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Title: Beautiful Bulbous Plants - For the Open Air
Author: Weathers, John
Language: English
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  BEAUTIFUL BULBOUS PLANTS FOR THE OPEN AIR.

   _________________________________________
   |                                         |
   | The "Beautiful" Series.                 |
   | By JOHN WEATHERS, F.R.H.S., N.R.S.      |
   |                                         |
   | _With 33 Coloured Plates by John Allen, |
   | Large Crown 8vo., Cloth Gilt, 6/-each._ |
   |                                         |
   | =Beautiful Roses= for Garden and        |
   | Greenhouse. Culture, Propagation,       |
   | Pruning.                                |
   |                                         |
   | =Beautiful Flowering Trees and          |
   | Shrubs= for British and Irish           |
   | Gardens.                                |
   |                                         |
   | =Beautiful Garden Flowers= for          |
   | Town and Country.                       |
   |_________________________________________|


PLATE 1. _FRONTISPIECE._ IXIAS (1-6)



  BEAUTIFUL BULBOUS PLANTS

  FOR THE OPEN AIR.

  BY JOHN WEATHERS, F.R.H.S., N.R.S.,

  LECTURER ON HORTICULTURE TO THE MIDDLESEX COUNTY COUNCIL
  FORMERLY OF THE ROYAL GARDENS, KEW: ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, &C.
  AUTHOR OF "A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS." "BEAUTIFUL ROSES."
  "BEAUTIFUL FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS," "BEAUTIFUL GARDEN FLOWERS."

  With 33 full page Coloured Plates by Mrs. Philip Hensley.

  LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, & CO., Ltd.

  DAY & SON (25 YEARS LITHOGRAPHERS TO THE QUEEN AND THE PRINCE OF
  WALES), 32, WESTMINSTER MANSIONS, S.W.



PREFACE.


Although many articles have appeared from time to time in the
horticultural newspapers and periodicals dealing with various aspects of
the subject, it cannot be said that Bulbous Plants have hitherto
received the attention they deserve in gardening literature. This volume
therefore appears at an opportune moment to meet a recognised want, and
in fulfilment of the promise made in the preface to "BEAUTIFUL GARDEN
FLOWERS."

While Bulbous Plants as a class have been somewhat neglected, it may be
noted that one or two families have been dealt with specially in years
gone by. In this connection mention may be made of the magnificent
"Monograph of the Genus Lilium," by Mr. H. J. Elwes; the "Narcissus, its
History and Culture," by Mr. F. W. Burbidge, M.A., and Mr. J. G. Baker,
F.R.S.; a "History of the Genus Crocus," by the Hon. and Rev. Dean
Herbert, whose original drawings and MS. notes are preserved in the
Lindley Library. Mr. Geo. Maw has also dealt specially with the
"Crocus"; and more recently the Rev. Eugene Bourne with the "Daffodil";
Miss Jekyle and Mr. Goldring with "Lilies," &c.

A glance at the coloured plates will perhaps be sufficient to give the
reader a good idea as to the numerous kinds of Bulbous Plants now grown
in gardens, and of the marvellous range of colour to be found in their
blossoms. It has not been considered advisable to include in this volume
such hothouse bulbous plants as Eucharis, Crinum, Hymenocallis,
Pancratium, but only those kinds that are most likely to give general,
if not universal, satisfaction when grown in the open air according to
the cultural instructions to be found under the heads of the various
genera.

In the preparation of this work I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to
the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, through whose kindness I have
had opportunities for examining the bulbs or corms of the rarer plants
referred to in the letterpress.

I also owe my best thanks for the specimens kindly supplied to
illustrate the work by A. Worsley, Esq., of Isleworth; Messrs. Barr and
Son, of Covent Garden; Messrs. Wallace and Company, of Colchester;
Messrs. Ware, of Feltham; and Mr. Perry, of Winchmore Hill.

JOHN WEATHERS.



LIST OF PLATES.


 PLATE.                          FIG.   PLATE.                      FIG.

   1. IXIAS (_Frontispiece_)     1-6   18. CAMASSIA CUSICKI          70
                                           LILIUM PYRENAICUM         71
   2. SCILLA SIBIRICA MULTIFLORA  7        ALLIUM ERDELII            72
      GALANTHUS NIVALIS           8        IXIOLIRION PALLASI        73
      CHIONODOXA LUCILIÆ          9
      HYACINTHUS AZUREUS         10    19. ORNITHOGALUM PYRAMIDALE   74
                                           BREVOORTIA IDA-MAIA       75
   3. BULBOUS IRISES:                      BRODIÆA LAXA              76
      I. HISTRIO                 11        BRODIÆA IXIOIDES          77
      I. BAKERIANA               12
      I. KOLPAKOWSKYANA          13    20. GALTONIA CANDICANS        78
      I. DANFORDIÆ               14        SISYRINCHIUM GRANDIFLORUM 79
      I. PERSICA                 15        BRODIÆA HOWELLI LILACINA  80
   4. DAFFODILS:                       21. EARLY-FLOWERING
      ELLEN WILLMOTT             16        GLADIOLI                81-83
      MDME. DE GRAAFF            17    22. CALOCHORTUS VENUSTUS      84
      HORSFIELDI                 18        CALOCHORTUS ALBUS         85
                                           CALOCHORTUS PULCHELLUS    86
   5. DAFFODILS
      CYCLAMINEUS                19    23. GLADIOLUS OPPOSITIFLORUS  87
      TRIANDRUS ALBUS            20      LILIUM CANADENSE, VARS.   88-89
      PRINCESS MARY OF CAMBRIDGE 21
      GLORIA MUNDI               22    24. LILIUM TIGRINUM           90
      SIR WATKIN                 23        BRODIÆA BRIDGESI          91

   6. DAFFODILS:                       25. LILIUM TENUIFOLIUM        92
      GRAND MONARQUE             24        LILIUM HANSONI            93
      SOLEIL D'OR                25        LILIUM LONGIFLORUM        94
      WEARDALE PERFECTION        26
      LULWORTH                   27    26. LILIUM MARTAGON ALBUM     95
                                           WATSONIA ARDERNEI         96
   7. GARDENIA NARCISSUS         28        LILIUM RUBELLUM           97
      POET'S NARCISSUS           29        LILIUM COLCHICUM          98
      HYACINTHUS AMETHYSTINUS    30
                                        27. WATSONIA MERIANA         99
   8. FRITILLARIAS:                         WATSONIA ALBA           100
      F. MOGGRIDGEI              31         WATSONIA ANGUSTA        101
      F. WALUJEWI                32         MONTBRETIA
      F. MELEAGRIS ALBA          33              CROCOSMIÆFLORA     102
      F. RECURVA                 34
                                        28. GLADIOLUS NANCEIANUS    103
                                            GLADIOLUS LEMOINEI      104
   9. TULIPS                   35-38        GLADIOLUS CHILDSI       105

  10. TULIPS                   39-42    29. ZEPHYRANTHES ATAMASCO   106
                                            ORNITHOGALUM ARABICUM   107
  11. HYACINTHS                43-46        ORNITHOGALUM NUTANS     108

  12. LEUCOJUM VERNUM            47     30. CRINUM MOOREI           109
      MUSCARI CONICUM            48         TIGRIDIA LILACEA        110
      ERYTHRONIUM JOHNSONI       49
      TECOPHILÆA CYANOCROCUS     50     31. BELLADONNA LILY         111
                                            DIERAMA PULCHERRIMA     112
  13. BRODIÆA UNIFLORA         51-52
      CHIONODOXA SARDENSIS       53     32. TULBAGHIA VIOLACEA      113
      ERYTHRONIUM DENS-CANIS   54-55        ZEPHYRANTHES CANDIDA    114
                                            CRINUM POWELLI ALBUM    115
  14. ENGLISH IRISES           56-59        LYCORIS SQUAMIGERA      116

  15. SPANISH IRISES           60-63    33. CROCUS MEDIUS           117
                                            COLCHICUM SPECIOSUM     118
  16. MADONNA LILY               64         STERNBERGIA LUTEA       119
      FRITILLARIA IMPERIALIS,               STERNBERGIA MACRANTHA   120
      VARS.                    65-66        CROCUS OCHROLEUCUS      121
                                            CROCUS SPECIOSUS        122
  17. LILIUM CROCEUM             67
      ALLIUM MOLY                68
      SCILLA PERUVIANA ALBA      69



  CONTENTS.                                              PAGE

  Preface                                                v

  List of Plates                                         viii

  Index                                                  ix

  Introduction                                           1

  Geographical Distribution                              6

  Something about Bulbs and Corms                        7

  Soil for Bulbous Plants                               16

  Hints to Beginners                                    18

  How Deep should Bulbs be Planted?                     22

  Natural Sinking of Bulbs and Corms                    25

  Bulbs without Contractile Roots                       27

  Propagation of Bulbous Plants:--
    By Offsets, Bulbils, Leaf-Scales, Division, Seeds.  29-36

  Lifting and Storing Bulbs                             36

  Combinations of Bulbous and Non-Bulbous Plants        38

  Naturalising Bulbous Plants in the Grass              41

  Bulbous Plants under Trees and Shrubs                 43

  Bulbous Plants for Cut Flowers                        43

  Bulbous Plants for Cold Greenhouses                   46

  Bulbous Plants for Window Boxes                       48

  Descriptions, Culture, Propagation, &c.,
    of the Best Bulbous Plants for the Open Air         50

  Enemies of Bulbous Plants                            141

  Manuring Bulbous Plants                              148



  INDEX

    _________________________________________________________________
   | Acis, 96            | Combinations with   | Greenhouses,        |
   | Ajax Daffodils, 111 |           Bulbs, 38 |       bulbs for, 46 |
   | Allium, 50          | Contractile         | Grubs, 141          |
   | Amaryllis, 51       |           Roots, 27 |                     |
   | Angel's Tears, 116  | Corbularia, 114     | Habranthus, 81      |
   | Anomatheca, 92      | Corms, 12           | Homeria, 55         |
   | Antholyza, 53       | Corn Flag, 78       | Hyacinth, Grape, 106|
   |                     | Corn Lily, 89       |  " Musk, 108        |
   | Babiana, 53         | Crinum, 66          |  " Ostrich          |
   | Baboon Root, 53     | Crocosma, 67        |        feather, 107 |
   | Basal rot, 147      | Crocus, 68          |  " Star, 122        |
   | Basic Slag, 148     |  " Autumn, 70, 65   |  " Wood, 121        |
   | Beginners,          |  " Chilian, 126     | Hyacinths           |
   |         Hints to, 18|  " Cloth of Gold, 70|   "  in glasses, 84 |
   | Belladonna Lily, 51 |  "    "   Silver, 69|   "  in pots, 85    |
   | Bessera, 54         | Cut Flowers,        | Hyacinthus, 82      |
   | Bicolor             |       bulbs for, 43 |                     |
   |      Daffodils, 112 | Cyclobothra, 59     | Iris, 86            |
   | Bloomeria, 55       |                     |  " English, 87      |
   | Bluebell, 121       | Daffodils, 108      |  " Spanish, 87      |
   |    "   Spanish, 121 | Daffodils, Ajax, 111| Ixia, 89            |
   | Bobartia, 55        |  " Bicolor, 112     | Ixiolirion, 91      |
   | Bravoa, 55          |  " Hooped           |                     |
   | Brevoortia, 56      |      Petticoat, 114 | Jacobæa Lily, 124   |
   | Brodiæa, 56         |  " Star, 112        | Jonquil, 116        |
   | Bulbils, 32, 95     |  " in Scilly Isles,4|  " Queen Anne's, 116|
   | Bulbocodium, 58     |  " Tenby, 111       | Joss Flower, 115    |
   | Bulbs, buying, 19   | Dierama, 71         |                     |
   |  " and corms, 7     | Dog's Tooth         | Kainit, 142, 149    |
   |  " in grass, 41     |          Violet, 72 |                     |
   |  " lifting, 36      |                     | Lapeyrousia, 92     |
   |  " sinking of, 25   | Enemies of bulbous  | Leaf-scales, 31     |
   |  " storing, 37      |         plants, 141 | Leaves,             |
   | Butter and Eggs, 113| Erythronium, 72     |  importance of, 13  |
   |                     | Eucomis, 73         | Lent Lily, 111      |
   | Calochortus, 58     |                     | Leopard Lily, 102   |
   | Calliprora lutea, 57| Ferraria, 74        | Leucojum, 92        |
   | Camassia, 62        | Fire Cracker,       | LILIUM, 93          |
   | Camass Root, 62     |     Californian, 56 |   Alexandræ, 97     |
   | Chionodoxa, 63      | Flag, Corn, 78      |   auratum, 99       |
   | Chiono-Scilla, 63   | Flowers,            |   Batemanniæ, 97    |
   | Chlorogalum, 64     |    when to pick, 45 |   Bloomerianum, 101 |
   | Cloves, 30          | Fritillaria, 75     |   Browni, 100       |
   | Codlins and         | Fungoid diseases,146|   bulbiferum, 97    |
   |          Cream, 113 |                     |   Burbanki, 103     |
   | Colchicum, 64       | Gagea, 76           |   canadense, 103    |
   |                     | Galanthus, 77       |   candidum, 97      |
   |                     | Galtonia, 78        |   Catesbæi, 103     |
   |                     | Ganymede's Cup, 116 |   chalcedonicum, 98 |
   |                     | Gladiolus, 78       |   colchicum, 102    |
   |                     | Glory of the Snow,63|                     |
   |                     | Grass,              |                     |
   |                     |    bulbs in the, 41 |                     |
   |                     | Green leaves,       |                     |
   |                     |        value of, 13 |                     |
   |_____________________|_____________________|_____________________|
    _________________________________________________________________
   |   concolor, 100     | " Madonna, 97, 146  | Seed sowing, 36     |
   |   cordifolium, 104  | " Mariposa, 58      | Sisyrinchium, 123   |
   |   croceum, 98       | " Orange, 98        | Snowdrop, 77        |
   |   Dalhansoni, 98    | " Sacred, 115       | Snowflake, 92       |
   |   dauricum, 98      | " Swamp, 104        | Soap Plant, 64      |
   |   elegans, 100      | " Tiger, 103        | Soil for bulbs, 16  |
   |   excelsum, 99      | " Turk's Cap, 102   | Soot, 142           |
   |   giganteum, 100    | Lime, 142           | Sparaxis, 124       |
   |   Grayi, 104        | Liver               | Sparrows, 144       |
   |   Hansoni, 101      |     of Sulphur, 146 | Spawn, 30           |
   |   Henryi, 98        | Lycoris, 105        | Sprekelia, 124      |
   |   Humboldti, 101    |                     | Squill, 120         |
   |   japonicum, 101    | Madonna Lily,97,146 | Star of             |
   |   kewense, 101      | Manures             |      Bethlehem, 117 |
   |   Krameri, 101      |      for Bulbs, 148 |  "    " yellow, 76  |
   |   lancifolium, 102  | Meadow Saffron, 64  | Sternbergia, 125    |
   |   Leichtlini, 101   | Merendera, 105      | Storing bulbs, 37   |
   |   Loddigesianum, 102| Merodon, 144        | Superphosphate, 148 |
   |   longiflorum, 101  | Milla, 106          | Swamp Lily, 104     |
   |   maritimum, 104    | Montbretia, 128     | Sword Lily, 78      |
   |   Marhan, 98        | Muscari, 106        |                     |
   |   Martagon, 102     |                     | Tecophilæa, 126     |
   |   monadelphum, 102  | Narcissus, 108      | Tiger Flower, 127   |
   |   pardalinum, 102   | " Fly, 144          | Tiger Lily, 103     |
   |   pomponium, 98     | " Poet's, 110       | Tigridia, 127       |
   |   Parryi, 104       | " Polyantha, 114    | Trees and Shrubs,   |
   |   pyrenaicum, 99    | " Tazetta, 114      |    bulbs under, 43  |
   |   Roezli, 102       | " When to plant,109 | Tritonia, 128       |
   |   rubellum, 99      | Naturalising        | Tuberose, 119       |
   |   speciosum, 102    |          bulbs, 41  | Tulbaghia, 130      |
   |   superbum, 104     | Nitrate of soda, 142| Tulip, 131          |
   |   Szovitsianum, 102 | Nothoscordum, 117   | Tulip, Cottage, 137 |
   |   tenuifolium, 102  |                     |  " Darwin, 136      |
   |   testaceum, 99     | Offsets, 29         |  " Dragon, 136      |
   |   Thunbergianum, 100| Orange Lily, 98     |  " Mayflowering, 137|
   |   tigrinum, 103     | Ornithogalum, 117   |  " Parrot, 136      |
   |   umbellatum, 99    |                     |  " Seedling, 134    |
   |   Washingtonianum,99| Pancratium, 118     |  " Star, 59         |
   | Lilies,             | Planting bulbs, 22  |  " Wild, 2          |
   |  distribution of, 95| Polianthes, 119     |  Turk's Cap Lily,102|
   |  " planting, 96     | Poor Men's          |                     |
   |  "for damp soils,103|        Orchids, 87  | Watsonia, 138       |
   | Lily Disease, 146   | Propagation, 29     | Window boxes,       |
   | Lily                | Puschkinia, 119     |       bulbs for, 48 |
   |  " of the Field, 126|                     | Winter Daffodil, 125|
   |  " Jacobæa, 124     | Quamash, 62         | Wireworms, 141      |
   |  " Leopard, 102     |                     |                     |
   |                     | Roots,              | Zephyranthes, 140   |
   |                     |     contractile, 27 | Zephyr Flower, 140  |
   |                     |                     |                     |
   |                     | Sacred Lily, 115    |                     |
   |                     | Salicylic Acid, 147 |                     |
   |                     | Salt, 143           |                     |
   |                     | Schizostylis, 120   |                     |
   |                     | Scilla, 120         |                     |
   |_____________________|_____________________|_____________________|



BEAUTIFUL BULBOUS PLANTS.

INTRODUCTION.


The cultivation of Bulbous Plants has reached a point of popularity at
the present day that it has never before attained. And there is every
reason to believe that this popularity is increasing from year to year
as more people become better acquainted with these plants, and the ease
with which the great majority of them may be grown in almost any garden.
Indeed there are now so many kinds of bulbous plants that there is no
difficulty in making a selection to suit the smallest garden or the most
modest purse.

Of course, some kinds, such as Tulips, Daffodils and Narcissi,
Hyacinths, Crocuses, Snowdrops, Scillas, Bluebells, Chionodoxas, Grape
Hyacinths, Lilies, Colchicums, Gladioli, and Montbretias, will be always
probably amongst the first favourites with garden lovers. But there is
no reason why the Mariposa Lilies and Star Tulips, the Brodiæas and
Millas, the Sternbergias and Fritillarias, and many others should not in
the course of time become almost equally popular when they become better
known.

Some kinds of bulbous plants have been known in British Gardens--and no
doubt in continental ones also--ever since such a thing as gardening
proper came to be distinguished from mere agriculture. Our native or
naturalised bulbs--such as the Snake's Head Fritillary (_Fritillaria
Meleagris_), the Yellow Star of Bethlehem (_Gagea lutea_), as well as
the white ones (_Ornithogalum nutans_, _pyrenaicum_, and _umbellatum_),
the Autumn Crocus (_Colchicum autumnale_), the Lent Lily or Daffodil
(_Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus_), the Snowdrop (_Galanthus nivalis_), the
Snowflake (_Leucojum vernum_), the Grape Hyacinth (_Muscari racemosum_),
the Squill (_Scilla verna_), and the Bluebell (_S. festalis_), the
Martagon Lily (_Lilium Martagon_), and the Wild Tulip (_Tulipa
sylvestris_) have been grown as garden plants for 400 years or more.

The great monastic establishments were the seats of gardening as of
learning, and it is in connection with them we find the first traces of
bulbous or any other plants being intelligently cultivated. Besides the
plants mentioned, our earliest garden records show that such bulbous
plants as the Dog's Tooth Violet (_Erythronium Dens-Canis_), the Crown
Imperial (_Fritillaria imperialis_), _Gladiolus communis_, the Garden
Hyacinth (_Hyacinthus orientalis_), the Madonna Lily (_Lilium
candidum_), the Poet's Narcissus and the Jonquil (_N. poeticus_ and _N.
Jonquilla_), the Star Hyacinth (_Scilla amoena_), the Lily of the Field
(_Sternbergia lutea_), and Gesner's Tulip (_T. Gesneriana_), were among
the first kinds cultivated from the beginning of the 16th century, and
they are all more popular to-day than ever. Following these we find such
Tulips as _suaveolens_ and _Clusiana_, the yellow-flowered Onion
(_Allium Moly_), the Cloth of Gold Crocus (_C. Susianus_), the Byzantine
Gladiolus (_G. byzantinus_), and others in the 17th century. The
beginning of the 18th century saw the introduction to our gardens of the
Belladonna Lily (_Amaryllis Belladonna_), and later on the Babianas,
Ixias, and other Gladioli like _blandus_, _cuspidatus_, and
_cardinalis_.

It is to the 19th century, however, that we owe not only many
introductions of new kinds, but also the development of the great
enterprise that has been shown in their extensive cultivation, and the
natural methods of using them in the garden.

To this period, and especially to the latter half of it, belong most of
our fine Lilies, Bulbous Irises, Mariposa Lilies and Star Tulips,
Brodiæas, Chionodoxas, Scillas, and American Dog's Tooth Violets. It has
also been the age when the florist's varieties of Gladiolus, Daffodils,
Tulips, Hyacinths, and Crocuses have been brought almost, if not quite,
to the acme of perfection by intelligent cultivation and careful
selection.

All this has led to the growth of many kinds of bulbous plants having
become a huge industry. Dutch bulbs have for many generations been
famous, and many kinds will, no doubt, continue to retain their hold
upon the public owing to the undoubted advantage of the climate under
which they are grown. But experience has proved that such bulbous plants
as Tulips and Daffodils at least can be grown equally well in some parts
of the British Islands, notably in Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, the
Scilly Isles, and parts of Ireland. It has been stated that over five
hundred millions of bulbs are used for decorative purposes in Great
Britain alone every year, and that the value of imported bulbs ranges
from £5,000,000 to £8,000,000 annually.

The growth of Daffodils and Narcissi alone in the Scilly Isles within
the past forty years has been nothing less than phenomenal. Mr. T. A.
Dorrien-Smith, of Tresco Abbey, has stated that the first lot of flowers
was sent to Covent Garden Market about 1865, and realised £1. It was
not, however, until about 1880 that Daffodil growing in these Islands
became at all remunerative, and some idea of their growth since then may
be gained from the fact (vouched for by the same authority) that 65 tons
of flowers were exported from the Scilly Isles in 1885, 85 tons in 1886,
100 tons in 1887, 188 tons in 1888, and 198 tons in 1889; and on one day
alone--the 25th February, 1896--30-1/2 tons of Narcissi, comprising
3,258,000 blooms in 4,849 boxes, were shipped to Penzance for market.
Cultivation on such an extensive scale, of course, means a considerable
reduction in price, and, from a commercial point of view, ordinary
Daffodil growing may be said to have reached bedrock prices a long time
ago.

However, of late years, our American cousins have taken a keen interest
in the importation of bulbs from Europe, and as gardening is a
comparatively new industry in that extensive country, we may expect that
it will afford a good market for many years to come. Not many years ago
certain kinds of Tulips, Daffodils, Hyacinths, &c., were a drug in the
English markets, and could be had at a very low price. Since, however,
the Americans have become fond of bulb-growing, these particular kinds
have advanced considerably in price, in some cases 100 to 150 per cent.,
because it so happened they were just the sorts that were liked on the
other side of the Atlantic.



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.


It is curious to note in this respect that almost every part of the
temperate and sub-tropical regions of the globe have contributed some
class of bulbous plants now to be found in cultivation. Central and
Southern Europe and Northern Africa have supplied us with various
Daffodils and Narcissi, Tulips, &c. From Asia Minor and Turkestan, the
Chionodoxas, and many bulbous Irises and Fritillarias have been
introduced. California and other parts of North America have produced
the Mariposa Lilies, all the Dog's Tooth Violets, except the common
British one, the Brodiæas, &c., while South Africa has given us the
Gladiolus, Montbretias, and Tritonias, Crocosma, and other beautiful
plants. And the Lilies, which form a large group in themselves, are to
be found in almost every temperate clime north of the equator (see page
95).

When these facts are borne in mind, the reader will readily understand
the necessity of trying to imitate, as far as possible, in our own
climate the various natural conditions under which these plants are
found.

PLATE 2. SCILLA SIBIRICA MULTIFLORA (7) GALANTHUS NIVALIS (8) CHIONODOXA
LUCILIÆ (9) HYACINTHUS AZUREUS (10)



SOMETHING ABOUT BULBS AND CORMS.


There is so much confusion of thought as to what a "bulbous" plant
really is, that it may be as well at the beginning of this volume to
endeavour to clear up the haziness that exists in regard to the matter.
It seems to be taken for granted that any plant with a swollen or
thickened stem or rootstock is a "bulbous" one. And this impression is
no doubt confirmed when one consults the bulb catalogues issued by
nurserymen. In these publications--chiefly, no doubt, for the sake of
convenience and to avoid unnecessary extra expense in printing--a large
number of plants are enumerated as if they were really bulbous. It is,
therefore, not at all unnatural that the amateur should come to the
conclusion that everything mentioned between the covers of a bulb
catalogue should be truly bulbous in nature. Even some publications on
bulbous plants have adopted the same loose nomenclature. Thus we find
such non-bulbous plants as Aconites, Anemones, Dahlias, Dicentras,
Day-Lilies, Hepaticas, Solomon's Seal, Astilbe japonica, Tropæolums,
Lily of the Valley, Corydalis, Torch Lilies, Pæonies, Christmas Roses,
and many others described as "bulbous" plants, while some that are
really so, and worthy of cultivation, are not even mentioned.

Some of the plants referred to above have thickened stems or roots, and
will be found described in their proper places in the companion volume
to this--"BEAUTIFUL GARDEN FLOWERS." They belong to several different
families of plants. True bulbous plants, however (with which we may
include those having "corms"), are confined to very few families.
Indeed, they are restricted to one of the two large groups of flowering
plants, viz., that in which the leaves usually have parallel veins, and
the flowers have their parts in circles of three or six. This group of
plants is known to botanists as "monocotyledons," and is still further
distinguished by having only _one_ seed-leaf, as may be seen when the
seeds of any of them sprout, as shown in the Tulip, p. 35.

It is within the limits of this definition, therefore, that all the
plants described in this book come. They all have parallel-veined
leaves, and the parts of their flowers are in "threes" or "sixes," as
may be seen by consulting the coloured plates.

PLATE 3. BULBOUS IRISES I. HISTRIO, (11) I. BAKERIANA, (12). I.
KOLPAKOWSKYANA, (13) I. DANFORDIÆ, (14) I. PERSICA (15)

There is an apparent contradiction to this rule in the Daffodils
(Narcissi) in which the "trumpet" or "corona" in the centre makes a
seventh organ. A similar growth may be seen in such bulbous plants as
the Eucharis, Hymenocallis, Pancratium, &c., that are usually grown
under glass. This corona is analogous to the ligules or scale-like
outgrowths so noticeable on the petals of the Campions (Lychnis), the
chief difference being that in the Narcissi the ligules are joined
together, become much larger, and often constitute the most attractive
feature of the flowers.

=Definition of a "Bulb".=--Perhaps the very best-known example of a true
bulb is the common or garden Onion. Another example is shown in the
sketch of a Hyacinth and Tigridia.

Illustration: TUNICATED BULB OF HYACINTH in section showing "Disc," and
Scale Leaves _s. l._

Illustration: TIGRIDIA BULB, Showing thick Contractile Roots.

The bulbs of Daffodils, Tulips, Snowdrops, Scillas, &c., all conform
very closely to the Onion in structure. It will be noticed that at the
base of the Hyacinth, for example, is a flattish or deltoid mass of
tissue. This is called the "disc" and is really the stem portion of the
bulb. On the upper surface it bears a number of thick scaly leaves
packed very close together, and rolled round each other, with the
flower-spike in the centre; while from the under surface, the roots
emanate when growth takes place. It may be easily imagined by the reader
that if the "disc" were drawn out lengthwise, and if a space separated
one scale-leaf from another, that the bulb would be very similar in
appearance to an ordinary leafy stem. Nature, however, has a certain
object in view in modifying the stems and leaves in such a manner that
they are tightly packed away when at rest, within a brown protecting
coat, so that they resemble the large scale-protected flower-buds that
may be seen in winter on Horse-chestnuts, Lilacs, Ash, &c. The thick
scale-leaves are really storehouses in which food has been stored up by
the larger and broader green leaves that perform the functions of
assimilation, respiration, &c., above the ground during the growing
period.

When the bulb begins to grow, the food in the thick scale-leaves is
drawn up to supply nourishment to the flower-stem, until the new green
leaves can manufacture or elaborate a fresh supply in the sunlight from
the raw materials drafted into them from the soil by the roots. Under
favourable circumstances more food is elaborated than is necessary for
the wants of the plant, and then extra growths or young bulbs called
"offsets" are developed at the base, or rather the side, of the older
bulb.

It should be mentioned here, however, that all bulbs do not vegetate in
the same way. In many cases the original bulb persists for several
seasons, as in the Daffodil and Hyacinth, for example; but in others it
vanishes completely during the period of growth, and is absorbed, or
swallowed up, as it were, by the flower stem. The most common example of
this among bulbs is the Tulip, to which more detailed reference has been
made at p. 133.

=Kinds of Bulbs.=--Most true bulbs are constructed like the Onion,
Daffodil, Snowdrop, or Hyacinth, in having the scale-leaves rolled round
each other, forming different layers or coats. Such bulbs are said to be
"tunicated." In the case of the Liliums, however, the scale-leaves only
lap over each other at the edges, and are arranged spirally round the
central axis. These bulbs are called "scaly," or "imbricated," and are
shown in the annexed sketch on p. 12.

The individual scales are much thicker at the base than at the apex, and
in the case of tunicated bulbs, they are also thicker on one side than
the other. By this arrangement, the various "coats" can be rolled round
each other more tightly, and without wasting any space.

Illustration: SCALY BULB OF LILY.


=Definition of a "Corm".=--In outward appearance, many corms are so much
like bulbs, that the two terms are interchangeable and loosely applied,
at least, among gardeners. By cutting a "corm" through the centre
lengthwise, a great difference, however, will be noticed in the
structure. In the bulb, the "disc" is small and unimportant, while the
scale-leaves upon it are the most conspicuous feature. In the "corm," on
the other hand, the "disc" is the all-important feature, and is devoid
of any thick scale-leaves upon it. The new growths appear on the top or
sides, and the lines round the circumference show where the sheathing
papery scale-leaves were attached. In the "corm" then, it is the disc,
and not the scale-leaves, that is the great storehouse of food.

PLATE 4. DAFFODILS ELLEN WILLMOTT, (17. MDME. DE GRAAFF, 18. HORSFIELDI)


=Growth of a Corm.=--The vegetation of the corm is very remarkable, and
somewhat resembles that of the Tulip. When a corm commences to grow, the
reserve material within it is used up for the benefit of the flowers and
leaves. The result of this absorbing process is that by the end of the
season the old corm has almost vanished, or is reduced to a dry
shrivelled, woody, and lifeless mass, incapable of further growth, and
attached to the base of the new corms, as shown in the annexed sketches
of Gladiolus and Crocus on page 14.

These new corms are the direct result of the work that has been done by
the green leaves in the daylight, and after a period of rest, they go
through precisely the same process the following season--vanishing
themselves, but leaving others behind to carry on the work of producing
flowers, and, if possible, seeds.

Illustration: GLADIOLUS. _o. c._ old corm; _c. r._ contractile roots;
_n. c._ new corms with "spawn" (_s_.) at base.

Illustration: CROCUS CORM. _o. c._ old corm; _n. c._ new corm with
growths.


=The importance of Green Leaves to Bulbs and Corms.=--If the reader
wishes to be successful in growing bulbous plants in his garden he must
have very great respect for the green leaves of his plants, and always
endeavour to keep them in the cleanest and healthiest possible
condition. From what has just been said about the production of new
bulbs in the Tulip, and new corms in the Crocus and Gladiolus, it is
obvious that the leaves play a most important part. Indeed, without
their aid there would be neither bulbs nor corms to carry on the work of
the plants from year to year. In the form of carbon-dioxide the leaves
eat up the carbon and oxygen from the atmosphere. Under the influence of
sunlight the gas is decomposed, so that the oxygen is given off again
into the air, while the carbon is retained for the production of starch
and other materials. These are elaborated in the cells of the leaves,
and after undergoing certain changes pass down the stems and are stored
up in the bulbs or corms beneath the surface of the soil. It is only
_green_ healthy leaves that can perform this important work
satisfactorily. When the foliage therefore begins to turn yellow and
wither, it may be taken for granted that its work for the season is
coming to a close, and the bulbs or corms are going to enjoy a
well-earned rest. It should, perhaps, be mentioned also that leaves can
only become green in day light; and although some bulbous plants like a
certain amount of shade, it would never do to exclude the light from
them altogether, or even to plant them in places where they could not
get an adequate amount of sunshine, or diffused light, during the day.



SOIL FOR BULBOUS PLANTS.


Comparatively few of the bulbous plants mentioned in this volume will
require anything better than ordinary good garden soil that has been
deeply dug, contains a certain amount of well-decomposed manure, and is
well-drained so that the water freely passes away. Such a soil will give
general satisfaction, with the least amount of trouble, especially if it
is inclined to be light rather than heavy.

To secure really first-class results, however, the soil in beds or
borders that are to be planted with bulbs should be particularly
well-prepared in advance. A heavy soil, that is, one inclined to hold
water, and of a clayey nature, will require a good deal more labour to
bring it into a proper condition than a soil that is already friable and
in a fair state of tilth. The heavy soil should be not only deeply dug
to a depth of two feet or more, taking care not to bring the lower
layers to the surface in the operation, although they should be turned
over and pulverised as much as possible where they are. Plenty of sand
or road-grit should be incorporated with a heavy soil, not only to keep
it "open," but also to increase its warmth--a matter of some importance
in our cold wet winters. The upper layer of soil, say a foot from the
surface, may be still further improved by the admixture of old
cow-manure and soot. In very bad soils, powdered quicklime may also be
added, not only to absorb superfluous moisture, but to render the soil
sweeter and more fertile. On no account, however, should fresh, rank
manure be dug into the soil just before the bulbs are planted, as the
heat and gases generated by its decomposition are often injurious to the
extremely tender tips of the young roots.

PLATE 5. (DAFFODILS 19. CYCLAMINEUS, 20. TRIANDRUS ALBUS, 21. PRINCESS
MARY OF CAMBRIDGE, 22. GLORIA MUNDI, 23. SIR WATKIN)

An ordinary good garden soil--that is, one that is regularly dug, hoed,
manured, and cropped with some class of plants--will only need to be
well dug for bulbs, and to have some well-decayed manure and soot
incorporated with it a week or two before planting. For some bulbs, such
as the Mariposa Lilies (Calochorti), some of the bulbous Irises, and a
few other kinds, it may be necessary to take particular pains with the
preparation of the soil for them. Attention has been specially called to
plants of this nature, where such has been considered necessary. It
should be remembered that when bulbous plants are attacked by fungoid
diseases, referred to at p. 145, it is very often the result of a badly
prepared soil, and not to any inherent defect in the bulbs.



HINTS TO BEGINNERS.


There is a beginning to everything, and the cultivation of bulbous
plants is no exception to the rule. It is probable in many cases that
the beginner at bulb-growing falls into precisely the same errors as the
beginner with other classes of plants. The most common error of all,
perhaps, is that he wants to grow at once every bulbous plant known. He
sees a book, like the present one for example, and admires the beautiful
pictures of bulbous plants in it. The result may be--and I hope it will
be--a keen desire to invest in the bulbs that can produce such charming
blossoms. But this keen desire should be tempered with discretion. His
garden may be only a small one, and perhaps already stocked with many
other plants. As he cannot hope to get the whole of Kew Gardens into it
at once, it would be as well to start with only a few _kinds_ of bulbs.
I do not mean of a _few bulbs_ of _many_ kinds, as he is almost sure to
be disappointed in the results. In these days of imperial thought it is
no use thinking of producing an effect in a garden with six bulbs of
either Snowdrops, Crocuses, Tulips, or Daffodils. It is as well to think
of the larger bulbs like the Lilies and choice Hyacinths in _dozens_; of
the medium sized ones like Tulips, Daffodils, Tritonias, and bedding
Hyacinths in _hundreds_; and of the smaller ones like Crocuses,
Snowdrops, Spanish Irises, Scillas, Chionodoxas, and Bluebells in
_thousands_. The dearer and choicer kinds are better left alone,
perhaps, until some advance has been made with the others.


=Buying Bulbs.=--To buy bulbous plants in dozens, hundreds, or thousands
of course means money. The beginner, however, is not advised to buy
large quantities of _all_ the kinds mentioned to begin with, as the cost
might be prohibitive, or the convenience for their proper treatment
inadequate. What is strongly recommended, however, is to start with a
large number of any one, two, or three kinds as can be afforded one
year, instead of frittering away the same amount of money over a few
bulbs each of perhaps a dozen different kinds which will fail to produce
the anticipated effect later on. It is much better, for instance, to
buy, say 100 bulbs of cottage or Mayflowering Tulips, than to invest in
100 bulbs belonging to eight different genera.

The 100 Tulips would make a fine show in the garden, because there would
probably be enough of them; whereas the other bulbs, although quite as
handsome in their own way would be lost, or at least inconspicuous,
owing to the small number of each in flower at the same time.

If only one or two kinds of bulbs can be bought in sufficient quantity
each season, with care they can be increased each year afterwards, and
need not be purchased again. This will permit of the purchase of a
sufficient number of one or two other kinds the following year, and as
these will increase and multiply in the same way, there will be quite a
large number of excellent bulbs available at the end of a few years.
Each season there is a larger and better display than the preceding one,
and that is a result very rarely attained, even after several years'
labour, and a lot of money has been spent, when the principle of having
only a _few_ bulbs of _many_ kinds is adopted.

If the effect is not produced the first season, enthusiasm is likely to
be killed, or the interest in bulb-growing may be seriously diminished.

The beginner is strongly advised to start with such easily-grown and
effective bulbs as Tulips, Daffodils, and Spanish Irises, afterwards
adding Montbretias or Tritonias, Gladiolus, Liliums, Chionodoxas,
Scillas, Snowdrops, Grape Hyacinths, Crocuses, &c., according to fancy.
Of course all these may be started with, but as stated before, each kind
should be purchased in sufficient quantity to make a bold and effective
display when in blossom.

PLATE 6. DAFFODILS (24. GRAND MONARQUE, 25. SOLEIL D'OR, 26. WEARDALE
PERFECTION, 27. LULWORTH)


=A Word of Warning.=--Beginners must not run away with the idea that the
largest bulbs give the most blossom. In many instances this is very far
from being the case--notably with the florists' Hyacinth--which is a
most deceptive bulb. Small heavy bulbs are much better than large light
ones--that is light or heavy according to their size. In Daffodils, too,
there is a good deal of variety in the shape and size of different
varieties, some being naturally smaller than others, and yet capable of
throwing fine blossoms. All healthy bulbs, no matter to what genus they
belong, should be firm and solid, and not soft and pappy to the touch. A
distinction must also be made between well-ripened "flowering bulbs,"
and those often advertised as "planting bulbs." The latter are perfectly
sound, but being merely offsets from the "flowering" bulbs, are not
likely to flower the first year after planting, although a few of the
stronger ones may do so. When one can afford to await a couple of years,
"planting" bulbs offer a cheap means of stocking a garden, as a thousand
can be purchased for a few shillings.

The other hints, necessary for a beginner, will be found in the
following pages attached to the different groups of bulbs or corms he
may wish to grow.



HOW DEEP SHOULD BULBS BE PLANTED?


This question has been agitating the minds of gardeners for some
considerable time, and has given rise to a certain amount of discussion.
Some advocate very deep planting, on the strength of having discovered
the bulbs of such plants as Snowdrops, &c., a foot or more beneath the
surface of the soil without any decrease in vigour. On the contrary, it
has been contended that the plants have shown unusual sturdiness,
notwithstanding the amount of reserve material the bulbs must have
expended before the leaves were able to reach the light. It is natural
that bulbs that are left in beds and borders for a few years without
lifting should be found at a greater depth than is generally recommended
for the planting of new bulbs. In the course of time the soil is turned
up more or less deeply, and any bulbs in it are almost sure to be buried
deeper than they were before; or frequent top dressings of soil or
manure may have been given, and thus place the bulbs still further from
the light. It is possible, however, that bulbs get buried deeply owing
to the downward pull of their own contractile roots referred to below.

Although I am not going to recommend very deep planting, there is one
great advantage in having bulbs in the open air well covered with soil,
viz., that the temperature of the soil at one, two, or three feet is
often as much as 20 degrees higher than it is immediately on the surface
during very cold and frosty weather. This is a wonderful provision of
Nature for the protection of all kinds of roots and bulbs beneath the
soil in winter.

In the following pages the average size of the bulbs or corms of
different genera is given. It will be noticed that they vary from half
an inch in diameter in some of the smaller Narcissi, to three, four, or
five inches in some of the Liliums. Between these two extremes there are
nearly all shapes and sizes, and it is not unnatural that the amateur
should be somewhat puzzled as to the depth he ought to plant any
particular bulb.

For planting bulbs in the open air, I venture to propound a safe general
rule, viz.:--_cover a bulb or corm with about twice its own depth of
soil_. Thus a bulb one inch through from top to bottom would be planted
about three inches deep, so that it would be covered with two inches of
soil. The adoption of this principle means fairly deep planting in the
case of large bulbs. There are a few exceptions, however, to this rule,
but they have been noted in the proper place.

Illustration: DIBBER.

The actual planting of bulbs in formal beds may be done with either a
garden trowel or dibber. The trowel is better for the larger bulbs like
Liliums, and may of course be used for smaller bulbs if found to be more
convenient. The dibber is useful for making holes at very regular
distances apart in the lines, and into each hole a bulb may be dropped
in, afterwards covering it over with soil.

Illustration: _Wrong_ and _Right_ way of planting Bulbs with Dibber.

A blunt dibber as shown in the sketch, will be found more useful than a
pointed one for the work, although it may not be pushed into the soil so
readily. The danger of a sharp-pointed dibber is shown in the sketch. A
fairly large bulb is liable to be hung up in the hole as its diameter is
greater than that of the dibber at a certain depth. Under these
circumstances roots would not be emitted so readily from the base, as
when the bulb is resting flat on the bottom of the hole as shown in the
sketch to the right.

PLATE 7. GARDENIA NARCISSUS (28) POET'S NARCISSUS (29) HYACINTHUS
AMETHYSTINUS (30)



THE NATURAL SINKING OF BULBS AND CORMS.


In connection with the question of planting, attention may be directed
to a very interesting and remarkable power possessed by the roots of
many bulbs and corms. A glance at the sketches of Gladiolus, Tritonia,
Nothoscordum, and Lilium, will show the reader some thick fleshy roots
with conspicuous rings on them. They are readily distinguished from the
finer fibrous roots, and, as may be readily supposed, their functions
are quite distinct. To thoroughly understand what these thick-ringed
roots are for, the reader will remember what has been said at page 13
about the way in which the old corms of Crocuses and Gladioli disappear,
or are surmounted in autumn by new ones. If the plants were not
disturbed for several years, one would imagine that as the new corms
were always produced _on top_ of the old ones, they would sooner or
later come through the surface of the soil, and thus run the risk of
being either parched by drought, or shrivelled up by the heat of the
summer sun; or, again, of being frozen to death in winter. And yet,
examination of the corms will show that the new ones are quite as deep
down in the soil, if not deeper, than their predecessors. This
remarkable state of affairs to preserve what may be called the _status
quo_ is entirely due to the action of the thick, ringed roots referred
to above. These roots usually strike straight down into the soil. When
they have gone as far as Nature intended them to, they begin to contract
much in the same way apparently as a worm does when going into its
burrow, and for this reason they have been called "contractile."

Illustration: NOTHOSCORDUM BULB. Showing Contractile Roots.

Illustration: TRITONIA CORMS.

During the process of contraction a tremendous force must be exerted to
enable the roots to pull the corms or bulbs down to their proper level
in the soil. The passive resistance of the latter is overcome, and as a
result its particles are pressed much closer together than they were
before.

Sometimes this pulling power of the roots is exerted horizontally
instead of vertically, and this accounts for the spreading of many
bulbous plants like Tulips, Grape Hyacinths, &c., over a large area in
the course of a few years when left undisturbed.


=Bulbous Plants without Contractile Roots.=--Some bulbous plants have
not the advantage of contractile roots to keep them down in the soil, so
they must secure this desirable end by different means.

Illustration: COLCHICUM. _o. c._ old corm; _n. c._ new growth; _o. r._
old roots.

Illustration: BULBOCODIUM. _o. c._ old corm; _n. c._ new growth; _o. r._
old roots.

A glance at the sketches of Colchicum and Bulbocodium will show a
peculiar method of growth. The new corm instead of being produced on top
of the old one, is developed at the side. Note, however, that the new
corm is not on the same level as the old one. That would be no advantage
whatever. Therefore it takes, as it were, a step _downwards_, so as to
be well out of reach of mowing machines, rats, and mice, and other
enemies, and also probably because it knows it will be much warmer in
winter when several inches below the surface. The same principle seems
to be employed by the bulbs of the Dog's Tooth Violets (_Erythronium_),
as may be seen from the sketch--the new bulb to the right being
distinctly lower than the older one to the left.

Illustration: ERYTHRONIUM.

PLATE 8. FRITILLARIAS (31. MOGGRIDGEI, 32. WALUJEWI, 33. MELEAGRIS ALBA,
34. RECURVA)



PROPAGATION OF BULBOUS PLANTS.


Perhaps there is no one class of plants that have so many ways of being
easily increased as bulbous plants proper. Some kinds, _e.g._, Liliums,
Alliums, may be increased in four different ways--from offsets and
"spawn," scales, bulbils, and, last of all, seeds.


=Offsets.=--The great mass of bulbous and cormous plants, however, are
so readily multiplied by detaching the offsets from the parent bulb or
corm, that the other methods are rarely employed except by trade
growers. Nearly all hardy bulbous plants produce offsets freely. These
offsets represent a superabundance of nourishment that has been
elaborated in the leaves, and very often there are several smaller ones
attached to the base of the larger ones that have been produced in
precisely the same way.

In the case of Daffodils, Tulips, Hyacinths, Crocuses, Gladiolus, and a
host of others, the new offsets are pressed against the sides or on top
of the older ones. In the drawing of the Tulip (p. 30), three new bulbs
are to be seen surrounding all that is left of the old bulb. This latter
has practically vanished up the main axis from the disc to produce
flowers and leaves--hence it follows that the Tulip bulb somewhat
resembles the corm in its vegetative characters. The bulbs taken out of
the soil in early summer are not those that were planted the previous
autumn.

Besides "offsets," some plants produce numerous small vegetative bodies
called "cloves" or "spawn." These are shown in the drawing of the
Gladiolus (p. 14), where two strong flowering corms have been developed
on top of the old shrivelled one. At the base of each of these are
numerous small outgrowths among the contractile roots. If these growths
or spawn are taken off and stored in sandy soil until spring, they may
then be planted in special beds, and in the course of two or three years
will reach the flowering size.

Illustration: Tulip. _d._ disc of old bulb; _f. s._ flower and
leaf-stalk which have eaten up old bulb; _n. b._ new bulb and offsets.

The Liliums are a large and interesting group of bulbous plants. Many of
them produce offsets freely round the base of the old bulb. There are
several species, however (_e.g._, _canadense_, _Grayi_, _maritimum_,
_pardalinum_, _Parryi_, _superbum_), which have creeping rootstocks or
rhizomes, and the new offsets are produced along these at intervals as
shown in the drawing.


=Division.=--Bulbs or corms are rarely cut up for purposes of
propagation. The best example in which this method of increase is
practised is the Gladiolus. The larger corms, if they show two or more
crown-growths, may be carefully cut down between them with a sharp
knife. The cut surfaces may be dipped in soot, not only to dry it more
rapidly, but also to prevent any stray spores of fungoid diseases from
germinating.

Illustration: RHIZOME (_r_) WITH OFFSETS.


=Leaf-Scales.=--The thick, fleshy, deltoid scales of many of the Liliums
will develop buds at the base, as shown in the drawing, when detached
and inserted almost vertically in sandy soil. In about three or four
years flowering bulbs can be produced by this means.

A somewhat analogous process is adopted with Hyacinths. The old bulb is
slashed across the base of the disc two or three times into the fleshy
scales. The cut surfaces dry up, and by-and-bye small buds or bulblets,
as shown on the sketch of the Lily scale, make their appearance. In due
course these bulblets are detached and planted in light sandy soil. The
propagation of the florists' varieties of Hyacinths by this means is not
altogether satisfactory, as the old bulbs themselves undergo a
deterioration in our variable climate.

Illustration: Scale leaf (_s. l._) of Lily bulb showing new growth (_n.
b._) at base.

PLATE 9. TULIPS (35-38)


=Bulbils.=--These are vegetative growths--neither seeds, bulbs, nor
offsets--that appear in the axils of the aërial leaves, as shown in the
sketch. Many Liliums, like _bulbiferum_, _tigrinum_, _speciosum_,
_Leichtlini_, and some of the Alliums produce them with great
regularity. It is thought that bulbils are borne by some plants and not
others, because the conditions for the fertilisation or ripening of the
seeds are not favourable. In such cases, therefore, Nature has provided
such plants with this means of reproduction by bulbils, rather than
allow them to run the risk of dying out altogether. In Kerner and
Oliver's "Natural History of Plants" it is stated that "There are two
forms of Orange Lily indigenous to Europe. One (_Lilium croceum_),
occurring especially in the Pyrenees and South of France, almost always
ripens fruits and forms no bulbils in its leaf-axils. The other (_Lilium
bulbiferum_), found in the valleys of the Central and Northern Alps,
hardly ever fruits, but is characterised by the bulbils it produces in
the axils of its leaves; bulbils which disarticulate in autumn and are
scattered by the wind. But there is no difference noticeable in the
structure of the flowers in these two Orange Lilies, and it is difficult
to explain their difference in mode of propagation, save on the
assumption that in the regions where _Lilium bulbiferum_ grows those
insects are wanting which should convey its pollen from flower to
flower. As the Orange Lily possesses no arrangements for autogamy
(_i.e._, self-fertilisation), no fruits are formed in the absence of
insect visits. It appears that this plant has lost the capacity for
autogamy; at any rate, if a stigma be pollinated with pollen from the
same flower on plants in a garden, no result follows. On the other hand,
offshoots in the form of numerous bulbils are produced by _Lilium
bulbiferum_, by means of which it is propagated and dispersed. In
several valleys of the Central Alps it does not flower at all, and thus
obviously depends entirely upon its bulbils for propagation."

Illustration: BULBILS in leaf-axils.

The bulbils should not be detached from the stems until the latter are
quite ripe, and the foliage shows signs of withering. They may be sown
as if they were large seeds. They possess the advantage over seeds,
however, inasmuch as they produce flowering bulbs two or three seasons
before the bulbs from real seeds come to maturity.


=Bulbous Plants from Seeds.=--The would-be raiser of bulbous plants from
seeds must be gifted with a good deal of patience, and be systematic in
his methods, otherwise he will find it is no sinecure to wait from five
to ten years before a flower appears from the seeds he sowed at the
beginning of those periods. Even when the blossoms do appear, the great
majority of them are likely to be inferior in almost every way to their
progenitors. The raising of bulbous plants from seeds, therefore, is not
likely to find many enthusiastic disciples among amateur growers, who,
as a rule, are content to cultivate the varieties that have been evolved
by generations of gardeners. Under these circumstances it is most
fortunate that bulbous plants can be so readily multiplied by offsets.
Of course, in large gardens and nurseries, where there is a trained
staff of men, it is a comparatively easy matter to save and sow a
certain quantity of seeds each year. After the first period of waiting
is over, each season sees a fresh lot of seedlings burst into blossom.
Any particularly fine forms are marked, and afterwards increased by
means of the offsets or bulbils.

Illustration: TULIP SEEDLING. _b._ young bulb; _r._ first root; _s. l._
seed leaf; _s. c._ seed-coat.

The annexed drawing shows a seedling Tulip. The germination is very
similar to that of the common garden Onion. The swollen portion at the
base represents the first stage in the development of the bulb, and each
year for six or seven seasons sees it increase in size, and ultimately
large and strong enough to blossom.


=Sowing Seeds.=--The seeds of all the perfectly hardy bulbous plants may
be sown in the open air, in beds specially prepared for the purpose. The
soil should be a light sandy loam with a good sprinkling of leaf-mould
in it. The "drills" may be drawn about one inch deep, and as the
seedlings in many cases are left to look after themselves until they
bloom, the seeds should be sown very thinly--two or three inches
apart--so as to allow for future development. It would scarcely be wise,
in the case of choice or rare varieties, to trust the seeds to the open
air. They may, however, be sown in pots or pans, and after two or three
seasons' growth they will be large enough for transferring to the open
air. The seeds of bulbous plants may be sown in spring if they ripen
late in the year; or in early autumn if they ripen in summer.



LIFTING AND STORING BULBS.


PLATE 10. TULIPS (39-42)

As all bulbous plants have a period of rest at some season of the year,
it is a matter of some little importance whether the bulbs or corms in
the soil shall be taken up, or left in the ground from year to year. It
will be noticed in many instances in the following pages that certain
kinds are recommended to be left in the ground for three or four seasons
without being disturbed. This practice may be adopted with advantage
when bulbs are naturalised in the grass, the rock-garden, by the sides
of lakes, &c., and in thin shrubberies or borders, where they are not
likely to be rooted up during the year.

In the formal flower beds, however, in which Tulips, Daffodils,
Hyacinths, Crocuses, &c., are planted for a display in spring and early
summer, it is necessary to lift them after flowering, not only to make
way for the summer "bedding" plants, but also to allow of the beds being
re-dug and re-arranged if necessary.

The best time for lifting the bulbs is usually when the leaves have
commenced to turn yellow. Some do this earlier than others, but in all
cases, it is a sign that growth has ceased, and that bulbs or corms in
the soil are ripe, and will be improved by a period of rest.


=Storing.=--When lifted by means of a fork, the bulbs may be spread out
to dry, either in the sun, or in some dry and airy shed. After a few
days they may be gone over and cleaned by hand, taking off the old
leaves, and putting the offsets or bulbils in separate receptacles from
the large and well-ripened bulbs that are to be used for next year's
display. The bulbs lifted in early summer (_e.g._, Tulips, Daffodils,
Hyacinths, &c.) may be spread out in thin layers--not heaps--upon
shelves in a cool, airy shed, where they can remain without injury until
the time of planting in autumn comes round.

In the case of bulbs or corms that are lifted in autumn when the leaves
begin to fade, like the Gladiolus, the same process of cleaning is gone
through, but care must be taken to keep them where the frost will not
touch them during the winter. It is a good plan to store them in dry
sand or earth in shallow boxes, and place them in dry, airy cellars or
sheds until the spring.



COMBINATIONS OF BULBOUS AND NON-BULBOUS PLANTS.


While bulbous plants alone, especially when used in large quantities,
make an effective display in the garden, they can be made much more
attractive by the exercise of a little art and a pleasing combination
with other plants that come into blossom at the same period.

In the first place, true bulbous plants, like Tulips, Daffodils, and
Bluebells for example, that flower at the same time may be mixed
together for planting in grassy banks, or near the margins of lakes,
&c., where they are not likely to be disturbed for several years.
Similar combinations may be made with Snowdrops, Chionodoxas, Scillas,
Leucojums, Crocuses, &c., that appear in the spring; and with
Colchicums, autumn-flowering Crocuses, and Sternbergias in the late
autumn.

In the next place, the grace and beauty of bulbous plants proper are
enhanced by judiciously mixing them with plants of a non-bulbous nature.
Among these latter may be noted the following as being particularly
useful:--Wallflowers, Forget-me-Nots, Polyanthuses, Primroses, White
Arabis (_A. albida_), and Yellow Alyssum (_A. saxatile_), Violas and
Pansies, the Winter Aconite (_Eranthis hiemalis_, and _E. cilicica_),
Silene, Aubrietia. These are all useful for planting in the autumn at
the same time as the bulbs of Tulips, Daffodils, Hyacinths, Crocuses,
Snowdrops, Scillas, Chionodoxas, &c. Where formal beds are necessary the
non-bulbous plants may be put in first, leaving sufficient space between
the plants for the insertion of the bulbs afterwards.

To secure effect and contrast, a little skill, or rather knowledge, of
the different plants used, is necessary. Haphazard and careless
combinations are not to be encouraged in the formal flower-beds. It
would be a mistake, for instance, to mix three or four different kinds
of bulbs (_e.g._, Snowdrops, Tulips, Daffodils, or Hyacinths) with
Wallflowers, Forget-me-Nots, or any of the other plants mentioned above.
The effect would be ludicrous, and give the beds a higgledy-piggledy
appearance. Nor would it be wise to use one kind of plant in such a way
that the other would be smothered or practically concealed from view.
This could happen easily with combinations of such plants as Wallflowers
or Forget-me-Nots, and such bulbs as Crocuses, Snowdrops, &c.

The true idea of combination should be such that one plant is really as
prominent as the other when in blossom--each one, in fact, lending and
borrowing at the same time some charm from the other. Colours of course
play an important part in this scheme, and care should be exercised at
the time of planting _not_ to combine Yellow Polyanthuses, Yellow
Wallflowers, or Yellow Violas, for instance, with Yellow Tulips or
Daffodils; and so on.

PLATE 11. HYACINTHS (43-46)

The following are a few suggested combinations that will look well:--

  1. =Violas= (Blue), beneath White, Red, or Yellow Tulips or Daffodils.

  2. =Violas= (Yellow), beneath White or Scarlet Tulips or Hyacinths.

  3. =Violas= (White), beneath Scarlet or Yellow Tulips or Daffodils.

  4. =Wallflowers= (Red), with Yellow, White, or Orange Tulips or
     Daffodils.

  5. =Wallflowers= (Yellow), with Scarlet, Pink, White, or Red Tulips.

  6. =Forget-me-Nots= (Blue), with all Tulips, Red and White Hyacinths,
     and Daffodils.

  7. =Aubrietia= (Purple), with Tulips or Daffodils.

  8. =White Arabis=, with Tulips, Daffodils, or Hyacinths.

  9. =Yellow Alyssum=, with red-flowered or white-flowered Tulips or
     Hyacinths.

  10. =Silene= (Rose), with White or Yellow Tulips and Daffodils.



NATURALISING BULBOUS PLANTS IN THE GRASS.


Although it has only been recognised of late years, owing chiefly to the
teachings of Mr. Robinson, there is no place so natural perhaps for the
artistic display of bulbous plants as in some piece of grass-land,
whether it be a meadow, a sloping bank, the margin of a piece of water,
or even a lawn. Every lover of bulbous plants, however, cannot gratify
his individual tastes as to where he would like his bulbs to blossom,
and he must perforce make the best of the piece of ground--large or
small as it may be--that happens to be at his disposal. In large parks
and gardens there is no difficulty, or there ought to be none, in
securing suitable sites to show off the natural graces of the various
bulbous plants recommended for the purpose in this volume. And even in
small suburban gardens, where one often sees a piece of grass lying bare
and cheerless in winter, a better use might be made of bulbs. Ce n'est
que le premier pas qui coûte. Once the initial cost and labour of
getting the bulbs beneath the turf is over there is joy ever afterwards,
and keen anticipation in watching the spring and autumn Crocuses,
Sternbergias, Snowdrops, Snowflakes, the smaller Fritillaries, the
Chionodoxas, Scillas, and Bluebells, Narcissi, Grape Hyacinths, and even
Tulips, when one is not in too great a hurry to get the mowing done
early in the year. One group or another of these plants (to which may be
added the tuberous winter Aconite, with its glistening yellow blossoms)
may be grown in the smallest of gardens, and will brighten them year
after year without trouble or expense, until, perhaps, they become so
crowded, that lifting and re-planting becomes essential to prevent
suffocation.



BULBOUS PLANTS UNDER TREES AND SHRUBS.


Early flowering bulbs are capital for planting beneath deciduous trees
on lawns or in large parks and gardens. The bulbs bloom at a period when
the trees are leafless, and therefore sufficient sunlight is able to
percolate through the bare branches for their benefit. Such kinds as
Snowdrops, Scillas, Chionodoxas, &c., are excellent for this purpose,
and may be left for several seasons without disturbance, provided they
get a top-dressing of well-decayed manure during the autumn. Before the
trees expand their leaves, the bulbous plants beneath have finished
their work for the season, so the absence of light during the summer
does not interfere with them in the least. On the other hand, however,
they enjoy the cool refreshing shade of the tree foliage, which prevents
them from being shrivelled up.



BULBOUS PLANTS FOR CUT FLOWERS.


There are comparatively few of the bulbous plants mentioned in this
volume that are not fit to be cut for the adornment of bowls, vases,
&c., in the dwelling house. Some kinds, of course, are much better
suited for the purpose than others, and it would be difficult indeed to
surpass the elegance of the Daffodils, Tulips, Wood Hyacinths, and
Bluebells in the spring and early summer. Following these we have
numerous Liliums--white, yellow, orange, red, variously blotched and
speckled, and provided with long wiry stems that are often a great
advantage. The late summer and autumn flowering kinds are best
represented by the Montbretias, Tritonias, Gladiolus, Brodiæas, and
Sparaxis. The dwarf-flowering bulbous plants, like Snowdrops, Crocuses,
Grape Hyacinths, Chionodoxas, Colchicums, Sternbergias, Leucojums, &c.,
although they look charming in bold masses in the garden, scarcely
afford much length of stalk to enable them to be used with great effect
in bowls, vases, &c., by themselves. As a groundwork to taller-stemmed
blossoms, however, they are often found to come in very useful.

It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary to say that the more simply and
naturally flowers are "bunched" the better they look in room
decorations. Very often indeed, it is difficult to improve on a bunch of
flowers picked at random in the garden and placed in bowls of water as
they are--with stems of various lengths, and the blossoms facing in
different directions. That some people have extraordinary notions as to
what a "bunch" of flowers really means may be gathered from an
inspection of any ordinary local flower show in the kingdom. At such
exhibitions a "bunch" of flowers is generally as large, flat, unwieldy,
and squatty as possible--the various kinds being jammed together as if
they were "sticks" of Asparagus done up for market. Educated judges have
been endeavouring for some years to get an improvement in the method of
putting bunches of flowers together, but with very little success up to
the present. The same old order of things prevaileth.

PLATE 12. LEUCOJUM VERNUM, (47) MUSCARI CONICUM (48), ERYTHRONIUM
JOHNSONI (49), TECOPHYLÆA CYANOCROCUS (50).


=When to pick Flowers.=--Of course, when people want flowers they will
pick them at any time--if they happen to be in their own gardens, not in
other people's. It may be as well, however, to remind the reader that if
picked either early in the morning--the earlier the better--or in the
evening after sunset, flowers last much longer in a cut state, than if
they are picked at any other period of the day. Perhaps the very worst
time to pick flowers is from mid-day to 2 or 3 o'clock--especially in
summer. The heat takes a good deal of substance out of the blossoms, and
many get so "blown" that if cut at that particular period of the day,
the petals never recover, but drop off in a few hours. Tulips are
well-known examples of this. In the morning and evening, the petals
close up to a point--really to prevent the pollen from getting drenched
with dew or rain. But when the sun shines, they open out, and lie well
back from the stamens so that insects may be lured to take the pollen
from one flower to another. In this state the blossoms should not be cut
or pulled as they will last but a short time.

The water in which flowers are stood should be fresh and clean. If some
time has elapsed before the flowers are placed in it, about an inch or
so of the stems may be cut off with a sharp knife, so as to allow a
layer of fresh cells to come in contact with the water. Some flowers
last much longer than others in a cut state, and the period may be
prolonged a little by putting a pinch of salt, or a little clean
charcoal in the water at the same time.



BULBOUS PLANTS FOR COLD GREENHOUSES.


How often one hears complaints as to the lack of flowers during the
coldest months of the year. And how often one sees, in almost empty
greenhouses, bare shelves that could be made gay with blossom, and with
but little labour or expense. This can be done easily enough by
selecting early flowering bulbs, and having them "potted up" early in
the autumn, so that they will have made plenty of roots by, say,
Christmas time. The pots most generally useful are 5-inch ones (often
called 48's). These should have some broken pieces put in the bottom for
drainage, and over this a layer of moss or fibre to prevent the soil
from choking it up later on. A compost made up of three parts of rich
fibrous loam, one part of silver or river sand, and one part of
leaf-soil, all well mixed, should be prepared. A handful or two is
placed over the drainage, and one, two, three, or five bulbs, according
to size, may then be placed on a level bottom. The pot is then filled to
within about a quarter of an inch of the rim, the soil being firmly
pressed down between the bulbs, the tops of which may be either level
with the surface or beneath it. In any case, it is not necessary to bury
bulbs that are going to have the protection of a greenhouse so deep as
those planted in the open air, where they will have no protection from
the weather.

The bulbs, having been potted, and labelled if necessary, say sometime
in October or November, need not be taken into the greenhouse at once.
It is better to keep them in the open air, covered with two or three
inches of fine ashes or coco-nut fibre until the bulbs have made plenty
of new roots in the soil, or they may be sheltered in a cold frame. Any
time after this, as many pots as may be required are taken out of the
ashes or fibre, the remains of which should be washed from the pots and
shaken off the surface of the soil. If there is a slight warmth in the
greenhouse, just enough to keep the frost out on cold nights, so much
the better, but too much heat is unnecessary, unless one wishes to
"force" bulbs into very early bloom. This, however, generally means
exhaustion, if not death, to the bulbs so artificially treated.

There are many kinds of bulbous plants suitable for the decoration of
cold greenhouses in winter and early spring in the way indicated, and
the following may be regarded as a good selection:--Bulbocodiums,
Chionodoxas, Crocuses (Spring), Erythroniums, Fritillarias (dwarf),
Snowdrops, Hyacinths, Snowflakes, Grape Hyacinths, Dwarf Narcissi,
Puschkinias, Scillas, Sternbergia Fischeriana, Bulbous Irises,
Tecophilæa--all of which are described in their respective places in
this work.



BULBOUS PLANTS FOR WINDOW BOXES.


PLATE 13. BRODIÆA UNIFLORA (51-52), CHIONODOXA SARDENSIS (53),
ERYTHRONIUM DENS-CANIS (54-55)

When the Zonal Pelargoniums, Marguerites, Fuchsias, Lobelias, &c., have
done their duty in the window boxes during the summer and autumn months,
it is essential that something else must take their places for the
winter and spring months, unless they are to be left bare. Dwarf shrubs,
of course, like Aucubas, Golden Privet, Cupressus, Skimmias, &c., are
much favoured, and rightly so. But in conjunction with them many kinds
of bulbous plants may be used, and planted at the same time as the
shrubs. Snowdrops and Crocuses are great favourites for the edges of
boxes. Besides these, however, the beautiful blue-flowered Grape
Hyacinths (Muscari), the Chionodoxas and Scilla sibirica, may be used in
a similar way and with great effect, or as a carpet beneath the shrubs.
If the latter are not placed too close together, space may be left for a
few bulbs of Tulips and Daffodils to peep out between them.

Of course, window boxes filled entirely with bulbous plants would
probably look much more artistic than those having a mixture of shrubs
and bulbs. Combinations in miniature could be made in the same way as
suggested for the open air beds on p. 41. Boxes planted with
Polyanthuses, Primroses, Forget-me-Nots, Silene, White Arabis, Yellow
Alyssum, Wallflowers, &c., as well as bulbs, would not look bare in
autumn or winter, and would be very effective when in blossom in the
spring time.



DESCRIPTIONS, CULTURE, PROPAGATION, &c., OF THE BEST BULBOUS PLANTS FOR
THE OPEN AIR.


=ALLIUM.=--Although about 250 species of this liliaceous genus are
known, only a dozen or so are usually met with in gardens--the limited
number being probably due to the pungent and not altogether agreeable
odour they emit when bruised or cut. In fact, the plants may be briefly
described as more or less ornamental Onions, as they belong to the same
family as this well-known esculent, and naturally possess a family
likeness. The bulbs are tunicated, the leaves either flat as in the
Leek, or roundish and hollow as in the ordinary Onion, while the
6-petalled starry flowers are borne in umbels on the top of the shoot
that springs out of the bulb under the ground.

The kinds mentioned below flourish in ordinary good garden soil of a
gritty nature, that has been deeply dug and well-manured. They are
useful for the decoration of the flower border in bold patches, but are
probably more natural in grass-land, where they can remain for several
years undisturbed. The bulbs may be planted in early autumn, 3 or 4
inches deep--more or less according to the size of the bulbs, and will
come into blossom from April and May, till July or August. As cut
flowers, they are very ornamental, but unfortunately, they are not
greatly used in this way owing to their odour, which some people find
quite unbearable. Propagation is effected by means of offsets from the
bulbs, or seeds. Two species--_A. Moly_, and _A. neapolitanum_--are
often forced into early blossoms in the greenhouse, in the way mentioned
at p. 46.

The following are the best kinds:--_Neapolitanum_, _Erdeli_ (see Plate
18, fig. 72), _karataviense_, _triquetrum_, _ursinum_, and _zebdanense_,
all with white or whitish flowers; _acuminatum_, _hirtiflorum_,
_Macnabianum_, _narcissiflorum_ (or _pedemontanum_), _Ostrowskianum_,
_Schuberti_, and _Suworowi_, representing rose, magenta, crimson, lilac,
and purple shades; the best yellow-flowered kinds are, _Moly_ (Plate 17,
fig. 68), _flavum_, and _orientale_; while _coeruleum_ (or _azureum_) is
the most attractive species with blue flowers. _A. acuminatum_ is the
dwarfest of these, being only about a foot high, the others rarely
exceeding 1-1/2 to 2 feet, except perhaps _hirtiflorum_ and _Suworowi_,
which often are 3 feet high.


=AMARYLLIS Belladonna= (_Belladonna Lily_).--This charming member of the
Narcissus family deserves more extensive cultivation than it enjoys at
present. It is a native of South Africa, and has large bulbs--3 to 4
inches or more deep--with thickish, silky-woollen coats, and
strap-shaped leaves, usually 12 to 18 inches long. About August and
September, the sweet-scented funnel-shaped blossoms of a soft rosy
colour (see Plate 31, fig. 111) are produced on top of a stout stalk, 12
to 18 inches high, after the foliage has withered. Some varieties are
better than others, but the best of all is that which originated at Kew,
and is remarkable for having three or four dozen rich rosy crimson
flowers on a scape 2 to 3 feet high.

The Belladonna Lily can only be grown satisfactorily in the open air in
the milder parts of the kingdom. The bulbs should be planted about 9
inches deep in a well-drained loamy soil containing plenty of sand and
leaf-soil. Beneath a wall facing due south is generally a good position
for the plants. In winter, cold rains should be kept off by placing a
layer of leaves or litter over the dormant bulbs. The simplest way to
increase the stock is to detach the offsets from the old bulbs whenever
the latter are disturbed--say every fourth or fifth year.

_Note._--The gorgeous plants grown in greenhouses under the name of
Amaryllis rightly belong to the genus Hippeastrum, and are too tender
for open air culture in our climate.

PLATE 14. ENGLISH IRISES (56-59)


=ANTHOLYZA.=--The brown-coated corms, sword-like leaves, and the
bright-coloured tubular flowers of these plants very much resemble those
of the closely-related genus Gladiolus. Indeed, what suits the Gladiolus
will suit the Antholyzas in the way of a well-drained loamy soil. A
somewhat warmer and sunnier position is, however, necessary, as these
South African plants have not been acclimatised by selection and
hybridisation in the same way as the Gladiolus. The best-known kinds are
_æthiopica_, with spikes of scarlet and greenish flowers; _caffra_, rich
scarlet; _Cunonia_, scarlet and black; _fulgens_, rich coppery rose; and
_paniculata_, with red, brown, and yellow blossoms, and apparently the
hardiest of all. They are all best increased by offsets.


=BABIANA= (_Baboon Root_).--Charming plants of the Iris family, with
fibrous-coated corms about an inch in diameter, stiffish, hairy, plaited
leaves, and dense spikes of funnel-shaped flowers. The latter, in most
cases, are sweetly scented and brilliantly coloured, and in a cut state,
are exceedingly handsome for decorative work. Unfortunately the plants
are not very hardy, and can only be grown in the open air in the very
warmest and mildest parts of the kingdom with anything like success. In
favourable localities the corms should be planted 3 or 4 inches deep, in
mild weather, any time between September and November. The soil should
be very light, loamy, and well-drained, and the position should be the
warmest and sunniest in the garden. Plenty of sand or grit around the
corms is an advantage, and a covering of leaves or litter will keep off
cold winter rains. Babianas are very useful for cool greenhouse
decoration, and may be easily grown in pots, only giving water when
roots have developed, and the new leaves are beginning to show. (See p.
46).

The best kinds are _disticha_, pale blue; _plicata_, violet blue;
_ringens_, scarlet; _stricta_, the three outer segments of which are
white, the three inner lilac-blue with a dark blotch at the base. This
is the best-known kind, and there are many forms of it, notably
_angustifolia_, bright blue tinged with pink; and _rubro-cyanea_,
brilliant blue and crimson. All increased by offsets.


=BESSERA elegans.=--A pretty liliaceous plant, 1-1/2 to 2 feet high,
with slender rush-like leaves, and scarlet or scarlet and white
bell-shaped blossoms. Being a native of Mexico it is rather tender, and
can only be grown out of doors in the mildest parts of the British Isles
in the same way as the Babianas. As a pot plant it may be grown in a
cool greenhouse. Increased by offsets from the brown silky-coated corms.


=BLOOMERIA aurea.=--This is the best known species. It is a native of
California and belongs to the Lily family. The small corms are covered
with netted pale brown coats, from which spring long narrow leaves, and
umbels of bright yellow starry flowers about June or July. _B.
Clevelandi_ is another species with smaller yellow flowers. The corms of
both kinds should be planted in warm sunny spots in well-drained sandy
loam and leaf-soil in the autumn, and a little protection with leaves or
litter may be given in cold wet winters.


=BOBARTIA aurantiaca.=--This pretty member of the Iris family is also
known under the name of _Homeria_. It has roundish corms, an inch or
more in diameter, covered with pale brown shaggy fibrous coats. The
orange-red or yellow blossoms appear in summer and last a long time. The
plant is a native of South Africa, and can only be grown in the mildest
parts of the kingdom in the same way as the Babianas, Ixias, &c., which
see. Increased by offsets.


=BRAVOA geminiflora.=--A graceful Mexican plant of the Narcissus family,
with roundish fibrous-coated corms over an inch in diameter, and narrow
sword-like leaves 12 to 18 inches long. The bright red or scarlet
tubular blossoms droop in pairs from stalks 1 to 2 feet high from July
onwards. In the milder parts of the kingdom this plant may be grown
easily in sheltered sunny spots in rich sandy loam and leaf-soil,
protection being only needed in severe winters from cold heavy rains or
hard frosts by means of leaves or litter. Increased by offsets in autumn
or seeds sown in spring.


=BREVOORTIA Ida-Maia= (_Brodiæa coccinea_).--This beautiful Liliaceous
plant is popularly known as the "Californian Fire Cracker." It has
roundish corms an inch or so in diameter, with brown fibrous coats. The
leaves are very narrow, while the tubular flowers are borne in loose
umbels in June or July on top of slender wiry stalks 2 to 3 feet high.
The shape and colour of the individual blossoms are shown on Plate 19,
fig. 75. They are very attractive in bold masses, and are excellent for
cutting purposes. In the garden it is essential to support the slender
flower-stems with thin sticks to keep the blossoms from trailing in the
dirt. During September and October is the best time to plant the corms 3
to 4 inches deep, in rich sandy loam, in warm sunny spots in the border
or rock-garden, where they should be allowed to remain for three or four
seasons before they need be disturbed. Increased by offsets and seeds.

PLATE 15. SPANISH IRISES (60-63)


=BRODIÆA.=--The plants belonging to this genus have practically the same
characters as those of Brevoortia, the chief differences being that many
(but not all) of the Brodiæas have six fertile stamens instead of three,
and the perianth in many cases is more funnel or bell-shaped than
cylindrical. The corms are about the same size with netted, brown, silky
coats, but are quite distinct from those in the section formerly known
under the names of _Milla_ and _Triteleia_. The cultural treatment is
precisely the same as detailed under Brevoortia above. An idea as to the
beauty of the blossoms of some of the kinds may be gained from a glance
at Plates 13, 19, 20, and 24, in which _B. laxa_ (fig. 76), _B.
ixioides_ (fig. 77) (also known as _Calliprora lutea_), _B. Bridgesi_
(fig. 91), _B. Howelli lilacina_ (fig. 80), and _B. uniflora_ (figs. 51
and 52) (the last named being remarkable for having flowers singly
instead of in umbels), are respectively depicted. Other species well
worth growing are _californica_, rosy-purple; _capitata_, lilac or
violet, and its white variety _alba_; _congesta_, deep violet;
_Douglasi_, bright blue; _gracilis_, bright yellow; _grandiflora_,
violet-blue; _Hendersoni_, salmon-yellow striped with purple; _Howelli_,
porcelain-white striped with blue; _hyacinthina_, purple, and its white
variety _lactea_; _Leichtlini_, white; _multiflora_, pale blue;
_Orcutti_, lilac; _peduncularis_, porcelain-white to rosy-purple;
_Purdyi_, rosy-purple to lilac; _rosea_, rose-red to pinkish-purple;
_Sellowiana_, yellow; and _stellaris_, reddish-purple to deep blue. To
these may be added _B. volubilis_, remarkable for having twining stems
often 12 feet long, and having 15 to 30 rose-coloured flowers in an
umbel.


=BULBOCODIUM vernum.=--A charming Crocus-like plant of the Lily family,
closely related to the Meadow Saffrons (Colchicum), as may be seen by
comparing the method of lateral growth of the brown-coated corms--each
an inch or more in diameter. It is a native of the Alps. In mild seasons
it often produces its violet or rosy-purple funnel-shaped flowers in
January, not more than 6 inches from the ground, and remains in blossom
in company with Snowdrops, Leucojums, &c. The leaves appear afterwards
and elaborate food for the production of next year's corms before they
wither. A rich well-drained loam with a little sand and leaf-soil suits
it very well, and the corms may be planted in September or October about
4 inches deep, in bold masses in the rock garden or grass-land, and left
alone for a few years, after which there will be numerous offsets to
increase the stock. As slugs are very fond of the young growths, they
must be carefully looked for morning and evening, and a little soot or
lime carefully spread round the plants may help to check them (see p.
142).


=CALOCHORTUS= (_Mariposa Lily_).--A very distinct group of Liliaceous
plants with brown-coated bulbs, narrow leaves, and very showy and
distinct-looking blossoms--some of which are shown in Plate 22, fig. 84,
and also in Plate 20 of the companion volume "BEAUTIFUL GARDEN FLOWERS."
Joined to the Mariposa Lilies proper are the "Star Tulips," formerly
known under the name of _Cyclobothra_--well-known representatives of
which are shown in the same Plate, figs. 85 and 86. They are quite
distinct in the appearance of the flowers, but botanically they are
considered to be identical in the important characters. Both groups are
well worth growing in the milder parts of the kingdom in warm sunny
parts of the garden. This is essential as most of them are natives of
California, Oregon, Arizona, and parts of Mexico, where they have plenty
of sunshine and are not subject to the cold drenching rains that often
characterise the British winter. In colder districts where they would be
unable to survive the ordinary winter, the plants may be brought to
perfection in a cold frame so long as they are free from frost and heavy
rains. The soil in which they appear to flourish best seems to be sharp
sand, leaf-soil and road grit, well mixed together with a little loam
added. The bed--in which the bulbs are to be planted 3 to 4 inches deep,
from September to November, but not later--should be raised above the
general level, the better to throw the water off in winter. If the beds
or borders are facing south and slightly sloping, so much the better. A
light covering with reeds or bracken is advisable during severe weather,
but should be removed on all warm days, and altogether from February and
March, as the young growths will then begin to push through the soil.
After the flowering period--_i.e._, July and August--is over, and the
foliage has withered, the bulbs may be either lifted and carefully
stored in sand or dry earth until the planting season comes round again;
or, better still, lights may be placed over them to keep the bulbs dry
and allow them to ripen thoroughly and naturally. If the latter
treatment is adopted the bulbs need not be disturbed for three or four
years, and will give better blossom on the whole in consequence. It must
be remembered that although the bulbs dislike moisture when dormant,
they must have a sufficient supply during active growth, otherwise they
may soon become parched and withered. The easiest way to increase the
plants is by means of offsets. When seeds ripen they may be sown very
thinly in pots or pans in spring, and the seedlings may remain for a
couple of seasons before being transplanted. Sometimes "bulbils" (see p.
32) are produced on the stems, and may be sown in light sandy soil as if
they were seeds. From seeds and bulbils it takes from three to six years
to produce a flowering bulb.

There are now several kinds of Mariposa Lily in cultivation. Of these
the varieties of the _venustus_ group are undoubtedly the handsomest.
(See Plate 22, fig. 84.) They grow about 18 inches high, and have
cup-shaped flowers 3 inches across, having three very large and three
very small segments. The colour of the type is white, yellow at the
base, deeply stained with crimson, and having a conspicuous blotch at
the base. In the variety _alba_ the flowers are wholly white;
_lilacinus_, deep lilac; _purpurascens_, lilac-purple; _citrinus_,
lemon-yellow; _oculatus_, with rosy buds passing into white, with a deep
blackish-purple blotch in the centre of a yellow base; and _Vesta_,
flowers very large, white flushed with rose, and marked with brown and
yellow at the base.

Other kinds are _albus_, with drooping pearly-white flowers (Plate 22,
fig. 85); _apiculatus_, lemon-yellow; _Benthami_, bright yellow;
_coeruleus_, lilac or creamy-white, densely bearded with blue hairs;
_clavatus_, golden-yellow; _elegans_, white tinged with purple, but rich
pink in the variety _amoenus_; _flavus_, yellow, drooping; _Goldyi_, old
gold with hairy centre; _Howelli_, creamy-white; _Kennedyi_, orange-red;
_lilacinus_, pink, purple, or lilac, a fine species; _luteus_, yellow or
orange, with purple hairs; _Plummeræ_, large soft lilac flowers, with
golden-yellow hairs and blotched with purple; _pulchellus_,
orange-yellow, sweet-scented, drooping (see Plate 22, fig. 86);
_Purdyi_, white, spotted with purple, and covered with long white hairs;
_splendens_ pale lilac, with silky white hairs and deep purple blotches
at base; and _Weedi_, yellow.


=CAMASSIA.=--Graceful-looking North American plants of the Lily family,
with rather large ovoid bulbs, strap-shaped tapering leaves, and loose
racemes of starry blossoms which usually appear from May to July, and
are useful for decorations when cut. They flourish in ordinary good and
well-drained garden soil in warm sheltered spots. The bulbs should be
planted in September or October, and covered with about twice their own
depth of soil. They may be left undisturbed for a few seasons, but in
that case a mulching of well-decayed manure in autumn would be
beneficial. New plants are most readily secured by offsets from the old
bulbs. Seeds, however, are freely produced in most places and should be
sown in cold frames as soon as ripe. (See p. 36).

PLATE 16. MADONNA LILY (64) FRITILLARIA IMPERIALIS, VARS. (65-66)

There are only a few species, the best being _C. esculenta_, the Quamash
or Camass Root of the North American Indians. The blue flowers, each
about 2 inches across, are borne on scapes 1-1/2 to 3 feet high, and
look very handsome above the narrow arching leaves. _C. Cusicksi_, with
porcelain-blue flowers (see Plate 18, fig. 70), grows 3 to 4 feet high.
_C. Fraseri_, with very pale-blue flowers, is about 1-1/2 feet high;
while _C. Leichtlini_ grows 3 to 4 feet high, and has large creamy-white
blossoms, about 3 inches in diameter.


=CHIONODOXA Luciliæ= (_Glory of the Snow_).--This charming harbinger of
spring is a native of Asia Minor, where it pushes its beautiful
brilliant blue and white blossoms (see Plate 2, fig. 9) through the
snow-clad mountains early in the year. It has ovoid bulbs about 1 to 2
inches deep, arching leaves, and each flower-stalk 6 to 10 inches high,
carries from six to twenty blossoms in February, March, and April. There
are several fine varieties, the best being _gigantea_ (or
_grandiflora_), with very large flowers; _sardensis_, shown on Plate 13,
fig. 53, has gentian-blue flowers. The variety _alba_ has pure-white
flowers, and _Tmolusi_ and _Alleni_ are also good varieties. A hybrid
between _C. Luciliæ_ and _Scilla bifolia_ is known as _Chiono-scilla_,
but is not common. Other Chionodoxas are _C. cretica_, with white or
pale-blue flowers very scantily produced; and _C. nana_, with white or
lilac-tinted flowers.

Chionodoxas flourish in ordinary good garden soil, and are suitable for
the rockery, flower-border, beneath deciduous trees in shrubberies, or
in the grass. To be effective in any of these positions they should be
planted in hundreds and thousands, and in grass-land may be mixed with
the smaller-flowered kinds of Narcissus (_e.g._, _minimus_,
_cyclamineus_, _triandrus_). In the latter case the bulbs may be left
alone for years with advantage, as they never interfere with mowing
operations.

Offsets are freely produced from the old bulbs, and are the easiest
means of increasing the stock. Seeds may be sown when ripe, but they
take a few years to produce flowering bulbs (see p. 34).


=CHLOROGALUM pomeridianum= (_Soap Plant_).--A distinct looking plant
about 2 feet high, with blue-green leaves and spikes of whitish
purple-veined flowers, that usually open in the afternoon during the
summer months. It flourishes in ordinary soil, and may be increased by
offsets from the old bulbs. The best time to plant is in autumn.


=COLCHICUM= (_Meadow Saffron_).--In the autumn, when the landscape looks
more or less dreary, the Colchicums relieve the monotony with their
bright appearance. The bulbs are peculiarly one-sided, and differ a good
deal in size according to the species, so that they should be planted at
various depths according to size. The best time for planting is July, or
not later than August, and if massed in bold patches in the grass,
flower-border, shrubbery, or rock-garden, the effect later on will be
much more effective than if the bulbs were put in sparingly. A rich
sandy loam will suit most kinds, but any good and well-drained garden
soil will give satisfactory results. It may be remarked that most kinds
produce their flowers without the leaves. The latter appear the
following spring to elaborate food for the new bulbs, dying down during
the summer. Colchicums are best propagated by offsets. Seeds may also be
sown about midsummer when thoroughly ripe, and will produce flowering
bulbs in five or six years (see p. 34). There are many kinds, the most
popular being: _C. autumnale_, a British plant, popularly known as the
"Autumn Crocus"--owing to the shape and bright purple colour of its
cup-shaped blossoms, which appear from the end of August to November.
There are many varieties of it such as _album_, white; with a double
form; _maximum_, purple; _purpureum_, purple rose; and _striatum_, red
striped with white. _C. Bivonæ_ has flowers chequered with white and
purple. _C. Bornmülleri_, a fine species with rosy-lilac flowers. _C.
byzantinum_ has pale rose blossoms. _C. giganteum_, flowers rosy, very
large. _C. libanoticum_, white. _C. montanum_ produces its lilac-purple
or whitish flowers in February and March. _C. Parkinsoni_ has white
flowers distinctly veined and chequered with violet-purple. The flowers
of _C. speciosum_, shown in Plate 33, fig. 118, appear in September and
October, and vary from reddish or rose-purple to deep crimson-purple.
_C. variegatum_ (a very old species also called _Parkinsoni_) has its
rosy flowers beautifully chequered with violet purple.


=CRINUM.=--Most of the Crinums require the protection of a greenhouse or
hothouse in our climate. The kinds mentioned below, however, may be
grown in the open air in the milder parts of the country. The large and
broad strap-shaped leaves, 2 to 4 feet long, more or less gracefully
recurving from the long-necked bulbs, are in themselves a noble sight,
but their beauty is considerably enhanced when the large, funnel-shaped
blossoms are borne in clusters on the top of a stout, fleshy stalk.
Given a rich and well-drained, loamy soil, warm-sheltered spots, and
sufficient moisture during active growth, and the hardy Crinums usually
flourish. They may be increased by offsets taken from the base of the
large old bulbs; or by means of the large fleshy bulb-like seeds that
are produced in favourable seasons. The seed needs only to be placed on
the top of moist soil in a pot, and under the shelter of a greenhouse or
cold frame will soon germinate in its own peculiar way. The best-known
hardy Crinums are _C. Moorei_, a native of South Africa. It has large
long-necked bulbs, broad bright-green leaves 2 to 3 feet long, and
clusters of soft-pink flowers, each 6 inches or more across, on a scape
2 to 3 feet high (see Plate 30, fig. 109). _C. Powelli_, with a reddish
wash down the centre of the petals, and its pure white variety _album_
(Plate 32, fig. 115) are also two very fine plants for the out-door
garden. They are really forms, or hybrids perhaps, of the South African
_S. longifolium_ (or _C. capense_), which has large white flowers with a
central reddish stain on the outside of the petals. It is quite as hardy
as the other kinds and may be treated in the same way.


=CROCOSMA aurea.=--This beautiful Iridaceous plant is perhaps better
known as _Tritonia aurea_. It is a native of South Africa, and has
fibrous-coated corms, narrow sword-shaped leaves, and brilliant
orange-red starry blossoms borne on branched stems about 2 feet high, in
August or September. It likes a rich sandy loam and leaf-soil and soon
makes fine clumps in the milder parts of the kingdom. In cold districts
and the north generally, the corms may be lifted in October or November,
when the leaves have withered, and may be stored in sand or soil until
spring. Then they may be replanted, any offsets from the older corms
being placed in separate beds and grown on until large enough for
flowering. As a pot plant for greenhouse decoration, the Crocosma is
most useful. After potting in spring, the pots may be plunged (_i.e._,
sunk up to the rims) in ashes or fibre, and plenty of water should be
given during the summer months when the growth is active. When the
flower-spikes appear the plants may be taken into the greenhouse or
conservatory.

PLATE 17. LILIUM CROCEUM (67) ALLIUM MOLY (68) SCILLA PERUVIANA ALBA
(69)


=CROCUS.=--The popularity of the Crocus is undoubted, but popular favour
generally confines itself to the white, blue, lilac, purple, yellow, and
striped varieties of _C. aureus_, the Old Dutch yellow Crocus, and _C.
vernus_. These all flower from February to April, and when planted in
hundreds and thousands in the borders or grass-land they are then indeed
a glorious sight, especially if naturalised with Snowdrops, Leucojums,
and Bulbocodiums. The individual blossoms do not last long, but they are
thrown up so profusely from the roundish corms beneath, that they give a
continuous glow for several weeks in early spring. The above all
flourish in light sandy loam and leaf-soil. To secure the best results
the corms should be planted about 3 inches deep in September or October.
When possible, as in grass-land for example, the plants should not be
disturbed for a few seasons, so they may increase as Nature intended. In
this way they will produce a more striking picture each succeeding year,
especially if they have had the advantage of a top-dressing with
well-decayed manure in autumn. When the corms have to be lifted each
year to make way in the borders for summer-flowering plants, the best
time to take them up is when the foliage has begun to wither. This
process is often hastened by twisting the narrow leaves and tying them
into little bundles.

Apart from the ordinary spring-flowering Crocuses, _aureus_ and _vernus_
(a selection of which can be obtained from any bulb catalogue), there
are several natural species which also flower in spring, and may be
planted and grown exactly in the same way. Amongst these the best known
are _alatavicus_, white and yellow; _Balansæ_, orange-yellow;
_banaticus_, bright purple and white; _biflorus_, white to pale
lavender, known as the "Cloth of Silver Crocus," of which there are many
beautiful forms; _Biliotti_, purple; _carpetanus_, lilac to white;
_chrysanthus_, orange-yellow, with several varieties; _dalmaticus_,
lilac and yellow; _etruscus_, purple and yellow, striped; _Fleischeri_,
white and yellow, veined purple; _Imperati_, lilac-purple, with deeper
stripes; _Korolkowi_, yellow; _reticulatus_ or _variegatus_, white to
deep lilac, veined purple; _stellaris_, orange; _suaveolens_, lilac and
yellow, veined purple; _Susianus_ or _revolutus_, deep orange, known as
the "Cloth of Gold Crocus"; _versicolor_, purple to white, veined
purple; and _vitellinus_, orange.


=Autumn-Flowering Crocuses.=--Colchicums, and especially _C. autumnale_,
are popularly known as "Autumn Crocuses." They belong, however, to the
Lily family, and must not be confused with those species of Crocus
proper which belong to the Iris family, and also flower during the
autumn months, sometimes even as late as December, when the blossoms are
often spoiled by the weather, unless protected with handlights or
frames. At this period they are very useful, with the Colchicums and
Sternbergias, for the decoration of grassy slopes and banks, and may be
intermingled with them in places where they can remain undisturbed for
some years.

The chief difference in the cultivation of Spring and Autumn Crocuses,
is that the corms of the latter should be planted in July, or not later
than August--in fact, at the same time as the Colchicums. The following
are among the best Autumn Crocuses:--_Asturicus_, violet, purple;
_Boryi_, white and yellow; _cancellatus_, white to purple, and lilac;
_caspius_, white tinted rose; _Clusi_, pale purple and white;
_hadriaticus_, white and purple; _iridiflorus_ or _byzantinus_, purple,
lilac; _Karduchorum_, lilac, veined with purple; _longiflorus_, lilac,
yellow, sweet-scented; _medius_, purple, veined, see Plate 33, fig. 117;
_ochroleucus_, creamy-white, orange, see Plate 33, fig. 121;
_pulchellus_, lavender-blue and yellow, veined; _Salzmanni_, lilac to
white, veined; _sativus_, lilac, veined purple; the well-known "Saffron
Crocus" of commerce, with several varieties; _Scharojani_,
orange-yellow; _speciosus_, lilac, purple, with deeper veins, see Plate
33, fig. 122; and _zonatus_, rosy-lilac, veined purple.

All Crocuses may be easily increased by offsets, which may be detached
when the corms are lifted. Seeds take about three years to produce
flowering corms (see p. 34).


=DIERAMA= (=Sparaxis=) =pulcherrima.=--This is a charming South African
plant with fibrous-coated corms, and long narrow sword-like leaves. It
has beautiful funnel-shaped flowers, which droop from thread-like stalks
about September and October, a period when they are sometimes injured by
the bad weather. The blossoms, which are shown on Plate 31, fig. 112,
are usually crimson in colour, but there also exist white, pale-red, and
prettily-striped forms, all borne on stalks 3 to 6 feet high, and
beautiful for cutting purposes. _D. pendula_, with deeply veined lilac
flowers, is another species not so well known.

The plants cannot be considered hardy, except in the milder parts of the
kingdom. In less favoured spots they may be planted in spring in warm
sunny spots sheltered from cold winds, and if left in the ground in
winter should be protected from cold rains and frosts with litter,
bracken, lights, &c. A light sandy loam, with a little leaf-soil, will
suit the plants best, and they may be increased by offsets.


=ERYTHRONIUM= (_Dog's Tooth Violet_).--These pretty plants of the Lily
order have more or less oblong or cylindrical bulbs, sometimes with
creeping rhizomes, and leaves more or less marbled or blotched or
sometimes green. The 6-petalled blossoms are, more or less, drooping,
but are usually conspicuous above the foliage and render the plants very
attractive either in the rock-garden, flower-border, or grass-land. The
plants like a moist sandy loam and leaf-soil, which, however, must be
well drained so that the bulbs may not decay with the winter rains.
Offsets are the easiest means of increasing the stock, and are best
taken off after the flowers are over and the leaves have withered,
_i.e._, about midsummer.

PLATE 18. CAMASSIA CUSICKI (70) LILIUM PYRENAICUM (71) ALLIUM ERDELII
(72) IXIOLIRION PALLASI (73)

The Common Dog's Tooth Violet (_E. Dens-Canis_) is an old-world plant,
and has been in cultivation many years. It has blue-green leaves,
marbled with dull purple, and the flowers are of a soft rose or purple
hue, although there are various shades (as shown on Plate 13, fig. 54),
including a white one. There are now many other species and varieties in
cultivation--all natives of temperate North America, and well worthy of
a place in the garden. They all blossom from March to May, and vary in
height from 3 to 12 inches. The following are the best known at
present:--_Albidum_, white, tinged yellow, or wholly yellow in the
variety _bracteatum_; _americanum_, golden yellow, tinged purple;
_citrinum_, lemon yellow; _Dens-Canis_ (see Plate 13, figs. 54 and 55);
_giganteum_, white, suffused with orange or yellow; _grandiflorum_,
yellow; _Hartwegi_, creamy-white and orange; _Hendersoni_, rose to
purple with yellow centre; _Howelli_, yellow and orange; _Johnstoni_,
rosy-pink (see Plate 12, fig. 94); _montanum_, creamy-white;
_propullans_, rose-purple; _purpurascens_, pale yellow tinged purple, or
lilac in the variety _grandiflorum_; this species has sometimes about a
dozen flowers on a scape; and _revolutum_, pink to rosy-purple, or white
with a yellow centre in the variety _Bolanderi_ or _Smithi_.


=EUCOMIS punctata.=--This bold-looking plant is probably the best and
most ornamental member of the genus. It has very large bulbs and tufts
of gracefully spreading and recurved wavy leaves, bright shining green
above, and densely spotted with purple beneath. The creamy-white or
yellowish starry blossoms, with a conspicuous violet ovary in the
centre, appear from July to September, and are packed close together on
a stout purple spotted scape 1-1/2 to 2 feet high. Other species are
_bicolor_, with unspotted leaves and greenish-yellow flowers; _nana_,
which grows only about 9 inches high, has brownish-green blossoms;
_undulata_, greenish-yellow ones; _regia_, white; and _pallidiflora_,
with leaves over 2 feet long, and 4 inches or more broad, has
greenish-white flowers.

They are all natives of South Africa, and may be grown in warm sheltered
spots in the milder parts of the country. They like a rich and
well-drained sandy loam, and if left undisturbed for a few years, will
probably require protection in bleak localities from winter rains and
frost. They may be increased by offsets. It takes four or five years to
secure flowering bulbs from seeds.


=FERRARIA undulata.=--A distinct looking Iridaceous plant with tunicated
bulbs, sword-like wavy leaves, and peculiar dull-purple flowers, each
with six wavy segments spotted with purple, and appearing in March and
April. This plant flourishes in well-drained sandy loam and leaf-soil,
and may be considered fairly hardy in the milder parts of the kingdom.
Increased by offsets.


=FRITILLARIA.=--There are fifty species or more belonging to this genus,
but many of them, although highly interesting, are so dull in colour or
small in blossom, that they are only likely to be met with in botanical
collections. The common Crown Imperial (_F. imperialis_), shown in Plate
16, figs. 65 and 66, with its sturdy stems, 2 to 3 feet high, bright
green wavy leaves, and bright yellow drooping blossoms, is probably the
best known; but there are many forms of it in which the flowers vary in
colour from yellow to orange and bright red. The Snake's Head (_F.
Meleagris_) is another well-known species to be seen growing naturally
in moist meadows in parts of England. Its beautiful white, rosy or
purple blossoms (see Plate 8, fig. 33) droop from the stalks, 1 to 1-1/2
feet high in April and May, and are beautifully chequered with deeper
coloured bands. For naturalising in the grass with Narcissi, Dog's Tooth
Violets, &c., this is a very valuable plant. _F. Moggridgei_, a dwarf
form of the purple, brown, and yellow _delphinensis_, is another good
garden plant shown on Plate 8, fig. 31. The following kinds may be used
for naturalising in the grass or for grouping in nooks of the
rock-garden:--_Fusco-lutea_, _aurea_, _citrina_, _lusitanica_, _lutea_,
_askabadensis_ (finely figured in "FLORA AND SYLVA,") _discolor_,
_pallidiflora_, _pudica_, _Thunbergi_, _Whittalli_, all with yellow or
greenish-yellow blossoms, and ranging from 6 to 12 inches high. To these
may be added _F. recurva_ (Plate 8, fig. 34), a Californian species,
about 1 foot high, and remarkable for its drooping bright orange-scarlet
blossoms, the interior of which is yellow blotched with purple. _F.
camtschatcensis_, the "Black Lily," has deep blackish-red flowers. It
flourishes in moist sandy loam and peat.

_F. Walujewi_, with narrow tendril-tipped leaves, has silver-grey
flowers suffused with purple brown, and spotted with red and white
within (see Plate 8, fig. 32). To these may be added _armena_, dark
purple; _Elwesi_, green and purple; _pyrenaica_, green and purple,
spotted; _persica_ or _libanotica_, chocolate, purple and green;
_latifolia_, purple, lilac, yellow, &c.

The Fritillarias have bulbs of various sizes, and many of them--notably
those of _F. imperialis_--emit a very strong and disagreeable odour.
They produce offsets freely in most cases, and in this way the stock may
be increased. The best time for lifting and transplanting the bulbs is
after the foliage has withered.

PLATE 19. ORNITHOGALUM PYRAMIDALE (74) BREVOORTIA IDA-MAIA (75) BRODIÆA
LAXA (76) BRODIÆA IXIOIDES (77)


=GAGEA lutea.=--This British plant, with small roundish bulbs, and long
narrow leaves, is called the "Yellow Star of Bethlehem" on account of
its yellow starry flowers, with a green central line, appearing from
March to May on stalks about 6 inches high. It grows in ordinary garden
soil and may be increased by offsets.


=GALANTHUS= (_Snowdrop_).--The common British Snowdrop (_G. nivalis_) is
an old time garden favourite, not only on account of the purity of its
blossoms--almost rivalling the whiteness of the snow--but because they
appear during the very dullest months of the year, often before
Christmas, and lasting till the Crocuses, early Narcissi, Chionodoxas,
Bulbocodiums, Leucojums, &c., come to keep them company. A few blooms
are shown on Plate 2, fig. 8, not because it was necessary to tell the
reader what a Snowdrop was like, but to record the general appearance of
other Snowdrops that are now to be met with in cultivation. The most
important of these are _Elwesi_, with its varieties _globosus_ and
_robustus_, all of which have large flowers; _Fosteri_ has been called
the "King of Snowdrops" on account of its fine leaves and flowers. Other
fine kinds are _Imperati_, _latifolius_, and _plicatus_, the last named
recognised by its long broad and plaited leaves. Indeed there are many
other varieties--including double-flowered ones--but it is doubtful if
the ordinary observer would see any great difference between them and
the best forms of the common Snowdrop. They all have roundish
bulbs--some larger than others, and offsets are freely produced from
them. They flourish in the border or rock-garden in rich sandy soil and
leaf-mould, but their natural dwelling place is in the grass, where they
should be planted in hundreds and thousands and left to take care of
themselves, as they are in many gardens in the kingdom.


=GALTONIA= (=Hyacinthus=) =candicans.=--A noble-looking South African
plant, with large roundish bulbs and strap-shaped leaves over 2 feet
long. The pure white sweet-scented blossoms (shown on Plate 20, fig. 78)
appear during the summer months, 20 or 30 in a raceme, drooping from
stout stalks about 4 feet high. =G. princeps= is somewhat similar but
not so attractive in appearance, as its white flowers are faintly tinged
with green. Both kinds flourish in good garden soil and should be
planted in bold clumps for effect in the flower border, and in warm
sunny spots, where they may remain undisturbed for several years, until
it is necessary to give them more space, or to detach the offsets for
increasing the stock.


=GLADIOLUS= (_Corn Flag_; _Sword Lily_).--There are several species of
Gladiolus rarely seen outside botanic gardens. The florists' varieties,
like _brenchleyensis_, _Colvillei_, _Childsi_, _gandavensis_,
_Lemoinei_, and _nanceianus_, are much more popular owing to the
brilliancy and beauty of their blossoms. _G. brenchleyensis_
(practically a form of _gandavensis_) is remarkable for its glowing
scarlet flowers; _G. Childsi_ (raised from _gandavensis_ and
_Saundersi_) attains a height of four or five feet, and has spikes of
bloom often 2 feet or more long. The blossoms are 6 to 9 inches across,
and possess many shades of purple, scarlet, crimson, salmon, white,
pink, yellow, often beautifully mottled and blotched in the throat
(Plate 28, fig. 105). _G. Colvillei_ (raised from _cardinalis_ and
_tristis_) is an early-flowering plant about 2 feet high, with crimson
purple and also pure white flowers--according to the variety. The form
known as "The Bride" is the best white (Plate 21, fig. 81). Other
early-flowering forms are shown in figs. 82 and 83. _G. gandavensis_
(raised from _cardinalis_ and _psittacinus_) forms a charming group as
various in colour as the _Childsi_ forms, the individual flowers being
variously striped and blotched with distinct colours. _G. Lemoinei_
(raised from _purpureo-auratus_ and _gandavensis_) is the origin of a
beautiful number of hybrids, distinguished by having a large
golden-yellow blotch on the lower segments, bordered with scarlet,
crimson, purple, maroon, &c. (Plate 28, fig. 104). The colours are as
numerous and as delicate as in the _Childsi_ and _gandavensis_ sections.
The _nanceianus_ hybrids are remarkably fine plants, and are only
comparable with those of the _Childsi_ group, although the blossoms are
not quite so large. The colours vary from purple, claret, violet,
carmine, orange, red, scarlet, violet, &c., and are all spotted in
various ways (see Plate 28, fig. 103).

The kinds of Gladioli just mentioned may be grown to perfection in a
well-drained loamy soil, which has been deeply dug and well manured the
autumn previous to planting. From the beginning to the end of March is
an excellent time to plant the corms or tubers, each one being inserted
in a hole made with a stout dibber, or in a drill about 4 or 5 inches
deep, and about a foot apart. Having covered the corms and made the soil
fairly firm, little more is needed beyond keeping weeds down, until the
flower spikes begin to show in July and August. Short stakes may then be
supplied so as to keep the trusses upright. To secure extra fine
blossoms the plants, when well-established, should be watered two or
three times a week with liquid cow-manure to which a little soot and
guano has been added. During hot dry summers especially, copious
waterings should be given.

PLATE 20. GALTONIA CANDICANS (78) SISYRINCHIUM GRANDIFLORUM (79)
BRODIÆA HOWELLI LILACINA (80)

When the flowers have faded, and the leaves begin to turn yellow, the
corms may be taken up and carefully stored in a dry, airy, frost-proof
place until the following March. New plants may be raised from the
offsets, and also the spawn or cloves to be found at the base of the new
corms. They should be detached and stored, and the following April may
be sown like seeds in drills about two inches deep. The larger corms may
also be carefully cut in two at planting time, the cut surfaces being
dipped in powdered charcoal, soot, or freshly-slaked lime.

Where space will permit, the following natural species of Gladioli may
also be grown:--_G. blandus_, 1 to 2 feet high, white, with red markings
and a yellow tube; _G. byzantinus_, 2 feet, red, shaded with violet or
purple; _G. dracocephalus_, 1 to 2-1/2 feet, soft yellow, striped and
spotted with purple; _G. floribundus_, 1 foot, has flowers varying from
white to flesh colour and deep red.

_G. oppositiflorus_ has white flowers, washed with rose or purple (Plate
23, fig. 87); _G. psittacinus_, 3 feet, rich scarlet, lined and spotted
with yellow; _G. purpureo-auratus_, 3 to 4 feet, sulphur yellow,
blotched with purple; and _G. Saundersi_, 2 to 3 feet, crimson or soft
scarlet, spotted with pink and white. As they are all natives of South
Africa they should be planted in warm sunny spots in March or April, and
lifted the following autumn when growth has ceased.


=HABRANTHUS pratensis.=--A pretty Chilian plant, with ovoid bulbs about
1-1/2 inches through, and narrow leaves 1 to 1-1/2 feet long. The
funnel-shaped, orange-red or scarlet blossoms appear in early summer on
stems 1 to 2 feet high. Rich sandy-loam and leaf-soil, and warm
sheltered spots are most suitable for this plant. In bleak localities
the bulbs must be protected in winter. Increased by offsets.


=HYACINTHUS= (_Hyacinth_).--The florists' Hyacinth, evolved from _H.
orientalis_, has been for generations a great garden favourite, and is
still amongst the most popular of bulbous plants for the decoration of
the out-door garden, or for growing in conservatories, or the
dwelling-house in more or less ornamental receptacles. There is a good
deal of difference in the size of Hyacinth bulbs, but the reader must
not imagine that the largest bulbs will throw up the best truss of
flowers. Indeed it is often the case that quite a small bulb
comparatively, will give a finer display than one much larger. Size,
therefore, is not the main point about Hyacinth bulbs. Weight or density
is the most important feature, and bulbs that are in any way soft or
flabby may be regarded as useless.


=Hyacinths in the Open Air.=--What are known as "Bedding Hyacinths," to
be had in various colours--red, rose, pink, white, blue, violet and
yellow--are generally grown out of doors. They should be planted in
October, or not later than November, 5 to 6 inches deep, and 6 to 8
inches apart, care being taken when planting round, oval, oblong, or
other shaped beds to keep the lines or curves equidistant so as to
secure uniformity in the results. The varieties should not be mixed when
formal beds are planted. In vacant spaces in the flower border, however,
mixed Hyacinths look very well. Although these Hyacinths will grow well
in ordinary good garden soil that has been deeply dug, and contains some
well-decayed manure, it may be said that a light sandy loam that has had
some old cow-manure incorporated with it some weeks previously is
regarded as the best. When the soil is naturally heavy it must be well
turned up, and have plenty of sand or grit mixed with it as well as old
manure. In such a soil, a further precaution may be taken to have a
handful of sand placed in the hole under each bulb to further improve
the drainage.

Combinations with out-door Hyacinths are sometimes made by covering the
surface of the beds with such plants as Forget-me-Nots, Polyanthuses or
Primroses, Silenes, White Arabis, Yellow Alyssum, and sometimes Narcissi
bulbs are planted alternately with the Hyacinths, the object in all
cases being to produce a fine effect and contrast in colours in spring.
When the plants are in bloom they require but little attention, except
perhaps a slender stick here and there to some flower-truss that has
been blown down by the wind, or topples over with its own weight. As
soon as the blossoms have withered, the flower stems should be cut away,
leaving the still green leaves to assimilate food until they begin to
turn yellow. The yellowing leaves indicate that the bulbs may be taken
up, dried, and cleaned, and stored away in cool airy places until the
following September or October. As Hyacinths, however, deteriorate in
our fickle climate, it is better to buy new bulbs each year for planting
formal beds, while the old ones may be planted in ordinary flower border
or shrubbery.

PLATE 21. EARLY-FLOWERING GLADIOLI (81-83)


=Hyacinths in Glasses, &c.=--Ornamental bowls, glasses, vases, &c., of
various designs afford an easy and interesting means for growing
Hyacinths in the dwelling house. Many fail to have good results with
Hyacinths grown in these receptacles because they allow the bulbs to
touch the water, or they place them in too high a temperature to begin
with. The bulbs should not actually touch the water, the base being
little more than 1/8-inch away from the surface. They should then be
stood in a dark place with a temperature of about 40° to 45° F., until
roots have developed into the water. The plants may then be exposed to
more light, after which all that is necessary is to change the water
occasionally, about once a week, so that the roots may secure a fresh
supply of oxygen. The finest bulbs give the best results naturally when
grown in this way. What are known as "Miniature Hyacinths" are suitable
for growing in bowls, vases, &c., in moist moss and charcoal, or in
Jadoo fibre, or even in coco-nut fibre. Indeed, Hyacinths generally may
be grown more easily, perhaps, in this way, instead of in water, the
only point to bear in mind being to get the roots started in a cool
place before the flower-stem and leaves begin to grow.


=Hyacinths in Pots.=--For greenhouse and conservatory decoration
Hyacinths are most useful. One large bulb or three smaller ones may be
placed in a 5-inch pot in light sandy soil, the top of the bulbs being
well above the surface. The pots should be placed in the open air and
covered with fine ashes or coco-nut fibre. Roots soon develop, after
which the bulbs may be brought in as required, and can be had in blossom
long before those in the open ground begin to appear. In warm
greenhouses the graceful Roman and Italian Hyacinths may be flowered in
the same way.

For a selection of Hyacinths of various colours the reader will find it
best to consult a good bulb catalogue or a nurseryman. Plate 11 shows a
few varieties, but the size of the page renders it impossible to show
them in all their natural grandeur.

Besides the florist's Hyacinths there are one or two natural species
that are worth growing in the rockery, flower border, or in the grass.
These are the Spanish Hyacinth (_H. amethystinus_), with bright blue
drooping blossoms, or white in the variety _albus_, in May and June
(see Plate 7, fig. 30). The other is _H. azureus_, which very much
resembles one of the Muscaris, and sends up its sky-blue drooping
flowers as early as February (see Plate 2, fig. 10).

Hyacinths may be increased by offsets. These may be stored in dry sand
until planting time in the autumn, when they should be placed in beds by
themselves, and will reach the flowering stage, with care, in two or
three seasons. Full-sized bulbs are induced to develop bulblets by
cutting them cross-wise, about half-way through from the base, or
scooping the bottom out into a hollow. The bulbs are placed to dry after
cutting, and by and bye the bulblets appear. They may be detached and
planted like the offsets.


=IRIS= (_Flag_).--As the various kinds of Irises, known as
"rhizomatous," "bearded," "beardless," and "oncocyclus or cushion," have
already been dealt with in "A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS," and in
the companion volume to this, "BEAUTIFUL GARDEN FLOWERS," it is only
necessary here to refer to the "Bulbous" Irises, as coming appropriately
within the scope of this work. The best-known examples of Bulbous, or
Xiphion Irises, as they are sometimes called, are the Spanish Iris (_I.
Xiphium_) and the English Iris (_I. xiphioides_). Varieties of the
last-named are shown on Plate 14, while forms of the Spanish Iris will
be found in "BEAUTIFUL GARDEN FLOWERS," Plate 20, and also in this work,
Plate 15. Besides these well-known examples of Bulbous Irises, there are
many others now well-known. They are, however, much smaller in stature
as a rule, more fragile, so utterly distinct in appearance from the
ordinary Flag Irises, and so curiously and beautifully coloured, that
many amateurs liken them to orchids, although, perhaps, they can
scarcely be termed "Poor Men's" Orchids like their commoner relatives.
On Plate 3, five species of charming and early flowering Bulbous Irises
are shown, and a glance will show that no description could do real
justice to the charming beauty of the blossoms.

The following comprise some of the best kinds of Bulbous Irises:--_I.
alata_, and its numerous varieties, bright lilac-purple to white,
October to December; _I. Bakeriana_ (fig. 12), sky blue and white,
blotched with violet, January to March; _I. Boissieri_, reddish purple,
June; _I. caucasica_, pale yellow, February and March; _I. Danfordiæ_,
or (_Bornmüllieri_) golden yellow, February (fig. 14); _I. juncea_,
golden-yellow, fragrant, June and July; _I. Kolpakowskyana_ (fig. 13)
has reddish-purple and golden-yellow, with purple veins in March; _I.
orchioides_ has very large bulbs and bright-yellow flowers in March and
April; _I. persica_ (fig. 15), and its varieties, with light purple,
lavender, lilac, sea-green, and other shades of colour, and usually
distinctly spotted and sweet-scented during February and March; _I.
pumila_, lilac, purple, or deep violet, April. _I. reticulata_ has deep
violet fragrant flowers in February and March; there are very many
distinct varieties of it, such as _cyanea_, bright blue; _Histrio_,
blue, blotched with golden-yellow, December to March (fig. 11);
_Histrioides_, bright blue tinted with violet; _humilis_, rich red,
purple, orange, and white; _Krelagei_, claret purple and yellow;
_purpurea_, reddish purple; _sophenensis_, varying from reddish and
bluish purple to lilac and lavender; _I. Rosenbachiana_, variable in
colour, purple, yellow, and white to rich crimson and purple blue, March
and April; _I. sindjarensis_ has sweet-scented slaty-blue flowers; and
_I. stenophylla_ or _Heldreichi_, mauve purple, February and March.

PLATE 22. CALOCHORTUS VENUSTUS (84) CALOCHORTUS ALBUS (85) CALOCHORTUS
PULCHELLUS (86)

The Spanish and English Irises flourish in ordinary good and
well-drained garden soil containing a fair amount of sand or grit, and
humus. The English varieties on the whole require a somewhat moister
situation and rather heavier soil than the Spanish. They flower
profusely, and their many shades of colour make the long-stalked
blossoms great favourites for decorative purposes. The different
colours can be had separately from the nurseryman or florist, but a
mixed collection will afford great pleasure to those who do not
wish to be burdened with the fancy names given in catalogues.

The smaller kinds of Bulbous Irises--like those shown on Plate
3--require to be treated a little more carefully than the Spanish and
English varieties. Indeed many of the choicer and rarer varieties are
safer grown in pots of rich sandy soil in cold frames. They flower early
in the year, and, if exposed in the open border or rock-garden, the
blossoms would be probably not only considerably disfigured, but the
cold rains and frosts might kill the bulbs. When grown in the open air,
warm sheltered spots should be selected for them, and the soil should be
a well-drained sandy loam with a little leaf-soil. If the plants are
flourishing, they may be left in the same spot for three or four
seasons. After this it is better to lift them when the leaves have
withered, and then any offsets may be detached to increase the stock. As
a rule the best time to plant bulbous Irises is in September or October,
but not later.


=IXIA= (=African Corn Lily=).--If the reader will turn to Plate 1, he or
she will at once admit that the Ixias are a charming class of bulbous
plants. The picture was prepared from specimens kindly supplied by
Messrs. Wallace & Co., of Colchester. There are many other shades and
combinations of colour besides those represented, and happy would be the
amateur who succeeded in raising such lovely flowers in his
garden--either in the open air or under glass.

The Ixias are natives of South Africa, and have smooth or
fibrous-coated, round and flattish corms, about an inch in diameter. The
sword-shaped leaves are strongly veined, and the beautiful blossoms are
borne on stems 1 to 2 feet, during June and July. Some of the best
varieties are shown on Plate 1, and attention is especially directed to
the charming soft sea-green flowers of _I. viridiflora_, having a dark
blotch in the centre. To these may be added the deep-red or
crimson-flowered _speciosa_ or _crateroides_.

It is a pity that such elegant flowers cannot be grown in the open air
in every part of the British Islands. Unfortunately they are not hardy
enough for this, and consequently the best results out of doors are only
likely to be secured in the mildest parts of the kingdom. The best time
to plant is from September to November. The corms should be about 3
inches beneath the surface of the soil. This should be a light, sandy
loam; if inclined to be heavy, it should be raised in small beds above
the general level to secure better drainage, and a little sand may be
placed round each corm, also with the same object in view. In the event
of cold rains and frosts in winter, the bulbs should be protected with
litter, bracken, &c., to be removed at the end of February or March when
the leaves begin to appear.

Where it is impossible to grow Ixias successfully in the open air, they
may be grown in pots in cold frames or for the decoration of the
greenhouse or conservatory. The corms should be potted in September or
October, and kept under ashes or fibre in the open until roots have
developed, after which they may be brought inside to develop. Ixias are
best increased by offsets.


=IXIOLIRION montanum.=--This beautiful plant (also known as _I. Pallasi_
and _I. tataricum_) has long-necked ovoid bulbs about an inch in
diameter, and tufts of grassy leaves. The charming lilac blossoms, as
shown on Plate 18, fig. 73, are borne in early summer in loose clusters
on stems a foot or more high, and are very useful in a cut state. There
is a good deal of variation in the colour, which has led to different
names being given from time to time.

_I. Kolpakowskyanum_ is a rare and little known species from Turkestan.
It has much smaller bulbs than _montanum_, and the blue or whitish
blossoms appear somewhat earlier in the year.

Ixiolirions may be grown successfully in the milder parts of the kingdom
in warm sheltered spots in the flower-border or rock-garden. They should
be planted about 3 inches deep in September or October in light sandy
soil, and in cold localities should be protected with litter, &c., in
winter.


=LAPEYROUSIA= (=Anomatheca=) =cruenta.=--A pretty South African plant, 6
to 12 inches high, with irregular roundish corms about 2 inches in
diameter, and narrow sword-shaped leaves. The deep crimson or blood-red
blossoms, with a still deeper-coloured blotch on each of the three inner
segments, appear in late summer in loose clusters on slender stalks, and
are very striking when seen in large masses. This species, although
perhaps a trifle hardier, may be grown in the same way as the Ixias (see
p. 90). The corms, however, being larger, should be planted about 6
inches deep, and new plants may be secured by detaching the offsets when
the leaves have withered.

PLATE 23. GLADIOLUS OPPOSITIFLORUS (87) LILIUM CANADENSE, VARS. (88-89)


=LEUCOJUM= (_Snowflake_).--Beautiful plants closely related to the
Snowdrops, and somewhat resembling them in bulbs, and leaves, and
flowers. The Spring Snowflake (_L. vernum_) is the first of the group to
produce its drooping sweet-scented blossoms in March and April. They are
usually borne singly on a slender stalk 6 to 12 inches high, and are
white in colour with more or less conspicuous green tips to the petals,
as shown in Plate 12, fig. 47. The next best-known kind is the Summer
Snowflake--the paradoxical name of _L. æstivum_. The pure white flowers,
tipped with green, appear in May and June, sometimes as many as six
being borne on a stem. _L. pulchellum_ is closely related to this
species, but has narrower leaves, and produces its smaller blossoms
somewhat later. The pretty little plants, formerly known as _Acis_, are
now included with the Leucojums. They all have small white drooping
blossoms on slender stems 6 to 12 inches high, those of _hyemalis_ and
_trichophylla_, appearing in April, while those of _autumnalis_ appear
in autumn.

The Snowflakes flourish in rich sandy soil, and appear to advantage in
the rock-garden or in the grass, where they may be massed in the same
way as Snowdrops, &c. Most of them are easily increased by offsets.


=LILIUM= (_Lily_).--Of all the hardy bulbous plants that may be grown in
the open air in our climate, the Lilies may be looked upon as the most
noble. Not only are many of them giants in stature among other hardy
bulbs, but there is nothing to equal their individual blossoms in size,
or their general gracefulness of appearance when borne collectively on
the leafy stems.

They differ in another respect from other bulbous plants described in
this book, and that is in having "scaly" bulbs as shown on page 12. All
the other plants have either bulbs with several coats rolled round each
other (tunicated), or else they are solid, when they are known as corms.
But in the Lilies neither of these two types appears. What are known as
the "scales" are fleshy leaves that have been specially modified under
the surface of the soil to act as reservoirs or storehouses for the
surplus food that the green aërial leaves on the stems have elaborated
for them during the daytime.

There are a large number of species of Lilium, differing greatly in size
and blossom, and it is therefore only natural to expect the bulbs to
vary a good deal also. Indeed, there are very large and very small
bulbs, comparatively speaking, and they display a good deal of
difference in their vegetation, and in producing offsets. For example,
most kinds develop new bulbs or offsets round the base of the older
bulb, while others, like _canadense_, _Grayi_, _pardalinum_, _Parryi_,
and _superbum_, develop their new bulbs along creeping stems or rhizomes
as shown in the sketch on page 31.

Useful as the offsets are for the purpose of increasing the stock, some
kinds, notably _bulbiferum_, _Browni_, _speciosum_, and _tigrinum_,
often develop what are called "bulbils" in the axils of the aërial
leaves. These bulbils are small bulb-like bodies, which, when sown and
covered with soil as if they were large seeds, will develop into
flowering bulbs in the course of two or three years. The origin of these
bulbils is more fully dealt with at p. 32.

Besides these two fairly easy means of increasing the stock of Lilies,
many kinds may be also raised from seeds, which at the end of three,
six, or eight years, will have produced bulbs large enough to throw up
flowering stems. Raising Lilies from seed is more common now than it
used to be, especially in America, where some lovely hybrids have been
raised, such as _Burbanki_, _Dalhansoni_, _Marhan_, &c.


=Distribution of Lilies.=--As Liliums are distributed throughout all
parts of the north temperate hemisphere--extending from California in
the west, to China and Japan in the east, across the continents of North
America, Europe, and Asia--they are therefore found naturally growing in
different soils, and under various climatic conditions, in all degrees
of sunshine and shadow, drought and moisture. In the British flower
garden they are, as a rule, best in positions where they will be shaded
from the hot mid-day sun, as the flowers will last much longer than if
exposed too much. They should not, however, be planted in deep shade
under trees, or among their roots, as the latter would absorb too much
food and moisture from the Lilies, while the overhanging boughs would
prevent the rain from reaching the bulbs in sufficient quantity. During
vigorous growth, Lilies like plenty of water, but the soil must at the
same time be so well drained that it shall readily pass away from the
bulbs. ("A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS.")


=Time and Depth of Planting.=--If bulbs can be secured early in autumn,
say in September or October, that would be the best time to plant
Lilies. But very often bulbs of certain kinds cannot be secured till
spring, so that planting must necessarily take place then. The depth at
which Lily bulbs are to be planted depends greatly upon the size of the
individual bulbs; some kinds are planted about 6 inches deep, while
others require a depth of 9 or 10 inches. A safe general rule to follow,
is to cover the bulbs with about twice their own depth of soil when
planting in the open air. If a piece of peat be placed beneath each bulb
at the time of planting, and a layer of sand about half-an-inch thick
round them, they will root much more freely. An exception to the general
rule seems to be _L. giganteum_ (see p. 100). When Liliums are hardy
enough to be left undisturbed for several seasons in the same place, a
good top-dressing or "mulching" of well-decayed manure in autumn will be
of great advantage in replenishing the food for the roots.

So far as culture is concerned, Liliums may be arranged in three
distinct groups as follows:--


I. LILIES THAT FLOURISH IN ORDINARY GOOD GARDEN SOIL, OR BETTER STILL,
IN STRONG LOAM THAT HAS BEEN DEEPLY DUG AND ENRICHED WITH WELL-DECAYED
MANURE IN ADVANCE.


_Alexandræ_, 2 to 3 feet high, with pure white flowers, 6 to 8 inches
across in July and August.

_Batemanniæ_, 3 to 5 feet high, flowers rich apricot, 4 to 5 inches
across.

_Bulbiferum_, 2 to 4 feet high, with erect crimson flowers spotted with
brown; May and June.

_Candidum_, the well-known "Madonna Lily," 3 to 5 feet high, with
sweet-scented pure-white flowers, 3 to 4 inches across, and ten to
thirty on an erect truss in June. When subject to disease in any
locality, it is almost useless attempting to grow this Lily. (See Plate
16, fig. 64).

_Chalcedonicum_, a fine "Turk's Cap" Lily, 2 to 3 feet high, with
drooping bright scarlet flowers in July and August; there are several
varieties, including _maculatum_, a spotted one.

_Croceum_, the "Orange or Saffron Lily," with somewhat cobwebby stems 3
to 6 feet high, and golden orange, funnel-shaped flowers, spotted with
purple at the base; June and July. (See Plate 17, fig. 67).

_Dalhansoni_, a pretty hybrid between _dalmaticum_ and _Hansoni_, about
5 feet high, with dark brownish-purple flowers in June and July.

_Dauricum_ or _davuricum_ grows 2 to 3 feet high, and has orange-scarlet
flowers spotted with blackish-purple.

_Henryi_, 3 to 6 feet high (sometimes much taller) with jagged-surfaced
orange-red flowers from July to September.

_Marhan_, a lovely hybrid between the white-flowered _Martagon_ and
_Hansoni_. It grows 4 to 5 feet high, and has clear orange-yellow
flowers with red-brown streaks and spots.

_Pomponium_, a fine "Turk's Cap" species, 2 to 3 feet high, with
drooping, bright-red, orange-yellow, flowers.

PLATE 24. LILIUM TIGRINUM (90) BRODIÆA BRIDGESI (91)

_Pyrenaicum_ is closely related to _pomponium_, but is somewhat taller,
and has bright-yellow flowers, blotched with crimson at the base (see
Plate 18, fig. 71).

_Rubellum_, a beautiful species about 2 feet high, with bell-shaped
rosy-pink flowers in June (see Plate 26, fig. 97).

_Testaceum_ (or _excelsum_), a fine Lily, 5 to 6 feet high, with
somewhat drooping, soft, buff-yellow or apricot-coloured flowers, dotted
with orange-red.

_Umbellatum._ A number of Lilies are grouped under this name, being
apparently hybrid varieties between _croceum_, _davuricum_, and
_elegans_. The prevailing colours are orange, orange-red, and apricot,
with darkly-spotted and unspotted forms.

_Washingtonianum_ grows 3 to 6 feet high, and has sweet-scented,
drooping, funnel-shaped flowers of a pure white tinged with lilac or
purple. The soil should be particularly well-drained for this
Californian Lily.


II. LILIES THAT FLOURISH IN SANDY LOAM, PEAT, AND LEAF-SOIL.


_Auratum_, a well-known Lily, 2 to 6 feet high, with ivory-white
flowers, often 9 to 12 inches across, with a conspicuous yellow band
down the centre, and deep purple blotches all over the inner surface.
There are several varieties, some poor, some excellent, amongst the
latter being _platyphyllum_ with very large heavily-spotted flowers.
There is a white unspotted form of this called _virginale_, closely
related to which is _Wittei_, the flowers of which, however, are stained
with yellow down the centre.

_Browni_, 2 to 4 feet high, with bell-shaped flowers, pure white with a
central purple line.

_Concolor_, grows 1 to 3 feet high, and has bright scarlet flowers.
There are several varieties, such as _Buschianum_ and the dwarf
_pulchellum_, scarlet, spotted with black; _Coridion_, bright yellow,
spotted with red; _Partheneion_, orange-yellow, faintly spotted; and
_luteum_, yellow, spotted with purple-red.

_Elegans_ (or _Thunbergianum_), 1 to 2 feet high, with erect cup-shaped
scarlet flowers, slightly spotted with purple at the base.

_Giganteum_, a gigantic Himalayan Lily, with stems from 6 to 10, and
sometimes 14 feet high, furnished with large heart-shaped oval leaves.
The flower stem is 1 to 2 feet long and has drooping funnel-shaped
blossoms of a greenish-white, suffused with violet-purple in the throat.
Unlike other Liliums, the large conical bulbs of this species are not
buried deeply in the soil. They are sunk in the soil about one-third of
their depth, and are usually planted in April or May. In the event of
spring frosts, the bulbs should be protected with dry leaves or litter.

_Hansoni_, 3 to 4 feet high, flowers drooping, bright orange yellow, and
heavily spotted with dark purple-brown (see Plate 25, fig. 93).

_Humboldti_ (or _Bloomerianum_), 4 to 8 feet high, flowers
orange-yellow, drooping, spotted with purple at the base; more
conspicuous in the variety _ocellatum_, the yellow blossoms of which are
tipped with crimson or purple.

_Japonicum_, 1 to 3 feet high, with sweet-scented pure white flowers
faintly tinged with purple outside.

_Kewense_, a beautiful hybrid between _Henryi_ and a variety of
_Browni_; it grows about 6 feet high, and has buff-coloured flowers
about 8 inches across, fading off to creamy white at the tips.

_Krameri_ is like _japonicum_, but taller, and with pink flowers.

_Leichtlini_, 3 to 4 feet high, with drooping citron-yellow flowers
heavily spotted with purple.

_Longiflorum_, a very handsome Lily, 2 to 3 feet high, with large
tubular pure white flowers. There are many so-called varieties of this
species, including _Harrisi_, _eximium_, and _Takesima_--all very
popular for forcing in pots for greenhouses (see Plate 25, fig. 94).

_Martagon_, the "Turk's Cap," Lily, 2 to 3 feet high, with many tiers of
drooping purple-red or violet-rose flowers, spotted with carmine, but
white in the tall growing variety _album_ (see Plate 26, fig. 95).

_Monadelphum_ (or _Loddigesianum_) is a vigorous Lily, 3 to 5 feet high,
with soft bright yellow flowers, which in the variety _Szovitsianum_ (or
_colchicum_) are spotted with blackish-purple (see Plate 26, fig. 98).

_Pardalinum_, known as the "Leopard Lily," grows 3 to 8 feet high, and
has drooping orange-red flowers spotted with dark purple at the base.
There are several varieties, some being more highly coloured and spotted
than others.

_Roezli_, 2 to 3 feet high, with dark blotched orange-red flowers.

_Speciosum_, also well-known as _lancifolium_, grows 2 to 3 feet high,
and has white flowers suffused with rose, the lower portion of the
segments being deeper in colour, and covered with papillæ. There are
many varieties such as _album_, white; _Krätzeri_, white tinged with
green down the centre; _Melpomene_, deep crimson-purple, &c.

_Tenuifolium_, so called from its grass-like leaves, grows 1 to 2 feet
high, and has small drooping scarlet blossoms (see Plate 25, fig. 92).

_Tigrinum_, the "Tiger Lily," with woolly stems 2 to 4 feet high, and
deep orange-red flowers heavily spotted with blackish-purple. (See Plate
24, fig. 90.)


III. LILIES THAT FLOURISH IN VERY MOIST BUT WELL-DRAINED SANDY LOAM,
PEAT, AND LEAF-SOIL. THEY ARE EXCELLENT FOR PLANTING IN SHADY BORDERS,
UNDER NORTH WALLS, OR BY THE SIDE OF PONDS, &c.


_Burbanki_, a fine hybrid between _pardalinum_ and _Parryi_. Flowers,
pale orange-yellow, spotted with chocolate and flushed with crimson at
the tips. A single stem often has as many as twenty or thirty blooms
upon it.

_Canadense_, a rhizomatous "Turk's Cap" Lily, 2 to 4 feet high, with
drooping funnel-shaped flowers varying in colour from bright orange-red
to pale red, the upper portion of the segments being heavily spotted
with purple-brown. (See Plate 23, figs. 88 and 89.) There are several
forms such as _rubrum_, _flavum_, _parvum_, &c.

_Catesbæi_, an elegant species, 1 to 2 feet high, having erect
bell-shaped flowers of a bright orange-red heavily spotted with purple.

_Cordifolium_, a very distinct-looking Lily, 3 to 4 feet high, having
broadly heart-shaped ovate leaves, and tubular white flowers with
violet-brown spots at the base.

_Grayi_ is closely related to _canadense_, but has deep crimson flowers
heavily blotched with purple at the yellowish base.

_Maritimum_ is a pretty Lily, 3 to 5 feet high, with small deep red
bell-shaped flowers spotted with dark purple.

_Parryi_ is another rhizomatous Lily, 2 to 6 feet high. The more or less
drooping flowers are citron-yellow, spotted with purple-brown, and are
sweetly fragrant.

_Superbum_ is known as the "Swamp Lily" of North America. It has
creeping rhizomes which produce bulbs at intervals, and the
violet-purple stems grow 4 to 10 feet high. The drooping orange-red
flowers, sometimes as many as twenty to forty on a stem, are heavily
spotted with violet-purple. The variety _carolinianum_ (also known as
_autumnale_ and _Michauxianum_) has flowers like those of the type, but
the plants only grow about 2 feet high.

PLATE 25. LILIUM TENUIFOLIUM (92) LILIUM HANSONI (93) LILIUM
LONGIFLORUM (94)

Most of the Lilies described in these three sections may be grown in
beds by themselves on the grass, or they may be planted in clumps in
borders or shrubberies where they will have plenty of space and enough
sunshine to enable them to develop fully. The peat-loving kinds--those
in the second and third sections--are excellent for planting amongst
such plants as Rhododendrons, Azaleas, Kalmias, and other peat-loving
shrubs.


=LYCORIS squamigera.=--This distinct Japanese plant is closely related
to the Belladonna Lily (see p. 51). It has rather long-necked roundish
bulbs, 2 to 3 inches in diameter, and strap-shaped leaves about a foot
long. From July to September, after the leaves have withered, the large
sweet-scented rosy-lilac flowers (see Plate 32, fig. 116) are borne on a
stout stalk 2 to 3 feet high. This plant may be grown out of doors in
the milder parts of the kingdom in warm sheltered spots, such as against
a well on a south border. It likes rich well-drained sandy loam and
leaf-soil, but grows freely in ordinary good garden soil. There are
other species that may probably succeed in the open air in the same way,
such as _aurea_, golden-yellow; _straminea_, pale yellow with a pink
central line and red dots; and _radiata_, bright red.


=MERENDERA Bulbocodium.=--A pretty Pyrenean plant closely related to
_Bulbocodium vernum_. It grows only 3 or 4 inches high, and produces its
rosy-lilac funnel-shaped flowers in autumn at the same time as some of
the true Colchicums. The narrow sickle-shaped leaves appear after the
flowers are over and remain fresh and green till spring. There are a few
other species, but they are practically unknown in gardens. The
Merendera may be grown exactly in the same way as the Colchicums, in the
border, rock-garden, or best of all in the grass. The stock may be
increased by offsets and seeds.


=MILLA biflora.=--There is now only one Milla, the plants formerly known
under that name being now included in the genus Brodiæa (see p. 56). _M.
biflora_ has rather small bulbs with fleshy roots and narrow,
grass-like, blue-green leaves. The pretty pure white salver-shaped
blossoms appear in August and September usually two to four on stems
about 6 inches high. Being a native of Mexico, _M. biflora_ should be
grown in warm sheltered spots in the rock-garden or border, in a rich
sandy loam, the bulbs being planted about 4 inches deep. Increased by
offsets.


=MUSCARI= (_Grape Hyacinth_).--A charming class of plants with roundish
bulbs about 1 inch in diameter, narrow leaves, and conical clusters of
urn-shaped or tubular blossoms drooping from stems 3 to 6 inches high.
Although the Grape Hyacinths may be easily grown in patches or edgings
in the ordinary flower border, there is no place that shows off their
sheets of brilliant blue blossoms so well as a grassy bank, or a nook in
the rockery, where they should be planted in large numbers. They
naturally like a rich and well drained soil with plenty of grit or sand
in it, and some leaf-soil. The bulbs should be planted about 3 inches
deep in September and October, and when naturalised in the grass may be
left for several seasons without being disturbed. Most of the kinds
blossom in March, April, and May, and are easily increased by offsets.
Seeds may also be sown (see p. 36).

The following is a selection of the best kinds. The flowers are blue in
all cases, except where otherwise mentioned, and the general appearance
of the blossoms is as shown by _M. conicum_ in Plate 12, fig.
48:--_Armeniacum_; _botryoides_, with a white-flowered variety _album_;
_comosum_, the monstrous form of which, with twisted and wavy
bluish-violet filaments, is known as the Ostrich Feather Hyacinth;
_conicum_ (see Plate 12, fig. 48), of which there is a beautiful
brilliant blue variety called "Heavenly Blue." _Heldreichi_, like
_botryoides_, but larger; _Maweanum_; _neglectum_; _racemosum_;
_amphibolus_ porcelain blue; and _Szovitsianum_.

There are other colours besides blue among the Grape Hyacinths. Thus the
"Musk Hyacinth" (_M. moschatum_) has sweet-scented blossoms which change
from purple at first to greenish-yellow tinged with violet. It has a
yellow flowered variety called _flavum_ or _macrocarpum_. Some forms of
_neglectum_ are salmon-pink, while the blossoms of _M. paradoxum_ might
be described almost as black.


=NARCISSUS= (_Daffodil_).--What so charming in the spring-time as "a
host of Golden Daffodils"? The varieties are now almost legion, and they
are still being added to by enthusiastic hybridists in various parts of
the kingdom. The crossing of one section with another may possibly worry
the botanist, but there is no fear that the gardener will not welcome
any new variety that may be raised. Although thousands of the older
Daffodils may be bought for a few shillings, the rarer varieties still
command a respectably high price, and will naturally continue to do so
until the stock has been considerably increased.

There is scarcely a nook in the garden, large or small, where Daffodils
cannot be grown. And yet it is astonishing to note their general absence
from suburban gardens, where they would not only grow freely, but also
make a cheerful picture in the spring-time.

PLATE 26. LILIUM MARTAGON ALBUM (95) WATSONIA ARDERNEI (96) LILIUM
RUBELLUM (97) LILIUM COLCHICUM (98)

Daffodils--with the exception, perhaps, of a very few varieties--require
as little attention, and even less than Snowdrops or Crocuses. Once
planted they may be left undisturbed for years, and as each season comes
round they gaily shoot their blue-green strap-shaped leaves and creamy
or golden blossoms through the ground.

They grow in almost any soil, but prefer a rather stiff and well-drained
loam. They are appropriate in any situation in the flower border or
rockery. But their natural position is undoubtedly in the grass, or--

   "Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
   Fluttering and dancing in the breeze,"

As Wordsworth has it.


=When to Plant.=--The best time to plant Daffodil bulbs is from the end
of August to November. As there is a great difference in the size of the
bulbs, according to the variety, the depth of planting should vary
accordingly. Thus bulbs 1 to 2 inches deep from top of neck to base
should be planted quite 3 or 4 inches deep, while larger ones will be
planted 4 to 6 inches deep in proportion, and about the same distance
apart, except, of course, when they are used between other plants like
Tulips, Wallflowers, Polyanthuses, &c., for a combination display in
spring.

Most of the Daffodils are valuable for cutting and decorative purposes
generally when in season, and when one has the convenience of a
greenhouse--cold or otherwise--the flowering period can be extended from
Christmas onwards.

Daffodils are most easily increased by the offsets from the old bulbs.
These may be lifted in early summer, when the leaves have begun to turn
yellow. Seeds may also be sown when ripe (see page 36), but to secure
them the plants must be left much longer in the ground, so as to mature
them.

Nearly all kinds of Daffodils--especially those having only one flower
on a stem--may be grown in the open air. There are hundreds of varieties
to choose from, but the uninitiated may start with such kinds as the
beautiful white and flat-flowered "Poet's Narcissus" (_N. poeticus_),
which is also called the "Pheasant's Eye" Narcissus, because of the
crimson and orange circles round the rim of the flat saucer-like
"corona" in the centre (see Plate 7, fig. 29). There are several
varieties of the Poet's Narcissus, one of the best for ordinary purposes
being _ornatus_. Where the soil is particularly rich and well-drained
the double-flowered variety, called the "Gardenia" Narcissus, owing to
the shape of its beautiful white blossoms (see Plate 7, fig. 28), may be
grown. Unfortunately this variety often comes "blind," that is, the
blossoms remain undeveloped in the papery sheath on top of the stem. To
check this the bulbs are best lifted and transplanted early to fresh
soil. Another popular and easily-grown Daffodil is the common Double
Yellow one known as _Telamonius plenus_ or _Van Sion_. It is a form of
the Tenby Daffodil (_N. obvallaris_) which is a single form with
beautiful yellow flowers, having a large "trumpet" or corona in the
centre. Closely related to this is the Great Spanish Daffodil (_N.
major_) which has large bright lemon-yellow flowers, which are still
larger and of richer yellow in the variety _maximus_.


="Ajax" Daffodils.=--To these may be added the numerous forms, of which
the common Lent Lily (also called "Ajax" or "Trumpet Daffodil") is the
type, and which has pale sulphur-yellow blossoms with a lemon-yellow
"trumpet." Some of the finest Daffodils, with large spreading flowers
and correspondingly large and deep trumpets, belong to this section,
among which may be mentioned _Ard Righ_ or _Yellow King_, _C. W. Cowan_,
_Colleen Bawn_, _Emperor_, _Glory of Leiden_, _Golden Spur_, _Henry
Irving_, _Hudibras_, _John Nelson_, _Madame de Graaff_ (see Plate 4,
fig. 17), _Monarch_, _W. Goldring_, &c. All these have single flowers
varying in colour from almost pure white (as in _C. W. Cowan_, _Colleen
Bawn_, and _Madame de Graaff_) to deep golden-yellow in many of the
other varieties. There are a few double-flowered forms of the "Lent
Lily," the best known being _Capax_, lemon-yellow; _grandiplenus_, deep
yellow, _plenissimus_, and the Old Double Lent Lily grown in Gerarde's
garden over 300 years ago.


="Bicolor" Daffodils.=--Another very fine group of Trumpet Daffodils are
those known as "bicolors," so called because the spreading segments are
one colour (generally white or creamy), while the trumpet is another
colour (usually some shade of soft or deep yellow). Amongst the most
popular forms in this group may be mentioned _Ellen Willmott_ (see Plate
4, fig. 16), _Empress, Grandee_, _Horsfieldi_ (see Plate 4, fig. 18),
_Mrs. J. B. M. Camm_, _Mrs. Morland Crossfield,_ _Mrs. Walter T. Ware_,
_Princeps_ or _Irish Giant, Victoria,_ and _Weardale Perfection_ (see
Plate 6, fig. 26).


The "=Star Daffodils=" (_N. incomparabilis_) have spreading starry
petals, and a cup or chalice-like corona or trumpet in the centre. They
are a very free growing group, the commoner kinds of which (such as
_Autocrat_, _Cynosure_, _Stella_) may be naturalised in thousands in the
grass, where they may be seen at "a glance tossing their heads in
sprightly dance." Some other very fine forms are _C. J. Backhouse_,
_Frank Miles_, _Geo. Nicholson_, _Gloria Mundi_ (see Plate 5, fig. 21),
_Lulworth_ (see Plate 6, fig. 27), _Mary Anderson_, _Sir Watkin_ (see
Plate 5, fig. 23), and _Princess Mary of Cambridge_ (see Plate 5, fig.
21), &c., but there are many others. There are also several double
varieties of Star Daffodils, the most common being "Butter and Eggs,"
_Orange Phoenix_ (or _Eggs and Bacon_) and _Sulphur Phoenix_ (or
_Codlins and Cream_).

There are many other kinds of Daffodils which have only one flower on a
stem, many of them being natural or artificial hybrids. Space will not
permit detailed descriptions, but the following may be looked upon as
the best:--_Backhousei_, _Barri_ (with several forms), _Bernardi_,
_Burbidgei_, (with several forms), _gracilis_, _Humei_, _intermedius_,
_Johnstoni_ (with several forms), _Leedsi_ (with several fine forms),
_Macleayi_, _moschatus_ (with several forms, the best being _cernuus_),
_muticus_, and _Nelsoni_ (with several forms).

In the foregoing sections the blossoms are all of a fairly large size,
and borne on stalks a foot or more high. There is, however a charming
group in which the blossoms are in most cases comparatively small and
the flower stalks short. These kinds are valuable for planting in bold
masses in partially shaded places in the rockery, or in short grass.

_N. cyclamineus_ is a charming little Daffodil. It belongs to the Lent
Lily group botanically. The blossoms, however, are much smaller; the
segments being lemon-yellow, and abruptly turned back upon the stalk
from the orange-yellow cylindrical "trumpet." (See Plate 5, fig. 19.)

_N. minor_ is another miniature form of Lent Lily, with
gracefully-twisted sulphur-yellow segments surrounding a deeper yellow
spreading "trumpet." The variety _minimus_ is smaller still, with rich
yellow flowers, while _plenus_ (or _Rip Van Winkle_) is a double
variety.

One kind that differs conspicuously from all others is the "Hooped
Petticoat" or "Medusa Trumpet" Daffodil (_N. Bulbocodium_), at one time
considered a distinct genus (_Corbularia_). It is a charming species,
having bright-yellow flowers, the chief characteristic of which is the
cone-like or broadly funnel-shaped trumpet. There are several varieties,
such as _citrinus_ (lemon-yellow), _conspicuus_ (golden-yellow),
_Graellsi_ (primrose-yellow), _monophyllus_ (snow-white, leaves
solitary), _nivalis_, (orange-yellow).

PLATE 27. WATSONIA MERIANA (99) WATSONIA ALBA (100) WATSONIA ANGUSTA
(101) MONTBRETIA CROCOSMIÆFLORA (102)


=Polyanthus or Tazetta Narcissus.=--Passing from the Daffodils with
solitary flowers on a stalk, we come to a small group in which several
blossoms adorn the top of the stem. The most important of these is
perhaps the Polyanthus or Bunch Narcissus (_N. Tazetta_) which was
well-known to the old Greek and Roman poets, although in a wild state it
is met with eastwards across Europe and Asia, to China and Japan. The
typical _N. Tazetta_ has 4 to 8 flowers on top of the stem, the
spreading segments being pure white and the cup-shaped corona
lemon-yellow. There are many varieties, and although the individual
blossoms are not very large, they are sometimes produced in much larger
numbers than the type. The best-known varieties are the _Scilly White_,
_Grand Soleil d'or_, _Grand Monarque_ (Plate 6, figs. 24 and 25), and
the _Paper White_--all largely grown in the open air in the Scilly
Isles--but rather too tender for out-door cultivation in less favoured
parts of the kingdom.

Of late years, a Chinese form (really only _N. Tazetta_) called the
"Sacred Lily" or "Joss Flower," has attracted attention, and has been
recommended for growing in ornamental bowls, &c., in drawing-rooms, in a
compost (if it can be called such) of pebbles and clean water. The
common mistake made in growing the Joss Lily in this way is that the
plants do not get sufficient light in ordinary rooms, and consequently
both leaves and stems are too weak to stand erect.

Other Daffodils with several flowers on a stalk are the Sweet-Scented
Jonquil (_N. Jonquilla_), easily recognised by its roundish leaves and
rich yellow flowers with a cup-shaped corona. There are several
varieties including a double one known as "Queen Anne's Jonquil." The
Rush-leaved Jonquil (_N. juncifolius_) with roundish rush-like leaves is
closely related, its bright yellow blossoms being distinguished from
those of the Jonquil by being fewer and having broader ovate segments.

_N. triandrus_, popularly called "Ganymede's Cup," is a charming little
species with 1 to 6 pure-white flowers in which the segments are bent
back from the cup-shaped corona. There are several varieties, including
a lovely white one (_albus_) called "Angel's Tears," shown on Plate 5,
fig. 20. _Concolor_, pale yellow; _calathinus_, white or sulphur-yellow;
_pallidulus_, primrose-yellow; while _pulchellus_ has primrose-yellow
segments and a white corona.

The bulbs of _N. triandrus_ and its varieties being rather small--half
to three-quarters of an inch in diameter--the spots where they are
planted should be marked, otherwise they are apt to get lost or
destroyed. Until the stock is large they are probably safer grown in
pots in cold frames.

As new varieties and hybrids are being added each year, the reader who
wishes to grow novelties is advised to consult the bulb catalogues of
such firms as Messrs. Barr & Sons, Covent Garden; Messrs. Ware, Feltham;
Mr. Hartland, of Cork; Mr. Perry, Winchmore Hill, &c.


=NOTHOSCORDUM fragrans.=--A sturdy North American plant, 1 to 2 feet
high, with roundish oblong bulbs, having thick fleshy roots. It is
closely related to the Alliums, as may be seen by its umbels of white
starry flowers, the segments of which are keeled with lilac on the
outside.

This species grows in ordinary good garden soil of a gritty nature, and
is easily increased by offsets.


=ORNITHOGALUM= (_Star of Bethlehem_).--Although a large genus, only a
few species are considered worth growing, except in botanical
collections. The best known representative of the group is probably the
Common Star of Bethlehem (_O. umbellatum_), which is now naturalised in
copses and meadows in some parts of England, and may be utilised in the
same way in large gardens with an abundance of grass-land. The clusters
of pure-white starry blossoms appear in May and June, on stalks about 1
foot high, and are keeled with green behind. Very similar in appearance
are the flowers of _O. arabicum_, which, however, appear in June and
July, and are much larger, sometimes 2 inches across, with golden
anthers, and a shining black ovary in the centre, as shown in Plate 29,
fig. 107. Unfortunately, this species is rather tender in the colder
parts of the kingdom, and should be protected in winter. As an
alternative the plants may be grown in pots in cold greenhouses, or in
glasses of water in the same way as Hyacinths (see p. 84.) _O. nutans_,
the drooping white flowers of which are also shown on Plate 29, fig.
108, is almost as hardy as _O. umbellatum_, and may be naturalised in
the same way. _O. arcuatum_ has pure white erect flowers in May and June
on stalks 2 feet or more high. _O. pyramidale_, the white flowers of
which have a green stripe behind, and are borne on stalks 1-1/2 to 2
feet high in June and July, is another species worth growing in masses
in the shrubberies, or in the grass (see Plate 19, fig. 74); and _O.
pyrenaicum_, with pale yellow-green flowers may be given similar
treatment.

Ordinary well-drained garden soil of a more or less sandy nature will
suit the Ornithogalums. They are easily increased by offsets.


=PANCRATIUM.=--Most of the plants in this genus require to be grown in
heat and moisture under glass. Two species, however--both with clusters
of white sweet-scented flowers on stout stalks 1 to 2 feet high--can be
grown in the open air in the milder parts of the British Islands. They
are _P. illyricum_ and _P. maritimum_, both natives of Southern Europe.
They have large pear-shaped bulbs with a tapering neck 9 to 12 inches
long, and consequently require to be planted pretty deeply, say about a
foot in September. A well-drained sandy loam and leaf-soil suits them
best, and they may be increased by offsets.


=POLIANTHES tuberosa= (_Tuberose_).--Although what are known as African,
American, Italian, and Pearl Tuberoses, are usually grown in warm
greenhouses, nevertheless the plants may be grown with a fair degree of
success in the open air in the milder parts of the kingdom. The thickish
bulbs, about 2 inches through, may be planted out about the end of May,
only just covering the tops with an inch or two of soil. The thin and
narrow leaves will soon appear, and about August the pure waxy-white
heavily-scented blossoms will be thrown up on stalks 2 to 3 feet high,
that may require a thin stake to keep them erect. There are single and
double-flowered varieties, the latter being most popular for cultivation
under glass. For this purpose the bulbs may be treated as advised at p.
46.


=PUSCHKINIA scilloides.=--A charming little plant, with ovoid bulbs
about an inch through, and narrow leaves about 6 inches long. About
March and April the white or very pale blue blossoms appear, and are
decorated with a conspicuous deep-blue line down the centre of each
segment. Warm sheltered spots in the rock-garden or flower border, and a
compost of rich sandy loam and leaf-soil suit this plant best. The bulbs
should be planted, 3 or 4 inches deep, in September or October (but not
later), and may, if convenient, remain in the same spot for three or
four seasons without being lifted. This is best done when the foliage
has withered, and will give an opportunity for detaching the offsets to
increase the stock.


=SCHIZOSTYLIS coccinea.=--A charming South African plant, 2 to 3 feet
high, with the appearance of a Gladiolus in the sword-like leaves. The
brilliant crimson blossoms, each about 2 inches across, appear from
September to November, and consequently often get spoiled by the weather
unless protected. They are excellent for cutting and valuable so late in
the season. The plants flourish in rich sandy loam, peat and leaf-soil,
and are more satisfactory in the open air in the mildest parts of the
kingdom. In other parts they should be planted on a sheltered south
border where they can be protected in winter if necessary. Grown in
pots, the plants are popular for greenhouse decoration. Increase is
effected by dividing the thickish rootstocks in spring.

PLATE 28. GLADIOLUS NANCEIANUS (103) GLADIOLUS LEMOINEI (104) GLADIOLUS
CHILDSI (105)


=SCILLA= (_Squill_; _Bluebell_).--The Squills and Bluebells are amongst
the most charming of our spring-flowering bulbous plants, and it is
astonishing that they are not more extensively utilised for naturalising
in the grass, with Snowdrops, Crocuses, Narcissi, Chionodoxas, &c., with
which they harmonise so well. Preferring partially shaded spots, they
are particularly valuable for planting in woodland walks, and beneath
our native trees in parks and pleasure grounds. The hardier kinds
require practically no cultivation, and will flourish in any of the
places indicated or in ordinary garden soil in the rock-garden or flower
border. The best time to plant is about September and October, and as
the bulbs are 1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter, they should be buried about
3 or 4 inches deep, and in hundreds and thousands if possible instead of
in twos and threes.

The best-known member of the genus is undoubtedly our Common British
Bluebell or Wood Hyacinth (_S. festalis_). It is to be found in
abundance in woods and copses, and from April to June sends up its tall
stalks of drooping bell-shaped flowers, the colour of which varies from
bluish-purple to white or pink, according to the several varieties, such
as _alba_, _rosea_, and _rubra_, &c.

Another fine species is the Spanish Bluebell (_S. hispanica_ or _S.
campanulata_), perhaps the finest-looking Bluebell in the open air. The
ordinary variety has porcelain-blue flowers on stalks a foot or more
high. It is surpassed in beauty, however, by its white variety _alba_,
which flowers freely and grows vigorously. There are also forms with
pink or rosy flowers, such as _rosea_ or _carnea_, _rubra_, &c., all of
which appear in April and May.

The species, however, that finds so much favour for autumn planting is
_S. sibirica_, a charming species, with purple-coated bulbs, and bright
porcelain-blue blossoms with more or less spreading segments. They
appear in February and March on stalks 3 to 6 inches high, but are more
numerous in the variety called _multiflora_ (see Plate 2, fig. 7). Owing
to its early blooming, it is of course a great favourite with other
early flowering plants.

Other kinds of Scilla that may be grown in the open air in the same way
as those already mentioned are:--The Star Hyacinth (_S. amoena_), which
requires rather warm sheltered spots. It has bright indigo blue flowers
with spreading segments from March to May. _S. bifolia_ grows 6 to 9
inches high, and produces its bright-blue, bell-shaped flowers in March.
There are several forms of it, such as _alba_, white, _rosea_, pale
rose, &c. _S. hyacinthoides_, bluish-lilac; _S. italica_, blue; _S.
verna_, porcelain-blue; _S. patula_, deep blue with white edges; and _S.
monophylla_, with blue or violet flowers, all appearing in April and
May.

Quite distinct in appearance from all these is _S. peruviana_, which, by
the way, is not a native of Peru, but of the Mediterranean region. It
has large, pear-shaped bulbs, and rosettes of leaves 6 to 12 inches
long, with bristly margins. The bright blue starry blossoms appear in
May and June, and are borne in broadly conical clusters, which elongate
during the flowering period. There are white (_alba_) and yellow
(_lutea_) varieties, the first-named of which is shown on Plate 17, fig.
69.

This species may be grown in warm sheltered spots in the border or
rock-garden, in dryish, well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted 4
to 6 inches deep, and in cold localities should be protected from severe
frosts in winter.

Scillas may be increased by offsets taken from the old bulbs when the
foliage has withered.


=SISYRINCHIUM grandiflorum.=--This is the best garden plant out of about
fifty species. Like Schizostylis coccinea, it can scarcely be called a
"bulbous" plant, as it has only short thickened rootstocks. It grows
about a foot high, having striated leaves, and deep purple blossoms (as
shown in Plate 20, fig. 79), which, however, are white in the variety
_album_. It is an excellent plant for the rock-garden, where it should
be planted in bold clumps, in light sandy loam and peat. Increased by
division of the rootstocks about September.


=SPARAXIS.=--The plant best known under this name has been already
described as _Dierama pulcherrima_ at p. 71. The Sparaxis proper are
little known plants, the best known being (i) _grandiflora_, which grows
1 to 2 feet high, and has bell-shaped flowers of deep violet-purple in
April and May. There are many colour variations of this species
(including a white one), several of them having a deeper coloured blotch
at the base of the petals. (ii) _Tricolor_, resembles grandiflora in
appearance, but has rich orange-red blossoms with purple-brown blotches
on the yellow base of the petals. There are also several forms of this
species with white, rose, or purple flowers, all having a yellow centre
with distinct blotches at the base of the petals.

These South African plants require the same treatment as _Dierama
pulcherrima_ or the Ixias (see p. 89). They like warm sheltered spots in
the mildest parts of the kingdom, and when well-grown are very showy and
useful for cutting.

PLATE 29. ZEPHYRANTHES ATAMASCO (106) ORNITHOGALUM ARABICUM (107)
ORNITHOGALUM NUTANS (108)


=SPREKELIA formosissima= (_Jacobæa Lily_).--A fine Mexican plant, with
roundish bulbs 2 to 3 inches in diameter, and narrow strap-shaped leaves
12 to 18 inches long. In the open air the irregular bright crimson
blossoms, each about 6 inches across, appear about August, and never
fail to attract attention.

Unfortunately, the Jacobæa Lily, of which there are a few colour
variations, can scarcely be considered as perfectly hardy in the mildest
parts of the British Islands. It often flowers, however, when the bulbs
are planted out about the end of May or early in June, when danger from
frost is practically over. The flowers often appear before the foliage,
but the bulbs should not be lifted in autumn for storing until the
leaves show signs of withering. New plants are secured from offsets.


=STERNBERGIA.=--Charming plants, with roundish bulbs about 2 inches in
diameter, and strap-shaped leaves, which are in their prime sometimes
with the blossoms, as in _S. lutea_, and sometimes long before the
latter appear, as in _S. macrantha_. The bulbs should be planted in
spring, 5 or 6 inches deep, in rich and well-drained sandy loam and
leaf-soil. When in bold clumps the flowers present a charming sight,
either in the grass, rock-garden, flower border, or margins of thin
shrubberies. All kinds have beautiful crocus-like yellow flowers as
shown in Plate 33. _S. lutea_ (fig. 119), variously known as the "Winter
Daffodil" and "Yellow Star Flower," is considered to be the "Lily of the
Field" mentioned in the Scriptures. It blooms in September and October,
the yellow flowers nestling amongst the leaves. There are several forms
of it, differing chiefly in the size of the blossoms and width of the
leaves. _S. macrantha_ (fig. 120) is a still finer species, with flowers
much larger than those of _S. lutea_, with which they appear in autumn.
Other species are _colchiciflora_, the bulbs of which are only about an
inch in diameter, and the pale-yellow sweet-scented flowers appear in
autumn. _S. Fischeriana_ also has bright golden-yellow blossoms, but
differs from its relatives in producing them during the spring
months--February onwards--instead of in the autumn.


=TECOPHILÆA cyanocrocus.=--This distinct and charming Chilian plant,
popularly known as the "Chilian Crocus," has fibrous-coated corms and
narrow wavy leaves. The beautiful Violet-scented, funnel-shaped flowers
of a brilliant blue, with a white centre, appear in March and April,
borne in loose trusses. (See Plate 12, fig. 50.) The variety
_Leichtlini_ differs in having deeper blue flowers than the type, and
without the white centre.

In the milder parts of the kingdom the Chilian Crocus may be grown in
the open air in warm sheltered spots, such as on a south border at the
base of a wall or fence. Rich sandy loam and leaf-soil is a good compost
into which the corms may be planted, 6 to 9 inches deep, about
September. In winter it may be necessary to give protection with litter,
bracken, &c., in the event of severe frosts or continuous cold rains.
The plants are most readily increased by offsets.


=TIGRIDIA Pavonia= (_Peacock Tiger Flower_).--There are several species
of Tiger Flowers, but the one here mentioned, and its several varieties,
are the most useful for the out-door garden. They have bulbs 1-1/2 to 2
inches in diameter, and plaited Gladiolus-like leaves. The blossoms,
however, one of which is shown on Plate 30, fig. 110, are of exceptional
beauty and brilliance amongst bulbous plants, and although they do not
last a long time individually, they nevertheless follow each other so
rapidly that the plants are scarcely ever without flowers during the
summer months. The coloured picture will convey a far better idea as to
the colouring and blotching of the flowers than any printed description.
There are other varieties of _T. Pavonia_ besides the one shown on the
Plate. Perhaps the best are _grandiflora_, very large and brilliant;
_conchiflora_, yellow blotched with purple; _Wheeleri_, deep red; and
_alba_, pure white spotted with purple.

The Tiger Flowers are natives of Mexico, and therefore cannot be grown
successfully in the open air in all parts of the kingdom. In the mildest
parts, however, the bulbs may be left in the ground during the winter
months, care being taken to protect them with leaves, litter, &c.,
during severe weather, or from heavy cold rains. In less favoured spots,
where they nevertheless blossom out of doors in summer, the bulbs may be
taken up about the end of October when the foliage has withered, and
they may then be stored in frost-proof places in sand until the
following April or May. Whenever the bulbs are lifted the offsets should
be detached to increase the stock. The warmest, most sheltered, and
sunniest spot in the garden is obviously the best place for Tigridias.
In addition to this the soil should be a well-drained sandy loam
enriched with old cow-manure and leaf-soil. During active growth, and
especially in the hot dry seasons, it is necessary to keep the plants
well-supplied with water, otherwise the results are likely to be the
reverse of satisfactory.


=TRITONIA.=--This genus contains a handsome group of plants with
fibrous-coated corms, like those of a Gladiolus, but much smaller. The
plants formerly known as Montbretia are now also included in this genus,
but the corms in some cases (e.g., _M. crocosmiæflora_) have slender
creeping rhizomes, from which new corms are developed by the end of the
season. The leaves are more or less like those of a Gladiolus, but
somewhat narrower, and often curved, while the showy blossoms are borne
in slender graceful spikes, that are very useful for cutting.

Only a few species and their numerous varieties are cultivated in the
open air, being either massed in bold clumps in the ordinary flower
border or rockery, or as beds by themselves in the grass. Being natives
of South Africa, warm, sheltered, and sunny situations, and a light
loamy soil, enriched with leaf-soil or well-decayed manure, naturally
suit them best. Although perfectly hardy in all except the bleakest
parts of the kingdom, the kinds mentioned below are best taken up and
replanted each year or two in the spring time. It is not, however,
essential to lift the corms in the autumn and store them in sand except
in very cold parts where protection would be troublesome perhaps. A
glance at the drawings on p. 26 will show the reader that offsets are
freely produced, and in this way the kinds are most easily propagated.

The kinds most suitable for open air culture are: _T. crocata_ (formerly
known under the names of _Ixia_ and _Gladiolus_) grows about 2 feet or
more high, having broadly sword-shaped and curved leaves, and spikes of
yellow or orange-coloured blossoms in June and July. There is a good
deal of variation in the colour, some varieties being much paler or
darker than others, and spotted with red, yellow, or brown.

_T. crocosmiæflora_, better known as _Montbretia_, is a graceful and
popular garden plant, really a hybrid between _Crocosma aurea_ (see p.
67) and _T. Pottsi_. It grows 2 to 2-1/2 feet high, and resembles a
small Gladiolus in foliage. The brilliant orange-red blossoms appear in
great profusion from July onwards to October or November, and are always
attractive when grown in bold masses. There are numerous varieties of
it--one, _Etoile de Feu_--being shown on Plate 27, fig. 102; others
being _Germania_, _Globe d'or_, &c.

_T. Pottsi_, also better known perhaps as a Montbretia, grows 3 to 4
feet high, having narrow tapering sword-like leaves, and bright yellow
funnel-shaped flowers suffused with red. They are borne in gracefully
nodding spikes from August onwards, and exhibit great variation in
colour and markings according to the many varieties that are now in
commerce. The plant known as _Tritonia aurea_ is described in this work
as _Crocosma_ (see p. 67).

PLATE 30. CRINUM MOOREI (109) TIGRIDIA LILACEA (110)


=TULBAGHIA violacea.=--A pretty little South African plant with narrow
leaves and slender spikes of violet-purple flowers, as shown in Plate
32, fig. 113. This species seems to be hardy in the Thames Valley and
milder parts, but must be grown in large quantities to produce anything
like an effect. It grows well in ordinary well-drained garden soil.


=TULIPA= (_Tulip_).--Although the days of the ridiculous Tulip craze of
the seventeenth century have happily passed away, the love of Tulips has
increased by leaps and bounds, and thousands are now cultivated where
formerly dozens or hundreds were tolerated. Whether grown in lines or
circles in formal beds, in irregular clumps in the flower border or
rock-garden, or naturalised on grassy banks, Tulips constitute one of
the most pleasing and brilliant features in the garden during the spring
and early summer months. Indeed, one can hardly imagine what the garden
would be like at this period of the year without the beauteous forms and
glorious tints of the Tulip. The well-known brown-coated bulbs, 1 to 2
inches in diameter, are now so cheap that they come within the reach of
the most modest purse, and there is no reason why Tulips should not be
found in every cottage garden in the kingdom.

The culture of the Tulip is quite as easy as that of the common
Daffodil. There is one important difference, however, between the Tulip
and the Daffodil. While the latter likes partial shade, the Tulip enjoys
plenty of sunshine, and shelter from bleak winds. Any good garden soil
that has been deeply dug, and enriched with well-decayed manure some
time previous to planting will produce fine blossoms. In the open air
the bulbs should be planted about 4 inches deep, and not more than 6,
even in bleak localities, as a safeguard against frost. The best time
for planting is from the beginning of September to the end of October,
and care should be taken when planting formal beds to see that the lines
are perfectly straight, and the bulbs buried at a similar depth
throughout. To secure the latter result a blunt dibber may be used,
marked at the required depth with a cross-piece nailed on, or a piece of
hoop iron that can be slid up or down to any particular depth. In this
way, and by planting each bed with the same variety, uniformity in
height, colour, and period of flowering will be secured. In vacant
spaces in the flower border and rock-garden, such formality would be out
of place, and in such positions mixed Tulips produce a more natural
effect.

Although effective in themselves, the beauty of Tulips is greatly
enhanced by planting them in beds that are already carefully arranged
with such plants as Wallflowers, Polyanthuses, Primroses, Pansies, or
Violas, Dwarf Saxifrages, Double White Arabis, (_A. albida flore
pleno_), Yellow Alyssum (_A. saxatile_), Forget-me-Nots, Aubrietias, and
such like plants that blossom about the same period and make an
effective screen to hide the ground between the blue-green leaves of the
Tulips. In arranging combinations, it is as well to have the Tulips and
carpet plants arranged so that the colour of the one shall be quite
distinct and in lively contrast with that of the others.

Thus White Tulips may have Yellow Arabis, Primroses, Polyanthuses, &c.,
beneath them. On the other hand, red Tulips should not be mixed with red
Wallflowers, although they look remarkably effective with yellow ones.
And so on, more or less in accordance with the principles laid down at
p. 38.

For the benefit of those who take up their Tulip bulbs each year (when
the flowers have withered being usually the earliest period for this
operation) it may be as well to mention, that the bulb that is lifted
about midsummer, is not the same as that planted in autumn. Indeed it is
quite a new bulb altogether, and, as a rule, contains all the elements
necessary for the production of leaves and blossoms the following
season. The Tulip bulb planted in autumn is used up in the formation of
leaves and flowers, that are produced in early summer. Whence then comes
the bulb that is taken out of the soil when the flowering period is
over? It has been made out of the raw material that has been assimilated
by the leaves under the influence of sunlight. Very often there is more
than sufficient food for the formation of a large flowering bulb, in
which case the surplus food is converted into offsets at the base of the
large bulb. These offsets, if planted and grown on for two or three
seasons in specially prepared beds of light soil, will develop into
flowering bulbs. They should, therefore, never be thrown away as
useless.


=Seedling Tulips.=--Besides offsets (some of which drop several inches
below the parent bulb, and are called "droppers.") Tulips may also be
raised from seeds if one has the requisite patience and convenience.
When seeds are required, the old plants must of course be left in the
soil until the seed capsules have thoroughly ripened. The seeds should
be sown very sparsely in drills, in carefully-prepared beds of light
soil, and may be left undisturbed for about five or seven years, until
the first flowers appear. Of course weeds must be kept down regularly,
and to facilitate this operation, the seed beds should not be more than
4 or 5 feet wide, and the drills quite a foot apart.

The first flowers of a seedling Tulip are called "Breeders" or "Mother
Tulips" and are of one colour throughout, although the seeds may have
been saved from beautifully pencilled or flaked blossoms. When a
"breeder" Tulip develops markings of a different colour, it is said to
"break" or "rectify." Such rectified flowers are then divided into two
groups, (_a_) those with a pure white centre, base, or ground, and (_b_)
those with a pure yellow centre.

The white centred flowers (_a_) are again divided into (i) _Roses_, the
flowers of which are various shades of pink, rose, scarlet, crimson,
cerise, &c., and (ii) _Bybloemens_, the flowers of which display various
shades of lilac, lavender, violet, purple, brown, purple-black, &c.

The yellow-centred flowers (_b_) are called _Bizarres_, with various
shades of orange, scarlet, crimson, purple-black, brown, &c. These
various classes of "rectified" Tulips have the petals either "feathered"
or "flamed." A "feathered" Tulip has the petals beautifully pencilled
and feathered round the edges only; while a "flamed" Tulip differs in
having bright streaks, bands, or flames of a distinct colour shooting up
the centre of each petal from the base, and forking out towards the
pencilled and feathered margins.

Only specialists in what are called the "florist's Tulip," however, take
a keen delight in drawing these distinctions.

There are some hundreds of varieties of Tulips enumerated in
nurserymen's catalogues, but it is unnecessary to grow many of them to
make an effective display. The following--arranged according to the
predominating colour--may be regarded as a good selection for planting
in the open ground in autumn:--


=Single Varieties for Planting Out.=--_Red, Scarlet, Crimson, and
Pink._--Artus, Bacchus, Belle Alliance, Couleur de Cardinal, Crimson
King, Duc Van Thol, Pottebakker, Proserpine, Rose Luisante, Rose Gris de
Lin. _Orange, Brownish, and Terra Cotta._--Cardinal's Hat, Duc Van Thol,
Leonardo da Vinci, Prince of Austria, and Thomas Moore.
_Yellow._--Bouton d'Or (Plate 9, fig. 37), Canary Bird, Chrysolora, Gold
Finch, Golden Crown, Mon Trésor, Pottebakker, and Yellow Prince. _White
or Blush._--Albion (or White Hawk), Jacht van Delft, White Swan, Grand
Duchess, Joost von Vondel, La Reine, Immaculée, and Pottebakker. _Purple
and Violet._--Molière, Purple Crown, President Lincoln. _Red, Pink,
Rose, or Violet, with White._--Bride of Haarlem, Cottage Maid, Couleur
ponceau, Standard Royal, Wapen van Leiden, Picotee (Plate 9, fig. 36).
_Red and Yellow combined._--Brutus, Duchesse de Parma, Keizerskroon.


=Double flowered Tulips.=--_Scarlet and Crimson combined._--Imperator
Rubrorum, Rex Rubrorum, Rubra maxima. _Pink and Rose._--Couronne des
Roses, Murillo, Raphael, Rose d'Amour, Salvator Rosa. _White._--Alba
maxima, Grand Vainqueur, La Candeur, Rose blanche. _Red and Yellow
combined._--Duc Van Thol, Gloria Solis, Tournesol, Princess Alexandra.
_Orange or Yellow._--Tournesol, Yellow Rose, Miroir.


=Parrot or Dragon Tulips.=--These remarkable looking flowers are
supposed to be descended from the curious green and yellow-striped _T.
viridiflora_. The petals are cut and jagged into all kinds of peculiar
shapes, while the colours are chiefly a mixture of reds, crimsons,
greens, and yellows.

PLATE 31. BELLADONNA LILY (111) DIERAMA PULCHERRIMA (112)


=Darwin Tulips.=--These are a very popular class of self-coloured Tulips
derived from _T. Gesneriana_. They are in fact "breeder" Tulips referred
to on p. 134. The individual blossoms are large and cup-shaped, and are
borne on stalks 1-1/2 to 2 feet high. There are numerous named varieties
(for which a catalogue should be consulted), but a mixed collection will
give a grand display, the colours being shades of apricot, yellow,
carmine, rose, pink, crimson, maroon, and white.

With the Darwin Tulips may be associated what are known as the "Cottage"
or "May Flowering" Tulips--vigorous kinds with tall stems and fine large
flowers, that are admirably adapted for the decoration of the garden.
For vases, bowls, &c., they are also excellent.


=Natural Species or Wild Tulips.=--Apart from the almost innumerable
florists' varieties of Tulips, keen interest has been taken of late
years in the cultivation of the natural species of Tulip which are found
growing wild in various parts of South Europe, Asia Minor, Turkestan,
&c. There are quite a large number of these natural species now to be
had, but the cream of them may be said to be _Gesneriana_, _Greigi_,
_macropsila_, and _Oculus Solis_, all with scarlet or crimson blossoms
and black blotches at the base. Other useful kinds for bedding out or
for naturalising with Daffodils, Bluebells, &c., are _Eichleri_,
_fulgens_, _Hageri_, _macrostyla_, _maculata_, _Didieri_,
_Ostrowskyana_, _planifolia_, _lurida_, _undulatifolia_, _suaveolens_,
all with bright red or deep crimson blossoms except _suaveolens_ which
is bordered with yellow. Yellow flowered kinds are _australis_ (Plate
10, fig. 40), _Batalini_, _flava_, _Billietiana_, _galatica_,
_neglecta_, _retroflexa_, _sylvestris_, _strangulata_ (speckled and
streaked with red), _viridiflora_ (with broad green band down the
centre), _Sprengeri_ (petals tipped with red), and _Kolpakowskyana_.

Apart from their value in the garden, Tulips are also popular as cut
flowers. As most of them produce their blossoms on sturdy stems 1-1/2 to
2-1/2 feet high, they are easily picked, and when bunched in vases with
foliage, or grasses, or even by themselves, they add a luxurious
appearance to any apartment.

The great mistake many make in picking Tulip flowers is that they gather
them often in the middle of the day when the petals are wide open,
especially if there is strong sunshine. In the expanded state the
blossoms do not last very long. They should therefore be picked either
early in the morning or late in the evening, when the petals are closed
in over the stamens and ovary in the centre. There is no need to
actually _cut_ the stems. By holding them close to the ground and giving
a staccato pull upwards, they come away easily from the bulb, and
possess the advantage of being a few inches longer than those cut with a
knife or scissors.


=WATSONIA.=--Although popularly called "Bugle Lilies" the Watsonias
really belong to the Iris family. They have fibrous-coated corms,
stiffish, ribbed, sword-like leaves, and more or less funnel-shaped
flowers. They are indigenous to South Africa, and may be grown in the
open air under much the same conditions as Ixias, viz., warm, sheltered
spots, and in light sandy soil. In the mildest parts of the kingdom the
corms may be left in the ground during the winter, if necessary, but
they should be protected in severe weather with litter, &c. In less
favoured spots, it is safer to lift the corms in autumn when the leaves
have withered, and store them in dry soil or sand until the spring.

The varieties depicted on Plate 27, figs. 99 to 101, show some of the
most graceful kinds. _W. Meriana_, fig. 99 (also known as _Antholyza_)
has several varieties including a scarlet one (_coccinea_), a white one
(fig. 100), and a pink and white one (_rosea-alba_), which bear their
blossoms during the summer months on stems 2 to 3 feet high. _W. rosea_
resembles a Gladiolus in appearance, and indeed was once known as _G.
pyramidatus_. It has several forms, including _angusta_, shown in the
plate (fig. 101). Perhaps the most charming variety of all, however, is
the beautiful _Ardernei_, the large pure white blossoms of which always
attract attention owing to their purity and delicacy (Plate 26, fig.
96).

As a pot plant for conservatory decoration, _W. Ardernei_ is very
valuable, owing to its graceful appearance. In the open air it requires
warm, sheltered, and sunny positions, and a rich sandy soil.


=ZEPHYRANTHES= (_Zephyr Flower_).--Beautiful plants with small
brown-coated bulbs about an inch in diameter, from which spring narrow
leaves and rather large funnel-shaped flowers, only one, however, on
each stem. There are only a few species that may be grown in the open
air in the mildest parts of the kingdom. The soil cannot be too well
drained, and should consist of a rich sandy loam, while the position
should be the warmest and most sheltered in the garden. The kinds most
likely to succeed are _Atamasco_, a native of the damp woods and fields
of Virginia. The flowers shown on Plate 29, fig. 106, are at first pure
white, but become tinted with pink or purple. _Z. candida_, the "Swamp
Lily" of La Plata, has pure white blossoms, as shown on Plate 32, fig.
114, as have also _Treatiæ_ and _tubispatha_, while _carinata_ and
_rosea_ both have rose-coloured flowers. The average height of these
kinds is about a foot, and they may be increased from offsets or from
seeds. At one time the Zephyr Flowers were grown in warm greenhouses,
but experience has proved that they are much hardier than was at first
supposed.

PLATE 32. TULBAGHIA VIOLACEA (113) ZEPHYRANTHES CANDIDA (114) CRINUM
POWELLI ALBUM (115) LYCORIS SQUAMIGERA (116)



ENEMIES OF BULBOUS PLANTS.


Bulbous plants are subject to the attacks of various insect and fungoid
pests in the same way as other plants are, and steps should be taken to
free the plants from them whenever they appear, or to prevent them
appearing at all.

It is easier to carry out the latter recommendation when insect enemies
only are to be dreaded, but it is quite another matter with fungoid
diseases, the presence of which is only revealed when they have reached
the "fruiting" or spore stage, and have already done a certain amount of
mischief.


=Wireworms, Grubs, &c.=--When a soil is infested with any of these
pests, the gardener may be almost sure to find his choicest roots or
bulbs eaten by them. He should, therefore, take the precaution to have
the ground turned up, if possible, some time before planting, so that
these pests may be brought to the surface and exposed to the keen eyes
of the "birds in the air" who are always on the watch for any choice
morsels that are likely to improve their voices.

It would not be safe, however, to trust altogether to the natural
enemies of these pests who are usually endowed with keen powers for
evading their attacks. It may be necessary, therefore, to lay traps of
pieces of potato, carrot, parsnip, or any fleshy and enticing material
in their haunts, and examine them regularly. A piece of stick thrust
into these substances will make a convenient handle for lifting them up
for examination. The best time of course to catch the enemy is when he
is dining off his piece of potato, parsnip, or carrot. He and his
friends should then be led forth for execution beneath the weight of the
foot, or into a bucket of boiling water, or in any other way that the
ingenious reader may devise. The main thing, however, to bear in mind is
that the enemy must be _killed_ without mercy or remorse. And no matter
how ruthlessly he is persecuted, it will be found each season that there
are still some of his family left to carry on a guerilla warfare against
the gardener and his plants. So that one must be really always on the
watch for attack, and, like a wise general, be ready to meet it, or
spoil it altogether.

Besides using traps of potatoes, carrots, &c., _nitrate of soda_ and
_kainit_ have been found very useful for ridding the soil of these
pests. About 2lbs. of nitrate of soda or kainit to a square rod (30-1/4
square yards) has been found an ample dressing. It should be distributed
evenly over the surface of the soil, when the latter is in a moist--but
not sodden--condition.


=Lime and Soot.=--Slugs and snails are great marauders among the young
growths of bulbous and other plants, and may be kept in check by the use
of nitrate of soda, and kainit, as well as by birds. These remedies may
be supplemented, or even supplanted, by the use of lime and soot. These
substances are always easy to obtain, and will be found of great use not
only in keeping the garden free from insect pests, but also because of
their manurial value.

When lime is used for checking the attacks of slugs or snails it should
be freshly slaked, that is, a little caustic or quick-lime should be
broken down into a fine white powdery mass by having a little water
poured over it. When the heat has subsided the powdered lime may be
sprinkled around and between the crowns of the plants that are being
attacked by slugs. Should it come in contact with the slimy bodies of
these it will soon kill them. Soot that has been exposed to the air for
several weeks will be found a good preventive also against these pests,
and it has the advantage of not being so conspicuous amongst the plants
as lime. Fresh soot from the chimney should on no account be strewn
amongst the young crowns or growths of plants, as the poisonous matters
in it may kill them as well as the slugs.

Slaked lime and seasoned soot may be mixed together, and then strewn
over the surface of the soil. Even common salt is a good slug destroyer,
and may be applied in either a liquid or solid form. Lime-water is also
an excellent cleanser, and may be given to the soil freely without
injury to the plants. Where large numbers of Daffodils are grown one
must keep a watch for the grub of the Narcissus fly (_Merodon equestris_
or _Narcissi_), an insect resembling a small and slender bumble-bee in
appearance. It lays its eggs in the early summer months in the Narcissi,
and the grubs from these bore their way into the fleshy part of the
bulb, damaging the growths and flower stems for next season. When the
bulbs are being lifted or planted, any that are soft to the touch are
very likely affected, and should be examined for the pest. Any badly
affected should be burned. Those not so badly injured may be steeped in
water in July or August, for about a week, to drown the maggots which at
this period have caused but little mischief. When the perfect Merodon
insects are on the wing from about the middle of May to the middle of
July they may be enticed to drown themselves in saucers containing
strong solutions of sugar or treacle, placed amongst the plants.

Although most birds in the garden may be looked on with a friendly eye,
one must make an exception in the case of _Passer domesticus_,--otherwise
known as the common sparrow. He will tear your Crocuses--especially
the yellow ones--to tatters out of sheer mischief. If he would only
eat the petals or make a nest of them there would be some excuse; but
no, he simply tears them to pieces and flings them, so to speak, in
your face. Mrs. Sparrow is no doubt just as bad, and therefore should
have her nest and the eggs therein confiscated and destroyed on every
possible occasion. A few strands of _black_ cotton thread stretched
over the Crocuses will be found to yield a certain amount of protection
against attack.


=Fungoid Diseases.=--Of the fungoid diseases affecting bulbous plants
happily there are few; and even these are not troublesome to any
alarming extent in the open air.

Snowdrops are sometimes attacked with a kind of mildew known
scientifically as _Botrytis galanthina_. The fungus attacks bulbs,
leaves, and flower-stems one after the other, and effectually stops the
plants from flowering. As soon as this disease is seen on the plants,
the affected portions should be carefully picked off and burned. Once
the disease reaches the black spot-like stage, there is little hope for
the plants so that they had better be burned straight away.

Colchicums, Crocuses, Tulips, Hyacinths, Daffodils, Gladioli, and others
are affected from time to time with one fungoid disease or another,
probably because the soil in which they grow has not been particularly
well-prepared, and is full of some organic matter that can only be
disposed of by the addition of freshly-slaked lime, and deep digging at
the earliest opportunity. When any of the plants referred to are badly
attacked with any fungoid disease, the simplest and best remedy is to
burn them--and thus kill the spores and prevent them spreading. It will
be cheaper to buy new bulbs the following season, and to grow them in
_another_ portion of the garden, rather than try to reclaim the old ones
whose doom in any case is only a matter of time.

Perhaps one of the worst diseases affecting bulbous plants is that which
for some years past has ravaged plants of the Madonna Lily (_Lilium
candidum_). The bulbs seem to be fairly free from the disease, but the
leaves and stems become so badly affected in some parts of the country
that they cannot perform their functions, with the result that no
blossoms are borne, or only misshapen ones. There is at present, I
believe, no effectual remedy against the Lily disease, and once it
appears in a garden, the culture of the Madonna Lily is doomed from that
moment. As a preventive, the plants might be sprayed several times
during the season, from January onwards, with a solution made by
dissolving one ounce of liver of sulphur in a gallon of hot water, and
adding 2-1/2 gallons more of water. This should be applied with a
fine-sprayed syringe, and is a good preventive against many kinds of
fungoid attacks. If used near white woodwork and comes in contact with
it, the paint will be discoloured. Of late years, the bulbs that are
imported in such large numbers from Japan have been more or less
afflicted with a fungoid disease that appears to be very difficult to
check. This disease may be the result of over cultivation, or too
intense cultivation to secure large quantities of plants in a
comparatively short time. The Bermuda Lily disease is probably the
result of similar efforts to get rich too quickly. So that one natural
remedy against the disease would be to grow the bulbs more naturally and
allow them to ripen fully before disturbing them. However, as people in
Europe must have Lilies, they take the best that can be provided. On
arrival of the bulbs they should be carefully examined, and any diseased
or decayed portions taken off and burned. As a preventive against any
spores germinating, the bulbs may be well rolled in freshly slaked lime,
and allowed to dry in a cool airy place for a day or two before planting
or potting. Mr. Massee, in his book on "Plant Diseases," recommends
submerging the bulbs in a 1 per cent. solution of salicylic acid for 20
minutes, and after thoroughly drying them, to kill the spores of the
fungus.

PLATE 33. CROCUS MEDIUS (117) COLCHICUM SPECIOSUM (118) STERNBERGIA
LUTEA (119) STERNBERGIA MACRANTHA (120) CROCUS OCHROLEUCUS (121) CROCUS
SPECIOSUS (122)

A peculiar fungoid disease, known as "basal rot," attacks Daffodils and
Narcissi in soil that is cold and heavy or badly drained. It causes the
leaves to become brown at the tips, and the bulbs to become rootless and
swollen, while the tunics are soft and rotten at the base. The best way
to check this disease is to have the bulbs lifted, and if they can only
be grown in the same soil again, this should be deeply dug to let the
water pass away from it, and some road grit and leaf-soil should be
incorporated with it before re-planting. Some freshly slaked quicklime
may be afterwards pricked into the top with the fork.



MANURING BULBOUS PLANTS.

When bulbous plants, like Tulips, Hyacinths, Daffodils, &c., are planted
and lifted annually, they can hardly be said to require any special
manuring during the period of their growth, as the soil in which they
are planted is, or ought to be, usually well prepared and manured in
advance in the way recommended at p. 16. But even when such bulbs are
planted and lifted every year, they might be considerably improved by
the application of a little artificial manure at the right time. For
instance, in December or January a little _basic slag_ (10 to 20 pounds
to about 30 square yards) would supply phosphatic food to roots later on
in the season when it would be useful for the development of the
blossoms. A little _superphosphate of lime_ at the rate of four to eight
pounds to 30 square yards, would also be useful, applied about March or
April. _Kainit_ is a cheap potash manure, and may be applied at the same
time as the basic slag at the rate of one or two pounds to the same
area--either by itself or mixed with the slag.

It contains a good deal of common salt, and should therefore be applied
_before_ root-action commences, otherwise it may prove injurious to the
new roots.

The necessity for manuring becomes more important in the case of bulbous
plants that are to be left in the same soil for several years. Like
other plants, of course, they rob the soil of a certain amount of food,
and unless this is returned in some way the soil gradually becomes
poorer and the plants less vigorous. One of the best ways, perhaps, to
supply fresh food for the roots of the bulbous plants is to give the
soil a good top-dressing or mulching of well-decayed manure in the early
autumn months. This will gradually decay during the ensuing winter and
spring months and yield up its food. During this period it will also
prevent the heat, that was taken into the soil in the summer, from
escaping too rapidly by radiation. It would be more harmful than useful
to apply a mulching of manure in the depth of winter or early spring, as
it would prevent the sun's rays from warming the roots.

Where Lilies, Tulips, Daffodils, Crocuses, Snowdrops, and many other
kinds of bulbous plants are naturalised in the grass, in flower borders,
or amongst trees and shrubs, a good dressing of well-decomposed manure
in the early autumn will prove highly beneficial each year. The basic
slag, kainit, and superphosphate may be also applied at the seasons
mentioned, if considered desirable.



   Transcribers Note
   1. Preface Hynenoclis changed to Hymenocalis
   2. Page 50 End of first paragraph word added
      "umbels form on the top of the that spring out of the bulb" changed
      to "umbels form on the top of the _shoot_ that spring out of the
      bulb"
   3. Page 56 "three or fours seasons" changed to "three or four seasons"
   4. Page 57 "(also known a _Calliprora lutea_)" changed to
      "(also known as _Calliprora lutea_)"
   5. Page 57 "rose-red to to pinkish-purple;" changed to
      "rose-red to pinkish-purple;"
   6. Page 110 "when the leaves have begun to turn yellow, Seeds may"
      changed to "when the leaves have begun to turn yellow. Seeds may"
   7. Page 134 "a large flowering bulbs," change to
      "a large flowering bulb,"
   8. Page 75 Closing bracket added "(finely figured in "FLORA AND SYLVA")"
   9. Throughout ligature [oe] changed to oe
  10. Page 175 Madame de Graaf changed to Madame de Graaff
  11. PLATE 25 TERMIFOLIUM changed to TENUIFOLIUM to match list of
      plates and text.





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