent and manifold services to his adopted country, his great
abilities and upright character, assure him a high position in the
history of the United States.

  _The Writings of Albert Gallatin_, edited by Henry Adams, were
  published at Philadelphia, in three volumes, in 1879. With these
  volumes was published an excellent biography, _The Life of Albert
  Gallatin_, also by Henry Adams; another good biography is John Austin
  Stevens's _Albert Gallatin_ (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen"
  series.      (H. C. L.)



GALLAUDET, THOMAS HOPKINS (1787-1851), American educator of the deaf and
dumb, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, of French Huguenot
ancestry, on the 10th of December 1787. He graduated at Yale in 1805,
where he was a tutor from 1808 to 1810. Subsequently he studied theology
at Andover, and was licensed to preach in 1814, but having determined to
abandon the ministry and devote his life to the education of deaf mutes,
he visited Europe in 1815-1816, and studied the methods of the abbé
Sicard in Paris, and of Thomas Braidwood (1715-1806) and his successor
Joseph Watson (1765-1829) in Great Britain. Returning to the United
States in 1816, he established at Hartford, Connecticut, with the aid of
Laurent Clerc (1785-1869), a deaf mute assistant of the abbé Sicard, a
school for deaf mutes, in support of which Congress, largely through the
influence of Henry Clay, made a land grant, and which Gallaudet presided
over with great success until ill-health compelled him to retire in
1830. It was the first institution of the sort in the United States, and
served as a model for institutions which were subsequently established.
He died at Hartford, Connecticut, on the 5th of September 1851.

  There are three accounts of his life, one by Henry Barnard, _Life,
  Character and Services of the Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet_ (Hartford,
  1852); another by Herman Humphrey (Hartford, 1858), and a third (and
  the best one) by his son Edward Miner Gallaudet (1888).

His son, THOMAS GALLAUDET (1822-1902), after graduating at Trinity
College in 1842, entered the Protestant Episcopal ministry, settled in
New York City, and there in 1852 organized St Anne's Episcopal church,
where he conducted services for deaf mutes. In 1872 he organized and
became general manager of the Church mission to deaf mutes, and in 1885
founded the Gallaudet home for deaf mutes, particularly the aged, at
Wappingers Falls, near Poughkeepsie, New York.

Another son, EDWARD MINER GALLAUDET (b. 1837), was born at Hartford,
Connecticut, on the 3rd of February 1837, and graduated at Trinity
College in 1856. After teaching for a year in the institution for deaf
mutes founded by his father at Hartford, he removed with his mother,
Sophia Fowler Gallaudet (1798-1877), to Washington, D.C., where at the
request of Amos Kendall (1789-1869), its founder, he organized and took
charge of the Columbia Institution for the deaf and dumb, which received
support from the government, and of which he became president. This
institution was the first to furnish actual collegiate education for
deaf mutes (in 1864 it acquired the right to grant degrees), and was
successful from the start. The Gallaudet College (founded in 1864 as the
National Deaf Mute College and renamed in 1893 in honour of Thomas H.
Gallaudet) and the Kendall School are separate departments of this
institution, under independent faculties (each headed by Gallaudet), but
under the management of one board of directors.



GALLE, or POINT DE GALLE, a town and port of Ceylon on the south-west
coast. It was made a municipality in 1865, and divided into the five
districts of the Fort, Callowelle, Galopiadde, Hirimbure and
Cumbalwalla. The fort, which is more than a mile in circumference,
overlooks the whole harbour, but is commanded by a range of hills.
Within its enclosure are not only several government buildings, but an
old church erected by the Dutch East India Company, a mosque, a Wesleyan
chapel, a hospital, and a considerable number of houses occupied by
Europeans. The old Dutch building known as the queen's house, or
governor's residence, which dated from 1687, was in such a dilapidated
state that it was sold by the governor, Sir William Gregory, in 1873.
Elsewhere there are few buildings of individual note, but the general
style of domestic architecture is pleasant and comfortable, though not
pretentious. One of the most delightful features of the place is the
profusion of trees, even within the town, and along the edge of the
shore--suriyas, palms, coco-nut trees and bread-fruit trees. The
ramparts towards the sea furnish fine promenades. In the harbour deep
water is found close to the shore, and the outer roads are spacious; but
the south-west monsoon renders entrance difficult, and not unfrequently
drives vessels from their moorings.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, and the construction of a
breakwater at Colombo, leading to the transfer of the mail and most of
the commercial steamers to the capital of the island, seriously
diminished the prosperity of Galle. Although a few steamers still call
to coal and take in some cargo, yet the loss of the Peninsular and
Oriental and other steamer agencies reduced the port to a subordinate
position; nor has the extension of the railway from Colombo, and beyond
Galle to Matara, very much improved matters. The tea-planting industry
has, however, spread to the neighbourhood, and a great deal is done in
digging plumbago and in growing grass for the distillation of citronella
oil. The export trade is chiefly represented by coco-nut oil, plumbago,
coir yarn, fibre, rope and tea. In the import trade cotton goods are the
chief item. Both the export and import trade for the district, however,
now chiefly passes through Colombo. Pop. (1901) 37,165.

  Galle is mentioned by none of the Greek or Latin geographers, unless
  the identification with Ptolemy's Avium Promontorium or Cape of Birds
  be a correct one. It is hardly noticed in the native chronicles before
  1267, and Ibn Batuta, in the middle of the 14th century, distinctly
  states that Kali--that is, Galle--was a _small_ town. It was not till
  the period of Portuguese occupation that it rose to importance. When
  the Dutch succeeded the Portuguese they strengthened the
  fortifications, which had been vigorously defended against their
  admiral, Kosten; and under their rule the place had the rank of a
  commandancy. In the marriage treaty of the infanta of Portugal with
  Charles II. of England it was agreed that if the Portuguese recovered
  Ceylon they were to hand over Galle to the English; but as the
  Portuguese did not recover Ceylon the town was left to fall into
  English hands at the conquest of the island from the Dutch in 1796.
  The name Galle is derived from the Sinhalese _galla_, equivalent to
  "rock"; but the Portuguese and Dutch settlers, being better fighters
  than philologists, connected it with the Latin _gallus_, a cock, and
  the image of a cock was carved as a symbol of the town in the front of
  the old government house.



GALLENGA, ANTONIO CARLO NAPOLEONE (1810-1895), Italian author and
patriot, born at Parma on the 4th of November 1810, was the eldest son
of a Piedmontese of good family, who served for ten years in the French
army under Masséna and Napoleon. He had finished his education at the
university of Parma, when the French Revolution of 1830 caused a ferment
in Italy. He sympathized with the movement, and within a few months was
successively a conspirator, a state prisoner, a combatant and a
fugitive. For the next five years he lived a wandering life in France,
Spain and Africa. In August 1836 he embarked for New York, and three
years later he proceeded to England, where he supported himself as a
translator and teacher of languages. His first book, _Italy; General
Views of its History and Literature_, which appeared in 1841, was well
received, but was not successful financially. On the outbreak of the
Italian revolution in 1848 he at once put himself in communication with
the insurgents. He filled the post of Chargé d'Affaires for Piedmont at
Frankfort in 1848-1849, and for the next few years he travelled
incessantly between Italy and England, working for the liberation of his
country. In 1854, through Cavour's influence, he was elected a deputy to
the Italian parliament. He retained his seat until 1864, passing the
summer in England and fulfilling his parliamentary duties at Turin in
the winter. On the outbreak of the Austro-French War of 1859 he
proceeded to Lombardy as war correspondent of _The Times_. The campaign
was so brief that the fighting was over before he arrived, but his
connexion with _The Times_ endured for twenty years. He was a forcible
and picturesque writer, with a command of English remarkable for an
Italian. He materially helped to establish that friendly feeling towards
Italy which became traditional in England. In 1859 Gallenga purchased
the Falls, at Llandogo on the Wye, as a residence, and thither he
retired in 1885. He died at this house on the 17th of December 1895. He
was twice married. Among his chief works are an _Historical Memoir of
Frà Dolcino and his Times_ (1853); a _History of Piedmont_ (3 vols.,
1855; Italian translation, 1856); _Country Life in Piedmont_ (1858);
_The Invasion of Denmark_ (2 vols., 1864); _The Pearl of the Antilles_
[travels in Cuba] (1873); _Italy Revisited_ (2 vols., 1875); _Two Years
of the Eastern Question_ (2 vols., 1877); _The Pope_ [Pius IX.] _and the
King_ [Victor Emmanuel] (2 vols., 1879); _South America_ (1880); _A
Summer Tour in Russia_ (1882); _Iberian Reminiscences_ (2 vols., 1883);
_Episodes of my Second Life_ (1884); _Italy, Present and Future_ (2
vols., 1887). Gallenga's earlier publications appeared under the
pseudonym of Luigi Mariotti.



GALLERY (through Ital. _galleria_, from Med. Lat. _galeria_, of which
the origin is unknown),[1] a covered passage or space outside a main
wall, sometimes used as a verandah if on the ground floor, and as a
balcony if on an upper floor and supported by columns, piers or corbels;
similarly the upper seats in a theatre or a church, on either side as in
many 17th-century churches, or across the west end under the organ. The
word is also used of an internal passage primarily provided to place
various rooms in communication with one another; but if of narrow width
this is usually called a corridor or passage. When of sufficient width
the gallery is utilized to exhibit pictures and other art treasures. In
the 16th century the picture gallery formed the largest room or hall in
English mansions, with wainscoted walls and a richly decorated plaster
ceiling; the principal examples are those of Audley End, Essex (226 ft.
by 34 ft.); Hardwick, Derbyshire (166 ft. by 22 ft.); Hatfield,
Hertfordshire (163 ft. by 19 ft. 6 in.); Aston Hall, near Birmingham
(136 ft. by 18 ft.); Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (116 ft. by 17 ft.); and
Montacute in Somersetshire (189 ft. by 22 ft.). Hence the application of
the term to art museums (the National Gallery, &c.) and also to smaller
rooms with top-light in which temporary exhibitions are held.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Du Cange, _Glossarium, s.v._ "Galeria," suggests an origin from
    _galera_, a galley, on the analogy of "nave," from _navis_, the
    galley being a long and narrow ship; but, he adds, _alii alia
    opinantur_.



GALLEY (derived through the O. Fr. _galee_, _galie_, from the Med. Lat.
_galea_, Ital. _galea_, Port. _galé_, of uncertain origin; from the Med.
Lat. variant form _galera_ are derived the Mod. Fr. _galère_, Span. and
Ital. _galera_), a long single or half decked vessel of war, with low
free-board, propelled primarily by oars or sweeps; but also having masts
for sails. The word is used generally of the ancient war vessels of
Greece and Rome of various types, whose chief propelling power was the
oar or sweep, but its more specific application is to the medieval war
vessel which survived in the navies of the Mediterranean sea-powers
after the general adoption of the larger many-decked ship of war,
propelled solely by sail-power. Lepanto (1571) was the last great naval
battle in which the galley played the principal part. The "galleass" or
"galliass" (Med. Lat. _galeasea_, Ital. _galeazza_, an augmented form of
_galea_) was a larger and heavier form of galley; it usually carried
three masts and had at bow and stern a castellated structure. The
"galliot" (O. Fr. _galiot_, Span. and Port. _galeota_, Ital. _galeotta_,
a diminutive of _galea_) was a small light type of galley. The "galleon"
(formerly in English "galloon," Fr. _galion_, derived from the Med. Lat.
_galio_, _galionis_, a derivative of _galea_) was a sailing ship of war
and trade, shorter than the galley and standing high out of the water
with several decks, chiefly used by the Spaniards during the 16th
century in the carrying of treasure from America. The number of oars or
sweeps varied, the larger galley having twenty-five on each side; the
galleass as many as thirty-two, each being worked by several men. This
labour was from the earliest times often performed by slaves or
prisoners of war. It became the custom among the Mediterranean powers to
sentence condemned criminals to row in the war galleys of the state.
Traces of this in France can be found as early as 1532, but the first
legislative enactment is in the _Ordonnance d'Orléans_ of 1561. In 1564
Charles IX. forbade the sentencing of prisoners to the galleys for less
than ten years. The galley-slaves were branded with the letters _Gal._
At the end of the reign of Louis XIV. the use of the galley for war
purposes had practically ceased, but the corps of the galleys was not
incorporated with the navy till 1748. The headquarters of the galleys
and of the convict rowers (_galériens_) was at Marseilles. The majority
of these latter were brought to Toulon, the others were sent to
Rochefort and Brest, where they were used for work in the arsenal. At
Toulon the convicts remained (in chains) on the galleys, which were
moored as hulks in the harbour. Shore prisons were, however, provided
for them, known as _bagnes_, baths, a name given to such penal
establishments first by the Italians (_bagno_), and said to have been
derived from the prison at Constantinople situated close by or attached
to the great baths there. The name _galérien_ was still given to all
convicts, though the galleys had been abandoned, and it was not till the
French Revolution that the hated name with all it signified was changed
to _forçat_. In Spain _galera_ is still used for a criminal condemned to
penal servitude.

  A vivid account of the life of galley-slaves in France is given in
  Jean Marteilhes's _Memoirs of a Protestant_, translated by Oliver
  Goldsmith (new edition, 1895), which describes the experiences of one
  of the Huguenots who suffered after the revocation of the edict of
  Nantes.



GALLIA CISALPINA (Lat. _Cis_, on this side, i.e. of the Alps), in
ancient geography, that portion of northern Italy north of Liguria and
Umbria and south of the Alps, which was inhabited by various Celtic and
other peoples, of whom the Celts were in continual hostility to Rome. In
early times it was bounded on the S. by Liguria and the Aesis, in
Caesar's time by Liguria and the Rubicon. After the Second Punic War
(203 B.C.) these tribes were severely punished by the Roman generals for
the assistance they had rendered to Hannibal. Sulla divided the district
into two parts; the region between the Aesis and the Rubicon was made
directly subject to the government at Rome, while the northern portion
was put under a distinct authority, probably similar to the usual
transmarine commands (see Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_, Eng. trans., bk. iv.
c. 10).

  For the early Celtic and other peoples and the later history of the
  district see ITALY (ancient), and ROME: _History, Ancient_.



GALLIC ACID, trioxybenzoic acid (HO)3(3.4.5.)C6H2CO2H·H2O, the _acidum
gallicum_ of pharmacy, a substance discovered by K. W. Scheele; it
occurs in the leaves of the bearberry, in pomegranate root-bark, in tea,
in gall-nuts to the extent of about 3%, and in other vegetable
productions. It may be prepared by keeping moist and exposed to the air
for from four to six weeks, at a temperature of 20° to 25° C., a paste
of powdered gall-nuts and water, and removing from time to time the
mould which forms on its surface; the paste is then boiled with water,
the hot solution filtered, allowed to cool, the separated gallic acid
drained, and purified by dissolving in boiling water, recrystallization
at about 27° C., and washing of the crystals with ice-cold water. The
production of the acid appears to be due to the presence in the galls of
a ferment. Gallic acid is most readily obtained by boiling the tannin
procured from oak-galls by means of alcohol and ether with weak solution
of acids. It may also be produced by heating an aqueous solution of
di-iodosalicylic acid with excess of alkaline carbonate, by acting on
dibromosalicylic acid with moist silver oxide, and by other methods. It
crystallizes in white or pale fawn-coloured acicular prisms or silky
needles, and is soluble in alcohol and ether, and in 100 parts of cold
and 3 of boiling water; it is without odour and has an astringent and an
acid taste and reaction. It melts at about 200° C., and at 210° to 215°
it is resolved into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol, C6H3(OH)3. With
ferric salts its solution gives a deep blue colour, and with ferrous
salts, after exposure to the air, an insoluble, blue-black,
ferroso-ferric gallate. Bases of the alkali metals give with it four
series of salts; these are stable except in alkaline solutions, in which
they absorb oxygen and turn brown. Solution of calcium bicarbonate
becomes with gallic acid, on exposure to the air, of a dark blue colour.
Unlike tannic acid, gallic acid does not precipitate albumen or salts of
the alkaloids, or, except when mixed with gum, gelatin. Salts of gold
and silver are reduced by it, slowly in cold, instantaneously in warm
solutions, hence its employment in photography. With phosphorus
oxychloride at 120° C. gallic acid yields tannic acid, and with
concentrated sulphuric acid at 100°, _rufigallic acid_, C14H8O8, an
anthracene derivative. Oxidizing agents, such as arsenic acid, convert
it into _ellagic acid_, C14H8O9 + H2O, probably a fluorene derivative, a
substance which occurs in gall-nuts, in the external membrane of the
episperm of the walnut, and probably in many plants, and composes the
"bezoar stones" found in the intestines of Persian wild goats.
Medicinally, gallic acid has been, and is still, largely used as an
astringent, styptic and haemostatic. Gallic acid, however, does not
coagulate albumen and therefore possesses no local astringent action. So
far is it from being an haemostatic that, if perfused through living
blood-vessels, it actually dilates them. Its rapid neutralization in the
intestine renders it equally devoid of any remote actions.



GALLICANISM, the collective name for various theories maintaining that
the church and king of France had ecclesiastical rights of their own,
independent and exclusive of the jurisdiction of the pope. Gallicanism
had two distinct sides, a constitutional and a dogmatic, though both
were generally held together, the second serving as the logical basis of
the first. And neither is intelligible, except in relation to the rival
theory of Ultramontanism (q.v.). Dogmatic Gallicanism was concerned with
the question of ecclesiastical government. It maintained that the
church's infallible authority was committed to pope and bishops jointly.
The pope decided in the first instance, but his judgments must be
tacitly or expressly confirmed by the bishops before they had the force
of law. This ancient theory survived much longer in France than in other
Catholic countries. Hence the name of Gallican is loosely given to all
its modern upholders, whether of French nationality or not.
Constitutional Gallicanism dealt with the relation of church and state
in France. It began in the 13th century, as a protest against the
theocratic pretensions of the medieval popes. They claimed that they, as
vicars of Christ, had the right to interfere in the temporal concerns of
princes, and even to depose sovereigns of whom they disapproved.
Gallicanism answered that kings held their power directly of God; hence
their temporal concerns lay altogether outside the jurisdiction of the
pope. During the troubles of the Reformation era, when the papal
deposing power threatened to become a reality, the Gallican theory
became of great importance. It was elaborated, and connected with
dogmatic Gallicanism, by the famous theologian, Edmond Richer
(1559-1631), and finally incorporated by Bossuet in a solemn Declaration
of the French Clergy, made in 1682. This document lays down: (1) that
the temporal sovereignty of kings is independent of the pope; (2) that a
general council is above the pope; (3) that the ancient liberties of the
Gallican Church are sacred; (4) that the infallible teaching authority
of the church belongs to pope and bishops jointly. This declaration led
to a violent quarrel with Rome, and was officially withdrawn in 1693,
though its doctrines continued to be largely held. They were asserted in
an extreme form in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790), which
almost severed connexion between France and the papacy. In 1802 Napoleon
contented himself by embodying Bossuet's declaration textually in a
statute. Long before his time, however, the issue had been narrowed down
to determining exactly how far the pope should be allowed to interfere
in French ecclesiastical affairs. Down to the repeal of the Concordat in
1905 all French governments continued to uphold two of the ancient
"Gallican Liberties." The secular courts took cognizance of
ecclesiastical affairs whenever the law of the land was alleged to have
been broken; and papal bulls were not allowed to be published without
the leave of the state. (See also FEBRONIANISM.)      (St. C.)



GALLIENI, JOSEPH SIMON (1849-   ), French soldier and colonial
administrator, was born at Saint-Béat, in the department of
Haute-Garonne, on the 24th of April 1849. He left the military academy
of Saint-Cyr in July 1870 as a second lieutenant in the Marines,
becoming lieutenant in 1873 and captain in 1878. He saw service in the
Franco-German War, and between 1877 and 1881 took an important part in
the explorations and military expeditions by which the French dominion
was extended in the basin of the upper Niger. He rendered a particularly
valuable service by obtaining, in March 1881, a treaty from Ahmadu,
almany of Segu, giving the French exclusive rights of commerce on the
upper Niger. For this he received the gold medal of the Société de
Géographie. From 1883 to 1886 Gallieni was stationed in Martinique. On
the 24th of June 1886 he attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and
on the 20th of December was nominated governor of Upper Senegal. He
obtained several successes against Ahmadu in 1887, and compelled Samory
to agree to a treaty by which he abandoned the left bank of the Niger
(see SENEGAL: _History_). In connexion with his service in West Africa,
Gallieni published two works--_Mission d'exploration du Haut-Niger,
1879-1881_ (Paris, 1885), and _Deux Campagnes au Sudan français_ (Paris,
1891)--which, besides possessing great narrative interest, give
information of considerable value in regard to the resources and
topography of the country. In 1888 Gallieni was made an officer of the
Legion of Honour. In 1891 he attained the rank of colonel, and from 1893
to 1895 he served in Tongking, commanding the second military division
of the territory. In 1899 he published his experiences in _Trois
Colonnes au Tonkin_. In 1896 Madagascar was made a French colony, and
Gallieni was appointed resident-general (a title changed in 1897 to
governor-general) and commander-in-chief. Under the weak administration
of his predecessor a widespread revolt had broken out against the
French. By a vigorous military system Gallieni succeeded in completing
the subjugation of the island. He also turned his attention to the
destruction of the political supremacy of the Hovas and the restoration
of the autonomy of the other tribes. The execution of the queen's uncle,
Ratsimamanga, and of Rainandrianampandry, the minister of the interior,
in October 1896, and the exile of Queen Ranavalo III. herself in 1897,
on the charge of fomenting rebellion, broke up the Hova hegemony, and
made an end of Hova intrigues against French rule. The task of
government was one of considerable difficulty. The application of the
French customs and other like measures, disastrous to British and
American trade, were matters for which Gallieni was not wholly
responsible. His policy was directed to the development of the economic
resources of the island and was conciliatory towards the non-French
European population. He also secured for the Protestants religious
liberty. In 1899 he published a _Rapport d'ensemble sur la situation
générale de Madagascar_. In 1905, when he resigned the governorship,
Madagascar enjoyed peace and a considerable measure of prosperity. In
1906 General Gallieni was appointed to command the XIV. army corps and
military government of Lyons. He reviewed the results of his Madagascar
administration in a book entitled _Neuf Ans à Madagascar_ (Paris, 1908).



GALLIENUS, PUBLIUS LICINIUS EGNATIUS, Roman emperor from A.D. 260 to
268, son of the emperor Valerian, was born about 218. From 253 to 260 he
reigned conjointly with his father, during which time he gave proof of
military ability and bravery. But when his father was taken prisoner by
Shapur I. of Persia, in 260, Gallienus made no effort to obtain his
release, or to withstand the incursions of the invaders who threatened
the empire from all sides. He occupied part of his time in dabbling in
literature, science and various trifling arts, but gave himself up
chiefly to excess and debauchery. He deprived the senators of their
military and provincial commands, which were transferred to equites.
During his reign the empire was ravaged by a fearful pestilence; and the
chief cities of Greece were sacked by the Goths, who descended on the
Greek coast with a fleet of five hundred. His generals rebelled against
him in almost every province of the empire, and this period of Roman
history came to be called the reign of the Thirty Tyrants. Nevertheless,
these usurpers probably saved the empire at the time, by maintaining
order and repelling the attacks of the barbarians. Gallienus was killed
at Mediolanum by his own soldiers while besieging Aureolus, who was
proclaimed emperor by the Illyrian legions. His sons Valerianus and
Saloninus predeceased him.

  Life by Trebellius Pollio in _Script. Hist. Aug._; on coins see
  articles in _Numism. Zeit._ (1908) and _Riv. ital. d. num._ (1908).



GALLIFFET, GASTON ALEXANDRE AUGUSTE, MARQUIS DE, Prince de Martignes
(1830-1909), French general, was born in Paris on the 23rd of January
1830. He entered the army in 1848, was commissioned as sub-lieutenant in
1853, and served with distinction at the siege of Sevastopol in 1855, in
the Italian campaign of 1859, and in Algeria in 1860, after which for a
time he served on the personal staff of the emperor Napoleon III. He
displayed great gallantry as a captain at the siege and storm of
Puebla, in Mexico, in 1863, when he was severely wounded. When he
returned to France to recover from his wounds he was entrusted with the
task of presenting the captured standards and colours to the emperor,
and was promoted _chef d'escadrons_. He went again to Algeria in 1864,
took part in expeditions against the Arabs, returned to Mexico as
lieutenant-colonel, and, after winning further distinction, became in
1867 colonel of the 3rd Chasseurs d'Afrique. In the Franco-German War of
1870-71 he commanded this regiment in the army of the Rhine, until
promoted to be general of brigade on the 30th of August. At the battle
of Sedan he led the brigade of Chasseurs d'Afrique in the heroic charge
of General Margueritte's cavalry division, which extorted the admiration
of the old king of Prussia. Made prisoner of war at the capitulation, he
returned to France during the siege of Paris by the French army of
Versailles, and commanded a brigade against the Communists. In the
suppression of the Commune he did his duty rigorously and inflexibly,
and on that ground earned a reputation for severity, which, throughout
his later career, and in all his efforts to improve the French army,
made him the object of unceasing attacks in the press and the chamber of
deputies. In 1872 he took command of the Batna subdivision of Algeria,
and commanded an expedition against El Golea, surmounting great
difficulties in a rapid march across the desert, and inflicting severe
chastisement on the revolted tribes. On the general reorganization of
the army he commanded the 31st infantry brigade. Promoted general of
division in 1875, he successively commanded the 15th infantry division
at Dijon, the IX. army corps at Tours, and in 1882 the XII. army corps
at Limoges. In 1885 he became a member of the Conseil Supérieur de la
Guerre. He conducted the cavalry manoeuvres in successive years, and
attained a European reputation on all cavalry questions, and, indeed, as
an army commander. Decorated with the grand cross of the Legion of
Honour in 1887, he received the military medal for his able conduct of
the autumn manoeuvres in 1891, and after again commanding at the
manoeuvres of 1894 he retired from the active list. Afterwards he took
an important part in French politics, as war minister (22nd of June 1899
to 29th of May 1900) in M. Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet, and distinguished
himself by the firmness with which he dealt with cases of unrest in the
army, but he then retired into private life, and died on the 8th of July
1909.



GALLIO, JUNIUS ANNAEUS (originally LUCIUS ANNAEUS NOVATUS), son of the
rhetorician L. Annaeus Seneca and the elder brother of L. Annaeus Seneca
the philosopher, was born at Corduba (Cordova) about the beginning of
the Christian era. At Rome he was adopted by L. Junius Gallio, a
rhetorician of some repute, from whom he took the name of Junius Gallio.
His brother Seneca, who dedicated to him the treatises _De Ira_ and _De
Vita Beata_, speaks of the charm of his disposition, also alluded to by
the poet Statius (_Silvae_, ii. 7, 32). It is probable that he was
banished to Corsica with his brother, and that both returned together to
Rome when Agrippina selected Seneca to be tutor to Nero. Towards the
close of the reign of Claudius, Gallio was proconsul of the newly
constituted senatorial province of Achaea, but seems to have been
compelled by ill-health to resign the post within a few years. During
his tenure of office (in 53) he dismissed the charge brought by the Jews
against the apostle Paul (Acts xviii.). His behaviour on this occasion
("But Gallio cared for none of these things") shows the impartial
attitude of the Roman officials towards Christianity in its early days.
He survived his brother Seneca, but was subsequently put to death by
order of Nero (in 65) or committed suicide.

  Tacitus, _Annals_, xv. 73; Dio Cassius lx. 35, lxii. 25; Sir W.M.
  Ramsay, _St Paul the Traveller_, pp. 257-261; art. in Hastings' _Dict.
  of the Bible_ (H. Cowan). An interesting reconstruction is given by
  Anatole France in _Sur la pierre blanche_.



GALLIPOLI (anc. _Callipolis_), a seaport town and episcopal see of
Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, 31 m. S. by W. of it by rail,
46 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) town, 10,399; commune, 13,459. It is
situated on a rocky island in the Gulf of Taranto, but is united to the
mainland by a bridge, protected by a castle constructed by Charles I.
of Anjou. The other fortifications have been removed. The handsome
cathedral dates from 1629. The town was once famous for its exports of
olive-oil, which was stored, until it clarified, in cisterns cut in the
rock. This still continues, but to a less extent; the export of wine,
however, is increasing, and fruit is also exported.

The ancient Callipolis was obviously of Greek origin, as its name
("beautiful city") shows. It is hardly mentioned in ancient times. Pliny
tells us that in his time it was known as Anxa. It lay a little off the
road from Tarentum to Hydruntum, but was reached by a branch from
Aletium (the site is marked by the modern church of S. Maria della
Lizza), among the ruins of which many Messapian inscriptions, but no
Latin ones, have been found.     (T. As.)



GALLIPOLI (Turk. _Gelibolu_, anc. [Greek: Kallipolis]), a seaport and
city of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople; at the
north-western extremity of the Dardanelles, on a narrow peninsula 132 m.
W.S.W. of Constantinople, and 90 m. S. of Adrianople, in 40° 24' N. and
26° 40' 30" E. Pop. (1905) about 25,000. Nearly opposite is Lapsaki on
the Asiatic side of the channel, which is here about 2 m. wide.
Gallipoli has an unattractive appearance; its streets are narrow and
dirty, and many of its houses are built of wood, although there are a
few better structures, occupied by the foreign residents and the richer
class of Turkish citizens. The only noteworthy buildings are the large,
crowded and well-furnished bazaars with leaden domes. There are several
mosques, none of them remarkable, and many interesting Roman and
Byzantine remains, especially a magazine of the emperor Justinian
(483-565), a square castle and tower attributed to Bayezid I.
(1389-1403), and some tumuli on the south, popularly called the tombs of
the Thracian kings. The lighthouse, built on a cliff, has a fine
appearance as seen from the Dardanelles. Gallipoli is the seat of a
Greek bishop. It has two good harbours, and is the principal station for
the Turkish fleet. From its position as the key of the Dardanelles, it
was occupied by the allied French and British armies in 1854. Then the
isthmus a few miles north of the town, between it and Bulair, was
fortified with strong earthworks by English and French engineers, mainly
on the lines of the old works constructed in 1357. These fortifications
were renewed and enlarged in January 1878, on the Russians threatening
to take possession of Constantinople. The peninsula thus isolated by the
fortified positions has the Gulf of Saros on the N.W., and extends some
50 m. S.W. The guns of Gallipoli command the Dardanelles just before the
strait joins the Sea of Marmora. The town itself is not very strongly
fortified, the principal fortifications being farther down the
Dardanelles, where the passage is narrower.

The district (_sanjak_) of Gallipoli is exceedingly fertile and well
adapted for agriculture. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and comprises
four _kazas_ (cantons), namely, (1) Maitos, noted for its excellent
cotton; (2) Keshan, lying inland north of Gallipoli, noted for its
cattle-market, and producing grain, linseed and canary seed; (3)
Myriofyto; and (4) Sharkeui or Shar-Koi (Peristeri) on the coast of the
Sea of Marmora. Copper ore and petroleum are worked at Sharkeui, and the
neighbourhood formerly produced wine that was highly esteemed and
largely exported to France for blending. Heavy taxation, however,
amounting to 55% of the value of the wine, broke the spirit of the
viticulturists, most of whom uprooted their vines and replanted their
lands with mulberry trees, making sericulture their occupation.

There are no important industrial establishments in Gallipoli itself,
except steam flour-mills and a sardine factory. The line of railway
between Adrianople and the Aegean Sea has been prejudicial to the
transit trade of Gallipoli, and several attempts have been made to
obtain concessions for the construction of a railway that would connect
this port with the Turkish railway system. Steamers to and from
Constantinople call regularly. In 1904 the total value of the exports
was £80,000. Wheat and maize are exported to the Aegean islands and to
Turkish ports on the mainland; barley, oats and linseed to Great
Britain; canary seed chiefly to Australia; beans to France and Spain.
Semolina and bran are manufactured in the district. Live stock,
principally sheep, pass through Gallipoli in transit to Constantinople
and Smyrna. Cheese, sardines, goats' skins and sheepskins are also
exported. The imports include woollen and cotton fabrics from Italy,
Germany, France and Great Britain, and hardware from Germany and
Austria. These goods are imported through Constantinople. Cordage is
chiefly obtained from Servia. Other imports are fuel, iron and
groceries.

The Macedonian city of Callipolis was founded in the 5th century B.C. At
an early date it became a Christian bishopric, and in the middle ages
developed into a great commercial city, with a population estimated at
100,000. It was fortified by the East Roman emperors owing to its
commanding strategic position and its valuable trade with Greece and
Italy. In 1190 the armies of the Third Crusade, under the emperor
Frederick I. (Barbarossa), embarked here for Asia Minor. After the
capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Gallipoli passed into
the power of Venice. In 1294 the Genoese defeated a Venetian force in
the neighbourhood. A body of Catalans, under Roger Florus, established
themselves here in 1306, and after the death of their leader massacred
almost all the citizens; they were vainly besieged by the allied troops
of Venice and the Empire, and withdrew in 1307, after dismantling the
fortifications. About the middle of the 14th century the Turks invaded
Europe, and Gallipoli was the first city to fall into their power. The
Venetians under Pietro Loredano defeated the Turks here in 1416.



GALLIPOLIS, a city and the county-seat of Gallia county, Ohio, U.S.A.,
on the Ohio river, about 125 m. E. by S. of Cincinnati. Pop. (1890)
4498; (1900) 5432 (852 negroes); (1910) 5560. It is served by the
Kanawha & Michigan (Ohio Central Lines) and the Hocking Valley railways,
and (at Gallipolis Ferry, West Virginia, across the Ohio) by the
Baltimore & Ohio railway. The city is built on a level site several feet
above the river's high-water mark. It has a United States marine
hospital and a state hospital for epileptics. Among the city's
manufactures are lumber, furniture, iron, stoves, flour and brooms. The
municipality owns and operates its water-works. Gallipolis was settled
in 1790 by colonists from France, who had received worthless deeds to
lands in Ohio from the Scioto Land Company, founded by Col. William Duer
(1747-1799) and others in 1787 and officially organized in 1789 as the
Compagnie du Scioto in Paris by Joel Barlow, the agent of Duer and his
associates abroad, William Playfair, an Englishman, and six Frenchmen.
This company had arranged with the Ohio Company in 1787 for the use of
about 4,000,000 acres, N. of the Ohio and E. of the Scioto, on which the
Ohio Company had secured an option only. The dishonesty of those who
conducted the sales in France, the unbusinesslike methods of Barlow, and
the failure of Duer and his associates to meet their contract with the
Ohio Company, caused the collapse of the Scioto Company early in 1790,
and two subsequent attempts to revive it failed. Meanwhile about 150,000
acres had been sold to prospective settlers in France, and in October
1790 the French immigrants, who had been detained for two months at
Alexandria, Virginia, arrived on the site of Gallipolis, where rude huts
had been built for them. This land, however, fell within the limits of
the tract bought outright by the Ohio Company, which sold it to the
Scioto Company, and to which it reverted on the failure of the Scioto
Company to pay. In 1794 William Bradford, attorney-general of the United
States, decided that all rights in the 4,000,000 acres, on which the
Ohio Company had secured an option for the Scioto Company, were legally
vested in the Ohio Company. In 1795 the Ohio Company sold to the French
settlers for $1.25 an acre the land they occupied and adjacent improved
lots, and the United States government granted to them 24,000 acres in
the southern part of what is now Scioto County in 1795; little of this
land (still known as the "French Grant"), however, was ever occupied by
them. Gallipolis was incorporated as a village in 1842, and was first
chartered as a city in 1865.

  See Theodore T. Belote, _The Scioto Speculation and the French
  Settlement at Gallipolis_ (Cincinnati, 1907), series 2, vol. iii. No.
  3 of the _University Studies_ of the University of Cincinnati.



GALLITZIN, DEMETRIUS AUGUSTINE (1770-1840), American Roman Catholic
priest, called "The Apostle of the Alleghanies," was born at the Hague
on the 22nd of December 1770. His name is a form of Golitsuin (q.v.),
the Russian family from which he came. His father, Dimitri Alexeievich
Gallitzin (1735-1803), Russian ambassador to Holland, was an intimate
friend of Voltaire and a follower of Diderot; so, too, for many years
was his mother, Countess Adelheid Amalie von Schmettau (1748-1806),
until a severe illness in 1786 led her back to the Roman Catholic
church, in which she had been reared. At the age of seventeen he too
became a member of that church. His father had planned for him a
diplomatic or military career, and in 1792 he was aide-de-camp to the
commander of the Austrian troops in Brabant; but, after the
assassination of the king of Sweden, he, like all other foreigners, was
dismissed from the service. He then set out to complete his education by
travel, and on the 28th of October 1792 arrived in Baltimore, Maryland,
where he finally decided to enter the priesthood. He was ordained priest
in March 1795, being the first Roman Catholic priest ordained in
America, and then worked in the mission at Port Tobacco, Maryland,
whence he was soon transferred to the Conewago district. His impulsive
objection to some of Bishop Carroll's instructions was sharply rebuked,
and he was recalled to Baltimore. But in 1796 he removed to Taneytown,
Maryland, and in both Maryland and Pennsylvania worked with such
misdirected zeal and autocratic manners that he was again reproved by
his bishop in 1798. In the Alleghanies, in 1799, he planned a settlement
in what is now Cambria county, Pennsylvania, and bought up much land
which he gave or sold at low prices to Catholic immigrants, spending
$150,000 or more in the purchase of some 20,000 acres in a spot
singularly ill suited for such an enterprise. In 1808, after his
father's death, he was disinherited by the emperor Alexander I. of
Russia "by reason of your Catholic faith and your ecclesiastical
profession"; and although his sister Anne repeatedly promised him his
half of the valuable estate and sent him money from time to time, after
her death her brother received little or nothing from the estate. The
priest, who after his father's death had in 1809 discarded the name of
Augustine Smith, under which he had been naturalized, and had taken his
real name, was soon deeply in debt. No small part was a loan from
Charles Carroll, and when Gallitzin was suggested for the see of
Philadelphia in 1814, Bishop Carroll gave as an objection Gallitzin's
"great load of debt rashly, though for excellent and charitable
purposes, contracted." In 1815 Gallitzin was suggested for the bishopric
of Bardstown, Kentucky, and in 1827 for the proposed see of Pittsburg,
and he refused the bishopric of Cincinnati. He died at Loretto, the
settlement he had founded in Cambria county, on the 6th of May 1840.
Among his parishioners Gallitzin was a great power for good. His part in
building up the Roman Catholic Church in western Pennsylvania cannot be
estimated; but it is said that at his death there were 10,000 members of
his church in the district where forty years before he had found a scant
dozen. One of the villages he founded bears his name. Among his
controversial pamphlets are: _A Defence of Catholic Principles_ (1816),
_Letter to a Protestant Friend on the Holy Scriptures_ (1820), _Appeal
to the Protestant Public_ (1834), and _Six Letters of Advice_ (1834), in
reply to attacks on the Catholic Church by a Presbyterian synod.

  See Sarah M. Brownson, _Life of D.A. Gallitzin, Prince and Priest_
  (New York, 1873); a brief summary of his life by A.A. Lambing in
  _American Catholic Records_ (Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, October 1886,
  pp. 58-68); and a good bibliography by Thomas C. Middleton in _The
  Gallitzin Memorandum Book_, in _American Catholic Historical Society
  of Philadelphia, Records_, vol. 4, pp. 32 sqq.



GALLIUM (symbol Ga; atomic weight 69.9), one of the metallic chemical
elements. It was discovered in 1875 through its spectrum, in a specimen
of zinc blende by Lecoq de Boisbaudran (_Comptes rendus_, 1875, 81, p.
493, and following years). The chief chemical and physical properties of
gallium had been predicted many years before by D. Mendeléeff (c. 1869)
from a consideration of the properties of aluminium, indium and zinc
(see ELEMENT). The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only
contains it in very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an
acid, and precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate
is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by
sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fractionally
precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the gallium before
the zinc. This precipitate is converted into gallium sulphate and
finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, from which the metal is
obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline solution. Gallium
crystallizes in greyish-white octahedra which melt at 30.15° C. to a
silvery-white liquid. It is very hard and but slightly malleable and
flexible, although in thin plates it may be bent several times without
breaking. The specific gravity of the solid form is 5.956 (24.5° C.), of
the liquid 6.069, whilst the specific heats of the two varieties are,
for the solid form 0.079 (12-23° C.) and for the liquid 0.082 (106-119°)
[M. Berthelot, _Comptes rendus_, 1878, 86, p. 786]. It is not
appreciably volatilized at a red heat. Chlorine acts on it readily in
the cold, bromine not so easily, and iodine only when the mixture is
heated. The atomic weight of gallium has been determined by Lecoq de
Boisbaudran by ignition of gallium ammonium alum, and also by L. Meyer
and K. Seubert.

  _Gallium oxide_ Ga2O3 is obtained when the nitrate is heated, or by
  solution of the metal in nitric acid and ignition of the nitrate. It
  forms a white friable mass which after ignition is insoluble in acids.
  On heating to redness in a stream of hydrogen it forms a bluish mass
  which is probably a lower oxide of composition GaO. Gallium forms
  colourless salts, which in neutral dilute aqueous solutions are
  converted on heating into basic salts. The gallium salts are
  precipitated by alkaline carbonates and by barium carbonate, but not
  by sulphuretted hydrogen unless in acetic acid solution. Potassium
  ferrocyanide gives a precipitate even in very dilute solution. In
  neutral solutions, zinc gives a precipitate of gallium oxide. By
  heating gallium in a regulated stream of chlorine the _dichloride_
  GaCl2 is obtained as a crystalline mass, which melts at 164° C. and
  readily decomposes on exposure to moist air. The trichloride GaCl3 is
  similarly formed when the metal is heated in a rapid stream of
  chlorine, and may be purified by distillation in an atmosphere of
  nitrogen. It forms very deliquescent long white needles melting at
  75.5° C. and boiling at 215-220° C. The bromide, iodide and sulphate
  are known, as is also gallium ammonium alum. Gallium is best detected
  by means of its spark spectrum, which gives two violet lines of wave
  length 4171 and 4031.



GALLON, an English measure of capacity, usually of liquids, but also
used as a dry measure for corn. A gallon contains four quarts. The word
was adapted from an O. Norm. Fr. _galon_, Central Fr. _jalon_, and was
Latinized as _galo_ and _galona_. It appears to be connected with the
modern French _jale_, a bowl, but the ultimate origin is unknown; it has
been referred without much plausibility to Gr. [Greek: gaulos], a milk
pail. The British imperial gallon of four quarts contains 277.274 cub.
in. The old English wine gallon of 231 cub. in. capacity is the standard
gallon of the United States.



GALLOWAY, JOSEPH (1731-1803), American lawyer and politician, one of the
most prominent of the Loyalists, was born in West River, Anne Arundel
county, Maryland, in 1731. He early removed to Philadelphia, where he
acquired a high standing as a lawyer. From 1756 until 1774 (except in
1764) he was one of the most influential members of the Pennsylvania
Assembly, over which he presided in 1766-1773. During this period, with
his friend Benjamin Franklin, he led the opposition to the Proprietary
government, and in 1764 and 1765 attempted to secure a royal charter for
the province. With the approach of the crisis in the relations between
Great Britain and the American colonies he adopted a conservative
course, and, while recognizing the justice of many of the colonial
complaints, discouraged radical action and advocated a compromise. As a
member of the First Continental Congress, he introduced (28th September
1774) a "Plan of a Proposed Union between Great Britain and the
Colonies," and it is for this chiefly that he is remembered. It provided
for a president-general appointed by the crown, who should have supreme
executive authority over all the colonies, and for a grand council,
elected triennially by the several provincial assemblies, and to have
such "rights, liberties and privileges as are held and exercised by and
in the House of Commons of Great Britain"; the president-general and
grand council were to be "an inferior distinct branch of the British
legislature, united and incorporated with it." The assent of the grand
council and of the British parliament was to be "requisite to the
validity of all ... general acts or statutes," except that "in time of
War, all bills for granting aid to the crown, prepared by the grand
council and approved by the president-general, shall be valid and passed
into a law, without the assent of the British parliament." The
individual colonies, however, were to retain control over their strictly
internal affairs. The measure was debated at length, was advocated by
such influential members as John Jay and James Duane of New York and
Edward Rutledge of South Carolina, and was eventually defeated only by
the vote of six colonies to five. Galloway declined a second election to
Congress in 1775, joined the British army at New Brunswick, New Jersey
(December 1776), advised the British to attack Philadelphia by the
Delaware, and during the British occupation of Philadelphia (1777-1778)
was superintendent of the port, of prohibited articles, and of police of
the city. In October 1778 he went to England, where he remained until
his death at Watford, Hertfordshire, on the 29th of August 1803. After
he left America his life was attainted, and his property, valued at
£40,000, was confiscated by the Pennsylvania Assembly, a loss for which
he received a partial recompense in the form of a small parliamentary
pension. He was one of the clearest thinkers and ablest political
writers among the American Loyalists, and, according to Prof. Tyler,
"shared with Thomas Hutchinson the supreme place among American
statesmen opposed to the Revolution."

  Among his pamphlets are _A Candid Examination of the Mutual Claims of
  Great Britain and the Colonies_ (1775); _Historical and Political
  Reflections on the Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion_
  (1780); _Cool Thoughts on the Consequences to Great Britain of
  American Independence_ (1780); and _The Claim of the American
  Loyalists Reviewed and Maintained upon Incontrovertible Principles of
  Law and Justice_ (1788).

  See Thomas Balch (Ed.), _The Examination of Joseph Galloway by a
  Committee of the House of Commons_ (Philadelphia, 1855); Ernest H.
  Baldwin, _Joseph Galloway, the Loyalist Politician_ (New Haven, 1903);
  and M.C. Tyler, _Literary History of the American Revolution_ (2
  vols., New York, 1897).



GALLOWAY, THOMAS (1796-1851), Scottish mathematician, was born at
Symington, Lanarkshire, on the 26th of February 1796. In 1812 he entered
the university of Edinburgh, where he distinguished himself specially in
mathematics. In 1823 he was appointed one of the teachers of mathematics
at the military college of Sandhurst, and in 1833 he was appointed
actuary to the Amicable Life Assurance Office, the oldest institution of
that kind in London; in which situation he remained till his death on
the 1st of November 1851. Galloway was a voluminous, though, for the
most part, an anonymous writer. His most interesting paper is "On the
Proper Motion of the Solar System," and was published in the _Phil.
Trans._, 1847. He contributed largely to the seventh edition of the
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, and also wrote several scientific papers for
the _Edinburgh Review_ and various scientific journals. His
_Encyclopaedia_ article, "Probability," was published separately.

  See _Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society_ (1852).



GALLOWAY, a district in the south-west of Scotland, comprising the
counties of Kirkcudbright and Wigtown. It was the _Novantia_ of the
Romans, and till the end of the 12th century included Carrick, now the
southern division of Ayrshire. Though the designation has not been
adopted civilly, its use historically and locally has been long
established. Thus the Bruces were lords of Galloway, and the title of
earl of Galloway (created 1623) is now held by a branch of the Stewarts.
Galloway also gives its name to a famous indigenous breed of black
hornless cattle. See KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE and WIGTOWNSHIRE.



GALLOWS[1] (a common Teutonic word--cf. Goth. _galga_, O.H. Ger.
_galgo_, Mod. Ger. _Galgen_, A.S. _galzan_, &c.--of uncertain origin),
the apparatus for executing the sentence of death by hanging. It usually
consists of two upright posts and a cross-beam, but sometimes of a
single upright with a beam projecting from the top. The Roman gallows
was the cross, and in the older translations of the Bible "gallows" was
used for the cross on which Christ suffered (so _galga_ in Ulfilas's
Gothic Testament).[2] Another form of gallows in the middle ages was
that of which the famous example at Montfaucon near Paris was the type.
This was a square structure formed of columns of masonry connected in
each tier with cross-pieces of wood, and with pits beneath, into which
the bodies fell after disarticulation by exposure to the weather.

According to actual usage the condemned man stands on a platform or drop
(introduced in England in 1760), the rope hangs from the cross-beam, and
the noose at its end is placed round his neck. He is hanged by the
falling of the drop, the knot in the noose being so adjusted that the
spinal cord is broken by the fall and death instantaneous. In old times
the process was far less merciful; sometimes the condemned man stood in
a cart, which was drawn away from under him; sometimes he had to mount a
ladder, from which he was thrust by the hangman. Until 1832 malefactors
in England were sometimes hanged by being drawn up from the platform by
a heavy weight at the other end of the rope. Death in these cases was by
strangulation. At the present time executions in the United Kingdom are
private, the gallows being erected in a chamber or enclosed space set
apart for the purpose inside the gaol.

The word "gibbet," the Fr. _gibet_, gallows, which appears in the first
instance to have meant a crooked stick,[3] was originally used in
English synonymously with gallows, as it sometimes still is. Its later
and more special application, however, was to the upright posts with a
projecting arm on which the bodies of criminals were suspended after
their execution. These gibbets were erected in conspicuous spots, on the
tops of hills (Gallows Hill is still a common name) or near frequented
roads. The bodies, smeared with pitch to prevent too rapid
decomposition, hung in chains as a warning to evildoers. From the
gruesome custom comes the common use of the word "to gibbet" for any
holding up to public infamy or contempt.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The word "gallows" is the plural of a word (_galwe_, _galowe_,
    _gallow_) which, according to the _New English Dictionary_, was
    occasionally used as late as the 17th century, though from the 13th
    century onwards the plural form was more usual. Caxton speaks both of
    "a gallows," and, in the older form, of "a pair of gallows," this
    referring probably to the two upright posts. From the 16th century
    onwards "gallows" has been consistently treated as a singular form, a
    new plural, "gallowses," having come into use. "The latter, though
    not strictly obsolete, is now seldom used; the formation is felt to
    be somewhat uncouth, so that the use of the word in the plural in
    commonly evaded" (_New Eng. Dict._ s.v. "Gallows").

  [2] In Med. Lat. "gallows" was translated by _furia_ and _patibulum_,
    both words applied in classical Latin to a fork-shaped instrument of
    punishment fastened on the neck of slaves and criminals. _Furia_, in
    feudal law, was the right granted to tenants having major
    jurisdiction to erect a gallows within the limits of their fief.

  [3] Cf. Wace, _Roman de Rou_, iii. 8349:

      "Et il a le gibet saisi
       Qui a son destre braz pendi."



GALLS. In animals galls occur mostly on or under the skin of living
mammals and birds, and are produced by Acaridea, and by dipterous
insects of the genus _Oestrus_. Signor Moriggia[1] has described and
figured a horny excrescence, nearly 8 in. in length, from the back of
the human hand, which was caused by _Acarus domesticus_. What are
commonly known as galls are vegetable excrescences, and, according to
the definition of Lacaze-Duthiers, comprise "all abnormal vegetable
productions developed on plants by the action of animals, more
particularly by insects, whatever may be their form, bulk or situation."
For the larvae of their makers the galls provide shelter and sustenance.
The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls,
appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus,
secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the
puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of
plants. This virus causes the rapid enlargement and subdivision of the
cells affected by it, so as to form the tissues of the gall. Oval or
larval irritation also, without doubt, plays an important part in the
formation of many galls. Though, as Lacaze-Duthiers remarks, a certain
relation is necessary between the "stimulus" and the "supporter of the
stimulus," as evidenced by the limitation in the majority of cases of
each species of gall-insect to some one vegetable structure, still it
must be the quality of the irritant of the tissues, rather than the
specific peculiarities or the part of the plant affected, that
principally determines the nature of the gall. Thus the characteristics
of the currant-gall of _Spathegaster baccarum_, L., which occurs alike
on the leaves and on the flower-stalks of the oak, are obviously due to
the act of oviposition, and not to the functions of the parts producing
it; the bright red galls of the saw-fly _Nematus gallicola_ are found on
four different species of willow, _Salix fragilis_, _S. alba_, _S.
caprea_ and _S. cinerea_;[2] and the galls of a Cynipid, _Biorhiza
aptera_, usually developed on the rootlets of the oak, have been
procured also from the deodar.[3] Often the gall bears no visible
resemblance to the structures out of which it is developed; commonly,
however, outside the larval chamber, or gall proper, and giving to the
gall its distinctive form, are to be detected certain more or less
modified special organs of the plant. The gall of _Cecidomyia
strobilina_, formed from willow-buds, is mainly a rosette of leaves the
stalks of which have had their growth arrested. The small, smooth,
seed-shaped gall of the American _Cynips seminator_, Harris, according
to W.F. Bassett,[4] is the petiole, and its terminal tuft of woolly
hairs the enormously developed pubescence of the young oak-leaf. The
moss-like covering of the "bedeguars" of the wild rose, the galls of a
Cynipid, _Rhodites rosae_, represents leaves which have been developed
with scarcely any parenchyma between their fibro-vascular bundles; and
the "artichoke-galls" or "oak-strobile," produced by _Aphilothrix
gemmae_, L., which insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists
of a cupule to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached,
with a peduncular, oviform, inner gall.[5] E. Newman held the view that
many oak-galls are pseudobalani or false acorns: "to produce an acorn
has been the intention of the oak, but the gall-fly has frustrated the
attempt." Their formation from buds which normally would have yielded
leaves and shoots is explained by Parfitt as the outcome of an effort at
fructification induced by oviposition, such as has been found to result
in several plants from injury by insect-agency or otherwise.[6] Galls
vary remarkably in size and shape according to the species of their
makers. The polythalamous gall of _Aphilothrix radicis_, found on the
roots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls
of another Cynipid, _Andricus occultus_, Tschek,[7] which occurs on the
male flowers of _Quercus sessiliflora_, is 2 millimetres, or barely a
line, in length. Many galls are brightly coloured, as, for instance, the
oak-leaf hairy galls of _Spathegaster tricolor_, which are of a crimson
hue, more or less diffused according to exposure to light. The variety
of forms of galls is very great. Some are like urns or cups, others
lenticular. The "knoppern" galls of _Cynips polycera_, Gir., are cones
having the broad, slightly convex upper surface surrounded with a
toothed ridge. Of the Ceylonese galls, "some are as symmetrical as a
composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry;
some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of
long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."[8] The
characters of galls are constant, and as a rule exceedingly diagnostic,
even when, as in the case of ten different gall-gnats of an American
willow, _Salix humilis_, it is difficult or impossible to tell the
full-grown insects that produce them from one another. In degree of
complexity of internal structure galls differ considerably. Some are
monothalamous, and contain but one larva of the gall-maker, whilst
others are many-celled and numerously inhabited. The largest class are
the unilocular, or simple, external galls, divided by Lacaze-Duthiers
into those with and those without a superficial protective layer or
rind, and composed of hard, or spongy, or cellular tissue. In a common
gall-nut that authority distinguished seven constituent portions: an
epidermis; a subdermic cellular tissue; a spongy and a hard layer,
composing the parenchyma proper; vessels which, without forming a
complete investment, underlie the parenchyma; a hard protective layer;
and lastly, within that, an alimentary central mass inhabited by the
growing larva.[9]

Galls are formed by insects of several orders. Among the Hymenoptera are
the gall-wasps (_Cynips_ and its allies), which infect the various
species of oak. They are small insects, having straight antennae, and a
compressed, usually very short abdomen with the second or second and
third segments greatly developed, and the rest imbricated, and
concealing the partially coiled ovipositor. The transformations from the
larval state are completed within the gall, out of which the imago, or
perfect insect, tunnels its way,--usually in autumn, though sometimes,
as has been observed of some individuals of _Cynips Kollari_, after
hibernation.

Among the commoner of the galls of the _Cynipidae_ are the "oak-apple"
or "oak-sponge" of _Andricus terminalis_, Fab.; the "currant" or "berry
galls" of _Spathegaster baccarum_, L., above mentioned; and the
"oak-spangles" of _Neuroterus lenticularis_,[10] Oliv., generally
reputed to be fungoid growths, until the discovery of their true nature
by Frederick Smith,[11] and the succulent "cherry-galls" of _Dryophanta
scutellaris_, Oliv. The "marble" or "Devonshire woody galls" of
oak-buds, which often destroy the leading shoots of young trees, are
produced by _Cynips Kollari_,[12] already alluded to. They were first
introduced into Devonshire about the year 1847, had become common near
Birmingham by 1866, and two or three years later were observed in
several parts of Scotland.[13] They contain about 17% of tannin.[14] On
account of their regular form they have been used, threaded on wire, for
making ornamental baskets. The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah
galls,[15] produced on a species of oak by _Cynips insana_, Westw., have
been regarded by many writers as the Dead Sea fruit, mad-apples (_mala
insana_), or apples of Sodom (_poma sodomitica_), alluded to by Josephus
and others, which, however, are stated by E. Robinson (_Bibl. Researches
in Palestine_, vol. i. pp. 522-524, 3rd ed., 1867) to be the singular
fruit called by the Arabs _'Ösher_, produced by the _Asclepias gigantea_
or _procera_ of botanists. What in California are known as "flea seeds"
are oak-galls made by a species of _Cynips_; in August they become
detached from the leaves that bear them, and are caused to jump by the
spasmodic movements of the grub within the thin-walled gall-cavity.[16]

Common gall-nuts, nut-galls, or oak-galls, the Aleppo, Turkey, or Levant
galls of commerce (Ger. _Galläpfel_, _levantische Gallen_; Fr. _noix de
Galle_), are produced on _Quercus infectoria_, a variety of _Q.
Lusitanica_, Webb, by _Cynips_ (_Diplolepis_, Latr.) _tinctoria_, L., or
_C. gallae tinctoriae_ Oliv. Aleppo galls (_gallae halepenses_) are
brittle, hard, spherical bodies, 2/5-4/5 in. in diameter, ridged and
warty on the upper half, and light brown to dark greyish-yellow within.
What are termed "blue," "black," or "green" galls contain the insect;
the inferior "white" galls, which are lighter coloured, and not so
compact, heavy or astringent, are gathered after its escape (see fig.
1.). Less valued are the galls of Tripoli (Taraplus or Tarabulus, whence
the name "Tarablous galls"). The most esteemed Syrian galls, according
to Pereira, are those of Mosul on the Tigris. Other varieties of
nut-galls, besides the above-mentioned, are employed in Europe for
various purposes. Commercial gall-nuts have yielded on analysis from 26
(H. Davy) to 77 (Buchner) % of tannin (see Vinen, _loc. cit._), with
gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, water, and minute quantities
of proteids, chlorophyll, resin, free sugar and, in the cells around the
inner shelly chamber, calcium oxalate. Oak-galls are mentioned by
Theophrastus, Dioscorides (i. 146), and other ancient writers, including
Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ xvi. 9, 10, xxiv. 5), according to whom they may be
produced "in a single night." Their insect origin appears to have been
entirely unsuspected until within comparatively recent times, though
Pliny, indeed, makes the observation that a kind of gnat is produced in
certain excrescences on oak leaves. Bacon describes oak-apples as "an
exudation of plants joined with putrefaction." Pomet[17] thought that
gall-nuts were the fruit of the oak, and a similar opinion obtains among
the modern Chinese, who apply to them the term _Mu-shih-tsze_, or
"fruits for the foodless."[18] Hippocrates administered gall-nuts for
their astringent properties, and Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ xxiv. 5) recommends
them as a remedy in affections of the gums and uvula, ulcerations of the
mouth and some dozen more complaints. In British pharmacy gall-nuts are
used in the preparation of the two astringent ointments _unguentum
gallae_ and _unguentum gallae cum opio_, and of the tinctura gallae, and
also as a source of tannin and of gallic acid (q.v.). They have from
very early times been resorted to as a means of staining the hair of a
dark colour, and they are the base of the tattooing dye of the Somali
women.[19]

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--_a_, Aleppo "blue" gall; _b_, ditto in section,
showing central cavity for grub; _c_, Aleppo "white" gall, perforated by
insect; _d_, the same in section (natural size).]

The gall-making Hymenoptera include, besides the _Cynipidae_ proper,
certain species of the genus _Eurytoma_ (_Isosoma_, Walsh) and family
_Chalcididae_, e.g. _E. hordei_, the "joint-worm" of the United States,
which produces galls on the stalks of wheat;[20] also various members of
the family _Tenthredinidae_, or saw-flies. The larvae of the latter
usually vacate their galls, to spin their cocoons in the earth, or, as
in the case of _Athalia abdominalis_, Klg., of the clematis, may emerge
from their shelter to feed for some days on the leaves of the
gall-bearing plant.

The dipterous gall-formers include the gall-midges, or gall-gnats
(_Cecidomyidae_), minute slender-bodied insects, with bodies usually
covered with long hairs, and the wings folded over the back. Some of
them build cocoons within their galls, others descend to the ground or
become pupae. The true willow-galls are the work either of these or of
saw-flies. Their galls are to be met with on a great variety of plants
of widely distinct genera, e.g. the ash, maple, horn-beam, oak,[21]
grape-vine,[22] alder, gooseberry, blackberry, pine, juniper, thistle,
fennel, meadowsweet,[23] common cabbage and cereals. In the northern
United States, in May, "legions of these delicate minute flies fill the
air at twilight, hovering over wheat-fields and shrubbery. A strong
north-west wind, at such times, is of incalculable value to the
farmer."[24] Other gall-making dipterous flies are members of the family
_Trypetidae_, which disfigure the seed-heads of plants, and of the
family _Mycetophilidae_, such as the species _Sciara tilicola_,[25] Löw,
the cause of the oblong or rounded green and red galls of the young
shoots and leaves of the lime.

Galls are formed also by hemipterous and homopterous insects of the
families _Tingidae_, _Psyllidae_, _Coccidae_ and _Aphidae_. _Coccus
pinicorticis_ causes the growth of patches of white flocculent and downy
matter on the smooth bark of young trees of the white pine in
America.[26] The galls of examples of the last family are common objects
on lime-leaves, and on the petioles of the poplar. An American Aphid of
the genus _Pemphigus_ produces black, ragged, leathery and cut-shaped
excrescences on the young branches of the hickory.

  The Chinese galls of commerce (_Woo-pei-tsze_) are stated to be
  produced by _Aphis Chinensis_, Bell, on _Rhus semialata_, Murr. (_R.
  Bucki-amela_, Roxb.), an Anacardiaceous tree indigenous to N. India,
  China and Japan. They are hollow, brittle, irregularly pyriform,
  tuberculated or branched vesicles, with thin walls, covered externally
  with a grey down, and internally with a white chalk-like matter, and
  insect-remains (see fig. 2). The escape of the insect takes place on
  the spontaneous bursting of the walls of the vesicle, probably when,
  after viviparous (thelytokous) reproduction for several generations,
  male winged insects are developed. The galls are gathered before the
  frosts set in, and are exposed to steam to kill the insects.[27]

  Chinese galls examined by Viedt[28] yielded 72% of tannin, and less
  mucilage than Aleppo galls. Several other varieties of galls are
  produced by Aphides on species of _Pistacia_.

  M.J. Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the
  Aphis of Pistachio galls, _Anopleura lentisci_, is hatched an apterous
  insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides
  (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots
  of certain grasses (_Bromus sterilis_ and _Hordeum vulgare_), and by
  budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous
  insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera). These
  last issuing from the ground fly to the Pistachio, and on it deposit
  their pupae. From the pupae, again, are developed sexual individuals,
  the females of which lay fecundated eggs productive of gall-founders,
  thus recommencing the biological cycle (see _Compt. rend._, Nov. 18,
  1878, p. 782, quoted in _Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist._, 1879, p. 174).

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_a_, Chinese gall (abt. ½ natural size); _b_,
ditto broken, showing thin-walled cavity; _c_, Japanese gall (natural
size).]

Of other insects which have been recognized as gall-makers there are,
among the Coleoptera, certain Curculionids (gall-weevils), and species
of the exotic _Sagridae_ and _Lamiadae_ and an American beetle,
_Saperda inornata_ (_Cerambycidae_), which forms the pseudo-galls of
_Salix longifolia_ and _Populus angulata_, or cottonwood. Among the
Lepidoptera are gall-forming species belonging to the _Tineidae_,
_Aegeriidae_, _Tortricidae_ and _Pterophoridae_. The larva of a New
Zealand moth, _Morova subfasciata_, Walk. (_Cacoëcia gallicolens_), of
the family _Drepanulidae_, causes the stem of a creeping plant, on the
pith of which it apparently subsists, to swell up into a fusiform
gall.[29]

Mite-galls, or _acarocecidia_, are abnormal growths of the leaves of
plants, produced by microscopic Acaridea of the genus _Phytoptus_
(gall-mites), and consist of little tufts of hairs, or of thickened
portions of the leaves, usually most hypertrophied on the upper surface,
so that the lower is drawn up into the interior, producing a bursiform
cavity. Mite-galls occur on the sycamore, pear, plum, ash, alder, vine,
mulberry and many other plants; and formerly, e.g. the gall known as
_Erineum quercinum_, on the leaves of _Quercus Cerris_, were taken for
cryptogamic structures. The lime-leaf "nail-galls" of _Phytoptus tiliae_
closely resemble the "trumpet-galls" formed on American vines by a
species of _Cecidomyia_.[30] Certain minute Nematoid worms, as
_Anguillula scandens_, which infests the ears of wheat, also give rise
to galls.

Besides the larva of the gall-maker, or the householder, galls usually
contain inquilines or lodgers, the larvae of what are termed guest-flies
or cuckoo-flies. Thus the galls of _Cynips_ and its allies are inhabited
by members of other cynipideous genera, as _Synergus_, _Amblynotus_ and
_Synophrus_; and the pine-cone-like gall of _Salix strobiloides_, as
Walsh has shown,[30] is made by a large species of _Cecidomyia_, which
inhabits the heart of the mass, the numerous smaller cecidomyidous
larvae in its outer part being mere inquilines. In many instances the
lodgers are not of the same order of insects as the gall-makers. Some
saw-flies, for example, are inquilinous in the galls of gall-gnats and
some gall-gnats in the galls of saw-flies. Again, galls may afford
harbour to insects which are not essentially gall-feeders, as in the
case of the Curculio beetle _Conotrachelius nenuphar_, Hbst., of which
one brood eats the fleshy part of the plum and peach, and another lives
in the "black knot" of the plum-tree, regarded by Walsh as probably a
true cecidomyidous gall. The same authority (_loc. cit._ p. 550)
mentions a willow-gall which provides no less than sixteen insects with
food and protection; these are preyed upon by about eight others, so
that altogether some twenty-four insects, representing eight orders, are
dependent for their existence on what to the common observer appears to
be nothing but "an unmeaning mass of leaves." Among the numerous insects
parasitic on the inhabitants of galls are hymenopterous flies of the
family _Proctotrypidae_, and of the family _Chalcididae_, e.g.
_Callimome regius_, the larva of which preys on the larvae of both
_Cynips glutinosa_ and its lodger _Synergus facialis_. The oak-apple
often contains the larvae of _Braconidae_ and _Ichneumonidae_, which Von
Schlechtendal (_loc. sup. cit._ p. 33) considers to be parasites not on
the owner of the gall, _Andricus terminalis_, but on inquilinous
_Tortricidae_. Birds are to be included among the enemies of
gall-insects. Oak-galls, for example, are broken open by the titmouse in
order to obtain the grub within, and the "button-galls" of _Neuroterus
numismatis_, Oliv., are eaten by pheasants.

A great variety of deformations and growths produced by insects and
mites as well as by fungi have been described. They are in some cases
very slight, and in others form remarkably large and definite
structures. The whole are now included under the term Cecidia; a prefix
gives the name of the organism to which the attacks are due, e.g.
Phytoptocecidia are the galls formed by Phytoptid mites. Simple galls
are those that arise when only one member of a plant is involved;
compound galls are the result of attacks on buds. Amongst the most
remarkable galls recently discovered we may mention those found on
Eucalyptus, Casuarina and other trees and plants in Australia. They are
remarkable for their variety, and are due to small scale-insects of the
peculiar sub-family Brachyscelinae. As regards the mode of production of
galls, the most important distinction is between galls that result from
the introduction of an egg, or other matter, into the interior of the
plant, and those that are due to an agent acting externally, the gall in
the latter case frequently growing in such a manner as ultimately to
enclose its producers. The form and nature of the gall are the result of
the powers of growth possessed by the plant. It has long been known, and
is now generally recognized, that a gall can only be produced when the
tissue of a plant is interfered with during, or prior to, the actual
development of the tissue. Little more than this is known. The power
that gall-producers possess of influencing by direct interference the
growth of the cells of the plant that affords them the means of
subsistence is an art that appears to be widely spread among animals,
but is at the same time one of which we have little knowledge. The views
of Adler as to the alternation of generations of numerous gall-flies
have been fully confirmed, it having been ascertained by direct
observation that the galls and the insects produced from them in one
generation are entirely different from the next generation; and it has
also been rendered certain that frequently one of the alternate
generations is parthenogenetic, no males being produced. It is supposed
that these remarkable phenomena have gradually been evoked by difference
in the nutrition of the alternating generations. When two different
generations are produced in one year on the same kind of tree it is
clear the properties of the sap and tissues of the tree must be diverse
so that the two generations are adapted to different conditions. In some
cases the alternating generations are produced on different species of
trees, and even on different parts of the two species.

  On galls and their makers and inhabitants see further--J.T.C.
  Ratzeburg, _Die Forst-Insecten_, Teil iii. pp. 53 seq. (Berlin, 1844);
  T.W. Harris, _Insects injurious to Vegetation_ (Boston, U.S., 2nd ed.,
  1852); C.L. Koch, _Die Pflanzenläuse Aphiden_ (Nuremberg, 1854); T.
  Hartig, _Die Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen_ (Berlin, 1860);
  Walsh, "On the Insects, Coleopterous, Hymenopterous and Dipterous,
  inhabiting the Galls of certain species of Willow," _Proc. Ent. Soc.
  Philadelphia_, iii. (1863-1864), pp. 543-644, and vi. (1866-1867), pp.
  223-288; T.A. Marshall, "On some British Cynipidae," _Ent. Month.
  Mag._ iv. pp. 6-8, &c.; H.W. Kidd and Albert Müller, "A List of
  Gall-bearing British Plants," _ib._ v. pp. 118 and 216; G.L. Mayr,
  _Die mitteleuropäischen Eichengallen in Wort und Bild_ (Vienna,
  1870-1871), and the translation of that work, with notes, in the
  _Entomologist_, vols. vii. seq.; also, by the same author, "Die
  Einmiethler der mitteleuropäischen Eichengallen," _Verhandl. d.
  zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien_, xxii. pp. 669-726; and "Die europäischen
  Torymiden," _ib._ xxiv. pp. 53-142 (abstracted in _Cistula
  entomologica_, i., London, 1869-1876); F. Löw, "Beiträge zur Kenntnis
  der Gallmücken," _ib._ pp. 143-162, and 321-328; J.E. von Bergenstamm
  and P. Löw, "Synopsis Cecidomyidarum," _ib._ xxvi. pp. 1-104; Perris,
  _Ann. Soc. Entom. de France_, 4th ser. vol. x. pp. 176-185; R.
  Osten-Sacken, "On the North American Cecidomyidae," _Smithsonian
  Miscellaneous Collections_, vol. vi. (1867), p. 173; E.L. Taschenberg,
  _Entomologie für Gärtner und Gartenfreunde_ (Leipzig, 1871); J.W.H.
  Traill, "Scottish Galls," _Scottish Naturalist_, i. (1871), pp. 123,
  &c.; Albert Müller, "British Gall Insects," _The Entomologist's Annual
  for 1872_, pp. 1-22; B. Altum, _Forstzoologie_, iii. "Insecten," pp.
  250 seq. (Berlin, 1874); J.H. Kaltenbach, _Die Pflanzenfeinde aus der
  Classe der Insecten_ (Stuttgart, 1874); A. d'Arbois de Jubainville and
  J. Vesque, _Les Maladies des plantes cultivées_, pp. 98-105 (Paris,
  1878).     (F. H. B.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Quoted in _Zoological Record_, iv. (1867), p. 192.

  [2] P. Cameron, _Scottish Naturalist_, ii. pp. 11-15.

  [3] _Entomologist_, vii. p. 47.

  [4] See in _Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the Year 1873_, p. xvi.

  [5] See A. Müller, _Gardener's Chronicle_ (1871), pp. 1162 and 1518;
    and E.A. Fitch, _Entomologist_, xi. p. 129.

  [6] _Entomologist_, vi. pp. 275-278, 339-340.

  [7] _Verhandl. d. zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien_, xxi. p. 799.

  [8] Darwin, _Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication_,
    ii. p. 282.

  [9] "Recherches pour servir à l'histoire des galles," _Ann. des sci.
    nat._ xix. pp. 293 sqq.

  [10] According to Dr Adler, alternation of generations takes place
    between _N. lenticularis_ and _Spathegaster baccarum_ (see E.A.
    Ormerod, _Entomologist_, xi. p. 34).

  [11] See Westwood, _Introd. to the Mod. Classif. of Insects_, ii.
    (1840) p. 130.

  [12] For figures and descriptions of insect and gall, see
    _Entomologist_, iv. p. 17, vii. p. 241, ix. p. 53, xi. p. 131.

  [13] _Scottish Naturalist_, i. (1871) p. 116, &c.

  [14] Vinen, _Journ. de pharm. et de chim._ xxx. (1856) p. 290;
    "English Ink-Galls," _Pharm. Journ._ 2nd ser. iv. p. 520.

  [15] See Pereira, _Materia Medica_, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 347; _Pharm.
    Journ._ 1st ser. vol. viii. pp. 422-424.

  [16] See R.H. Stretch and C.D. Gibbes, _Proc. California Acad. of
    Sciences_, iv. pp. 265 and 266.

  [17] _A Complete History of Drugs_ (translation), p. 169 (London,
    1748).

  [18] F. Porter Smith, _Contrib. towards the Mat. Medica ... of
    China_, p. 100 (1871).

  [19] R.F. Burton, _First Footsteps in E. Africa_, p. 178 (1856).

  [20] A.S. Packard, jun., _Guide to the Study of Insects_, p. 205
    (Salem, 1870).

  [21] On the Cecidomyids of _Quercus Cerris_, see Fitch,
    _Entomologist_, xi. p. 14.

  [22] See, on _Cecidomyia oenephila_, Von Haimhoffen, _Verhandl. d.
    zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien_, xxv. pp. 801-810.

  [23] See _Entomologist's Month. Mag._ iv. (1868) p. 233; and for
    figure and description, _Entomologist_, xi. p. 13.

  [24] A.S. Packard, jun., _Our Common Insects_, p. 203 (Salem, U.S.
    1873). On the Hessian fly, _Cecidomyia destructor_, Say, the May
    brood of which produces swellings immediately above the joints of
    barley attacked by it, see Asa Fitch, _The Hessian Fly_ (Albany,
    1847), reprinted from _Trans. New York State Agric. Soc._ vol. vi.

  [25] J. Winnertz, _Beitrag zu einer Monographie der Sciarinen_, p.
    164 (Vienna, 1867).

  [26] Asa Fitch, _First and Second Rep. on the Noxious ... Insects of
    the State of New York_, p. 167 (Albany, 1856).

  [27] See E. Doubleday, _Pharm. Journ._ 1st ser, vol. vii. p. 310: and
    Pereira, _ib._ vol. iii. p. 377.

  [28] _Dingler's Polyt. Journ._ ccxvi. p. 453.

  [29] For figure and description see _Zoology of the "Erebus" and
    "Terror,"_ ii. pp. 46, 47 (1844-1875).

  [30] On the mite-galls and their makers, see F. Löw, "Beiträge zur
    Naturgesch. der Gallmilben (_Phytoptus_, Duj.)," _Verhandl. d.
    zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien_, xxiv. (1874), pp. 2-16, with plate; and
    "Über Milbengallen (Acarocecidien) der Wiener-Gegend," _ib._ pp.
    495-508; Andrew Murray, _Economic Entomology, Aptera_, pp. 331-374
    (1876); and F.A.W. Thomas, _Ältere und neue Beobachtungen über
    Phytopto-Cecidien_ (Halle, 1877).



GALLUPPI, PASQUALE (1770-1846), Italian philosopher, was born on the 2nd
of April 1770 at Tropea, in Calabria. He was of good family, and after
studying at the university of Naples he entered the public service, and
was for many years employed in the office of the administration of
finances. At the age of sixty, having become widely known by his
writings on philosophy, he was called to the chair of logic and
metaphysics in the university of Naples, which he held till his death in
November 1846. His most important works are: _Lettere filosofiche_
(1827), in which he traces his philosophical development; _Elementi di
filosofia_ (1832); _Saggio filosofico sulla critica della conoscenza_
(1819-1832); _Sull' analisi e sulla sintesi_ (1807); _Lezioni di logica
e di metafisica_ (1832-1836); _Filosofia della volontà_ (1832-1842,
incomplete); _Storia della filosofia_ (i., 1842); _Considerazioni
filosofiche sull' idealismo trascendentale_ (1841), a memoir on the
system of Fichte.

  On his philosophical views see L. Ferri, _Essai sur l'histoire de la
  philosophie en Italie au XIX^e siècle_, i. (1869); V. Botta in
  Ueberweg's _Hist. of Philosophy_, ii. app. 2; G. Barzellotti,
  "Philosophy in Italy," in Mind, iii. (1878); V. Lastrucci, _Pasquale
  Galluppi. Studio critico_ (Florence, 1890).

GALLUS, CORNELIUS (c. 70-26 B.C.), Roman poet, orator and politician,
was born of humble parents at Forum Julii (_Fréjus_) in Gaul. At an
early age he removed to Rome, where he was taught by the same master as
Virgil and Varius Rufus. Virgil, who dedicated one of his eclogues (x.)
to him, was in great measure indebted to the influence of Gallus for the
restoration of his estate. In political life Gallus espoused the cause
of Octavianus, and as a reward for his services was made praefect of
Egypt (Suetonius, _Augustus_, 66). His conduct in this position
afterwards brought him into disgrace with the emperor, and having been
deprived of his estates and sentenced to banishment, he put an end to
his life (Dio Cassius liii. 23). Gallus enjoyed a high reputation among
his contemporaries as a man of intellect, and Ovid (_Tristia_, iv. 10)
considered him the first of the elegiac poets of Rome. He wrote four
books of elegies chiefly on his mistress Lycoris (a poetical name for
Cytheris, a notorious actress), in which he took for his model Euphorion
of Chalcis (q.v.); he also translated some of this author's works into
Latin. Nothing by him has survived; the fragments of the four poems
attributed to him (first published by Aldus Manutius in 1590 and printed
in A. Riese's _Anthologia Latina_, 1869) are generally regarded as a
forgery.

  See C. Völker, _De C. Galli vita et scriptis_ (1840-1844); A. Nicolas,
  _De la vie et des ouvrages de C. Gallus_ (1851), an exhaustive
  monograph. An inscription found at Philae (published 1896) records the
  Egyptian exploits; see M. Schanz, _Geschichte der römischen
  Litteratur_, and Plessis, _Poésie latine_ (1909).



GALLUS, GAIUS AELIUS, praefect of Egypt 26-24 B.C. By order of Augustus
he undertook an expedition to Arabia Felix, with disastrous results. The
troops suffered greatly from disease, heat, want of water and the
obstinate resistance of the inhabitants. The treachery of a foreign
guide also added to his difficulties. After six months Gallus was
obliged to return to Alexandria, having lost the greater part of his
force. He was a friend of the geographer Strabo, who gives an account of
the expedition (xvi. pp. 780-782; see also Dio Cassius liii. 29; Pliny,
_Nat. Hist._ vi. 32; C. Merivale, _Hist. of the Romans under the
Empire_, ch. 34; H. Krüger, _Der Feldzug des A. G. nach dem glücklichen
Arabien_, 1862). He has been identified with the Aelius Gallus
frequently quoted by Galen, whose remedies are stated to have been used
with success in an Arabian expedition.



GALLUS, GAIUS CESTIUS, governor of Syria during the reign of Nero. When
the Jews in Jerusalem, stirred to revolt by the outrages of the Roman
procurators, had seized the fortress of Masada and treacherously
murdered the garrison of the palace of Herod, Gallus set out from
Antioch to restore order. On the 17th of November A.D. 66 he arrived
before Jerusalem. Having gained possession of the northern suburb, he
attacked the temple mount; but, after five days' fighting, just when
(according to Josephus) success was within his grasp, he unaccountably
withdrew his forces. During his retreat he was closely pursued by the
Jews and surrounded in a ravine, and only succeeded in making good his
escape to Antioch by sacrificing the greater part of his army and a
large amount of war material. Soon after his return Gallus died (before
the spring of 67), and was succeeded in the governorship by Licinius
Mucianus, the prosecution of the war being entrusted to Vespasian.

  See Tacitus, _Hist._ v. 10, 13; Suetonius, _Vespasian_, 4; Josephus,
  _Bell. Jud._ ii. 14-20; E. Schürer, _Hist. of the Jewish People_, div.
  i. vol. ii. p. 212 (Eng. tr., 1890).



GALLUS, GAIUS SULPICIUS, Roman general, statesman and orator. Under
Lucius Aemilius Paulus, his intimate friend, he commanded the 2nd legion
in the campaign against Perseus, king of Macedonia, and gained great
reputation for having predicted an eclipse of the moon on the night
before the battle of Pydna (168 B.C.). On his return from Macedonia he
was elected consul (166), and in the same year reduced the Ligurians to
submission. In 164 he was sent as ambassador to Greece and Asia, where
he held a meeting at Sardis to investigate the charges brought against
Eumenes of Pergamum by the representatives of various cities of Asia
Minor. Gallus was a man of great learning, an excellent Greek scholar,
and in his later years devoted himself to the study of astronomy, on
which subject he is quoted as an authority by Pliny.

  See Livy xliv. 37, _Epit_. 46; Polybius xxxi. 9, 10; Cicero, _Brutus_,
  20, _De officiis_, i. 6, _De senectute_, 14; Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ ii.
  9.



GALOIS, EVARISTE (1811-1832), French mathematician, was born on the 25th
of October 1811, and killed in a duel on the 31st of May 1832. An
obituary notice by his friend Auguste Chevalier appeared in the _Revue
encyclopédique_ (1832); and his collected works are published, _Journal
de Liouville_ (1846), pp. 381-444, about fifty of these pages being
occupied by researches on the resolubility of algebraic equations by
radicals. This branch of algebra he notably enriched, and to him is also
due the notion of a group of substitutions (see EQUATION: _Theory of
Equations_; also GROUPS, THEORY OF).

  His collected works, with an introduction by C.F. Picard, were
  published in 1897 at Paris.



GALSTON, a police burgh and manufacturing town of Ayrshire, Scotland.
Pop. (1901) 4876. It is situated on the Irvine, 5 m. E. by S. of
Kilmarnock, with a station on the Glasgow & South-Western railway. The
manufactures include blankets, lace, muslin, hosiery and
paper-millboard, and coal is worked in the vicinity. About 1 m. to the
north, amid the "bonnie woods and braes," is Loudoun Castle, a seat of
the earl of Loudoun.



GALT, SIR ALEXANDER TILLOCH (1817-1893), Canadian statesman, was the
youngest son of John Galt the author. Born in London on the 6th of
September 1817, he emigrated to Canada in 1835, and settled in
Sherbrooke, in the province of Quebec, where he entered the service of
the British American Land Company, of which he rose to be chief
commissioner. Later he was one of the contractors for extending the
Grand Trunk railway westward from Toronto. He entered public life in
1849 as Liberal member for the county of Sherbrooke, but opposed the
chief measure of his party, the Rebellion Losses Bill, and in the same
year signed a manifesto in favour of union with the United States,
believing that in no other way could Protestant and Anglo-Saxon
ascendancy over the Roman Catholic French majority in his native
province be maintained. In the same year he retired from parliament but
re-entered it in 1853, and was till 1872 the chief representative of the
English-speaking Protestants of Quebec province. On the fall of the
Brown-Dorion administration in 1858 he was called on to form a ministry,
but declined the task, and became finance minister under Sir John
Macdonald and Sir George Cartier on condition that the federation of the
British North American provinces should become a part of their
programme. From 1858 to 1862 and 1864 to 1867 he was finance minister,
and did much to reduce the somewhat chaotic finances of Canada into
order. To him are due the introduction of the decimal system of currency
and the adoption of a system of protection to Canadian manufactures. To
his diplomacy was due the coalition in 1864 between Macdonald, Brown and
Cartier, which carried the federation of the British North American
provinces, and throughout the three years of negotiation which followed
his was one of the chief influences. He became finance minister in the
first Dominion ministry, but suddenly and mysteriously resigned on the
4th of November 1867. After his retirement he gave to the administration
of Sir John Macdonald a support which grew more and more fitful, and
advocated independence as the final destiny of Canada. In 1871 he was
again offered the ministry of finance on condition of abandoning these
views, but declined. In 1877 he was the Canadian nominee on the
Anglo-American fisheries commission at Halifax, and rendered brilliant
service. In 1880 he was appointed Canadian high commissioner to Great
Britain, but retired in 1883 in favour of Sir Charles Tupper. During
this period he advocated imperial federation. He was Canadian delegate
at the Paris Monetary Conference of 1881, and to the International
Exhibition of Fisheries in 1883. From this date till his death on the
19th of September 1893 he lived in retirement. No Canadian statesman
has had sounder or more abundant ideas, but a certain intellectual
fickleness made him always a somewhat untrustworthy colleague in
political life.     (W. L. G.)



GALT, JOHN (1779-1839), Scottish novelist, was born at Irvine, Ayrshire,
on the 2nd of May 1779. He received his early education at Irvine and
Greenock, and read largely from one of the public libraries while
serving as a clerk in a mercantile office. In 1804 he went to settle in
London, where he published anonymously a poem on the _Battle of Largs_.
After unsuccessful attempts to succeed in business Galt entered at
Lincoln's Inn, but was never called to the bar. He obtained a commission
from a British firm to go abroad to find out whether the Berlin and
Milan decrees could be evaded. He met Byron and Sir John Hobhouse at
Gibraltar, travelled with Byron to Malta, and met him again at Athens.
He was afterwards employed by the Glasgow merchant Kirkman Finlay on
similar business at Gibraltar, and in 1814 visited France and Holland.
His early works are the _Life and Administration of Wolsey_, _Voyages
and Travels_, _Letters from the Levant_, the _Life of Benjamin West_,
_Historical Pictures_ and _The Wandering Jew_; and he induced Colburn to
publish a periodical containing dramatic pieces rejected by London
managers. These were afterwards edited by Galt as the _New British
Theatre_, which included some plays of his own. He first showed his real
power as a writer of fiction in _The Ayrshire Legatees_, which appeared
in _Blackwood's Magazine_ in 1820. This was followed in 1821 by his
masterpiece--_The Annals of the Parish_; and, at short intervals, _Sir
Andrew Wylie_, _The Entail_, _The Steam-Boat_ and _The Provost_ were
published. These humorous studies of Scottish character are all in his
happiest manner. His next works were _Ringan Gilhaize_ (1823), a story
of the Covenanters; _The Spaewife_ (1823), which relates to the times of
James I. of Scotland; _Rothelan_ (1824), a novel founded on the reign of
Edward III.; _The Omen_ (1825), which was favourably criticized by Sir
Walter Scott; and _The Last of the Lairds_, another picture of Scottish
life.

In 1826 he went to America as secretary to the Canada Land Company. He
carried out extensive schemes of colonization, and opened up a road
through what was then forest country between Lakes Huron and Erie. In
1827 he founded Guelph in upper Canada, passing on his way the township
of Galt on the Grand river, named after him by the Hon. William Dixon.
But all this work proved financially unprofitable to Galt. In 1829 he
returned to England commercially a ruined man, and devoted himself with
great ardour to literary pursuits, of which the first fruit was _Lawrie
Todd_--one of his best novels. Then came _Southennan_, a tale of
Scottish life in the times of Queen Mary. In 1830 he was appointed
editor of the _Courier_ newspaper--a post he soon relinquished. His
untiring industry was seen in the publication, in rapid succession, of a
_Life of Byron_, _Lives of the Players_, _Bogle Corbet_, _Stanley
Buxton_, _The Member_, _The Radical_, _Eben Erskine_, _The Stolen
Child_, his _Autobiography_, and a collection of tales entitled _Stories
of the Study_. In 1834 appeared his _Literary Life and Miscellanies_,
dedicated by permission to William IV., who sent the author a present of
£200. As soon as this work was published Galt retired to Greenock, where
he continued his literary labours till his death on the 11th of April
1839.

Galt, like almost all voluminous writers, was exceedingly unequal. His
masterpieces are _The Ayrshire Legatees_, _The Annals of the Parish_,
_Sir Andrew Wylie_, _The Entail_, _The Provost_ and _Lawrie Todd_. _The
Ayrshire Legatees_ gives, in the form of a number of exceedingly
diverting letters, the adventures of the Rev. Dr Pringle and his family
in London. The letters are made the excuse for endless tea-parties and
meetings of kirk-session in the rural parish of Garnock. _The Annals of
the Parish_ are told by the Rev. Micah Balwhidder, Galt's finest
character. This work (which, be it remembered, existed in MS. before
_Waverley_ was published) is a splendid picture of the old-fashioned
Scottish pastor and the life of a country parish; and, in rich humour,
genuine pathos and truth to nature it is unsurpassed even by Scott. It
is a fine specimen of the homely graces of the Scottish dialect, and
preserves much vigorous Doric phraseology fast passing out of use even
in country districts. In this novel Mr Galt used, for the first time,
the term "Utilitarian," which afterwards became so intimately associated
with the doctrines of John Stuart Mill and Bentham (see _Annals of the
Parish_, chap. xxxv., and a note by Mill in _Utilitarianism_, chap.
ii.). In _Sir Andrew Wylie_ the hero entered London as a poor lad, but
achieved remarkable success by his shrewd business qualities. The
character is somewhat exaggerated, but excessively amusing. _The Entail_
was read thrice by Byron and Scott, and is the best of Galt's longer
novels. Leddy Grippy is a wonderful creation, and was considered by
Byron equal to any female character in literature since Shakespeare's
time. _The Provost_, in which Provost Pawkie tells his own story,
portrays inimitably the jobbery, bickerings and self-seeking of
municipal dignitaries in a quaint Scottish burgh. In _Lawrie Todd_ Galt,
by giving us the Scot in America, accomplished a feat which Sir Walter
never attempted. This novel exhibits more variety of style and a greater
love of nature than his other books. The life of a settler is depicted
with unerring pencil, and with an enthusiasm and imaginative power much
more poetical than any of the author's professed poems.

  The best of Galt's novels were reprinted in Blackwood's _Standard
  Novels_, to volume i. of which his friend Dr Moir prefixed a memoir.



GALT, a town in Waterloo county, Ontario, Canada, 23 m. N.N.W. of
Hamilton, on the Grand river and on the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific
railways. Pop. (1881) 5187; (1901) 7866. It is named after John Galt,
the author. It has excellent water privileges which furnish power for
flour-mills and for manufactures of edge tools, castings, machinery,
paper and other industries.



GALTON, SIR FRANCIS (1822-   ), English anthropologist, son of S.T.
Galton, of Duddeston, Warwickshire, was born on the 16th of February
1822. His grandfather was the poet-naturalist Erasmus Darwin, and
Charles Darwin was his cousin. After attending King Edward VI.'s grammar
school, Birmingham, he studied at Birmingham hospital, and afterwards at
King's College, London, with the intention of making medicine his
profession; but after taking his degree at Trinity College, Cambridge,
in 1843 he changed his mind. The years 1845-1846 he spent in travelling
in the Sudan, and in 1850 he made an exploration, with Dr John Anderson,
of Damaraland and the Ovampo country in south-west Africa, starting from
Walfisch Bay. These tracts had practically never been traversed before,
and on the appearance of the published account of his journey and
experiences under the title of _Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical
South Africa_ (1853) Galton was awarded the gold medal of the Royal
Geographical Society. His _Art of Travel; or, Shifts and Contrivances in
Wild Countries_ was first published in 1855. In 1860 he visited the
north of Spain, and published the fruits of his observations of the
country and the people in the first of a series of volumes, which he
edited, entitled _Vacation Tourists_. He then turned to meteorology, the
result of his investigations appearing in _Meteorographica_, published
in 1863. This work was the first serious attempt to chart the weather on
an extensive scale, and in it also the author first established the
existence and theory of anti-cyclones. Galton was a member of the
meteorological committee (1868), and of the Meteorological Council which
succeeded it, for over thirty years. But his name is most closely
associated with studies in anthropology and especially in heredity. In
1869 appeared his _Hereditary Genius, its Laws and Consequences_, a work
which excited much interest in scientific and medical circles. This was
followed by _English Men of Science, their Nature and Nurture_,
published in 1874; _Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development_,
issued in 1883; _Life-History Album_ (1884); _Record of Family
Faculties_ (1884) (tabular forms and directions for entering data, with
a preface); and _Natural Inheritance_ (1889). The idea that systematic
efforts should be made to improve the breed of mankind by checking the
birth-rate of the unfit and furthering the productivity of the fit was
first put forward by him In 1865; he mooted it again in 1884, using the
term "eugenics" for the first time in _Human Faculty_, and in 1904 he
endowed a research fellowship in the university of London for the
promotion of knowledge of that subject, which was defined as "the study
of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial
qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally." Galton
was the author of memoirs on various anthropometric subjects; he
originated the process of composite portraiture, and paid much attention
to finger-prints and their employment for the identification of
criminals, his publications on this subject including _Finger Prints_
(1892), _Decipherment of Blurred Finger Prints_ (1893) and _Finger Print
Directories_ (1895). From the Royal Society, of which he was elected a
fellow in 1860, he received a royal medal in 1886 and the Darwin medal
in 1902, and honorary degrees were bestowed on him by Oxford (1894) and
Cambridge (1895). In 1908 he published _Memories of My Life_, and in
1909 he received a knighthood.



GALUPPI, BALDASSARE (1706-1785), Italian musical composer, was born on
the 18th of October 1706 on the island of Burano near Venice, from which
he was often known by the nickname of Buranello. His father, a barber,
and violinist at the local theatre, was his first teacher. His first
opera, composed at the age of sixteen, being hissed off the stage, he
determined to study seriously, and entered the Conservatorio degli
Incurabili at Venice, as a pupil of Antonio Lotti. After successfully
producing two operas in collaboration with a fellow-pupil, G.B.
Pescetti, in 1728 and 1729, he entered upon a busy career as a composer
of operas for Venetian theatres, writing sometimes as many as five in a
year. He visited London in 1741, and arranged a _pasticcio_, _Alexander
in Persia_, for the Haymarket. Burney considered his influence on
English music to have been very powerful. In 1740 he became
_vice-maestro di cappella_ at St Mark's and _maestro_ in 1762. In 1749
he began writing comic operas to libretti by Goldoni, which enjoyed an
enormous popularity. He was invited to Russia by Catherine II. in 1766,
where his operas made a favourable impression, and his influence was
also felt in Russian church music. He returned to Venice in 1768, where
he had held the post of director of the Conservatorio degli Incurabili
since 1762. He died on the 3rd of January 1785.

Galuppi's best works are his comic operas, of which _Il Filosofo di
Campagna_ (1754), known in England as _The Guardian Trick'd_ (Dublin,
1762) was the most popular. His melody is attractive rather than
original, but his workmanship in harmony and orchestration is generally
superior to that of his contemporaries. He seems to have been the first
to extend the concerted finales of Leo and Logroscino into a chain of
several separate movements, working up to a climax, but in this respect
he is much inferior to Sarti and Mozart.

Browning's poem, "A Toccata of Galuppi," does not refer to any known
composition, but more probably to an imaginary extemporization on the
harpsichord, such as was of frequent occurrence in the musical
gatherings of Galuppi's day.

  See also Alfred Wotquerme, _Baldassare Galuppi, étude bibliographique
  sur ses oeuvres dramatiques_ (Brussels, 1902). Many of his autograph
  scores are in the library of the Brussels conservatoire.
       (E. J. D.)



GALVANI, LUIGI (1737-1798), Italian physiologist, after whom galvanism
received its name, was born at Bologna on the 9th of September 1737. It
was his wish in early life to enter the church, but by his parents he
was educated for a medical career. At the university of Bologna, in
which city he practised, he was in 1762 appointed public lecturer in
anatomy, and soon gained repute as a skilled though not eloquent
teacher, and, chiefly from his researches on the organs of hearing and
genito-urinary tract of birds, as a comparative anatomist. His
celebrated theory of animal electricity he enunciated in a treatise, "De
viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius," published in the
7th volume of the memoirs of the Institute of Sciences at Bologna in
1791, and separately at Modena in the following year, and elsewhere
subsequently. The statement has frequently been repeated that, in 1786,
Galvani had noticed that the leg of a skinned frog, on being
accidentally touched by a scalpel which had lain near an electrical
machine, was thrown into violent convulsions; and that it was thus that
his attention was first directed to the relations of animal functions to
electricity. From documents in the possession of the Institute of
Bologna, however, it appears that twenty years previous to the
publication of his _Commentary_ Galvani was already engaged in
investigations as to the action of electricity upon the muscles of
frogs. The observation that the suspension of certain of these animals
on an iron railing by copper hooks caused twitching in the muscles of
their legs led him to the invention of his metallic arc, the first
experiment with which is described in the third part of the
_Commentary_, with the date September 20, 1786. The arc he constructed
of two different metals, which, placed in contact the one with a frog's
nerve and the other with a muscle, caused contraction of the latter. In
Galvani's view the motions of the muscle were the result of the union,
by means of the metallic arc, of its exterior or negative electrical
charge with positive electricity which proceeded along the nerve from
its inner substance. Volta, on the other hand, attributed them solely to
the effect of electricity having its source in the junction of the two
dissimilar metals of the arc, and regarded the nerve and muscle simply
as conductors. On Galvani's refusal, from religious scruples, to take
the oath of allegiance to the Cisalpine republic in 1797, he was removed
from his professorship. Deprived thus of the means of livelihood, he
retired to the house of his brother Giacomo, where he soon fell into a
feverish decline. The republican government, in consideration of his
great scientific fame, eventually, but too late, determined to reinstate
him in his chair, and he died at Bologna on the 4th of December 1798.

  A quarto edition of his works was published at Bologna in 1841-1842,
  by the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of that city, under the
  title _Opere edite ed inedite del professore Luigi Galvani_.



GALVANIZED IRON, sheet iron having its surface covered with a thin
coating of zinc. In spite of the name, galvanic action has often no part
in the production of galvanized iron, which is prepared by dipping the
iron, properly cleaned and pickled in acid, in a bath of molten zinc.
The hotter the zinc the thinner the coating, but as a high temperature
of the bath is attended with certain objections, it is a common practice
to use a moderate temperature and clear off the excess of zinc by
passing the plates between rollers. In Norwood and Rogers's process a
thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the
zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden
tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is
deposited on them by galvanic action. In "cold galvanizing" the zinc is
deposited electrolytically from a bath, preferably kept neutral or
slightly acid, containing a 10% solution of crystallized zinc sulphate,
ZnSO4·7H2O. The resulting surface is usually duller and less lustrous
than that obtained by the use of molten zinc. Another method of forming
a coating of zinc, known as "sherardizing," was invented by Sherard
Cowper-Coles, who found that metals embedded in zinc dust (a product
obtained in zinc manufacture and consisting of metallic zinc mixed with
a certain amount of zinc oxide) and heated to temperatures well below
the melting point of zinc, become coated with a layer of that metal. In
carrying out the process the articles are placed in an air-tight vessel
with the zinc dust, which must be dry, and subjected to a heat of
250-330°C., the time for which the heating is continued depending on the
thickness of the deposit required and varying from one-half to several
hours. If an air-tight receptacle is not available, a small percentage
of powdered carbon is added to the zinc-dust, to prevent increase in the
amount of oxide, which, if present in excess, tends to make the deposit
dull.

Galvanized iron by its zinc surface is protected from corrosion by the
weather, though the protection is not very efficient in the presence of
acid or sulphurous fumes, and accordingly it is extensively employed for
roofing, especially in the form of corrugated sheets. The iron wire used
for wire-netting, telegraphic purposes, &c., is commonly galvanized, as
also are bolts, nuts, chains and other fittings on ships.



GALVANOMETER, an instrument for detecting or measuring electric
currents. The term is generally applied to instruments which indicate
electric current in scale divisions or arbitrary units, as opposed to
instruments called amperemeters (q.v.), which show directly on a dial
the value of the current in amperes. Galvanometers may be divided into
direct current and alternating current instruments, according as they
are intended to measure one or other of these two classes of currents
(see ELECTROKINETICS).

  _Direct Current Galvanometers_.--The principle on which one type of
  direct current galvanometer, called a movable needle galvanometer,
  depends for its action is that a small magnet when suspended in the
  centre of a coil of wire tends to set its magnetic axis in the
  direction of the magnetic field of the coil at that point due to the
  current passing through it. In the other type, or movable coil
  galvanometer, the coil is suspended and the magnet fixed; hence the
  coil tends to set itself with its axis parallel to the lines of force
  of the magnet. The movable system must be constrained in some way to
  take up and retain a definite position when no current is passing by
  means which are called the "control."


    Movable needle galvanometer.

    Mirror galvanometers.

  In its simple and original form the movable needle galvanometer
  consisted of a horizontal magnetic needle suspended within a coil of
  insulated wire by silk fibres or pivoted on a point like a compass
  needle. The direction of such a needle is controlled by the direction
  of the terrestrial magnetic force within the coil. If the needle is so
  placed that its axis is parallel to the plane of the coil, then when
  an electric current passes through the coil it is deflected and places
  itself at an angle to the axis of the coil determined by the strength
  of the current and of the controlling field. In the early forms of
  movable needle galvanometer the needle was either a comparatively
  large magnet several inches in length, or else a smaller magnet was
  employed carrying a long pointer which moved over a scale of degrees
  so as to indicate the deflexion. A method of measuring the deflexion
  by means of a mirror scale and telescope was introduced by K.F. Gauss
  and W. Weber. The magnet had a mirror attached to it, and a telescope
  having cross wires in the focus was used to observe the scale
  divisions of a fixed scale seen reflected in the mirror. Lord Kelvin
  (Professor W. Thomson) made the important improvement of reducing the
  size of the needle and attaching it to the back of a very small
  mirror, the two being suspended by a single fibre of cocoon silk. The
  mirror was made of silvered microscopic glass about ¼ in. in diameter,
  and the magnetic needle or needles consisted of short fragments of
  watchspring cemented to its back. A ray of light being thrown on the
  mirror from a lamp the deflexions of the needle were observed by
  watching the movements of a spot of light reflected from it upon a
  fixed scale. This form of mirror galvanometer was first devised in
  connexion with submarine cable signalling, but soon became an
  indispensable instrument in the physical laboratory.


    Astatic galvanometers.

  In course of time both the original form of single needle galvanometer
  and mirror galvanometer were improved by introducing the astatic
  principle and weakening the external controlling magnetic field. If
  two magnetic needles of equal size and moment are attached rigidly to
  one stem parallel to each other but with poles placed in opposite
  directions an astatic system results; that is, if the needles are so
  suspended as to be free to move in a horizontal plane, and if they are
  made exactly equal in magnetic strength, the system will have no
  directive power. If one needle is slightly weaker than the other, the
  suspended system will set itself with some axis parallel to the lines
  of force of a field in which it is placed. In a form of astatic needle
  galvanometer devised by Professor A. Broca of Paris, the pair of
  magnetized needles are suspended vertically and parallel to each other
  with poles in opposite directions. The upper poles are included in one
  coil and the lower poles within another coil, so connected that the
  current circulates in the right direction in each coil to displace the
  pairs of poles in the same direction. By this mode of arrangement a
  greater magnetic moment can be secured, together with more perfect
  astaticity and freedom from disturbance by external fields. The
  earth's magnetic field can be weakened by means of a controlling
  magnet arranged to create in the space in the interior of the
  galvanometer coils an extremely feeble controlling magnetic field. In
  instruments having a coil for each needle and designed so that the
  current in both coils passes so as to turn both needles in the same
  direction, the controlling magnet is so adjusted that the normal
  position of the needles is with the magnetic axis parallel to the
  plane of the coil. An astatic magnetic system used in conjunction with
  a mirror galvanometer gives a highly sensitive form of instrument
  (fig. 1); it is, however, easily disturbed by stray magnetic fields
  caused by neighbouring magnets or currents through conductors, and
  therefore is not suitable for use in many places.


    Movable coil galvanometer.

  This fact led to the introduction of the movable coil galvanometer
  which was first devised by Lord Kelvin as a telegraphic signalling
  instrument but subsequently modified by A. d'Arsonval and others into
  a laboratory galvanometer (fig. 2). In this instrument a permanent
  magnet, generally of the horseshoe shape, is employed to create a
  strong magnetic field, in which a light movable coil is suspended. The
  suspension is bifilar, consisting of two fine wires which are
  connected to the ends of the coil and serve to lead the current in and
  out. If such a coil is placed with its plane parallel to the lines of
  force of the permanent magnet, then when a current is passing through
  it it displaces itself in the field, so as to set with its axis more
  nearly parallel to the lines of force of the field. The movable coil
  may carry a pointer or a mirror; in the latter form it is well
  represented by several much used laboratory instruments. The movable
  coil galvanometer has the great advantage that it is not easily
  disturbed by the magnetic fields caused by neighbouring magnets or
  electric currents, and thus is especially useful in the electrical
  workshop and factory.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Kelvin Astatic Mirror Galvanometer. Elliott
  square pattern.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Movable Coil Galvanometer.]


    Construction and use.

  In the practical construction of the suspended needle fixed coil
  galvanometer great care must be taken with the insulation of the wire
  of the coil. This wire is generally silk-covered, wound on a frame,
  the whole being thoroughly saturated with paraffin wax. In some cases
  two wires are wound on in parallel, constituting a "differential
  galvanometer." When properly adjusted this instrument can be used for
  the exact comparison of electric currents by a null method, because if
  an electric current is passed through one wire and creates certain
  deflexions of the needle, the current which annuls this deflexion when
  passed through the other wire must be equal to the first current. In
  the construction of a movable coil galvanometer, it is usual to
  intensify the magnetic field by inserting a fixed soft iron core in
  the interior of the movable coil. If the current to be measured is too
  large to be passed entirely through the galvanometer, a portion is
  allowed to flow through a circuit connecting the two terminals of the
  instrument. This circuit is called a _shunt_ and is generally arranged
  so as to take 0.9, 0.99, or 0.999 of the total current, leaving 0.1,
  0.01 or 0.001 to flow through the galvanometer. W.E. Ayrton and T.
  Mather have designed a universal shunt box or resistance which can be
  applied to any galvanometer and by which a known fraction of any
  current can be sent through the galvanometer when we know its
  resistance (see _Jour. Inst. Elec. Eng. Lond_., 1894, 23, p. 314). A
  galvanometer can be calibrated, or the meaning of its deflexion
  determined, by passing through it an electric current of known value
  and observing the deflexion of the needle or coil. The known current
  can be provided in the following manner:--a single secondary cell of
  any kind can have its electromotive force measured by the
  potentiometer (q.v.), and compared with that of a standard voltaic
  cell. If the secondary cell is connected with the galvanometer through
  a known high resistance R, and if the galvanometer is shunted, that
  is, has its terminals connected by another resistance S, then if the
  resistance of the galvanometer itself is denoted by G, the whole
  resistance of the shunted galvanometer and high resistance has a value
  represented by R + GS/(G + S), and therefore the current through the
  galvanometer produced by an electromotive force E of the cell is
  represented by

         SE
    -------------.
    R(G + S) + GS

  Suppose this current produces a deflexion of the needle or coil or
  spot of light equal to X scale divisions, we can then alter the value
  of the resistances R and S, and so determine the relation between the
  deflexion and the current. By the sensitiveness of the galvanometer
  is meant the deflexion produced by a known electromotive force put
  upon its terminals or a known current sent through it. It is usual to
  specify the sensitiveness of a mirror galvanometer by requiring a
  certain deflexion, measured in millimetres, of a spot of light thrown
  on the scale placed at one metre from the mirror, when an
  electromotive force of one-millionth of a volt (microvolt) is applied
  to the terminals of the galvanometer; it may be otherwise expressed by
  stating the deflexion produced under the same conditions when a
  current of one microampere is passed through the coil. In modern
  mirror galvanometers a deflexion of 1 mm. of the spot of light upon a
  scale at 1 metre distance can be produced by a current as small as one
  hundred millionth (10^-8) or even one ten thousand millionth (10^-10)
  of an ampere. It is easy to produce considerable sensitiveness in the
  galvanometer, but for practical purposes it must always be controlled
  by the condition that the zero remains fixed, that is to say, the
  galvanometer needle or coil must come back to exactly the same
  position when no current is passing through the instrument. Other
  important qualifications of a galvanometer are its time-period and its
  dead-beatness. For certain purposes the needle or coil should return
  as quickly as possible to the zero position and with either no, or
  very few, oscillations. If the latter condition is fulfilled the
  galvanometer is said to be "dead-beat." On the other hand, for some
  purposes the galvanometer is required with the opposite quality, that
  is to say, there must be as little retardation as possible to the
  needle or coil when set in motion under an impulsive blow. Such a
  galvanometer is called "ballistic." The quality of a galvanometer in
  this respect is best estimated by taking the logarithmic decrement of
  the oscillations when the movable system is set swinging. This last
  term is defined as the logarithm of the ratio of one swing to the next
  succeeding swing, and a galvanometer of which the logarithmic
  decrement is large, is said to be highly damped. For many purposes,
  such as for resistance measurement, it is desirable to have a
  galvanometer which is highly damped; this result can be obtained by
  affixing to the needles either light pieces of mica, when it is a
  movable needle galvanometer, or by winding the coil on a silver frame
  when it is a movable coil galvanometer. On the other hand, for the
  comparison of capacities of condensers and for other purposes, a
  galvanometer is required which is as little damped as possible, and
  for this purpose the coil must have the smallest possible frictional
  resistance to its motion through the air. In this case the moment of
  inertia of the movable system must be decreased or the control
  strengthened.

  The Einthoven string galvanometer is another form of sensitive
  instrument for the measurement of small direct currents. It consists
  of a fine wire or silvered quartz fibre stretched in a strong magnetic
  field. When a current passes through the wire it is displaced across
  the field and the displacement is observed with a microscope.


    Tangent galvanometer.

  For the measurement of large currents a "tangent galvanometer" is
  employed (fig. 3). Two fixed circular coils are placed apart at a
  distance equal to the radius of either coil, so that a current passing
  through them creates in the central region between them a nearly
  uniform magnetic field. At the centre of the coils is suspended a
  small magnetic needle the length of which should not be greater than
  1/10 the radius of either coil. The normal position of the needle is
  at right angles to the line joining the centre of the coils. If a
  current is passed through the coils, the needle will be deflected, and
  the tangent of the angle of its deflexion will be nearly proportional
  to the current passing through the coil, provided that the controlling
  field is uniform in strength and direction, and that the length of the
  magnetic needle is so short that the space in which it rotates is a
  practically uniform magnetic field.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Helmholtz Tangent Galvanometer.]

  _Alternating Current Galvanometers._--For the detection of small
  alternating currents a magnetic needle or movable coil galvanometer is
  of no utility. We can, however, construct an instrument suitable for
  the purpose by suspending within a coil of insulated wire a small
  needle of soft iron placed with its axis at an angle of 45° to the
  axis of the coil. When an alternating current passes through the coil
  the soft iron needle tends to set itself in the direction of the axis
  of the coil, and if it is suspended by a quartz fibre or metallic wire
  so as to afford a control, it can become a metrical instrument.
  Another arrangement, devised by J.A. Fleming in 1887, consists of a
  silver or copper disk suspended within a coil, the plane of the disk
  being held at 45° to that of the coil. When an alternating current is
  passed through the coil, induced currents are set up in the disk and
  the mutual action causes the disk to endeavour to set itself so that
  these currents are a minimum. This metal disk galvanometer has been
  made sufficiently sensitive to detect the feeble oscillatory electric
  currents set up in the receiving wire of a wireless telegraph
  apparatus. The Duddell thermal ammeter is another very sensitive form
  of alternating current galvanometer. In it the current to be detected
  or measured is passed through a high resistance wire or strip of
  metal leaf mounted on glass, over which is suspended a closed loop of
  bismuth and antimony, forming a thermoelectric couple. This loop is
  suspended by a quartz fibre in a strong magnetic field, and one
  junction of the couple is held just over the resistance wire and as
  near it as possible without touching. When an alternating current
  passes through the resistance it creates heat which in turn acts on
  the thermo-junction and generates a continuous current in the loop,
  thus deflecting it in the magnetic field. The sensitiveness of such a
  thermal ammeter can be made sufficiently great to detect a current of
  a few microamperes.

  References.--J.A. Fleming, _A Handbook for the Electrical Laboratory
  and Testing Room_, vol. i. (London, 1901); W.E. Ayrton, T. Mather and
  W.E. Sumpner, "On Galvanometers," _Proc. Phys. Soc. London_ (1890),
  10, 393; H.R. Kempe, _A Handbook of Electrical Testing_ (London,
  1906); A. Gray, _Absolute Measurements in Electricity and Magnetism_,
  vol. ii. part ii. (London, 1893). Useful information is also contained
  in the catalogues of all the principal electrical instrument
  makers--Messrs. Elliott Bros., Nalder, The Cambridge Scientific
  Instrument Company, Pitkin, Hartmann and Braun, Queen and others.
       (J. A. F.)



GALVESTON, a city and port of entry and the county-seat of Galveston
county, Texas, U.S.A., on the Gulf of Mexico, near the N.E. extremity of
Galveston Island and at the entrance to Galveston Bay. It is about 48 m.
S.E. of Houston and 310 m. W. of New Orleans. Pop. (1890) 29,084; (1900)
37,789, (6339 were foreign-born and 8291 negroes); (1910) 36,981; land
area (1906) 7.8 sq. m. It is served by the Galveston, Houston &
Henderson, the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, the Gulf, Colorado &
Santa Fé, the Trinity & Brazos Valley, the International & Great
Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways, and by numerous
steamship lines to Gulf ports in the United States and Mexico, and to
Cuba, South America, Europe and the Atlantic ports of the United States.
Galveston Island is a low, sandy strip of land about 28 m. long and 1½
to 3½ m. wide, lying from 2 to 3 m. off the mainland. The city, which
extends across the island from Gulf to Bay, faces and has its harbour on
the latter. The island was connected with the mainland before the 1900
storm by a road bridge and several railway bridges, which, a short
distance W. of the city, crossed the narrow strip of water separating
the West Bay from Galveston Bay proper; the bridge least harmed (a
single-track railway bridge) was repaired immediately and was for a time
the city's only connexion with the mainland, but in 1908 bonds were
issued for building a concrete causeway, accommodating four railway
tracks, one interurban car track, and a roadway for vehicles and
pedestrians. An enormous sea-wall (completed in 1904 at a cost of
$2,091,000) was constructed on the eastern and Gulf sides of the city,
about 5 m. long, 17 ft. above mean low tide (1.5 ft. above the
high-water mark of the storm of 1900 and 7.5 ft. above the previous
high-water mark, that of September 1875), 16 ft. wide at the base and 5
ft. at the top, weighing 20 tons to the lineal foot, and with a granite
rip-rap apron extending out 27 ft. on the Gulf side. The entire grade of
the city was raised from 1 to 15 ft. above the old level. Between the
sea-wall and the sea there is a splendid beach, the entire length of
which is nearly 30 m. Among the principal buildings are the city hall,
the court-house, the masonic temple, the Federal custom-house and
post-office, the Y.M.C.A. building and the public library. The United
States government maintains a marine hospital, a live-saving station, an
immigrant landing station, and the state and the Federal government
separate quarantine stations. In addition to the Ball public high
school, Galveston is the seat of St Mary's University (1854), the Sacred
Heart and Ursuline academies, and the Cathedral school, all under Roman
Catholic control.

The government of the municipality was long vested in a council of ward
aldermen, controlled by a "machine," which was proved corrupt in 1894 by
an investigation undertaken at the personal expense of the mayor; it
gave place in 1895 to a city council of aldermen at large, which by 1901
had proved its inefficiency especially in the crisis following the storm
of the preceding year. Government then seemed a business question and
was practically undertaken by the city's commercial experts, the
Deepwater commission, whose previous aim had been harbour improvement,
and who now drew up a charter providing for government by a board of
five appointed by the governor of the state. A compromise measure making
three members appointees of the governor and two elected by the voters
of the city was in force for a time but was declared unconstitutional. A
third charter was adopted providing for five commissioners, chosen by
the people, dividing among themselves the posts of mayor-president and
commissioners of finance and revenue, of water-works and sewerage, of
streets and public property, and of police and fire protection, each
commissioner being held individually responsible for the management of
his department. These are business departments carefully systematized by
their heads. The legislative power is vested in the commission as a
whole, over whose meetings the mayor-president presides; he has a vote
like every other commissioner, and has no veto power. The success of
this commission government has been remarkable: in 1901-1908 the city,
without issuing bonds except for grade raising, paid off a large debt,
raised the salaries of city employees, paid its running expenses in
cash, planned and began public improvements and sanitary reforms, and
did much for the abolition of gambling and the regulation of other vice.
The Galveston Plan and similar schemes of government have been adopted
in many other American cities.

Galveston's manufactories, the products of which in 1900 were valued at
$5,016,360, a decrease of 12.4% from 1890 (value of products under
"factory system," $3,675,323 in 1900; $2,996,654 in 1905, a decrease of
18.5%), include cotton-seed oil refineries, flour and feed mills, lumber
mills, wooden-ware factories, breweries, cement works, creosoting works,
ship-yards and ice factories. There are extensive cotton warehouses,
coal and grain elevators, and large wholesale supply depots. The Gulf
Fisheries Company has its fleet's headquarters and large packing-houses
at Galveston. It is as a commercial port that Galveston is chiefly
important. In 1907 it was the second port in the United States in the
value of its exports (domestic and foreign, $196,627,382, or 10.22% of
the total), being surpassed only by New York City; and was the first of
the Gulf ports (having 45.43% of the total value), New Orleans being
second with $164,998,540. Galveston's imports in 1907 were valued at
$7,669,458. Galveston is the greatest cotton-exporting port in the
Union, its exports of cotton in 1907 being valued at $163,564,445. Other
exports of great value are cotton seed products (oil and cake,
$10,188,594 in 1907), Indian corn ($3,457,279 in 1907), wheat
($9,443,901 in 1906), lumber and flour. The electric lighting and
water-supply systems are owned and operated by the municipality.

The harbour of Galveston seems to have been named about 1782 by Spanish
explorers in honour either of José de Galvez, Marquis of Sonora, or his
nephew Bernardo, governor of Louisiana; and in the early days of the
19th century was the principal rendezvous of a powerful band of
buccaneers and pirates, of whom, for many years, the notorious Jean
Lafitte was chief. After much difficulty these were finally dispersed
about 1820 by the United States authorities, and in 1837 the first
settlement from the United States was made on the site of the present
city. The town was incorporated by the legislature of the Republic of
Texas in 1839. On the 8th of October 1862 the city was taken by a
Federal naval force under Commander William B. Renshaw (1816-1863).
After a sharp engagement a Confederate force under General John B.
Magruder (1810-1871) retook the city on the 1st of January 1863, one of
the Federal ships, the "Harriet Lane," falling into Confederate hands,
and another, the "Westfield," being blown up with Commander Renshaw on
board. Thereafter Galveston remained in Confederate hands, although
rigidly blockaded by the Federal navy, until the close of the war. On
the 8th of September 1900 the city was seriously damaged by a West
Indian hurricane, which, blowing steadily for eighteen hours, reached a
velocity of 135 m. an hour. The waters of the Gulf were piled up in
enormous waves that swept across a large part of the city, destroying or
badly damaging more than 8000 buildings, entailing a loss of about 5000
lives, and a property loss estimated at about $17,000,000. Liberal
contributions came from all over the country, and the state partially
remitted the city's taxes for 17 years. The city was rapidly rebuilt on
a more substantial plan.



GALWAY, a county in the west of Ireland, in the province of Connaught,
bounded N. by Mayo and Roscommon; E. by Roscommon, King's County and
Tipperary; S. by Clare and Galway Bay; and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. The
area is 1,519,699 acres or about 2375 sq. m., the county being second in
size to Cork among the Irish counties.

The county is naturally divided by Lough Corrib into two great
divisions. The eastern, which comprehends all the county except the four
western baronies, rests on a limestone base, and is, generally speaking,
a level champaign country, but contains large quantities of wet bog. Its
southern portion is partly a continuation of the Golden Vale of
Limerick, celebrated for its fertility, and partly occupied by the
Slievebaughty Mountains. The northern portion of the division contains
rich pasture and tillage ground, beautifully diversified with hill and
dale. Some of the intermediate country is comparatively uncultivated,
but forms excellent pasturage for sheep. The western division of the
county has a substratum of granite, and is barren, rugged and
mountainous. It is divided into the three districts of Connemara,
Jar-Connaught and Joyce's Country; the name of Connemara is, however,
often applied to the whole district. Its highest mountains are the grand
and picturesque group of Bunnabeola, or the Twelve Bens or Pins, which
occupy a space of about 25 sq. m., the highest elevation being 2695 ft.
Much of this district is a gently sloping plain, from 100 to 300 ft.
above sea-level. Joyce's Country, farther north, is an elevated tract,
with flat-topped hills 1300 to 2000 ft. high, and deep narrow valleys
lying between them.

Galway possesses the advantage of a very extended line of sea-coast,
indented by numerous harbours, which, however, are rarely used except by
a few coasting and fishing vessels. At the boundary with the county Mayo
in the north is Killary Harbour which separates the two counties. The
first bay on the western coast capable of accommodating large ships is
Ballynakill, sheltered by Freaghillaun or Heath Island. Next in
succession is Cleggan Bay. Off these inlets lie the islands of
Inishbofin and Inishark, with others. Streamstown is a narrow inlet,
within which are the inhabited islands of Omey, Inishturk and Turbot.
Ardbear harbour is divided into two inlets, the northern terminating at
the town of Clifden, with excellent anchorage; the southern inlet has
also good anchorage within the bar, and has a good salmon fishery.
Mannin Bay, though large, is much exposed and little frequented by
shipping. From Slyne Head the coast turns eastward to Roundstone Bay,
which has its entrance protected by the islands of Inishnee and
Inishlacken. Next in order is Bertraghboy Bay, studded with islets and
rocks, but deep and sheltered. Kilkieran Bay, the largest on this coast,
has a most productive kelp shore of nearly 100 m.; its mouth is but 3 m.
broad. Between Gorumna Island and the mainland is Greatman's Bay and
close to it Costello Bay, the most eastern of those in Connemara. The
whole of the coast from Greatman's Bay eastward is comprehended in the
Bay of Galway, the entrance of which is protected by the three limestone
islands of Aran, Inishmore (or Aranmore), Inishmann and Inisheer.

The rivers are few, and, except the Shannon, of small size. The Suck,
which forms the eastern boundary of the county, rises in Roscommon, and
passing by Ballinasloe, unites with the Shannon at Shannonbridge. The
Shannon forms the south-eastern boundary of the county, and passing
Shannon Harbour, Banagher, Meelick and Portumna, swells into the great
expanse of water called Lough Derg, which skirts the county as far as
the village of Mount Shannon. The Claregalway flows southward through
the centre of the county, and enters Lough Corrib some 4 m. above the
town of Galway. The Ballynahinch, considered one of the best
salmon-fishing rivers in Connaught, rises in the Twelve Pins, passes
through Ballynahinch Lake, and after a short but rapid course falls into
Bertraghboy Bay. Lakes are numerous. Lough Corrib extends from Galway
town northwards over 30,000 acres, with a shore of 50 m. in extent. The
lake is studded with many islands, some of them thickly inhabited. The
district west of Lough Corrib contains a vast number of lakes, about
twenty-five of them more than a mile in length. Lough Rea, by the town
of the same name, is more remarkable for scenic beauty than for extent.
Besides these perennial lakes, there are several low tracts, called
turloughs, which are covered with water during a great part of the year.
Loughs Mask and Corrib are connected by a salmon ladder, and contain
large trout. Galway, with the Screab Waters, draining into Camus Bay, a
branch of Kilkieran Bay, with Recess and the Ballynahinch waters, are
the best fishing centres. On account of its scenic beauty, both coastal
and inland, together with its facilities for sport, county Galway is
frequented by summer visitors. Though for long the remoter parts were
difficult of access, as in the case of Donegal, Mayo, Clare and the
western counties generally, the Galway and Clifden railway assisted
private enterprise to open up the country. The western mountains, broken
by deep landlocked and island-sheltered bays, as well as by the
innumerable small loughs of the Connemara districts, afford scenes
varying from gentle slopes occasionally well wooded along the water's
edge to wild, bare moorlands among the heights, while the summits are
usually bold and rocky cones. Several small fishing villages have
acquired the dignity of watering-places from the erection of hotels,
which have also been planted in previously untenanted situations of high
scenic attractions; among these may be mentioned Leenane at the head of
Killary harbour, Renvyle House at its entrance, Letterfrack on
Ballynakill Bay, Streamstown and Clifden, and Cashel on Bertraghboy Bay.
Inland are Recess, near Lough Derryclare, and Ballynahinch, on the lough
of that name, both on the railway, at the foot of the Twelve Pins.

  _Geology_.--The east of this county lies in the Carboniferous
  Limestone plain, with domes of Old Red Sandstone rising near Dunmore
  and Mount Bellew. As Galway town is neared, the grey rock appears
  freely on the surface, and Lough Corrib spreads itself over almost
  level land. Its west branches, however, run up into "Dalradian" hills,
  which rise abruptly on the threshold of Connemara. A broad mass of
  ice-worn gneiss and granite lies between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay,
  cut off so sharply at the sea as to suggest the presence of an
  east-and-west line of fracture. The Twelve Bens owe their supremacy to
  the quartzites, which are here well bedded and associated with
  limestone and mica-schist. Silurian conglomerates and sandstones, with
  andesitic lavas, overlie the Dalradians, with marked unconformity,
  south of Leenane and round Lough Nafooey. The surfaces of the hard
  rocks admirably record the action of ice throughout the county. There
  is black Carboniferous marble at Menlough near Galway; and the
  well-known "Connemara Marble" is a banded serpentinous crystalline
  limestone in the Dalradians at Recess, Ballynahinch and Streamstown.
  Compact red granite is worked at Shantallow, and the region west of
  Galway contains many handsome porphyritic red varieties.

  _Climate and Industries_.--The climate is mild and healthy but
  variable, and violent winds from the west are not uncommon. Frost or
  snow seldom remains long on the western coast, and cattle of every
  description continue unhoused during the winter. The eastern part of
  the county produces the best wheat. Oats are frequently sown after
  potatoes in moorish soils less adapted for wheat. The flat shores of
  the bays afford large supplies of seaweed for manure. Limestone,
  gravel and marl are to be had in most other parts. When a sufficient
  quantity of manure for potatoes cannot be had, the usual practice is
  to pare and burn the surface. In many places on the seashore fine
  early potatoes are raised in deep sea-sand manured with seaweed, and
  the crop is succeeded by barley. Those parts of the eastern district
  less fitted for grain are employed in pasturage. Heathy sheep-walks
  occupy a very large tract between Monivea and Galway. An extensive
  range from Athenry, stretching to Galway Bay at Kinvarra, is also
  chiefly occupied by sheep. Over half the total acreage of the county
  is pasture-land, and cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are extensively
  reared. The proportion of tillage to pasturage is roughly as one to
  four; and owing to the nature of the country fully one-third of the
  total area is quite barren.

  Manufactures are not carried on beyond the demand caused by the
  domestic consumption of the people. Coarse friezes, flannels and
  blankets are made in all parts and sold largely in Galway and
  Loughrea. Connemara has been long celebrated for its hand-knit woollen
  stockings. Coarse linen, of a narrow breadth, called bandle linen, is
  also made for home consumption. There is a linen-weaving factory at
  Oughterard. The manufacture of kelp, formerly a great source of profit
  on the western shores, is still carried on to some extent. Feathers
  and sea-fowls' eggs are brought in great quantities from the islands
  of Aran, the produce of the puffins and other sea-fowl that frequent
  the cliffs. Fishing affords occupation to many of the inhabitants, the
  industry having as its centres the ports of Galway and Clifden.

  The Midland Great Western main line enters the county at Ballinasloe,
  and runs by Athenry to Galway, with an extension to Oughterard (Lough
  Corrib) and Clifden. The Great Southern & Western line from Sligo to
  Limerick traverses the county from N. to S., by way of Tuam, Athenry
  and Gort.

_Population and Administration._--The population of county Galway
(211,227 in 1891; 192,549 in 1901) decreased by more than half in the
last seventy years of the 19th century, and the decrease continues, as
emigration is heavy. About 97% of the population are Roman Catholics,
and a somewhat less percentage are rural. The Erse tongue is maintained
by many in this remote county. The chief towns are Galway (pop. 13,426),
Tuam (3012), Ballinasloe (4904) and Loughrea (2815), with the smaller
towns of Portumna, Gort, Clifden, Athenry, Headford, Oughterard and
Eyrecourt. The county is divided into four parliamentary divisions
(returning one member each); north, south, east and Connemara, while the
town of Galway returns one member. There are eighteen baronies. Assizes
are held at Galway, quarter-sessions at Galway, Ballinasloe, Clifden,
Gort, Loughrea, Oughterard, Portumna and Tuam. The county comprises
parts of the Protestant dioceses of Tuam and of Killaloe; and of the
Roman Catholic dioceses of Elphin, Galway, Clonfert and Killaloe.

_History._--The history of county Galway is exceedingly obscure, and
nearly every one of its striking physical features carries its legend
with it. For centuries local septs struggled together for mastery
undeterred by outside influence. The wreck of part of the Spanish Armada
on this coast in 1588 left survivors whose influence is still to be
traced. The formation of Galway into a county was effected about 1579 by
Sir Henry Sydney, lord deputy of Ireland. In the county at Aughrim
(q.v.) the decisive battle of the English Revolution was fought in 1691.
Among the antiquities are several round towers. The only perfect one is
at Kilmacduagh, a very fine example 112 ft. high, leaning considerably
out of the perpendicular. Raths or encampments are numerous and several
cromlechs are to be seen in good preservation. The ruins of monastic
buildings are also numerous. That of Knockmoy, about 6 m. from Tuam,
said to have been founded in 1180 by Cathal O'Connor, was adorned with
rude fresco paintings, still discernible, which were considered valuable
as being the best authentic representations existing of ancient Irish
costumes. Ancient castles and square towers of the Anglo-Norman settlers
are frequently met with; some have been kept in repair, but the greater
number are in ruins. The castle of Tuam, built in 1161 by Roderick
O'Connor, king of Ireland, at the period of the English invasion, is
said to have been the first building of this description of stone and
mortar in Ireland. The remains of a round castle, a form of building
very uncommon in the military architecture of the country, are to be
seen between Gort and Kilmacduagh. The extraordinary cyclopean and
monastic ruins on the Aran Islands (q.v.) must be mentioned; and the
town of Galway, Athenry, and the neighbourhood of Ballinasloe all show
interesting remains. The small church of Clonfert, in the south of the
county, with a fine Romanesque doorway, is a cathedral, the diocese of
which was united with Kilfenora, Kilmacduagh and Killaloe in 1833.



GALWAY, a seaport, parliamentary borough and the county town of county
Galway, Ireland, on the north shore of Galway Bay, and on the main line
of the Midland Great Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901)
13,426. Some of the streets are very narrow, and contain curious
specimens of old buildings, chiefly in antique Spanish style, being
square, with a central court, and a gateway opening into the street. The
most noteworthy of these is the pile known as Lynch's Castle. This
residence takes its name from the family of whom James Lynch
Fitzstephen, mayor of Galway in 1493, was a member; whose severity as a
magistrate is exemplified in the story that he executed his own son, and
thus gave origin (according to one of several theories) to the familiar
term of Lynch law. The principal streets are broad and contain good
shops. St Nicholas church is a fine cruciform building founded in 1320,
and containing monuments, and a bell, one of a peal, which appears to
have been brought from Cavron in France, but how this happened is not
known. The church was made collegiate in 1484, and Edward VI. created
the Royal College of Galway in connexion with it; but the old college
buildings no longer serve this purpose, and the church ceased to be
collegiate in 1840. There are remains of a Franciscan friary founded in
1296. St Augustine's church (Roman Catholic) is modern (1859). The town
is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese. There are grammar, model and
industrial schools, the first with exhibitions to Trinity College,
Dublin; but the principal educational establishment is University
College, a quadrangular building in Tudor Gothic style, of grey
limestone. It was founded as Queen's College, with other colleges of the
same name at Belfast and Cork, under an act of 1845, and its name was
changed when it was granted a new charter pursuant to the Irish
Universities Act 1908. The harbour comprises an extensive line of quays,
and is connected for inland navigation with Lough Corrib. The shipping
trade is considerable, but as a trans-Atlantic port Galway was exploited
unsuccessfully. The fisheries, both sea and salmon, are important. The
chief exports are wool, agricultural produce and black marble, which is
polished in local mills. Other industrial establishments include
corn-mills, iron-foundries, distilleries, and brush and bag factories.
The borough, which returned two members to parliament until 1885, now
returns one.

Galway is divided into the old and new towns, while a suburb known as
the Claddagh is inhabited by fishermen. This is a curious collection of
small cottages, where communal government by a locally elected mayor
long prevailed, together with peculiar laws and customs, strictly
exclusive inter-marriage, and a high moral and religious standard.
Specimens of the distinctive Claddagh ring, for example, were worn and
treasured as venerated heirlooms. These customs, with the distinctive
dress of the women, died out but slowly, and even to-day their vestiges
remain.

The environs of Galway are pleasant, with several handsome residences.
The most interesting point in the vicinity is Roscam, with its round
tower, ruined church and other remains. Salthill, with golf links, is a
waterside residential suburb.

Little is known of the history of Galway until after the arrival of the
English, at which time it was under the protection of O'Flaherty, who
possessed the adjoining district to the west. On the extinction of the
native dynasty of the O'Connors, the town fell into the hands of the De
Burgos, the head of a branch of which, under the name of M'William
Eighter, long governed it by magistrates of his own appointment. After
it had been secured by walls, which began to be built about 1270 and are
still in part traceable, it became the residence of a number of
enterprising settlers, through whom it attained a position of much
commercial celebrity. Of these settlers the principal families, fourteen
in number, were known as the tribes of Galway. They were of Norman,
Saxon or Welsh descent, and became so exclusive in their relationships
that dispensations were frequently requisite for the canonical legality
of marriages among them. The town rapidly increased from this period in
wealth and commercial rank, far surpassing in this respect the rival
city of Limerick. Richard II. granted it a charter of incorporation with
liberal privileges, which was confirmed by his successor. It had the
right of coinage by act of parliament, but there is no evidence to show
that it exercised the privilege. Another charter, granted in 1545,
extended the jurisdiction of the port to the islands of Aran, permitted
the exportation of all kinds of goods except linens and woollens, and
confirmed all the former privileges. Large numbers of Cromwell's
soldiers are said to have settled in the town; and there are many traces
of Spanish blood among the population. Its municipal privileges were
extended by a charter from James I., whereby the town, and a district of
two miles round in every direction, were formed into a distinct county,
with exclusive jurisdiction and a right of choosing its own magistrates.
During the civil wars of 1641 the town took part with the Irish, and was
surrendered to the Parliamentary forces under Sir Charles Coote; after
which the ancient inhabitants were mostly driven out, and their property
was given to adventurers and soldiers, chiefly from England. On the
accession of James II. the old inhabitants entertained sanguine hopes of
recovering their former rights. But the successes of King William soon
put an end to their expectations; and the town, after undergoing
another siege, again capitulated to the force brought against it by
General Ginkell.



GAMA, VASCO DA (c. 1460-1524), Portuguese navigator and discoverer of
the sea-route to India, was born at Sines, a small seaport in the
province of Alemtejo. Of da Gama's early history little is known. His
descent, according to the _Nobiliario_ of Antonio de Lima, was derived
from a noble family which is mentioned in the year 1166; but the line
cannot be traced without interruption farther back than the year 1280,
to one Alvaro da Gama, from whom was descended Estevão da Gama, civil
governor of Sines, whose third son Vasco was born probably about the
year 1460. In that year died Prince Henry the Navigator, to whose
intelligence and foresight must be traced back all the fame that
Portugal gained on the seas in the 15th and 16th centuries. Explorers
sent out at his instigation discovered the Azores and unknown regions on
the African coast, whence continually came reports of a great monarch,
"who lived east of Benin, 350 leagues in the interior, and who held both
temporal and spiritual dominion over all the neighbouring kings," a
story which tallied so remarkably with the accounts of "Prester John"
which had been brought to the Peninsula by Abyssinian priests, that John
II. of Portugal steadfastly resolved that both by sea and by land the
attempt should be made to reach the country of this potentate. For this
purpose Pedro de Covilham and Affonso de Payva were despatched eastward
by land; while Bartholomeu Diaz (q.v.), in command of two vessels, was
sent westward by sea (see ABYSSINIA, 14). That there was in truth an
ocean highway to the East was proved by Diaz, who returned in December
1488 with the report that when sailing southward he was carried far to
the east by a succession of fierce storms, past--as he discovered only
on his return voyage--what he ascertained to be the southern extremity
of the African continent. The condition of John's health and concerns of
state, however, prevented the fitting out of the intended expedition;
and it was not till nine years later, when Emanuel I. had succeeded to
the throne, that the preparations for this great voyage were
completed--hastened, doubtless, by Columbus's discovery of America in
the meanwhile.

For the supreme command of this expedition the king selected Vasco da
Gama, who had in his youth fought in the wars against Castile, and in
his riper years gained distinction as an intrepid mariner. The fleet,
consisting of four vessels specially built for this mission, sailed down
the Tagus on the 9th of July 1497, after prayers and confession made by
the officers and crews in a small chapel on the site where now stands
the church of S. Maria de Belem (see LISBON), afterwards built to
commemorate the event. Four months later the flotilla cast anchor in St
Helena Bay, South Africa, rounded the Cape in safety, and in the
beginning of the next year reached Malindi, on the east coast of Africa.
Thence, steering eastward, under the direction of a pilot obtained from
Indian merchants met with at this port, da Gama arrived at Calicut, on
the Malabar coast, on the 20th May 1498, and set up, according to the
custom of his country, a marble pillar as a mark of conquest and a proof
of his discovery of India. His reception by the zamorin, or Hindu ruler
of Calicut, would have in all probability been favourable enough, had it
not been for the jealousy of the Mahommedan traders who, fearing for
their gains, so incited the Hindus against the new-comers that da Gama
was unable to establish a Portuguese factory. Having seen enough of
India to assure him of its great resources, he returned to Portugal in
September 1499. The king received him with every mark of distinction,
granted him the use of the prefix _Dom_, thus elevating him to the rank
of an untitled noble, and conferred on him pensions and other property.
In prosecution of da Gama's discoveries another fleet of thirteen ships
was immediately sent out to India under Pedro Alvares Cabral, who, in
sailing too far westward, by accident discovered Brazil, and on reaching
his destination established a factory at Calicut. The natives, again
instigated by the Mahommedan merchants, rose up in arms and murdered all
whom Cabral had left behind. To avenge this outrage a powerful armament
of ten ships was fitted out at Lisbon, the command of which was at first
given to Cabral, but was afterwards transferred to da Gama, who
received the title admiral of India (January 1502). A few weeks later
the fleet sailed, and on reaching Calicut da Gama immediately bombarded
the town, treating its inhabitants with a savagery too horrible to
describe. From Calicut he proceeded in November to Cochin, "doing all
the harm he could on the way to all that he found at sea," and having
made favourable trading terms with it and with other towns on the coast,
he returned to Lisbon in September 1503, with richly laden ships. He and
his captains were welcomed with great rejoicings and he received
additional privileges and revenues.

Soon after his return da Gama retired to his residence in Evora,
possibly from pique at not obtaining so high rewards as he expected, but
more probably in order to enjoy the wealth and position which he had
acquired; for he was now one of the richest men in the kingdom. He had
married, probably in 1500, a lady of good family, named Catherina de
Ataide, by whom he had six sons. According to Correa, he continued to
advise King Emanuel I. on matters connected with India and maritime
policy up to 1505, and there are extant twelve documents dated 1507-1522
which prove that he continued to enjoy the royal favour. The most
important of these is a grant dated December 1519 by which Vasco da Gama
was created count of Vidigueira, with the extraordinary privileges of
civil and criminal jurisdiction and ecclesiastical patronage. During
this time the Portuguese conquests increased in the East, and were
presided over by successive viceroys. The fifth of these was so
unfortunate that da Gama was recalled from his seclusion by Emanuel's
successor, John III., and nominated viceroy of India, an honour which in
April 1524 he left Lisbon to assume. Arriving at Goa during September of
the same year, he immediately set himself to correct with vigour the
many abuses which had crept in under the rule of his predecessors. He
was not destined, however, to prosecute far the reforms he had
inaugurated, for, on the Christmas-eve following his arrival, he died at
Cochin after a short illness, and was buried in the Franciscan monastery
there. In 1538 his body was conveyed to Portugal and entombed in the
town of Vidigueira. In 1880 what were supposed on insufficient evidence
to have been his remains were transferred to the church of Santa Maria
de Belem. His voyage had the immediate result of enriching Portugal, and
raising her to one of the foremost places among the nations of Europe,
and eventually the far greater one of bringing to pass the colonization
of the East by opening its commerce to the Western world.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Vasco da Gama's First Voyage_, by Dr E. Ravenstein
  (London, Hakluyt Society, 1898), is a translation with notes, &c., of
  the anonymous _Roteiro_ (Journal or Itinerary), written by one of
  Vasco da Gama's subordinates who sailed on board the "S. Raphael,"
  which was commanded by the admiral's brother Paulo da Gama. This is
  the most important of the original authorities; five accounts of the
  voyage in letters contemporary with it are appended to the Hakluyt
  Society's translation. See also J. de Barros, _Decadas da India_
  (Lisbon, 1778-1788, written c. 1540); F.L. de Castanheda, _Historia do
  descobrimento da India_ (Coimbra, 1551, largely based on the
  _Roteiro_); _The Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama and his Viceroyalty_,
  by Gaspar Correa (Hakluyt Society, 1869), chiefly valuable for the
  events of 1524; _The Lusiads_ of Camoens, the central incident in
  which is Vasco da Gama's first voyage; _Calcoen_ (i.e. _Calicut_), _a
  Dutch Narrative of the Second Voyage of Vasco da Gama_, written by
  some unknown seaman of the expedition, printed at Antwerp about 1504,
  reprinted in facsimile, with introduction and translation, by J. Ph.
  Berjeau (London, 1874); Thomé Lopes, narrative (1502) in vol. i. of
  Ramusio.



GAMALIEL ([Hebrew: Gamliel]). This name, which in Old Testament times
figures only as that of a prince of the tribe of Manasseh (_vide_ Num.
i. 10, &c.), was hereditary among the descendants of Hillel. Six persons
bearing the name are known.

1. GAMALIEL I., a grandson of Hillel, and like him designated Ha-Zaqen
(the Elder), by which is apparently indicated that he was numbered among
the Sanhedrin, the high council of Jerusalem. According to the tradition
of the schools of Palestine Gamaliel succeeded his grandfather and his
father (of the latter nothing is known but his name, Simeon) as _Nasi_,
or president of the Sanhedrin. Even if this tradition does not
correspond with historic fact, it is at any rate certain that Gamaliel
took a leading position in the Sanhedrin, and enjoyed the highest
repute as an authority on the subject of knowledge of the Law and in the
interpretation of the Scriptures. He was the first to whose name was
prefixed the title Rabban (Master, Teacher). It is related in the Acts
of the Apostles (v. 34 et seq.) that his voice was uplifted in the
Sanhedrin in favour of the disciples of Jesus who were threatened with
death, and on this occasion he is designated as a Pharisee and as being
"had in reputation among all the people" ([Greek: nomodidaskalos timios
panti tô laô]). In the Mishna (_Gittin_ iv. 1-3) he is spoken of as the
author of certain legal ordinances affecting the welfare of the
community (the expression in the original is "_tiqqun ha-'olam_," i.e.
improvement of the world) and regulating certain questions as to
conjugal rights. In the tradition was also preserved the text of the
epistles regarding the insertion of the intercalary month, which he sent
to the inhabitants of Galilee and the Darom (i.e. southern Palestine)
and to the Jews of the Dispersion (Sanhedrin 11b and elsewhere). He
figures in two anecdotes as the religious adviser of the king and queen,
i.e. Agrippa I. and his wife Cypris (Pesahim 88 b). His function as a
teacher is proved by the fact that the Apostle Paul boasts of having sat
at the feet of Gamaliel (Acts. xxii. 3). Of his teaching, beyond the
saying preserved in Aboth i. 16, which enjoins the duty of study and of
scrupulousness in the observance of religious ordinances, only a very
remarkable characterization of the different natures of the scholars
remains (Aboth di R. Nathan, ch. xl.). His renown in later days is
summed up in the words (Mishna, end of Sotah): "When Rabban Gamaliel the
Elder died, regard for the Torah (the study of the Law) ceased, and
purity and piety died." As Gamaliel I. is the only Jewish scribe whose
name is mentioned in the New Testament he became a subject of Christian
legend, and a monk of the 12th century (Hermann the Premonstratensian)
relates how he met Jews in Worms studying Gamaliel's commentary on the
Old Testament, thereby most probably meaning the Talmud.

2. GAMALIEL II., the son of Simon ben Gamaliel, one of Jerusalem's
foremost men in the war against the Romans (_vide_ Josephus, _Bellum
Jud_. iv. 3, 9, _Vita_ 38), and grandson of Gamaliel I. To distinguish
him from the latter he is also called Gamaliel of Jabneh. In Jabneh
(Jamnia), where during the siege of Jerusalem the scribes of the school
of Hillel had taken refuge by permission of Vespasian, a new centre of
Judaism arose under the leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a
school whose members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of
Jerusalem. Gamaliel II. became Johanan ben Zakkai's successor, and
rendered immense service in the strengthening and reintegration of
Judaism, which had been deprived of its former basis by the destruction
of the Temple and by the entire loss of its political autonomy. He put
an end to the division which had arisen between the spiritual leaders of
Palestinian Judaism by the separation of the scribes into the two
schools called respectively after Hillel and Shammai, and took care to
enforce his own authority as the president of the chief legal assembly
of Judaism with energy and often with severity. He did this, as he
himself said, not for his own honour nor for that of his family, but in
order that disunion should not prevail in Israel. Gamaliel's position
was recognized by the Roman government also. Towards the end of
Domitian's reign (c. A.D. 95) he went to Rome in company with the most
prominent members of the school of Jabneh, in order to avert a danger
threatening the Jews from the action of the terrible emperor. Many
interesting particulars have been given regarding the journey of these
learned men to Rome and their sojourn there. The impression made by the
capital of the world upon Gamaliel and his companions was an
overpowering one, and they wept when they thought of Jerusalem in ruins.
In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend Judaism in
polemical discussions with pagans, and also with professed Christians.
In an anecdote regarding a suit which Gamaliel was prosecuting before a
Christian judge, a converted Jew, he appeals to the Gospel and to the
words of Jesus in Matt. v. 17 (Shabbath 116 a, b). Gamaliel devoted
special attention to the regulation of the rite of prayer, which after
the cessation of sacrificial worship had become all-important. He gave
the principal prayer, consisting of eighteen benedictions, its final
revision, and declared it every Israelite's duty to recite it three
times daily. He was on friendly terms with many who were not Jews, and
was so warmly devoted to his slave Tabi that when the latter died he
mourned for him as for a beloved member of his own family. He loved
discussing the sense of single portions of the Bible with other
scholars, and made many fine expositions of the text. With the words of
Deut. xiii. 18 he associated the lesson: "So long as thou thyself art
merciful, God will also be merciful to thee." Gamaliel died before the
insurrections under Trajan had brought fresh unrest into Palestine. At
his funeral obsequies the celebrated proselyte Aquila (Akylas Onkelos),
reviving an ancient custom, burned costly materials to the value of
seventy minae. Gamaliel himself had given directions that his body was
to be wrapped in the simplest possible shroud. By this he wished to
check the extravagance which had become associated with arrangements for
the disposal of the dead, and his end was attained; for his example
became the rule, and it also became the custom to commemorate him in the
words of consolation addressed to the mourners (Kethub. 8 b). Gamaliel's
son, Simon, long after his father's death, and after the persecutions
under Hadrian, inherited his office, which thenceforward his descendants
handed on from father to son.

3. GAMALIEL III., son of Jehuda I. the redactor of the Mishna, and his
successor as _Nasi_ (patriarch). The redaction of the Mishna was
completed under him, and some of his sayings are incorporated therein
(Aboth ii. 2-4). One of these runs as follows: "Beware of those in
power, for they permit men to approach them only for their own uses;
they behave as friends when it is for their advantage, but they do not
stand by a man when he is in need." Evidently this was directed against
the self-seeking of the Roman government. Gamaliel III. lived during the
first half of the 3rd century.

4. GAMALIEL IV., grandson of the above, patriarch in the latter half of
the 3rd century: about him very little is known.

5. GAMALIEL V., son and successor of the patriarch Hillel II.: beyond
his name nothing is known of him. He lived in the latter half of the 4th
century. He is the patriarch Gamaliel whom Jerome mentions in his letter
to Pamachius, written in 393.

6. GAMALIEL VI., grandson of the above, the last of the patriarchs, died
in 425. With him expired the office, which had already been robbed of
its privileges by a decree of the emperors Honorius and Theodosius II.
(dated the 17th of October 415). Gamaliel VI. was also a physician, and
a celebrated remedy of his is mentioned by his contemporary Marcellus
(_De Medicamentis_, liber 21).     (W. Ba.)



GAMBETTA, LÉON (1838-1882), French statesman, was born at Cahors on the
2nd of April 1838. His father, a Genoese, who had established himself as
a grocer and had married a Frenchwoman named Massabie, is said to have
been his son's prototype in vigour and fluency of speech. In his
sixteenth year young Gambetta lost by an accident the sight of his left
eye, which eventually had to be removed. Notwithstanding this privation,
he highly distinguished himself at the public school of Cahors, and in
1857 proceeded to Paris to study law. His southern vehemence gave him
great influence among the students of the Quartier Latin, and he was
soon known as an inveterate enemy of the imperial government. He was
called to the bar in 1859, but, although contributing to a Liberal
review, edited by Challemel Lacour, did not make much way until, on the
17th of November 1868, he was selected to defend the journalist
Delescluze, prosecuted for having promoted the erection of a monument to
the representative Baudin, who was killed in resisting the _coup d'état_
of 1851. Gambetta seized his opportunity and assailed both the _coup
d'état_ and the government with an eloquence of invective which made him
immediately famous.

In May 1869 he was returned to the Assembly, both by the first
circumscription of Paris and by Marseilles, defeating Hippolyte Carnot
for the former constituency and Thiers and Lesseps for the latter. He
elected to sit for Marseilles, and lost no opportunity of attacking the
Empire in the Assembly. He was at first opposed to the war with
Germany, but when satisfied that it had been forced upon France he did
not, like some of his colleagues, refuse to vote supplies, but took the
patriotic line of supporting the flag. When the news of the disaster at
Sedan reached Paris, Gambetta called for strong measures. He himself
proclaimed the fall of the emperor at the _corps législatif_, and the
establishment of a republic at the hôtel de ville. He was one of the
first members of the new government of national defence, becoming
minister of the interior. He advised his colleagues to leave Paris and
conduct the government from some provincial city. This advice was
rejected from dread of another revolution in Paris, and a delegation to
organize resistance in the provinces was despatched to Tours, but when
this was seen to be inefficient Gambetta himself (7th October) quitted
Paris in a balloon, and upon arriving at Tours took the supreme
direction of affairs as minister of the interior and of war. Aided by M.
de Freycinet, then a young officer of engineers, as his assistant
secretary of war, he displayed prodigies of energy and intelligence. He
speedily organized an army, which might possibly have effected the
relief of Paris if Metz had held out, but the surrender of Bazaine
brought the army of the crown prince into the field, and success was
impossible. After the defeats of the French near Orleans early in
December the seat of government had to be transferred to Bordeaux, and
when Paris surrendered at the end of January, Gambetta, though resisting
and protesting, was compelled to submit to the capitulation concluded
with Prince Bismarck. He immediately resigned his office. Elected by
nine departments to the National Assembly meeting at Bordeaux (on the
1st of March 1871) he chose to sit for Strassburg, which by the terms of
the treaty about to be submitted to the Assembly for ratification was to
be ceded to Prussia, and when the treaty was adopted he resigned in
protest and retired to Spain.

He returned to France in June, was elected by three departments in July,
and commenced an agitation for the definitive establishment of the
Republic. On the 5th of November 1871 he established a journal, _La
République française_, which soon became the most influential in France.
His orations at public meetings were more effective than those delivered
in the Assembly, especially that made at Bordeaux on his return, and
that at Grenoble on the 26th of November 1872, in which he spoke of
political power having passed to les _nouvelles couches sociales_. When
Thiers, however, fell from power in May 1873, and a Royalist was placed
at the head of the government in the person of Marshal MacMahon,
Gambetta gave proof of his statesmanship by unceasingly urging his
friends to a moderate course, and by his tact and parliamentary
dexterity, no less than by his eloquence, he was mainly instrumental in
the voting of the constitution in February 1875. This policy he
continued during the early days of the now consolidated Republic, and
gave it the appropriate name of "opportunism." It was not until the 4th
of May 1877, when the peril from reactionary intrigues was notorious,
and the clerical party had begun a campaign for the restoration of the
temporal power of the pope, that he delivered his famous speech
denouncing "clericalism" as "the enemy." On the 16th of May Marshal
MacMahon, in order to support the clerical reactionaries, perpetrated
his parliamentary _coup d'état_, and on the 15th of August Gambetta, in
a speech at Lille, gave him the alternative se _soumettre ou se
démettre_. He then undertook a political campaign to rouse the
republican party throughout France, which culminated in a speech at
Romans (September 18, 1878) formulating its programme. MacMahon, equally
unwilling to resign or to provoke civil war, had no choice but to
dismiss his advisers and form a moderate republican ministry under the
premiership of Dufaure.

When the resignation of the Dufaure cabinet brought about the abdication
of Marshal MacMahon, Gambetta declined to become a candidate for the
presidency, but gave his support to Grévy; nor did he attempt to form a
ministry, but accepted the office of president of the chamber of
deputies (January 1879). This position, which he filled with much
ability, did not prevent his occasionally descending from the
presidential chair to make speeches, one of which, advocating an amnesty
to the communards, was especially memorable. Although he really
directed the policy of the various ministries, he evidently thought that
the time was not ripe for asserting openly his own claims to direct the
policy of the Republic, and seemed inclined to observe a neutral
attitude as far as possible; but events hurried him on, and early in
1881 he placed himself at the head of a movement for restoring _scrutin
de liste_, or the system by which deputies are returned by the entire
department which they represent, so that each elector votes for several
representatives at once, in place of _scrutin d'arrondissement_, the
system of small constituencies, giving one member to each district and
one vote to each elector. A bill to re-establish _scrutin de liste_ was
passed by the Assembly on 19th May 1881, but rejected by the Senate on
the 19th of June.

But this personal rebuff could not alter the fact that in the country
his was the name which was on the lips of the voters at the election.
His supporters were in a large majority, and on the reassembling of the
chamber, the Ferry cabinet quickly resigned. Gambetta was unwillingly
entrusted by Grévy on the 14th of November 1881 with the formation of a
ministry--known as _Le Grand Ministère_. He now experienced the Nemesis
of his over-cautious system of abstinence from office for fear of
compromising his popularity. Every one suspected him of aiming at a
dictatorship; attacks, not the less formidable for their injustice, were
directed against him from all sides, and his cabinet fell on the 26th of
January 1882, after an existence of only sixty-six days. Had he remained
in office his declarations leave no doubt that he would have cultivated
the British alliance and cooperated with Great Britain in Egypt; and
when the Freycinet administration, which succeeded, shrank from that
enterprise only to see it undertaken with signal success by England
alone, Gambetta's foresight was quickly justified. His fortunes were
presenting a most interesting problem when, on the 31st of December
1882, at his house in Ville d'Avray, near Sèvres, he died by a shot from
a revolver which accidentally went off. Then all France awoke to a sense
of her obligation to him, and his public funeral on the 6th of January
1883 evoked one of the most overwhelming displays of national sentiment
ever witnessed on a similar occasion.

Gambetta rendered France three inestimable services: by preserving her
self-respect through the gallantry of the resistance he organized during
the German War, by his tact in persuading extreme partisans to accept a
moderate Republic, and by his energy in overcoming the usurpation
attempted by the advisers of Marshal MacMahon. His death, at the early
age of forty-four, cut short a career which had given promise of still
greater things, for he had real statesmanship in his conceptions of the
future of his country, and he had an eloquence which would have been
potent in the education of his supporters. The romance of his life was
his connexion with Léonie Léon (d. 1906), the full details of which were
not known to the public till her death. This lady, with whom Gambetta
fell in love in 1871, was the daughter of a French artillery officer.
She became his mistress, and the _liaison_ lasted till he died. Gambetta
himself constantly urged her to marry him during this period, but she
always refused, fearing to compromise his career; she remained, however,
his confidante and intimate adviser in all his political plans. It is
understood that at last she had just consented to become his wife, and
the date of the marriage had been fixed, when the accident which caused
his death occurred in her presence. Contradictory accounts have indeed
been given as to this fatal episode, but that it was accidental, and not
suicide, is certain. On Gambetta the influence of Léonie was absorbing,
both as lover and as politician, and the correspondence which has been
published shows how much he depended upon her. But in various matters of
detail the serious student of political history must be cautious in
accepting her later recollections, some of which have been embodied in
the writings of M. Francis Laur, such as that an actual interview took
place in 1878 between Gambetta and Bismarck. That Gambetta after 1875
felt strongly that the relations between France and Germany might be
improved, and that he made it his object, by travelling incognito, to
become better acquainted with Germany and the adjoining states, may be
accepted, but M. Laur appears to have exaggerated the extent to which
any actual negotiations took place. On the other hand, the increased
knowledge of Gambetta's attitude towards European politics which later
information has supplied confirms the view that in him France lost
prematurely a master mind, whom she could ill spare. In April 1905 a
monument by Dalou to his memory at Bordeaux was unveiled by President
Loubet.

  Gambetta's _Discours et plaidoyers politiques_ were published by J.
  Reinach in 11 vols. (Paris, 1881-1886); his _Dépêches, circulaires,
  décrets_ ... in 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-1891). Many biographies have
  appeared. The principal are J. Reinach, _Léon Gambetta_ (1884),
  _Gambetta orateur_ (1884) and _Le Ministère Gambetta, histoire et
  doctrine_ (1884); Neucastel, _Gambetta, sa vie, et ses idées
  politiques_ (1885); J. Hanlon, _Gambetta_ (London, 1881); Dr Laborde,
  _Léon Gambetta biographie psychologique_ (1898); P.B. Gheusi,
  Gambetta, _Life and Letters_ (Eng. trans. by V.M. Montagu, 1910). See
  also G. Hanotaux, _Histoire de la France contemporaine_ (1903, &c.).
  F. Laur's _Le Coeur de Gambetta_ (1907, Eng. trans., 1908) contains
  the correspondence with Léonie Léon; see also his articles on
  "Gambetta and Bismarck" in _The Times_ of August 17 and 19, 1907, with
  the correspondence arising from them.     (H. Ch.)



GAMBIA, an important river of West Africa, and the only river of Africa
navigable by ocean-going boats at all seasons for over 200 m. from its
mouth. It rises in about 11° 25' N. and 12° 15' W., within 150 m. of the
sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the
massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the
Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing
direct to the Gulf of Guinea. The Gambia, especially in its lower
course, is very serpentine, and although the distance from the source to
the mouth of the river is little more than 300 m. in a direct line, the
total length of the stream is about 1000 m. It flows first N.N.E.,
receiving many left-hand tributaries, but about 12° 35' N. takes a sharp
bend N.W. and maintains this direction until it leaves the fertile and
hilly region of Bondu. The descent to the lower district is marked by
the Barraconda rapids, formed by a ledge of rock stretching across the
river. Between 30 and 50 m. above the falls the Gambia is joined by two
considerable affluents, the Nieriko from the north and the Kuluntu or
Grey river from the south. From the Barraconda rapids to the Atlantic
the Gambia has a course of about 350 m. Throughout this distance the
waters are tidal, and the river is navigable all the year round by boats
drawing 6 ft. of water. At Yarbatenda, a few miles below Barraconda, the
river has a breadth, even at the dry season, of over 300 ft., with a
depth of 13 to 20 ft. From the falls to McCarthy's Island, a distance of
200 m., the river valley, which here presents a park-like appearance, is
enclosed by low rocky hills of volcanic character. For 50 m. below the
island, where the stream is about 800 yds. wide, the banks of the river
are steep and thickly wooded. They then become low and are fringed with
mangrove swamps. From Devil's Point, a sharp promontory on the north
bank--up to which place the water is salt--the river widens considerably
and enters the Atlantic, in about 13½° N. and 16½° W., by a broad
estuary. Near the mouth of the river on the south side is St Mary's
Island (3½ m. long by 1½ broad), and opposite on the north bank is Barra
Point, the river being here contracted to 2½ m. Eighteen miles lower
down the distance from shore to shore is 27 m. There is a sand-bar at
the entrance to the river, but at the lowest state of the tide there are
26 ft. of water over the bar. The Gambia is in flood from November to
June, when the Barraconda rapids are navigable by small boats. Above the
rapids the stream is navigable for 160 m. Politically the Gambia is
divided between Great Britain and France--Britain possessing both banks
of the river up to, but not including, Yarbatenda.

The Gambia was one of the rivers passed by Hanno the Carthaginian in his
famous voyage along the west coast of Africa. It was known to Ptolemy
and the Arabian geographers, and was at one time supposed to be a mouth
of the Nile, and, later (18th century), a branch of the Niger. It was
possibly visited by Genoese navigators in 1291, and was certainly
discovered by the Portuguese c. 1446, but was first explored for any
distance from its mouth (1455) by the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto (q.v.),
who published an account of his travels at Vicenza in 1507 (_La Prima
Navigazione per l'Oceano alle terre de' Negri della Bassa Ethiopia_).
Afterwards the Gambia became a starting-place for explorers of the
interior, among them Mungo Park, who began both his journeys (1795 and
1805) from this river. It was not until 1818 that the sources of the
Gambia were reached, the discovery being made by a Frenchman, Gaspard
Mollien, who had travelled by way of the Senegal and Bondu. The middle
course of the river was explored in 1851 by R.G. MacDonnell, then
governor of the Gambia colony, and in 1881 Dr V.S. Gouldsbury also
navigated its middle course. No native craft of any kind was seen above
Barraconda. The more correct name of the river is Gambra, and it is so
called in old books of travel.

  See Mungo Park's _Travels_ (London, 1799); G. Mollien, _Travels ... to
  the Sources of the Senegal and Gambia ..._, edited by T.E. Bowdich
  (London, 1820); the account of Dr Gouldsbury's journey in the Blue
  Book C 3065 (1881); also under the country heading below.



GAMBIA, the most northerly of the British West African dependencies. It
consists of a stretch of land on both sides of the lower Gambia. The
colony, with the protectorate dependent upon it, has an area of about
4000 sq. m. and a population officially estimated (1907) at 163,000. The
colony proper (including St Mary's Island, British Kommbo, the Ceded
Mile, McCarthy's Island and other islets) has an area of about 69 sq. m.
The protectorate consists of a strip of land extending ten kilometres
(about 6 m.) on each side of the river to a distance of about 200 m. in
a direct line from the sea. The land outside these limits is French.
Within the protectorate are various petty kingdoms, such as Barra, to
the north of the Gambia, and Kommbo, to the south. The breadth of the
colony near the coast is somewhat greater than it is higher up. The
greatest breadth is 39 m.

  _Physical Features, Fauna and Flora._--The colony, as its name
  implies, derives its character and value from the river Gambia (q.v.),
  which is navigable throughout and beyond the limits of the colony,
  while large ocean-going ships can always cross the bar at its mouth
  and enter the port of Bathurst. Away from the swamps by the river
  banks, the country is largely "bush." The region above McCarthy's
  Island is hilly. Much of the land is cleared for cultivation. The
  fauna includes lions, leopards, several kinds of deer, monkeys,
  bush-cow and wild boar. Hippopotami are found in the upper part of the
  river, and crocodiles abound in the creeks. The birds most common are
  bush-fowl, bustards, guinea-fowl, quail, pigeon and sand-grouse. Bees
  are very numerous in parts of the country. The flora resembles that of
  West Africa generally, the mangrove being common. Mahogany and
  rosewood (_Pterocarpus erinaceus_) trees are found, though not in
  large numbers, and the rubber-vine and oil-palm are also comparatively
  scarce. There are many varieties of fern. The cassava (manioca) and
  indigo plants are indigenous.

  _Climate._--The climate during the dry season (November-June) is the
  best on the British West African coast, and the Gambia is then
  considered fairly healthy. Measures for the extermination of the
  malarial mosquito are carried on with good effect. The mean
  temperature at Bathurst is 77° F., the shade minimum being 56° and the
  solar maximum 165°. Upriver the variation in temperature is even
  greater than at Bathurst, from 50° in the morning to 100°-104° at 3
  P.M. being common at McCarthy's Isle. The average rainfall is about 50
  in. a year, but save for showers in May and June there is rarely any
  rain except between July and October. The first instance of rain in
  December in twenty-six years was recorded in 1906. The dry east wind
  known as the harmattan blows intermittently from December to March.

_Inhabitants._--The inhabitants, who are both thrifty and industrious,
are almost entirely of Negro or Negroid race, the chief tribes
represented being the Mandingo (q.v.), the Jolof and the Jola. Numbers
of Fula (q.v.) are also settled in the country. Fully four-fifths of the
natives are Mahommedans. The few European residents are officials,
traders or missionaries.

_Towns and Trade._--Bathurst, pop. about 8000, the chief town of the
colony, in 13° 24' N., 16° 36' W., is built on St Mary's Island, which
lies at the mouth of the river near its south bank and is connected with
the mainland by a bridge across Oyster Creek. It was founded in 1816 and
is named after the 3rd earl Bathurst, secretary of state for the
colonies from 1812 to 1827. Bathurst is a fairly well-built town, the
chief material employed being red sandstone. It lies about 12 to 14 ft.
above the level of the river. The principal buildings face the sea, and
include Government House, barracks, a well-appointed hospital, founded
by Sir R.G. MacDonnell (administrator, 1847-1852), and various churches.
The market-place is shaded by a fine avenue of bombax and other
wide-spreading trees. There are no other towns of any size in the
Gambia. A trading station called Georgetown is situated on McCarthy's
Island, so named after Sir Charles McCarthy, the governor of Sierra
Leone, who in 1824 was captured and beheaded by the Ashanti at the
battle of Essamako. Albreda, a small port on the north bank of the
river, of some historic interest (see below), is in the Barra district.

  _Products._--Ground-nuts (_Arachis hypogaea_), rubber, beeswax, palm
  kernels, rice, cotton, and millet are the chief productions. Millet
  and rice are the staple food of the people. The curing of hides, the
  catching and drying of fish, boat-building, and especially the weaving
  of cotton into cloths called "pagns," afford employment to a
  considerable number of persons. Formerly the principal exports,
  besides slaves, were gold-dust, wax and hides, the gold being obtained
  from the Futa Jallon district farther inland. Between 1830 and 1840
  from 1500 to 2000 oz. of gold were exported annually, but shipments
  ceased soon afterwards, though small quantities of gold-dust can still
  be obtained from native goldsmiths. The export of hides received a
  severe check in 1892-1893 through the death of nearly all the cattle,
  but after an interval of seven or eight years the industry gradually
  revived. The value of hides exported increased from £520 in 1902 to
  £9615 in 1907. The collection of rubber was started about 1880, but
  the trade has not assumed large proportions. In 1907 the value of the
  rubber exported was £4602. The export of wax, valued at £37,000 in
  1843, had dwindled in 1907 to £2325. The cultivation of the
  ground-nut, first exported in 1830, assumed importance by 1837, and by
  1850 had become the chief industry of the colony. In 1907 the value of
  the nuts was £256,685, over 11/12 of the total exports (exclusive of
  specie). Nearly the whole male population is engaged in the industry
  for eight months of the year. Planted in June, after the early rains,
  the crop is reaped in October or November and exported to Europe (4/5
  to Marseilles) for the extraction of its oil, which is usually sold as
  olive oil. A feature of the industry is the appearance at the
  beginning of the planting season of thousands of men from a distance,
  "strange farmers," as they are called, who are housed and fed and
  given farms to cultivate. In return they have to give half the produce
  to the landlords. As soon as he has sold his nuts, the "strange
  farmer" goes off, often not returning for years.

  Apart from the cultivation of the ground-nut, the agricultural
  resources of the country are undeveloped. Large herds of cattle are
  kept by the Fula, and in cattle rich natives usually invest their
  wealth. Land can be hired for 2d. an acre per annum for twenty-one
  years. All land lying vacant or unused, or to which the occupier is
  unable to produce any title, is vested in the crown. A botanical
  station was opened in 1894, and the cultivation of American and
  Egyptian cotton was taken in hand in 1902. The experiment proved
  discouraging. Great difficulty was experienced in getting farmers to
  grow cotton for export, as unless carried on on highly scientific
  lines its cultivation is not so profitable as that of the ground-nut.
  The principal imports, of which over 2/3 come from Great Britain or
  British colonies, are cotton goods, kola-nuts (from Sierra Leone),
  tobacco, rice, sugar and spirits. In the ten years 1898 to 1907 the
  average annual value of the exports was £301,000, of the imports
  £316,000. There are no mines in the colony, nor any apparent mineral
  wealth, except ridges of ironstone in the regions above McCarthy's
  Island. Bathurst is in telegraphic communication with Europe and the
  rest of Africa. There are no railways in the colony, but it is
  traversed by well-made roads of a uniform width of 18 ft. The
  Liverpool mail steamers call at the port every fortnight. A government
  steamer runs regularly from Bathurst to McCarthy's Island, and a
  smaller boat plies on the upper river. The shipping trade is chiefly
  British; French and German tonnage coming next.

  Surrounded on all sides, save seawards, by French territory, the
  colony largely depends, economically, upon France, to which country
  most of the exports go. A considerable entrepôt trade is also done
  with the neighbouring French colonies. The extent of French influence
  is indicated by the fact that the five-franc piece, locally known as a
  dollar, is largely circulated throughout the protectorate, and is
  accepted as legal tender, although the currency in the colony proper
  is the English coinage.

  _Administration, Revenue, &c._--The Gambia is administered by a
  governor, assisted by an executive and a legislative council. On the
  last-named body nominated unofficial members have seats. The colony is
  self-supporting and has no public debt. The revenue, which in 1906 for
  the first time exceeded £60,000, is mainly derived from customs. A
  company of the West African Frontier Force is maintained. Travelling
  commissioners visit the five districts into which, for administrative
  purposes, the protectorate is divided, and in which the native form of
  government prevails. From the native law-courts appeal can be made to
  the supreme court at Bathurst. There is also at Bathurst a Mahommedan
  court, established in 1906, for the trial of cases involving the civil
  status of Moslems.

  Primary schools are maintained by the various religious denominations,
  and receive grants from government. The Wesleyans have also a
  secondary and a technical school. There is a privately supported
  school for Mahommedans at Bathurst. The Anglicans, Wesleyans and Roman
  Catholics have numerous converts.

_History._--Of the early history of the Gambia district there is scant
mention. At what period the stone circles and pillars (apparently of a
"Druidical" character), whose ruins are found at several places along
the upper Gambia, were erected is not known. Those at Lamin Koto, on the
right bank of the river opposite McCarthy's Island, are still in good
preservation, and are an object of veneration to the Mahommedans (see
_Geog. Journ._ vol. xii., 1898). The country appears to have formed
part, successively, of the states of Ghana, Melle and Songhoi. The
relations, political and commercial, of the natives were all with the
north and east; consequently no large town was founded on the banks of
the river, nor any trade carried on (before the coming of the white man)
by vessels sailing the ocean. About the 11th century the district came
under Mahommedan influence.

The Portuguese visited the Gambia in the 15th century, and in the
beginning of the 16th century were trading in the lower river. Embassies
were sent from the Portuguese stations inland to Melle to open up trade
with the interior, but about the middle of the century this
trade--apparently mostly in gold and slaves--declined. At the end of the
century the river was known as the resort of banished men and fugitives
from Portugal and Spain. It was on the initiative of Portuguese living
in England that Queen Elizabeth, in 1588, granted a patent to "certain
merchants of Exeter and others of the west parts and of London for a
trade to the river of Senega and Gambra in Guinea." This company was
granted a monopoly of trade for ten years. Its operations led to no
permanent settlement in the Gambia. In 1618 James I. granted a charter
to another company named "The Company of Adventurers of London trading
into Africa," and formed at the instigation of Sir Robert Rich,
afterwards earl of Warwick, for trade with the Gambia and the Gold
Coast. This company sought to open up trade with Timbuktu, then believed
to be a great mart for gold, which reached the lower Gambia in
considerable quantities. With this object George Thompson (a merchant
who had traded with Barbary) was sent out in the "Catherine," and
ascended the Gambia in his ship to Kassan, a Portuguese trading town,
thence continuing his journey in small boats. In his absence the
"Catherine" was seized and the crew murdered by Portuguese and
half-castes, and Thompson himself was later on murdered by natives. Two
years afterwards Richard Jobson, another agent of the Company of
Adventurers, advanced beyond the falls of Barraconda; and he was
followed, about forty years later, by Vermuyden, a Dutch merchant, who
on his return to Europe asserted that he had reached a country full of
gold.

The Company of Adventurers had built a fort near the mouth of the
Gambia. This was superseded in 1664 by a fort built by Captain
(afterwards Admiral Sir Robert) Holmes on a small island 20 m. from the
mouth of the river and named Fort James, in honour of the duke of York
(James II.). This fort was built expressly to defend the British trade
against the Dutch, and from that time the British remained in permanent
occupation of one or more ports on the river. In 1723 Captain
Bartholomew Stibbs was sent out by the Royal African Company, which had
succeeded the earlier companies, to verify Vermuyden's reports of gold.
He proceeded 60 m. above the falls, but the land of gold was not found.
The French now became rivals for the trade of the Gambia, but the treaty
of Versailles in 1783 assigned the trade in the river to Britain,
reserving, however, Albreda for French trade, while it assigned the
Senegal to France, with the reservation of the right of the British to
trade at Portendic for gum. This arrangement remained in force till
1857, when an exchange of possessions was effected and the lower Gambia
became a purely British river. In the period between the signing of the
treaty of Versailles and 1885 the small territories which form the
colony proper were acquired by purchase or cession from native kings. St
Mary's Isle was acquired in 1806; McCarthy's Isle was bought in 1823;
the Ceded Mile was granted by the king of Barra in 1826; and British
Kommbo between 1840 and 1855. During this period the colony had gone
through an economic crisis by the abolition of the slave trade (1807),
which had been since 1662 its chief financial support. The beginning of
a return to prosperity came in 1816 when some British traders, obliged
to leave Senegal on the restoration of that country to France after the
Napoleonic wars, founded a settlement on St Mary's Isle. From that year
the existing colony, as distinct from trading on the river, dates. The
Gambia witnessed many administrative changes. When the slave trade was
abolished, the settlement was placed under the jurisdiction of the
governor of Sierra Leone, and was formally annexed to Sierra Leone on
the dissolution of the Royal African Company (1822). It so remained
until 1843, when the Gambia was made an independent colony, its first
governor being Henry Frowd Seagram. Afterwards (1866) the Gambia became
a portion of the officially styled "West African Settlements." In 1883
it was again made a separate government, administered as a crown colony.
Between the years last mentioned--1866-1888--the colony had suffered
from the retrograde policy adopted by parliament in respect to the West
African Settlements (_vide_ Report of the Select Committee of 1865).

In 1870 negotiations were opened between France and Great Britain on the
basis of a mutual exchange of territories in West Africa. Suspended
owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War the negotiations were
resumed in 1876. "Definite proposals were at that time formulated by
which the Gambia was to be exchanged for all posts by France between the
Rio Pongas (Pongo river, French Guinea) and the Gabun. This would have
been a comprehensive and intelligible arrangement, but so strong a
feeling in opposition to any cession of British territory was manifested
in parliament, and by various mercantile bodies, that the government of
the day was unable to press the scheme."[1] Nothing was done, however,
to secure for the Gambia a suitable _hinterland_, and in 1877 the 4th
earl of Carnarvon (then colonial secretary) warned British traders that
they proceeded beyond McCarthy's Isle at their own risk. Meantime the
French from Senegal pushed their frontier close to the British
settlements, so that when the boundaries were settled by the agreement
of the 10th of August 1889 with France, Great Britain was able to secure
only a ten-kilometre strip on either side of the river. This document
fixed the frontier of the British protectorate inland at a radius of 10
m. from the centre of the town of Yarbatenda; which town is situated at
the limit of navigability of the Gambia from the sea. By Art. 5 of the
Anglo-French convention of the 8th of April 1904, Yarbatenda was ceded
to France, with the object of giving that country a port on the river
accessible to sea-going merchantmen.

Since 1871 the colony had been self-supporting, but on the acquirement
of the protectorate it was decided, in order to balance increasing
expenditure, to impose a "hut tax" on the natives. This was done in
1895. The tax, which averages 4s. per annum for a family, met with no
opposition.

In 1892 a slave-raiding chief, named Fodi Kabba, had to be forcibly
expelled from British territory. In 1894 another slave-raider, Fodi
Silah, gave much trouble to the protectorate. An expedition under
Captain E.H. (afterwards admiral) Gamble succeeded in routing him, and
Fodi Silah took refuge in French territory, where he died. During the
expedition Captain Gamble was led into an ambush, and in this engagement
lost 15 killed and 47 wounded. In 1900 trouble again arose through the
agency of Fodi Kabba, who had fixed his residence at Medina, in French
territory. Two travelling commissioners (Mr F.C. Sitwell and Mr Silva)
were murdered in June of that year, at a place called Suankandi, and a
punitive expedition was sent out under Colonel H.E. Brake. Suankandi was
captured and, the French co-operating, Medina was also captured, Fodi
Kabba being killed on the 23rd of March 1901.

The people of the protectorate are in general peaceful and contented,
and slave trading is a thing of the past. Provision was moreover made by
an ordinance of 1906 for the extinction of slavery itself throughout the
protectorate, it being enacted that henceforth all children born of
slaves were free from birth, and that all slaves became free on the
death of their master.

  See the _Annual Reports_ on the colony published by the colonial
  office, London, which give the latest official information; C.P.
  Lucas's _Historical Geography of the British Colonies_, vol. iii.,
  _West Africa_ (2nd ed., Oxford, 1900) (this book contains valuable
  bibliographical notes); and _The Gambia Colony and Protectorate_, an
  official handbook (with map and considerable historical information),
  by F.B. Archer, treasurer of the colony (London, 1906). Early accounts
  of the country will be found in vol. ii. of Thomas Astley's _New
  General Collection of Voyages and Travels_ (London, 1745-1747). See
  also Major W. Gray and Surgeon Dochard, _Travels in Western Africa in
  1818-1821, from the River Gambia ... to the River Niger_ (London,
  1829). The flora has been the subject of a special study, A. Rançon,
  _La Flore utile du bassin de la Gambie_ (Bordeaux, 1895). Most of the
  books mentioned under GOLD COAST also deal with the Gambia.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Extract from a despatch of Lord Salisbury to the British
    ambassador to France, dated 30th of March 1892.



GAMBIER, JAMES GAMBIER, BARON (1756-1833), English admiral, was born on
the 13th of October 1756 at the Bahamas, of which his father, John
Gambier, was at that time lieutenant-governor. He entered the navy in
1767 as a midshipman on board the "Yarmouth," under the command of his
uncle; and, his family interest obtaining for him rapid promotion, he
was raised in 1778 to the rank cf post-captain, and appointed to the
"Raleigh," a fine 32-gun frigate. At the peace of 1783 he was placed on
half-pay; but, on the outbreak of the war of the French Revolution, he
was appointed to the command of the 74-gun ship "Defence," under Lord
Howe; and in her he had an honourable share in the battle on the 1st of
June 1794. In recognition of his services on this occasion, Captain
Gambier received the gold medal, and was made a colonel of marines; the
following year he was advanced to the rank of rear-admiral, and
appointed one of the lords of the admiralty. In this office he continued
for six years, till, in February 1801, he, a vice-admiral of 1799,
hoisted his flag on board the "Neptune," of 98 guns, as third in command
of the Channel Fleet under Admiral Cornwallis, where, however, he
remained for but a year, when he was appointed governor of Newfoundland
and commander-in-chief of the ships on that station. In May 1804 he
returned to the admiralty, and with a short intermission in 1806,
continued there during the naval administration of Lord Melville, of his
uncle, Lord Barham, and of Lord Mulgrave. In November 1805 he was raised
to the rank of admiral; and in the summer of 1807, whilst still a lord
of the admiralty, he was appointed to the command of the fleet ordered
to the Baltic, which, in concert with the army under Lord Cathcart,
reduced Copenhagen, and enforced the surrender of the Danish navy,
consisting of nineteen ships of the line, besides frigates, sloops,
gunboats, and naval stores. This service was considered by the
government as worthy of special acknowledgment; the naval and military
commanders, officers, seamen and soldiers received the thanks of both
Houses of Parliament, and Admiral Gambier was rewarded with a peerage.

In the spring of the following year he gave up his seat at the admiralty
on being appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet; and in that
capacity he witnessed the partial, and prevented the total, destruction
of the French fleet in Basque Roads, on the 12th of April 1809. It is in
connexion with this event, which might have been as memorable in the
history of the British navy as it is in the life of Lord Dundonald (see
DUNDONALD), that Lord Gambier's name is now best known. A court-martial,
assembled by order of a friendly admiralty, and presided over by a warm
partisan, "most honourably acquitted" him on the charge "that, on the
12th of April, the enemy's ships being then on fire, and the signal
having been made that they could be destroyed, he did, for a
considerable time, neglect or delay taking effectual measures for
destroying them"; but this decision was in reality nothing more than a
party statement of the fact that a commander-in-chief, a supporter of
the government, is not to be condemned or broken for not being a person
of brilliant genius or dauntless resolution. No one now doubts that the
French fleet should have been reduced to ashes, and might have been, had
Lord Gambier had the talents, the energy, or the experience of many of
his juniors. He continued to hold the command of the Channel Fleet for
the full period of three years, at the end of which time--in 1811--he
was superseded. In 1814 he acted in a civil capacity as chief
commissioner for negotiating a treaty of peace with the United States;
for his exertions in which business he was honoured with the Grand Cross
of the Bath. In 1830 he was raised to the high rank of admiral of the
fleet, and he died on the 19th of April 1833.

Lord Gambier was a man of earnest, almost morbid, religious principle,
and of undoubted courage; but the administration of the admiralty has
seldom given rise to such flagrant scandals as during the time when he
was a member of it; and through the whole war the self-esteem of the
navy suffered no such wound as during Lord Gambier's command in the Bay
of Biscay.

  The so-called _Memorials, Personal and Historical, of Admiral Lord
  Gambier_, by Lady Chatterton (1861), has no historical value. The life
  of Lord Gambier is to be read in Marshall's _Royal Naval Biography_,
  in Ralfe's _Naval Biography_, in Lord Dundonald's _Autobiography of a
  Seaman_, in the Minutes of the Courts-Martial and in the general
  history of the period.



GAMBIER, a village of College township, Knox county, Ohio, U.S.A., on
the Kokosing river, 5 m. E. of Mount Vernon. Pop. (1900) 751; (1910)
537. It is served by the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus railway. The
village is finely situated, and is the seat of Kenyon College and its
theological seminary, Bexley Hall (Protestant Episcopal), and of
Harcourt Place boarding school for girls (1889), also Protestant
Episcopal. The college was incorporated in 1824 as the "Theological
Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Ohio"; but
in 1891 "Kenyon College," the name by which the institution has always
been known, became the official title. Its first exercises were held at
Worthington, Ohio, in the home of Philander Chase (1775-1852), first
Protestant Episcopal bishop in the North-west Territory, by whose
efforts the funds for its endowment had been raised in England in
1823-1824, the chief donors being Lords Kenyon and Gambier. The first
permanent building, "Old Kenyon" (still standing, and used as a
dormitory), was erected on Gambier Hill in 1827 in the midst of a
forest. In 1907-1908 the theological seminary had 18 students and the
collegiate department 119.

  Some account of the founding of the college may be found in Bishop
  Chase's _Reminiscences; an Autobiography, comprising a History of the
  Principal Events in the Author's Life to 1847_ (2 vols., New York,
  1848).



GAMBOGE (from Camboja, a name of the district whence it is obtained), a
gum-resin procured from _Garcinia Hanburii_, a dioecious tree with
leathery, laurel-like leaves, small yellow flowers, and usually
square-shaped and four-seeded fruit, a member of the natural order
Guttiferae, and indigenous to Cambodia and parts of Siam and of the
south of Cochin China, formerly comprised in Cambojan territory. The
juice, which when hardened constitutes gamboge, is contained in the bark
of the tree, chiefly in numerous ducts in its middle layer, and from
this it is procured by making incisions, bamboo joints being placed to
receive it as it exudes. Gamboge occurs in commerce in cylindrical
pieces, known as pipe or roll gamboge, and also, usually of inferior
quality, in cakes or amorphous masses. It is of a dirty orange
externally; is hard and brittle, breaks with a conchoidal and
reddish-yellow, glistening fracture, and affords a brilliant yellow
powder; is odourless, and has a taste at first slight, but subsequently
acrid; forms with water an emulsion; and consists of from 20 to 25% of
gum soluble in water, and from 70 to 75% of a resin. Its commonest
adulterants are rice-flour and pulverized bark.

Gamboge (_Cambogia_) is a drastic hydragogue cathartic, causing much
griping and irritation of the intestine. A small quantity is absorbed,
adding a yellow ingredient to the urine and acting as a mild diuretic.
Its irritant action on the skin may cause the formation of pustules. It
is less active only than croton oil and elaterium, and may be given in
doses of half to two grains, combined with some sedative such as
hyoscyamus, in apoplexy and in extreme cases of dropsy. Gamboge is used
as a pigment, and as a colouring matter for varnishes. It appears to
have been first brought into Europe by merchants from the East at the
close of the 16th century.



GAMBRINUS, a mythical Flemish king who is credited with the first
brewing of beer. His name is usually derived from that of Jan Primus,
i.e. Jan (John) I., the victorious duke of Brabant, from 1261 to 1294,
who was president of the Brussels gild of brewers; his portrait with a
foaming glass of ale in his hand had the place of honour in the
gild-hall, and this led in time, it is suggested, to the myth of the
beer-king who is usually represented outside a barrel with a tankard in
his hand.



GAME, a word which in its primary and widest significance means any
amusement or sport, often combined in the early examples with "glee,"
"play," "joy" or "solace." It is a common Teutonic word, in O. Eng.
_gamen_, in O.H.G. _gaman_, but only appears in modern usage outside
English in Dan. _gammen_ and Swed. _gamman_. The ulterior derivation is
obscure, but philologists have identified it with the Goth. _gaman_,
companion or companionship; if this be so, it is compounded of the
prefix _ga_-, with, and the root seen in "man." Apart from its primary
and general meaning the word has two specific applications, first to a
contest played as a recreation or as an exhibition of skill, in
accordance with rules and regulations; and, secondly, to those wild
animals which are the objects of the chase, and their flesh as used for
food, distinguished as such from meat, fish and poultry, and from the
flesh of deer, to which the name "venison" is given. For "game," from
the legal aspect, and the laws relating to its pursuit and capture see
GAME LAWS. The athletic contests of the ancient Greeks ([Greek: agônes])
and the public shows (_ludi_) of the arena and amphitheatre of the
ancient Romans are treated below (GAMES, CLASSICAL); the various forms
of modern games, indoor and outdoor, whether of skill, strength or
chance, are dealt with under their specific titles. A special use
("gaming" or "gambling") restricts the term to the playing of games for
money, or to betting and wagering on the results of events, as in
horse-racing, &c. (see GAMING AND WAGERING). "Gamble," "gambler" and
"gambling" appear very late in English. The earliest quotations in the
_New English Dictionary_ for the three words are dated 1775, 1747 and
1784 respectively. They were first regarded as cant or slang words, and
implied a reproach, either as referring to cheats or sharpers, or to
those who played recklessly for extravagant stakes. The form of the
words is obscure, but is supposed to represent a local variation
_gammle_ of the M.E. _gamenian_. From this word must, of course, be
distinguished "gambol," to sport, frisk, which, as the older forms
(_gambald, gambaud_) show, is from the Fr. _gambade_, leap, jump, of a
horse, It. _gambado_, _gamba_, leg (Mod. Fr. _jambe_).



GAME LAWS. This title in English law is applied to the statutes which
regulate the right to pursue and take or kill certain kinds of wild
animals (see above). The existence of these statutes is due to the rules
of the common law as to the nature of property, and the interest of the
Norman sovereigns and of feudal superiors in the pleasures of sport or
the chase. The substantial basis of the law of property is physical
possession of things and the power to deal with them as we see fit. By
the common law wild animals are regarded as _res nullius_, and as not
being the subject of private property until reduced into possession by
being killed or captured. A bird in the hand is owned: a bird in the
bush is not. Even bees do not become property until hived. "Though a
swarm lights in my tree," says Bracton, "I have no more property therein
than I have in the birds which make their nests thereon." If reclaimed
or confined they become property. If they escape, the rights of the
owner continue only while he is in pursuit of the fugitive, i.e. no
other person can in the meantime establish a right of property against
him by capturing the animal. A swarm of bees "which fly out of my hive
are mine so long as I can keep them in sight and have power to pursue
them." But the right of recapture does not entitle the owner to follow
his animals on to the lands of another, and the only case in which any
right to follow wild animals on to the lands of others is now expressly
recognized is when deer or hares are hunted with hounds or greyhounds.
This recognition merely excepts such pursuit from the law as to criminal
game trespass, and fox-hunters and those who course hares or hunt stags
are civilly liable for trespass if they pass over land without the
consent of the occupier (_Paul v. Summerhayes_, 1878, 4 Q.B.D. 9).

It is a maxim of the common law that things in which no one can claim
any property belong to the crown by its prerogative: this rule has been
applied to wild animals, and in particular to deer and what is now
called "game." The crown rights may pass to a subject by grant or
equivalent prescription. In the course of time the exclusive right to
take game, &c., on lands came to be regarded as incidental to the
ownership or occupation of the lands. This is described as the right to
game _ratione soli_. In certain districts of England which are crown
forests or chases or legal parks, or subject to rights of free warren,
the right to take deer and game is not in the owner or occupier of the
soil, but is in the crown by prerogative, or _ratione privilegii_ in the
grantee of the rights of chase, park or free warren, which are anterior
to and superior to those of the owner or occupier of the lands over
which the privilege has been granted. In all cases where these special
rights do not exist, the right to take or kill wild animals is treated
as a profit incidental to the ownership or occupation of the land on
which they are found, and there is no public right to take them on
private land or even on a highway; nor is there any method known to the
law by which the public at large or an undefined body of persons can
lawfully acquire the right to take wild animals _in alieno solo_.

In the nature of things the right to take wild animals is valuable as to
deer and the animals usually described as game, and not as to those
which are merely noxious as vermin, or simply valueless, as small birds.
Upon the rules of the common law there has been grafted much legislation
which up till the end of the 18th century was framed for the
preservation of deer and game for the recreation and amusement of
persons of fortune, and to prevent persons of inferior rank from
squandering in the pursuit of game time which their station in life
required to be more profitably employed. These enactments included the
rigorous code known as the Laws of the Forest (see FOREST LAWS), as well
as what are usually called the Game Laws.

In England the older statutes relating to game were all repealed early
in the 19th century. From the time of Richard II. (1389) to 1831, no
person might kill game unless qualified by estate or social standing, a
qualification raised from a 40s. freehold in 1389 to an interest of £100
a year in freehold or £150 in long leaseholds (1673). In 1831 this
qualification by estate was abolished as to England. But in Scotland the
right to hunt is theoretically reserved to persons who have in heritage
that unknown quantity a "plough-gate of land" (Scots Act 1621, c. 31);
and in Ireland qualifications by estate are made necessary for killing
game and keeping sporting dogs (Irish Act 1698, 8 Will. III. c. 8). In
England the game laws proper consist of the Night Poaching Acts of 1828
and 1844, the Game Act of 1831, the Poaching Prevention Act 1862, and
the Ground Game Acts of 1880 and 1906. From the fact that the right of
landowners over wild animals on their land does not amount to ownership
it follows that they cannot prosecute any one for stealing live wild
animals: and that apart from the game laws the only remedy against
poachers is by civil action for trespass. As between trespasser and
landowner the law is peculiar (_Blades_ v. _Higgs_, 1865, 11 H.L.C.
621). If A starts and kills a hare on B's land the dead hare belongs to
B (_ratione soli_) and not to A, though he has taken the hare by his own
efforts (_per industriam_). But if A hunts the hare from B's land on to
C's land and there kills it, the dead hare belongs to A and not to B or
C. It is not B's because it was not taken on his land, and it is not C's
because it was not started on his land. In other words the right of each
owner is limited to animals both started and killed on his own land, and
in the case of conflicting claims to the animal taken (made _ratione
soli_) the captor can make title (_per industriam_) against both
landowners. If he is a trespasser he is liable to civil or criminal
proceedings by both landowners, but the game is his unless forfeited
under a statute. Another peculiar result of the law is that where
trespassers (e.g. poachers) kill and carry off game or rabbits as part
of one continuous transaction they are not guilty of theft, but only of
game trespass (_R_. v. _Townley_, 1871, L.R. 1 C.C.R. 315), but it is
theft for a trespasser to pick up and carry off a pheasant killed by the
owner of the land on his own land or even a pheasant killed by an
independent gang of poachers. The young of wild animals belong (_propter
impotentiam_) to the owner of the land until they are able to fly or run
away. This right does not extend to the eggs of wild birds. But the
owner can reduce the eggs into possession by taking them up and setting
them under hens or in enclosures. And if this is done persons who take
them are thieves and not merely poachers. A game farm, like a decoy for
wild water-fowl, is treated as a trade or business; but a game preserve
in which full-grown animals fly or run wild is subject to the ordinary
incidents of the law as to animals _ferae naturae_.

  The classification of wild animals for purposes of sport in England is
  as follows:--

  1. Beasts of forest are hart and hind (red deer), boar, wolf and all
  beasts of venery.

  2. Beasts of chase and park are buck and doe (fallow deer), fox,
  marten and roe, or all beasts of venery and hunting.

  3. Beasts of (free) warren are roe, hare, rabbit, partridge, pheasant,
  woodcock, quail, rail and heron.

  4. Game, as defined by the Night Poaching Act of 1828 and the Game Act
  of 1831, is pheasant, partridge, black game, red grouse, bustard and
  hare. In France game (_gibier_) includes everything eatable that runs
  or flies.

  5. Wild fowl not in any of the previous lists which are nevertheless
  prized for sport, e.g. duck, snipe, plovers, &c.

  6. Wild birds not falling within class 4 are more or less protected
  against destruction by the Wild Birds Protection Acts, which were,
  however, passed with quite other objects than the game laws.

  As regards class 1 no subject without special authority of the crown
  may kill within a forest or its purlieus or on adjacent highways,
  rivers or enclosures. The right to the animals in a forest does not
  depend on ownership of the land but on the royal prerogative as to the
  animals, i.e. it exists not _ratione soli_ but _ratione privilegii_:
  and this right is not in any way altered by the Game Act 1831. A chase
  is a forest in the hands of a subject and a legal park (which is an
  enclosed chase) is created by crown grant or by prescription founded
  on a lost grant. The rights of the grantee are in substance the same
  as those of the crown in a forest, and do not depend on ownership of
  the soil. In the case of a free warren the grantee usually but not
  necessarily owns some or all of the soil over which the right of
  warren runs. The right of free warren depends on crown grant or
  prescription founded on lost grant, and involves a right of property
  over beasts and fowl of warren on all lands within the franchise. As
  will appear from the list above, some game birds are not fowl of
  warren, e.g. black game and red grouse (_Duke of Devonshire_ v.
  _Lodge_, 1827, 7 B. & C. 39). Free warren is quite different from
  ordinary warrens, in which hares or rabbits are bred by the owner of
  the soil for sport or profit. Ground game in such warrens is protected
  under the Larceny Act 1861, s. 17, as well as by the game laws. In
  manors, of which none have been created since 1290, the lord by his
  franchise had the sporting rights over the manor, but at the present
  time this right is restricted to the commons and wastes of the manor,
  the freehold whereof is in him, and does not extend to enclosed
  freeholds nor as a general rule to enclosed copyholds, unless at the
  time of enclosure the sporting rights were reserved to him by the
  Enclosure Act or award (_Sowerby_ v. _Smith_, 1873, L.R. 8 C.P. 514).
  In other words his rights exist ratione _soli_ and not _ratione
  privilegii_. The Game Act 1831 gives lords of manors and privileged
  persons certain rights as to appointing gamekeepers with special
  powers to protect game within the district over which their rights
  extend (ss. 13, 14, 15, 16). The game laws in no way cut down the
  special privileges as to forest, park, chase or free warren (1831, s.
  9), and confirm the sporting right of lords of manors on the wastes of
  the manor (1831, s. 10). As to all lands not affected by these rights,
  the right to kill or take game on the land is presumably in the
  occupier. On letting land the owner may, subject to the qualifications
  hereinafter stated, reserve to himself the right to kill or take
  "game" or rabbits or other wild animals concurrently with or in
  exclusion of the tenant. Where the exclusive right is in the landlord
  the tenant is not only liable to forfeiture or damages for breaches of
  covenants in the lease, but is also liable to penalties on summary
  conviction if without the lessor's authority he pursues, kills or
  takes any "game" upon the land or gives permission to others to do so
  (1831, s. 12). In effect he is made criminally liable for game
  trespass on lands in his own occupation, so far as relates to game,
  but is not so liable if he takes rabbits, snipe, woodcock, quails or
  rails.

  The net effect of the common law and the game laws is to give the
  occupier of lands and the owner of sporting rights over them the
  following remedies against persons who infringe their right to kill or
  take wild animals on the land. A stranger who enters on the land of
  another to take any wild animals is liable to the occupier for
  trespass on the land and for the animals started and killed on the
  land by the trespasser. He is also criminally liable for game trespass
  if he has entered on the land to search for or in pursuit of "game" or
  woodcock, snipe, quail, landrails or rabbits. If the trespass is in
  the daytime (whether on lands of the subject or in royal forests,
  &c.), the penalty on conviction may not exceed 40s., unless five or
  more persons go together, in which case the maximum penalty is £5. If
  a single offender refuses his name or address or gives a false address
  to the occupier or to the owner of the sporting rights or his
  representatives, or refuses to leave the land, he may be arrested by
  them, and is liable to a penalty not exceeding £5, and if five or more
  concerned together in game trespass have a gun with them and use
  violence, intimidation or menace, to prevent the approach of persons
  entitled to take their names or order them off the land, they incur a
  further penalty up to £5.

  If the trespass is in search or pursuit of game _or rabbits_ in the
  nighttime, the maximum penalty on a first conviction is imprisonment
  with hard labour for not over three months; on a second, imprisonment,
  &c., for not over six months, and the offender may be put under
  sureties not to offend again for a year after a first conviction or
  for two years after a second conviction. For a first or second offence
  the conviction is summary, subject to appeal to quarter sessions, but
  for a third offence the offender is tried on indictment and is liable
  to penal servitude (3-7 years) or imprisonment with hard labour (2
  years). The offenders may be arrested by the owner or occupier of the
  land or their servants, and if the offenders assault or offer violence
  by firearms or offensive weapons they are liable to be indicted and on
  conviction punished to the same extent as in the last offence. In 1844
  the above penalties were extended to persons found by night on
  highways in search or pursuit of game. If three or more trespass
  together on land by night to take or destroy game or rabbits, and any
  of them is armed with firearms, bludgeon or other offensive weapon,
  they are liable to be indicted and on conviction sentenced to penal
  servitude (3-14 years) or imprisonment with hard labour (2 years). By
  "day" time is meant from the beginning of the first hour before
  sunrise to the end of the first hour after sunset, and by "night" from
  the end of the first hour after sunset to the beginning of the first
  hour before sunrise (act of 1828, s. 12; act of 1831, s. 34). The time
  is reckoned by local and not by Greenwich time.

  The penalties for night poaching are severe, but encounters between
  the owners of sporting rights and armed gangs of poachers have often
  been attended by homicide. It is to be observed that it is illegal and
  severely punishable to set traps or loaded spring guns for poachers
  (Offences against the Person Act 1861, s. 31), whereby any grievous
  bodily harm is intended or may be caused even to a trespasser, so that
  the incursions of poachers can be prevented only by personal
  attendance on the scene of their activities; and it is to be observed
  also that the provisions of the Game Laws above stated are, so far as
  concerns private land, left to be enforced by private enterprise
  without the interference of the police, with the result that in some
  districts there are scenes of private nocturnal war. Even in the Night
  Poaching Act 1844, which applies to highways, the arrest of offenders
  is made by owners, occupiers or their gamekeepers. The police were not
  given any direct authority as to poachers until the Poaching
  Prevention Act 1862, under which a constable is empowered "on any
  highway, street or public place, to search any person whom he may have
  good cause to suspect of coming from any land where he shall have been
  unlawfully in search or pursuit of 'game,' or any persons aiding or
  abetting such person, and having in his possession any game unlawfully
  obtained, or any gun, part of gun, or nets or engines used for the
  killing or taking game; and also to stop and search any cart or other
  conveyance in or upon which such constable or peace officer shall have
  good cause to suspect that any such game, or any such article or
  thing, is being carried by such person." If any such thing be found
  the constable is to detain it, and apply for a summons against the
  offender, summoning him to appear before a petty sessional court, on
  conviction before which he may be fined not more than £5, and forfeits
  the game, guns, &c., found in his possession. In this act "game"
  includes woodcock, snipe and rabbits, and the eggs of game birds other
  than bustards; and the act applies to poaching either by night or by
  day. In all cases of summary conviction for poaching an appeal lies to
  quarter sessions. In all cases of poaching the game, &c., taken may be
  forfeited by the court which tries the poacher.

  _Close Time._--On certain days, and within periods known as "close
  time," it is illegal to kill deer or game. The present close times are
  as follows:--

    +----------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+--------------------+
    |                      |       England.      |         Ireland.        |      Scotland.     |
    +----------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+--------------------+
    | Hare                 |        None         | April 21 to Aug. 11*    |        None        |
    | Red deer (male)      |        None         | Jan. 1 to June 9        |        None        |
    | Fallow deer          |        None         | Sept. 29 to June 10     |        None        |
    | Roe deer             |        None         |         None            |        None        |
    | Pheasant             | Feb. 1 to Sept. 30  | Feb.1 to Sept. 30 (1845)| Feb. 1 to Sept. 30 |
    | Partridge            | Feb. 1 to Aug. 31   | Feb. 1 to Aug. 31 (1899)| Feb. 1 to Aug. 31  |
    | Black game           | Dec. 10 to Aug. 20**| Dec. 10 to Aug. 20      | Dec. 10 to Aug. 20 |
    | Red grouse           | Dec. 10 to Aug. 12  | Dec. 10 to Aug. 12      | Dec. 10 to Aug. 12 |
    | Ptarmigan            |        None         | Dec. 10 to Aug. 20      | Dec. 10 to Aug. 12 |
    | Bustard (wild turkey)| March 1 to Sept. 1  | Jan. 10 to Sept. 1      |        None        |
    +----------------------+---------------------+-------------------------+--------------------+
      * Unless varied by order of lord-lieutenant.
     ** Except in Devon, Somerset and New Forest, where to Sept. 1.

  In England and Ireland the winged game above named and hares may not
  be killed on Sundays or Christmas Day. It is illegal to sell or expose
  for sale hares or leverets in March, April, May, June and July. It is
  illegal throughout the United Kingdom to buy or sell winged game birds
  after ten days from the beginning of the close season as fixed by the
  English law (1831, s. 4; 1860, s. 13). This prohibition applies to the
  sale of live game, British or foreign, and to the sale of British dead
  game. It is illegal to lay poison for game or rabbits except in rabbit
  holes, and it is illegal to kill game by firearms at night. Wild birds
  not within the list above given but of interest for sport are
  protected by close times fixed under the Wild Birds Protection Acts,
  which may vary in each county of each kingdom.

  _Licences_.--Besides the restrictions on the right to take or kill
  game which arise out of the law as to ownership or occupation of the
  lands on which it is found, there are further restrictions imposed by
  the laws of excise. From the time of Richard II. (1389) until 1831 the
  right of persons other than gamekeepers properly deputed by the lord
  of a manor to take game was made to depend on the social rank of the
  person, or on the amount of his interest in land, which ranged from a
  40s. freehold (in 1389) to £100 a year (1671). These restrictions were
  abolished in 1831, and the right to kill game was made conditional on
  the possession of a game certificate, now called a game licence in
  Great Britain (act of 1831, ss. 6, 23). By s. 4 of the Game Licences
  Act 1860 "any person, before he shall in Great Britain take, kill or
  pursue, or aid or assist in any manner in the taking, killing or
  pursuing, by any means whatever, or use any dog, gun, net or other
  engine for the purpose of taking, killing or pursuing any game, or any
  woodcock, snipe, quail, landrail, or any coney, or any deer, shall
  take out a proper licence to kill game under this act"--subject to a
  penalty of £20. There are certain exceptions and exemptions as to
  royal personages, royal gamekeepers, and with reference to taking
  woodcock or snipe by nets or springes, by coursing or hunting hares or
  deer, or killing deer, rabbits or hares (Hares Acts 1848, Game
  Licences Act 1860) in certain enclosed lands by the owners or
  occupiers. A licence is not required for beaters and assistants who go
  out with holders of a game licence. The licence is granted by the
  Inland Revenue Department. The issue is regulated by the Game Licences
  Act 1860 as amended by the Customs and Inland Revenue Act 1883. The
  licences now in use are of four kinds:--

  Those taken out after 31st July--

      To expire on the next 31st July           £3 0 0
      To expire on the next 31st October         2 0 0

  Those taken out after 1st November--

      To expire on the next 31st July            2 0 0

  Those taken out for any continuous period of
    fourteen days specified in the licence       1 0 0

  In the case of gamekeepers in Great Britain for whom the employer pays
  the duty on male servants, the annual licence fee is £2, but the
  licence extends only to lands on which the employer has a right to
  kill game. A licence granted to a person in his own right and not as
  gamekeeper or servant is effective throughout the United Kingdom. The
  game licence does not authorize trespass on the lands of others in
  search of game nor the shooting of game, &c., at night, and is
  forfeited on a conviction of game trespass (1831, s. 30; 1860, s. 11).
  Persons who have game licences need not have a gun licence, but the
  possession of a gun licence does not qualify the holder to kill game
  or even rabbits.

  The sale of game when killed is also subject to statutory regulation.
  Gamekeepers may not sell game except under the authority of their
  employer (1831, ss. 17, 25). Persons who hold a full game licence may
  sell game, but only to persons who hold a licence to deal in game.
  These licences are annual (expiring on the 1st of July), and are
  granted in London by justices of the peace, and in the rest of England
  by the council of the borough or urban or rural district in which the
  dealer seeks to carry on business (1831, s. 18; 1893, c. 73, s. 27),
  and a notice of the existence of the licence must be posted on the
  licensed premises. A licence must be taken out for each shop. The
  following persons are disqualified for holding the licence:
  innkeepers, persons holding licences to sell intoxicants, owners,
  guards or drivers of mail-carts, stagecoaches or public conveyances,
  carriers and higglers (1831, s. 18). This enactment interferes with
  the grant of game licences to large stores which also have licences to
  sell beer. The licensed dealer may buy British game only from persons
  who are lawfully entitled to sell game. Conviction of an offence under
  the Game Act 1831 avoids the licence (s. 22). The local licence must
  also be supplemented by an excise licence for which a fee of £2 is
  charged. Licensed dealers in game are prohibited from selling game
  killed in the United Kingdom from the tenth day after the beginning of
  close time to the end of that period. The provisions above stated
  under the act of 1831 applied only to England, but were in 1860
  extended to the rest of the United Kingdom, and were in 1893 applied
  to dealers in game imported from abroad. The main effect of the system
  of licences is to prevent the disposal of game by poachers rather than
  to benefit the revenue.

  _Deer_.--Deer are not included within the definition of game in any of
  the English game laws. Deer-stealing was very seriously punished by
  the old law, and under an act of 9 George I. c. 22, known as the
  Waltham Black Act, passed because of the depredations of disguised
  deer-stealers in Epping Forest, it was under certain circumstances
  made a capital offence. At present offences with reference to deer are
  included in the Larceny Act 1861. It is a felony to hunt or kill deer
  in enclosures in forests, chases or purlieus, or in enclosed land
  where deer is usually kept, or after a previous conviction to hunt or
  kill deer in the open parts of a forest, &c., and certain minor
  provisions are made as to arrest by foresters, forfeiture of venison
  unlawfully possessed and for unlawfully setting traps for deer. These
  enactments do not prevent a man from killing on his own land deer
  which have strayed there (_Threlkeld_ v. _Smith_, 1901, 2 K.B. 531).
  In Scotland the unlawful killing of deer is punished as theft.

  _Eggs_.--The owner or occupier of land has no property in the eggs of
  wild birds found on his lands unless he takes them up. But under s. 24
  of the Game Act 1831 a penalty of 5s. per egg is incurred by persons
  who unlawfully (i.e. without being, or having licence from, the person
  entitled to kill the game) and wilfully take from the nest or destroy
  in the nest the eggs of any game bird, or of a swan, wild duck, teal
  or widgeon. Similar provisions exist in Ireland under an act of 1698,
  and by the Poaching Prevention Act 1862 (United Kingdom) power is
  given to constables to search persons suspected of poaching and to
  take from them the eggs of pheasants, partridges, grouse or black
  game. And the Wild Birds Protection Acts deal with the eggs of all
  wild birds except game and swans.

  _Damage to Crops by Game_.--Where an occupier of lands has not the
  right to kill game or rabbits he runs the risk of suffering damage by
  the depredations of the protected animals, which he may not kill
  without incurring a liability to summary conviction or for breach of
  the conditions on which he holds the land. At common law the owner of
  land who has reserved to himself the sporting rights, and his sporting
  tenants, must use the reserved rights reasonably. They are liable for
  any damage wilfully or unnecessarily done to the crops, &c., of the
  occupier, such as trampling down standing crops or breaking hedges or
  fences. They are not directly liable to the occupier for damage done
  to the crops by game bred on the land or frequenting it in the
  ordinary course of nature; but are not entitled to turn down game or
  rabbits on the land. And if game or rabbits are for the purposes of
  sport imported or artificially raised on land, the person who breeds
  or brings them there is liable for the damage done to the crops of
  adjoining owners or occupiers (_Farrer_ v. _Nelson_, 1885, 15 Q.B.D.
  258; _Birkbeck_ v. _Paget_, 31 Beav. 403; _Hilton_ v. _Green_, 1862, 2
  F. & F. 821).

  Recent legislation has greatly increased the rights of the occupiers
  of land as against the owners of sporting rights over it. As regards
  hares and rabbits the occupier's rights are regulated by the Ground
  Game Act 1880 (which is expressed to be made "in the interests of good
  husbandry and for the better security of capital and labour invested
  in the cultivation of the soil"). By that act the occupier of land as
  incident to and inseparable from his occupation has the right to kill
  and take hares and rabbits on the land. The right is indefeasible and
  cannot be divested by contract with the owner or landlord or even by
  letting the occupier's sporting rights to another. But where apart
  from the act the right to kill game on the land is vested in a person
  other than the occupier, such person has a right concurrent with the
  statutory right of the occupier to take hares and rabbits on the land.
  The act does not extend to common lands nor to lands over which rights
  of grazing or pasturage for not more than nine months in the year
  exist. Consequently over such lands exclusive rights of killing ground
  game still continue, and the law appears not to apply in cases where a
  special right of killing or taking ground game vested before the 7th
  of September 1880 in any person (other than the landlord) by statute,
  charter or franchise (s. 5). The mode of exercise of the occupier's
  right is subject to certain limitations. The ground game is only to be
  taken by him or by persons whom he has duly authorized in writing, who
  must be members of his family or his servants or bona fide employed by
  him for reward to take ground game. The written authority must be
  produced on demand to persons having concurrent rights to take and
  kill the ground game (s. 1 (1) (c)). Firearms may not be used by
  night, nor may poison be used, nor may spring traps be set except in
  rabbit holes (s. 6); nor may ground game be killed on days or seasons
  or by methods prohibited by statute in 1880 (s. 10).

  In the case of moorland and unenclosed lands (which are not arable and
  do not consist of small detached portions of less than 25 acres) the
  occupier may between the 1st of September and the 31st of March kill
  and take ground game; but between the 1st of September and the 10th of
  December firearms may not be used (1880, s. 1 (3); 1906, s. 2). In the
  case of such lands the occupiers and the owners of the sporting rights
  may between the 1st of September and the 10th of December make and
  enforce for their joint benefit agreements for taking the ground game.
  The Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 (operating from 1909) deals, _inter
  alia_, with damage to crops by deer and winged game, but does not
  apply to damage by hares or rabbits. The tenant of agricultural land
  is entitled to compensation for damage to his crops exceeding 1s. per
  acre over the area affected if caused by game, "the right to kill or
  take which is vested neither in him nor in any one claiming under him
  other than the landlord and which the tenant has not permission in
  writing to kill" (s. 2). The right of the tenant is indefeasible and
  cannot be contracted away. Disputes as to amount are to be settled by
  arbitration; but claims to be effectual must be made as to growing
  crops before reaping, raising or feeding off, and as to cut crops
  before carrying. In the case of contracts of tenancy created before
  the 1st of January 1909, allowances are to be made if by their terms
  compensation for damage by game is stipulated for, or an allowance of
  an agreed amount for damage by game was expressly made in fixing the
  rent. The compensation is payable by the landlord subject to his right
  to be indemnified in cases where the sporting rights are not vested in
  him.

  _Sporting Rights_.--Sporting rights (i.e. rights of fowling or of
  shooting, or of taking or killing game or rabbits, or of fishing),
  when severed from the occupation of land, are subject to income or
  property tax, and to assessment for the purpose of local rates (Rating
  Act 1874); and in valuing land whether for rates or taxes the value of
  the sporting rights is now an important and often the chief item of
  value in beneficial occupation of the land. Where the sporting rights
  are the landlord's, the rate thereon is paid in the first instance by
  the tenant and deducted from his rent. Where the sporting right is
  reserved and let, the rating authority may rate either the landlord or
  the sporting tenant as occupier of the right. The Ground Game Acts
  have not affected the liability to assessment of concurrent rights of
  killing hares and rabbits reserved by a landlord, or of a concurrent
  right granted by the occupier (Ryde (2nd ed.), 385-387). The ownership
  of sporting rights severed from the ownership or occupation of the
  land over which they are exercisable is not an interest in land giving
  the electoral franchise or a claim for compensation if the land is
  taken under the Lands Clauses Consolidation Acts.

  _Scotland_.--By the law of Scotland all men have right and privilege
  of game on their own estates as a real right incident thereto, which
  does not pass by an agricultural lease except by express words, or in
  the case of ground game by the act of 1880. The landlord is liable to
  the tenant for damage done to the surface of the lands in exercise of
  his right to the game and also for extraordinary damage by
  over-preserving or over-stocking. Under an act of 1877 he was liable
  for excessive damage done by rabbits or game reserved to or retained
  under a lease granted after the 1st of January 1878, or reserved by
  presumption of common law; this act from 1909 onwards is superseded by
  the provisions of the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906. Night poaching
  is punished by the same act as in England, and day poaching by an act
  of 1832 and the act of 1882. Until 1887 poaching by night under arms
  was a capital offence. The definition of game in Scotland for purposes
  of night poaching is the same as in England. The provisions of the act
  of 1832 as to game trespass by day apply also to deer, roe, rabbits,
  woodcock, snipe, rails and wild duck; but in other respects closely
  resemble those of the English act of 1831.

  Offences against the game laws are not triable by justices of the
  peace, but only in the sheriff court. The close time for game birds in
  Scotland is the same as in England, so far as dealing in them is
  concerned, but differs slightly as to killing. Black game may not be
  killed between the 10th of December and the 25th of August, nor
  ptarmigan between the 10th of December and the 20th of August. There
  is no close time for red, fallow or roe deer, or rabbits. By an old
  Scots act of 1621 (omitted from the recent wholesale repeal of such
  acts) no one may lawfully kill game in Scotland who does not own a
  plough-gate of land except on the land of a person so qualified.

  _Ireland_.--The common law as to game is the same for Ireland as for
  England. The game laws of Ireland are contained partly in acts passed
  prior to the union (1698, 1707, 1787 and 1797), partly in acts limited
  to Ireland, and as to the rest in acts common to the whole United
  Kingdom.

  Under the act of 1698 no one may kill game in Ireland who has not a
  freehold worth £40 a year or £1000 net personality, and elaborate
  provisions are made by that and later acts against the keeping of
  sporting dogs by persons not qualified by estate to kill game. British
  officers and soldiers in Ireland appear to have been much addicted to
  poaching, and their activities were restrained by enactments of 1698
  and 1707.

  Night poaching in Ireland is dealt with by an act of 1826. Trespass on
  lands in pursuit of game to which the landlord or lessor has by
  reservation exclusive right is summarily punishable under an act of
  1864, which includes in the definition of game, woodcock, snipe,
  quails, landrails, wild duck, widgeon and teal. Under the Land Act
  1881 the landlord of a statutory holding may at the commencement of
  the term subject to the Ground Game Acts retain and exercise the
  exclusive right of taking "game" as above defined.

  A game licence is not required for taking or killing rabbits. But in
  other respects the law as to game licences, dog licences and licences
  to deal in game is the same as in Great Britain.

  _British Possessions Abroad_.--The English game laws have not been
  carried to any colony as part of the personal law of the colonists,
  nor have they been extended to them by imperial or colonial
  legislation. But the legislatures of many colonies have passed acts to
  preserve or protect native or imported wild animals, and in some of
  these statutes the protected animals are described as game. These
  statutes are free from feudal prepossessions as to sporting rights,
  and are framed rather on the lines of the Wild Birds Protection Acts
  than on the English game laws, but in some possessions, e.g. Quebec,
  sporting leases by the crown are recognized. The acts since 1895 are
  indicated in the annual summary of colonial legislation furnished in
  the _Journal_ of the Society of Comparative Legislation.

  See also Oke's _Game Laws_, 4th ed., by Willis Bund (1897); Warry,
  _Game Laws of England_ (1897); Marchant and Watkins, _Wild Birds
  Protection Act_ (1897).     (W. F. C.)



GAMES, CLASSICAL. 1. _Public Games_.--The public games of Greece
([Greek: agônes]) and Rome (_Ludi_) consisted in athletic contests and
spectacles of various kinds, generally connected with and forming part
of a religious observance. Probably no institution exercised a greater
influence in moulding the national character, and producing that unique
type of physical and intellectual beauty which we see reflected in Greek
art and literature, than the public contests of Greece (see ATHLETE;
ATHLETIC SPORTS). For them each youth was trained in the gymnasium, they
were the central mart whither poet, artist and merchant each brought his
wares, and the common ground of union for every member of the Hellenic
race. It is to Greece, then, that we must look for the earliest form and
the fullest development of ancient games. The shows of the Roman circus
and amphitheatre were at best a shadow, and in the later days of the
empire a travesty, of the Olympia and Pythia, and require only a cursory
notice.


  Greek.

The earliest games of which we have any record are those at the funeral
of Patroclus, which form the subject of the twenty-third Iliad. They are
noteworthy as showing that Greek games were in their origin clearly
connected with religion; either, as here, a part of the funeral rites,
or else instituted in honour of a god, or as a thank-offering for a
victory gained or a calamity averted, or in expiation of some crime.
Each of the great contests was held near some shrine or sacred place and
is associated with some deity or mythical hero. It was not before the
4th century that this honour was paid to a living man (see Plutarch,
_Lysander_, 18). The games of the _Iliad_ and those of the _Odyssey_ at
the court of Alcinous are also of interest as showing at what an early
date the distinctive forms of Greek athletics--boxing, wrestling,
putting the weight, the foot and the chariot race--were determined.

The _Olympian_ games were the earliest, and to the last they remained
the most celebrated of the four national festivals. Olympia was a
naturally enclosed spot in the rich plain of Elis, bounded on the N. by
the rocky heights of Cronion, and on the S. and W. by the Alpheus and
its tributary the Cladeus. There was the grove of Altis, in which were
ranged the statues of the victorious athletes, and the temple of
Olympian Zeus with the chryselephantine statue of the god, the
masterpiece of Pheidias. There Heracles (so ran the legend which Pindar
has introduced in one of his finest odes), when he had conquered Elis
and slain its king Augeas, consecrated a temenos and instituted games in
honour of his victory. A later legend, which probably embodies
historical fact, tells how, when Greece was torn by dissensions and
ravaged by pestilence, Iphitus inquired of the oracle for help, and was
bidden restore the games which had fallen into desuetude; and there was
in the time of Pausanias, suspended in the temple of Hera at Olympia, a
bronze disk whereon were inscribed, with the regulations of the games,
the names of Iphitus and Lycurgus. From this we may safely infer that
the games were a primitive observance of the Eleians and Pisans, and
first acquired their celebrity from the powerful concurrence of Sparta.
The sacred armistice, or cessation of all hostilities, during the month
in which the games were held, is also credited to Iphitus.

In 776 B.C. the Eleians engraved the name of their countryman Coroebus
as victor in the foot race, and thenceforward we have an almost unbroken
list of the victors in each succeeding Olympiad or fourth recurrent
year. For the next fifty years no names occur but those of Eleians or
their next neighbours. After 720 B.C. we find Corinthians and Megareans,
and later still Athenians and extra-Peloponnesians. Thus what at first
was nothing more than a village feast became a bond of union for all the
branches of the Doric race, and grew in time to be the high festival to
which every Greek gathered, from the mountain fastnesses of Thessaly to
the remotest colonies of Cyrene and Marseilles. It survived even the
extinction of Greek liberty, and had nearly completed twelve centuries
when it was abolished by the decree of the Christian emperor
Theodosius, in the tenth year of his reign. The last Olympian victor was
a Romanized Armenian named Varastad.

Let us attempt to call up the scene which Olympia in its palmy days must
have presented as the great festival approached. Heralds had proclaimed
throughout Greece the "truce of God." So religiously was this observed
that the Spartans chose to risk the liberties of Greece, when the
Persians were at the gates of Pylae, rather than march during the holy
days. Those white tents which stand out against the sombre grey of the
olive groves belong to the Hellanodicae, or ten judges of the games,
chosen one for each tribe of the Eleians. They have been here already
ten months, receiving instruction in their duties. All, too, or most of
the athletes must have arrived, for they have been undergoing the
indispensable training in the gymnasium of the Altis. But along the
"holy road" from the town of Elis there are crowding a motley throng.
Conspicuous in the long train of pleasure-seekers are the [Greek:
theôroi] or sacred deputies, clad in their robes of office, and bearing
with them in their carriages of state offerings to the shrine of the
god. Nor is there any lack of distinguished visitors. It may be
Alcibiades, who, they say, has entered no less than seven chariots; or
Gorgias, who has written a famous [Greek: epideixis] for the occasion;
or the sophist Hippias, who boasts that all he bears about him, from the
sandals on his feet to the dithyrambs he carries in his hand, are his
own manufacture; or Aetion, who will exhibit his picture of the Marriage
of Alexander and Roxana--the picture which gained him no less a prize
than the daughter of the Hellanodices Praxonides; or, in an earlier age,
the poet-laureate of the Olympians, Pindar himself. One feature of the
medieval tournament and the modern racecourse is wanting. Women might
indeed compete and win prizes as the owners of teams, but all except the
priestesses of Demeter were forbidden, matrons on pain of death, to
enter the enclosure.

At daybreak the athletes presented themselves in the Bouleuterium, where
the presidents were sitting, and proved by witnesses that they were of
pure Hellenic descent, and had no stain, religious or civil, on their
character. Laying their hands on the bleeding victim, they swore that
they had duly qualified themselves by ten months' continuous training in
the gymnasium, and that they would use no fraud or guile in the sacred
contests. Thence they proceeded to the stadium, where they stripped to
the skin and anointed themselves. A herald proclaimed, "Let the runners
put their feet to the line," and called on the spectators to challenge
any disqualified by blood or character. If no objection was made, they
were started by the note of the trumpet, running in heats of four,
ranged in the places assigned them by lot. The presidents seated near
the goal adjudged the victory. The foot-race was only one of twenty-four
Olympian contests which Pausanias enumerates, though we must not suppose
that these were all exhibited at any one festival. Till the 77th
Olympiad all was concluded in one day, but afterwards the feast was
extended to five.

  The order of the games is for the most part a matter of conjecture,
  but, roughly speaking, the historical order of their institution was
  followed. We will now describe in this order the most important.

  (1) The _Foot-race_.--For the first 13 Olympiads the [Greek: dromos],
  or single lap of the stadium, which was 200 yds. long, was the only
  contest. The [Greek: diaulos], in which the course was traversed
  twice, was added in the 14th Olympiad, and in the 15th the [Greek:
  dolichos], or long race, of 7, 12 or, according to the highest
  computation, 24 laps, about 2-2/3 m. in length. We are told that the
  Spartan Ladas, after winning this race, dropped down dead at the goal.
  There was also, for a short time, a race in heavy armour, which Plato
  highly commends as a preparation for active service. (2) _Wrestling_
  was introduced in the 18th Olympiad. The importance attached to this
  exercise is shown by the very word _palaestra_, and Plutarch calls it
  the most artistic and cunning of athletic games. The practice differed
  little from that of modern times, save that the wrestler's limbs were
  anointed with oil and sprinkled with sand. The third throw, which
  decided the victory, passed into a proverb, and struggling on the
  ground, such as we see in the famous statue at Florence, was not
  allowed, at least at the Olympia. (3) In the same year was introduced
  the [Greek: pentathlon] (pentathlon), a combination of the five games
  enumerated in the well-known pentameter ascribed to Simonides:--

    [Greek: halma, podôkeiên, diskon, hakonta, palên].

  Only the first of these calls for any comment. The only leap practised
  seems to have been the long jump. The leapers increased their momentum
  by means of [Greek: haltêres] or dumb-bells, which they swung in the
  act of leaping and dropped as they "took off." The take-off may have
  been slightly raised, and some commentators with very little warrant
  have stated that spring-boards were used. The record jump with which
  Phayllus of Croton is credited, 55 ft., is incredible with or without
  a spring-board. It is disputed whether a victory in all five contests,
  or in three at least, was required to win the [Greek: pentathlon]. (4)
  The rules for boxing were not unlike those of the modern ring (see
  PUGILISM), and the chief difference was in the use of the _caestus_.
  This in Greek times consisted of leather thongs bound round the
  boxer's fists and wrists; and the weighting with lead or iron or metal
  studs, which made the caestus more like a "knuckle-duster" than a
  boxing-glove, was a later Roman development. The death of an
  antagonist, unless proved to be accidental, not only disqualified for
  a prize but was severely punished. The use of ear-guards and the comic
  allusions to broken ears, not noses, suggest that the Greek boxer did
  not hit out straight from the shoulder, but fought windmill fashion,
  like the modern rustic. In the _pancratium_, a combination of
  wrestling and boxing, the use of the caestus, and even of the clenched
  fist, was disallowed. (5) The _chariot-race_ had its origin in the
  23rd Olympiad. Of the hippodrome, or racecourse, no traces remain, but
  from the description of Pausanias we may infer that the dimensions
  were approximately 1600 ft. by 400. Down the centre there ran a bank
  of earth, and at each end of this bank was a turning-post round which
  the chariots had to pass. "To shun the goal with rapid wheels"
  required both nerve and skill, and the charioteer played a more
  important part in the race than even the modern jockey. Pausanias
  tells us that horses would shy as they passed the fatal spots. The
  places of the chariots were determined by lot, and there were
  elaborate arrangements for giving all a fair start. The number of
  chariots that might appear on the course at once is uncertain. Pindar
  (_Pyth._ v. 46) praises Arcesilaus of Cyrene for having brought off
  his chariot uninjured in a contest where no fewer than forty took
  part. The large outlay involved excluded all but rich competitors, and
  even kings and tyrants eagerly contested the palm. Thus in the list of
  victors we find the names of Cylon, the would-be tyrant of Athens,
  Pausanias the Spartan king, Archelaus of Macedon, Gelon and Hiero of
  Syracuse, and Theron of Agrigentum. Chariot-races with mules, with
  mares, with two horses in place of four, were successively introduced,
  but none of these present any special interest. Races on horseback
  date from the 33rd Olympiad. As the course was the same, success must
  have depended on skill as much as on swiftness. Lastly, there were
  athletic contests of the same description for boys, and a competition
  of heralds and trumpeters, introduced in the 93rd Olympiad.

  The prizes were at first, as in the Homeric times, of some intrinsic
  value, but after the 6th Olympiad the only prize for each contest was
  a garland of wild olive, which was cut with a golden sickle from the
  kallistephanos, the sacred tree brought by Hercules "from the dark
  fountains of Ister in the land of the Hyperboreans, to be a shelter
  common to all men and a crown of noble deeds" (Pindar, _Ol._ iii. 18).
  Greek writers from Herodotus to Plutarch dwell with complacency on the
  magnanimity of a people who cared for nothing but honour and were
  content to struggle for a corruptible crown. But though the Greek
  games present in this respect a favourable contrast to the greed and
  gambling of the modern racecourse, yet to represent men like Milon and
  Damoxenus as actuated by pure love of glory is a pleasing fiction of
  the moralists. The successful athlete received in addition to the
  immediate honours very substantial rewards. A herald proclaimed his
  name, his parentage and his country; the Hellanodicae took from a
  table of ivory and gold the olive crown and placed it on his head, and
  in his hand a branch of palm; as he marched in the sacred revel to the
  temple of Zeus, his friends and admirers showered in his path flowers
  and costly gifts, singing the old song of Archilochus, [Greek: tênella
  kallinike], and his name was canonized in the Greek calendar. Fresh
  honours and rewards awaited him on his return home. If he was an
  Athenian he received, according to the law of Solon, 500 drachmae, and
  free rations for life in the Prytaneum; if a Spartan, he had as his
  prerogative the post of honour in battle. Poets like Pindar, Simonides
  and Euripides sung his praises, and sculptors like Pheidias and
  Praxiteles were engaged by the state to carve his statue. We even read
  of a breach in the town walls being made to admit him, as if the
  common road were not good enough for such a hero; and there are
  well-attested instances of altars being built and sacrifices offered
  to a successful athlete. No wonder then that an Olympian prize was
  regarded as the crown of human happiness. Cicero, with a Roman's
  contempt for Greek frivolity, observes with a sneer that an Olympian
  victor receives more honours than a triumphant general at Rome, and
  tells the story of the Rhodian Diagoras, who, having himself won the
  prize at Olympia, and seen his two sons crowned on the same day, was
  addressed by a Laconian in these words:--"Die, Diagoras, for thou hast
  nothing short of divinity to desire." Alcibiades, when setting forth
  his services to the state, puts first his victory at Olympia, and the
  prestige he had won for Athens by his magnificent display. But perhaps
  the most remarkable evidence of the exaggerated value which the Greeks
  attached to athletic prowess is a casual expression which Thucydides
  employs when describing the enthusiastic reception of Brasidas at
  Scione. The state, he says, voted him a crown of gold, and the
  multitude flocked round him and decked him with garlands, _as though
  he were an athlete_.

The _Pythian_ games originated in a local festival held at Delphi,
anciently called Pytho, in honour of the Pythian Apollo, and were
limited to musical competitions. The date at which they became a
Panhellenic [Greek: agôn] (so Demosthenes calls them) cannot be
determined, but the Pythiads as a chronological era date from 527 B.C.,
by which time music had been added to all the Panhellenic contests. Now,
too, these were held at the end of every fourth year; previously there
had been an interval of eight years. The Amphictyones presided and the
prize was a chaplet of laurel.

The _Nemean_ games were biennial and date from 516 B.C. They were by
origin an Argive festival in honour of Nemean Zeus, but in historical
times were open to all Greece and provided the established round of
contests, except that no mention is made of a chariot-race. A wreath of
wild celery was the prize.

The _Isthmian_ games, held on the Isthmus of Corinth in the first and
third year of each Olympiad, date, according to Eusebius, from 523 B.C.
They are variously reported to have been founded by Poseidon or Sisyphus
in honour of Melicertes, or by Theseus to celebrate his victory over the
robbers Sinis and Sciron. Their early importance is attested by the law
of Solon which bestowed a reward of 100 drachmae on every Athenian who
gained a victory. The festival was managed by the Corinthians; and after
the city was destroyed by Mummius (146 B.C.) the presidency passed to
the Sicyonians until Julius Caesar rebuilt Corinth (46 B.C.). They
probably continued to exist till Christianity became the religion of the
Roman empire. The Athenians were closely connected with the festival,
and had the privilege of _proedria_, the foremost seat at the games,
while the Eleans were absolutely excluded from participation. The games
included gymnastic, equestrian and musical contests, differing little
from those of the other great festivals, and the prize was a crown made
at one time of parsley (more probably wild celery), at a later period of
pine. The importance of the Isthmian games in later times is shown by
the fact that Flamininus chose the occasion for proclaiming the
liberation of Greece, 196 B.C. That at a later anniversary (A.D. 67)
Nero repeated the proclamation of Flamininus, and coupled with it the
announcement of his own infamous victory at Olympia, shows alike the
hollowness of the first gift and the degradation which had befallen the
Greek games, the last faint relic of Greek nationality.


  Roman.

The _Ludi Publici_ of the Romans included feasts and theatrical
exhibitions as well as the public games with which alone we are
concerned. As in Greece, they were intimately connected with religion.
At the beginning of each civil year it was the duty of the consuls to
vow to the gods games for the safety of the commonwealth, and the
expenses were defrayed by the treasury. Thus, at no cost to themselves,
the Roman public were enabled to indulge at the same time their
religious feelings and their love of amusement. Their taste for games
naturally grew till it became a passion, and under the empire games were
looked upon by the mob as one of the two necessaries of life. The
aediles who succeeded to this duty of the consuls were expected to
supplement the state allowance from their private purse. Political
adventurers were not slow to discover so ready a road to popularity, and
what at first had been exclusively a state charge devolved upon men of
wealth and ambition. A victory over some barbarian horde or the death of
a relation served as the pretext for a magnificent display. But the
worst extravagance of private citizens was eclipsed by the reckless
prodigality of the Caesars, who squandered the revenues of whole
provinces in catering for the mob of idle sightseers on whose favour
their throne depended. But though public games played as important a
part in Roman as in Greek history, and must be studied by the Roman
historian as an integral factor in social and political life, yet,
regarded solely as exhibitions, they are comparatively devoid of
interest, and we sympathize with Pliny, who asks his friend how any man
of sense can go day after day to view the same dreary round of fights
and races.

It is easy to explain the different feelings which the games of Greece
and of Rome excite. The Greeks at their best were actors, the Romans
from first to last were spectators. It is true that even in Greek games
the professional element played a large and ever-increasing part. As
early as the 6th century B.C. Xenophanes complains that the wrestler's
strength is preferred to the wisdom of the philosopher, and Euripides,
in a well-known fragment, holds up to scorn the brawny swaggering
athlete. But what in Greece was a perversion and acknowledged to be
such, the Romans not only practised but held up as their ideal. No
Greek, however high in birth, was ashamed to compete in person for the
Olympic crown. The Roman, though little inferior in gymnastic exercises,
kept strictly to the privacy of the palaestra; and for a patrician to
appear in public as a charioteer is stigmatized by the satirist as a
mark of shameless effrontery.

Roman games are generally classified as _fixed_, _extraordinary_ and
_votive_; but they may be more conveniently grouped according to the
place where they were held, viz. the circus or the amphitheatre.

For the Roman world the circus was at once a political club, a
fashionable lounge, a rendezvous of gallantry, a betting ring, and a
playground for the million. Juvenal, speaking loosely, says that in his
day it held the whole of Rome; but there is no reason to doubt the
precise statement of P. Victor, that in the Circus Maximus there were
seats for 350,000 spectators.

  Of the various _Ludi Circenses_ it may be enough here to give a short
  account of the most important, the _Ludi Magni_ or _Maximi_.

  Initiated according to legend by Tarquinius Priscus, the _Ludi Magni_
  were originally a votive feast to Capitoline Jupiter, promised by the
  general when he took the field, and performed on his return from the
  annual campaign. They thus presented the appearance of a military
  spectacle, or rather a review of the whole burgess force, which
  marched in solemn procession from the capitol to the forum and thence
  to the circus, which lay between the Palatine and Aventine. First came
  the sons of patricians mounted on horseback, next the rest of the
  burghers ranged according to their military classes, after them the
  athletes, naked save for the girdle round their loins, then the
  company of dancers with the harp and flute players, next the priestly
  colleges bearing censers and other sacred instruments, and lastly the
  simulacra of the gods, carried aloft on their shoulders or drawn in
  cars. The games themselves were fourfold:--(1) the chariot race; (2)
  the _ludus Troiae_; (3) the military review; and (4) gymnastic
  contests. Of these only the first two call for any comment. (1) The
  chariot employed in the circus was the two-wheeled war car, at first
  drawn by two, afterwards by four, and more rarely by three horses.
  Originally only two chariots started for the prize, but under Caligula
  we read of as many as twenty-four heats run in the day, each of four
  chariots. The distance traversed was fourteen times the length of the
  circus or nearly 5 m. The charioteers were apparently from the first
  professionals, though the stigma under which the gladiator lay never
  attached to their calling. Indeed a successful driver may compare in
  popularity and fortune with a modern jockey. The drivers were divided
  into companies distinguished by the colours of their tunics, whence
  arose the faction of the circus which assumed such importance under
  the later emperors. In republican times there were two factions, the
  white and the red; two more, the green and the blue, were added under
  the empire, and for a short time in Domitian's reign there were also
  the gold and the purple. Even in Juvenal's day party spirit ran so
  high that a defeat of the green was looked upon as a second Cannae.
  After the seat of empire had been transferred to Constantinople these
  factions of the circus were made the basis of political cabals, and
  frequently resulted in sanguinary tumults, such as the famous Nika
  revolt (A.D. 532), in which 30,000 citizens lost their lives. (2) The
  Ludus Troiae was a sham-fight on horseback in which the actors were
  patrician youths. A spirited description of it will be found in the
  5th Aeneid. (See also CIRCUS.)

  The two exhibitions we shall next notice, though occasionally given in
  the circus, belong more properly to the amphitheatre. _Venatio_ was
  the baiting of wild animals who were pitted either with one another or
  with men--captives, criminals or trained hunters called _bestiarii_.
  The first certain instance on record of this amusement is in 186 B.C.,
  when M. Fulvius exhibited lions and tigers in the arena. The taste for
  these brutalizing spectacles grew apace, and the most distant
  provinces were ransacked by generals and proconsuls to supply the
  arena with rare animals--giraffes, tigers and crocodiles. Sulla
  provided for a single show 100 lions, and Pompey 600 lions, besides
  elephants, which were matched with Gaetulian hunters. Julius Caesar
  enjoys the doubtful honour of inventing the bull-fight. At the
  inauguration of the Colosseum 5000 wild and 4000 tame beasts were
  killed, and to commemorate Trajan's Dacian victories there was a
  butchery of 11,000 beasts. The _naumachia_ was a sea-fight, either in
  the arena, which was flooded for the occasion by a system of pipes and
  sluices, or on an artificial lake. The rival fleets were manned by
  prisoners of war or criminals, who often fought till one side was
  exterminated. In the sea-fight on Lake Fucinus, arranged by the
  emperor Claudius, 100 ships and 19,000 men were engaged.

  But the special exhibition of the amphitheatre was the _munus
  gladiatorium_, which dates from the funeral games of Marcus and
  Decimus Brutus, given in honour of their father, 264 B.C. It was
  probably borrowed from Etruria, and a refinement on the common savage
  custom of slaughtering slaves or captives on the grave of a warrior or
  chieftain. Nothing so clearly brings before us the vein of coarseness
  and inhumanity which runs through the otherwise noble character of the
  Roman, as his passion for gladiatorial shows. We can fancy how
  Pericles, or even Alcibiades, would have loathed a spectacle that
  Augustus tolerated and Trajan patronized. Only after the conquest of
  Greece we hear of their introduction into Athens, and they were then
  admitted rather out of compliment to the conquerors than from any love
  of the sport. In spite of numerous prohibitions from Constantine
  downwards, they continued to flourish even as late as St Augustine. To
  a Christian martyr, if we may credit the story told by Theodoret and
  Cassiodorus, belongs the honour of their final abolition. In the year
  404 Telemachus, a monk who had travelled from the East on this sacred
  mission, rushed into the arena and endeavoured to separate the
  combatants. He was instantly despatched by the praetor's orders; but
  Honorius, on hearing the report, issued an edict abolishing the games,
  which were never afterwards revived. (See GLADIATORS.)

  Of the other Roman games the briefest description must suffice. The
  _Ludi Apollinares_ were established in 212 B.C., and were annual after
  211 B.C.; mainly theatrical performances. The _Megalenses_ were in
  honour of the great goddess, Cybele: instituted 204 B.C., and from 191
  B.C. celebrated annually. A procession of Galli, or priests of Cybele,
  was a leading feature. Under the empire the festival assumed a more
  orgiastic character. Four of Terence's plays were produced at these
  games. The _Ludi Saeculares_ were celebrated at the beginning or end
  of each _saeculum_, a period variously interpreted by the Romans
  themselves as 100 or 110 years. The celebration by Augustus in 17 B.C.
  is famous by reason of the Ode composed by Horace for the occasion.
  They were solemnized by the emperor Philip A.D. 248 to commemorate the
  millennium of the city.

2. _Private Games._--These may be classified as outdoor and indoor
games. There is naturally all the world over a much closer resemblance
between the pursuits and amusements of children than of adults. Homer's
children built castles in the sand, and Greek and Roman children alike
had their dolls, their hoops, their skipping-ropes, their hobby-horses,
their kites, their knuckle-bones and played at hopscotch, the
tug-of-war, pitch and toss, blind-man's buff, hide and seek, and kiss in
the ring or at closely analogous games. Games of ball were popular in
Greece from the days of Nausicaa, and at Rome there were five distinct
kinds of ball and more ways of playing with them. For particulars the
dictionary of antiquities must be consulted. It is strange that we can
find in classical literature no analogy to cricket, tennis, golf or
polo, and though the _follis_ resembled our football, it was played with
the hand and arm, not with the leg. Cock-fighting was popular both at
Athens and Rome, and quails were kept and put to various tests to prove
their pluck.

Under indoor games we may distinguish games of chance and games of
skill, though in some of them the two elements are combined. _Tesserae_,
shaped and marked with pips like modern dice, were evolved from the
_tali_, knuckle-bones with only four flat sides. The old Roman threw a
hazard and called a main, just as did Charles Fox, and the vice of
gambling was lashed by Juvenal no less vigorously than by Pope. The
Latin name for a dice-box has survived in the _fritillary_ butterfly and
flower.

The primitive game of guessing the number of fingers simultaneously held
up by the player and his opponent is still popular in Italy where it is
known as "morra." The proverbial phrase for an honest man was _quicum in
tenebris mices_, one you would trust to play at morra in the dark.

Athena found the suitors of Penelope seated on cowhides and playing at
[Greek: pessoi], some kind of draughts. The invention of the game was
ascribed to Palamedes. In its earliest form it was played on a board
with five lines and with five pieces. Later we find eleven lines, and a
further development was the division of the board into squares, as in
the game of [Greek: poleis] (cities). In the Roman _latrunculi_
(soldiers), the men were distinguished as common soldiers and "rovers,"
the equivalent of crowned pieces.

_Duodecim scripta_, as the name implies, was played on a board with
twelve double lines and approximated very closely to our backgammon.
There were fifteen pieces on each side, and the moves were determined by
a throw of the dice; "blots" might be taken, and the object of the
player was to clear off all his own men. Lastly must be mentioned the
_Cottabus_ (q.v.), a game peculiar to the Greeks, and with them the
usual accompaniment of a wine party. In its simplest form each guest
threw what was left in his cup into a metal basin, and the success of
the throw, determined partly by the sound of the wine in falling, was
reckoned a divination of love. For the various elaborations of the game
(in Sicily we read of Cottabus houses), Athenaeus and Pollux must be
consulted.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Daremberg et Saglio, _Dictionnaire des antiquités
  grecques et romaines_, articles "Agon," "Athleta," "Circus," "Ludi,"
  "Olympia," "Spiele"; Curtius and Adler, _Olympia_ (5 vols., 1890,
  &c.); Hachtmann, _Olympia und seine Festspiele_; Blümner, _Home Life
  of the Ancient Greeks_; J.P. Mahaffy, _Old Greek Education_; P.
  Gardner and F.B. Jevons, _Manual of Greek Antiquities_; E.N. Gardiner,
  _Greek Athletic Sports_ (1910); Becker-Marquardt, _Handbuch der
  römischen Altertümer_ (5 vols.).     (F. S.)



GAMING AND WAGERING. It is somewhat difficult exactly to define or
adequately to distinguish these terms of allied meaning. The word "game"
(q.v.) is applicable to most pastimes and many sports, irrespective of
their lawful or unlawful character. "Gaming" is now always associated
with the staking of money or money's worth on the result of a game of
pure chance, or mixed skill and chance; and "gambling" has the same
meaning, with a suggestion that the stakes are excessive or the practice
otherwise reprehensible, while "wager" and "wagering" are applied to
money hazarded on any contingency in which the person wagering has no
interest at risk other than the amount at stake. "Betting" is usually
restricted to wagers on events connected with sports or games, and
"lottery" applies to speculation to obtain prizes by lot or chance.

At English common law no games were unlawful and no penalties were
incurred by gambling, nor by keeping gaming-houses, unless by reason of
disorder they became a public nuisance. From very early times, however,
the English statute law has attempted to exercise control over the
sports, pastimes and amusements of the lieges. Several points of view
have been taken: (1) their competition with military exercises and
training; (2) their attraction to workmen and servants, as drawing them
from work to play; (3) their interference with the observance of Sunday;
(4) their combination with betting or gambling as causing impoverishment
and dishonesty in children, servants and other unwary persons; (5) the
use of fraud or deceit in connexion with them. The legislation has
assumed several forms: (1) declaring certain games unlawful either
absolutely or if accompanied by staking or betting money or money's
worth on the event of the game; (2) declaring the keeping of
establishments for betting, gaming or lotteries illegal, or prohibiting
the use of streets or public places for such purposes; (3) prohibiting
the enforcement in courts of justice of gambling contracts.


    Games, lawful and unlawful.

  The earliest English legislation against games was passed in the
  interests of archery and other manly sports which were believed to
  render the lieges more fit for service in war. A statute of Richard
  II. (1388) directed servants and labourers to have bows and arrows and
  to use them on Sundays and holidays, and to cease from playing
  football, quoits, dice, putting the stone, kails and other such
  importune games. A more drastic statute was passed in 1409 (11 Hen.
  IV. c. 4) and penalties were imposed in 1477 (17 Edw. IV. c. 3) on
  persons allowing unlawful games to be played on their premises. These
  acts were superseded in 1541 (33 Hen. VIII. c. 9) by a statute passed
  on the petition of the bowyers, fletchers (_fléchiers_), stringers and
  arrowhead makers of the realm. This act (still partly in force) is
  entitled an "act for maintenance of archery and debarring of unlawful
  games"; and it recites that, since the last statutes (of 3 & 6 Hen.
  VIII.) "divers and many subtil inventative and crafty persons have
  found and daily find many and sundry new and crafty games and plays,
  as logating in the fields, slide-thrift, otherwise called shove-groat,
  as well within the city of London as elsewhere in many other and
  divers parts of this realm, keeping houses, plays and alleys for the
  maintenance thereof, by reason whereof archery is sore decayed, and
  daily is like to be more minished, and divers bowyers and fletchers,
  for lack of work, gone and inhabit themselves in Scotland and other
  places out of this realm, there working and teaching their science, to
  the puissance of the same, to the great comfort of strangers and
  detriment of this realm." Accordingly penalties are imposed on all
  persons keeping houses for unlawful games, and all persons resorting
  thereto (s. 8). The games specified are dicing, table (backgammon) or
  carding, or any game prohibited by any statute theretofore made or any
  unlawful new game then or thereafter invented or to be invented. It is
  further provided that "no manner of artificer or craftsman of any
  handicraft or occupation, husbandman, apprentice, labourer, servant at
  husbandry, journeyman or servant of artificer, mariners, fishermen,
  watermen, or any serving man, shall play at the tables, tennis, dice,
  cards, bowls, clash, coyting, logating or any other unlawful game out
  of Christmas under the pain of xxs. to be forfeit for every time; and
  in Christmas to play at any of the said games in their masters' houses
  or in their masters' presence; and also that no manner of person shall
  at any time play at any bowl or bowls in open places out of his garden
  or orchard" (s. 11). The social evils of gambling (impoverishment,
  crime, neglect of divine service) are incidentally alluded to in the
  preamble, but only in connexion with the main purpose of the
  statute--the maintenance of archery. No distinction is made between
  games of skill and games of chance, and no reference is made to
  playing for money or money's worth. The _Book of Sports_ of James I.
  (1617), republished by Charles I. (1633), was aimed at encouraging
  certain sports on Sundays and holidays; but with the growth of
  Puritanism the royal efforts failed. The Sunday Observance Act 1625
  prohibits the meeting of people out of their own parishes on the
  Lord's Day for any sports or pastimes whatsoever. It has been
  attempted to enforce this act against Sunday football. The act goes on
  to prohibit any bear-baiting, bull-baiting, interludes, common plays
  or other unlawful exercises or plays on Sunday by parishioners within
  their own parishes. According to Blackstone (iv. _Comm._ c. 13) the
  principal ground of complaint leading to legislation in the 18th
  century was "gambling in high life." He collects the statutes made
  with this view, but only those still in force need have been
  mentioned.

  The first act directed against gambling as distinct from playing games
  was that of 1665 (16 Car. II. c. 7) "against deceitful, disorderly and
  excessive gaming" which deals with games both of skill and chance at
  which people cheat, or play otherwise than with ready money, or lose
  more than £100 on credit. In 1698 (13 Will. III. c. 23) legislation
  was passed against lotteries, therein described as "mischievous and
  unlawful games." This act was amended in 1710 (9 Anne c. 6), and in
  the same year was passed a statute which is the beginning of the
  modern legislation against gambling (9 Anne c. 19). It includes within
  its scope money won by "gaming or playing" at cards, &c., and money
  won by "betting" on the sides or hands of those who game at any of the
  forbidden games. But it refers to tennis and bowls as well as to games
  with cards and dice.

  The following list of lawful games, sports and exercises is given in
  _Oliphant on Horses, &c._ (6th ed.): horse-races, steeplechases,
  trotting matches, coursing matches, foot-races, boat-races, regattas,
  rowing matches, golf, wrestling matches, cricket, tennis, fives,
  rackets, bowls, skittles, quoits, curling, putting the stone,
  football, and presumably every bona-fide variety, e.g. croquet, knurr
  and spell, hockey or any similar games. Cock-fighting is said to have
  been unlawful at common law, and that and other modes of setting
  animals to fight are offences against the Prevention of Cruelty to
  Animals Acts. The following are also lawful games: whist and other
  lawful games at cards, backgammon, bagatelle, billiards, chess,
  draughts and dominoes. But to allow persons to play for money at these
  games or at skittles or "skittle pool" or "puff and dart" on licensed
  premises is gaming within the Licensing Act 1872. The earlier acts
  declared unlawful the following games of skill: football, quoits,
  putting the stone, kails, tennis, bowls, clash or kails, or
  cloyshcayls, logating, half bowl, slide-thrift or shove-groat and
  backgammon. Backgammon and other games in 1739 played with backgammon
  tables were treated as lawful in that year. Horse-racing, long under
  restriction, being mentioned in the act of 1665 and many 18th-century
  acts, was fully legalized in 1840 (3 & 4 Vict. c. 35). The act of
  1541, so far as it declared any game of mere skill unlawful, was
  repealed by the Gaming Act 1845. Billiards is legal in private houses
  or clubs and in public places duly licensed. The following games have
  been declared by the statutes or the judges to be unlawful, whether
  played in public or in private, unless played in a royal palace where
  the sovereign is residing: ace of hearts, pharaoh (faro), basset and
  hazard (1738), passage, and every game then invented or to be invented
  with dice or with any other instrument, engine or device in the nature
  of dice having one or more figures or numbers thereon (1739), roulet
  or roly-poly (1744), and all lotteries (except Art Union lotteries),
  _rouge et noir_, _baccarat-banque_ (1884), _chemin de fer_ (1895), and
  all games at cards which are not games of mere skill. The definition
  of unlawful game does not include whist played for a prize not
  subscribed to by the players, but it does include playing cards for
  money in licensed premises; even in the private room of the licensee
  or with private friends during closing hours.

  The first attack on lotteries was in 1698, against lotteries "by dice,
  lots, cards, balls or any other numbers or figures or in any other
  way whatsoever." An act of 1721 prohibited lotteries which under the
  name of sales distributed prizes in money, advowsons, land, jewels,
  &c., by lots, tickets, numbers or figures. Acts of 1722, 1733 and 1823
  prohibited any sale of tickets, receipts, chances or numbers in
  foreign lotteries. The games of cards already referred to as unlawful
  were in 1738 declared to be "games or lotteries by cards or dice," and
  in 1802 the definition of lottery was extended to include "little-goes
  and any game or lottery not authorized by parliament, drawn by dice,
  lots, cards, balls, or by numbers or figures or by any other way,
  contrivance or device whatsoever." This wide definition reaches
  raffles and sweepstakes on races. The advertisement of foreign or
  illegal lotteries is forbidden by acts of 1836 and 1844. In 1846 art
  unions were exempted from the scope of the Lottery Acts. Attempts have
  been made to suppress the sale in England of foreign lottery tickets,
  but the task is difficult, as the post-office distributes the
  advertisements, although, under the Revenue Act 1898, the Customs
  treat as prohibited goods advertisements or notices as to foreign
  lotteries. More success has been obtained in putting down various
  devices by newspapers and shopkeepers to attract customers by
  instituting "missing word competitions" and "racing coupon
  competitions"; by automatic machines which give speculative chances in
  addition to the article obtained for the coin inserted; by
  distribution of prizes by lot or chance to customers; by holding
  sweepstakes at public-houses, by putting coins in sweetmeats to tempt
  street urchins by cupidity to indigestion; or by gratuitous
  distribution of medals giving a chance of a prize from a newspaper. An
  absolutely gratuitous distribution of chances seems not to be within
  the acts, but a commercial distribution is, even if individuals who
  benefit do not pay for their chance.

  As already stated, the keeping of a gaming-house was at common law
  punishable only if a public nuisance were created. The act of 1541
  imposes penalties on persons maintaining houses for unlawful games.
  Originally licences could be obtained for such houses, but these were
  abolished in 1555 (2 & 3 Phil. and Mar.). In 1698 lotteries were
  declared public nuisances, and in 1802 the same measure was meted out
  to lotteries known as little-goes. Special penalties are provided for
  those who set up lotteries or any unlawful game with cards or dice,
  &c. (1738, 1739, 1744). In 1751 inhabitants of a parish were enabled
  to insist on the prosecution of gaming-houses. The act of 1802 imposed
  severe penalties on persons publicly or privately keeping places for
  any lottery. This statute hits at the deliberate or habitual use of a
  place for the prohibited purpose, and does not touch isolated or
  incidental uses on a single occasion, e.g. at a bazaar or show; but
  under an act of 1823 the sale of lottery tickets is in itself an
  offence. The Gaming Act 1845 facilitates the search of suspected
  gaming-houses and the proof that they are such. It provides that, to
  prove any house to be a common gaming-house, it "shall be sufficient
  to show that it is kept or used for playing therein at any unlawful
  game, and that a bank is kept there by one or more of the players
  exclusively of the others, or that the chances of any game played
  therein are not alike favourable to all the players, including among
  the players the banker or other person by whom the game is managed, or
  against whom the other players stake, play or bet." Gambling, it will
  be noticed, is still in this definition connected with some kind of
  game. The act also provides that proof that the gaming was for money
  shall not be required, and that the presence of cards, dice and other
  instruments of gaming shall be prima-facie evidence that the house was
  used as a common gaming-house. The most recent statute dealing with
  gaming-houses is of 1854, which provides summary remedies against the
  keeper and makes further provisions to facilitate conviction. It may
  be added that the Gaming Act 1845 makes winning money by cheating at
  any game or wager punishable in the same way as obtaining money by
  false pretences. At the present time proceedings for keeping
  gaming-houses in the sense in which that word is commonly understood
  are comparatively rare, and are usually against foreigners. The
  statutes hit both public and private gaming-houses (see the Park Club
  case, _Jenks_ v. _Turpin_, 1884, 13 Q.B.D. 505, the leading case on
  unlawful games). The proprietor and the person who keeps the bank at
  an unlawful game are both within the statute: the players are not, but
  the act of Henry VIII. is so far alive that they can be put under
  recognizance not to frequent gaming-houses. Under the Licensing Act
  1872 penalties are incurred by licensed victuallers who suffer any
  gaming or unlawful game to be played on their premises. A single
  instance of playing an unlawful game for money in a private house is
  not within the statutes (_R_. v. _Davies_, 1897, 2 Q.B. 199).

  In England, so far as the general public is concerned, gaming at cards
  is to a large extent superseded by betting on sports and pastimes, or
  speculation by means of lotteries or like devices. The legislation
  against betting _eo nomine_ began in 1853. In the Betting Act 1853 it
  is described as a kind of gaming of late sprung up to the injury and
  demoralization of improvident persons by the opening of places called
  betting houses and offices, and the receiving of money _in advance_ by
  the owners or occupiers or their agents on promises to pay money on
  events or horse races and like contingencies. This act strikes at
  ready money betting as distinguished from betting on credit ("on the
  nod"). It was avowedly framed to hit houses open to all and sundry as
  distinguished from private betting clubs such as Tattersall's. The act
  seeks to punish persons who keep a house, office, room or other place
  for the purpose (_inter alia_) of any person betting with persons
  "resorting thereto" or of receiving deposits in consideration of bets
  on contingencies relating to horse-races or other races, fights,
  games, sports or exercises. The act especially excepts persons who
  receive or hold prizes or stakes to be paid to the winner of a race or
  lawful sport, game or exercise, or to the owner of a horse engaged in
  a race (s. 6). Besides the penalties incurred by keeping such places,
  the keeper is liable to repay to depositors the sums deposited (s. 5).

  By the Licensing Act 1872 penalties are incurred by licensed persons
  who allow their houses to be used in contravention of the Betting Act
  1853. There has been a great deal of litigation as to the meaning and
  scope of this enactment, and a keen contest between the police and the
  Anti-gambling League (which has been very active in the matter) and
  the betting confraternity, in which much ingenuity has been shown by
  the votaries of sport in devising means for evading the terms of the
  enactment. The consequent crop of legal decisions shows a considerable
  divergence of judicial opinion. The House of Lords has held that the
  Tattersall's enclosure or betting ring on a racecourse is not a
  "place" within the statute; and members of a bona-fide club who bet
  with each other in the club are not subject to the penalties of the
  act. But the word "place" has been held to include a public-house bar,
  an archway, a small plot of waste ground, and a bookmaker's stand, and
  even a bookmaker's big umbrella, and it is difficult to extract from
  the judges any clear indication of the nature of the "places" to which
  the act applies. The act is construed as applying only to ready-money
  betting, i.e. when the stake is deposited with the bookmaker, and only
  to places used for betting with persons physically resorting thereto;
  so that bets by letter, telegram or telephone do not fall within its
  penalties. The arm of the law has been found long enough to punish as
  thieves "welshers," who receive and make off with deposits on bets
  which they never mean to pay if they lose. The act of 1853 makes it an
  offence to publish advertisements showing that a house is kept for
  betting. It was supplemented in 1874 by an act imposing penalties on
  persons advertising as to betting. But this has been read as applying
  to bets falling within the act of 1853, and it does not prohibit the
  publication of betting news or sporting tips in newspapers. A few
  newspapers do not publish these aids to ruin, and in some public
  libraries the betting news is obliterated, as it attracts crowds of
  undesirable readers. The act of 1853 has been to a great extent
  effectual against betting houses, and has driven some of them to
  Holland and other places. But it has been deemed expedient to
  legislate against betting in the streets, which has been found too
  attractive to the British workman.


    Street betting.

  By the Metropolitan Streets Acts 1867 any three or more persons
  assembled together in any part of any street in the city of London or
  county of London for the purpose of betting and deemed to be
  obstructing the street, may be arrested without warrant by a constable
  and fined a sum not exceeding £5. The Vagrancy Act 1873 (36 & 37 Vict.
  c. 38) provides that "Every person playing or betting by way of
  wagering or gaming on any street, road, highway or other open and
  public place, or in any open place to which the public have, or are
  permitted to have, access, at or with any table or instrument of
  gaming, or any coin, card, token or other article used as an
  instrument or means of gaming, at any game or pretended game of
  chance, shall be deemed a rogue and vagabond." This act amended a
  prior act of 1868, passed to repress the practice of playing pitch and
  toss in the streets, which had become a public nuisance in the
  colliery districts. The powers of making by-laws for the peace, order
  and good government of their districts, possessed by municipal
  boroughs--and since 1888 by county councils--and extended in 1899 to
  the new London boroughs, have in certain cases been exercised by
  making by-laws forbidding any person to "frequent or use any street or
  other public place, on behalf either of himself or any other person,
  for the purpose of bookmaking, or betting, or wagering, or agreeing to
  bet or wager with any person, or paying, or receiving or settling
  bets." This and similar by-laws have been held valid, but were found
  inadequate, and by the Street Betting Act 1906 (6 Edw. VII. c. 43),
  passed by the efforts of the late Lord Davey, it is made an offence
  for any person to frequent or loiter in a street or public place on
  behalf of himself or of any other person for the purpose of bookmaking
  or betting or wagering or agreeing to bet or wager or paying or
  receiving or settling bets. The punishment for a first offence is fine
  up to £10, for a second fine up to £20, and the punishment is still
  higher in the case of a third or subsequent offence, or where the
  accused while committing the offence has any betting transaction with
  a person under the age of sixteen. The act does not apply to ground
  used for a course for horse-racing or adjacent thereto on days on
  which races take place; but the expression public place includes a
  public park, garden or sea-beach, and any unenclosed ground to which
  the public for the time have unrestricted access, and enclosed places
  other than public parks or gardens to which the public have a
  restricted right of access with or without payment, if the owners or
  persons controlling the place exhibit conspicuously a notice
  prohibiting betting therein. A constable may arrest without warrant
  persons offending and seize all books, papers, cards and other
  articles relating to betting found in their possession, and these
  articles may be forfeited on conviction. Besides the above provision
  against betting with infants the Betting and Loans (Infants) Act
  1892, passed at the instance of the late Lord Herschell, makes it a
  misdemeanour to send, with a view to profit, to any one known by the
  sender to be an infant, a document inviting him to enter into a
  betting or wagering transaction. The act is intended to protect lads
  at school and college from temptation by bookmakers.


  Wagering.

We must now turn from the public law with respect to gaming to the
treatment of bets and wagers from the point of view of their obligation
on the individuals who lose them. A wager may be defined as "a promise
to give money or money's worth upon the determination or ascertainment
of an uncertain event" (Anson, _Law of Contract_, 11th ed., p. 206). The
event may be uncertain because it has not happened or because its
happening is not ascertained; but to make the bargain a wager the
determination of the event must be the sole condition of the bargain.
According to the view taken in England of the common law, bets or wagers
were legally enforceable, subject to certain rules dictated by
considerations of public policy, e.g. that they did not lead to
immorality or breach of the peace, or expose a third person to
ridicule.[1] The courts were constantly called upon to enforce wagers
and constantly exercised their ingenuity to discover excuses for
refusing. A writer on the law of contracts[2] discovers here the origin
of that principle of "public policy" which plays so important a part in
English law. Wagering contracts were rejected because the contingencies
on which they depended tended to create interests hostile to the common
weal. A bet on the life of the emperor Napoleon was declared void
because it gave one of the parties an interest in keeping the king's
enemy alive, and also because it gave the other an interest in
compassing his death by unlawful means. A bet as to the amount of the
hop-duty was held to be against public policy, because it tended to
expose the condition of the king's revenue to all the world. A bet
between two hackney coachmen, as to which of them should be selected by
a gentleman for a particular journey, was void because it tended to
expose the customer to their importunities. When no such subtlety could
be invented, the law, however reluctantly, was compelled to enforce the
fulfilment of a wager. Actions on wagers were not favoured by the
judges; and though a judge could not refuse to try such an action, he
could, and often did, postpone it until after the decision of more
important cases.

Parliament gradually intervened to confine the common law within
narrower limits, both in commercial and non-commercial wagers, and both
by general and temporary enactments. An example of the latter was 7 Anne
c. 16 (1710), avoiding all wagers and securities relating to the then
war with France. The earliest general enactment was 16 Car. II. c. 7
(1665), prohibiting the recovery of a sum exceeding £100 lost in games
or pastimes, or in betting on the sides or hands of the players, and
avoiding securities for money so lost. 9 Anne c. 19 avoided securities
for such wagers for any amount, even in the hands of bona-fide holders
for value without notice, and enabled the loser of £10 or upwards to sue
for and recover the money he had lost within three months of the loss.
Contracts of insurance by way of gaming and wagering were declared void,
in the case of marine risks in 1746, and in the case of other risks in
1774. It was not until 1845 that a general rule was made excluding
wagers from the courts. Section 18 of the Gaming Act 1845 (passed after
a parliamentary inquiry in 1844 as to gaming) enacted "that all
contracts or agreements, whether by parole or in writing, by way of
gaming or wagering shall be null and void, and that no suit shall be
brought or maintained in any court of law or equity for recovering any
sum of money or valuable thing alleged to be won upon any wager, or
which shall have been deposited in the hands of any person to abide the
event on which any wager shall have been made; provided always that this
enactment shall not be deemed to apply to any subscription or
contribution, or agreement to subscribe or contribute, for or towards
any plate, prize or sum of money to be awarded to the winner or winners
of any lawful game, sport, pastime or exercise."

The construction put on this enactment enabled turf commission agents
to recover from their principals bets made and paid for them. But the
Gaming Act 1892 rendered null and void any promise, express or implied,
to repay to any person any sum of money paid by him under, or in respect
of, any contract or agreement rendered null and void by the Gaming Act
1845, or to pay any sum of money by way of commission, fee, reward, or
otherwise in respect of any such contract or agreement, or of any
services in relation thereto or in connexion therewith, and provided
that no action should be brought or maintained to recover any such sum.
By the combined effect of these two enactments the recovery by the
winner from the loser or stakeholder of bets or of stakes on games
falling within s. 18 of the Gaming Act 1845 is absolutely barred; but
persons who have deposited money to abide the event of a wager are not
debarred from crying off and recovering their stake before the event is
decided, or even after the decision of the event and before the stake is
paid over to the winner;[3] and a man who pays a bet for a friend, or a
turf commission agent or other agent who pays a bet for a principal, has
now no legal means of recovering the money, unless some actual deceit
was used to induce him to pay in ignorance that it was a bet. But a
person who has received a bet on account of another can still, it would
seem, be compelled to pay it over, and the business of a betting man is
treated as so far lawful that income-tax is charged on its profits, and
actions between parties in such a business for the taking of partnership
accounts have been entertained.

The effect of these enactments on speculative dealings in shares or
other commodities calls for special consideration. It seems to be
correct to define a wagering contract as one in which two persons,
having opposite opinions touching the issue of an event (past or
future), of which they are uncertain, mutually agree that on the
determination of the event one shall win, and the other shall pay over a
sum of money, or other stake, neither party having any other interest in
the event than the sum or stake to be won or lost. This definition does
not strike at contracts in "futures," under which the contractors are
bound to give or take delivery at a date fixed of commodities not in
existence at the date of the contract. Nor are such contracts rendered
void because they are entered into for purposes of speculation; in fact,
their legality is expressly recognized by the Sale of Goods Act 1893.
Contracts of insurance are void if made by way of gaming or wagering on
events in which the assured has no interest present or prospective
whether the matter be life or fire risks (1774) or maritime risks
(Marine Insurance Act 1906). An act known as Sir John Barnard's Act (7
Geo. II. c. 8, entitled "An act to prevent the infamous practice of
stock jobbing") prohibited contracts for liberty to accept or refuse any
public stocks or securities and wagers relating to public stocks, but
this act was repealed in 1860, and contracts to buy or sell stocks and
shares are not now void because entered into by way of speculation and
not for purposes of investment. The only limitation on such contracts is
that contained in Leeman's Act (30 & 31 Vict. c. 29) as to contracts for
the sale of shares in joint-stock banking companies. But a transaction
in any commodity, though in form commercial, falls within the Gaming
Acts if in substance the transaction is a mere wager on the price of the
commodity at a date fixed by the contract. It does not matter whether
the dealing is in stocks or in cotton, nor whether it is entered into on
the Stock Exchange, or on any produce exchange, or elsewhere; nor is it
conclusive in favour of the validity of the bargain that it purports to
bind the parties to take or deliver the article dealt in. The courts are
entitled to examine into the true nature of the transaction; and where
the substantial intention of the parties is merely to gamble in
differences, to make what is called "a time bargain," the fact that it
is carried out by a series of contracts, regular and valid in form, will
not be sufficient to exclude the application of the Gaming Acts.

In very many cases transactions with "outside stockbrokers" or "bucket
shops" have been held to be mere wagers, although the contracts
purported to give "put" or "call" options to demand delivery or
acceptance of the stocks dealt with; and the cover deposited by the
"client" has been treated as a mere security for performance of the
bargain, and recoverable if sued for in time, i.e. before it is used for
the purpose for which it is deposited. There was not up to 1909 any
authoritative decision as to the application of the Gaming Act 1892 to
transactions on the London Stock Exchange through a stockbroker who is a
member of "the House"; but the same principle appears to be applicable
where the facts of the particular deal clearly indicate that the
intention was to make a mere time bargain, or to pay or receive
differences only. The form, however, of all bargains on the Stock
Exchange is calculated and intended to preclude people from setting up a
gaming act defence: as each contract entitles the holder to call for
delivery or acceptance of the stock named therein. In the event of the
bankruptcy of a person involved in speculations, the bankruptcy
officials exclude from proof against the estate all claims founded on
any dealing in the nature of a wager; and on the same principle the
bankrupt's trustee cannot recover sums won by the bankrupt by gaming
transactions, but unexhausted "cover" on uncompleted transactions may be
recovered back.


  Gambling debts.

Besides the enactments which prevent the recovery of bets or wagers by
action there has also been a good deal of legislation dealing with
securities given in respect of "gambling debts." The earliest (1665)
dealt with persons playing at games otherwise than for ready money and
losing £100 or more on credit, and not only prohibited the winner from
recovering the overplus but subjected him to penalties for winning it.
An act of 1710 (9 Anne c. 19) declared utterly void all notes, bills,
bonds, judgments, mortgages or other securities where the consideration
is for money or valuable security won by gaming at cards, stocks or
other games, or by betting on the sides or hands of the gamesters, or
for reimbursing money knowingly advanced for such gaming or betting.
This act draws a distinction between gaming and other bets or wagers.
Under this act the securities were void even in the hands of innocent
transferees. In 1841 the law was altered, declaring such securities not
void but made upon an "illegal" consideration. The effect of the change
is to enable an innocent transferee for value, of a bill, note or
cheque, to recover on a security worthless in the hands of the original
taker (see s. 30 of the Bills of Exchange Act 1882), but to put on him
the burden of proving that he is a bona fide holder for value. In the
case of a negotiable security given for a wager not within the acts of
1710 or 1841 (e.g. a bet on a contested election), but within the act of
1845, a third person holding it would be presumed to be a holder for
value and on the person prima facie liable under the security falls the
burden of proving that no consideration was given for it. It has been
decided after considerable divergence of judicial opinion that an action
will not lie in England in favour of the drawee against the drawer of a
cheque drawn at Algiers on an English bank, partly for losses at
baccarat, and partly for money borrowed to continue playing the game.
The ground of decision was in substance that the Gaming Acts of 1845 and
1892 as the _lex fori_ prohibit the English courts from enforcing gaming
debts wherever incurred (_Moulis_ v. _Owen_, 1907, 1 K.B. 746).

  _Scotland._--A Scots act of 1621 c. 14 (said still to be in force)
  forbids playing at cards or dice in any common house of hostelry, and
  directs that sums over 100 marks won on any one day at carding or
  dicing or at wagers on horse races should be at once sent to the
  treasurer of the kirk session. The Lottery Acts, except that of 1698,
  apply to Scotland; and the Betting House Act 1853 was extended to
  Scotland in 1874. The Street Betting Act 1906 extends to Scotland, and
  gaming houses can be suppressed under the Burgh Police Act 1892, and
  street betting, lotteries or gaming under that of 1903.

  The Scots courts refuse to try actions on wagers, as being _sponsiones
  ludicrae_, unbecoming the dignity of the courts. 9 Anne c. 19 and 5 &
  6 Will. IV. c. 41 extend to Scotland, but the weight of judicial
  opinion is that the Gaming Act 1845 does not.

  _Ireland._--The British Acts against lotteries were extended to
  Ireland in 1780, and the general law as to gaming is the same in both
  countries.

  _British Possessions._--Certain of the earlier imperial acts are in
  force in British possessions, e.g. the act of 9 Anne c. 19, which is
  in force in Ontario subject to amendments made in 1902. In the Straits
  Settlements, Jamaica and British Guiana there are ordinances directed
  against gambling and lotteries, and particularly against forms of
  gambling introduced by the Chinese. Under these ordinances the money
  paid for a lottery ticket is recoverable by law. In the Transvaal
  betting houses were suppressed by proclamation (No. 33) soon after the
  annexation. An invention known in France as the _pari mutuel_, and in
  Australia as the totalizator, is allowed to be used on race-courses in
  most of the states (but not in New South Wales). In Queensland, South
  Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia the state levies a duty on
  the takings of the machine. In Tasmania the balance of the money
  retained by the stewards of the course less the tax must be applied
  solely for improving the course or promoting horse-racing. In Victoria
  under an act of 1901 the promoters of sports may by advertisement duly
  posted make betting on the ground illegal.

  _Egypt._--By law No. 10 of 1905 all lotteries are prohibited with
  certain exceptions, and it is made illegal to hawk the tickets or
  offer them for sale or to bring illegal lotteries in any way to the
  notice of the public. The authorized lotteries are those for
  charitable purposes, e.g. those of the benevolent societies of the
  various foreign communities.

  _United States._--In the United States many of the states make gaming
  a penal offence when the bet is upon an election, or a horse race, or
  a game of hazard. Betting contracts and securities given upon a bet
  are often made void, and this may destroy a gaming note in the hands
  of an innocent purchaser for value. The subject lies outside of the
  province of the federal government. By the legislation of some states
  the loser may recover his money if he sue within a limited time, as he
  might have done in England under 9 Anne c. 19.

  AUTHORITIES.--Brandt on _Games_ (1872); Oliphant, _Law of Horses, &c._
  (6th ed. by Lloyd, 1908); Schwabe on the _Stock Exchange_ (1905);
  Melsheimer on the _Stock Exchange_ (4th ed., 1905); Coldridge and
  Hawksford, _The Law of Gambling_ (1895); Stutfield, _Betting_ (3rd
  ed., 1901).     (W. F. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Leake on _Contracts_ (4th ed.), p. 529.

  [2] Pollock, _Contracts_ (7th ed.), p. 313.

  [3] _Burge_ v. _Ashby_, 1900, 1 Q.B. 744.



GAMUT (from the Greek letter _gamma_, used as a musical symbol, and
_ut_, the first syllable of the medieval hymn _Sanctus Johannes_), a
term in music used to mean generally the whole compass or range of notes
possessed by an instrument or voice. Historically, however, the sense
has developed from its stricter musical meaning of a scale (the
recognized musical scale of any period), originating in the medieval
"great scale," of which the invention has usually been ascribed to Guido
of Arezzo (q.v.) in the 11th century. The whole question is somewhat
obscure, but, in the evolution of musical notation out of the classical
alphabetical system, the invention of the medieval gamut is more
properly assigned to Hucbald (d. 930). In his system of scales the
semitone was always between the 2nd and 3rd of a tetrachord, as G, A,
[flat]B, C, so the [natural]B and # F of the second octave were in false
relation to the [flat]B and [natural]F of the first two tetrachords. To
this scale of four notes, G, A, [flat]B, C, were subsequently added a
note below and a note above, which made the hexachord with the semitone
between the 3rd and 4th both up and down, as F, G, A, [flat]B, C, D. It
was at a much later date that the 7th, our leading note, was admitted
into a key, and for this the first two letters of the last line of the
above-named hymn, "Sanctus Johannes," would have been used, save for the
notion that as the note Mi was at a semitone below Fa, the same vowel
should be heard at a semitone below the upper Ut, and the syllable Si
was substituted for Sa. Long afterwards the syllable Ut was replaced by
Do in Italy, but it is still retained in France; and in these two
countries, with whatever others employ their nomenclature, the original
Ut and the substituted Do stand for the sound defined by the letter C in
English and German terminology. The literal musical alphabet thus
accords with the syllabic: A (La), B (Si), C (Ut or Do), D (Re), E (Mi),
F (Fa), G (Sol). In Germany a remnant of Greek use survives. A was
originally followed in the scale by the semitone above, as the classical
Mese was followed by Paramese, and this note, namely [flat]B, is still
called B in German, English [natural]B (French and Italian Si) being
represented by the letter H. The gamut which, whenever instituted, did
not pass out of use until the 19th century, regarded the hexachord and
not the octachord, employed both letters and syllables, made the former
invariable while changing the latter according to key relationship, and
acknowledged only the three keys of G, C and F; it took its name from
having the Greek letter gamma with Ut for its lowest keynote, though the
Latin letters with the corresponding syllables were applied to all the
other notes.



GANDAK, a river of northern India. It rises in the Nepal-Himalayas,
flows south-west until it reaches British territory, where it forms the
boundary between the United Provinces and Bengal for a considerable
portion of its course, and falls into the Ganges opposite Patna. It is a
snow-fed stream, and the surrounding country in the plains, lying at a
lower level than its banks, is endangered by its floods. The river is
accordingly enclosed by protective embankments.

The LITTLE GANDAK rises in the Nepal hills, enters Gorakhpur district
about 8 m. west of the Gandak, and joins the Gogra just within the Saran
district of Bengal.

The BURHI (or old) GANDAK also rises in the Nepal hills, and follows a
course roughly parallel to and east of that of the Gandak, of which it
represents an old channel, passing Muzaffarpur, and joining the Ganges
nearly opposite to Moughjr. Its principal tributary is the Baghmati,
which rises in the hills N. of Kathmandu, flows in a southerly direction
through Tirhut, and joins the Burhi Gandak close to Rusera.



GANDAMAK, a village of Afghanistan, 35 m. from Jalalabad on the road to
Kabul. On the retreat from Kabul of General Elphinstone's army in 1842,
a hill near Gandamak was the scene of the massacre of the last survivors
of the force, twenty officers and forty-five British soldiers. It is
also notable for the treaty of Gandamak, which was signed here in 1879
with Yakub Khan. (See AFGHANISTAN.)



GANDERSHEIM, a town of Germany in the duchy of Brunswick, in the deep
valley of the Gande, 48 m. S.W. of Brunswick, on the railway
Böissum-Holzminden. Pop. (1905) 2847. It has two Protestant churches of
which the convent church (_Stiftskirche_) contains the tombs of famous
abbesses, a palace (now used as law courts) and the famous abbey (now
occupied by provincial government offices). There are manufactures of
linen, cigars, beet-root sugar and beer.

The abbey of Gandersheim was founded by Duke Ludolf of Saxony, who
removed here in 856 the nuns who had been shortly before established at
Brunshausen. His own daughter Hathumoda was the first abbess, who was
succeeded on her death by her sister Gerberga. Under Gerberga's
government Louis III. granted a privilege, by which the office of abbess
was to continue in the ducal family of Saxony as long as any member was
found competent and willing to accept the same. Otto III. gave the abbey
a market, a right of toll and a mint; and after the bishop of Hildesheim
and the archbishop of Mainz had long contested with each other about its
supervision, Pope Innocent III. declared it altogether independent of
both. The abbey was ultimately recognized as holding directly of the
Empire, and the abbess had a vote in the imperial diet. The conventual
estates were of great extent, and among the feudatories who could be
summoned to the court of the abbess were the elector of Hanover and the
king of Prussia. Protestantism was introduced in 1568, and Magdalena,
the last Roman Catholic abbess, died in 1589; but Protestant abbesses
were appointed to the foundation, and continued to enjoy their imperial
privileges till 1803, when Gandersheim was incorporated with Brunswick.
The last abbess, Augusta Dorothea of Brunswick, was a princess of the
ducal house, and kept her rank till her death. The memory of Gandersheim
will long be preserved by its literary memorials. Hroswitha, the famous
Latin poet, was a member of the sisterhood in the 9th century; and the
rhyming chronicle of Eberhard of Gandersheim ranks as in all probability
the earliest historical work composed in low German.

  The Chronicle, which contains an account of the first period of the
  monastery, is edited by L. Wieland in the _Monumenta Germ. historica_
  (1877), and has been the object of a special study by Paul Hasse
  (Göttingen, 1872). See also "Agii vita Hathumodae abbatissae
  Gandershemensis primae," in J.G. von Eckhart's _Veterum monumentorum
  quaternio_ (Leipzig, 1720); and Hase, _Mittelalterliche Baudenkmäler
  Niedersachsens_ (1870).



GANDHARVA, in Hindu mythology, the term used to denote (1) in the
Rig-Veda usually a minor deity; (2) in later writings a class of divine
beings. As a unity Gandharva has no special attributes but many duties,
and is in close relation with the great gods. Thus he is director of the
sun's horses; he is guardian of soma, the sacred liquor, and therefore
is regarded as the heavenly physician, soma being a panacea. He is
servant of Agni the god of light and of Varuna the divine judge. He is
omnipresent: in the heavens, in the air and in the waters. He is the
keeper of heaven's secrets and acts as messenger between gods and men.
He is gorgeously clothed and carries shining weapons. For wife he has
the spirit of the clouds and waters, Apsaras, and by her became father
of the first mortals, Yama and Yami. He is the tutelary deity of women
and presides over marriage ceremonies. In their collective capacity the
Gandharva share the duties allotted to the single deity. They live in
the house of Indra and with their wives, the Apsaras, beguile the time
by singing, acting and dancing. Sometimes they are represented as
numbering twelve, sometimes twenty-seven, or they are innumerable. In
Hindu law a Gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual consent and
without formality.



GANDÍA, a seaport of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia; on the
Gandía-Alcóy and Alcira-Denia railways. Pop. (1900) 10,026. Gandía is on
the left bank of the river Alcóy or Sérpis, which waters one of the
richest and most populous plains of Valencia and enters the
Mediterranean Sea at the small harbour of Gandía (_El Grao_), 3 m. N.E.
The chief ancient buildings of Gandía are the Gothic church, the
college, founded by San Francisco de Borgia, director-general of the
order of Jesus (1510-1572), and the palace of the dukes of Gandía--a
title held in the 15th and 16th centuries by members of the princely
house of Borgia or Borja. A Jesuit convent, the theatre, schools and the
palace of the dukes of Osuna, are modern. Besides its manufactures of
leather, silk, velvet and ribbons, Gandía has a thriving export trade in
fruit, and imports coal, guano, timber and flour. In 1904, 400 vessels,
of 200,000 tons, entered the harbour.



GANDO, a sultanate of British West Africa, included in the protectorate
of Nigeria, situated on the left bank of the Niger above Borgu. The
sultanate was established, c. 1819, on the death of Othman Dan Fodio,
the founder of the Fula empire, and its area and importance varied
considerably during the 19th century, several of the Fula emirates being
regarded as tributaries, while Gando itself was more or less dependent
on Sokoto. Gando in the middle of the century included both banks of the
Niger at least as far N.W. as Say. The districts outside the British
protectorate now belong to France. Since 1884 Gando has been in treaty
relations with the British, and in 1903 the part assigned to the British
sphere by agreement with France came definitely under the control of the
administration in Nigeria. Gando now forms the sub-province of the
double province of Sokoto. The emir was appointed under British
authority after the conquest of Sokoto in 1903. Since that date the
province has been organized for administration on the same system as the
rest of the protectorate of Northern Nigeria. Provincial and native
courts of justice have been established, roads have been opened, the
slave trade has been abolished, and the country assessed under the new
scheme for taxation. British garrisons are stationed at Jegga and
Ambrusa. The chief town is Gando, situated on the Sokoto, the first
considerable affluent of the Niger from the east, about 60 m. S.W. of
the town of Sokoto.



GANESA, or GANESH, in Hindu mythology, the god of wisdom and prudence,
always represented with an elephant's head possibly to indicate his
sagacity. He is the son of Siva and Parvati. He is among the most
popular of Indian deities, and almost every act, religious or social, in
a Hindu's life begins with an invocation to him, as do most books. He
typifies not the wisdom of knowledge but that worldly wisdom which
results in financial success, and thus he is particularly the god of the
Hindu shopkeeper. In his divine aspect Ganesa is ruler over the hosts of
heaven, the spirits which come and go to do Indra's will.



GANGES (GANGA), a great river of northern India, formed by the drainage
of the southern ranges of the Himalayas. This mighty stream, which in
its lower course supplies the river system of Bengal, rises in the
Garhwal state, and falls into the Bay of Bengal after a course of 1500
m. It issues, under the name of the Bhagirathi, from an ice cave at the
foot of a Himalayan snow-bed near Gangotri, 10,300 ft. above the level
of the sea.

  During its passage through the southern spurs of the Himalayas it
  receives the Jahnavi from the north-west, and subsequently the
  Alaknanda, after which the united stream takes the name of the Ganges.
  Deo Prayag, their point of junction, is a celebrated place of
  pilgrimage, as is also Gangotri, the source of the parent stream. At
  Sukhi it pierces through the Himalayas, and turns south-west to
  Hardwar, also a place of great sanctity. It proceeds by a tortuous
  course through the districts of Dehra Dun, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar,
  Bulandshahr and Farukhabad, in which last district it receives the
  Ramganga. Thus far the Ganges has been little more than a series of
  broad shoals, long deep pools and rapids, except, of course, during
  the melting of the snows and throughout the rainy season. At
  Allahabad, however, it receives the Jumna, a mighty sister stream,
  which takes its rise also in the Himalayas to the west of the sources
  of the Ganges. The combined river winds eastwards by south-east
  through the United Provinces, receiving the Gumti and the Gogra. The
  point of junction with both the Gumti and the Gogra has more or less
  pretension to sanctity. But the tongue of land at Allahabad, where the
  Jumna and the Ganges join, is the true Prayag, _the_ place of
  pilgrimage, to which hundreds of thousands of devout Hindus repair to
  wash away their sins in the sacred river. It is here that the great
  festival called the Magh mela is held.

  Shortly after passing the holy city of Benares the Ganges enters
  Behar, and after receiving an important tributary, the Sone from the
  south, passes Patna, and obtains another accession to its volume from
  the Gandak, which rises in Nepal. Farther to the east it receives the
  Kusi, and then, skirting the Rajmahal hills, turns sharply to the
  southward, passing near the site of the ruined city of Gaur. By this
  time it has approached to within 240 m., as the crow flies, from the
  sea. About 20 m. farther on it begins to branch out over the level
  country, and this spot marks the commencement of the delta, 220 m. in
  a straight line, or 300 by the windings of the river, from the Bay of
  Bengal. The main channel takes the name of the Padma or Padda, and
  proceeds in a south-easterly direction, past Pabna to Goalanda, above
  which it is joined by the Jamuna or main stream of the Brahmaputra.
  The vast confluence of waters rushes towards the sea, receiving
  further additions from the hill country on the east, and forming a
  broad estuary known under the name of the Meghna, which enters the Bay
  of Bengal near Noakhali. This estuary, however, is only the largest
  and most easterly of a great number of mouths or channels. The most
  westerly is the Hugli, which receives the waters of a number of
  distributary channels that start from the parent Ganges above
  Murshidabad. Between the Hugli on the west and the Meghna on the east
  lies the delta. The upper angle of it consists of rich and fertile
  districts, such as Murshidabad, Nadia, Jessore and the 24 Parganas.
  But towards its southern base, resting on the sea, the country sinks
  into a series of great swamps, intercepted by a network of innumerable
  channels. This wild waste is known as the Sundarbans, from the
  _sundari_ tree, which grows in abundance in the seaboard tracts.

  The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the Hugli, on
  which stands Calcutta, about 90 m. from the mouth. Beyond this city
  the navigation is conducted by native craft,--the modern facilities
  for traffic by rail and the increasing shoals in the river having put
  an end to the previous steamer communication, which plied until about
  1860 as high up as Allahabad. Below Calcutta important boat routes
  through the delta connect the Hugli with the eastern branches of the
  river, for both native craft and steamers.

  The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities: Calcutta, Monghyr,
  Patna, Benares and Allahabad all lie on its course below its junction
  with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are on the
  Jumna, higher up. The catchment basin of the Ganges is bounded on the
  N. by a length of about 700 m. of the Himalayan range, on the S. by
  the Vindhya mountains, and on the E. by the ranges which separate
  Bengal from Burma. The vast river basin thus enclosed embraces 432,480
  sq. m. According to the latest calculations, the length of the main
  stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., or with its longest affluent, 1680;
  breadth at true entrance into the sea, 20 m.; breadth of channel in
  dry season, 1¼ to 2¼ m.; depth in dry season, 30 ft.; flood discharge,
  1,800,000 cub. ft. per second; ordinary discharge, 207,000 cub. ft.;
  longest duration of flood, about 40 days. The average fall from
  Allahabad to Benares is 6 in. per mile; from Benares to Calcutta,
  between 4 and 5 in.; from Calcutta to the sea, 1 to 2 in. Great
  changes take place from time to time in the river-bed, which alter the
  face of the country. Extensive islands are thrown up, and attach
  themselves to the mainland, while the river deserts its old bed and
  seeks a new channel, it may be many miles off. Such changes are so
  rapid and on so vast a scale, and the corroding power of the current
  on the bank so irresistible, that in Lower Bengal it is considered
  perilous to build any structure of a large or permanent character on
  its margin. Many decayed or ruined cities attest the changes in the
  river-bed in ancient times; and within our own times the main channel
  which formerly passed Rajmahal has turned away from it, and left the
  town high and dry, 7 m. from the bank.

  The Ganges is crossed by six railway bridges on its course as far as
  Benares; and another, at Sara in Eastern Bengal, has been sanctioned.

  The UPPER GANGES CANAL and the LOWER GANGES CANAL are the two
  principal systems of perennial irrigation in the United Provinces. The
  Ganges canal was opened by Lord Dalhousie in 1854, and irrigates
  978,000 acres. The Lower Ganges canal, an extension of the original
  canal, has been in operation since 1878 and irrigates 830,000 acres.
  The two canals, together with the eastern Jumna, command the greater
  portion of the Doab lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, above
  Allahabad. Navigation in either is insignificant.     (T. H. H.*)



GANGOTRI, a celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage, among the Himalaya
Mountains. It is situated in the native state of Garhwal in the United
Provinces, on the Bhagirathi, the chief head-stream of the Ganges, which
is here not above 15 or 20 yds. broad, with a moderate current, and not
in general above 3 ft. deep. The course of the river runs N. by E.; and
on the bank near Gangotri there is a small temple about 20 ft. high, in
which are images representing Ganga, Bhagirathi and other figures of
mythology. It dates from the early part of the 18th century. The bed of
the river adjoining the temple is divided off by the Brahmans into three
basins, where the pilgrims bathe. One of these portions is dedicated to
Brahma, another to Vishnu and the third to Siva. The pilgrimage to
Gangotri is considered efficacious in washing away the sins of the
devotee, and ensuring him eternal happiness in the world to come. The
water taken from this sacred spot is exported by pilgrims to India and
sold at a high price. The elevation of the temple above the sea is
10,319 ft.



GANGPUR, a tributary state of Orissa, Bengal, included until 1905 among
the Chota Nagpur States. It is bounded N. by Ranchi district, E. by the
Singhbhum district, S. by Sambalpur and Bamra, and W. by Raigarh in the
Central Provinces. The country is for the most part an undulating plain,
broken by detached ranges of hills, one of which, the Mahavira range,
possesses a very remarkable appearance, springing abruptly from the
plain in an irregular wall of tilted and disrupted rock, with two
flanking peaks. The rivers are the Ib and the Brahmani, formed here by
the union of the Sankh and the South Koel, both navigable by canoes. The
Ib was formerly famous on account of diamonds found in its bed, and its
sands are still washed for gold. One of the largest coalfields in India
extends into the state, and iron ore is also found. Jungle
products--lac, silk cocoons, catechu and resin, which are exported; wild
animals--bisons, buffaloes, tigers, leopards, hyenas, wolves, jackals,
wild dogs and many sorts of deer. Area, 2492 sq. m.; pop. (1901)
238,896; estimated revenue, £16,000.



GANGRENE (from Gr. [Greek: gangraina], an eating sore, from [Greek:
grainein], to gnaw), a synonym in medicine for mortification (q.v.), or
a local death in the animal body due to interruption of the circulation
by various causes.



GANILH, CHARLES (1758-1836), French economist and politician, was born
at Allanche in Cantal on the 6th of January 1758. He was educated for
the profession of law and practised as _avocat_. During the troubled
period which culminated in the taking of the Bastille on the 14th of
July 1789, he came prominently forward in public affairs, and was one of
the seven members of the permanent Committee of Public Safety which sat
at the hôtel de ville. He was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror, and
was only released by the counter-revolution of the 9th Thermidor. During
the first consulate he was called to the tribunate, but was excluded in
1802. In 1815 he was elected deputy for Cantal, and finally left the
Chamber on its dissolution in 1823. He died in 1836. Ganilh is best
known as the most vigorous defender of the mercantile school in
opposition to the views of Adam Smith and the English economists.

  His works, though interesting from the clearness and precision with
  which these peculiar opinions are presented, do not now possess much
  value for the student of political economy. He wrote _Essai politique
  sur le revenue des peuples de l'antiquité, du moyen âge, &c._ (1808);
  _Des systèmes d'économie politique_ (1809); _Théorie d'économie
  politique_ (1815); _Dictionnaire analytique de l'économie politique_
  (1826).



GANJAM, a district of British India, in the extreme north-east of the
Madras Presidency. It has an area of 8372 sq. m. Much of the district is
exceedingly mountainous and rocky, but is interspersed with open valleys
and fertile plains. Pleasant groves of trees in the plains give to the
scenery a greener appearance than is usually met with in the districts
to the south. The mountainous tract known as the Maliyas, or chain of
the Eastern Ghats, has an average height of about 2000 ft.--its
principal peaks being Singharaj (4976 ft.), Mahendragiri (4923) and
Devagiri (4535). The hilly region forms the agency of Ganjam, with an
area of 3483 sq. m. and a population (in 1901) of 321,114, mostly wild
backward tribes, incapable of being governed under ordinary conditions
and therefore ruled by an agent of the governor with special powers. The
chief rivers are the Rushikulya, the Vamsadhara and the Languliya. The
sea and river fisheries afford a livelihood to a considerable section of
the population. The hilly region abounds in forests consisting
principally of _sal_, with satin-wood, ebony and sandal-wood in smaller
quantities.

Ganjam formed part of the ancient kingdom of Kalinga. Its early history
is involved in obscurity, and it was not till after the Gajapati dynasty
ascended the throne of Orissa that this tract became even nominally a
part of their dominions. Owing to the nature of the country the rising
Mahommedan power was long kept at bay; and it was not till nearly a
century after the first invasion of Orissa that a Mahommedan governor
was sent to govern the Chicacole Circars, which included the present
district of Ganjam. In 1753 Chicacole, with the Northern Circars, were
made over to the French by Salabat Jang for the maintenance of his
French auxiliaries. In 1759 Masulipatam was taken by an English force
sent from Bengal, and the French were compelled to abandon Ganjam and
their other factories in the north. In 1765 the Northern Circars
(including Ganjam) were granted to the English by imperial firman, and
in August 1768 an English factory was founded at Ganjam, protected by a
fort. The present district of Ganjam was constituted in 1802. In the
earlier years of British rule considerable difficulty was experienced in
the administration of the district; and on more than one occasion the
refractory large landholders had to be coerced by means of regular
troops. In 1816 Ganjam was overrun by the Pindaris; and in 1836 occurred
the Gumsur campaign, when the British first came into contact with the
aboriginal Kondhs, the suppression of whose practice of human sacrifice
was successfully accomplished. A petty rising of a section of the Kondhs
occurred in 1865, which was, however, suppressed without the aid of
regular troops.

In 1901 the pop. of the district was 2,010,256, showing an increase of
20% in the decade. There are two systems of government irrigation: (1)
the Rushikulya project, and (2) the Ganjam minor rivers system. The
principal crops are rice, other food grains, pulse, oil seeds and a
little sugar-cane and cotton. Salt is evaporated, as a government
monopoly, along the coast. Sugar is refined, according to German
methods, at Aska, where rum also is produced. A considerable trade is
conducted at the ports of Gopalpur and Calingapatam, which are only open
roadsteads. The district is traversed throughout by the East Coast
railway (Bengal-Nagpur system), which was opened from Calcutta to Madras
in 1900. There are colleges at Berhampore and Parlakimedi. The
headquarters station is Berhampore; the town of Ganjam occupied this
position till 1815, when it was found unhealthy, and its importance has
since declined.



GANNAL, JEAN NICOLAS (1791-1852), French chemist, was born at
Sarre-Louis on the 28th of July 1791. In 1808 he entered the medical
department of the French army, and witnessed the retreat from Moscow in
1812. After the downfall of the empire he worked at the École
Polytechnique in Paris and subsequently at the Faculty of Sciences as
assistant to L.J. Thénard. His contributions to technical chemistry
included a method of refining borax, the introduction of elastic rollers
formed of gelatin and sugar for use in printing, and processes for
manufacturing glue and gelatin, lint, white lead, &c. The Institute
awarded him a Montyon prize in 1827 for his advocacy of chlorine as a
remedy in pulmonary phthisis, and again in 1835 for his discovery of the
efficacy of solutions of aluminium acetate and chloride for preserving
anatomical preparations. In the latter part of his life he turned his
attention to embalmment, his method depending on the injection of
solutions of aluminium salts into the arteries. He died at Paris in
January 1852. His son FELIX, born in 1829, also devoted himself to the
question of the disposal of the dead, among his publications being _Mort
réelle et mort apparente_ (1868), _Inhumation et crémation_ (1876), and
_Les Cimetières_ (1885), a work on the history and law of burial, of
which only one volume appeared.



GANNET (O.E. _ganot_) or SOLAN GOOSE,[1] the _Pelecanus bassanus_ of
Linnaeus and the _Sula bassana_ of modern ornithologists, a large
sea-fowl long known as a numerous visitor, for the purpose of breeding,
to the Bass Rock at the entrance of the Firth of Forth, and to certain
other islands off the coast of Britain, of which four are in Scottish
waters--namely, Ailsa Craig, at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde; the
group known collectively as St Kilda; Suleskerry, some 40 m. north-east
of the Butt of Lewis; and the Stack and Skerry, about the same distance
westward of Stromness. It appears also to have two stations off the
coast of Ireland, the Skellig Islands and the Stags of Broadhaven, and
it resorts besides to Lundy Island in the Bristol Channel--its only
English breeding-place. Farther to the northward its settlements are
Myggenaes, the most westerly of the Faeroes, and various small islands
off the coast of Iceland, of which the Vestmannaeyjar, the Reykjanes
Fuglaskér and Grimsey are the chief. On the western side of the Atlantic
it appears to have but five stations, one in the Bay of Fundy, and four
rocks in the Gulf of St Lawrence. On all these seventeen places the bird
arrives about the end of March or in April and departs in autumn when
its young are ready to fly; but even during the breeding-season many of
the adults may be seen on their fishing excursions at a vast distance
from their home, while at other times of the year their range is greater
still, for they not only frequent the North Sea and the English Channel,
but stray to the Baltic, and, in winter, extend their flight to the
Madeiras, while the members of the species of American birth traverse
the ocean from the shores of Greenland to the Gulf of Mexico.

[Illustration: Gannet, or Solan Goose.]

Apparently as bulky as a goose, and with longer wings and tail, the
gannet weighs considerably less. The plumage of the adult is white,
tinged on the head and neck with buff, while the outer edge and
principal quills of the wings are black, and some bare spaces round the
eyes and on the throat reveal a dark blue skin. The first plumage of the
young is of a deep brown above, but paler beneath, and each feather is
tipped with a triangular white spot. The nest is a shallow depression,
either on the ground itself or on a pile of turf, grass and
seaweed--which last is often conveyed from a great distance. The single
egg it contains has a white shell of the same chalky character as a
cormorant's. The young are hatched blind and naked, but the
slate-coloured skin with which their body is covered is soon clothed
with white down, replaced in due time by true feathers of the dark
colour already mentioned. The mature plumage is believed not to be
attained for some three years. Towards the end of summer the majority of
gannets, both old and young, leave the neighbourhood of their
breeding-place, and, betaking themselves to the open sea, follow the
shoals of herrings and other fishes (the presence of which they are most
useful in indicating to fishermen) to a great distance from land. Their
prey is almost invariably captured by plunging upon it from a height,
and a company of gannets fishing presents a curious and interesting
spectacle. Flying in a line, each bird, when it comes over the shoal,
closes its wings and dashes perpendicularly into the waves, whence it
emerges after a few seconds, and, shaking the water from its feathers,
mounts in a wide curve, and orderly takes its place in the rear of the
string, to repeat its headlong plunge so soon as it again finds itself
above its prey.[2]

Structurally the gannet presents many points worthy of note, such as its
closed nostrils, its aborted tongue, and its toes all connected by a
web--characters which it possesses in common with most of the other
members of the group of birds (_Steganopodes_) to which it belongs. But
more remarkable still is the system of subcutaneous air-cells, some of
large size, pervading almost the whole surface of the body,
communicating with the lungs, and capable of being inflated or emptied
at the will of the bird. This peculiarity has attracted the attention of
several writers--Montagu, Sir R. Owen (_Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1831, p. 90),
and Macgillivray.

In the southern hemisphere the gannet is represented by two nearly
allied but somewhat smaller forms--one, _Sula capensis_, inhabiting the
coast of South Africa, and the other, _S. serrator_, the Australian
seas. Both much resemble the northern bird, but the former seems to
have a permanently black tail, and the latter a tail the four middle
feathers of which are blackish-brown with white shafts.

Apparently inseparable from the gannets generically are the smaller
birds well known to sailors as boobies, from the extraordinary stupidity
they commonly display. They differ, however, in having no median stripe
of bare skin down the front of the throat; they almost invariably breed
upon trees and are inhabitants of warmer climates. One of them, _S.
cyanops_, when adult has much of the aspect of a gannet, but _S.
piscator_ is readily distinguishable by its red legs, and _S.
leucogaster_ by its upper plumage and neck of deep brown. These three
are widely distributed within the tropics, and are in some places
exceedingly abundant. The fourth, _S. variegata_, which seems to
preserve throughout its life the spotted suit characteristic of the
immature _S. bassana_, has a much more limited range, being as yet only
known from the coast of Peru, where it is one of the birds which
contribute to the formation of guano. (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The phrase _ganotes bæð_ (gannet's bath), a periphrasis for the
    sea, occurs in the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, in reference to events
    which took place A.D. 975, as pointed out by Prof. Cunningham, whose
    learned treatise on this bird (_Ibis_, 1866, p. 1) nearly exhausts
    all that can be said of its history and habits. A few pages further
    on (p. 13) this writer remarks:--"The name gannet is intimately
    connected with our modern English gander, both words being
    modifications of the ancient British 'gan' or 'gans,' which is the
    same word as the modern German 'Gans,' which in its turn corresponds
    with the old High German 'Kans,' the Greek [Greek: chên], the Latin
    _anser_, and the Sanskrit 'hansa,' all of which possess the same
    signification, viz. a goose. The origin of the names solan or soland,
    sulan, sula and haf-sula, which are evidently all closely related, is
    not so obvious. Martin [_Voy. St Kilda_] informs us that 'some
    imagine that the word solan comes from the Irish souler, corrupted
    and adapted to the Scottish language, _qui oculis irretortis e
    longinquo respiciat praedam_.' The earlier writers in general derive
    the word from the Latin _solea_, in consequence of the bird's
    supposed habit of hatching its egg with its foot; and in a note
    intercalated into Ray's description of the solan goose in the edition
    of his Itineraries published by the Ray Society, and edited by Dr
    Lankester, we are told, though no authority for the statement is
    given, that 'the gannet, _Sula alba_, should be written solent goose,
    i.e. a channel goose.'" Hereon an editorial note remarks that this
    last statement appears to have been a suggestion of Yarrell's, and
    that it seems at least as possible that the "Solent" took its name
    from the bird.

  [2] The large number of gannets, and the vast quantity of fish they
    take, has been frequently animadverted upon, but the computations on
    this last point are perhaps fallacious. It seems to be certain that
    in former days fishes, and herrings in particular, were at least as
    plentiful as now, if not more so, notwithstanding that gannets were
    more numerous. Those frequenting the Bass were reckoned by
    Macgillivray at 20,000 in 1831, while in 1869 they were computed at
    12,000, showing a decrease of two-fifths in 38 years. On Ailsa in
    1869 there were supposed to be as many as on the Bass, but their
    number was estimated at 10,000 in 1877 (_Report on the Herring
    Fisheries of Scotland_, 1878, pp. xxv. and 171),--being a diminution
    of one-sixth in eight years, or nearly twice as great as on the Bass.



GANODONTA (so named from the presence of bands of enamel on the teeth),
a group of specialized North American Lower and Middle Eocene mammals of
uncertain affinity. The group includes _Hemiganus_, _Psittacotherium_
and _Conoryctes_ from the Puerco, _Calamodon_ and _Hemiganus_ from the
Wasatch, and _Stylinodon_ from the Bridger Eocene. With the exception of
_Conoryctes_, in which it is longer, the skull is short and suggests
affinity to the sloths, as does what little is known of the limb-bones.
The dentition, too, is of a type which might well be considered
ancestral to that of the Edentata. For instance, the molars when first
developed have tritubercular summits, but these soon become worn away,
leaving tall columnar crowns, with a subcircular surface of dentine
exposed at the summit of each. Moreover, while the earlier types have a
comparatively full series of teeth, all of which are rooted and invested
with enamel, in the later forms the incisors are lost, the cheek-teeth
never develop roots but grow continuously throughout life. These and
other features induced Dr J.L. Wortman to regard the Ganodonta as an
ancestral suborder of Edentata; but this view is not accepted by Prof.
W.B. Scott. Teeth provisionally assigned to _Calamodon_ have been
obtained from the Lower Tertiary deposits of Switzerland.

  See J.L. Wortman, "The Ganodonta and their Relationship to the
  Edentata," _Bull. Amer. Mus._ vol. ix. p. 59 (1897); W.B. Scott,
  "Mammalia of the Santa Cruz Beds, Edentata," _Rep. Princeton Exped. to
  Patagonia_, vol. v. (1903-1904).     (R. L.*)



GANS, EDUARD (1797-1839), German jurist, was born at Berlin on the 22nd
of March 1797, of prosperous Jewish parents. He studied law first at
Berlin, then at Göttingen, and finally at Heidelberg, where he attended
Hegel's lectures, and became thoroughly imbued with the principles of
the Hegelian philosophy. In 1820, after taking his doctor's degree, he
returned to Berlin as lecturer on law. In 1825 he turned Christian, and
the following year was appointed extraordinary, and in 1828 ordinary,
professor in the Berlin faculty of law. At this period the historical
school of jurisprudence was coming to the front, and Gans, predisposed
owing to his Hegelian tendencies to treat law historically, applied the
method to one special branch--the right of succession. His great work,
_Erbrecht in weltgeschichtlicher Entwicklung_ (1824, 1825, 1829 and
1835), is of permanent value, not only for its extensive survey of
facts, but for the admirable manner in which the general theory of the
slow evolution of legal principles is presented. In 1830, and again in
1835, Gans visited Paris, and formed an intimate acquaintance with the
leaders of literary culture and criticism there. The liberality of his
views, especially on political matters, drew upon Gans the displeasure
of the Prussian government, and his course of lectures on the history of
the last fifty years (published as _Vorlesungen über d. Geschichte d.
letzten fünfzig Jahre_, Leipzig, 1833-1834) was prohibited. He died at
Berlin on the 5th of May 1839. In addition to the works above mentioned,
there may be noted the treatise on the fundamental laws of property
(_Über die Grundlage des Besitzes_, Berlin, 1829), a portion of a
systematic work on the Roman civil law (_System des römischen
Civil-Rechts_, 1827), and a collection of his miscellaneous writings
(_Vermischte Schriften_, 1832). Gans edited the _Philosophie der
Geschichte_ in Hegel's _Werke_, and contributed an admirable preface.

  See _Revue des deux mondes_ (Dec. 1839).



GÄNSBACHER, JOHANN BAPTIST (1778-1844), Austrian musical composer, was
born in 1778 at Sterzing in Tirol. His father, a schoolmaster and
teacher of music, undertook his son's early education, which the boy
continued under various masters till 1802, when he became the pupil of
the celebrated Abbé G.J. Vogler. To his connexion with this artist and
with his fellow-pupils, more perhaps than to his own merits,
Gänsbacher's permanent place in the history of music is due; for it was
during his second stay with Vogler, then (1810) living at Darmstadt,
that he became acquainted with Weber and Meyerbeer, and the close
friendship which sprang up among the three young musicians, and was
dissolved by death only, has become celebrated in the history of their
art. But Gänsbacher was himself by no means without merit. He creditably
filled the responsible and difficult post of director of the music at St
Stephen's cathedral, Vienna, from 1823 till his death (July 13, 1844);
and his compositions show high gifts and accomplishment. They consist
chiefly of church music, 17 masses, besides litanies, motets,
offertories, &c., being amongst the number. He also wrote several
sonatas, a symphony, and one or two minor compositions of a dramatic
kind.



GANTÉ, a cloth made from cotton or tow warp and jute weft. It is largely
used for bags for sugar and similar material, and has the appearance of
a fine hessian cloth.



GANYMEDE, in Greek mythology, son of Tros, king of Dardania, and
Callirrhoë. He was the most beautiful of mortals, and was carried off by
the gods (in the later story by Zeus himself, or by Zeus in the form of
an eagle) to Olympus to serve as cup-bearer (Apollodorus iii. 12;
Virgil, _Aeneid_, v. 254; Ovid, _Metam._ x. 255). By way of
compensation, Zeus presented his father with a team of immortal horses
(or a golden vine). Ganymede was afterwards regarded as the genius of
the fountains of the Nile, the life-giving and fertilizing river, and
identified by astronomers with the Aquarius of the zodiac. Thus the
divinity that distributed drink to the gods in heaven became the genius
who presided over the due supply of water on earth. When pederasty
became common in Greece, an attempt was made to justify it and invest it
with dignity by referring to the rape of the beautiful boy by Zeus; in
Crete, where the love of boys was reduced to a system, Minos, the
primitive ruler and law-giver, was said to have been the ravisher of
Ganymede. Thus the name which once denoted the good genius who bestowed
the precious gift of water upon man was adopted to this use in vulgar
Latin under the form _Catamitus_. Ganymede being carried off by the
eagle was the subject of a bronze group by the Athenian sculptor
Leochares, imitated in a marble statuette in the Vatican. E. Veckenstedt
(_Ganymedes_, Libau, 1881) endeavours to prove that Ganymede is the
genius of intoxicating drink ([Greek: methu], mead, for which he
postulates a form [Greek: mêdos]), whose original home was Phrygia.

  See article by P. Weizsäcker in Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_. In
  the article GREEK ART, fig. 53 (Pl. 1.) gives an illustration of
  Ganymede borne aloft by an eagle.



GAO, GAO-GAO, or GARO, a town of French West Africa, in the Upper
Senegal and Niger colony, on the left bank of the Niger, 400 m. by river
below Timbuktu. Pop. about 5000. The present town dates from the French
occupation in 1900; of the ancient city there are scanty ruins, the
chief being a truncated pyramid, the remains of the tomb (16th century)
of Mahommed Askia, the Songhoi conqueror, and those of the great mosque.
According to tradition a city stood on this spot in very ancient times
and its inhabitants are said to have had intercourse with the Egyptians.
It is known, however, that the city of which the French settlement is
the successor was founded by the Songhoi, probably in the 7th or 8th
century, and became the capital of their empire. Garo (Ga-rho) appears
to have been the correct name of the Songhoi city, though it was also
known as Gogo and Kuku (Kaougha)[1]. In the 12th century Idrisi
describes Kuku as a populous unwalled town devoted to commerce and
industry; it is possible, however, that Idrisi is referring not to Gao
but to another town somewhat to the south--at that period the middle
course of the Niger had many prosperous towns along its banks. In the
14th century Gao was conquered by the king of Melle, and its great
mosque was built (c. 1325) by the Melle sovereign Kunkur Musa on his
return from a pilgrimage to Mecca. In the 15th century the Songhoi
regained power and Gao attained its greatest prosperity in the reign of
Askia. It did not enjoy the commercial importance of Jenné nor the
intellectual supremacy of Timbuktu, but was the political centre of the
western Sudan for a long period. On the break up of the Songhoi power
the city declined in importance. It became subject in 1590 to the _Ruma_
of Timbuktu, from whom it was wrested in 1770 by the Tuareg, the last
named surrendering possession to the French. The first European to reach
Gao was Mungo Park (1805); he was followed in 1851 by Heinrich Barth,
and in 1896 by the French naval lieutenant Hourst. Gao is now the
headquarters of a military district. A caravan route leads from it to
Kano and Bornu. From Gao upwards the Niger is navigable for over 1000 m.

  See TIMBUKTU. For the Gao region of the Niger see an article by F.
  Dubois in _L'Afrique française_ (January 1909).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] There was another city called Kaoka or Gaoga east of Lake Chad in
    the country now known as Bagirmi. It was the seat of the Bulala
    dynasty, an offshoot of the royal family of Kanem, whose rule in the
    15th century extended from the Shari to Darfur. The existence of the
    state was first mentioned by Leo Africanus. To the Bornuese it was
    known as Bulala or Kuka Bulala, a name which persists as that of a
    district in French Congo (see BORNU). The similarity of the name
    Gaoga to that of the Songhoi capital has given rise to much
    confusion.



GAOL, or JAIL, a prison (q.v.). The two forms of the word are due to the
parallel dual forms in Old Central and Norman French respectively,
_jaiole_ or _jaole_, and _gaiole_ or _gayolle_. The common origin is the
med. Lat. _gabiola_, a diminutive formed from _cavea_, a hollow, a den,
from which the English "cave" is derived. The form "gaol" still commonly
survives in English, and is in official usage, e.g. "gaol-delivery," but
the common pronunciation of both words, "jail," shows the real surviving
word.



GAON (Heb. for "Excellency," plural _Geonim_), the title given to the
heads of the two Jewish academies in Babylonia, Sura and Pumbeditha.
Though the name is far older, it is chiefly applied to Rabbis who lived
between the close of the Talmud and the transference of the centre of
Judaism from Asia to Europe--i.e. from the end of the 6th to the middle
of the 11th century A.D. The Geonim were required to do homage to the
Exilarchs (see EXILARCH) but were otherwise independent. They exercised
wide authority and were appealed to in settlement of the social and
religious affairs of the diaspora. To them must be assigned the
arrangement of the main lines of the present Synagogue liturgy. Their
chief literary activity took the form of Answers to Questions--a form
which was extensively used in later centuries. The most noted of the
Geonim, who will be found treated under their respective names, were
Ahai, Amram, Semach, Saadiah, Sherira and Hai. Hai Gaon died in 1038,
closing the period of the Geonim after an activity of four and a half
centuries.

  A full list of the Geonim is given in tabular form in the _Jewish
  Encyclopaedia_, vol. v. p. 571.     (I. A.)



GAP, the capital of the French department of the Hautes Alpes. Pop.
(1906) town, 6888; commune, 10,823. It is built at a height of 2418 ft.
on the right bank of the Luye (an affluent of the Durance), in an
agreeable position, and is dominated afar by snowy peaks on the N.E. The
little city has the look of a Provençal town, being white. The
17th-century cathedral church has been entirely reconstructed
(1866-1905). In the prefecture is the tomb of the constable de
Lesdiguières (1543-1626), dating from about 1613, and due to a Lorraine
sculptor, Jacob Richier. The same building contains various scientific
and archaeological collections, as well as the very rich archives, which
include many MSS. from the monastery of Durbon, &c. There are a few
small manufactories of purely local importance. Gap is connected by
railway with Briançon (51½ m.) and with Grenoble (85½ m.), while from
the railway junction of Veynes (16½ m. W. of Gap) it is 122 m. by rail
to Marseilles. The episcopal see of Gap, now in the ecclesiastical
province of Aix en Provence, is first certainly mentioned in the 6th
century, and in 1791 was enlarged by the annexation of that of Embrun
(then suppressed).

Gap is the _Vapincum_ of the Romans, and was founded by Augustus about
14 B.C. It long formed part of Provence, but in 1232 most of the region
passed by marriage to the dauphins of Viennois. The town itself,
however, remained under the rule of the bishops until 1512, when it was
annexed to the crown of France. The bishops continued to bear the title
of count of Gap until the Revolution. The town was sacked by the
Huguenots in 1567 and 1577, and by the duke of Savoy in 1692. It was the
birthplace of the reformer Guillaume Farel (1489-1565), who first
preached his doctrines there about 1561-1562, but then took refuge in
Switzerland.

  See J. Roman, _Histoire de la ville de Gap_ (Gap, 1892).
       (W. A. B. C.)



GAPAN, a town of the province of Nueva Ecija, Luzon, Philippine Islands,
3 m. E. of San Isidro, the capital. Pop. (1903) 11,278. It is situated
in a rich rice-growing region, and extensive forests in its vicinity
contain fine hardwoods. Its climate is comparatively cool and healthy.
The principal native dialects spoken are Tagalog and Pampangan. Gapan is
the oldest town of the province.



GARARISH (KARARISH), a semi-nomadic tribe of Semitic origin, dwelling
along the right bank of the Nile from Wadi Halfa to Merawi. Many members
of the tribe are agriculturists, others act as guides or transport
drivers. They declare themselves kinsfolk of the Ababda, but they are
more Arab than Beja.



GARASHANIN, ILIYA (1812-1874), Servian statesman, was the son of a
Servian peasant, who made money by exporting cattle and pigs to Austria
and by his intelligence and wealth attained to a certain influence in
the country. He wanted to give his son as good an education as possible,
and therefore sent him to Hungary to learn first in a Greek and then in
a German school. Highly gifted, and having passed through a regular
although somewhat short school training, the young Iliya very quickly
came to the front. In 1836 Prince Milosh appointed him a colonel and
commander of the then just organized regular army of Servia. In 1842 he
was called to the position of assistant to the home minister, and from
that time until his retirement from public life in 1867 he was
repeatedly minister of home affairs, distinguishing himself by the
energy and justice of his administration. But he rendered far greater
services to his country as minister for foreign affairs. He was the
first Servian statesman who had a political programme, and who worked to
replace the Russian protectorate over Servia by the joint protectorate
of all the great powers of Europe. As minister for foreign affairs in
1853 he was decidedly opposed to Servia joining Russia in war against
Turkey and the western powers. His anti-Russian views resulted in Prince
Menshikov, while on his mission in Constantinople, 1853, peremptorily
demanding from the prince of Servia (Alexander Karageorgevich) his
dismissal. But although dismissed, his personal influence in the country
secured the neutrality of Servia during the Crimean War. He enjoyed
esteem in France, and it was due to him that France proposed to the
peace conference of Paris (1856) that the old constitution, granted to
Servia by Turkey as suzerain and Russia as protector in 1839, should be
replaced by a more modern and liberal constitution, framed by a European
international commission. But the agreement of the powers was not
secured. Garashanin induced Prince Alexander Karageorgevich to convoke a
national assembly, which had not been called to meet for ten years. The
assembly was convoked for St Andrew's Day 1858, but its first act was to
dethrone Prince Alexander and to recall the old Prince Milosh
Obrenovich. When after the death of his father Milosh (in 1860) Prince
Michael ascended the throne, he entrusted the premiership and foreign
affairs to Iliya Garashanin. The result of their policy was that Servia
was given a new, although somewhat conservative, constitution, and that
she obtained, without war, the evacuation of all the fortresses
garrisoned by the Turkish troops on the Servian territory, including the
fortress of Belgrade (1867). Garashanin was preparing a general rising
of the Balkan nations against the Turkish rule, and had entered into
confidential arrangements with the Rumanians, Bosnians, Albanians,
Bulgarians and Greeks, and more especially with Montenegro. But the
execution of his plans was frustrated by his sudden resignation (at the
end of 1867), and more especially by the assassination of Prince Michael
a few months later (the 10th of June 1868). Although he was a
Conservative in politics, and as such often in conflict with the leader
of the Liberal movement, Yovan Ristich, he certainly was one of the
ablest statesmen whom Servia had in the 19th century.     (C. Mi.)



GARAT, DOMINIQUE JOSEPH (1740-1833), French writer and politician, was
born at Bayonne on the 8th of September 1749. After receiving a good
education under the direction of a relation who was a curé, and having
been an advocate at Bordeaux, he came to Paris, where he obtained
introductions to the most distinguished writers of the time, and became
a contributor to the _Encyclopédie méthodique_ and the _Mercure de
France_. He gained considerable reputation by an éloge on Michel de
L'Hôpital in 1778, and was afterwards three times crowned by the Academy
for éloges on Suger, Montausier and Fontenelle. In 1785 he was named
professor of history at the _Lycée_, where his lectures enjoyed an equal
popularity with those of G.F. Laharpe on literature. Being chosen a
deputy to the states-general in 1789, he rendered important service to
the popular cause by his narrative of the proceedings of the Assembly
contributed to the _Journal de Paris_. Possessing strongly optimist
views, a mild and irresolute character, and indefinite and changeable
convictions, he played a somewhat undignified part in the great
political events of the time, and became a pliant tool in carrying out
the designs of others. Danton had him named minister of justice in 1792,
and in this capacity had entrusted to him what he called the _commission
affreuse_ of communicating to Louis XVI. his sentence of death. In 1793
he became minister of the interior. In this capacity he proved himself
quite inefficient. Though himself uncorrupt, he winked at the most
scandalous corruption in his subordinates, and in spite of the admirably
organized detective service, which kept him accurately informed of every
movement in the capital, he entirely failed to maintain order, which
might easily have been done by a moderate display of firmness. At last,
disgusted with the excesses which he had been unable to control, he
resigned (August 15, 1793). On the 2nd of October he was arrested for
Girondist sympathies but soon released, and he escaped further
molestation owing to the friendship of Barras and, more especially, of
Robespierre, whose literary _amour-propre_ he had been careful to
flatter. On the 9th Thermidor, however, he took sides against
Robespierre, and on the 12th of September 1794 he was named by the
Convention as a member of the executive committee of public instruction.
In 1798 he was appointed ambassador to Naples, and in the following year
he became a member, then president, of the Council of the Ancients.
Alter the revolution of the 18th Brumaire he was chosen a senator by
Napoleon and created a count. During the Hundred Days he was a member of
the chamber of representatives. In 1803 he was chosen a member of the
Institute of France, but after the restoration of Louis XVIII. his name
was, in 1816, deleted from the list of members. After the revolution of
1830 he was named a member of the new Academy of Moral and Political
Science. He died at Ustaritz near Bayonne, April 25, 1833. His writings
are characterized by elegance, grace and variety of style, and by the
highest kind of rhetorical eloquence; but his grasp of his subject is
superficial, and as his criticisms have no root in fixed and
philosophical principles they are not unfrequently whimsical and
inconsistent. He must not be confounded with his elder brother Dominique
(1735-1799), who was also a deputy to the states-general.

  The works of Garat include, besides those already mentioned,
  _Considérations sur la Révolution Française_ (Paris, 1792); _Mémoires
  sur la Révolution, ou exposé de ma conduite_ (1795); _Mémoires sur la
  vie de M. Suard, sur ses écrits, et sur le XVIII^e siècle_ (1820);
  éloges on Joubert, Kléber and Desaix; several notices of distinguished
  persons; and a large number of articles in periodicals. Valuable
  materials for the history of Garat's tenure of the ministry, notably
  the police reports of Dutard, are given in W.A. Schmidt's _Tableaux de
  la Révolution Française_ (3 vols., Leipzig, 1867-1870).



GARAT, PIERRE-JEAN (1764-1823), French singer, nephew of Dominique
Joseph Garat, was born in Bordeaux on the 25th of April 1764. Gifted
with a voice of exceptional timbre and compass he devoted himself, from
an early age, to the cultivation of his musical talents. On account of
his manifesting a distaste for the legal profession, for which his
father wished him to study, he was deprived of his allowance, but
through the patronage of a friend he obtained the office of secretary to
Comte d'Artois, and was afterwards engaged to give musical lessons to
the queen of France. At the beginning of the Revolution he accompanied
Rode to England, where the two musicians appeared together in concerts.
He returned to Paris in 1794. After the Revolution he became a
professional singer, and on account of a song which he had composed in
reference to the misfortunes of the royal family he was thrown into
prison. On regaining his liberty he went to Hamburg, where he at once
achieved extraordinary success; and by his subsequent appearances in
Paris, and his visits to Italy, Spain, Germany and Russia, he made for
himself a reputation as a singer unequalled by any other of his own
time. He was a keen partisan of Gluck in opposition to Handel. On the
institution of the Conservatoire de Musique he became its professor of
singing. He also composed a number of songs, many of which have
considerable merit. He died on the 1st of March 1823 in Paris.



GARAY, JÁNOS (1812-1853), Hungarian poet and author, was born on the
10th of October 1812, at Szegszárd, in the county of Tolna. From 1823 to
1828 he studied at Fünfkirchen, and subsequently, in 1829, at the
university of Pest. In 1834 he brought out an heroic poem, in
hexameters, under the title _Csatár_. After this he issued in quick
succession various historical dramas, among which the most successful
were _Arbócz, Országh Ilona_ and _Báthori Erzsébet_,--the first two
published at Pest in 1837 and the last in 1840. Garay was an energetic
journalist, and in 1838 he removed to Pressburg, where he edited the
political journal _Hirnök_ (Herald). He returned to Pest in 1839, when
he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences. In 1842 he was admitted into the Kisfaludy Society, of which
he became second secretary. Garay enriched Hungarian literature with
numerous lyrical poems, ballads and tales. The first collection of his
poems was published at Pest in 1843; and his prose tales appeared in
1845, under the title of _Tollrajzok_ (Sketches with the Pen). His
historical ballads and legends, styled _Arpádok_ (Pest, 1847, 2nd ed.
1848), showed him to be a master in the art of ballad-writing. Some of
his lyrical poems also are excellent, as, for example, _Balatoni
Kagylók_ (Shells from the Balaton Lake) (Pest, 1848). His legend
_Bosnyák Zsófia_ (Pest, 1847), and his poetical romance _Frangepán
Kristófné_ (Christopher Frangepan's Wife) (Pest, 1846), gained the prize
of the Kisfaludy Society. His last and most famous work was an
historical poem in twelve cantos, with the title _Szent László_ (Saint
Ladislaus) (Eger, 1852, 2nd ed., Pest, 1853, 3rd ed. 1863). Garay was
professor of Hungarian language and literature to the university of Pest
in 1848-1849. After about four years' illness he died on the 5th of
November 1853, in great want. A collective edition of his poems was
published at Pest the year after his death by F. Ney (2nd ed. 1860), and
several of his poems were translated by Kertbeny.

  See _Garay János Összes költeményei_ (2nd ed., Pest, 1860); and
  _Dichtungen von Johann Garay_ (2nd ed., Vienna, 1856).



GARBLE (a word derived from the Arab. _gharbala_, to sift, and related
to _ghirbal_, a sieve; the Arabic words are of foreign origin, probably
from the Lat. _cribrum_, a sieve), originally a medieval commercial term
in the Mediterranean ports, meaning to sort out, or to sift merchandize,
such as corn, spices, &c., in order to separate what was good from the
refuse or waste; hence to select the best of anything for retention.
Similarly a "garbler" was an official who was appointed to sort out, or
test the work of those who had already sorted, the spices or drugs
offered for sale in the London markets. In this original sense the word
is now obsolete, but by inversion, or rather perversion, "garble" now
means to sort out or select, chiefly from books or other literary works,
or from public speeches, some portion which twists, mutilates, or
renders ineffective the meaning of the author or speaker.



GARÇÃO, PEDRO ANTONIO JOAQUIM CORRÊA (1724-1772), Portuguese lyric poet,
was the son of Philippe Corrêa da Serra, a _fidalgo_ of the royal house
who held an important post in the foreign office; his mother was of
French descent. The poet's health was frail, and after going through a
Jesuit school in Lisbon and learning English, French and Italian at
home, he proceeded in 1742 to the university of Coimbra with a view to a
legal career. He took his degree in 1748, and two years later was
created a knight of the Order of Christ. In 1751 his marriage with D.
Maria Salema brought him a rich dower which enabled him to live in ease
and cultivate letters; but in later years a law-suit reduced him to
poverty. From 1760 to 1762 he edited the _Lisbon Gazette_. In 1756, in
conjunction with Cruz e Silva and others, Garção founded the _Arcadia
Lusitana_ to reform the prevailing bad taste in literature, identified
with _Seicentismo_, which delighted in conceits, windy words and
rhetorical phrases. The _Arcadia_ fulfilled its mission to some extent,
but it lacked creative power, became dogmatic, and ultimately died of
inanition. Garção was the chief contributor to its proceedings, bearing
the name of "Corydon Erimantheo," and his orations and dissertations,
with many of his lyrics, were pronounced and read at its meetings. He
lived much in the society of the English residents in Lisbon, and he is
supposed to have conceived a passion for an English married lady which
completely absorbed him and contributed to his ruin. In the midst of his
literary activity and growing fame, he was arrested on the night of the
9th of April 1771, and committed to prison by Pombal, whose displeasure
he had incurred by his independence of character. The immediate cause of
his incarceration would appear to have been his connexion with a love
intrigue between a young friend of his and the daughter of a Colonel
Elsden, but he was never brought to trial, and the matter must remain in
doubt. After much solicitation, his wife obtained from the king an order
for her husband's release on the 10th of November 1772, but it came too
late. Broken by infirmities and the hardships of prison life, Garção
expired that very day in the Limoeiro, at the age of forty-seven.

Taking Horace as his model, and aided by sound judgment, scholarship and
wide reading, Garção set out to raise and purify the standard of
poetical taste, and his verses are characterized by a classical
simplicity of form and expression. His sonnets _ad sodales_ show a
charming personality; his vigorous and elegant odes and epistles are
sententious in tone and reveal an inspired poet and a man chastened by
suffering. His two comedies in hendecasyllables, the _Theatro Novo_
(played in January 1766) and the _Assemblêa_, are excellent satires on
the social life of the capital; and in the _Cantata de Dido_, included
in the latter piece, the spirit of Greek art is allied to perfection of
form, making this composition perhaps the gem of Portuguese 18th century
poetry.

  Garção wrote little and spent much time on the _labor limae_. His
  works were published posthumously in 1778, and the most complete and
  accessible edition is that of J.A. de Azevedo Castro (Rome, 1888). An
  English version of the _Cantata de Dido_ appeared in the Academy
  (January 19th, 1895). See Innocencio da Silva, _Diccionario
  bibliographico Portuguez_, vol. vi. pp. 386-393, and vol. xvii. pp.
  182-184; also Dr Theophilo Braga, _A Arcadia Lusitana_ (Oporto, 1899).
       (E. Pr.)



GARCIA (DEL POPOLO VICENTO), MANOEL (1775-1832), Spanish singer and
composer, was born in Seville on the 22nd of January 1775. He became a
chorister at the cathedral of Seville, and studied music under the best
masters of that city. At seventeen he made his début on the stage at
Cadiz, in an operetta, in which were included songs of his own
composition. Soon afterwards he appeared at Madrid in the twofold
capacity of singer and composer. His reputation being established, he
proceeded to Paris, where he appeared for the first time, in 1808, in
Paer's opera _Griselda_. Here also he was received with great applause,
his style of singing being especially appreciated. This he further
improved by careful study of the Italian method in Italy itself, where
he continued his successes. His opera _Il Califo di Bagdad_ was
favourably received at Naples in 1812, but his chief successes were
again due to his perfection as a vocalist. His opera _La Morte di Tasso_
was produced in 1821 in Paris, where it was followed in 1823 by his _Il
Fazzoletto_. In 1824 he went to London, and thence proceeded to America
(1825) with a company of artistes, amongst whom were his son Manoel and
his daughter Maria, better known under her subsequent name of Malibran.
In New York was produced his opera _La Figlia dell' aria_ in 1827. He
extended his artistic tour as far as Mexico, and was on the point of
returning to Europe in order to retire from public life when he was
robbed of his well-earned wealth by brigands on his way to Vera Cruz.
Settled again in Paris in 1829, he soon retired from the stage, and
devoted himself exclusively to teaching. He died in Paris on the 2nd of
June 1832. His method of teaching was famous, and some of the most
celebrated singers of the early part of the century were amongst his
pupils. He also wrote an excellent book on the art of singing called
_Metodo di canto_, of which the essence was subsequently incorporated by
his son Manoel in his admirable _Traité complet de l'art du chant_
(1847). His operas have not survived their day. He wrote nearly forty in
all, but with the exception of those quoted, and _El Poeta calculista_,
produced when he was thirty, none are remarkable. Besides the children
already mentioned, his daughter Paulina, Madame Viardot (1821-1910),
worthily continued the tradition for the best singing with which his
name had become associated.

His son, MANOEL GARCIA (1805-1906), who celebrated his hundredth
birthday in London on the 17th of March 1905, was born at Madrid, and
after his father's death devoted himself to teaching. He was a professor
at the Paris Conservatoire from 1830 to 1848, from that time to 1895 was
a professor at the Royal Academy of Music in London. He became famous
for his invention of the laryngoscope about 1850, apart from his
position as the greatest representative of the old "_bel canto_" style
of singing.



GARCÍA DE LA HUERTA, VICENTE ANTONIO (1734-1787), Spanish dramatist, was
born at Zafra on the 9th of March 1734, and was educated at Salamanca.
At Madrid he soon attracted attention by his literary arrogance and
handsome person; and at an early age became chief of the National
Library, a post from which he was dismissed owing to the intrigues of
his numerous enemies. The publication of his unsatisfactory collection
of Spanish plays entitled _Theatro Hespanol_ (1785-1786) exposed him to
severe censures, which appear to have affected his reason. He died at
Madrid on the 12th of March 1787, without carrying into effect his
avowed intention of reviving the national drama. His _Agamemnón vengado_
derives from Sophocles, his _Jaire_ is translated from Voltaire, and
even his once famous _Raquel_, though Spanish in subject, is classic in
form.



GARCÍA DE PAREDES, DIEGO (1466-1534), Spanish soldier and duellist, was
a native of Trujillo in Estremadura, Spain. He never commanded an army
or rose to the position of a general, but he was a notable figure in the
wars of the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century, when
personal prowess had still a considerable share in deciding the result
of actions. His native town and its district, which lie between Talavera
and Madrid, produced many of the most noted _conquistadores_ of America,
including the Pizarro family. Diego himself served in his youth in the
war of Granada. His strength, daring and activity fitted him to shine in
operations largely composed of night marches, escalades, surprises and
hand-to-hand combats. The main scene of his achievements was in Italy,
and he betook himself to it--on his own showing--not in search of glory,
but because he had killed a relation of his own, Ruy Sanchez de Vargas,
in a street fight arising out of a quarrel about a horse. He fled to
Rome, then under the rule of the Borgias. Diego was a distant relation
to the cardinal of Santa Cruz (Carvajal), a favourite with Pope
Alexander VI., who was in conflict with the barons of the Romagna and
took Diego into his service. He remained a soldier of the pope till he
killed a man in a personal quarrel and found it necessary to pass over
to the enemy. Now he became acquainted with the Colonnas, who
appreciated his services. The wars between Ferdinand V. of Aragon (the
Catholic king) and Louis XII. gave him a more creditable opening. The
Spanish general Gonsalvo de Córdoba, who knew his value, employed him
and trusted him; and he took part in all the wars of Italy on the
frontier of Navarre, and once against the Turks on the Danube, till
1530. His countrymen made him the hero of many Münchausen-like stories
of personal prowess. It was said that he held a bridge single-handed
against 200 Frenchmen, that he stopped the wheel of a water-mill, and so
forth. In the "Brief Summary" of his life and deeds attributed to him,
and printed at the end of the _Chronicle of the Great Captain_,
published in 1584 at Alcalá de Henares, he lays no claim to having done
more than was open to a very athletic man. He was killed at Bologna in
1534 by a fall while engaged in a jumping-match with some of the younger
officers of the army. His body was carried to his native town Trujillo,
and buried in the church of Santa Maria Mayor in 1545.



GARCÍA GUTIÉRREZ, ANTONIO (1812-1884), Spanish dramatist, was born at
Chiclana (Cadiz) on the 5th of July 1812, and studied medicine in his
native town. In 1832 he removed to Madrid, and earned a scanty living by
translating plays of Scribe and the elder Dumas; despairing of success,
he was on the point of enlisting when he suddenly sprang into fame as
the author of _El Trovador_, which was played for the first time on the
1st of March 1836. García Gutiérrez never surpassed this first effort,
which placed him among the leaders of the romantic movement in Spain,
and which became known all over Europe through Verdi's music. His next
great success was _Simón Bocanegra_ (1843), but, as his plays were not
lucrative, he emigrated to Spanish America, working as a journalist in
Cuba and Mexico till 1850, when he returned to Spain. The best works of
his later period are a _zarzuela_ entitled _El Grumete_ (1853), _La
Venganza catalana_ (1864) and _Juan Lorenzo_ (1865). He became head of
the archaeological museum at Madrid, and died there on the 6th of August
1884. His _Poesías_ (1840) and another volume of lyrics, entitled _Luz y
tinieblas_ (1842), are unimportant; but the brilliant versification of
his plays, and his power of analysing feminine emotions, give him a
foremost place among the Spanish dramatists of the 19th century.



GARD, a department in the south of France, consisting of part of the old
province of Languedoc. Pop. (1906) 421,166. Area 2270 sq. m. It is
bounded N. by the departments of Lozère and Ardèche, E. by the Rhone,
which separates it from Vaucluse and Bouches-du-Rhône, S. by the
Mediterranean, S.W. by Hérault and W. by Aveyron. Gard is divided into
three sharply-defined regions. Its north-western districts are occupied
by the range of the Cévennes, which on the frontier of Lozère attain a
height of 5120 ft. The whole of this region is celebrated for its
fruitful valleys, its gorges, its beautiful streams, its pastures, and
the chestnut, mulberry and other fruit trees with which the mountains
are often clothed to their summits. The Garrigues, a dry, hilly region
of limestone, which lends itself to the cultivation of cereals, the vine
and olive, stretches from the foot of the Cévennes over the centre of
the department, covering about half its area. The southern portion,
which extends to the sea, and was probably at one time covered by it, is
a low plain with numerous lakes and marshes. Though unhealthy, it is
prosperous, and comprises the best arable land and vineyards in Gard.

Besides the Rhone, which bounds the department on the E., and the
Ardèche, the lower course of which forms part of its boundary on the N.,
the principal rivers are the Cèze, Gard, Vidourle and Hérault. The most
northern of these is the Cèze, which rises in the Cévennes, and after a
course of about 50 m. in an E.S.E. direction falls into the Rhone above
Roquemaure. The Gard, or Gardon, from which the department takes its
name, is also an affluent of the Rhone, and, rising in the Cévennes from
several sources, traverses the centre of the department, having a length
of about 60 m. In the upper part of its course it flows through a
succession of deep mountain gorges, and from the melting of the snows on
the Cévennes is subject to inundations, which often cause great damage.
Its waters not infrequently rise 18 or 20 ft. in a few hours, and its
bed is sometimes increased in width to nearly a mile. Near Remoulins it
is crossed by a celebrated Roman aqueduct--the Pont du Gard (see
AQUEDUCT). The Vidourle flows in a S.S.E. direction from its source near
Le Vigan, and after a course of about 50 m. falls into the sea. Below
Sommières it forms the western boundary of the department. The Hérault
has its source and part of its course in the west of Gard. The Canal de
Beaucaire extends from the Rhone at Beaucaire to Aigues-Mortes, which
communicates with the Mediterranean at Grau-du-Roi by means of the
Grand-Roubine canal.

The climate is warm in the south-east, colder in the north-west; it is
rather changeable, and rain-storms are common. The cold and violent
north-west wind known as the mistral is its worst drawback. Les Fumades
(near Allègre) and Euzet have mineral springs. The chief grain crops are
wheat and oats. Rye, barley and potatoes are also grown. Gard is famed
for its cattle, its breed of small horses, and its sheep, the wool of
which is of a very fine quality. In the rearing of silk-worms it ranks
first among French departments. The principal fruit trees are the olive,
mulberry and chestnut. The vine is extensively cultivated and yields
excellent red and white wines. The department is rich in minerals, and
the mines of coal, iron, lignite, asphalt, zinc, lead and copper, which
are for the most part situated in the neighbourhoods of Alais and La
Grand'-Combe, constitute one of the chief sources of its wealth. Great
quantities of salt are obtained from the salt marshes along the coast.
The quarries of building and other stone employ a considerable number of
workmen. The fisheries are productive. The manufactures are extensive,
and include those of silk, of which Alais is the chief centre, cotton
and woollen fabrics, hosiery, ironware, hats (Anduze), liquorice,
gloves, paper, leather, earthenware and glass. There are also breweries
and distilleries, and important metallurgical works, the chief of which
are those of Bessèges. The exports of Gard include coal, lignite, coke,
asphalt, building-stone, iron, steel, silk, hosiery, wine, olives,
grapes and truffles.

The department is served by the Paris-Lyon railway. It is divided into
the arrondissements of Nîmes, Alais, Uzès and Le Vigan, with 40 cantons
and 351 communes. The chief town is Nîmes, which is the seat of a
bishopric of the province of Avignon and of a court of appeal. Gard
belongs to the 15th military region, which has its headquarters at
Marseilles, and to the académie (educational division) of Montpellier.
Nîmes, Alais, Uzès, Aigues-Mortes, Beaucaire, Saint-Gilles, Bessèges, La
Grand'-Combe and Villeneuve-lès-Avignon are the principal places.
Opposite the manufacturing town of Pont-St-Esprit the Rhone is crossed
by a fine medieval bridge more than 1000 yds. long built by the Pontiff
brethren. Le Vigan, an ancient town with several old houses, carries on
silk-spinning.



GARDA, LAKE OF (the _Lacus Benacus_ of the Romans), the most easterly
and the most extensive of the great Lombard lakes, being only surpassed
in the Alpine region by those of Geneva and Constance. Save the extreme
northern extremity (Riva, which was secured from Venice by Tirol in
1517), the whole lake is Italian, being divided between the provinces of
Verona and Brescia. Its broad basin orographically represents the
southern portion of the valley of the Adige, though that river now flows
through a narrow trench which is separated from the lake by the long
narrow ridge of the Monte Baldo (7277 ft.). Nowadays the lake is fed by
the Sarca, that flows in at its north end from the glaciers of the
Adamello, while at the southern extremity of the lake the Mincio flows
out, on its way to join the Po. The area of the lake is about 143 sq.
m., its length is 32¼ m., its greatest breadth is about 10 m., the
height of its surface above sea-level is 216 ft. and the greatest depth
yet measured is 1916 ft. Its upper or northern end is narrow, but
between Garda (E.) and Salò (W.) the lake expands gradually into a
nearly circular basin, which at the southern extremity is divided into
two parts by the long low promontory of Sermione, that projects from the
southern shore between Peschiera and Desenzano. Owing to this
conformation the lake is much exposed to sudden and violent winds, which
Virgil alludes to in his well-known line (_Georg_. ii. line 160):
_fluctibus et fremitu assurgens, Benace, marino_. The most dangerous of
these winds is the _Borea_ or _Suer_, that sweeps down from the north as
through a funnel. In the southern portion of the lake the _Vinessa_, an
E.S.E. wind, is most dreaded. The _Ora_ is a regular wind coming from
the east which, on reaching the lake, blows from S. to N. The steep
grey limestone crags of Monte Baldo, on the eastern side of the lake,
contrast strongly with the rich vegetation on the western and southern
shores. The portion of the western shore that extends from Gargnano to
Salò is the most sheltered and warmest part of the region, so that not
merely does it resemble one continuous garden (producing lemons, figs,
mulberries, olives, &c.), but is frequented in winter, and has been
given the name of the _Riviera Benacense_. The lovely promontory of
Sermione, at the southern end of the lake, has also an extremely
luxuriant vegetation, while it contains many remains of buildings of
Roman and later date, having been the Sirmio of Catullus, who resided
here and celebrated its beauties in many of his poems. In 1827 a boat
with paddles set in motion by horses was put on the lake, but the first
steamer dates only from 1844. At the south end of the lake, E. and W.
respectively of the promontory of Sermione, are the towns of Peschiera
(14¼ m. by rail from Verona on the east) and of Desenzano (17½ m. by
rail from Brescia on the west), which are 8¾ m. distant from each other.
On the west shore of the lake are Salò, Toscolano, Gargnano and Limone,
while the rugged east shore can boast only of Bardolino and Garda. At
the northern tip of the lake, and in Tirol, is Riva, the most
considerable town on the lake, and 15½ m. by rail from the Mori station
on the main Brenner line.     (W. A. B. C.)



GARDANE, CLAUDE MATTHIEU, COUNT (1766-1818), French general and
diplomatist, was born on the 30th of January 1766. He entered the army
and rose rapidly during the revolutionary wars, becoming captain in 1793.
In May 1799 he distinguished himself by saving a division of the French
army which was about to be crushed by the Russians at the battle of
Bassignana, and was named at once brigadier-general by Moreau. He
incurred Napoleon's displeasure for an omission of duty shortly before
the battle of Marengo (June 14th, 1800), but in 1805 was appointed to be
aide-de-camp of the emperor. His chief distinction, however, was to be
won in the diplomatic sphere. In the spring of 1807, when Russia and
Prussia were at war with France, and the emperor Alexander I. of Russia
was also engaged in hostilities with Persia, the court of Teheran sent a
mission to the French emperor, then at the castle of Finkenstein in the
east of Prussia, with a view to the conclusion of a Franco-Persian
alliance. This was signed on the 4th of May 1807, at that castle; and
Napoleon designed Gardane as special envoy for the cementing of that
alliance. The secret instructions which he drew up for Gardane, and
signed on the 30th of May, are of interest as showing the strong oriental
trend of the emperor's policy. France was to guarantee the integrity of
Persia, to recognize that Georgia (then being invaded by the Russians)
belonged to the shah, and was to make all possible efforts for restoring
that territory to him. She was also to furnish to the shah arms, officers
and workmen, in the number and to the amount demanded by him. Napoleon on
his side required Persia to declare war against Great Britain, to expel
all Britons from her territory, and to come to an understanding with the
Afghans with a view to a joint Franco-Perso-Afghan invasion of India.
Gardane, whose family was well known in the Levant, had a long and
dangerous journey overland, but was cordially received at Teheran in
December 1807. The conclusion of the Franco-Russian treaty at Tilsit in
July 1807 rendered the mission abortive. Persia longed only for help
against Russia and had no desire, when all hope of that was past, to
attack India. The shah, however, promised to expel Britons and to grant
to France a commercial treaty. For a time French influence completely
replaced that of England at Teheran, and the mission of Sir John Malcolm
to that court was not allowed to proceed. Finally, however, Gardane saw
that nothing much was to be hoped for in the changed situation of
European affairs, and abruptly left the country (April 1809). This
conduct was not wholly approved by Napoleon, but he named him count and
in 1810 attached him to Masséna's army in Portugal. There, during the
disastrous retreat from Santarem to Almeida, he suffered a check which
brought him into disfavour. The rest of his career calls for no notice.
He died in 1818. The report which he sent to Champagny (dated April
23rd, 1809) on the state of Persia and the prospects of a successful
invasion of India is of great interest. He admitted the difficulties of
this enterprise, but thought that a force of picked French troops, aided
by Persians and Afghans, might under favourable conditions penetrate into
India by way of Kandahar, or through Sind, especially if the British were
distracted by maritime attacks from Mauritius.

  See Count Alfred de Gardane, _Mission du général Gardane en Perse_
  (Paris, 1865); and P.A.L. de Driault, _La Politique orientale de
  Napoléon: Sébastiani et Gardane_ (Paris, 1904).     (J. Hl. R.)



GARDELEGEN, a town of Germany, in Prussian Saxony, on the right bank of
the Milde, 20 m. W. from Stendal, on the main line of railway
Berlin-Hanover. Pop. (1905) 8193. It has a Roman Catholic and three
Evangelical churches, a hospital, founded in 1285, and a high-grade
school. There are considerable manufactures, notably agricultural
machinery and buttons, and its beer has a great repute. Gardelegen was
founded in the 10th century, and was for a long time the seat of a line
of counts. It suffered considerably in the Thirty Years' War, and in
1775 was burned by the French. On the neighbouring heath Margrave Louis
I. of Brandenburg gained, in 1343, a victory over Otto the Mild of
Brunswick.



GARDEN (from O. Fr. _gardin_, mod. Fr. _jardin_; this, like our words
"garth," a paddock attached to a building, and "yard," comes from a
Teutonic word for an enclosure which appears in Gothic as _gards_ and
O.H. Ger. _gart_, cf. Dutch _gaarde_ and Ger. _garten_), the ground
enclosed and cultivated for the growth of fruit, flowers or vegetables
(see HORTICULTURE). The word is also used for grounds laid out
ornamentally, used as places of public entertainment. Such were the
famous Ranelagh and Vauxhall Gardens in London; it is similarly used in
zoological gardens, and as a name in towns for squares, terraces or
streets. From the fact that Epicurus (q.v.) taught in the gardens at
Athens, the disciples of his school of philosophy were known as [Greek:
hoi apo tôn kêpôn] (so Diog. Laërtius x. 10); and Cicero (_De finibus_
v. 1. 3, and elsewhere) speaks of the _Horti Epicuri_. Thus as the
"Academy" refers to the Platonic and the "Porch" ([Greek: stoa]) to the
Stoic school, so the "Garden" is the name given to the Epicurean school
of philosophy. Apollodorus was known as [Greek: kêpotyrannos], the
tyrant of the garden.



GARDENIA, in botany, a genus of the natural order Rubiaceae, containing
about sixty species of evergreen trees and shrubs, natives of the warmer
parts of the old world. Several are grown in stoves or greenhouses for
their handsome, sweet-scented white flowers. The flowers are developed
singly at the end of a branch or in the leaf-axils, and are funnel- or
salver-shaped with a long tube. The double forms of _Gardenia florida_
(a native of China) and _G. radicans_ (a native of Japan) are amongst
the most beautiful and highly perfumed of any in cultivation. Gardenias
are grown chiefly for cut flowers, and are readily propagated by
cuttings. They require plenty of heat and moisture in the growing
season, and must be kept free from insects such as the mealy bug, green
fly, red spider and scale-insect.



GARDINER, JAMES (1688-1745), Scottish soldier, was born at Carriden in
Linlithgowshire, on the 11th of January 1688. At the age of fourteen he
entered a Scottish regiment in the Dutch service, and was afterwards
present at the battle of Ramillies, where he was wounded. He
subsequently served in different cavalry regiments, and in 1730 was
advanced to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and in 1743 to that of
colonel. He fell at the battle of Prestonpans, the 21st of September
1745. The circumstances of his death are described in Sir Walter Scott's
_Waverley_. In his early years he was distinguished for his recklessness
and profligacy, but in 1719 a supernatural vision, as he regarded it,
led to his conversion, and from that time he lived a life of great
devoutness and of thorough consistency with his Christian profession. Dr
Alexander Carlyle of Inveresk, author of an autobiography, says that he
was "very ostentatious" about his conversion--speaks of him as weak, and
plainly thinks there was a great deal of delusion in Col. Gardiner's
account of his sins.

  His life was written by Dr Philip Doddridge and has been often
  reprinted.



GARDINER, SAMUEL RAWSON (1829-1902), English historian, son of Rawson
Boddam Gardiner, was born near Alresford, Hants, on the 4th of March
1829. He was educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford, where he
obtained a first class in _literae humaniores_. He was subsequently
elected to fellowships at All Souls (1884) and Merton (1892). For some
years he was professor of modern history at King's College, London, and
devoted his life to historical work. He is the historian of the Puritan
revolution, and has written its history in a series of volumes,
originally published under different titles, beginning with the
accession of James I.; the seventeenth (the third volume of the _History
of the Commonwealth and Protectorate_) appeared in 1901. This was
completed in two volumes by C.H. Firth as _The Last Years of the
Protectorate_ (1909). The series is _History of England from the
Accession of James I. to the Outbreak of the Civil War_, 1603-1642 (10
vols.); _History of the Great Civil War_, 1642-1649 (4 vols.); and
_History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1660_. His treatment
is exhaustive and philosophical, taking in, along with political and
constitutional history, the changes in religion, thought and sentiment
during his period, their causes and their tendencies. Of the original
authorities on which his work is founded many of great value exist only
in manuscript, and his researches in public and private collections of
manuscripts at home, and in the archives of Simancas, Venice, Rome,
Brussels and Paris, were indefatigable and fruitful. His accuracy is
universally acknowledged. He was perhaps drawn to the Puritan period by
the fact of his descent from Cromwell and Ireton, but he has certainly
written of it with no other purpose than to set forth the truth. In his
judgments of men and their actions he is unbiassed, and his
appreciations of character exhibit a remarkable fineness of perception
and a broad sympathy. Among many proofs of these qualities it will be
enough to refer to what he says of the characters of James I., Bacon,
Laud, Strafford and Cromwell. On constitutional matters he writes with
an insight to be attained only by the study of political philosophy,
discussing in a masterly fashion the dreams of idealists and the schemes
of government proposed by statesmen. Throughout his work he gives a
prominent place to everything which illustrates human progress in moral
and religious, as well as political conceptions, and specially to the
rise and development of the idea of religious toleration, finding his
authorities not only in the words and actions of men of mark, but in the
writings of more or less obscure pamphleteers, whose essays indicate
currents in the tide of public opinion. His record of the relations
between England and other states proves his thorough knowledge of
contemporary European history, and is rendered specially valuable by his
researches among manuscript sources which have enabled him to expound
for the first time some intricate pieces of diplomacy.

Gardiner's work is long and minute; the fifty-seven years which it
covers are a period of exceptional importance in many directions, and
the actions and characters of the principal persons in it demand careful
analysis. He is perhaps apt to attach an exaggerated importance to some
of the authorities which he was the first to bring to light, to see a
general tendency in what may only be the expression of an individual
eccentricity, to rely too much on ambassadors' reports which may have
been written for some special end, to enter too fully into the details
of diplomatic correspondence. In any case the length of his work is not
the result of verbiage or repetitions. His style is clear, absolutely
unadorned, and somewhat lacking in force; he appeals constantly to the
intellect rather than to the emotions, and is seldom picturesque, though
in describing a few famous scenes, such as the execution of Charles I.,
he writes with pathos and dignity. The minuteness of his narrative
detracts from its interest; though his arrangement is generally good,
here and there the reader finds the thread of a subject broken by the
intrusion of incidents not immediately connected with it, and does not
pick it up again without an effort. And Gardiner has the defects of his
supreme qualities, of his fairness and critical ability as a judge of
character; his work lacks enthusiasm, and leaves the reader cold and
unmoved. Yet, apart from its sterling excellence, it is not without
beauties, for it is marked by loftiness of thought, a love of purity
and truth, and refinement in taste and feeling. He wrote other books,
mostly on the same period, but his great history is that by which his
name will live. It is a worthy result of a life of unremitting labour, a
splendid monument of historical scholarship. His position as an
historian was formally acknowledged: in 1862 he was given a civil list
pension of £150 per annum, "in recognition of his valuable contributions
to the history of England"; he was honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, LL.D. of
Edinburgh, and Ph.D. of Göttingen, and honorary student of Christ
Church, Oxford; and in 1894 he declined the appointment of regius
professor of modern history at Oxford, lest its duties should interfere
with the accomplishment of his history. He died on the 24th of February
1902.

  Among the more noteworthy of Gardiner's separate works are: _Prince
  Charles and the Spanish Marriage_ (2 vols., London, 1869);
  _Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1625-1660_ (1st
  ed., Oxford, 1889; 2nd ed., Oxford, 1899); _Oliver Cromwell_ (London,
  1901); _What Gunpowder Plot was_ (London, 1897); _Outline of English
  History_ (1st ed., London, 1887; 2nd ed., London, 1896); and
  _Student's History of England_ (2 vols., 1st ed., London, 1890-1891;
  2nd ed., London, 1891-1892). He edited collections of papers for the
  Camden Society, and from 1891 was editor of the _English Historical
  Review_.     (W. Hu.)



GARDINER, STEPHEN (c. 1493-1555), English bishop and lord chancellor,
was a native of Bury St Edmunds. The date of his birth as commonly
given, 1483, seems to be about ten years too early, and surmises which
have passed current that he was some one's illegitimate child are of no
authority. His father is now known to have been John Gardiner, a
substantial cloth merchant of the town where he was born (see his will,
printed in _Proceedings of the Suffolk Archaeological Institute_, i.
329), who took care to give him a good education. In 1511 he, being then
a lad, met Erasmus at Paris (Nichols's _Epistles of Erasmus_, ii. 12,
13). But he had probably already been to Cambridge, where he studied at
Trinity Hall and greatly distinguished himself in the classics,
especially in Greek. He afterwards devoted himself to the canon and
civil law, in which subjects he attained so great a proficiency that no
one could dispute his pre-eminence. He received the degree of doctor of
civil law in 1520, and of canon law in the following year.

Ere long his abilities attracted the notice of Cardinal Wolsey, who made
him his secretary, and in this capacity he is said to have been with him
at More Park in Hertfordshire, when the conclusion of the celebrated
treaty of the More brought Henry VIII. and the French ambassadors
thither. It is stated, and with great probability, that this was the
occasion on which he was first introduced to the king's notice, but he
does not appear to have been actively engaged in Henry's service till
three years later. In that of Wolsey he undoubtedly acquired a very
intimate knowledge of foreign politics, and in 1527 he and Sir Thomas
More were named commissioners on the part of England in arranging a
treaty with the French ambassadors for the support of an army in Italy
against the emperor. That year he accompanied Wolsey on his important
diplomatic mission to France, the splendour and magnificence of which
are so graphically described by Cavendish. Among the imposing train who
went with the cardinal--including, as it did, several noblemen and privy
councillors--Gardiner alone seems to have been acquainted with the real
heart of the matter which made this embassy a thing of such peculiar
moment. Henry was then particularly anxious to cement his alliance with
Francis I., and gain his co-operation as far as possible in the object
on which he had secretly set his heart--a divorce from Catherine of
Aragon. In the course of his progress through France he received orders
from Henry to send back his secretary Gardiner, or, as he was called at
court, Master Stevens, for fresh instructions; to which he was obliged
to reply that he positively could not spare him as he was the only
instrument he had in advancing the king's "secret matter." Next year
Gardiner, still in the service of Wolsey, was sent by him to Italy along
with Edward Fox, provost of King's College, Cambridge, to promote the
same business with the pope. His despatches on this occasion are still
extant, and whatever we may think of the cause on which he was engaged,
they certainly give a wonderful impression of the zeal and ability with
which he discharged his functions. Here his perfect familiarity with the
canon law gave him a great advantage. He was instructed to procure from
the pope a decretal commission, laying down principles of law by which
Wolsey and Campeggio might hear and determine the cause without appeal.
The demand, though supported by plausible pretexts, was not only unusual
but clearly inadmissible. Clement VII. was then at Orvieto, and had just
recently escaped from captivity at St Angelo at the hands of the
imperialists. But fear of offending the emperor could not have induced
him to refuse a really legitimate request from a king like Henry. He
naturally referred the question to the cardinals about him; with whom
Gardiner held long arguments, enforced, it would seem, by not a little
browbeating of the College. What was to be thought, he said, of a
spiritual guide, who either could not or would not show the wanderer his
way? The king and lords of England would be driven to think that God had
taken away from the Holy See the key of knowledge, and that pontifical
laws which were not clear to the pope himself might as well be committed
to the flames.

This ingenious pleading, however, did not serve, and he was obliged to
be content with a general commission for Campeggio and Wolsey to try the
cause in England. This, as Wolsey saw, was quite inadequate for the
purpose in view; and he again instructed Gardiner, while thanking the
pope for the commission actually granted, to press him once more by very
urgent pleas, to send the desired decretal on, even if the latter was
only to be shown to the king and himself and then destroyed. Otherwise,
he wrote, he would lose his credit with the king, who might even be
tempted to throw off his allegiance to Rome altogether. At last the
pope--to his own bitter regret afterwards--gave what was desired on the
express conditions named, that Campeggio was to show it to the king and
Wolsey and no one else, and then destroy it, the two legates holding
their court under the general commission. After obtaining this Gardiner
returned home; but early in the following year, 1529, when proceedings
were delayed on information of the brief in Spain, he was sent once more
to Rome. This time, however, his efforts were unavailing. The pope would
make no further concessions, and would not even promise not to revoke
the cause to Rome, as he did very shortly after.

Gardiner's services, however, were fully appreciated. He was appointed
the king's secretary. He had been already some years archdeacon of
Taunton, and the archdeaconry of Norfolk was added to it in March 1529,
which two years later he resigned for that of Leicester. In 1530 he was
sent to Cambridge to procure the decision of the university as to the
unlawfulness of marriage with a deceased brother's wife, in accordance
with the new plan devised for settling the question without the pope's
intervention. In this he succeeded, though not without a good deal of
artifice, more creditable to his ingenuity than to his virtue. In
November 1531 the king rewarded him for his services with the bishopric
of Winchester, vacant by Wolsey's death. The promotion was unexpected,
and was accompanied by expressions from the king which made it still
more honourable, as showing that if he had been in some things too
subservient, it was from no abject, self-seeking policy of his own.
Gardiner had, in fact, ere this remonstrated boldly with his sovereign
on some points, and Henry now reminded him of the fact. "I have often
_squared_ with you, Gardiner," he said familiarly, "but I love you never
the worse, as the bishopric I give will convince you." In 1532,
nevertheless, he excited some displeasure in the king by the part he
took in the preparation of the famous "Answer of the Ordinaries" to the
complaints brought against them in the House of Commons. On this subject
he wrote a very manly letter to the king in his own defence.

His next important action was not so creditable; for he was, not
exactly, as is often said, one of Cranmer's assessors, but, according to
Cranmer's own expression, "assistant" to him as counsel for the king,
when the archbishop, in the absence of Queen Catherine, pronounced her
marriage with Henry null and void on the 23rd of May 1533. Immediately
afterwards he was sent over to Marseilles, where an interview between
the pope and Francis I. took place in September, of which event Henry
stood in great suspicion, as Francis was ostensibly his most cordial
ally, and had hitherto maintained the justice of his cause in the matter
of the divorce. It was at this interview that Bonner intimated the
appeal of Henry VIII. to a general council in case the pope should
venture to proceed to sentence against him. This appeal, and also one on
behalf of Cranmer presented with it, were of Gardiner's drawing up. In
1535 he and other bishops were called upon to vindicate the king's new
title of "Supreme Head of the Church of England." The result was his
celebrated treatise _De vera obedientia_, the ablest, certainly, of all
the vindications of royal supremacy. In the same year he had an
unpleasant dispute with Cranmer about the visitation of his diocese. He
was also employed to answer the pope's brief threatening to deprive
Henry of his kingdom.

During the next few years he was engaged in various embassies in France
and Germany. He was indeed so much abroad that he had little influence
upon the king's councils. But in 1539 he took part in the enactment of
the severe statute of the Six Articles, which led to the resignation of
Bishops Latimer and Shaxton and the persecution of the Protestant party.
In 1540, on the death of Cromwell, earl of Essex, he was elected
chancellor of the university of Cambridge. A few years later he
attempted, in concert with others, to fasten a charge of heresy upon
Archbishop Cranmer in connexion with the Act of the Six Articles; and
but for the personal intervention of the king he would probably have
succeeded. He was, in fact, though he had supported the royal supremacy,
a thorough opponent of the Reformation in a doctrinal point of view, and
it was suspected that he even repented his advocacy of the royal
supremacy. He certainly had not approved of Henry's general treatment of
the church, especially during the ascendancy of Cromwell, and he was
frequently visited with storms of royal indignation, which he schooled
himself to bear with patience. In 1544 a relation of his own, named
German Gardiner, whom he employed as his secretary, was put to death for
treason in reference to the king's supremacy, and his enemies insinuated
to the king that he himself was of his secretary's way of thinking. But
in truth the king had need of him quite as much as he had of Cranmer;
for it was Gardiner, who even under royal supremacy, was anxious to
prove that England had not fallen away from the faith, while Cranmer's
authority as primate was necessary to upholding that supremacy. Thus
Gardiner and the archbishop maintained opposite sides of the king's
church policy; and though Gardiner was encouraged by the king to put up
articles against the archbishop himself for heresy, the archbishop could
always rely on the king's protection in the end. Heresy was gaining
ground in high places, especially after the king's marriage with
Catherine Parr; and there seems to be some truth in the story that the
queen herself was nearly committed for it at one time, when Gardiner,
with the king's approbation, censured some of her expressions in
conversation. In fact, just after her marriage, four men of the Court
were condemned at Windsor and three of them were burned. The fourth, who
was the musician Marbeck, was pardoned by Gardiner's procurement.

Great as Gardiner's influence had been with Henry VIII., his name was
omitted at the last in the king's will, though Henry was believed to
have intended making him one of his executors. Under Edward VI. he was
completely opposed to the policy of the dominant party both in
ecclesiastical and in civil matters. The religious changes he objected
to both on principle and on the ground of their being moved during the
king's minority, and he resisted Cranmer's project of a general
visitation. His remonstrances, however, were met by his own committal to
the Fleet, and the visitation of his diocese was held during his
imprisonment. Though soon afterwards released, it was not long before he
was called before the council, and, refusing to give them satisfaction
on some points, was thrown into the Tower, where he continued during the
whole remainder of the reign, a period slightly over five years. During
this time he in vain demanded his liberty, and to be called before
parliament as a peer of the realm. His bishopric was taken from him and
given to Dr Poynet, a chaplain of Cranmer's who had not long before
been made bishop of Rochester. At the accession of Queen Mary, the duke
of Norfolk and other state prisoners of high rank were in the Tower
along with him; but the queen, on her first entry into London, set them
all at liberty. Gardiner was restored to his bishopric and appointed
lord chancellor, and he set the crown on the queen's head at her
coronation. He also opened her first parliament and for some time was
her leading councillor.

He was now called upon, in advanced life, to undo not a little of the
work in which he had been instrumental in his earlier years--to
vindicate the legitimacy of the queen's birth and the lawfulness of her
mother's marriage, to restore the old religion, and to recant what he
himself had written touching the royal supremacy. It is said that he
wrote a formal _Palinodia_ or retractation of his book _De vera
obedientia_, but it does not seem to be now extant; and the reference is
probably to his sermon on Advent Sunday 1554, after Cardinal Pole had
absolved the kingdom from schism. As chancellor he had the onerous task
of negotiating the queen's marriage treaty with Philip, to which he
shared the general repugnance, though he could not oppose her will. In
executing it, however, he took care to make the terms as advantageous
for England as possible, with express provision that the Spaniards
should in nowise be allowed to interfere in the government of the
country. After the coming of Cardinal Pole, and the reconciliation of
the realm to the see of Rome, he still remained in high favour. How far
he was responsible for the persecutions which afterwards arose is a
debated question. He no doubt approved of the act, which passed the
House of Lords while he presided there as chancellor, for the revival of
the heresy laws. Neither is there any doubt that he sat in judgment on
Bishop Hooper, and on several other preachers whom he condemned, not
exactly to the flames, but to be degraded from the priesthood. The
natural consequence of this, indeed, was that when they declined, even
as laymen, to be reconciled to the Church, they were handed over to the
secular power to be burned. Gardiner, however, undoubtedly did his best
to persuade them to save themselves by a course which he conscientiously
followed himself; nor does it appear that, when placed on a commission
along with a number of other bishops to administer a severe law, he
could very well have acted otherwise than he did. In his own diocese no
victim of the persecution is known to have suffered till after his
death; and, much as he was already maligned by opponents, there are
strong evidences that his natural disposition was humane and generous.
In May 1553 he went over to Calais as one of the English commissioners
to promote peace with France; but their efforts were ineffectual. In
October 1555 he again opened parliament as lord chancellor, but towards
the end of the month he fell ill and grew rapidly worse till the 12th of
November, when he died over sixty years of age.

Perhaps no celebrated character of that age has been the subject of so
much ill-merited abuse at the hands of popular historians. That his
virtue was not equal to every trial must be admitted, but that he was
anything like the morose and narrow-minded bigot he is commonly
represented there is nothing whatever to show. He has been called
ambitious, turbulent, crafty, abject, vindictive, bloodthirsty and a
good many other things besides, not quite in keeping with each other; in
addition to which it is roundly asserted by Bishop Burnet that he was
despised alike by Henry and by Mary, both of whom made use of him as a
tool. How such a mean and abject character submitted to remain five
years in prison rather than change his principles is not very clearly
explained; and as to his being despised, we have seen already that
neither Henry nor Mary considered him by any means despicable. The truth
is, there is not a single divine or statesman of that day whose course
throughout was so thoroughly consistent. He was no friend to the
Reformation, it is true, but he was at least a conscientious opponent.
In doctrine he adhered to the old faith from first to last, while as a
question of church policy, the only matter for consideration with him
was whether the new laws and ordinances were constitutionally
justifiable.

His merits as a theologian it is unnecessary to discuss; it is as a
statesman and a lawyer that he stands conspicuous. But his learning
even in divinity was far from commonplace. The part that he was allowed
to take in the drawing up of doctrinal formularies in Henry VIII.'s time
is not clear; but at a later date he was the author of various tracts in
defence of the Real Presence against Cranmer, some of which, being
written in prison, were published abroad under a feigned name.
Controversial writings also passed between him and Bucer, with whom he
had several interviews in Germany, when he was there as Henry VIII.'s
ambassador.

He was a friend of learning in every form, and took great interest
especially in promoting the study of Greek at Cambridge. He was,
however, opposed to the new method of pronouncing the language
introduced by Sir John Cheke, and wrote letters to him and Sir Thomas
Smith upon the subject, in which, according to Ascham, his opponents
showed themselves the better critics, but he the superior genius. In his
own household he loved to take in young university men of promise; and
many whom he thus encouraged became distinguished in after life as
bishops, ambassadors and secretaries of state. His house, indeed, was
spoken of by Leland as the seat of eloquence and the special abode of
the muses.

He lies buried in his own cathedral at Winchester, where his effigy is
still to be seen.     (J. Ga.)



GARDINER, a city of Kennebec county, Maine, U.S.A., at the confluence of
Cobbosseecontee river with the Kennebec, 6 m. below Augusta. Pop. (1890)
5491; (1900) 5501 (537 foreign-born); (1910) 5311. It is served by the
Maine Central railway. The site of the city is only a few feet above
sea-level, and the Kennebec is navigable for large vessels to this
point; the water of the Cobbosseecontee, falling about 130 ft. in a
mile, furnishes the city with good power for its manufactures (chiefly
paper, machine-shop products, and shoes). The city exports considerable
quantities of lumber and ice. Gardiner was founded in 1760 by Dr
Sylvester Gardiner (1707-1786), and for a time the settlement was called
Gardinerston; in 1779, when it was incorporated as a town, the founder
being then a Tory, it was renamed Pittston. But in 1803, when that part
of Pittston which lay on the W. bank of the Kennebec was incorporated as
a separate town and new life was given to it by the grandson of the
founder, the present name was adopted. Gardiner was chartered as a city
in 1849. The town of Pittston, on the E. bank of the Kennebec, had a
population of 1177 in 1900.



GARDNER, PERCY (1846-   ), English classical archaeologist, was born in
London, and was educated at the City of London school and Christ's
College, Cambridge (fellow, 1872). He was Disney professor of
archaeology at Cambridge from 1880 to 1887, and was then appointed
professor of classical archaeology at Oxford, where he had a stimulating
influence on the study of ancient, and particularly Greek, art. He also
became prominent as an historical critic on Biblical subjects. Among his
works are: _Types of Greek Coins_ (1883); _A Numismatic Commentary on
Pausanias_ (with F. Imhoof-Blumer, 1887); _New Chapters in Greek
History_ (1892), an account of excavations in Greece and Asia Minor;
_Manual of Greek Antiquities_ (with F.B. Jevons, 2nd ed. 1898); _Grammar
of Greek Art_ (1905); _Exploratio Evangelica_ (1899), on the origin of
Christian belief; _A Historic View of the New Testament_ (1901); _Growth
of Christianity_ (1907).

His brother, ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER (1862-   ), educated at the City of
London school and Caius College, Cambridge (fellow, 1885), is also well
known as an archaeologist. From 1887 to 1895 he was director of the
British School of Archaeology at Athens, and later became professor of
archaeology at University College, London. His publications include:
_Introduction to Greek Epigraphy_ (1887); _Ancient Athens_ (1902);
_Handbook of Greek Sculpture_ (1905); _Six Greek Sculptors_ (1910). He
was elected first Public Orator of London University in 1910.



GARDNER, a township of Worcester county, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop.
(1890) 8424; (1900) 10,813, of whom 3449 were foreign-born; (1910
census) 14,699. The township is traversed by the Boston & Maine railway.
It has an area of 21.4 sq. m. of hill country, well watered with streams
and ponds, and includes the villages of Gardner (15 m. by rail W. of
Fitchburg), South Gardner and West Gardner. In the township are the
state colony for the insane, the Henry Heywood memorial hospital, and
the Levi Heywood memorial library (opened in 1886), a memorial to Levi
Heywood (1800-1882), a prominent local manufacturer of chairs, who
invented various kinds of chair-making machinery. By far the principal
industry of the township (dating from 1805) is the manufacture of
chairs, the township having in 1905 the largest chair factory in the
world; among the other manufactures are toys, baby-carriages,
silver-ware and oil stoves. In 1905 the total factory product of the
township was valued at $5,019,019, the furniture product alone amounting
to $4,267,064, or 85.2% of the total. Gardner, formed from parts of
Ashburnham, Templeton, Westminster and Winchenden, was incorporated in
1785, and was named in honour of Col. Thomas Gardner (1724-1775), a
patriot leader of Massachusetts, who was mortally wounded in the battle
of Bunker Hill.

  See W.D. Herrick, _History of the Town of Gardner_ (Gardner, 1878),
  covering the years 1785-1878.



GARE-FOWL[1] (Icelandic, _Geirfugl_; Gaelic, _Gearbhul_), the anglicized
form of the Hebridean name of a large sea-bird now considered extinct,
formerly a visitor to certain remote Scottish islands, the Great Auk of
most English book-writers, and the _Alca impennis_ of Linnaeus. In size
it was hardly less than a tame goose, and in appearance it much
resembled its smaller and surviving relative the razor-bill (_Alca
torda_); but the glossy black of its head was varied by a large patch of
white occupying nearly all the space between the eye and the bill, in
place of the razor-bill's thin white line, while the bill itself bore
eight or more deep transverse grooves instead of the smaller number and
the ivory-like mark possessed by the species last named. Otherwise the
coloration was similar in both, and there is satisfactory evidence that
the gare-fowl's winter-plumage differed from that of the breeding-season
just as is ordinarily the case in other members of the family _Alcidae_
to which it belongs. The most striking characteristic of the gare-fowl,
however, was the comparatively abortive condition of its wings, the
distal portions of which, though the bird was just about twice the
linear dimensions of the razor-bill, were almost exactly of the same
size as in that species--proving, if more direct evidence were wanting,
its inability to fly.

[Illustration: Gare-Fowl, or Great Auk.]

The most prevalent misconception concerning the gare-fowl is one which
has been repeated so often, and in books of such generally good repute
and wide dispersal, that a successful refutation seems almost hopeless.
This is the notion that it was a bird possessing a very high northern
range, and consequently to be looked for by Arctic explorers. How this
error arose would take too long to tell, but the fact remains
indisputable that, setting aside general assertions resting on no
evidence worthy of attention, there is but a single record deserving any
credit at all of a single example of the species having been observed
within the Arctic Circle, and this, according to Prof. Reinhardt, who
had the best means of ascertaining the truth, is open to grave doubt.[2]
It is clear that the older ornithologists let their imagination get the
better of their knowledge or their judgment, and their statements have
been blindly repeated by most of their successors. Another error which,
if not so widely spread, is at least as serious, since Sir R. Owen
unhappily gave it countenance, is that this bird "has not been specially
hunted down like the dodo and dinornis, but by degrees has become more
scarce." If any reliance can be placed upon the testimony of former
observers, the first part of this statement is absolutely untrue. Of the
dodo all we know is that it flourished in Mauritius, its only abode, at
the time the island was discovered, and that some 200 years later it had
ceased to exist--the mode of its extinction being open to conjecture,
and a strong suspicion existing that though indirectly due to man's acts
it was accomplished by his thoughtless agents (_Phil. Trans._, 1869, p.
354). The extinction of the _Dinornis_ lies beyond the range of recorded
history. Supposing it even to have taken place at the very latest period
as yet suggested--and there is much to be urged in favour of such a
supposition--little but oral tradition remains to tell us how its
extirpation was effected. That it existed after New Zealand was
inhabited by man is indeed certain, and there is nothing extraordinary
in the proved fact that the early settlers (of whatever race they were)
killed and ate moas. But evidence that the whole population of those
birds was done to death by man, however likely it may seem, is wholly
wanting. The contrary is the case with the gare-fowl. In Iceland there
is the testimony of a score of witnesses, taken down from their lips by
one of the most careful naturalists who ever lived, John Wolley, that
the latest survivors of the species were caught and killed by
expeditions expressly organized with the view of supplying the demands
of caterers to the various museums of Europe. In like manner the fact is
incontestable that its breeding-stations in the western part of the
Atlantic were for three centuries regularly visited and devastated with
the combined objects of furnishing food or bait to the fishermen from
very early days, and its final extinction, according to Sir Richard
Bonnycastle (_Newfoundland in 1842_, i. p. 232), was owing to "the
ruthless trade in its eggs and skin." There is no doubt that one of the
chief stations of this species in Icelandic waters disappeared through
volcanic action, and that the destruction of the old Geirfuglaskér drove
some at least of the birds which frequented it to a rock nearer the
mainland, where they were exposed to danger from which they had in their
former abode been comparatively free; yet on this rock (Eldey =
fire-island) they were "specially hunted down" whenever opportunity
offered, until the stock there was wholly extirpated in 1844.

A third misapprehension is that entertained by John Gould in his _Birds
of Great Britain_, where he says that "formerly this bird was plentiful
in all the northern parts of the British Islands, particularly the
Orkneys and the Hebrides. At the commencement of the 19th century,
however, its fate appears to have been sealed; for though it doubtless
existed, and probably bred, up to the year 1830, its numbers annually
diminished until they became so few that the species could not hold its
own." Now of the Orkneys, we know that George Low, who died in 1795,
says in his posthumously-published _Fauna Orcadensis_ that he could not
find it was ever seen there; and on Bullock's visit in 1812 he was told,
says Montagu (_Orn. Dict. App._), that one male only had made its
appearance for a long time. This bird he saw and unsuccessfully hunted,
but it was killed soon after his departure, while its mate had been
killed just before his arrival, and none have been seen there since. As
to the Hebrides, St Kilda is the only locality recorded for it, and the
last example known to have been obtained there, or in its neighbourhood,
was that given to Fleming (_Edinb. Phil. Journ._ x. p. 96) in 1821 or
1822, having been some time before captured by Mr Maclellan of Glass.
That the gare-fowl was not plentiful in either group of islands is
sufficiently obvious, as also is the impossibility of its continuing to
breed "up to the year 1830."

But mistakes like these are not confined to British authors. As on the
death of an ancient hero myths gathered round his memory as quickly as
clouds round the setting sun, so have stories, probable as well as
impossible, accumulated over the true history of this species, and it
behoves the conscientious naturalist to exercise more than common
caution in sifting the truth from the large mass of error. Americans
have asserted that the specimen which belonged to Audubon (now at Vassar
College) was obtained by him on the banks of Newfoundland, though there
is Macgillivray's distinct statement (_Brit. Birds_, v. p. 359) that
Audubon procured it in London. The account given by Degland (_Orn.
Europ._ ii. p. 529) in 1849, and repeated in the last edition of his
work by M. Gerbe, of its extinction in Orkney, is so manifestly absurd
that it deserves to be quoted in full: "Il se trouvait en assez grand
nombre il y a une quinzaine d'années aux Orcades; mais le ministre
presbytérien dans le Mainland, en offrant une forte prime aux personnes
qui lui apportaient cet oiseau, a été cause de sa destruction sur ces
îles." The same author claims the species as a visitor to the shores of
France on the testimony of Hardy (_Annuaire normand_, 1841, p. 298),
which he grievously misquotes both in his own work and in another place
(_Naumannia_, 1855, p. 423), thereby misleading an anonymous English
writer (_Nat. Hist. Rev._, 1865, p. 475) and numerous German readers.

John Milne in 1875 visited Funk Island, one of the former resorts of the
gare-fowl, or "penguin," as it was there called, in the Newfoundland
seas, a place where bones had before been obtained by Stuvitz, and
natural mummies so lately as 1863 and 1864. Landing on this rock at the
risk of his life, he brought off a rich cargo of its remains, belonging
to no fewer than fifty birds, some of them in size exceeding any that
had before been known. His collection was subsequently dispersed, most
of the specimens finding their way into various public museums.

  A literature by no means inconsiderable has grown up respecting the
  gare-fowl. Neglecting works of general bearing, few of which are
  without many inaccuracies, the following treatises may be especially
  mentioned:--J.J.S. Steenstrup, "Et Bidrag til Geirfuglens
  Naturhistorie og saerligt til Kundskaben om dens tidligere
  Udbredningskreds," _Naturh. Foren. Vidensk. Meddelelser_ (Copenhagen,
  1855), p. 33; E. Charlton, "On the Great Auk," _Trans. Tyneside Nat.
  Field Club_, iv. p. 111; "Abstract of Mr J. Wolley's Researches in
  Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl," _Ibis_ (1861), p. 374; W. Preyer,
  "_Über Plautus impennis_," _Journ. für Orn._ (1862), pp. 110, 337;
  K.E. von Baer, "Über das Aussterben der Tierarten in physiologischer
  und nicht physiologischer Hinsicht," _Bull. de l'Acad. Imp. de
  St-Pétersb._ vi. p. 513; R. Owen, "Description of the Skeleton of the
  Great Auk," _Trans. Zool. Soc._ v. p. 317; "The Gare-fowl and its
  Historians," _Nat. Hist. Rev._ v. p. 467; J.H. Gurney, jun., "On the
  Great Auk," _Zoologist_ (2nd ser.), pp. 1442, 1639; H. Reeks, "Great
  Auk in Newfoundland," &c., _op. cit._ p. 1854; V. Fatio, "Sur l'Alca
  impennis," _Bull. Soc. Orn. Suisse_, ii. pp. 1, 80, 147; "On existing
  Remains of the Gare-fowl," _Ibis_ (1870), p. 256; J. Milne, "Relics of
  the Great Auk," _Field_ (27th of March, 3rd and 10th of April 1875).
  Lastly, reference cannot be omitted to the happy exercise of poetic
  fancy with which Charles Kingsley was enabled to introduce the chief
  facts of the gare-fowl's extinction (derived from one of the
  above-named papers) into his charming _Water Babies_.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The name first appears, and in this form, in the _Account of
    Hirta_ (St Kilda) _and Rona, &c._, by the lord register, Sir George
    M'Kenzie, of Tarbat, printed by Pinkerton in his _Collection of
    Voyages and Travels_ (iii. p. 730), and then in Sibbald's _Scotia
    illustrata_ (1684). Martin soon after, in his _Voyage to St Kilda_,
    spelt it "Gairfowl." Sir R. Owen adopted the form "garfowl," without,
    as would seem, any precedent authority.

  [2] The specimen is in the Museum of Copenhagen; the doubt lies as to
    the locality where it was obtained, whether at Disco, which is
    within, or at the Fiskernäs, which is without, the Arctic Circle.



GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM (1831-1881), twentieth president of the United
States, was born on the 19th of November 1831 in a log cabin in the
little frontier town of Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio. His early years
were spent in the performance of such labour as fell to the lot of
every farmer's son in the new states, and in the acquisition of such
education as could be had in the district schools held for a few weeks
each winter. But life on a farm was not to his liking, and at sixteen he
left home and set off to make a living in some other way. A book of
stories of adventure on the sea, which he read over and over again when
a boy, had filled him with a longing for a seafaring life. He decided,
therefore, to become a sailor, and, in 1848, tramping across the country
to Cleveland, Ohio, he sought employment from the captain of a lake
schooner. But the captain drove him from the deck, and, wandering on in
search of work, he fell in with a canal boatman who engaged him. During
some months young Garfield served as bowsman, deck-hand and driver of a
canal boat. An attack of the ague sent him home, and on recovery, having
resolved to attend a high school and fit himself to become a teacher, he
passed the next four years in a hard struggle with poverty and in an
earnest effort to secure an education, studying for a short time in the
Geauga Seminary at Chester, Ohio. He worked as a teacher, a carpenter
and a farmer; studied for a time at the Western Reserve Eclectic
Institute at Hiram, Ohio, which afterward became Hiram College, and
finally entered Williams College. On graduation, in 1856, Garfield
became professor of ancient languages and literature in the Eclectic
Institute at Hiram, and within a year had risen to the presidency of the
institution.

Soon afterwards he entered political life. In the early days of the
Republican party, when the shameful scenes of the Kansas struggle were
exciting the whole country, and during the campaigns of 1857 and 1858,
he became known as an effective speaker and ardent anti-slavery man. His
reward for his services was election in 1859 to the Ohio Senate as the
member from Portage and Summit counties. When the "cotton states"
seceded, Garfield appeared as a warm supporter of vigorous measures. He
was one of the six Ohio senators who voted against the proposed
amendment to the Federal Constitution (Feb. 28th, 1861) forbidding any
constitutional amendment which should give Congress the power to abolish
or interfere with slavery in any state; he upheld the right of the
government to coerce seceded states; defended the "Million War Bill"
appropriating a million dollars for the state's military expenses; and
when the call came for 75,000 troops, he moved that Ohio furnish 20,000
soldiers and three millions of dollars as her share. He had just been
admitted to the bar, but on the outbreak of war he at once offered his
services to the governor, and became lieutenant-colonel and then colonel
of the 42nd Ohio Volunteers, recruited largely from among his former
students. He served in Kentucky, was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general of volunteers early in 1862; took part in the second
day's fighting at the battle of Shiloh, served as chief of staff under
Rosecrans in the Army of the Cumberland in 1863, fought at Chickamauga,
and was made a major-general of volunteers for gallantry in that battle.
In 1862 he was elected a member of Congress from the Ashtabula district
of Ohio, and, resigning his military commission, took his seat in the
House of Representatives in December 1863. In Congress he joined the
radical wing of the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of
Confederate property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto
denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized as a hard
worker and ready speaker. Capacity for work brought him places on
important committees--he was chairman successively of the committee on
military affairs, the committee on banking and currency, and the
committee on appropriations,--and his ability as a speaker enabled him
to achieve distinction on the floor of the House and to rise to
leadership. Between 1863 and 1873 Garfield delivered speeches of
importance on "The Constitutional Amendment to abolish Slavery," "The
Freedman's Bureau," "The Reconstruction of the Rebel States," "The
Public Debt and Specie Payments," "Reconstruction," "The Currency,"
"Taxation of United States Bonds," "Enforcing the 14th Amendment,"
"National Aid to Education," and "the Right to Originate Revenue Bills."
The year 1874 was one of disaster to the Republican party. The greenback
issue, the troubles growing out of reconstruction in the South, the
Crédit Mobilier and the "Salary Grab," disgusted thousands of
independent voters and sent a wave of Democracy over the country.
Garfield himself was accused of corruption in connexion with the Crédit
Mobilier scandal, but the charge was never proved. A Republican
convention in his district demanded his resignation, and re-election
seemed impossible; but he defended himself in two pamphlets, "Increase
of Salaries" and "Review of the Transactions of the Crédit Mobilier
Company," made a village-to-village canvass, and was victorious. In 1876
Garfield for the eighth time was chosen to represent his district; and
afterwards as one of the two representatives of the Republicans in the
House, he was a member of the Electoral Commission which decided the
dispute regarding the presidential election of 1876. When, in 1877,
James G. Blaine was made a senator from Maine, the leadership of the
House of Representatives passed to Garfield, and he became the
Republican candidate for speaker. But the Democrats had a majority in
the House, and he was defeated. Hayes, the new president, having chosen
John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, an effort was made to
send Garfield to the United States Senate in Sherman's place. But the
president needed his services in the House, and he was not elected to
the Senate until 1880.

The time had now come (1880) when the Republican party must nominate a
candidate for the presidency. General Grant had served two terms
(1869-1877), and the unwritten law of custom condemned his being given
another. But the "bosses" of the Republican party in three great
States--New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois--were determined that he
should be renominated. These men and their followers were known as the
"stalwarts." Opposed to them were two other factions, one supporting
James G. Blaine, of Maine, and the other John Sherman, of Ohio. When the
convention met and the balloting began, the contest along these
factional lines started in earnest. For eight-and-twenty ballots no
change of any consequence was noticeable. Though votes were often cast
for ten names, there were but two real candidates before the convention,
Grant and Blaine. That the partisans of neither would yield in favour of
the other was certain. That the choice therefore rested with the
supporters of the minor candidates was manifest, and with the cry
"Anything to beat Grant!" an effort was made to find some man on whom
the opposition could unite. Such a man was Garfield. His long term of
service in the House, his leadership of his party on its floor, his
candidacy for the speakership, and his recent election to the United
States Senate, marked him out as the available man. Between the casting
of the first and the thirty-third ballot, Garfield, who was the leader
of Sherman's adherents in the convention, had sometimes received one or
two votes and at other times none. On the thirty-fourth he received
seventeen, on the next fifty, and on the next almost the entire vote
hitherto cast for Blaine and Sherman, and was declared nominated. During
the campaign Garfield was subject to violent personal abuse; the fact
that he was alleged to have received $329 from the Crédit Mobilier as a
dividend on stock led his opponents to raise the campaign cry of "329,"
and this number was placarded in the streets of the cities and printed
in flaring type in partisan newspapers. The forged "Morey letter," in
which he was made to appear as opposed to the exclusion of the Chinese,
was widely circulated and injured his candidacy in the West. That the
charges against Garfield were not generally credited, however, is shown
by the fact that he received 214 electoral votes to his opponent's 155.
He was inaugurated on the 4th of March 1881.

Unfortunately, the new president was unequal to the task of composing
the differences in his party. For his secretary of state he chose James
G. Blaine, the bitterest political enemy of Senator Roscoe Conkling
(q.v.), the leader of the New York "stalwarts." Without consulting the
New York senators, Garfield appointed William H. Robertson, another
political enemy of Conkling's, to the desirable post of Collector of the
Port of New York, and thereby destroyed all prospects of party harmony.
On the 2nd of July, while on his way to attend the commencement
exercises at Williams College, the new president was shot in a
Washington railway station by a disappointed office-seeker named Charles
J. Guiteau, whose mind had no doubt been somewhat influenced by the
abuse lavished upon the president by his party opponents; and on the
19th of September 1881, he died at Elberon, New Jersey, whither he had
been removed on the 6th. He was buried in Cleveland, Ohio, where in 1890
a monument was erected by popular subscription to his memory.

In 1858 Garfield had married Miss Lucretia Rudolph, by whom he had seven
children. His son, HARRY AUGUSTUS GARFIELD (b. 1863) graduated at
Williams College in 1885, practised law in Cleveland, Ohio, in
1888-1903, was professor of politics at Princeton University in
1903-1908, and in 1908 became president of Williams College. Another
son, JAMES RUDOLPH GARFIELD (b. 1865), also graduated at Williams
College in 1885 and practised law in Cleveland; he was a Republican
member of the Ohio Senate in 1896-1899, was commissioner of
corporations, Department of Commerce and Labour, in 1903-1907,
attracting wide attention by his reports on certain large industrial
organizations, and was secretary of the interior (1907-1909) in the
cabinet of President Roosevelt.

  President Garfield's writings, edited by Burke A. Hinsdale, were
  published at Boston, in two volumes, in 1882.     (J. B. McM.)



GAR-FISH, the name given to a genus of fishes (_Belone_) found in nearly
all the temperate and tropical seas, and readily recognized by their
long, slender, compressed and silvery body, and by their jaws being
produced into a long, pointed, bony and sharply-toothed beak. About
fifty species are known from different parts of the globe, some
attaining to a length of 4 or 5 ft. One species is common on the British
coasts, and is well known by the names of "long-nose," "green-bone," &c.
The last name is given to those fishes on account of the peculiar green
colour of their bones, which deters many people from eating them,
although their flesh is well flavoured and perfectly wholesome. The
skipper (_Scomberesox_) and half-beak (_Hemirhamphus_), in which the
lower jaw only is prolonged, are fishes nearly akin to the gar-pikes.



GARGANEY[1] (North-Italian, _Garganello_), or SUMMER-TEAL, the _Anas
querquedula_ and _A. circia_ of Linnaeus (who made, as did Willughby and
Ray, two species out of one), and the type of Stephens's genus
_Querquedula_. This bird is one of the smallest of the _Anatidae_, and
has gained its common English name from being almost exclusively a
summer-visitant to England where nowadays it only regularly resorts to
breed in some of the East-Norfolk Broads, though possibly at one time it
was found at the same season throughout the great Fen-district. Slightly
larger than the common teal (_A. crecca_), the male is readily
distinguished therefrom by its peculiarly-coloured head, the sides of
which are nutmeg-brown, closely freckled with short whitish streaks,
while a conspicuous white curved line descends backwards from the eyes.
The upper wing-coverts are bluish grey, the scapulars black with a white
shaft-stripe, and the wing-spot (_speculum_) greyish green bordered
above and below by white. The female closely resembles the hen teal, but
possesses no wing-spot. In Ireland or Scotland the garganey is very
rare, and though it is recorded from Iceland, more satisfactory evidence
of its occurrence there is needed. It has not a high northern range, and
its appearance in Norway and Sweden is casual. Though it breeds in many
parts of Europe, in none can it be said to be common; but it ranges far
to the eastward in Asia--even to Formosa, according to Swinhoe--and
yearly visits India in winter in enormous numbers. Those that breed in
Norfolk arrive somewhat late in spring and make their nests in the vast
reed-beds which border the Broads--a situation rarely or never chosen by
the teal. The labyrinth or bony enlargement of the trachea in the male
garganey differs in form from that described in any other drake, being
more oval and placed nearly in the median line of the windpipe, instead
of on one side, as is usually the case.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The word was introduced by Willughby from Gesner (_Orn._, lib.
    iii. p. 127), but, though generally adopted by authors, seems never
    to have become other than a book-name in English, the bird being
    invariably known in the parts of this island where it is indigenous
    as "summer-teal."



GARGANO, MONTE (anc. _Garganus Mons_), a massive mountainous peninsula
projecting E. from the N. coast of Apulia, Italy, and belonging
geologically to the opposite Dalmatian coast; it was indeed separated
from the rest of Italy by an arm of the sea as late as the Tertiary
period. The highest point (Monte Calvo) is 3465 ft. above sea-level. The
oak forests for which it was renowned in Roman times have entirely
disappeared.



GARGOYLE, or GURGOYLE (from the Fr. _gargouille_, originally the throat
or gullet, cf. Lat. _gurgulio_, _gula_, and similar words derived from
root _gar_, to swallow, the word representing the gurgling sound of
water; Ital. _doccia di grande_; Ger. _Ausguss_), in architecture, the
carved termination to a spout which conveys away the water from the
gutters. Gargoyles are mostly grotesque figures. The term is applied
more especially to medieval work, but throughout all ages some means of
throwing the water off the roofs, when not conveyed in gutters, has been
adopted, and in Egypt there are gargoyles to eject the water used in the
washing of the sacred vessels which would seem to have been done on the
flat roofs of the temples. In Greek temples the water from the roof
passed through the mouths of lions whose heads were carved or modelled
in the marble or terra-cotta cymatium of the cornice. At Pompeii large
numbers of terra-cotta gargoyles have been found which were modelled in
the shape of various animals.



GARHWAL, or GURWAL. 1. A district of British India, in the Kumaon
division of the United Provinces. It has an area of 5629 sq. m., and
consists almost entirely of rugged mountain ranges running in all
directions, and separated by narrow valleys which in some cases become
deep gorges or ravines. The only level portion of the district is a
narrow strip of waterless forest between the southern slopes of the
hills and the fertile plains of Rohilkhand. The highest mountains are in
the north, the principal peaks being Nanda Devi (25,661 ft.), Kamet
(25,413), Trisul (23,382), Badrinath (23,210), Dunagiri (23,181) and
Kedarnath (22,853). The Alaknanda, one of the main sources of the
Ganges, receives with its affluents the whole drainage of the district.
At Devaprayag the Alaknanda joins the Bhagirathi, and thenceforward the
united streams bear the name of the Ganges. Cultivation is principally
confined to the immediate vicinity of the rivers, which are employed for
purposes of irrigation. Garhwal originally consisted of 52 petty
chieftainships, each chief with his own independent fortress (_garh_).
Nearly 500 years ago, one of these chiefs, Ajai Pál, reduced all the
minor principalities under his own sway, and founded the Garhwal
kingdom. He and his ancestors ruled over Garhwal and the adjacent state
of Tehri, in an uninterrupted line till 1803, when the Gurkhas invaded
Kumaon and Garhwal, driving the Garhwal chief into the plains. For
twelve years the Gurkhas ruled the country with a rod of iron, until a
series of encroachments by them on British territory led to the war with
Nepal in 1814. At the termination of the campaign, Garhwal and Kumaon
were converted into British districts, while the Tehri principality was
restored to a son of the former chief. Since annexation, Garhwal has
rapidly advanced in material prosperity. Pop. (1901) 429,900. Two
battalions of the Indian army (the 39th Garhwal Rifles) are recruited in
the district, which also contains the military cantonment of Lansdowne.
Grain and coarse cloth are exported, and salt, borax, live-stock and
wool are imported, the trade with Tibet being considerable. The
administrative headquarters are at the village of Pauri, but Srinagar is
the largest place. This is an important mart, as is also Kotdwara, the
terminus of a branch of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway from Najibabad.

2. A native state, also known as Tehri, after its capital; area 4180 sq.
m.; pop. (1901) 268,885. It adjoins the district mentioned above, and
its topographical features are similar. It contains the sources of both
the Ganges and the Jumna, which are visited by thousands of Hindu
pilgrims. The gross revenue is about £28,000, of which nearly half is
derived from forests. No tribute is paid to the British government.



GARIBALDI, GIUSEPPE (1807-1882), Italian patriot, was born at Nice on
the 4th of July 1807. As a youth he fled from home to escape a clerical
education, but afterwards joined his father in the coasting trade. After
joining the "Giovine Italia" he entered the Sardinian navy, and, with a
number of companions on board the frigate "Euridice," plotted to seize
the vessel and occupy the arsenal of Genoa at the moment when Mazzini's
Savoy expedition should enter Piedmont. The plot being discovered,
Garibaldi fled, but was condemned to death by default on the 3rd of June
1834. Escaping to South America in 1836, he was given letters of marque
by the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil.
After a series of victorious engagements he was taken prisoner and
subjected to severe torture, which dislocated his limbs. Regaining
liberty, he renewed the war against Brazil, and took Porto Allegro.
During the campaign he met his wife, Anita, who became his inseparable
companion and mother of three children, Anita, Ricciotti and Menotti.
Passing into the service of Uruguay, he was sent to Corrientes with a
small flotilla to oppose Rosas's forces, but was overtaken by Admiral
Brown, against whose fleet he fought for three days. When his ammunition
was exhausted he burned his ships and escaped. Returning to Montevideo,
he formed the Italian Legion, with which he won the battles of Cerro and
Sant' Antonio in the spring of 1846, and assured the freedom of Uruguay.
Refusing all honours and recompense, he prepared to return to Italy upon
receiving news of the incipient revolutionary movement. In October 1847
he wrote to Pius IX., offering his services to the Church, whose cause
he for a moment believed to be that of national liberty.

Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword at the
disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties with the
Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 strong, but shortly
after taking the field was obliged, by the defeat of Custozza, to flee
to Switzerland. Proceeding thence to Rome, he was entrusted by the Roman
republic with the defence of San Pancrazio against the French, where he
gained the victory of the 30th of April 1849, remaining all day in the
saddle, although wounded in the side at the beginning of the fight. From
the 3rd of May until the 30th of May he was continuously engaged against
the Bourbon troops at Palestrina, Velletri and elsewhere, dispersing an
army of 20,000 men with 3000 volunteers. After the fall of Rome he left
the city at the head of 4000 volunteers, with the idea of joining the
defenders of Venice, and started on that wonderful retreat through
central Italy pursued by the armies of France, Austria, Spain and
Naples. By his consummate generalship and the matchless endurance of his
men the pursuers were evaded and San Marino reached, though with a sadly
diminished force. Garibaldi and a few followers, including his devoted
wife Anita, after vainly attempting to reach Venice, where the tricolor
still floated, took refuge in the pine forests of Ravenna; the Austrians
were seeking him in all directions, and most of his legionaries were
captured and shot. Anita died near Comacchio, and he himself fled across
the peninsula, being assisted by all classes of the people, to Tuscany,
whence he escaped to Piedmont and ultimately to America. At New York, in
order to earn a living, he became first a chandler, and afterwards a
trading skipper, returning to Italy in 1854 with a small fortune, and
purchasing the island of Caprera, on which he built the house
thenceforth his home. On the outbreak of war in 1859 he was placed in
command of the Alpine infantry, defeating the Austrians at Casale on the
8th of May, crossing the Ticino on the 23rd of May, and, after a series
of victorious fights, liberating Alpine territory as far as the frontier
of Tirol. When about to enter Austrian territory proper his advance was,
however, checked by the armistice of Villafranca.

Returning to Como to wed the countess Raimondi, by whom he had been
aided during the campaign, he was apprised, immediately after the
wedding, of certain circumstances which caused him at once to abandon
that lady and to start for central Italy. Forbidden to invade the
Romagna, he returned indignantly to Caprera, where with Crispi and
Bertani he planned the invasion of Sicily. Assured by Sir James Hudson
of the sympathy of England, he began active preparations for the
expedition to Marsala. At the last moment he hesitated, but Crispi
succeeded in persuading him to sail from Genoa on the 5th of May 1860
with two vessels carrying a volunteer corps of 1070 strong. Calling at
Talamone to embark arms and money, he reached Marsala on the 11th of
May, and landed under the protection of the British vessels "Intrepid"
and "Argus." On the 12th of May the dictatorship of Garibaldi was
proclaimed at Salemi, on the 15th of May the Neapolitan troops were
routed at Calatafimi, on the 25th of May Palermo was taken, and on the
6th of June 20,000 Neapolitan regulars, supported by nine frigates and
protected by two forts, were compelled to capitulate. Once established
at Palermo, Garibaldi organized an army to liberate Naples and march
upon Rome, a plan opposed by the emissaries of Cavour, who desired the
immediate annexation of Sicily to the Italian kingdom. Expelling
Lafarina and driving out Depretis, who represented Cavour, Garibaldi
routed the Neapolitans at Milazzo on the 20th of July. Messina fell on
the 20th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria,
secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was fitting
out an expedition against the papal states. Cavour, however, obliged the
expedition to sail for Palermo. Returning to Messina, Garibaldi found a
letter from Victor Emmanuel II. dissuading him from invading the kingdom
of Naples. Garibaldi replied asking "permission to disobey." Next day he
crossed the Strait, won the battle of Reggio on the 21st of August,
accepted the capitulation of 9000 Neapolitan troops at San Giovanni and
of 11,000 more at Soveria. The march upon Naples became a triumphal
progress, which the wiles of Francesco II. were powerless to arrest. On
the 7th of September Garibaldi entered Naples, while Francesco fled to
Gaeta. On the 1st of October he routed the remnant of the Bourbon army
40,000 strong on the Volturno. Meanwhile the Italian troops had occupied
the Marches, Umbria and the Abruzzi, a battalion of Bersaglieri reaching
the Volturno in time to take part in the battle. Their presence put an
end to the plan for the invasion of the papal states, and Garibaldi
unwillingly issued a decree for the _plébiscite_ which was to sanction
the incorporation of the Two Sicilies in the Italian realm. On the 7th
of November Garibaldi accompanied Victor Emmanuel during his solemn
entry into Naples, and on the morrow returned to Caprera, after
disbanding his volunteers and recommending their enrolment in the
regular army.

Indignation at the cession of Nice to France and at the neglect of his
followers by the Italian government induced him to return to political
life. Elected deputy in 1861, his anger against Cavour found violent
expression. Bixio attempted to reconcile them, but the publication by
Cialdini of a letter against Garibaldi provoked a hostility which, but
for the intervention of the king, would have led to a duel between
Cialdini and Garibaldi. Returning to Caprera, Garibaldi awaited events.
Cavour's successor, Ricasoli, enrolled the Garibaldians in the regular
army; Rattazzi, who succeeded Ricasoli, urged Garibaldi to undertake an
expedition in aid of the Hungarians, but Garibaldi, finding his
followers ill-disposed towards the idea, decided to turn his arms
against Rome. On the 29th of June 1862 he landed at Palermo and gathered
an army under the banner "Roma o morte." Rattazzi, frightened at the
prospect of an attack upon Rome, proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily,
sent the fleet to Messina, and instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi.
Circumventing the Italian troops, Garibaldi entered Catania, crossed to
Melito with 3000 men on the 25th of August, but was taken prisoner and
wounded by Cialdini's forces at Aspromonte on the 27th of August.
Liberated by an amnesty, Garibaldi returned once more to Caprera amidst
general sympathy.

In the spring of 1864 he went to London, where he was accorded an
enthusiastic reception and given the freedom of the city. From England
he returned again to Caprera. On the outbreak of war in 1866 he assumed
command of a volunteer army and, after the defeat of the Italian troops
at Custozza, took the offensive in order to cover Brescia. On the 3rd of
July he defeated the Austrians at Monte Saello, on the 7th at Lodrone,
on the 10th at Darso, on the 16th at Condino, on the 19th at Ampola, on
the 21st at Bezzecca, but, when on the point of attacking Trent, he was
ordered by General Lamarmora to retire. His famous reply "Obbedisco" ("I
obey") has often been cited as a classical example of military obedience
to a command destructive of a successful leader's hopes, but documents
now published (cf. _Corriere della sera_, 9th of August 1906) prove
beyond doubt that Garibaldi had for some days known that the order to
evacuate the Trentino would shortly reach him. The order arrived on the
9th of August, whereas Crispi had been sent as early as the 16th of July
to warn Garibaldi that, owing to Prussian opposition, Austria would not
cede the Trentino to Italy, and that the evacuation was inevitable.
Hence Garibaldi's laconic reply. From the Trentino he returned to
Caprera to mature his designs against Rome, which had been evacuated by
the French in pursuance of the Franco-Italian convention of the 15th of
September 1864. Gathering volunteers in the autumn of 1867, he prepared
to enter papal territory, but was arrested at Sinalunga by the Italian
government and conducted to Caprera. Eluding the surveillance of the
Italian cruisers, he returned to Florence, and, with the complicity of
the second Rattazzi cabinet, entered Roman territory at Passo Corese on
the 23rd of October. Two days later he took Monterotondo, but on the 2nd
of November his forces were dispersed at Mentana by French and papal
troops. Recrossing the Italian frontier, he was arrested at Figline and
taken back to Caprera, where he eked out his slender resources by
writing several romances. In 1870 he formed a fresh volunteer corps and
went to the aid of France, defeating the German troops at Chatillon,
Autun and Dijon. Elected a member of the Versailles assembly, he
resigned his mandate in anger at French insults, and withdrew to Caprera
until, in 1874, he was elected deputy for Rome. Popular enthusiasm
induced the Conservative Minghetti cabinet to propose that a sum of
£40,000 with an annual pension of £2000 be conferred upon him as a
recompense for his services, but the proposal, though adopted by
parliament (27th May 1875), was indignantly refused by Garibaldi. Upon
the advent of the Left to power, however, he accepted both gift and
pension, and worked energetically upon the scheme for the Tiber
embankment to prevent the flooding of Rome. At the same time he
succeeded in obtaining the annulment of his marriage with the countess
Raimondi (with whom he had never lived) and contracted another marriage
with the mother of his children, Clelia and Manlio. In 1880 he went to
Milan for the inauguration of the Mentana monument, and in 1882 visited
Naples and Palermo, but was prevented by illness from being present at
the 600th anniversary of the Sicilian Vespers. On the 2nd of June 1882
his death at Caprera plunged Italy into mourning.

  See Garibaldi, _Epistolario_, ed. E.E. Ximenes (2 vols., Milan, 1885),
  and _Memorie autografiche_ (11th ed., Florence, 1902; Eng. translation
  by A. Werner, with supplement by J.W. Mario in vol. iii. of 1888 ed.);
  Giuseppe Guerzoni, _Garibaldi_ (2 vols., Florence, 1882); Jessie White
  Mario, _Garibaldi e i suoi tempi_ (Milan, 1884); G.M. Trevelyan,
  _Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic_ (London, 1907), which
  contains an excellent sketch of Garibaldi's early career, of the
  events leading up to the proclamation of the Roman Republic, and a
  picturesque, detailed and authoritative account of the defence of Rome
  and of Garibaldi's flight, with a very full bibliography; also
  Trevelyan's _Garibaldi and the Thousand_ (1909).     (H. W. S.)



GARIN LE LOHERAIN, French epic hero. The 12th century _chanson de geste_
of Garin le Loherain is one of the fiercest and most sanguinary
narratives left by the _trouvères_. This local cycle of Lorraine, which
is completed by Hervis de Metz, Girbers de Metz, Anséis, fils de Girbert
and Yon, is obviously based on history, and the failure absolutely to
identify the events recorded does not deprive the poems of their value
as a picture of the savage feudal wars of the 11th and 12th centuries.
The episodes are evolved naturally and the usual devices adopted by the
_trouvères_ to reconcile their inconsistencies are absent. Nevertheless
no satisfactory historical explanation of the story has yet been
offered. It has been suggested by a recent critic (F. Settegast,
_Quellenstudien zur gallo-romanischen Epik_, 1904) that these poems
resume historical traditions going back to the Vandal irruption of 408
and the battle fought by the Romans and the West Goths against the Huns
in 451. The cycle relates three wars against hosts of heathen invaders.
In the first of these Charles Martel and his faithful vassal Hervis of
Metz fight by an extraordinary anachronism against the Vandals, who have
destroyed Reims and besieged other cities. They are defeated in a great
battle near Troyes. In the second Hervis is besieged in Metz by the
"Hongres." He sends first for help to Pippin, who defers his assistance
by the advice of the traitor Hardré. Hervis then transfers his
allegiance to Anséis of Cologne, by whose help the invaders are
repulsed, though Hervis himself is slain. In the third Thierry, king of
Moriane[1] sends to Pippin for help against four Saracen kings. He is
delivered by a Frankish host, but falls in the battle. Hervis of Metz
was the son of a citizen to whom the duke of Lorraine had married his
daughter Aelis, and his sons Garin and Begue are the heroes of the
_chanson_ which gives its name to the cycle. The dying king Thierry had
desired that his daughter Blanchefleur should marry Garin, but when
Garin prefers his suit at the court of Pippin, Fromont of Bordeaux puts
himself forward as his rival and Hardré, Fromont's father, is slain by
Garin. The rest of the poem is taken up with the war that ensues between
the Lorrainers and the men of Bordeaux. They finally submit their
differences to the king, only to begin their disputes once more.
Blanchefleur becomes the wife of Pippin, while Garin remains her
faithful servant. One of the most famous passages of the poem is the
assassination of Begue by a nephew of Fromont, and Garin, after laying
waste his enemy's territory, is himself slain. The remaining songs
continue the feud between the two families. According to Paulin Paris,
the family of Bordeaux represents the early dukes of Aquitaine, the last
of whom, Waifar (745-768) was dispossessed and slain by Pippin the
Short, king of the Franks; but the _trouvères_ had in mind no doubt the
wars which marked the end of the Carolingian dynasty.

  See _Li Romans de Garin le Loherain_, ed. P. Paris (Paris, 1833);
  _Hist. litt. de la France_, vol. xxii. (1852); J.M. Ludlow, _Popular
  Epics of the Middle Ages_ (London and Cambridge, 1865); F. Lot,
  _Études d'histoire du moyen âge_ (Paris, 1896); F. Settegast,
  _Quellenstudien zur gallo-romanischen Epik_ (Leipzig, 1904). A
  complete edition of the cycle was undertaken by E. Stengel, the first
  volume of which, _Hervis de Mes_ (Gesellschaft für roman. Lit.,
  Dresden), appeared in 1903.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] i.e. Maurienne, now a district and diocese (St Jean de Maurienne)
    of Savoy.



GARLAND, JOHN (fl. 1202-1252), Latin grammarian, known as Johannes
Garlandius, or, more commonly, Johannes de Garlandia, was born in
England, though most of his life was spent in France. John Bale in his
_Catalogus_, and John Pits, following Bale, placed him among the writers
of the 11th century. The main facts of his life, however, are stated in
a long poem _De triumphis ecclesiae_ contained in Cotton MS. Claudius A
x in the British Museum, and edited by Thomas Wright for the Roxburghe
Club in 1856. Garland narrates the history of his time from the point of
view of the victories gained by the church over heretics at home and
infidels abroad. He studied at Oxford under a certain John of London,
whom it is difficult to distinguish from others of the same name; but he
must have been in Paris in or before 1202, for he mentions as one of his
teachers Alain de Lisle, who died in that year or the next. Garland was
one of the professors chosen in 1229 for the new university of Toulouse,
and remained in the south during the Albigensian crusade, of which he
gives a detailed account in books iv.-vi. In 1232 or 1233 the hatred of
the people made further residence in Toulouse unsafe for the professors
of the university, who had been installed by the Catholic party. Garland
was one of the first to fly, and the rest of his life was spent in
Paris, where he finished his poem in 1252. Garland's grammatical works
were much used in England, and were often printed by Richard Pynson and
Wynkyn de Worde. He was also a voluminous Latin poet. Works on
mathematics and music have also been assigned to him, but the ascription
may have arisen from confusion of his works with those of Gerlandus, a
canon of Besançon in the 12th century. The treatise on alchemy,
_Compendium alchimiae_, often printed under his name, was by a
14th-century writer named Martin Ortolan, or Lortholain.

The best known of his poems beside the "De Triumphis Ecclesiae" is
"Epithalamium beatae Mariae Virginis," contained in the same MS. Among
his other works are his "Dictionarius," a Latin vocabulary, printed by
T. Wright in the _Library of National Antiquities_ (vol. i., 1857);
_Compendium totius grammatices ..._, printed at Deventer, 1489; two
metrical treatises, entitled _Synonyma_ and _Equivoca_, frequently
printed at the close of the 15th century.

  For further bibliographical information see the British Museum
  catalogue; J.A. Fabricius, _Bibliotheca Latina mediae et infimae
  aetatis ..._, vol. iii. (1754); G. Brunet, _Manuel du libraire, &c._
  See also _Histoire litt. de la France_, vols. viii., xxi., xxiii. and
  xxx.; the prefaces to the editions by T. Wright mentioned above; P.
  Meyer, _La Chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois_, vol. ii. pp.
  xxi-xxiii. (Paris, 1875); Dr A. Scheler, _Lexicographie latine du
  XII^e et du XIII^e siècles_ (Leipzig, 1867); the article by C.L.
  Kingsford in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._, giving a list also of the works
  on alchemy, mathematics and music, rightly or wrongly ascribed to him;
  J.E. Sandys, _Hist. of Class. Schol._ i. (1906) 549.     (E. G.)



GARLIC (O. Eng. _gárleác_, i.e. "spear-leek"; Gr. [Greek: skorodon];
Lat. _allium_; Ital. _aglio_; Fr. _ail_; Ger. _Knoblauch_), _Allium
sativum_, a bulbous perennial plant of the natural order Liliaceae,
indigenous apparently to south-west Siberia. It has long, narrow, flat,
obscurely keeled leaves, a deciduous spathe, and a globose umbel of
whitish flowers, among which are small bulbils. The bulb, which is the
only part eaten, has membranous scales, in the axils of which are 10 or
12 cloves, or smaller bulbs. From these new bulbs can be procured by
planting out in February or March. The bulbs are best preserved hung in
a dry place. If of fair size, twenty of them weigh about 1 lb. To
prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ xix. 34)
advises to bend the stalk downward and cover with earth; seeding, he
observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk.

Garlic is cultivated in the same manner as the shallot (q.v.). It is
stated to have been grown in England before the year 1548. The
percentage composition of the bulbs is given by E. Solly (_Trans. Hort.
Soc. Lond._, new ser., iii. p. 60) as water 84.09, organic matter 13.38,
and inorganic matter 1.53--that of the leaves being water 87.14, organic
matter 11.27 and inorganic matter 1.59. The bulb has a strong and
characteristic odour and an acrid taste, and yields an offensively
smelling oil, essence of garlic, identical with allyl sulphide (C3H5)2S
(see Hofmann and Cahours, _Journ. Chem. Soc._ x. p. 320). This, when
garlic has been eaten, is evolved by the excretory organs, the activity
of which it promotes. From the earliest times garlic has been used as an
article of diet. It formed part of the food of the Israelites in Egypt
(Numb. xi. 5) and of the labourers employed by Cheops in the
construction of his pyramid, and is still grown in Egypt, where,
however, the Syrian is the kind most esteemed (see Rawlinson's
_Herodotus_, ii. 125). It was largely consumed by the ancient Greek and
Roman soldiers, sailors and rural classes (cf. Virg. _Ecl_. ii. 11),
and, as Pliny tells us (_N.H._ xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen
eulogizes it as the rustic's _theriac_ (see F. Adams's _Paulus
Aegineta_, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century
(see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a
palliative of the heat of the sun in field labour. "The people in places
where the simoon is frequent," says Mountstuart Elphinstone (_An Account
of the Kingdom of Caubul_, p. 140, 1815), "eat garlic, and rub their
lips and noses with it, when they go out in the heat of the summer, to
prevent their suffering by the simoon." "O dura messorum ilia," exclaims
Horace (_Epod_. iii.), as he records his detestation of the popular
esculent, to smell of which was accounted a sign of vulgarity (cf.
Shakespeare, _Coriol_. iv. 6, and _Meas. for Meas._ iii. 2). In England
garlic is seldom used except as a seasoning, but in the southern
countries of Europe it is a common ingredient in dishes, and is largely
consumed by the agricultural population. Garlic was placed by the
ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for
Hecate (Theophrastus, _Characters_, [Greek: Deisidaimonias]); and
according to Pliny garlic and onions were invocated as deities by the
Egyptians at the taking of oaths. The inhabitants of Pelusium in lower
Egypt, who worshipped the onion, are said to have held both it and
garlic in aversion as food. Garlic possesses stimulant and stomachic
properties, and was of old, as still sometimes now, employed as a
medicinal remedy. Pliny (_N.H._ xx. 23) gives an exceedingly long list
of complaints in which it was considered beneficial. Dr T. Sydenham
valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen
(_Mat. Med._ ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone.
In the United States the bulb is given in doses of ½-2 drachms in cases
of bronchiectasis and phthisis pulmonalis. Garlic may also be prescribed
as an extract consisting of the inspissated juice, in doses of 5-10
grains, and as the _syrupus allii aceticus_, in doses of 1-4 drachms.
This last preparation has recently been much extolled in the treatment
of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

The wild "crow garlic" and "field garlic" of Britain are the species
_Allium vineale_ and _A. oleraceum_ respectively.



GARNET, or GARNETT, HENRY (1555-1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian
Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and
afterwards studied law in London. Having become a Roman Catholic, he
went to Italy, joined the Society of Jesus in 1575, and acquired under
Bellarmine and others a reputation for varied learning. In 1586 he
joined the mission in England, becoming superior of the province on the
imprisonment of William Weston in the following year. In the dispute
between the Jesuits and the secular clergy known as the "Wisbech Stirs"
(1595-1596) he zealously supported Weston in his resistance to any
compromise with the civil government. His antagonism to the secular
clergy was also shown later, when in 1603 he, with other Jesuits, was
the means of betraying to the government the "Bye Plot," contrived by
William Watson, a secular priest. In 1598 he was professed of the four
vows.

Garnet supervised the Jesuit mission for eighteen years with conspicuous
success. His life was one of concealment and disguises; a price was put
on his head; but he was fearless and indefatigable in carrying on his
propaganda and in ministering to the scattered Catholics, even in their
prisons. The result was that he gained many converts, while the number
of Jesuits in England increased during his tenure of office from three
to forty. It is, however, in connexion with the Gunpowder Plot that he
is best remembered. His part in this, for which he suffered death, needs
discussion in greater detail.

In 1602 Garnet received briefs from Pope Clement VIII. directing that no
person unfavourable to the Catholic religion should be allowed to
succeed to the throne. About the same time he was consulted by Catesby,
Tresham and Winter, all afterwards involved in the Gunpowder Plot, on
the subject of the mission to be sent to Spain to induce Philip III. to
invade England. According to his own statement he disapproved, but he
gave Winter a recommendation to Father Creswell, an influential person
at Madrid. Moreover, in May 1605 he gave introductions to Guy Fawkes
when he went to Flanders, and to Sir Edmund Baynham when he went to Rome
(see GUNPOWDER PLOT). The preparations for the plot had now been
actively going forward since the beginning of 1604, and on the 9th of
June 1605 Garnet was asked by Catesby whether it was lawful to enter
upon any undertaking which should involve the destruction of the
innocent together with the guilty, to which Garnet answered in the
affirmative, giving as an illustration the fate of persons besieged in a
town in time of war. Afterwards, feeling alarmed, according to his own
accounts, he admonished Catesby against intending the death of "not only
innocents but friends and necessary persons for a commonwealth," and
showed him a letter from the pope forbidding rebellion. According to Sir
Everard Digby, however, Garnet, when asked the meaning of the brief,
replied "that they were not (meaning the priests) to undertake or
procure stirs, but yet they would not hinder any, neither was it the
pope's mind they should, that should be undertaken for Catholic good....
This answer, with Mr Catesby's proceedings with him and me, gave me
absolute belief that the matter in general was approved, though every
particular was not known." Both men were endeavouring to exculpate
themselves, and therefore both statements are subject to suspicion. A
few days later, according to Garnet, the Jesuit, Oswald Tesemond, known
as Greenway, informed him of the whole plot "by way of confession,"
when, as he declares, he expressed horror at the design and urged
Greenway to do his utmost to prevent its execution. Subsequently, after
his trial, Garnet said he "could not certainly affirm" that Greenway
intended to relate the matter to him in confession.

Garnet's conduct in now keeping the plot a secret has been a matter of
considerable controversy not only between Roman Catholics and
Protestants, but amongst Roman Catholic writers themselves. Father
Martin del Rio, a Jesuit, writing in 1600, discusses the exact case of
the revelation of a plot in confession. Almost all the learned doctors,
he says, declare that the confessor may reveal it, but he adds, "the
contrary opinion is the safer and better doctrine, and more consistent
with religion and with the reverence due to the holy rite of
confession." According to Bellarmine, Garnet's zealous friend and
defender, "If the person confessing be concealed, it is lawful for a
priest to break the seal of confession in order to avert a great
calamity"; but he justifies Garnet's silence by insisting that it was
not lawful to disclose a treasonable secret to a heretical king.
According to Garnet's own opinion a priest cognizant of treason against
the state "is bound to find all lawful means to discover it _salvo
sigillo confessionis_." In this connexion it is worth pointing out that
Garnet had not thought it his duty to disclose the treasonable intrigue
with the king of Spain in 1602, though there was no pretence in this
case that he was restricted by the seal of confession, and his
inactivity now tells greatly in his disfavour; for, allowing even that
he was bound by confessional secrecy from taking action on Greenway's
information, he had still Catesby's earlier revelations to act upon. He
appears to have taken no steps whatever to prevent the crime, beyond
writing to Rome in vague terms that "he feared some particular desperate
courses," which aroused no suspicions in that quarter. At the same time
he wrote to Father Parsons on the 4th of September that "as far as he
could now see the minds of the Catholics were quieted."

His movements immediately prior to the attempt were certainly
suspicious. In September, shortly before the expected meeting of
parliament on the 3rd of October, Garnet organized a pilgrimage to St
Winifred's Well in Flintshire, which started from Gothurst (now
Gayhurst), Sir Everard Digby's house in Buckinghamshire, included
Rokewood, and stopped at the houses of John Grant and Robert Winter,
three others of the conspirators. During the pilgrimage Garnet asked for
the prayers of the company "for some good success for the Catholic cause
at the beginning of parliament." After his return he went on the 29th of
October to Coughton in Warwickshire, near which place it had been
settled the conspirators were to assemble after the explosion. On the
6th of November, Bates, Catesby's servant and one of the conspirators,
brought him a letter with the news of the failure of the plot and
desiring advice. On the 30th Garnet addressed a letter to the government
in which he protested his innocence with the most solemn oaths, "as one
who hopeth for everlasting salvation."

It was not till the 4th of December, however, that Garnet and Greenway
were, by the confession of Bates, implicated in the plot; and on the
same day Garnet removed from Coughton to Hindlip Hall, near Worcester, a
house furnished with cleverly-contrived hiding-places for the use of the
proscribed priests. Here he remained some time in concealment in company
with another priest, Oldcorne _alias_ Hall, but at last on the 30th of
January 1606, unable to bear the close confinement any longer, they
surrendered and were taken up to London, being well treated during the
journey by Salisbury's express orders. He was examined by the council on
the 13th of February and frequently questioned during the following
days, but refused to incriminate himself, and a threat to inflict
torture had no effect upon his resolution. Subsequently Garnet and
Oldcorne having been placed in adjoining rooms and enabled to
communicate with one another, their conversations were overheard on
several separate occasions and considerable information obtained. Garnet
at first denied all speech with Oldcorne, but subsequently on the 8th of
March confessed his connexion with the plot. He was tried at the
Guildhall on the 28th.

Garnet was clearly guilty of misprision of treason, i.e. of having
concealed his knowledge of the crime, an offence which exposed him to
perpetual imprisonment and forfeiture of his property; for the law of
England took no account of religious scruples or professional etiquette
when they permit the execution of a preventable crime. Strangely enough,
however, the government passed over the incriminating conversation with
Greenway, and relied entirely on the strong circumstantial evidence to
support the charge of high treason against the prisoner. The trial was
not conducted in a manner which would be permitted in more modern days.
The rules of evidence which now govern the procedure in criminal cases
did not then exist, and Garnet's trial, like many others, was influenced
by the political situation, the case against him being supported by
general political accusations against the Jesuits as a body, and with
evidence of their complicity in former plots against the government. The
prisoner himself deeply prejudiced his cause by his numerous false
statements, and still more by his adherence to the doctrine of
equivocation. Garnet, it is true, claimed to limit the justification of
equivocation to cases "of necessary defence from injustice and wrong or
of the obtaining some good of great importance when there is no danger
of harm to others," and he could justify his conduct in lying to the
council by their own conduct towards him, which included treacherous
eavesdropping and fraud, and also threats of torture. Moreover, the
attempt of the counsel for the crown to force the prisoner to
incriminate himself was opposed to the whole spirit and tradition of the
law of England. He was declared guilty, and it is probable, in spite of
the irregularity and unjudicial character of his trial, that substantial
justice was done by his conviction. His execution took place on the 3rd
of May 1606, Garnet acknowledging himself justly condemned for his
concealment of the plot, but maintaining to the last that he had never
approved it. The king, who had shown him favour throughout and who had
forbidden his being tortured, directed that he should be hanged till he
was quite dead and that the usual frightful cruelties should be omitted.

Soon after his death the story of the miracle of "Garnet's Straw" was
circulated all over Europe, according to which a blood-stained straw
from the scene of execution which came into the hands of one John
Wilkinson, a young and fervent Roman Catholic, who was present,
developed Garnet's likeness. In consequence of the credence which the
story obtained, Archbishop Bancroft was commissioned by the privy
council to discover and punish the impostors. Garnet's name was included
in the list of the 353 Roman Catholic martyrs sent to Rome from England
in 1880, and in the 2nd appendix of the Menology of England and Wales
compiled by order of the cardinal archbishop and the bishops of the
province of Westminster by R. Stanton in 1887, where he is styled "a
martyr whose cause is deferred for future investigation." The passage in
_Macbeth_ (Act II. Scene iii.) on equivocators no doubt refers
especially to Garnet. His _aliases_ were Farmer, Marchant, Whalley,
Darcey Meaze, Phillips, Humphreys, Roberts, Fulgeham, Allen. Garnet was
the author of a letter on the Martyrdom of Godfrey Maurice, _alias_ John
Jones, in Diego Yepres's _Historia particular de la persecucion de
Inglaterra_ (1599); a _Treatise of Schism_, a MS. treatise in reply to
_A Protestant Dialogue between a Gentleman and a Physician_; a
translation of the _Stemma Christi_ with supplements (1622); a treatise
on the Rosary; a Treatise of Christian Renovation or Birth (1616).

  AUTHORITIES.--Of the great number of works embodying the controversy
  on the question of Garnet's guilt the following may be mentioned, in
  order of date: _A True and Perfect Relation of the whole Proceedings
  against ... Garnet a Jesuit and his Confederates_ (1606, repr. 1679),
  the official account, but incomplete and inaccurate; _Apologia pro
  Henrico Garneto_ (1610), by the Jesuit L'Heureux, under the pseudonym
  Eudaemon-Joannes, and Dr Robert Abbot's reply, _Antilogia versus
  Apologiam Eudaemon-Joannes_, in which the whole subject is well
  treated; Henry More, _Hist. Provinciae Anglicanae Societatis_ (1660);
  D. Jardine, _Gunpowder Plot_ (1857); J. Morris, S.J., _Condition of
  the Catholics under James I._ (1872), containing Father Gerard's
  narrative; J.H. Pollen, _Father Henry Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot_
  (1888); S.R. Gardiner, _What Gunpowder Plot was_ (1897), in reply to
  John Gerard, S.J., _What was the Gunpowder Plot?_ (1897); J. Gerard,
  _Contributions towards a Life of Father Henry Garnet_ (1898). See also
  _State Trials II._, and _Cal. of State Papers Dom._, (1603-1610). The
  original documents are preserved in the _Gunpowder Plot Book_ at the
  Record Office.



GARNET, a name applied to a group of closely-related minerals, many of
which are used as gem-stones. The name probably comes from the Lat.
_granaticus_, a stone so named from its resemblance to the pulp of the
pomegranate in colour, or to its seeds in shape; or possibly from
_granum_, "cochineal," in allusion to the colour of the stone. The
garnet was included, with other red stones, by Theophrastus, under the
name of [Greek: anthrax], while the common garnet seems to have been his
[Greek: anthrakion]. Pliny groups several stones, including garnet,
under the term _carbunculus_. The modern carbuncle is a deep red garnet
(almandine) cut _en cabochon_, or with a smooth convex surface,
frequently hollowed out at the back, in consequence of the depth of
colour, and sometimes enlivened with a foil (see ALMANDINE). The Hebrew
word _nophek_, translated [Greek: anthrax] in the Septuagint, seems to
have been the garnet or carbuncle, whilst _bareketh_ ([Greek: smaragdos]
of the Septuagint), though also rendered "carbuncle," was probably
either beryl or, in the opinion of Professor Flinders Petrie,
rock-crystal. Garnets were used as beads in ancient Egypt. Though not
extensively employed by the Greeks as a material for engraved gems, it
was much used for this purpose by the Romans of the Empire. Flat
polished slabs of garnet are found inlaid in mosaic work in Anglo-Saxon
and Merovingian jewelry, the material used being almandine, or "precious
garnet."

Garnets vary considerably in chemical composition, but the variation is
limited within a certain range. All are orthosilicates, conformable to
the general formula R''3R'''2(SiO4)3, where R'' = Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and
R''' = Al, Fe, Cr. Although there are many kinds of garnet they may be
reduced to the following six types, which may occur intermixed
isomorphously:--

  1. Calcium-aluminium garnet (_Grossularite_), Ca3Al2Si3O12.

  2. Calcium-ferric garnet (_Andradite_), Ca3Fe2Si3O12.

  3. Calcium-chromium garnet (_Uvarovite_), Ca3Cr2Si3O12.

  4. Magnesium-aluminium garnet (_Pyrope_), Mg3Al2Si3O12.

  5. Ferrous-aluminium garnet (_Almandine_), Fe3Al2Si3O12.

  6. Manganous-aluminium garnet (_Spessartine_), Mn3Al2Si3O12.

These are frequently called respectively:--(1) Lime-alumina garnet; (2)
lime-iron garnet; (3) lime-chrome garnet; (4) magnesia-alumina garnet;
(5) iron-alumina garnet; (6) manganese-alumina garnet.

The types are usually modified by isomorphous replacement of some of
their elements.

[Illustration]

All garnets crystallize in the cubic system, usually in rhombic
dodecahedra or in icositetrahedra, or in a combination of the two forms
(see fig.). Octahedra and cubes are rare, but the six-faced octahedron
occurs in some of the combinations. Cleavage obtains parallel to the
dodecahedron, but is imperfect. The hardness varies according to
composition from 6.5 to 7.5, and the specific gravity in like manner has
a wide range, varying from 3.4 in the calcium-aluminium garnets to 4.3
in the ferrous-aluminium species. Sir Arthur H. Church found that many
garnets when fused yielded a product of lower density than the original
mineral. The colour is typically red, but may be brown, yellow, green or
even black, while some garnets are colourless. Being cubic the garnets
are normally singly refracting, but anomalies frequently occur, leading
some authorities to doubt whether the mineral is really cubic. The
refractive power of garnet is high, so that in microscopic sections,
viewed by transmitted light, the mineral stands out in relief.

  Garnets are very widely distributed, occurring in crystalline schists,
  gneiss, granite, metamorphic limestone, serpentine, and occasionally
  in volcanic rocks. With omphacite and smaragdite, garnet forms the
  peculiar rock called eclogite. The garnets used for industrial
  purposes are usually found loose in detrital deposits, weathered from
  the parent rock, though in some important workings the rock is
  quarried. The garnets employed as gem-stones are described under their
  respective headings (see ALMANDINE, CINNAMON STONE, DEMANTOID and
  PYROPE). Most of the minerals noticed in this article are of
  scientific rather than commercial interest.

  Grossularite or "gooseberry-stone," is typically a brownish-green
  garnet from Siberia, known also as wiluite (a name applied also to
  vesuvianite, q.v.), from the river Wilui where it occurs. It is
  related to hessonite, or cinnamon-stone. A Mexican variety occurs in
  rose-pink dodecahedra. Romanzovite is a brown garnet, of
  grossularia-type, from Finland, taking its name from Count Romanzov.
  Andradite was named by J.D. Dana after B.J. d'Andrada e Silva, who
  described, in 1800, one of its varieties allochroite, a Norwegian
  garnet, so named from its variable colour. This species includes most
  of the common garnet occurring in granular and compact masses,
  sometimes forming garnet rock. To andradite may be referred melanite,
  a black garnet well known from the volcanic tuffs near Rome, used
  occasionally in the 18th century for mourning jewelry. Another black
  garnet, in small crystals from the Pyrenees, is called pyreneite.
  Under andradite may also be placed topazolite, a honey-yellow garnet,
  rather like topaz, from Piedmont; colophonite, a brown resin-like
  garnet, with which certain kinds of idocrase have been confused;
  aplome, a green garnet from Saxony and Siberia; and jelletite, a green
  Swiss garnet named after the Rev. J.H. Jellet. Here also may be placed
  the green Siberian mineral termed demantoid (q.v.), sometimes
  improperly called olivine by jewellers. Uvarovite, named after a
  Russian minister, Count S.S. Uvarov, is a rare green garnet from
  Siberia and Canada, but though of fine colour is never found in
  crystals large enough for gem-stones. Spessartite, or spessartine,
  named after Spessart, a German locality, is a fine aurora-red garnet,
  cut for jewelry when sufficiently clear, and rather resembling
  cinnamon-stone. It is found in Ceylon, and notably in the mica-mines
  in Amelia county, Virginia, United States. A beautiful rose-red
  garnet, forming a fine gem-stone, occurs in gravels in Macon county,
  N.C., and has been described by W.E. Hidden and Dr J.H. Pratt under
  the name of rhodolite. It seems related to both almandine and pyrope,
  and shows the absorption-spectrum of almandine. The Bohemian garnets
  largely used in jewelry belong to the species pyrope (q.v.).

  Garnets are not only cut as gems, but are used for the bearings of
  pivots in watches, and are in much request for abrasive purposes.
  Garnet paper is largely used, especially in America, in place of
  sandpaper for smoothing woodwork and for scouring leather in the
  boot-trade. As an abrasive agent it is worked at several localities in
  the United States, especially in New York State, along the borders of
  the Adirondacks, where it occurs in limestone and in gneiss. Much of
  the garnet used as an abrasive is coarse almandine. Common garnet,
  where abundant, has sometimes been used as a fluxing agent in
  metallurgical operations. Garnet has been formed artificially, and is
  known as a furnace-product.

  It may be noted that the name of white garnet has been given to the
  mineral leucite, which occurs, like garnet, crystallized in
  icositetrahedra.     (F. W. R.*)



GARNETT, RICHARD (1835-1906), English librarian and author, son of the
learned philologist Rev. Richard Garnett (1789-1850), priest-vicar of
Lichfield cathedral and afterwards keeper of printed books at the
British Museum, who came of a Yorkshire family, was born at Lichfield on
the 27th of February 1835. His father was really the pioneer of modern
philological research in England; his articles in the _Quarterly Review_
(1835, 1836) on English lexicography and dialects, and on the Celtic
question, and his essays in the _Transactions_ of the Philological
Society (reprinted 1859), were invaluable to the later study of the
English language. The son, who thus owed much to his parentage, was
educated at home and at a private school, and in 1851, just after his
father's death, entered the British Museum as an assistant in the
library. In 1875 he rose to be superintendent of the reading-room, and
from 1890 to 1899, when he retired, he was keeper of the printed books.
In 1883 he was given the degree of LL.D. at Edinburgh, an honour
repeated by other universities, and in 1895 he was made a C.B.

His long connexion with the British Museum library, and the value of his
services there, made him a well-known figure in the literary world, and
he published much original work in both prose and verse. His chief
publications in book-form were: in verse, _Primula_ (1858), _Io in
Egypt_ (1859), _Idylls and Epigrams_ (1869, republished in 1892 as _A
Chaplet from the Greek Anthology_), _The Queen and other Poems_ (1902),
_Collected Poems_ (1893); in prose, biographies of Carlyle (1887),
Emerson (1887), Milton (1890), Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1898); a volume
of remarkably original and fanciful tales, _The Twilight of the Gods_
(1888); a tragedy, _Iphigenia in Delphi_ (1890); _A Short History of
Italian Literature_ (1898); _Essays in Librarianship and Bibliophily_
(1899); _Essays of an Ex-librarian_ (1901). He was an extensive
contributor to the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ and the _Dictionary of
National Biography_, editor of the _International Library of Famous
Literature_, and co-editor, with E. Gosse, of the elaborate _English
Literature: an illustrated Record_. So multifarious was his output,
however, in contributions to reviews, &c., and as translator or editor,
that this list represents only a small part of his published work. He
was a member of numerous learned literary societies, British and
foreign. His facility as an expositor, and his gift for lucid and acute
generalization, together with his eminence as a bibliophile, gave his
work an authority which was universally recognized, though it sometimes
suffered from his relying too much on his memory and his power of
generalizing--remarkable as both usually were--in cases requiring
greater precision of statement in matters of detail. But as an
interpreter, whether of biography or _belles lettres_, who brought an
unusually wide range of book-learning, in its best sense, interestingly
and comprehensibly before a large public, and at the same time
acceptably to the canons of careful scholarship, Dr Garnett's writing
was always characterized by clearness, common sense and sympathetic
appreciation. His official career at the British Museum marked an epoch
in the management of the library, in the history of which his place is
second only to that of Panizzi. Besides introducing the "sliding press"
in 1887 he was responsible for reviving the publication of the general
catalogue, the printing of which, interrupted in 1841, was resumed under
him in 1880, and gradually completed. The antipodes of a Dryasdust, his
human interest in books made him an ideal librarian, and his courtesy
and helpfulness were outstanding features in a personality of singular
charm. The whole bookish world looked on him as a friend. Among his
"hobbies" was a study of astrology, to which, without associating his
name with it in public, he devoted prolonged inquiry. Under the
pseudonym of "A.G. Trent" he published in 1880 an article (in the
_University Magazine_) on "The Soul and the Stars"--quoted in Wilde and
Dodson's _Natal Astrology_. He satisfied himself that there was more
truth in the old astrology than modern criticism supposed, and he had
intended to publish a further monograph on the subject, but the
intention was frustrated by the ill-health which led up to his death on
the 13th of April 1906. He married (1863) an Irish wife, Olivia Narney
Singleton (d. 1903), and had a family of six children; his son Edward
(b. 1868) being a well-known literary man, whose wife translated
Turgeneff's works into English.     (H. Ch.)



GARNIER, CLÉMENT JOSEPH (1813-1881), French economist, was born at Beuil
(Alpes maritimes) on the 3rd of October 1813. Coming to Paris he studied
at the École de Commerce, of which he eventually became secretary and
finally a professor. In 1842 he founded with Gilbert-Urbain Guillaumin
(1801-1864) the Société d'Économie politique, becoming its secretary, a
post which he held till his death; and in 1846 he organized the
Association pour la Liberté des Échanges. He also helped to establish
and edited for many years the _Journal des économistes_ and the
_Annuaire de l'économie politique_. Of the school of _laissez faire_, he
was engaged during his whole life in the advancement of the science of
political economy, and in the improvement of French commercial
education. In 1873 he became a member of the Institute, and in 1876 a
senator for the department in which he was born. He died at Paris on the
25th of September 1881. Of his writings, the following are the more
important: _Traité d'économie politique_ (1845), _Richard Cobden et la
Ligue_ (1846), _Traité des finances_ (1862), and _Principes du
population_ (1857).



GARNIER, GERMAIN, MARQUIS (1754-1821), French politician and economist,
was born at Auxerre on the 8th of November 1754. He was educated for the
law, and obtained when young the office of _procureur_ to the Châtelet
in Paris. On the calling of the states-general he was elected as one of
the _députés suppléants_ of the city of Paris, and in 1791 administrator
of the department of Paris. After the 10th of August 1792 he withdrew to
the Pays de Vaud, and did not return to France till 1795. In public
life, however, he seems to have been singularly fortunate. In 1797 he
was on the list of candidates for the Directory; in 1800 he was prefect
of Seine-et-Oise; and in 1804 he was made senator and in 1808 a count.
After the Restoration he obtained a peerage, and on the return of Louis
XVIII., after the Hundred Days, he became minister of state and member
of privy council, and in 1817 was created a marquis. He died at Paris on
the 4th of October 1821. At court he was, when young, noted for his
facile power of writing society verse, but his literary reputation
depends rather on his later works on political economy, especially his
admirable translation, with notes and introduction, of Smith's _Wealth
of Nations_ (1805) and his _Histoire de la monnaie_ (2 vols., 1819),
which contains much sound and well-arranged material. His _Abrégé des
principes de l'écon. polit._ (1796) is a very clear and instructive
manual. The valuable _Description géographique, physique, et politique
du département de Seine-et-Oise_ (1802) was drawn up from his
instructions. Other works are _De la propriété_ (1792) and _Histoire des
banques d'escompte_ (1806).



GARNIER, JEAN LOUIS CHARLES (1825-1898), French architect, was born in
Paris on the 6th of November 1825. He was educated in a primary school,
and it was intended that he should pursue his father's craft, that of a
wheelwright. His mother, however, having heard that with a little
previous study he might enter an architect's office and eventually
become a measuring surveyor (_vérificateur_), and earn as much as six
francs a day, and foreseeing that in consequence of his delicate health
he would be unfit to work at the forge, sent him to learn drawing and
mathematics at the Petite École de Dessin, in the rue de Médecine, the
cradle of so many of the great artists of France. His progress was such
as to justify his being sent first into an architect's office and then
to the well-known atelier of Lebas, where he began his studies in
preparation for the examination of the École des Beaux Arts, which he
passed in 1842, at the age of seventeen. Shortly after his admission it
became necessary that he should support himself, and accordingly he
worked during the day in various architects' offices, among them in that
of M. Viollet-le-Duc, and confined his studies for the École to the
evening. In 1848 he carried off, at the early age of twenty-three, the
Grand Prix de Rome, and with his comrades in sculpture, engraving and
music, set off for the Villa de Medicis. His principal works were the
measured drawings of the Forum of Trajan and the temple of Vesta in
Rome, and the temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli. In the fifth year of his
travelling studentship he went to Athens and measured the temple at
Aegina, subsequently working out a complete restoration of it, with its
polychromatic decoration, which was published as a monograph in 1877.
The elaborate set of drawings which he was commissioned by the duc de
Luynes to make of the tombs of the house of Anjou were not published,
owing to the death of his patron; and since Garnier's death they have
been given to the library of the École des Beaux Arts, along with other
drawings he made in Italy. On his return to Paris in 1853 he was
appointed surveyor to one or two government buildings, with a very
moderate salary, so that the commission given him by M. Victor Baltard
to make two water-colour drawings of the Hôtel de Ville, to be placed in
the album presented to Queen Victoria in 1855, on the occasion of her
visit to Paris, proved very acceptable. These two drawings are now in
the library at Windsor.

In 1860 came, at last, Garnier's chance: a competition was announced for
a design for a new imperial academy of music, and out of 163 competitors
Garnier was one of five selected for a second competition, in which, by
unanimous vote, he carried off the first prize, and the execution of the
design was placed in his hands. Begun in 1861, but delayed in its
completion by the Franco-German War, it was not till 1875 that the
structure of the present Grand Opera House of Paris was finished, at a
cost of about 35,000,000 francs (£1,420,000). During the war the
building was utilized as the municipal storehouse of provisions. The
staircase and the magnificent hall are the finest portion of the
interior, and alike in conception and realization have never been
approached. Of Garnier's other works, the most remarkable are the Casino
at Monte Carlo, the Bischoffsheim villa at Bordighera, the Hôtel du
Cercle de la Librairie in Paris; and, among tombs, those of the
musicians Bizet, Offenbach, Massé and Duprato. In 1874 he was elected a
member of the Institute of France, and after passing through the grades
of chevalier, officer and commander of the Legion of Honour, received in
1895 the rank of grand officer, a high distinction that had never before
been granted to an architect. Charles Garnier's reputation was not
confined to France; it was recognized by all the countries of Europe,
and in England he received, in 1886, the royal gold medal of the Royal
Institute of Architects, given by Queen Victoria. Besides his monograph
on the temple of Aegina, he wrote several works, of which _Le Nouvel
Opéra de Paris_ is the most valuable. For the International Exhibition
of 1889 he designed the buildings illustrating the "History of the
House" in all periods, and a work on this subject was afterwards
published by him in conjunction with M. Ammann. Not the least of his
claims to the gratitude of his country were the services which he
rendered on the various art juries appointed by the state, the Institute
of France, and the École des Beaux-Arts, services which in France are
rendered in an honorary capacity. Garnier died on the 3rd of August
1898.     (R. P. S.)



GARNIER, MARIE JOSEPH FRANÇOIS [FRANCIS] (1839-1873), French officer and
explorer, was born at St Étienne on the 25th of July 1839. He entered
the navy, and after voyaging in Brazilian waters and the Pacific he
obtained a post on the staff of Admiral Charner, who from 1860 to 1862
was campaigning in Cochin-China. After some time spent in France he
returned to the East, and in 1862 he was appointed inspector of the
natives in Cochin-China, and entrusted with the administration of
Cho-lon, a suburb of Saigon. It was at his suggestion that the marquis
de Chasseloup-Laubat determined to send a mission to explore the valley
of the Mekong, but as Garnier was not considered old enough to be put in
command, the chief authority was entrusted to Captain Doudart de Lagrée.
In the course of the expedition--to quote the words of Sir Roderick
Murchison addressed to the youthful traveller when, in 1870, he was
presented with the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of
London--from Kratie in Cambodia to Shanghai 5392 m. were traversed, and
of these 3625 m., chiefly of country unknown to European geography, were
surveyed with care, and the positions fixed by astronomical
observations, nearly the whole of the observations being taken by
Garnier himself. Volunteering to lead a detachment to Talifu, the
capital of Sultan Suleiman, the sovereign of the Mahommedan rebels in
Yunnan, he successfully carried out the more than adventurous
enterprise. When shortly afterwards Lagrée died, Garnier naturally
assumed the command of the expedition, and he conducted it in safety to
the Yang-tsze-Kiang, and thus to the Chinese coast. On his return to
France he was received with enthusiasm. The preparation of his narrative
was interrupted by the Franco-German War, and during the siege of Paris
he served as principal staff officer to the admiral in command of the
eighth "sector." His experiences during the siege were published
anonymously in the feuilleton of _Le Temps_, and appeared separately as
_Le Siège de Paris, journal d'un officier de marine_ (1871). Returning
to Cochin-China he found the political circumstances of the country
unfavourable to further exploration, and accordingly he went to China,
and in 1873 followed the upper course of the Yang-tsze-Kiang to the
waterfalls. He was next commissioned by Admiral Dupré, governor of
Cochin-China, to found a French protectorate or a new colony in
Tongking. On the 20th of November 1873 he took Hanoi, the capital of
Tongking, and on the 21st of December he was slain in fight with the
Black Flags. His chief fame rests on the fact that he originated the
idea of exploring the Mekong, and carried out the larger portion of the
work.

  The narrative of the principal expedition appeared in 1873, as _Voyage
  d'exploration en Indo-Chine effectué pendant les années 1866, 1867 et
  1868, publié sous la direction de M. Francis Garnier, avec le concours
  de M. Delaporte et de MM. Joubert et Thorel_ (2 vols.). An account of
  the Yang-tsze-Kiang from Garnier's pen is given in the _Bulletin de la
  Soc. de Géog._ (1874). His _Chronique royale du Cambodje_, was
  reprinted from the _Journal Asiatique_ in 1872. See _Ocean Highways_
  (1874) for a memoir by Colonel Yule; and Hugh Clifford, _Further
  India_, in the Story of Exploration series (1904).



GARNIER, ROBERT (c. 1545-c. 1600), French tragic poet, was born at Ferté
Bernard (Le Maine) in 1545. He published his first work while still a
law-student at Toulouse, where he won a prize (1565) in the _jeux
floraux_. It was a collection of lyrical pieces, now lost, entitled
_Plaintes amoureuses de Robert Garnier_ (1565). After some practice at
the Parisian bar, he became conseiller du roi au siège présidial et
sénéchaussée of Le Maine, his native district, and later
lieutenant-général criminel. His friend Lacroix du Maine says that he
enjoyed a great reputation as an orator. He was a distinguished
magistrate, of considerable weight in his native province, who gave his
leisure to literature, and whose merits as a poet were fully recognized
by his own generation. He died at Le Mans probably in 1599 or 1600.

In his early plays he was a close follower of the school of dramatists
who were inspired by the study of Seneca. In these productions there is
little that is strictly dramatic except the form. A tragedy was a series
of rhetorical speeches relieved by a lyric chorus. His pieces in this
manner are _Porcie_ (published 1568, acted at the hôtel de Bourgogne in
1573), _Cornélie_ and _Hippolyte_ (both acted in 1573 and printed in
1574). In _Porcie_ the deaths of Cassius, Brutus and Portia are each the
subject of an eloquent recital, but the action is confined to the death
of the nurse, who alone is allowed to die on the stage. His next group
of tragedies--_Marc-Antoine_ (1578), _La Troade_ (1579), _Antigone_
(acted and printed 1580)--shows an advance on the theatre of Étienne
Jodelle and Jacques Grévin, and on his own early plays, in so much that
the rhetorical element is accompanied by abundance of action, though
this is accomplished by the plan of joining together two virtually
independent pieces in the same way.

In 1582 and 1583 he produced his two masterpieces _Bradamante_ and _Les
Juives_. In _Bradamante_, which alone of his plays has no chorus, he cut
himself adrift from Senecan models, and sought his subject in Ariosto,
the result being what came to be known later as a tragi-comedy. The
dramatic and romantic story becomes a real drama in Garnier's hands,
though even there the lovers, Bradamante and Roger, never meet on the
stage. The contest in the mind of Roger supplies a genuine dramatic
interest in the manner of Corneille. _Les Juives_ is the pathetic story
of the barbarous vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar on the Jewish king Zedekiah
and his children. The Jewish women lamenting the fate of their children
take a principal part in this tragedy, which, although almost entirely
elegiac in conception, is singularly well designed, and gains unity by
the personality of the prophet. M. Faguet says that of all French
tragedies of the 16th and 17th centuries it is, with _Athalie_, the best
constructed with regard to the requirements of the stage. Actual
representation is continually in the mind of the author; his drama is,
in fact, visually conceived.

Garnier must be regarded as the greatest French tragic poet of his
century and the precursor of the great achievements of the next.

  The best edition of his works is by Wendelin Foerster (Heilbronn, 4
  vols., 1882-1883). A detailed criticism of his works is to be found in
  Émile Faguet, _La Tragédie française au XVI^e siècle_ (1883, pp.
  183-307).



GARNIER-PAGÈS, ÉTIENNE JOSEPH LOUIS (1801-1841), French politician, was
born at Marseilles on the 27th of December 1801. Soon after his birth
his father Jean François Garnier, a naval surgeon, died, and his mother
married Simon Pagès, a college professor, by whom she had a son. The
boys were brought up together, and took the double name Garnier-Pagès.
Étienne found employment first in a commercial house in Marseilles, and
then in an insurance office in Paris. In 1825 he began to study law, and
made some mark as an advocate. A keen opponent of the Restoration, he
joined various democratic societies, notably the _Aide-toi, le ciel
t'aidera_, an organization for purifying the elections. He took part in
the revolution of July 1830; became secretary of the _Aide-toi, le ciel
t'aidera_, whose propaganda he brought into line with his
anti-monarchical ideas; and in 1831 was sent from Isère to the chamber
of deputies. He was concerned in the preparation of the _Compte rendu_
of 1832, and advocated universal suffrage. He was an eloquent speaker,
and his sound knowledge of business and finance gave him a marked
influence among all parties in the chamber. He died in Paris on the 23rd
of June 1841.

His half-brother, LOUIS ANTOINE GARNIER-PAGÈS (1803-1878), fought on the
barricades during the revolution of July 1830, and after Étienne's death
was elected to the chamber of deputies (1842). He was a keen promoter
of reform, and was a leading spirit in the affair of the reform banquet
fixed for the 22nd of February 1848. He was a member of the provisional
government of 1848, and was named mayor of Paris. On the 5th of March
1848 he was made minister of finance, and incurred great unpopularity by
the imposition of additional taxes. He was a member of the Constituent
Assembly and of the Executive Commission. Under the Empire he was
conspicuous in the republican opposition and opposed the war with
Prussia, and after the fall of Napoleon III. became a member of the
Government of National Defence. Unsuccessful at the elections for the
National Assembly (the 8th of February 1871), he retired into private
life, and died in Paris on the 31st of October 1878. He wrote _Histoire
de la révolution de 1848_ (1860-1862); _Histoire de la commission
exécutive_ (1869-1872); and _L'Opposition et l'empire_ (1872).



GARNISH, a word meaning to fit out, equip, furnish, now particularly
used of decoration or ornament. It is formed from the O. Fr. _garnisant_
or _guarnissant_, participle of _garnir_, _guarnir_, to furnish, equip.
This is of Teutonic origin, the base being represented in O. Eng.
_warnian_, to take warning, beware, and Ger. _warnen_, to warn, Eng.
_warn_; the original sense would be to guard against, fortify, hence
equip or fit out. The meaning of "warn" is seen in the law term
"garnishee," a person who owes money to or holds money belonging to
another and is "warned" by order of the court not to pay it to his
immediate creditor but to a third person who has obtained final judgment
against that creditor. (See ATTACHMENT; EXECUTION; BANKRUPTCY.)



GARO HILLS, a district of British India, in the hills division of
Eastern Bengal and Assam. It takes its name from the Garos, a tribe of
doubtful ethnical affinities and peculiar customs, by whom it is almost
entirely inhabited. The Garos are probably a section of the great Bodo
tribe, which at one time occupied a large part of Assam. According to
the census of 1901 they numbered 128,117. In the 18th century they are
mentioned as being frequently in conflict with the inhabitants of the
plains below their hills, and in 1790 the British government first tried
to reduce them. No permanent success was achieved. In 1852 raids by the
Garos were followed by a blockade of the hills, but in 1856 they were
again in revolt. Again a repressive expedition was despatched in 1861,
but in 1866 there was a further raid. A British officer was now posted
among the hills; this step was effective; in 1869 the district was
constituted, and though in 1871 an outrage was committed against a
native on the survey staff, there was little opposition when an
expedition was sent in 1872-1873 to bring the whole district into
submission, and there were thereafter no further disturbances.

The district consists of the last spurs of the Assam hills, which here
run down almost to the bank of the Brahmaputra, where that river
debouches upon the plain of Bengal and takes its great sweep to the
south. The administrative headquarters are at Tura. The area of the
district is 3140 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 138,274, showing an
increase of 14% in the decade. The American missionaries maintain a
small training school for teachers. The public buildings at Tura were
entirely destroyed by the earthquake of June 12, 1897, and the roads in
the district were greatly damaged by subsidence and fissures. Coal in
large quantities and petroleum are known to exist. The chief exports are
cotton, timber and forest products. Trade is small, though the natives,
according to their own standard, are prosperous. They are fair
agriculturists. Communications within the district are by cart-roads,
bridle-paths and native tracks.



GARONNE (Lat. _Garumna_), a river of south-western France, rising in the
Maladetta group of the Pyrenees, and flowing in a wide curve to the
Atlantic Ocean. It is formed by two torrents, one of which has a
subterranean course of 2½ m., disappearing in the sink known as the Trou
du Taureau ("bull's hole") and reappearing at the Goueil de Jouéou.
After a course of 30 m. in Spanish territory, during which it flows
through the fine gorge called the Vallée d'Aran, the Garonne enters
France in the department of Haute Garonne through the narrow defile of
the Pont du Roi, and at once becomes navigable for rafts. At Montréjeau
it receives on the left the Neste, and encountering at this point the
vast plateau of Lannemezan is forced to turn abruptly east, flowing in a
wide curve to Toulouse. At Saint Martory it gives off the irrigation
canal of that name. At this point the Garonne enters a fertile plain,
and supplies the motive power to several mills. It is joined on the
right by various streams fed by the snows of the Pyrenees. Such are the
Salat, at whose confluence river navigation proper begins, and the Arize
and the Ariège (both names signifying "river"). From Toulouse the
Garonne flows to the north-west, now skirting the northern border of the
plateau of Lannemezan which here drains into it, the principal streams
being the Save, the Gers and the Baïse. On its right hand the Garonne is
swelled by its two chief tributaries, the Tarn, near Moissac, and the
Lot, below Agen; farther down it is joined by the Drot (or Dropt), and
on the left by the Ciron. Between Toulouse and Castets, 33½ m. above
Bordeaux, and the highest point to which ordinary spring-tides ascend,
the river is accompanied at a distance of from a ½ to 3 m. by the
so-called "lateral canal" of the Garonne, constructed in 1838-1856. This
canal is about 120 m. long, or 133 m. including its branches, one of
which runs off at right angles to Montauban on the Tarn. From Toulouse
to Agen the main canal follows the right bank of the Garonne, crossing
the Tarn on an aqueduct at Moissac, while another magnificent aqueduct
of twenty-three arches carries it at Agen from the right to the left
bank of the river. It has a fall of 420 ft. and over fifty locks, and is
navigable for vessels having the maximum dimensions of 98½ ft. length,
19 ft. breadth and 6½ ft. draught. The carrying trade upon it is chiefly
in agricultural produce and provisions, building materials, wood and
industrial products. At Toulouse the canal connects with the Canal du
Midi, which runs to the Mediterranean. After passing Castets the Garonne
begins to widen out considerably, and from being 160 yds. broad at Agen
increases to about 650 yds. at Bordeaux, its great commercial port. From
here it flows with ever increasing width between two flat shores to the
Bec d'Ambès (15½ m.), where, after a course of 357 m., it unites with
the Dordogne to form the vast estuary known as the Gironde. The
triangular peninsula lying between these two great tidal rivers is
called Entre-deux-mers ("between two seas") and is famous for its wines.
The drainage area of the Garonne is nearly 33,000 sq. m. Floods are of
common occurrence, and descend very suddenly. The most disastrous
occurred in 1875, 1856 and in 1770, when the flood level at Castets
attained the record height of 42½ ft. above low-water mark.



GARRET (from the O. Fr. _garite_, modern _guérite_, a watch-tower,
connected ultimately with "guard" and "ward"), properly a small look-out
tower built on a wall, and hence the name given to a room on the top
storey of a building, the sloping ceiling of which is formed by the
roof.



GARRETT, JOÃO BAPTISTA DA SILVA LEITÃO DE ALMEIDA, VISCONDE DE
ALMEIDA-GARRETT (1799-1854), perhaps the greatest Portuguese poet since
Camoens, was of Irish descent. Born in Oporto, his parents moved to the
Quinta do Castello at Gaya when he was five years old. The French
invasion of Portugal drove the family to the Azores, and Garrett made
his first studies at Angra, beginning to versify at an early age under
the influence of his uncle, a poet of the school of Bocage. Going to the
university of Coimbra in 1816, he soon earned notoriety by the precocity
of his talents and his fervent Liberalism, and there he gained his first
oratorical and literary successes. His tragedy _Lucrecia_ was played
there in February 1819, and during this period he also wrote _Merope_ as
well as a great part of _Cato_, all these plays belonging to the
so-called classical school. Leaving Coimbra with a law degree, he
proceeded to Lisbon, and on the 11th of November 1822 married D. Luiza
Midosi; but the alliance proved unhappy and a formal separation took
place in 1839.

The reactionary movement against the Radical revolution of 1820 reached
its height in 1823, and Garrett had to leave Portugal by order of the
Absolutist ministry then in power, and went to England. He became
acquainted with the masterpieces of the English and German romantic
movements during his stay abroad.

Imbued with the spirit of nationality, he wrote in 1824 at Havre the
poem "Camões," which destroyed the influence of the worn-out classical
and Arcadian rhymers, and in the following year composed the patriotic
poem "D. Branca," or "The Conquest of the Algarve." He was permitted to
return to Portugal in 1826, and thereupon devoted himself to journalism.
With the publication of _O Portuguez_, he raised the tone of the press,
exhibiting an elevation of ideas and moderation of language then unknown
in political controversy, and he introduced the "feuilleton." But his
defence of Liberal principles brought him three months' imprisonment,
and when D. Miguel was proclaimed absolute king on the 3rd of May 1828,
Garrett had again to leave the country. In London, where he sought
refuge, he continued his adhesion to romanticism by publishing
_Adozinda_ and _Bernal-Francez_, expansions of old folk-poems, which met
with the warmest praise from Southey and were translated by Adamson. He
spent the next three years in and about Birmingham, Warwick and London,
engaged in writing poetry and political pamphlets, and by these and by
his periodicals he did much to unite the Portuguese _émigrés_ and to
keep up their spirit amid their sufferings in a foreign land. Learning
that an expedition was being organized in France for the liberation of
Portugal, Garrett raised funds and joined the forces under D. Pedro as a
volunteer. Sailing in February 1832, he disembarked at Terceira, whence
he passed to S. Miguel, then the seat of the Liberal government. Here he
became a co-operator with the statesman Mousinho da Silveira, and
assisted him in drafting those laws which were to revolutionize the
whole framework of Portuguese society, this important work being done
far from books and without pecuniary reward. In his spare time he wrote
some of the beautiful lyrics afterwards collected into _Flores sem
Fructo_. He took part in the expedition that landed at the Mindello on
the 8th of July 1832, and in the occupation of Oporto. Early in the
siege he sketched out, under the influence of Walter Scott, the
historical romance _Arco de Sant' Anna_, descriptive of the city in the
reign of D. Pedro I.; and, in addition, he organized the Home and
Foreign offices under the marquis of Palmella, drafted many important
royal decrees, and prepared the criminal and commercial codes. In the
following November he was despatched as secretary to the marquis on a
diplomatic mission to foreign courts, which involved him in much
personal hardship. In the next year the capture of Lisbon enabled him to
return home, and he was charged to prepare a scheme for the reform of
public instruction.

In 1834-1835 he served as consul-general and chargé d'affaires at
Brussels, representing Portugal with distinction under most difficult
circumstances, for which he received no thanks and little pay. When he
got back, the government employed him to draw up a proposal for the
construction of a national theatre and for a conservatoire of dramatic
art, of which he became the head. He instituted prizes for the best
plays, himself revising nearly all that were produced, and a school of
dramatists and actors arose under his influence. To give them models, he
proceeded to write a series of prose dramas, choosing his subjects from
Portuguese history. He began in 1838 with the _Auto de Gil Vicente_,
considering that the first step towards the recreation of the Portuguese
drama was to revive the memory of its founder, and he followed this up
in 1842 by the _Alfageme de Santarem_, dealing with the Holy Constable,
and in 1843 by _Frei Luiz de Sousa_, one of the few great tragedies of
the 19th century, a work as intensely national as _The Lusiads_. The
story, which in part is historically true, and has the merit of being
simple, like the action, is briefly as follows. D. João de Portugal, who
was supposed to have died at the battle of Alcacer, returns, years
afterwards, to find his wife married to Manoel de Sousa and the mother
of a daughter by him, named Maria. Thereupon the pair separate and enter
religion, and Manoel becomes the famous chronicler, _Frei Luiz de Sousa_
(q.v.). The characters live and move, especially Telmo, the old servant,
who would never believe in the death of his former master D. João, and
the consumptive child Maria, who helps Telmo to create the atmosphere
of impending disaster; while the episodes, particularly those of the
return of D. João and the death of Maria, are full of power, and the
language is Portuguese of the best.

Entering parliament in 1837, Garrett soon made his mark as an orator. In
that year he delivered many notable discourses in defence of liberal
ideas. He also brought in a literary copyright bill, which, when it
became law in 1851, served as a precedent for similar legislation in
England and Prussia. In 1840 he made his famous speech known as _Porto
Pyreu_, in which he skilfully turned the well-known anecdote of the "mad
Athenian" against his opponents. While attending with assiduity to his
duties as a deputy, he wrote, about this time, the drama _D. Filippa de
Vilhena_, founded on an incident in the revolution of 1640, for
representation by the pupils of the conservatoire, and the session of
1841 saw another of his oratorical triumphs in his speech against the
law of tithes. In July 1843 an excursion to Santarem resulted in his
prose masterpiece _Viagens na minha terra_, at once a novel and a
miscellany of literary, political and philosophic criticism, written
without plan or method, easy, jovial and epigrammatic. He took no part
in the civil war that followed the revolution of Maria da Fonte, but
continued his literary labours, producing in 1848 the comedy _A Sobrinha
do Marquez_, dealing with the times of Pombal, and in 1849 an historical
memoir on Mousinho da Silveira. He spent much of the year 1850 in
finishing his _Romanceiro_, a collection of folk-poetry of which he was
the first to perceive the value; and in June 1851 he was created a
viscount. In the following December he drew up the additional act to the
constitutional charter, and his draft was approved by the ministers at a
cabinet meeting in his house. Further, he initiated the _Conselho
Ultramarino_; and the _Law of the Misericordias_, with its preamble,
published in 1852, was entirely from his pen. In the same year he became
for a short time minister of foreign affairs. In 1853 he brought out
_Folhas Cahidas_, a collection of short poems ablaze with passion and
exquisite in form, of which his friend Herculano said: "if Camoens had
written love verses at Garrett's age, he could not have equalled him."
His final literary work was a novel, _Helena_, which he left unfinished,
and on the 10th of February 1854 he made his last notable speech in the
House. He died on the 9th of December 1854, and on the 3rd of May 1903
his remains were translated to the national pantheon, the Jeronymos at
Belem, where they rest near to those of Camoens. As poet, novelist,
journalist, orator and dramatist, he deserves the remark of Rebello da
Silva: "Garrett was not a man of letters only but an entire literature
in himself."

Besides his strong religious faith, Garrett was endowed with a deep
sensibility, a creative imagination, rare taste and a singular capacity
for sympathy. Thus, though a learned man and an able jurist, he was
bound to be first and always an artist. His artistic temperament
explains his many-sided activity, his expansive kindliness, his
seductive charm, especially for women, his patriotism, his aristocratic
pretensions, his huge vanity and dandyism, and the ingenuousness that
absolves him from many faults in an irregular life. From his rich
artistic nature sprang his profound, sincere, sensual and melancholy
lyrics, the variety and perfection of his scenic creations, the
splendour of his eloquence, the truth of his comic vein, the elegance of
his lighter compositions. Two books stand out in bold relief from among
his writings: _Folhas Cahidas_, and that tragedy of fatality and pity,
_Frei Luiz de Sousa_, with its gallery of noble figures incarnating the
truest realism in an almost perfect prose form. The complete collection
of his works comprises twenty-four volumes and there are several
editions.

  AUTHORITIES.--Gomes de Amorim, _Garrett, memorias biographicas_ (3
  vols., Lisbon, 1881-1888); D. Romero Ortiz, _La Litteratura Portuguesa
  en el siglo XIX_ (Madrid, 1869), pp. 165-221; Dr Theophilo Braga,
  _Garrett e o romantismo_ (Oporto, 1904), and _Garrett e os dramas
  romanticos_ (Oporto, 1905), with a full bibliography; Innocencio da
  Silva, _Diccionario bibliographico Portuguez_, vol. iii. pp. 309-316,
  and vol. x. pp. 180-185. See _Revue encyclopédique Larousse_, No. 284,
  for a bibliography of the foreign translations of Garrett. _Frei Luiz
  de Sousa_ was translated by Edgar Prestage under the title _Brother
  Luiz de Sousa_ (London, 1909).     (E. Pr.)



GARRETTING, properly Galletting, a term in architecture for the process
in which the "gallets" or small splinters of stone are inserted in the
joints of coarse masonry to protect the mortar joints; they are stuck in
while the mortar is wet.



GARRICK, DAVID (1717-1779), English actor and theatrical manager, was
descended from a good French Protestant family named Garric or Garrique
of Bordeaux, which had settled in England on the revocation of the Edict
of Nantes. His father, Captain Peter Garrick, who had married Arabella
Clough, the daughter of a vicar choral of Lichfield cathedral, was on a
recruiting expedition when his famous third son was born at Hereford on
the 19th of February 1717. Captain Garrick, who had made his home at
Lichfield, where he had a large family, in 1731 rejoined his regiment at
Gibraltar. This kept him absent from home for many years, during which
letters were written to him by "little Davy," acquainting him with the
doings at Lichfield. When the boy was about eleven years old he paid a
short visit to Lisbon where his uncle David had settled as a wine
merchant. On his father's return from Gibraltar, David, who had
previously been educated at the grammar school of Lichfield, was,
largely by the advice of Gilbert Walmesley, registrar of the
ecclesiastical court, sent with his brother George to the "academy" at
Edial, just opened in June or July 1736 by Samuel Johnson, the senior by
seven years of David, who was then nineteen. This seminary was, however,
closed in about six months, and on the 2nd of March 1736/7 both Johnson
and Garrick left Lichfield for London--Johnson, as he afterwards said,
"with twopence halfpenny in his pocket," and Garrick "with
three-halfpence in his." Johnson, whose chief asset was the MS. tragedy
of _Irene_, was at first the host of his former pupil, who, however,
before the end of the year took up his residence at Rochester with John
Colson (afterwards Lucasian professor at Cambridge). Captain Garrick
died about a month after David's arrival in London. Soon afterwards, his
uncle, the wine merchant at Lisbon, having left David a sum of £1000, he
and his brother entered into partnership as wine merchants in London and
Lichfield, David taking up the London business. The concern was not
prosperous--though Samuel Foote's assertion that he had known Garrick
with three quarts of vinegar in the cellar calling himself a wine
merchant need not be taken literally--and before the end of 1741 he had
spent nearly half of his capital.

His passion for the stage completely engrossed him; he tried his hand
both at dramatic criticism and at dramatic authorship. His first
dramatic piece, _Lethe_, or _Aesop in the Shades_, which he was
thirty-seven years later to read from a splendidly bound transcript to
King George III. and Queen Charlotte, was played at Drury Lane on the
15th of April 1740; and he became a well-known frequenter of theatrical
circles. His first appearance on the stage was made in March 1741,
_incognito_, as harlequin at Goodman's Fields, Yates, who was ill,
having allowed him to take his place during a few scenes of the
pantomime entitled _Harlequin Student_, or _The Fall of Pantomime with
the Restoration of the Drama_. Garrick subsequently accompanied a party
of players from the same theatre to Ipswich, where he played his first
part as an actor under the name of Lyddal, in the character of Aboan (in
Southerne's _Oroonoko_). His success in this and other parts determined
his future career. On the 19th of October 1741 he made his appearance at
Goodman's Fields as Richard III. and gained the most enthusiastic
applause. Among the audience was Macklin, whose performance of Shylock,
early in the same year, had pointed the way along which Garrick was so
rapidly to pass in triumph. On the morrow the latter wrote to his
brother at Lichfield, proposing to make arrangements for his withdrawal
from the partnership, which, after much distressful complaint on the
part of his family, met by him with the utmost consideration, were
ultimately carried into effect. Meanwhile, each night had added to his
popularity on the stage. The town, as Gray (who, like Horace Walpole, at
first held out against the _furore_) declared, was "horn-mad" about him.
Before his Richard had exhausted its original effect, he won new
applause as Aboan, and soon afterwards as Lear and as Pierre in Otway's
_Venice Preserved_, as well as in several comic characters (including
that of Bayes). Glover ("Leonidas") attended every performance; the
duke of Argyll, Lords Cobham and Lyttelton, Pitt, and several other
members of parliament testified their admiration. Within the first six
months of his theatrical career he acted in eighteen characters of all
kinds, and from the 2nd of December he appeared in his own name. Pope
went to see him three times during his first performances, and
pronounced that "that young man never had his equal as an actor, and he
will never have a rival." Before next spring he had supped with "the
great Mr Murray, counsellor," and was engaged to do so with Mr Pope
through Murray's introduction, while he was dining with Halifax,
Sandwich and Chesterfield. "There was a dozen dukes of a night at
Goodman's Fields," writes Horace Walpole. Garrick's farce of _The Lying
Valet_, in which he performed the part of Sharp, was at this time
brought out with so much success that he ventured to send a copy to his
brother.

His fortune was now made, and while the managers of Covent Garden and
Drury Lane resorted to the law to make Giffard, the manager of Goodman's
Fields, close his little theatre, Garrick was engaged by Fleetwood for
Drury Lane for the season of 1742. In June of that year he went over to
Dublin, where he found the same homage paid to his talents as he had
received from his own countrymen. He was accompanied by Margaret (Peg)
Woffington, of whom he had been for some time a fervent admirer. (His
claim to the authorship of the song to Lovely Peggy is still _sub
judice_. There remains some obscurity as to the end of their liaison.)
From September 1742 to April 1745 he played at Drury Lane, after which
he again went over to Dublin. Here he remained during the whole season,
as joint-manager with Sheridan, in the direction and profits of the
Theatre Royal in Smock Alley. In 1746-1747 he fulfilled a short
engagement with Rich at Covent Garden, his last series of performances
under a management not his own. With the close of that season
Fleetwood's patent for the management of Drury Lane expired, and
Garrick, in conjunction with Lacy, purchased the property of the
theatre, together with the renewal of the patent; contributing £8000 as
two-thirds of the purchase-money. In September 1747 it was opened with a
strong company of actors, Johnson's prologue being spoken by Garrick,
while the epilogue, written by him, was spoken by Mrs Woffington. The
negotiations involved Garrick in a bitter quarrel with Macklin, who
appears to have had a real grievance in the matter. Garrick took no part
himself till his performance of Archer in the _Beaux' Stratagem_, a
month after the opening. For a time at least "the drama's patrons" were
content with the higher entertainment furnished them; in the end Garrick
had to "please" them, like most other managers, by gratifying their love
of show. Garrick was surrounded by many players of eminence, and he had
the art, as he was told by Mrs Clive, "of contradicting the proverb that
one cannot make bricks without straw, by doing what is infinitely more
difficult, making actors and actresses without genius." He had to
encounter very serious opposition from the old actors whom he had
distanced, and with the younger actors and actresses he was involved in
frequent quarrels. But to none of them or their fellows did he, so far
as it appears, show that jealousy of real merit from which so many great
actors have been unable to remain free. For the present he was able to
hold his own against all competition. The naturalness of his acting
fascinated those who, like Partridge in _Tom Jones_, listened to
nature's voice, and justified the preference of more conscious critics.
To be "pleased with nature" was, as Churchill wrote, in the _Rosciad_
(1761),[1] to be pleased with Garrick. For the stately declamation, the
sonorous, and beyond a doubt impressive, chant of Quin and his fellows,
Garrick substituted rapid changes of passion and humour in both voice
and gesture, which held his audiences spellbound. "It seemed," wrote
Richard Cumberland, "as if a whole century had been stepped over in the
passage of a single scene; old things were done away, and a new order at
once brought forward, bright and luminous, and clearly destined to
dispel the barbarisms of a tasteless age, too long superstitiously
devoted to the illusions of imposing declamation." Garrick's French
descent and his education may have contributed to give him the vivacity
and versatility which distinguished him as an actor; and nature had
given him an eye, if not a stature, to command, and a mimic power of
wonderful variety. The list of his characters in tragedy, comedy and
farce is large, and would be extraordinary for a modern actor of high
rank; it includes not less than seventeen Shakespearian parts. As a
manager, though he committed some grievous blunders, he did good service
to the theatre and signally advanced the popularity of Shakespeare's
plays, of which not less than twenty-four were produced at Drury Lane
under his management. Many of these were not pure Shakespeare; and he is
credited with the addition of a dying speech to the text of _Macbeth_.
On the other hand, Tate Wilkinson says that Garrick's production of
_Hamlet_ in 1773 was well received at Drury Lane even by the galleries,
"though without their favourite acquaintances the gravediggers." Among
his published adaptations are an opera, _The Fairies_ (from _Midsummer
Night's Dream_) (1755); an opera _The Tempest_ (1756); _Catherine and
Petruchio_ (1758); _Florizel and Perdita_ (1762). But not every
generation has the same notions of the way in which Shakespeare is best
honoured. Few sins of omission can be charged against Garrick as a
manager, but he refused Home's _Douglas_, and made the wrong choice
between _False Delicacy_ and _The Good Natur'd Man_. For the rest, he
purified the stage of much of its grossness, and introduced a relative
correctness of costume and decoration unknown before. To the study of
English dramatic literature he rendered an important service by
bequeathing his then unrivalled collection of plays to the British
Museum.

After escaping from the chains of his passion for the beautiful but
reckless Mrs Woffington, Garrick had in 1749 married Mademoiselle
Violette (Eva Maria Veigel), a German lady who had attracted admiration
at Florence or at Vienna as a dancer, and had come to England early in
1746, where her modest grace and the rumours which surrounded her
created a _furore_, and where she found enthusiastic patrons in the earl
and countess of Burlington. Garrick, who called her "the best of women
and wives," lived most happily with her in his villa at Hampton,
acquired by him in 1754, whither he was glad to escape from his house in
Southampton Street. To this period belongs Garrick's quarrel with Barry,
the only actor who even temporarily rivalled him in the favour of the
public. In 1763 Garrick and his wife visited Paris, where they were
cordially received and made the acquaintance of Diderot and others at
the house of the baron d'Holbach. It was about this time that Grimm
extolled Garrick as the first and only actor who came up to the demands
of his imagination; and it was in a reply to a pamphlet occasioned by
Garrick's visit that Diderot first gave expression to the views
expounded in his _Paradoxe sur le comédien_. After some months spent in
Italy, where Garrick fell seriously ill, they returned to Paris in the
autumn of 1764 and made more friends, reaching London in April 1765.
Their union was childless, and Mrs Garrick survived her husband until
1822. Her portrait by Hogarth is at Windsor Castle.

Garrick practically ceased to act in 1766, but he continued the
management of Drury Lane, and in 1769 organized the Shakespeare
celebrations at Stratford-on-Avon, an undertaking which ended in dismal
failure, though he composed an "Ode upon dedicating a building and
erecting a Statue to Shakespeare" on the occasion. (See, _inter alia,
Garrick's Vagary, or England Run Mad; with particulars of the Stratford
Jubilee_, 1769.) Of his best supporters on the stage, Mrs Cibber, with
whom he had been reconciled, died in 1766, and Mrs (Kitty) Clive retired
in 1769; but Garrick contrived to maintain the success of his theatre.
He sold his share in the property in 1776 for £35,000, and took leave of
the stage by playing a round of his favourite characters--Hamlet, Lear,
Richard and Benedick, among Shakespearian parts; Lusignan in _Zara_,
Aaron Hill's adaptation of Voltaire's _Zaire_; and Kitely in his own
adaptation of Ben Jonson's _Every Man in his Humour_; Archer in
Farquhar's _Beaux' Stratagem_; Abel Drugger in Ben Jonson's
_Alchemist_; Sir John Brute in Vanbrugh's _Provoked Wife_; Leon in
Fletcher's _Rule a Wife and have a Wife_. He ended the series, as Tate
Wilkinson says, "in full glory" with "the youthful Don Felix" in Mrs
Centlivre's _Wonder_ on the 10th of June 1776. He died in London on the
20th of January 1779. He was buried in Westminster Abbey at the foot of
Shakespeare's statue with imposing solemnities. An elegy on his death
was published by William Tasker, poet and physiognomist, in the same
year.

In person, Garrick was a little below middle height; in his later years
he seems to have inclined to stoutness. The extraordinary mobility of
his whole person, and his power of as it were transforming himself at
will, are attested by many anecdotes and descriptions, but the piercing
power of his eye must have been his most irresistible feature.

Johnson, of whose various and often merely churlish remarks on Garrick
and his doings many are scattered through the pages of Boswell, spoke
warmly of the elegance and sprightliness of his friend's conversation,
as well as of his liberality and kindness of heart; while to the great
actor's art he paid the exquisite tribute of describing Garrick's sudden
death as having "eclipsed the gaiety of nations, and impoverished the
public stock of harmless pleasure." But the most discriminating
character of Garrick, slightly tinged with satire, is that drawn by
Goldsmith in his poem of _Retaliation_. Beyond a doubt he was not
without a certain moral timidity contrasting strangely with his eager
temperament and alertness of intellect; but, though he was not cast in a
heroic mould, he must have been one of the most amiable of men. Garrick
was often happy in his epigrams and occasional verse, including his
numerous prologues and epilogues. He had the good taste to recognize,
and the spirit to make public his recognition of, the excellence of
Gray's odes at a time when they were either ridiculed or neglected. His
dramatic pieces, _The Lying Valet_, adapted from Motteux's _Novelty
Lethe_ (1740), _The Guardian_, _Linco's Travels_ (1767), _Miss in her
Teens_ (1747), _Irish Widow_, &c., and his alterations and adaptations
of old plays, which together fill four volumes, evinced his knowledge of
stage effect and his appreciation of lively dialogue and action; but he
cannot be said to have added one new or original character to the drama.
He was joint author with Colman of _The Clandestine Marriage_ (1766), in
which he is said to have written his famous part of Lord Ogleby. The
excellent farce, _High Life below Stairs_, appears to have been wrongly
attributed to Garrick, and to be by James Townley. His _Dramatic Works_
(1798) fill three, his _Poetic_ (1735) two volumes.

Garrick's _Private Correspondence_ (published in 1831-1832 with a short
memoir by Boaden, in 2 vols. 4to), which includes his extensive _Foreign
Correspondence_ with distinguished French men and women, and the notices
of him in the memoirs of Cumberland, Hannah More and Madame D'Arblay,
and above all in Boswell's _Life of Johnson_, bear testimony to his many
attractive qualities as a companion and to his fidelity as a friend.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A collection of unprinted Garrick letters is in the
  Forster library at South Kensington. A list of publications of all
  kinds for and against Garrick will be found in R. Lowe's
  _Bibliographical History of English Theatrical Literature_ (1887). The
  earlier biographies of Garrick are by Arthur Murphy (2 vols., 1801)
  and by the bookseller Tom Davies (2 vols., 4th ed., 1805), the latter
  a work of some merit, but occasionally inaccurate and confused as to
  dates; and a searching if not altogether sympathetic survey of his
  verses is furnished by Joseph Knight's valuable Life (1894). A memoir
  of Garrick is included in a volume of French _Memoirs of Mlle Clairon
  and others_, published by Levain (H.L. Cain) at Paris in 1846; and an
  Italian _Biografia di Davide Garrick_ was published by C. Blasis at
  Milan in 1840. Mr Percy Fitzgerald's _Life_ (2 vols., 1868; new
  edition, 1899) is full and spirited, and has been reprinted, with
  additions, among Sir Theodore Martin's _Monographs_ (1906). A
  delightful essay on Garrick appeared in the _Quarterly Review_ (July
  1868), directing attention to the admirable criticisms of Garrick's
  acting in 1775 in the letters of G.C. Lichtenberg (_Verm. Schriften_,
  iii., Göttingen, 1801). See also for a very valuable survey of
  Garrick's labours as an actor, with a bibliography, C. Gaehde, _David
  Garrick als Shakespeare-Darsteller_, &c. (Berlin, 1904). Mrs Parsons'
  _Garrick, and his Circle_ and _Some unpublished Correspondence of
  David Garrick_, ed. G.P. Baker (Boston, Mass., 1907), are interesting
  additions to the literature of the subject. There is also a Life by
  James Smyth, _David Garrick_ (1887). T.W. Robertson's play _David
  Garrick_, first acted by Sothern, and later associated with Sir
  Charles Wyndham, is of course mere fiction.

  As to the portraits of Garrick, see W.T. Lawrence in The _Connoisseur_
  (April 1905). That by Gainsborough at Stratford-on-Avon was preferred
  by Mrs Garrick to all others. Several remain from the hand of Hogarth,
  including the famous picture of Garrick as Richard III. The portraits
  by Reynolds include the celebrated "Garrick between Tragedy and
  Comedy." Zoffany's are portraits in character. Roubiliac's statue of
  Shakespeare, for which Garrick sat, and for which he paid the sculptor
  three hundred guineas, was originally placed in a small temple at
  Hampton, and is now in the entrance hall at the British Museum.
       (R. Ca.; A. W. W.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In the subsequent _Apology addressed to the Critical Reviewers_,
    Churchill revenged himself for the slight which he supposed Garrick
    to have put upon him, by some spiteful lines, which, however, Garrick
    requited by good-humoured kindness.



GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD (1805-1879), the American anti-slavery leader,
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on the 10th of December
1805. His parents were from the British province of New Brunswick. The
father, Abijah, a sea-captain, went away from home when William was a
child, and it is not known whether he died at sea or on land. The
mother, whose maiden name was Lloyd, is said to have been a woman of
high character, charming in person and eminent for piety. She died in
1823. William had a taste for books, and made the most of his limited
opportunities. His mother first set him to learn the trade of a
shoemaker, first at Newburyport, and then, after 1815, at Baltimore,
Maryland, and, when she found that this did not suit him, let him try
his hand at cabinet-making (at Haverhill, Mass.). But this pleased him
no better. In October 1818, when he was in his fourteenth year, he was
made more than content by being indentured to Ephraim W. Allen,
proprietor of the Newburyport _Herald_, to learn the trade of a printer.
He soon became an expert compositor, and after a time began to write
anonymously for the _Herald_. His communications won the commendation of
the editor, who had not at first the slightest suspicion that he was the
author. He also wrote for other papers with equal success. A series of
political essays, written by him for the Salem _Gazette_, was copied by
a prominent Philadelphia journal, the editor of which attributed them to
the Hon. Timothy Pickering, a distinguished statesman of Massachusetts.
His skill as a printer won for him the position of foreman, while his
ability as a writer was so marked that the editor of the _Herald_, when
temporarily called away from his post, left the paper in his charge.

The printing-office was for him, what it has been for many another poor
boy, no mean substitute for the academy and for the college. He was full
of enthusiasm for liberty; the struggle of the Greeks to throw off the
Turkish yoke enlisted his warmest sympathy, and at one time he seriously
thought of entering the West Point Academy and fitting himself for a
soldier's career. His apprenticeship ended in 1826, when he began the
publication of a new paper (actually the old one under a new name), the
_Free Press_, in his native place. The paper, whose motto was "Our
Country, our Whole Country, and nothing but our Country," was full of
spirit and intellectual force, but Newburyport was a sleepy place and
the enterprise failed. Garrison then went to Boston, where, after
working for a time as a journeyman printer, he became the editor of the
_National Philanthropist_, the first journal established in America to
promote the cause of total abstinence from intoxicating liquors. His
work in this paper was highly appreciated by the friends of temperance,
but a change in the proprietorship led to his withdrawal before the end
of the year. In 1828 he was induced to establish the _Journal of the
Times_ at Bennington, Vermont, to support the re-election of John Quincy
Adams to the presidency of the United States. The new paper, though
attractive in many ways, and full of force and fire, was too far ahead
of public sentiment on moral questions to win a large support. In Boston
he had met Benjamin Lundy (q.v.), who had for years been preaching the
abolition of slavery. Garrison had been deeply moved by Lundy's appeals,
and after going to Vermont he showed the deepest interest in the slavery
question. Lundy was then publishing in Baltimore a small monthly paper,
entitled _The Genius of Universal Emancipation_, and he resolved to go
to Bennington and invite Garrison to join him in the editorship. With
this object in view he walked from Boston to Bennington, through the
frost and snow of a New England winter, a distance of 125 m. His mission
was successful. Garrison was deeply impressed by the good Quaker's zeal
and devotion, and he resolved to join him and devote himself thereafter
to the work of abolishing slavery.

In pursuance of this plan he went to Baltimore in the autumn of 1829,
and thenceforth the _Genius_ was published weekly, under the joint
editorship of the two men. It was understood, however, that Garrison
would do most of the editorial work, while Lundy would spend most of his
time in lecturing and procuring subscribers. On one point the two
editors differed radically, Lundy being the advocate of gradual and
Garrison of immediate emancipation. The former was possessed with the
idea that the negroes, on being emancipated, must be colonized somewhere
beyond the limits of the United States; the latter held that they should
be emancipated on the soil of the country, with all the rights of
freemen. In view of this difference it was agreed that each should speak
on his own individual responsibility in the paper, appending his initial
to each of his articles for the information of the reader. It deserves
mention here that Garrison was then in utter ignorance of the change
previously wrought in the opinions of English abolitionists by Elizabeth
Heyrick's pamphlet in favour of immediate, in distinction from gradual
emancipation. The sinfulness of slavery being admitted, the duty of
immediate emancipation to his clear ethical instinct was perfectly
manifest. He saw that it would be idle to expose and denounce the evils
of slavery, while responsibility for the system was placed upon former
generations, and the duty of abolishing it transferred to an indefinite
future. His demand for immediate emancipation fell like a tocsin upon
the ears of slaveholders. For general talk about the evils of slavery
they cared little, but this assertion that every slave was entitled to
instant freedom filled them with alarm and roused them to anger, for
they saw that, if the conscience of the nation were to respond to the
proposition, the system must inevitably fall. The _Genius_, now that it
had become a vehicle for this dangerous doctrine, was a paper to be
feared and intensely hated. Baltimore was then one of the centres of the
domestic slave trade, and upon this traffic Garrison heaped the
strongest denunciations. A vessel owned in Newburyport having taken a
cargo of slaves from Baltimore to New Orleans, he characterized the
transaction as an act of "domestic piracy," and avowed his purpose to
"cover with thick infamy" those engaged therein. He was thereupon
prosecuted for libel by the owner of the vessel, fined $50, mulcted in
costs, and, in default of payment, committed to gaol. His imprisonment
created much excitement, and in some quarters, in spite of the
pro-slavery spirit of the time, was a subject of indignant comment in
public as well as private. The excitement was fed by the publication of
two or three striking sonnets, instinct with the spirit of liberty,
which Garrison inscribed on the walls of his cell. One of these,
_Freedom of Mind_, is remarkable for freshness of thought and terseness
of expression.

John G. Whittier, the Quaker poet, interceded with Henry Clay to pay
Garrison's fine and thus release him from prison. To the credit of the
slaveholding statesman it must be said that he responded favourably, but
before he had time for the requisite preliminaries Arthur Tappan, a
philanthropic merchant of New York, contributed the necessary sum and
set the prisoner free after an incarceration of seven weeks. The
partnership between Garrison and Lundy was then dissolved by mutual
consent, and the former resolved to establish a paper of his own, in
which, upon his sole responsibility, he could advocate the doctrine of
immediate emancipation and oppose the scheme of African colonization. He
was sure, after his experiences at Baltimore, that a movement against
slavery resting upon any less radical foundation than this would be
ineffectual. He first proposed to establish his paper at Washington, in
the midst of slavery, but on returning to New England and observing the
state of public opinion there, he came to the conclusion that little
could be done at the South while the non-slaveholding North was lending
her influence, through political, commercial, religious and social
channels, for the sustenance of slavery. He determined, therefore, to
publish his paper in Boston, and, having issued his prospectus, set
himself to the task of awakening an interest in the subject by means of
lectures in some of the principal cities and towns of the North. It was
an up-hill work. Contempt for the negro and indifference to his wrongs
were almost universal. In Boston, then a great cotton mart, he tried in
vain to procure a church or vestry for the delivery of his lectures, and
thereupon announced in one of the daily journals that if some suitable
place was not promptly offered he would speak on the common. A body of
infidels under the leadership of Abner Kneeland (1774-1844), who had
previously been in turn a Baptist minister and the editor of a
Universalist magazine, proffered him the use of their small hall; and,
no other place being accessible, he accepted it gratefully, and
delivered therein (in October 1830) three lectures, in which he unfolded
his principles and plans. He visited privately many of the leading
citizens of the city, statesmen, divines and merchants, and besought
them to take the lead in a national movement against slavery; but they
all with one consent made excuse, some of them listening to his plea
with manifest impatience. He was disappointed, but not disheartened. His
conviction of the righteousness of his cause, of the evils and dangers
of slavery, and of the absolute necessity of the contemplated movement,
was intensified by opposition, and he resolved to go forward, trusting
in God for success.

On the 1st of January 1831, without a dollar of capital, and without a
single subscriber, he and his partner Isaac Knapp (1804-1843) issued the
first number of the _Liberator_, avowing their "determination to print
it as long as they could subsist on bread and water, or their hands
obtain employment." Its motto was, "Our country is the world--our
countrymen are mankind"; and the editor, in his address to the public,
uttered the words which have become memorable as embodying the whole
purpose and spirit of his life: "I am in earnest--I will not
equivocate--I will not excuse--I will not retreat a single inch--and I
will be heard." Help came but slowly. For many months Garrison and his
brave partner, who died long before the end of the conflict, made their
bed on the floor of the room, "dark, unfurnished and mean," in which
they printed their paper, and where Mayor Harrison Gray Otis of Boston,
in compliance with the request of Governor Robert Y. Hayne of South
Carolina, "ferreted them out" in "an obscure hole," "their only visible
auxiliary a negro boy." But the paper founded under such inauspicious
circumstances exerted a mighty influence, and lived to record not only
President Lincoln's proclamation of emancipation, but the adoption of an
amendment to the constitution of the United States for ever prohibiting
slavery. It was the beginning and the nucleus of an agitation that
eventually pervaded and filled every part of the country. Other
newspapers were afterwards established upon the same principles;
anti-slavery societies, founded upon the doctrine of immediate
emancipation, sprang up on every hand; the agitation was carried into
political parties, into the press, and into legislative and
ecclesiastical assemblies; until in 1861 the Southern states, taking
alarm from the election of a president known to be at heart opposed to
slavery though pledged to enforce all the constitutional safeguards of
the system, seceded from the Union and set up a separate government.

Garrison sought the abolition of slavery by moral means alone. He knew
that the national government had no power over the system in any state,
though it could abolish it at the national capital, and prohibit it in
the territories. He thought it should bring its moral influence to bear
in favour of abolition; but neither he nor his associates ever asked
Congress to exercise any unconstitutional power. His idea was to combine
the moral influence of the North, and pour it through every open channel
upon the South. To this end he made his appeal to the Northern churches
and pulpits, beseeching them to bring the power of Christianity to bear
against the slave system, and to advocate the rights of the slaves to
immediate and unconditional freedom. He was a man of peace, hating war
not less than he did slavery; but he warned his countrymen that if they
refused to abolish slavery by moral power a retributive war must sooner
or later ensue. The conflict was irrepressible. Slavery must be
overthrown, if not by peaceful means, then in blood. The first society
organized under Garrison's auspices, and in accordance with his
principles, was the New England Anti-Slavery Society, which adopted its
constitution in January 1832. In the spring of this year Garrison issued
his _Thoughts on African Colonization_, in which he showed by ample
citations from official documents that the American Colonization Society
was organized in the interest of slavery, and that in offering itself to
the people of the North as a practical remedy for that system it was
guilty of deception. His book, aided by others taking substantially the
same view, smote the society with a paralysis from which it never
recovered. Agents of the American Colonization Society in England having
succeeded in deceiving leading Abolitionists there as to its character
and tendency, Garrison was deputed by the New England Anti-Slavery
Society to visit England for the purpose of counteracting their
influence. He went in the spring of 1833, when he was but twenty-seven
years of age, and was received with great cordiality by British
Abolitionists, some of whom had heard of his bold assaults upon American
slavery, and had seen a few numbers of the _Liberator_. The struggle for
emancipation in the West Indies was then at the point of culmination;
the leaders of the cause, from all parts of the kingdom, were assembled
in London, and Garrison was at once admitted to their councils and
treated with distinguished consideration. He took home with him a
"protest" against the American Colonization Society, signed by
Wilberforce, Zachary Macaulay, Samuel Gurney, William Evans, S.
Lushington, T. Fowell Buxton, James Cropper, Daniel O'Connell and
others, in which they declared their deliberate judgment that "its
precepts were delusive," and "its real effects of the most dangerous
nature." He also received assurances of the cordial sympathy of British
Abolitionists with him in his efforts to abolish American slavery. He
gained a hearing before a large popular assembly in London, and won the
confidence of those whom he addressed by his evident earnestness,
sincerity and ability.

Garrison's visit to England enraged the pro-slavery people and press of
the United States at the outset, and when he returned home in September
with the "protest" against the Colonization Society, and announced that
he had engaged the services of George Thompson as a lecturer against
American slavery, there were fresh outbursts of rage on every hand. The
American Anti-Slavery Society was organized in December of that year
(1833), putting forth a masterly declaration of its principles and
purposes from the pen of Garrison. This added fresh fuel to the public
excitement, and when Thompson came over in the next spring, the
hostility to the cause began to manifest itself in mobs organized to
suppress the discussion of the slavery question. Now began what Harriet
Martineau called "the martyr age in America." In the autumn of 1835
Thompson was compelled, in order to save his life, to embark secretly
for England. Just before his departure the announcement that he would
address the Woman's Anti-Slavery Society of Boston created "a mob of
gentlemen of property and standing," from which, if he had been present,
he could hardly have escaped with his life. The whole city was in an
uproar. Garrison, almost denuded of his clothing, was dragged through
the streets with a rope by infuriated men. He was rescued with great
difficulty, and consigned to the gaol for safety, until he could be
secretly removed from the city.

Anti-slavery societies were greatly multiplied throughout the North, and
many men of influence, both in the church and in the state, were won to
the cause. Garrison, true to his original purpose, never faltered or
turned back. The Abolitionists of the United States were a united body
until 1839-1840, when divisions sprang up among them. Garrison
countenanced the activity of women in the cause, even to the extent of
allowing them to vote and speak in the anti-slavery societies, and
appointing them as lecturing agents; moreover, he believed in the
political equality of the sexes, to which a strong party was opposed
upon social and religious grounds. Then there were some who thought
Garrison dealt too severely with the churches and pulpits for their
complicity with slavery, and who accused him of a want of religious
orthodoxy; indeed, according to the standards of his time he was
decidedly heterodox, though he had an intensely religious nature and was
far from being an infidel, as he was often charged with being. He was,
moreover, not only a non-resistant but also an opponent of all political
systems based on force. "As to the governments of this world," he said,
"whatever their titles or forms we shall endeavour to prove that in
their essential elements, as at present administered, they are all
anti-Christ; that they can never by human wisdom be brought into
conformity with the will of God; that they cannot be maintained except
by naval and military power to carry them into effect; that all their
penal enactments, being a dead letter without any army to carry them
into effect, are virtually written in human blood; and that the
followers of Jesus should instinctively shun their stations of honor,
power, and emolument--at the same time 'submitting to every ordinance of
man for the Lord's sake' and offering no physical resistance to any of
their mandates, however unjust or tyrannical." These views were very
distasteful to many, who, moreover, felt that Garrison greatly injured
abolitionism by causing it to be associated in men's minds with these
unpopular views on other subjects. The dissentients from his opinions
determined to form an anti-slavery political party, while he believed in
working by moral rather than political party instrumentalities. These
differences led to the organization of a new National Anti-Slavery
Society in 1840, and to the formation of the "Liberty Party" (q.v.) in
politics. (See BIRNEY, JAMES G.) The two societies sent their delegates
to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, and Garrison
refused to take his seat in that body, because the women delegates from
the United States were excluded. The discussions of the next few years
served to make clearer than before the practical workings of the
constitution of the United States as a shield and support of slavery;
and Garrison, after a long and painful reflection, came to the
conclusion that its pro-slavery clauses were immoral, and that it was
therefore wrong to take an oath for its support. The Southern states had
greatly enlarged representation in Congress on account of their slaves,
and the national government was constitutionally bound to assist in the
capture of fugitive slaves, and to suppress every attempt on their part
to gain their freedom by force. In view of these provisions, Garrison,
adopting a bold scriptural figure of speech, denounced the constitution
as "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell," and chose as his
motto, "No union with slaveholders."

One class of Abolitionists sought to evade the difficulty by strained
interpretations of the clauses referred to, while others, admitting that
they were immoral, felt themselves obliged, notwithstanding, to support
the constitution in order to avoid what they thought would be still
greater evils. The American Anti-Slavery Society, of which Garrison was
the president from 1843 to the day of emancipation, was during all this
period the nucleus of an intense and powerful moral agitation, which was
greatly valued by many of the most faithful workers in the field of
politics, who respected Garrison for his fidelity to his convictions. On
the other hand, he always had the highest respect for every earnest and
faithful opponent of slavery, however far their special views might
differ. When in 1861 the Southern states seceded from the Union and took
up arms against it, he saw clearly that slavery would perish in the
struggle, that the constitution would be purged of its pro-slavery
clauses, and that the Union henceforth would rest upon the sure
foundations of liberty, justice and equality to all men. He therefore
ceased from that hour to advocate disunion, and devoted himself to the
task of preparing the way for and hastening on the inevitable event. His
services at this period were recognized and honoured by President
Lincoln and others in authority, and the whole country knew that the
agitation which made the abolition of slavery feasible and necessary was
largely due to his uncompromising spirit and indomitable courage.

In 1865 at the close of the war, he declared that, slavery being
abolished, his career as an abolitionist was ended. He counselled a
dissolution of the American Anti-Slavery Society, insisting that it had
become _functus officiis_, and that whatever needed to be done for the
protection of the freedmen could best be accomplished by new
associations formed for that purpose. The _Liberator_ was discontinued
at the end of the same year, after an existence of thirty-five years. He
visited England for the second time in 1846, and again in 1867, when he
was received with distinguished honours, public as well as private. In
1877, when he was there for the last time, he declined every form of
public recognition. He died in New York on the 24th of May 1879, in the
seventy-fourth year of his age, and was buried in Boston, after a most
impressive funeral service, four days later. In 1843 a small volume of
his _Sonnets and other Poems_ was published, and in 1852 appeared a
volume of _Selections from his Writings and Speeches_. His wife, Helen
Eliza Benson, died in 1876. Four sons and one daughter survived them.

Garrison's son, WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON (1838-1909), was a prominent
advocate of the single tax, free trade, woman's suffrage, and of the
repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, and an opponent of imperialism;
another son, WENDELL PHILLIPS GARRISON (1840-1907), was literary editor
of the New York _Nation_ from 1865 to 1906.

  The above article, with certain modifications, reproduces the account
  given in the 9th edition of this work by Oliver Johnson (reprinted
  from his _Garrison: an Outline of his Life_, New York, 1879). The
  writer (1809-1889) was a prominent Abolitionist, editor, and an
  intimate friend of Garrison; he edited the _Liberator_ during
  Garrison's absence in England in 1833, and later was an editor or an
  associate editor of various journals, including, after the Civil War,
  the New York _Tribune_ and the New York _Evening Post_. He also
  published an excellent brief biography in _William Lloyd Garrison and
  his Times_ (Boston, 1880).

  The great authority on the life of Garrison is the thorough and candid
  work of his sons, W.P. and F.J. Garrison, _William Lloyd Garrison
  1805-1879: The Story of his Life told by his Children_ (4 vols., New
  York, 1885-1889), which is indispensable for the student of the
  anti-slavery struggle in America. Goldwin Smith's _The Moral Crusader:
  a Biographical Essay on William Lloyd Garrison_ (New York, 1892) is a
  brilliant sketch.



GARRISON, originally a term for stores or supplies, also a defence or
protection, now confined in meaning to a body of troops stationed in a
town or fortress for the purpose of defence. In form the word is derived
from O. Fr. _garison_, modern _guérison_, from _guérir_, to furnish with
stores, to preserve, but in its later meaning it has been confused with
the Fr. _garnison_, the regular word for troops stationed for purposes
of defence. In English "garnison" was used till the 16th century, when
"garrison" took its place. In the British army "garrison troops,"
especially "garrison artillery," are troops trained and employed for
garrison work as distinct from field operations.



GARROTE (Spanish for "cudgel"), an appliance used in Spain and Portugal
for the execution of criminals condemned to death. The criminal is
conducted to the place of execution (which is public) on horseback or in
a cart, wearing a black tunic, and is attended by a procession of
priests, &c. He is seated on a scaffold fastened to an upright post by
an iron collar (the garrote), and a knob worked by a screw or lever
dislocates his spinal column, or a small blade severs the spinal column
at the base of the brain. (See CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.) Originally a stout
cord or bandage was tied round the neck of the criminal, who was seated
in a chair fixed to a post. Between the cord and the neck a stick was
inserted (hence the name) and twisted till strangulation ensued.

"Garrotting" is the name given in England to a form of robbery with
violence which became rather common in the winter of 1862-1863. The
thief came up behind his victim, threw a cord over his head, and
tightened it nearly to strangulation point, while robbing him. An act of
1863, imposing the penalty of flogging in addition to penal servitude
for this offence, had the effect of stopping garrotting almost entirely.
At any rate, the practice was checked; and, though the opponents of any
sort of flogging refuse to admit that this was due to the penalty, that
view has always been taken by the English judges who had experience of
such cases.



GARRUCHA, a seaport of south-eastern Spain, in the province of Almeria;
on the Mediterranean Sea and on the right bank of the river Antas. Pop.
(1900) 4461. The harbour of Garrucha, which is defended by an ancient
castle, affords shelter to large ships, and is the natural outlet for
the commerce of a thriving agricultural and mining district. Despite its
small size and the want of railway communication, Garrucha has thus a
considerable trade in lead, silver, copper, iron, esparto grass, fruit,
&c. Besides sea-going ships, many small coasters enter in ballast, and
clear with valuable cargoes. In 1902, 135 vessels of 390,000 tons
entered the harbour, the majority being British or Spanish; and in the
same year the value of the exports reached £478,000, and that of the
imports £128,000. Both imports and exports trebled their value in the
ten years 1892-1902.



GARSTON, a seaport in the Widnes parliamentary division of Lancashire,
England, on the Mersey, 6 m. S.E. of Liverpool. Pop. (1891) 13,444;
(1901) 17,289. The docks, belonging to the London & North Western
railway company, employ most of the working population. There is about a
mile of quayage, with special machinery for the shipping of coal, which
forms the chief article of export.



GARTH, SIR SAMUEL (1661-1719), English physician and poet, was born of a
good Yorkshire family in 1661. He entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, in
1676, graduating B.A. in 1679 and M.A. in 1684. He took his M.D. and
became a member of the College of Physicians in 1691. In 1697 he
delivered the Harveian oration, in which he advocated a scheme dating
from some ten years back for providing dispensaries for the relief of
the sick poor, as a protection against the greed of the apothecaries. In
1699 he published a mock-heroic poem, _The Dispensary_, in six cantos,
which had an instant success, passing through three editions within a
year. In this he ridiculed the apothecaries and their allies among the
physicians. The poem has little interest at the present day, except as a
proof that the heroic couplet was written with smoothness and polish
before the days of Pope. Garth was a member of the Kit-Kat Club, and
became the leading physician of the Whigs, as Radcliffe was of the
Tories. In 1714 he was knighted by George I. and he died on the 18th of
January 1719. He wrote little besides his best-known work _The
Dispensary_ and _Claremont_, a moral epistle in verse. He made a Latin
oration (1700) in praise of Dryden and translated the _Life of Otho_ in
the fifth volume of Dryden's Plutarch. In 1717 he edited a translation
of Ovid's _Metamorphoses_, himself supplying the fourteenth and part of
the fifteenth book.



GARTOK, a trade-market of Tibet, situated on the bank of the Indus on
the road between Shigatse and Leh, to the east of Simla. In accordance
with the Tibet treaty of 1904, Gartok, together with Yatung and Gyantse,
was thrown open to British trade. On the return of the column from Lhasa
in that year Gartok was visited by a party under Captain Ryder, who
found only a few dozen people in winter quarters, their houses being in
the midst of a bare plain. In summer, however, all the trade between
Tibet and Ladakh passes through this place.



GARY, a city of Lake county, Indiana, U.S.A., at the southern end of
Lake Michigan, about 25 m. S.E. of Chicago, Ill. Pop. (1910 census)
16,802. Gary is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore &
Michigan Southern, the Michigan Central, the Pennsylvania, the Wabash,
and (for freight only) the Chicago, Lake Shore & Eastern, and the
Indiana Harbor Belt railways, and by several steamship lines plying the
Great Lakes. There are about 21 sq. m. within the municipal limits, but
the city lies chiefly within a tract of about 8000 acres composed at the
time of its settlement mainly of sand dunes and swamps intersected from
east to west by the Grand Calumet and the Little Calumet rivers, small
streams respectively about 1 and 3 m. S. of the lake shore. In 1906 the
United States Steel Corporation bought this tract to establish on it a
great industrial community, as direct water connexion with the Lake
Superior ore region was possible, and it was comparatively accessible to
West Virginia coal and Michigan limestone, with unusual railroad
facilities. The Steel Corporation began the actual building of the town
in June 1906, the first step being the installation of an elaborate
system of sewers, and of mains and conduits, for the distribution of
water, gas and electricity. The water-supply is taken from the lake at a
point 2 m. offshore by means of a tunnel. These public utilities the
Steel Corporation controls, and it has built about 500 dwellings, two
hotels, a bank, and its own plant. A small patch of land, now within the
limits of the city, has been from the beginning in the hands of private
owners, but the remainder of the lots (except those already sold) are
owned by the Steel Corporation, and are sold under certain restrictions
intended to prevent real estate speculation, to guarantee bona fide
improvement of the property, and to restrict the sale of intoxicating
drinks. Between the Grand Calumet river (which has been dredged out into
a canal) and the lake lies the plant of the Steel Corporation, covering
about 1200 acres. All the machinery in this great plant is driven by
electricity from generators whose motive power is supplied by the
combustion of gases from the blast furnaces. From the same sources is
also supplied the electricity for lighting the city. The rail mill is
operated by three-phase induction motors of from 2000 to 6000
horse-power capacity. The city was chartered in 1906 and was named in
honour of Elbert Henry Gary (b. 1846), chairman of the board of
directors and chairman of the finance committee of the United States
Steel Corporation.



GAS, a general term for one of the three states of aggregation of
matter; also more specifically applied to coal-gas, the gaseous product
formed in the destructive distillation of coal or other carbonaceous
matter (see below, section _Gas Manufacture_; for gas engines see the
separate heading GAS ENGINE).

_The Gaseous State._--Matter is studied under three physical
phases--solids, liquids and gases, the latter two being sometimes
grouped as "fluids." The study of the physical properties of fluids in
general constitutes the science of hydromechanics, and their
applications in the arts is termed hydraulics; the special science
dealing with the physical properties of gases is named pneumatics.

The gaseous fluid with which we have chiefly to do is our atmosphere.
Though practically invisible, it appeals in its properties to other of
our senses, so that the evidences of its presence are manifold. Thus we
feel it in its motion as wind, and observe the dynamical effects of this
motion in the quiver of the leaf or the motion of a sailing ship. It
offers resistance to the passage of bodies through it, destroying their
motion and transforming their energy--as is betrayed to our hearing in
the whiz of the rifle bullet, to our sight in the flash of the meteor.

The practically obvious distinction between solids and fluids may be
stated in dynamical language thus:--solids can sustain a longitudinal
pressure without being supported by a lateral pressure; fluids cannot.
Hence any region of space enclosed by a rigid boundary can be easily
filled with a fluid, which then takes the form of the bounding surface
at every point of it. But here we distinguish between fluids according
as they are gases or liquids. The gas will always completely fill the
region, however small the quantity put in. Remove any portion and the
remainder will expand so as to fill the whole space again. On the other
hand, it requires a definite quantity of liquid to fill the region.
Remove any portion and a part of the space will be left unoccupied by
liquid. Part of the liquid surface is then otherwise conditioned than by
the form of the wall or bounding surface of the region; and if the
portion of the wall not in contact with the liquid is removed the form
and quantity of the liquid are in no way affected. Hence a liquid can be
kept in an open vessel; a gas cannot so be. To quote the differentia of
Sir Oliver Lodge: "A solid has volume and shape; a liquid has volume,
but no shape; a gas has neither volume nor shape."

It is necessary to distinguish between a gas and a "vapour." The latter
possesses the physical property stated above which distinguishes a gas
from a fluid, but it differs from a gas by being readily condensible to
a liquid, either by lowering the temperature or moderately increasing
the pressure. The study of the effects of pressure and temperature on
many gases led to the introduction of the term "permanent gases" to
denote gases which were apparently not liquefiable. The list included
hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen; but with improved methods these gases
have been liquefied and even solidified, thus rendering the term
meaningless (see LIQUID GASES). The term "perfect gas" is applied to an
imaginary substance in which there is no frictional retardation of
molecular motion; or, in other words, the time during which any molecule
is influenced by other molecules is infinitesimally small compared with
the time during which it traverses its mean free path. It serves as a
means of research, more particularly in mathematical investigations, the
simple laws thus deduced being subsequently modified by introducing
assumptions in order to co-ordinate actual experiences.

The gaseous state was well known to the ancients; for instance, in Greek
cosmology, "air" ([Greek: pneuma]) was one of the fundamental elements.
The alchemists used such terms as _spiritus_, _flatus_, _halitus_,
_aura_, _emanatio nubila_, &c., words implying a "wind" or "breath." The
word "gas" was invented by J.B. van Helmont in his _Ortus medicinae_,
posthumously published in 1648, in the course of his description of the
gas now known as carbon dioxide. He found that charcoal on burning
yielded a "spirit," which he named _spiritus sylvestris_ on account of
its supposed untamable nature ("Gas sylvestre sive incoërcibile, quod in
corpus cogi non potest visibile"); and he invented the word "gas" in the
expression: "... this spirit, hitherto unknown, ... I call by a new name
_gas_" ("hunc spiritum, incognitum hactenus, novo nomine _gas_ voco").
The word was suggested by the Gr. [Greek: chaos], chaos, for he also
writes: "I have called this spirit _gas_, it being scarcely
distinguishable from the Chaos of the ancients" ("halitum illum _Gas_
vocavi, non longe a Chao veterum secretum"). The view that the word was
suggested by the Dutch _geest_, spirit, is consequently erroneous. Until
the end of the 18th century the word "air," qualified by certain
adjectives, was in common use for most of the gases known--a custom due
in considerable measure to the important part which common air played in
chemical and physical investigations.

The study of gases may be divided into two main branches: the physical
and the chemical. The former investigates essentially general
properties, such as the weight and density, the relation between
pressure, volume and temperature (piezometric and thermometric
properties), calorimetric properties, diffusion, viscosity, electrical
and thermal conductivity, &c., and generally properties independent of
composition. These subjects are discussed in the articles DENSITY;
THERMOMETRY; CALORIMETRY; DIFFUSION; CONDUCTION OF HEAT; and
CONDENSATION OF GASES. The latter has for its province the preparation,
collection and identification of gases, and the volume relations in
which they combine; in general it deals with specific properties. The
historical development of the chemistry of gases--pneumatic
chemistry--is treated in the article CHEMISTRY; the technical analysis
of gaseous mixtures is treated below under _Gas Analysis_. Connecting
the experimental study of the physical and chemical properties is the
immense theoretical edifice termed the kinetic theory of gases. This
subject, which is discussed in the article MOLECULE, has for its purpose
(1) the derivation of a physical structure of a gas which will agree
with the experimental observations of the diverse physical properties,
and (2) a correlation of the physical properties and chemical
composition.

_Gas Analysis._--The term "gas analysis" is given to that branch of
analytical chemistry which has for its object the quantitative
determination of the components of a gaseous mixture. The chief
applications are found in the analysis of flue gases (in which much
information is gained as to the completeness and efficiency of
combustion), and of coal gas (where it is necessary to have a product of
a definite composition within certain limits). There are, in addition,
many other branches of chemical technology in which the methods are
employed. In general, volumetric methods are used, i.e. a component is
absorbed by a suitable reagent and the diminution in volume noted, or it
is absorbed in water and the amount determined by titration with a
standard solution. Exact analysis is difficult and tedious, and
consequently the laboratory methods are not employed in technology,
where time is an important factor and moderate accuracy is all that is
necessary. In this article an outline of the technical practice will be
given.

The apparatus consists of (1) a measuring vessel, and (2) a series of
absorption pipettes. A convenient form of measuring vessel is that
devised by W. Hempel. It consists of two vertical tubes provided with
feet and connected at the bottom by flexible rubber tubing. One tube,
called the "measuring tube," is provided with a capillary stopcock at
the top and graduated downwards; the other tube, called the "level
tube," is plain and open. To use the apparatus, the measuring tube is
completely filled with water by pouring water into both tubes, raising
the level tube until water overflows at the stopcock, which is then
turned. The test gas is brought to the stopcock, by means of a fine tube
which has been previously filled with water or in which the air has been
displaced by running the gas through. By opening the stopcock and
lowering the level tube any desired quantity of the gas can be aspirated
over. In cases where a large quantity of gas, i.e. sufficient for
several tests, is to be collected, the measuring tube is replaced by a
large bottle.

[Illustration: (By permission of Messrs Baird & Tatlock.)

  FIG. 1.

  FIG. 2.]

The volume of the gas in the measuring tube is determined by bringing
the water in both tubes to the same level, and reading the graduation on
the tube, avoiding parallax and the other errors associated with
recording the coincidence of a graduation with a meniscus. The
temperature and atmospheric pressure are simultaneously noted. If the
tests be carried out rapidly, the temperature and pressure may be
assumed to be constant, and any diminution in volume due to the
absorption of a constituent may be readily expressed as a percentage.
If, however, the temperature and pressure vary, the volumes are reduced
to 0° and 760 mm. by means of the formula V0 = V(P-p)/(1 + .00366t)760,
in which V is the observed volume, P the barometric pressure, p the
vapour tension of water at the temperature t of the experiment. This
reduction is facilitated by the use of tables.

Some common forms of absorption pipettes are shown in figs. 1 and 2. The
simpler form consists of two bulbs connected at the bottom by a wide
tube. The lower bulb is provided with a smaller bulb bearing a capillary
through which the gas is led to the apparatus, the higher bulb has a
wider outlet tube. The arrangement is mounted vertically on a stand.
Sometimes the small bulb on the left is omitted. The form of the pipette
varies with the nature of the absorbing material. For solutions which
remain permanent in air the two-bulbed form suffices; in other cases a
composite pipette (fig. 2) is employed, in which the absorbent is
protected by a second pipette containing water. In the case of solid
reagents, e.g. phosphorus, the absorbing bulb has a tubulure at the
bottom. To use a pipette, the absorbing liquid is brought to the outlet
of the capillary by tilting or by squeezing a rubber ball fixed to the
wide end, and the liquid is maintained there by closing with a clip. The
capillary is connected with the measuring tube by a fine tube previously
filled with water. The clip is removed, the stopcock opened, and the
level tube of the measuring apparatus raised, so that the gas passes
into the first bulb. There it is allowed to remain, the pipette being
shaken from time to time. It is then run back into the measuring tube by
lowering the level tube, the stopcock is closed, and the volume noted.
The operation is repeated until there is no further absorption.

The choice of absorbents and the order in which the gases are to be
estimated is strictly limited. Confining ourselves to cases where
titration methods are not employed, the general order is as follows:
carbon dioxide, olefines, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and
nitrogen (by difference). This scheme is particularly applicable to
coal-gas. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by a potash solution containing one
part of potash to between two and three of water; the stronger solution
absorbs about 40 volumes of the gas. The olefines--ethylene, &c.--are
generally absorbed by a very strong sulphuric acid prepared by adding
sulphur trioxide to sulphuric acid to form a mixture which solidifies
when slightly cooled. Bromine water is also employed. Oxygen is absorbed
by stick phosphorus contained in a tubulated pipette filled with water.
The temperature must be above 18°; and the absorption is prevented by
ammonia, olefines, alcohol, and some other substances. An alkaline
solution of pyrogallol is also used; this solution rapidly absorbs
oxygen, becoming black in colour, and it is necessary to prepare the
solution immediately before use. Carbon monoxide is absorbed by a
solution of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid or, better, in
ammonia. When small in amount, it is better to estimate as carbon
dioxide by burning with oxygen and absorbing in potash; when large in
amount, the bulk is absorbed in ammoniacal cuprous chloride and the
residue burned. Hydrogen may be estimated by absorption by heated
palladium contained in a capillary through which the gas is passed, or
by exploding (under reduced pressure) with an excess of oxygen, and
measuring the diminution in volume, two-thirds of which is the volume of
hydrogen. The explosion method is unsatisfactory when the gas is
contained over water, and is improved by using mercury. Methane cannot
be burnt in this way even when there is much hydrogen present, and
several other methods have been proposed, such as mixing with air and
aspirating over copper oxide heated to redness, or mixing with oxygen
and burning in a platinum tube heated to redness, the carbon dioxide
formed being estimated by absorption in potash. Gases soluble in water,
such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphur
dioxide, &c., are estimated by passing a known volume of the gas through
water and titrating the solution with a standard solution. Many types of
absorption vessel are in use, and the standard solutions are generally
such that 1 c.c. of the solution corresponds to 1 c.c. of the gas under
normal conditions.

[Illustration: (By permission of Messrs Baird & Tatlock.)

  FIG. 3.]

Many forms of composite gas-apparatus are in use. One of the commonest
is the Orsat shown in fig. 3. The gas is measured in the graduated
cylinder on the right, which is surrounded by a water jacket and
provided with a levelling bottle. At the top it is connected by a
capillary tube bent at right angles to a series of absorbing vessels,
the connexion being effected by stopcocks. These vessels consist of two
vertical cylinders joined at the bottom by a short tube. The cylinder in
direct communication with the capillary is filled with glass tubes so as
to expose a larger surface of the absorbing solution to the gas. The
other cylinder is open to the air and serves to hold the liquid ejected
from the absorbing cylinder. Any number of bulbs can be attached to the
horizontal capillary; in the form illustrated there are four, the last
being a hydrogen pipette in which the palladium is heated in a
horizontal tube by a spirit lamp. At the end of the horizontal tube
there is a three-way cock connecting with the air or an aspirator. To
use the apparatus, the measuring tube is completely filled with water by
raising the levelling bottle. The absorbing vessels are then about half
filled with the absorbents, and, by opening the cocks and aspirating,
the liquid is brought so as completely to fill the bulbs nearer the
capillary. The cocks are then closed. By opening the three-way cock to
the supply of the test gas and lowering the levelling bottle, any
desired amount can be drawn into the measuring tube. The absorption is
effected by opening the cock of an absorbing vessel and raising the
levelling bottle. The same order of absorption and general directions
pertaining to the use of Hempel pipettes have to be adopted.

  Although the earliest attempts at gas analysis were made by Scheele,
  Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, Dalton, Gay-Lussac and others, the
  methods were first systematized by R. Bunsen, who began his researches
  in 1838. He embodied his results in his classical _Gasometrische
  Methoden_ (1857, second edition 1877), a work translated into English
  by H. Roscoe. Clemens Winkler contributed two works, _Anleitung zur
  chemischen Untersuchung der Industriegase_ (1876-1877) and _Lehrbuch
  der technischen Gasanalyse_ (2nd ed., 1892), both of which are very
  valuable for the commercial applications of the methods. W. Hempel's
  researches are given in his _Neue Methode zur Analyse der Gase_ (1880)
  and _Gasanalytische Methoden_ (1890, 3rd ed. 1900).


GAS MANUFACTURE

  Historical.

1. _Illuminating Gas._--The first practical application of gas distilled
from coal as an illuminating agent is generally ascribed to William
Murdoch, who between the years of 1792 and 1802 demonstrated the
possibility of making gas from coal and using it as a lighting agent on
a large scale. Prior to 1691, however, Dr John Clayton, dean of Kildare,
filled bladders with inflammable gas obtained by the distillation of
coal, and showed that on pricking the bladders and applying a light to
the escaping gas it burnt with a luminous flame, and in 1726 Stephen
Hales published the fact that by the distillation of 158 grains of
Newcastle coal, 180 cub. in. of inflammable air would be obtained. Jean
Pierre Minckelers, professor of natural philosophy in the university of
Louvain, and later of chemistry and physics at Maestricht, made
experiments on distilling gas from coal with the view of obtaining a
permanent gas sufficiently light for filling balloons, and in 1785
experimentally lighted his lecture room with gas so obtained as a
demonstration to his students, but no commercial application was made of
the fact. Lord Dundonald, in 1787, whilst distilling coal for the
production of tar and oil, noticed the formation of inflammable gas, and
even used it for lighting the hall of Culross Abbey. It is clear from
these facts that, prior to Murdoch's experiments, it was known that
illuminating gas could be obtained by the destructive distillation of
coal, but the experiments which he began at Redruth in 1792, and which
culminated in the lighting of Messrs Boulton, Watt & Co.'s engine works
at Soho, near Birmingham, in 1802, undoubtedly demonstrated the
practical possibility of making the gas on a large scale, and burning it
in such a way as to make coal-gas the most important of the artificial
illuminants. An impression exists in Cornwall, where Murdoch's early
experiments were made, that it was a millwright named Hornblower who
first suggested the process of making gas to Murdoch, but, as has been
shown, the fact that illuminating gas could be obtained from coal by
distillation was known a century before Murdoch made his experiments,
and the most that can be claimed for him is that he made the first
successful application of it on a practical scale.

In 1799 a Frenchman named Philippe Lebon took out a patent in Paris for
making an illuminating gas from wood, and gave an exhibition of it in
1802, which excited a considerable amount of attention on the European
continent. It was seen by a German, F.A. Winsor, who made Lebon an offer
for his secret process for Germany. This offer was, however, declined,
and Winsor returned to Frankfort determined to find out how the gas
could be made. Having quickly succeeded in discovering this, he in 1803
exhibited before the reigning duke of Brunswick a series of experiments
with lighting gas made from wood and from coal. Looking upon London as a
promising field for enterprise, he came over to England, and at the
commencement of 1804 took the Lyceum theatre, where he gave
demonstrations of his process. He then proceeded to float a company,
and in 1807 the first public street gas lighting took place in Pall
Mall, whilst in 1809 he applied to parliament to incorporate the
National Heat and Light Company with a capital of half a million
sterling. This application was opposed by Murdoch on the ground of his
priority in invention, and the bill was thrown out, but coming to
parliament for a second time in 1810, Winsor succeeded in getting it
passed in a very much curtailed form, and, a charter being granted later
in 1812, the company was called the Chartered Gas Light and Coke
Company, and was the direct forerunner of the present London Gas Light
and Coke Company. During this period Frederick C. Accum (1769-1838), Dr
W. Henry and S. Clegg did so much by their writings and by the
improvements they introduced in the manufacture, distribution and
burning of coal gas, that their names have become inseparably connected
with the subject.


  The growth of gas lighting.

In 1813 Westminster Bridge, and in the following year the streets of
Westminster, were lighted with gas, and in 1816 it became common in
London. After this so rapid was the progress of this new mode of
illumination that in the course of a few years it was adopted by all the
principal towns in the United Kingdom for lighting streets as well as
shops and public edifices. In private houses it found its way more
slowly, partly from an apprehension of danger attending its use, and
partly from the discomfort which was experienced in many cases through
the gas being distributed without purification, and to the careless and
imperfect manner in which the service pipes were first fitted. It was
during the last four decades of the 19th century that the greatest
advance was made, this period having been marked not only by many
improvements in the manufacture of illuminating gas, but by a complete
revolution in the methods of utilizing it for the production of light.
In 1875 the London Argand, giving a duty of 3.2 candles illuminating
power per cubic foot of ordinary 16 candle gas, was looked upon as the
most perfect burner of the day, and little hope was entertained that any
burner capable of universal adoption would surpass it in its power of
developing light from the combustion of coal gas; but the close of the
century found the incandescent mantle and the atmospheric burner
yielding six times the light that was given by the Argand for the
consumption of an equal volume of gas, and to-day, by supplying gas at
an increased pressure, a light of ten times the power may be obtained.
Since the advent of the incandescent mantle, the efficiency of which is
dependent upon the heating power of the gas more than on its
illuminating power, the manufacture of coal gas has undergone
considerable modifications.


    Coals used for gas-making.

  Coal, the raw material from which the gas is produced by a process of
  destructive distillation, varies very widely in composition (see
  COAL), and it is only the class of coals rich in hydrogen, known as
  bituminous coal, that can with advantage be utilized in gas
  manufacture. Coals of this character are obtained in England from the
  Newcastle and Durham field, South Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Barnsley
  districts, and an idea of their ultimate composition may be derived
  from the following  table:--

    +--------------------------+-------+------+--------+------+-------+------+------+
    |                          |Carbon.|Hydro-|Sulphur.|Nitro-|Oxygen.| Ash. |Moist-|
    |                          |       | gen. |        | gen. |       |      | ure. |
    +--------------------------+-------+------+--------+------+-------+------+------+
    | Newcastle gas coal       | 82.16 | 4.83 |  1.00  | 1.23 |  6.82 | 3.20 | 0.76 |
    | Durham gas coal          | 84.34 | 5.30 |  0.73  | 1.73 |  4.29 | 2.42 | 1.14 |
    | South Yorkshire silkstone| 80.46 | 5.09 |  1.66  | 1.67 |  6.79 | 3.30 | 1.03 |
    | Derbyshire silkstone     | 76.96 | 5.04 |  2.39  | 1.77 |  6.92 | 3.28 | 3.64 |
    | Barnsley gas coal        | 75.64 | 4.94 |  2.84  | 1.65 |  7.25 | 4.28 | 3.40 |
    +--------------------------+-------+------+--------+------+-------+------+------+

  Our knowledge of the composition of coal is limited to the total
  amount of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and foreign materials
  which it contains; and at present we know practically but little of
  the way in which these bodies are combined. This being so, the
  ordinary analysis of a coal affords but little indication of its value
  for gas-making purposes, which can only be really satisfactorily
  arrived at by extended use on a practical scale. Bituminous coal,
  however, may be looked upon as containing carbon and also simple
  hydrocarbons, such as some of the higher members of the paraffin
  series, and likewise organic bodies containing carbon, hydrogen,
  nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur.


    Destructive distillation of coal.

  On submitting a complex substance of this character to destructive
  distillation, it will be found that the yield and quality of the
  products will vary very considerably with the temperature existing in
  the retorts, with the size of the charge of coal used, with its
  distribution in the retort, with the length of time the distillation
  has been going on, and with an infinity of other factors of a more or
  less complex nature. If bituminous coal is distilled at a low
  temperature, the tar is found to contain considerable quantities of
  light paraffin oils; and there is no doubt that paraffin hydrocarbons
  are present in the original coal. These paraffins, under the influence
  of heat, split up into simpler members of the same series and into
  olefines; and if we imagine the action in its simplest form, we should
  have the gases, as they were evolved, consisting of (say) ethane and
  ethylene. These have now to pass down the heated retort on their way
  to the ascension pipe, and the contact with the heated sides of the
  retort, and the baking from the radiant heat in the retort, set up an
  infinity of changes. Ethane, when heated to this degree, splits up
  into ethylene and hydrogen, whilst ethylene decomposes to methane and
  acetylene, and the acetylene at once polymerizes to benzene,
  styrolene, retene, &c. A portion also condenses, and at the same time
  loses some hydrogen, becoming naphthalene; and the compounds so formed
  by interactions amongst themselves build up the remainder of the
  hydrocarbons present in the coal tar, whilst the organic substances
  containing oxygen in the coal break down, and cause the formation of
  the phenols in the tar.

  There is very little doubt that the general course of the
  decompositions follows these lines; but any such simple explanation of
  the actions taking place is rendered impossible by the fact that,
  instead of the breaking-down of the hydrocarbons being completed in
  the coal, and only secondary reactions taking place in the retort, in
  practice the hydrocarbons to a great extent leave the coal as the
  vapours of condensible hydrocarbons, and the breaking down of these to
  such simple gaseous compounds as ethylene is proceeding in the retort
  at the same time as the breaking up of the ethylene already formed
  into acetylene and methane, and the polymerization of the former into
  higher compounds. Starting with a solid hydrocarbon of definite
  composition, it would be theoretically possible to decompose it
  entirely into carbon, hydrogen, ethylene and methane, and, by rapidly
  removing these from the heating zone before any secondary actions took
  place, to prevent formation of tar. But any such ideal is hopeless in
  practice, as the coal is not a definite compound, and it is impossible
  to subject it to a fixed temperature.


    Effect of temperature in the retort.

  If the retorts are at a temperature of 1000° C. when the charge of
  coal is put in, the temperature of the distillation will vary from
  about 800° C. close to the walls, to about 400° C. in the centre of
  the coal; and in the same way, in the space above the coal, the
  products which come in contact with the sides of the retort are heated
  to 1000° C., whilst the gas near the coal is probably heated to only
  600° C. Moreover, the gases and vapours in the retort are subjected to
  a period of heating which varies widely with the distance from the
  mouth of the retort of the coal that is undergoing carbonization. The
  gas developed by the coal near the mouth of the retort is quickly
  washed out into the ascension pipe by the push of the gas behind, and
  the period for which it has been exposed to the radiant heat from the
  walls of the retort is practically nil; whilst the gas evolved in the
  portion of the retort farthest from the mouthpiece has only its own
  rate of evolution to drive it forward, and has to traverse the longest
  run possible in the retort, exposed during the whole of that period to
  radiant heat and to contact with the highly heated surface of the
  retort itself. Hence we find that the tar is formed of two distinct
  sets of products, the first due to incomplete decomposition and the
  second to secondary reactions due to the products of the decomposition
  being kept too long in the zone of heat.

  Of the first class, the light paraffin oils and pitch may be taken as
  examples; whilst benzene, naphthalene and retort carbon represent the
  second. The formation of the second class of bodies is a great loss to
  the gas manufacturer, as, with the exception of the trace of benzene
  carried with the gas as vapour, these products are not only useless in
  the gas, but one of them, naphthalene, is a serious trouble, because
  any trace carried forward by the gas condenses with sudden changes of
  temperature, and causes obstructions in the service pipes, whilst
  their presence in the tar means the loss of a very large proportion of
  the illuminating constituents of the gas. Moreover, these secondary
  products cannot be successfully reduced, by further heating, to
  simpler hydrocarbons of any high illuminating value, and such bodies
  as naphthalene and anthracene have so great a stability that, when
  once formed, they resist any efforts again to decompose them by heat,
  short of the temperature which breaks them up into methane, carbon and
  hydrogen.

  The ammonia is derived from the nitrogen present in the coal combining
  with hydrogen during destructive distillation, the nitrogen becoming
  distributed amongst all three classes of products. The following table
  will give an approximate idea of the proportions which go to each:--

                                            Per cent.

    Nitrogen as ammonia                       14.50
       "     as cyanogen                       1.56
       "     free in gas and combined in tar  35.26
       "     remaining in coke                48.68
                                             ------
                                             100.00

  The effect produced by alteration in the temperature of the retort
  upon the composition of both gas and tar is very marked. As the
  temperature is raised, the yield of gas from a given weight of coal
  increases; but with the increase of volume there is a marked decrease
  in the illuminating value of the gas evolved. Lewis T. Wright found,
  in a series of experiments, that, when four portions of the same coal
  were distilled at temperatures ranging from a dull red heat to the
  highest temperature attainable in an iron retort, he obtained the
  following results as to yield and illuminating power:--

    +-----------------+-------------+------------+---------+
    |                 | Cubic ft. of|Illuminating|  Total  |
    |  Temperature.   | Gas per ton.|   Power,   | Candles |
    |                 |             |  Candles.  | per ton.|
    +-----------------+-------------+------------+---------+
    | 1. Dull red     |    8,250    |    20.5    | 33.950  |
    | 2. Hotter       |    9,693    |    17.8    | 34.510  |
    | 3.    "         |   10,821    |    16.7    | 36.140  |
    | 4. Bright orange|   12,006    |    15.6    | 37.460  |
    +-----------------+-------------+------------+---------+

    _Composition of the Gas._

    +-----------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                 |     1.    |     2.    |     4.    |
    |                 | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. |
    +-----------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    | Hydrogen        |   38.09   |   43.77   |   48.02   |
    | Marsh gas       |   42.72   |   34.50   |   30.70   |
    | Olefines        |    7.55   |    5.83   |    4.51   |
    | Carbon monoxide |    8.72   |   12.50   |   13.96   |
    | Nitrogen        |    2.92   |    3.40   |    2.81   |
    |                 +-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                 |  100.00   |  100.00   |  100.00   |
    +-----------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

  The gas analysis of No. 3 was lost, but the illuminating power shows
  that it was intermediate in composition between Nos. 2 and 4. From
  this it will be seen that, with the increase of temperature, the
  hydrocarbons--the olefines and marsh gas series--gradually break up,
  depositing carbon in the crown of the retort, and liberating hydrogen,
  the percentage of which steadily increases with the rise of
  temperature.

  The tar formed is affected to an even greater extent than the gas by
  alterations in the temperature at which the destructive distillation
  takes place. The lower the temperature, the smaller will be the volume
  of gas produced, and the lighter the specific gravity of the tar,
  whilst with increase of temperature, the volume of gas rapidly rises,
  and so does the specific gravity of the tar. Working with a caking
  coal Wright obtained the following results:--

    +--------------+------------------+
    | Yield of Gas | Specific Gravity |
    |   per ton,   |     of Tar.      |
    |   Cub. ft.   |                  |
    +--------------+------------------+
    |     6,600    |      1.086       |
    |     7,200    |      1.120       |
    |     8,900    |      1.140       |
    |    10,162    |      1.154       |
    |    11,700    |      1.206       |
    +--------------+------------------+

  Analysis of the tar showed that the increase of the specific gravity
  was due to the increase in the quantity of pitch, which rose from
  28.89 to 64.08% in the residuals; whilst the ammonia, naphtha and
  light oils steadily fell in quantity, the creosote and anthracene oils
  doing the same, but to a smaller extent. Naphthalene also begins to
  show in quantity in the tar as soon as the yield of gas reaches 10,000
  cub. ft. per ton of coal carbonized.

  In spite of these variations, however, the products in their main
  characteristics will remain the same. They may be divided into--(a)
  Solids, such as the coke and retort carbon; (b) liquids, consisting of
  the tar and ammoniacal liquor; and (c) gases, consisting of the
  unpurified coal gas. The proportions in which the products are
  approximately obtained from a ton of gas coal have been given as
  follows:--

    10,000 cub. ft. of gas =  380  lb. =  17.0 per cent.
    10 gallons of tar      =  115   "  =   5.1    "
    Gas liquor[1]          =  177   "  =   7.9    "
    Coke                   = 1568   "  =  70.0    "
                             ----        -----
                             2240        100.0


    Solid products.

  The chief solid residue, coke, is not absolutely pure carbon, as it
  contains the mineral non-volatile constituents which remain behind as
  ash when the original coal is burnt, and which, to a great extent,
  existed in the sap that filled the cells of the plant from which the
  coal was formed. The retort carbon formed as a dense deposit on the
  crown of the retort by the action of the high temperature on the
  hydrocarbons is, however, carbon in a very pure form, and, on account
  of its density, is largely used for electrical purposes.


    Liquid products.

  The liquid products of the destructive distillation of coal are tar
  and ammoniacal liquor. Tar derived from ordinary bituminous coal is a
  black, somewhat viscid liquid, varying in specific gravity from 1.1 to
  1.2. The ultimate composition of tar made in the London Gas Works is
  approximately as follows:--

    Carbon       77.53
    Hydrogen      6.33
    Nitrogen      1.03
    Sulphur       0.61
    Oxygen       14.50
                ------
                100.00

  These elements in tar are built up into an enormous number of
  compounds (see COAL TAR), and its value as a by-product may be
  gathered from the fact that on fractional distillation it yields--(1)
  benzene and its homologues, from which aniline, the source of most of
  the coal-tar colours, can be derived; (2) carbolic acid, from which
  picric acid, used as a dye, a powerful explosive, and to give the
  bitter flavour to some kinds of beer, is made, also many most valuable
  disinfectants; (3) naphthalene, used for disinfecting, and also as the
  "Albo-carbon" employed in an enriching burner for gas; (4) pitch,
  extensively used in path-making, from which such bodies as anthracene
  and saccharin can be extracted.

  The second liquid product of the destructive distillation of coal is
  the ammoniacal or gas liquor, which consists of water containing
  ammonia salts in solution, partly condensed from the hot gas, and
  partly added to wash the gas in the scrubbers. It contains, as its
  principal constituents, ammonia, partly combined with carbonic acid
  and sulphuretted hydrogen to form compounds which are decomposed on
  boiling, with evolution of ammonia gas, and partly combined with
  stronger acids to form compounds which require to be acted upon by a
  strong alkali before the ammonia contained in them can be liberated.
  The ammonia in the first class of compounds is technically spoken of
  as "free"; that present in the latter as "fixed." The following
  analysis by L.T. Wright will give an idea of the relative quantities
  in which these compounds exist in the liquor:--

                               Grammes per litre.

           / Ammonium sulphide        3.03
    Free  <  Ammonium carbonate      39.16
           \ Ammonium chloride       14.23
           / Ammonium thiocyanate     1.80
    Fixed <  Ammonium sulphate        0.19
           | Ammonium thiosulphate    2.80
           \ Ammonium ferrocyanide    0.41

  From a scientific point of view, the term "free" is absolutely
  incorrect, and in using it the fact must be clearly borne in mind that
  in this case it merely stands for ammonia, which can be liberated on
  simply boiling the liquor.


    Gaseous products.

  The gas which is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, and
  which we employ as our chief illuminant, is not a definite compound,
  but a mechanical mixture of several gases, some of which are reduced
  to the lowest limit, in order to develop as fully as possible the
  light-giving properties of the most important constituents of the gas.
  The following analysis gives a fair idea of the composition of an
  average sample of gas made from coal, purified but without
  enrichment:--

    Hydrogen                  52.22
    Unsaturated hydrocarbons   3.47
    Saturated hydrocarbons    34.76
    Carbon monoxide            4.23
    Carbon dioxide             0.60
    Nitrogen                   4.23
    Oxygen                     0.49
                             ------
                             100.00

  These constituents may be divided into--(a) light-yielding
  hydrocarbons, (b) combustible diluents and (c) impurities. The
  hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends,
  are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and
  unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine
  in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed
  "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous
  members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons. They may be
  separated in a similar way by concentrated sulphuric acid, which has
  the same absorbent effect on the one class, and not on the other. The
  chief unsaturated hydrocarbons present in coal gas are: ethylene,
  C2H4, butylene, C4H8, acetylene, C2H2, benzene, C6H6, and naphthalene,
  C10H8, and the saturated hydrocarbons consist chiefly of methane, CH4,
  and ethane, C2H6.

  The light-giving power of coal gas is undoubtedly entirely due to the
  hydrocarbons. The idea held up to about 1890 was that the illuminating
  value depended upon the amount of ethylene present. This, however, is
  manifestly incorrect, as, if it were true, 4% of ethylene mixed with
  96% of a combustible diluent such as hydrogen should give 16- to
  17-candle gas, whereas a mixture of 10% of ethylene and 90% of
  hydrogen is devoid of luminosity. In 1876 M.P.E. Berthelot came to
  the conclusion that the illuminating value of the Paris coal gas was
  almost entirely due to benzene vapour. But here again another mistaken
  idea arose, owing to a faulty method of estimating the benzene, and
  there is no doubt that methane is one of the most important of the
  hydrocarbons present, when the gas is burnt in such a way as to evolve
  from it the proper illuminating power, whilst the benzene vapour,
  small as the quantity is, comes next in importance and the ethylene
  last. It is the combined action of the hydrocarbons which gives the
  effect, not any one of them acting alone.

  The series of operations connected with the manufacture and
  distribution of coal gas embraces the processes of distillation,
  condensation, exhaustion, wet purification by washing and scrubbing,
  dry purification, measuring, storing and distribution to the mains
  whence the consumer's supply is drawn.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Plan of Works.]


    Site of gas works.

  The choice of a site for a gas works is necessarily governed by local
  circumstances; but it is a necessity that there should be a ready
  means of transport available, and for this reason the works should be
  built upon the banks of a navigable river or canal, and should have a
  convenient railway siding. By this means coal may be delivered direct
  to the store or retort-house, and in the same way residual products
  may be removed. The fact that considerable area is required and that
  the works do not improve the neighbourhood are important conditions,
  and although economy of space should be considered, arrangements
  should be such as to allow of extension. In the case of a works whose
  daily make of gas exceeds four to five million cub. ft., it is usual
  to divide the works into units, there being an efficiency limit to the
  size of apparatus employed. Under these conditions the gas is dealt
  with in separate streams, which mix when the holder is reached. From
  the accompanying ground plan of a works (fig. 4) it will be possible
  to gain an idea of the order in which the operations in gas
  manufacture are carried out and the arrangement of the plant.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Cross Section of Retorts.]


    Retorts.

  The retorts in which the coal is carbonized are almost universally
  made of fire-clay, and in all but small country works the old
  single-ended retort, which was about 9 ft. in length, has given way to
  a more economical construction known as doubles, double-ended, or
  "through" retorts. These are from 18 to 22 ft. long, and as it is
  found inconvenient to produce this length in one piece, they are
  manufactured in three sections, the jointing together of which demands
  great care. The two outer pieces are swelled at one end to take an
  iron mouthpiece. The cross sections generally employed for retorts are
  known as "D-shaped," "oval" and "round" (fig. 5). The "D" form is
  mostly adopted owing to its power of retaining its shape after long
  exposure to heat, and the large amount of heating surface it presents
  at its base. The life of this retort is about thirty working months. A
  cast iron mouthpiece and lid is bolted to the exterior end of each
  retort, the mouthpiece carrying a socket end to receive the ascension
  pipe, through which the gas passes on leaving the retort. The retorts
  are heated externally and are set in an arch, the construction
  depending upon the number of retorts, which varies from three to
  twelve. The arch and its retorts is termed a bed or setting, and a row
  of beds constitutes a bench. It is usual to have a separate furnace
  for each setting, the retorts resting upon walls built transversely in
  the furnace.

  The heating of the retorts is carried out either by the "direct
  firing" or by the "regenerative" system, the latter affording marked
  advantages over the former method, which is now becoming extinct. In
  the regenerative system of firing, a mixture of carbon monoxide and
  nitrogen is produced by passing air through incandescent gas coke in a
  generator placed below the bench of retorts, and the heating value of
  the gases so produced is increased in most cases by the admixture of a
  small proportion of steam with the primary air supply, the steam being
  decomposed by contact with the red-hot coke in the generator into
  water gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (see FUEL:
  _Gaseous_). The gases so formed vary in proportion with the
  temperature of the generator and the amount of steam, but generally
  contain 32 to 38% of combustible gas, the remainder being the residual
  nitrogen of the air and carbon dioxide. These gases enter the
  combustion chamber around the retorts at a high temperature, and are
  there supplied with sufficient air to complete their combustion, this
  secondary air supply being heated by the hot products of combustion on
  their way to the exit flue. This method of firing results in the
  saving of about one-third the weight of coke used in the old form of
  furnace per ton of coal carbonized, and enables higher temperatures to
  be obtained, the heat being also more equally distributed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--Regenerative Setting.]

  There are a great number of methods of applying the regenerative
  principle which vary only in detail. Fig. 6 gives an idea of the
  general arrangement. The furnace A is built of fire-brick, coke is
  charged at the top through the iron door B, and near the bottom are
  placed fire bars C, upon which the fuel lies. The primary air
  necessary for the partial combustion of the coke to "producer" gas
  enters between these bars. The gases are conducted from the furnace to
  the combustion chamber E through the nostrils D D, and the secondary
  air is admitted at the inlet F a little above, this air having been
  already heated by traversing the setting. Complete combustion takes
  place at this point with the production of intense heat, the gases on
  rising are baffled in order to circulate them in every direction round
  the retorts, and upon arriving at the top of the setting they are
  conducted down a hollow chamber communicating with the main flue and
  shaft. The amount of draft which is necessary to carry out the
  circulation of the gases and to draw in the adequate amount of air is
  regulated by dampers placed in the main flue. By analysis of the
  "producer" and "spent" gases this amount can be readily gauged.

  Retorts are set in either the horizontal, inclined or vertical
  position, and the advantages of the one over the other is a question
  upon which almost every gas engineer has his own views.


    Charging and drawing.

  The introduction of labour-saving appliances into gas works has
  rendered the difficult work of charging and discharging horizontal
  retorts comparatively simple. Formerly it was the practice to carry
  out such operations entirely by hand, men charging the retorts either
  by means of shovel or hand-scoop, and the coke produced being
  withdrawn with hand rakes. Now, however, only the smaller gas works
  adhere to this system, and this work is done by machinery driven by
  either compressed air, hydraulic or electric power. In the first two
  cases a scoop, filled with coal from an overhead hopper carried by the
  travelling machine, is made to enter the retort and is turned over;
  the operation is then repeated, but this time the scoop is turned over
  in the opposite direction, the coal thus assuming such a position that
  as much of its under surface as possible is exposed to the heated side
  of the retort. With "through" retorts charging machines feed the
  retorts at both ends, the scoop, which has a capacity of about 1½
  cwt., entering and discharging its contents twice at each end, so that
  the total charge is about 6 cwt., which is allowed from four to six
  hours to distil off according to the quality of the gas required. The
  machines charge simultaneously at each end, so that the lids of the
  retorts may be shut immediately the coal enters. The charging machines
  travel on lines in front of the retort bench, and the power is
  transmitted by connexions made with flexible hose. A device of more
  recent introduction is an electrically-driven charging machine, in
  which the centrifugal force created by a fly-wheel revolving at high
  speed is applied to drive coal into the retort. If the velocity is
  sufficiently high the coal may be carried the whole length of a 20-ft.
  retort, the coal following banking up until an even layer is formed
  throughout the length of the retort.

  For the purpose of discharging the coke from the retort either
  compressed air or hydraulic machinery is employed, a rake being made
  to enter the retort and withdraw the coke on returning. With this
  method it is necessary that the rake should enter and discharge
  several times before the retort is clear, and thus the use of a
  telescopic ram worked by hydraulic power, which pushes the coke before
  it and discharges it at the other end, is an advantage. As much as
  one-third on each ton of coal carbonized is saved by the use of
  machinery in the retort-house. Taking into account the original cost
  of such machines, and the unavoidable wear and tear upon the retorts
  brought about by using labour-saving appliances, and the fact that the
  coke-dust is very detrimental to the machinery, it is clear that the
  suggestion of setting the retorts at an incline in order to facilitate
  the work presented great inducements to the gas manager. The object
  aimed at in thus setting retorts is to allow gravity to play the part
  of charging and discharging the coal and coke, the retorts being
  inclined at an angle to suit the slip of the class of coal used; this
  angle is between 28° and 34°. The coal, previously elevated to
  hoppers, is dropped into the feeding chambers, which are so arranged
  that they can travel from end to end of the retort-house and feed the
  coal into the retorts. When the retort is to be charged, an iron stop
  or barrier is placed in the lower mouthpiece, and the door closed. The
  shoot is placed in the upper mouthpiece, and the stop or door, which
  retains the coal in the chamber, is released; the coal is then
  discharged into the retort, and rushing down the incline, is arrested
  by the barrier, and banks up, forming a continuous backing to the coal
  following. By experience with the class of coal used and the
  adjustment of the stops in the shoot, the charge can be run into the
  retort to form an even layer of any desired depth. For the withdrawal
  of the residual coke at the end of the carbonization, the lower
  mouthpiece door is opened, the barrier removed and the coke in the
  lower part of the retort is "tickled" or gently stirred with an iron
  rod to overcome a slight adhesion to the retort; the entire mass then
  readily discharges itself. Guides are placed in front of the retort to
  direct its course to the coke hoppers or conveyer below, and to
  prevent scattering of the hot material. This system shows a greater
  economy in the cost of carbonizing the coal, but the large outlay and
  the wear and tear of the mechanical appliances involved have so far
  prevented its very general adoption.

  The vertical retort was one of the first forms experimented with by
  Murdoch, but owing to the difficulty of withdrawing the coke, the low
  illuminating power of the gas made in it, and the damage to the retort
  itself, due to the swelling of the charge during distillation, it was
  quickly abandoned. About the beginning of the 20th century, however,
  the experiments of Messrs Settle and Padfield at Exeter, Messrs
  Woodall and Duckham at Bournemouth, and Dr Bueb in Germany showed such
  encouraging results that the idea of the vertical retort again came to
  the front, and several systems were proposed and tried. The cause of
  the failure of Murdoch's original vertical retort was undoubtedly that
  it was completely filled with coal during charging, with the result
  that the gas liberated from the