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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 86, June 21, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 86, June 21, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's Note: This text uses _underscores_ to indicate _italic_
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A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" was added at the





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. III.--No. 86. SATURDAY, JUNE 21. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._



      Notes on Books, No. I.: Mackintosh on Ogilvie's Essay
      on the Right of Property in Land, by S. W. Singer          489

      Notes on Ireland, No. I.: Freedom from Serpents            490

      Canons and Articles of 1571                                491

      On Two Passages in Dryden, by H. H. Breen                  492

      Minor Notes:--Lord Edward Fitzgerald's Mother--Chaucer
      and Gray--Shakspeare Family--Epitaph on Dr. Humphrey
      Tindall--Specimens of Composition--Burke's "mighty Boar
      of the Forest"                                             492


      Queries on Tennyson                                        493

      Ancient Modes of hanging Bells, by Rev. A. Gatty           493

      Minor Queries:--English Sapphics--Equestrian Statues--Plays
      in Churches--"The Right Divine of Kings to govern
      wrong"--Serius, where situated?--Hollander's Austerity,
      &c.--Brother Jonathan--Authorship of the "Groves of
      Blarney"--Carnaby--Death of Death's Painter--Book
      Plates--Querelle d'Allemand--Bassenet of Eaton--Dumore
      Castle, or the Petrified Fort--Charles Dodd, the
      Ecclesiastical Historian--Ussher's Works, by
      Dr. Elrington--Family of Etty the Artist--St. Hibbald      494

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Unde derivatur "Gooseberry
      Fool?"--Biography of Bishop Hurd--Friday,
      why considered unlucky--The Lord Mayor a Privy
      Councillor--Alterius Orbis Papa--Mrs. Elstob--Cardinal
      Bellarmin                                                  496


      Shakspeare's Use of "Captious" and "Intenible."
      Shakspeare's "Small Latin"                                 497

      Earth thrown upon the Coffin, by Rev. A. Gatty, &c.        499

      On the Word "Prenzie" in "Measure for Measure," by John
      Taylor                                                     499

      Zacharie Boyd                                              500

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Death, how symbolised--A
      Kemble Pipe--Flemish Work on the Order of St.
      Franciscus--Meaning of Tick--Spelling of Britannia,
      &c.--Fossil Elk of Ireland--"In Time the Bull,"
      &c.--Baldrock--Epitaph--Prayer of Mary Queen of
      Scots--Aristophanes on the Modern Stage--The White
      Rose--Mark for a Dollar--Gillingham--On the Lay of
      the Last Minstrel, &c.--Lines on Temple--Sewell, Meaning
      of--Lambert Simnel--Tennyson's "In Memoriam"--The second
      King of Nineveh who burned his Palace--Legend in Frettenham
      Church--Natural Daughter of James II.--Clarkson's
      Richmond--MSS. of Sir Thomas Phillipps--Meaning
      of Pilcher--Antiquity of Smoking--Principle of
      Association--Corpse makes a Right of Way--Chloe--Family
      of Sir J. Banks--Verse Lyon--Heronsewes--Theory of the
      Earth's Form--Mythology of the Stars--Topical
      Memory--Eisell--Four Want Way--Meaning of Carfoix--A
      regular Mull--William Hone--The Rev. Mr. Gay--Lady
      Mary Cavendish--Hand giving the Blessing--The Oldenburg
      Horn--Covey--Davy Jones's Locker--Umbrella--Nao,
      a Ship--Birth of Spenser, &c.                              501


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     510

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               510

      Notices to Correspondents                                  511

      Advertisements                                             511



_Mackintosh on Ogilvie's Essay on the Right of Property in Land._

At the dispersion of the library of the late Sir James Mackintosh,
striking evidence of his extensive reading appeared. It seems to have
been his custom to always read with a pencil in his hand, to score the
remarkable passages, and to make occasional notes; generally at the end
of the book he indicates the place where, and date when he read it.

One remarkable and not uninteresting example occurs in the following
volume in my possession:

  "An Essay on the Right of Property in Land, with respect to its
  foundation in the Law of Nature: its present establishment by the
  municipal laws of Europe; and the regulations by which it might be
  rendered more beneficial to the lower ranks of Mankind." London,
  1782, 8vo.

On the inside of the cover Sir James Mackintosh has written:

  "_Clapham Common_, July 18, 1828.--An ingenious and benevolent,
  but injudicious book, which is a good example of the difficulty of
  forming plans for the service of mankind. To the author, an
  accomplished recluse, a lettered enthusiast of no vulgar talent or
  character, I owe the cultivation of a sense of the beautiful in
  poetry and eloquence, for which at the distance of near half a
  century I feel a lively gratitude. It was written by _William
  Ogilvie_, Professor of Humanity in King's College, Aberdeen. I
  even now recollect passages of his Translation of the 4th Book of
  the Eneid.--J. MACKINTOSH."

I have found a corroboration of the estimate above given of this person,
by another of his countrymen, James Ogilvie (who appears to have been an
itinerant teacher of oratory in America) in a volume of _Philosophical
Essays_ published in Philadelphia in 1816. Speaking of a gifted native
of Scotland of the name of McAllester, settled in the far west, near
Bard's Town, and lamenting that he should choose to bury his talents in
obscurity and indolence, the writer says:

  "He came nearer to the character of a scientific sage than any
  human being the narrator has ever known, with the exception of
  _William Ogilvie_, Professor of Humanity in King's College, Old
  Aberdeen, Author of a profound original 'Essay on the Right of
  Property in Land.'"

The book itself is, in some respects at least, well worthy of attention,
and especially at the present moment, when the subject it embraces
presses itself upon all men's consideration. On _emigration_, for
instance, Ogilvie has some anticipatory views: thus he observes with

  "To increase the prosperity and the happiness of the greater
  number, is the primary object of government, and the increase of
  national happiness must be the increase of national strength. Is
  it not then the duty, and perhaps also the interest of every
  legislature in the West of Europe to promote the emigration of its
  less opulent subjects, until the condition of the lower classes of
  men at home be rendered nearly as comfortable as the condition of
  the same classes in the new settlements of North America?"--Pp.
  50, 51.

Just now, when the Property Tax is to receive the mature consideration
of the legislature, the following passage, which also anticipates the
public feeling as expressed lately by an influential part of the press,
deserves to be cited:

  "Without regard to the original value of the soil, the gross
  amount of property in land is the fittest subject of taxation; and
  could it be made to support the whole expense of the public, great
  advantages would arise to all orders of men. What then, may it be
  said, would not, in that case, the proprietors of stock in trade,
  in manufactures, and arts, escape taxation, that is, the
  proprietors of one half of the national income? They would indeed
  be so exempted; and very justly, and very profitably for the
  state; for _it accords with the best interests of the community
  through successive generations, that_ ACTIVE PROGRESSIVE INDUSTRY
  that the whole weight should be laid on that quiescent stock,
  which has been formerly accumulated, as the reward of an industry
  which is now no longer exerted_."--P. 207.

In another work on political economy, Sir James has also recorded his
opinion, and indicated some passages, which have been copied by Godwin.
The work is: _Doutes Proposés aux Philosophes Economistes sur l'Ordre
Naturel et Essentiel des Sociétés Politiques, par M. l'Abbé de Mably_: à
la Haye, 1768, 8vo.

  "This book is a greater mixture of sense and nonsense than any
  other I ever read. What he says against the _Political_ jargon of
  the Economists, their evidence and their _despotisme légal_, is
  perfectly well reasoned. His own system of ascribing all evils to
  the Institution _of Separate Property_ is too absurd for any
  serious discussion."

It is pleasant to have these recorded opinions of such a man as
Mackintosh on books the subjects of which he had deeply meditated.
Indeed, to me there is a great charm in such private memoranda of a
distinguished and able man, giving the passing impression on his mind in
the course of his reading.

    S. W. SINGER.

  Mickleham, June 7. 1851.


_Notes on Ireland's Freedom from Serpents._

That Ireland was infested with venomous reptiles before St. Patrick's
time, that he banished them, "_and that serpents cannot survive in
Ireland_," is a well-known tradition, and one universally received
amongst the native Irish. In Christian symbolism it was usual to
designate sin or Paganism by a serpent or dragon, and saints who
converted heathen nations, or subdued the evil promptings of their own
nature, were represented with a serpent or dragon beneath their feet.
Thus, St. Patrick, by preaching the doctrine of the Cross, and uprooting
Paganism, may be said to have banished venomous serpents from Ireland.
In his case, however, the symbol may have had a deeper meaning, if, as
many (and with great probability) think, _serpent worship_ formed part
of that Oriental heathenism which obtained in early times in Ireland.

Dr. Geoffry Keating, in his _History of Ireland_ (in the Irish
language), which he completed about the year 1625, says: "Saoilim gurab
do an _deamhnaibk_ gairmithear _naithreacha nimke_ i m-beathaidh
Patraic" ("I think that by the serpents spoken of in the life of St.
Patrick were meant _demons_"). _Serpents_ figure among the carvings and
hieroglyphical ornaments on some of the remnants of Irish antiquity
which still puzzle our antiquaries. On Cruach Padruig, in Mayo, there is
a sort of tarn which still bears the name of Loch na Pheiste, or the
Serpent's Lake; and one of "the Two Lakes," whence Gleandaloch derives
its name, has the same appellation.

Solinus, who flourished at the close of the second century, notices, I
believe, the strange fact of Ireland's having an immunity from reptiles;
Isidore and Bede, in the seventh and eighth centuries, respectively
repeat the assertion. Donatus, Bishop of Fesulæ, who flourished about
the middle of the ninth century, says, in a Latin poem on his native

      "Nulla venena nocent; nec Serpens serpit in herbâ;
      Nec conquesta canit garrula Rana lacu
      In qua Scotorum gentes habitare merentur;
      Inclyta gens hominum, milite, pace, fide."

"Rana." A note on this word in Montgomery's _Poetry of Ireland_

  "However fabulous this may appear, it is certain that _Frogs_ were
  formerly unknown in this country: _they were first propagated here
  from spawn introduced as an experiment by a Fellow of Trinity
  College, Dublin, in 1696_."

Joceline of Furnes, Sir James Ware, Fynes Moryson, and several others,
notice the absence of serpents in Ireland.

A Belfast correspondent to the _Dublin Penny Journal_, June, 1834,
mentions some cases of _introducing reptiles_ into Ireland:

  "About 1797, a gentleman is said to have imported from England
  into Wexford, a number of vipers:"

they died immediately after. He continues:--

  "We are sorry to record that the virtues of the good old times
  have passed away, _as snakes are at this moment_ (June, 1834)
  _free denizens of the County of Down, and gambolling in its
  shrubberies and plantings_."

The particulars are as follows:

  "In the summer of 1831, a gentleman, by way of experiment to
  ascertain whether snakes would survive in Ireland, brought from
  Scotland a few pair of what are usually called the common snake
  (_Coluber natrix_). These he put into a plantation at Milecross,
  near Newtownards, where they soon from their number gave evidence
  of becoming as fruitful as if they had been placed in South

I have not heard how long the snakes continued at Milecross, but I
believe they are not there now. The Marquis of W----d, I have heard, in
a similar freak, endeavoured, but unsuccessfully, to propagate snakes on
his property.

The usual Irish word for _serpent_ is _nathair_; Welsh, _gnadr_; German,
_natter_; Anglo-Saxon, _nædre_; Latin, _natrix_; English, _adder_. The
epithet _nimhe_, poison, is often added, and a compound word made,

_Peist_, a word I have before alluded to, is analogous with the Latin
_best-ia_, and means a _worm_, a _beast_, as well as a _serpent_.



Dearest Sir,

Yours of the 4th I showed to Mr. Baker, who desires me to tell you, that
the Canons of 1571, with the subscriptions, are (as the Articles) in
paper bound up in the same volume of the _Synodalia_, and stand there
next to the "Articles of 1571" subscribed by the Archbishop and ten

I agree with you that the MS. of 1562 was designed to be subscribed
without alterations; but your reasons do not satisfy me that the
alterations were posterior to the subscription, for notwithstanding the
alterations it appeared very plain to the subscribers what they
subscribed to, and there needed no memorandum to them that the lines of
minium were designed to exclude all that was scored; and the care that
was taken to alter the account of the number of lines and Articles of
the several pages conformably to the alterations made by the lines of
minium was wholly unnecessary, and to no purpose, except the
subscriptions were to follow, in the middle of which the subscribers own
the exact number of Articles and lines in every page, and therefore this
care was necessary that their subscription might be true; but supposing
they subscribed before the alterations, the lines of minium were
sufficient to show what alterations were to be made in the new copy of
the Articles, and not the least occasion for adjusting the number of
Articles and lines at the end to the foregoing pages. But both these are
but conjectures on your and my part, and the main point does not depend
upon them, which is in my opinion, whether this MS. could be designed
for the _Publick Record_, and that it was not I think the want of such a
memorandum as you speak of, as well as the Archbishop leaving it to C.
C. C. as his own property, is a sufficient evidence: though I must
confess I am apt to think the postscript in the _Publick Record_ (which
I take to be printed from the record in Renald Wolfe's edition of 1563
referred to by your adversary) refers to this MS., and the subscriptions
to it of both houses.

Mr. Baker nor I had Gibson's _Synod. Anglicana_; but this morning I got
a sight of it from the booksellers, and have sent it to Mr. Baker, who I
hope will make a better use of it than I am able to do; the passage you
refer to favours an opinion that I have had, that the subscriptions were
left in the keeping of the President of the Convocation, the Archbishop
or Bishop of London; but that a _Publick Record_ (different from that
with the subscriptions, and left with the President) was engrossed in
parchment, and preserved in its proper place, the Registry of the
Convocation; and thus that which Archbishop Laud found at Lambeth might
be left there.

I cannot tell exactly the number of blank pages (whether three or more)
between the subscription of the Bishops and of the Lower House in 1562.
Both Mr. Baker and I omitted to take so much notice of it; but we both
remember that there might be room in the MS. for the clause in the
beginning of the twentieth Article, partly in the space between the
nineteenth and the twentieth Article, and partly in the margin; or in
the margin there might be room enough for the whole clause.

Rogers' first edition was 1579, under this title: "The English Creed,
wherein is contained in tables an Exposition on the Articles, which
every one is to subscribe unto. Where the Article is expounded by
Scriptures and Confessions of all the Reformed Churches and Heresies
displayed, by Thomas Rogers. Printed for Andrew Mansell, 1579, in fol."
This title I transcribe from Andrew Mansell's printed Catalogue of
Books, published 1595. I mentioned to you another edition in 1585, the
first part, and 1587, the second part, with a new title and pretty great
additions; and I think I told you the second part began with the
twentieth Article. It may seem from thence that his first edition in
1579 was not upon all the Articles; but I believe it was, and that the
other edition came not out both parts together, because of the
additions. I am sorry you find it not among Mr. Anstey's books, nor can
I find it here. With my humble service to your good lady, I am, dearest
sir, your most affectionate humble servant,


The letter, of which the above is a transcript, may be interesting to
some of your readers; I therefore send it you for publication; the name
of the person to whom it was addressed, and the date, have been torn


  [Thomas Browne, the writer of the foregoing letter, was a fellow
  of St. John's College, Cambridge; but subsequently, with his
  friend Mr. Baker, became a Nonjuror. The letter appears to have
  been written to the Rev. Hilkiah Bedford, a Nonjuring clergyman,
  who was at this time preparing his masterly reply to Anthony
  Collins' work, _Priestcraft in Perfection_, which was published in
  1709. Mr. Bedford's work was published anonymously, and is
  entitled, _A Vindication of the Church of England from the
  Aspersions of a late Libel entituled "Priestcraft in Perfection,"
  &c._ By a Priest of the Church of England: London, 1710. The
  preface has been attributed to Dr. Joseph Trapp. Mr. Bedford has
  availed himself of the information conveyed to him in the letter
  given above, especially in pages 32. 35. 42. 78. 84. At page 101.
  he says, "I shall set down what farther account concerning this
  ancient MS. I have received in several letters from two persons of
  great learning and integrity at Cambridge, who have consulted
  these MSS. of Corpus Christi formerly, and been so obliging to
  examine them again now for my satisfaction, with all the care and
  exactness due to a matter of such moment." The _minium_ mentioned
  by the writer of the letter is the red lead pencil commonly used
  by Archbishop Parker, for noting particular passages in the
  documents he perused.]


I have met with a notion in Dryden's _Poems_, which reads very like a
blunder. It occurs in the "Spanish Friar," as follows:--

      "There is a pleasure sure in being mad,
      Which none but madmen know."

And again in this couplet:

      "And frantic men in their mad actions show
      A happiness, that none but madmen know;"

There is a description of madness to which all men are more or less
subject, and which Pascal alludes to in one of his "Pensées:"

  "Les hommes sont si nécessairement fous, que ce serait être fou
  par un autre tour de folie, que de ne pas être fou:"

or, as Boileau has it in the couplet:

      "Tous les hommes sont fous, et malgré leurs soins,
      Ne diffèrent, entre eux, que du plus ou du moins."

There is another sort of madness which is described by Terence as

      ---- "cum ratione insanire."

And there is a third species of it, which Dryden himself speaks of in
the well-known line adopted from Seneca:

      "Great wits are sure to madness near allied."

Now, it is obvious that, in the passages above quoted from Dryden, he
does not refer to any of these three kinds of madness. As a man, he
could say in regard to the first:

      "Homo sum: humani nihil a me alienum puto."

As a man of the world his whole life was an exemplification of the
second; for no one knew better than he how to be mad by rule. And as one
of our greatest wits he was entitled to claim a near alliance to that
madness which is characteristic of men of genius. It is clear,
therefore, that, in the lines quoted above, he speaks of that total
deprivation of reason, which is emphatically described as stark, staring
madness; and hence the blunder. In point of fact, Dryden either knew the
pleasure and happiness of which he speaks, as belonging to that sort of
madness, or he did not know them. If he knew them, then by his own
showing he was a madman. If he did not know them, how could he affirm
that none but madmen knew them?

Should my view of this matter be incorrect, I shall be thankful to any
of your readers who will take the trouble to set me right.


  St. Lucia, April 15. 1851.

Minor Notes.

_Lord Edward Fitzgerald's Mother._--A highly respectable woman, recently
living in my service, and who was born and bred in the household of the
late Duke of Leinster, told me that, when she was a child, she was much
about the person of "the old Duchess;" and that she had often seen the
bloody handkerchief that was taken off Lord Edward Fitzgerald, after he
had been shot at his capture. This relic of her unfortunate son the
venerable and noble lady always wore stitched inside her dress. The
peerage states that she was a daughter of the Duke of Richmond, was
married in 1746-7, and bore seventeen children. As the arrest of Lord
Edward Fitzgerald was not until 1798, she must have been full seventy
years old when she thus mourned; reminding one in the sternness of her
grief of the "Ladye of Branksome."

    A. G.

_Chaucer and Gray._--Of all the oft-quoted lines from Gray's _Elegy_,
there is not one which is more frequently introduced than the well-known

      "E'en, in our ashes live their wonted fires."

Now Gray was an antiquary, and there is no doubt too well read in
Chaucer. Is it too much, therefore, to suggest that he owed this line
to one in Chaucer's "Reves Prologue:"

      "Yet in our ashen cold is fire yreken."

In Chaucer the sentiment it embodies is satirical:--

      "For whan we may not don, than wol we speken,
      Yet in our ashen cold is fire yreken."

In Gray, on the other hand, it is the moralist who solemnly declares:

      "E'en from the tomb the voice of nature cries,
      E'en in our ashes live their wonted fires."

But the coincidence cannot surely be accidental.


_Shakspeare Family._--In the _Rotulorum Patentium et Clausorum
Cancellariæ Hiberniæ Calendarium_, vol. i. pars i. p. 99 b. is an
entry, which shows that one Thomas _Shakespere_ and Richard Portyngale
were appointed Comptrollers of Customs in the port of Youghal, in
Ireland, in the fifty-first year of Edward III.

    J. F. F.

_Epitaph on Dr. Humphrey Tindall_ (Vol. iii., p. 422.).--The epitaph in
Killyleagh churchyard is not unlike the following inscription on the
tomb of Umphrey Tindall, D.D., Dean of Ely and President of Queen's
College, Cambridge, who died Oct 12, 1650, in his sixty-fifth year, and
is buried in the south aisle of the choir of Ely Cathedral:--

      "In presence, government, good actions, and in birth,
      Grave, wise, courageous, noble, was this earth;
      The poor, the Church, the College say, here lies
      A friend, a Dean, a Master, true, good, wise."

    K. C.


_Specimens of Composition._--In the current (June) number of the
_Eclectic Review_ there is a critique on Gilfillan's _Bards of the
Bible_, the writer of which indulges in the use of several most
inelegant, extraordinary, and unpardonable expressions. He speaks of
"spiritual monoptotes," &c., as if all his readers were as learned as he
himself professes to be: but the climax of his sorry literary attempt is
as follows:

  "Over the whole literature of modern times there is a feeling of
  reduced inspiration, milder possession, relaxed orgasmus,
  tabescent vitality, spiritual collapse."--P. 725.

What would the author of the _Spectator_ have thought of a writer who
could unblushingly parade before the literary public such words as
"relaxed orgasmus," "tabescent vitality," "monoptotes," &c.?

    J. H. KERSHAW.

_Burke's "mighty Boar of the Forest."_--It has been much canvassed, what
induced Burke to call Junius the "mighty boar of the forest." In the
thirteenth book of the _Iliad_ I found that Idomeneus, when awaiting the
attack of Æneas, is compared to the "boar of the mountains." I think it
therefore probable that Burke applied the comparison (quoting, from
memory) to Junius. Perhaps you will not think this trifle unworthy of a
place among the "Notes."




I should be much obliged to any of your correspondents who would explain
the following passages of Tennyson:

1. _Vision of Sin_ (_Poems_, p. 361.):

      "God made himself an awful rose of dawn."

2. _Vision of Sin_ (_Poems_, p. 367.):

                        "Behold! it was a crime
      Of sense avenged by sense that wore with time."

3. _In Memoriam_, p. 127.:

      "Over those ethereal eyes
      The bar of Michael Angelo."

(Coleridge, _Introduction to Second Lay Sermon_, p. xxvi., says:

  "Whose ample foreheads, with the weighty bar, ridge-like, above
  the eye-brows, bespoke observation followed by meditative

but why the allusion to Michael Angelo?)

  [Is our correspondent aware that the "_Bar_ of Michael Angelo" has
  already formed the subject of a Query from MR. SINGER. See our 2nd
  Vol., p. 166.]

4. _The Princess_, p. 66.:

      "Dare we dream of that, I ask'd,
      Which wrought us, as the workman and his work,
      That practice betters."

"Heir of all the ages." Is this traceable to the following lines of

      "Mein Vermächtniss, wie herrlich weit und breit!
      Die Zeit ist mein Vermächtniss, mein Acker ist die Zeit!"

Is the poem "The Lord of Burleigh" founded on fact or not? In an old
review of Tennyson in the _Westminster and Foreign Quarterly_, it is
stated to refer to the "mesalliance of the Marquis of Westminster;" but
any such notion is denied in the article on "Ballad Poetry" in the last
number of that journal.



In the Churchwardens' accounts of Ecclesfield parish, the following
entries occur:--

      "1527. It. paid to James Frodsam for makyng of iiij bell
                 collers, xiiijd.

      "----. It. paid to Robert Dawyre mendyng a bell
                 wheyll, iijd.

      "1530. It. for festnynge a gogon in ye belle
                 yocke, jd."

The foregoing extracts are quoted with a view to ascertaining at how
early a period the framework, now employed for suspending bells in
churches, was in use. It would appear that in 1527 the bell-_wheel_ was
known, and the bell swung on gudgeons ("gogon"), as it does now; but it
may be doubted whether it was the same full wheel which we have. In a
paper on Bells, read before the Bristol and West of England
Architectural Society, Dec. 10, 1849, by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, and
which has since been published in that Society's Report, I observe that
two interesting plates of the bell-wheels are given: one being the old
half-wheel, as still to be seen at Dunchideock in Devonshire; and the
other the present whole wheel, which Mr. Ellacombe considers was a new
thing in 1677.

Supposing that only the half-wheel was known in 1725, still the leverage
which it afforded in raising the bell was the same as is given by its
modern substitute. What then was the still earlier way of obtaining the
momentum necessary to peal-ringing? A drawing of an ancient campanile
turret which I have, exhibits a short piece of wood stuck at right
angles into the beam to which the bell is fastened; and from the end of
this, the rope depends, and would, of course, when pulled, easily swing
the bell on its axle.

Observation in old belfries, or illustrations in old books, would
possibly throw light upon my Query, which is, What were the modes of
hanging church bells for ringing, prior to the invention of the


Minor Queries.

_English Sapphics._--Can any of your readers furnish a list of the best
specimens of the English sapphic metre in the English language?--Every
one is familiar with Canning's _Needy Knife Grinder_, in the poetry of
the _Anti-Jacobin_, but I do not believe Dr. Watts's beautiful sapphic
lines are as well known as they deserve. I have not a copy of them by
me, but I give the first stanza from memory:

      "When the fierce North Wind, with his airy forces,
      Rears up the Baltic to a foaming fury,
      And the red lightning, with a storm of hail, comes
                        Rushing amain down."


_Equestrian Statues._--I have heard it remarked that, with the solitary
exception of the Duke of Wellington, there is no instance of an
equestrian statue being erected to a subject, in Her Majesty's
dominions. Is this so?


_Plays in Churches._--In Cooke's _Leicestershire_ the following is given
as an extract from the church register of Syston:

  "1602, paid to Lord Morden's players because they should not play
  in the church, 12d."

Who was this Lord Morden; and did the chartered players claim the right
of their predecessors, the "moralitie men," to use the church for their
representations? Was the 12_d._ given as a bribe to the players to
induce them to forego their claim, or expended in the hire of a place
more in accordance with the parish authorities' ideas of propriety?


"_The Right Divine of Kings to govern wrong._"--Where is this oft-quoted
line to be found, and who is the author of it? It is marked as a
quotation in Pope's _Dunciad_, book iv.

    S. WMSON.

_Serius, where situated?_--In requesting the information upon a point in
geography with which this note concludes, I shall not, I trust, incur
censure for introducing it by quoting a few of the lines in which the
poet Vida conveys to parents his advice upon the choice of a master for
their sons:

      "Interea moniti vos hic audite, parentes,
      Quærendus rector de millibus, eque legendus,
      Sicubi Musarum studiis insignis et arte,
      Qui curas dulces, carique parentis amorem
      Induat, atque velit blandum perferre laborem.
      * * * * *
      Ille autem, pueri cui credita cura colendi,
      Artibus egregiis, in primis optet amari,
      Atque odium cari super omnia vitet alumni."

I cannot pass unnoticed his counsel to masters:

      "Ponite crudeles iras, et flagra, magistri,
      Foeda ministeria, atque minis absistite acerbis.
      Ne mihi ne, quæso, puerum quis verbera cogat
      Dura pati; neque enim lacrymas, aut dulcis alumni
      Ferre queunt Musæ gemitus, ægræque recedunt,
      Illiusque cadunt animi," &c.

Vida exemplifies the consequences of the furious character and raging
conduct of a master, in the harsh treatment of his defenceless flock
(_turba invalida_), in the instance of a lovely boy, who, forgetful of

      "Post habuit ludo jussos ediscere versus."

The terror excited by the savage pedagogue throws the poor little fellow
into a fatal illness:

      "Quo subito terrore puer miserabilis acri
      Corripitur morbo; parvo is post tempore vitam
      Crescentem blandâ coeli sub luce reliquit.
      Illum populifer Padus, illum _Serius_ imis
      _Seriades_que diu Nymphæ flevere sub undis."

      _Vidæ Poet._, lib, i. 216. &c.

My inquiry is after _Serius Seriades_que Nymphæ. Where is the Serius?
What is the Italian name for this (I presume) tributary of the Po?

    F. W. F.

_Hollander's Austerity, &c._--Will you, or some one of your readers,
kindly explain the allusions in the following passage?--

  "Mr. Secretary Winwood is dead, whereby you see _Death expects no
  Complement_, otherwise he would certainly have _kept it at the
  Staff's End_, with a kind of _Hollander's austerity_." [Sir Th.
  Wentworth to Sir H. Wotton, Nov. 8. 1617, _Strafford's Letters and
  Despatches_, vol. i. p. 5.]

    C. P. PH***.

_Brother Jonathan._--Why is, and when first was, this fraternal cognomen
bestowed upon the United States of America? Is it strictly applicable to
the whole of the Union, or only to those states which were settled and
peopled by the Puritan fathers?


_Authorship of the "Groves of Blarney."_--Can any one inform me when,
and by whom, the ludicrous ballad, entitled the Groves of Blarney, was
composed, and where it may be found. Everybody knows the lines which
describe "Cupid and Venus and old Nicodemus, all standing out in the
open air."

    E. V.

_Carnaby._--What is the derivation and meaning of this word, as the name
of a square or street?


_Death of Death's Painter._--Most persons have heard of the story of an
Italian painter who embodied the idea of Death on the canvass so
truthfully, that the contemplation of it caused his own death. I always
thought it was fabulous, till I met with it in the translation of
Vasari's _Lives of the Painters_, vol. ii. p. 305., now being published
in Bohn's _Standard Library_. The name of Fivizzano is there given to
the painter, and the following epigram is said to have been inscribed
beneath the picture:--

      "Me veram pictor divinus mente recepit.
        Admota est operi deinde perita manus.
      Dumque opere in facto defigit lumina pictor,
        Intentus nimium, palluit et moritur.
      Viva igitur sum mors, non mortua mortis imago
        Si fungor, quo mors fungitur officio."

Which may be thus translated:--

      Me with such truth the painter's mind discerned,
        While with such skilful hand the work he plied,
      That when to view his finished work he turned,
        With horror stricken, he grew pale, and died.
      Sure I am living Death, not Death's dead shade,
        That do Death's work, and am like Death obeyed.

Can you refer me to any authority for the story?

    J. C. H.


_Book Plates._--I have been some years collecting book plates with a
view latterly of writing _A History of Book Plates_, if I can find time
to do so. Several years ago, in a paper which was printed in the _Oxford
Heraldic Society's Report_, I suggested 1700 as their earliest known
date. I am glad to have an opportunity of mentioning that paper for the
sake of saying, that I made some mistakes in it. Mr. Burgon on seeing it
said, in a following report, that he had seen a book plate dated 1698. I
have since obtained one or two dated in that year. I am anxious to know
from any of your readers whether they have seen any English book plate
dated before 1698. I am inclined to think that foreign book plates are
to be found of an earlier date. I have some, unfortunately not dated,
which I think are earlier. There is no doubt, however, that in this
country at least they did not become general till after that date. If I
live to publish the little work which I meditate, I will give all the
information which I can produce on the subject.


_Querelle d'Allemand._--The phrase, "faire une querelle d'Allemand,"
means, as your readers are aware, to pick a quarrel with a person for
the mere pleasure of quarrelling: and the earliest instance of its
application, that occurs to me, will be found in one of Du Vair's
essays, where speaking of the virtues of some of his predecessors in the
office of "chancelier", he says:

  "Après avoir longuement et fidèlement servi la patrie, on leur
  dresse des querelles d'Allemand, et de fausses accusations pour
  les bannir des affaires."

Is the origin of this expression connected with any particular
occurrence in history; or has it arisen from any proneness to quarrel,
which might be said to be inherent in the national character of the


  St. Lucia, May, 1851.

_Bassenet of Eaton._--Edward Bassenet, the first married Dean of St.
Patrick's, Dublin, and who in the words of Swift, "surrendered the
deanery to that beast Hen. VIII.," was of a family seated at Eaton, in
Denbighshire. He had four sons, Richard, William, John, and George; on
whom he settled the Irish property which he acquired at the surrender,
and probably what he held at Eaton. (See Mason's _St. Patrick's_, p.

Can any of your correspondents inform me if this family be still in
existence, and in possession? or if not, how soon it failed? From the
notices given by Mason, it seems probable that the eldest son died
without issue; but even this is not certain, and beyond this I have no

    D. X.

_Dumore Castle, or the Petrified Fort._--Can any of your valued
contributors trace the origin of this ancient fortress, which is
situated on a peak of the Grampian Hills, seven miles north-east from
Crieff, immediately above the romantic glen of Almond, so much spoken of
in Wordsworth's poems as the burial-place of Ossian. The fort has the
appearance of a large circus ring, around which are scattered the
remains of this once remarkable stronghold, and which to every
appearance have been burned to an extensive degree. Tradition assigns it
to be the spot in which the Caledonians so nobly defended the further
progress northward of the Romans; and also that it was the custom in
those days, for the purpose of making their places of defence more
secure, to build a double wall, in which all manner of combustibles
were put, which they kindled, and let burn for the space of a few days.
Being peculiarly attached to this romantic spot, and anxious to have any
particulars regarding its history, perhaps you would be so kind as give
it a corner in your valuable "NOTES AND QUERIES;" whereby it may be the
means of gaining an answer to my Query.

    JAMES C.

_Charles Dodd, the Ecclesiastical Historian._--The catalogue of the
Bodleian Library asserts that this author's real name is Hugh Tootle. I
should like to know the authority for this statement?



_Ussher's Works, by Dr. Elrington._--If you, or any of your
correspondents, can inform me when the remaining volume of the new
edition of Archbishop Ussher's works by Dr. Elrington, is likely to be
published, I shall esteem it a favour, as I am unable to learn from the

    C. PAINE, Jun.

_Family of Etty the Artist._--In the _Diary_ of Ralph Thoresby, F. R.
S., 1702, vol. i. p. 366., occurs the following passage:--

  "Evening sat up too late with a parcel of artists I had got on my
  hands; Mr. Gyles, the famousest painter of glass perhaps in the
  world, and his nephew, Mr. Smith, the bell-founder (from whom I
  received the ringing or gingling spur, and that most remarkable,
  with a neck six inches and a half long); Mr. Carpenter the
  statuary, and Mr. Etty the painter, with whose father, Mr. Etty,
  senr, the architect, the most celebrated Grinlin Gibbons wrought
  at York, but whether apprenticed with him or not I remember not
  well. Sate up full late with them."

Thoresby at this time was at York. Were these Ettys ancestors of the
late William Etty? In the "Autobiography" published in the _Art
Journal_, it is stated that his father was a miller at York, but the
account goes no farther back. It would be interesting to ascertain how
far this was a case of hereditary genius. Is anything known of the "Etty
the Painter," and "Etty, Sen., the architect," to whom Thoresby alludes?
and are any of their works extant?

    G. J. DE WILDE.

_St. Hibbald._--Who was St. Hibbald, and where is some account of him to
be found? He is reported to have been buried at Hibbaldstowe, near
Kirton, in Lindsey.

    K. P. D. E.

Minor Queries Answered.

_Unde derivatur "Gooseberry Fool?"_--I have heard some wild guesses on
this subject; the most preposterous, perhaps, being that which would
connect the term with gooseberry _food_.

Has not the French word _fouler_, "to press," or "squeeze," something to
do with the matter?

    T. J. T.

  Cheltenham, May 6. 1851.

  [Our correspondent will find ample confirmation of the accuracy of
  his derivation in Tarver's _Phraseological Dictionary_, where,
  under _Fouler_, he will find the examples, "_Fouler des pommes, du
  raisin_, to press, to crush, to squeeze apples, grapes."]

_Biography of Bishop Hurd._--The longest biographical sketch I remember
to have seen of the late Bishop Hurd, the friend and biographer of
Bishop Warburton, was in a work called the _Ecclesiastical Register_, or
some such name, I suppose of the date of 1809 or thereabouts. Can any
correspondent of "NOTES AND QUERIES" direct me to the precise title and
date of the work, or point out any better sketch of the Bishop's life?

    F. K.

  [In the collected Works of Bishop Hurd, 8 vols. 8vo., edit. 1811,
  will be found an autobiographical sketch of the Bishop, entitled
  "Some Occurrences in my Life," discovered among his papers after
  his decease. Nichols' _Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth
  Century_, vol. vi. pp. 468-512., contains a long and interesting
  account of the Bishop. See also the _Annual Register_, vol. 1. p.

_Friday, why considered unlucky._--Can any of your readers tell me why
Friday is considered an unlucky day?

    E. N. W.

  [There is no doubt the belief of Friday being an unlucky day
  originated in its being the day of the Crucifixion. A very early
  allusion to this superstition, and which has not we believe been
  recorded by Brande, will be found in Geoffrey de Vinsauf's "Lament
  for Richard Coeur de Lion," who was killed on a Friday:

      "O Veneris lacrymosa dies, O sidus amarum!
      Illa dies tua nox fuit, et Venus illa venenum."

  It is to this passage Chaucer refers in his _Nonnes_ Preeste's
  Tale, v. 15, 353., _et seq._, when he says:

      "O Gaufride, dere maister soverain,
      That, whan thy worthy King Richard was slain
      With shot, complainedest his deth so sore,
      Why ne had I now thy science and thy lore,
      The Friday for to chiden, as did ye?
      For on a Friday sothly slain was he."]

_The Lord Mayor a Privy Councillor._--Can any of your contributors
inform me whether the prefix "Right Honourable" is accorded to the title
of the Lord Mayor of London as a mere matter of courtesy, or whether our
Chief Magistrate is for the time being _ex officio_ a Privy Councillor,
and consequently "Right Honourable?"

If any authority for either position can be cited, so much the more


  [The Lord Mayor is never sworn as a Privy Councillor; but on the
  demise of the Crown attends the meeting, of the Privy Council held
  on such occasion, and signs the proclamation of the new Sovereign.
  On the accession of William IV., some objection was, we believe,
  made to the admission of the Lord Mayor into the Council Chamber,
  which was, however, abandoned on an intimation that if the Lord
  Mayor was not admitted, he would retire, accompanied by his
  officers and the aldermen who were present.]

_Alterius Orbis Papa._--In the Bishop of Exeter's celebrated _Pastoral
Letter_, p. 44., the Archbishop of Canterbury is styled--

  "The second spiritual chief of Christendom, _alterius orbis

In conversation a few days since I heard these expressions objected to,
when a gentleman present observed that the title "Alterius orbis Papa"
was conferred by the Bishop of Rome, or Pope of Christendom, on his
confrère of Canterbury, at a very early period. His memory did not
furnish him with the precise date, but he was convinced that such was
the fact as reported in Collier's _Ecclesiastical History_, and seemed
inclined to refer it to a period not long subsequent to the mission of

Is such the fact? or, if not, to whom may the words be ascribed?

    A. B.

  Redland, June 5.

  [Carwithen, in his _History of the Church of England_, vol. i. p.
  40., speaking of Wolsey's attempt to gain the popedom, says, "His
  aim was the chair of St. Peter, and to the attainment of his
  wishes he rendered subservient both the alliances and the enmities
  of his own country. At home, even the papacy could confer on him
  no accession of power: he was indeed _papa alterius orbis_."]

_Mrs. Elstob._--Mrs. Elstob, the Anglo-Saxon scholar, is stated by a
recent reviewer to have passed the period of her seclusion in a village
in Wiltshire, until taken notice of by a neighbouring clergyman. What
village was this, and who was the clergyman? for other authorities place
her at Evesham in Worcestershire.

    J. W.

  [We are inclined to think that _Wiltshire_ must be a misprint for
  _Worcestershire_ in the Review, as the notices of Miss Elstob in
  Kippis' _Biographia Britannica_, and Nichols' _Anecdotes of
  Bowyer_, only speak of her retirement in distressed circumstances
  to Evesham, where she attracted the notice of Mr. Ballard, author
  of _Memoirs of British Ladies_, and of Mrs. Capon, wife of the
  Rev. Mr. Capon, of Stanton, in Gloucestershire.]

_Cardinal Bellarmin._--I find the following passage in D'Israeli's
_Curiosities of Literature_:--

  "Bellarmin was made a Cardinal for his efforts and devotion to the
  Papal cause, and maintaining this monstrous paradox--that if the
  Pope forbid the exercise of virtue and command that of vice, the
  Roman Church, under pain of sin, was obliged to abandon virtue for
  vice, if it would not sin against conscience."

Can any of your readers favour me with the text in Bellarmin, which
contains this "monstrous paradox?"


  St. Lucia, May, 1851.

  [The passage will be found in _Disputationum Roberti Bellarmini,
  de Controversiis Christianæ Fidei: De Summo Pontifice_, lib. iv.
  cap. v. sect. 8.: Pragæ, 1721, fol., vol. i. p. 456.:

  "8. Secundò, quia tunc necessariò erraret, etiam circa fidem. Nam
  fides Catholica docet, omnem virtutem esse bonam, omne vitium esse
  malum: si autem Papa erraret præcipiendo vitia, vel prohibendo
  virtutes, teneretur Ecclesia credere, vitia esse bona, et virtutes
  malas, nisi vellet contra conscientiam peccare. Tenetur enim in
  rebus dubiis Ecclesia acquiescere judicio summi Pontificis, et
  facere quod ille præcipit; non facere, quod ille prohibet; ac nè
  fortè contra conscientiam agat, tenetur credere bonum esse, quod
  ille præcipit: malum, quod ille prohibet."]



(Vol. ii., p. 354.; Vol. iii., p. 65.)

This is another discussion in which Shakspeare's love of antithesis has
not been sufficiently recognised.

The contrast in this case is in the ideas--ever receiving, never
retaining: an allusion to the hopeless punishment of the Danaïdes, so
beautifully appropriate, so unmistakeably apparent, and so well
supported in the context, that I should think it unnecessary to offer a
comment upon it had the question been raised by a critic less
distinguished than Mr. Singer; or if I did not fancy that I perceive the
origin of what I believe to be his mistake, in the misreading of another
line, the last in his quotation.

The hopelessness of Helena's love is cheerfully endured; she glories in

      "I know I love in vain--strive against hope--
      Yet still outpour the waters of my love,
      And lack not to lose still."

This last line Mr. Singer reads, "and fail not to lose still;" but
surely _that_ is not Helena's meaning? She means that her spring of love
is inexhaustible; that, notwithstanding the constant, hopeless waste,
there lacks not (a supply) "to lose still!"

Johnson was one of those commentators enumerated by Mr. Singer, of whom
he observes, as a matter of surprise, "that none of them should have
remarked that the sense of the Latin 'captiosus,' and of its congeners
in Italian and French, is deceitful, fallacious;" "and," he adds, "Bacon
uses the word for 'insidious,' 'ensnaring.'" But surely Johnson the
commentator was no other than Johnson the lexicographer; and yet, for
these precise definitions of "captious," which J. S. W. thinks "_too
refined and recondite_" for Shakspeare's "small Latin," we need apply to
no higher source than to that familiar household companion--_Johnson's
Dictionary_, wherein is anticipated the citation of Bacon, and even of
the French word "captieux."

It could not therefore be from ignorance that Johnson failed to propose
this recondite sense, but from a conviction that it would not represent
the true meaning of Shakspeare.

It will be perceived that, in appreciation of "captious," I side with
Steevens, Malone, Knight, Collier, and even with J.S.W.; in whom,
however, with his irreverent allusion to "_a man_ who had small Latin,"
I can recognise no true worshipper of Shakspeare.

Why should Shakspeare be constantly twitted with this "small Latin," as
if the "_school-like gloss_" of a hundred Porsons could add one
scintilla to the glory of his name? His was the universal language of
nature; and well does Mr. Singer remark that "We all know, by intuition
as it were, what Shakspeare meant." It is true that we discuss his mere
words in the endeavour to school our understandings to HIS level; but
he, hedged by the divinity of immeasurable genius, must, himself, be
sacred;--to attempt to measure his attainments by our finite estimation,
is indeed sacrilege!

In retailing Ben Jonson's unluckily chosen expression, J.S.W. does not
seem to be aware that it has been doubted, and ably doubted, by Mr.
Knight, in his _History of Opinion_, that Jonson himself used it by any
means in the pedagogue sense usually adopted. And it does seem scarcely
credible that Jonson would give utterance to a puff so miserably
threadbare, so absurd too on the very face of it; for in what possible
way could an alleged deficiency of Greek and Latin _in Shakspeare_,
affect a comparison, _made by Jonson_, between Shakspeare and the poets
of Greece and Rome? As well might it be said that ignorance of the Greek
language, in Napoleon Buonaparte, would prevent a parallel between him
and Alexander the Great! What if Ben Jonson meant his fifth line to
continue the supposition of the first?--"_though_" is a word which has a
hypothetical, as well as an admissive meaning; and there is no
difficulty in reading his lines in this way:

  "_If_ I thought my judgment were of yours, and _though_ thy
  learning were less; still I would not seek to compare thee with
  modern men, but call forth thundering Eschylus," &c.

But I should like to ask J. S. W., as the nearest example from the same
play, which does he really think would require the _larger_ Latin,--to
discover the trite and only meaning of "captiosus," or to use _triple_
in the sense conferred upon it in Helena's description, to the King, of
her father's legacy? We have not at present in the English language any
equivalent for that word as Shakspeare used it, and of which he has left
us another example in _Antony and Cleopatra_, where the triumvir is
called "the triple pillar of the world." We have failed to take
advantage of the lesson given us by our great master, and consequently
our language is deprived of what would have been a most convenient

It is true that Johnson gives a definition of "triple," in reference to
its application to Antony, viz., "consisting of three conjoined;" but
that meaning, however it might be applicable to the triumvirate
collectively, is certainly not so to the members individually. To meet
Shakspeare's use of the word, the definition must be extended to
"consisting of, _or belonging to_, three conjoined:" a sense in which
"triplex" was undoubtedly used by the Latins. Ovid would call the
triumvirate "viri triplices," and of course each one must be "vir
triplex;" but perhaps the clearest instance of the triune application is
where he addresses the Fates (in _Ibin._ 76.) as spinning out "triplici
pollice" (with triple thumb) the allotted task. Now as only one of the
sisters held the thread, there could be but one individual thumb engaged
(although with a sort of reflective ownership to all three); and there
can be no question that Ovid would apply the same term to the shears of
Atropos, or the distaff of Clotho.

Here, then, is a _really recondite_ meaning, fairly traced to
Shakspeare's own reading; for had he borrowed it from any one else, some
trace of it would be found, and Warburton need not have stultified
himself by his sapient note--"IMPROPERLY USED FOR THIRD!"

But to return to "captious," there is, after all, no such great
difference whether it be one's goods, or one's wits, that are taken
possession of; or whether the capture be effected by avidity or fraud;
both meanings unite in our own word "caption:" and there seems no good
reason why "captious" should not derive from "caption," as readily as
"cautious" from "caution." It is for the antithesis I contend, as a key
to the true sense intended by Shakspeare: the whole play is full of
antitheses, uttered especially by Helena;--and certainly, if we
recognise the allusion to the Danaïdes (as who will not?), we cannot,
without depriving it of half its force and beauty, receive "captious" in
the sense of "deceptious." The Danaïdes _were not_ deceived--the essence
of their punishment was utter absence of hope; Tantalus _was_
deceived--the essence of _his_ punishment was hope ever recurring.

With respect to the suggestion of "capacious" by W.F.S. (p. 229.), he
could not have read Mr. Singer's paper with attention, or he would have
perceived that he had been anticipated by Farmer, who, by elision, had
obviated the metrical objection of J.S.W. (p. 430.). But the meaning of
"capacious" is "capable of containing," and, as such, it would be more
than antithetical, it would be contradictory, to "intenible." If
_capacious_ be consistent with _leaky_, then the "uxor secreti capax"
must have been rather an unsafe confidante.

    A. E. B.

  Leeds, June 5. 1851.


(Vol. iii., p. 408.)

The origin of this ceremony must undoubtedly be sought in man's natural
desire to cover a dead body from the public view. The casting a handful
of soil on the coffin is emblematic of the complete inhumation. The most
ancient writings have allusions to the shamefulness of a corpse lying
uninterred. Being thrown outside the walls of Jerusalem, with the burial
of an ass (Jeremiah xxii. 19.), was regarded as the worst possible fate.

Wheatly's observations upon this point, in his annotations on the burial
service in the Prayer Book, are as follows:

  "The casting earth upon the body was esteemed an act of piety by
  the very heathens (Ælian, _Var. Hist._, l. v. c. 14.), insomuch
  that to find a body unburied, and leave it uncovered, was judged
  amongst them a great crime (Hor. l. i. od. 28. v. 36.). In the
  Greek Church this has been accounted so essential to the
  solemnity, that it is ordered to be done by the priest himself
  (Goar, _Eucholog. Offic. Exeq._, p. 538.); and the same was
  enjoined by our own rubric in the first Common Prayer of King
  Edward VI.: '_Then the priest casting earth upon the corpse_,' &c.
  But in our present Liturgy (as altered in Queen Elizabeth's reign,
  1559), it is only ordered that it '_shall be cast upon the body by
  some standing by_:' and so it is generally left to one of the
  bearers, or sexton, who, according to Horace's description
  (_injecto ter pulvere_, vid. supra), gives three casts of earth
  upon the body or coffin, whilst the priest pronounces the solemn
  form which explains the ceremony, viz. '_earth to earth, ashes to
  ashes, dust to dust._'"

The note in Horace upon the three words above quoted is very much to the

  "_In sacris hoc genus sepulturæ tradebatur, ut si non obrueretur,
  manu ter jacta terra, cadaveri pro sepultura esset._" (Vet.

The ancients thought that the spirit of an unburied corpse could not
reach the Elysian fields, but wandered disconsolate by the Styx, until
some pious hand paid the customary funeral rites. See the case of
Patroclus (_Iliad_, xxiii. 70, et seq.). To lay the unquiet ghost, a
handful of earth on the bodily remains would suffice:

      "_Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescent._"

The indignity of a public execution is much aggravated by allowing the
body of the criminal to remain exposed, as in the case of the five sons
of Saul whose corpses were guarded by Rizpah (2 Sam. xxi.); and in our
own recent custom of ordering pirates and the worst kind of murderers,
to be gibbeted in chains, as a monumental warning.

Three or four summers ago I buried an Irish reaper, who had suddenly
died in the harvest-fields. About half a dozen fellow-labourers, Irish
and Roman Catholics like himself, bore him to the grave. At the words
_earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust_, they threw in handfuls
of soil; and, as soon as the service was over, they filled up the grave
with spades which they had brought for the purpose. No doubt, there was
religious prejudice in all this; but their behaviour was most reverent,
and what they did seemed to arise from the generous _instinct to cover
the dead body_ of a comrade.

    Alfred Gatty.

_Wheatly on the Common Prayer_ (ch. xii. §5.) derives this custom from
the ancients, and adds that--

  "In the Greek Church, the casting earth upon the body has been
  accounted so essential to the solemnity, that it is ordered to be
  done by the priest himself. And the same was enjoined by our own
  rubric in the first Common Prayer of King Edward VI."

For the Greek Church Wheatly refers to Goar _Rituale Græcorum_, p. 538.
The passage, which I transcribe from Goar, runs as follows:--

  "Et cadaver in monumento deponitur. Sacerdos vero terram batillo
  tollens superinjecit cadaveri, dicens, 'Domini est terra et
  plenitudo ejus: orbis terrarum et qui habitant in eo.' His
  peractis cadaveri superinfundunt lampadis oleum, aut e thuribulo
  cinerem. Atque ita ut moris est, sepulchrum operiunt dum dicuntur
  moduli," &c.

The following reference may also be added, Goar, 556., "Officium funeris
monachorum," where the earth is directed to be thrown "in crucis modum."

    N. E. R. (a Subscriber.)


(Vol. iii., p. 401.)

"The first folio," says Dr. Johnson, "has in both places _prenzie_, from
which the other folios made _princely_, and every editor may make what
he can." It will not be difficult, I conceive, to find out what sense
Shakspeare meant to convey by this word, and to show that what he meant
he has expressed with sufficient accuracy, though his meaning was soon
after misunderstood. Our language owes much of its wealth of words to
the talent which our great poet possessed for coining them--a talent
which he exercised with marvelous tact: and if now and then some of them
failed for want of being properly printed, we may rather wonder that so
many obtained currency, than that a few ceased to circulate soon after
they were first introduced.

The idea intended to be conveyed by the word _prenzie_, is that which
is expressed in the following passages:

      "All this I speak _in print_; for _in print_ I found it."
              _Two Gentlemen of Verona_, Act II. Sc. I.

             "I will do it, Sir, _in print_."
                _Love's Labour's Lost_, Act III. Sc. I.

on which Steevens remarks:

  "_In print_ means _with Exactness_--with the _utmost Nicety_."

He supports this meaning by quotations from other dramatic writers of
the same age:

  "Not a hair about his Bulk, but it stands _in print_." (1605)

  "I am sure my husband is a Man _in print_, in all things else."

When, therefore, Claudio, who, as your correspondent LEGES observes, is
aware of Angelo's reputation for sanctity, exclaims in astonishment:

      "The _prenzie_ Angelo?"

he means the same as if he had said:

      "What! that Man _in print_?"
      "The _printsy_ Angelo?"

But _prenzie_ is a term applied to _apparel_ as well us to _character_;
and how does this accord with the interpretation here given?

      "O 'tis the cunning livery of hell,
      The damned'st body to invest and cover
      In _prenzie_ guards!"

Here again we are supplied by Steevens with apt quotations in
illustration from other writers of the same age:

  "Next, your Ruff must stand _in print_." (1602.)


  "This Doublet sits _in print_, my Lord!" (1612.)

  "In _printsy_ guards" means the same, therefore, as "Guards _in
  print_," or, _robes_ put on "with _exactness_--with the _utmost

_Printsy_ is a word of the same formation with _tricksy_; and the
phrase, "The _printsy_ Angelo!" is as good English as "My _tricksy_
Ariel!" It was probably pronounced _prentsy_ (_prenzie_) in the time of
Shakspeare; the word _print_ being derived from _empreinte_. Sir W.
Scott speaks of "a _prent_ book," for a printed book. _Besprent_ is the
participle of _besprinkle_. Of similar formation with _printsy_ and
_tricksy_, are _linsy_, _woolsy_, and _frowsy_; but as all these
adjectives, except the first, are derived from nouns representing
natural or familiar things, while _printsy_ is founded on a word having
no connexion with any obvious idea, it is probable that this difference
may account for the fact that _printsy_ so early fell into disuse, while
the rest were retained without difficulty.

By the word _printsy_, those four conditions are fulfilled for which
your correspondent so properly contends:--1. the word is "suitable to
the reputed character of Angelo." 2. It is "an appropriate epithet to
the word _guards_." 3. It supplies "the proper metre in both places." 4.
It is "similar in appearance to the word _prenzie_."

No other word has been produced which so fully represents the formality
and hypocrisy of Angelo, as described in the quotations so conveniently
brought into one view by your correspondent, though one of the epithets
made use of comes very near the mark: "Lord Angelo is _precise_!"



(Vol. i., pp. 298. 372. 406.)

I would refer your correspondents H. B., H. I. (p. 372.), and
PHILOBODIUS and MR. JERDAN (p. 406.), to the following volumes: _The
Last Battle of the Soule in Death_, by Mr. Zacharie Boyd, Preacher of
God's Word in Glasgow, edited by Gabriel Neil, Glasgow, 1831; McUre's
_History of Glasgow, with Appendix_, Glasgow, 1830.

As the first of these vols. is now very scarce (a limited number being
printed by subscription), the following extracts may be interesting to
some of your readers, and at the same time correct some errors of our

  "Mr. Zacharie Boyd was descended from the family of the Boyds of
  Pinkill (Carrick, Ayrshire). He was cousin to Mr. Robert Boyd, of
  Trochrigg, who was appointed Principal of the University of
  Glasgow in 1615. The date of his birth is not exactly known; some
  time previous to 1590. He received his education at the school of
  Kilmarnock. The first notice we have of him is in a letter to
  Principal Boyd, from David Boyd, in 1605, wherein he says, '_There
  is a friend of yours, Zacharie Boyd, who will pass his course at
  the colledge within two years._' After having finished his course
  at the University of Glasgow, he studied at the College of Saumur,
  in France, under his relation, Robert Boyd: he returned to his
  native county in 1621. In 1623 he was ordained Minister of the
  Barony Parish of Glasgow, in which situation he continued till his
  death in 1653-1654."

Mr. Zacharie Boyd was never Principal or a Professor in Glasgow College:
the only office he ever held in the college was that of Lord Rector (an
honorary office annually elected), which he held in the years 1634,
1635, 1645. He was a great benefactor to the college, to which he left
20,000_l_. Scots, for buildings and bursaries.

The crypt below Glasgow Cathedral, called St. Mungo's Crypt, was the
barony church in Zacharie's time, and where he preached; it is this same
place which Sir Walter Scott so well describes in _Rob Roy_ (vol. ii.
chap. 3., edition in 48 vols.), where Francis Osbaldistone heard sermon.
Z. Boyd was, both in prose and verse, a very voluminous writer; his
works, however, are chiefly in MS. in the library of Glasgow College.

In addition to editing _The Last Battle_, Mr. Neil has examined the
"Poetical Works" in MS.; and has given a summary of the whole in the
Appendix to the _Biographical Sketch_; and has printed for the first
time upwards of 3000 lines from the poetical MSS.

With regard to Mr. Boyd's poetry, the following account from Neil's
_Biographical Sketch_ may be accounted satisfactory, with reference to
the lines often quoted as from Zacharie Boyd's Bible:

  "The work, however, which has given the greatest public notoriety
  to his name as a poetical writer, is that generally called
  'Zacharie Boyd's Bible,' said to be a metrical version of the
  whole Scriptures--an arduous task indeed, if ever he contemplated
  the undertaking. But such a book as this has existed only in name,
  not in reality; _at least, it is nowhere to be found among his
  works_. The only one approaching to it is a metrical version of
  the 'Four Evangels,' which proceeds through the Gospels of the New
  Testament by chapter and verse.... And, among other works, he
  produced two volumes under the title of '_Zion's Flowers_,' _and
  it is these_ which are usually shown as his Bible, and have
  received that designation. These volumes consist of a collection
  of Poems from select subjects in Scripture History, such as Jonah,
  Jephtha, David and Goliath, &c., &c., rendered into the dramatic
  form, in which various 'Speakers' are introduced, and where the
  prominent parts of the Scripture narrative are brought forward and
  amplified. We have a pretty close parallel to these in the
  'Ancient Mysteries' of the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries, and
  in the Sacred Dramas of more modern writers.

  "It is from this work, _Zion's Flowers_, that the various
  quotations which have occasioned so much mirth to the public are
  said to have been made, _but not one of these which are in
  circulation_ are to be found there: the only '_genuine extract_
  from these MSS. is that printed by Pennant.'"--_Biog. Sketch_, p.
  14. _et seq._

The "genuine extract" will be found in Pennant's _Tour in Scotland_,
vol. ii. p. 156.

PHILOBODIUS, "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. i., p. 406., will find the four
lines he quotes given differently there.

    S. WMSON.

P.S. To show the extent of Mr. Boyd's _poetical perseverance_, I subjoin
a note of the contents of one of his poetical MSS.:--the _Flowers of
Zion_, generally called Zacharie Boyd's Bible.

      David and Goliath contains about            850 lines.
      Historie of Jonah                          1130  "
      ---- of Samson                             2100  "
      ---- of Jephtha                             720  "
      The Flood of Noah                           860  "
      The Tower of Babylon                        930  "
      The Destruction of Sodom                   2000  "
      Abram commanded to sacrifice Isaac          840  "
      Historie of the Baptist                     800  "
      The Fall of Adam                            900  "
      Abel murdered                               900  "
      Pharaoh's Tyranny and Death                2480  "
      Historie of Jacob and Esau                  750  "
      ---- of Jacob and Laban                    1400  "
      Jacob and Esau reconciled                   720  "
      Dinah ravished by Shechem                   440  "
      Joseph and his Brethren       }            1615  "
      Joseph tempted to Adultery    }
      Nebuchadnezzar's Fierie Furnace            3280  "

Also at the end--

      The World's Vanities (Divided into 8 Branches:--1st. Strength,
      2nd. Honour, 3rd. Riches, 4th. Beautie, 5th. Pleasure, 6th.
      Wisdom, 7th. Children, 8th. Long Life) contains about 550

      The Popish Powder Plot (The Speakers--Christ--King
      James--Elizabeth--Peeres of England--The Lords appointed to
      trye the Traitors--The Earls of Nottingham, Suffolke, the Lord
      Monteagle--The Sherriffe of Worcester--The Devill--the Jesuit
      Gerrard--Robert Catesby--Thomas Percy, Guy Faux, &c. &c. &c.)
      contains about 1560 lines.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Death, how symbolised_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--I beg to inform your
correspondent S. T. D., that in an old 4to. volume in my possession,
which treats principally of the topic about which he is inquiring, there
are several engravings of Death as a skeleton. In one he is armed with a
bow and arrow, an axe, and a scythe notched as a saw. In another he has
an axe only: while in a third, in which he is announcing his dissolution
to a man on his deathbed, he has a spade in his left hand, while with
his right he points upwards; and on his head is a wreath of thorns with
flowers standing up out of it. I do not know whether the book is a rare
one or not. It is in black letter, and at the end is the date 1515. The
title, which is a woodcut, rather curious, is--_Sermones Johannis
Geilerii Keiserspergii, &c., &c._ There are also six other woodcuts,
after the manner of Albert Durer, very quaint and curious. The volume is
in its original vellum, over oak boards, finely tooled, and has once
been bound at the corners and clasped with metal. In MS. on the top of
the title are the words "Monast. S. Udalrici Aug'æ." Though in very good
condition, the black-letter type is so curiously crabbed and abbreviated
that I have not had time to do more than ascertain that it seems a very
singular and a learned work.

    H. C. H.

  Rectory, Hereford, June 8. 1851.

  [The author of the curious work in the possession of our
  correspondent is John Geiler, called also Gayler, Keiserspergius,
  an eminent Swiss divine, who was born in 1445, and died in 1510.
  His works in German and Latin are books of rare occurrence, and
  consist principally of Sermons. Oberlin published in 1786 a
  curious life of Geiler. For the titles of his various works,
  consult Panzer's _Annales Typographici_, vol. vi.]

_Death_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--Has S. T. D. consulted the excellent
treatise of Lessing, "Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet?" It is illustrated
with many engravings. (See Lessing's _Sämmtliche Schriften_, 1839, vol.

    C. P. PH***.

  Oxford, Whit-Monday.

_A Kemble Pipe_ (Vol. iii., p. 425.).--If DR. RIMBAULT will turn to vol.
i., p. 10. of Campbell's _Life of Mrs. Siddons_, he will find that the
Kemble of smoking notoriety alluded to in the proverb, met his fate at a
date long subsequent to the Marian persecution. He was apprehended on a
charge of implication in Titus Oates's plot, and executed at Hereford,
August 2d, 1679, being one of the last persons who suffered death for
their religious opinions in England. He was hung, not burnt, and his
hand is still preserved in the Reliquary of the Roman Catholic Chapel at
Worcester. "On his way to execution," says Mr. Campbell,

  "He smoked his pipe and conversed with his friends; and in that
  county it was long usual to call the last pipe that was smoked in
  a social company, a Kemble's pipe."


_Flemish Work on the Order of St. Franciscus_ (Vol. i., p. 385.).--Your
correspondent JARLTZBERG may find a copy of the _Wyngaert_ in the
library of the _Maatschappij van Letterkunde_ (Lit. Soc.) in Leyden, and
may read an account of the work in vol. ii. pp. 151, 152. of the
_Society's Transactions_. The copy in my possession is entitled _Den
Wyngaert van Sinte Franciscus vol_ [not _van_] _schoone historien,
legenden en deuchdelycke leeringhen allen menschen seer profytelyck_.
Like most of the works issued from the press of Eckert van Hombach, it
is well printed on good paper; the leaves (not the _pages_) are numbered
up to 418, and besides there are six leaves without pagination for the
index, as well as three for the prologue, in which we learn why the work
was called _Wyngaert_. All the copies I have met with bear the date
1518, though in Hultman's _Catalogue_, p. 20. No. 92., we find 1578,
probably an error of the printer. In J. Koning's _Catalogue_, 1833, p.
17. No. 59., we are referred to Bauer, _Bibl. libr. rar._, vol. iv. p.
301.; and to the _Catalogue raisonné_ de Crevenna, vol. v. p. 85., where
we read:

  "Ce volume contient les vies des Saints de l'ordre de St.
  Franciscus, précédées de celle de son instituteur, _et n'est point
  une traduction_ du Livre des Conformités (_Liber Conformitatum_),
  quoiqu'il est probable qu'on ait pris beaucoup de ce livre."

Van Bleyswijk, in his _Description of Delft_, vol. i. p. 339., says,--

  "The Franciscans bought up the work, in order to suppress and
  destroy it: it is therefore no wonder that copies of it are

Unless you read it, says Professor Ackersdijck, in his _Archief voor
Kerk. Gesch._, you will hardly conceive it possible for any one to write
such a mass of folly and absurdity.

    V. D. N.

  NAVORSCHER, p. 179. June, 1851.

_Meaning of Tick_ (Vol. iii., p. 357.).--The following anecdote, as
characteristic of the individual as illustrative of the above Query, may
perhaps be considered deserving a corner in your Journal:--

  "A well-meaning friend calling one morning on Richard B. Sheridan,
  wound up a rather prosy exordium on the propriety of domestic
  economy, by expressing a hope, that the pressure of some
  difficulties from which he had been temporarily removed, would
  induce a more cautious arrangement in future.

  "Sheridan listened with great gravity, and thanking his visitor,
  assured him that he never felt so happy, as all his affairs were
  now proceeding with the _regularity of clockwork_, adding (with a
  roguish twinkle of the eye, and giving his arm the oscillating
  motion of a pendulum), 'Tick, tick, tick!' It is needless to add,
  the Mentor took a hasty leave of his witty but incorrigible

    M. W. B.

_Spelling of Britannia, &c._ (Vol. iii., pp. 275. 463.).--I believe that
there is no mistake as supposed in the inscription on the Geo. III.
shilling. The double "T" is expressive of the plural "Britt." for
"Britanniarum". Have we not many similar instances, _e. g._ "codd." for
"codices," "libb." for "libri;" or, one of every-day occurrence, "pp."
for "pages?"

    W. M. N.

_Fossil Elk of Ireland_ (Vol. ii., p. 494.; Vol. iii., pp. 26. 121.
212.).--W. R. C. (a Subscriber) will find some very interesting accounts
of this creature in Boate and Molyneux's _Natural History of Ireland_,
p. 137.; and in an excellent paper by Dr. Cane, in the _Transactions of
the Kilkenny Archæological Society for the Year 1850_, where several
works containing accounts of the animal are referred to. An interesting
memoir by Dr. Hibbert on the discovery of the _Megaceros Hibernicus_, or
fossil elk, in the Isle of Man, will be found in the fifth number of the
_Edinburgh Journal of Science_, published in 1826.[1]

  [Footnote 1: _Errata._--Query, should not the word "Rochenon," in
  Vol. i., p. 380. col. 1., be "Rosbercon?" and should not "D. H.
  M‛Carthy," in Vol. ii., p. 348. col. 1., be "D. F. M‛Carthy"
  (Denis Florence M‛Carthy)? Such errors, however trifling they may
  now appear, may hereafter confuse.]

    R. H.

_"In Time the Bull," &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 388.).--The quotation--

      "In time the bull is brought to bear the yoke,"

seems to be from Ovid, _Tristia_, iv. 6. 1.:

      "Tempore ruricolæ patiens fit taurus aratri;"

or _Ar. Am._ i. 471.:

      "Tempore difficiles veniunt ad aratra juvenci."

    P. J. F. G.

  Cambridge, May 22. 1851.

  [N. B., E. C. H., and several other correspondents, have furnished
  similar references to Ovid.]

_Baldrock_ (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 435.).--MR. CHADWICK'S quotations on
this word are very opportune, and useful by way of illustration, and for
elucidating the meaning of the word.

I will endeavour to explain this part of bell gear, and the purpose for
which it was used.

_Baldrock_ (_sic_) is probably the patois of a locality for _bawdrick_,
which means a belt, or the leather strap and other appurtenances of the
upper part of the clapper, by which it was suspended from the crown
staple. In old _black-letter_ bells (if one may use the term) the upper
part of the clapper was shaped like a stirrup, through which a strap of
stout leather, often doubled, was passed; but between this and the
staple a piece of hard wood of like width was inserted, and fitted to
work on the round part of the crown staple. Through this leather and
wood an iron pin was passed; and all was fastened together, and kept
stiff in place, by a curiously cut piece of tough wood, called a
_busk-board_, one end of which was tied round the stem of the clapper. I
have seen many such. There was one at Swanswich next Bath: but without a
sketch it is difficult to explain. I will enclose a sketch, to be used
at the Editor's discretion.

A few years ago, I made the following extracts from the very interesting
accounts of the churchwardens (guardians) of St. Edmund's, Sarum. I have
no doubt that similar entries may be found in all such old accounts, and
I hope these may induce other gentlemen to inquire for them.
Unfortunately I did not copy the _sums_ paid.

  "1591. Layd out for a Bawdrope for the Great Bell, 5_s._

  For grafting of Bawdropes & finding Leather.

  Making of a '_pinn_' for the fourth Bell Bawdrope.

  1588. Paide for Lether to mend the Bawdricke.

  1572. Payd for a Bald Rybbe for the fourth Bell. (It occurs again
  for other bells.)

  1552. Mendinge off the Bawdrycke off the greatt Bell.

  1541. Payd for mendynge the wheles of the 3 Bells, and for

  1524. Bawdderyke to the v. Bell.

  1495. [Pro] emendacione rote ejusdem Campane et [pro] Bawdryke
  ejusdem Campane.

  1482. [Pro] tribus Bawdrykys.

  1473. Bawdryke bought for the iiij Belle.

  1469. Bawderyke.

  Whyt Lethyr for the Bawdryke in the years of Ed. VI."


In a decree of the Court of Chancery of the year 1583 is the following

  "It is alleged that a certain close ... in the parish of Smarden,
  in the County of Kent, now called and known by the name of
  Ropefield, was, long time sithence, given by one John of Hampden,
  to and for the maintenance and finding of ropes, _bawdricks_, oil,
  and leather, for the use of ringing of the bells in the steeple of
  the said parish church of Smarden, &c., &c." James _v._ Woolton, 6
  May, 1583. (_Reg. Lib._ B. 1582. fo. 502.)

Not understanding the word "bawdrick," I applied to Messrs. Mears,
bell-founders, Whitechapel, who kindly gave me the following

  "The bawdrick is the head of the clapper, or the coupling by which
  it hangs on the staple inserted in the crown of the bell. It is
  fitted on to the head of the clapper, and a lining of leather is
  inserted to prevent the creaking of the iron, when the end of the
  clapper is oscillating. Hence, no doubt, the introduction of
  'leather' in the document referred to. The word is still in use."


  Registrar's Office, Court of Chancery, June 14. 1851.

The baldrick was a leather thong, or strap, fastened with a buckle, for
the purpose of suspending the clapper inside the bell, both of which had
loops or eyes to receive it; from its continual wear, new baldricks were
often required. I subjoin a few extracts from the parish accounts of St.
Antlins, or St. Anthony, Budge Row, relating thereto.

  1590. "Paide the smythe for making a new clapper for the great
  bell, x_s._

  "Paide for a _bawdrick_ for the great bell, ii_s._ vi_d._

  "Paide for a _buckell_ for the same, vi_d._

  "Paide for a _baldrick_ for the fift bell, i_s._ viii_d._

  1594. "Paide for a new _bawdricke_ for one of the bells the
  Crownacion daie, ii_s._

  1578. "Paide for an _eie_ for the great bell clapper, vi_s._

  "Item for a rope for the morning bell, ij_s._ vi_d._"

I could adduce several other instances if required, but these may

    W. CHAFFERS, Jun.

_Catalogue of Norman Nobility_ (Vol. iii., p. 266.).--Your correspondent
Q. G. asked some weeks ago where the catalogue of Norman nobility before
the Conquest was to be found? In the _Historiæ Normannorum_, published
in Paris in 1619, at p. 1127., he will find the

  "Catalogus nobilium qui immediate prædia a Rege conquæstore

In this list occurs the name of Geri (Rogerius) de Loges, whose lordship
was in the district of Coutances. At p. 1039. of the same work, we find
that Guarinus de Logis was feudal lord of certain domains in the
bailiwick of Falaise. In a roll of all the Norman nobles, knights, and
esquires who went to the conquest of Jerusalem with Robert Duke of
Normandy in the first crusade, and copied from an ancient MS. written on
vellum, found in the library of the cathedral of Bayeux, entitled "Les
anciennes histoires d'outremer," we also find the name of John de
Logis, who bore az. a cinque foile ar.

I think, therefore, that M. J. T. (p. 189.) is in error in confounding
the family of Ordardus de Logis with that of the Baron of Hugh Lupus.
The names of the Norman nobles were territorial; and it is probable that
these worthies were not related, as the names were spelt differently.
According to the Doomsday Survey, Gunuld, the widow of Geri de Loges,
held the manor of Guiting Power in Gloucestershire.

The elder line of Ordardus de Logis, Baron of Wigton, terminated in an
heiress, who carried the estate into the family of Lucy (I think in the
reign of Edward III.), Adam, the seventh and last baron, having died
without male issue; and it afterwards became the property, by marriage,
of the ancestor of the present Earl of Carlisle. The descendants of
Ordardus are still to be found in the remote valleys of the north of
Yorkshire, and in parts of Durham: and I have been told that the Rev.
John Lodge, late Fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge, claimed to be of
this family.


  Oxford, June 13. 1851.

_Epitaph_ (Vol. iii., pp. 242. 339.).--I have before me a 24mo. tract of
forty-seven pages:

  "Nicolai Barnaudi a Crista Arnaudi Delphinatis, Philosophi et
  Medici, Commentariolum in Ænigmaticum quoddam epitaphium Bononiæ
  studiorum, ante multa secula marmoreo lapidi insculptum. Huic
  additi sunt Processus Chæmici non pauci. Nihil sine Numine,
  Lugduni, Batavorum, [CIƆ.IƆ.IIIƆ.]"

The first thirty pages are devoted to the epitaph on Ælia Lælia Crispus.
We are told:--

  "Nec defuerunt alii, qui, ut audio, Animam hominis, alii nubium
  Aquam, alii, ut hic intellexi a viro de litteris bene merito,
  Eunuchum quemdam, alii alia varia, hoc epitaphio tractari
  phantasmata suis scriptis contenderunt. Hæc ego cum intellexissem,
  eorum misertus, qui abditioris philosophiæ in castris militant,
  operæ pretium facturum me existimavi, si trismegisticum hoc
  epitaphium eis aperire conarer."

This he proceeds to do very satisfactorily, as the following specimen
will show:--

  "ÆLIA. Solaris, dubio procul, ut nomen indicat, sive solis filia,
  immo substantia, essentia, radius, virtus, et illa quidem
  invisibilis solis nostri, ne quis eam a sole vulgi natam, perperam
  cogitet; neque tamen desunt, qui eam ex Urani et Vestæ filio,
  Saturno, et Ope ejus sorore, a qua cum plures Saturnus suscepisset
  liberos, eosque vorasset, et e vestigio evomuisset, Jupiter
  servatus, ejusque loco lapis Saturno presentatus fuit, ac si cum
  peperisset Opis, ab ipsis inquam, eam natam esse cogitent; at
  quidquid sit, ÆLIA, seu solaris est, neque tamen (tanta est ejus
  amplitudo), astro illo, mundi oculo amicta incedit; sed et altero,
  minore luminari, Luna, quæ sub pedibus ejus est comitata, ideo
  etiam dicitur LÆLIA, quasi solis amica, etc., etc."

On a fly-leaf I find the following written by an unknown hand:

  "Commentarios in hoc epitaphium scripserunt Joannes Trevius
  Brugensis, et Richardus vitus Basinstochius, jurisconsultus Anglus
  cujus liber editus Durdrecti apud J. van Leonem Berawoul, Anno
  1618. Vid. et de hoc enigmate Boxhorn."

If MR. CROSSLEY does not make this note wholly superfluous, make use of
it as you please.

    J. S.

  Woudenberg, May 12. 1851.

_Prayer of Mary Queen of Scots_ (Vol. iii., p. 369.).--The following
version of this prayer, differing from that given by MR. FALCONER, may
be interesting.

In Archdeacon Bonney's _Historic Notices in reference to Fotheringay_,
p. 109., this note occurs:

  "Seward asserts that the following lines were repeated by the
  Queen of Scots immediately before her execution. They are set to
  music by the late Dr. Harrington, of Bath, and other musicians.

      "'O Domine Deus, speravi in Te!
      O chare mi Jesus, nunc libera me!
      In dura catena, in misera poena, desidero Te;
      Languendo, gemendo, et genuflectendo,
      Adoro, imploro, ut liberes me.'


      'O Lord my God, I have relied in Thee!
      Now, O dear Jesu, set me, set me free!
      In chains, in pains, long have I wished for Thee;
      Faint, and with groans, I, bowing on my knee,
      Adore, implore Thee, Lord, to set me free.'"

I may add, that the Latin lines have recently been very beautifully set
to music by that eminent composer, Mrs. Kingston.

    W. G. M.

Your correspondent on the subject of the lines said to have been
repeated by Mary Queen of Scots on the scaffold, furnishes a translation
of them in lieu of others, which he condemns; and his version has
provoked me to try my hand at one, in which I have studied rhythm more
than rhyme: the rhythm and the intensity of the ordinal.

      "Great God, I have trusted
        In peril on Thee!
      Dear Jesus, Redeemer,
        Deliver thou me!
      In my prison-house groaning,
        I long but for Thee;
      Languishing, moaning,
        Bow'd down on bent knee,
      I adore Thee, implore Thee,
        From my sins set me free."


_Aristophanes on the Modern Stage_ (Vol. iii., pp. 105. 250.).--Finding
that no correspondent of yours, in answer to a Query which appeared some
time back, viz.: "Whether any play of Aristophanes had ever been adapted
to the modern stage," has yet mentioned the only two instances of which
I am aware, I beg to refer the Querist to the _Plaideurs_ of Racine (an
adaptation of the _Wasps_), and to a very ingenious modernisation of the
_Birds_ by Mr. Planché, produced about four years since at the Haymarket
as an Easter piece, under its original title.

I cannot refrain from taking this opportunity of protesting, under your
justly powerful auspices, against the use of the word "Exposition" in
its French sense of _Exhibition_, now creeping into places where it
could scarcely have been expected.


_The White Rose_ (Vol. iii., p. 407.).--The version which I have of the
beautiful lines quoted by your correspondent is (I quote from memory):

      "If this fair rose offend thy sight
        It on thy bosom wear,
      'Twill blush to find itself less white,
        And turn Lancastrian there."

The succeeding couplet has equal merit:

      "But if thy ruby lip it spy
        As kiss it thou mayst deign,
      With envy pale 'twill lose its dye,
        And Yorkist turn again."

    C. I. R.

The origin of the blush imparted to the rose is most beautifully
described by Carey:

      "As erst in Eden's blissful bowers
      Young Eve surveyed her countless flowers,
      An opening rose of poorest white
      She marked with eye that beamed delight;
      Its leaves she kissed, and straight it drew
      From Beauty's lip the vermeil hue."

    J. A. DOUGLAS.

_Mark for a Dollar_ (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--The origin of the sign of the
dollar, concerning which T. C. inquires, is, I believe, a contraction of
_scutum_, the same as _£_, formerly written _£i_, is of _libra_. The
strokes through the S are merely the signs of contraction.

    K. P. D. E.

_Gillingham_ (Vol. iii., p. 448.).--In a foot-note to Rapin (2nd edit.,
vol. i. p. 130.), the general assembly convened by Earl Goodwin, at
which Edward the Confessor was chosen king, is stated, upon the same
authority as Hutchins has referred to (viz. Malmsbury), to have been
"Gilingeham _or_ London." If at Gillingham, there can be but little
doubt it was Gillingham near Chatham, of which latter place Goodwin is
stated to have been then possessed.

    J. B. COLMAN.

  Eye, June 10, 1851.

The share that Earl Godwin bore in the establishment of King Edward (the
Confessor) on the throne of England seems to make it probable that
Gillingham in Kent, not the Gillingham in Dorsetshire, was the scene of
the council referred to by your correspondent


Edward, observe, was coming from the continent, and relied entirely on
the support of the great East Kentish Earl. Milton names the council in
his History of England, _Works_, vol. vi. p. 275., Pickering, ed. 1831.
He seems to be still quoting Malmsbury.

    E. J. E.

  Blackheath, June 9. 1851.

_On the Lay of the Last Minstrel, &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 364.).--In reading
A Borderer's interesting note on _The Lay of the Last Minstrel_, it
occurred to me, whether there may not have been (perhaps unconsciously)
in Walter Scott's mind a link of connexion betwixt his own "elvish
page," as an agent in bringing about the nuptials of Lord Cranstoun with
the Lady Margaret; and the part played by Cupid, in regard to Dido,
after he had been transformed into Ascanius, as described in the first
Æneid. Indeed the beautiful "Song of Robin Goodfellow" (Vol. iii., p.
403) suggests a similar speculation; for in the gambols of Puck there is
something analogous to the freaks of Cupid after his metamorphose. But
other and closer parallels will probably occur to your learned readers,
and show that some of what are commonly esteemed the most original
modern creations owe much to classical invention.


_Lines on Temple_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--J. S. will find the lines he
asks about, given (but without comment) in Knight's _Cyclopædia of
London_, p. 440.

    P. M. M.

J. S. will find the lines he has sent you printed in Hone's _Year Book_
(1832), p 113.; where may be also seen the following


      "Deluded men, these holds forego,
        Nor trust such cunning elves;
      These artful emblems tend to show
        Their clients, not themselves.

      'Tis all a trick, these are but shams,
        By which they mean to cheat you;
      For have a care, you are the LAMBS,
        And they the wolves that eat you.

      Nor let the thought of no 'delay'
        To these their courts misguide you;
      You are the showy HORSE, and they
        Are jockeys that will ride you."

Hone does not give a hint as who was the author of either, nor can I
inform J. S.


[The REV. MACKENZIE WALCOTT has also kindly informed us that the
original lines and the rejoinder are to be found in Brayley's
_Londiniana_, vol. iv. pp. 216-7.]

_Sewell, Meaning of_ (Vol. iii., pp. 391. 482.).--H. C. K. makes an
error in supposing that "formido," as used by Virgil in the passage
quoted, and "sewell," are convertible terms. If there is any word in
that passage which could be considered coextensive in meaning with the
word "sewell," it would undoubtedly be "penna." Nor is "sewell" a
_modern_ term, as he supposes; in proof of which I add an extract from a
letter written by Dr. Layton, one of the commissioners for the
suppression of monasteries, to Thomas Cromwell, dated 1535, in which the
word "sewel" occurs:

  "We have sett Dunce (Duns Scotus) in Bocardo, and have utterly
  banisshede hym Oxforde for ever, with all his blinde glosses, and
  is nowe made a comon servant to evere man, faste nailede up upon
  postes in all comon houses of easement: _id quod oculis meis
  vidi_. And the second tyme we came to New Colege, affter we hade
  declarede your injunctions, we fownde all the gret quadrant court
  full of the leiffes of Dunce, the wynde blowing them into evere
  corner. And there we fownde one Mr. Grenefelde, a gentilman of
  Buckinghamshire, getheryng up part of the said bowke leiffes (as
  he saide) therewith to make hym _sewelles_ or _blawnsherres_ to
  kepe the dere within the woode, thereby to have the better cry
  with his howndes."

H. C. K. wishes to know the origin of the word "sewell." Can any of your
readers explain the derivation of the term "blawnsherres?" Can it be
connected with the French _blanche_, from white parchment, &c. having
been used in making them?

    E. A. H. L.

_Lambert Simnel_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--Though I cannot throw any light
upon the question of T., _Was this his real name?_ I may mention, as a
Worcestershire man, that it is a custom among the pastrycooks of
Worcester to make, at the beginning of Lent, a rich sort of cake;
consisting of a thick crust of saffron-bread filled with currants,
citron, and all the usual ingredients of wedding-cake, which is called a
"simnel." I cannot say how long this custom has existed, but I have
every reason to believe it is one of great antiquity. From Johnson's
explanation of the term, I conclude, that this practice of making
"simnels" must in former times have been more general than it is at

    E. A. H. L.

_Tennyson's "In Memoriam"_ (Vol. iii., pp. 142. 227. 458.).--I submit
that the "crimson-circled star" may be named without calling on the poet
to explain.

The planet Venus, when she is to the east of the sun, is our _evening
star_ (and as such used to be termed Hesperus by the ancients).

The evening star in a summer twilight is seen surrounded with the glow
of sunset, "crimson-circled." The rose, too, was a flower sacred to
Venus, which might justify the epithet. But I suppose the blush of the
sky was what the poet thought of at such a moment.

Venus sinking into the sea, which in setting she would appear to
do,--falls into the _grave of Uranus_,--her father, according to the
theory of Hesiod (190). The part cast into the sea, from which Aphrodite
sprung, is here taken, by a becoming license (which softens the
grossness of the old tradition), for the whole; so that the ocean,
beneath the horizon of which the evening star sinks, may be well
described by the poet as "_her_ father's grave."

That Venus is meant, the gender of the pronoun relating to the star
seems to prove beyond a doubt; there being no other sufficiently
important to occur in a picture of this kind, to which a female name is


  Belgravia, June 12. 1851.

_The second King of Nineveh who burned his Palace_ (Vol. iii., p.
408).--D. X. will find all that is known of this king in the Armenian
version of Eusebius's _Chronicle_, 53., and in the _Chronographia_ of
Georgius, Syncellus (and subsequently Patriarch) of Constantinople, p.
210. B. The former gives as his authority Abydenus, and the latter
Polyhistor. Both passages will be found in Cory's _Ancient Fragments_.
The Median king is called in both Astyages, and not Cyaxares; but the
date of the catastrophe being fixed by Ptolemy's Canon in 625 B. C., the
reviewer, I suppose, considered himself justified in altering the name
to that of the king who appears from Herodotus to have governed Media at
that date.

    E. H. D. D.

_Legend in Frettenham Church_ (Vol. iii., p. 407.).--Your correspondent
C. J. E. may find some account of the legend illustrated on the walls of
Frettenham Church in the _Calendar of the Anglo-Catholic Church_, from
which it appears that St. Eligius, Eloy, or Loye, is the hero of the
incident. He was the patron of blacksmiths, farriers, &c.; and
accomplished, on one occasion, the shoeing of a refractory horse by
amputating the leg; and the operation performed, he replaced the severed
member. Doubtless, as C. J. E. suggests, the shoeing might have been
effected without so much periphrasis; but perhaps the saint intended to
teach the animal docility, and inspire the spectators with a more
palpable proof of his supernatural powers, than the performance of the
operation by his mere _ipse dixit_ would have afforded. The church of
Durweston, Dorsetshire, is named in his honour, and a rude sculpture
over the doorway commemorates the incident.

    C. A.

_Natural Daughter of James II._ (Vol. iii., pp. 224. 249. 280.).--When
the answer of C. to my inquiry first appeared, I doubted whether after
such strong reproof I ought again to address you; but as your valuable
paper was intended for the ignorant as well as for the learned, and as
C. (Vol. iii., p. 334.) places your respected correspondent MR. DAWSON
TURNER in the same class as my humble self, I no longer hesitate.

When I proposed the Query, I had no ready access to any book which
would easily give me the required information, and it did not appear to
me to be any great sin in making use of "NOTES AND QUERIES" for what I
conceive is its legitimate object, the communication of knowledge; and I
do not think the space my Query occupied was wasted when it called forth
the interesting reply of P. C. S. S.

I would now take the liberty of asking C. to explain the following
extract from _Souverains du Monde_, not finding any particulars
respecting the first marriage here alluded to in those books to which I
have been able to refer:--

  "Les enfans naturals du Roi Jaques II. sont 1.... 2.... 3....

  "4. Catherine Darnley, mariée en premières nôces avec Thomas
  Wentworth, Baron de Raby; et en secondes nôces, en 1699, avec
  James, Comte d'Anglesey. Elle est morte en 1700. Sa mère étoit
  Catherine Sedley, Comtesse de Dorchester, Baronne d'Arlington.

  "5. N. mariée avec le Duc de Buckingham le 27 Mars, 1706."

You will observe that my former inquiry referred to the daughter above
stated as the fifth child.

It is plain that the compiler of _Les Souverains du Monde_ is in error
in making the wife of the Earl of Anglesey a distinct person from the
wife of the Duke of Buckingham.

Who was the wife to the Thomas Wentworth here mentioned? and, if a
natural daughter of James II., I should be glad of the following
particulars,--the names of her mother and self--the dates of her birth,
marriage, and death--and the date of the death of her husband.

I must apologise for trespassing thus at length upon your space.

    F. B. RELTON.

_Clarkson's Richmond_ (Vol. iii., p. 372.).--The late Mr. Clarkson's
manuscripts were transferred to his son, the Rev. Christ. Clarkson;
whose address might probably be obtained by Q. D. from J. B. Simpson,
Esq., Richmond, Yorkshire.


_MSS. of Sir Thomas Phillipps_ (Vol. iii., p. 358.).--I see that in the
"Notices to Correspondents," in No. 79., for May 3, you inform W. P. A.
that the _Catalogue of Sir Thomas Phillipps's MSS._ is privately
printed, and that there are copies at the Bodleian, Athenæum, and
Society of Antiquaries.

You may perhaps be interested to know that a catalogue of about three
thousand of the Middlehill MSS. is to be found in a work entitled
_Catalogi Librorum MSSorum qui in Bibliothecis Galliæ, Hiberniæ,
Helvetiæ, Belgiæ, Britanniæ Magnæ, Hispaniæ, Lusitaniæ asservantur: à
Gustavo Haenel_: Lipsiæ, 1830. A copy of this important work is in the
reading-room of the British Museum.

I may add that a copy of the privately printed _Catalogue of Sir T.
Phillipps's MSS._ is now to be found in the British Museum, but it has
only recently (within the last few months) made its way into the

    C. W. GOODWIN.

_Meaning of Pilcher_ (Vol. iii., p. 476.).--Is not our excellent
correspondent MR. SINGER mistaken in supposing that the ears are the
ears of the scabbard or pitcher? If you draw one thing out of another by
the ears, it must be by the ears of the first, not of the second; yet he
also says that it is used for hilts.

    C. B.

_Antiquity of Smoking_ (Vol. iii., p. 484.).--May I add, in my defence
as to the Thracians' smoking, that all I said was, that there was
nothing in Solinus, chap. 15. I had looked at the Bipont edition, in
which, as I now see, the passage is in chapter 10.

    C. B.

_Principle of Association_ (Vol. iii., p. 424.).--I cannot but doubt
whether "La partie réelle de la métaphysique" means "all that has yet
been done in the philosophy of the human mind." I apprehend it means the
material, or physical part; that which is connected with the structure
of the body. This would apply to Hartley, though not to Mr. Gay: but I
speak in the dark, for I have not that edition of La Place which your
correspondent refers to.

    C. B.

_Corpse makes a Right of Way_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--That a funeral
creates a right of way, is an error founded on the fact that, being a
remarkable, and sometimes a crowded event, it is not an unfrequent
evidence of the previous existence of a right of way.

    C. B.

_Chloe_ (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--In reply to a Query in one of your late
numbers respecting the meaning of the expression "as drunk as Chloe," it
has been suggested to me that it refers to a lady who is mentioned
often in Prior's _Poems_, and who was celebrated for the propensity
alluded to.


_Family of Sir J. Banks_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--It appears, on a
reference to Burke's _Commoners_, that the ancestors of Sir J. Banks
were possessed of property in and about Keswick; and the present
representative of the family possesses black-lead mines in Borrowdale,
Cumberland. It is, therefore, very probable that the Mr. John Banks in
question may have been of the same family, though not a lineal
descendant of Sir J. Banks.

    L. H.

_Verse Lyon_ (Vol. iii., p. 466.).--In the literal reprint of Puttenham,
1811, I find the words extracted by J. F. M., with one unimportant
exception, "And they _called_ it _Verse Lyon_." J. F. M. may find some
account of Leonine verses, which "are properly the Roman hexameters and
pentameters rhymed," in Price's edition of Warton's _History of English
Poetry_, vol. i. p. cxviii.

    H. G. T.

_Heronsewes_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--A probable derivation is given in
Tyrwhitt's note on the passage in the _Squire's Tale_ from the French
_heronçeaux_, which would probably, in English usage, become either
_heronsewes_, or _heronshaws_. It is of course a diminutive, like
"lioncel," "pennoncel," &c.

    H. G. T.

_Theory of the Earth's Form_ (Vol. iii., p. 331.).--Who first taught
that the form of the earth was that of a sphere? In Isaiah xl. 22.
appears the following passage:

  He that sitteth upon the CIRCLE of the _earth_ and the inhabitants
  thereof," &c.

Does not this extract prove that the Jews, as a people, were acquainted
with the spherical form of the earth in Isaiah's time; the prophets
usually addressing the people in popular language.

    C. N. S.

_Mythology of the Stars_ (Vol. iii., pp. 70. 155.).--In the replies to
correspondents on the above head, I have not seen noticed Dr. Lamb's
translation of the old Greek poet Aratus, a work which, for a few
shillings, would satisfy most persons on the subject, and be found
entertaining in giving instruction.

    T. M.

_Topical Memory_ (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--On topical memory I can refer
your inquirer to _Cicero de Oratore_, book ii. lxxxvi., lxxxvii.,
§351-358., and _Ad Herenn._ iii. xvi.-xx., and _Quintil._ xi. ii. 2., p.
431. Rollin, ed. 1758.

    E. J. S.

_Eisell_ (Vol. iii., p. 397.).--The following illustration of this word
occurs in a MS. (Dd. i. fol. 7.) belonging to the University of
Cambridge. The date is about 1350:

      "þe iewis herde þis word wel alle,
      And anon _eysel_ þei mengid wiþ galle."

It is here manifestly = _vinegar_.

    C. H.

_Eisell._--I have long been convinced that the true interpretation of
this word might be attained by a reference to the Welsh language; in
which may be found the word _Aesell_ (_idem sonans_ with _Eisell_),
implying verjuice, or vinegar. The two words are clearly identical (see
page 377.).


_Four Want Way_ (Vol. iii., pp. 168. 434.).--A cross road, or that point
where four roads meet, is frequently called by the peasantry in Kent
"the four vents" in other counties, "the four wents," "the four want
way," &c. I have always considered the word as being derived from the
ancient VENTA: thus VENTA _Icenorum_ (Caister, near Norwich), the
highway of the Iceni; VENTA _Silurum_ (Caerwent, in Monmouthshire), the
highway of the Silures; VENTA _Belgarum_ (Winchester), the highway of
the Belgæ; both of which last-named cities retain in some degree the
ancient appellation.

    W. CHAFFERS, Jun.

_Meaning of Carfoix_ (Vol. iii., p. 469.).--Will your correspondent K.
TH. give, if he can, an account of the word "carfoix?" Is it not the
French _carrefour_, a name applied to more than one place in Guernsey,
though not, I believe, necessarily to a spot where four ways meet? The
chief carrefour there is at the junction of the Pollet, High Street and
Smith Street; another is in the country, the _Carrefour aux Lievres_,
the precise locality of which I cannot quite recall. MR. METIVIER, whose
name I am glad to see in your pages, can tell, I dare say, of others. I
suppose the derivation to be in _Quatuor fores_, or some French
derivative from those words. "Carfoix" reminds me of "Carfax" in Oxford.
Are the names akin to each other?

    E. J. S.

_A regular Mull_ (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--The story of King Mûl is perhaps
rather far-fetched. If it would neither put your correspondent in a
_stew_, nor get myself into a _broil_, nor you into a _mess_ or a
_pickle_, I would settle his _hash_ by suggesting that terms of cookery
are frequently used as descriptive of disagreeable predicaments; and
that though in our time nothing except beer or wine is _mulled_, yet it
may not always have been so. Or may not the word be a corruption of
_muddle_? I stand up for neither, but I will back either against King


_William Hone_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--I expect that A. N. is labouring
under a mistake in inquiring about an account of the "conversion" of
"William Hone, THE COMPILER of the _Every-day Book_;" and that he means

  "_The Early Life and Conversion of William Hone_, a narrative
  written by himself, _edited_ by his SON, William Hone, author of
  the _Every-day Book_, &c. London, J. Ward & Co., Paternoster Row,
  1841. One Shilling."

I have no doubt that the work may be procured at the publishers'; but
should not that be practicable, I shall be happy to lend your
correspondent my copy. It may perhaps be neither unjust nor
uninteresting to add, that _I know_ (from his own communication, shortly
after the memorable trials) he was so affected by the celebrated
_Parodies_ being charged as "blasphemous," that he immediately stopped
the sale of them; that, though money was then of some consequence to
him, he refused tempting offers for copies; and that he did so, because
he declared he would rather suffer any privations than be considered as
having sought to revile the religion of his country, or to do aught to
injure Christianity, which he deemed to be the hope of all, and the poor
man's charter. In making those observations, he emphatically placed his
hand on a Bible which lay upon my table.


_The Rev. Mr. Gay_ (Vol. iii., p. 424.).--The name of Gay is not very
common in the West of England, and MR. TAGART may possibly obtain some
account of the Rev. Mr. Gay from the descendants of Gay of Goldworthy,
near Bideford, in the county of Devon, who sprang from Hampton Gay in
the county of Oxford, but became seised of the manor of Goldworthy,
about the year 1420, by marriage with the daughter and heir of Curtis of
Goldworthy, a branch of the ancient family of Curtis of Lostwithiel, in
the county of Cornwall.

The latest representative of this family of Gay, of whom I have met with
any notice, is Mr. Lawrence Gay, who, according to Lyson, was living in
the year 1822 at South Molton, in the county of Devon. Lyson also says
that "John Gay, the poet, was of this family."


_Lady Mary Cavendish_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--I know nothing of any _Lady
Mary's_ having married Mr. Maudsley, or Mosley of the Guards; but it is
certain that she could not have been, _strictly speaking_, of the same
family as Sir Henry Cavendish of Ireland, whose wife was created Lady
Waterpark, with remainder to her issue by Sir Henry, who was descended
from a _natural son_ of the Devonshire family, and even, I believe,
before it was ennobled; so that it cannot be said that any _Lady_ Mary
Cavendish was of the same family as Sir Henry.


_Hand giving the Blessing_ (Vol. iii, p. 477.).--In blessing the people,
the clergy of the Church of Rome raise the thumb and two forefingers,
and close the others, to represent the three persons of the Trinity; and
they give this some divine origin; but it is really an adoption of a
pagan symbol in use long before the introduction of Christianity, not
only by the Romans, but the Egyptians also. In Akerman's _Archæological
Index_, p. 116., is an engraving of a silver plate of Roman workmanship,
in which the figures representing Minerva and Juno have their hands
elevated with the thumb and finger so disposed, and the figure of Vesta
has the left hand in the same position. I wish some of your
correspondents who are familiar with the classics and Egyptian
antiquities, would further illustrate the origin of this curious and
ancient custom, which hitherto has been regarded as originating with the
Church of Rome only.

    W. W.

_The Oldenburg Horn_ (Vol. ii., pp. 417, 516.).--There is a good
engraving of this Horn, and the tradition about it is related, in p.
264, of the curious _Dissertatio de admirandis mundi Cataractis_ of
Johannes Herbinius, Amstelodami, 1678, of which book there is a copy in
the library of the Geographical Society.


  Athenæum, June 16. 1851.

_Covey_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--How could such a question be asked? Covey
is _couvée_, French for a _brood_, a _hatching_, from _couver_, to hatch


_Davy Jones's Locker_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.).--During many years of
seafaring life, I have frequently considered the origin of this phrase,
and have now arrived at the conclusion, that it is derived from the
scriptural account of the prophet Jonah. The word _locker_, on board of
ship, generally means the place where any particular thing is retained
or kept, as "the bread locker," "shot locker," "chain locker," &c. In
the sublime ode in the second chapter of the Book of Jonah, we find that
the Prophet, praying for deliverance, describes his situation in the
following words:

  "In the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about:--the
  depth closed me round about:--the earth with her bars was about

The sea, then, might not be misappropriately termed by a rude mariner,
Jonah's locker; that is, the place where Jonah was kept or confined.
Jonah's locker, in time, might be readily corrupted to Jones's locker;
and Davy, as a very common Welsh accompaniment of the equally Welsh
name, Jones, added; the true derivation of the phrase having been


_Umbrella_ (Vol. iii., p. 482.).--The use of this word may be traced to
an earlier period than has yet been shown by any of your correspondents?

In Florio's _Worlde of Wordes_, 1598, we have it thus:--

  "_Ombrella_, a fan, a canopie, also a testern or cloth of state
  for a prince, also a kind of round fan or shadowing that they use
  to ride with in summer in Italy, a little shade."


_Nao, a Ship_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--A. N. is informed that _naw_ is a
Celtic name for a ship (the _w_ is sometimes sounded like _oo_); though
the word is obsolete, authority for its application may be found in
Davies' _Mythology, &c. of the Druids_. In the appendix to this work
there is a poem (No. 6.) by Taliesin, containing the following

      "Ymsawdd yn llyn, heb _naw_."

      "Sinking in the lake, without a ship."

The Britons consequently had a name for a ship, independent of Roman
influence. Can A. N. produce any evidence that the Britons in pre-Roman
times did not possess any vessels superior to the _cwrygl_? Is it
probable that the warlike aid which the Britons constantly rendered the
Gauls, was conveyed across the channel in mere "osier baskets?" Had the
"water-dwellers" (Dwr-trig-wys) of Dorsetshire (Durotriges) attained no
higher grade in navigation than that simple mode of water conveyance?

I am almost inclined to exclaim, "Mi dynaf y torch a thi" ("I will pull
the torque with thee") in respect to the position claimed for the Latin
_longa_; but passing this, I will advance the opinion that the Celtic
_naw_ is the root of the Latin _navis_.


_Birth of Spenser_ (Vol. i., pp. 489. 482.).--Is not 1510 a mistake for
1550? The figures 1 and 5 are often confounded in manuscripts of
Spenser's age. The mistake was probably that of the sculptor.

    D. X.

_Petworth Registers_ (Vol. iii., pp. 449. 485.).--The period over which
these Registers extend is thus shown in the Accounts and Papers printed
by order of Parliament in the year 1833, vol. xxxviii. p. 335:--

  "County of Sussex.--Arundel Rape.

  "Parish Register Books earlier than the new Registers commencing
  with A. D. 1813 (according to 52 Geo. III. c. 146.), remain at the
  following places:--

  "Petworth R. No. I. Bap. Bur. 1559-1794, Marr. 1559-1753; No. II.
  Bap. Bur. 1795-1812; Nos. III.-VI., Marr. 1754-1812."

The earlier register-book used by Heylin must have been removed from the
proper custody before the year 1831. If still preserved in any public or
private library it may perhaps reward some reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES"
in the next century by turning up when unsought for. In the mean time,
however, is there no official copy to be found in the Archbishop's
courts at Canterbury?


_Arms of the Isle of Man_ (Vol. iii., p. 373.).--The symbol of three
legs conjoined no doubt denotes the triangular shapes of the Isle of
Man, and Sicily or Trinacria. The τρια ακρα from which the name
of the latter is derived are the promontories of Lilybæum, Pachynus, and
Pelorus, now Capes S. Vito, Passaro, and Faro (Virg. Æn. iii. 384.). It
is somewhat curious that the earliest coinage of this island, A.D. 1709
(which by the bye is cast, and not struck in the usual way: Obv. The
crest of the Earls of Derby, the Eagle and Child, SANS CHANGER; Rev. The
three legs), has the motto QVOCVNQVE · _GESSERIS_ · STABIT. The coinage
of 1723 is exactly similar, but struck; whereas that of 1733 and all the
succeeding ·coinages have QUOCUNQUE · JECERIS · STABIT, which is clearly
the correct reading. I may add that I am engaged on a work on the Copper
Coinage of Great Britain and her Colonies, and shall be thankful for any
information on the subject respecting rare types, their history, &c.

    E. S. TAYLOR.



Messrs. Longman have commenced the publication, under the title of _The
Traveller's Library_, of a series of shilling volumes which is intended
to comprise "books of entertaining and valuable information in a form
adapted for reading while travelling, and at the same time of a
character that will render them worthy of preservation." The 1st Number
contains Mr. Macaulay's brilliant sketch of '_Warren Hastings_' which
has been appropriately followed by that of '_Lord Clive_,' from his
_Historical Essays_ and will be succeeded by '_The Earl of Chatham_,'
'_William Pitt_,' '_Horace Walpole_,' &c., from the same pen; and these
again by other works of acknowledged merit, the price of which has
hitherto confined them within a comparatively narrow circle of readers.
The 3d Number, '_London_,' by Mr. McCulloch, belongs to this class. As a
really cheap and not merely low-priced series of valuable books, this
well-printed _Traveller's Library_ deserves, and, we trust will meet
with, every success.

At a moment like the present, when so much inquiry is directed to the
subject of public health and indeed of health generally, we may be
excused for directing the attention, of our readers to '_The Laws of
Health in relation to Mind and Body, in a Series of Letters from an Old
Practitioner to a Patient_,' by Lionel J. Beale, as a small volume of
useful hints and suggestions from one who obviously combines shrewd
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qualifications for a writer on such a topic, namely, sound common sense.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Illustrations of Mediæval Costume in England from MSS.
in British Museum, &c._, by C. A. Day and J. H. Dines, Part 3. The
present number of this very cheap work on costume contains no less than
three _coloured_ plates--curiously illustrative of the subject, though
not so strictly English as the title-page would indicate.

_Hurry-graphs_, by N. Parker Willis, and _The House of Seven Gables_, by
Nathaniel Hawthorne, form the new volumes of Bohn's Cheap Series. The
former is characterised by the usual light, off-hand style of the
writer. The latter will add to the reputation which Mr. Hawthorne has
won by his '_Scarlet Letter_.' They are two pleasant volumes for the
steam-boat or the railway carriage.

_An Essay of the Authenticity of the Four Letters of Atticus, included
in Woodfall's Edition of Junius_, by William Cramp, is an attempt, and
we must add an unsuccessful attempt, to prove that the Letters in
question were written by Lord Chesterfield.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will be occupied during the next week in
the sale of the fifth portion of the singularly curious and valuable
Library of Thomas Jolley, Esquire, including, among other interesting
autographs, Literary Assignments, Receipts of Pope, Swift, Thomson,
Fielding, &c.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue of
Books Old and New; B. Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square)
Cheap Book Circular No. 30. of Books in all Languages.


ALBERT LUNEL, a Novel in 3 Vols.






ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849.

BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6s. per Vol. Pilgrims of the Rhine.
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MITFORD'S HISTORY OF GREECE, continued by Davenport. 12mo. 8 Vols.
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Utrecht, 1713.

Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. wanted.

CAXTON'S REYNARD THE FOX (Percy Society Edition). Sm. 8vo. 1844.

CRESPET, PERE. Deux Livres de la Haine de Satan et des Malins Esprits
contre l'Homme. 8vo. Francfort, 1581.

CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la Nécessité de
l'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des différentes Formes de la
Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de Télémaque. 2 Vols.
12mo. La Haye, without date, but printed in 1719.

The same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur le
Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo. Londres,

THE CRY OF THE OPPRESSED, being a True and Tragical Account of the
unparalleled Sufferings of Multitudes of Poor Imprisoned Debtors, &c.
London, 1691. 12mo.


MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 1836. Sixth Edition.

JAMES'S NAVAL HISTORY. (6 Vols. 8vo.) 1822-4. Vol. VI.

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. (8 Vols. 1818.) Vol. IV.





OLD BAYLEY SESSIONS PAPERS, 1744 to 1774, or any portion thereof. 4to.

Lond. 1755.






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O. O. _The allusion in Tennyson to_--

        "Her, who clasped in her last trance
      Her murdered father's head,"

_is to Margaret Roper, who was buried with the head of her father, Sir
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explain with reference to_ C. P.***'s _remark_, p. 450., _that a_ long
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REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Encorah and Millicent, &c._--_Prenzie_--_M.
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Dozen_--_Tinsel_--_Bonnie Cravat_--_Davy Jones's Locker_--_Arms of the
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_Errata._--Page 322. col. 1. l. 20., for "conscript_u_" read
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  by the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music
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  and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. SALE, Musical
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  List of volumes and pages in "Notes & Queries", Vol. I-III:

      | Notes & Queries Vol. I.                                     |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes & Queries Vol. II.                                    |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1-15  | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17-32  | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33-48  | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49-64  | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65-79  | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81-96  | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes & Queries Vol. III.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |  1-15   | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  | 17-31   | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  | 33-47   | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  | 49-78   | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 | 81-95   | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 | 97-111  | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June 7, 1851      | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 86, June 21, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

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