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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 7 - "Geoponici" to "Germany"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 7 - "Geoponici" to "Germany"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GEORGE III.: "George III. therefore waited his time."
      'George' amended from 'Goerge'.

    ARTICLE GEORGE THE SYNCELLUS: "He was the syncellus (cell-mate, the
      confidential companion assigned to the patriarchs ..." 'companion'
      amended from 'campanion'.

    ARTICLE GEORGIA: "The governor's power of veto extends to separate
      items in appropriation bills, but in every case his veto may be
      overridden by a two-thirds vote of the legislature." 'overridden'
      amended from 'overriden'.

    ARTICLE GERMAN LITERATURE: "But it had no vitality of its own; it
      virtually sprang into existence at the command of Charlemagne ..."
      'existence' amended from 'existance'.

    ARTICLE GERMAN LITERATURE: "The unkempt literature of the
      Reformation age admittedly stood in need of guidance and
      discipline, but the 17th century made the fatal mistake of trying
      to impose the laws and rules of Romance literatures on a people of
      a purely Germanic stock." 'guidance' amended from 'guidauce'.

    ARTICLE GERMANY: "The sandstone range of the Elbe unites in the
      east with the low Lusatian group, along the east of which runs the
      best road from northern Germany to Bohemia." 'sandstone' amended
      from 'standstone'.

    ARTICLE GERMANY: "... farther inland, and especially east of the
      Elbe, coniferous trees are the most prevalent, particularly the
      Scotch fir; birches are also abundant." 'particularly' amended from
      'praticularly'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XI, SLICE VII

            Geoponici to Germany



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  GEOPONICI                       GÉRARD, ÉTIENNE MAURICE
  GEORGE, SAINT                   GÉRARD, FRANÇOIS
  GEORGE I.                       GÉRARD, JEAN IGNACE ISIDORE
  GEORGE II.                      GERARD, JOHN
  GEORGE III.                     GÉRARDMER
  GEORGE IV.                      GERASA
  GEORGE V. (of Great Britain)    GÉRAULT-RICHARD, ALFRED LÉON
  GEORGE V. (of Hanover)          GERBER, ERNST LUDWIG
  GEORGE I. (of the Hellenes)     GERBERON, GABRIEL
  GEORGE (of Saxony)              GERBERT, MARTIN
  GEORGE OF LAODICEA              GERBIL
  GEORGE OF TREBIZOND             GERENUK
  GEORGE THE MONK                 GERGOVIA
  GEORGE THE SYNCELLUS            GERHARD, FRIEDRICH WILHELM EDUARD
  GEORGE, HENRY                   GERHARD, JOHANN
  GEORGE PISIDA                   GERHARDT, CHARLES FRÉDÉRIC
  GEORGE, LAKE                    GERHARDT, PAUL
  GEORGE JUNIOR REPUBLIC          GÉRICAULT, JEAN LOUIS ANDRÉ THÉODORE
  GEORGETOWN (British Guiana)     GERIZIM
  GEORGETOWN (Washington, U.S.A.) GERLACHE, ÉTIENNE CONSTANTIN
  GEORGETOWN (Kentucky, U.S.A.)   GERLE, CHRISTOPHE ANTOINE
  GEORGETOWN (South Car., U.S.A.) GERMAN BAPTIST BRETHREN
  GEORGETOWN (Texas, U.S.A.)      GERMAN CATHOLICS
  GEORGIA (U.S.A.)                GERMAN EAST AFRICA
  GEORGIA (Transcaucasia)         GERMAN EVANGELICAL SYNOD OF N. AMERICA
  GEORGIAN BAY                    GERMANIC LAWS, EARLY
  GEORGSWALDE                     GERMANICUS CAESAR
  GEPHYREA                        GERMANIUM
  GERA                            GERMAN LANGUAGE
  GERALDTON                       GERMAN LITERATURE
  GÉRANDO, MARIE JOSEPH DE        GERMAN REED ENTERTAINMENT
  GERANIACEAE                     GERMAN SILVER
  GERANIUM                        GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA
  GERARD (archbishop of York)     GERMANTOWN
  GERARD (Tum, Tunc, Tenque)      GERMANY (part)
  GERARD OF CREMONA



GEOPONICI,[1] or _Scriptores rei rusticae_, the Greek and Roman writers
on husbandry and agriculture. On the whole the Greeks paid less
attention than the Romans to the scientific study of these subjects,
which in classical times they regarded as a branch of economics. Thus
Xenophon's _Oeconomicus_ (see also _Memorabilia_, ii. 4) contains a
eulogy of agriculture and its beneficial ethical effects, and much
information is to be found in the writings of Aristotle and his pupil
Theophrastus. About the same time as Xenophon, the philosopher
Democritus of Abdera wrote a treatise [Greek: Peri Geôrgias], frequently
quoted and much used by the later compilers of _Geoponica_ (agricultural
treatises). Greater attention was given to the subject in the
Alexandrian period; a long list of names is given by Varro and
Columella, amongst them Hiero II. and Attalus III. Philometor. Later,
Cassius Dionysius of Utica translated and abridged the great work of the
Carthaginian Mago, which was still further condensed by Diophanes of
Nicaea in Bithynia for the use of King Deïotarus. From these and similar
works Cassianus Bassus (q.v.) compiled his _Geoponica_. Mention may also
be made of a little work [Greek: Peri Geôrgikôn] by Michael Psellus
(printed in Boissonade, _Anecdota Graeca_, i.).

The Romans, aware of the necessity of maintaining a numerous and
thriving order of agriculturists, from very early times endeavoured to
instil into their countrymen both a theoretical and a practical
knowledge of the subject. The occupation of the farmer was regarded as
next in importance to that of the soldier, and distinguished Romans did
not disdain to practise it. In furtherance of this object, the great
work of Mago was translated into Latin by order of the senate, and the
elder Cato wrote his _De agri cultura_ (extant in a very corrupt state),
a simple record in homely language of the rules observed by the old
Roman landed proprietors rather than a theoretical treatise. He was
followed by the two Sasernae (father and son) and Gnaeus Tremellius
Scrofa, whose works are lost. The learned Marcus Terentius Varro of
Reate, when eighty years of age, composed his _Rerum rusticarum, libri
tres_, dealing with agriculture, the rearing of cattle, and the
breeding of fishes. He was the first to systematize what had been
written on the subject, and supplemented the labours of others by
practical experience gained during his travels. In the Augustan age
Julius Hyginus wrote on farming and bee-keeping, Sabinus Tiro on
horticulture, and during the early empire Julius Graecinus and Julius
Atticus on the culture of vines, and Cornelius Celsus (best known for
his _De medicina_) on farming. The chief work of the kind, however, is
that of Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (q.v.). About the middle of
the 2nd century the two Quintilii, natives of Troja, wrote on the
subject in Greek. It is remarkable that Columella's work exercised less
influence in Rome and Italy than in southern Gaul and Spain, where
agriculture became one of the principal subjects of instruction in the
superior educational establishments that were springing up in those
countries. One result of this was the preparation of manuals of a
popular kind for use in the schools. In the 3rd century Gargilius
Martialis of Mauretania compiled a _Geoponica_ in which medical botany
and the veterinary art were included. The _De re rustica_ of Palladius
(4th century), in fourteen books, which is almost entirely borrowed from
Columella, is greatly inferior in style and knowledge of the subject. It
is a kind of farmer's calendar, in which the different rural occupations
are arranged in order of the months. The fourteenth book (on forestry)
is written in elegiacs (85 distichs). The whole of Palladius and
considerable fragments of Martialis are extant.

  The best edition of the _Scriptores rei rusticae_ is by J.G. Schneider
  (1794-1797), and the whole subject is exhaustively treated by A.
  Magerstedt, _Bilder aus der römischen Landwirtschaft_ (1858-1863); see
  also Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Literature_, 54; C.F. Bähr in
  Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The latinized form of a non-existent [Greek: Geôponikoi], used
    for convenience.



GEORGE, SAINT (d. 303), the patron saint of England, Aragon and
Portugal. According to the legend given by Metaphrastes the Byzantine
hagiologist, and substantially repeated in the Roman _Acta sanctorum_
and in the Spanish breviary, he was born in Cappadocia of noble
Christian parents, from whom he received a careful religious training.
Other accounts place his birth at Lydda, but preserve his Cappadocian
parentage. Having embraced the profession of a soldier, he rapidly rose
under Diocletian to high military rank. In Persian Armenia he organized
and energized the Christian community at Urmi (Urumiah), and even
visited Britain on an imperial expedition. When Diocletian had begun to
manifest a pronounced hostility towards Christianity, George sought a
personal interview with him, in which he made deliberate profession of
his faith, and, earnestly remonstrating against the persecution which
had begun, resigned his commission. He was immediately laid under
arrest, and after various tortures, finally put to death at Nicomedia
(his body being afterwards taken to Lydda) on the 23rd of April 303. His
festival is observed on that anniversary by the entire Roman Catholic
Church as a semi-duplex, and by the Spanish Catholics as a duplex of the
first class with an octave. The day is also celebrated as a principal
feast in the Orthodox Eastern Church, where the saint is distinguished
by the titles [Greek: megalomartyr] and [Greek: tropaiophoros].

The historical basis of the tradition is particularly unsound, there
being two claimants to the name and honour. Eusebius, _Hist. eccl._
viii. 5, writes: "Immediately on the promulgation of the edict (of
Diocletian) a certain man of no mean origin, but highly esteemed for his
temporal dignities, as soon as the decree was published against the
churches in Nicomedia, stimulated by a divine zeal and excited by an
ardent faith, took it as it was openly placed and posted up for public
inspection, and tore it to shreds as a most profane and wicked act.
This, too, was done when the two Caesars were in the city, the first of
whom was the eldest and chief of all and the other held fourth grade of
the imperial dignity after him. But this man, as the first that was
distinguished there in this manner, after enduring what was likely to
follow an act so daring, preserved his mind, calm and serene, until the
moment when his spirit fled." Rivalling this anonymous martyr, who is
often supposed to have been St George, is an earlier martyr briefly
mentioned in the _Chronicon Pascale_: "In the year 225 of the Ascension
of our Lord a persecution of the Christians took place, and many
suffered martyrdom, among whom also the Holy George was martyred."

Two Syrian church inscriptions bearing the name, one at Ezr'a and the
other at Shaka, found by Burckhardt and Porter, and discussed by J. Hogg
in the _Transactions of the Royal Literary Society_, may with some
probability be assigned to the middle of the 4th century. Calvin
impugned the saint's existence altogether, and Edward Reynolds
(1599-1676), bishop of Norwich, like Edward Gibbon a century later, made
him one with George of Laodicea, called "the Cappadocian," the Arian
bishop of Alexandria (see GEORGE OF LAODICEA).

Modern criticism, while rejecting this identification, is not unwilling
to accept the main fact that an officer named Georgios, of high rank in
the army, suffered martyrdom probably under Diocletian. In the canon of
Pope Gelasius (494) George is mentioned in a list of those "whose names
are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to God,"
a statement which implies that legends had already grown up around his
name. The caution of Gelasius was not long preserved; Gregory of Tours,
for example, asserts that the saint's relics actually existed in the
French village of Le Maine, where many miracles were wrought by means of
them; and Bede, while still explaining that the _Gesta Georgii_ are
reckoned apocryphal, commits himself to the statement that the martyr
was beheaded under Dacian, king of Persia, whose wife Alexandra,
however, adhered to the Christian faith. The great fame of George, who
is reverenced alike by Eastern and Western Christendom and by
Mahommedans, is due to many causes. He was martyred on the eve of the
triumph of Christianity, his shrine was reared near the scene of a great
Greek legend (Perseus and Andromeda), and his relics when removed from
Lydda, where many pilgrims had visited them, to Zorava in the Hauran
served to impress his fame not only on the Syrian population, but on
their Moslem conquerors, and again on the Crusaders, who in grateful
memory of the saint's intervention on their behalf at Antioch built a
new cathedral at Lydda to take the place of the church destroyed by the
Saracens. This cathedral was in turn destroyed by Saladin.

The connexion of St George with a dragon, familiar since the _Golden
Legend_ of Jacobus de Voragine, can be traced to the close of the 6th
century. At Arsuf or Joppa--neither of them far from Lydda--Perseus had
slain the sea-monster that threatened the virgin Andromeda, and George,
like many another Christian saint, entered into the inheritance of
veneration previously enjoyed by a pagan hero.[1] The exploit thus
attaches itself to the very common Aryan myth of the sun-god as the
conqueror of the powers of darkness.

The popularity of St George in England has never reached the height
attained by St Andrew in Scotland, St David in Wales or St Patrick in
Ireland. The council of Oxford in 1222 ordered that his feast should be
kept as a national festival; but it was not until the time of Edward
III. that he was made patron of the kingdom. The republics of Genoa and
Venice were also under his protection.

  See P. Heylin, _The History of ... S. George of Cappadocia_ (1631); S.
  Baring-Gould, Curious _Myths of the Middle Ages_; Fr. Görres, "Der
  Ritter St Georg in der Geschichte, Legende und Kunst" (_Zeitschrift
  für wissenschaftliche Theologie_, xxx., 1887, Heft i.); E.A.W. Budge,
  _The Martyrdom and Miracles of St George of Cappadocia_: the Coptic
  texts edited with an English translation (1888); Bolland, _Acta
  Sancti_, iii. 101; E.O. Gordon, _Saint George_ (1907); M.H. Bulley,
  _St George for Merrie England_ (1908).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] G.A. Smith (_Hist. Geog. of Holy Land_, p. 164) points out
    another coincidence. "The Mahommedans who usually identify St George
    with the prophet Elijah, at Lydda confound his legend with one about
    Christ himself. Their name for Antichrist is Dajjal, and they have a
    tradition that Jesus will slay Antichrist by the gate of Lydda. The
    notion sprang from an ancient bas-relief of George and the Dragon on
    the Lydda church. But Dajjal may be derived, by a very common
    confusion between _n_ and _l_, from Dagon, whose name two
    neighbouring villages bear to this day, while one of the gates of
    Lydda used to be called the Gate of Dagon." It is a curious process
    by which the monster that symbolized heathenism conquered by
    Christianity has been evolved out of the first great rival of the God
    of Israel.



GEORGE I. [George Louis] (1660-1727), king of Great Britain and Ireland,
born in 1660, was heir through his father Ernest Augustus to the
hereditary lay bishopric of Osnabrück, and to the duchy of Calenberg,
which formed one portion of the Hanoverian possessions of the house of
Brunswick, whilst he secured the reversion of the other portion, the
duchy of Celle or Zell, by his marriage (1682) with the heiress, his
cousin Sophia Dorothea. The marriage was not a happy one. The morals of
German courts in the end of the 17th century took their tone from the
splendid profligacy of Versailles. It became the fashion for a prince to
amuse himself with a mistress or more frequently with many mistresses
simultaneously, and he was often content that the mistresses whom he
favoured should be neither beautiful nor witty. George Louis followed
the usual course. Count Königsmark--a handsome adventurer--seized the
opportunity of paying court to the deserted wife. Conjugal infidelity
was held at Hanover to be a privilege of the male sex. Count Königsmark
was assassinated. Sophia Dorothea was divorced in 1694, and remained in
seclusion till her death in 1726. When George IV., her descendant in the
fourth generation, attempted in England to call his wife to account for
sins of which he was himself notoriously guilty, free-spoken public
opinion reprobated the offence in no measured terms. But in the Germany
of the 17th century all free-spoken public opinion had been crushed out
by the misery of the Thirty Years' War, and it was understood that
princes were to arrange their domestic life according to their own
pleasure.

The prince's father did much to raise the dignity of his family. By
sending help to the emperor when he was struggling against the French
and the Turks, he obtained the grant of a ninth electorate in 1692. His
marriage with Sophia, the youngest daughter of Elizabeth the daughter of
James I. of England, was not one which at first seemed likely to confer
any prospect of advancement to his family. But though there were many
persons whose birth gave them better claims than she had to the English
crown, she found herself, upon the death of the duke of Gloucester, the
next Protestant heir after Anne. The Act of Settlement in 1701 secured
the inheritance to herself and her descendants. Being old and
unambitious she rather permitted herself to be burthened with the honour
than thrust herself forward to meet it. Her son George took a deeper
interest in the matter. In his youth he had fought with determined
courage in the wars of William III. Succeeding to the electorate on his
father's death in 1698, he had sent a welcome reinforcement of
Hanoverians to fight under Marlborough at Blenheim. With prudent
persistence he attached himself closely to the Whigs and to Marlborough,
refusing Tory offers of an independent command, and receiving in return
for his fidelity a guarantee by the Dutch of his succession to England
in the Barrier treaty of 1709. In 1714 when Anne was growing old, and
Bolingbroke and the more reckless Tories were coquetting with the son of
James II., the Whigs invited George's eldest son, who was duke of
Cambridge, to visit England in order to be on the spot in case of need.
Neither the elector nor his mother approved of a step which was likely
to alienate the queen, and which was specially distasteful to himself,
as he was on very bad terms with his son. Yet they did not set
themselves against the strong wish of the party to which they looked for
support, and it is possible that troubles would have arisen from any
attempt to carry out the plan, if the deaths, first of the electress
(May 28) and then of the queen (August 1, 1714), had not laid open
George's way to the succession without further effort of his own.

In some respects the position of the new king was not unlike that of
William III. a quarter of a century before. Both sovereigns were
foreigners, with little knowledge of English politics and little
interest in English legislation. Both sovereigns arrived at a time when
party spirit had been running high, and when the task before the ruler
was to still the waves of contention. In spite of the difference between
an intellectually great man and an intellectually small one, in spite
too of the difference between the king who began by choosing his
ministers from both parties and the king who persisted in choosing his
ministers from only one, the work of pacification was accomplished by
George even more thoroughly than by William.

George I. was fortunate in arriving in England when a great military
struggle had come to an end. He had therefore no reason to call upon the
nation to make great sacrifices. All that he wanted was to secure for
himself and his family a high position which he hardly knew how to
occupy, to fill the pockets of his German attendants and his German
mistresses, to get away as often as possible from the uncongenial
islanders whose language he was unable to speak, and to use the strength
of England to obtain petty advantages for his German principality. In
order to do this he attached himself entirely to the Whig party, though
he refused to place himself at the disposal of its leaders. He gave his
confidence, not to Somers and Wharton and Marlborough, but to Stanhope
and Townshend, the statesmen of the second rank. At first he seemed to
be playing a dangerous game. The Tories, whom he rejected, were
numerically superior to their adversaries, and were strong in the
support of the country gentlemen and the country clergy. The strength of
the Whigs lay in the towns and in the higher aristocracy. Below both
parties lay the mass of the nation, which cared nothing for politics
except in special seasons of excitement, and which asked only to be let
alone. In 1715 a Jacobite insurrection in the north, supported by the
appearance of the Pretender, the son of James II., in Scotland, was
suppressed, and its suppression not only gave to the government a
character of stability, but displayed its adversaries in an unfavourable
light as the disturbers of the peace.

Even this advantage, however, would have been thrown away if the Whigs
in power had continued to be animated by violent party spirit. What
really happened was that the Tory leaders were excluded from office, but
that the principles and prejudices of the Tories were admitted to their
full weight in the policy of the government. The natural result
followed. The leaders to whom no regard was paid continued in
opposition. The rank and file, who would personally have gained nothing
by a party victory, were conciliated into quiescence.

This mingling of two policies was conspicuous both in the foreign and
the domestic actions of the reign. In the days of Queen Anne the Whig
party had advocated the continuance of war with a view to the complete
humiliation of the king of France, whom they feared as the protector of
the Pretender, and in whose family connexion with the king of Spain they
saw a danger for England. The Tory party, on the other hand, had been
the authors of the peace of Utrecht, and held that France was
sufficiently depressed. A fortunate concurrence of circumstances enabled
George's ministers, by an alliance with the regent of France, the duke
of Orleans, to pursue at the same time the Whig policy of separating
France from Spain and from the cause of the Pretender, and the Tory
policy of the maintenance of a good understanding with their neighbour
across the Channel. The same eclecticism was discernible in the
proceedings of the home government. The Whigs were conciliated by the
repeal of the Schism Act and the Occasional Conformity Act, whilst the
Tories were conciliated by the maintenance of the Test Act in all its
vigour. The satisfaction of the masses was increased by the general
well-being of the nation.

Very little of all that was thus accomplished was directly owing to
George I. The policy of the reign is the policy of his ministers.
Stanhope and Townshend from 1714 to 1717 were mainly occupied with the
defence of the Hanoverian settlement. After the dismissal of the latter
in 1717, Stanhope in conjunction with Sunderland took up a more decided
Whig policy. The Occasional Conformity Act and the Schism Act were
repealed in 1719. But the wish of the liberal Whigs to modify if not to
repeal the Test Act remained unsatisfied. In the following year the
bursting of the South Sea bubble, and the subsequent deaths of Stanhope
in 1721 and of Sunderland in 1722, cleared the way for the accession to
power of Sir Robert Walpole, to whom and not to the king was due the
conciliatory policy which quieted Tory opposition by abstaining from
pushing Whig principles to their legitimate consequences.

Nevertheless something of the honour due to Walpole must be reckoned to
the king's credit. It is evident that at his accession his decisions
were by no means unimportant. The royal authority was still able within
certain limits to make its own terms. This support was so necessary to
the Whigs that they made no resistance when he threw aside their leaders
on his arrival in England. When by his personal intervention he
dismissed Townshend and appointed Sunderland, he had no such social and
parliamentary combination to fear as that which almost mastered his
great-grandson in his struggle for power. If such a combination arose
before the end of his reign it was owing more to his omitting to fulfil
the duties of his station than from the necessity of the case. As he
could talk no English, and his ministers could talk no German, he
absented himself from the meetings of the cabinet, and his frequent
absences from England and his want of interest in English politics
strengthened the cabinet in its tendency to assert an independent
position. Walpole at last by his skill in the management of parliament
rose as a subject into the almost royal position denoted by the name of
prime minister. In connexion with Walpole the force of wealth and
station established the Whig aristocracy in a point of vantage from
which it was afterwards difficult to dislodge them. Yet, though George
had allowed the power which had been exercised by William and Anne to
slip through his hands, it was understood to the last that if he chose
to exert himself he might cease to be a mere cipher in the conduct of
affairs. As late as 1727 Bolingbroke gained over one of the king's
mistresses, the duchess of Kendal; and though her support of the fallen
Jacobite took no effect, Walpole was not without fear that her
reiterated entreaties would lead to his dismissal. The king's death in a
carriage on his way to Hanover, in the night between 10th and 11th June
in the same year, put an end to these apprehensions.

His only children were his successor George II. and Sophia Dorothea
(1687-1757), who married in 1706 Frederick William, crown prince
(afterwards king) of Prussia. She was the mother of Frederick the Great.
     (S. R. G.)

  See the standard English histories. A recent popular work is L.
  Melville's _The First George in Hanover and England_ (1908).



GEORGE II. [George Augustus] (1683-1760), king of Great Britain and
Ireland, the only son of George I., was born in 1683. In 1705 he married
Wilhelmina Caroline of Anspach. In 1706 he was created earl of
Cambridge. In 1708 he fought bravely at Oudenarde. At his father's
accession to the English throne he was thirty-one years of age. He was
already on bad terms with his father. The position of an heir-apparent
is in no case an easy one to fill with dignity, and the ill-treatment of
the prince's mother by his father was not likely to strengthen in him a
reverence for paternal authority. It was most unwillingly that, on his
first journey to Hanover in 1716, George I. appointed the prince of
Wales guardian of the realm during his absence. In 1717 the existing
ill-feeling ripened into an open breach. At the baptism of one of his
children, the prince selected one godfather whilst the king persisted in
selecting another. The young man spoke angrily, was ordered into arrest,
and was subsequently commanded to leave St James's and to be excluded
from all court ceremonies. The prince took up his residence at Leicester
House, and did everything in his power to support the opposition against
his father's ministers.

When therefore George I. died in 1727, it was generally supposed that
Walpole would be at once dismissed. The first direction of the new king
was that Sir Spencer Compton would draw up the speech in which he was to
announce to the privy council his accession. Compton, not knowing how to
set about his task, applied to Walpole for aid. Queen Caroline took
advantage of this evidence of incapacity, advocated Walpole's cause with
her husband and procured his continuance in office. This curious scene
was indicative of the course likely to be taken by the new sovereign.
His own mind was incapable of rising above the merest details of
business. He made war in the spirit of a drill-sergeant, and he
economized his income with the minute regularity of a clerk. A blunder
of a master of the ceremonies in marshalling the attendants on a levee
put him out of temper. He took the greatest pleasure in counting his
money piece by piece, and he never forgot a date. He was above all
things methodical and regular. "He seems," said one who knew him well,
"to think his having done a thing to-day an unanswerable reason for his
doing it to-morrow."

Most men so utterly immersed in details would be very impracticable to
deal with. They would obstinately refuse to listen to a wisdom and
prudence which meant nothing in their ears, and which brought home to
them a sense of their own inferiority. It was the happy peculiarity of
George II. that he was exempt from this failing. He seemed to have an
instinctive understanding that such and such persons were either wiser
or even stronger than himself, and when he had once discovered that, he
gave way with scarcely a struggle. Thus it was that, though in his
domestic relations he was as loose a liver as his father had been, he
allowed himself to be guided by the wise but unobtrusive counsels of his
wife until her death in 1737, and that when once he had recognized
Walpole's superiority he allowed himself to be guided by the political
sagacity of the great minister. It is difficult to exaggerate the
importance of such a temper upon the development of the constitution.
The apathy of the nation in all but the most exciting political
questions, fostered by the calculated conservatism of Walpole, had
thrown power into the hands of the great landowners. They maintained
their authority by supporting a minister who was ready to make use of
corruption, wherever corruption was likely to be useful, and who could
veil over the baseness of the means which he employed by his talents in
debate and in finance. To shake off a combination so strong would not
have been easy. George II. submitted to it without a struggle.

So strong indeed had the Whig aristocracy grown that it began to lose
its cohesion. Walpole was determined to monopolize power, and he
dismissed from office all who ventured to oppose him. An opposition
formidable in talents was gradually formed. In its composite ranks were
to be found Tories and discontented Whigs, discarded official hacks who
were hungry for the emoluments of office, and youthful purists who
fancied that if Walpole were removed, bribes and pensions would cease to
be attractive to a corrupt generation. Behind them was Bolingbroke,
excluded from parliament but suggesting every party move. In 1737 the
opposition acquired the support of Frederick, prince of Wales. The young
man, weak and headstrong, rebelled against the strict discipline exacted
by his father. His marriage in 1736 to Augusta of Saxony brought on an
open quarrel. In 1737, just as the princess of Wales was about to give
birth to her first child, she was hurried away by her husband from
Hampton Court to St James's Palace at the imminent risk of her life,
simply in order that the prince might show his spite to his father who
had provided all necessary attendance at the former place. George
ordered his son to quit St James's, and to absent himself from court.
Frederick in disgrace gave the support of his name, and he had nothing
else to give, to the opposition. Later in the year 1737, on the 20th of
November, Queen Caroline died. In 1742 Walpole, weighed down by the
unpopularity both of his reluctance to engage in a war with Spain and of
his supposed remissness in conducting the operations of that war, was
driven from office. His successors formed a composite ministry in which
Walpole's old colleagues and Walpole's old opponents were alike to be
found.

The years which followed settled conclusively, at least for this reign,
the constitutional question of the power of appointing ministers. The
war between Spain and England had broken out in 1739. In 1741 the death
of the emperor Charles VI. brought on the war of the Austrian
succession. The position of George II. as a Hanoverian prince drew him
to the side of Maria Theresa through jealousy of the rising Prussian
monarchy. Jealousy of France led England in the same direction, and in
1741 a subsidy of £300,000 was voted to Maria Theresa. The king himself
went to Germany and attempted to carry on the war according to his own
notions. Those notions led him to regard the safety of Hanover as of far
more importance than the wishes of England. Finding that a French army
was about to march upon his German states, he concluded with France a
treaty of neutrality for a year without consulting a single English
minister. In England the news was received with feelings of disgust. The
expenditure of English money and troops was to be thrown uselessly away
as soon as it appeared that Hanover was in the slightest danger. In 1742
Walpole was no longer in office. Lord Wilmington, the nominal head of
the ministry, was a mere cipher. The ablest and most energetic of his
colleagues, Lord Carteret (afterwards Granville), attached himself
specially to the king, and sought to maintain himself in power by his
special favour and by brilliant achievements in diplomacy.

In part at least by Carteret's mediation the peace of Breslau was
signed, by which Maria Theresa ceded Silesia to Frederick (July 28,
1742). Thus relieved on her northern frontier, she struck out vigorously
towards the west. Bavaria was overrun by her troops. In the beginning of
1743 one French army was driven across the Rhine. On June 27th another
French army was defeated by George II. in person at Dettingen. Victory
brought elation to Maria Theresa. Her war of defence was turned into a
war of vengeance. Bavaria was to be annexed. The French frontier was to
be driven back. George II. and Carteret after some hesitation placed
themselves on her side. Of the public opinion of the political classes
in England they took no thought. Hanoverian troops were indeed to be
employed in the war, but they were to be taken into British pay.
Collisions between British and Hanoverian officers were frequent. A
storm arose against the preference shown to Hanoverian interests. After
a brief struggle Carteret, having become Lord Granville by his mother's
death, was driven from office in November 1744.

Henry Pelham, who had become prime minister in the preceding year, thus
saw himself established in power. By the acceptance of this ministry,
the king acknowledged that the function of choosing a ministry and
directing a policy had passed from his hands. In 1745 indeed he recalled
Granville, but a few days were sufficient to convince him of the
futility of his attempt, and the effort to exclude Pitt at a later time
proved equally fruitless.

Important as were the events of the remainder of the reign, therefore,
they can hardly be grouped round the name of George II. The resistance
to the invasion of the Young Pretender in 1745, the peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, the great war ministry of Pitt at the close of
the reign, did not receive their impulse from him. He had indeed done
his best to exclude Pitt from office. He disliked him on account of his
opposition in former years to the sacrifices demanded by the Hanoverian
connexion. When in 1756 Pitt became secretary of state in the Devonshire
administration, the king bore the yoke with difficulty. Early in the
next year he complained of Pitt's long speeches as being above his
comprehension, and on April 5, 1757, he dismissed him, only to take him
back shortly after, when Pitt, coalescing with Newcastle, became master
of the situation. Before Pitt's dismissal George II. had for once an
opportunity of placing himself on the popular side, though, as was the
case of his grandson during the American war, it was when the popular
side happened to be in the wrong. In the true spirit of a martinet, he
wished to see Admiral Byng executed. Pitt urged the wish of the House of
Commons to have him pardoned. "Sir," replied the king, "you have taught
me to look for the sense of my subjects in another place than in the
House of Commons." When George II. died in 1760, he left behind him a
settled understanding that the monarchy was one of the least of the
forces by which the policy of the country was directed. To this end he
had contributed much by his disregard of English opinion in 1743; but it
may fairly be added that, but for his readiness to give way to
irresistible adversaries, the struggle might have been far more bitter
and severe than it was.

Of the connexion between Hanover and England in this reign two memorials
remain more pleasant to contemplate than the records of parliamentary
and ministerial intrigues. With the support of George II., amidst the
derision of the English fashionable world, the Hanoverian Handel
produced in England those masterpieces which have given delight to
millions, whilst the foundation of the university of Göttingen by the
same king opened a door through which English political ideas afterwards
penetrated into Germany.

George II. had three sons,--Frederick Louis (1707-1751); George William
(1717-1718); and William Augustus, duke of Cumberland (1721-1765); and
five daughters, Anne (1709-1759), married to William, prince of Orange,
1734; Amelia Sophia Eleonora (1711-1786); Elizabeth Caroline
(1713-1757); Mary (1723-1772), married to Frederick, landgrave of
Hesse-Cassel, 1740; Louisa (1724-1751), married to Frederick V., king of
Denmark, 1743.     (S. R. G.)

  See Lord Hervey, _Memoirs of the Reign of George II._, ed. by J. W,
  Croker (3 vols., London, 1884); Horace Walpole, _Mem. of the Reign of
  George II._, with notes by Lord Holland (3 vols., 2nd ed., 1847).



GEORGE III. [George William Frederick] (1738-1820), king of Great
Britain and Ireland, son of Frederick, prince of Wales, and grandson of
George II., whom he succeeded in 1760, was born on the 4th of June 1738.
After his father's death in 1751 he had been educated in seclusion from
the fashionable world under the care of his mother and of her favourite
counsellor the earl of Bute. He had been taught to revere the maxims of
Bolingbroke's "Patriot King," and to believe that it was his appointed
task in life to break the power of the Whig houses resting upon
extensive property and the influence of patronage and corruption. That
power had already been gravely shaken. The Whigs from their incompetency
were obliged when the Seven Years' War broke out to leave its management
in the hands of William Pitt. The nation learned to applaud the great
war minister who succeeded where others had failed, and whose immaculate
purity put to shame the ruck of barterers of votes for places and
pensions.

In some sort the work of the new king was the continuation of the work
of Pitt. But his methods were very different. He did not appeal to any
widely spread feeling or prejudice; nor did he disdain the use of the
arts which had maintained his opponents in power. The patronage of the
crown was to be really as well as nominally his own; and he calculated,
not without reason, that men would feel more flattered in accepting a
place from a king than from a minister. The new Toryism of which he was
the founder was no recurrence to the Toryism of the days of Charles II.
or even of Anne. The question of the amount of toleration to be accorded
to Dissenters had been entirely laid aside. The point at issue was
whether the crown should be replaced in the position which George I.
might have occupied at the beginning of his reign, selecting the
ministers and influencing the deliberations of the cabinet. For this
struggle George III. possessed no inconsiderable advantages. With an
inflexible tenacity of purpose, he was always ready to give way when
resistance was really hopeless. As the first English-born sovereign of
his house, speaking from his birth the language of his subjects, he
found a way to the hearts of many who never regarded his predecessors as
other than foreign intruders. The contrast, too, between the pure
domestic life which he led with his wife Charlotte, whom he married in
1761, and the habits of three generations of his house, told in his
favour with the vast majority of his subjects. Even his marriage had
been a sacrifice to duty. Soon after his accession he had fallen in love
with Lady Sarah Lennox, and had been observed to ride morning by morning
along the Kensington Road, from which the object of his affections was
to be seen from the lawn of Holland House making hay, or engaged in some
other ostensible employment. Before the year was over Lady Sarah
appeared as one of the queen's bridesmaids, and she was herself married
to Sir Charles Bunbury in 1762.

At first everything seemed easy to him. Pitt had come to be regarded by
his own colleagues as a minister who would pursue war at any price, and
in getting rid of Pitt in 1761 and in carrying on the negotiations which
led to the peace of Paris in 1762, the king was able to gather round him
many persons who would not be willing to acquiesce in any permanent
change in the system of government. With the signature of the peace his
real difficulties began. The Whig houses, indeed, were divided amongst
themselves by personal rivalries. But they were none of them inclined to
let power and the advantages of power slip from their hands without a
struggle. For some years a contest of influence was carried on without
dignity and without any worthy aim. The king was not strong enough to
impose upon parliament a ministry of his own choice. But he gathered
round himself a body of dependants known as the king's friends, who were
secure of his favour, and who voted one way or the other according to
his wishes. Under these circumstances no ministry could possibly be
stable; and yet every ministry was strong enough to impose some
conditions on the king. Lord Bute, the king's first choice, resigned
from a sense of his own incompetency in 1763. George Grenville was in
office till 1765; the marquis of Rockingham till 1766; Pitt, becoming
earl of Chatham, till illness compelled him to retire from the conduct
of affairs in 1767, when he was succeeded by the duke of Grafton. But a
struggle of interests could gain no real strength for any government,
and the only chance the king had of effecting a permanent change in the
balance of power lay in the possibility of his associating himself with
some phase of strong national feeling, as Pitt had associated himself
with the war feeling caused by the dissatisfaction spread by the
weakness and ineptitude of his predecessors.

Such a chance was offered by the question of the right to tax America.
The notion that England was justified in throwing on America part of the
expenses caused in the late war was popular in the country, and no one
adopted it more pertinaciously then George III. At the bottom the
position which he assumed was as contrary to the principles of
parliamentary government as the encroachments of Charles I. had been.
But it was veiled in the eyes of Englishmen by the prominence given to
the power of the British parliament rather than to the power of the
British king. In fact the theory of parliamentary government, like most
theories after their truth has long been universally acknowledged, had
become a superstition. Parliaments were held to be properly vested with
authority, not because they adequately represented the national will,
but simply because they were parliaments. There were thousands of people
in England to whom it never occurred that there was any good reason why
a British parliament should be allowed to levy a duty on tea in the
London docks and should not be allowed to levy a duty on tea at the
wharves of Boston. Undoubtedly George III. derived great strength from
his honest participation in this mistake. Contending under parliamentary
forms, he did not wound the susceptibilities of members of parliament,
and when at last in 1770 he appointed Lord North--a minister of his own
selection--prime minister, the object of his ambition was achieved with
the concurrence of a large body of politicians who had nothing in common
with the servile band of the king's friends.

As long as the struggle with America was carried on with any hope of
success they gained that kind of support which is always forthcoming to
a government which shares in the errors and prejudices of its subjects.
The expulsion of Wilkes from the House of Commons in 1769, and the
refusal of the House to accept him as a member after his re-election,
raised a grave constitutional question in which the king was wholly in
the wrong; and Wilkes was popular in London and Middlesex. But his case
roused no national indignation, and when in 1774 those sharp measures
were taken with Boston which led to the commencement of the American
rebellion in 1775, the opposition to the course taken by the king made
little way either in parliament or in the country. Burke might point out
the folly and inexpedience of the proceedings of the government. Chatham
might point out that the true spirit of English government was to be
representative, and that that spirit was being violated at home and
abroad. George III., who thought that the first duty of the Americans
was to obey himself, had on his side the mass of unreflecting Englishmen
who thought that the first duty of all colonists was to be useful and
submissive to the mother-country. The natural dislike of every country
engaged in war to see itself defeated was on his side, and when the news
of Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga arrived in 1777, subscriptions of
money to raise new regiments poured freely in.

In March 1778 the French ambassador in London announced that a treaty of
friendship and commerce had been concluded between France and the new
United States of America. Lord North was anxious to resign power into
stronger hands, and begged the king to receive Chatham as his prime
minister. The king would not hear of it. He would have nothing to say to
"that perfidious man" unless he would humble himself to enter the
ministry as North's subordinate. Chatham naturally refused to do
anything of the kind, and his death in the course of the year relieved
the king of the danger of being again overruled by too overbearing a
minister. England was now at war with France, and in 1779 she was also
at war with Spain.

George III. was still able to control the disposition of office. He
could not control the course of events. His very ministers gave up the
struggle as hopeless long before he would acknowledge the true state of
the case. Before the end of 1779, two of the leading members of the
cabinet, Lords Gower and Weymouth, resigned rather than bear the
responsibility of so ruinous an enterprise as the attempt to overpower
America and France together. Lord North retained office, but he
acknowledged to the king that his own opinion was precisely the same as
that of his late colleagues.

The year 1780 saw an agitation rising in the country for economical
reform, an agitation very closely though indirectly connected with the
war policy of the king. The public meetings held in the country on this
subject have no unimportant place in the development of the
constitution. Since the presentation of the Kentish petition in the
reign of William III. there had been from time to time upheavings of
popular feeling against the doings of the legislature, which kept up the
tradition that parliament existed in order to represent the nation. But
these upheavings had all been so associated with ignorance and violence
as to make it very difficult for men of sense to look with displeasure
upon the existing emancipation of the House of Commons from popular
control. The Sacheverell riots, the violent attacks upon the Excise
Bill, the no less violent advocacy of the Spanish War, the declamations
of the supporters of Wilkes at a more recent time, and even in this very
year the Gordon riots, were not likely to make thoughtful men anxious to
place real power in the hands of the classes from whom such exhibitions
of folly proceeded. But the movement for economical reform was of a very
different kind. It was carried on soberly in manner, and with a definite
practical object. It asked for no more than the king ought to have been
willing to concede. It attacked useless expenditure upon sinecures and
unnecessary offices in the household, the only use of which was to
spread abroad corruption amongst the upper classes. George III. could
not bear to be interfered with at all, or to surrender any element of
power which had served him in his long struggle with the Whigs. He held
out for more than another year. The news of the capitulation of Yorktown
reached London on the 25th of November 1781. On the 20th of March 1782
Lord North resigned.

George III. accepted the consequences of defeat. He called the marquis
of Rockingham to office at the head of a ministry composed of pure Whigs
and of the disciples of the late earl of Chatham, and he authorized the
new ministry to open negotiations for peace. Their hands were greatly
strengthened by Rodney's victory over the French fleet, and the failure
of the combined French and Spanish attack upon Gibraltar; and before the
end of 1782 a provisional treaty was signed with America, preliminaries
of peace with France and Spain being signed early in the following year.
On the 3rd of September 1783 the definitive treaties with the three
countries were simultaneously concluded. "Sir," said the king to John
Adams, the first minister of the United States of America accredited to
him, "I wish you to believe, and that it may be understood in America,
that I have done nothing in the late contest but what I thought myself
indispensably bound to do by the duty which I owed to my people. I will
be very frank with you. I was the last to consent to the separation: but
the separation having been made and having become inevitable, I have
always said, as I say now, that I would be the first to meet the
friendship of the United States as an independent power."

Long before the signature of the treaties Rockingham died (July 1,
1782). The king chose Lord Shelburne, the head of the Chatham section of
the government, to be prime minister. Fox and the followers of
Rockingham refused to serve except under the duke of Portland, a
minister of their own selection, and resigned office. The old
constitutional struggle of the reign was now to be fought out once more.
Fox, too weak to obtain a majority alone, coalesced with Lord North, and
defeated Shelburne in the House of Commons on the 27th of February 1783.
On the 2nd of April the coalition took office, with Portland as nominal
prime minister, and Fox and North the secretaries of state as its real
heads.

This attempt to impose upon him a ministry which he disliked made the
king very angry. But the new cabinet had a large majority in the House
of Commons, and the only chance of resisting it lay in an appeal to the
country against the House of Commons. Such an appeal was not likely to
be responded to unless the ministers discredited themselves with the
nation. George III. therefore waited his time. Though a coalition
between men bitterly opposed to one another in all political principles
and drawn together by nothing but love of office was in itself
discreditable, it needed some more positive cause of dissatisfaction to
arouse the constituencies, which were by no means so ready to interfere
in political disputes at that time as they are now. Such dissatisfaction
was given by the India Bill, drawn up by Burke. As soon as it had passed
through the Commons the king hastened to procure its rejection in the
House of Lords by his personal intervention with the peers. He
authorized Lord Temple to declare in his name that he would count any
peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. On the 17th of December 1783
the bill was thrown out. The next day ministers were dismissed. William
Pitt became prime minister. After some weeks' struggle with a constantly
decreasing majority in the Commons, the king dissolved parliament on the
25th of March 1784. The country rallied round the crown and the young
minister, and Pitt was firmly established in office.

There can be no reasonable doubt[1] that Pitt not only took advantage of
the king's intervention in the Lords, but was cognizant of the intrigue
before it was actually carried out. It was upon him, too, that the
weight of reconciling the country to an administration formed under such
circumstances lay. The general result, so far as George III. was
concerned, was that to all outward appearance he had won the great
battle of his life. It was he who was to appoint the prime minister, not
any clique resting on a parliamentary support. But the circumstances
under which the victory was won were such as to place the constitution
in a position very different from that in which it would have been if
the victory had been gained earlier in the reign. Intrigue there was
indeed in 1783 and 1784 as there had been twenty years before.
Parliamentary support was conciliated by Pitt by the grant of royal
favours as it had been in the days of Bute. The actual blow was struck
by a most questionable message to individual peers. But the main result
of the whole political situation was that George III. had gone a long
way towards disentangling the reality of parliamentary government from
its accidents. His ministry finally stood because it had appealed to the
constituencies against their representatives. Since then it has properly
become a constitutional axiom that no such appeal should be made by the
crown itself. But it may reasonably be doubted whether any one but the
king was at that time capable of making the appeal. Lord Shelburne, the
leader of the ministry expelled by the coalition, was unpopular in the
country, and the younger Pitt had not had time to make his great
abilities known beyond a limited circle. The real question for the
constitutional historian to settle is not whether under ordinary
circumstances a king is the proper person to place himself really as
well as nominally at the head of the government; but whether under the
special circumstances which existed in 1783 it was not better that the
king should call upon the people to support him, than that government
should be left in the hands of men who rested their power on close
boroughs and the dispensation of patronage, without looking beyond the
walls of the House of Commons for support.

That the king gained credit far beyond his own deserts by the glories of
Pitt's ministry is beyond a doubt. Nor can there be any reasonable doubt
that his own example of domestic propriety did much to strengthen the
position of his minister. It is true that that life was insufferably
dull. No gleams of literary or artistic taste lightened it up. The
dependants of the court became inured to dull routine unchequered by
loving sympathy. The sons of the household were driven by the sheer
weariness of such an existence into the coarsest profligacy. But all
this was not visible from a distance. The tide of moral and religious
improvement which had set in in England since the days of Wesley brought
popularity to a king who was faithful to his wife, in the same way that
the tide of manufacturing industry and scientific progress brought
popularity to the minister who in some measure translated into practice
the principles of the _Wealth of Nations_.

Nor were there wanting subjects of importance beyond the circle of
politics in which George III. showed a lively interest. The voyages of
discovery which made known so large a part of the islands and coasts of
the Pacific Ocean received from him a warm support. In the early days of
the Royal Academy, its finances were strengthened by liberal grants from
the privy purse. His favourite pursuit, however, was farming. When
Arthur Young was issuing his _Annals of Agriculture_, he was supplied
with information by the king, under the assumed name of Mr Ralph
Robinson, relating to a farm at Petersham.

The life of the king was suddenly clouded over. Early in his reign, in
1765, he had been out of health, and--though the fact was studiously
concealed at the time--symptoms of mental aberration were even then to
be perceived. In October 1788 he was again out of health, and in the
beginning of the following month his insanity was beyond a doubt. Whilst
Pitt and Fox were contending in the House of Commons over the terms on
which the regency should be committed to the prince of Wales, the king
was a helpless victim to the ignorance of physicians and the brutalities
of his servants. At last Dr Willis, who had made himself a name by
prescribing gentleness instead of rigour in the treatment of the insane,
was called in. Under his more humane management the king rapidly
recovered. Before the end of February 1789 he was able to write to Pitt
thanking him for his warm support of his interests during his illness.
On the 23rd of April he went in person to St Paul's to return thanks for
his recovery.

The popular enthusiasm which burst forth around St Paul's was but a
foretaste of a popularity far more universal. The French Revolution
frightened the great Whig landowners till they made their peace with the
king. Those who thought that the true basis of government was
aristocratical were now of one mind with those who thought that the true
basis of government was monarchical; and these two classes were joined
by a far larger multitude which had no political ideas whatever, but
which had a moral horror of the guillotine. As Elizabeth had once been
the symbol of resistance to Spain, George was now the symbol of
resistance to France. He was not, however, more than the symbol. He
allowed Pitt to levy taxes and incur debt, to launch armies to defeat,
and to prosecute the English imitators of French revolutionary courses.
At last, however, after the Union with Ireland was accomplished, he
learned that Pitt was planning a scheme to relieve the Catholics from
the disabilities under which they laboured. The plan was revealed to him
by the chancellor, Lord Loughborough, a selfish and intriguing
politician who had served all parties in turn, and who sought to forward
his own interests by falling in with the king's prejudices. George III.
at once took up the position from which he never swerved. He declared
that to grant concessions to the Catholics involved a breach of his
coronation oath. No one has ever doubted that the king was absolutely
convinced of the serious nature of the objection. Nor can there be any
doubt that he had the English people behind him. Both in his peace
ministry and in his war ministry Pitt had taken his stand on royal
favour and on popular support. Both failed him alike now, and he
resigned office at once. The shock to the king's mind was so great that
it brought on a fresh attack of insanity. This time, however, the
recovery was rapid. On the 14th of March 1801 Pitt's resignation was
formally accepted, and the late speaker, Mr Addington, was installed in
office as prime minister.

The king was well pleased with the change. He was never capable of
appreciating high merit in any one; and he was unable to perceive that
the question on which Pitt had resigned was more than an improper
question, with which he ought never to have meddled. "Tell him," he
said, in directing his physician to inform Pitt of his restoration to
health, "I am now quite well, quite recovered from my illness; but what
has he not to answer for, who has been the cause of my having been ill
at all?" Addington was a minister after his own mind. Thoroughly honest
and respectable, with about the same share of abilities as was possessed
by the king himself, he was certainly not likely to startle the world by
any flights of genius. But for one circumstance Addington's ministry
would have lasted long. So strong was the reaction against the
Revolution that the bulk of the nation was almost as suspicious of
genius as the king himself. Not only was there no outcry for legislative
reforms, but the very idea of reform was unpopular. The country
gentlemen were predominant in parliament, and the country gentlemen as a
body looked upon Addington with respect and affection. Such a minister
was therefore admirably suited to preside over affairs at home in the
existing state of opinion. But those who were content with inaction at
home would not be content with inaction abroad. In time of peace
Addington would have been popular for a season. In time of war even his
warmest admirers could not say that he was the man to direct armies in
the most terrible struggle which had ever been conducted by an English
government.

For the moment this difficulty was not felt. On the 1st of October 1801,
preliminaries of peace were signed between England and France, to be
converted into the definitive peace of Amiens on the 27th of March 1802.
The ruler of France was now Napoleon Bonaparte, and few persons in
England believed that he had any real purpose of bringing his aggressive
violence to an end. "Do you know what I call this peace?" said the king;
"an experimental peace, for it is nothing else. But it was unavoidable."

The king was right. On the 18th of May 1803 the declaration of war was
laid before parliament. The war was accepted by all classes as
inevitable, and the French preparations for an invasion of England
roused the whole nation to a glow of enthusiasm only equalled by that
felt when the Armada threatened its shores. On the 26th of October the
king reviewed the London volunteers in Hyde Park. He found himself the
centre of a great national movement with which he heartily sympathized,
and which heartily sympathized with him.

On the 12th of February 1804 the king's mind was again affected. When he
recovered, he found himself in the midst of a ministerial crisis. Public
feeling allowed but one opinion to prevail in the country--that Pitt,
not Addington, was the proper man to conduct the administration in time
of war. Pitt was anxious to form an administration on a broad basis,
including Fox and all prominent leaders of both parties. The king would
not hear of the admission of Fox. His dislike of him was personal as
well as political, as he knew that Fox had had a great share in drawing
the prince of Wales into a life of profligacy. Pitt accepted the king's
terms, and formed an administration in which he was the only man of real
ability. Eminent men, such as Lord Grenville, refused to join a ministry
from which the king had excluded a great statesman on purely personal
grounds.

The whole question was reopened on Pitt's death on the 23rd of January
1806. This time the king gave way. The ministry of All the Talents, as
it was called, included Fox amongst its members. At first the king was
observed to appear depressed at the necessity of surrender. But Fox's
charm of manner soon gained upon him. "Mr Fox," said the king, "I
little thought that you and I should ever meet again in this place; but
I have no desire to look back upon old grievances, and you may rest
assured I never shall remind you of them." On the 13th of September Fox
died, and it was not long before the king and the ministry were openly
in collision. The ministry proposed a measure enabling all subjects of
the crown to serve in the army and navy in spite of religious
disqualifications. The king objected even to so slight a modification of
the laws against the Catholics and Dissenters, and the ministers
consented to drop the bill. The king asked more than this. He demanded a
written and positive engagement that this ministry would never, under
any circumstances, propose to him "any measure of concession to the
Catholics, or even connected with the question." The ministers very
properly refused to bind themselves for the future. They were
consequently turned out of office, and a new ministry was formed with
the duke of Portland as first lord of the treasury and Mr Perceval as
its real leader. The spirit of the new ministry was distinct hostility
to the Catholic claims. On the 27th of April 1807 a dissolution of
parliament was announced, and a majority in favour of the king's
ministry was returned in the elections which speedily followed.

The elections of 1807, like the elections of 1784, gave the king the
mastery of the situation. In other respects they were the counterpart of
one another. In 1784 the country declared, though perhaps without any
clear conception of what it was doing, for a wise and progressive
policy. In 1807 it declared for an unwise and retrogressive policy, with
a very clear understanding of what it meant. It is in his reliance upon
the prejudices and ignorance of the country that the constitutional
significance of the reign of George III. appears. Every strong
government derives its power from its representative character. At a
time when the House of Commons was less really representative than at
any other, a king was on the throne who represented the country in its
good and bad qualities alike, in its hatred of revolutionary violence,
its moral sturdiness, its contempt of foreigners, and its defiance of
all ideas which were in any way strange. Therefore it was that his
success was not permanently injurious to the working of the constitution
as the success of Charles I. would have been. If he were followed by a
king less English than himself, the strength of representative power
would pass into other hands than those which held the sceptre.

The overthrow of the ministry of All the Talents was the last political
act of constitutional importance in which George III. took part. The
substitution of Perceval for Portland as the nominal head of the
ministry in 1809 was not an event of any real significance, and in 1811
the reign practically came to an end. The king's reason finally broke
down after the death of the princess Amelia, his favourite child; and
the prince of Wales (see GEORGE IV.) became prince regent. The remaining
nine years of George III.'s life were passed in insanity and blindness,
and he died on the 29th of January 1820.

His wife, Charlotte Sophia (1744-1818), was a daughter of Charles Louis
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1816), and was married to the king in London
on the 8th of September 1761. After a peaceful and happy married life
the queen died at Kew on the 17th of November 1818.

George III. had nine sons. After his successor came Frederick, duke of
York and Albany (1763-1827); William Henry, duke of Clarence, afterwards
King William IV. (1765-1837); Edward Augustus, duke of Kent (1767-1825),
father of Queen Victoria; Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland,
afterwards king of Hanover (1771-1851); Augustus Frederick, duke of
Sussex (1773-1843); Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge (1774-1850);
Octavius (1779-1783); Alfred (1780-1782). He had also six
daughters--Charlotte Augusta (1766-1828), married in 1797 to Frederick,
afterwards king of Württemberg; Augusta Sophia (1768-1840); Elizabeth
(1770-1840), married Frederick, landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, 1818; Mary
(1776-1857), married to William Frederick, duke of Gloucester, 1816;
Sophia (1777-1848); Amelia (1783-1810).     (S. R. G.)

  The numerous contemporary memoirs and diaries are full of the best
  material for a picture of George III.'s reign, apart from the standard
  histories. Thackeray's _Four Georges_ must not be trusted so far as
  historical judgment is concerned; Jesse's _Memoirs of the Life and
  Reign of George III._ (2nd ed., 1867) is chiefly concerned with
  personalities. See also Beckles Willson, _George III., as Man, Monarch
  and Statesman_ (1907).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See Lord Fitzmaurice's _Life of Shelburne_, iii. 393.



GEORGE IV. [George Augustus Frederick] (1762-1830), king of Great
Britain and Ireland, eldest son of George III., was born at St James's
Palace, London, on the 12th of August 1762. He was naturally gifted, was
well taught in the classics, learnt to speak French, Italian and German
fluently, and had considerable taste for music and the arts; and in
person he was remarkably handsome. His tutor, Bishop Richard Hurd, said
of him when fifteen years old that he would be "either the most polished
gentleman or the most accomplished blackguard in Europe--possibly both";
and the latter prediction was only too fully justified. Reaction from
the strict and parsimonious style of his parents' domestic life, which
was quite out of touch with the gaiety and extravagance of London
"society," had its natural effect in plunging the young prince of Wales,
flattered and courted as he was, into a whirl of pleasure-seeking. At
the outset his disposition was brilliant and generous, but it was
essentially unstable, and he started even before he came of age on a
career of dissipation which in later years became wholly profligate. He
had an early amour with the actress Mary ("Perdita") Robinson, and in
the choice of his friends he opposed and annoyed the king, with whom he
soon became (and always remained) on the worst of terms, by associating
himself with Fox and Sheridan and the Whig party. When in 1783 he came
of age, a compromise between the coalition ministry and the king secured
him an income of £50,000 from the Civil List, and £60,000 was voted by
parliament to pay his debts and start his separate establishment at
Carlton House. There, under the auspices of C.J. Fox and Georgiana,
duchess of Devonshire, he posed as a patron of Whig politics and a
leader in all the licence and luxury of gay society--the "First
gentleman in Europe," as his flatterers described him as years went on.
And at this early age he fell seriously in love with the famous Mrs
Fitzherbert.

His long connexion with this lady may most conveniently be summarized
here. It was indeed for some time the one redeeming and restraining
factor in his life, though her devotion and self-sacrificing conduct
were in marked contrast with his unscrupulousness and selfishness. Mary
Anne (or as she always called herself, Maria) Fitzherbert (1756-1837)
was the daughter of Walter Smythe, the second son of Sir John Smythe,
Bart., of Acton Burnell Park, Shropshire, and came of an old Roman
Catholic family. Educated at a French convent, she married first in 1775
Edward Weld, who died within the year, and secondly in 1778 Thomas
Fitzherbert, who died in 1781, leaving his widow with a comfortable
fortune. A couple of years later she became a prominent figure in London
society, and her beauty and charm at once attracted the young prince,
who wooed her with all the ardour of a violent passion. She herself was
distracted between her desire to return his love, her refusal to
contemplate becoming his mistress, and her knowledge that state reasons
made a regular marriage impossible. The Act of Settlement (1689)
entailed his forfeiture of the succession if he married a Roman
Catholic, apart from the fact that the Royal Marriage Act of 1772 made
any marriage illegal without the king's consent, which was out of the
question. But after trying for a while to escape his attentions, her
scruples were overcome. In Mrs Fitzherbert's eyes the state law was,
after all, not everything. To a Roman Catholic, and equally to any
member of the Christian church, a formal marriage ceremony would be
ecclesiastically and sacramentally binding; and after a period of
passionate importunacy on his part they were secretly married by the
Rev. R. Burt, a clergyman of the Church of England, on the 15th of
December 1785.[1] There is no doubt as to Mrs Fitzherbert's belief,
supported by ecclesiastical considerations, in her correct and binding,
though admittedly illegal, relationship to the prince as his canonical
wife; and though that relationship was not, and for political reasons
could not be, publicly admitted, it was in fact treated by their
intimates on the footing of a morganatic marriage. The position
nevertheless was inevitably a false one; Mrs Fitzherbert had promised
not to publish the evidence of the marriage (which, according to a
strict interpretation of the Act of Settlement might have barred
succession to the crown), and the rumours which soon got about led the
prince to allow it to be disavowed by his political friends. He lived in
the most extravagant way, became heavily involved in debt, and as the
king would not assist him, shut up Carlton House, and went to live with
Mrs Fitzherbert at Brighton. In 1787 a proposal was brought before the
House of Commons by Alderman Newnham for a grant in relief of his
embarrassments. It was on this occasion that Fox publicly declared in
the House of Commons, as on the prince's own authority, in answer to
allusions to the marriage, that the story was a malicious falsehood. A
little later Sheridan, in deference to Mrs Fitzherbert's pressure and to
the prince's own compunction, made a speech guardedly modifying Fox's
statement; but though in private the denial was understood, it effected
its object, the House voting a grant of £221,000 to the prince and the
king adding £10,000 to his income; and Mrs Fitzherbert, who at first
thought of severing her connexion with the prince, forgave him. Their
union--there was no child of the marriage--was brutally broken off in
June 1794 by the prince, when further pressure of debts (and the
influence of a new Egeria in Lady Jersey) made him contemplate his
official marriage with princess Caroline; in 1800, however, it was
renewed, after urgent pleading on the prince's part, and after Mrs
Fitzherbert had obtained a formal decision from the pope pronouncing her
to be his wife, and sanctioning her taking him back; her influence over
him continued till shortly before the prince became regent, when his
relations with Lady Hertford brought about a final separation. For the
best years of his life he had at least had in Mrs Fitzherbert the
nearest approach to a real wife, and this was fully recognized by the
royal family.[2] But his dissolute nature was entirely selfish, and his
various liaisons ended in the dominance of Lady Conyngham, the "Lady
Steward" of his household, from 1821 till his death.

Notorious as the prince of Wales had become by 1788, it was in that year
that his father's first attack of insanity made his position in the
state one of peculiar importance. Fox maintained and Pitt denied that
the prince of Wales, as the heir-apparent, had a right to assume the
regency independently of any parliamentary vote. Pitt, with the support
of both Houses, proposed to confer upon him the regency with certain
restrictions. The recovery of the king in February 1789 put an end,
however, to the prince's hopes. In 1794 the prince consented to a
marriage with a German Protestant princess, because his father would not
pay his debts on any other terms, and his cousin, Princess Caroline of
Brunswick, was brought over from Germany and married to him in 1795. Her
behaviour was light and flippant, and he was brutal and unloving. The
ill-assorted pair soon parted, and soon after the birth of their only
child, the princess Charlotte, they were formally separated. With great
unwillingness the House of Commons voted fresh sums of money to pay the
prince's debts.

In 1811 he at last became prince regent in consequence of his father's
definite insanity. No one doubted at that time that it was in his power
to change the ministry at his pleasure. He had always lived in close
connexion with the Whig opposition, and he now empowered Lord Grenville
to form a ministry. There soon arose differences of opinion between them
on the answer to be returned to the address of the Houses, and the
prince regent then informed the prime minister, Mr Perceval, that he
should continue the existing ministry in office. The ground alleged by
him for this desertion of his friends was the fear lest his father's
recovery might be rendered impossible if he should come to hear of the
advent of the opposition to power. Lord Wellesley's resignation in
February 1812 made the reconstruction of the ministry inevitable. As
there was no longer any hope of the king's recovery, the former
objection to a Whig administration no longer existed. Instead of taking
the course of inviting the Whigs to take office, he asked them to join
the existing administration. The Whig leaders, however, refused to join,
on the ground that the question of the Catholic disabilities was too
important to be shelved, and that their difference of opinion with Mr
Perceval was too glaring to be ignored. The prince regent was
excessively angry, and continued Perceval in office till that minister's
assassination on the 11th of May, when he was succeeded by Lord
Liverpool, after a negotiation in which the proposition of entering the
cabinet was again made to the Whigs and rejected by them. In the
military glories of the following years the prince regent had no share.
When the allied sovereigns visited England in 1814, he played the part
of host to perfection. So great was his unpopularity at home that hisses
were heard in the streets as he accompanied his guests into the city.
The disgust which his profligate and luxurious life caused amongst a
people suffering from almost universal distress after the conclusion of
the war rapidly increased. In 1817 the windows of the prince regent's
carriage were broken as he was on his way to open parliament.

The death of George III. on the 29th of January 1820, gave to his son
the title of king without in any way altering the position which he had
now held for nine years. Indirectly, however, this change brought out a
manifestation of popular feeling such as his father had never been
subjected to even in the early days of his reign, when mobs were burning
jack-boots and petticoats. The relations between the new king and his
wife unavoidably became the subject of public discussion. In 1806 a
charge against the princess of having given birth to an illegitimate
child had been conclusively disproved, and the old king had consequently
refused to withdraw her daughter, the princess Charlotte, from her
custody. When in the regency the prince was able to interfere, and
prohibited his wife from seeing her daughter more than once a fortnight.
On this, in 1813, the princess addressed to her husband a letter setting
forth her complaints, and receiving no answer published it in the
_Morning Chronicle_. The prince regent then referred the letter,
together with all papers relating to the inquiry of 1806, to a body of
twenty-three privy councillors for an opinion whether it was fit that
the restrictions on the intercourse between the princess Charlotte and
her mother should continue in force. All except two answered as the
regent wished them to answer. But if the official leaning was towards
the husband, the leaning of the general public was towards the wife of a
man whose own life had not been such as to justify him in complaining of
her whom he had thrust from him without a charge of any kind. Addresses
of sympathy were sent up to the princess from the city of London and
other public bodies. The discord again broke out in 1814 in consequence
of the exclusion of the princess from court during the visit of the
allied sovereigns. In August in that year she left England, and after a
little time took up her abode in Italy. The accession of George IV.
brought matters to a crisis. He ordered that no prayer for his wife as
queen should be admitted into the Prayer Book. She at once challenged
the accusation which was implied in this omission by returning to
England. On the 7th of June she arrived in London. Before she left the
continent she had been informed that proceedings would be taken against
her for adultery if she landed in England. Two years before, in 1818,
commissioners had been sent to Milan to investigate charges against her,
and their report, laid before the cabinet in 1819, was made the basis of
the prosecution. On the day on which she arrived in London a message was
laid before both Houses recommending the criminating evidence to
parliament. A secret committee in the House of Lords after considering
this evidence brought in a report on which the prime minister founded a
Bill of Pains and Penalties to divorce the queen and to deprive her of
her royal title. The bill passed the three readings with diminished
majorities, and when on the third reading it obtained only a majority of
nine, it was abandoned by the Government. The king's unpopularity, great
as it had been before, was now greater than ever. Public opinion,
without troubling itself to ask whether the queen was guilty or not, was
roused to indignation by the spectacle of such a charge being brought by
a husband who had thrust away his wife to fight the battle of life
alone, without protection or support, and who, whilst surrounding her
with spies to detect, perhaps to invent, her acts of infidelity, was
himself notorious for his adulterous life. In the following year (1821)
she attempted to force her way into Westminster Abbey to take her place
at the coronation. On this occasion the popular support failed her; and
her death in August relieved the king from further annoyance.

Immediately after the death of the queen, the king set out for Ireland.
He remained there but a short time, and his effusive declaration that
rank, station, honours were nothing compared with the exalted happiness
of living in the hearts of his Irish subjects gained him a momentary
popularity which was beyond his attainment in a country where he was
better known. His reception in Dublin encouraged him to attempt a visit
to Edinburgh in the following year (August 1822). Since Charles II. had
come to play the sorry part of a covenanting king in 1650 no sovereign
of the country had set foot on Scottish soil. Sir Walter Scott took the
leading part in organizing his reception. The enthusiasm with which he
was received equalled, if it did not surpass, the enthusiasm with which
he had been received in Dublin. But the qualities which enabled him to
fix the fleeting sympathies of the moment were not such as would enable
him to exercise the influence in the government which had been
indubitably possessed by his father. He returned from Edinburgh to face
the question of the appointment of a secretary of state which had been
raised by the death of Lord Londonderry (Castlereagh). It was upon the
question of the appointment of ministers that the battle between the
Whigs and the king had been fought in the reign of George III. George
IV. had neither the firmness nor the moral weight to hold the reins
which his father had grasped. He disliked Canning for having taken his
wife's side very much as his father had disliked Fox for taking his own.
But Lord Liverpool insisted on Canning's admission to office, and the
king gave way. Tacitly and without a struggle the constitutional victory
of the last reign was surrendered. But it was not surrendered to the
same foe as that from which it had been won. The coalition ministry in
1784 rested on the great landowners and the proprietors of rotten
boroughs. Lord Liverpool's ministry had hitherto not been very
enlightened, and it supported itself to a great extent upon a narrow
constituency. But it did appeal to public opinion in a way that the
coalition did not, and what it wanted itself in popular support would be
supplied by its successors. What one king had gained from a clique
another gave up to the nation. Once more, on Lord Liverpool's death in
1827, the same question was tried with the same result. The king not
only disliked Canning personally, but he was opposed to Canning's
policy. Yet after some hesitation he accepted Canning as prime minister;
and when, after Canning's death and the short ministry of Lord Goderich,
the king in 1828 authorized the duke of Wellington to form a ministry,
he was content to lay down the principle that the members of it were not
expected to be unanimous on the Catholic question. When in 1829 the
Wellington ministry unexpectedly proposed to introduce a Bill to remove
the disabilities of the Catholics, he feebly strove against the proposal
and quickly withdrew his opposition. The worn-out debauchee had neither
the merit of acquiescing in the change nor the courage to resist it.

George IV. died on the 26th of June 1830, and was succeeded by his
brother, the duke of Clarence, as William IV. His only child by Queen
Caroline, the princess Charlotte Augusta, was married in 1816 to Leopold
of Saxe-Coburg, afterwards king of the Belgians, and died in childbirth
on the 6th of November 1817.

  George IV. was a bad king, and his reign did much to disgust the
  country with the Georgian type of monarchy; but libertine and
  profligate as he became, the abuse which has been lavished on his
  personal character has hardly taken into sufficient consideration the
  loose morals of contemporary society, the political position of the
  Whig party, and his own ebullient temperament. Thackeray, in his _Four
  Georges_, is frequently unfair in this respect. The just condemnation
  of the moralist and satirist requires some qualification in the light
  of the picture of the period handed down in the memoirs and diaries of
  the time, such as Greville's, Croker's, Creevey's, Lord Holland's,
  Lord Malmesbury's, &c. Among later works see _The First Gentleman of
  Europe_, by Lewis Melville (1906), a book for the general reader.
       (S. R. G.; H. Ch.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For a discussion of the ecclesiastical validity of the marriage
    see W.H. Wilkins, _Mrs Fitzherbert and George IV._ (1905), chs. vi.
    and vii.

  [2] Mrs Fitzherbert herself, after her final separation from the
    prince, with an annuity of £6000 a year, lived an honoured and more
    or less retired life mainly at Brighton, a town which owed its rapid
    development in fashionable popularity and material wealth to its
    selection by the prince and herself as a residence from the earliest
    years of their union; and there she died, seven years after the death
    of George IV., in 1837. William IV. on his accession offered to
    create her a duchess, but she declined; she accepted, however, his
    permission to put her servants in royal livery. William IV. in fact
    did all he could, short of a public acknowledgment (which the duke of
    Wellington opposed on state grounds), to recognize her position as
    his brother's widow. Charles Greville, writing of her after her
    death, says in his _Diary_, "She was not a clever woman, but of a
    very noble spirit, disinterested, generous, honest and affectionate."
    The actual existence of a marriage tie and the documentary evidence
    of her rights were not definitely established for many years; but in
    1905 a sealed packet, deposited at Coutts's bank in 1833, was at
    length opened by royal permission, and the marriage certificate and
    other conclusive proofs therein contained were published in Mr W.H.
    Wilkins's _Mrs Fitzherbert and George IV_. In 1796 the prince had
    made a remarkable will in Mrs Fitzherbert's favour, which he gave her
    in 1799, and it is included among these documents (now in the private
    archives at Windsor). In this he speaks of her emphatically
    throughout as "my wife." It also contained directions that at his
    death a locket with her miniature, which he always wore, should be
    interred with him; and Mrs Fitzherbert was privately assured, on the
    duke of Wellington's authority, that when the king was buried at
    Windsor the miniature was on his breast.



GEORGE V. [GEORGE FREDERICK ERNEST ALBERT], king of Great Britain and
Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, emperor of India
(1865- ), second son of King Edward VII., was born at Marlborough House,
London, on the 3rd of June 1865. When four years old, he and his elder
brother, Prince Albert Victor, two years his senior, were placed under
the tutorship of John Neale Dalton, then curate of Sandringham. In 1877
the two princes became naval cadets on the "Britannia" at Spithead,
where they passed through the ordinary curriculum, and in 1879 they
joined H.M.S. "Bacchante" under the command of Captain Lord Charles
Scott, making a voyage to the West Indies, in the course of which they
were rated midshipmen. After a month at home in 1880 they returned to
the ship to make another prolonged cruise in H.M.S. "Bacchante," in the
course of which they visited South America, South Africa, Australia, the
Fiji Islands, Japan, Ceylon, Egypt, Palestine and Greece. A narrative of
this voyage, _The Cruise of H.M.S. "Bacchante_," compiled from the
letters, diaries and notebooks of the princes, was published in 1886. At
the close of this tour in 1882 the brothers separated. Prince George,
who remained in the naval service, was appointed to H.M.S. "Canada,"
commanded by Captain Durrant, on the North American and West Indian
station, and was promoted sub-lieutenant. On his return home he passed
through the Royal Naval College at Greenwich and the gunnery and torpedo
schools, being promoted lieutenant in 1885. A year later he was
appointed to H.M.S. "Thunderer" of the Mediterranean squadron, and was
subsequently transferred to H.M.S. "Dreadnaught" and H.M.S. "Alexandra."
In 1889 he joined the flagship of the Channel squadron, H.M.S.
"Northumberland," and in that year was in command of torpedo boat No. 79
for the naval manoeuvres. In 1890 he was put in command of the gunboat
H.M.S. "Thrush" for service on the North American and West Indian
station. After his promotion as commander in 1891 he commissioned H.M.S.
"Melampus," the command of which he relinquished on the death of his
brother, Albert Victor, the duke of Clarence, in January 1892, since his
duties as eventual heir to the crown precluded him from devoting himself
exclusively to the navy. He was promoted captain in 1893, rear-admiral
in 1901, and vice-admiral in 1903. He was created duke of York, earl of
Inverness, and Baron Killarney in 1892, and on the 6th of July 1893 he
married Princess Victoria Mary (b. 26th May 1867), daughter of Francis,
duke of Teck, and Princess Mary Adelaide, duchess of Teck, daughter of
Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge. Their eldest son, Prince Edward
Albert, was born at White Lodge, Richmond, on the 23rd of June 1894;
Prince Albert Frederick George was born at Sandringham on the 14th of
December 1895; Princess Victoria Alexandra on the 25th of April 1897;
Prince Henry William Frederick Albert on the 31st of March 1900; Prince
George Edward Alexander Edmund on the 20th of December 1902; and Prince
John Charles Francis on the 12th of July 1905. The duke and duchess of
York visited Ireland in 1899, and it had been arranged before the death
of Queen Victoria that they should make a tour in the colonies. On the
accession of King Edward VII. (1901) this plan was confirmed. They
sailed in the "Ophir" on the 16th of March 1901, travelling by the
ordinary route, and landed at Melbourne in May, when they opened the
first parliament of the Commonwealth. They then proceeded to New
Zealand, returning by way of South Africa and Canada. An official
account of the tour was published by Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace as
_The Web of Empire_ (1902). In November 1901 the duke was created prince
of Wales. On the death of Edward VII. (May 6, 1910) he succeeded to the
Crown as George V., his consort taking the style of Queen Mary.



GEORGE V., king of Hanover (1819-1878), was the only son of Ernest
Augustus, king of Hanover and duke of Cumberland, and consequently a
grandson of the English king George III. Born in Berlin on the 27th of
May 1819, his youth was passed in England and in Berlin until 1837, when
his father became king of Hanover and he took up his residence in that
country. He lost the sight of one eye during a childish illness, and the
other by an accident in 1833. Being thus totally blind there were doubts
whether he was qualified to succeed to the government of Hanover; but
his father decided that he should do so, as the law of the dissolved
empire only excluded princes who were born blind. This decision was a
fatal one to the dynasty. Both from his father and from his maternal
uncle, Charles Frederick, prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1785-1837),
one of the most influential men at the Prussian court, George had
learned to take a very high and autocratic view of royal authority. His
blindness prevented him from acquiring the shrewdness and knowledge of
the world which had assisted his father, and he easily fell into the
hands of unwise, and perhaps dishonest and disloyal, advisers. A man of
deep religious feeling, he formed a fantastic conception of the place
assigned to the house of Guelph in the divine economy, and had ideas of
founding a great Guelph state in Europe. It is, therefore, not
surprising that from the time of his accession in November 1851 he was
constantly engaged in disputes with his _Landtag_ or parliament, and was
consequently in a weak and perilous position when the crisis in the
affairs of Germany came in 1866. Having supported Austria in the diet of
the German confederation in June 1866, he refused, contrary to the
wishes of his parliament, to assent to the Prussian demand that Hanover
should observe an unarmed neutrality during the war. As a result his
country and his capital were at once occupied by the Prussians, to whom
his army surrendered on the 29th of June 1866, and in the following
September Hanover was formally annexed by Prussia. From his retreat at
Hietzing near Vienna, George appealed in vain to the powers of Europe;
and supported by a large number of his subjects, an agitation was
carried on which for a time caused some embarrassment to Prussia. All
these efforts, however, to bring about a restoration were unavailing,
and the king passed the remainder of his life at Gmünden in Austria, or
in France, refusing to the last to be reconciled with the Prussian
government. Whilst visiting Paris for medical advice he died in that
city on the 12th of June 1878, and was buried in St George's chapel,
Windsor. In February 1843 he had married Marie, daughter of Joseph, duke
of Saxe-Altenburg, by whom he left a son and two daughters. His son,
Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland (b. 1845), continued to maintain the
claim of his house to the kingdom of Hanover.

By the capitulation of 1866 the king was allowed to retain his personal
property, which included money and securities equal to nearly
£1,500,000, which had been sent to England before the Prussian invasion
of Hanover. The crown jewels had also been secretly conveyed to England.
His valuable plate, which had been hidden at Herrenhausen, was restored
to him in 1867; his palace at Herrenhausen, near Hanover, was reserved
as his property; and in 1867 the Prussian government agreed to
compensate him for the loss of his landed estates, but owing to his
continued hostility the payment of the interest on this sum was
suspended in the following year (see HANOVER).

  See O. Klopp, _König Georg V._ (Hanover, 1878); O. Theodor,
  _Erinnerungen an Georg V._ (Bremerhaven, 1878); and O. Meding,
  _Memoiren zur Zeitgeschichte_ (Leipzig, 1881-1884).



GEORGE I., king of the Hellenes (1845- ), second son of King Christian
IX. of Denmark, was born at Copenhagen on the 24th of December 1845.
After the expulsion of King Otho in 1862, the Greek nation, by a
plebiscite, elected the British prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh
(subsequently duke of Coburg), to the vacant throne, and on his refusal
the national assembly requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate.
The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William
Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg,
whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was
recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863). The sister of the new
sovereign, Princess Alexandra, had a few months before (10th March)
married the prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII., and his father
succeeded to the crown of Denmark in the following November. Another
sister, Princess Dagmar, subsequently married the grand duke Alexander
Alexandrovitch, afterwards Emperor Alexander III. of Russia. On his
accession, King George signed an act resigning his right of succession
to the Danish throne in favour of his younger brother Prince Waldemar.
He was received with much enthusiasm by the Greeks. Adopting the motto,
"My strength is the love of my people," he ruled in strict accordance
with constitutional principles, though not hesitating to make the
fullest use of the royal prerogative when the intervention of the crown
seemed to be required by circumstances. For the events of his reign see
GREECE: _History_.

King George married, on the 27th of October 1867, the grand duchess Olga
Constantinovna of Russia, who became distinguished in Greece for her
activity on behalf of charitable objects. Their children were Prince
Constantine, duke of Sparta (b. 1868), who married in 1889 Princess
Sophia of Prussia, daughter of the emperor Frederick, and granddaughter
of Queen Victoria; Prince George (b. 1869), from November 1898 to
October 1906 high commissioner of the powers in Crete; Prince Nicholas
(b. 1872), who married in 1902 the grand duchess Helen-Vladimirovna of
Russia; Prince Andrew (b. 1882), who married in 1903 Princess Alice of
Battenberg; Prince Christopher (b. 1888); and a daughter, Princess Marie
(b. 1876), who married in 1900 the grand duke George Michailovich of
Russia.



GEORGE, king of Saxony (1832-1904), the youngest son of King John of
Saxony (d. 1873) and Queen Amelia, was born at Dresden on the 8th of
August 1832. From an early age he received a careful scientific and
military training, and in 1846 entered the active army as a lieutenant
of artillery. In 1849-1850 he was a student at the university of Bonn,
but soon returned to military life, for which he had a predilection. In
the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 he commanded a Saxon cavalry brigade,
and in the early part of the war of 1870-71 a division, but later
succeeded to the supreme command of the XII. (Saxon) army corps in the
room of his brother, the crown prince Albert (afterwards king) of
Saxony. His name is inseparably associated with this campaign, during
which he showed undoubted military ability and an intrepidity which
communicated itself to all ranks under his command, notably at the
battles of St Privat and Beaumont, in which he greatly distinguished
himself. On his brother succeeding to the throne he became
commander-in-chief of the Saxon army, and was in 1888 made a Prussian
field marshal by the emperor William I. He married in 1859 the infanta
Maria, sister of King Louis of Portugal, and King Albert's marriage
being childless, succeeded on his death in 1902 to the throne of Saxony.
He died on the 15th of October 1904, at Pillnitz.



GEORGE OF LAODICEA in Syria, often called "the Cappadocian," from 356 to
361 Arian archbishop of Alexandria, was born about the beginning of the
4th century. According to Ammianus (xxii. 11), he was a native of
Epiphania, in Cilicia. Gregory Nazianzen tells us that his father was a
fuller, and that he himself soon became notorious as a parasite of so
mean a type that he would "sell himself for a cake." After many
wanderings, in the course of which he seems to have amassed a
considerable fortune, first as an army-contractor and then as a receiver
of taxes, he ultimately reached Alexandria. It is not known how or when
he obtained ecclesiastical orders; but, after Athanasius had been
banished in 356, George was promoted by the influence of the then
prevalent Arian faction to the vacant see. His theological attitude was
that known as semi-Arian or Homoiousian, and his associates were
Eustathius of Sebaste and Basil of Ancyra. At George's instigation the
second Sirmian formula (promulgated by the third council of Sirmium
357), which was conciliatory towards strict Arianism, was opposed at the
council of Ancyra in 358 (Harnack, _Hist. of Dogma_, iv. 76). His
persecutions and oppressions of the orthodox ultimately raised a
rebellion which compelled him to flee for his life; but his authority
was restored, although with difficulty, by a military demonstration.
Untaught by experience, he resumed his course of selfish tyranny over
Christians and heathen alike, and raised the irritation of the populace
to such a pitch that when, on the accession of Julian, his downfall was
proclaimed and he was committed to prison, they dragged him thence and
killed him, finally casting his body into the sea (24th of December
361). With much that was sordid and brutal in his character George
combined a highly cultivated literary taste, and in the course of his
chequered career he had found the means of collecting a splendid
library, which Julian ordered to be conveyed to Antioch for his own use.
An anonymous work against the Manicheans discovered by Lagarde in 1859
in a MS. of Titus of Bostra has been attributed to him.

  The original sources for the facts of the life of George of Laodicea
  are Ammianus, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius and Athanasius. His
  character has been drawn with graphic fidelity by Gibbon in the 23rd
  chapter of the _Decline and Fall_; but the theory, accepted by Gibbon,
  which identifies him with the patron saint of England is now rejected
  (see GEORGE, SAINT). See C.S. Hulst, _St George of Cappadocia in
  Legend and History_ (1910).



GEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of
the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in
the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact
that his ancestors were from Trebizond. At what period he came to Italy
is not certain; according to some accounts he was summoned to Venice
about 1430 to act as amanuensis to Francesco Barbaro, who appears to
have already made his acquaintance; according to others he did not visit
Italy till the time of the council of Florence (1438-1439). He learned
Latin from Vittorino da Feltre, and made such rapid progress that in
three years he was able to teach Latin literature and rhetoric. His
reputation as a teacher and a translator of Aristotle was very great,
and he was selected as secretary by Pope Nicholas V., an ardent
Aristotelian. The needless bitterness of his attacks upon Plato (in the
_Comparatio Aristotelis et Platonis_), which drew forth a powerful
response from Bessarion (q.v.), and the manifestly hurried and
inaccurate character of his translations of Plato, Aristotle and other
classical authors, combined to ruin his fame as a scholar, and to
endanger his position as a teacher of philosophy. The indignation
against him on account of his first-named work was so great that he
would probably have been compelled to leave Italy had not Alphonso V.
given him protection at the court of Naples. He subsequently returned to
Rome, where he died in great poverty on the 12th of August 1484. He had
long outlived his reputation, and towards the end of his life his
intellect failed him. From all accounts he was a man of very
disagreeable character, conceited and quarrelsome.

  See G. Voigt, _Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums_ (1893),
  and article by C.F. Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine
  Encyklopädie_. For a complete list of his numerous works, consisting
  of translations from Greek into Latin (Plato, Aristotle and the
  Fathers) and original essays in Greek (chiefly theological) and Latin
  (grammatical and rhetorical), see Fabricius, _Bibliotheca Graeca_ (ed.
  Harles), xii.



GEORGE THE MONK [GEORGIOS MONACHOS], called Hamartolos (Greek for
"sinner"), Byzantine chronicler, lived during the reign of Michael III.
(842-867). He wrote a _Chronicle_ of events, in four books, from the
creation of the world to the death of the emperor Theophilus (842),
whose widow Theodora restored the worship of images in the same year. It
is the only original contemporary authority for the years 813-842, and
therefore so far indispensable; the early parts of the work are merely a
compilation. In the introduction the author disclaims all pretensions to
literary style, and declares that his only object was to relate such
things as were "useful and necessary" with a strict adherence to truth.
Far too much attention, however, is devoted to religious matters; the
iconoclasts are fiercely attacked, and the whole is interlarded with
theological discussions and quotations from the fathers. The work was
very popular, and translations of it served as models for Slavonic
writers. The MSS. give a continuation down to 948, the author of which
is indicated simply as "the logothete," by whom probably Symeon
Metaphrastes (second half of the 10th century) is meant. In this
religious questions are relegated to the background, more attention is
devoted to political history, and the language is more popular. Still
further continuations of little value go down to 1143. The large
circulation of the work and its subsequent reissues, with alterations
and interpolations, make it very difficult to arrive at the original
text.

  EDITIONS: E. de Muralt (St Petersburg, 1859); J.P. Migne, _Patrologia
  Graeca_, cx.; C. de Boor (in Teubner series, 1904- ). See F. Hirsch,
  _Byzantinische Studien_ (1876); C. de Boor in _Historische
  Untersuchungen_ (in honour of Arnold Schäfer, Bonn, 1882); C.
  Krumbacher, _Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur_ (1897).



GEORGE THE SYNCELLUS [GEORGIOS SYNKELLOS], of Constantinople, Byzantine
chronicler and ecclesiastic, lived at the end of the 8th and the
beginning of the 9th century A.D. He was the _syncellus_ (cell-mate, the
confidential companion assigned to the patriarchs, sometimes little more
than a spy; see SYNCELLUS) or private secretary of Tara(u)sius,
patriarch of Constantinople (784-806), after whose death he retired to a
convent, and wrote his _Chronicle_ of events from Adam to Diocletian
(285). At his earnest request, the work, which he doubtless intended to
bring down to his own times, was continued after his death by his friend
Theophanes Confessor. The _Chronicle_, which, as its title implies, is
rather a chronological table (with notes) than a history, is written
with special reference to pre-Christian times and the introduction of
Christianity, and exhibits the author as a staunch upholder of
orthodoxy. But in spite of its religious bias and dry and uninteresting
character, the fragments of ancient writers and apocryphal books
preserved in it render it specially valuable. For instance, considerable
portions of the original text of the _Chronicle_ of Eusebius have been
restored by the aid of Syncellus. His chief authorities were Annianus of
Alexandria (5th century) and Panodorus, an Egyptian monk, who wrote
about the year 400 and drew largely from Eusebius, Dexippus and Julius
Africanus.

  Editio princeps, by J. Goar (1652); in Bonn _Corpus scriptorum hist.
  Byz._, by W. Dindorf (1829). See also H. Gelzer, _Sextus Julius
  Africanus_, ii. 1 (1885); C. Krumbacher, _Geschichte der
  byzantinischen Litteratur_ (1897).



GEORGE, HENRY (1839-1897), American author and political economist, was
born in Philadelphia, Penn., on the 2nd of September 1839. He settled in
California in 1858; removed to New York, 1880; was first a printer, then
an editor, but finally devoted all his life to economic and social
questions. In 1871 he published _Our Land Policy_, which, as further
developed in 1879 under the title of _Progress and Poverty_, speedily
attracted the widest attention both in America and in Europe. In 1886 he
published _Protection or Free Trade_. Henry George had no political
ambition, but in 1886 he received an independent nomination as mayor of
New York City, and became so popular that it required a coalition of
the two strongest political parties to prevent his election. He received
68,000 votes, against 90,000 for the coalition candidate. His death on
the 29th of October 1897 was followed by one of the greatest
demonstrations of popular feeling and general respect that ever attended
the funeral of any strictly private citizen in American history. The
fundamental doctrine of Henry George, the equal right of all men to the
use of the earth, did not originate with him; but his clear statement of
a method by which it could be enforced, without increasing state
machinery, and indeed with a great simplification of government, gave it
a new form. This method he named the _Single Tax_. His doctrine may be
condensed as follows: The land of every country belongs of right to all
the people of that country. This right cannot be alienated by one
generation, so as to affect the title of the next, any more than men can
sell their yet unborn children for slaves. Private ownership of land has
no more foundation in morality or reason than private ownership of air
or sunlight. But the private occupancy and use of land are right and
indispensable. Any attempt to divide land into equal shares is
impossible and undesirable. Land should be, and practically is now,
divided for private use in parcels among those who will pay the highest
price for the use of each parcel. This price is now paid to some persons
annually, and it is called _rent_. By applying the rent of land,
exclusive of all improvements, to the equal benefit of the whole
community, absolute justice would be done to all. As rent is always more
than sufficient to defray all necessary expenses of government, those
expenses should be met by a tax upon rent alone, to be brought about by
the gradual abolition of all other taxes. Landlords should be left in
undisturbed possession and nominal ownership of the land, with a
sufficient margin over the tax to induce them to collect their rents and
pay the tax. They would thus be transformed into mere land agents.
Obviously this would involve absolute free trade, since all taxes on
imports, manufactures, successions, documents, personal property,
buildings or improvements would disappear. Nothing made by man would be
taxed at all. The right of private property in all things made by man
would thus be absolute, for the owner of such things could not be
divested of his property, without full compensation, even under the
pretence of taxation. The idea of concentrating all taxes upon
ground-rent has found followers in Great Britain, North America,
Australia and New Zealand. In practical politics this doctrine is
confined to the "Single Tax, Limited," which proposes to defray only the
needful public expenses from ground-rent, leaving the surplus, whatever
it may be, in the undisturbed possession of landowners.

  The principal books by Henry George are: _Progress and Poverty_
  (1879), _The Irish Land Question_ (1881), _Social Problems_ (1884),
  _Protection or Free Trade_ (1886), _The Condition of Labor_ (1891), _A
  Perplexed Philosopher_ (1892), _Political Economy_ (1898). His son,
  Henry George (b. 1862), has written a _Life_ (1900). For the Single
  Tax theory see Shearman's _Natural Taxation_ (1899).     (T. G. S.)



GEORGE PISIDA [GEORGIOS PISIDES], Byzantine poet, born in Pisidia,
flourished during the 7th century A.D. Nothing is known of him except
that he was a deacon and chartophylax (keeper of the records) of the
church of St Sophia. His earliest work, in three cantos ([Greek:
akroaseis]), on the campaign of the emperor Heraclius against the
Persians, seems to be the work of an eyewitness. This was followed by
the _Avarica_, an account of a futile attack on Constantinople by the
Avars (626), said to have been repulsed by the aid of the Virgin Mary;
and by the _Heraclias_, a general survey of the exploits of Heraclius
both at home and abroad down to the final overthrow of Chosroes in 627.
George Pisida was also the author of a didactic poem, _Hexaëmeron_ or
_Cosmourgia_, upon the creation of the world; a treatise on the vanity
of life, after the manner of _Ecclesiastes_; a controversial composition
against Severus, bishop of Antioch; two short poems upon the
resurrection of Christ and on the recovery of the sacred crucifix stolen
by the Persians. The metre chiefly used is the iambic. As a versifier
Pisida is correct and even elegant; as a chronicler of contemporary
events he is exceedingly useful; and later Byzantine writers
enthusiastically compared him with, and even preferred him to Euripides.
Recent criticism, however, characterizes his compositions as artificial
and almost uniformly dull.

  Complete works in J.P. Migne, _Patrologia Graeca_, xcii.; see also _De
  Georgii Pisidae apud Theophanem aliosque historicos reliquiis_.
  (1900), by S.L. Sternbach, who has edited several new poems for the
  first time from a Paris MS. in _Wiener Studien_, xiii., xiv.
  (1891-1892); C. Krumbacher, _Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur_
  (1897); C.F. Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_.



GEORGE, LAKE, a lake in the E. part of New York, U.S.A., among the S.E.
foothills of the Adirondack Mountains. It extends from N.N.E. to S.S.W.
about 34 m., and varies in width from 2 to 4 m. It has a maximum depth
of about 400 ft., and is 323 ft. above the sea and 227 ft. above Lake
Champlain, into which it has an outlet to the northward through a narrow
channel and over falls and rapids. The lake is fed chiefly by mountain
brooks and submerged springs; its bed is for the most part covered with
a clean sand; its clear water is coloured with beautiful tints of blue
and green; and its surface is studded with about 220 islands and islets,
all except nineteen of which belong to the state and constitute a part
of its forest reserve. Near the head of the lake is Prospect Mountain,
rising 1736 ft. above the sea, while several miles farther down the
shores is Black Mountain, 2661 ft. in height. Lake George has become a
favourite summer resort. Lake steamers ply between the village of Lake
George (formerly Caldwell) at the southern end of the lake and Baldwin,
whence there is rail connexion with Lake Champlain steamers.

Lake George was formed during the Glacial period by glacial drift which
clogged a pre-existing valley. According to Prof. J.F. Kemp the valley
occupied by Lake George was a low pass before the Glacial period; a dam
of glacial drift at the southern end and of lacustrine clays at the
northern end formed the lake which has submerged the pass, leaving
higher parts as islands. Before the advent of the white man the lake was
a part of the war-path over which the Iroquois Indians frequently made
their way northward to attack the Algonquins and the Hurons, and during
the struggle between the English and the French for supremacy in
America, waterways being still the chief means of communication, it was
of great strategic importance (see CHAMPLAIN, _Lake_). Father Isaac
Jogues, René Goupil and Guillaume Couture seem to have been the first
white men to see the lake (on the 9th of August 1642) as they were being
taken by their Iroquois captors from the St Lawrence to the towns of the
Mohawks, and in 1646 Father Jogues, having undertaken a half-religious,
half-political mission to the Mohawks, was again at the lake, to which,
in allusion to his having reached it on the eve of Corpus Christi, he
gave the name Lac Saint Sacrement. This name it bore until the summer of
1755, when General William Johnson renamed it Lake George in honour of
King George II.

General Johnson was at this time in command of a force of colonists and
Indians sent against the French at Crown Point on Lake Champlain. The
expedition, however, had proceeded no farther than to the head of Lake
George when Johnson was informed that a force of French and Indians
under Baron Ludwig August Dieskau was pushing on from Crown Point to
Fort Lyman (later Fort Edward), 14 m. to the S. of their encampment.
Accordingly, on the morning of the 8th of September a detachment of 1000
colonials under Colonel Ephraim Williams (1715-1755) and 200 Indians
under Hendrick, a Mohawk chief, was sent to aid Fort Lyman, but when
about 3 m. S. of the lake this detachment fell into an ambuscade
prepared for it by Dieskau and both Williams and Hendrick were killed.
The survivors were pursued to their camp, and then followed on the same
day the main battle of Lake George, in which 1000 colonials fighting at
first behind a hastily prepared barricade defeated about 1400 French and
Indians. Both commanders were wounded; Dieskau was captured; the French
lost about 300; and the colonials nearly the same (including those who
fell earlier in the day). Johnson now built on the lake shore, near the
battlefield, a fort of gravel and logs and called it Fort William Henry
(the site was occupied by the Fort William Henry Hotel till it was
burned in 1909). In the meantime the French entrenched themselves at
Ticonderoga at the foot of the lake. In March 1757 Fort William Henry
successfully withstood an attack of 1600 men sent out by the marquis de
Vaudreuil, governor of Canada, but on the 9th of August of the same year
its garrison, after being reduced to desperate straits, surrendered to
the marquis de Montcalm. By the terms of surrender the garrison was to
be allowed to march out with the honours of war and was to be escorted
to Fort Edward, but the guard provided by Montcalm was inadequate to
protect them from his Indian allies and on the day following the
surrender many were massacred or taken prisoners. The fort was razed to
the ground. In 1758 General James Abercrombie proceeded by way of Lake
George against Fort Ticonderoga, and in 1759 Baron Jeffrey Amherst,
while on his way to co-operate with General James Wolfe against Quebec,
built near the site of Fort William Henry one bastion of a fort since
known as Fort George, the ruins of which still remain.

A monument commemorative of the battle of Lake George was unveiled on
the 8th of September 1903, on the site of the battle, and within the
state reservation of 35 acres known as Fort George Battle Park. Horicon
is a name that was given to the lake by James Fenimore Cooper. The
Indian name of the lake was Andia-ta-roc-te.

  See Francis Parkman, _Montcalm and Wolfe_ (Boston, 1884); and E.E.
  Seelye, _Lake George in History_ (Lake George, 1897).



GEORGE JUNIOR REPUBLIC, an American industrial institution, situated
near the small village of Freeville, in Tompkins county, New York,
U.S.A., 9 m. E.N.E. of Ithaca, at the junction of the Sayre-Auburn and
the Elmira-Cortland branches of the Lehigh Valley railway. The George
Junior Republic forms a miniature state whose economic, civic and social
conditions, as nearly as possible, reproduce those of the United States,
and whose citizenship is vested in young people, especially those who
are neglected or wayward, who are thus taught self-reliance,
self-control and morality. The founder, William Reuben George (b. 1866),
was a native of West Dryden, a village near Freeville, who as a business
man in New York City became interested in the Fresh Air Fund charity
supervised by the New York _Tribune_, took charge of summer outings for
city children (1890-1894), and, becoming convinced that such charities
tended to promote pauperism and crime among the older of their protégés,
devised first (1894) the plan of requiring payment by the children in
labour for all they received during these summer jaunts, then (1895)
self-government for a summer colony near Freeville, and finally a
permanent colony, in which the children stay for several years. The
Republic was founded on the 10th of July 1895; the only check on the
powers of executive, representative and judicial branches of the
government lies in the veto of the superintendent. "Nothing without
labour" is the motto of the community, so strictly carried out that a
girl or boy in the Republic who has not money[1] to pay for a night's
lodging must sleep in jail and work the next day for the use of the
cell. The legislative body, originally a House of Representatives and a
Senate, in 1899 became more like the New England town meeting. The
respect for the law that follows its enactment by the citizens
themselves is remarkable in a class so largely of criminal tendencies;
and it is particularly noticeable that positions on the police force are
eagerly coveted. Fifteen is the age of majority; suffrage is universal,
children under fifteen must be in charge of a citizen guardian. The
average age of citizens was seventeen in 1908. The proportion of girls
to boys was originally small, but gradually increased; in 1908 there
were about 70 girls and 90 boys. The tendency is to admit only those
aged at least sixteen and physically well equipped. In the Republic's
earlier years the citizens lived in boarding-houses of different grades,
but later in family groups in cottages (there were in 1910 twelve
cottages) under the care of "house-mothers." The labour of the place is
divided into sewing, laundry work, cooking and domestic service for the
girls, and furniture making, carpentry, farm work, baking bread and
wafers (the business of an Auburn biscuit factory was bought in 1903),
plumbing and printing for the boys. Masonry and shoe and harness making
were tried for a few years. There is an efficient preparatory and high
school, from which students enter directly leading colleges. The
religious influence is strong, wholesome and unsectarian; students in
Auburn Theological Seminary have assisted in the religious work; Roman
Catholic and Hebrew services are also held; and attendance at church
services is compulsory only on convicts and prisoners.

There are "Woman's Aid" societies in New York City, Ithaca, Syracuse,
Buffalo, Boston and elsewhere, to promote the work of the Republic. A
"republic" for younger boys, begun at Freeville, was established in
Litchfield, Connecticut; and a National Junior Republic near Annapolis
Junction, Maryland, and a Carter Junior Republic at Readington, near
Easton, Pennsylvania, are modelled on the George Junior Republic. In
1908-1910 new "states" were established at Chino, California, Grove
City, Pennsylvania, and Flemington Junction, New Jersey. In February
1908 the National Association of Junior Republics was formed with Mr
George (its founder) as its director, its aims being to establish at
least one "republic" in each state of the Union, and in other countries
similar institutions for youth and miniature governments modelled on
that of the country in which each "state" is established, and to
establish colonies for younger children, to be sent at the age of
fifteen to the Junior Republic. At the time of its formation the
National Association included the "states" at Freeville, N.Y.,
Litchfield, Conn., and Annapolis Junction, Md.; others joined the
federation later.

  See William R. George, _The Junior Republic: its History and Ideals_
  (New York, 1910); _The Junior Republic Citizen_ (Freeville, 1895
  sqq.), written and printed by "citizens"; _Nothing Without Labor,
  George Junior Republic_ (7th ed., Freeville, 1909), a manual; J.R.
  Commons, "The Junior Republic," in _The American Journal of Sociology_
  (1898); D.F. Lincoln, "The George Junior Republic," in _The Coming
  Age_ (1900); and Lyman Abbott, "A Republic within a Republic," in the
  _Outlook_ for February 15, 1908.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The "government" issued its own currency in tin and later in
    aluminium, and "American" money could not be passed within the 48
    acres of the Republic until 1906, when depreciation forced the
    Republic's coinage out of use and "American" coin was made legal
    tender.



GEORGETOWN, the capital of British Guiana (see GUIANA), and the seat of
the colonial government, situated on the left bank of the Demerara river
at its mouth, in 6° 29' 24" N. and 58° 11' 30" W. It was known during
the Dutch occupation as Stabroek, and was established as the seat of
government of the combined colonies of Essequibo and Demerara (now with
Berbice forming the three counties of British Guiana) in 1784, its name
being changed to Georgetown in 1812. It is one of the finest towns in
this part of the world, the streets being wide and straight,
intersecting each other at right angles, several having double roadways
with lily-covered canals in the centre, the grass banks on either side
carrying rows of handsome shade trees. In Main Street, the finest street
in Georgetown, the canal has been filled in to form a broad walk, an
obvious precedent for the treatment of the other canals, which (however
beautiful) are useless and merely act as breeding grounds for
mosquitoes. The principal residences, standing in their own gardens
surrounded by foliage and flowers, are scattered over the town, as are
also the slums, almost the worst of which abut on the best residential
quarters. Water Street, the business centre, runs parallel to the river
for about 2½ m. and contains the stores of the wholesale and retail
merchants, their wharves running out into the river to allow steamers to
come alongside. Most of the houses and public buildings are constructed
of wood, the former generally raised on brick pillars some 4 ft. to 10
ft. from the ground, the bright colouring of the wooden walls, jalousies
and roofs adding to the beauty of the best streets. The large structure
known as the Public Buildings in the centre of the city, containing the
offices of the executive government and the hall of the court of policy,
was erected between 1829 and 1834. It is a handsome, E-shaped,
brick-plastered building of considerable size, with deep porticos and
marble-paved galleries carried on cast-iron columns. The law courts,
built in the 'eighties, have a ground floor of concrete and iron, the
upper storey being of hardwood. Among other public buildings are the
town hall, the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several handsome
churches, the local banks and insurance offices, and the almshouse. The
public hospital consists of several large blocks. The Royal
Agricultural and Commercial Society has a large reading-room and
lending library. The assembly rooms, above and owned by the Georgetown
club, has a good stage and is admirably adapted to dramatic and musical
entertainments. A museum (free), belonging to the Royal Agricultural and
Commercial Society, is chiefly devoted to the fauna of British Guiana,
but also contains an instructive collection of local economic,
mineralogical and botanical exhibits, a miscellaneous collection of
foreign birds and mammals, and an interesting series of views of the
colony. The botanical gardens to the east of the city are of
considerable extent and admirably laid out. The nurseries cover a large
area and are devoted chiefly to the raising of plants of economic
importance which can be purchased at nominal rates. The collections of
ferns and orchids are very fine. In the gardens are also located the
fields of the board of agriculture, where experimental work in the
growth of sugar-cane, rice, cotton and all tropical plants of economic
importance is carried on. Other popular resorts are the sea wall and the
promenade gardens in the centre of the city.

The local government of Georgetown is vested in a mayor and town council
elected under a very restricted franchise. The city is divided into
fourteen wards each with one representative. A councillor must possess,
either personally or through his wife, premises within the city of the
appraised value of at least $1500. A voter must either own house
property of the appraised value of $250 or occupy premises of an annual
rental of $240. There are indeed only 297 municipal voters in a
population of nearly 50,000. The revenue, just over £50,000 annually, is
mainly derived from a direct rate on house property. The colonial
government pays rates on its property and also gives a grant-in-aid
towards the upkeep of the streets. The expenditure is principally on
sanitation, fire brigade, streets, water-supply, street lighting and
drainage. Street lighting is carried out under contract by the Demerara
Electric Company, which has a monopoly of private lighting and works an
excellent tram service. Water for public and domestic purposes is taken
from the conservancy of the east coast and is delivered by pumping
throughout the city, but drinking-water is collected in tanks attached
to the dwellings from the rain falling on the roofs. The fire brigade is
a branch of the police force, half the cost being borne by the rates and
half by the general revenue. There is an excellent service of
telephones, a branch of the post office, and halfpenny postage within
the city boundaries. There are in Georgetown two well-equipped
foundries, a dry dock, and factories for the manufacture of rice,
cigars, soap, boots, chocolate, candles, aerated waters and ice.
Georgetown is connected by rail and ferry with New Amsterdam, by ferry
and rail with the west coast of Demerara, and by steamer with all the
country districts along the coast and up the navigable reaches of the
principal rivers.     (A. G. B.*)



GEORGETOWN, formerly a city of the District of Columbia, U.S.A., and now
part (sometimes called West Washington) of the city of Washington,
U.S.A., at the confluence of the Potomac river and Rock Creek, and on
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, about 2½ m. W.N.W. of the National
Capitol. Pop. (1890) 14,046; (1900) 14,549. The streets are
old-fashioned, narrow and well shaded. On the "Heights" are many fine
residences with beautiful gardens; the Monastery and Academy (for girls)
of Visitation, founded in 1799 by Leonard Neale, second archbishop of
Baltimore; and the college and the astronomical observatory (1842) of
Georgetown University. The university was founded as a Roman Catholic
Academy in 1789, was opened in 1791, transferred to the Society of Jesus
in 1805, authorized in 1815 by Congress to confer college or university
degrees, and by the Holy See in 1833 to confer degrees in philosophy and
theology, incorporated as Georgetown College by Act of Congress in 1844,
and began graduate work about 1856. The college library includes the
historical collection of James Gilmary Shea. A school of medicine was
opened in 1851, a dental school in 1901 and a school of law in 1870. In
1909-1910 the university had an enrolment of 859 students. Rising in
terraces from Rock Creek is Oak Hill Cemetery, a beautiful
burying-ground containing the graves of John Howard Payne, the author
of "Home, Sweet Home," Edwin McMasters Stanton and Joseph Henry. On the
bank of the Potomac is a brick house which was for several years the
home of Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner"; on
Analostan Island in the river was a home of James Murray Mason;
Georgetown Heights was the home of the popular novelist, Mrs Emma
Dorothy Eliza Nevitte Southworth (1819-1899). Before the advent of
railways Georgetown had an important commerce by way of the Chesapeake
and Ohio Canal, by which considerable coal as well as some grain is
still brought hither, and of which Georgetown is now a terminus; the
canal formerly crossed the Potomac at this point on an aqueduct bridge
(1446 ft. long), but in 1887 the crossing was abandoned and the old
bridge was purchased by the United States government, which in 1889
constructed a new steel bridge upon the old masonry piers. Chief among
the manufactories are several large flour mills--Georgetown flour was
long noted for its excellence. There is a very large fish-market here.
Georgetown was settled late in the 17th century, was laid out as a town
in 1751, chartered as a city in 1789, merged in the District of Columbia
in 1871, and annexed to the city of Washington in 1878. In the early
days of Washington it was a social centre of some importance, where many
members of Congress as well as some cabinet officers and representatives
of foreign countries lived and the President gave state dinners; and
here were the studio, for two years, of Gilbert Stuart, and "Kalorama,"
the residence of Joel Barlow.



GEORGETOWN, a city and the county-seat of Scott county, Kentucky,
U.S.A., about 11 miles N. of Lexington. Pop. (1900) 3823 (1677 negroes);
(1910) 4533. Georgetown is served by the Cincinnati Southern (Queen &
Crescent Route), the Frankfort & Cincinnati, and the Southern railways,
and is connected with Lexington by an electric line. It is the seat of
Georgetown College (Baptist, co-educational), chartered in 1829 as the
successor of Rittenhouse Academy, which was founded in 1798. Georgetown
is situated in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky, and the surrounding
country is devoted to agriculture and stock-raising. One of the largest
independent oil refineries in the country (that of the Indian Refining
Co.) is in Georgetown, and among manufactures are bricks, flour, ice,
bagging and hemp. The remarkable "Royal Spring," which rises near the
centre of the city, furnishes about 200,000 gallons of water an hour for
the city's water supply, and for power for the street railway and for
various industries. The first settlement was made in 1775, and was named
McClellan's, that name being changed to Lebanon a few years afterwards.
In 1790 the place was incorporated as a town under its present name
(adopted in honour of George Washington), and Georgetown was chartered
as a city of the fourth class in 1894. Bacon College, which developed
into Kentucky (now Transylvania) University (see Lexington, Ky.), was
established here by the Disciples of Christ in 1836, but in 1839 was
removed to Harrodsburg.



GEORGETOWN, a city, a port of entry and the county-seat of Georgetown
county, South Carolina, U.S.A., at the head of Winyah Bay, and at the
mouth of the Pedee river, about 15 m. from the Atlantic Ocean, and about
55 m. N.E. of Charleston. Pop. (1890) 2895; (1900) 4138 (2718 negroes);
(1910) 5530. Georgetown is served by the Georgetown & Western railway,
has steamship communication with Charleston, Wilmington, New York City
and other Atlantic ports, and, by the Pedee river and its tributaries
(about 1000 m. of navigable streams), has trade connexions with a large
area of South Carolina and part of North Carolina. The principal public
buildings are the post office and custom house. Among the city's
manufactures are lumber, foundry and machine-shop products, naval stores
and oars; and there are shad and sturgeon fisheries. The growing of
cotton and truck-gardening are important industries in the neighbouring
region, and there is considerable trade in such products. The first
settlement here was made about 1700; and the town was laid out a short
time before 1734. The Winyah Indigo Society grew out of a social club
organized about 1740, and was founded in 1757 by a group of planters
interested in raising indigo; It long conducted a school (discontinued
during the Civil War) which eventually became part of the city's public
school system. In 1780 Georgetown was occupied by a body of Loyalist
troops, with whom the American troops had several skirmishes, but on the
10th of August 1781 General Francis Marion forced the evacuation of the
town and took possession of it. A few days later, an American named
Manson, who had joined the British forces, attacked the town from an
armed vessel, and burned about forty houses, the small body of militia
being unable to make an effective resistance. General Lafayette first
landed on American soil at Georgetown on the 24th of April 1777.
Georgetown was incorporated as a town in 1805, and was chartered as a
city in 1895.



GEORGETOWN, a city and the county-seat of Williamson county, Texas,
U.S.A., on the San Gabriel river, about 25 m. N. by E. of Austin. Pop.
(1890) 2447; (1900) 2790 (608 negroes); (1910) 3096. The city is served
by the International & Great Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas
railways. Georgetown is the seat of the Southwestern University
(Methodist Episcopal, South, co-educational), formed in 1873 (chartered
1875) by the combination of Ruterville College (Methodist Episcopal, at
Ruterville, Texas, chartered in 1840, and closed in 1850), McKenzie
College (at Clarksville, Texas, founded in 1841 and closed in 1872),
Wesleyan College at San Augustine (chartered in 1844, burned a few years
later, and not rebuilt), and Soule University at Chapel Hill (chartered
in 1856, but closed in 1870). The university includes a fitting school
at Georgetown, and a medical department at Dallas, Texas; in 1909 it had
an enrolment of 1037 students. The principal manufactures of Georgetown
are cotton and cotton-seed oil, and planing-mill products. In Page Park
are mineral springs, whose waters have medicinal qualities similar to
the famous Karlsbad waters. The first settlement was made here in 1848;
and Georgetown was incorporated as a town in 1866, and was chartered as
a city in 1890.



GEORGIA, a southern state of the United States of America, one of the
thirteen original states, situated between 30° 31' 39" and 35° N., and
between 81° and 85° 53' 38" W. It is bounded N. by Tennessee and North
Carolina, E. by South Carolina and the Atlantic Ocean, S. by Florida,
and W. by Alabama. The total area of the state is 59,265 sq. m., of
which 540 sq. m. are water surface.

  The surface of Georgia is divided into five physiographic zones. From
  the sea coast, which is skirted by fertile, semi-tropical islands, a
  plain of 35,000 sq. m., known as South Georgia, extends northward to
  the "fall-line" passing from Augusta, through Milledgeville and Macon,
  to Columbus. This is a part of the great Atlantic Coastal Plain. For
  20 m. from the coast its elevation is 10 ft., then it rises abruptly
  70 ft. higher, and 20 m. farther N. another elevation begins, which
  reaches 575 ft. at Milledgeville, the average elevation of the entire
  region being 250 ft. North of the line mentioned, and collectively
  known as North Georgia, are the four other regions, each with
  well-defined characteristics. The largest and southernmost, a broad
  belt extending from the "fall-line" to a line passing through
  Clarkesville, Habersham county, Cartersville, Bartow county and
  Buchanan, Haralson county (approximately), is known as the Piedmont
  Belt or Plateau, being a region of faint relief eroded on highly
  complicated crystalline rocks. The Blue Ridge escarpment, a striking
  topographic feature in Virginia and the Carolinas, extends into
  Georgia along the north-eastern border of this belt, but is less
  strongly developed here than elsewhere, dying out entirely towards the
  south-west. North of the Piedmont Belt lie the Appalachian Mountains
  Region and the Great Valley Region, the former to the east, the latter
  to the west of a dividing line from Cartersville northward. The former
  region consists of detached mountain masses of crystalline rocks, not
  yet eroded down to the level of the Piedmont Belt. In Towns county, in
  the Appalachian Region, is the highest point in the state, Brasstown
  Bald, also called Enota Mountain (4768 ft.). The Great Valley Region
  consists of folded sedimentary rocks, extensive erosion having removed
  the soft layers to form valleys, leaving the hard layers as ridges,
  both layers running in a N.E.-S.W. direction. In the extreme
  north-west corner of the state is a small part of the Cumberland
  Plateau, represented by Lookout and Sand Mts.

  On the Blue Ridge escarpment near the N.E. corner of the state is a
  water-parting separating the waters which find their way respectively
  N.W. to the Tennessee river, S.W. to the Gulf of Mexico and S.E. to
  the Atlantic Ocean; indeed, according to B.M. and M.R. Hall (_Water
  Resources of Georgia_, p. 2), "there are three springs in north-east
  Georgia within a stone's throw of each other that send out their
  waters to Savannah, Ga., to Apalachicola, Fla., and to New Orleans,
  La." The water-parting between the waters flowing into the Atlantic
  and those flowing into the Gulf extends from this point first S.E. for
  a few miles, then turns S.W. to Atlanta, and from there extends S.S.E.
  to the Florida line. West of where the escarpment dies out, the Great
  Valley Region and a considerable portion of the Appalachian Mountains
  Region are drained by the Coosa, the Tallapoosa and their tributaries,
  into Mobile Bay, but the Cumberland Plateau, like that part of the
  Appalachian Mountains Region which lies directly N. of the Blue Ridge
  escarpment, constitutes a part of the Tennessee Basin. The principal
  rivers of the state are the Chattahoochee and the Flint, which unite
  in the S.W. corner to form the Apalachicola; the Ocmulgee (whose
  western tributary, the Towaliga, falls 96 ft. in less than a quarter
  of a mile), and the Oconee, which unite in the S.E. to form the
  Altamaha; and the Savannah, which forms the boundary between Georgia
  and South Carolina. All of these rise in the upper part of the
  Piedmont Plateau, through which they pursue a rapid course over rocky
  beds, and are navigable only south of the "fall-line," at which and
  north of which they furnish an abundance of water-power. The upper
  Savannah river first flows S.W., then turns abruptly S.E., while the
  Chattahoochee river rises near this point and continues S.W. This is
  because the upper Savannah[1] was formerly part of the Chattahoochee,
  but was captured and turned S.E. by headward growth of the Savannah.
  As a result of the capture there is a deep gorge along the upper
  Savannah, especially along the branch called the Tallulah river; and
  the upper Tallulah, in a series of cascades, 2-2/3 m. long, falls 525
  ft. from the former higher level down to the main bed of the upper
  Savannah, at Tallulah Falls, a summer resort.

  The fauna and flora have no distinctive features. (See UNITED STATES.)

_Climate and Soils._--The climate of Georgia, though temperate, differs
considerably in different parts of the state. All the nine climate belts
in the United States, except that of southern Florida, are represented
within its borders. The lowest mean annual temperature, 40° F. and
below, is that of some of the mountain tops of northern Georgia; from
the mountain-sides to the Piedmont Plateau this mean temperature varies
from 45° to 60°; on the Piedmont Plateau from 60° to 65°; and on the
Coastal Plain from 60° to 70°. The July isotherm of 80° crosses the
state a little N. of Augusta and Macon, touching the W. boundary at West
Point, Troup county. The mean July temperature for the whole state is
81.8°; for the part S. of the 80° isotherm the average temperature for
July is between 80° and 85°. The average rainfall for the state is 49.3
in.; the maximum is 71.7 in., at Rabun Gap in the extreme N.E. part of
the state; the minimum is 39.4 at Swainsboro, Emanuel county, a little
S.E. of the centre of the state.

Georgia is also notable for the variety of its soils. In the Cumberland
Plateau and Great Valley Regions are a red or brown loam, rich in
decomposed limestone and calcareous shales, and sandy or gravelly loams.
In the Piedmont Plateau and Appalachian Mountains Regions the surface
soil is generally sandy, but in considerable areas the subsoil is a red
clay derived largely from the decomposition of hornblende. By far the
greatest variety of soils is found in the Coastal Plain Region. Here the
Central Cotton Belt, extending from the "fall-line" as far S. as a line
bisecting Early county in the W. and passing through Baker, Worth,
Dooly, Dodge, Laurens, Johnson, Jefferson and Burke counties, has three
distinct kinds of soil; a sand, forming what is known as the sand-hill
region; red clay derived from silicious rock in the red hills; and grey,
sandy soils with a subsoil of yellow loam. South of the Cotton Belt is
the Lime Sink Region, which includes Miller, Baker, Mitchell, Colquitt
and Worth counties, the northern portions of Decatur, Grady, Thomas,
Brooks and Lowndes, the eastern parts of Dooly and Lee, and the eastern
portions of Berrien, Irwin, Wilcox, Dodge, and some parts of Burke,
Screven and Bulloch. The soft limestone underlying this region is
covered, in the uplands, with grey, sandy soils, which have a subsoil of
loam; in the lowlands the surface soils are loams, the subsoils clays.
Adjoining this region are the pine barrens, which extend S. to a line
passing through the northern portions of Pierce, Wayne, Liberty, Bryan
and Effingham counties. Here the prevailing soils are grey and sandy
with a subsoil of loam, but they are less fertile than those of the Lime
Sink or Cotton Belts. The coast counties of the S.E. and generally those
on the Florida frontier are not suitable for cultivation, on account of
the numerous marshes and swamps, Okefinokee Swamp being 45 m. long and
approximately 30 m. wide; but the southern portions of Decatur, Grady,
Thomas and Brooks counties are sufficiently elevated for agriculture,
and the islands off the coast are exceedingly productive.

  _Minerals._--The mineral resources of Georgia are as varied as its
  climate and soils, a total of thirty-nine different mineral products
  being found within its borders. The most important is stone: in 1905
  the value of the granite quarried in the state was $971,207 (Georgia
  ranking fifth in the United States), of the marble $774,550 (Georgia
  ranking third in the United States, Vermont and New York being first
  and second); in 1908 the granite was valued at $970,832 (Georgia
  ranking fifth in the United States), and the marble at $916,281
  (Georgia ranking second in the United States, Vermont being first).
  Generally more than one-fourth of the granite is used for paving;
  curb, building and monument stone are next in importance in the order
  named. Stone Mountain (1686 ft.) in De Kalb county near Atlanta is a
  remarkable mass of light-coloured muscovite granite, having a
  circumference at its base of 7 m. Stone Mountain granite was first
  quarried about 1850; it is extensively used as building material in
  Georgia and other southern states. A laminated granite, otherwise like
  the Stone Mountain granite, is found in De Kalb, Rockdale and Gwinnett
  counties, and is used for curbing and building. Biotite granites,
  which take a good polish and are used for monuments and for
  decoration, are quarried in Oglethorpe and Elbert counties. Georgia
  marble was first quarried on a large scale in Pickens county in 1884;
  the pure white marble of this county had been worked for tombstones
  near Tate, the centre of the marble belt, in 1840; after its
  commercial exploitation it was used in the capitol buildings of
  Georgia, Rhode Island, Mississippi and Minnesota, in the Corcoran Art
  Gallery, Washington, D.C., and in St Luke's Hospital, New York City.
  It is sometimes used for the entire building, and sometimes only for
  decoration. Other colours than the snowy white are found in the main
  marble belt of the state, which runs from Canton, Cherokee county, 60
  m. generally N. to the northern boundary of the state. Other deposits,
  less well known, are the dark brown and light grey marbles of
  Whitfield county, which resemble the stone quarried in eastern
  Tennessee. Limestone and slate are quarried at Rock Mart, Polk county,
  and there are cement quarries at Cement, near Kingston, Bartow county.
  Iron deposits occur in Bartow, Polk and Floyd counties, where are the
  more important brown ores, and (red ores) in Walker and Chattooga
  counties. The quantity of iron ore mined in Georgia declined from 1890
  to 1900; it was 200,842 long tons in 1905 and 321,060 long tons in
  1908, when 319,812 tons were brown haematite and 1248 tons were red
  haematite. Before the discovery of gold in California the Georgia
  "placers" were very profitable, the earliest mining being in 1829 by
  placer miners from the fields of Burke county, North Carolina, who
  began work in what is now White county, and went thence to Habersham
  and Lumpkin counties. Dahlonega and Auraria, the latter named by John
  C. Calhoun, who owned a mine there, were the centres of this early
  gold mining. Work was summarily stopped by Federal troops enforcing
  the governor's proclamation in 1831, because of the disorder in the
  mining region; but it was soon renewed and a mint was established at
  Dahlonega in 1838. After the discovery of gold in California, mining
  in Georgia was not renewed on anything but the smallest scale until
  the early 'eighties. In 1908 the gold product was valued at $56,207
  (it was $96,910 in 1905) and the silver product at $106. Up to 1909
  the gold product of Georgia (see State Geol. Survey _Bulletin 19_) was
  about $17,500,000. Extensive clay deposits occur in all parts of the
  state, and are remarkable for their comparative freedom from
  impurities and for their high fusion point; the most valuable are
  sedimentary, and form a belt several miles wide across the middle of
  the state from Augusta to Columbus. In 1908 the clay products of the
  state were valued at $1,928,611. More asbestos has been found in
  Georgia than in any other state of the Union; it occurs in the
  amphibole form throughout the N. part of the state, and most of the
  country's domestic supply comes from the Sall Mountain mine in White
  county. Manganese ores, found in Bartow, Polk and Floyd counties, were
  formerly important; in 1896 4096 long tons were mined, in 1905 only
  150 tons, and in 1908 none. Bauxite was found in Georgia first of the
  United States, near Rome, in 1887; the output, principally from Floyd,
  Bartow and Polk counties, was the entire product of the United States
  until 1891, and in 1902 was more than half the country's product, but
  in 1908, even when combined with the Alabama output, was less than the
  amount mined in Arkansas. Coal is not extensively found, but the mine
  on Sand Mountain, in Walker county, was one of the first opened S. of
  the Ohio river; in 1908 the value of the coal mined in the state was
  $364,279 (264,822 short tons), the value of coke at the ovens was
  $137,524 (39,422 short tons), and the value of ammonium sulphate, coal
  tar, illuminating gas and gas coke was more than $800,000. Copper was
  mined in Fannin and Cherokee counties before the Civil War. In 1906
  the copper mined was valued at $5057. Corundum was discovered on
  Laurel Creek in Rabun county in 1871, and was worked there and at
  Trackrock, Union county, especially between 1880 and 1893, but in
  later years low prices closed most of the mines. The limestone
  formations furnished most of the lime for domestic use. Sandstone,
  ochre, slate, soapstone, graphite are also mined, and lead, zinc,
  barytes, gypsum and even diamonds have been discovered but not
  exploited.

_Agriculture._--The principal occupation in Georgia is agriculture,
which in 1900 engaged seven-tenths of the land surface of the state and
the labour of three-fifths of the population, ten years old and over,
who are employed in profitable occupations. The products are so
diversified that, with the exception of some tropical fruits of
California and Florida, almost everything cultivated in the United
States can be produced. The chief staple is cotton, of which a valuable
hybrid called the Floradora, a cross of long and short staple, has been
singularly successful. Cotton is raised in all counties of the state
except Rabun, Towns and Fannin in the extreme north, and about one-third
of the total cultivated land of the state was devoted to it in
1900-1907. In 1899-1904 the crop exceeded that of the other
cotton-producing states except Texas, and in 1899, 1900 and 1903
Mississippi, averaging 1,467,121 commercial bales per annum; the crop in
1904 was 1,991,719 bales, and in 1907-1908 the crop was 1,815,834 bales,
second only to the crop of Texas. The cause of this extensive
cultivation of cotton is not a high average yield per acre, but the fact
that before 1860 "Cotton was King," and that the market value of the
staple when the Civil War closed was so high that farmers began to
cultivate it to the exclusion of the cereals, whose production, Indian
corn excepted, showed a decline during each decade from 1879 to 1899.
But in the 'nineties the price of the cotton fell below the cost of
production, owing to the enormous supply, and this was accompanied by
economic depression. These conditions have caused some diversification
of crops, and successful experiments in cattle-raising, movements
encouraged by the Department of Agriculture and the leading newspapers.

The principal cereals cultivated are Indian corn (product, 53,750,000
bushels in 1908) and wheat; the cultivation of the latter, formerly
remunerative, declined on account of the competition of the Western
States, but revived after 1899, largely owing to the efforts of the
Georgia Wheat Growers' Association (organized in 1897), and in 1908 the
yield was 2,208,000 bushels. The sugar-cane crop declined in value after
1890, and each year more of it was made into syrup. In 1908 the tobacco
crop was 2,705,625 lb., and the average farm price was 35 cents, being
nearly as high as that of the Florida crop; Sumatra leaf for wrappers is
grown successfully. The acreage and product of tobacco and peanuts
increased from 1890 to 1900 respectively 188% and 319.2%, and 92.6% and
129.9%, and in the production of sweet potatoes Georgia was in 1899
surpassed only by North Carolina. Alfalfa and grasses grow well. Truck
farming and the cultivation of orchard and small fruits have long been
remunerative occupations; the acreage devoted to peaches doubled between
1890 and 1900. Pecan nuts are an increasingly important crop.

  Agriculture in Georgia was in a state of transition at the beginning
  of the 20th century. Owing to the abundance of land and to negro
  slavery, exploitative methods of cultivation were employed before the
  Civil War, and such methods, by which lands after being worked to
  exhaustion are deserted for new fields, had not yet been altogether
  abandoned. One reason for this was that, according to the census of
  1900, 36.9% of the farms were operated by negroes, of whom 86% were
  tenants who desired to secure the greatest possible product without
  regard to the care of the soil. Consequently there were large tracts
  of untilled "waste" land; but these rapidly responded to fertilization
  and rotation of crops, often yielding 800 to 1200 lb. of cotton per
  acre, and Georgia in 1899 used more fertilizers than any other state
  in the Union. Another feature of agriculture in Georgia was the great
  increase in the number of farms, the average size of plantations
  having declined from 440 acres in 1860 to 117.5 in 1900, or almost
  75%, while the area in cultivation increased only 15.6% between 1850
  and 1900. The tenantry system was also undergoing a change--the share
  system which developed in the years succeeding the Civil War being
  replaced by a system of cash rental.

[Illustration: Georgia.]

_Manufactures._--Although excelled by Alabama in the manufacture of
mineral products, and by North Carolina and South Carolina in the number
and output of cotton mills, in 1900 and in 1905 Georgia surpassed each
of those states in the total value of factory products, which was,
however, less than the value of the factory products of Louisiana and
Virginia among the southern states. The chief features of this
industrial activity are its early beginning and steady, constant
development. As far back as 1850 there were 1522 manufacturing
establishments (35 of which were cotton mills) in the state, whose total
product was valued at $7,082,075. Despite the Civil War, there was some
advance during each succeeding decade, the most prosperous relatively
being that from 1880 to 1890. In 1900 the number of establishments was
7504, an increase of 75.1% over the number in 1890; the capital invested
was $89,789,656, an increase of 57.7%, and the value of products
($106,654,527) was 54.8% more than in 1890. Of the 7504 establishments
in 1900, 3015 were conducted under the "factory system," and had a
capital of $79,303,316 and products valued at $94,532,368. In 1905 there
were 3219 factories, with a capital of $135,211,551 (an increase of
70.5% over 1900), and a gross product valued at $151,040,455 (59.8%
greater than the value of the factory product in 1900).

  The most important manufacturing industries are those that depend upon
  cotton for raw material, with a gross product in 1900 valued at
  $26,521,757. In that year[2] there were 67 mills engaged in the
  manufacture of cotton goods, with a capital of $24,158,159, and they
  yielded a gross product valued at $18,457,645; the increase between
  1900 and 1905 was actually much larger (and proportionately very much
  larger) than between 1890 and 1900; the number of factories in 1905
  was 103 (an increase of 53.7% over 1900); their capital was
  $42,349,618 (75.3% more than in 1900); and their gross product was
  valued at $35,174,248 (an increase of 90.6% since 1900). The rank of
  Georgia among the cotton manufacturing states was seventh in 1900 and
  fourth in 1905. Cotton-seed oil and cake factories increased in number
  from 17 to 43 from 1890 to 1900, and to 112 in 1905, and the value of
  their product increased from $1,670,196 to $8,064,112, or 382.8% in
  1890-1900, and to $13,539,899 in 1905, or an increase of 67.9% over
  1900, and in 1900 and in 1905 the state ranked second (to Texas) in
  this industry in the United States. This growth in cotton manufactures
  is due to various causes, among them being the proximity of raw
  material, convenient water-power, municipal exemption from taxation
  and the cheapness of labour. The relation between employer and
  employee is in the main far more personal and kindly than in the mills
  of the Northern States.

  The forests of Georgia, next to the fields, furnish the largest amount
  of raw material for manufactures. The yellow pines of the southern
  part of the state, which have a stand of approximately 13,778,000 ft.,
  yielded in 1900 rosin and turpentine valued at $8,110,468 (more than
  the product of any other state in the Union) and in 1905 valued at
  $7,705,643 (second only to the product of Florida). From the same
  source was derived most of the lumber product valued[3] in 1900 at
  $13,341,160 (more than double what it was in 1890) and in 1905 at
  $16,716,594. The other important woods are cypress, oak and poplar.

  Fourth in value in 1905 (first, cotton goods; second, lumber and
  timber; third, cotton-seed oil and cake) were fertilizers, the value
  of which increased from $3,367,353 in 1900 to $9,461,415 in 1905, when
  the state ranked first of the United States in this industry; in 1900
  it had ranked sixth.

  _Communications._--Means of transportation for these products are
  furnished by the rivers, which are generally navigable as far north as
  the "fall line" passing through Augusta, Milledgeville, Macon and
  Columbus; by ocean steamship lines which have piers at St Mary's,
  Brunswick, Darien and Savannah; and by railways whose mileage in
  January 1909 was 6,871.8 m. The most important of the railways are the
  Central of Georgia, the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the
  Seaboard Air Line, the Georgia and the Georgia Southern & Florida. In
  1878 a state railway commission was established which has mandatory
  power for the settlement of all traffic problems and makes annual
  reports.

_Population._--The population of Georgia in 1880 was 1,542,180; in 1890
1,837,353, an increase of 19.1%; in 1900 2,216,331, a further increase
of 20.6%[4]; in 1910, 2,609,121. Of the 1900 population, 53.3% were
whites and 46.7% were negroes,[5] the centre of the black population
being a little south of the "fall line." Here the negroes increased,
from 1890 to 1900, faster than the whites in eighteen counties, but in
northern Georgia, where the whites are in the majority, the negro
population declined in twelve counties. Also the percentage of negro
illiteracy is higher in northern Georgia than in other parts of the
state, the percentage of negro male illiterates of voting age being
38.3% in Atlanta in 1900, and in Savannah only 30.7%. The population of
Georgia has a very slight foreign-born element (.6% in 1900) and a small
percentage (1.7% in 1900) of people of foreign parentage. The urban
population (i.e. the population in places of 2500 inhabitants and over)
was 15.6% of the total in 1900, and the number of incorporated cities,
towns and villages was 372. Of these only forty had a population
exceeding 2000, and thirteen exceeding 5000. The largest city in 1900
was Atlanta, the capital since 1868 (Louisville, Jefferson county, was
the capital in 1795-1804, and Milledgeville in 1804-1868), with 89,872
inhabitants. Savannah ranked second with 54,244, and Augusta third with
39,441. In 1900 the other cities in the state with a population of more
than 5000 were: Macon (23,272), Columbus (17,614), Athens (10,245),
Brunswick (9081), Americus (7674), Rome (7291), Griffin (6857), Waycross
(5919), Valdosta (5613), and Thomasville (5322).

The total membership of the churches in 1906 was about 1,029,037, of
whom 596,319 were Baptists, 349,079 were Methodists, 24,040 were
Presbyterians, 19,273 were Roman Catholics, 12,703 were Disciples of
Christ, 9790 were Protestant Episcopalians, and 5581 were
Congregationalists.

_Government._--The present constitution, which was adopted in 1877,[6]
provides for a system of government similar in general to that of the
other states (see UNITED STATES). The executive officials are elected
for a term of two years, and the judges of the Supreme Court and of the
court of appeals for six years, while those of the superior court and of
the ordinaries and the justices of the peace are chosen every four
years. Before 1909 all male citizens of the United States at least
twenty-one years of age (except those mentioned below), who had lived in
the state for one year immediately preceding an election and in the
county six months, and had paid their taxes, were entitled to vote. From
the suffrage and the holding of office are excluded idiots and insane
persons and all those who have been convicted of treason, embezzlement,
malfeasance in office, bribery or larceny, or any crime involving moral
turpitude and punishable under the laws of the state by imprisonment in
the penitentiary--this last disqualification, however, is removable by a
pardon for the offence. Before 1909 there was no constitutional
discrimination aimed against the exercise of the suffrage by the negro,
but in fact the negro vote had in various ways been greatly reduced. By
a constitutional amendment adopted by a large majority at a special
election in October 1908, new requirements for suffrage, designed
primarily to exclude negroes, especially illiterate negroes, were
imposed (supplementary to the requirements mentioned above concerning
age, residence and the payment of taxes), the amendment coming into
effect on the 1st of January 1909: in brief this amendment requires that
the voter shall have served in land or naval forces of the United States
or of the Confederate States or of the state of Georgia in time of war,
or be lawfully descended from some one who did so serve; or that he be a
person of good character who proves to the satisfaction of the
registrars of elections that he understands the duties and obligations
of a citizen; or that he read correctly in English and (unless
physically disabled) write any paragraph of the Federal or state
constitution; or that he own 40 acres of land or property valued at $500
and assessed for taxation. After the 1st of January 1915 no one may
qualify as a voter under the first or second of these clauses (the
"grandfather" and "understanding" clauses); but those who shall have
registered under their requirements before the 1st of January 1915 thus
become voters for life.

The governor, who receives a salary of $5000, must be at least thirty
years old, must at the time of his election have been a citizen of the
United States for fifteen years and of the state for six years, and
"shall not be eligible to re-election after the expiration of a second
term, for the period of four years." In case of his "death, removal or
disability," the duties of his office devolve in the first instance upon
the president of the Senate, and in the second upon the speaker of the
House of Representatives. The governor's power of veto extends to
separate items in appropriation bills, but in every case his veto may be
overridden by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. An amendment to the
constitution may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of the legislature,
and comes into effect on receiving a majority of the popular vote.
Members of the Senate must be at least twenty-five years old, must be
citizens of the United States, and must, at the time of their election,
have been citizens of the state for four years, and of the senatorial
district for one year; representatives must be at least twenty-one years
old, and must, at the time of their election, have been citizens of the
state for two years. By law, in Georgia, lobbying is a felony.

Habitual intoxication, wilful desertion for three years, cruel
treatment, and conviction for an offence the commission of which
involved moral turpitude and for which the offender has been sentenced
to imprisonment for at least two years, are recognized as causes for
divorce. All petitions for divorce must be approved by two successive
juries, and a woman holds in her own name all property acquired before
and after marriage. Marriage between the members of the white and negro
races is prohibited by law.

As the result of the general campaign against child labour, an act was
passed in 1906 providing that no child under 10 shall be employed or
allowed to labour in or about any factory, under any circumstances;
after the 1st of January 1907 no child under 12 shall be so employed,
unless an orphan with no other means of support, or unless a widowed
mother or disabled or aged father is dependent on the child's labour, in
which case a certificate to the facts, holding good for one year only,
is required; after the 1st of January 1908 no child under 14 shall be
employed in a factory between the hours of 7 P.M. and 6 A.M.; after the
same date no child under 14 shall be employed in any factory without a
certificate of school attendance for 12 weeks (of which 6 weeks must be
consecutive) of the preceding year; no child shall be employed without
the filing of an affidavit as to age. Making a false affidavit as to age
or as to other facts required by the act, and the violation of the act
by any agent or representative of a factory or by any parent or guardian
of a child are misdemeanours.

In 1907 a state law was passed prohibiting after the 1st of January 1908
the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors; nine-tenths of the
counties of the state, under local option laws, were already "dry" at
the passage of this bill. The law permits druggists to keep for sale no
other form of alcoholic drink than pure alcohol; physicians prescribing
alcohol must fill out a blank, specifying the patient's ailment, and
certifying that alcohol is necessary; the prescription must be filled
the day it is dated, must be served directly to the physician or to the
patient, must not call for more than a pint, and may not be refilled.[7]

The state supports four benevolent institutions: a lunatic asylum for
the whites and a similar institution for the negroes, both at
Milledgeville, an institute for the deaf and dumb at Cave Spring, and an
academy for the blind at Macon. There are also a number of private
charitable institutions, the oldest being the Bethesda orphan asylum,
near Savannah, founded by George Whitefield in 1739. The Methodist,
Baptist, Roman Catholic and Protestant Episcopal Churches, and the
Hebrews of the state also support homes for orphans. A penitentiary was
established in 1817 at Milledgeville. In 1866 the lease system was
introduced, by which the convicts were leased for a term of years to
private individuals. In 1897 this was supplanted by the contract system,
by which a prison commission accepted contracts for convict labour, but
the prisoners were cared for by state officials. But the contract system
for convicts and the peonage system (under which immigrants were held in
practical slavery while they "worked out" advances made for
passage-money, &c.) were still sources of much injustice. State laws
made liable to prosecution for misdemeanour any contract labourer who,
having received advances, failed for any but good cause to fulfil the
contract; or any contract labourer who made a second contract without
giving notice to his second employer of a prior and unfulfilled
contract; or any employer of a labourer who had not completed the term
of a prior contract. In September 1908, after an investigation which
showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that
terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session
of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or
contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of
March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may
be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all
unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict
labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its _pro rata_
share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by
municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man)
paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison
farm and factory established by this law.

_Education._--Georgia's system of public instruction was not instituted
until 1870, but as early as 1817 the legislature provided a fund for the
education in the private schools of the state of children of indigent
parents. The constitution of 1868 authorized "a thorough system of
general education, to be for ever free to all children of the State,"
and in 1870 the first public school law was enacted. Education, however,
has never been made compulsory. The constitution, as amended in 1905,
provides that elections on the question of local school taxes for
counties or for school districts may be called upon a petition signed by
one-fourth of the qualified voters of the county, or district, in
question; under this provision several counties and a large number of
school districts are supplementing the general fund. But the principal
source of the annual school revenue is a state tax; the fund derived
from this tax, however, is not large enough. In 1908 the common school
fund approximated $3,786,830, of which amount the state paid $2,163,200
and about $1,010,680 was raised by local taxation. In 1908 69% of the
school population (79% of whites; 58% of negroes) were enrolled in the
schools; in 1902 it was estimated that the negroes, 52.3% of whom (10
years of age and over) were illiterates (i.e. could not write or could
neither read nor write) in 1900 (81.6% of them were illiterate in 1880),
received the benefit of only about a fifth of the school fund. Of the
total population, 10 years of age and over, 30.5% were illiterates in
1900--49.9% were illiterates in 1880--and as regards the whites of
native birth alone, Georgia ranked ninth in illiteracy, in 1900, among
the states and territories of the Union. Of the illiterates about
four-fifths were negroes in 1900. In addition to the public schools, the
state also supports the University of Georgia; and in 1906 $235,000 was
expended for the support of higher education. In 1906-1907 eleven
agricultural and mechanical arts colleges were established, one in each
congressional district of the state. Of the colleges of the university,
Franklin was the first state college chartered in America (1785); the
Medical College of Georgia, at Augusta, was opened in 1829; the State
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established at Athens in
1872; the North Georgia Agricultural College, at Dahlonega, was opened
in 1873; the Georgia School of Technology, at Atlanta, in 1888; the
Georgia Normal and Industrial College (for women), in Milledgeville, in
1899; the Georgia State Normal School, at Athens, in 1895; the Georgia
State Industrial College for Coloured Youth, near Savannah, in 1890; the
School of Pharmacy, at Athens, in 1903; and the School of Forestry, and
the Georgia State College of Agriculture, at Athens, in 1906. Affiliated
with the university, but not receiving state funds, are three
preparatory schools, the South Georgia Military and Agricultural College
at Thomasville, the Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College at
Milledgeville, and the West Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical College
at Hamilton. Among the institutions generally grouped as denominational
are--Baptist: Mercer University, at Macon (Penfield, 1837; Macon, 1871),
Shorter College (1877) at Rome, Spelman Seminary (1881) in Atlanta for
negro women and girls, and Bessie Tift College, formerly Monroe College
(1849) for women, at Forsyth; Methodist Episcopal: Emory College (1836),
at Oxford, and Wesleyan Female College (1836) at Macon, both largely
endowed by George Ingraham Seney (1837-1893), and the latter one of the
earliest colleges for women in the country; Methodist Episcopal Church,
South: Young Harris College (1855) at Young Harris, Andrew Female
College (1854) at Cuthbert, and Dalton Female College (1872) at Dalton;
Presbyterian: Agnes Scott College at Decatur; and African Methodist
Episcopal: Morris Brown College (1885) at Atlanta. A famous school for
negroes is the non-sectarian Atlanta University (incorporated in 1867,
opened in 1869), which has trained many negroes for teaching and other
professions. Non-sectarian colleges for women are: Lucy Cobb Institute
(1858) at Athens, Cox College (1843) at College Park, near Atlanta, and
Brenau College Conservatory (1878) at Gainesville.

  _Finance._--The assessed value of taxable property in 1910 was about
  $735,000,000. A general property tax, which furnishes about
  four-fifths of the public revenue, worked so inequitably that a Board
  of Equalization was appointed in 1901. By the Constitution the tax
  rate is limited to $5 on the thousand, and, as the rate of taxation
  has increased faster than the taxable property, the state has been
  forced to contract several temporary loans since 1901, none of which
  has exceeded $200,000, the limit for each year set by the
  Constitution. On the 1st of January 1910 the bonded debt was
  $6,944,000, mainly incurred by the extravagance of the Reconstruction
  administration (see _History_, below). Each year $100,000 of this debt
  is paid off, and there are annual appropriations for the payment of
  interest (about $303,260 in 1910). The state owns the Western &
  Atlantic railway (137 m. long) from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to
  Atlanta, which has valuable terminal facilities in both cities, and
  which in 1910 was estimated to be worth $8,400,240 (more than the
  amount of the bonded debt); this railway the state built in 1841-1850,
  and in 1890 leased for 29 years, at an annual rental of $420,012, to
  the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railway.

  Banking in Georgia is in a prosperous condition. The largest class of
  depositors are the farmers, who more and more look to the banks for
  credit, instead of to the merchants and cotton speculators. Hence the
  number of banks in agricultural districts is increasing. The state
  treasurer is the bank examiner, and to him all banks must make a
  quarterly statement and submit their books for examination twice a
  year. The legal rate of interest is 7%, but by contract it may be 8%.

_History._--Georgia derives its name from King George II. of Great
Britain. It was the last to be established of the English colonies in
America. Its formation was due to a desire of the British government to
protect South Carolina from invasion by the Spaniards from Florida and
by the French from Louisiana, as well as to the desire of James Edward
Oglethorpe (q.v.) to found a refuge for the persecuted Protestant sects
and the unfortunate but worthy indigent classes of Europe. A charter was
granted in 1732 to "the Trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia
in America," and parliament gave £10,000 to the enterprise. The first
settlement was made at Savannah in 1733 under the personal supervision
of Oglethorpe. The early colonists were German Lutherans (Salzburgers),
Piedmontese, Scottish Highlanders, Swiss, Portuguese Jews and
Englishmen; but the main tide of immigration, from Virginia and the
Carolinas, did not set in until 1752. As a bulwark against the Spanish,
the colony was successful, but as an economic experiment it was a
failure. The trustees desired that there should be grown in the colony
wine grapes, hemp, silk and medical plants (barilla, kali, cubeb, caper,
madder, &c.) for which England was dependent upon foreign countries;
they required the settlers to plant mulberry trees, and forbade the sale
of rum, the chief commercial staple of the colonies. They also forbade
the introduction of negro slaves. Land was leased by military tenure,
and until 1739 grants were made only in male tail and alienations were
forbidden. The industries planned for the colony did not thrive, and as
sufficient labour could not be obtained, the importation of slaves was
permitted under certain conditions in 1749. About the same time the
House of Commons directed the trustees to remove the prohibition on the
sale of rum. In 1753 the charter of the trustees expired and Georgia
became a royal province.

Under the new regime the colony was so prosperous that Sir James Wright
(1716-1785), the last of the royal governors, declared Georgia to be
"the most flourishing colony on the continent." The people were led to
revolt against the mother country through sympathy with the other
colonies rather than through any grievance of their own. The centre of
revolutionary ideas was St John's Parish, settled by New Englanders
(chiefly from Dorchester, Massachusetts). The Loyalist sentiment was so
strong that only five of the twelve parishes sent representatives to the
First Provincial Congress, which met on the 18th of January 1775, and
its delegates to the Continental Congress therefore did not claim seats
in that assembly. But six months later all the parishes sent
representatives to another Provincial Congress which met on the 4th of
July 1775. Soon afterward the royal government collapsed and the
administration of the colony was assumed by a council of safety.

The war that followed was really a severe civil conflict, the Loyalist
and Revolutionary parties being almost equal in numbers. In 1778 the
British seized Savannah, which they held until 1782, meanwhile reviving
the British civil administration, and in 1779 they captured Augusta and
Sunbury; but after 1780 the Revolutionary forces were generally
successful. Civil affairs also fell into confusion. In 1777 a state
constitution was adopted, but two factions soon appeared in the
government, led by the governor and the executive council respectively,
and harmony was not secured until 1781.

Georgia's policy in the formation of the United States government was
strongly national. In the constitutional convention of 1787 its
delegates almost invariably gave their support to measures designed to
strengthen the central government. Georgia was the fourth state to
ratify (January 2, 1788), and one of the three that ratified
unanimously, the Federal Constitution. But a series of conflicts between
the Federal government and the state government caused a decline of this
national sentiment and the growth of States Rights theories.

First of these was the friction involved in the case, before the Supreme
Court of the United States, of _Chisolm_ v. _Georgia_, by which the
plaintiff, one Alexander Chisolm, a citizen of South Carolina, secured
judgment in 1793 against the state of Georgia (see 2 Dallas Reports
419). In protest, the Georgia House of Representatives, holding that the
United States Supreme Court had no constitutional power to try suits
against a sovereign state, resolved that any Federal marshal who should
attempt to execute the court's decision would be "guilty of felony, and
shall suffer death, without benefit of clergy, by being hanged." No
effort was made to execute the decision, and in 1798 the Eleventh
Amendment to the Federal Constitution was adopted, taking from Federal
courts all jurisdiction over any suit brought "against one of the United
States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any
foreign state."

The position of Congress and of the Supreme Court with reference to
Georgia's policy in the Yazoo Frauds also aroused distrust of the
Federal government. In 1795 the legislature granted for $500,000 the
territory extending from the Alabama and Coosa rivers to the Mississippi
river and between 35° and 31° N. lat. (almost all of the present state
of Mississippi and more than half of the present state of Alabama) to
four land companies, but in the following year a new legislature
rescinded the contracts on the ground that they had been fraudulently
and corruptly made, as was probably the case, and the rescindment was
embodied in the Constitution of 1798., In the meantime the United States
Senate had appointed a committee to inquire into Georgia's claim to the
land in question, and as this committee pronounced that claim invalid,
Congress in 1800 established a Territorial government over the region.
The legislature of Georgia remonstrated but expressed a willingness to
cede the land to the United States, and in 1802 the cession was
ratified, it being stipulated among other things that the United States
should pay to the state $1,250,000, and should extinguish "at their own
expense, for the use of Georgia, as soon as the same can be peaceably
obtained on reasonable terms," the Indian title to all lands within the
state of Georgia. Eight years later the Supreme Court of the United
States decided in the case of _Fletcher_ v. _Peck_ (6 Cranch 87) that
such a rescindment as that in the new state constitution was illegal, on
the ground that a state cannot pass a law impairing the obligation of
contracts; and at an expense of more than four millions of dollars the
Federal government ultimately extinguished all claims to the lands.

This decision greatly irritated the political leaders of Georgia, and
the question of extinguishing the Indian titles, on which there had long
been a disagreement, caused further and even more serious friction
between the Federal and state authorities. The National government,
until the administration of President Jackson, regarded the Indian
tribes as sovereign nations with whom it alone had the power to treat,
while Georgia held that the tribes were dependent communities with no
other right to the soil than that of tenants at will. In 1785 Georgia
made treaties with the Creeks by which those Indians ceded to the state
their lands S. and W. of the Altamaha river and E. of the Oconee river,
but after a remonstrance of one of their half-breed chiefs Congress
decided that the cessions were invalid, and the National government
negotiated, in 1790, a new treaty which ceded only the lands E. of the
Oconee. The state appealed to the National government to endeavour to
secure further cessions, but none had been made when, in 1802, the
United States assumed its obligation to extinguish all Indian titles
within the state. Several cessions were made between 1802 and 1824, but
the state in the latter year remonstrated in vigorous terms against the
dilatory manner in which the National government was discharging its
obligation, and the effect of this was that in 1825 a treaty was
negotiated at Indian Springs by which nearly all the Lower Creeks agreed
to exchange their remaining lands in Georgia for equal territory beyond
the Mississippi. But President J.Q. Adams, learning that this treaty was
not approved by the entire Creek nation, authorized a new one, signed at
Washington in 1826, by which the treaty of 1825 was abrogated and the
Creeks kept certain lands W. of the Chattahoochee. The Georgia
government, under the leadership of Governor George M. Troup
(1780-1856), had proceeded to execute the first treaty, and the
legislature declared the second treaty illegal and unconstitutional. In
reply to a communication of President Adams early in 1827 that the
United States would take strong measures to enforce its policy, Governor
Troup declared that he felt it his duty to resist to the utmost any
military attack which the government of the United States should think
proper to make, and ordered the military companies to prepare to resist
"any hostile invasion of the territory of this state." But the strain
produced by these conditions was relieved by information that new
negotiations had been begun for the cession of all Creek lands in
Georgia. These negotiations were completed late in the year.

There was similar conflict in the relation of the United States and
Georgia with the Cherokees. In 1785 the Cherokees of Georgia placed
themselves under the protection of the Federal government, and in 1823
their chiefs, who were mostly half-breeds, declared: "It is the fixed
and unalterable determination of this nation never again to cede one
foot more of land," and that they could not "recognize the sovereignty
of any state within the limits of their territory"; in 1827 they framed
a constitution and organized a representative government. President
Monroe and President J.Q. Adams treated the Cherokees with the courtesy
due to a sovereign nation, and held that the United States had done all
that was required to meet the obligation assumed in 1802. The Georgia
legislature, however, contended that the United States had not acted in
good faith, declared that all land within the boundaries of the state
belonged to Georgia, and in 1828 extended the jurisdiction of Georgia
law to the Cherokee lands. Then President Jackson, holding that Georgia
was in the right on the Indian question, informed the Cherokees that
their only alternative to submission to Georgia was emigration.
Thereupon the chiefs resorted to the United States Supreme Court, which
in 1832 declared that the Cherokees formed a distinct community "in
which the laws of Georgia have no force," and annulled the decision of a
Georgia court that had extended its jurisdiction into the Cherokee
country (_Worcester_ v. _Georgia_). But the governor of Georgia declared
that the decision was an attempt at usurpation which would meet with
determined resistance, and President Jackson refused to enforce the
decree. The President did, however, work for the removal of the Indians,
which was effected in 1838.

On account of these conflicts a majority of Georgians adopted the
principles of the Democratic-Republican party, and early in the 19th
century the people were virtually unanimous in their political ideas.
Local partisanship centred in two factions: one, led by George M. Troup,
which represented the interests of the aristocratic and slave-holding
communities; the other, formed by John Clarke (1766-1832) and his
brother Elijah, found support among the non-slave-holders and the
frontiersmen. The cleavage of these factions was at first purely
personal; but by 1832 it had become one of principle. Then the Troup
faction under the name of States Rights party, endorsed the
nullification policy of South Carolina, while the Clarke faction,
calling itself a Union party, opposed South Carolina's conduct, but on
the grounds of expediency rather than of principle. On account, however,
of its opposition to President Jackson's attitude toward nullification,
the States Rights party affiliated with the new Whig party, which
represented the national feeling in the South, while the Union party was
merged into the Democratic party, which emphasized the sovereignty of
the states.

The activity of Georgia in the slavery controversy was important. As
early as 1835 the legislature adopted a resolution which asserted the
legality of slavery in the Territories, a principle adopted by Congress
in the Kansas Bill in 1854, and in 1847 ex-Governor Wilson Lumpkin
(1783-1870) advocated the organization of the Southern states to resist
the aggression of the North. Popular opinion at first opposed the
Compromise of 1850, and some politicians demanded immediate secession
from the Union; and the legislature had approved the Alabama Platform of
1848. But Congressmen Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, Whigs, and
Howell Cobb, a Democrat, upon their return from Washington, contended
that the Compromise was a great victory for the South, and in a campaign
on this issue secured the election of such delegates to the state
convention (at Milledgeville) of 1850 that that body adopted on the 10th
of December, by a vote of 237 to 19, a series of conciliatory
resolutions, since known as the "Georgia Platform," which declared in
substance: (1) that, although the state did not wholly approve of the
Compromise, it would "abide by it as a permanent adjustment of this
sectional controversy," to preserve the Union, as the thirteen original
colonies had found compromise necessary for its formation; (2) that the
state "will and ought to resist, even (as a last resort) to the
disruption of every tie that binds her to the Union," any attempt to
prohibit slavery in the Territories or a refusal to admit a slave state.
The adoption of this platform was accompanied by a party reorganization,
those who approved it organizing the Constitutional Union party, and
those who disapproved, mostly Democrats, organizing the Southern Rights
party; the approval in other states of the Georgia Platform in
preference to the Alabama Platform (see ALABAMA) caused a reaction in
the South against secession. The reaction was followed for a short
interval by a return to approximately the former party alignment, but in
1854 the rank and file of the Whigs joined the American or Know-Nothing
party while most of the Whig leaders went over to the Democrats. The
Know-Nothing party was nearly destroyed by its crushing defeat in 1856
and in the next year the Democrats by a large majority elected for
governor Joseph Emerson Brown (1821-1894) who by three successive
re-elections was continued in that office until the close of the Civil
War. Although Governor Brown represented the poorer class of white
citizens he had taken a course in law at Yale College, had practised
law, and at the time of his election was judge of a superior court;
although he had never held slaves he believed that the abolition of
slavery would soon result in the ruin of the South, and he was a man of
strong convictions. The Kansas question and the attitude of the North
toward the decision in the Dred Scott case were arousing the South when
he was inaugurated the first time, and in his inaugural address he
clearly indicated that he would favour secession in the event of any
further encroachment on the part of the North. In July 1859 Senator
Alfred Iverson (1798-1874) declared that in the event of the election of
a Free-Soil resident in 1860 he would favour the establishment of an
independent confederacy; later in the same year Governor Brown expressed
himself to a similar effect and urged the improvement of the military
service. On the 7th of November following the election of President
Lincoln the governor, in a special message to the legislature,
recommended the calling of a convention to decide the question of
secession, and Alexander H. Stephens was about the only prominent
political leader who contended that Lincoln's election was insufficient
ground for such action. On the 17th of November the legislature passed
an act directing the governor to order an election of delegates on the
2nd of January 1861 and their meeting in a convention on the 16th. On
the 19th this body passed an ordinance of secession by a vote of 208 to
89. Already the first regiment of Georgia Volunteers, under Colonel
Alexander Lawton (1818-1896) had seized Fort Pulaski at the mouth of the
Savannah river and now Governor Brown proceeded to Augusta and seized
the Federal arsenal there. Toward the close of the same year, however,
Federal warships blockaded Georgia's ports, and early in 1862 Federal
forces captured Tybee Island, Fort Pulaski, St Mary's, Brunswick and St
Simon Island. Georgia had responded freely to the call for volunteers,
but when the Confederate Congress had passed, in April 1862, the
Conscript Law which required all white men (except those legally
exempted from service) between the ages of 18 and 35 to enter the
Confederate service, Governor Brown, in a correspondence with President
Davis which was continued for several months, offered serious
objections, his leading contentions being that the measure was
unnecessary as to Georgia, unconstitutional, subversive of the state's
sovereignty, and therefore "at war with the principles for the support
of which Georgia entered into this revolution."

In 1863 north-west Georgia was involved in the Chattanooga campaign. In
the following spring Georgia was invaded from Tennessee by a Federal
army under General William T. Sherman; the resistance of General Joseph
E. Johnston and General J.B. Hood proved ineffectual; and on the 1st of
September Atlanta was taken. Then Sherman began his famous "march to the
sea," from Atlanta to Savannah, which revealed the weakness of the
Confederacy. In the spring of 1865, General J.H. Wilson with a body of
cavalry entered the state from Alabama, seized Columbus and West Point
on the 16th of April, and on the 10th of May captured Jefferson Davis,
president of the Confederacy, at Irwinville in Irwin county.

In accord with President Andrew Johnson's plan for reorganizing the
Southern States, a provisional governor, James Johnson, was appointed on
the 17th of June 1865, and a state convention reformed the constitution
to meet the new conditions, rescinding the ordinance of secession,
abolishing slavery and formally repudiating the state debt incurred in
the prosecution of the war. A governor and legislature were elected in
November 1865, the legislature ratified the Thirteenth Amendment on the
9th of December and five days later the governor-elect was inaugurated.
But both the convention and legislature incurred the suspicion and
ill-will of Congress; the convention had congratulated the president on
his policy, memorialized him on behalf of Jefferson Davis, and provided
pensions for disabled Confederate soldiers and the widows of those who
had lost their lives during the war, while the legislature passed
apprenticeship, labour and vagrancy laws to protect and regulate the
negroes, and rejected the Fourteenth Amendment. Although the civil
rights were conferred upon the freedmen, Congress would not tolerate the
political incapacity and social inferiority which the legislature had
assigned to them, and therefore Georgia was placed under military
government, as part of the third military district, by the
Reconstruction Act of the 2nd of March 1867. Under the auspices of the
military authorities registration of electors for a new state convention
was begun and 95,168 negroes and 96,333 whites were registered. The
acceptance of the proposition to call the convention and the election of
many conscientious and intelligent delegates were largely due to the
influence of ex-Governor Brown, who was strongly convinced that the
wisest course for the South was to accept quickly what Congress had
offered. The convention met in Atlanta on the 9th of December 1867 and
by March 1868 had revised the constitution to meet the requirements of
the Reconstruction Acts. The constitution was duly adopted by popular
vote, and elections were held for the choice of a governor and
legislature. Rufus Brown Bullock (b. 1834), Republican, was chosen
governor, the Senate had a majority of Republicans, but in the House of
Representatives a tie vote was cast for the election of a speaker. On
the 21st of July the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified, and a section of
the state constitution (which denied the power of state courts to
entertain against any resident of the state suits founded on contracts
existing on the 15th of June 1865) was repealed by the legislature in
pursuance of the congressional "Omnibus Bill" of the 25th of June 1868,
and as evidence of the restoration of Georgia to the Union the
congressmen were seated on the 25th of July in that year.

But in September of the same year the Democrats in the state
legislature, being assisted by some of the white Republicans, expelled
the 27 negro members and seated their defeated white contestants,
relying upon the legal theory that the right to hold office belonged
only to those citizens designated by statute, the common law or custom.
In retaliation the 41st Congress excluded the state's representatives on
a technicality, and, on the theory that the government of Georgia was a
provisional organization, passed an act requiring the ratification of
the Fifteenth Amendment before the admission of Georgia's senators and
representatives. The war department now concluded that the state was
still subject to military authority, and placed General A.H. Terry in
command. With his aid, and that of Congressional requirements that all
members of the legislature must take the Test Oath and none be excluded
on account of colour, a Republican majority was secured for both houses,
and the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified. Georgia was now finally
admitted to the Union by Act of Congress, on the 15th of July 1870.

The Reconstruction period in Georgia is remarkable for its comparative
moderation. Although there was great political excitement, there was not
as much extravagance in public administration as there was in other
Southern States, the state debt increasing approximately from $6,600,000
to $16,000,000. The explanation lies in the fact that there were
comparatively few "carpet-baggers" or adventurers in the state, and that
a large number of conservative citizens, under the leadership of
ex-Governor Brown, supported the Reconstruction policy of Congress and
joined the Republican party.

The election of 1871 gave the Democrats a majority in the legislature;
Governor Bullock, fearing impeachment, resigned, and at a special
election James M. Smith was chosen to fill the unexpired term. After
that the control of the Democrats was complete. In 1891 the Populist
party was organized, but it never succeeded in securing a majority of
the votes in the state.

LIST OF GOVERNORS

    I. _Administration of the Trustees._

  James Edward Oglethorpe[8]  1732-1743
  William Stephens[9]         1743-1751
  Henry Parker[9]             1751-1753
  Patrick Graham[9]           1753-1754

    II. _Royal Administration._

  John Reynolds               1754-1757
  Henry Ellis                 1757-1760
  Sir James Wright            1760-1782

    III. _Provincial Administration._

  William Ewen[10]               1775
  Archibald Bulloch[11]          1776
  Button Gwinnett[11]            1777
  Jonathan Bryan[11]             1777

    IV. _Georgia as a State._

  John A. Treutlen[12]        1777-1778
  John Houston                1778-1779
  John Wereat[13]                1779
  George Walton               1779-1780
  Richard Hawley                 1780
  Stephen Heard[13]           1780-1781
  Myrick Davies[13]              1781
  Nathan Brownson             1781-1782
  John Martin                 1782-1783
  Lyman Hall                  1783-1785
  Samuel Elbert               1785-1786
  Edward Telfair              1786-1787
  George Matthews             1787-1788
  George Handley              1788-1789
  George Walton               1789-1790     Democratic-Republican
  Edward Telfair              1790-1793          "         "
  George Matthews             1793-1796          "         "
  Jared Irwin                 1796-1798          "         "
  James Jackson               1798-1801          "         "
  David Emanuel                 1801             "         "
  Josiah Tattnall             1801-1802          "         "
  John Milledge               1802-1806          "         "
  Jared Irwin                 1806-1809          "         "
  David B. Mitchell           1809-1813          "         "
  Peter Early                 1813-1815          "         "
  David B. Mitchell           1815-1817          "         "
  William Rabun[14]           1817-1819          "         "
  Matthew Talbot[14]            1819             "         "
  John Clarke                 1819-1823          "         "
  George M. Troup             1823-1827          "         "
  John Forsyth                1827-1829          "         "
  George R. Gilmer            1829-1831     National Republican
  Wilson Lumpkin              1831-1835     Democratic-Republican
  William Schley              1835-1837     Union
  George Gilmer               1837-1839     Democrat
  Charles J. McDonald         1839-1843     Union
  George W. Crawford          1843-1847     Whig
  George W.B. Towns           1847-1851     Democrat
  Howell Cobb                 1851-1853     Constitutional Union
  Herschell V. Johnson        1853-1856     Democrat
  Joseph E. Brown             1857-1865        "
  James Johnson[15]             1865           "
  Charles J. Jenkins          1865-1868        "
  Thomas H. Ruger               1868           "
  Rufus B. Bullock            1868-1871     Republican
  Benjamin Conley[14]         1871-1872        "
  James M. Smith              1872-1876     Democrat
  Alfred H. Colquitt          1876-1882        "
  Alexander H. Stephens       1882-1883        "
  James S. Boynton[14]          1883           "
  Henry D. McDaniel           1883-1886        "
  John B. Gordon              1886-1890        "
  W.J. Northen                1890-1894        "
  W.Y. Atkinson               1894-1898        "
  A.D. Candler                1898-1902        "
  Joseph M. Terrell           1902-1907        "
  Hoke Smith                  1907-1909        "
  Joseph M. Brown             1909-1911        "
  Hoke Smith                  1911-            "

  A brief bibliography, chiefly of historical materials, is given by
  U.B. Phillips in his monograph "Georgia and State Rights," in vol. ii.
  of the _Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1901_
  (Washington, 1902). Valuable information concerning the resources and
  products of the state is given in the publications of the Department
  of Agriculture, which include weekly and monthly _Bulletins_, biennial
  _Reports_ and a volume entitled _Georgia, Historical and Industrial_
  (Atlanta, 1901). The Reports of the United States Census (especially
  the Twelfth Census for 1900 and the special census of manufactures for
  1905) should be consulted, and _Memoirs of Georgia_ (2 vols., Atlanta,
  Ga., 1895) contains chapters on industrial conditions.

  The principal sources for public administration are the annual reports
  of the state officers, philanthropic institutions, the prison
  commission and the railroad commission, and the revised Code of
  Georgia (Atlanta, 1896), adopted in 1895; see also L.F. Schmeckebier's
  "Taxation in Georgia" (_Johns Hopkins University Studies_, vol.
  xviii.) and "Banking in Georgia" (_Banker's Magazine_, vol. xlviii.).
  Education and social conditions are treated in C.E. Jones's _History
  of Education in Georgia_ (Washington, 1890), the Annual Reports of the
  School Commissioner, and various magazine articles, such as "Georgia
  Cracker in the Cotton Mill" (_Century Magazine_, vol. xix.) and "A
  Plea for Light" (_South Atlantic Quarterly_, vol. iii.). The view of
  slavery given in Frances A. Kemble's _Journal of a Residence on a
  Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839_ (New York, 1863) should be compared
  with R.Q. Mallard's _Plantation Life before Emancipation_ (Richmond,
  Va., 1897), and with F.L. Olmsted's _A Journey in the Seaboard Slave
  States_ (New York, 1856).

  The best book for the entire field of Georgia history is Lawton B.
  Evans's _A Student's History of Georgia_ (New York, 1898), a textbook
  for schools. This should be supplemented by C.C. Jones's _Antiquities
  of the Southern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes_ (New
  York, 1873), for the aborigines; W.B. Stevens's _History of Georgia to
  1798_ (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1847-1859) and C.C. Jones, jun., History
  of Georgia (2 vols., Boston, 1883) for the Colonial and Revolutionary
  periods; C.H. Haskins's _The Yazoo Land Companies_ (Washington, 1891);
  the excellent monograph (mentioned above) by U.B. Phillips for
  politics prior to 1860; Miss Annie H. Abel's monograph "The History of
  Events Resulting in Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi," in
  vol. i. of the _Annual Report of the American Historical Association
  for 1906_ (Washington, 1908) for a good account of the removal of the
  Indians from Georgia; the judicious monograph by E.C. Woolley,
  _Reconstruction in Georgia_ (New York, 1901); and I.W. Avery's
  _History of Georgia from 1850 to 1881_ (New York, 1881), which is
  marred by prejudice but contains material of value. _The Confederate
  Records of the State of Georgia_ were published at Atlanta in 1909.
  See also: E.J. Harden's _Life of George M. Troup_ (Savannah, 1840);
  R.M. Johnston and W.H. Browne, _Life of Alexander H. Stephens
  (Philadelphia, 1878), and Louis Pendleton, Life of Alexander H.
  Stephens_ (Philadelphia, 1907); P.A. Stovall's _Robert Toombs_ (New
  York, 1892); H. Fielder's _Life, Times and Speeches of Joseph E.
  Brown_ (Springfield, Mass., 1883) and C.C. Jones, jun., _Biographical
  Sketches of Delegates from Georgia to the Continental Congress_ (New
  York, 1891). There is much valuable material, also, in the
  publications (beginning with 1840) of the Georgia Historical Society
  (see the list in vol. ii. of the _Report of the American Historical
  Association for 1905_).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] According to the usual nomenclature, the branch flowing S.W. is
    called the Chattooga; this unites with the Tallulah to form the
    Tugaloo, which in turn unites with the Kiowee to form the Savannah
    proper.

  [2] The manufacturing statistics for 1900 which follow are not those
    given in the Twelfth Census, but are taken from the _Census of
    Manufactures_, 1905, the 1900 figures here given being only for
    "establishments on a factory basis," and thus being comparable with
    those of 1905. In 1890 there were 53 mills with a capital of
    $17,664,675 and a product valued at $12,035,629.

  [3] In these valuations for 1900 and for 1905 the rough lumber
    dressed or remanufactured in planing mills enters twice into the
    value of the product.

  [4] The population of the state was 82,548 in 1790, 162,686 in 1800,
    252,433 in 1810, 340,989 in 1820, 516,823 in 1830, 691,392 in 1840,
    906,185 in 1850, 1,057,286 in 1860, and 1,184,100 in 1870.

  [5] This negro percentage includes 211 Chinese, Japanese and Indians.

  [6] The state has had four other constitutions--those of 1777, 1789,
    1798 and 1868.

  [7] Owing to the custom which holds in Georgia of choosing state
    senators in rotation from each of the counties making up a senatorial
    district, it happened in 1907 that few cities were represented
    directly by senators chosen from municipalities. It is believed that
    this fact contributed to the passage of the prohibition law.

  [8] _De facto._

  [9] President of the Colony.

  [10] President of the Council of Safety.

  [11] President of Georgia.

  [12] First Governor under a State Constitution.

  [13] President Executive Council and _de facto_ Governor.

  [14] President of Senate.

  [15] Provisional.



GEORGIA, a former kingdom of Transcaucasia, which existed historically
for more than 2000 years. Its earliest name was Karthli or Karthveli;
the Persians knew it as Gurjistan, the Romans and Greeks as Iberia,
though the latter placed Colchis also in the west of Georgia. Vrastan is
the Armenian name and Gruzia the Russian. Georgia proper, which included
Karthli and Kakhetia, was bounded on the N. by Ossetia and Daghestan, on
the S. by the principalities of Erivan and Kars, and on the W. by Guria
and Imeretia; but the kingdom also included at different times Guria,
Mingrelia, Abkhasia, Imeretia and Daghestan, and extended from the
Caucasus range on the N. to the Aras or Araxes on the S. It is now
divided between the Russian governments of Tiflis and Kutais, under
which headings further geographical particulars are given. (See also
CAUCASIA.)

_History._--According to traditional accounts, the Georgian (Karthlian),
Kakhetian, Lesghian, Mingrelian and other races of Transcaucasia are the
descendants of Thargamos, great-grandson of Japheth, son of Noah, though
Gen. x. 3 makes Togarmah to be the son of Gomer, who was the son of
Japheth. These various races were subsequently known under the general
name of Thargamosides. Karthlos, the second son of Thargamos, is the
eponymous king of his race, their country being called Karthli after
him. Mtskhethos, son of Karthlos, founded the city of Mtskhetha (the
modern Mtskhet) and made it the capital of his kingdom. We come,
however, to firmer historic ground when we read that Georgia was
conquered by Alexander the Great, or rather by one of his generals. The
Macedonian yoke was shaken off by Pharnavaz or Pharnabazus, a prince of
the royal race, who ruled from 302 to 237 B.C. All through its history
Georgia, being on the outskirts of Armenia and Persia, both of them
more powerful neighbours than itself, was at times more or less closely
affected by their destinies. In this way it was sometimes opposed to
Rome, sometimes on terms of friendship with Byzantium, according as
these were successively friendly or hostile to the Armenians and the
Persians. In the end of the 2nd century B.C. the last Pharnavazian
prince was dethroned by his own subjects and the crown given to Arsaces,
king of Armenia, whose son Arshag, ascending the throne of Georgia in 93
B.C., established there the Arsacid dynasty. This close association with
Armenia brought upon the country an invasion (65 B.C.) by the Roman
general Pompey, who was then at war with Mithradates, king of Pontus and
Armenia; but Pompey did not establish his power permanently over Iberia.
A hundred and eighty years later the Emperor Trajan penetrated (A.D.
114) into the heart of the country, and chastised the Georgians; yet his
conquest was only a little more permanent than Pompey's. During one of
the internecine quarrels, which were not infrequent in Georgia, the
throne fell to Mirhan or Mirian (265-342), a son of the Persian king,
who had married a daughter of Asphagor, the last sovereign of the
Arsacid dynasty.

With Mirian begins the Sassanian dynasty. He and his subjects were
converted to Christianity by a nun Nuno (Nino), who had escaped from the
religious persecutions of Tiridates, king of Armenia. Mirian erected the
first Christian church in Georgia on the site now occupied by the
cathedral of Mtskhet. In or about the year 371 Georgia was overrun by
the Persian king Shapur or Sapor II., and in 379 a Persian general built
the stronghold of Tphilis (afterwards Tiflis) as a counterpoise to
Mtskhet. The Persian grasp upon Georgia was loosened by Tiridates, who
reigned from 393 to 405. One of Mirian's successors, Vakhtang (446-499),
surnamed Gurgaslan or Gurgasal, the Wolf-Lion, established a
patriarchate at Mtskhet and made Tphilis his capital. This sovereign,
having conquered Mingrelia and Abkhasia, and subdued the Ossetes, made
himself master of a large part of Armenia. Then, co-operating for once
with the king of Persia, he led an army into India; but towards the end
of his reign there was enmity between him and the Persians, against whom
he warred unsuccessfully. His son Dachi or Darchil (499-514) upon
ascending the throne transferred the seat of government permanently from
Mtskhet to Tphilis (Tiflis). Again Persia stretched out her hand over
Georgia, and proved a formidable menace to the existence of the kingdom,
until, owing to the severe pressure of the Turks on the one side and of
the Byzantine Greeks on the other, she found it expedient to relax her
grasp. The Georgians, seizing the opportunity, appealed (571) to the
Byzantine emperor, Justin II. who gave them a king in the person of
Guaram, a prince of the Bagratid family of Armenia, conferring upon him
the title, not of king, but of viceroy. Thus began the dynasty of the
Bagratids, who ruled until 1803.

This was not, however, the first time that Byzantine influence had been
effectively exercised in Georgia. As early as the reign of Mirian, in
the 3rd century, the organizers of the early Georgian church had looked
to Byzantium, the leading Christian power in the East, for both
instruction and guidance, and the connexion thus begun had been
strengthened as time went on. From this period until the Arab (i.e.
Mahommedan) invasions began, the authority of Byzantium was supreme in
Georgia. Some seventy years after the Bagratids began to rule in Georgia
the all-conquering Arabs appeared on the frontiers of the country, and
for the next one hundred and eighty years they frequently devastated the
land, compelling its inhabitants again and again to accept Islam at the
sword's point. But it was not until the death of the Georgian king Ashod
(787-826) that they completely subdued the Caucasian state and imposed
their will upon it. Nevertheless they were too much occupied elsewhere
or too indifferent to its welfare to defend it against alien aggressors,
for in 842 Bogha, a Turkish chief, invaded the country, and early in the
10th century the Persians again overran it. But a period of relief from
these hostile incursions was afforded by the reign of Bagrat III.
(980-1014). During his father's lifetime he had been made king of
Abkhasia, his mother belonging to the royal house of that land, and
after ascending the Georgian throne he made his power felt far beyond
the frontiers of his hereditary dominions, until his kingdom extended
from the Black Sea to the Caspian, while Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kirman
all paid him tribute. Not only did he encourage learning and patronize
the fine arts, but he built, in 1003, the cathedral at Kutais, one of
the finest examples extant of Georgian architecture. During the reign of
Bagrat IV. (1027-1072) the Seljuk Turks more than once burst, after
1048, into the country from Asia Minor, but they were on the whole
successfully repulsed, although they plundered Tiflis. During the reign
of the next king, George II., they again devastated Tiflis. But once
more fortune changed after the accession of David II. (1089-1125),
surnamed the Renovator, one of the greatest of Georgian kings. With the
help of the Kipchaks, a Mongol or Turkish race, from the steppe lands to
the north of the Caucasus, whom he admitted into his country, David
drove the Seljuks out of his domains and forced them back over the
Armenian mountains. Under George III. (1156-1184), a grandson of David
II., Armenia was in part conquered, and Ani, one of its capitals, taken.
George's daughter Thamar or Tamara, who succeeded him, reigned over the
kingdom as left by David II. and further extended her power over
Trebizond, Erzerum, Tovin (in Armenia) and Kars. These successes were
continued by her son George IV. (1212-1223), who conquered Ganja (now
Elisavetpol) and repulsed the attacks of the Persians; but in the last
years of his reign there appeared (1220 and 1222) the people who were to
prove the ruin of Georgia, namely the Mongol hosts of Jenghiz Khan, led
by his sons. George IV. was succeeded by his sister Rusudan, whose
capital was twice captured by the Persians and her kingdom overrun and
fearfully devastated by the Mongols in 1236. Then, after a period of
wonderful recovery under George V. (1318-1346), who conquered Imeretia
and reunited it to his crown, Georgia was again twice (1386 and
1393-1394) desolated by the Mongols under Timur (Tamerlane), prince of
Samarkand, who on the second occasion laid waste the entire country with
fire and sword, and crushed it under his relentless heel until the year
1403. Alexander I. (1413-1442) freed his country from the last of the
Mongols, but at the end of his reign divided his territory between his
three sons, whom he made sovereigns of Imeretia, Kakhetia and Karthli
(Georgia) respectively. The first mentioned remained a separate state
until its annexation to Russia in 1810; the other two were soon
reunited.

Political relations between Russia and Georgia began in the end of the
same century, namely in 1492, when the king of Kakhetia sought the
protection of Ivan III. during a war between the Turks and the Persians.
In the 17th century the two states were brought into still closer
relationship. In 1619, when Georgia was harried by Shah Abbas of Persia,
Theimuraz (1629-1634), king of Georgia, appealed for help to Michael,
the first of the Romanov tsars of Russia, and his example was followed
later in the century by the rulers of other petty Thargamosid or
Caucasian states, namely Imeretia and Guria. In 1638 the prince of
Mingrelia took the oath of allegiance to the Russian tsar, and in 1650
the same step was taken by the prince of Imeretia. Vakhtang VI. of
Georgia put himself under the protection of Peter the Great early in the
18th century. When Persia fell into the grip of the Afghans early in the
18th century the Turks seized the opportunity, and, ousting the Persians
from Georgia, captured Tiflis and compelled Vakhtang to abdicate. But in
1735 they renounced all claim to supremacy over the Caucasian states.
This left Persia with the predominating influence, for though Peter the
Great extorted from Persia (1722) her prosperous provinces beside the
Caspian, he left the mountaineers to their own dynastic quarrels.
Heraclius II. of Georgia declared himself the vassal of Russia in 1783,
and when, twelve years later, he was hard pressed by Agha Mahommed, shah
of Persia, who seized Tiflis and laid it in ruins, he appealed to Russia
for help. The appeal was again renewed by the next king of Georgia,
George XIII., in 1798, and in the following year he renounced his crown
in favour of the tsar, and in 1801 Georgia was converted into a Russian
province. The state of Guria submitted to Russia in 1829. (J. T. Be.)

_Ethnology._--Of the three main groups into which the Caucasian races
are now usually divided, the Georgian is in every respect the most
important and interesting. It has accordingly largely occupied the
attention of Orientalists almost incessantly from the days of Klaproth.
Yet such are the difficulties connected with the origin and mutual
relations of the Caucasian peoples that its affinities are still far
from being clearly established. Anton von Schiefner and P.V. Uslar,
however, arrived at some negative conclusions valuable as
starting-points for further research. In their papers, published in the
_Memoirs_ of the St Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences and
elsewhere (1859 et seq.), they finally disposed of the views of Bopp and
Brosset (1836), who attempted on linguistic grounds to connect the
Georgians with the Indo-European family. They also clearly show that Max
Müller's "Turanian" theory is untenable, and they go a long way towards
proving that the Georgian, with all the other Caucasian languages except
the Ossetian, forms a distinct linguistic family absolutely independent
of all others. This had already been suspected by Klaproth, and the same
conclusion was arrived at by Fr. Müller and Zagarelli.

Uslar's "Caucasian Family" comprises the following three great
divisions:

  1. Western Group.  Typical races: Circassians and Abkhasians.
  2. Eastern Group.  Typical races: Chechens and Lesghians.
  3. Southern Group. Typical race:  Georgians.

Here the term "family" must be taken in a far more elastic sense than
when applied, for instance, to the Indo-European, Semitic or Eastern
Polynesian divisions of mankind. Indeed the three groups present at
least as wide divergences as are found to exist between the Semitic and
Hamitic linguistic families. Thus, while the Abkhasian of group 1 is
still at the agglutinating, the Lesghian of group 2 has fairly reached
the inflecting stage, and the Georgian seems still to waver between the
two. In consequence of these different stages of development, Uslar
hesitated finally to fix the position of Georgian in the family,
regarding it as possibly a connecting link between groups 1 and 2, but
possibly also radically distinct from both.

Including all its numerous ramifications, the Georgian or southern group
occupies the greater part of Transcaucasia, reaching from about the
neighbourhood of Batum on the Black Sea eastwards to the Caspian, and
merging southwards with the Armenians of Aryan stock. It comprises
altogether nine subdivisions, as in the subjoined table:

  1. The GEORGIANS PROPER, who are the Iberians of the ancients and the
  Grusians of the Russians, but who call themselves Karthlians, and who
  in medieval times were masters of the Rion and Upper Kura as far as
  its confluence with the Alazan.

  2. The IMERETIANS, west of the Suram mountains as far as the river
  Tskheniz-Tskhali.

  3. The GURIANS, between the Rion and Lazistan.

  4. The LAZIS of Lazistan on the Black Sea.

  5. The SVANETIANS, SHVANS or SWANIANS, on the Upper Ingur and
  Tskheniz-Tskhali rivers.

  6. The MINGRELIANS, between the rivers Tskheniz-Tskhali, Rion, Ingur
  and the Black Sea.

  7. The TUSHES or MOSOKS   \
                            |  about the headstreams of the
  8. The PSHAVS or PH'CHAVY  >    Alazan and Yora rivers.
                            |
  9. The KHEVSURS           /

The representative branch of the race has always been the Karthlians. It
is now pretty well established that the Georgians are the descendants of
the aborigines of the Pambak highlands, and that they found their way to
their present homes from the south-east some four or five thousand years
ago, possibly under pressure from the great waves of Aryan migration
flowing from the Iranian tableland westwards to Asia Minor and Europe.
The Georgians proper are limited on the east by the Alazan, on the north
by the Caucasus, on the west by the Meskes hills, separating them from
the Imeretians, and on the south by the Kura river and Kara-dagh and
Pambak mountains. Southwards, however, no hard and fast ethnical line
can be drawn, for even immediately south of Tiflis, Georgians, Armenians
and Tatars are found intermingled confusedly together.

The Georgian race, which represents the oldest elements of civilization
in the Caucasus, is distinguished by some excellent mental qualities,
and is especially noted for personal courage and a passionate love of
music. The people, however, are described as fierce and cruel, and
addicted to intemperance, though Max von Thielmann (_Journey in the
Caucasus_, &c., 1875) speaks of them as "rather hard drinkers than
drunkards." Physically they are a fine athletic race of pure Caucasian
type; hence during the Moslem ascendancy Georgia supplied, next to
Circassia, the largest number of female slaves for the Turkish harems
and of recruits for the Osmanli armies, more especially for the select
corps of the famous Mamelukes.

The social organization rested on a highly aristocratic basis, and the
lowest classes were separated by several grades of vassalage from the
highest. But since their incorporation with the Russian empire, these
relations have become greatly modified, and a more sharply defined
middle class of merchants, traders and artisans has been developed. The
power of life and death, formerly claimed and freely exercised by the
nobles over their serfs, has also been expressly abolished. The
Georgians are altogether at present in a fairly well-to-do condition,
and under Russian administration they have become industrious, and have
made considerable moral and material progress.

Missionaries sent by Constantine the Great introduced Christianity about
the beginning of the 4th century. Since that time the people have,
notwithstanding severe pressure from surrounding Mahommedan communities,
remained faithful to the principles of Christianity, and are still
amongst the most devoted adherents of the Orthodox Greek Church. Indeed
it was their attachment to the national religion that caused them to
call in the aid of the Christian Muscovites against the proselytizing
attempts of the Shiite Persians--a step which ultimately brought about
their political extinction.

As already stated, the Karthli language is not only fundamentally
distinct from the Indo-European linguistic family, but cannot be shown
to possess any clearly ascertained affinities with either of the two
northern Caucasian groups. It resembles them chiefly in its phonetic
system, so that according to Rosen (_Sprache der Lazen_) all the
languages of central and western Caucasus might be adequately rendered
by the Georgian alphabet. Though certainly not so harsh as the Avar,
Lesghian and other Daghestan languages, it is very far from being
euphonious, and the frequent recurrence of such sounds as ts, ds, thz,
kh, khh, gh (Arab. [Arabic: gh]), q (Arab. [Arabic: q]), for all of
which there are distinct characters, renders its articulation rather
more energetic and rugged than is agreeable to ears accustomed to the
softer tones of the Iranian and western Indo-European tongues. It
presents great facilities for composition, the laws of which are very
regular. Its peculiar morphology, standing midway between agglutination
and true inflexion, is well illustrated by its simple declension common
to noun, adjective and pronoun, and its more intricate verbal
conjugation, with its personal endings, seven tenses and incorporation
of pronominal subject and object, all showing decided progress towards
the inflecting structure of the Indo-European and Semitic tongues.

Georgian is written in a native alphabet obviously based on the
Armenian, and like it attributed to St Mesropius (Mesrop), who
flourished in the 5th century. Of this alphabet there are two forms,
differing so greatly in outline and even in the number of the letters
that they might almost be regarded as two distinct alphabetic systems.
The first and oldest, used exclusively in the Bible and liturgical
works, is the square or monumental Khutsuri, i.e. "sacerdotal,"
consisting of 38 letters, and approaching the Armenian in appearance.
The second is the Mkhedruli kheli, i.e. "soldier's hand," used in
ordinary writing, and consisting of 40 letters, neatly shaped and full
of curves, hence at first sight not unlike the modern Burmese form of
the Pali.

Of the Karthli language there are several varieties; and, besides those
comprised in the above table, mention should be made of the Kakhetian
current in the historic province of Kakhetia. A distinction is sometimes
drawn between the Karthlians proper and the Kakhetians, but it rests on
a purely political basis, having originated with the partition in 1424
of the ancient Iberian estates into the three new kingdoms of
Karthlinia, Kakhetia and Imeretia. On the other hand, both the Laz of
Lazistan and the Svanetian present such serious structural and verbal
differences from the common type that they seem to stand rather in the
relation of sister tongues than of dialects to the Georgian proper. All
derive obviously from a common source, but have been developed
independently of each other. The Tush or Mosok appears to be
fundamentally a Kistinian or Chechen idiom affected by Georgian
influences.

The Bible is said to have been translated into Georgian as early as the
5th century. The extant version, however, dates only from the 8th
century, and is attributed to St Euthymius. But even so, it is far the
most ancient work known to exist in the language. Next in importance is,
perhaps, the curious poem entitled _The Amours of Turiel and Nestan
Darejan_, or _The man clothed in the panther's skin_, attributed to
Rustevel, who lived during the prosperous reign of Queen Thamar (11th
century). Other noteworthy compositions are the national epics of the
_Baramiani_ and the _Rostomiani_, and the prose romances of _Visramiani_
and _Darejaniani_, the former by Sarg of Thmogvi, the latter by Mosi of
Khoni. Apart from these, the great bulk of Georgian literature consists
of ecclesiastical writings, hymns sacred and profane, national codes and
chronicles.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The standard authority on the history is M.F. Brosset's
  translation of the Georgian chronicles under the title of _Histoire de
  la Géorgie_ (5 vols., St Petersburg, 1849-1858); but compare also
  Khakanov, _Histoire de Géorgie_ (Paris, 1900). See further A. Leist,
  _Das georgische Volk_ (Dresden, 1903); M. de Villeneuve, _La Géorgie_
  (Paris, 1870); O. Wardrop, _The Kingdom of Georgia_ (London, 1888);
  and Langlois, _Numismatique géorgienne_ (Paris, 1860). For the
  philology see Zagarelli, _Examen de la littérature relative à la
  grammaire géorgienne_ (1873); _Friedrich Müller, Grundriss der
  Sprachwissenschaft_ (1887), iii. 2; Leist, _Georgische Dichter_
  (1887); Erskert, _Sprachen des kaukasischen Stammes_ (1895). For other
  points as to anthropology, Michel Smirnow's paper in _Revue
  d'anthropologie_ (April 15, 1878); Chantre, _Recherches
  anthropologiques dans le Caucase_ (1885-1887); and Erckert, _Der
  Kaukasus und seine Völker_ (1887).



GEORGIAN BAY, the N.E. section of Lake Huron, separated from it by
Manitoulin Island and the peninsula comprising the counties of Grey and
Bruce, Ontario. It is about 100 m. long and 50 m. wide, and is said to
contain 30,000 islands. It receives numerous rivers draining a large
extent of country; of these the chief are the French river draining Lake
Nipissing, the Maganatawan draining a number of small lakes, the Muskoka
draining the Muskoka chain of lakes (Muskoka, Rosseau, Joseph, &c.) and
the Severn draining Lake Simcoe. Into its southern extremity, known as
Nottawasaga Bay, flows the river of the same name. The Trent valley
canal connects Georgian Bay with the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario, and
a canal system has long been projected to Montreal by way of the French
and Ottawa rivers and Lake Nipissing.



GEORGSWALDE, a town of Bohemia, Austria, 115 m. N.E. of Prague by rail.
Pop. (1900) 8131, including Neu-Georgswalde, Wiesenthal and
Philippsdorf, which form together a single commune. Georgswalde is one
of the oldest industrial places of Bohemia, and together with the
neighbouring town of Rumburg is the principal centre of the linen
industry. The village of Philippsdorf, now incorporated with
Georgswalde, has become since 1866 a famous place of pilgrimage, owing
to the miracles attributed to an image of the Virgin, placed now in a
magnificent new church (1885).



GEPHYREA, the name used for several groups of worm-like animals with
certain resemblances but of doubtful affinity. In the article "Annelida"
in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia, W.C. McIntosh followed the
accepted view in associating in this group the _Echiuridae_,
_Sipunculidae_ and _Priapulidae_. E. Ray Lankester, in the preface to
the English translation of C. Gegenbaur's _Comparative Anatomy_ (1878),
added the _Phoronidae_ to these forms. Afterwards the same author
(article "Zoology," _Ency. Brit._, 9th ed.) recognized that the
_Phoronidae_ had other affinities, and placed the other "gephyreans" in
association with the Polyzoa as the two classes of a phylum _Podaxonia_.
In the present state of knowledge the old group _Gephyrea_ is broken up
into _Echiuroidea_ (q.v.) or _Gephyrea armata_, which are certainly
Annelids; the _Sipunculoidea_ (q.v.) or _Gephyrea achaeta_, an independent
group, certainly coelomate, but of doubtful affinity; the _Priapuloidea_
(q.v.), equally of doubtful affinity; and the _Phoronidea_ (q.v.), which
are almost certainly _Hemichordata_.



GERA, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Reuss-Schleiz
(called also Reuss younger line), situated in a valley on the banks of
the White Elster, 45 m. S.S.W. of Leipzig on the railway to Probstzella.
Pop. (1885) 34,152; (1905) 47,455. It has been mostly rebuilt since a
great fire in 1780, and the streets are in general wide and straight,
and contain many handsome houses. There are three Evangelical churches
and one Roman Catholic. Among other noteworthy buildings are the
handsome town-hall (1576, afterwards restored) and the theatre (1902).
Its educational establishments include a gymnasium, a commercial and a
weaving school. The castle of Osterstein, the residence of the princes
of Reuss, dates from the 9th century, but has been almost entirely
rebuilt in modern times. Gera is noted for its industrial activity. Its
industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the
manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and
machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and
flower gardening.

Gera (in ancient chronicles _Geraha_) was raised to the rank of a town
in the 11th century, at which time it belonged to the counts of Groitch.
In the 12th century it came into the possession of the lords of Reuss.
It was stormed and sacked by the Bohemians in 1450, was two-thirds
burned down by the Swedes in 1639 during the Thirty Years' War, and
suffered afterwards from great conflagrations in 1686 and 1780, being in
the latter year almost completely destroyed.



GERALDTON, a town in the district of Victoria, West Australia, on
Champion Bay, 306 m. by rail N.W. of Perth. Pop. (1901) 2593. It is the
seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, an important seaport carrying on a
considerable trade with the surrounding gold-fields and agricultural
districts, the centre of a considerable railway system and an
increasingly popular seaside resort. The harbour is safe and extensive,
having a pier affording accommodation for large steamers. The chief
exports are gold, copper, lead, wool and sandalwood.



GÉRANDO, MARIE JOSEPH DE (1772-1842), French philosopher, was born at
Lyons on the 29th of February 1772. When the city was besieged in 1793
by the armies of the Republic, de Gérando took up arms, was made
prisoner and with difficulty escaped with his life. He took refuge in
Switzerland, whence he afterwards fled to Naples. In 1796 the
establishment of the Directory allowed him to return to France. At the
age of twenty-five he enlisted as a private in a cavalry regiment. About
this time the Institute proposed as a subject for an essay this
question,--"What is the influence of symbols on the faculty of thought?"
De Gérando gained the prize, and heard of his success after the battle
of Zürich, in which he had distinguished himself. This literary triumph
was the first step in his upward career. In 1799 he was attached to the
ministry of the interior by Lucien Bonaparte; in 1804 he became general
secretary under Champagny; in 1805 he accompanied Napoleon into Italy;
in 1808 he was nominated master of requests; in 1811 he received the
title of councillor of state; and in the following year he was appointed
governor of Catalonia. On the overthrow of the empire, de Gérando was
allowed to retain this office; but having been sent during the hundred
days into the department of the Moselle to organize the defence of that
district, he was punished at the second Restoration by a few months of
neglect. He was soon after, however, readmitted into the council of
state, where he distinguished himself by the prudence and conciliatory
tendency of his views. In 1819 he opened at the law-school of Paris a
class of public and administrative law, which in 1822 was suppressed by
government, but was reopened six years later under the Martignac
ministry. In 1837 he was made a baron. He died at Paris on the 9th of
November 1842.

De Gérando's best-known work is his _Histoire comparée des systèmes de
philosophie relativement aux principes des connaissances humaines_
(Paris, 1804, 3 vols.). The germ of this work had already appeared in
the author's _Mémoire de la génération des connaissances humaines_
(Berlin, 1802), which was crowned by the Academy of Berlin. In it de
Gérando, after a rapid review of ancient and modern speculations on the
origin of our ideas, singles out the theory of primary ideas, which he
endeavours to combat under all its forms. The latter half of the work,
devoted to the analysis of the intellectual faculties, is intended to
show how all human knowledge is the result of experience; and reflection
is assumed as the source of our ideas of substance, of unity and of
identity. It is divided into two parts, the first of which is purely
historical, and devoted to an exposition of various philosophical
systems; in the second, which comprises fourteen chapters of the entire
work, the distinctive characters and value of these systems are compared
and discussed. In spite of the disadvantage that it is impossible to
separate advantageously the history and critical examination of any
doctrine in the arbitrary manner which de Gérando chose, the work has
great merits. In correctness of detail and comprehensiveness of view it
was greatly superior to every work of the same kind that had hitherto
appeared in France. During the Empire and the first years of the
Restoration, de Gérando found time to prepare a second edition (Paris,
1822, 4 vols.), which is enriched with so many additions that it may
pass for an entirely new work. The last chapter of the part published
during the author's lifetime ends with the revival of letters and the
philosophy of the 15th century. The second part, carrying the work down
to the close of the 18th century, was published posthumously by his son
in 4 vols. (Paris, 1847). Twenty-three chapters of this were left
complete by the author in manuscript; the remaining three were supplied
from other sources, chiefly printed but unpublished memoirs.

His essay _Du perfectionnement moral et de l'éducation de soi-même_ was
crowned by the French Academy in 1825. The fundamental idea of this work
is that human life is in reality only a great education, of which
perfection is the aim.

  Besides the works already mentioned, de Gérando left many others, of
  which we may indicate the following:--_Considérations sur diverses
  méthodes d'observation des peuples sauvages_ (Paris, 1801); _Éloge de
  Dumarsais,--discours qui a remporté le prix proposé par la seconde
  classe de l'Institut National_ (Paris, 1805); _Le Visiteur de pauvre_
  (Paris, 1820); _Instituts du droit administratif_ (4 vols., Paris,
  1830); _Cours normal des instituteurs primaires ou directions
  relatives à l'éducation physique, morale, et intellectuelle dans les
  écoles primaires_ (Paris, 1832); _De l'éducation des sourds-muets_ (2
  vols., Paris, 1832); _De la bienfaisance publique_ (4 vols., 1838). A
  detailed analysis of the _Histoire comparée des systèmes_ will be
  found in the _Fragments philosophiques_ of M. Cousin. In connexion
  with his psychological studies, it is interesting that in 1884 the
  French Anthropological Society reproduced his instructions for the
  observation of primitive peoples, and modern students of the
  beginnings of speech in children and the cases of deaf-mutes have
  found useful matter in his works. See also J.P. Damiron, _Essai sur la
  philosophie en France au XIX^e siècle_.



GERANIACEAE, in botany, a small but very widely distributed natural
order of Dicotyledons belonging to the subclass Polypetalae, containing
about 360 species in 11 genera. It is represented in Britain by two
genera, _Geranium_ (crane's-bill) and _Erodium_ (stork's-bill), to which
belong nearly two-thirds of the total number of species. The plants are
mostly herbs, rarely becoming shrubby, with generally simple glandular
hairs on the stem and leaves. The opposite or alternate leaves have a
pair of small stipules at the base of the stalk and a palminerved blade.
The flowers, which are generally arranged in a cymose inflorescence, are
hermaphrodite, hypogynous, and, except in _Pelargonium_, regular. The
parts are arranged in fives. There are five free sepals, overlapping in
the bud, and, alternating with these, five free petals. In _Pelargonium_
the flower is zygomorphic with a spurred posterior sepal and the petals
differing in size or shape. In _Geranium_ the stamens are
obdiplostemonous, i.e. an outer whorl of five opposite the petals
alternates with an inner whorl of five opposite the sepals; at the base
of each of the antisepalous stamens is a honey-gland. In _Erodium_ the
members of the outer whorl are reduced to scale-like structures
(staminodes), and in _Pelargonium_ from two to seven only are fertile.
There is no satisfactory explanation of this break in the regular
alternation of successive whorls; the outer whorl of stamens arises in
course of development before the inner, so that there is no question of
subsequent displacement. There are five, or sometimes fewer, carpels,
which unite to form an ovary with as many chambers, in each of which are
one or two, rarely more, pendulous anatropous ovules, attached to the
central column in such a way that the micropyle points outwards and the
raphe is turned towards the placenta. The long beak-like style divides
at the top into a corresponding number of slender stigmas.

[Illustration: Meadow Crane's-bill, _Geranium pratense_. (After Curtis,
_Flora Londinensis_.)

  1, Flower after removal of petals.

  2, Fruit after splitting. 1 and 2 about natural size.

  3, Floral diagram, the dots opposite the inner stamens represent
    honey-glands.]

The larger-flowered species of _Geranium_ are markedly protandrous, the
outer stamens, inner stamens and stigmas becoming functional in
succession. For instance, in meadow crane's-bill _G. pratense_, each
whorl of stamens ripens in turn, becoming erect and shedding their
pollen; as the anthers wither the filaments bend outwards, and when all
the anthers have diverged the stigmas become mature and ready for
pollination. By this arrangement self-pollination is prevented and
cross-pollination ensured by the visits of bees which come for the honey
secreted by the glands at the base of the inner stamens.

In species with smaller and less conspicuous flowers, such as _G.
molle_, the flowers of which are only 1/3 to ½ in. in diameter,
self-pollination is rendered possible, since the divisions of the stigma
begin to separate before the outer stamens have shed all their pollen;
the nearness of the stigmas to the dehiscing anthers favours
self-pollination.

In the ripe fruit the carpels separate into five one-seeded portions
(_cocci_), which break away from the central column, either rolling
elastically outwards and upwards or becoming spirally twisted. In most
species of _Geranium_ the cocci split open on the inside and the seeds
are shot out by the elastic uptwisting (fig. 1); in _Erodium_ and
_Pelargonium_ each coccus remains closed, and the long twisted upper
portion separates from the central column, forming an awn, the
distribution of which is favoured by the presence of bristles or hairs.
The embryo generally fills the seed, and the cotyledons are rolled or
folded on each other.

_Geranium_ is the most widely distributed genus; it has 160 species and
is spread over all temperate regions with a few species in the tropics.
Three British species--_G. sylvaticum_, _G. pratense_ and _G.
Robertianum_ (herb-Robert)--reach the arctic zone, while _G.
patagonicum_ and _G. magellanicum_ are found in the antarctic. _Erodium_
contains 50 species (three are British), most of which are confined to
the Mediterranean region and west Asia, though others occur in America,
in South Africa and West Australia. _Pelargonium_, with 175 species, has
its centre in South Africa; the well-known garden and greenhouse
"geraniums" are species of _Pelargonium_ (see GERANIUM).



GERANIUM, the name of a genus of plants, which is taken by botanists as
the type of the natural order Geraniaceae. The name, as a scientific
appellation, has a much more restricted application than when taken in
its popular sense. Formerly the genus _Geranium_ was almost conterminous
with the order Geraniaceae. Then as now the geranium was very popular as
a garden plant, and the species included in the original genus became
widely known under that name, which has more or less clung to them ever
since, in spite of scientific changes which have removed the large
number of them to the genus _Pelargonium_. This result has been probably
brought about in some degree by an error of the nurserymen, who seem in
many cases to have acted on the conclusion that the group commonly known
as _Scarlet Geraniums_ were really geraniums and not pelargoniums, and
were in consequence inserted under the former name in their trade
catalogues. In fact it may be said that, from a popular point of view,
the pelargoniums of the botanist are still better known as geraniums
than are the geraniums themselves, but the term "zonal Pelargonium" is
gradually making its way amongst the masses.

The species of _Geranium_ consist mostly of herbs, of annual or
perennial duration, dispersed throughout the temperate regions of the
world. They number about 160, and bear a considerable family
resemblance. The leaves are for the most part palmately-lobed, and the
flowers are regular, consisting of five sepals, five imbricating petals,
alternating with five glandules at their base, ten stamens and a beaked
ovary. Eleven species are natives of the British Isles and are popularly
known as crane's-bill. _G. Robertianum_ is herb-Robert, a common plant
in hedgebanks. _G. sanguineum_, with flowers a deep rose colour, is
often grown in borders, as are also the double-flowered varieties of _G.
pratense_. Many others of exotic origin form handsome border plants in
our gardens of hardy perennials; amongst these _G. armenum_, _G.
Endressi_, _G. ibericum_ and its variety _platypetalum_ are conspicuous.

From these regular-flowered herbs, with which they had been mixed up by
the earlier botanists, the French botanist L'Heritier in 1787 separated
those plants which have since borne the name of _Pelargonium_, and
which, though agreeing with them in certain points of structure, differ
in others which are admitted to be of generic value. One obvious
distinction of _Pelargonium_ is that the flowers are irregular, the two
petals which stand uppermost being different--larger, smaller or
differently marked--from the other three, which latter are occasionally
wanting. This difference of irregularity the modern florist has done
very much to annul, for the increased size given to the flowers by high
breeding has usually been accompanied by the enlargement of the smaller
petals, so that a very near approach to regularity has been in some
cases attained. Another well-marked difference, however, remains in
_Pelargonium_: the back or dorsal sepal has a hollow spur, which spur is
adnate, i.e. joined for its whole length with the flower-stalk; while in
_Geranium_ there is no spur. This peculiarity is best seen by cutting
clean through the flower-stalk just behind the flower, when in
_Pelargonium_ there will be seen the hollow tube of the spur, which in
the case of _Geranium_ will not be found, but the stalk will appear as a
solid mass. There are other characters which support those already
pointed out, such as the absence of the glandules, and the declination
of the stamens; but the features already described offer the most ready
and obvious distinctions.

To recapitulate, the geraniums properly so-called are regular-flowered
herbs with the flower-stalks solid, while many geraniums falsely
so-called in popular language are really pelargoniums, and may be
distinguished by their irregular flowers and hollow flower-stalks. In a
great majority of cases too, the pelargoniums so commonly met with in
greenhouses and summer parterres are of shrubby or sub-shrubby habit.

The various races of pelargoniums have sprung from the intermixture of
some of the species obtained from the Cape. The older show-flowered
varieties have been gradually acquired through a long series of years.
The fancy varieties, as well as the French spotted varieties and the
market type, have been evolved from them. The zonal or bedding race, on
the other hand, has been more recently perfected; they are supposed to
have arisen from hybrids between _Pelargonium inquinans_ and _P.
zonale_. In all the sections the varieties are of a highly ornamental
character, but for general cultivation the market type is preferable for
indoor purposes, while the zonals are effective either in the greenhouse
or flower garden. Some of the Cape species are still in cultivation--the
leaves of many of them being beautifully subdivided, almost fern-like in
character, and some of them are deliciously scented; _P. quercifolium_
is the oak-leaf geranium. The ivy-leaf geranium, derived from _P.
peltatum_, has given rise to an important class of both double- and
single-flowered forms adapted especially for pot culture, hanging
baskets, window boxes and the greenhouse. Of late years the ivy-leaf
"geraniums" have been crossed with the "zonals," and a new race is being
gradually evolved from these two distinct groups.

The best soil for pelargoniums is a mellow fibrous loam with good
well-rotted stable manure or leaf-mould in about the proportion of
one-fifth; when used it should not be sifted, but pulled to pieces by
the hand, and as much sand should be added as will allow the water to
pass freely through it. The large-flowered and fancy kinds cannot bear
so much water as most soft-wooded plants, and the latter should have a
rather lighter soil.

All the pelargoniums are readily increased by cuttings made from the
shoots when the plants are headed down after flowering, or in the
spring, when they will root freely in a temperature of 65° to 70°. They
must not be kept too close, and must be very moderately watered. When
rooted they may be moved into well-drained 3-in. pots, and when from 6
to 8 in. high, should have the points pinched out in order to induce
them to push out several shoots nearer the base. These shoots are, when
long enough, to be trained in a horizontal direction; and when they have
made three joints they should have the points again pinched out. These
early-struck plants will be ready for shifting into 6-in. pots by the
autumn, and should still be trained outwards. The show varieties after
flowering should be set out of doors in a sunny spot to ripen their
wood, and should only get water enough to keep them from flagging. In
the course of two or three weeks they will be ready to cut back within
two joints of where these were last stopped, when they should be placed
in a frame or pit, and kept close and dry until they have broken. When
they have pushed an inch or so, turn them out of their pots, shake off
the old soil, trim the straggling roots, and repot them firmly in
smaller pots if practicable; keep them near the light, and as the shoots
grow continue to train them outwardly. They require to be kept in a
light house, and to be set well up to the glass; the night temperature
should range about 45°; and air should be given on all mild days, but no
cold currents allowed, nor more water than is necessary to keep the soil
from getting parched. The young shoots should be topped about the end of
October, and when they have grown an inch or two beyond this, they may
be shifted into 7-in. pots for flowering. The shoots must be kept tied
out so as to be fully exposed to the light. If required to flower early
they should not be stopped again; if not until June they may be stopped
in February.

The zonal varieties, which are almost continuous bloomers, are of much
value as decorative subjects; they seldom require much pruning after the
first stopping. For winter flowering, young plants should be raised
from cuttings about March, and grown on during the summer, but should
not be allowed to flower. When blossoms are required, they should be
placed close up to the glass in a light house with a temperature of 65°,
only just as much water being given as will keep them growing. For
bedding purposes the zonal varieties are best struck towards the middle
of August in the open air, taken up and potted or planted in boxes as
soon as struck, and preserved in frames or in the greenhouse during
winter.

The fancy varieties root best early in spring from the half-ripened
shoots; they are slower growers, and rather more delicate in
constitution than the zonal varieties, and very impatient of excess of
water at the root.



GERARD (d. 1108), archbishop of York under Henry I., began his career as
a chancery clerk in the service of William Rufus. He was one of the two
royal envoys who, in 1095, persuaded Urban II. to send a legate and
Anselm's pallium to England. Although the legate disappointed the king's
expectations, Gerard was rewarded for his services with the see of
Hereford (1096). On the death of Rufus he at once declared for Henry I.,
by whom he was nominated to the see of York. He made difficulties when
required to give Anselm the usual profession of obedience; and it was
perhaps to assert the importance of his see that he took the king's side
on the question of investitures. He pleaded Henry's cause at Rome with
great ability, and claimed that he had obtained a promise, on the pope's
part, to condone the existing practice of lay investiture. But this
statement was contradicted by Paschal, and Gerard incurred the suspicion
of perjury. About 1103 he wrote or inspired a series of tracts which
defended the king's prerogative and attacked the oecumenical pretensions
of the papacy with great freedom of language. He changed sides in 1105,
becoming a stanch friend and supporter of Anselm. Gerard was a man of
considerable learning and ability; but the chroniclers accuse him of
being lax in his morals, an astrologer and a worshipper of the devil.

  See the _Tractatus Eboracenses_ edited by H. Bochmer in _Libelli de
  lite Sacerdotii et Imperii_, vol. iii. (in the _Monumenta hist.
  Germaniae_, quarto series), and the same author's _Kirche und Staat in
  England und in der Normandie_ (Leipzig, 1899).     (H. W. C. D.)



GERARD (c. 1040-1120), variously surnamed TUM, TUNC, TENQUE or THOM,
founder of the order of the knights of St John of Jerusalem (q.v.), was
born at Amalfi about the year 1040. According to other accounts
Martigues in Provence was his birthplace, while one authority even names
the Château d'Avesnes in Hainaut. Either as a soldier or a merchant, he
found his way to Jerusalem, where a hospice had for some time existed
for the convenience of those who wished to visit the holy places. Of
this institution Gerard became guardian or provost at a date not later
than 1100; and here he organized that religious order of St John which
received papal recognition from Paschal II. in 1113, by a bull which was
renewed and confirmed by Calixtus II. shortly before the death of Gerard
in 1120.



GERARD OF CREMONA (c. 1114-1187), the medieval translator of Ptolemy's
Astronomy, was born at Cremona, Lombardy, in or about 1114. Dissatisfied
with the meagre philosophies of his Italian teachers, he went to Toledo
to study in Spanish Moslem schools, then so famous as depositories and
interpreters of ancient wisdom; and, having thus acquired a knowledge of
the Arabic language, he appears to have devoted the remainder of his
life to the business of making Latin translations from its literature.
The date of his return to his native town is uncertain, but he is known
to have died there in 1187. His most celebrated work is the Latin
version by which alone Ptolemy's _Almagest_ was known to Europe until
the discovery of the original [Greek: Megalê Suntaxis]. In addition to
this, he translated various other treatises, to the number, it is said,
of sixty-six; among these were the _Tables_ of "Arzakhel," or Al Zarkala
of Toledo, Al Farabi _On the Sciences_ (_De scientiis_), Euclid's
_Geometry_, Al Farghani's _Elements of Astronomy_, and treatises on
algebra, arithmetic and astrology. In the last-named latitudes are
reckoned from Cremona and Toledo. Some of the works, however, with which
he has been credited (including the _Theoria_ or _Theorica planetarum_,
and the versions of Avicenna's _Canon of Medicine_--the basis of the
numerous subsequent Latin editions of that well-known work--and of the
_Almansorius_ of Abu Bakr Razi) are probably due to a later Gerard, of
the 13th century, also called Cremonensis but more precisely de
Sabloneta (Sabbionetta). This writer undertook the task of interpreting
to the Latin world some of the best work of Arabic physicians, and his
translation of Avicenna is said to have been made by order of the
emperor Frederic II.

  See Pipini, "Cronica," in Muratori, _Script. rer. Ital._ vol. ix.;
  Nicol. Antonio, _Bibliotheca Hispana vetus_, vol. ii.; Tiraboschi,
  _Storia della letteratura Italiana_, vols. iii. (333) and iv.; Arisi,
  _Cremona literata_; Jourdain, Recherches sur ... _l'origine des
  traductions latines d'Aristote_; Chasles, _Aperçu historique des
  méthodes en géométrie_, and in _Comptes rendus de l'Académie des
  Sciences_, vol. xiii. p. 506; J.T. Reinaud, _Géographie d'Aboulféda_,
  introduction, vol. i. pp. ccxlvi.-ccxlviii.; Boncompagni, _Della vita
  e delle opere di Gherardo Cremonese e di Gherardo da Sabbionetta_
  (Rome, 1851). Much of the work of both the Gerards remains in
  manuscript, as in Paris, National Library, MSS. Lat. 7400, 7421; MSS.
  Suppl. Lat. 49; Rome, Vatican library, 4083, and Ottobon, 1826;
  Oxford, Bodleian library, Digby, 47, 61. The Vatican MS. 2392 is
  stated to contain a eulogy of "Gerard of Cremona" and a list of "his"
  translations, apparently confusing the two scholars. The former's most
  valuable work was in astronomy; the latter's in medicine.
       (C. R. B.)



GÉRARD, ÉTIENNE MAURICE, COUNT (1773-1852), French general, was born at
Damvilliers (Meuse), on the 4th of April 1773. He joined a battalion of
volunteers in 1791, and served in the campaigns of 1792-1793 under
Generals Dumouriez and Jourdan. In 1795 he accompanied Bernadotte as
aide-de-camp. In 1799 he was promoted _chef d'escadron_, and in 1800
colonel. He distinguished himself at the battles of Austerlitz and Jena,
and was made general of brigade in November 1806, and for his conduct in
the battle of Wagram he was created a baron. In the Spanish campaign of
1810 and 1811 he gained special distinction at the battle of Fuentes
d'Onor; and in the expedition to Russia he was present at Smolensk and
Valutina, and displayed such bravery and ability in the battle of
Borodino that he was made general of division. He won further
distinction in the disastrous retreat from Moscow. In the campaign of
1813, in command of a division, he took part in the battles of Lützen
and Bautzen and the operations of Marshal Macdonald, and at the battle
of Leipzig (in which he commanded the XI. corps) he was dangerously
wounded. After the battle of Bautzen he was created by Napoleon a count
of the empire. In the campaign of France of 1814, and especially at La
Rothière and Montereau, he won still greater distinction. After the
first restoration he was named by Louis XVIII. grand cross of the Legion
of Honour and chevalier of St Louis. In the Hundred Days Napoleon made
Gérard a peer of France and placed him in command of the IV. corps of
the Army of the North. In this capacity Gérard took a brilliant part in
the battle of Ligny (see WATERLOO CAMPAIGN), and on the morning of the
18th of June he was foremost in advising Marshal Grouchy to march to the
sound of the guns. Gérard retired to Brussels after the fall of
Napoleon, and did not return to France till 1817. He sat as a member of
the chamber of deputies in 1822-1824, and was re-elected in 1827. He
took part in the revolution of 1830, after which he was appointed
minister of war and named a marshal of France. On account of his health
he resigned the office of war minister in the October following, but in
1831 he took the command of the northern army, and was successful in
thirteen days in driving the army of Holland out of Belgium. In 1832 he
commanded the besieging army in the famous scientific siege of the
citadel of Antwerp. He was again chosen war minister in July 1834, but
resigned in the October following. In 1836 he was named grand chancellor
of the Legion of Honour in succession to Marshal Mortier, and in 1838
commander of the National Guards of the Seine, an office which he held
till 1842. He became a senator under the empire in 1852, and died on the
17th of April in the same year.



GÉRARD, FRANÇOIS, BARON (1770-1837), French painter, was born on the 4th
of May 1770, at Rome, where his father occupied a post in the house of
the French ambassador. At the age of twelve Gérard obtained admission
into the Pension du Roi at Paris. From the Pension he passed to the
studio of Pajou (sculptor), which he left at the end of two years for
that of the painter Brenet, whom he quitted almost immediately to place
himself under David. In 1789 he competed for the Prix de Rome, which was
carried off by his comrade Girodet. In the following year (1790) he
again presented himself, but the death of his father prevented the
completion of his work, and obliged him to accompany his mother to Rome.
In 1791 he returned to Paris; but his poverty was so great that he was
forced to forgo his studies in favour of employment which should bring
in immediate profit. David at once availed himself of his help, and one
of that master's most celebrated pictures--Le Pelletier de St
Fargeau--may owe much to the hand of Gérard. This painting was executed
early in 1793, the year in which Gérard, at the request of David, was
named a member of the revolutionary tribunal, from the fatal decisions
of which he, however, invariably absented himself. In 1794 he obtained
the first prize in a competition, the subject of which was "The Tenth of
August," and, further stimulated by the successes of his rival and
friend Girodet in the Salons of 1793 and 1794, Gérard (nobly aided by
Isabey the miniaturist) produced in 1795 his famous "Bélisaire." In 1796
a portrait of his generous friend (in the Louvre) obtained undisputed
success, and the money received from Isabey for these two works enabled
Gérard to execute in 1797 his "Psyché et l'Amour." At last, in 1799, his
portrait of Madame Bonaparte established his position as one of the
first portrait-painters of the day. In 1808 as many as eight, in 1810 no
less than fourteen portraits by him, were exhibited at the Salon, and
these figures afford only an indication of the enormous numbers which he
executed yearly; all the leading figures of the empire and of the
restoration, all the most celebrated men and women of Europe, sat to
Gérard. This extraordinary vogue was due partly to the charm of his
manner and conversation, for his _salon_ was as much frequented as his
studio; Madame de Staël, Canning, Talleyrand, the duke of Wellington,
have all borne witness to the attraction of his society. Rich and
famous, Gérard was stung by remorse for earlier ambitions abandoned; at
intervals he had indeed striven to prove his strength with Girodet and
other rivals, and his "Bataille d'Austerlitz" (1810) showed a breadth of
invention and style which are even more conspicuous in "L'Entrée d'Henri
IV" (Versailles)--the work with which in 1817 he did homage to the
Bourbons. After this date Gérard declined, watching with impotent grief
the progress of the Romantic school. Loaded with honours--baron of the
empire, member of the Institute, officer of the legion of honour, first
painter to the king--he worked on sad and discouraged; the revolution of
1830 added to his disquiet; and on the 11th of January 1837, after three
days of fever, he died. By his portraits Gérard is best remembered; the
colour of his paintings has suffered, but his drawings show in uninjured
delicacy the purity of his line; and those of women are specially
remarkable for a virginal simplicity and frankness of expression.

  M. Ch. Lenormant published in 1846 _Essai de biographie et de critique
  sur François Gérard_, a second edition of which appeared in 1847; and
  M. Delécluze devoted several pages to the same subject in his work
  _Louis David, son école et son temps_.



GÉRARD, JEAN IGNACE ISIDORE (1803-1847), French caricaturist, generally
known by the pseudonym of Grandville--the professional name of his
grandparents, who were actors--was born at Nancy on the 13th of
September 1803. He received his first instruction in drawing from his
father, a miniature painter, and at the age of twenty-one came to Paris,
where he soon afterwards published a collection of lithographs entitled
_Les Tribulations de la petite propriété_. He followed this by Les
Plaisirs de toutâge and _La Sibylle des salons_; but the work which
first established his fame was _Métamorphoses du jour_, published in
1828, a series of seventy scenes in which individuals with the bodies of
men and faces of animals are made to play a human comedy. These drawings
are remarkable for the extraordinary skill with which human
characteristics are represented in animal features. The success of this
work led to his being engaged as artistic contributor to various
periodicals, such as _La Silhouette_, _L'Artiste_, _La Caricature_, _Le
Charivari_; and his political caricatures, which were characterized by
marvellous fertility of satirical humour, soon came to enjoy a general
popularity. Besides supplying illustrations for various standard works,
such as the songs of Béranger, the fables of La Fontaine, _Don Quixote_,
_Gulliver's Travels_, _Robinson Crusoe_, he also continued the issue of
various lithographic collections, among which may be mentioned _La Vie
privée et publique des animaux_, _Les Cent Proverbes_, _L'Autre Monde_
and _Les Fleurs animées_. Though the designs of Gérard are occasionally
unnatural and absurd, they usually display keen analysis of character
and marvellous inventive ingenuity, and his humour is always tempered
and refined by delicacy of sentiment and a vein of sober thoughtfulness.
He died of mental disease on the 17th of March 1847.

  A short notice of Gérard, under the name of Grandville, is contained
  in Théophile Gautier's _Portraits contemporains_. See also Charles
  Blanc, _Grandville_ (Paris, 1855).



GERARD, JOHN (1545-1612), English herbalist and surgeon, was born
towards the end of 1545 at Nantwich in Cheshire. He was educated at
Wisterson, or Willaston, 2 m. from Nantwich, and eventually, after
spending some time in travelling, took up his abode in London, where he
exercised his profession. For more than twenty years he also acted as
superintendent of the gardens in London and at Theobalds, in
Hertfordshire, of William Cecil, Lord Burghley. In 1596 he published a
catalogue of plants cultivated in his own garden in Holborn, London,
1039 in number, inclusive of varieties of the same species. Their
English as well as their Latin names are given in a revised edition of
the catalogue issued in 1599. In 1597 appeared Gerard's well-known
_Herball_, described by him in its preface as "the first fruits of these
mine own labours," but more truly an adaptation of the _Stirpium
historiae pemptades_ of Rembert Dodoens (1518-1585), published in 1583,
or rather of a translation of the whole or part of the same by Dr
Priest, with M. Lobel's arrangement. Of the numerous illustrations of
the _Herball_ sixteen appear to be original, the remainder are mostly
impressions from the wood blocks employed by Jacob Theodorus
Tabernaemontanus in his _Icones stirpium_, published at Frankfort in
1590. A second edition of the _Herball_, with considerable improvements
and additions, was brought out by Thomas Johnson in 1633, and reprinted
in 1636. Gerard was elected a member of the court of assistants of the
barber-surgeons in 1595, by which company he was appointed an examiner
in 1598, junior warden in 1605, and master in 1608. He died in February
1612, and was buried at St Andrews, Holborn.

  See Johnson's preface to his edition of the _Herball_; and _A
  Catalogue of Plants cultivated in the Garden of John Gerard in the
  years 1596-1599, edited with Notes, References to Gerard's Herball,
  the Addition of modern Names, and a Life of the Author, by Benjamin
  Daydon Jackson, F.L.S._, privately printed (London, 1876, 4to).



GÉRARDMER, a town of north-eastern France, in the department of Vosges,
33 m. E.S.E. of Epinal by rail. Pop. (1906) of the town, 3993; of the
commune, 10,041. Gérardmer is beautifully situated at a height of 2200
ft. at the eastern end of the small Lake of Gérardmer (285 acres in
extent) among forest-clad mountains. It is the chief summer-resort of
the French Vosges and is a centre for excursions, among which may be
mentioned those to the Höhneck (4481 ft.), the second highest summit in
the Vosges, the Schlucht, the mountain pass from France to Germany, and,
nearer the town, the picturesque defile of Granges, watered by the
Vologne, which at one point forms the cascade known as the Saut des
Cuves. The town itself, in which the chief object of interest is the
huge lime-tree in the market-place, carries on cloth-weaving, bleaching,
wood-sawing and the manufacture of wooden goods; there is trade in the
cheeses (_géromés_) manufactured in the neighbourhood. Gérardmer is said
to owe its name to Gerard of Alsace, 1st duke of Lorraine, who in the
11th century built a tower on the bank of the lake or _mer_, near which,
in 1285, a new town was founded.



GERASA (mod. _Gerash_ or _Jerash_), a city of Palestine, and a member of
the league known as the Decapolis (q.v.), situated amid the mountains of
Gilead, about 1757 ft. above the sea, 20 m. from the Jordan and 21 m. N.
of Philadelphia. Of its origin nothing is known; it has been suggested
that it represents the biblical Ramoth Gilead. From Josephus we learn
that it was captured by Alexander Jannaeus (c. 83 B.C.), rebuilt by the
Romans (c. A.D. 65), burned by the Jews in revenge for the massacre at
Caesarea, and again plundered and depopulated by Annius, the general of
Vespasian; but, in spite of these disasters, it was still in the 2nd and
3rd centuries of the Christian era one of the wealthiest and most
flourishing cities of Palestine. It was a centre of Greek civilization,
devoted especially to the worship of Artemis, and producing famous
teachers, of whom Stephen the Byzantine mentions Ariston, Kerykos and
Plato. As late as 1121 the soldiers of Baldwin II. found it defended by
a castle built by a king of Damascus; but at the beginning of the
following century the Arabian geographer Yaqut speaks of it as deserted
and overthrown. The ruins of Jerash, discovered about 1806, and since
then frequently visited and described, still attest the splendour of the
Roman city. They are distributed along both banks of the Kerwan, a brook
which flows south through the Wadi-ed-Der to join the Zerka or Jabbok;
but all the principal buildings are situated on the level ground to the
right of the stream. The town walls, which can still be traced and
indeed are partly standing, had a circuit of not more than 2 m., and the
main street was less than half a mile in length; but remains of
buildings on the road for fully a mile beyond the south gate, show that
the town had outgrown the limit of its fortifications. The most striking
feature of the ruins is the profusion of columns, no fewer than 230
being even now in position; the main street is a continuous colonnade, a
large part of which is still entire, and it terminates to the south in a
forum of similar formation. Among the public buildings still
recognizable are a theatre capable of accommodating 6000 spectators, a
naumachia (circus for naval combats) and several temples, of which the
largest was probably the grandest structure in the city, possessing a
portico of Corinthian pillars 38 ft. high. The desolation of the city is
probably due to earthquake; and the absence of Moslem erections or
restorations seems to show that the disaster took place before the
Mahommedan period.

The town is now occupied by a colony of Circassians, whose houses have
been built with materials from the earlier buildings, and there has been
much destruction of the interesting ruins. "The country of the
Gerasenes" (Matt. viii. 28 and parallels; other readings, Gadarenes,
Gergesenes) must be looked for in another quarter--on the E. coast of
the Sea of Galilee, probably in the neighbourhood of the modern Khersa
(C.W. Wilson in _Recovery of Jerusalem_, p. 369).     (R. A. S. M.)



GÉRAULT-RICHARD, ALFRED LÉON (1860- ), French journalist and politician,
was born at Bonnétable in the department of Sarthe, of a peasant family.
He began life as a working upholsterer, first at Mans, then at Paris
(1880), where his peasant and socialist songs soon won him fame in the
Montmartre quarter. Lissagaray, the communist, offered him a position on
_La Bataille_, and he became a regular contributor to the advanced
journals, especially to _La Petite République_, of which he became
editor-in-chief in 1897. In 1893 he founded _Le Chambard_, and was
imprisoned for a year (1894) on account of a personal attack upon the
president, Casimir-Périer. In January 1895 he was elected to the chamber
as a Socialist for the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris. He was
defeated at the elections of 1898 at Paris, but was re-elected in 1902
and in 1906 by the colony of Guadeloupe.



GERBER, ERNST LUDWIG (1746-1819), German musician, author of a famous
dictionary of musicians, was born at Sondershausen in the principality of
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen on the 29th of September 1746. His father,
Henry Nicolas Gerber (1702-1775), a pupil of J.S. Bach, was an organist
and composer of some distinction, and under his direction Ernst Ludwig at
an early age had made great progress in his musical studies. In 1765 he
went to Leipzig to study law, but the claims of music, which had gained
additional strength from his acquaintanceship with J.A. Hiller, soon came
to occupy almost his sole attention. On his return to Sondershausen he
was appointed music teacher to the children of the prince, and in 1775 he
succeeded his father as court organist. Afterwards he devoted much of his
time to the study of the literature and history of music, and with this
view he made himself master of several modern languages. His
_Historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler_ appeared in 1790 and
1792 in two volumes; and the first volume of what was virtually an
improved and corrected edition of this work was published in 1810 under
the title _Neues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler_,
followed by other three volumes in 1812, 1813 and 1814. Gerber also
contributed a number of papers to musical periodicals, and published
several minor musical compositions. He died at Sondershausen on the 30th
of June 1819.



GERBERON, GABRIEL (1628-1711), French Jansenist monk, was born on the
12th of August 1628 at St Calais, in the department of Sarthe. At the
age of twenty he took the vows of the Benedictine order at the abbey of
Ste Melaine, Rennes, and afterwards taught rhetoric and philosophy in
several monasteries. His open advocacy of Jansenist opinions, however,
caused his superiors to relegate him to the most obscure houses of the
order, and finally to keep him under surveillance at the abbey of St
Germain-des-Prés at Paris. Here he wrote a defence of the doctrine of
the Real Presence against the Calvinists in the form of an apology for
Rupert, abbot of Deutz (_Apologia pro Ruperto abbate Tuitensi_, Paris,
1669). In 1676 he published at Brussels, under the name of "Sieur Flore
de Ste Foi" his _Miroir de la piété chrétienne_, an enlarged edition of
which appeared at Liége in the following year. This was condemned by
certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five
condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the
name of "Abbé Valentin" in _Le Miroir sans tache_ (Paris, 1680). He had
by this time aroused against him the full fury of the Jesuits, and at
their instigation a royal provost was sent to Corbie to arrest him. He
had, however, just time to escape, and fled to the Low Countries, where
he lived in various towns. He was invited by the Jansenist clergy to
Holland, where he wrote another controversial work against the
Protestants: _Défense de l'Église Romain contre la calomnie des
Protestants_ (Cologne, 1688-1691). This produced unpleasantness with the
Reformed clergy, and feeling himself no longer safe he returned to
Brussels. In 1700 he published his history of Jansenism (_Histoire
générale du Jansénisme_), a dry work, by which, however, he is best
remembered. He adhered firmly to the Augustinian doctrine of
Predestination, and on the 30th of May 1703 he was arrested at Brussels
at the instance of the archbishop of Malines, and ordered to subscribe
the condemnation of the five sentences of Jansen. On his refusal, he was
handed over to his superiors and imprisoned in the citadel of Amiens and
afterwards at Vincennes. Every sort of pressure was brought to bear upon
him to make his submission, and at last, broken in health and spirit, he
consented to sign a formula which the cardinal de Noailles claimed as a
recantation. Upon this he was released in 1710. The first use he made of
his freedom was to write a work (which, however, his friends prudently
prevented him from publishing), _Le Vaine Triomphe du cardinal de
Noailles_, containing a virtual withdrawal of the compulsory
recantation. He died at the abbey of St Denis on the 29th of March 1711.



GERBERT, MARTIN (1720-1793), German theologian, historian and writer on
music, belonged to the noble family of Gerbert von Hornau, and was born
at Horb on the Neckar, Württemberg, on the 12th (or 11th or 13th) of
August 1720. He was educated at Freiburg in the Breisgau, at Klingenau
in Switzerland and at the Benedictine abbey of St Blasien in the Black
Forest, where in 1737 he took the vows. In 1744 he was ordained priest,
and immediately afterwards appointed professor, first of philosophy and
later of theology. Between 1754 and 1764 he published a series of
theological treatises, their main tendency being to modify the rigid
scholastic system by an appeal to the Fathers, notably Augustine; from
1759 to 1762 he travelled in Germany, Italy and France, mainly with a
view to examining the collections of documents in the various monastic
libraries. In 1764 he was elected prince-abbot of St Blasien, and proved
himself a model ruler both as abbot and prince. His examination of
archives during his travels had awakened in him a taste for historical
research, and under his rule St Blasien became a notable centre of the
methodical study of history; it was here that Marquard Herrgott wrote
his _Monumenta domus Austriacae_, of which the first two volumes were
edited, for the second edition, by Gerbert, who also published a _Codex
epistolaris Rudolphi I., Romani regis_ (1772) and _De Rudolpho Suevico
comite de Rhinfelden, duce et rege, deque ejus familia_ (1785). It was,
however, in sacramental theology, liturgiology, and notably
ecclesiastical music that Gerbert was mainly interested. In 1774 he
published two volumes _De cantu et musica sacra_; in 1777, _Monumenta
veteris liturgiae Alemannicae_; and in 1784, in three volumes,
_Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra_, a collection of the
principal writers on church music from the 3rd century till the
invention of printing. The materials for this work he had gathered
during his travels, and although it contains many textual errors, its
publication has been of great importance for the history of music, by
preserving writings which might either have perished or remained
unknown. His interest in music led to his acquaintance with the composer
Gluck, who became his intimate friend.

As a prince of the Empire Gerbert was devoted to the interests of the
house of Austria; as a Benedictine abbot he was opposed to Joseph II.'s
church policy. In the Febronian controversy (see FEBRONIANISM) he had
early taken a mediating attitude, and it was largely due to his
influence that Bishop Hontheim had been induced to retract his extreme
views.

In 1768 the abbey of St Blasien, with the library and church, was burnt
to the ground, and the splendid new church which rose on the ruins of
the old (1783) remained until its destruction by fire in 1874, at once a
monument of Gerbert's taste in architecture and of his Habsburg
sympathies. It was at his request that it was made the mausoleum of all
the Austrian princes buried outside Austria, whose remains were solemnly
transferred to its vaults. In connexion with its consecration he
published his _Historia Nigrae Silvae, ordinis S. Benedicti coloniae_ (3
vols., St Blasien, 1783).

Gerbert, who was beloved and respected by Catholics and Protestants
alike, died on the 3rd of May 1793.

  See Joseph Bader, _Das ehemalige Kloster St Blasien und seine
  Gelehrtenakademie_ (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1874), which contains a
  chronological list of Gerbert's works.



GERBIL, or GERBILLE, the name of a group of small, elegant, large-eyed,
jumping rodents typified by the North African _Gerbillus aegyptiacus_
(or _gerbillus_), and forming a special subfamily, _Gerbillinae_, of the
rat tribe or _Muridae_. They are found over the desert districts of both
Asia and Africa, and are classed in the genera _Gerbillus_ (or
_Tatera_), _Pachyuromys_, _Meriones_, _Psammomys_ and _Rhombomys_, with
further divisions into subgenera. They have elongated hind-limbs and
long hairy tails; and progress by leaps, in the same manner as jerboas,
from which they differ in having five hind-toes. The cheek-teeth have
transverse plates of enamel on the crowns; the number of such plates
diminishing from three in the first tooth to one or one and a half in
the third. The upper incisor teeth are generally marked by grooves.
Gerbils are inhabitants of open sandy plains, where they dwell in
burrows furnished with numerous exits, and containing large grass-lined
chambers. The Indian _G. indicus_ produces at least a dozen young at a
birth. All are more or less completely nocturnal.



GERENUK, the Somali name of a long-necked aberrant gazelle, commonly
known as Waller's gazelle (_Lithocranius walleri_), and ranging from
Somaliland to Kilimanjaro. The long neck and limbs, coupled with
peculiarities in the structure of the skull, entitle the gerenuk, which
is a large species, to represent a genus. The horns of the bucks are
heavy, and have a peculiar forward curvature at the tips; the colour of
the coat is red-fawn, with a broad brown band down the back. Gerenuk are
browsing ruminants, and, in Somaliland, are found in small
family-parties, and feed more by browsing on the branches and leaves of
trees and shrubs than by grazing. Frequently they raise themselves by
standing on their hind-legs with the fore-feet resting against the trunk
of the tree on which they are feeding. Their usual pace is an awkward
trot, not unlike that of a camel; and they seldom break into a gallop.
The Somali form has been separated as _L. sclateri_, but is not more
than a local race. (See ANTELOPE.)



GERGOVIA (mod. _Gergovie_), in ancient geography, the chief town of the
Arverni, situated on a hill in the Auvergne, about 8 m. from the Puy de
Dôme, France. Julius Caesar attacked it in 52 B.C., but was beaten off;
some walls and earthworks seem still to survive from this period. Later,
when Gaul had been subdued, the place was dismantled and its Gaulish
inhabitants resettled 4 m. away in the plain at the new Roman city of
Augustonemetum (mod. _Clermont-Ferrand_).



GERHARD, FRIEDRICH WILHELM EDUARD (1795-1867), German archaeologist, was
born at Posen on the 29th of November 1795, and was educated at Breslau
and Berlin. The reputation he acquired by his _Lectiones Apollonianae_
(1816) led soon afterwards to his being appointed professor at the
gymnasium of Posen. On resigning that office in 1819, on account of
weakness of the eyes, he went in 1822 to Rome, where he remained for
fifteen years. He contributed to Platner's _Beschreibung der Stadt Rom_,
then under the direction of Bunsen, and was one of the principal
originators and during his residence in Italy director of the _Instituto
di corrispondenza archeologica_, founded at Rome in 1828. Returning to
Germany in 1837 he was appointed archaeologist at the Royal Museum of
Berlin, and in 1844 was chosen a member of the Academy of Sciences, and
a professor in the university. He died at Berlin on the 12th of May
1867.

  Besides a large number of archaeological papers in periodicals, in the
  _Annali_ of the Institute of Rome, and in the Transactions of the
  Berlin Academy, and several illustrated catalogues of Greek, Roman and
  other antiquities in the Berlin, Naples and Vatican Museums, Gerhard
  was the author of the following works: _Antike Bildwerke_ (Stuttgart,
  1827-1844); _Auserlesene griech. Vasenbilder_ (1839-1858);
  _Etruskische Spiegel_ (1839-1865); _Hyperboreisch-röm. Studien_ (vol.
  i., 1833; vol. ii., 1852); _Prodromus mytholog. Kunsterklärung_
  (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1828); and _Griech. Mythologie_ (1854-1855).
  His _Gesammelte akademische Abhandlungen und kleine Schriften_ were
  published posthumously in 2 vols., Berlin, 1867.



GERHARD, JOHANN (1582-1637), Lutheran divine, was born in Quedlinburg on
the 17th of October 1582. In his fifteenth year, during a dangerous
illness, he came under the personal influence of Johann Arndt, author of
_Das wahre Christenthum_, and resolved to study for the church. He
entered the university of Wittenberg in 1599, and first studied
philosophy. He also attended lectures in theology, but, a relative
having persuaded him to change his subject, he studied medicine for two
years. In 1603, however, he resumed his theological reading at Jena, and
in the following year received a new impulse from J.W. Winckelmann
(1551-1626) and Balthasar Mentzer (1565-1627) at Marburg. Having
graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606
accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the
superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon
afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which
capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical
organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena,
where the remainder of his life was spent. Here, with Johann Major and
Johann Himmel, he formed the "Trias Johannea." Though still
comparatively young, Gerhard had already come to be regarded as the
greatest living theologian of Protestant Germany; in the numerous
"disputations" of the period he was always protagonist, while on all
public and domestic questions touching on religion or morals his advice
was widely sought. It is recorded that during the course of his lifetime
he had received repeated calls to almost every university in Germany
(e.g. Giessen, Altdorf, Helmstädt, Jena, Wittenberg), as well as to
Upsala in Sweden. He died in Jena on the 20th of August 1637.

  His writings are numerous, alike in exegetical, polemical, dogmatic
  and practical theology. To the first category belong the _Commentarius
  in harmoniam historiae evangelicae de passione Christi_ (1617), the
  _Comment, super priorem D. Petri epistolam_ (1641), and also his
  commentaries on Genesis (1637) and on Deuteronomy (1658). Of a
  controversial character are the _Confessio Catholica_ (1633-1637), an
  extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic
  character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings
  of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the _Loci communes theologici_
  (1610-1622), his principal contribution to science, in which
  Lutheranism is expounded "nervose, solide, et copiose," in fact with
  a fulness of learning, a force of logic and a minuteness of detail
  that had never before been approached. _The Meditationes sacrae_
  (1606), a work expressly devoted to the uses of Christian edification,
  has been frequently reprinted in Latin and has been translated into
  most of the European languages, including Greek. The English
  translation by R. Winterton (1631) has passed through at least
  nineteen editions. There is also an edition by W. Papillon in English
  blank verse (1801). His life, _Vita Joh. Gerhardi_, was published by
  E.R. Fischer in 1723, and by C.J. Böttcher, _Das Leben Dr Johann
  Gerhards_, in 1858. See also W. Gass, _Geschichte der protestantischen
  Dogmatik_ (1854-1867), and the article in the _Allgemeine deutsche
  Biographie_.



GERHARDT, CHARLES FRÉDÉRIC (1816-1856), French chemist, was born at
Strassburg on the 21st of August 1816. After attending the gymnasium at
Strassburg and the polytechnic at Karlsruhe, he was sent to the school
of commerce at Leipzig, where he studied chemistry under Otto Erdmann.
Returning home in 1834 he entered his father's white lead factory, but
soon found that business was not to his liking, and after a sharp
disagreement with his father enlisted in a cavalry regiment. In a few
months military life became equally distasteful, and he purchased his
discharge with the assistance of Liebig, with whom, after a short
interval at Dresden, he went to study at Giessen in 1836. But his stay
at Giessen was also short, and in 1837 he re-entered the factory. Again,
however, he quarrelled with his father, and in 1838 went to Paris with
introductions from Liebig. There he attended Jean Baptiste Dumas'
lectures and worked with Auguste Cahours (1813-1891) on essential oils,
especially cumin, in Michel Eugéne Chevreul's laboratory, while he
earned a precarious living by teaching and making translations of some
of Liebig's writings. In 1841, by the influence of Dumas, he was charged
with the duties of the chair of chemistry at the Montpellier faculty of
sciences, becoming titular professor in 1844. In 1842 he annoyed his
friends in Paris by the matter and manner of a paper on the
classification of organic compounds, and in 1845 he and his opinions
were the subject of an attack by Liebig, unjustifiable in its
personalities but not altogether surprising in view of his wayward
disregard of his patron's advice. The two were reconciled in 1850, but
his faculty for disagreeing with his friends did not make it easier for
him to get another appointment after resigning the chair at Montpellier
in 1851, especially as he was unwilling to go into the provinces. He
obtained leave of absence from Montpellier in 1848 and from that year
till 1855 resided in Paris. During that period he established an "École
de chimie pratique" of which he had great hopes; but these were
disappointed, and in 1855, after refusing the offer of a chair of
chemistry at the new Zürich Polytechnic in 1854, he accepted the
professorships of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences and the École
Polytechnique at Strassburg, where he died on the 19th of August in the
following year. Although Gerhardt did some noteworthy experimental
work--for instance, his preparation of acid anhydrides in 1852--his
contributions to chemistry consist not so much in the discovery of new
facts as in the introduction of new ideas that vitalized and organized
an inert accumulation of old facts. In particular, with his
fellow-worker Auguste Laurent (1807-1853), he did much to reform the
methods of chemical formulation by insisting on the distinction between
atoms, molecules and equivalents; and in his unitary system, directly
opposed to the dualistic doctrines of Berzelius, he combined Dumas'
substitution theory with the old radicle theory and greatly extended the
notion of types of structure. His chief works were _Précis de chimie
organique_ (1844-1845), and _Traité de chimie organique_ (1853-1856).

  See _Charles Gerhardt, sa vie, son oeuvre, sa correspondance_, by his
  son, Charles Gerhardt, and E. Grimaux (Paris, 1900).



GERHARDT, PAUL (c. 1606-1676), German hymn-writer, was born of a good
middle-class family at Gräfenhainichen, a small town on the railway
between Halle and Wittenberg, in 1606 or 1607--some authorities, indeed,
give the date March 12, 1607, but neither the year nor the day is
accurately known. His education appears to have been retarded by the
troubles of the period, the Thirty Years' War having begun about the
time he reached his twelfth year. After completing his studies for the
church he is known to have lived for some years at Berlin as tutor in
the family of an advocate named Berthold, whose daughter he subsequently
married, on receiving his first ecclesiastical appointment at Mittelwald
(a small town in the neighbourhood of Berlin) in 1651. In 1657 he
accepted an invitation as "diaconus" to the Nicolaikirche of Berlin;
but, in consequence of his uncompromising Lutheranism in refusing to
accept the elector Frederick William's "syncretistic" edict of 1664, he
was deprived in 1666. Though absolved from submission and restored to
office early in the following year, on the petition of the citizens, his
conscience did not allow him to retain a post which, as it appeared to
him, could only be held on condition of at least a tacit repudiation of
the Formula Concordiae, and for upwards of a year he lived in Berlin
without fixed employment. In 1668 he was appointed archdeacon of Lübben
in the duchy of Saxe-Merseburg, where, after a somewhat sombre ministry
of eight years, he died on the 7th of June 1676. Gerhardt is the
greatest hymn-writer of Germany, if not indeed of Europe. Many of his
best-known hymns were originally published in various church hymn-books,
as for example in that for Brandenburg, which appeared in 1658; others
first saw the light in Johann Crüger's _Geistliche Kirchenmelodien_
(1649) and _Praxis pietatis melica_ (1656). The first complete set of
them is the _Geistliche Andachten_, published in 1666-1667 by Ebeling,
music director in Berlin. No hymn by Gerhardt of a later date than 1667
is known to exist.

  The life of Gerhardt has been written by Roth (1829), by Langbecker
  (1841), by Schultz (1842), by Wildenhahn (1845) and by Bachmann
  (1863); also by Kraft in Ersch u. Gruber's _Allg. Encycl._ (1855). The
  best modern edition of the hymns, published by Wackernagel in 1843,
  has often been reprinted. There is an English translation by Kelly
  (_Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs_, 1867).



GÉRICAULT, JEAN LOUIS ANDRÉ THÉODORE (1791-1824), French painter, the
leader of the French realistic school, was born at Rouen in 1791. In
1808 he entered the studio of Charles Vernet, from which, in 1810, he
passed to that of Guérin, whom he drove to despair by his passion for
Rubens, and by the unorthodox manner in which he persisted in
interpreting nature. At the Salon of 1812 Géricault attracted attention
by his "Officier de Chasseurs à Cheval" (Louvre), a work in which he
personified the cavalry in its hour of triumph, and turned to account
the solid training received from Guérin in rendering a picturesque point
of view which was in itself a protest against the cherished convictions
of the pseudo-classical school. Two years later (1814) he re-exhibited
this work accompanied with the reverse picture "Cuirassier blessé"
(Louvre), and in both subjects called attention to the interest of
contemporary aspects of life, treated neglected types of living form,
and exhibited that mastery of and delight in the horse which was a
feature of his character. Disconcerted by the tempest of contradictory
opinion which arose over these two pictures, Géricault gave way to his
enthusiasm for horses and soldiers, and enrolled himself in the
_mousquetaires_. During the Hundred Days he followed the king to
Bethune, but, on his regiment being disbanded, eagerly returned to his
profession, left France for Italy in 1816, and at Rome nobly illustrated
his favourite animal by his great painting "Course des Chevaux Libres."
Returning to Paris, Géricault exhibited at the Salon of 1819 the "Radeau
de la Méduse" (Louvre), a subject which not only enabled him to prove
his zealous and scientific study of the human form, but contained those
elements of the heroic and pathetic, as existing in situations of modern
life, to which he had appealed in his earliest productions. Easily
depressed or elated, Géricault took to heart the hostility which this
work excited, and passed nearly two years in London, where the "Radeau"
was exhibited with success, and where he executed many series of
admirable lithographs now rare. At the close of 1822 he was again in
Paris, and produced a great quantity of projects for vast compositions,
models in wax, and a horse _écorché_, as preliminary to the production
of an equestrian statue. His health was now completely undermined by
various kinds of excess, and on the 26th of January 1824 he died, at the
age of thirty-three.

  Géricault's biography, accompanied by a _catalogue raisonné_ of his
  works, was published by M.C. Clément in 1868.



GERIZIM, a mountain in the hill-country of Samaria, 2849 ft. above the
sea-level, and enclosing, with its companion Ebal, the valley in which
lies the town of Nablus (Shechem). It is the holy place of the community
of the Samaritans, who hold that it was the scene of the sacrifice of
Isaac--a tradition accepted by Dean Stanley but no other western writers
of importance. Here, on the formal entrance of the Israelites into the
possession of the Promised Land, were pronounced the blessings connected
with a faithful observance of the law (Josh. viii. 33, 34; cf. Deut. xi.
29, 30, xxvii. 12-26), the six tribes, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar,
Joseph and Benjamin, standing here for the purpose while the remaining
tribes stood on Ebal to accept the curses attached to specific
violations thereof. Gerizim was probably chosen as the mount of blessing
as being on the right hand, the fortunate side, of a spectator facing
east. The counter-suggestion of Eusebius and Jerome that the Ebal and
Gerizim associated with this solemnity were not the Shechem mountains at
all, but two small hills near Jericho, is no longer considered
important. From this mountain Jotham spoke his parable to the elders of
Shechem (Judg. ix. 7). Manasseh, the son of the Jewish high-priest in
the days of Nehemiah, married the daughter of Sanballat and, about 432
B.C., erected on this mountain a temple for the Samaritans; it was
destroyed by Hyrcanus about 300 years afterwards. Its site is a small
level plateau a little under the summit of the mountain. Close to this
is the place where the Passover is still annually celebrated in exact
accordance with the rites prescribed in the Pentateuch. On the summit of
the mountain, which commands a view embracing the greater part of
Palestine, are a small Moslem shrine and the ruins of a castle probably
dating from Justinian's time. There was an octagonal Byzantine church
here, but the foundations alone remain. Josephus describes it as the
highest of the mountains of Samaria, but Ebal and Tell Azur are both
higher.     (R. A. S. M.)



GERLACHE, ÉTIENNE CONSTANTIN, BARON DE (1785-1871), Belgian politician
and historian, was born at Biourge, Luxemburg, on the 24th of December
1785. He studied law in Paris and practised there for some time, but
settled at Liege after the establishment of the kingdom of the
Netherlands. As member of the states-general he was an energetic member
of the opposition, and, though he repudiated an ultramontane policy, he
supported the alliance of the extreme Catholics with the Liberal party,
which paved the way for the revolution of 1830. On the outbreak of
disturbance in August 1830 he still, however, thought the Orange-Nassau
dynasty and the union with the Dutch states essential; but his views
changed, and, after holding various offices in the provisional
government, he became president of congress, and brought forward the
motion inviting Leopold of Saxe-Coburg to become king of the Belgians.
In 1832 he was president of the chamber of representatives, and for
thirty-five years he presided over the court of appeal. He presided over
the Catholic congresses held at Malines between 1863 and 1867. That his
early Liberal views underwent some modification is plain from the
Conservative principles enunciated in his _Essai sur le mouvement des
partis en Belgique_ (Brussels, 1852). As an historian his work was
strongly coloured by his anti-Dutch prejudices and his Catholic
predilections. His _Histoire des Pays-Bas depuis 1814 jusqu'en 1830_
(Brussels, 2 vols., 1839), which reached a fourth edition in 1875, was a
piece of special pleading against the Dutch domination. The most
important of his other works were his _Histoire de Liége_ (Brussels,
1843) and his _Études sur Salluste et sur quelques-uns des principaux
historiens de l'antiquité_ (Brussels, 1847).

  A complete edition of his works (6 vols., Brussels, 1874-1875)
  contains a biography by M. Thonissen.



GERLE, CHRISTOPHE ANTOINE (1736-c. 1801), French revolutionist and
mystic, was born at Riom in Auvergne. Entering the Carthusian order
early in life, he became prior of Laval-Dieu in Perche, and afterwards
of Pont-Sainte-Marie at Moulins. Elected deputy to the states-general in
1789, Gerle became very popular, and though he had no seat in the
assembly until after the Tennis Court oath, being only deputy
_suppléant_, he is represented in David's classic painting as taking
part in it. In 1792 he was chosen elector of Paris. In the
revolutionary turmoil Gerle developed a strong vein of mysticism,
mingled with ideas of reform, and in June 1790 the prophetic powers of
Suzanne Labrousse (1747-1821), a visionary who had predicted the
Revolution ten years before, were brought by him to the notice of the
Convention. In Paris, where he lived first with a spiritualistic doctor
and afterwards, like Robespierre, at the house of a cabinetmaker, his
mystical tendencies were strengthened. The insane fancies of Catherine
Théot, a convent servant turned prophetess, who proclaimed herself the
Virgin, the "Mother of God" and the "new Eve," were eminently attractive
to Gerle; in the person of Robespierre he recognized the Messiah, and at
the meetings of the Théotists he officiated with the aged prophetess as
co-president. But the activities of Catherine and her adepts were
short-lived. The Théotists' cult of Robespierre was a weapon in the
hands of his opponents; and shortly after the festival of the Supreme
Being, Vadier made a report to the Convention calling for the
prosecution of Catherine, Gerle and others as fanatics and conspirators.
They were arrested, thrown into prison and, in the confusion of
Robespierre's fall, apparently forgotten. Catherine died in prison, but
Gerle, released by the Directory, became one of the editors of the
_Messager du soir_, and was afterwards in the office of Pierre Bénézech
(1775-1802), minister of the interior. Having renounced his monastic
vows in Paris, he is thought to have married, towards the close of his
life, Christine Raffet, aunt of the artist Denis Raffet. The date of his
death is uncertain.



GERMAN BAPTIST BRETHREN, or GERMAN BRETHREN, a sect of American Baptists
which originated in Germany, and whose members are popularly known in
the United States as "Dunkers," "Dunkards" or "Tunkers," corruptions of
the German verb _tunken_, "to dip," in recognition of the sect's
continued adherence to the practice of trine immersion. The sect was the
outcome of one of the many Pietistic movements of the 17th century, and
was founded in 1708 by Andrew Mack of Swartzenau, Germany, and seven of
his followers, upon the general issue that both the Lutheran and
Reformed churches were taking liberties with the literal teachings of
the Scriptures. The new sect was scarcely organized in Germany when its
members were compelled by persecution to take refuge in Holland, whence
they emigrated to Pennsylvania, in small companies, between 1719 and
1729. The first congregation in America was organized on Christmas Day
1723 by Peter Becker at Germantown, Pennsylvania, and here in 1743
Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by
trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in
existence) published in a European language in America. From
Pennsylvania the sect spread chiefly westward, and, after various
vicissitudes, caused by defections and divisions due to doctrinal
differences, in 1908 were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland,
Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and
North Dakota.

There is much uncertainty about the early theological history of the
sect, but it is probable that Mack and his followers were influenced by
both the Greek Catholics and the Waldensians. P.H. Bashor in his
historical sketch, read before the World's Fair Congress of the Brethren
Church (1894), says: "From the history of extended labour by Greek
missionaries, from the active propaganda of doctrine by scattered
Waldensian refugees, through parts of Germany and Bavaria, from the
credence that may generally be given to local tradition, and from the
strong similarity between the three churches in general features of
circumstantial service, the conclusion, without additional evidence, is
both reasonable and natural that the founders of the new church received
their teaching, their faith and much of their church idea from intimate
acquaintance with the established usages of both societies, and from
their amplification and enforcement by missionaries and pastors.... In
doctrine the church has been from the first contentious for believers'
baptism, holding that nowhere in the New Testament can be found any
authority even by inference, precept or example for the baptism of
infants. On questions of fundamental doctrine they held to the belief
in one self-existing supreme ruler of the Universe--the Divine
Godhead--the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit--the tri-personality."
Hence their practice of triple immersion, which provides that the
candidate shall kneel in the water and be immersed, face first, three
times--in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. (From
this practice the sect received the less commonly used nickname
"Dompelaers," meaning "tumblers.") They accept implicitly and literally
the New Testament as the infallible guide in spiritual matters, holding
it to be the inspired word of God, revealed through Jesus Christ and, by
inspiration, through the Apostles. They also believe in the inspiration
of the Old Testament. In their celebration of the communion service they
aim exactly to imitate the forms observed by Christ. It is celebrated in
the evening, and is accompanied by the ancient love feast (partaken by
all communicants seated at a common table), by the ceremony of the
washing of feet and by the salutation of the holy kiss, the three
last-named ceremonies being observed by the sexes separately. They pray
over their sick and, when so requested, anoint them with oil. They are
rigid non-resistants, and will not bear arms or study the art of war;
they refuse to take oaths, and discountenance going to law over issues
that can possibly be settled out of the courts. The taking of interest
was at first forbidden, but that prohibition is not now insisted upon.
They "testify" against the use of intoxicating liquor and tobacco, and
advocate simplicity in dress. In its earlier history the sect opposed
voting or taking any active part in political affairs, but these
restrictions have quite generally disappeared. Similarly the earlier
prejudice against higher education, and the maintenance of institutions
for that purpose, has given place to greater liberality along those
lines. In 1782 the sect forbade slave-holding by its members.

The church officers (generally unpaid) comprise bishops (or
ministers), elders, teachers, deacons (or visiting brethren) and
deaconesses--chiefly aged women who are permitted at times to take
leading parts in church services. The bishops are chosen from the
teachers; they are itinerant, conduct marriage and funeral services, and
are present at communions, at ordinations, when deacons are chosen or
elected, and at trials for the excommunication of members. The elders
are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no
regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations,
and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they
preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the
deacons. The teachers, who are chosen by vote, may also exhort or
preach, when their services are needed for such purposes, and may, at
the request of a bishop, perform marriage or baptismal ceremonies. The
deacons have general oversight of the material affairs of the
congregation, and are especially charged with the care of poor widows
and their children. In the discharge of these duties they are expected
to visit each family in the congregation at least once a year. The
government of the church is chiefly according to the congregational
principle, and the women have an equal voice with the men; but annual
meetings, attended by the bishops, teachers and other delegates from the
several congregations are held, and at these sessions the larger
questions involving church polity are considered and decided by a
committee of five bishops.

An early secession from the general body of Dunkers was that of the
Seventh Day Dunkers, whose distinctive principle was that the seventh
day was the true Sabbath. Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel
(1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who,
after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster
county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a
hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on
the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a
semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent
(the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata,
in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m. W. by N. from Philadelphia.
Among the industries of the men were printing (in both English and
German), book-binding, tanning, quarrying, and the operation of a saw
mill, a bark mill, and perhaps a pottery; the women did embroidery,
quilting, and engrossing in a beautiful but peculiar hand, known as
Fracturschrift.[1] The monastic feature was gradually abandoned, and in
1814 the Society was incorporated as the Seventh Day Baptists, its
affairs being placed in the hands of a board of trustees. More important
in the history of the modern church was the secession, in the decade
between 1880 and 1890, of the Old Order Brethren, who opposed Sunday
Schools and the missionary work of the Brethren, in Asia Minor and
India, and in several European countries; and also in 1882 of the
radicals, or Progressives, who objected to a distinctive dress and to
the absolute supremacy of the yearly conferences. Higher education was
long forbidden and is consistently opposed by the Old Order. The same
element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard
Miller's census of 1880 (_Record of the Faithful_) the number of Dunkers
was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then
73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his
"Statistics of the Churches" in the _Christian Advocate_ (Jan. 5, 1905):
Conservatives, or German Baptist Brethren, 95,000; Old Order, 4000;
Progressives or Brethren, 15,000; Seventh Day, 194; total, 114,194. In
1909 the German Baptist Brethren had an estimated membership of
approximately 100,000, and the Brethren of 18,000. The main body, or
Conservatives, support schools at Huntingdon, Pennsylvania; Mt. Morris,
Illinois; Lordsburg, California; McPherson, Kansas; Bridgewater,
Virginia; Canton, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; North Manchester, Indiana;
Plattsburg, Missouri; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Union Bridge,
Maryland; and Fruitdale, Alabama. They have a publishing house at Elgin,
Illinois, and maintain missions in Denmark, Sweden, France, Italy, India
and China. The Progressives have a college, a theological seminary and a
publishing house at Ashland, Ohio; and they carry on missionary work in
Canada, South America and Persia.

  AUTHORITIES.--Lamech and Agrippa, _Chronicon Ephratense_, in German
  (Ephrata, Penn., 1786) and in English (Lancaster, 1889); G.N.
  Falkenstein, "The German Baptist Brethren, or Dunkers," part 8 of
  "Pennsylvania: The German Influence in its Settlement and
  Development," in vol. x. of the _Pennsylvania German Society,
  Proceedings and Addresses_ (Lancaster, Penn., 1900); Julius Friedrich
  Sachse, _The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1742-1800: A Critical
  and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers_
  (Philadelphia, 1900); and John Lewis Gillin, _The Dunkers: A
  Sociological Interpretation_ (New York, 1906), a doctor's
  dissertation, with full bibliography.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Beissel (known in the community as "Friedsam") was their leader
    until his death; he published several collections of hymns. The stone
    over his grave bears the inscription: "Here rests an outgrowth of the
    love of God, 'Friedsam,' a Solitary Brother, afterwards a leader of
    the Solitary and the Congregation of Grace in and around Ephrata ...
    Fell asleep July 6, 1768, in the 52nd year of his spiritual life, but
    the 72nd year and fourth month of his natural life." The borough of
    Ephrata was separated from the township in 1891. Pop. (1900) of the
    borough, 2451; of the township, 2390. The "Brother House" and the
    "Sister House" are still standing (though in a dilapidated
    condition). In 1777, after the battle of Brandywine, many wounded
    American soldiers were nursed here by the Sisters, and about 200 are
    buried here.



GERMAN CATHOLICS (_Deutschkatholiken_), the name assumed in Germany
towards the close of 1844 by certain dissentients from the Church of
Rome. The most prominent leader of the German Catholic movement was
Johann Ronge, a priest who in the _Sächsische Vaterlandsblätter_ for the
15th of October 1844 made a vigorous attack upon Wilhelm Arnoldi, bishop
of Trier since 1842, for having ordered (for the first time since 1810)
the exposition of the "holy coat of Trier," alleged to be the seamless
robe of Christ, an event which drew countless pilgrims to the cathedral.
Ronge, who had formerly been chaplain at Grottkau, was then a
schoolmaster at Laurahütte near the Polish border. The article made a
great sensation, and led to Ronge's excommunication by the chapter of
Breslau in December 1844. The ex-priest received a large amount of
public sympathy, and a dissenting congregation was almost immediately
formed at Breslau with a very simple creed, in which the chief articles
were belief in God the Father, creator and ruler of the universe; in
Jesus Christ the Saviour, who delivers from the bondage of sin by his
life, doctrine and death; in the operation of the Holy Ghost; in a holy,
universal, Christian church; in forgiveness of sins and the life
everlasting. The Bible was made the sole rule, and all external
authority was barred. Within a few weeks similar communities were formed
at Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, Offenbach, Worms, Wiesbaden and elsewhere;
and at a "council" convened at Leipzig at Easter 1845, twenty-seven
congregations were represented by delegates, of whom only two or at most
three were in clerical orders.

Even before the beginning of the agitation led by Ronge, another
movement fundamentally distinct, though in some respects similar, had
been originated at Schneidemühl, Posen, under the guidance of Johann
Czerski (1813-1893), also a priest, who had come into collision with the
church authorities on the then much discussed question of mixed
marriages, and also on that of the celibacy of the clergy. The result
had been his suspension from office in March 1844; his public
withdrawal, along with twenty-four adherents, from the Roman communion
in August; his excommunication; and the formation, in October, of a
"Christian Catholic" congregation which, while rejecting clerical
celibacy, the use of Latin in public worship, and the doctrines of
purgatory and transubstantiation, retained the Nicene theology and the
doctrine of the seven sacraments. Czerski had been at some of the
sittings of the "German Catholic" council of Leipzig; but when a formula
somewhat similar to that of Breslau had been adopted, he refused his
signature because the divinity of Christ had been ignored, and he and
his congregation continued to retain by preference the name of
"Christian Catholics," which they had originally assumed. Of the German
Catholic congregations which had been represented at Leipzig some
manifested a preference for the fuller and more positive creed of
Schneidemühl, but a great majority continued to accept the comparatively
rationalistic position of the Breslau school. The number of these
rapidly increased, and the congregations scattered over Germany numbered
nearly 200. External and internal checks, however, soon limited this
advance. In Austria, and ultimately also in Bavaria, the use of the name
German Catholics was officially prohibited, that of "Dissidents" being
substituted, while in Prussia, Baden and Saxony the adherents of the new
creed were laid under various disabilities, being suspected both of
undermining religion and of encouraging the revolutionary tendencies of
the age. Ronge himself was a foremost figure in the troubles of 1848;
after the dissolution of the Frankfort parliament he lived for some time
in London, returning in 1861 to Germany. He died at Vienna on the 26th
of October 1887. In 1859 some of the German Catholics entered into
corporate union with the "Free Congregations," an association of
free-thinking communities that had since 1844 been gradually withdrawing
from the orthodox Protestant Church, when the united body took the title
of "The Religious Society of Free Congregations." Before that time many
of the congregations which were formed in 1844 and the years immediately
following had been dissolved, including that of Schneidemühl itself,
which ceased to exist in 1857. There are now only about 2000 strict
German Catholics, all in Saxony. The movement has been superseded by the
Old Catholic (q.v.) organization.

  See G.G. Gervinus, _Die Mission des Deutschkatholicismus_ (1846); F.
  Kampe, _Das Wesen des Deutschkatholicismus_ (1860); Findel, _Der
  Deutschkatholicismus in Sachsen_ (1895); Carl Mirbt, in Herzog-Hauck's
  _Realencyk. für prot. Theol._ iv. 583.



GERMAN EAST AFRICA, a country occupying the east-central portion of the
African continent. The colony extends at its greatest length north to
south from 1° to 11° S., and west to east from 30° to 40° E. It is
bounded E. by the Indian Ocean (the coast-line extending from 4° 20' to
10° 40' S.), N.E. and N. by British East Africa and Uganda, W. by
Belgian Congo, S.W. by British Central Africa and S. by Portuguese East
Africa.

[Illustration: German East Africa.]

  _Area and Boundaries._--On the north the boundary line runs N.W. from
  the mouth of the Umba river to Lake Jipe and Mount Kilimanjaro
  including both in the protectorate, and thence to Victoria Nyanza,
  crossing it at 1° S., which parallel it follows till it reaches 30° E.
  In the west the frontier is as follows: From the point of intersection
  of 1° S. and 30° E., a line running S. and S.W. to the north-west end
  of Lake Kivu, thence across that lake near its western shore, and
  along the river Rusizi, which issues from it, to the spot where the
  Rusizi enters the north end of Lake Tanganyika; along the middle line
  of Tanganyika to near its southern end, when it is deflected eastward
  to the point where the river Kalambo enters the lake (thus leaving the
  southern end of Tanganyika to Great Britain). From this point the
  frontier runs S.E. across the plateau between Lakes Tanganyika and
  Nyasa, in its southern section following the course of the river
  Songwe. Thence it goes down the middle of Nyasa as far as 11° 30' S.
  The southern frontier goes direct from the last-named point eastward
  to the Rovuma river, which separates German and Portuguese territory.
  A little before the Indian Ocean is reached the frontier is deflected
  south so as to leave the mouth of the Rovuma in German East Africa.
  These boundaries include an area of about 364,000 sq. m. (nearly
  double the size of Germany), with a population estimated in 1910 at
  8,000,000. Of these above 10,000 were Arabs, Indians, Syrians and
  Goanese, and 3000 Europeans (over 2000 being Germans). The island of
  Mafia (see below) is included in the protectorate.

  _Physical Features._--The coast of German East Africa (often spoken of
  as the Swahili coast, after the inhabitants of the seaboard) is
  chiefly composed of coral, is little indented, and is generally low,
  partly sandy, partly rich alluvial soil covered with dense bush or
  mangroves. Where the Arabs have established settlements the coco-palm
  and mango tree introduced by them give variety to the vegetation. The
  coast plain is from 10 to 30 m. wide and 620 m. long; it is bordered
  on the west by the precipitous eastern side of the interior plateau of
  Central Africa. This plateau, considerably tilted from its horizontal
  position, attains its highest elevation north of Lake Nyasa (see
  LIVINGSTONE MOUNTAINS), where several peaks rise over 7000 ft., one to
  9600, while its mean altitude is about 3000 to 4000 ft. From this
  region the country slopes towards the north-west, and is not
  distinguished by any considerable mountain ranges. A deep narrow
  gorge, the so-called "eastern rift-valley," traverses the middle of
  the plateau in a meridional direction. In the northern part of the
  country it spreads into several side valleys, from one of which rises
  the extinct volcano Kilimanjaro (q.v.), the highest mountain in Africa
  (19,321 ft.). Its glaciers send down a thousand rills which combine to
  form the Pangani river. About 40 m. west of Kilimanjaro is Mount Meru
  (14,955 ft.), another volcanic peak, with a double crater. The greater
  steepness of its sides makes Meru in some aspects a more striking
  object than its taller neighbour. South-east of Mount Kilimanjaro are
  the Pare Mountains and Usambara highlands, separated from the coast by
  a comparatively narrow strip of plain. To the south of the Usambara
  hills, and on the eastern edge of the plateau, are the mountainous
  regions of Nguru (otherwise Unguru), Useguha and Usagara. As already
  indicated, the southern half of Victoria Nyanza and the eastern
  shores, in whole or in part, of Lakes Kivu, Tanganyika and Nyasa, are
  in German territory. (The lakes are separately described.) Several
  smaller lakes occur in parts of the eastern rift-valley. Lake Rukwa
  (q.v.) north-west of Nyasa is presumably only the remnant of a much
  larger lake. Its extent varies with the rainfall of each year.
  North-west of Kilimanjaro is a sheet of water known as the Natron Lake
  from the mineral alkali it contains. In the northern part of the
  colony the Victoria Nyanza is the dominant physical feature. The
  western frontier coincides with part of the eastern wall of another
  depression, the Central African or Albertine rift-valley, in which lie
  Tanganyika, Kivu and other lakes. Along the north-west frontier north
  of Kivu are volcanic peaks (see MFUMBIRO).

  The country is well watered, but with the exception of the Rufiji the
  rivers, save for a few miles from their mouths, are unnavigable. The
  largest streams are the Rovuma and Rufiji (q.v.), both rising in the
  central plateau and flowing to the Indian Ocean. Next in importance is
  the Pangani river, which, as stated above, has its head springs on the
  slopes of Kilimanjaro. Flowing in a south-easterly direction it
  reaches the sea after a course of some 250 m. The Wami and Kingani,
  smaller streams, have their origin in the mountainous region fringing
  the central plateau, and reach the ocean opposite the island of
  Zanzibar. Of inland river systems there are four--one draining to
  Victoria Nyanza, another to Tanganyika, a third to Nyasa and a fourth
  to Rukwa. Into Victoria Nyanza are emptied, on the east, the waters of
  the Mori and many smaller streams; on the west, the Kagera (q.v.),
  besides smaller rivers. Into Tanganyika flows the Malagarasi, a
  considerable river with many affluents, draining the west-central part
  of the plateau. The Kalambo river, a comparatively small stream near
  the southern end of Tanganyika, flows in a south-westerly direction.
  Not far from its mouth there is a magnificent fall, a large volume of
  water falling 600 ft. sheer over a rocky ledge of horse-shoe shape. Of
  the streams entering Nyasa the Songwe has been mentioned. The Ruhuhu,
  which enters Nyasa in 10° 30' S., and its tributaries drain a
  considerable area west of 36° E. The chief feeders of Lake Rukwa are
  the Saisi and the Rupa-Songwe.

  Mafia Island lies off the coast immediately north of 8° N. It has an
  area of 200 sq. m. The island is low and fertile, and extensively
  planted with coco-nut palms. It is continued southwards by an
  extensive reef, on which stands the chief village, Chobe, the
  residence of a few Arabs and Banyan traders. Chobe stands on a shallow
  creek almost inaccessible to shipping.

  _Geology._--The narrow foot-plateau of British East Africa broadens
  out to the south of Bagamoyo to a width of over 100 m. This is covered
  to a considerable extent by rocks of recent and late Tertiary ages.
  Older Tertiary rocks form the bluffs of Lindi. Cretaceous marls and
  limestones appear at intervals, extending in places to the edge of the
  upper plateau, and are extensively developed on the Makonde plateau.
  They are underlain by Jurassic rocks, from beneath which sandstones
  and shales yielding _Glossopteris browniana_ var. _indica_, and
  therefore of Lower Karroo age, appear in the south but are overlapped
  on the north by Jurassic strata. The central plateau consists almost
  entirely of metamorphic rocks with extensive tracts of granite in
  Unyamwezi. In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones
  and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are
  considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by
  rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks. In Karagwe certain
  quartzites, slates and schistose sandstones resemble the ancient
  gold-bearing rocks of South Africa.

  The volcanic plateau of British East Africa extends over the boundary
  in the region of Kilimanjaro. Of the sister peaks, Kibo and Mawenzi,
  the latter is far the oldest and has been greatly denuded, while Kibo
  retains its crateriform shape intact. The rift-valley faults continue
  down the depression, marked by numerous volcanoes, in the region of
  the Natron Lake and Lake Manyara; while the steep walls of the deep
  depression of Tanganyika and Nyasa represent the western rift system
  at its maximum development.

  Fossil remains of saurians of gigantic size have been found; one thigh
  bone measures 6 ft. 10 in., the same bone in the _Diplodocus Carnegii_
  measuring only 4 ft. 11 in.

  _Climate._--The warm currents setting landwards from the Indian Ocean
  bring both moisture and heat, so that the Swahili coast has a higher
  temperature and heavier rainfall than the Atlantic seaboard under the
  same parallels of latitude. The mean temperature on the west and east
  coasts of Africa is 72° and 80° Fahr. respectively, the average
  rainfall in Angola 36 in., in Dar-es-Salaam 60 in. On the Swahili
  coast the south-east monsoon begins in April and the north-east
  monsoon in November. In the interior April brings south-east winds,
  which continue until about the beginning of October. During the rest
  of the year changing winds prevail. These winds are charged with
  moisture, which they part with on ascending the precipitous side of
  the plateau. Rain comes with the south-east monsoon, and on the
  northern part of the coast the rainy season is divided into two parts,
  the great and the little Masika: the former falls in the months of
  September, October, November; the latter in February and March. In the
  interior the climate has a more continental character, and is subject
  to considerable changes of temperature; the rainy season sets in a
  little earlier the farther west and north the region, and is well
  marked, the rain beginning in November and ending in April; the rest
  of the year is dry. On the highest parts of the plateau the climate is
  almost European, the nights being sometimes exceedingly cold.
  Kilimanjaro has a climate of its own; the west and south sides of the
  mountain receive the greatest rainfall, while the east and north sides
  are dry nearly all the year. Malarial diseases are rather frequent,
  more so on the coast than farther inland. The Kilimanjaro region is
  said to enjoy immunity. Smallpox is frequent on the coast, but is
  diminishing before vaccination; other epidemic diseases are extremely
  rare.

  _Flora and Fauna._--The character of the vegetation varies with and
  depends on moisture, temperature and soil. On the low littoral zone
  the coast produced a rich tropical bush, in which the mangrove is very
  prominent. Coco-palms and mango trees have been planted in great
  numbers, and also many varieties of bananas. The bush is grouped in
  copses on meadows, which produce a coarse tall grass. The river banks
  are lined with belts of dense forest, in which useful timber occurs.
  The _Hyphaene_ palm is frequent, as well as various kinds of
  gum-producing mimosas. The slopes of the plateau which face the
  rain-bringing monsoon are in some places covered with primeval forest,
  in which timber is plentiful. The silk-cotton tree (_Bombax ceiba_),
  miomba, tamarisk, copal tree (_Hymenaea courbaril_) are frequent,
  besides sycamores, banyan trees (_Ficus indica_) and the deleb palm
  (_Borassus aethiopum_). It is here we find the _Landolphia florida_,
  which yields the best rubber. The plateau is partly grass land without
  bush and forest, partly steppe covered with mimosa bush, which
  sometimes is almost impenetrable. Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru
  exhibit on a vertical scale the various forms of vegetation which
  characterize East Africa (see KILIMANJARO).

  East Africa is rich in all kinds of antelope, and the elephant,
  rhinoceros and hippopotamus are still plentiful in parts.
  Characteristic are the giraffe, the chimpanzee and the ostrich.
  Buffaloes and zebras occur in two or three varieties. Lions and
  leopards are found throughout the country. Crocodiles are numerous in
  all the larger rivers. Snakes, many venomous, abound. Of birds there
  are comparatively few on the steppe, but by rivers, lakes and swamps
  they are found in thousands. Locusts occasion much damage, and ants of
  various kinds are often a plague. The tsetse fly (_Glossina
  morsitans_) infests several districts; the sand-flea has been imported
  from the west coast. Land and water turtles are numerous.

_Inhabitants._--On the coast and at the chief settlements inland are
Arab and Indian immigrants, who are merchants and agriculturists. The
Swahili (q.v.) are a mixed Bantu and Semitic race inhabiting the
seaboard. The inhabitants of the interior may be divided into two
classes, those namely of Bantu and those of Hamitic stock. What may be
called the indigenous population consists of the older Bantu races.
These tribes have been subject to the intrusion from the south of more
recent Bantu folk, such as the Yao, belonging to the Ama-Zulu branch of
the race, while from the north there has been an immigration of
Hamito-Negroid peoples. Of these the Masai and Wakuafi are found in the
region between Victoria Nyanza and Kilimanjaro. The Masai (q.v.) and
allied tribes are nomads and cattle raisers. They are warlike, and live
in square mud-plastered houses called _tembe_ which can be easily
fortified and defended. The Bantu tribes are in general peaceful
agriculturists, though the Bantus of recent immigration retain the
warlike instincts of the Zulus. The most important group of the Bantus
is the Wanyamwezi (see UNYAMWEZI), divided into many tribes. They are
spread over the central plains, and have for neighbours on the
south-east, between Nyasa and the Rufiji, the warlike Wahehe. The
Wangoni (Angoni), a branch of the Ama-Zulu, are widely spread over the
central and Nyasa regions. Other well-known tribes are the Wasambara,
who have given their name to the highlands between Kilimanjaro and the
coast, and the Warundi, inhabiting the district between Tanganyika and
the Kagera. In Karagwe, a region adjoining the south-west shores of
Victoria Nyanza, the Bahima are the ruling caste. Formerly Karagwe under
its Bahima kings was a powerful state. Many different dialects are
spoken by the Bantu tribes, Swahili being the most widely known (see
BANTU LANGUAGES). Their religion is the worship of spirits, ancestral
and otherwise, accompanied by a vague and undefined belief in a Supreme
Being, generally regarded as indifferent to the doings of the people.

The task of civilizing the natives is undertaken in various ways by the
numerous Protestant and Roman Catholic missions established in the
colony, and by the government. The slave trade has been abolished, and
though domestic slavery is allowed, all children of slaves born after
the 31st of December 1905 are free. For certain public works the Germans
enforce a system of compulsory labour. Efforts are made by instruction
in government and mission schools to spread a knowledge of the German
language among the natives, in order to fit them for subordinate posts
in administrative offices, such as the customs. Native chiefs in the
interior are permitted to help in the administration of justice. The
Mission du Sacré Coeur in Bagamoyo, the oldest mission in the colony,
has trained many young negroes to be useful mechanics. The number of
native Christians is small. The Moslems have vigorous and successful
missions.

  _Chief Towns._--The seaports of the colony are Tanga (pop. about
  6000), Bagamoyo 5000 (with surrounding district some 18,000),
  Dar-es-Salaam 24,000, Kilwa 5000, (these have separate notices),
  Pangani, Sadani, Lindi and Mikindani. Pangani (pop. about 3500) is
  situated at the mouth of the river of the same name; it serves a
  district rich in tropical products, and does a thriving trade with
  Zanzibar and Pemba. Sadani is a smaller port midway between Pangani
  and Bagamoyo. Lindi (10° 0' S., 39° 40' E.) is 80 m. north of Cape
  Delgado. Lindi (Swahili for The Deep Below) Bay runs inland 6 m. and
  is 3 m. across, affording deep anchorage. Hills to the west of the bay
  rise over 1000 ft. The town (pop. about 4000) is picturesquely
  situated on the north side of the bay. The Arab _boma_, constructed in
  1800, has been rebuilt by the Germans, who have retained the fine
  sculptured gateway. Formerly a rendezvous for slave caravans Lindi now
  has a more legitimate trade in white ivory. Mikindani is the most
  southern port in the colony. Owing to the prevalence of malaria there,
  few Europeans live at the town, and trade is almost entirely in the
  hands of Banyans.

  Inland the principal settlements are Korogwe, Mrogoro, Kilossa, Mpapua
  and Tabora. Korogwe is in the Usambara hills, on the north bank of the
  Pangani river, and is reached by railway from Tanga. Mrogoro is some
  140 m. due west of Dar-es-Salaam, and is the first important station
  on the road to Tanganyika. Kilossa and Mpapua are farther inland on
  the same caravan route. Tabora (pop. about 37,000), the chief town of
  the Wanyamwezi tribes, occupies an important position on the central
  plateau, being the meeting-place of the trade routes from Tanganyika,
  Victoria Nyanza and the coast. In the railway development of the
  colony Tabora is destined to become the central junction of lines
  going north, south, east and west.

  On Victoria Nyanza there are various settlements. Mwanza, on the
  southern shore, is the lake terminus of the route from Bagamoyo:
  Bukoba is on the western shore, and Schirati on the eastern shore;
  both situated a little south of the British frontier. On the German
  coast of Tanganyika are Ujiji (q.v.), pop. about 14,000, occupying a
  central position; Usumbura, at the northern end of the lake where is a
  fort built by the Germans; and Bismarckburg, near the southern end. On
  the shores of the lake between Ujiji and Bismarckburg are four
  stations of the Algerian "White Fathers," all possessing churches,
  schools and other stone buildings. Langenburg is a settlement on the
  north-east side of Lake Nyasa. The government station, called New
  Langenburg, occupies a higher and more healthy site north-west of the
  lake. Wiedhafen is on the east side of Nyasa at the mouth of the
  Ruhuhu, and is the terminus of the caravan route from Kilwa.

  _Productions._--The chief wealth of the country is derived from
  agriculture and the produce of the forests. From the forests are
  obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber
  (teak, mahogany, &c.). The cultivated products include coffee, the
  coco-nut palm, tobacco, sugar-cane, cotton, vanilla, sorghum,
  earth-nuts, sesame, maize, rice, beans, peas, bananas (in large
  quantities), yams, manioc and hemp. Animal products are ivory, hides,
  tortoise-shell and pearls. On the plateaus large numbers of cattle,
  goats and sheep are reared. The natives have many small smithies.
  Gold, coal, iron, graphite, copper and salt have been found. Garnets
  are plentiful in the Lindi district, and agates, topaz, moonstone and
  other precious stones are found in the colony. The chief gold and iron
  deposits are near Victoria Nyanza. In the Mwanza district are
  conglomerate reefs of great extent. Mining began in 1905, Mica is
  mined near Mrogoro. The chief exports are sisal fibre, rubber, hides
  and skins, wax, ivory, copra, coffee, ground-nuts and cotton. The
  imports are chiefly articles of food, textiles, and metals and
  hardware. More than half the entire trade, both export and import, is
  with Zanzibar. Germany takes about 30% of the trade. In the ten years
  1896-1905 the value of the external trade increased from about
  £600,000 to over £1,100,000. In 1907 the imports were valued at
  £1,190,000, the exports at £625,000.

  Numerous companies are engaged in developing the resources of the
  country by trading, planting and mining. The most important is the
  _Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft_, founded in 1885, which has
  trading stations in each seaport, and flourishing plantations in
  various parts of the country. It is the owner of vast tracts of land.
  From 1890 to 1903 this company was in possession of extensive mining,
  railway, banking and coining rights, but in the last-named year, by
  agreement with the German government, it became a land company purely.
  The company has a right to a fifth part of the land within a zone of
  10 m. on either side of any railway built in the colony previously to
  1935. In addition to the companies a comparatively large number of
  private individuals have laid out plantations, Usambara and Pare
  having become favourite districts for agricultural enterprise. In the
  delta of the Rufiji and in the Kilwa district cotton-growing was begun
  in 1901. The plantations are all worked by native labour. The
  government possesses large forest reserves.

  _Communications._--Good roads for foot traffic have been made from the
  seaports to the trading stations on Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika and
  Victoria. Caravans from Dar-es-Salaam to Tanganyika take 60 days to do
  the journey. The lack of more rapid means of communication hindered
  the development of the colony and led to economic crises (1898-1902),
  which were intensified, and in part created, by the building of a
  railway in the adjacent British protectorate from Mombasa to Victoria
  Nyanza, the British line securing the trade with the lake. At that
  time the only railway in the country was a line from Tanga to the
  Usambara highlands. This railway passes through Korogwe (52 m. from
  Tanga) and is continued via Mombo to Wilhelmstal, a farther distance
  of 56 m. The building of a trunk line from Dar-es-Salaam to Mrogoro
  (140 m.), and ultimately to Ujiji by way of Tabora, was begun in 1905.
  Another proposed line would run from Kilwa to Wiedhafen on Lake Nyasa.
  This railway would give the quickest means of access to British
  Central Africa and the southern part of Belgian Congo. On each of the
  three lakes is a government steamer. British steamers on Victoria
  Nyanza maintain communication between the German stations and the take
  terminus of the Uganda railway. The German East Africa Line of Hamburg
  runs a fleet of first-class steamers to East Africa, which touch at
  Tanga, Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar. There is a submarine cable from
  Dar-es-Salaam to Zanzibar, and an overland line connecting all the
  coast stations.

  _Administration, Revenue, &c._--For administrative purposes the
  country is divided into districts (_Bezirksämter_), and stations
  (_Stationsbezirke_). Each station has a chief, who is subordinate to
  the official of his district, these in their turn being under the
  governor, who resides in Dar-es-Salaam. The governor is commander of
  the colonial force, which consists of natives under white officers.
  District councils are constituted, on which the European merchants and
  planters are represented. Revenue is raised by taxes on imports and
  exports, on licences for the sale of land and spirituous liquors, and
  for wood-cutting, by harbour and other dues, and a hut tax on natives.
  The deficiency between revenue and expenditure is met by a subsidy
  from the imperial government. In no case during the first twenty-one
  years' existence of the colony had the local revenue reached 60% of
  the local expenditure, which in normal years amounted to about
  £500,000. In 1909, however, only the expenditure necessary for
  military purposes (£183,500) was received by way of subsidy.

_History._--Until nearly the middle of the 19th century only the coast
lands of the territory now forming German East Africa were known either
to Europeans or to the Arabs. When at the beginning of the 16th century
the Portuguese obtained possession of the towns along the East African
coast, they had been, for periods extending in some cases fully five
hundred years, under Arab dominion. After the final withdrawal of the
Portuguese in the early years of the 18th century, the coast towns north
of Cape Delgado fell under the sway of the Muscat Arabs, passing from
them to the sultan of Zanzibar. From about 1830, or a little earlier,
the Zanzibar Arabs began to penetrate inland, and by 1850 had
established themselves at Ujiji on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika.
The Arabs also made their way south to Nyasa. This extension of Arab
influence was accompanied by vague claims on the part of the sultan of
Zanzibar to include all these newly opened countries in his empire. How
far from the coast the real authority of the sultan extended was never
demonstrated. Zanzibar at this time was in semi-dependence on India, and
British influence was strong at the court of Bargash, who succeeded to
the sultanate in 1870. Bargash in 1877 offered to Sir (then Mr) William
Mackinnon a lease of all his mainland territory. The offer, made in the
year in which H.M. Stanley's discovery of the course of the Congo
initiated the movement for the partition of the continent, was declined.
British influence was, however, still so powerful in Zanzibar that the
agents of the German Colonization Society, who in 1884 sought to secure
for their country territory on the east coast, deemed it prudent to act
secretly, so that both Great Britain and Zanzibar might be confronted
with accomplished facts. Making their way inland, three young Germans,
Karl Peters, Joachim Count Pfeil and Dr Jühlke, concluded a "treaty" in
November 1884 with a chieftain in Usambara who was declared to be
independent of Zanzibar. Other treaties followed, and on the 17th of
February 1885, the German emperor granted a charter of protection to the
Colonization Society. The German acquisitions were resented by Zanzibar,
but were acquiesced in by the British government (the second Gladstone
administration). The sultan was forced to acknowledge their validity,
and to grant a German company a lease of his mainland territories south
of the mouth of the Umba river, a British company formed by Mackinnon
taking a lease of the territories north of that point. The story of the
negotiations between Great Britain, Germany and France which led to this
result is told elsewhere (see AFRICA, section 5). By the agreement of
the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by
agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and
Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German
sphere of influence attained its present area. On the 28th of October
1890 the sultan of Zanzibar ceded absolutely to Germany the mainland
territories already leased to a German company, receiving as
compensation £200,000.

While these negotiations were going on, various German companies had set
to work to exploit the country, and on the 16th of August 1888 the
German East African Company, the lessee of the Zanzibar mainland strip,
took over the administration from the Arabs. This was followed, five
days later, by a revolt of all the coast Arabs against German rule--the
Germans, raw hands at the task of managing Orientals, having aroused
intense hostility by their brusque treatment of the dispossessed rulers.
The company being unable to quell the revolt, Captain Hermann
Wissmann--subsequently Major Hermann von Wissmann (1853-1905)--was sent
out by Prince Bismarck as imperial commissioner. Wissmann, with 1000
soldiers, chiefly Sudanese officered by Germans, and a German naval
contingent, succeeded by the end of 1889 in crushing the power of the
Arabs. Wissmann remained in the country until 1891 as commissioner, and
later (1895-1896) was for eighteen months governor of the colony--as the
German sphere had been constituted by proclamation (1st of January
1897). Towards the native population Wissmann's attitude was
conciliatory, and under his rule the development of the resources of the
country was pushed on. Equal success did not attend the efforts of other
administrators; in 1891-1892 Karl Peters had great trouble with the
tribes in the Kilimanjaro district and resorted to very harsh methods,
such as the execution of women, to maintain his authority. In 1896
Peters was condemned by a disciplinary court for a misuse of official
power, and lost his commission. After 1891, in which year the Wahehe
tribe ambushed and almost completely annihilated a German military force
of 350 men under Baron von Zelewski, there were for many years no
serious risings against German authority, which by the end of 1898 had
been established over almost the whole of the hinterland. The
development of the country was, however, slow, due in part to the
disinclination of the Reichstag to vote supplies sufficient for the
building of railways to the fertile lake regions. Count von Götzen
(governor 1901-1906) adopted the policy of maintaining the authority of
native rulers as far as possible, but as over the greater part of the
colony the natives have no political organizations of any size, the
chief burden of government rests on the German authorities. In August
1905 serious disturbances broke out among the Bantu tribes in the
colony. The revolt was due largely to resentment against the
restrictions enforced by the Germans in their efforts at civilization,
including compulsory work on European plantations in certain districts.
Moreover, it is stated that the Herero in rebellion in German South-west
Africa sent word to the east coast natives to follow their example, an
instance of the growing solidarity of the black races of Africa. Though
the revolt spread over a very large area, the chief centre of
disturbance was the region between Nyasa and the coast at Kilwa and
Lindi. Besides a number of settlers a Roman Catholic bishop and a party
of four missionaries and nuns were murdered in the Kilwa hinterland,
while nearer Nyasa the warlike Wangoni held possession of the country.
The Germans raised levies of Masai and Sudanese, and brought natives
from New Guinea to help in suppressing the rising, besides sending naval
and military contingents from Germany. In general, the natives, when
encountered, were easily dispersed, but it was not until March 1906 that
the coast regions were again quiet. In July following the Wangoni were
beaten in a decisive engagement. It was officially stated that the
death-roll for the whole war was not below 120,000 men, women and
children. In 1907 a visit was paid to the colony by Herr B. Dernburg,
the colonial secretary. As a result of this visit more humane methods in
the treatment of the natives were introduced, and measures taken to
develop more fully the economic resources of the country.

  AUTHORITIES.--S. Passarge and others, _Das deutsche Kolonialreich_,
  Erster Band (Leipzig, 1909); P. Reichard, _Deutsch Ostafrika, das Land
  und seine Bewohner_ (Leipzig, 1892); F. Stuhlmann, _Mit Emin Pasha im
  Herzen von Afrika_ (Berlin, 1894); Brix Foerster, _Deutsch-Ostafrika;
  Geographie und Geschichte_ (Leipzig, 1890); Oscar Baumann, In
  _Deutsch-Ostafrika während des Aufstands_ (Vienna, 1890), _Usambara
  und seine Nachbargebiete_ (Berlin, 1891), and _Durch Massailand zur
  Nilquelle_ (Berlin, 1894). For special studies see P. Samassa, _Die
  Besiedelung Deutsch-Ostafrikas_ (Leipzig, 1909); A. Engler, _Die
  Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete_ (Berlin, 1895-1896)
  and other works by the same author; Stromer von Reichenbach, _Die
  Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika_ (Munich and Leipzig,
  1896); W. Bornhardt, _Deutsch-Ostafrika_ (Berlin, 1898); F.
  Fullerborn, _Beiträge zur physischen Anthropologie der
  Nord-Nyassaländer_ (Berlin, 1902), a fine series of pictures of native
  types, and _Das Deutsche Nyassa- und Ruwuma-gebiet, Land und Leute_
  (Berlin, 1906); K. Weule, _Native Life in East Africa_ (London, 1909);
  Hans Meyer, _Der Kilimandjaro_ (Berlin, 1900) and _Die Eisenbahnen im
  tropischen Afrika_ (Leipzig, 1902); J. Strandes, _Die Portugiesenzeit
  von Deutsch- u. Englisch-Ostafrika_ (Berlin, 1899), a valuable
  monograph on the Portuguese period. See also British Official Reports
  on East Africa (specially No. 4221 ann. ser.), the German White Books
  and annual reports, the _Mitteilungen aus den deutschen
  Schutzgebiete_, and the _Deutsches Kolonialblatt_, published
  fortnightly at Berlin since 1890. The _Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas_ has
  maps on the 1:1,000,000 scale.     (F. R. C.)



GERMAN EVANGELICAL SYNOD OF NORTH AMERICA, a Protestant church dating
from October 1840, and known, in its early years, as the German
Evangelical Association of the West. It was formed by six German
ministers who had been ordained in Prussia and were engaged in
missionary and pioneer work in Missouri and Illinois. The original
organization was strengthened in 1858 by amalgamation with the German
Evangelical Church Association of Ohio, and later by the inclusion of
the German United Evangelical Synod of the East (1860), the Evangelical
Synod of the North-West (1872) and the United Evangelical Synod of the
East (1872). The church bases its position on the Bible as interpreted
by the symbols of the Lutheran and Reformed churches so far as they are
in agreement, points of difference being left to "that liberty of
conscience which, as a component part of the basis of man's ultimate
responsibility to God himself, is the inalienable privilege of every
believer." The church, which has (1909) 985 ministers and some 238,000
communicant members, is divided into seventeen districts, with officers
responsible to the General Synod, which meets every four years. There
are boards for home and foreign missions, the latter operating chiefly
in the Central Provinces of India. The literature of the church is
mainly in German, though English is rapidly gaining ground.



GERMANIC LAWS, EARLY. Of those Germanic laws of the early middle ages
which are known as _leges barbarorum_, we here deal with the principal
examples other than Frankish, viz. (1) _Leges Wisigothorum_, (2) _Lex
Burgundionum_, (3) _Pactus Alamannorum_ and _Lex Alamannorum_, (4) _Lex
Bajuvariorum_, (5) _Lex Saxonum_, (6) _Lex Frisionum_, (7) _Lex
Angliorum et Werinorum, hoc est, Thuringorum_, and (8) _Leges
Langobardorum_. All these laws may in general be described as codes of
procedure and tariffs of compositions. They present somewhat similar
features with the Salic law, but often differ from it in the date of
compilation, the amount of fines, the number and nature of the crimes,
the number, rank, duties and titles of the officers, &c. For the Salic
law and other Frankish laws, see SALIC LAW, and for the edict of
Theodoric I., which was applicable to the Ostrogoths and Romans, see
ROMAN LAW.

  For the whole body of the Germanic laws see P. Canciani, _Barbarorum
  leges antiquae_ (Venice, 1781-1789); F. Walter, _Corpus juris
  germanici antiqui_ (Berlin, 1824); _Monumenta Germaniae historica,
  Leges_. For further information on the codes in general, see H.M.
  Zöpfl, _Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte_ (4th ed., Heidelberg, 1871-1876);
  J.E.O. Stobbe, _Geschichte der deutschen Rechtsquellen_ (Brunswick,
  1860-1864); Paul Viollet, _Histoire du droit civil français_ (2nd ed.,
  Paris, 1893); H. Brunner, _Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte_ (2nd ed.,
  Leipzig, 1906).

1. _Leges Wisigothorum._--Karl Zeumer's edition of these laws in the 4to
series of the _Mon. Germ. Hist._ throws new light on all questions
relating to their date and composition. It is now certain that the
earliest written code of the Visigoths dates back to King Euric
(466-485). Besides his own constitutions, Euric included in this
collection constitutions of his predecessors, Theodoric I. (419-451),
Thorismund (451-453), and Theodoric II. (453-466), and he arranged the
whole in a logical order. Of this code fragments of chapters cclxxvi. to
cccxxxvi.[1] have been discovered in a palimpsest MS. in the
Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris (Latin coll., No. 12161), a fact which
proves that the code ran over a large area. Euric's code was used for
all cases between Goths, and between them and Romans; in cases between
Romans, Roman law was used. At the instance of Euric's son, Alaric II.,
an examination was made of the Roman laws in use among Romans in his
dominions, and the resulting compilation was approved in 506 at an
assembly at Aire, in Gascony, and is known as the Breviary of Alaric,
and sometimes as the _Liber Aniani_, from the fact that the authentic
copies bear the signature of the _referendarius_ Anian.

Euric's code remained in force among the Visigoths of Spain until the
reign of Leovigild (568-586), who made a new one, improving upon that of
his predecessor. This work is lost, and we have no direct knowledge of
any fragment of it. In the 3rd codification, however, many provisions
have been taken from the 2nd, and these are designated by the word
"_antiqua_"; by means of these "_antiqua_" we are enabled in a certain
measure to reconstruct the work of Leovigild.

After the reign of Leovigild the legislation of the Visigoths underwent
a transformation. The new laws made by the kings were declared to be
applicable to all the subjects in the kingdom, of whatever race--in
other words, they became territorial; and this principle of
territoriality was gradually extended to the ancient code. Moreover, the
conversion of Reccared I. (586-601) to orthodoxy effaced the religious
differences among his subjects, and all subjects, _qua_ Christians, had
to submit to the canons of the councils, which were made obligatory by
the kings. After this change had been accepted, Recceswinth (649-672)
made a new code, which was applicable to Visigoths and Romans alike.
This code, known as the _Liber judiciorum_, is divided into 12 books,
which are subdivided into _tituli_ and chapters (_aerae_). It comprises
324 constitutions taken from Leovigild's collection, a few of the laws
of Reccared and Sisebut, 99 laws of Chindaswinth (642-653), and 87 of
Recceswinth. A recension of this code of Recceswinth was made in 681 by
King Erwig (680-687), and is known as the _Lex Wisigothorum renovata_;
and, finally, some additamenta were made by Egica (687-702). In Zeumer's
edition of the _Leges Wisigothorum_ the versions of Recceswinth and
Erwig, where they differ from each other, are shown in parallel columns,
and the laws later than Erwig are denoted by the sign "_nov_."

  For further information see the preface to Zeumer's edition; H.
  Brunner, _Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte_ (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1906); Ureña y
  Smenyaud, _La Legislacion Gotico-hispana_ (Madrid, 1905).

2. _Lex Burgundionum._--This code was compiled by King Gundobald
(474-516), very probably after his defeat by Clovis in 500. Some
additamenta were subsequently introduced either by Gundobald himself or
by his son Sigismund. This law bears the title of _Liber
Constitutionum_, which shows that it emanated from the king; it is also
known as the _Lex Gundobada_ or _Lex Gombata_. It was used for cases
between Burgundians, but was also applicable to cases between
Burgundians and Romans. For cases between Romans, however, Gundobald
compiled the _Lex Romana Burgundionum_, called sometimes, through a
misreading of the MSS., the _Liber Papiani_ or simply _Papianus_. The
barbarian law of the Burgundians shows strong traces of Roman influence.
It recognizes the will and attaches great importance to written deeds,
but on the other hand sanctions the judicial duel and the _cojuratores_
(sworn witnesses). The vehement protest made in the 9th century by
Agobard, bishop of Lyons, against the _Lex Gundobada_ shows that it was
still in use at that period. So late as the 10th and even the 11th
centuries we find the law of the Burgundians invoked as personal law in
Cluny charters, but doubtless these passages refer to accretions of
local customs rather than to actual paragraphs of the ancient code.

  The text of the _Lex Burgundionum_ has been published by F. Bluhme in
  the _Mon. Germ. hist._, _Leges_, iii. 525; by Karl Binding in the
  _Fontes rerum Bernensium_ (vol. i., 1880); by J.E. Valentin Smith
  (Paris, 1889 seq.); and by von Salis (1892) in the 4to series of the
  _Mon. Germ. hist._ Cf. R. Dareste, "La Loi Gombette," in the _Journal
  des savants_ (July 1891).

3. _Pactus Alamannorum_ and _Lex Alamannorum._--Of the laws of the
Alamanni, who dwelt between the Rhine and the Lech, and spread over
Alsace and what is now Switzerland to the south of Lake Constance, we
possess two different texts. The earlier text, of which five short
fragments have come down to us, is known as the _Pactus Alamannorum_,
and from the persistent recurrence of the expression "et sic convenit"
was most probably drawn up by an official commission. The reference to
affranchisement _in ecclesia_ shows that it was composed at a period
subsequent to the conversion of the Alamanni to Christianity. There is
no doubt that the text dates back to the reign of Dagobert I., i.e. to
the first half of the 7th century. The later text, known as the _Lex
Alamannorum_, dates from a period when Alamannia was independent under
national dukes, but recognized the theoretical suzerainty of the
Frankish kings. There seems no reason to doubt the St Gall MS., which
states that the law had its origin in an agreement between the great
Alamannic lords and Duke Landfrid, who ruled the duchy from 709 to 730.

  The two texts have been published by J. Merkel in the _Mon. Germ.
  hist._, _Leges_, iii., and by Karl Lehmann in the 4to series of the
  same collection.

4. _Lex Bajuvariorum._--We possess an important law of the Bavarians,
whose duchy was situated in the region east of the Lech, and was an
outpost of Germany against the Huns, known later as Avars. Parts of this
law have been taken directly from the Visigothic law of Euric and from
the law of the Alamanni. The Bavarian law, therefore, is later than that
of the Alamanni. It dates unquestionably from a period when the Frankish
authority was very strong in Bavaria, when the dukes were vassals of the
Frankish kings. Immediately after the revolt of Bavaria in 743 the
Bavarian duke Odilo was forced to submit to Pippin and Carloman, the
sons of Charles Martel, and to recognize the Frankish suzerainty. About
the same period, too, the church of Bavaria was organized by St
Boniface, and the country divided into several bishoprics; and we find
frequent references to these bishops (in the plural) in the law of the
Bavarians. On the other hand, we know that the law is anterior to the
reign of Duke Tassilo III. (749-788). The date of compilation must,
therefore, be placed between 743 and 749.

  There is an edition of the _Lex Bajuvariorum_ by J. Merkel in the
  _Mon. Germ. hist._, _Leges_, iii. 183, and another was undertaken by
  E. von Schwind for the 4to series of the same collection. Cf. von
  Schwind's article in the _Neues Archiv_, vol. xxxi.

5. _Lex Saxonum._--Germany comprised two other duchies, Saxony and
Frisia, of each of which we possess a text of law. The _Lex Saxonum_ has
come down to us in two MSS. and two old editions (those of B.J. Herold
and du Tillet), and the text has been edited by Karl von Richthofen in
the _Mon. Germ. hist._, _Leges_, v. The law contains ancient customary
enactments of Saxony, and, in the form in which it has reached us, is
later than the conquest of Saxony by Charlemagne. It is preceded by two
capitularies of Charlemagne for Saxony--the _Capitulatio de partibus
Saxoniae_ (A. Boretius i. 68), which dates undoubtedly from 782, and is
characterized by great severity, death being the penalty for every
offence against the Christian religion; and the _Capitulare Saxonicum_
(A. Boretius i. 71), of the 28th of October 797, in which Charlemagne
shows less brutality and pronounces simple compositions for misdeeds
which formerly entailed death. The _Lex Saxonum_ apparently dates from
803, since it contains provisions which are in the _Capitulare legi
Ribuariae additum_ of that year. The law established the ancient
customs, at the same time eliminating anything that was contrary to the
spirit of Christianity; it proclaimed the peace of the churches, whose
possessions it guaranteed and whose right of asylum it recognized.

6. _Lex Frisionum._--This consists of a medley of documents of the most
heterogeneous character. Some of its enactments are purely pagan--thus
one paragraph allows the mother to kill her new-born child, and another
prescribes the immolation to the gods of the defiler of their temple;
others are purely Christian, such as those which prohibit incestuous
marriages and working on Sunday. The law abounds in contradictions and
repetitions, and the compositions are calculated in different moneys.
From this it would appear that the documents were merely materials
collected from various sources and possibly with a view to the
compilation of a homogeneous law. These materials were apparently
brought together at the beginning of the 9th century, at a time of
intense legislative activity at the court of Charlemagne.

  There are no MSS. of the document extant; our knowledge of it is based
  upon B.J. Herold's edition (_Originum ac Germanicarum antiquitatum
  libri_, Basel, 1557), which has been reproduced by Karl von Richthofen
  in the _Mon. Germ. hist._, _Leges_, iii. 631.

7. _Lex Angliorum el Werinorum, hoc est, Thuringorum._--In early times
there dwelt in Thuringia, south of the river Unstrut, the Angli, who
gave their name to the _pagus Engili_, and to the east, between the
Saale and the Elster, the Warni (Werini, or Varini), whose name is seen
in Werenofeld. In the 9th century, however, this region (then called
Werenofeld) was occupied by the Sorabi, and the Warni and Angli either
coalesced with the Thuringi or sought an asylum in the north of Germany.
A collection of laws has come down to us bearing the name of these two
peoples, the _Lex Angliorum et Werinorum, hoc est, Thuringorum_. This
text is a collection of local customs arranged in the same order as the
law of the Ripuarians. Parts of it are based on the _Capitulare legi
Ribuariae additum_ of 803, and it seems to have been drawn up in the
same conditions and circumstances as the law of the Saxons. There is an
edition of this code by Karl von Richthofen in the _Mon. Germ. hist._,
_Leges_, v. 103. The old opinion that the law originated in south
Holland is entirely without foundation.

8. _Leges Langobardorum._--We possess a fair amount of information on
the origin of the last barbarian code, the laws of the Lombards. The
first part, consisting of 388 chapters, is known as the _Edictus
Langobardorum_, and was promulgated by King Rothar at a diet held at
Pavia on the 22nd of November 643. This work, composed at one time and
arranged on a systematic plan, is very remarkable. The compilers knew
Roman law, but drew upon it only for their method of presentation and
for their terminology; and the document presents Germanic law in its
purity. Rothar's edict was augmented by his successors; Grimoald (668)
added nine chapters; Liutprand (713-735), fifteen volumes, containing a
great number of ecclesiastical enactments; Ratchis (746), eight
chapters; and Aistulf (755), thirteen chapters. After the union of the
Lombards to the Frankish kingdom, the capitularies made for the entire
kingdom were applicable to Italy. There were also special capitularies
for Italy, called _Capitula Italica_, some of which were appended to the
edict of Rothar.

At an early date compilations were formed in Italy for the use of legal
practitioners and jurists. Eberhard, duke and margrave of Rhaetia and
Friuli, arranged the contents of the edict with its successive
additamenta into a _Concordia de singulis causis_ (829-832). In the 10th
century a collection was made of the capitularies in use in Italy, and
this was known as the _Capitulare Langobardorum_. Then appeared, under
the influence of the school of law at Pavia, the _Liber legis
Langobardorum_, also called _Liber Papiensis_ (beginning of 11th
century), and the _Lombarda_ (end of 11th century) in two forms--that
given in a Monte Cassino MS. and known as the _Lombarda Casinensis_, and
the _Lombarda Vulgata_.

  There are editions of the _Edictus_, the _Concordia_, and the _Liber
  Papiensis_ by F. Bluhme and A. Boretius in the _Mon. Germ. hist.,
  Leges_, iv. Bluhme also gives the rubrics of the _Lombardae_, which
  were published by F. Lindenberg in his _Codex legum antiquarum_ in
  1613. For further information on the laws of the Lombards see J.
  Merkel, _Geschichte des Langobardenrechts_ (1850); A. Boretius, _Die
  Kapitularien im Langobardenreich_ (1864); and C. Kier, _Edictus
  Rotari_ (Copenhagen, 1898). Cf. R. Dareste in the _Nouvelle Revue
  historique de droit français et étranger_ (1900, p. 143).     (C. Pf.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The lacunae in these fragments have been filled in by the aid of
    the law of the Bavarians, where the chief provisions are reproduced.



GERMANICUS CAESAR (15 B.C.-A.D. 19), a Roman general and provincial
governor in the reign of Tiberius. The name Germanicus, the only one by
which he is known in history, he inherited from his father, Nero
Claudius Drusus, the famous general, brother of Tiberius and stepson of
Augustus. His mother was the younger Antonia, daughter of Marcus
Antonius and niece of Augustus, and he married Agrippina, the
granddaughter of the same emperor. It was natural, therefore, that he
should be regarded as a candidate for the purple. Augustus, it would
seem, long hesitated whether he should name him as his successor, and as
a compromise required his uncle Tiberius to adopt him, though Tiberius
had a son of his own. Of his early years and education little is known.
That he possessed considerable literary abilities, and that these were
carefully trained, we gather, both from the speeches which Tacitus puts
into his mouth, and from the reputation he left as an orator, as
attested by Suetonius and Ovid, and from the extant fragments of his
works.

At the age of twenty he served his apprenticeship as a soldier under
Tiberius, and was rewarded with the triumphal insignia for his services
in crushing the revolt in Dalmatia and Pannonia. In A.D. 11 he
accompanied Tiberius in his campaign on the Rhine, undertaken, in
consequence of the defeat of Varus, with the object of securing the
German frontier. In 12 he was made consul, and increased his popularity
by appearing as an advocate in the courts of justice, and by the
celebration of brilliant games. Soon afterwards he was appointed by
Augustus to the important command of the eight legions on the Rhine. The
news of the emperor's death (14) found Germanicus at Lugdunum (Lyons),
where he was superintending the census of Gaul. Close upon this came the
report that a mutiny had broken out among his legions on the lower
Rhine. Germanicus hurried back to the camp, which was now in open
insurrection. The tumult was with difficulty quelled, partly by
well-timed concessions, for which the authority of the emperor was
forged, but chiefly owing to his personal popularity. Some of the
insurgents actually proposed that he should put himself at their head
and secure the empire for himself, but their offer was rejected with
indignation. In order to calm the excitement Germanicus determined at
once on an active campaign. Crossing the Rhine, he attacked and routed
the Marsi, and laid waste the valley of the Ems. In the following year
he marched against Arminius, the conqueror of Varus, and performed the
last rites over the remains of the Roman soldiers that still lay there
unburied, erecting a barrow to mark the spot. Arminius, however,
favoured by the marshy ground, was able to hold his own, and it required
another campaign before he was finally defeated. A masterly combined
movement by land and water enabled Germanicus to concentrate his forces
against the main body of the Germans encamped on the Weser, and to crush
them in two obstinately contested battles. A monument erected on the
field proclaimed that the army of Tiberius had conquered every tribe
between the Rhine and the Elbe. Great, however, as the success of the
Roman arms had been, it was not such as to justify this boastful
inscription; we read of renewed attacks from the barbarians, and plans
of a fourth campaign for the next summer.

But the success of Germanicus had already stirred the jealousy and fears
of Tiberius, and he was reluctantly compelled to return to Rome. On the
26th of May 17 he celebrated a triumph. The enthusiasm with which he was
welcomed, not only by the populace, but by the emperor's own
praetorians, was so great that the earliest pretext was seized to remove
him from the capital. He was sent to the East with extraordinary powers
to settle a disputed succession in Parthia and Armenia. At the same time
Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, one of the most violent and ambitious of the old
nobility, was sent as governor of Syria to watch his movements.
Germanicus proceeded by easy stages to his province, halting on his way
in Dalmatia, and visiting the battlefield of Actium, Athens, Ilium, and
other places of historic interest. At Rhodes he met his coadjutor Piso,
who was seeking everywhere to thwart and malign him. When at last he
reached his destination, he found little difficulty in effecting the
settlement of the disturbed provinces, notwithstanding Piso's violent
and persistent opposition. At Artaxata Zeno, the popular candidate for
the throne, was crowned king of Armenia. To the provinces of Cappadocia
and Commagene Roman governors were assigned; Parthia was conciliated by
the banishment of the dethroned king Vonones.

After wintering in Syria Germanicus started for a tour in Egypt. The
chief motive for his journey was love of travel and antiquarian study,
and it seems never to have occurred to him, till he was warned by
Tiberius, that he was thereby transgressing an unwritten law which
forbade any Roman of rank to set foot in Egypt without express
permission. On his return to Syria he found that all his arrangements
had been upset by Piso. Violent recriminations followed, the result of
which, it would seem, was a promise on the part of Piso to quit the
province. But at this juncture Germanicus was suddenly attacked at
Epidaphne near Antioch by a violent illness, which he himself and his
friends attributed to poison administered by Plancina, the wife of Piso,
at the instigation of Tiberius. Whether these suspicions were true is
open to question; it seems more probable that his death was due to
natural causes. His ashes were brought to Rome in the following year
(20) by his wife Agrippina, and deposited in the grave of Augustus. He
had nine children, six of whom, three sons and three daughters, survived
him, amongst them the future emperor Gaius and the notorious Agrippina,
the mother of Nero. The news of his death cast a gloom over the whole
empire. Nor was Germanicus unworthy of this passionate devotion. He had
wiped out a great national disgrace; he had quelled the most formidable
foe of Rome. His private life had been stainless, and he possessed a
singularly attractive personality. Yet there were elements of weakness
in his character which his short life only half revealed: an impetuosity
which made him twice threaten to take his own life; a superstitious vein
which impelled him to consult oracles and shrink from bad omens; an
amiable dilettantism which led him to travel in Egypt while his enemy
was plotting his ruin; a want of nerve and resolution which prevented
him from coming to an open rupture with Piso till it was too late.

He possessed considerable literary abilities; his speeches and Greek
comedies were highly spoken of by his contemporaries. But the only
specimen of his work that has come down to us is the translation in
Latin hexameters (generally attributed to him, although some consider
Domitian the author), together with scholia, of the _Phaenomena_ of
Aratus, which is superior to those of Cicero and Avienus (best edition
by A. Breysig, 1867; 1899, without the scholia). A few extant Greek and
Latin epigrams also bear the name Germanicus.

  In addition to monographs by A. Zingerle (Trent, 1867) and A. Breysig
  (Erfurt, 1892), there are treatises on the German campaigns by E. von
  Wietersheim (1850), P. Höfer (1884), F. Knoke (1887, 1889), W. Fricke
  (1889), A. Taramelli (1891), Dahm (1902).

  See Tacitus, _Annals_, i.-iv. (ed. Furneaux); Suetonius, _Augustus,
  Tiberius_; J.C. Tarver, _Tiberius_ (1902); Merivale, _Hist. of the
  Romans under the Empire_, chs. 42, 43; H. Schiller, _Geschichte der
  römischen Kaiserzeit_, i. 1 (1883), pp. 227, 258, 261-266, 270-276; M.
  Schanz, _Geschichte der römischen Litteratur_, pt. ii. (2nd ed.,
  1901), and Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Literature_ (Eng. tr.,
  1900), 275.



GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements
included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead. It
was discovered in 1886 by C. Winkler in argyrodite, a mineral found at
Freiberg in Saxony. On examination of the metal and its salts it was
shown to be identical with the hypothetical element _ekasilicon_, whose
properties had been predicted by D. Mendeléeff many years previously.
The element is of extremely rare occurrence, being met with only in
argyrodite and, to a very small extent, in euxenite. It may be obtained
from argyrodite by heating the mineral in a current of hydrogen; or by
heating the dioxide to redness with carbon. It forms grey coloured
octahedra of specific gravity 5.496 at 20° C., melting at 900° C.; it
burns at a red heat, is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, but dissolves in
_aqua regia_, and is also soluble in molten alkalis. Two oxides of
germanium are known, the _dioxide_, GeO2, being obtained by roasting the
sulphide and treatment with nitric acid. It is a white powder, very
slightly soluble in water, and possesses acid properties. By heating
with a small quantity of magnesium it is converted into _germanious
oxide_, GeO. By heating the metal with chlorine, _germanic chloride_,
GeCl4, is obtained as a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 86-87° C.,
it is decomposed by water forming a hydrated germanium dioxide.
_Germanium dichloride_, GeCl2, and _germanium chloroform_, GeHCl3, have
also been described.

Germanium compounds on fusion with alkaline carbonates and sulphur form
salts known as _thiogermanates_. If excess of a mineral acid be added to
a solution of an alkaline thiogermanate a white precipitate of
_germanium disulphide_, GeS2, is obtained. It can also be obtained by
passing sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution of the dioxide in
hydrochloric acid. It is appreciably soluble in water, and also in
solutions of the caustic alkalis and alkaline sulphides. By heating the
disulphide in a current of hydrogen, _germanious sulphide_, GeS, is
formed. It sublimes in thin plates of a dark colour and metallic lustre,
and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. Alkyl compounds of
germanium such as _germanium tetra-ethyl_, Ge(C2H5)4, a liquid boiling
at 160° C., have been obtained. The germanium salts are most readily
recognized by the white precipitate of the disulphide, formed in acid
solutions, on passing sulphuretted hydrogen. The atomic weight of the
element was determined by C. Winkler by analysis of the pure chloride
GeCl4, the value obtained being 72.32, whilst Lecoq de Boisbaudran
(_Comptes rendus_, 1886, 103, 452), by a comparison of the lines in the
spark spectrum of the element, deduced the value 72.3.



GERMAN LANGUAGE. Together with English and Frisian, the German language
forms part of the West Germanic group of languages. To this group
belongs also Langobardian, a dialect which died out in the 9th or 10th
century, while Burgundian, traces of which are not met with later than
the 5th century, is usually classed with the East Germanic group. Both
these tongues were at an early stage crushed out by Romance dialects, a
fate which also overtook the idiom of the Western Franks, who, in the
so-called _Strassburg Oaths_[1] of 842, use the Romance tongue, and are
addressed in that tongue by Louis the German.

Leaving English and Frisian aside, we understand by _Deutsche_
_Sprache_ the language of those West Germanic tribes, who, at their
earliest appearance in history, spoke a Germanic tongue, and still speak
it at the present day. The chief of these tribes are: the Saxons, the
Franks (but with the restriction noted above), the Chatti (Hessians),
Thuringians, Alemannians and Bavarians. This definition naturally
includes the languages spoken in the Low Countries, Flemish and Dutch,
which are offsprings of the Low Franconian dialect, mixed with Frisian
and Saxon elements; but, as the literary development of these languages
has been in its later stages entirely independent of that of the German
language, they are excluded from the present survey.

The German language, which is spoken by about seventy-one millions, and
consequently occupies in this respect the third place among European
languages, borders, in the west and south, on Romance languages (French,
Italian), and also to some extent on Slavonic. On Italian and Slovenian
territory there are several German-speaking "islands," notably the Sette
and Tredici Communi, east and north-east of the Lake of Garda, and the
"Gottschee Ländchen" to the south of Laibach. The former of these is,
however, on the point of dying out. Neighbours on the east, where the
boundary line runs by no means as straight as on the west or south, are
the Magyars and again Slavonic races. Here, too, there are numerous
"islands" on Hungarian and Slavonic territory. Danes and Frisians join
hands with the Germans in the north.[2]

In the west and south the German language has, compared with its status
in earlier periods, undoubtedly lost ground, having been encroached upon
by Romance tongues. This is the case in French Flanders, in Alsace and
Lorraine, at any rate before the war of 1870, in the valleys south of
Monte Rosa and in southern Tirol; in Styria and Carinthia the
encroachment is less marked, but quite perceptible. On the east, on the
other hand, German steadily spread from the days of Charles the Great
down to recent times, when it has again lost considerable ground in
Bohemia, Moravia and Livonia. At the time of Charles the Great the
eastern frontier extended very little beyond the lower Elbe, following
this river beyond Magdeburg, whence it passed over to the Saale, the
Bohemian forest and the river Enns (cf. the map in F. Dahn,
_Urgeschichte der germanischen und romanischen Völker_, vol. iii.).
Partly as a result of victories gained by the Germans over the Avars and
Slavs, partly owing to peaceful colonization, the eastern boundary was
pushed forward in subsequent centuries; Bohemia was in this way won for
the German tongue by German colonists in the 13th century, Silesia even
a little earlier; in Livonia German gained the upper hand during the
13th century, while about the same time the country of the Prussians was
conquered and colonized by the knights of the Teutonic order. The
dialect which these colonists and knights introduced bore the Middle
German character; and this, in various modifications, combined with Low
German and even Dutch elements, formed the German spoken in these
newly-won territories. In the north (Schleswig), where at the time of
Charles the Great the river Eider formed the linguistic boundary, German
has gained and is still gaining on Danish.

Before considering the development of the language spoken within these
boundaries, a word of explanation is perhaps necessary with regard to
the word _deutsch_. As applied to the language, _deutsch_ first appears
in the Latin form _theotiscus_, _lingua theotisca_, _teutisca_, in
certain Latin writings of the 8th and 9th centuries, whereas the
original Old High German word _thiudisc_, _tiutisc_ (from _thiot_,
_diot_, "people," and the suffix _-isc_) signified only "appertaining to
the people," "in the manner of the people." Cf. also Gothic
_[thorn]iudisko_ as a translation of [Greek: ethnikôs] (Gal. ii. 14).
It, therefore, seems probable that if the application of the word to the
language (_lingua theotisca_) was not exactly an invention of Latin
authors of German nationality, its use in this sense was at least
encouraged by them in order to distinguish their own vernacular
(_lingua vulgaris_) from Latin as well as from the _lingua romana_.[3]

In the 8th and 9th centuries German or "Deutsch" first appears as a
written language in the dialects of Old High German and Old Low German.
Of an "Urdeutsch" or primitive German, i.e. the common language from
which these sharply distinguished dialects of the earliest historical
period must have developed, we have no record; we can only infer its
character--and it was itself certainly not free from dialectic
variations--by a study of the above-named and other Germanic dialects. It
is usual to divide the history of the German language from this earliest
period, when it appears only in the form of proper names and isolated
words as glosses to a Latin text, down to the present day, into three
great sections: (1) Old High German (_Althochdeutsch_) and Old Low German
(Old Saxon; _Altniederdeutsch_, _Altsächsisch_); (2) Middle High German
(_Mittelhochdeutsch_) and Middle Low German (Mittelniederdeutsch); and
(3) Modern High German and Modern Low German (_Neuhochdeutsch_ and
_Neuniederdeutsch_). It is more difficult to determine the duration of
the different periods, for it is obvious that the transition from one
stage of a language to another takes place slowly and gradually.

The first or Old High German period is commonly regarded as extending to
about the year 1100. The principal characteristic of the change from Old
High German to Middle High German is the weakening of the unaccented
vowels in final syllables (cf. O.H.G. _taga_, _gesti_, _geban_, _gabum_
and M.H.G. _tage_, _geste_, _geben_, _gaben_). But it must be remembered
that this process began tentatively as early as the 10th century in Low
German, and also that long, unaccented vowels are preserved in the
Alemannic dialect as late as the 14th century and even later. Opinion is
more at variance with regard to the division between the second and
third periods. Some would date Modern High German from the time of
Luther, that is to say, from about 1500. But it must be noted that
certain characteristics attributed to the Modern German vowel system,
such as lengthening of Middle High German short vowels, the change from
Middle High German _i_, _u_, _iu_ to Modern High German _ei_, _au_, _eu_
(_öu_), of Middle High German _ie_, _uo_, _üe_ to Modern High German
_i_, _u_, _ü_, made their appearance long before 1500. Taking this fact
into consideration, others distinguish a period of classical Middle High
German extending to about 1250, and a period of transition (sometimes
called _Frühneuhochdeutsch_, or Early Modern High German) from 1250 to
1650. The principal characteristics of Modern High German would then
consist in a greater stability of the grammatical and syntactical rules,
due to the efforts of earlier grammarians, such as Schottelius,
Gottsched and others, and the substitution of a single vowel sound for
the varying vowels of the singular and plural of the preterite of strong
verbs (cf. Middle High German _schreib_, _schriben_, and Modern High
German _schrieb_, _schrieben_, &c.). The much debated question of the
origins of Modern High German has been recently reopened by O. Behaghel
(_Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, l.c._ 661), who hopes that a more
satisfactory solution may be arrived at by the study of certain
syntactical peculiarities to be seen in the dialects of more recent
periods.

As the middle ages did not produce a German _Schriftsprache_ or literary
language in the modern sense of the word, which--as is undoubtedly the
case in Modern German--might have influenced the spoken language
(_Umgangssprache_), the history of the language in its earlier stages is
a history of different dialects. These dialects will, therefore, claim
our attention at some length.

It may be assumed that the languages of the different West Germanic
tribes enumerated above were, before the appearance of the tribes in
history, distinguished by many dialectic variations; this was certainly
the case immediately after the Migrations, when the various races began
to settle down. But these differences, consisting presumably in matters
of phonology and vocabulary, were nowhere so pronounced as to exclude a
mutual understanding of individuals belonging to different tribes. One
might compare the case of the Poles and Czechs of the present day.
During the 6th century, however, a phonological process set in, which
ultimately resulted in the separation of Germany into two great
linguistic divisions, south and north, or, as the languages are called,
High and Low German. This fundamental change, which is known as the
second or High German Soundshifting (_Lautverschiebung_), spread
northward from the mountainous districts in the south, and, whatever its
cause may have been,[4] left behind it clear and easily recognizable
effects on the Germanic voiced stop _d_, which became changed to _t_,
and more especially on the voiceless stops _t_, _p_ and _k_. Dialects
which have shifted initial _t_ and _tt_ in the middle of a word to the
affricate _tz_ (written _z_, _tz_) and _p_ and _k_ in corresponding
positions to the affricates _pf_ and _k[chi]_ (written _ch_), further,
_t_, _p_ and _k_ in the middle of words between vowels, to the double
spirant _zz_ (now written _ss_, _sz_), _ff_, _hh_ (written _ch_), are
called High German; those in which these changes have not taken place
form the Low German group, this group agreeing in this respect with
English and Frisian.

Of these sound changes, that of _t_ to _tz_ and _zz_ (_ss_) is the most
universal, extending over the whole region in which shifting occurs;
that of _k_ to _k[chi]_ (_ch_), the most restricted, being only found in
Old Bavarian, and in the Swiss pronunciation, e.g. in _chind_. The
remaining dialects occupy positions between the two extremes of complete
shifting and the absence of shifting. Some Franconian dialects, for
instance, leave _p_ unchanged under certain conditions, and in one
dialect at least, Middle Franconian, _t_ has remained after vowels in
certain pronominal forms (_dat_, _wat_, _allet_, &c.). On this ground a
subdivision has been made in the High German dialects into (a) an Upper
German (_Oberdeutsch_) and (b) a Middle German (_Mitteldeutsch_) group;
and this subdivision practically holds good for all periods of the
language, although in Old High German times the Middle German group is
only represented, as far as the written language is concerned, by
Franconian dialects.

As the scientific study of the German language advanced there arose a
keen revival of interest--and that not merely on the part of
scholars--in the dialects which were so long held in contempt as a mere
corruption of the _Schriftsprache_.[5] We are still in the midst of a
movement which, under the guidance of scholars, has, during the last
three decades, bestowed great care on many of the existing dialects;
phonological questions have received most attention, but problems of
syntax have also not been neglected. Monumental works like Wenker's
_Sprachatlas des deutschen Reiches_ and dialect dictionaries are either
in course of publication or preparing;[6] while the difficult questions
concerned with defining the boundaries of the various dialects and
explaining the reasons for them form the subject of many monographs.[7]

Beginning in the north we shall now pass briefly in review the dialects
spoken throughout the German-speaking area.


  A. THE LOW GERMAN DIALECTS

  The Low German dialects, as we have seen, stand nearest to the English
  and Frisian languages, owing to the total absence of the consonantal
  shifting which characterizes High German, as well as to other
  peculiarities of sounds and inflections, e.g. the loss of the nasals
  _m_ and _n_ before the spirants _f_, _s_ and _p_. Cf. Old Saxon _fif_
  (five), _us_ (us), _kup_ (cf. uncouth). The boundary-line between Low
  and High German, the so-called _Benrather Linie_, may roughly be
  indicated by the following place-names, on the understanding, however,
  that the Ripuarian dialect (see below) is to be classed with High
  German: Montjoie (French border-town), Eupen, Aachen, Benrath,
  Düsseldorf, north of Siegen, Cassel, Heiligenstadt, Harzgerode, to the
  Elbe south of Magdeburg; this river forms the boundary as far as
  Wittenberg, whence the line passes to Lübben on the Spree, Fürstenwald
  on the Oder and Birnbaum near the river Warthe. Beyond this point the
  Low Germans have Slavs as their neighbours. Compared with the
  conditions in the 13th century, it appears that Low German has lost
  ground; down to the 14th and 15th centuries several towns, such as
  Mansfeld, Eisleben, Merseburg, Halle, Dessau and Wittenberg, spoke Low
  German.

  Low German falls into two divisions, a western division, namely, Low
  Franconian, the parent, as we have already said, of Flemish and Dutch,
  and an eastern division, Low Saxon (_Plattdeutsch_, or, as it is often
  simply called, Low German). The chief characteristic of the division
  is to be sought in the ending of the first and third person plural of
  the present indicative of verbs, this being in the former case _-en_,
  in the latter _-et_. Inasmuch as the south-eastern part of Low
  Franconian--inclusive of Gelderland and Cleves--shifts final _k_ to
  _ch_ (e.g. _ich_, _mich_, _auch_, _-lich_), it must obviously be
  separated from the rest, and in this respect be grouped with High
  German. Low Saxon is usually divided into Westphalian (to the west of
  the Weser) and Low Saxon proper, between Weser and Elbe. The
  south-eastern part of the latter has the verbal ending -en and further
  shows the peculiarity that the personal pronoun has the same form in
  the dative and accusative (_mik_, _dick_), whereas the remainder, as
  well as the Westphalian, has _mi_, _di_ in the dative, and _mi_, _di_
  or _mik_, _dik_ in the accusative. To these Low German dialects must
  also be added those spoken east of the Elbe on what was originally
  Slavonic territory; they have the ending _-en_ in the first and third
  person plural of verbs.[8]


  B. THE HIGH GERMAN DIALECTS

  1. _The Middle German Group._--This group, which comprises the
  dialects of the Middle Rhine, of Hesse, Thuringia, Upper Saxony
  (Meissen), Silesia and East Prussia to the east of the lower Vistula
  between Bischofswerder, Marienburg, Elbing, Wormditt and Wartenberg--a
  district originally colonized from Silesia--may be most conveniently
  divided into an East and a West Middle German group. A common
  characteristic of all these dialects is the diminutive suffix _-chen_,
  as compared with the Low German form _-ken_ and the Upper German
  _-lein_ (O.H.G. _lin_). East Middle German consists of Silesian, Upper
  Saxon and Thuringian,[9] together with the linguistic colony in East
  Prussia. While these dialects have shifted initial Germanic _p_ to
  _ph_, or even to _f_ (_fert_ = _Pferd_), the West Middle German
  dialects (roughly speaking to the west of the watershed of Werra and
  Fulda) have retained it. If, following a convincing article in the
  _Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum_ (37, 288 ff.) by F. Wrede, we
  class East and South Franconian--both together may be called High
  Franconian--with the Upper German dialects, there only remain in the
  West Middle German group:[10] (a) Middle Franconian and (b) Rhenish
  Franconian. The former of these,[11] which with its _dat_, _wat_,
  _allet_, &c. (cf. above) and its retention of the voiced spirant _b_
  (written _v_) represents a kind of transition dialect to Low German,
  is itself divided into ([alpha]) Ripuarian or Low Rhenish with Cologne
  and Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) as centres, and ([beta]) Moselle
  Franconian[12] with Trier (Treves) as principal town. The latter is
  distinguished by the fact that in the Middle High German period it
  shifts Germanic _-rp-_ and _-rd-_, which are retained in (a), to
  _-rf-_ and _-rt-_ (cf. _werfen_, _hirtin_ with _werpen_,
  _hirdin_).[13] The Rhenish Franconian dialect is spoken in the Rhenish
  palatinate, in the northern part of Baden (Heidelberg), Hesse[14] and
  Nassau, and in the German-speaking part of Lorraine. A line drawn from
  Falkenberg at the French frontier to Siegen on the Lahn, touching the
  Rhine near Boppard, roughly indicates the division between Middle and
  Rhenish Franconian.

  2. _The Upper German Group._--The Upper German dialects, which played
  the most important part in the literature of the early periods, may be
  divided into (a) a Bavarian-Austrian group and (b) a High
  Franconian-Alemannic group. Of all the German dialects the
  Bavarian-Austrian has carried the soundshifting to its furthest
  extreme; here only do we find the labial voiced stop _b_ written _p_
  in the middle of a word, viz. old Bavarian _kapames_, old Alemannic
  _kabames_ ("we gave"); here too, in the 12th century, we find the
  first traces of that broadening of _i_, _u_, _iu_ (_ü_) to _ei_, _au_,
  _eu_, a change which, even at the present day, is still foreign to the
  greater part of the Alemannic dialects. Only in Bavarian do we still
  find the old pronominal dual forms _es_ and _enk_ (for _ihr_ and
  _euch_). Finally, Bavarian forms diminutives in _-el_ and _-erl_
  (_Mädel_, _Mäderl_), while the Franconian-Alemannic forms are _-la_
  and _-le_ (_Mädle_). On the other hand, the pronunciation of _-s_ as
  _-sch_, especially _-st_ as _-scht_ (cf. _Last_, _Haspel_, pronounced
  _Lascht_, _Haschpel_), may be mentioned as characteristic of the
  Alemannic, just as the _fortis_ pronunciation of initial _t_ is
  characteristic of High Franconian, while the other Franconian and
  Upper German dialects employ the _lenis_.

  The Alemannic dialect which, roughly speaking, is separated from
  Bavarian by the Lech and borders on Italian territory in the south and
  on French in the west, is subdivided into: (a) Swabian, the dialect of
  the kingdom of Württemberg and the north-western part of Tirol (cf. H.
  Fischer, _Geographie der schwäbischen Mundart_, 1895); (b) High
  Alemannic (Swiss), including the German dialects of Switzerland, of
  the southern part of the Black Forest (the Basel-Breisgau dialect),
  and that of Vorarlberg; (c) Low Alemannic, comprising the dialects of
  Alsace and part of Baden (to the north of the Feldberg and south of
  Rastatt), also, at the present day, the town of Basel. Only Swabian
  has taken part in the change of _i_ to _ei_, &c., mentioned above,
  while initial Germanic _k_ has been shifted to _ch_ ([chi]) only in
  High Alemannic (cf. _chalt_, _chind_, _chorn_, for _kalt_, _kind_,
  _korn_). The pronunciation of _u_ as _ü_, _ü_ (_Hüs_ for _Haus_) is
  peculiar to Alsatian.

  The High Franconian dialects, that is to say, east and south (or
  south-Rhenish) Franconian, which are separated broadly speaking by the
  river Neckar, comprise the language spoken in a part of Baden, the
  dialects of the Main valley from Würzburg upwards to Bamberg, the
  dialect of Nuremberg and probably of the Vogtland (Plauen) and
  Egerland. During the older historical period the principal difference
  between East and South Franconian consisted in the fact that initial
  Germanic _d_ was retained in the latter dialect, while East Franconian
  shifted it to _t_. Both, like Bavarian and Alemannic, shift initial
  German _p_ to the affricate _pf_.

  Finally, the Bavarian-Austrian dialect is spoken throughout the
  greater part of the kingdom of Bavaria (i.e. east of the Lech and a
  fine drawn from the point where the Lech joins the Danube to the
  sources of the rivers Elster and Mulde, this being the East Franconian
  border-line), in Austria, western Bohemia, and in the German
  linguistic "islands" embedded in Hungary, in Gottschee and the Sette
  and Tredici Communi (cf. above).[15]


  THE OLD HIGH GERMAN PERIOD

  The language spoken during the Old High German period, that is to say,
  down to about the year 1050, is remarkable for the fulness and
  richness of its vowel-sounds in word-stems as well as in inflections.
  Cf. _elilenti_, _Elend_; _luginari_, _Lügner_; _karkari_, _Kerker_;
  _menniskono slahta_, _Menschengeschlecht_; _herzono_, _Herzen_ (gen.
  pl.); _furisto_, _vorderste_; _hartost_, (_am_) _härtesten_;
  _sibunzug_, _siebzig_; _ziohemes_, (_wir_) _ziehen_; _salbota_, (_er_)
  _salbte_; _gaworahtos_, (_du_) _wirktest_, &c. Of the consonantal
  changes which took place during this period that of the spirant th
  (preserved only in English) to d (_werthan_, _werdan_; _theob_,
  _deob_) deserves mention. It spread from Upper Germany, where it is
  noticeable as early as the 8th century to Middle and finally, in the
  11th and 12th centuries, to Low Germany. Further, the initial _h_ in
  _hl_, _hn_, _hr_, _hw_ (cf. _hwer_, _wer_; _hreini_, _rein_;
  _hlahhan_, _lachen_) and _w_ in _wr_ (_wrecceo_, _Recke_) disappeared,
  this change also starting in Upper Germany and spreading slowly north.
  The most important vowel-change is the so-called mutation
  (_Umlaut_),[16] that is to say, the qualitative change of a vowel
  (except _i_) in a stem-syllable, owing to the influence of an _i_ or
  _j_ in the following syllable. This process commenced in the north
  where it seems to have been already fully developed in Low German as
  early as the 8th century. It is to be found, it may be noted, in
  Anglo-Saxon, as early as the 6th century. It gradually worked its way
  southwards to Middle and Upper Germany where, however, certain
  consonants seem to have protected the stem syllable from the influence
  of _i_ in a following syllable. Cf., for instance, Modern High German
  _drucken_ and _drücken_; _glauben_, _kaufen_, _Haupt_, words which in
  Middle German dialects show mutation. Orthographically, however, this
  process is, during the first period, only to be seen in the change of
  _a_ to _e_; from the 10th century onwards there are, it is true, some
  traces of other changes, and vowels like _u_, _o_, _ou_ must have
  already been affected, otherwise we could not account for the mutation
  of these vowels at a period when the cause of it, the _i_ or _j_, no
  longer existed. A no less important change, for it helped to
  differentiate High from Low German, was that of Germanic _e_2 (a
  closed _e_-sound) and _o_ diphthongs in Old High German, while they
  were retained in Old Low German. Cf. O.H.G. _her_, _hear_, _hiar_,
  O.L.G. _her_; O.H.G. _fuoz_, O.L.G. _fot_. The final result was that
  in the 10th century ie (older forms, _ia_, _ea_) and _uo_ (older _ua_,
  _oa_ in Alemannic, _ua_ in South Franconian) had asserted themselves
  throughout all the High German dialects. Again while in Old High
  German the older diphthongs _ai_ and _au_ were preserved as _ei_ and
  _ou_, unless they happened to stand at the end of a word or were
  followed by certain consonants (_h_, _w_, _r_ in the one case, and
  _h_, _r_, _l_, _n_, _th_, _d_, _t_, _z_, _s_ in the other; cf. _zeh_
  from _zihan_, _zoh_ from _ziohan_, _verlôs_, &c.), the Old Low German
  shows throughout the monophthongs _e_ (in Middle Low German a closed
  sound) and _o_ (cf. O.L.G. _sten_, _oga_). These monophthongs are also
  to be heard in Rhenish Franconian, the greater part of East Franconian
  and the Upper Saxon and Silesian dialects of modern times (cf.
  _Stein_: _Steen_ or _Stan_; _laufen_: _lofen_ or _lopen_).

  Of the dialects enumerated above, Bavarian and Alemannic, High and
  Rhenish Franconian as well as Old Saxon are more or less represented
  in the literature of the first period. But this literature, the chief
  monuments of which are Otfrid's _Evangelienbuch_ (in South
  Franconian), the Old Saxon _Heliand_ (a life of Christ in alliterative
  verse), the translation of Tatian's _Gospel Harmony_ (East Franconian)
  and that of a theological tract by Bishop Isidore of Seville and of
  parts of the Bible (Rhenish Franconian), is almost exclusively
  theological and didactic in character. One is consequently inclined to
  attach more value to the scanty remains of the _Hildebrandslied_ and
  some interesting and ancient charms. The didactic spirit again
  pervades the translations and commentaries of Notker of St Gall in the
  early part of the 11th century, as well as a paraphrase of the _Song
  of Songs_ by an abbot Williram of Ebersberg a little later. Latin,
  however, reigned supreme throughout this period, it being the language
  of the charters, the lawbooks (there is nothing in Germany to compare
  with the laws of the Anglo-Saxons), of science, medicine, and even
  poetry. It is thus needless to say that there was no recognized
  literary language (_Schriftsprache_) during this period, nor even any
  attempt to form one; at most, we might speak of schools in the large
  monasteries, such as Reichenau, St Gall, Fulda, which contributed to
  the spread and acceptance of certain orthographical rules.


  THE MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN PERIOD

  The following are the chief changes in sounds and forms which mark the
  development of the language in the Middle High German period. The
  orthography of the MSS. reveals a much more extensive employment of
  mutation (_Umlaut_) than was the case in the first period; we find,
  for instance, as the mutation of _o_, _ö_, of _o_, _oe_, _of u_, _iu_
  (_ü_), of _uo_, _üe_, of _ou_, _öu_, and _eu_ (cf. _höler_, _boese_,
  _hiuser_, _güete_, _böume_), although many scribes, and more
  especially those of Middle and Low German districts, have no special
  signs for the mutation of _u_, _u_, and _o_. Of special interest is
  the so-called "later (or weaker) mutation" (_jüngerer oder
  schwächerer Umlaut_) of _a_ to a very open _e_ sound, which is often
  written _ä_. Cf. _mähte_ (O.H.G. _mahti_), _mägede_ (O.H.G. _magadi_).
  The earlier mutation of this sound produced an _e_(_é_), a closed
  sound (i.e. nearer _i_). Cf. _geste_ (O.H.G. _gesti_).

  The various Old High German vowels in unstressed syllables were either
  weakened to an indifferent _e_ sound (_geben_, O.H.G. _geban_; _bote_,
  O.H.G. _boto_; _sige_, O.H.G. _sigu_) or disappeared altogether. The
  latter phenomenon is to be observed after _l_ and _r_, and partly
  after _n_ and _m_ (cf. _ar(e)_, O.H.G. _aro_; _zal_, O.H.G. _zala_;
  _wundern_, O.H.G. _wuntaron_, &c.); but it by no means took place
  everywhere in the same degree and at the same time. It has been
  already noted that the Alemannic dialect (as well as the archaic poets
  of the German national epic) retained at least the long unstressed
  vowels until as late as the 14th century (_gemarterot_, _gekriuzegot_,
  &c., and Low and Middle German preserved the weakened _e_ sound in
  many cases where Upper German dropped it. In this period the
  beginnings are also to be seen in Low and Middle German (Heinrich von
  Veldeke shows the first traces of it) of a process which became of
  great importance for the formation of the Modern German literary
  language. This is the lengthening of originally short vowels in open
  syllables,[17] for example, in Modern High German _Tages_, _Weges_,
  _lobe_ (Middle High German _tages_, _weges_, _lobe_). In Austria, on
  the other hand, there began as far back as the first half of the 12th
  century another movement of equal importance for Modern High German,
  namely, the conversion of the long vowels, _i_, _u_, _ü_, into _ei_
  (_ou_), _au_, _eu_ (_äu_).[18] It is, therefore, in MSS. written in
  the south-east that we find forms like _zeit_, _lauter_ (_löter_),
  _heute_, &c., for the first time. With the exception of Low German and
  Alemannic--Swabian, however, follows in this respect the majority--all
  the German dialects participated in this change between the 14th and
  16th centuries, although not all to the same degree. The change was
  perhaps assisted by the influence of the literary language which had
  recognized the new sounds. In England the same process has led to the
  modern pronunciation of _time_, _house_, &c., and in Holland to that
  of _tijd_, _huis_, &c. F. Wrede (_Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum_
  xxxix. 257 ff.) has suggested that the explanation of the change is to
  be sought in the apocope and syncope of the final _e_, and the greater
  stress which was in consequence put on the stem-syllable. The tendency
  to a change in the opposite direction, namely, the narrowing of
  diphthongs to monophthongs, is to be noticed in Middle German
  dialects, i.e. in dialects which resisted the apocope of the final
  _e_, where _ie_, _uo_, _üe_ become _i_, _u_, _ü_; thus we have for
  _Brief_, _brif_, for _huon_, _hun_, for _brüeder_, _brüder_, and this
  too was taken over into the Modern High German literary language.[19]

  No consonantal change was so widespread during this period as that of
  initial _s_ to _sch_ before _l_, _n_, _m_, _w_, _p_ and _t_. Cf.
  _slingen_, _schlingen_; _swer_ (_e_) _n_, _schwören_, &c. The forms
  _scht_- and _schp_- are often to be met with in Alemannic MSS., but
  they were discarded again, although modern German recognizes the
  pronunciation _schp_, _scht_.[20] With regard to changes affecting the
  inflections of verbs and nouns, it must suffice here to point out that
  the weakening or disappearance of vowels in unstressed syllables
  necessarily affected the characteristic endings of the older language;
  groups of verbs and substantives which in Old High German were
  distinct now become confused. This is best seen in the case of the
  weak verbs, where the three Old High German classes (cf. _nerien_,
  _salbon_, _dagen_) were fused into one. Similarly in the declensions
  we find an increasing tendency of certain forms to influence
  substantives belonging to other classes; there is, for instance, an
  increase in the number of neuter nouns taking _-er_ (_-ir_) in the
  plural, and of those which show mutation in the plural on the model of
  the _i-_ stems (O.H.G. _gast_, pl. _gesti_; cf. forms like _ban_,
  _benne_; _hals_, _helse_; _wald_, _welde_). Of changes in syntax the
  gradual decay in the use of the genitive case dependent on a noun or
  governed by a verb (cf. constructions like _eine brünne rotes goldes_,
  or _des todes wünschen_) towards the end of the period, and also the
  disappearance of the Old High German sequence of tenses ought at least
  to be mentioned.

  In the Middle High German period, the first classical period of German
  poetry, the German language made great advances as a vehicle of
  literary expression; its power of expression was increased and it
  acquired a beauty of style hitherto unknown. This was the period of
  the _Minnesang_ and the great popular and court epics, of Walther von
  der Vogelweide, Hartmann von Aue, Wolfram von Eschenbach and Gottfried
  von Strassburg; it was a period when literature enjoyed the fostering
  care of the courts and the nobility. At the same time German prose
  celebrated its first triumphs in the sermons of Berthold von
  Regensburg, and in the mystic writings and sermons of Meister Eckhart,
  Tauler and others. History (Eike von Repkow's _Weltchronik_) and law
  (_Sachsenspiegel_, _Schwabenspiegel_) no longer despised the
  vernacular, and from about the middle of the 13th century German
  becomes, in an ever-increasing percentage, the language of deeds and
  charters.

  It has been a much debated question how far Germany in Middle High
  German times possessed or aspired to possess a _Schriftsprache_ or
  literary language.[21] About the year 1200 there was undoubtedly a
  marked tendency towards a unification of the literary language on the
  part of the more careful poets like Walther von der Vogelweide,
  Hartmann von Aue and Gottfried von Strassburg; they avoid, more
  particularly in their rhymes, dialectic peculiarities, such as the
  Bavarian dual forms _es_ and _enk_, or the long vowels in unstressed
  syllables, retained in Alemannic, and they do not make use of archaic
  words or forms. We have thus a right to speak, if not of a Middle High
  German literary language in the widest sense of the word, at least of
  a Middle High German _Dichtersprache_ or poetic language, on an
  Alemannic-Franconian basis. Whether, or in how far, this may have
  affected the ordinary speech of the nobility or courts, is a matter of
  conjecture; but it had an undeniable influence on Middle and Low
  German poets, who endeavoured at least to use High German forms in
  their rhymes. Attempts were also made in Low German districts, though
  at a later stage of this period, to unify the dialects and raise them
  to the level of an accepted literary language. It will be shown later
  why these attempts were unsuccessful. Unfortunately, however, the
  efforts of the High German poets to form a uniform language were also
  shortlived; by the end of the 13th century the _Dichtersprache_ had
  disappeared, and the dialects again reigned supreme.


  MODERN HIGH GERMAN

  Although the Middle High German period had thus not succeeded in
  effecting any permanent advance in the direction of a uniform literary
  language, the desire for a certain degree of uniformity was never
  again entirely lost. At the close of the 13th century literature had
  passed from the hands of the nobility to those of the middle classes
  of the towns; the number of writers who used the German tongue rapidly
  increased; later the invention of printing, the increased efficiency
  of the schools, and above all the religious movement of the
  Reformation, contributed to awakening the desire of being understood
  by those who stood outside the dialectic community of the individual.
  A single authoritative form of writing and spelling was felt on all
  sides to be particularly necessary. This was found in the language
  used officially by the various chanceries (_Kanzleien_), and more
  especially the imperial chancery. Since the days of Charles IV.
  (1347-1378) the latter had striven after a certain uniform language in
  the documents it issued, and by the time of Maximilian I. (1493-1519)
  all its official documents were characterized by pretty much the same
  phonology, forms and vocabulary, in whatever part of Germany they
  originated. And under Maximilian's successor, Charles V., the
  conditions remained pretty much the same. The fact that the seat of
  the imperial chancery had for a long time been in Prague, led to a
  mingling of Upper and Middle German sounds and inflections; but when
  the crown came with Frederick III. (1440-1493) to the Habsburgs, the
  Upper German elements were considerably increased. The chancery of the
  Saxon electorate, whose territory was exclusively Middle German, had
  to some extent, under the influence of the imperial chancery, allowed
  Upper German characteristics to influence its official language. This
  is clearly marked in the second half of the 15th century, and about
  the year 1500 there was no essential difference between the languages
  of the two chanceries. Thuringia, Silesia and Brandenburg soon
  followed suit, and even Low German could not ultimately resist the
  accepted High German notation (_ö_, _o_, _ü_, _u_, _ou_, _ie_, &c.).
  We have here very favourable conditions for the creation of a uniform
  literary language, and, as has already been said, the tendency to
  follow these authorities is clearly marked.

  In the midst of this development arose the imposing figure of Luther,
  who, although by no means the originator of a common High German
  speech, helped very materially to establish it. He deliberately chose
  (cf. the often quoted passage in his _Tischreden_, ch. 69) the
  language of the Saxon chancery as the vehicle of his Bible translation
  and subsequently of his own writings. The differences between Luther's
  usage and that of the chancery, in phonology and inflection, are
  small; still he shows, in his writings subsequent to 1524, a somewhat
  more pronounced tendency towards Middle German. But it is noteworthy
  that he, like the chancery, retained the old vowel-change in the
  singular and plural of the preterite of the strong verbs (i.e.
  _steig_, _stigen_; _starb_, _sturben_), although before Luther's time
  the uniformity of the modern preterite had already begun to show
  itself here and there. The adoption of the language of the chancery
  gave rise to the mixed character of sounds and forms which is still a
  feature of the literary language of Germany. Thus the use of the
  monophthongs _i_, _ü_, and _u_, instead of the old diphthongs _ie_,
  _uo_ and _üe_, comes from Middle Germany; the forms of the words and
  the gender of the nouns follow Middle rather than Upper German usage,
  whereas, on the other hand, the consonantal system (_p_ to _pf_; _d_
  to _t_) betrays in its main features its Upper German
  (Bavarian-Austrian) origin.

  The language of Luther no doubt shows greater originality in its style
  and vocabulary (cf. its influence on Goethe and the writers of the
  _Sturm und Drang_), for in this respect the chancery could obviously
  afford him but scanty help. His vocabulary is drawn to a great extent
  from his own native Middle German dialect, and the fact that, since
  the 14th century, Middle German literature (cf. for instance, the
  writings of the German mystics, at the time of and subsequent to
  Eckhart) had exercised a strong influence over Upper Germany, stood
  him in good stead. Luther is, therefore, strictly speaking, not the
  father of the modern German literary language, but he forms the most
  important link in a chain of development which began long before him,
  and did not reach its final stage until long after him. To infer that
  Luther's language made any rapid conquest of Germany would not be
  correct. It was, of course, immediately acceptable to the eastern part
  of the Middle German district (Thuringia and Silesia), and it did not
  find any great difficulty in penetrating into Low Germany, at least
  into the towns and districts lying to the east of the Saale and Elbe
  (Magdeburg, Hamburg). One may say that about the middle of the 16th
  century Luther's High German was the language of the chanceries, about
  1600 the language of the pulpit (the last Bible in Low German was
  printed at Goslar in 1621) and the printing presses. Thus the
  aspirations of Low Germany to have a literary language of its own were
  at an early stage crushed. Protestant Switzerland, on the other hand,
  resisted the "uncommon new German" until well into the 17th century.
  It was also natural that the Catholic Lower Rhine (Cologne) and
  Catholic South Germany held out against it, for to adopt the language
  of the reformer would have seemed tantamount to offering a helping
  hand to Protestant ideas. At the same time, geographical and political
  conditions, as well as the pronounced character of the Upper German
  dialects, formed an important obstacle to a speedy unification. South
  German grammarians of the 16th century, such as Laurentius Albertus,
  raise a warning voice against those who, although far distant from the
  proper use of words and the true pronunciation, venture to teach _nos
  puriores Germanos_, namely, the Upper Germans.

  In 1593 J. Helber, a Swiss schoolmaster and notary, spoke of three
  separate dialects as being in use by the printing presses:[22] (1)
  _Mitteldeutsch_ (the language of the printers in Leipzig, Erfurt,
  Nuremberg, Würzburg, Frankfort, Mainz, Spires, Strassburg and Cologne;
  at the last mentioned place in the event of their attempting to print
  _Ober-Teutsch_); (2) _Donauisch_ (the printers' language in South
  Germany, but limited to Bavaria and Swabia proper--here more
  particularly the Augsburg idiom, which was considered to be
  particularly _zierlich_);[23] (3) _Höchst Reinisch_, which corresponds
  to Swiss German. Thus in the 16th century Germany was still far from
  real unity in its language; but to judge from the number and the
  geographical position of the towns which printed in _Mitteldeutsch_ it
  is pretty clear which idiom would ultimately predominate. During the
  17th century men like M. Opitz (_Buch von der deutschen Poeterey_) and
  J.G. Schottelius (_Teutsche Sprachkunst_, 1641, and _Von der teutschen
  Sprachkunst_, 1663), together with linguistic societies like the
  _Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft_ and the Nuremberg _Pegnitzorden_, did a
  great deal to purify the German language from foreign (especially
  French) elements; they insisted on the claims of the vernacular to a
  place beside and even above Latin (in 1687 Christian Thomasius held
  for the first time lectures in the German language at the university
  of Leipzig), and they established a firm grammatical basis for
  Luther's common language, which especially in the hymnals had become
  modernized and more uniform. About the middle of the 17th century the
  disparity between the vowels of the singular and plural of the
  preterite of the strong verbs practically ceases; under East Middle
  German influence the final _e_ is restored to words like _Knabe_,
  _Jude_, _Pfaffe_, which in South German had been _Knab_, &c.; the
  mixed declension (_Ehre_, _Ehren_; _Schmerz_, _Schmerzen_) was
  established, and the plural in -_er_ was extended to some masculine
  nouns (_Wald_, _Wälder_);[24] the use of the mutated sound has now
  become the rule as a plural sign (Väter, Bäume). How difficult, even
  in the first half of the 18th century, it was for a Swiss to write the
  literary language which Luther had established is to be seen from the
  often quoted words of Haller (1708-1777): "I am a Swiss, the German
  language is strange to me, and its choice of words was almost unknown
  to me." The Catholic south clung firmly to its own literary language,
  based on the idiom of the imperial chancery, which was still an
  influential force in the 17th century or on local dialects. This is
  apparent in the writings of Abraham a Sancta Clara,[25] who died in
  1709, or in the attacks of the Benedictine monk, Augustin Dornblüth,
  on the _Meissner Schriftsprache_ in 1755.

  In the 18th century, to which these names have introduced us, the
  grammatical writings of J.C. Gottsched (_Deutsche Sprachkunst_, 1748)
  and J.C. Adelung (_Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der hochdeutschen
  Mundart_, 1774-1786) exercised a decisive and far-reaching influence.
  Gottsched took as his basis the spoken language (_Umgangssprache_) of
  the educated classes of Upper Saxony (Meissen), which at this time
  approximated as nearly as possible to the literary language. His
  _Grammar_ did enormous services to the cause of unification,
  ultimately winning over the resisting south; but he carried his purism
  to pedantic lengths, he would tolerate no archaic or dialectical
  words, no unusual forms or constructions, and consequently made the
  language unsuited for poetry. Meanwhile an interest in Old German
  literature was being awakened by Bodmer; Herder set forth better ideas
  on the nature of language, and insisted on the value of native idioms;
  and the _Sturm und Drang_ led by Goethe encouraged all individualistic
  tendencies. All this gave rise to a movement counter to Gottsched's
  absolutism, which resulted in the revival of many obsolete German
  words and forms, these being drawn partly from Luther's Bible
  translation (cf. V. Hehn, "Goethe und die Sprache der Bibel," in the
  _Goethe-Jahrbuch_, viii. p. 187 ff.), partly from the older language
  and partly from the vocabulary peculiar to different social ranks and
  trades.[26] The latter is still a source of linguistic innovations.
  German literary style underwent a similar rejuvenation, for we are on
  the threshold of the second classical period of German literature. It
  had strengthened Gottsched's hand as a linguistic reformer that the
  earlier leaders of German literature, such as Gellert, Klopstock and
  Lessing, were Middle Germans; now Wieland's influence, which was
  particularly strong in South Germany, helped materially towards the
  establishment of one accepted literary language throughout all
  German-speaking countries; and the movement reaches its culmination
  with Goethe and Schiller. At the same time this unification did not
  imply the creation of an unalterable standard; for, just as the
  language of Opitz and Schottelius differed from that of Luther,
  so--although naturally in a lesser degree--the literary language of
  our day differs from that of the classic writers of the 18th century.
  Local peculiarities are still to be met with, as is to be seen in the
  modern German literature that emanates from Switzerland or Austria.

  But this unity, imperfect as it is, is limited to the literary
  language. The differences are much more sharply accentuated in the
  _Umgangssprache_,[27] whereby we understand the language as it is
  spoken by educated people throughout Germany; this is not only the
  case with regard to pronunciation, although it is naturally most
  noticeable here, but also with regard to the choice of words and the
  construction of sentences. Compared with the times of Goethe and
  Schiller a certain advance towards unification has undoubtedly been
  made, but the differences between north and south are still very
  great. This is particularly noticeable in the pronunciation of
  _r_--either the uvular _r_ or the _r_ produced by the tip of the
  tongue; of the voiced and voiceless stops, _b_, _p_, _d_, _t_, _g_ and
  _k_; of the _s_ sounds; of the diphthongs; of the long vowels _e_ and
  _oe_, &c. (cf. W. Vietor, _German Pronunciation_, 2nd ed., 1890). The
  question as to whether a unified pronunciation (_Einheitaussprache_)
  is desirable or even possible has occupied the attention of academies,
  scholars and the educated public during recent years, and in 1898 a
  commission made up of scholars and theatre directors drew up a scheme
  of pronunciation for use in the royal theatres of Prussia.[28] This
  scheme has since been recommended to all German theatres by the German
  _Bühnenverein_. Desirable as such a uniform pronunciation is for the
  national theatre, it is a much debated question how far it should be
  adopted in the ordinary speech of everyday life. Some scholars, such
  as W. Braune, declared themselves strongly in favour of its
  adoption;[29] Braune's argument being that the system of modern
  pronunciation is based on the spelling, not on the sounds produced in
  speaking. The latter, he holds, is only responsible for the
  pronunciation of _-chs-_ as _-ks-_ in _wachsen_, _Ochse_, &c., or for
  that of _sp-_ and _st-_ in _spielen_, _stehen_, &c. Other scholars,
  again, such as K. Luick and O. Brenner, warn against any such attempts
  to create a living language on an artificial basis;[30] the
  _Bühnendeutsch_ or "stage-German" they regard as little more than an
  abstract ideal. Thus the decision must be left to time.

  AUTHORITIES.--_General Literature_: J. Grimm, _Geschichte der
  deutschen Sprache_ (Leipzig, 1848; 4th ed., 1880); W. Scherer, _Zur
  Geschichte der deutschen Sprache_ (Berlin, 1868; 2nd ed., 1878); E.
  Förstemann, _Geschichte des deutschen Sprachstammes_ (Nordhausen,
  1874-1875); O. Behaghel, _Die deutsche Sprache_ (Leipzig, 1886; 2nd
  ed., 1902); the same, "Geschichte der deutschen Sprache," in Paul's
  _Grundriss der germanischen Philologie_ (2nd ed.), i. pp. 650 ff.; O.
  Weise, _Unsere deutsche Sprache, ihr Werden und ihr Wesen_ (Leipzig,
  1898); K. von Raumer, _Geschichte der germanischen Philologie_
  (Munich, 1870); J. Grimm, _Deutsche Grammatik_ (4 vols., vols. i.-iii.
  in new edition, 1870-1890); Dieter, _Laut- und Formenlehre der
  altgermanischen Dialekte_ (2 vols., Leipzig, 1898-1900); F. Kauffmann,
  _Deutsche Grammatik_ (2nd ed., 1895); W. Wilmanns, _Deutsche
  Grammatik_, so far, vols, i., ii. and iii., 1 (Strassburg, 1893-1906,
  vol. i., 2nd ed., 1897); O. Brenner, _Grundzüge der geschichtlichen
  Grammatik der deutschen Sprache_ (Munich, 1896); H. Lichtenberger,
  _Histoire de la langue allemande_ (Paris, 1895).

  _Old and Middle High German Period_: W. Braune, _Althochdeutsche
  Grammatik_ (2nd ed., Halle, 1891); the same, _Abriss der
  althochdeutschen Grammatik_ (3rd ed., 1900); F. Holthausen,
  _Altsächsisches Elementarbuch_ (Heidelberg, 1899); W. Schlüter,
  _Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altsächsichen Sprache_, i.
  (Göttingen, 1892); O. Schade, _Altdeutsches Wörterbuch_ (2nd ed.,
  Halle, 1872-1882); G.E. Graff, _Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz_ (6
  vols., Berlin, 1834-1842) (Index by Massmann, 1846); E. Steinmeyer and
  E. Sievers, _Althochdeutsche Glossen_ (4 vols., Berlin, 1879-1898);
  J.A. Schmeller, _Glossarium Saxonicum_ (Munich, 1840); K. Weinhold,
  _Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik_ (3rd ed., Paderborn, 1892); H. Paul,
  _Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik_ (5th ed., Halle, 1900); V. Michels,
  _Mittelhochdeutsches Elementarbuch_ (Heidelberg, 1900); O. Brenner,
  _Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik_ (3rd ed., Munich, 1894); K. Zwierzina,
  "Mittelhochdeutsche Studien," in _Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum_,
  vols. xliv. and xlv.; A. Lübben, _Mittelniederdeutsche Grammatik_
  (Leipzig, 1882); W. Müller and F. Zarncke, _Mittelhochdeutsches
  Wörterbuch_ (4 vols., Leipzig, 1854-1866); M. Lexer,
  _Mittelhochdeutsches Handwörterbuch_ (3 vols., 1872-1878); the same,
  _Mittelhochdeutsches Taschenwörterbuch_ (8th ed., 1906); K. Schiller
  and A. Lübben, _Mittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch_ (6 vols., Bremen,
  1875-1881); A. Lübben, _Mittelniederdeutsches Handwörterbuch_ (Norden,
  1888); F. Seiler, _Die Entwicklung der deutsch. Kultur im Spiegel des
  deutschen Lehnworts_ (Halle, i., 1895, 2nd ed., 1905, ii., 1900).

  _Modern High German Period_: E. Wülcker, "Die Entstehung der
  kursächsischen Kanzleisprache" (in the _Zeitschrift des Vereins für
  kursächsische Geschichte_, ix. p. 349); the same, "Luthers Stellung
  zur kursächsischen Kanzleisprache" (in _Germania_, xxviii. pp. 191
  ff.); P. Pietsch, _Martin Luther und die hochdeutsche Schriftsprache_
  (Breslau, 1883); K. Burdach, _Die Einigung der neuhochdeutschen
  Schriftsprache_, (1883); E. Opitz, _Die Sprache Luthers_ (Halle,
  1869); J. Luther, _Die Sprache Luthers in der Septemberbibel_ (Halle,
  1887); F. Kluge, _Von Luther bis Lessing_ (Strassburg, 1888) (cf. E.
  Schröder's review in the _Göttinger gelehrte Anzeiger_, 1888, 249); H.
  Rückert, _Geschichte der neuhochdeutschen Schriftsprache bis zur Mitte
  des 18. Jahrhunderts_ (1875): J. Kehrein, _Grammatik der deutschen
  Sprache des 15. bis 17. Jahrhunderts_ (Leipzig, 2nd ed., 1863); K. von
  Bahder, _Grundlagen des neuhochdeutschen Lautsystems_ (Strassburg,
  1890); R. Meyer, _Einführung in das ältere Neuhochdeutsche_ (Leipzig,
  1894); W. Scheel, _Beiträge zur Geschichte der neuhochdeutschen
  Gemeinsprache in Köln_ (Marburg, 1892); R. Brandstetter, _Die
  Rezeption der neuhochdeutschen Schriftsprache in Stadt und Landschaft
  Luzern_ (1892); K. Burdach, "Zur Geschichte der neuhochdeutschen
  Schriftsprache" (_Forschungen zur deutschen Philologie_, 1894); the
  same, "Die Sprache des jungen Goethe" (_Verhandlungen der Dessauer
  Philologenversammlung_, 1884, p. 164 ff.); F. Kasch, _Die Sprache des
  jungen Schiller_ (Dissertation, 1900); F. Kluge, "Über die Entstehung
  unserer Schriftsprache" (Beihefte zur _Zeitschrift des allgemeinen
  Sprachvereins_, Heft 6, 1894); A. Waag, _Bedeutungsentwickelung
  unseres Wortschatzes_ (Lahr, 1901).

  Mention must also be made of the work of the German commission of the
  Royal Prussian Academy, which in 1904 drew up plans for making an
  inventory of all German literary MSS. dating from before the year 1600
  and for the publication of Middle High German and early Modern High
  German texts. This undertaking, which has made considerable progress,
  provides rich material for the study of the somewhat neglected period
  between the 14th and 16th centuries; at the same time it provides a
  basis on which a monumental history of Modern High German may be built
  up, as well as for a _Thesaurus linguae germanicae_.     (R. Pr.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] K. Müllenhoff and W. Scherer, _Denkmäler deutscher Poesie und
    Prosa_, 3rd ed., by E. Steinmeyer, 1892, No. lxvii.

  [2] For a detailed description of the boundary line cf. O. Behaghel's
    article in Paul's _Grundriss_, 2nd ed., pp. 652-657, where there is
    also a map, and a very full bibliography relative to the changes in
    the boundary.

  [3] Cf. J. Grimm, _Deutsche Grammatik_, 3rd ed., i. p. 13; F. Kluge,
    _Etymologisches Wörterbuch_, 6th ed., pp. 75 ff.; K. Luick, "Zur
    Geschichte des Wortes 'deutsch,'" in _Anzeiger für deutsches
    Altertum_, xv., pp. 135, 248; H. Fischer, "Theotiscus, Deutsch," in
    Paul and Braune's _Beiträge_, xviii. p. 203; H. Paul, _Deutsches
    Wörterbuch_ (1897), p. 93.

  [4] Cf. P. Kretschmer, _Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen
    Sprache_ (Göttingen, 1896), who holds the mingling of Celtic and
    Germanic elements in southern and south-western Germany responsible
    for the change. It might also be mentioned here that H. Meyer
    (_Zeitschrift f. deut. Altertum_, xlv. pp. 101 ff.) endeavours to
    explain the first soundshifting by the change of abode of the
    Germanic tribes from the lowlands to the highlands of the Carpathian
    Mountains.

  [5] Of writers who have made extensive use of dialects, it must
    suffice to mention here the names of J.H. Voss, Hebel, Klaus Groth,
    Fritz Reuter, Usteri, G.D. Arnold, Holtei, Castelli, J.G. Seidl and
    Anzengruber, and in our own days G. Hauptmann.

  [6] Cf. F. Staub and L. Tobler, _Schweizerisches Idiotikon_ (1881
    ff.); E. Martin and F. Lienhart, _Wörterbuch der elsässischen
    Mundarten_ (Strassburg, 1899 ff.); H. Fischer, _Schwäbisches
    Wörterbuch_ (Tübingen, 1901 ff.). Earlier works, which are already
    completed, are J.A. Schmeller, _Bayrisches Wörterbuch_ (2nd ed., 2
    vols., Munich, 1872-1877); J.B. Schöpf, _Tiroler Idiotikon_
    (Innsbruck, 1886); M. Lexer, _Kärntisches Wörterbuch_ (1862); H.
    Gradl, _Egerländer Wörterbuch_, i. (Eger, 1883); A.F.C. Vilmar,
    _Idiotikon von Kurhessen_ (Marburg, 1883) (with supplements by H. von
    Pfister); W. Crecelius, _Oberhessisches Wörterbuch_ (Darmstadt,
    1890-1898). Professor J. Franck is responsible for a _Rheinisches
    Wörterbuch_ for the Prussian Academy.

  [7] Cf. the article "Mundarten" by R. Loewe in R. Bethge, _Ergebnisse
    und Fortschritte der germanistischen Wissenschaft_ (Leipzig, 1902),
    pp. 75-88; and F. Mentz, _Bibliographie der deutschen
    Mundartforschung_ (Leipzig, 1892). Of periodicals may be mentioned
    Deutsche Mundarten, by J.W. Nagl (Vienna, 1896 ff.); _Zeitschrift für
    hochdeutsche Mundarten_, by O. Heilig and Ph. Lenz (Heidelberg, 1900
    ff.), continued as _Zeitschrift f. deutsche Mundarten_, Verlag des
    Allgemeinen Deutschen Sprachvereins. Owing to its importance as a
    model for subsequent monographs J. Kinteler's _Die Kerenzer Mundart
    des Kantons Glarus_ (Leipzig, 1876) should not be passed unnoticed.

  [8] Cf. especially H. Tümpel, "Die Mundarten des alten
    niedersächsischen Gebietes zwischen 1300 und 1500" (Paul und Braune's
    Beiträge, vii. pp. 1-104); _Niederdeutsche Studien_, by the same
    writer (Bielefeld, 1898); Bahnke, "Über Sprach- und Gaugrenzen
    zwischen Elbe und Weser" (_Jahrbuch des Vereins für niederdeutsche
    Sprachforschung_, vii. p. 77).

  [9] Upper Saxon and Thuringian are sometimes taken as a separate
    group.

  [10] Cf. W. Braune, "Zur Kenntnis des Fränkischen" (_Beiträge_, i.
    pp. 1-56); O. Böhme, _Zur Kenntnis des Oberfränkischen im 13., 14.
    und 15. Jahrh._ (Dissertation) (Leipzig, 1893), where a good account
    of the differences between the Rhenish Franconian and South
    Franconian dialects will be found.

  [11] Cf. C. Nörrenberg, "Lautverschiebungsstufe des
    Mittelfränkischen" (_Beiträge_, ix. 371 ff.); R. Heinzel, _Geschichte
    der niederfränkischen Geschäftssprache_ (Paderborn, 1874).

  [12] This is also the dialect of the so-called Siebenbürger Sachsen.

  [13] Cf. E. Sievers, _Oxforder Benediktinerregel_ (Halle, 1887), p.
    xvi.; J. Meier, Jolande (1887), pp. vii. ff.; O. Böhme, l.c. p. 60.

  [14] Lower Hesse (the northern and eastern parts) goes, however, in
    many respects its own way.

  [15] On the High German dialects cf. K. Weinhold, _Alemannische
    Grammatik_ (Berlin, 1863); F. Kauffmann, _Geschichte der schwäbischen
    Mundart_ (Strassburg, 1870); E. Haendcke, _Die mundartlichen Elemente
    in den elsässischen Urkunden_ (Strassburg, 1894); K. Weinhold,
    _Bairische Grammatik_ (1867); J.A. Schmeller, _Die Mundarten Baierns_
    (Munich, 1821); J.N. Schwäbl, _Die altbairischen Mundarten_ (München,
    1903); O. Brenner, _Mundarten und Schriftsprache in Bayern_ (Bamberg,
    1890); J. Schatz, _Die Mundart von Imst_ (Strassburg, 1897); J.W.
    Nagl, _Der Vocalismus der bairisch-österreichischen Mundarten_
    (1890-1891); W. Gradl, _Die Mundarten Westböhmens_ (Munich, 1896); P.
    Lessiak, "Die Mundart von Pernegg in Kärnten" (Paul and Braune,
    _Beiträge_, vol. xxviii.).

  [16] Cf., for a hypothesis of two _Umlautsperioden_ during the Old
    High German time, F. Kauffmann, _Geschichte der schwäbischen Mundart_
    (Strassburg, 1890), S. 152.

  [17] Cf. W. Wilmanns, _Deutsche Grammatik_, i. (2nd edition) pp.
    300-304.

  [18] Wilmanns, l.c. pp. 273-280. It might be mentioned that, in
    Modern High German, these new diphthongs are neither in spelling nor
    in educated pronunciation distinguished from the older ones.

  [19] Cf. Wilmanns, pp. 280-284.

  [20] Ibid. pp. 129-132.

  [21] Cf. K. Lachmann, _Kleinere Schriften_, i. p. 161 ff.; Müllenhoff
    and Scherer's _Denkmäler_ (3rd ed.), i. p. xxvii.; H. Paul, _Gab es
    eine mhd. Schriftsprache?_ (Halle, 1873); O. Behaghel, _Zur Frage
    nach einer mhd. Schriftsprache_ (Basel, 1886) (Cf. Paul and Braune's
    _Beiträge_, xiii. p. 464 ff.); A. Socin, _Schriftsprache und
    Dialekte_ (Heilbronn, 1888); H. Fischer, _Zur Geschichte des
    Mittelhochdeutschen_ (Tübingen, 1889); O. Behaghel, _Schriftsprache
    und Mundart_ (Giessen, 1896); K. Zwierzina, _Beobachtungen zum
    Reimgebrauch Hartmanns und Wolframs_ (Haile, 1898); S. Singer, _Die
    mhd. Schriftsprache_ (1900); C. Kraus, _Heinrich von Veldeke und die
    mhd. Dichtersprache_ (Halle, 1899); G. Roethe, _Die Reimvorreden des
    Sachsenspiegels_ (Berlin, 1899); H. Tümpel, _Niederdeutsche Studien_
    (1898).

  [22] For literature bearing on the complicated question of the
    _Druckersprachen_, readers are referred to the article
    "Neuhochdeutsche Schriftsprache," by W. Scheel, in Bethge's
    _Ergebnisse ... der germanistischen Wissenschaft_ (1902), pp. 47, 50
    f. Cf. also K. von Bahder, _Grundlagen des nhd. Lautsystems_ (1890),
    pp. 15 ff.

  [23] A German _Priamel_ mentions as an essential quality in a
    beautiful woman: "die red dort her von Swaben."

  [24] Cf. for a detailed discussion of the noun declension, K.
    Boiunga, _Die Entwicklung der mhd. Substantivflexion_ (Leipzig,
    1890); and, more particularly for the masculine and neuter nouns, two
    articles by H. Molz, "Die Substantivflexion seit mhd. Zeit," in Paul
    and Braune's _Beiträge_, xxvii. p. 209 ff. and xxxi. 277 ff. For the
    changes in the gender of nouns, A. Polzin, _Geschlechtswandel der
    Substantiva im Deutschen_ (Hildesheim, 1903).

  [25] Cf. C. Blanckenburg, _Studien über die Sprache Abrahams a S.
    Clara_ (Halle, 1897); H. Strigl, "Einiges über die Sprache des P.
    Abraham a Sancta Clara" (_Zeitschr. f. deutsche Wortforschung_, viii.
    206 ff.).

  [26] Cf. F. Kluge, _Etymologisches Wörterbuch_ (6th ed.), pp. 508 ff.
    One can speak of: _Studenten-, Soldaten-, Weidmanns-, Bergmanns-,
    Drucker-, Juristen-, und Zigeunersprache, und Rotwelsch_. Cf. F.
    Kluge, _Die deutsche Studentensprache_ (Strassburg, 1894);
    _Rotwelsch_ i. (Strassburg, 1901); R. Bethge, _Ergebnisse_, &c., p.
    55 f.

  [27] Cf. H. Wunderlich, _Unsere Umgangssprache_ (Weimar, 1894).

  [28] Cf. Th. Siebs, _Deutsche Bühnenaussprache_ (2nd ed., Berlin,
    1901), and the same writer's _Grundzüge der Bühnensprache_ (1900).

  [29] W. Braune, _Über die Einigung der deutschen Aussprache_ (Halle,
    1905); and the review by O. Brenner, in the _Zeitschrift des
    allgemeinen deutschen Sprachvereins_, Beihefte iv. 27, pp. 228-232.

  [30] Cf. K. Luick, _Deutsche Lautlehre mit besonderer
    Berücksichtigung der Sprechweise Wiens und der österreichischen
    Alpenländer_ (1904); O. Brenner, "Zur Aussprache des Hochdeutschen"
    l.c., pp. 218-228.



GERMAN LITERATURE. Compared with other literatures, that of the
German-speaking peoples presents a strangely broken and interrupted
course; it falls into more or less isolated groups, separated from each
other by periods which in intellectual darkness and ineptitude are
virtually without a parallel in other European lands. The explanation of
this irregularity of development is to be sought less in the chequered
political history of the German people--although this was often reason
enough--than in the strongly marked, one might almost say, provocative
character of the national mind as expressed in literature. The Germans
were not able, like their partially latinized English cousins--or even
their Scandinavian neighbours--to adapt themselves to the various waves
of literary influence which emanated from Italy and France and spread
with irresistible power over all Europe; their literary history has been
rather a struggle for independent expression, a constant warring against
outside forces, even when the latter--like the influence of English
literature in the 18th century and of Scandinavian at the close of the
19th--were hailed as friendly and not hostile. It is a peculiarity of
German literature that in those ages when, owing to its own poverty and
impotence, it was reduced to borrowing its ideas and its poetic forms
from other lands, it sank to the most servile imitation; while the first
sign of returning health has invariably been the repudiation of foreign
influence and the assertion of the right of genius to untrammelled
expression. Thus Germany's periods of literary efflorescence rarely
coincide with those of other nations, and great European movements, like
the Renaissance, passed over her without producing a single great poet.

This chequered course, however, renders the grouping of German
literature and the task of the historian the easier. The first and
simplest classification is that afforded by the various stages of
linguistic development. In accordance with the three divisions in the
history of the High German language, there is an Old High German, a
Middle High German and a New High German or Modern High German literary
epoch. It is obvious, however, that the last of these divisions covers
too enormous a period of literary history to be regarded as analogous to
the first two. The present survey is consequently divided into six main
sections:

I. The Old High German Period, including the literature of the Old Saxon
dialect, from the earliest times to the middle of the 11th century.

II. The Middle High German Period, from the middle of the 11th to the
middle of the 14th century.

III. The Transition Period, from the middle of the 14th century to the
Reformation in the 16th century.

IV. The Period of Renaissance and Pseudo-classicism, from the end of the
16th century to the middle of the 18th.

V. The Classical Period of Modern German literature, from the middle of
the 18th century to Goethe's death in 1832.

VI. The Period from Goethe's death to the present day.


I. THE OLD HIGH GERMAN PERIOD (c. 750-1050)

Of all the Germanic races, the tribes with which we have more
particularly to deal here were the latest to attain intellectual
maturity. The Goths had, centuries earlier, under their famous bishop
Ulfilas or Wulfila, possessed the Bible in their vernacular, the
northern races could point to their _Edda_, the Germanic tribes in
England to a rich and virile Old English poetry, before a written German
literature of any consequence existed at all. At the same time, these
continental tribes, in the epoch that lay between the Migrations of the
5th century and the age of Charles the Great, were not without poetic
literature of a kind, but it was not committed to writing, or, at least,
no record of such a poetry has come down to us. Its existence is vouched
for by indirect historical evidence, and by the fact that the sagas, out
of which the German national epic was welded at a later date, originated
in the great upheaval of the 5th century. When the vernacular literature
began to emerge from an unwritten state in the 8th century, it proved to
be merely a weak reflection of the ecclesiastical writings of the
monasteries; and this, with very few exceptions, Old High German
literature remained. Translations of the liturgy, of Tatian's _Gospel
Harmony_ (c. 835), of fragments of sermons, form a large proportion of
it. Occasionally, as in the so-called _Monsee Fragments_, and at the end
of the period, in the prose of Notker Labeo (d. 1022), this
ecclesiastical literature attains a surprising maturity of style and
expression. But it had no vitality of its own; it virtually sprang into
existence at the command of Charlemagne, whose policy with regard to the
use of the vernacular in place of Latin was liberal and far-seeing; and
it docilely obeyed the tastes of the rulers that followed, becoming
severely orthodox under Louis the Pious, and consenting to immediate
extinction when the Saxon emperors withdrew their favour from it. Apart
from a few shorter poetic fragments of interest, such as the _Merseburg
Charms_ (_Zaubersprüche_), an undoubted relic of pre-Christian times,
the _Wessobrunn Prayer_ (c. 780), the _Muspilli_, an imaginative
description of the Day of Judgment, and the _Ludwigslied_ (881), which
may be regarded as the starting point for the German historical ballad,
the only High German poem of importance in this early period was the
_Gospel Book_ (_Liber evangeliorum_) of Otfrid of Weissenburg (c.
800-870). Even this work is more interesting as the earliest attempt to
supersede alliteration in German poetry by rhyme, than for such poetic
life as the monk of Weissenburg was able to instil into his narrative.
In fact, for the only genuine poetry of this epoch we have to look, not
to the High German but to the Low German races. They alone seemed able
to give literary expression to the memories handed down in oral
tradition from the 5th century; to Saxon tradition we owe the earliest
extant fragment of a national saga, the _Lay of Hildebrand_
(_Hildebrandslied_, c. 800), and a Saxon poet was the author of a
vigorous alliterative version of the Gospel story, the _Heliand_ (c.
830), and also of part of the Old Testament (_Genesis_). This
alliterative epic--for epic it may be called--is the one poem of this
age in which the Christian tradition has been adapted to German poetic
needs. Of the existence of a lyric poetry we only know by hearsay; and
the drama had nowhere in Europe yet emerged from its earliest purely
liturgic condition. Such as it was, the vernacular literature of the Old
High German period enjoyed but a brief existence, and in the 10th and
11th centuries darkness again closed over it. The dominant "German"
literature in these centuries is in Latin; but that literature is not
without national interest, for it shows in what direction the German
mind was moving. The _Lay of Walter_ (_Waltharilied_, c. 930), written
in elegant hexameters by Ekkehard of St Gall, the moralizing dramas of
Hrosvitha (Roswitha) of Gandersheim, the _Ecbasis captivi_ (c. 940),
earliest of all the Beast epics, and the romantic adventures of
_Ruodlieb_ (c. 1030), form a literature which, Latin although it is,
foreshadows the future developments of German poetry.


II. THE MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN PERIOD (1050-1350)

(a) _Early Middle High German Poetry._--The beginnings of Middle High
German literature were hardly less tentative than those of the preceding
period. The Saxon emperors, with their Latin and even Byzantine tastes,
had made it extremely difficult to take up the thread where Notker let
it drop. Williram of Ebersberg, the commentator of the _Song of Songs_
(c. 1063), did certainly profit by Notker's example, but he stands
alone. The Church had no helping hand to offer poetry, as in the more
liberal epoch of the great Charles; for, at the middle of the 11th
century, when the linguistic change from Old to Middle High German was
taking place, a movement of religious asceticism, originating in the
Burgundian monastery of Cluny, spread across Europe, and before long all
the German peoples fell under its influence. For a century there was no
room for any literature that did not place itself unreservedly at the
service of the Church, a service which meant the complete abnegation of
the brighter side of life. Repellent in their asceticism are, for
instance, poems like _Memento mori_ (c. 1050), _Vom Glauben_, a verse
commentary on the creed by a monk Hartmann (c. 1120), and a poem on "the
remembrance of death" (_Von des todes gehugede_) by Heinreich von Melk
(c. 1150); only rarely, as in a few narrative Poems on Old Testament
subjects, are the poets of this time able to forget for a time their
lugubrious faith. In the _Ezzolied_ (c. 1060), a spirited lay by a monk
of Bamberg on the life, miracles and death of Christ, and in the
_Annolied_ (c. 1080), a poem in praise of the archbishop Anno of
Cologne, we find, however, some traces of a higher poetic imagination.

The transition from this rigid ecclesiastic spirit to a freer, more
imaginative literature is to be seen in the lyric poetry inspired by the
Virgin, in the legends of the saints which bulk so largely in the poetry
of the 12th century, and in the general trend towards mysticism.
Andreas, Pilatus, Aegidius, Albanius are the heroes of monkish romances
of that age, and the stories of Sylvester and Crescentia form the most
attractive parts of the _Kaiserchronik_ (c. 1130-1150), a long, confused
chronicle of the world which contains many elements common to later
Middle High German poetry. The national sagas, of which the poet of the
_Kaiserchronik_ had not been oblivious, soon began to assert themselves
in the popular literature. The wandering _Spielleute_, the lineal
descendants of the jesters and minstrels of the dark ages, who were now
rapidly becoming a factor of importance in literature, were here the
innovators; to them we owe the romance of _König Rother_ (c. 1160), and
the kindred stories of _Orendel_, _Oswald_ and _Salomon und Markolf_
(_Salman und Morolf_). All these poems bear witness to a new element,
which in these years kindled the German imagination and helped to
counteract the austerity of the religious faith--the Crusades. With what
alacrity the Germans revelled in the wonderland of the East is to be
seen especially in the _Alexanderlied_ (c. 1130), and in _Herzog Ernst_
(c. 1180), romances which point out the way to another important
development of German medieval literature, the Court epic. The latter
type of romance was the immediate product of the social conditions
created by chivalry and, like chivalry itself, was determined and
influenced by its French origin; so also was the version of the _Chanson
de Roland_ (_Rolandslied_, c. 1135), which we owe to another priest,
Konrad of Regensburg, who, with considerable probability, has been
identified with the author of the _Kaiserchronik_.

The Court epic was, however, more immediately ushered in by Eilhart von
Oberge, a native of the neighbourhood of Hildesheim who, in his
_Tristant_ (c. 1170), chose that Arthurian type of romance which from
now on was especially cultivated by the poets of the Court epic; and of
equally early origin is a knightly romance of _Floris und Blancheflur_,
another of the favourite love stories of the middle ages. In these
years, too, the Beast epic, which had been represented by the Latin
_Ecbasis captivi_, was reintroduced into Germany by an Alsatian monk,
Heinrich der Glichezære, who based his _Reinhart Fuchs_ (c. 1180) on the
French _Roman de Renart_. Lastly, we have to consider the beginning of
the _Minnesang_, or lyric, which in the last decades of the 12th century
burst out with extraordinary vigour in Austria and South Germany. The
origins are obscure, and it is still debatable how much in the German
Minnesang is indigenous and national, how much due to French and
Provençal influence; for even in its earliest phases the Minnesang
reveals correspondences with the contemporary lyric of the south of
France. The freshness and originality of the early South German singers,
such as Kürenberg, Dietmar von Eist, the Burggraf of Rietenburg and
Meinloh von Sevelingen, are not, however, to be questioned; in spite of
foreign influence, their verses make the impression of having been a
spontaneous expression of German lyric feeling in the 12th century. The
_Spruchdichtung_, a form of poetry which in this period is represented
by at least two poets who call themselves Herger and "Der Spervogel,"
was less dependent on foreign models; the pointed and satirical strophes
of these poets were the forerunners of a vast literature which did not
reach its highest development until after literature had passed from the
hands of the noble-born knight to those of the burgher of the towns.

(b) _The Flourishing of Middle High German Poetry._--Such was the
preparation for the extraordinarily brilliant, although brief epoch of
German medieval poetry, which corresponded to the reigns of the
Hohenstaufen emperors, Frederick I. Barbarossa, Henry VI. and Frederick
II. These rulers, by their ambitious political aspirations and
achievements, filled the German peoples with a sense of "world-mission,"
as the leading political power in medieval Europe. Docile pupils of
French chivalry, the Germans had no sooner learned their lesson than
they found themselves in the position of being able to dictate to the
world of chivalry. In the same way, the German poets, who, in the 12th
century, had been little better than clumsy translators of French
romances, were able, at the beginning of the 13th, to substitute for
French _chansons de geste_ epics based on national sagas, to put a
completely German imprint on the French Arthurian romance, and to sing
German songs before which even the lyric of Provence paled. National
epic, Court epic and Minnesang--these three types of medieval German
literature, to which may be added as a subordinate group didactic
poetry, comprise virtually all that has come down to us in the Middle
High German tongue. A Middle High German prose hardly existed, and the
drama, such as it was, was still essentially Latin.

The first place among the National or Popular epics belongs to the
_Nibelungenlied_, which received its present form in Austria about the
turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. Combining, as it does, elements
from various cycles of sagas--the lower Rhenish legend of Siegfried, the
Burgundian saga of Gunther and Hagen, the Gothic saga of Dietrich and
Etzel--it stands out as the most representative epic of German medieval
life. And in literary power, dramatic intensity and singleness of
purpose its eminence is no less unique. The vestiges of gradual
growth--of irreconcilable elements imperfectly welded together--may not
have been entirely effaced, but they in no way lessen the impression of
unity which the poem leaves behind it; whoever the welder of the sagas
may have been, he was clearly a poet of lofty imagination and high epic
gifts (see NIBELUNGENLIED). Less imposing as a whole, but in parts no
less powerful in its appeal to the modern mind, is the second of the
German national epics, _Gudrun_, which was written early in the 13th
century. This poem, as it has come down to us, is the work of an
Austrian, but the subject belongs to a cycle of sagas which have their
home on the shores of the North Sea. It seems almost a freak of chance
that Siegfried, the hero of the Rhineland, should occupy so prominent a
position in the _Nibelungenlied_, whereas Dietrich von Bern (i.e. of
Verona), the name under which Theodoric the Great had been looked up to
for centuries by the German people as their national hero, should have
left the stamp of his personality on no single epic of the intrinsic
worth of the _Nibelungenlied_. He appears, however, more or less in the
background of a number of romances--_Die Rabenschlacht_, _Dietrichs
Flucht_, _Alpharts Tod_, _Biterolf und Dietlieb_, _Laurin_, &c.--which
make up what is usually called the _Heldenbuch_. It is tempting, indeed,
to see in this very unequal collection the basis for what, under more
favourable circumstances, might have developed into an epic even more
completely representative of the German nation than the
_Nibelungenlied_.

While the influence of the romance of chivalry is to be traced on all
these popular epics, something of the manlier, more primitive ideals
that animated German national poetry passed over to the second great
group of German medieval poetry, the Court epic. The poet who, following
Eilhart von Oberge's tentative beginnings, established the Court epic in
Germany was Heinrich von Veldeke, a native of the district of the lower
Rhine; his _Eneit_, written between 1173 and 1186, is based on a French
original. Other poets of the time, such as Herbort von Fritzlar, the
author of a _Liet von Troye_, followed Heinrich's example, and selected
French models for German poems on antique themes; while Albrecht von
Halberstadt translated about the year 1210 the _Metamorphoses_ of Ovid
into German verse. With the three masters of the Court epic, Hartmann
von Aue, Wolfram von Eschenbach and Gottfried von Strassburg--all of
them contemporaries--the Arthurian cycle became the recognized theme of
this type of romance, and the accepted embodiment of the ideals of the
knightly classes. Hartmann was a Swabian, Wolfram a Bavarian, Gottfried
presumably a native of Strassburg. Hartmann, who in his _Erec_ and
_Iwein_, _Gregorius_ and _Der arme Heinrich_ combined a tendency towards
religious asceticism with a desire to imbue the worldly life of the
knight with a moral and religious spirit, provided the Court epic of the
age with its best models; he had, of all the medieval court poets, the
most delicate sense for the formal beauty of poetry, for language, verse
and style. Wolfram and Gottfried, on the other hand, represent two
extremes of poetic temperament. Wolfram's _Parzival_ is filled with
mysticism and obscure spiritual significance; its flashes of humour
irradiate, although they can hardly be said to illumine, the gloom; its
hero is, unconsciously, a symbol and allegory of much which to the poet
himself must have been mysterious and inexplicable; in other words,
_Parzival_--and Wolfram's other writings, _Willehalm_ and _Titurel_,
point in the same direction--is an instinctive or, to use Schiller's
word, a "naïve" work of genius. Gottfried, again, is hardly less gifted
and original, but he is a poet of a wholly different type. His _Tristan_
is even more lucid than Hartmann's _Iwein_, his art is more objective;
his delight in it is that of the conscious artist who sees his work
growing under his hands. Gottfried's poem, in other words, is free from
the obtrusion of those subjective elements which are in so high a degree
characteristic of _Parzival_; in spite of the tragic character of the
story, _Tristan_ is radiant and serene, and yet uncontaminated by that
tone of frivolity which the Renaissance introduced into love stories of
this kind.

_Parzival_ and _Tristan_ are the two poles of the German Court epic, and
the subsequent development of that epic stands under the influence of
the three poets, Hartmann, Wolfram and Gottfried; according as the poets
of the 13th century tend to imitate one or other of these, they fall
into three classes. To the followers and imitators of Hartmann belong
Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, the author of a _Lanzelet_ (c. 1195); Wirnt von
Gravenberg, a Bavarian, whose _Wigalois_ (c. 1205) shows considerable
imaginative power; the versatile Spielmann, known as "Der Stricker"; and
Heinrich von dem Türlin, author of an unwieldy epic, _Die Krone_ ("the
crown of all adventures," c. 1220). The fascination of Wolfram's
mysticism is to be seen in _Der jüngere Titurel_ of a Bavarian poet,
Albrecht von Scharfenberg (c. 1270), and in the still later _Lohengrin_
of an unknown poet; whereas Gottfried von Strassburg dominates the
_Flore und Blanscheflur_ of Konrad Fleck (c. 1220) and the voluminous
romances of the two chief poets of the later 13th century, Rudolf von
Ems, who died in 1254, and Konrad von Würzburg, who lived till 1287. Of
these, Konrad alone carried on worthily the traditions of the great age,
and even his art, which excels within the narrow limits of romances like
_Die Herzemoere_ and _Engelhard_, becomes diffuse and wearisome on the
unlimited canvas of _Der Trojanerkrieg_ and _Partonopier und Meliur_.

The most conspicuous changes which came over the narrative poetry of the
13th century were, on the one hand, a steady encroachment of realism on
the matter and treatment of the epic, and, on the other, a leaning to
didacticism. The substitution of the "history" of the chronicle for the
confessedly imaginative stories of the earlier poets is to be seen in
the work of Rudolf von Ems, and of a number of minor chroniclers like
Ulrich von Eschenbach, Berthold von Holle and Jans Enikel; while for the
growth of realism we may look to the _Pfaffe Amis_, a collection of
comic anecdotes by "Der Stricker," the admirable peasant romance _Meier
Helmbrecht_, written between 1236 and 1250 by Wernher der Gartenaere in
Bavaria, and to the adventures of Ulrich von Lichtenstein, as described
in his _Frauendienst_ (1255) and _Frauenbuch_ (1257).

More than any single poet of the Court epic, more even than the poet of
the _Nibelungenlied_, Walther von der Vogelweide summed up in himself
all that was best in the group of poetic literature with which he was
associated--the Minnesang. The early Austrian singers already mentioned,
poets like Heinrich von Veldeke, who in his lyrics, as in his epic,
introduced the French conception of _Minne_, or like the manly Friedrich
von Hausen, and the Swiss imitator of Provençal measures, Rudolf von
Fenis appear only in the light of forerunners. Even more original
poets, like Heinrich von Morungen and Walther's own master, Reinmar von
Hagenau, the author of harmonious but monotonously elegiac verses, or
among immediate contemporaries, Hartmann von Aue and Wolfram von
Eschenbach, whose few lyric strophes are as deeply stamped with his
individuality as his epics--seem only tributary to the full rich stream
of Walther's genius. There was not a form of the German Minnesang which
Walther did not amplify and deepen; songs of courtly love and lowly
love, of religious faith and delight in nature, patriotic songs and
political _Sprüche_--in all he was a master. Of Walther's life we are
somewhat better informed than in the case of his contemporaries: he was
born about 1170 and died about 1230; his art he learned in Austria,
whereupon he wandered through South Germany, a welcome guest wherever he
went, although his vigorous championship of what he regarded as the
national cause in the political struggles of the day won him foes as
well as friends. For centuries he remained the accepted exemplar of
German lyric poetry; not merely the Minnesänger who followed him, but
also the Meistersinger of the 15th and 16th centuries looked up to him
as one of the founders and lawgivers of their art. He was the most
influential of all Germany's lyric poets, and in the breadth,
originality and purity of his inspiration one of her greatest (see
WALTHER VON DER VOGELWEIDE).

The development of the German Minnesang after Walther's death and under
his influence is easily summed up. Contemporaries had been impressed by
the dual character of Walther's lyric; they distinguished a higher
courtly lyric, and a lower more outspoken form of song, free from the
constraint of social or literary conventions. The later Minnesang
emphasized this dualism. Amongst Walther's immediate contemporaries,
high-born poets, whose lives were passed at courts, naturally cultivated
the higher lyric; but the more gifted and original singers of the time
rejoiced in the freedom of Walther's poetry of _niedere Minne_. It was,
in fact, in accordance with the spirit of the age that the latter should
have been Walther's most valuable legacy to his successors; and the
greatest of these, Neidhart von Reuental (c. 1180-c. 1250), certainly
did not allow himself to be hampered by aristocratic prejudices.
Neidhart sought the themes of his _höfische Dorfpoesie_ in the village,
and, as the mood happened to dictate, depicted the peasant with humorous
banter or biting satire. The lyric poets of the later 13th century were
either, like Burkart von Hohenfels, Ulrich von Winterstetten and
Gottfried von Neifen, echoes of Walther von der Vogelweide and of
Neidhart, or their originality was confined to some particular form of
lyric poetry in which they excelled. Thus the singer known as "Der
Tannhäuser" distinguished himself as an imitator of the French
_pastourelle_; Reinmar von Zweter was purely a _Spruchdichter_. More or
less common to all is the consciousness that their own ideas and
surroundings were no longer in harmony with the aristocratic world of
chivalry, which the poets of the previous generation had glorified. The
solid advantages, material prosperity and increasing comfort of life in
the German towns appealed to poets like Steinmar von Klingenau more than
the unworldly ideals of self-effacing knighthood which Ulrich von
Lichtenstein and Johann Hadlaub of Zürich clung to so tenaciously and
extolled so warmly. On the whole, the Spruchdichter came best out of
this ordeal of changing fashions; and the increasing interest in the
moral and didactic applications of literature favoured the development
of this form of verse. The confusion of didactic purpose with the lyric
is common to all the later poetry, to that of the learned Marner, of
Boppe, Rumezland and Heinrich von Meissen, who was known to later
generations as "Frauenlob." The _Spruchdichtung_, in fact, was one of
the connecting links between the Minnesang of the 13th and the lyric and
satiric poetry of the 15th and 16th centuries.

The disturbing and disintegrating element in the literature of the 13th
century was thus the substitution of a utilitarian didacticism for the
idealism of chivalry. In the early decades of that century, poems like
_Der Winsbeke_, by a Bavarian, and _Der welsche Gast_, written in
1215-1216 by Thomasin von Zirclaere (Zirclaria), a native of Friuli,
still teach with uncompromising idealism the duties and virtues of the
knightly life. But in the _Bescheidenheit_ (c. 1215-1230) of a wandering
singer, who called himself Freidank, we find for the first time an
active antagonism to the unworldly code of chivalry and an unmistakable
reflection of the changing social order, brought about by the rise of
what we should now call the middle class. Freidank is the spokesman of
the _Bürger_, and in his terse, witty verses may be traced the germs of
German intellectual and literary development in the coming
centuries--even of the Reformation itself. From the advent of Freidank
onwards, the satiric and didactic poetry went the way of the epic; what
it gained in quantity it lost in quality and concentration. The satires
associated with the name of Seifried Helbling, an Austrian who wrote in
the last fifteen years of the 13th century, and _Der Renner_ by Hugo von
Trimberg, written at the very end of the century, may be taken as
characteristic of the later period, where terseness and incisive wit
have given place to diffuse moralizing and allegory.

There is practically no Middle High German literature in prose; such
prose as has come down to us--the tracts of David of Augsburg, the
powerful sermons of Berthold von Regensburg (d. 1272), Germany's
greatest medieval preacher, and several legal codes, as the
_Sachsenspiegel_ and _Schwabenspiegel_--only prove that the Germans of
the 13th century had not yet realized the possibilities of prose as a
medium of literary expression.


III. THE TRANSITION PERIOD (1350-1600)

(a) _The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries._--As is the case with all
transitional periods of literary history, this epoch of German
literature may be considered under two aspects: on the one hand, we may
follow in it the decadence and disintegration of the literature of the
Middle High German period; on the other, we may study the beginnings of
modern forms of poetry and the preparation of that spiritual revolution,
which meant hardly less to the Germanic peoples than the Renaissance to
the Latin races--the Protestant Reformation.

By the middle of the 14th century, knighthood with its chivalric ideals
was rapidly declining, and the conditions under which medieval poetry
had flourished were passing away. The social change rendered the courtly
epic of Arthur's Round Table in great measure incomprehensible to the
younger generation, and made it difficult for them to understand the
spirit that actuated the heroes of the national epic; the tastes to
which the lyrics of the great Minnesingers had appealed were vitiated by
the more practical demands of the rising middle classes. But the stories
of chivalry still appealed as stories to the people, although the old
way of telling them was no longer appreciated. The feeling for beauty of
form and expression was lost; the craving for a moral purpose and
didactic aim had to be satisfied at the cost of artistic beauty; and
sensational incident was valued more highly than fine character-drawing
or inspired poetic thought. Signs of the decadence are to be seen in the
_Karlmeinet_ of this period, stories from the youth of Charlemagne, in a
continuation of _Parzival_ by two Alsatians, Claus Wisse and Philipp
Colin (c. 1335), in an _Apollonius von Tyrus_ by Heinrich von Neuenstadt
(c. 1315), and a _Königstochter von Frankreich_ by Hans von Bühel (c.
1400). The story of Siegfried was retold in a rough ballad, _Das Lied
von hürnen Seyfried_, the _Heldenbuch_ was recast in _Knittelvers_ or
doggerel (1472), and even the Arthurian epic was parodied. A no less
marked symptom of decadence is to be seen in a large body of allegorical
poetry analogous to the _Roman de la rose_ in France; Heinzelein of
Constance, at the end of the 13th, and Hadamar von Laber and Hermann von
Sachsenheim, about the middle of the 15th century, were representatives
of this movement. As time went on, prose versions of the old stories
became more general, and out of these developed the _Volksbücher_, such
as _Loher und Maller_, _Die Haimonskinder_, _Die schöne Magelone_,
_Melusine_, which formed the favourite reading of the German people for
centuries. As the last monuments of the decadent narrative literature of
the middle ages, we may regard the _Buch der Abenteuer_ of Ulrich
Füetrer, written at the end of the 15th century, and _Der Weisskönig_
and _Teuerdank_ by the emperor Maximilian I. (1459-1519) printed in the
early years of the 16th. At the beginning of the new epoch the Minnesang
could still point to two masters able to maintain the great traditions
of the 13th century, Hugo von Montfort (1357-1423) and Oswald von
Wolkenstein (1367-1445); but as the lyric passed into the hands of the
middle-class poets of the German towns, it was rapidly shorn of its
essentially lyric qualities; _die Minne_ gave place to moral and
religious dogmatism, emphasis was laid on strict adherence to the rules
of composition, and the simple forms of the older lyric were superseded
by ingenious metrical distortions. Under the influence of writers like
Heinrich von Meissen ("Frauenlob," c. 1250-1318) and Heinrich von Mügeln
in the 14th century, like Muskatblut and Michael Beheim (1416-c. 1480)
in the 15th, the Minnesang thus passed over into the Meistergesang. In
the later 15th and in the 16th centuries all the south German towns
possessed flourishing Meistersinger schools in which the art of writing
verse was taught and practised according to complicated rules, and it
was the ambition of every gifted citizen to rise through the various
grades from _Schüler_ to _Meister_ and to distinguish himself in the
"singing contests" instituted by the schools.

Such are the decadent aspects of the once rich literature of the Middle
High German period in the 14th and 15th centuries. Turning now to the
more positive side of the literary movement, we have to note a revival
of a popular lyric poetry--the Volkslied--which made the futility and
artificiality of the Meistergesang more apparent. Never before or since
has Germany been able to point to such a rich harvest of popular poetry
as is to be seen in the Volkslieder of these two centuries. Every form
of popular poetry is to be found here--songs of love and war, hymns and
drinking-songs, songs of spring and winter, historical ballads, as well
as lyrics in which the old motives of the Minnesang reappear stripped of
all artificiality. More obvious ties with the literature of the
preceding age are to be seen in the development of the _Schwank_ or
comic anecdote. Collections of such stories, which range from the
practical jokes of _Till Eulenspiegel_ (1515), and the coarse witticisms
of the _Pfaffe vom Kalenberg_ (end of 14th century) and _Peter Leu_
(1550), to the religious and didactic anecdotes of J. Pauli's _Schimpf
und Ernst_ (1522) or the more literary _Rollwagenbüchlein_ (1555) of
Jörg Wickram and the _Wendunmut_ (1563 ff.) of H.W. Kirchhoff--these
dominate in large measure the literature of the 15th and 16th centuries;
they are the literary descendants of the medieval _Pfaffe Amis_,
_Markolf_ and _Reinhart Fuchs_. An important development of this type of
popular literature is to be seen in the _Narrenschiff_ of Sebastian
Brant (1457-1521), where the humorous anecdote became a vehicle of the
bitterest satire; Brant's own contempt for the vulgarity of the
ignorant, and the deep, unsatisfied craving of all strata of society for
a wider intellectual horizon and a more humane and dignified life, to
which Brant gave voice, make the _Narrenschiff_, which appeared in 1494,
a landmark on the way that led to the Reformation. Another form--the
Beast fable and Beast epic--which is but sparingly represented in
earlier times, appealed with peculiar force to the new generation. At
the very close of the Middle High German period, Ulrich Boner had
revived the Aesopic fable in his _Edelstein_ (1349), translations of
Aesop in the following century added to the popularity of the fable
(q.v.), and in the century of the Reformation it became, in the hands of
Burkard Waldis (_Esopus_, 1548) and Erasmus Alberus (_Buch von der
Tugend und Weisheit_, 1550), a favourite instrument of satire and
polemic. A still more attractive form of the Beast fable was the epic of
_Reinke de Vos_, which had been cultivated by Flemish poets in the 13th
and 14th centuries and has come down to us in a Low Saxon translation,
published at Lübeck in 1498. This, too, like Brant's poem, is a powerful
satire on human folly, and is also, like the _Narrenschiff_, a harbinger
of the coming Reformation.

A complete innovation was the drama (q.v.), which, as we have seen, had
practically no existence in Middle High German times. As in all European
literatures, it emerged slowly and with difficulty from its original
subservience to the church liturgy. As time went on, the vernacular was
substituted for the original Latin, and with increasing demands for
pageantry, the scene of the play was removed to the churchyard or the
market-place; thus the opportunity arose in the 14th and 15th centuries
for developing the _Weihnachtsspiel_, _Osterspiel_ and _Passionsspiel_
on secular lines. The enlargement of the scope of the religious play to
include legends of the saints implied a further step in the direction of
a complete separation of the drama from ecclesiastical ceremony. The
most interesting example of this encroachment of the secular spirit is
the _Spiel von Frau Jutten_--Jutta being the notorious Pope Joan--by an
Alsatian, Dietrich Schernberg, in 1480. Meanwhile, in the 15th century,
a beginning had been made of a drama entirely independent of the church.
The mimic representations--originally allegorical in character--with
which the people amused themselves at the great festivals of the year,
and more especially in spring, were interspersed with dialogue, and
performed on an improvised stage. This was the beginning of the
_Fastnachtsspiel_ or Shrovetide-play, the subject of which was a comic
anecdote similar to those of the many collections of _Schwänke_. Amongst
the earliest cultivators of the _Fastnachtsspiel_ were Hans Rosenplüt
(fl. c. 1460) and Hans Folz (fl. c. 1510), both of whom were associated
with Nuremberg.

(b) _The Age of the Reformation._--Promising as were these literary
beginnings of the 15th century, the real significance of the period in
Germany's intellectual history is to be sought outside literature,
namely, in two forces which immediately prepared the way for the
Reformation--mysticism and humanism. The former of these had been a more
or less constant factor in German religious thought throughout the
middle ages, but with Meister Eckhart (? 1260-1327), the most powerful
and original of all the German mystics, with Heinrich Seuse or Suso (c.
1300-1366), and Johannes Tauler (c. 1300-1361), it became a clearly
defined mental attitude towards religion; it was an essentially personal
interpretation of Christianity, and, as such, was naturally conducive to
the individual freedom which Protestantism ultimately realized. It is
thus not to be wondered at that we should owe the early translations of
the Bible into German--one was printed at Strassburg in 1466--to the
mystics. Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg (1445-1510), a pupil of the
humanists and a friend of Sebastian Brant, may be regarded as a link
between Eckhart and the earlier mysticists and Luther. Humanism was
transplanted to German soil with the foundation of the university of
Prague in 1348, and it made even greater strides than mysticism. Its
immediate influence, however, was restricted to the educated classes;
the pre-Reformation humanists despised the vernacular and wrote and
thought only in Latin. Thus although neither Johann Reuchlin of
Pforzheim (1455-1522), nor even the patriotic Alsatian, Jakob Wimpfeling
(or Wimpheling) (1450-1528)--not to mention the great Dutch humanist
Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536)--has a place in the history of German
literature, their battle for liberalism in thought and scholarship
against the narrow orthodoxy of the Church cleared the way for a healthy
national literature among the German-speaking peoples. The incisive wit
and irony of humanistic satire--we need only instance the _Epistolae
obscurorum virorum_ (1515-1517)--prevented the German satirists of the
Reformation age from sinking entirely into that coarse brutality to
which they were only too prone. To the influence of the humanists we
also owe many translations from the Latin and Italian dating from the
15th century. Prominent among the writers who contributed to the group
of literature were Niklas von Wyl, chancellor of Württemberg, and his
immediate contemporary Albrecht von Eyb (1420-1475).

Martin Luther (1483-1546), Germany's greatest man in this age of
intellectual new-birth, demands a larger share of attention in a survey
of literature than his religious and ecclesiastical activity would in
itself justify, if only because the literary activity of the age cannot
be regarded apart from him. From the Volkslied and the popular _Schwank_
to satire and drama, literature turned exclusively round the Reformation
which had been inaugurated on the 31st of October 1517 by Luther's
publication of the _Theses against Indulgences_ in Wittenberg. In his
three tracts, _An den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation_, _De
captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae_, and _Von der Freiheit eines
Christenmenschen_ (1520), Luther laid down his principles of reform, and
in the following year resolutely refused to recant his heresies in a
dramatic scene before the Council of Worms. Luther's Bible (1522-1534)
had unique importance not merely for the religious and intellectual
welfare of the German people, but also for their literature. It is in
itself a literary monument, a German classic, and the culmination and
justification of that movement which had supplanted the medieval knight
by the burgher and swept away Middle High German poetry. Luther, well
aware that his translation of the Bible must be the keystone to his
work, gave himself endless pains to produce a thoroughly German
work--German both in language and in spirit. It was important that the
dialect into which the Bible was translated should be comprehensible
over as wide an area as possible of the German-speaking world, and for
this reason he took all possible care in choosing the vocabulary and
forms of his _Gemeindeutsch_. The language of the Saxon chancery thus
became, thanks to Luther's initiative, the basis of the modern High
German literary language. As a hymn-writer (_Geistliche Lieder_, 1564),
Luther was equally mindful of the importance of adapting himself to the
popular tradition; and his hymns form the starting-point for a vast
development of German religious poetry which did not reach its highest
point until the following century.

The most powerful and virile literature of this age was the satire with
which the losing side retaliated on the Protestant leaders. Amongst
Luther's henchmen, Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560), the "praeceptor
Germaniae," and Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523) were powerful allies in
the cause, but their intellectual sympathies were with the Latin
humanists; and with the exception of some vigorous German prose and
still more vigorous German verse by Hutten, both wrote in Latin. The
satirical dramas of Niklas Manuel, a Swiss writer and the polemical
fables of Erasmus Alberus (c. 1500-1553), on the other hand, were
insignificant compared with the fierce assault on Protestantism by the
Alsatian monk, Thomas Murner (1475-1537). The most unscrupulous of all
German satirists, Murner shrank from no extremes of scurrility, his
attacks on Luther reaching their culmination in the gross personalities
of _Von dem lutherischen Narren_ (1522). It was not until the following
generation that the Protestant party could point to a satirist who in
genius and power was at all comparable to Murner, namely, to Johann
Fischart (c. 1550-c. 1591); but when Fischart's Rabelaisian humour is
placed by the side of his predecessor's work, we see that, in spite of
counter-reformations, the Protestant cause stood in a very different
position in Fischart's day from that which it had occupied fifty years
before. Fischart took his stand on the now firm union between humanism
and Protestantism. His chief work, the _Affentheuerlich
Naupengeheurliche Geschichtklitterung_ (1575), a Germanization of the
first book of Rabelais' satire, is a witty and ingenious monstrosity, a
satirical comment on the life of the 16th century, not the virulent
expression of party strife. The day of a personal and brutal type of
satire was clearly over, and the writers of the later 16th century
reverted more and more to the finer methods of the humanists. The satire
of Bartholomaeus Ringwaldt (1530-1599) and of Georg Rollenhagen
(1542-1609), author of the _Froschmeuseler_ (1595), was more "literary"
and less actual than even Fischart's.

On the whole, the form of literature which succeeded best in
emancipating itself from the trammels of religious controversy in the
16th century was the drama. Protestantism proved favourable to its
intellectual and literary development, and the humanists, who had always
prided themselves on their imitations of Latin comedy, introduced into
it a sense for form and proportion. The Latin school comedy in Germany
was founded by J. Wimpfeling with his _Stylpho_ (1470) and by J.
Reuchlin with his witty adaptation of _Maître Patelin_ in his _Henno_
(1498). In the 16th century the chief writers of Latin dramas were
Thomas Kirchmair or Naogeorgus (1511-1563), Caspar Brülow (1585-1627),
and Nikodemus Frischlin (1547-1590), who also wrote dramas in the
vernacular. The work of these men bears testimony in its form and its
choice of subjects to the close relationship between Latin and German
drama in the 16th century. One of the earliest focusses for a German
drama inspired by the Reformation was Switzerland. In Basel, Pamphilus
Gengenbach produced moralizing _Fastnachtsspiele_ in 1515-1516; Niklas
Manuel of Bern (1484-1530)--who has just been mentioned--employed the
same type of play as a vehicle of pungent satire against the Mass and
the sale of indulgences. But it was not long before the German drama
benefited by the humanistic example: the _Parabell vam vorlorn Szohn_ by
Burkard Waldis (1527), the many dramas on the subject of
_Susanna_--notably those of Sixt Birck (1532) and Paul Rebhun(1535)--and
Frischlin's German plays are attempts to treat Biblical themes according
to classic methods. In another of the important literary centres of the
16th century, however, in Nuremberg, the drama developed on indigenous
lines. Hans Sachs (1494-1576), the Nuremberg cobbler and Meistersinger,
the most productive writer of the age, went his own way; a voracious
reader and an unwearied storyteller, he left behind him a vast literary
legacy, embracing every form of popular literature from _Spruch_ and
_Schwank_ to complicated _Meistergesang_ and lengthy drama. He laid
under contribution the rich Renaissance literature with which the
humanistic translators had flooded Germany, and he became himself an
ardent champion of the "Wittembergisch Nachtigall" Luther. But in the
progressive movement of the German drama he played an even smaller role
than his Swiss and Saxon contemporaries; for his tragedies and comedies
are deficient in all dramatic qualities; they are only stories in
dialogue. In the _Fastnachtsspiele_, where dramatic form is less
essential than anecdotal point and brevity, he is to be seen at his
best. Rich as the 16th century was in promise, the conditions for the
development of a national drama were unfavourable. At the close of the
century the influence of the English drama--brought to Germany by
English actors--introduced the deficient dramatic and theatrical force
into the humanistic and "narrative" drama which has just been
considered. This is to be seen in the work of Jakob Ayrer (d. 1605) and
Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick (1564-1613). But unfortunately these
beginnings had hardly made themselves felt when the full current of the
Renaissance was diverted across Germany, bringing in its train the
Senecan tragedy. Then came the Thirty Years' War, which completely
destroyed the social conditions indispensable for the establishment of a
theatre at once popular and national.

The novel was less successful than the drama in extricating itself from
satire and religious controversy. Fischart was too dependent on foreign
models and too erratic--at one time adapting Rabelais, at another
translating the old heroic romance of _Amadis de Gaula_--to create a
national form of German fiction in the 16th century; the most important
novelist was a much less talented writer, the Alsatian Meistersinger and
dramatist Jörg Wickram (d. c. 1560), who has been already mentioned as
the author of a popular collection of anecdotes, the _Rollwagenbüchlein_.
His longer novels, _Der Knabenspiegel_ (1554) and Der Goldfaden (1557),
are in form, and especially in the importance they attach to
psychological developments, the forerunners of the movement to which we
owe the best works of German fiction in the 18th century. But Wickram
stands alone. So inconsiderable, in fact, is the fiction of the
Reformation age in Germany that we have to regard the old _Volksbücher_
as its equivalent; and it is significant that of all the prose writings
of this age, the book which affords the best insight into the temper and
spirit of the Reformation was just one of these crude _Volksbücher_,
namely, the famous story of the magician _Doctor Johann Faust_, published
at Frankfort in 1587.


IV. THE RENAISSANCE (1600-1740)

The 17th century in Germany presents a complete contrast to its
predecessor; the fact that it was the century of the Thirty Years' War,
which devastated the country, crippled the prosperity of the towns, and
threw back by many generations the social development of the people,
explains much, but it can hardly be held entirely responsible for the
intellectual apathy, the slavery to foreign customs and foreign ideas,
which stunted the growth of the nation. The freedom of Lutheranism
degenerated into a paralyzing Lutheran orthodoxy which was as hostile to
the "Freiheit eines Christenmenschen" as that Catholicism it had
superseded; the idealism of the humanists degenerated in the same way
into a dry, pedantic scholasticism which held the German mind in fetters
until, at the very close of the century, Leibnitz set it free. Most
disheartening of all, literature which in the 16th century had been so
full of promise and had conformed with such aptitude to the new ideas,
was in all its higher manifestations blighted by the dead hand of
pseudo-classicism. The unkempt literature of the Reformation age
admittedly stood in need of guidance and discipline, but the 17th
century made the fatal mistake of trying to impose the laws and rules of
Romance literatures on a people of a purely Germanic stock.

There were, however, some branches of German poetry which escaped this
foreign influence. The church hymn, continuing the great Lutheran
traditions, rose in the 17th century to extraordinary richness both in
quality and quantity. Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676), the greatest German
hymn-writer, was only one of many Lutheran pastors who in this age
contributed to the German hymnal. On the Catholic side, Angelus
Silesius, or Johann Scheffler (1624-1677) showed what a wealth of poetry
lay in the mystic speculations of Jakob Boehme, the gifted shoemaker of
Görlitz (1575-1624), and author of the famous _Aurora, oder Morgenröte
im Aufgang_ (1612); while Friedrich von Spee (1591-1635), another
leading Catholic poet of the century, cultivated the pastoral allegory
of the Renaissance. The revival of mysticism associated with Boehme
gradually spread through the whole religious life of the 17th century,
Protestant as well as Catholic, and in the more specifically Protestant
form of pietism, it became, at the close of the period, a force of
moment in the literary revival. Besides the hymn, the Volkslied, which
amidst the struggles and confusion of the great war bore witness to a
steadily growing sense of patriotism, lay outside the domain of the
literary theorists and dictators, and developed in its own way. But all
else--if we except certain forms of fiction, which towards the end of
the 17th century rose into prominence--stood completely under the sway
of the Latin Renaissance.

The first focus of the movement was Heidelberg, which had been a centre
of humanistic learning in the sixteenth century. Here, under the
leadership of J.W. Zincgref (1591-1635), a number of scholarly writers
carried into practice that interest in the vernacular which had been
shown a little earlier by the German translator of Marot, Paul Schede or
Melissus, librarian in Heidelberg. The most important forerunner of
Opitz was G.R. Weckherlin (1584-1653), a native of Württemberg who had
spent the best part of his life in England; his _Oden und Gesänge_
(1618-1619) ushered in the era of Renaissance poetry in Germany with a
promise that was but indifferently fulfilled by his successors. Of these
the greatest, or at least the most influential, was Martin Opitz
(1597-1639). He was a native of Silesia and, as a student in Heidelberg,
came into touch with Zincgref's circle; subsequently, in the course of a
visit to Holland, a more definite trend was given to his ideas by the
example of the Dutch poet and scholar, Daniel Heinsius. As a poet, Opitz
experimented with every form of recognized Renaissance poetry from ode
and epic to pastoral romance and Senecan drama; but his poetry is for
the most part devoid of inspiration; and his extraordinary fame among
his contemporaries would be hard to understand, were it not that in his
_Buch von der deutschen Poeterey_ (1624) he gave the German Renaissance
its theoretical textbook. In this tract, in which Opitz virtually
reproduced in German the accepted dogmas of Renaissance theorists like
Scaliger and Ronsard, he not merely justified his own mechanical
verse-making, but also gave Germany a law-book which regulated her
literature for a hundred years.

The work of Opitz as a reformer was furthered by another institution of
Latin origin, namely, literary societies modelled on the _Accademia
della Crusca_ in Florence. These societies, of which the chief were the
_Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft_ or _Palmenorden_ (founded 1617), the
_Elbschwanenorden_ in Hamburg and the _Gekrönter Blumenorden an der
Pegnitz or Gesellschaft der Pegnitzschäfer_ in Nuremberg, were the
centres of literary activity during the unsettled years of the war.
Although they produced much that was trivial--such as the extraordinary
_Nürnberger Trichter_ (1647-1653) by G.P. Harsdörffer (1607-1658), a
treatise which professed to turn out a fully equipped German poet in the
space of six hours--these societies also did German letters an
invaluable service by their attention to the language, one of their
chief objects having been to purify the German language from foreign and
un-German ingredients. J.G. Schottelius (1612-1676), for instance, wrote
his epoch-making grammatical works with the avowed purpose of furthering
the objects of the _Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft_. Meanwhile the poetic
centre of gravity in Germany had shifted from Heidelberg to the extreme
north-east, to Königsberg, where a group of academic poets gave
practical expression to the Opitzian theory. Chief among them was Simon
Dach (1605-1659), a gentle, elegiac writer on whom the laws of the _Buch
von der deutschen Poeterey_ did not lie too heavily. He, like his more
manly and vigorous contemporary Paul Fleming (1609-1640), showed, one
might say, that it was possible to write good and sincere poetry
notwithstanding Opitz's mechanical rules.

In the previous century the most advanced form of literature had been
satire, and under the new conditions the satiric vein still proved most
productive; but it was no longer the full-blooded satire of the
Reformation, or even the rich and luxuriant satiric fancy of Fischart,
which found expression in the 17th century. Satire pure and simple was
virtually only cultivated by two Low German poets, J. Lauremberg
(1590-1658) and J. Rachel (1618-1669), of whom at least the latter was
accepted by the Opitzian school; but the satiric spirit rose to higher
things in the powerful and scathing sermons of J.B. Schupp (1610-1661),
an outspoken Hamburg preacher, and in the scurrilous wit of the Viennese
monk Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709), who had inherited some of his
predecessor Murner's intellectual gifts. Best of all are the epigrams of
the most gifted of all the Silesian group of writers, Friedrich von
Logau (1604-1655). Logau's three thousand epigrams (_Deutsche
Sinngedichte_, 1654) afford a key to the intellectual temper of the 17th
century; they are the epitome of their age. Here are to be seen
reflected the vices of the time, its aping of French customs and its
contempt for what was national and German; Logau held up to ridicule the
vain bloodshed of the war in the interest of Christianity, and, although
he praised Opitz, he was far from prostrating himself at the dictator's
feet. Logau is an epigrammatist of the first rank, and perhaps the most
remarkable product of the Renaissance movement in Germany.

Opitz found difficulty in providing Germany with a drama according to
the classic canon. He had not himself ventured beyond translations of
Sophocles and Seneca, and Johann Rist (1607-1667) in Hamburg, one of the
few contemporary dramatists, had written plays more in the manner of
Duke Heinrich Julius of Brunswick than of Opitz. It was not until after
the latter's death that the chief dramatist of the Renaissance movement
came forward in the person of Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Like Opitz,
Gryphius also was a Silesian, and a poet of no mean ability, as is to be
seen from his lyric poetry; but his tragedies, modelled on the stiff
Senecan pattern, suffered from the lack of a theatre, and from his
ignorance of the existence of a more highly developed drama in France,
not to speak of England. As it was, he was content with Dutch models. In
the field of comedy, where he was less hampered by theories of dramatic
propriety, he allowed himself to benefit by the freedom of the Dutch
farce and the comic effects of the English actors in Germany; in his
_Horribilicribrifax_ and _Herr Peter Squentz_--the latter an adaptation
of the comic scenes of the _Midsummer Night's Dream_--Gryphius has
produced the best German plays of the 17th century.

The German novel of the 17th century was, as has been already indicated,
less hampered by Renaissance laws than other forms of literature, and
although it was none the less at the mercy of foreign influence, that
influence was more varied and manifold in its character. _Don Quixote_
had been partly translated early in the 17th century, the picaresque
romance had found its way to Germany at a still earlier date; while H.M.
Moscherosch (1601-1669) in his _Gesichte Philanders von Sittewald_
(1642-1643) made the _Sueños_ of Quevedo the basis for vivid pictures of
the life of the time, interspersed with satire. The best German novel of
the 17th century, _Der abenteurliche Simplicissimus_ (1669) by H.J.
Christoffel von Grimmelshausen (c. 1625-1676), is a picaresque novel,
but one that owed little more than its form to the Spaniards. It is in
great measure the autobiography of its author, and describes with
uncompromising realism the social disintegration and the horrors of the
Thirty Years' War. But this remarkable book stands alone;
Grimmelshausen's other writings are but further contributions to the
same theme, and he left no disciples worthy of carrying on the tradition
he had created. Christian Weise (1642-1708), rector of the Zittau
gymnasium, wrote a few satirical novels, but his realism and satire are
too obviously didactic. He is seen to better advantage in his dramas, of
which he wrote more than fifty for performance by his scholars.

The real successor of _Simplicissimus_ in Germany was the English
_Robinson Crusoe_, a novel which, on its appearance, was immediately
translated into German (1721); it called forth an extraordinary flood of
imitations, the so-called "Robinsonaden," the vogue of which is even
still kept alive by _Der schweizerische Robinson_ of J.R. Wyss (1812
ff.). With the exception of J.G. Schnabel's _Insel Felsenburg_
(1731-1743), the literary value of these imitations is slight. They
represented, however, a healthier and more natural development of
fiction than the "galant" romances which were introduced in the train of
the Renaissance movement, and cultivated by writers like Philipp von
Zesen (1619-1689), Duke Anton Ulrich of Brunswick (1633-1714), A.H.
Buchholtz (1607-1671), H.A. von Ziegler (1653-1697)--author of the
famous _Asiatische Banise_ (1688)--and D.C. von Lohenstein (1635-1683),
whose _Arminius_ (1689-1690) is on the whole the most promising novel of
this group. The last mentioned writer and Christian Hofmann von
Hofmannswaldau (1617-1679) are sometimes regarded as the leaders of a
"second Silesian school," as opposed to the first school of Opitz. As
the cultivators of the bombastic and Euphuistic style of the Italians
Guarini and Marini, and of the Spanish writer Gongora, Lohenstein and
Hofmannswaldau touched the lowest point to which German poetry ever
sank.

But this aberration of taste was happily of short duration. Although
socially the recovery of the German people from the desolation of the
war was slow and laborious, the intellectual life of Germany was rapidly
recuperating under the influence of foreign thinkers. Samuel Pufendorf
(1632-1694), Christian Thomasius (1655-1728), Christian von Wolff
(1679-1754) and, above all, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716), the
first of the great German philosophers, laid the foundations of that
system of rationalism which dominated Germany for the better part of the
18th century; while German religious life was strengthened and enriched
by a revival of pietism, under mystic thinkers like Philipp Jakob Spener
(1635-1705), a revival which also left its traces on religious poetry.
Such hopeful signs of convalescence could not but be accompanied by an
improvement in literary taste, and this is seen in the first instance in
a substitution for the bombast and conceits of Lohehstein and
Hofmannswaldau, of poetry on the stricter and soberer lines laid down by
Boileau. The so-called "court poets" who opposed the second Silesian
school, men like Rudolf von Canitz (1654-1699), Johann von Besser
(1654-1729) and Benjamin Neukirch (1665-1729), were not inspired, but
they had at least a certain "correctness" of taste; and from their midst
sprang one gifted lyric genius, Johann Christian Günther (1695-1723),
who wrote love-songs such as had not been heard in Germany since the
days of the Minnesang. The methods of Hofmannswaldau had obtained
considerable vogue in Hamburg, where the Italian opera kept the decadent
Renaissance poetry alive. Here, however, the incisive wit of Christian
Wernigke's (1661-1725) epigrams was an effective antidote, and Barthold
Heinrich Brockes (1680-1747), a native of Hamburg, who had been deeply
impressed by the appreciation of nature in English poetry, gave the
artificialities of the Silesians their death-blow. But the influence of
English literature was not merely destructive in these years; in the
translations and imitations of the English _Spectator_, _Tatler_ and
_Guardian_--the so-called _moralische Wochenschriften_--it helped to
regenerate literary taste, and to implant healthy moral ideas in the
German middle classes.

The chief representative of the literary movement inaugurated by the
Silesian "court poets" was Johann Christoph Gottsched (1700-1766), who
between 1724 and 1740 succeeded in establishing in Leipzig, the
metropolis of German taste, literary reforms modelled on the principles
of French 17th-century classicism. He reformed and purified the stage
according to French ideas, and provided it with a repertory of French
origin; in his _Kritische Dichtkunst_ (1730) he laid down the principles
according to which good literature was to be produced and judged. As
Opitz had reformed German letters with the help of Ronsard, so now
Gottsched took his standpoint on the principles of Boileau as
interpreted by contemporary French critics and theorists. With
Gottsched, whose services in purifying the German language have stood
the test of time better than his literary or dramatic reforms, the
period of German Renaissance literature reaches its culmination and at
the same time its close. The movement of the age advanced too rapidly
for the Leipzig dictator; in 1740 a new epoch opened in German poetry
and he was soon left hopelessly behind.


V. THE CLASSICAL PERIOD OF MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE (1740-1832)

(a) _From the Swiss Controversy to the "Sturm und Drang."_--Between
Opitz and Gottsched German literature passed successively through the
various stages characteristic of all Renaissance literatures--from that
represented by Trissino and the French Pléiade, by way of the
aberrations of Marini and the _estilo culto_, to the _art poétique_ of
Boileau. And precisely as in France, the next advance was achieved in a
battle between the "ancients" and the "moderns," the German "ancients"
being represented by Gottsched, the "moderns" by the Swiss literary
reformers, J.J. Bodmer (1698-1783) and J.J. Breitinger (1701-1776). The
latter in his _Kritische Dichtkunst_ (1739) maintained doctrines which
were in opposition to Gottsched's standpoint in his treatise of the same
name, and Bodmer supported his friend's initiative; a pamphlet war
ensued between Leipzig and Zürich, with which in 1740-1741 the classical
period of modern German literature may be said to open. The Swiss, men
of little originality, found their theories in the writings of Italian
and English critics; and from these they learned how literature might be
freed from the fetters of pseudo-classicism. Basing their arguments on
Milton's _Paradise Lost_, which Bodmer had translated into prose (1732),
they demanded room for the play of genius and inspiration; they insisted
that the imagination should not be hindered in its attempts to rise
above the world of reason and common sense. Their victory was due, not
to the skill with which they presented their arguments, but to the fact
that literature itself was in need of greater freedom. It was in fact a
triumph, not of personalities or of leaders, but of ideas. The effects
of the controversy are to be seen in a group of Leipzig writers of
Gottsched's own school, the _Bremer Beiträger_ as they were called after
their literary organ. These men--C.F. Gellert (1715-1769), the author of
graceful fables and tales in verse, G.W. Rabener (1714-1771), the mild
satirist of Saxon provinciality, the dramatist J. Elias Schlegel
(1719-1749), who in more ways than one was Lessing's forerunner, and a
number of minor writers--did not set themselves up in active opposition
to their master, but they tacitly adopted many of the principles which
the Swiss had advocated. And in the _Bremer Beiträge_ there appeared in
1748 the first instalment of an epic by F.G. Klopstock (1724-1803), _Der
Messias_, which was the best illustration of that lawlessness against
which Gottsched had protested. More effectively than Bodmer's dry and
uninspired theorizing, Klopstock's _Messias_, and in a still higher
degree, his _Odes_, laid the foundations of modern German literature in
the 18th century. His immediate followers, it is true, did not help to
advance matters; Bodmer and J.K. Lavater (1741-1801), whose
"physiognomic" investigations interested Goethe at a later date, wrote
dreary and now long forgotten epics on religious themes. Klopstock's
rhapsodic dramas, together with Macpherson's _Ossian_, which in the
'sixties awakened a widespread enthusiasm throughout Germany, were
responsible for the so-called "bardic" movement; but the noisy
rhapsodies of the leaders of this movement, the "bards" H.W. von
Gerstenberg (1737-1823), K.F. Kretschmann (1738-1809) and Michael Denis
(1729-1800), had little of the poetic inspiration of Klopstock's _Odes_.

The indirect influence of Klopstock as the first inspired poet of modern
Germany and as the realization of Bodmer's theories can, however, hardly
be over-estimated. Under Frederick the Great, who, as the docile pupil
of French culture, had little sympathy for unregulated displays of
feeling, neither Klopstock nor his imitators were in favour in Berlin,
but at the university of Halle considerable interest was taken in the
movement inaugurated by Bodmer. Here, before Klopstock's name was known
at all, two young poets, J.I. Pyra (1715-1744) and S.G. Lange
(1711-1781), wrote _Freundschaftliche Lieder_ (1737), which were direct
forerunners of Klopstock's rhymeless lyric poetry; and although the
later Prussian poets, J.W.L. Gleim (1719-1803), J.P. Uz (1720-1796) and
J.N. Götz (1721-1781), who were associated with Halle, and K.W. Ramler
(1725-1798) in Berlin, cultivated mainly the Anacreontic and the
Horatian ode--artificial forms, which kept strictly within the classic
canon--yet Friedrich von Hagedorn (1708-1754) in Hamburg showed to what
perfection even the Anacreontic and the lighter _vers de société_ could
be brought. The Swiss physiologist Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) was
the first German poet to give expression to the beauty and sublimity of
Alpine scenery (_Die Alpen_, 1734), and a Prussian officer, Ewald
Christian von Kleist (1715-1759), author of _Der Frühling_ (1749), wrote
the most inspired nature-poetry of this period. Klopstock's supreme
importance lay, however, in the fact that he was a forerunner of the
movement of _Sturm und Drang_. But before turning to that movement we
must consider two writers who, strictly speaking, also belong to the age
under consideration--Lessing and Wieland.

As Klopstock had been the first of modern Germany's inspired poets, so
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781) was the first critic who brought
credit to the German name throughout Europe. He was the most
liberal-minded exponent of 18th-century rationalism. Like his
predecessor Gottsched, whom he vanquished more effectually than Bodmer
had done, he had unwavering faith in the classic canon, but "classic"
meant for him, as for his contemporary, J.J. Winckelmann (1717-1768),
Greek art and literature, and not the products of French
pseudo-classicism, which it had been Gottsched's object to foist on
Germany. He went, indeed, still further, and asserted that Shakespeare,
with all his irregularities, was a more faithful observer of the spirit
of Aristotle's laws, and consequently a greater poet, than were the
French classic writers. He looked to England and not to France for the
regeneration of the German theatre, and his own dramas were pioneer-work
in this direction. _Miss Sara Sampson_ (1755) is a _bürgerliche
Tragödie_ on the lines of Lillo's _Merchant of London, Minna von
Barnhelm_ (1767), a comedy in the spirit of Farquhar; in _Emilia
Galotti_ (1772), again with English models in view, he remoulded the
"tragedy of common life" in a form acceptable to the _Sturm und Drang_;
and finally in _Nathan der Weise_ (1779) he won acceptance for iambic
blank verse as the medium of the higher drama. His two most promising
disciples--J.F. von Cronegk (1731-1758), and J.W. von Brawe
(1738-1758)--unfortunately died young, and C.F. Weisse (1726-1804) was
not gifted enough to advance the drama in its literary aspects.
Lessing's name is associated with Winckelmann's in _Laokoon_ (1766), a
treatise in which he set about defining the boundaries between painting,
sculpture and poetry, and with those of the Jewish philosopher, Moses
Mendelssohn (1729-1786) and the Berlin bookseller C.F. Nicolai
(1733-1811) in the famous _Literaturbriefe_. Here Lessing identified
himself with the best critical principles of the rationalistic
movement--principles which, in the later years of his life, he employed
in a fierce onslaught on Lutheran orthodoxy and intolerance.

To the widening and deepening of the German imagination C.M. Wieland
(1733-1813) also contributed, but in a different way. Although no enemy
of pseudo-classicism, he broke with the stiff dogmatism of Gottsched and
his friends, and tempered the pietism of Klopstock by introducing the
Germans to the lighter poetry of the south of Europe. With the exception
of his fairy epic _Oberon_ (1780), Wieland's work has fallen into
neglect; he did, however, excellent service to the development of German
prose fiction with his psychological novel, _Agathon_ (1766-1767), which
may be regarded as a forerunner of Goethe's _Wilhelm Meister_, and with
his humorous satire _Die Abderiten_ (1774). Wieland had a considerable
following, both among poets and prose writers; he was particularly
looked up to in Austria, towards the end of the 18th century, where the
literary movement advanced more slowly than in the north. Here Aloys
Blumauer (1755-1789) and J.B. von Alxinger (1755-1797) wrote their
travesties and epics under his influence. In Saxony, M.A. von Thümmel
(1738-1817) showed his adherence to Wieland's school in his comic epic
in prose, _Wilhelmine_ (1764), and in the general tone of his prose
writings; on the other hand, K.A. Kortum (1745-1824), author of the most
popular comic epic of the time, _Die Jobsiade_ (1784), was but little
influenced by Wieland. The German novel owed much to the example of
_Agathon_, but the groundwork and form were borrowed from English
models; Gellert had begun by imitating Richardson in his _Schwedische
Gräfin_ (1747-1748), and he was followed by J.T. Hermes (1738-1821), by
Wieland's friend Sophie von Laroche (1730-1807), by A. von Knigge
(1752-1796) and J.K.A. Musäus (1735-1787), the last mentioned being,
however, best known as the author of a collection of _Volksmärchen_
(1782-1786). Meanwhile a rationalism, less materialistic and strict than
that of Wolff, was spreading rapidly through educated middle-class
society in Germany. Men like Knigge, Moses Mendelssohn, J.G. Zimmermann
(1728-1795), T.G. von Hippel (1741-1796), Christian Garve (1742-1798),
J.J. Engel (1741-1802), as well as the educational theorists J.B.
Basedow (1723-1790) and J.H. Pestalozzi (1746-1827), wrote books and
essays on "popular philosophy" which were as eagerly read as the
_moralische Wochenschriften_ of the preceding epoch; and with this group
of writers must also be associated the most brilliant of German
18th-century satirists, G.C. Lichtenberg (1742-1799).

Such was the _milieu_ from which sprang the most advanced pioneer of the
classical epoch of modern German literature, J.G. Herder (1744-1803).
The transition from the popular philosophers of the _Aufklärung_ to
Herder was due in the first instance to the influence of Rousseau; and
in Germany itself that transition is represented by men like Thomas Abbt
(1738-1766) and J.G. Hamann (1730-1788). The revolutionary nature of
Herder's thought lay in that writer's antipathy to hard and fast
systems, to laws imposed upon genius; he grasped, as no thinker before
him, the idea of historical evolution. By regarding the human race as
the product of a slow evolution from primitive conditions, he
revolutionized the methods and standpoint of historical science and
awakened an interest--for which, of course, Rousseau had prepared the
way--in the early history of mankind. He himself collected and published
the _Volkslieder_ of all nations (1778-1779), and drew attention to
those elements in German life and art which were, in the best and most
precious sense, national--elements which his predecessors had despised
as inconsistent with classic formulae and systems. Herder is thus not
merely the forerunner, but the actual founder of the literary movement
known as _Sturm und Drang_. New ground was broken in a similar way by a
group of poets, who show the results of Klopstock's influence on the new
literary movement: the Göttingen "Bund" or "Hain," a number of young
students who met together in 1772, and for several years published their
poetry in the _Göttinger Musenalmanach_. With the exception of the two
brothers, Ch. zu Stolberg (1748-1821) and F.L. zu Stolberg (1750-1819),
who occupied a somewhat peculiar position in the "Bund," the members of
this coterie were drawn from the peasant class of the lower
_bourgeoisie_; J.H. Voss (1751-1826), the leader of the "Bund," was a
typical North German peasant, and his idyll, _Luise_ (1784), gives a
realistic picture of German provincial life. L.H.C. Hölty (1748-1776)
and J.M. Miller (1750-1814), again, excelled in simple lyrics in the
tone of the _Volkslied_. Closely associated with the Göttingen group
were M. Claudius (1740-1815), the _Wandsbecker Bote_--as he was called
after the journal he edited--an even more unassuming and homely
representative of the German peasant in literature than Voss, and G.A.
Bürger (1748-1794) who contributed to the _Göttinger Musenalmanach_
ballads, such as the famous Lenore (1774), of the very first rank. These
ballads were the best products of the Göttingen school, and, together
with Goethe's Strassburg and Frankfort songs, represent the highest
point touched by the lyric and ballad poetry of the period.

But the Göttingen "Bund" stood somewhat aside from the main movement of
literary development in Germany; it was only a phase of _Sturm und
Drang_, and quieter, less turbulent than that on which Goethe had set
the stamp of his personality. Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832) had, as
a student in Leipzig (1765-1768), written lyrics in the Anacreontic vein
and dramas in alexandrines. But in Strassburg, where he went to continue
his studies in 1770-1771, he made the personal acquaintance of Herder,
who won his interest for the new literary movement. Herder imbued him
with his own ideas of the importance of primitive history and Gothic
architecture and inspired him with a pride in German nationality; Herder
convinced him that there was more genuine poetry in a simple Volkslied
than in all the ingenuity of the German imitators of Horace or Anacreon;
above all, he awakened his enthusiasm for Shakespeare. The pamphlet _Von
deutscher Art und Kunst_ (1773), to which, besides Goethe and Herder,
the historian Justus Möser (1720-1794) also contributed, may be regarded
as the manifesto of the _Sturm und Drang_. The effect on Goethe of the
new ideas was instantaneous; they seemed at once to set his genius free,
and from 1771 to 1775 he was extraordinarily fertile in poetic ideas and
creations. His _Götz von Berlichingen_ (1771-1773), the first drama of
the _Sturm und Drang_, was followed within a year by the first novel of
the movement, _Werthers Leiden_ (1774); he dashed off _Clavigo_ and
_Stella_ in a few weeks in 1774 and 1775, and wrote a large number of
_Singspiele_, dramatic satires and fragments--including _Faust_ in its
earliest form (the so-called _Urfaust_)--not to mention love-songs which
at last fulfilled the promise of Klopstock. Goethe's lyrics were no less
epoch-making than his first drama and novel, for they put an end to the
artificiality which for centuries had fettered German lyric expression.
In all forms of literature he set the fashion to his time; the
Shakespearian restlessness of _Götz von Berlichingen_ found enthusiastic
imitators in J.M.R. Lenz (1751-1792), whose _Anmerkungen übers Theater_
(1774) formulated theoretically the laws, or defiance of laws, of the
new drama, in F.M. von Klinger (1752-1831), J.A. Leisewitz (1752-1806),
H.L. Wagner (1747-1779) and Friedrich Müller, better known as Maler
Müller (1749-1825): The dramatic literature of the _Sturm und Drang_ was
its most characteristic product--indeed, the very name of the movement
was borrowed from a play by Klinger; it was inspired, as _Götz von
Berlichingen_ had been, by the desire to present upon the stage figures
of Shakespearian grandeur impelled and tortured by gigantic passions,
all considerations of plot, construction and form being regarded as
subordinate to the development of character. The fiction of the _Sturm
und Drang_, again, was in its earlier stages dominated by _Werthers
Leiden_, as may be seen in the novels of F.H. Jacobi (1743-1819) and
J.M. Miller, who has been already mentioned. Later, in the hands of
J.J.W. Heinse (1749-1803), author of _Ardinghello_ (1787), Klinger, K.
Ph. Moritz (1757-1793), whose _Anton Reiser_ (1785) clearly foreshadows
_Wilhelm Meister_, it reflected not merely the sentimentalism, but also
the philosophic and artistic ideas of the period.

With the production of _Die Räuber_ (1781) by Johann Friedrich Schiller
(1759-1805), the drama of the _Sturm und Drang_ entered upon a new
development. Although hardly less turbulent in spirit than the work of
Klinger and Leisewitz, Schiller's tragedy was more skilfully adapted to
the exigencies of the theatre; his succeeding dramas, _Fiesco_ and
_Kabale und Liebe_, were also admirable stage-plays, and in _Don Carlos_
(1787) he abandoned prose for the iambic blank verse which Lessing had
made acceptable in _Nathan der Weise_. The "practical" character of the
new drama is also to be seen in the work of Schiller's contemporary, O.
von Gemmingen (1755-1836), the imitator of Diderot, in the excellent
domestic dramas of the actors F.L. Schröder (1744-1816) and A.W. Iffland
(1759-1814), and even in the popular medieval plays, the so-called
_Ritterdramen_ of which _Götz von Berlichingen_ was the model. Germany
owes to the _Sturm und Drang_ her national theatre; permanent theatres
were established in these years at Hamburg, Mannheim, Gotha, and even at
Vienna, which, as may be seen from the dramas of C.H. von Ayrenhoff
(1733-1819), had hardly then advanced beyond Gottsched's ideal of a
national literature. The Hofburgtheater of Vienna, the greatest of all
the German stages, was virtually founded in 1776.

(b) _German Classical Literature._--The energy of the _Sturm und Drang_,
which was essentially iconoclastic in its methods, soon exhausted
itself. For Goethe this phase in his development came to an end with his
departure for Weimar in 1775, while, after writing _Don Carlos_ (1787),
Schiller turned from poetry to the study of history and philosophy.
These subjects occupied his attention almost exclusively for several
years, and not until the very close of the century did he, under the
stimulus of Goethe's friendship, return to the drama. The first ten
years of Goethe's life in Weimar were comparatively unproductive; he had
left the _Sturm und Drang_ behind him; its developments, for which he
himself had been primarily responsible, were distasteful to him; and he
had not yet formed a new creed. Under the influence of the Weimar court,
where classic or even pseudo-classic tastes prevailed, he was gradually
finding his way to a form of literary art which should reconcile the
humanistic ideals of the 18th century with the poetic models of ancient
Greece. But he did not arrive at clearness in his ideas until after his
sojourn in Italy (1786-1788), an episode of the first importance for his
mental development. Italy was, in the first instance, a revelation to
Goethe of the antique; he had gone to Italy to find realized what
Winckelmann had taught, and here he conceived that ideal of a classic
literature, which for the next twenty years dominated German literature
and made Weimar its metropolis. In Italy he gave _Iphigenie auf Tauris_
(1787) its final form, he completed _Egmont_ (1788)--like the exactly
contemporary _Don Carlos_ of Schiller, a kind of bridge from _Sturm und
Drang_ to classicism--and all but finished _Torquato Tasso_ (1790).
_Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre_ (1795-1796) bears testimony to the clear
and decisive views which he had acquired on all questions of art and of
the practical conduct of life.

Long before _Wilhelm Meister_ appeared, however, German thought and
literature had arrived at that stability and self-confidence which are
the most essential elements in a great literary period. In the year of
Lessing's death, 1781, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the great philosopher,
had published his _Kritik der reinen Vernunft_, and this, together with
the two later treatises, _Kritik der praktischen Vernunft_ (1788) and
_Kritik der Urteilskraft_ (1790), placed the Germans in the front rank
of thinking nations. Under the influence of Kant, Schiller turned from
the study of history to that of philosophy and more especially
aesthetics. His philosophic lyrics, his treatises on _Anmut und Würde_,
on the _Ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen_ (1795), and _Über naive und
sentimentalische Dichtung_ (1795) show, on the philosophic and the
critical side, the movement of the century from the irresponsible
subjectivity of _Sturm und Drang_ to the calm idealism of classic
attainment. In the same way, German historical writing had in these
years, under the leadership of men like Justus Möser, Thomas Abbt, I.
Iselin, F.C. Schlosser, Schiller himself and, greatest of all, Johannes
von Müller (1752-1809), advanced from disconnected, unsystematic
chronicling to a clearly thought-out philosophic and scientific method.
J.G.A. Forster (1754-1794), who had accompanied Cook round the world,
and Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), gave Germany models of clear and
lucid descriptive writing. In practical politics and economics, when
once the unbalanced vagaries of undiluted Rousseauism had fallen into
discredit, Germany produced much wise and temperate thinking which
prevented the spread of the French Revolution to Germany, and provided a
practical basis on which the social and political fabric could be built
up anew, after the Revolution had made the old régime impossible in
Europe. Men like Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) and the philosopher
J.G. Fichte (1762-1814) were, in two widely different spheres,
representative of this type of intellectual eminence.

Meanwhile, in 1794, that friendship between Goethe and Schiller had
begun, which lasted, unbroken, until the younger poet's death in 1805.
These years mark the summit of Goethe and Schiller's classicism, and the
great epoch of Weimar's history as a literary focus. Schiller's
treatises had provided a theoretical basis; his new journal, _Die
Horen_, might be called the literary organ of the movement--although in
this respect the subsequent _Musenalmanach_, in which the two poets
published their magnificent ballad poetry, had more value. Goethe, as
director of the ducal theatre, could to a great extent control dramatic
production in Germany. Under his encouragement, Schiller turned from
philosophy to poetry and wrote the splendid series of classic dramas
beginning with the trilogy of _Wallenstein_ and closing with _Wilhelm
Tell_ and the fragment of _Demetrius_; while to Goethe we owe, above
all, the epic of _Hermann und Dorothea_. Less important were the
latter's severely classical plays _Die natürliche Tochter_ and
_Pandora_; but it must not be forgotten that it was chiefly owing to
Schiller's stimulus that in those years Goethe brought the first part of
_Faust_ (1808) to a conclusion.

Although acknowledged leaders of German letters, Goethe and Schiller had
considerable opposition to contend with. The _Sturm und Drang_ had by no
means exhausted itself, and the representatives of the once dominant
rationalistic movement were particularly arrogant and overbearing. The
literature associated with both _Sturm und Drang_ and rationalism was at
this period palpably decadent; no comparison could be made between the
magnificent achievements of Goethe and Schiller, or even of Herder and
Wieland with the "family" dramas of Iffland, still less with the
extraordinarily popular plays of A. von Kotzebue (1761-1819), or with
those bustling medieval _Ritterdramen_, which were especially cultivated
in south Germany. There is a wide gap between Moritz's _Anton Reiser_ or
the philosophic novels which Klinger wrote in his later years, and
Goethe's _Meister_; nor can the once so fervently admired novels of Jean
Paul Richter (1763-1825) take a very high place. Neither the fantastic
humour nor the penetrating thoughts with which Richter's books are
strewn make up for their lack of artistic form and interest; they are
essentially products of _Sturm und Drang_. Lastly, in the province of
lyric and epic poetry, it is impossible to regard poets like the gentle
F. von Matthisson (1761-1831), or the less inspired G.L. Kosegarten
(1758-1818) and C.A. Tiedge (1752-1841), as worthily seconding the
masterpieces of Goethe and Schiller. Thus when we speak of the greatness
of Germany's classical period, we think mainly of the work of her two
chief poets; the distance that separated them from their immediate
contemporaries was enormous. Moreover, at the very close of the 18th
century a new literary movement arose in admitted opposition to the
classicism of Weimar, and to this movement, which first took definite
form in the Romantic school, the sympathies of the younger generation
turned. Just as in the previous generation the _Sturm und Drang_ had
been obliged to make way for a return to classic and impersonal
principles of literary composition, so now the classicism of Goethe and
Schiller, which had produced masterpieces like _Wallenstein_ and
_Hermann und Dorothea_, had to yield to a revival of individualism and
subjectivity, which, in the form of Romanticism, profoundly influenced
the literature of the whole 19th century.

(c) _The Romantic Movement._--The first Romantic school, however, was
founded, not as a protest against the classicism of Weimar, with which
its leaders were in essential sympathy, but against the shallow,
utilitarian rationalism of Berlin. Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853), a leading
member of the school, was in reality a belated _Stürmer und Dränger_, who
in his early years had chafed under the unimaginative tastes of the
Prussian capital, and sought for a positive faith to put in their place.
Friedrich Hölderlin (1770-1843), one of the most gifted poets of this
age, demonstrates no less clearly than Tieck the essential affinity
between _Sturm und Drang_ and Romanticism; he, too, forms a bridge from
the one individualistic movement to the other. The theoretic basis of
Romanticism was, however, established by the two brothers, August Wilhelm
and Friedrich Schlegel (1767-1845 and 1772-1829), who, accepting, in
great measure, Schiller's aesthetic conclusions, adapted them to the
needs of their own more subjective attitude towards literature. While
Schiller, like Lessing before him, insisted on the critic's right to sit
in judgment according to a definite code of principles, these Romantic
critics maintained that the first duty of criticism was to understand and
appreciate; the right of genius to follow its natural bent was sacred.
The _Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders_ by Tieck's
school-friend W.H. Wackenroder (1773-1798) contained the Romantic
art-theory, while the hymns and fragmentary novels of Friedrich von
Hardenberg (known as Novalis, 1772-1801), and the dramas and fairy tales
of Tieck, were the characteristic products of Romantic literature. The
universal sympathies of the movement were exemplified by the many
admirable translations--greatest of all, Schlegel's _Shakespeare_
(1797-1810)--which were produced under its auspices. Romanticism was
essentially conciliatory in its tendencies, that is to say, it aimed at a
reconciliation of poetry with other provinces of social and intellectual
life; the hard and fast boundaries which the older critics had set up as
to what poetry might and might not do, were put aside, and the domain of
literature was regarded as co-extensive with life itself; painting and
music, philosophy and ethics, were all accepted as constituent elements
of or aids to Romantic poetry. Fichte, and to a much greater extent,
F.W.J. von Schelling (1775-1854) were the exponents of the Romantic
doctrine in philosophy, while the theologian F.E.D. Schleiermacher
(1768-1834) demonstrated how vital the revival of individualism was for
religious thought.

The Romantic school, whose chief members were the brothers Schlegel,
Tieck, Wackenroder and Novalis, was virtually founded in 1798, when the
Schlegels began to publish their journal the _Athenaeum_; but the actual
existence of the school was of very short duration. Wackenroder and
Novalis died young, and by the year 1804 the other members were widely
separated. Two years later, however, another phase of Romanticism became
associated with the town of Heidelberg. The leaders of this second or
younger Romantic school were K. Brentano (1778-1842), L.A. von Arnim
(1781-1831) and J.J. von Görres (1776-1848), their organ, corresponding
to the _Athenaeum_, was the _Zeitung für Einsiedler_, or
_Tröst-Einsamkeit_, and their most characteristic production the
collection of _Volkslieder_, published under the title _Des Knaben
Wunderhorn_ (1805-1808). Compared with the earlier school the Heidelberg
writers were more practical and realistic, more faithful to nature and
the commonplace life of everyday. They, too, were interested in the
German past and in the middle ages, but they put aside the idealizing
glasses of their predecessors and kept to historic truth; they wrote
historical novels, not stories of an imaginary medieval world as Novalis
had done, and when they collected _Volkslieder_ and _Volksbücher_, they
refrained from decking out the simple tradition with musical effects, or
from heightening the poetic situation by "Romantic irony." Their
immediate influence on German intellectual life was consequently
greater; they stimulated and deepened the interest of the German people
in their own past; and we owe to them the foundations of the study of
German philology and medieval literature, both the brothers Jakob and
Wilhelm Grimm (1785-1863 and 1786-1859) having been in touch with this
circle in their early days. Again, the Heidelberg poets strengthened the
national and patriotic spirit of their people; they prepared the way
for the rising against Napoleon, which culminated in the year 1813, and
produced that outburst of patriotic song, associated with E.M. Arndt
(1769-1860), K. Th. Körner (1791-1813) and M. von Schenkendorf
(1783-1817).

The subsequent history of Romanticism stands in close relation to the
Heidelberg school, and when, about 1809, the latter broke up, and Arnim
and Brentano settled in Berlin, the Romantic movement followed two
clearly marked lines of development, one north German, the other
associated with Württemberg. The Prussian capital, hotbed of rationalism
as it was, had, from the first, been intimately associated with
Romanticism; the first school had virtually been founded there, and
north Germans, like Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811) and Zacharias Werner
(1768-1823)had done more for the development of the Romantic drama than
had the members of either Romantic school. These men, and more
especially Kleist, Prussia's greatest dramatic poet, showed how the
capricious Romantic ideas could be brought into harmony with the classic
tradition established by Schiller, how they could be rendered
serviceable to the national theatre. At the same time, Berlin was not a
favourable soil for the development of Romantic ideas, and the circle of
poets which gathered round Arnim and Brentano there, either themselves
demonstrated the decadence of these ideas, or their work contained
elements which in subsequent years hastened the downfall of the
movement. Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué (1777-1843), for instance, shows
how easy it was for the medieval tastes of the Romanticists to
degenerate into mediocre novels and plays, hardly richer in genuine
poetry than were the productions of the later _Sturm und Drang_; and
E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), powerful genius though he was, cultivated
with preference in his stories, a morbid super-naturalism, which was
only a decadent form of the early Romantic delight in the world of
fairies and spirits. The lyric was less sensitive to baleful influences,
but even here the north German Romantic circle could only point to one
lyric poet of the first rank, J. von Eichendorff (1788-1857); while in
the poetry of A. von Chamisso (1781-1838) the volatile Romantic
spirituality is too often wanting. Others again, like Friedrich Rückert
(1788-1866), sought the inspiration which Romanticism was no longer able
to give, in the East; still another group, of which Wilhelm Müller
(1794-1827) is the chief representative, followed Byron's example and
awakened German sympathy for the oppressed Greeks and Poles.

Apart from Eichendorff, the vital lyric poetry of the third and last
phase of Romanticism must be looked for in the Swabian school, which
gathered round Uhland. Ludwig Uhland (1787-1862) was himself a disciple
of the Heidelberg poets, and, in his lyrics and especially in his
ballads, he succeeded in grafting the lyricism of the Romantic school on
to the traditions of German ballad poetry which had been handed down
from Bürger, Schiller and Goethe. But, as was the case with so many
other disciples of the Heidelberg Romanticists, Uhland's interest in the
German past was the serious interest of the scholar rather than the
purely poetic interest of the earlier Romantic poets. The merit of the
Swabian circle, the chief members of which were J. Kerner (1786-1862),
G. Schwab (1792-1850), W. Waiblinger (1804-1830), W. Hauff (1802-1827)
and, most gifted of all, E. Mörike (1804-1875) was that these writers
preserved the Romantic traditions from the disintegrating influences to
which their north German contemporaries were exposed. They introduced
few new notes into lyric poetry, but they maintained the best traditions
intact, and when, a generation later, the anti-Romantic movement of
"Young Germany" had run its course, it was to Württemberg Germany looked
for a revival of the old Romantic ideas.

Meanwhile, in the background of all these phases of Romantic evolution,
through which Germany passed between 1798 and 1832, stands the majestic
and imposing figure of Goethe. Personally he had in the early stages of
the movement been opposed to that reversion to subjectivity and
lawlessness which the first Romantic school seemed to him to represent;
to the end of his life he regarded himself as a "classic," not a
"romantic" poet. But, on the other hand, he was too liberal-minded a
thinker and critic to be oblivious to the fruitful influence of the new
movement. Almost without exception he judged the young poets of the new
century fairly, and treated them sympathetically and kindly; he was
keenly alive to the new--and for the most part "unclassical"--development
of literature in England, France and Italy; and his own published work,
above all, the first part of _Faust_ (1808), _Die Wahlverwandtschaften_
(1809), _Dichtung und Wahrheit_ (1811-1814, a final volume in 1833),
_Westöstlicher Divan_ (1819), _Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre_ (1821-1829)
and the second part of _Faust_ (published in 1832 after the poet's
death), stood in no antagonism to the Romantic ideas of their time. One
might rather say that Goethe was the bond between the two fundamental
literary movements of the German classical age; that his work achieved
that reconciliation of "classic" and "romantic" which, rightly regarded,
was the supreme aim of the Romantic school itself.


VI. GERMAN LITERATURE SINCE GOETHE (1832-1906)

(a) _Young Germany._--With Goethe's death a great age in German poetry
came to a close. Long before 1832 Romanticism had, as we have seen,
begun to lose ground, and the July revolution of 1830, the effects of
which were almost as keenly felt in Germany as in France, gave the
movement its death-blow. Meanwhile the march of ideas in Germany itself
had not been favourable to Romanticism. Schelling had given place to G.
W.F. Hegel (1770-1831), now the dominant force in German philosophy, and
the Hegelian metaphysics proved as unfruitful an influence on literature
as that of Fichte and Schelling had been fruitful. The transference of
Romantic ideas to the domain of practical religion and politics had
proved reactionary in its effects; Romanticism became the cloak for a
kind of Neo-catholicism, and Romantic politics, as enunciated by men
like F. von Gentz (1764-1832) and Adam Müller (1779-1829), served as an
apology for the Metternich régime in Austria. Only at the
universities--in Göttingen, Heidelberg and Berlin--did the movement
continue, in the best sense, to be productive; German philology, German
historical science and German jurisprudence benefited by Romantic ideas,
long after Romantic poetry had fallen into decay. The day of Romanticism
was clearly over; but a return to the classic and humanitarian spirit of
the 18th century was impossible. The social condition of Europe had been
profoundly altered by the French Revolution; the rise of industrialism
had created new economic problems, the march of science had overturned
old prejudices. And in a still higher degree were the ideas which lay
behind the social upheaval of the July revolution incompatible with a
reversion in Germany to the conditions of Weimar classicism. There was,
moreover, no disguising the fact that Goethe himself did not stand high
with the younger generation of German writers who came into power after
his death.

"Young Germany" did not form a school in the sense in which the word was
used by the early Romanticists; the bond of union was rather the
consequence of political persecution. In December 1835 the German "Bund"
issued a decree suppressing the writings of the "literary school" known
as "Young Germany," and mentioned by name Heinrich Heine, Karl Gutzkow,
Ludolf Wienbarg, Theodor Mundt and Heinrich Laube. Of these men, Heine
(1797-1856) was by far the most famous. He had made his reputation in
1826 and 1827 with _Die Harzreise_ and _Das Buch der Lieder_, both of
which books show how deeply he was immersed in the Romantic traditions.
But Heine felt perhaps more acutely than any other man of his time how
the ground was slipping away from beneath his feet; he repudiated the
Romantic movement and hailed the July revolution as the first stage in
the "liberation of humanity"; while ultimately he sought in France the
freedom and intellectual stimulus which Germany withheld from him. Heine
suffered from having been born in an age of transition; he was unable to
realize in a wholehearted way all that was good in the new movement,
which he had embraced so warmly; his optimism was counteracted by doubts
as to whether, after all, life had not been better in that old Romantic
Germany of his childhood for which, to the last, he retained so warm an
affection. Personal disappointments and unhappiness added to the
bitterness of Heine's nature, and the supremely gifted lyric poet and
the hardly less gifted satirist were overshadowed by the cynic from
whose biting wit nothing was safe.

Heine's contemporary and--although he was not mentioned in the decree
against the school--fellow-fighter, Ludwig Börne (1786-1837), was a more
characteristic representative of the "Young German" point of view; for
he was free from Romantic prejudices. Börne gave vent to his enthusiasm
for France in eloquent _Briefe aus Paris_ (1830-1833), which form a
landmark of importance in the development of German prose style. With
Karl Gutzkow (1811-1878), who was considerably younger than either Heine
or Börne, the more positive aspects of the "Young German" movement begin
to be apparent. He, too, had become a man of letters under the influence
of the July revolution, and with an early novel, _Wally, die Zweiflerin_
(1835), which was then regarded as atheistic and immoral, he fought in
the battle for the new ideas. His best literary work, however, was the
comedies with which he enriched the German stage of the 'forties, and
novels like _Die Ritter vom Geiste_ (1850-1851), and _Der Zauberer von
Rom_ (1858-1861), which have to be considered in connexion with the
later development of German fiction. Heinrich Laube (1806-1884), who, as
the author of lengthy social novels, and _Reisenovellen_ in the style of
Heine's _Reisebilder_, was one of the leaders of the new movement, is
now only remembered as Germany's greatest theatre-director. Laube's
connexion (1850-1867) with the Burgtheater of Vienna forms one of the
most brilliant periods in the history of the modern stage. Heine and
Börne, Gutzkow and Laube--these were the leading spirits of "Young
Germany"; in their train followed a host of lesser men, who to the
present generation are hardly even names. In the domain of scholarship
and learning the "Young German" movement was associated with the
supremacy of Hegelianism, the leading spirits being D.F. Strauss
(1808-1874), author of the _Leben Jesu_ (1835), the historians G.G.
Gervinus (1805-1871) and W. Menzel (1798-1873), and the philosopher L.A.
Feuerbach (1804-1872), who, although a disciple of Hegel, ultimately
helped to destroy the latter's influence.

Outside the immediate circle of "Young Germany," other tentative efforts
were made to provide a substitute for the discredited literature of
Romanticism. The historical novel, for instance, which Romanticists like
Arnim had cultivated, fell at an early date under the influence of Sir
Walter Scott; Wilhelm Hauff, Heinrich Zschokke (1771-1848) and K.
Spindler (1796-1855) were the most prominent amidst the many imitators
of the Scottish novelist. The drama, again, which since Kleist and
Werner had been without definite principles, was, partly under Austrian
influence, finding its way back to a condition of stability. In Germany
proper, the men into whose hands it fell were, on the one hand,
undisciplined geniuses such as C.D. Grabbe (1801-1836), or, on the
other, poets with too little theatrical blood in their veins like K.L.
Immermann (1796-1840), or with too much, like E. von Raupach
(1784-1852), K. von Holtei (1798-1880) and Adolf Müllner
(1774-1829)--the last named being the chief representative of the
so-called _Schicksalstragödie_. In those years the Germans were more
seriously interested in their opera, which, under C.M. Weber, H.A.
Marschner, A. Lortzing and O. Nicolai, remained faithful to the Romantic
spirit. In Austria, however, the drama followed lines of its own; here,
at the very beginning of the century, H.J. von Collin (1771-1811)
attempted in _Regulus_ and other works to substitute for the lifeless
pseudo-classic tragedy of Ayrenhoff the classic style of Schiller. His
attempt is the more interesting, as the long development that had taken
place in Germany between Gottsched and Schiller was virtually
unrepresented in Austrian literature. M. von Collin (1779-1824), a
younger brother of H.J. von Collin, did a similar service for the
Romantic drama. Franz Grillparzer (1791-1872), Austria's greatest poet,
began in the school of Müllner with a "fate drama," but soon won an
independent place for himself; more successfully than any other
dramatist of the century, he carried out that task which Kleist had
first seriously faced, the reconciliation of the classicism of Goethe
and Schiller with the Romantic and modern spirit of the 19th century. It
is from this point of view that works like _Das goldene Vliess_ (1820),
_König Ottokars Glück und Ende_ (1825), _Der Traum, ein Leben_ (1834)
and _Des Meeres und der Liebe Wellen_ (1831) must be regarded. As far as
the poetic drama was concerned, Grillparzer stood alone, for E.F.J. von
Münch-Bellinghausen (1806-1871), his most promising contemporary, once
so popular under the pseudonym of Friedrich Halm, soon fell back into
the trivial sentimentality of the later Romanticists. In other forms of
dramatic literature Austria could point to many distinguished writers,
notably the comedy-writer, E. von Bauernfeld (1802-1890), while a host
of playwrights, chief of whom were F. Raimund (1790-1836) and J. Nestroy
(1801-1862), cultivated the popular Viennese farce and fairy-play. Thus,
in spite of Metternich's censorship of the drama, the Viennese theatre
was, in the first half of the 19th century, in closer touch with
literature than that of any other German centre.

The transitional character of the age is best illustrated by two eminent
writers whom outward circumstances rather than any similarity of
character and aim have classed together. These were K.L. Immermann, who
has been already mentioned, and A. von Platen-Hallermund (1796-1835).
Immermann's dramas were of little practical value to the theatre, but
one at least, _Merlin_ (1832), is a dramatic poem of great beauty. In
his novels, however, _Die Epigonen_ (1836) and _Münchhausen_
(1838-1839), Immermann was the spokesman of his time. He looked
backwards rather than forwards; he saw himself as the belated follower
of a great literary age rather than as the pioneer of a new one. The
bankruptcy of Romanticism and the poetically arid era of "Young Germany"
left him little confidence in the future. Platen, on the other hand,
went his own way; he, too, was the antagonist both of Romanticism and
"Young Germany," and with Immermann himself he came into sharp conflict.
But in his poetry he showed himself indifferent to the strife of
contending literary schools. He began as an imitator of the German
oriental poets--the only Romanticists with whom he had any personal
sympathy--and with his matchless _Sonette aus Venedig_ (1825) he stands
out as a master in the art of verse-writing and as the least subjective
of all German lyric poets. In the imitation of Romance metres he sought
a refuge from the extravagances and excesses of the Romantic decadence.

Meanwhile the political side of the "Young German" movement, which the
German Bund aimed at stamping out, gained rapidly in importance under
the influence of the unsettled political conditions between the
revolutions of 1830 and 1848. The early 'forties were in German
literature marked by an extraordinary outburst of political poetry,
which may be aptly compared with the national and patriotic lyric evoked
by the year 1813. The principles which triumphed in France at the
revolution of 1848 were, to a great extent, fought out by the German
singers of 1841 and 1842. Begun by mediocre talents like N. Becker
(1809-1845) and R.E. Prutz (1816-1872), the movement found a vigorous
champion in Georg Herwegh (1817-1875), who in his turn succeeded in
winning Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-1876) for the revolutionary cause.
Others joined in the cry for freedom--F. Dingelstedt (1814-1881), A.H.
Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1798-1874), and a number of Austrians, who
had even more reason for rebellion and discontent than the north
Germans. But the best Austrian political poetry, the _Spaziergänge eines
Wiener Poeten_, 1831, by "Anastasius Grün" (Graf A.A. von Auersperg,
1806-1876), belonged to a decade earlier. The political lyric culminated
in and ended with the year 1848; the revolutionists of the 'forties
were, if not appeased, at least silenced by the revolution which in
their eyes had effected so little. If Freiligrath be excepted, the chief
lyric poets of this epoch stood aside from the revolutionary movement;
even E. Geibel (1815-1884), the representative poet of the succeeding
age, was only temporarily interested in the political movement, and his
best work is of a purely lyric character. M. von Strachwitz's
(1822-1847) promising talent did not flourish in the political
atmosphere; Annette von Droste-Hülshoff (1797-1848), and the Austrian,
Nikolaus Lenau (1802-1850), both stand far removed from the world of
politics; they are imbued with that pessimistic resignation which is,
more or less, characteristic of all German literature between 1850 and
1870.

(b) _Mid-Century Literature._--When once the revolution of 1848 was
over, a spirit of tranquillity came over German letters; but it was due
rather to the absence of confidence in the future than to any
hopefulness or real content. The literature of the middle of the century
was not wanting in achievement, but there was nothing buoyant or
youthful about it; most significant of all, the generation between 1848
and 1880 was either oblivious or indifferent to the good work and to the
new and germinating ideas which it produced. Hegel, who held the earlier
half of the 19th century in his ban, was still all-powerful in the
universities, but his power was on the wane in literature and public
life. The so-called "Hegelian Left" had advanced so far as to have
become incompatible with the original Hegelianism; the new social and
economic theories did not fit into the scheme of Hegelian collectivism;
the interest in natural science--fostered by the popular books of J.
Moleschott (1822-1893), Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Ludwig Büchner
(1824-1899)--created a healthy antidote to the Hegelian metaphysics. In
literature and art, on which Hegel, as we have seen, had exerted so
blighting an influence, his place was taken by the chief exponent of
philosophic pessimism, Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). Schopenhauer's
antagonism to Hegelianism was of old standing, for his chief work, _Die
Welt als Wille und Vorstellung_, had appeared as far back as 1819; but
the century was more than half over before the movement of ideas had, as
it were, caught up with him, before pessimism became a dominant force in
intellectual life.

The literature produced between 1850 and 1870 was preeminently one of
prose fiction. The beginnings which the "Young German" school had made
to a type of novel dealing with social problems--the best example is
Gutzkow's _Ritter vom Geiste_--developed rapidly in this succeeding
epoch. Friedrich Spielhagen (born 1829) followed immediately in
Gutzkow's footsteps, and in a series of romances from _Problematische
Naturen_ (1860) to _Sturmflut_ (1876), discussed in a militant spirit
that recalls Laube and Gutzkow the social problems which agitated German
life in these decades. Gustav Freytag (1816-1895), although an older
man, freed himself more successfully from the "Young German" tradition;
his romance of German commercialism, _Soll und Haben_ (1855), is the
masterpiece of mid-century fiction of this class. Less successful was
Freytag's subsequent attempt to transfer his method to the _milieu_ of
German academic life in _Die verlorene Handschrift_ (1864). As was
perhaps only natural in an age of social and political interests, the
historical novel occupies a subordinate place. The influence of Scott,
which in the earlier period had been strong, produced only one writer,
Wilhelm Häring ("Willibald Alexis," 1798-1871), who was more than a mere
imitator of the Scottish master. In the series of six novels, from _Der
Roland von Berlin_ to _Dorothe_, which Alexis published between 1840 and
1856, he gave Germany, and more particularly Prussia, a historical
fiction which might not unworthily be compared with the _Waverley
Novels_. But Alexis had no successor, and the historical novel soon made
way for a type of fiction in which the accurate reproduction of remote
conditions was held of more account than poetic inspiration or artistic
power. Such are the "antiquarian" novels of ancient Egyptian life by
Georg Ebers (1837-1898), and those from primitive German history by
Felix Dahn (born 1834). The vogue of historical fiction was also
transferred to some extent, as in English literature, to novels of
American life and adventure, of which the chief German cultivators were
K.A. Postl, who wrote under the pseudonym of Charles Sealsfield
(1793-1864) and Friedrich Gerstäcker (1816-1872).

Of greater importance was the fiction which owed its inspiration to the
Romantic traditions that survived the "Young German" age. To this group
belongs the novel of peasant and provincial life, of which Immermann had
given an excellent example in _Der Oberhof_, a story included in the
arabesque of _Münchhausen_. A Swiss pastor, Albrecht Bitzius, better
known by his pseudonym "Jeremias Gotthelf" (1797-1854), was, however,
the real founder of this class of romance; and his simple, unvarnished
and naïvely didactic stories of the Swiss peasant were followed not long
afterwards by the more famous _Schwarzwälder Dorfgeschichten_
(1843-1854) of Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882). Auerbach is not by any
means so naïve and realistic as Gotthelf, nor is his work free from
tendencies and ideas which recall "Young German" rationalism rather than
the unsophisticated life of the Black Forest; but the _Schwarzwälder
Dorfgeschichten_ exerted a decisive influence; they were the forerunners
of a large body of peasant literature which described with affectionate
sympathy and with a liberal admixture of dialect, south German village
life. With this group of writers may also be associated the German
Bohemian, A. Stifter (1805-1868), who has called up unforgettable
pictures and impressions of the life and scenery of his home.

Meanwhile, the Low German peoples also benefited by the revival of an
interest in dialect and peasant life; it is to the credit of Fritz
Reuter (1810-1874) that he brought honour to the Plattdeutsch of the
north, the dialects of which had played a fitful, but by no means
negligible rôle in the earlier history of German letters. His
Mecklenburg novels, especially _Ut de Franzosentid_ (1860), _Ut mine
Festungstid_ (1863) and _Ut mine Stromtid_ (1862-1864), are a faithful
reflection of Mecklenburg life and temperament, and hold their place
beside the best German fiction of the period. What Reuter did for
Plattdeutsch prose, his contemporary, Klaus Groth (1819-1899), the
author of _Quickborn_ (1852), did for its verse. We owe, however, the
best German prose fiction of these years to two writers, whose affinity
with the older Romanticists was closer. The north German, Theodor Storm
(1817-1888) is the author of a series of short stories of delicate,
lyric inspiration, steeped in that elegiac Romanticism which harmonized
so well with mid-century pessimism in Germany. Gottfried Keller
(1819-1890), on the other hand, a native of Zürich, was a modern
Romanticist of a robuster type; his magnificent autobiographical novel,
_Der grüne Heinrich_ (1854-1855), might be described as the last in the
great line of Romantic fiction that had begun with _Wilhelm Meister_,
and the short stories, _Die Leute von Seldwyla_ (1856-1874) and
_Züricher Novellen_ (1878) are masterpieces of the first rank.

In the dramatic literature of these decades, at least as it was
reflected in the repertories of the German theatres, there was little
promise. French influence was, in general, predominant; French
translations formed the mainstay of the theatre-directors, while
successful German playwrights, such as R. Benedix (1811-1873) and
Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer (1800-1868), have little claim to consideration
in a literary survey. Gustav Freytag's admirable comedy, _Die
Journalisten_ (1852), was one of the rare exceptions. But the German
drama of this epoch is not to be judged solely by the theatres. At the
middle of the century Germany could point to two writers who, each in
his way, contributed very materially to the development of the modern
drama. These were Friedrich Hebbel (1813-1863) and Otto Ludwig
(1813-1865). Both of these men, as a later generation discovered, were
the pioneers of that dramatic literature which at the close of the
century accepted the canons of realism and aimed at superseding outward
effects by psychological conflicts and problems of social life. Hebbel,
especially, must be regarded as the most original and revolutionary
German dramatist of the 19th century. Unlike his contemporary
Grillparzer, whose aim had been to reconcile the "classic" and the
"romantic" drama with the help of Spanish models, Hebbel laid the
foundations of a psychological and social drama, of which the most
modern interpreter has been Henrik Ibsen. Hebbel's first tragedy,
_Judith_, appeared in 1840, his masterpieces, _Herodes und Marianne_,
_Agnes Bernauer_, _Gyges und sein Ring_, and the trilogy of _Die
Nibelungen_ between 1850 and 1862.

In this period of somewhat confused literary striving, there is,
however, one body of writers who might be grouped together as a school,
although the designation must be regarded rather as an outward accident
of union than as implying conformity of aims. This is the group which
Maximilian II. of Bavaria gathered round him in Munich between 1852 and
1860. A leading spirit of the group was Emanuel Geibel, who, as we have
seen, set a model to the German lyric in this age; F. von Bodenstedt
(1819-1892), the popular author of _Mirza Schaffy_; and J.V. von
Scheffel (1826-1886), who, in his verse-romance, _Der Trompeter von
Säckingen_ (1854), broke a lance for a type of literature which had been
cultivated somewhat earlier, but with no very conspicuous success, by
men like O. von Redwitz (1823-1891) and G. Kinkel (1815-1882). The
romance was, in fact, one of the favourite vehicles of poetic expression
of the Munich school, its most successful exponents being J. Wolff (b.
1834) and R. Baumbach (1840-1905); while others, such as H. Lingg
(1820-1905) and R. Hamerling (1830-1889) devoted themselves to the more
ambitious epic. The general tone of the literary movement was
pessimistic, the hopelessness of the spiritual outlook being most deeply
engrained in the verse of H. Lorm (pseudonym for Heinrich Landesmann,
1821-1902) and H. Leuthold (1827-1879). On the whole, the most important
member of the Munich group is Paul Heyse (b. 1830), who, as a writer of
"Novellen" or short stories, may be classed with Storm and Keller. An
essentially Latin genius, Heyse excels in stories of Italian life, where
his lightness of touch and sense of form are shown to best advantage;
but he has also written several long novels. Of these, _Kinder der Welt_
(1873) and, in a lesser degree, _Im Paradiese_ (1875), sum up the spirit
and tendency of their time, just as, in earlier decades, _Die Ritter vom
Geiste_, _Problematische Naturen_ and _Soll und Haben_ were
characteristic of the periods which produced them.

(c) _German Literature after 1870._--In the years immediately following
the Franco-German War, the prevailing conditions were unfavourable to
literary production in Germany, and the re-establishment of the empire
left comparatively little trace on the national literature. All minds
were for a time engrossed by the _Kulturkampf_, by the financial
difficulties--the so-called _Gründertum_--due to unscrupulous
speculation, and, finally, by the rapid rise of social democracy as a
political force. The intellectual basis of the latter movement was laid
by Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864) and Karl Marx (1818-1883), author of
_Das Kapital_ (vol. i, 1867). But even had such disturbing elements been
wanting, the general tone of German intellectual life at that time was
not buoyant enough to inspire a vigorous literary revival. The influence
of Hegel was still strong, and the "historical" method, as enunciated in
_Der alte und der neue Glaube_ (1872) by the Hegelian D.F. Strauss, was
generally accepted at the German universities. To many the compromise
which H. Lotze (1817-1881) had attempted to establish between science
and metaphysics, came as a relief from the Hegelian tradition, but in
literature and art the dominant force was still, as before the war, the
philosophy of Schopenhauer. In his _Philosophie des Unbewussten_ (1869),
E. von Hartmann (1842-1906) endeavoured to bring pessimism into harmony
with idealism. In lyric poetry, the dull monotony was broken by the
excitement of the war, and the singers of the revolution of 1848 were
among the first to welcome the triumph and unification of Germany. At
the same time, men of the older generation, like Herwegh, Freiligrath
and Geibel could ill conceal a certain disappointment with the new
régime; the united Germany of 1871 was not what they had dreamed of in
their youth, when all hopes were set on the Frankfort parliament.

The novel continued to be what it was before 1870, the most vigorous
form of German literature, but the novelists who were popular in the
early 'seventies were all older men. Laube, Gutzkow and Auerbach were
still writing; Fritz Reuter was a universal favourite; while among the
writers of short stories, Storm, who, between 1877 and 1888, put the
crown to his work with his _Chroniknovellen_, and Paul Heyse were the
acknowledged masters. It was not until at least a decade later that the
genius of Gottfried Keller was generally recognized. The historical
novel seemed, in those days, beyond hope of revival. Gustav Freytag, it
is true, had made the attempt in _Die Ahnen_ (1872-1881), a number of
independent historical romances linked together to form an ambitious
prose epic; but there was more of the spirit of Ebers and Dahn in
Freytag's work than of the spacious art of Scott, or of Scott's
disciple, Willibald Alexis.

The drama of the 'seventies was in an even less hopeful condition than
during the preceding period. The classical iambic tragedy was cultivated
by the Munich school, by A. Wilbrandt (b. 1837), A. Lindner (1831-1888),
H. Kruse (1815-1902), by the Austrian F. Nissel (1831-1893), and A.
Fitger (b. 1840); but it was characteristic of the time that Halm was
popular, while Hebbel and Grillparzer were neglected, it might even be
said ignored. The most gifted German dramatist belonging exclusively to
the decade between 1870 and 1880 was an Austrian, Ludwig Anzengruber
(1839-1889), whose _Pfarrer von Kirchfeld_ (1870) recalled the
controversies of the _Kulturkampf_. This was Anzengruber's first drama,
and it was followed by a series of powerful plays dealing with the life
of the Austrian peasant; Anzengruber was, indeed, one of the ablest
exponents of that village life, which had attracted so many gifted
writers since the days of Gotthelf and Auerbach. But the really popular
dramatists of this epoch were either writers who, like Benedix in the
older generation, cultivated the _bourgeoise_ comedy--A. L'Arronge (b.
1838), G. von Moser (1825-1903), F. von Schönthan (b. 1849) and O.
Blumenthal (b. 1852)--or playwrights, of whom P. Lindau (b. 1839) may be
regarded as representative, who imitated French models. The only sign of
progress in the dramatic history of this period was the marked
improvement of the German stage, an improvement due, on the one hand, to
the artistic reforms introduced by the duke of Meiningen in the Court
theatre at Meiningen, and, on the other hand, to the ideals of a
national theatre realized at Bayreuth by Richard Wagner (1813-1883). The
greatest composer of the later 19th century is also one of Germany's
leading dramatists; and the first performance of the trilogy _Der Ring
der Nibelungen_ at Bayreuth in the summer of 1876 may be said to have
inaugurated the latest epoch in the history of the German drama.

The last fifteen or twenty years of the 19th century were distinguished
in Germany by a remarkable literary activity. Among the younger
generation, which was growing up as citizens of the united German
empire, a more hopeful and optimistic spirit prevailed. The influence of
Schopenhauer was on the wane, and at the universities Hegelianism had
lost its former hold. The sponsor of the new philosophic movement was
Kant, the master of 18th-century "enlightenment," and under the
influence of the "neo-Kantian" movement, not merely German school
philosophy, but theology also, was imbued with a healthier spirit. L.
von Ranke (1795-1886) was still the dominant force in German historical
science, and between 1881 and 1888 nine volumes appeared of his last
great work, _Weltgeschichte_. Other historians of the period were H. von
Sybel (1817-1895) and H. von Treitschke (1834-1896), the latter a
vigorous and inspiring spokesman of the new political conditions; while
J. Burckhardt (1818-1897), author of the masterly _Kultur der
Renaissance in Italien_ (1860) and the friend of Nietzsche, exerted an
influence on German thought which was not confined to academic circles.
Literary criticism perhaps benefited most of all by the dethronement of
Hegel and the more objective attitude towards Schopenhauer; it seemed as
if in this epoch the Germans first formed definite ideas--and ideas
which were acceptable and accepted outside Germany--as to the rank and
merits of their great poets. A marked change came over the nation's
attitude towards Goethe, a poet to whom, as we have seen, neither the
era of Hegel nor that of Schopenhauer had been favourable; Schiller was
regarded with less national prejudice, and--most important of
all--amends were made by the new generation for the earlier neglect of
Kleist, Grillparzer, Hebbel and Keller.

The thinker and poet who most completely embodies the spirit of this
period--who dealt the Hegelian metaphysics its death-blow as far as its
wider influence was concerned--was Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).
Nietzsche had begun as a disciple of Schopenhauer and a friend of
Wagner, and he ultimately became the champion of an individualistic and
optimistic philosophy which formed the sharpest possible contrast to
mid-century pessimism. The individual, not the race, the _Herrenmensch_,
not the slave, self-assertion, not self-denying renunciation--these are
some of the ideas round which this new optimistic ethics turns.
Nietzsche looked forward to the human race emerging from an effete
culture, burdened and clogged by tradition, and re-establishing itself
on a basis that is in harmony with man's primitive instincts. Like
Schopenhauer before him, Nietzsche was a stylist of the first rank, and
his literary masterpiece, _Also sprach Zarathustra_ (1883-1891), is to
be regarded as the most important imaginative work of its epoch.

Nietzschean individualism was only one of many factors which contributed
to the new literary development. The realistic movement, as it had
manifested itself in France under Flaubert, the Goncourts, Zola and
Maupassant, in Russia under Dostoievsky and Tolstoi, and in Norway under
Ibsen and Björnson, was, for a time, the dominant force in Germany, and
the younger generation of critics hailed it with undisguised
satisfaction; most characteristic and significant of all, the centre of
this revival was Berlin, which, since it had become the imperial
capital, was rapidly establishing its claim to be also the literary
metropolis. It was the best testimony to the vitality of the movement
that it rarely descended to slavish imitation of the realistic
masterpieces of other literatures; realism in Germany was, in fact, only
an episode of the 'eighties, a stimulating influence rather than an
accepted principle or dogma. And its suggestive character is to be seen
not merely in the writings of the young _Stürmer und Dränger_ of this
time, but also in those of the older generation who, in temperament,
were naturally more inclined to the ideals of a past age.

Of the novelists of the latter class, A. Wilbrandt, who has already been
mentioned as a dramatist, has shown, since about 1890, a remarkable
power of adapting himself, if not to the style and artistic methods of
the younger school, at least to the ideas by which it was agitated; F.
Spielhagen's attitude towards the realistic movement has been invariably
sympathetic, while a still older writer, Theodor Fontane (1819-1898),
wrote between 1880 and 1898 a series of works in which the finer
elements of French realism were grafted on the German novel. To the
older school belong Wilhelm Jensen (b. 1837), and that fine humorist,
Wilhelm Raabe (b. 1831), with whom may be associated as other humorists
of this period, H. Seidel (1842-1906) and W. Busch (1832-1908). Some of
the most interesting examples of recent German fiction come, however,
from Austria and Switzerland. The two most eminent Austrian authors,
Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach (b. 1830), and Ferdinand, von Saar
(1833-1906), both excel as writers of Novellen or short stories--the
latter especially being an exponent of that pessimism which is Austria's
peculiar heritage from the previous generation of her poets. Austrians
too, are Peter Rosegger (b. 1843), who has won popularity with his
novels of peasant life, K.E. Franzos (1848-1904) and L. von
Sacher-Masoch (1835-1895). German prose fiction is, in Switzerland,
represented by two writers of the first rank: one of these, Gottfried
Keller, has already been mentioned; the other, Konrad Ferdinand Meyer
(1825-1898), turned to literature or, at least, made his reputation,
comparatively late in life. Although, like Keller, a writer of virile,
original verse, Meyer is best known as a novelist; he, too, was a master
of the short story. His themes are drawn by preference from the epoch of
the Renaissance, and his method is characterized by an objectivity of
standpoint and a purity of style exceptional in German writers.

The realistic novels of the period were written by H. Conradi
(1862-1890), Max Kretzer (b. 1854), M.G. Conrad (b. 1846), H. Heiberg
(b. 1840), K. Bleibtreu (b. 1859), K. Alberti (pseudonym for Konrad
Sittenfeld, b. 1862) and Hermann Sudermann (b. 1857). A want of
stability was, however, as has been already indicated, characteristic
of the realistic movement in Germany; the idealistic trend of the German
mind proved itself ill-adapted to the uncompromising realism of the
French school, and the German realists, whether in fiction or in drama,
ultimately sought to escape from the logical consequences of their
theories. Even Sudermann, whose _Frau Sorge_ (1887), _Der Katzensteg_
(1889), and the brilliant, if somewhat sensational romance, _Es war_
(1894), are among the best novels of this period, has never been a
consistent realist. It is consequently not surprising to find that,
before long, German fiction returned to psychological and emotional
problems, to the poetical or symbolical presentation of life, which was
more in harmony with the German temperament than was the robuster
realism of Flaubert or Zola. This trend is noticeable in the work of
Gustav Frenssen (b. 1863), whose novel _Jörn Uhl_ (1901) was
extraordinarily popular; it is also to be seen in the studies of child
life and educational problems which have proved so attractive to the
younger writers of the present day, such as Hermann Hesse (b. 1877),
Emil Strauss (b. 1866), Rudolf Huch (b. 1862) and Friedrich Huch (b.
1873). One might say, indeed, that at the beginning of the 20th century
the traditional form of German fiction, the _Bildungsroman_, had come
into its ancient rights again. Mention ought also to be made of J.J.
David (1859-1907), E. von Keyserling (b. 1858), W. Hegeler (b. 1870), G.
von Ompteda (b. 1863), J. Wassermann (b. 1873), Heinrich Mann (b. 1871)
and Thomas Mann (b. 1875). _Buddenbrooks_ (1902) by the last mentioned
is one of the outstanding novels of the period. Some of the best fiction
of the most recent period is the work of women, the most distinguished
being Helene Böhlau (b. 1859), Gabriele Reuter (b. 1859), Clara Viebig
(C. Cohn-Viebig, b. 1860) and Ricarda Huch (b. 1864). Whether the latest
movement in German poetry and fiction, which, under the catchword
_Heimatkunst_, has favoured the province rather than the city, the
dialect in preference to the language of the educated classes, will
prove a permanent gain, it is still too soon to say, but the movement is
at least a protest against the decadent tendencies of naturalism.

At no period of German letters were literature and the theatre in closer
touch than at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th
centuries; more than at any previous time has the theatre become the
arena in which the literary battles of the day are fought out. The
general improvement in the artistic, technical and economic conditions
of the German stage have already been indicated; but it was not until
1889 that the effects of these improvements became apparent in dramatic
literature. Before that date, it is true, Ernst von Wildenbruch
(1845-1909) had attempted to revive the historical tragedy, but the
purely literary qualities of his work were handicapped by a too effusive
patriotism and a Schillerian pathos; nor did the talent of Richard Voss
(b. 1851) prove strong enough to effect any lasting reform. In October
1889, however, Gerhart Hauptmann's play, _Vor Sonnenaufgang_, was
produced on the then recently founded _Freie Bühne_ in Berlin; and a
month later, _Die Ehre_ by Hermann Sudermann met with a more
enthusiastic reception in Berlin than had fallen to the lot of any
German play for more than a generation.

Hauptmann (b. 1862), the most original of contemporary German writers,
stands, more or less, alone. His early plays, the most powerful of which
is _Die Weber_ (1892), were written under the influence either of an
uncompromising realism, or of that modified form of realism introduced
from Scandinavia; but in _Hanneles Himmelfahrt_ (1893) he combined
realism with the poetic mysticism of a child's dream, in _Florian Geyer_
(1895) he adapted the methods of realism to an historical subject, and
in the year 1896 he, to all appearance, abandoned realism to write an
allegorical dramatic poem, _Die versunkene Glocke_. Hauptmann's
subsequent work has oscillated between the extremes marked out by these
works--from the frank naturalism of _Fuhrmann Henschel_ (1898) and _Rose
Berndt_ (1903), to the fantastic mysticism of _Der arme Heinrich_ (1902)
and _Und Pippa tanzt!_ (1906).

The dramatic talent of Hermann Sudermann has developed on more even
lines; the success of _Die Ehre_ was due in the first instance to the
ability which Sudermann had shown in adapting the ideas of his time and
the new methods of dramatic presentation to the traditional German
_bürgerliches Drama_. This is the characteristic of the majority of the
many plays which followed of which _Heimat_ (1893), _Das Glück im
Winkel_ (1896) and _Es lebe das Leben!_ (1902) may be mentioned as
typical. With less success Sudermann attempted in _Johannes_ (1898) a
tragedy on lines suggested by Hebbel. A keen observer, a writer of
brilliant and suggestive ideas, Sudermann is, above all, the practical
playwright; but it is unfortunate that the theatrical element in his
work too often overshadows its literary qualities.

Since 1889, the drama has occupied the foreground of interest in
Germany. The permanent repertory of the German theatre has not, it is
true, been much enriched, but it is at least to the credit of
contemporary German playwrights that they are unwilling to rest content
with their successes and are constantly experimenting with new forms.
Besides Hauptmann and Sudermann, the most talented dramatists of the day
are Max Halbe (b. 1865), O.E. Hartleben (1864-1905), G. Hirschfeld (b.
1873), E. Rosmer (pseudonym for Elsa Bernstein, b. 1866), Ludwig Fulda
(b. 1862), Max Dreyer (b. 1862), Otto Ernst (pseudonym for O.E. Schmidt,
b. 1862) and Frank Wedekind (b. 1864). In Austria, notwithstanding the
preponderant influence of Berlin, the drama has retained its national
characteristics, and writers like Arthur Schnitzler (b. 1862), Hermann
Bahr (b. 1863), Hugo von Hofmannsthal (b. 1874) and R. Beer-Hofmann (b.
1866) have introduced symbolistic elements and peculiarly Austrian
problems, which are foreign to the theatre of north Germany.

The German lyric of recent years shows a remarkable variety of new tones
and pregnant poetic ideas; it has, as is natural, been more influenced
by the optimism of Nietzsche--himself a lyric poet of considerable
gifts--than has either novel or drama. Detlev von Liliencron (1844-1909)
was one of the first to break with the traditions of the lyric as handed
down from the Romantic epoch and cultivated with such facility by the
Munich poets. An anthology of specifically modern lyrics, _Moderne
Dichtercharaktere_ (1885) by W. Arent (b. 1864), may be regarded as the
manifesto of the movement in lyric poetry corresponding to the period of
realism in fiction and the drama. Representative poets of this movement
are Richard Dehmel (b. 1863), K. Henckell (b. 1864), J.H. Mackay (b.
1864 at Greenock), G. Falke (b. 1853), F. Avenarius (b. 1856), F. Evers
(b. 1871), F. Dörmann (b. 1870) and K. Busse (b. 1872). A later
development of the lyric--a return to mysticism and symbolism--is to be
seen in the poetry of Hofmannsthal, already mentioned as a dramatist,
and especially in Stefan George (b. 1868). Epic poetry, although little
in harmony with the spirit of a realistic age, has not been altogether
neglected. Heinrich Hart (1855-1906), one of the leading critics of the
most advanced school, is also the author of an ambitious _Lied der
Menschheit_ (vols. 1-3, 1888-1896); more conservative, on the other
hand, is _Robespierre_ (1894), an epic in the style of Hamerling by an
Austrian, Marie delle Grazie (b. 1864). Attention may also be drawn to
the popularity which, for a few years, the so-called _Überbrettl_ or
cabaret enjoyed, a popularity which has left its mark on the latest
developments of the lyric. Associated with this movement are O.J.
Bierbaum (1865-1910), whose lyrics, collected in _Der Irrgarten der
Liebe_ (1901), have been extraordinarily popular, E. von Wolzogen (b.
1855) and the dramatist F. Wedekind, who has been already mentioned.

Whether or not the work that has been produced in such rich measure
since the year 1889--or however much of it--is to be regarded as a
permanent addition to the storehouse of German national literature,
there can be no question of the serious artistic earnestness of the
writers; the conditions for the production of literature in the German
empire in the early years of the 20th century were eminently healthy,
and herein lies the best promise for the future.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(a) _General Histories_, _Anthologies_, &c.: A.
  Koberstein, _Grundriss der Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur_
  (1827; 5th ed. by K. Bartsch, 5 vols., 1872-1874; 6th ed., vol. i.,
  1884); G.G. Gervinus, _Geschichte der poetischen Nationalliteratur
  der Deutschen_ (5 vols., 1835-1842; 5th ed. by K. Bartsch, 1871-1874);
  A.F.C. Vilmar, _Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur_ (1848;
  25th ed., 2 vols., 1900, with a continuation by A. Stern); W.
  Wackernagel, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur_ (1851-1855; 2nd ed.
  by E. Martin, 1879-1894); K. Goedeke, _Grundriss zur Geschichte der
  deutschen Dichtung_ (3 vols., 1857-1881; 2nd ed. by E. Goetze and
  others, in 9 vols., 1884 ff.); W. Menzel, _Deutsche Dichtung von der
  ältesten bis auf die neueste Zeit_ (1858-1859); H. Kurz, _Geschichte
  der deutschen Literatur mit ausgewählten Stücken_ (3 vols., 1857-1859;
  7th ed., 4 vols., 1876-1882); O. Roquette, _Geschichte der deutschen
  Dichtung_ (2 vols., 1862; 3rd ed., 1878-1879); W. Scherer, _Geschichte
  der deutschen Literatur_ (1883; 10th ed., 1905). English translation
  by Mrs F.C. Conybeare (2 vols., 1885; new ed., 1906); Kuno Francke,
  _German Literature as determined by Social Forces_ (1896; 6th ed.,
  1903); F. Vogt and M. Koch, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur_
  (1897; 2nd ed., 2 vols., 1903); J.G. Robertson, _History of German
  Literature_ (1902); A. Bartels, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur_
  (2 vols., 1901-1902), with the accompanying bibliographical summary,
  _Handbuch zur Geschichte der deutschen Literatur_ (1906). There are
  also histories of the literature of separate countries and districts,
  such as J. Bächtold, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur in der
  Schweiz_ (1887); R. Krauss, _Schwäbische Literaturgeschichte_ (2
  vols., 1897-1899); J.W. Nagl and J. Zeidler, _Deutsch-Österreichische
  Literaturgeschichte_ (2 vols., 1899 ff.). The most comprehensive
  collection of German literature in selections is J. Kürschner,
  _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_ (222 vols., 1882-1898). Of general
  anthologies mention may be made of W. Wackernagel, _Deutsches
  Lesebuch_ (4 vols., 1835-1872; new ed., 1882 ff.), and F. Max Müller,
  _The German Classics from the Fourth to the Nineteenth Century_ (1858;
  ed. by F. Lichtenstein, 2 vols., 1886; new ed., 1906). For
  illustrations to the history of German literature, see G. Könnecke,
  _Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur_ (1887;
  2nd ed., 1895).

  (b) _Special Periods_: i. _Old High German and Middle High German
  Periods_: R. Kögel and W. Bruckner, "Geschichte der althochdeutschen
  Literatur," and F. Vogt, "Geschichte der mittelhochdeutschen
  Literatur," in H. Paul's _Grundriss der germanischen Philologie_ (2nd
  ed., vol. ii. pt. i., 1901); F. Khull, _Geschichte der altdeutschen
  Dichtung_ (1886); J. Kelle, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur_,
  i.-ii. (1892-1896); R. Kögel, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur bis
  zum Ausgang des Mittelalters_, i. (1894-1897); W. Golther, _Geschichte
  der deutschen Literatur von den ersten Anfängen bis zum Ausgang des
  Mittelalters_ (in Kürschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur, vol. 163,
  pt. i., 1892); W. Scherer, _Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung im 11.
  und 12. Jahrhundert_, and by the same author, _Geistliche Poeten der
  deutschen Kaiserzeit_ (both works in _Quellen und Forschungen_,
  1874-1875); O. Lyon, _Minne- und Meistersang_ (1882). There are
  numerous series of editions of medieval texts: K. Müllenhoff and W.
  Scherer, _Denkmäler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus den 8.-12.
  Jahrhundert_ (2 vols., 3rd ed., 1892); M. Heyne, _Bibliothek der
  ältesten deutschen Literaturdenkmäler_ (14 vols., begun 1858); F.
  Pfeiffer, _Deutsche Klassiker des Mittelalters_ (12 vols., begun
  1865), with the supplementary _Deutsche Dichtungen des Mittelalters_,
  edited by K. Bartsch (7 vols., 1872 ff.); K. Goedeke, _Deutsche
  Dichtung im Mittelalter_ (2nd ed., 1871); J. Zacher, _Germanistische
  Handbibliothek_ (9 vols., begun 1869); H. Paul, _Altdeutsche
  Textbibliothek_ (16 vols., begun 1882); _Deutsche Texte des
  Mittelalters_, ed. by the Berlin Academy (1904 ff.). Convenient
  editions of the Minnesang are K. Lachmann and M. Haupt, _Des
  Minnesangs Frühling_ (4th ed. by F. Vogt, 1888), and K. Bartsch,
  _Deutsche Liederdichter des 12. bis 14. Jahrh._ (4th ed. by W.
  Golther, 1903).

  ii. _From 1350-1700._--L. Geiger, _Renaissance und Humanismus in
  Italien und Deutschland_ (1882; 2nd ed. 1899); K. Borinski,
  _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters_
  (in Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_, vol. 163, ii., 1898); H.
  Palm, _Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Literatur des 16. und 17.
  Jahrhunderts_ (1877); C.H. Herford, _Studies in the Literary Relations
  of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century_ (1886); C. Lemcke,
  _Von Opitz bis Klopstock_, i. (1871; 2nd ed. 1882); M. von Waldberg,
  _Deutsche Renaissance-Lyrik_ (1888), and _Die galante Lyrik_ (1885);
  F. Bobertag, _Geschichte des Romans in Deutschland_, i. (to 1700)
  (1877-1884); K. Borinski, _Die Poetik der Renaissance und die Anfänge
  der literarischen Kritik in Deutschland_ (1886). A vast quantity of
  the literature of these centuries has been republished by the
  Stuttgarter literarischer Verein (founded in 1839), whose publications
  now number considerably over two hundred volumes; further, W. Braune,
  _Neudrucke deutscher Literaturwerke des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts_
  (begun 1882); K. Goedeke and J. Tittmann, _Deutsche Dichter des 16.
  Jahrhunderts_ (18 vols., 1867 ff.), and _Deutsche Dichter des 17.
  Jahrhunderts_ (15 vols., 1869 ff.). A valuable anthology is K.
  Goedeke's _Elf Bücher deutscher Dichtung von Sebastian Brant bis auf
  die Gegenwart_ (2 vols., 1849). Since 1890 the _Jahresberichte für
  neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte_ have provided an exhaustive
  survey of all publications dealing with modern German literature. A
  useful practical bibliography for English readers, covering this and
  the succeeding periods, is J.S. Nollen, _A Chronology and Practical
  Bibliography of Modern German Literature_ (1903).

  iii. _The Eighteenth Century._--J. Schmidt, _Geschichte der deutschen
  Literatur von Leibniz bis auf unsere Zeit_ (4 vols., 1862-1867; 2nd
  ed. 1886-1890); J. Hillebrand, _Die deutsche Nationalliteratur im 18.
  und 19. Jahrhundert_ (3 vols., 1845-1846; 3rd ed. 1875); H. Hettner,
  _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur im 18. Jahrhundert_ (4 vols.,
  1862-1870; 4th ed. by O. Harnack, 1893-1895); J.W. Schäfer,
  _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts_ (1855-1860;
  2nd ed. by F. Muncker, 1881); J.K. Mörikofer, _Die schweizerische
  Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts_ (1861); J.W. Löbell, _Entwickelung der
  deutschen Poesie von Klopstock bis zu Goethes Tod_ (3 vols.,
  1856-1865). There are also innumerable more special treatises, such as
  A. Eloesser, _Das bürgerliche Drama_ (1898); O. Brahm, _Das deutsche
  Ritterdrama des 18. Jahrhunderts_ (1880), &c. Of collections of the
  literature of this and the following century, reference need only be
  made to the _Bibliothek der deutschen Nationalliteratur des 18. und
  19. Jahrhunderts_, published by Brockhaus (44 vols., 1868-1891), and
  _Deutsche Literaturdenkmale des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts_, edited
  first by B. Seuffert (1882-1894), and subsequently by A. Sauer.

  iv. _The Nineteenth Century._--Th. Ziegler, _Die geistigen und
  sozialen Strömungen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts_ (1899; 2nd ed.
  1901); R. von Gottschall, _Die deutsche Nationalliteratur des 19.
  Jahrhunderts_ (1854; 7th ed., 4 vols., 1900-1902); R.M. Meyer, _Die
  deutsche Literatur des 19. Jahrhunderts_ (1899; 4th ed. 1910); R.M.
  Meyer, _Grundriss der neueren deutschen Literaturgeschichte_ (1902);
  C. Busse, _Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung im neunzehnten
  Jahrhundert_ (1901); R. Haym, _Die romantische Schule_ (1870; 2nd ed.
  1906); G. Brandes, "Den romantiske Skole i Tyskland" (1873), and "Det
  unge Tyskland" (1890), in _Hovedströmninger i det 19de Aarhundredes
  Litteratur_, vols. ii. and vi. (German translations, 1887 and 1891;
  several subsequent editions, Danish and German; English translations,
  ii. 1903, and vi. 1905); R. Huch, _Die Blütezeit der Romantik (2nd ed.
  1901), and Ausbreitung und Verfall der Romantik_ (1902); F. Wehl, _Das
  junge Deutschland_ (1886); J. Proelss, _Das junge Deutschland_ (1892);
  A. Bartels, _Die deutsche Dichtung der Gegenwart_ (7th ed., 1907); A.
  von Hanstein, _Das jüngste Deutschland_ (2nd ed., 1901); J.F. Coar,
  _Studies in German Literature in the Nineteenth Century_ (1903); Ch.
  Petzet, _Die Blütezeit der deutschen politischen Lyrik_ (1903); H.
  Mielke, _Der deutsche Roman des 19. Jahrhunderts_ (4th ed., 1900); S.
  Friedmann, _Das deutsche Drama des 19. Jahrhunderts_ (2 vols.,
  1900-1903); B. Litzmann, _Das deutsche Drama in den literarischen
  Bewegungen der Gegenwart_ (4th ed., 1898).     (J. G. R.)



GERMAN REED ENTERTAINMENT. The dramatic and musical entertainment which
for many years was known in London by the title of "German Reed" was a
form of theatrical enterprise deserving of commemoration in connexion
with those who made it successful. Mr THOMAS GERMAN REED (born in
Bristol in 1817, died 1888) married in 1844 Miss PRISCILLA HORTON
(1818-1895), and in 1855 they started their entertainment at the
"Gallery of Illustration," in Waterloo Place, London. From 1860 to 1877
they were assisted by JOHN ORLANDO PARRY (1810-1879), an accomplished
pianoforte player, mimic, parodist and humorous singer; and the latter
created a new type of musical and dramatic monologue which became very
popular. His tradition was carried on after 1870 by MR CORNEY GRAIN
(1844-1895), who, as a clever, refined, and yet highly humorous society
entertainer (originally a barrister), was one of the best-known figures
of his day. After the retirement of the elder German Reeds, their son,
ALFRED GERMAN REED (1846-1895), himself a capital actor, carried on the
business in partnership with Corney Grain. The "German Reed
Entertainment"--which was always patronized by a large class of people,
many of whom objected on principle to going or taking their children to
a regular theatre or a music-hall--retained its vogue for forty years at
Waterloo Place and at the St George's Hall, Regent Street. But the death
of Mr Corney Grain almost simultaneously with Mr Alfred German Reed, in
1895, together with the changed public attitude towards the regular
theatre, ended its career.



GERMAN SILVER or NICKEL SILVER, an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc,
prepared either by melting the copper and nickel together in a crucible,
and adding piece by piece the previously heated zinc, or by heating the
finely divided metals under a layer of charcoal. To destroy its
crystalline structure and so render it fit for working, it is heated to
dull redness, and then allowed to cool. German silver is harder than
silver; it resembles that metal in colour, but is of a greyer tinge.
Exposed to the air it tarnishes slightly yellow, and with vinegar
affords a crust of verdigris. At a bright red heat it melts, losing its
zinc by oxidation unless protected from the atmosphere. At a heat above
dull redness it becomes exceedingly brittle. German silver in various
modifications of composition is much used in the arts. Alloys, of which
about 50% is copper and the residue zinc and nickel in about equal
proportions take a fine polish, and are used as imitation silver for
knives and forks. With a somewhat higher proportion of copper an alloy
is formed suitable for rolling and for wire. In Chinese _white silver_
or _packfong_ (paktong) the amount of copper is smaller, about 40%, with
about 32% of nickel, 25 of zinc, and 2 or 3 of iron. German silver for
casting contains 2 or 3% of lead, which like iron increases the
whiteness of the alloy. German silver, having a high specific resistance
and a low temperature coefficient, has been used for electrical
resistance coils, and these qualities are possessed in a still greater
degree in _manganin_, which contains manganese in place of zinc, its
composition being 84% of copper, 12 of manganese and 4 of nickel. The
addition of a trace of tungsten to German silver, as in _platinoid_,
also largely increases the resistance.



GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA. This German possession is bounded W. by the
Atlantic, N. by Angola, S. by the Cape province, E. by Bechuanaland and
Rhodesia, and is the only German dependency in Africa suited to white
colonization. It has an area of about 322,450 sq. m., and a population
of Bantu Negroes and Hottentots estimated in 1903 at 200,000.[1] The
European inhabitants, in addition to the military, numbered 7110 in
1907, of whom the majority were German.

  _Area and Boundaries._--The boundary separating the German
  protectorate from the Portuguese possessions of Angola is the lower
  Kunene, from its mouth in 17° 18' S., 11° 40' E. to the limit of
  navigability from the sea, thence in a direct line, corresponding
  roughly to the lat. of 17° 20' S., to the river Okavango, which it
  follows eastwards until the stream turns abruptly south (towards Lake
  Ngami). From this point a strip of German territory 300 m. long and
  about 50 m. broad, projects eastward until it reaches the Zambezi a
  little above the Victoria Falls. On the south this narrow strip of
  land (known as the Caprivi enclave) is separated from southern
  Rhodesia by the Kwando or Chobe river. On the east the frontier
  between British and German territory is in its northern half the 21st
  degree of E. longitude, in its southern half the 20th degree. This
  frontier is drawn through desert country. The southern frontier is the
  Orange river from its mouth to the 20° E. The coast-line between the
  Kunene and Orange rivers is not wholly German. Just north of the
  tropic of Capricorn is the British enclave of Walfish Bay (q.v.). The
  northern part of the protectorate is known as Ovampoland, the central
  portion as Damara (or Herero) land; the southern regions as Great
  Namaqualand. These names are derived from those of the dominant native
  races inhabiting the country.

  _Physical Features._--The coast-line is generally low and little
  broken by bays or promontories. In its entire length of about 800 m.
  it has no good natural harbour, and its bays--Angra Pequena, otherwise
  Lüderitz Bay, Sierra Bay, Sandwich Harbour--are in danger of being
  filled with sand by the strong, cold, northerly coast current.
  Swakopmund is an artificial harbour at the mouth of the river Swakop.
  The small islands which stud the coast north and south of Angra
  Pequena belong to Great Britain. The coast-line is bordered by a belt
  of sand-dunes and desert, which, about 35 m. wide in the south,
  narrows towards the north. This coast belt is flanked by a mountain
  range, which attains its highest elevation in Mount Omatako (8972
  ft.), in about 21° 15' S., 16° 40' E. N. E. of Omatako is the Omboroko
  range, otherwise known as the Waterberg. South of Omboroko, occupying
  the centre of the country, the range attains its highest average
  altitude. The following massifs with their highest points may be
  distinguished: Gans (7664 ft.), Nu-uibeb (7480 ft.), Onyati (7201
  ft.), Awas (6988 ft.), Komas (5331 ft.) and Ganab (4002 ft.). In the
  S.E. are the Karas mountains, which attain an elevation of 6570 ft.
  The mountains for the main part form the escarpment of the great
  Kalahari plateau, which, gently rising from the interior towards the
  west, slopes again towards the south and north from the point of its
  highest elevation. The Kalahari plateau changes the undulating
  character it has in the west to a perfect plain in the far east, where
  the watered and habitable country merges into the sterile Kalahari
  desert. In the northern half of the country the central plateau
  contains much rich grass-land, while in the north-eastern region the
  Omaheke desert has all the characteristics of the Kalahari.

  There are no rivers of importance wholly within German South-West
  Africa. The Kunene (q.v.) has but a small portion of the southern bank
  in the colony, and similarly only part of the northern bank of the
  Orange river (q.v.) is in German territory. Several streams run south
  into the Orange; of those the chief is the Great Fish river, which has
  a course of nearly 500 m. Both the Kunene and the Orange carry water
  all the year round, but are not navigable. Neither is the Great Fish
  river, which, however, is rarely dry. The Okavango, which comes from
  the north and runs towards Ngami (q.v.), is perennial, but like the
  Kunene and Orange, belongs only partly to the hydrographic system of
  the country. From the inner slopes of the coast chain many streams go
  N.E. to join the Okavango. They cross the Omaheke waste and are
  usually dry. Ovampoland has a hydrographic system connected with the
  Kunene, and, in seasons of great flood, with that of Ngami. Before the
  Kunene breaks through the outer edge of the plateau, it sends
  divergent channels south-east to a large marsh or lake called Etosha,
  which is cut by 17° E. and 19° S. Of these channels the Kwamatuo or
  Okipoko, which is perennial, enters Etosha at its N.W. corner. The
  lake when full extends about 80 m. W. to E. and 50 m. N. to S. From
  its S.E. corner issues the Omuramba, which divides into two branches,
  known respectively as the Omaheke and the Ovampo. These streams have
  an easterly direction, their beds, often dry, joining the Okavango.
  The other rivers of the protectorate have as a rule plenty of water in
  their upper courses in the rainy season, though some river beds are
  dry for years together. After a heavy thunderstorm such a river bed
  will be suddenly filled with a turbid current half a mile wide. The
  water is, however, before long absorbed by the thirsty land. Only in
  exceptionally rainy years do the streams which cross the sand belt
  carry water to the ocean. But in the sand which fills the river beds
  water may be obtained by digging. Of rivers running direct to the
  Atlantic the Little Fish river enters the sea at Angra Pequena and the
  Kuisip in Walfish Bay. The Swakop rises in the hills near the
  Waterberg, and north of it is the Omaruru, which carries water for the
  greater part of the year. Hot springs are numerous, and it is
  remarkable that those of Windhoek flow more copiously during the dry
  than the rainy season. There are also many cold springs, and wells
  which contain water all the year.

  _Geology._--Gneiss and schist, with intrusive granites and porphyries,
  overlain to a great extent by sand and lateritic deposits, occupy the
  coast belt, coast mountains and the plateau of Damaraland. In the Huib
  and Han-ami plateaus of Great Namaqualand the crystalline rocks are
  overlain by sandstones, slates, quartzites and jasper rocks, and these
  in turn by dolomites. They are probably equivalent to the Transvaal
  and Pretoria series (see TRANSVAAL: _Geology_). The next oldest rocks
  are of recent geological date. The Kalahari Kalk, which extends over
  large areas to the south-east of Ovampoland, may be of Miocene age,
  but it has not yielded fossils. Extensive tracts of alluvium occur in
  the basin of the Ovampo, while the dunes and sand-tracts of the
  Kalahari occupy the eastern regions.

  _Climate._--On the coast the mean temperature is low, and there is
  little rainfall. Moisture is supplied by dense fogs, which rise almost
  daily. South-west winds prevail. Inland the climate is temperate
  rather than tropical, with bracing, clear atmosphere. There are
  considerable differences of temperature between day and night, and two
  well-marked seasons, one cold and dry from May to September, the other
  hot and rainy from October to April. In winter ice frequently forms
  during the night on open water on the plateau, but it never remains
  all day. The yearly rainfall is about 20 in. in the Damara Hills;
  there is more rain in the north than in the south, and in the east
  than in the west. In the greater part of the colony the climate is
  favourable for European settlement.

  _Flora and Fauna._--The vegetation corresponds exactly with the
  climate. In the dry littoral region are plants able to exist with the
  minimum of moisture they derive from the daily fog--_Amarantaceae_,
  _Sarcocaula_, _Aloe dichotoma_, _Aristida subacaulis_ and the
  wonderful _Welwitschia_. Farther inland are plants which spring up and
  disappear with the rain, and others whose roots reach permanent water.
  The former are chiefly grasses, the latter exist almost solely in or
  near river-beds. Amongst the fine trees often seen here, the ana tree
  (_Acacia albida_) is the most noteworthy, its seeds being favourite
  fodder for all domestic animals. _Acacia giraffae_, _Ac. horrida_,
  _Adansonia sterculia_, near the Kunene the _Hyphaene ventricosa_,
  deserve special notice. The vegetation in the mountain valleys is
  luxuriant, and towards the north is of a tropical character. The palm
  zone extends a considerable distance south of the Kunene, and here
  vegetation spreads over the sand-dunes of the coast plain, which are
  covered with grasses.

  Large game, formerly abundant, especially pachyderms, is scarce. Of
  antelopes the following species are plentiful in parts: springbok,
  steenbok, kudu, rietbok, pallah; of monkeys, the _Cynocephalus
  porcarius_ is frequent. Various kinds of hyenas and jackals with fine
  fur (_Canis mesomelas_), also _Felis caracal_, abound. The spring-hare
  (_Pedestea caffer_) and rock-rabbit (_Hyrax capensis_) may often be
  observed. Of birds there are 728 species. Crocodiles, turtles and
  snakes are numerous.

_Inhabitants._--Among the natives of German South-West Africa three
classes may be distinguished. In the first class are the Namaqua
(Hottentots) and Bushmen. The Namaqua probably came from the south,
while the Bushmen may be looked upon as an indigenous race. The
Hottentots, the purest existing types of that race, are divided into
numerous tribes, independent of one another, such as the Witbois,
Swartzbois, Bondelzwarts. The Bushmen are found scattered over the
eastern parts of the country (see HOTTENTOTS and BUSHMEN). The second
class consists of the mountain Damara (Hau-Khoin), a race of doubtful
affinities, probably of Bantu-Negro origin, but speaking the Hottentot
language. The third class belongs to the Bantu-Negro stock, and came
from the north-east, expelling and enslaving the mountain Damara, and
settling in various parts of the country under different names. The most
prominent are the Herero, thorough nomads and cattle-breeders; while the
Ovampo (Ovambo or Ambo), in the northern part of the protectorate, are
agriculturists. The Herero (q.v.) are also known by the Hottentot name
Damara, and by this name their country is generally called. The
Bastaards, who live in Namaqualand, are a small tribe originating from a
mingling of Cape Boers with Hottentots. They are Christians, and able to
read and write. The other natives are spirit-worshippers, save for the
comparatively few converts of the Protestant missions established in the
country. Of white races represented the chief are Germans and Boers. In
the S.E. Boer settlers form the bulk of the white population. There are
also numbers of British colonists in this region--emigrants from the
Cape. The immigration of Germans is encouraged by subsidies and in other
ways.

  _Towns._--The chief port is Swakopmund, built on the northern bank of
  the Swakop river (the southern bank belonging to the British territory
  of Walfish Bay). The harbour is partially protected by a breakwater.
  There are also settlements at Lüderitz Bay (white pop. 1909, over
  1000) and at Sandwich Harbour. Swakopmund is connected by a narrow
  gauge railway with Windhoek, the administrative capital of the colony,
  situated in a hilly district 180 m. due east of the port, but 237 m.
  by the railway. Karibib is the only place of consequence on the line.
  Otyimbingue is a government station 70 m. W.N.W. of Windhoek, and
  Tsumeb a mining centre 240 m. N.N.E. of the same place. Olukonda is a
  government post in Ovampoland. In the S.E. corner of the colony, 30 m.
  N. of the Orange river, is the town of Warmbad. Keetmanshoop, 100 m.
  N. of Warmbad and 180 m. E. of Lüderitz Bay, is the centre of a small
  mining industry. Gibeon is a government station and missionary
  settlement about midway between Keetmanshoop and Windhoek. Besides
  these places there are numbers of small native towns at which live a
  few white traders and missionaries. The missionaries have given
  Biblical names to several of their stations, such as Bethany and
  Beersheba in Namaqualand, and Rehoboth in Damaraland. In the Caprivi
  enclave are a German residency and the site of the town of Linyante,
  once the capital of the Makololo dynasty of Barotseland (see BAROTSE).

  _Industries._--Agriculture is followed by the natives in the northern
  districts, but the chief industry is stock-raising. The scarcity of
  water in the southern parts is not favourable for agricultural
  pursuits, while the good grazing lands offer splendid pasturage for
  cattle, which the Herero raise in numbers amounting to many hundred
  thousands. Sheep and goats thrive well. Horses have been imported from
  the Cape. Unfortunately the climate does not suit them everywhere, and
  they are subject to a virulent distemper. Cattle and sheep also suffer
  from the diseases which are common in the Cape Colony. Camels have
  been imported, and are doing well. Wheat, maize and sorghum are the
  chief crops raised, though not enough is grown to meet even local
  requirements. Near the coast the natives collect the kernels of the
  nara, a wild-growing pumpkin which, in the words of an early
  traveller, C.J. Andersson, "are eaten by oxen, mice, men, ostriches
  and lions." About half the European settlers are engaged in
  agriculture. They raise maize, wheat, tobacco, fruit and vegetables.
  Cotton cultivation and viticulture are carried on in some districts.

  Minerals, especially copper, are plentiful in the country. The chief
  copper deposits are at Tsumeb, which is 4230 ft. above the sea, in the
  Otavi district. Diamonds are found on and near the surface of the soil
  in the Lüderitz Bay district, and diamonds have also been found in the
  neighbourhood of Gibeon. A little pottery is made, and the Hottentot
  women are clever in making fur cloths. In the north the Ovampo do a
  little smith-work and grass-plaiting. The external trade of the
  country was of slow growth. The exports, previous to the opening up of
  the Otavi mines, consisted chiefly of live stock--sent mainly to Cape
  Colony--guano, ivory, horns, hides and ostrich feathers. The chief
  imports are food stuffs, textiles and metals, and hardware. In 1903
  the value of the exports was £168,560, that of the imports £388,210.
  The war which followed (see below, _History_) led to a great shrinking
  of exports, rendering the figures for the period 1904-1907 useless for
  purposes of comparison. About 85% of the imports are from Germany.

  _Communications._--The economic development of the country is largely
  dependent on transport facilities. The railway from Swakopmund to
  Windhoek, mentioned above, was begun in 1897, and was opened for
  traffic in July 1902. It cost nearly £700,000 to build. Another narrow
  gauge railway, to serve the Otavi copper mines, was begun in 1904 and
  completed in 1908. It starts from Swakopmund and is 400 m. long, the
  terminus being at Grootfontein, 40 m. S.E. of Tsumeb. The highest
  point on this line is 5213 ft. above the sea. In 1906-1908 a railway,
  180 m. long, was built from Lüderitz Bay to Keetmanshoop. This line is
  of the standard South African gauge (3 ft. 6 in.), that gauge being
  adopted in view of the eventual linking up of the line with the
  British railway systems at Kimberley. A branch from Seeheim on the
  Keetmanshoop line runs S.E. to Kalkfontein.

  Besides railways, roads have been made between the chief centres of
  population. Along these, in the desert districts, wells have been dug.
  Across the Awas Mountains, separating Windhoek from the central
  plateau, a wide road has been cut. In 1903 the colony was placed in
  telegraphic communication with Europe and Cape Colony by the laying of
  submarine cables having their terminus at Swakopmund. There is a
  fairly complete inland telegraphic service.

  There is regular steamship communication between Hamburg and
  Swakopmund, Walfish Bay and Lüderitz Bay. Regular communication is
  also maintained between Cape Town and the ports of the colony.

  _Administration._--At the head of the administration is an imperial
  governor, responsible to the colonial office in Berlin, who is
  assisted by a council consisting of chiefs of departments. The country
  is divided into various administrative districts. In each of these
  there is a _Bezirksamtmann_, with his staff of officials and police
  force. In each district is a law court, to whose jurisdiction not
  alone the whites, but also the Bastaards are subject. As in all German
  colonies, there is a court of appeal at the residence of the governor.
  The government maintains schools at the chief towns, but education is
  principally in the hands of missionaries. The armed force consists of
  regular troops from Germany and a militia formed of Bastaards. The
  local revenue for some years before 1903 was about £130,000 per annum,
  the expenditure about £400,000, the difference between local receipts
  and expenditure being made good by imperial subsidies. In 1908 local
  revenue had risen to £250,000, but the imperial authorities incurred
  an expenditure of over £2,000,000, largely for military purposes. On
  articles of export, such as feathers and hides, 5% _ad valorem_ duty
  has to be paid; on cattle and horses an export tax per head. There is
  a 10% _ad valorem_ duty on all imports, no difference being made
  between German and foreign goods. The sale of spirituous liquors is
  subject to a licence.

_History._--The coast of south-west Africa was discovered by Bartholomew
Diaz in 1487, whilst endeavouring to find his way to the Indies. He
anchored in a bay which by reason of its smallness he named Angra
Pequena. Portugal, however, took no steps to acquire possession of this
inhospitable region, which remained almost unvisited by Europeans until
the early years of the 19th century. At this time the country was
devastated by a Hottentot chief known as Afrikander, who had fled
thither with a band of outlaws after murdering his master, a Boer farmer
by whom he had been ill-treated, in 1796. In 1805 some missionaries (of
German nationality) went into Namaqualand in the service of the London
Missionary Society, which society subsequently transferred its missions
in this region to the Rhenish mission, which had had agents in the
country since about 1840. The chief station of the missionaries was at a
Hottentot settlement renamed Bethany (1820), a place 125 m. E. by Angra
Pequena. The missionaries had the satisfaction of stopping Afrikander's
career of bloodshed. He became a convert, a great friend of the mission,
and took the name of Christian. The proximity of Great Namaqualand to
Cape Colony led to visits from British and Dutch farmers and hunters, a
few of whom settled in the country, which thus became in some sense a
dependency of the Cape.

In 1867 the islands along the coast north and south of Angra Pequena, on
which were valuable guano deposits, were annexed to Great Britain. At
this time a small trade between the natives and the outside world was
developed at Angra Pequena, the merchants engaged in it being British
and German. The political influence of the Cape spread meantime
northward to the land of the Herero (Damara). The Herero had been
subjugated by Jonker Afrikander, a son of Christian Afrikander, who
followed the early footsteps of his sire and had renounced Christianity,
but in 1865 they had recovered their independence. The Rhenish
missionaries appealed (1868) to the British government for protection,
and asked for the annexation of the country. This request, although
supported by the Prussian government, was refused. In 1876, however, a
special commissioner (W. Coates Palgrave) was sent by the Cape
government "to the tribes north of the Orange river." The commissioner
concluded treaties with the Namaqua and Damara which fixed the limits of
the territories of the two races and placed the whole country now
forming German South-West Africa within the sphere of British influence.
In the central part of Damaraland an area of some 35,000 sq. m. was
marked out as a British reservation. The instrument by which this
arrangement was made was known as the treaty of Okahandya. Neither it
nor the treaty relating to Great Namaqualand was ratified by the British
government, but at the request of Sir Bartle Frere, then high
commissioner for South Africa, Walfish Bay (the best harbour along the
coast) was in 1878 annexed to Great Britain.


  German rule established.

In 1880 fighting between the Namaqua, who were led by Jan Afrikander,
son of Jonker and grandson of Christian Afrikander, and the Damara broke
out afresh, and was not ended until the establishment of European rule.
In 1883 F.A.E. Lüderitz (1834-1886), a Bremen merchant, with the
approval of Prince Bismarck, established a trading station at Angra
Pequena. This step led to the annexation of the whole country to Germany
(see AFRICA, § 5) with the exception of Walfish Bay and the islands
actually British territory. On the establishment of German rule Jonker
Afrikander's old headquarters were made the seat of administration and
renamed Windhoek. The Hottentots, under a chieftain named Hendrik
Witboi, offered a determined opposition to the Germans, but after a
protracted war peace was concluded in 1894 and Hendrik became the ally
of the Germans. Thereafter, notwithstanding various local risings, the
country enjoyed a measure of prosperity, although, largely owing to
economic conditions, its development was very slow.


  Herero war.

In October 1903 the Bondelzwarts, who occupy the district immediately
north of the Orange river, rose in revolt. This act was the beginning of
a struggle between the Germans and the natives which lasted over four
years, and cost Germany the lives of some 5000 soldiers and settlers,
and entailed an expenditure of £15,000,000. Abuses committed by white
traders, the brutal methods of certain officials and the occupation of
tribal lands were among the causes of the war, but impatience of white
rule was believed to be the chief reason for the revolt of the Herero,
the most formidable of the opponents of the Germans. The Herero had
accepted the German protectorate by treaty--without fully comprehending
that to which they had agreed. To crush the Bondelzwarts, an object
attained by January 1904, the governor, Colonel Theodor Leutwein, had
denuded Damaraland of troops, and advantage was taken of this fact by
the Herero to begin a long-planned and well-prepared revolt. On the 12th
of January 1904 most of the German farmers in Damaraland were attacked,
and settlers and their families murdered and the farms devastated.
Reinforcements were sent from Germany, and in June General von Trotha
arrived and took command of the troops. On the 11th of August von Trotha
attacked the Herero in their stronghold, the Waterberg, about 200 m. N.
of Windhoek, and inflicted upon them a severe defeat. The main body of
the enemy escaped, however, from the encircling columns of the Germans,
and thereafter the Herero, who were under the leadership of Samuel
Maherero, maintained a guerrilla warfare, rendering the whole
countryside unsafe. The Germans found pursuit almost hopeless, being
crippled by the lack of water and the absence of means of transport. To
add to their troubles a Herero bastard named Morenga, with a following
of Hottentots, had, in July, recommenced hostilities in the south. On
the 2nd of October 1904 von Trotha, exasperated at his want of success
in crushing the enemy, issued a proclamation in which he said: "Within
the German frontier every Herero with or without a rifle, with or
without cattle, will be shot. I will not take over any more women and
children. But I will either drive them back to your people or have them
fired on." In a later order von Trotha instructed his soldiers not to
fire into, but to fire over the heads of the women and children, and
Prince Bülow ordered the general to repeal the whole proclamation.
Whenever they had the chance, however, the Germans hunted down the
Herero, and thousands perished in the Omaheke desert, across which
numbers succeeded in passing to British territory near Ngami.

On the day following the issue of von Trotha's proclamation to the
Herero, i.e. on the 3rd of October 1904, Hendrik Witboi sent a formal
declaration of war to the Germans. Hendrik had helped to suppress the
Bondelzwarts rising, and had received a German decoration for his
services, and his hostility is said to have been kindled by the
supersession of Colonel Leutwein, for whom he entertained a great
admiration. The Witbois were joined by other Hottentot tribes, and their
first act was to murder some sixty German settlers in the Gibeon
district. Both British and Boer farmers were spared--the Hottentots in
this matter following the example of the Herero. In November,
considerable reinforcements having come from Germany, the Witbois were
attacked, and Hendrik's headquarters, Reitmont, captured. Another defeat
was inflicted on Hendrik in January 1905, but, lacking ammunition and
water, the Germans could not follow up their victory. As in Damaraland,
the warfare in Namaqualand now assumed a guerrilla character, and the
Germans found it almost impossible to meet their elusive enemy, while
small detachments were often surprised and sometimes annihilated. In May
1905 von Trotha tried the effect on the Hottentots of another of his
proclamations. He invited them to surrender, adding that in the contrary
event all rebels would be exterminated. A price was at the same time put
on the heads of Hendrik Witboi and other chiefs. This proclamation was
unheeded by the Hottentots, who were in fact continuing the war with
rifles and ammunition seized from the Germans, and replenishing their
stock with cattle taken from the same source. In the north, however,
Samuel Maherero had fled to British territory, and the resistance of the
Herero was beginning to collapse. Concentration camps were established
in which some thousands of Herero women and children were cared for.
Meanwhile, the administration of von Trotha, who had assumed the
governorship as well as the command of the troops, was severely
criticized by the civilian population, and the non-success of the
operations against the Hottentots provoked strong military criticism. In
August 1905 Colonel (afterwards General) Leutwein, who had returned to
Germany, formally resigned the governorship of the protectorate, and
Herr von Lindequist, late German consul-general at Cape Town, was
nominated as his successor. Von Trotha, who had publicly criticized
Prince Bülow's order to repeal the Herero proclamation, was superseded.
He had in the summer of 1905 instituted a series of "drives" against the
Witbois, with no particular results. Hendrik always evaded the columns
and frequently attacked them in the rear.

In November 1905 von Lindequist arrived at Windhoek. The new governor
issued a general amnesty to the Herero, and set aside two large reserves
for those who surrendered. His conciliatory policy was in the end
successful, and the Ovampo, who threatened to give trouble, were kept in
hand. The task of pacifying Damaraland was continued throughout 1906,
and by the close of that year about 16,000 Herero had been established
in the reserves. Some 3000 had sought refuge in British territory, while
the number who had perished may be estimated at between 20,000 and
30,000.


  The Hottentots subdued.

In Namaqualand von Lindequist found an enemy still unbroken. On the 3rd
of November, however, Hendrik Witboi died, aged seventy-five, and his
son and successor Samuel Isaac Witboi shortly afterwards surrendered,
and the hostility of the tribe ceased. Morenga now became the chief of
the rebel Hottentots, and "drives" against him were organized. Early in
May 1906 an encounter between Morenga and a German column was fought
close to the British frontier of the Bechuanaland protectorate. Morenga
fled, was pursued across the frontier, and wounded, but escaped. On the
16th of May he was found hiding by British patrols and interned. Other
Hottentot chiefs continued the conflict, greatly aided by the immense
difficulty the Germans had in transporting supplies; to remedy which
defect the building of a railway from Lüderitz Bay to Kubub was begun
early in 1906. A camel transport corps was also organized, and Boer
auxiliaries engaged. Throughout the later half of 1906 the Hottentots
maintained the struggle, the Karas mountains forming a stronghold from
which their dislodgment was extremely difficult. Many of their leaders
and numbers of the tribesmen had a considerable strain of white (chiefly
Dutch) blood and were fairly educated men, with a knowledge not only of
native, but European ways; facts which helped to make them formidable
opponents. Gradually the resistance of the Hottentots was overcome, and
in December 1906 the Bondelzwarts again surrendered. Other tribes
continued the fight for months longer, but by March 1907 it was found
possible to reduce the troops in the protectorate to about 5000 men. At
the height of the campaign the Germans had 19,000 men in the field.

In August 1907 renewed alarm was created by the escape of Morenga from
British territory. The Cape government, regarding the chief as a
political refugee, had refused to extradite him and he had been assigned
a residence near Upington. This place he left early in August and,
eluding the frontier guards, re-entered German territory. In September,
however, he was again on the British side of the border. Meantime a
force of the Cape Mounted Police under Major F.A.H. Eliott had been
organized to effect his arrest. Summoned to surrender, Morenga fled into
the Kalahari Desert. Eliott's force of sixty men pursued him through a
waterless country, covering 80 m. in 24 hours. When overtaken (September
21st), Morenga, with ten followers, was holding a kopje and fired on the
advancing troops. After a sharp engagement the chief and five of his men
were killed, the British casualties being one killed and one wounded.
The death of Morenga removed a serious obstacle to the complete
pacification of the protectorate. Military operations continued,
however, during 1908. Herr von Lindequist, being recalled to Berlin to
become under-secretary in the colonial office, was succeeded as governor
(May 1907) by Herr von Schuckmann. In 1908 steps were taken to establish
German authority in the Caprivi enclave, which up to that time had been
neglected by the colonial authorities.


  Discovery of diamonds.

The discovery of diamonds in the Lüderitz Bay district in July 1908
caused a rush of treasure-seekers. The diamonds were found mostly on the
surface in a sandy soil and were of small size. The stones resemble
Brazilian diamonds. By the end of the year the total yield was over
39,000 carats. One of the difficulties encountered in developing the
field was the great scarcity of fresh water. During 1909 various
companies were formed to exploit the diamondiferous area. The first
considerable packet of diamonds from the colony reached Germany in April
1909. The output for the year was valued at over £1,000,000.

  AUTHORITIES.--Karl Dove, _Deutsch-Südwestafrika_ (Berlin, 1903); W.
  Külz, _Deutsch-Südafrika_ ... (Berlin, 1909); T. Leutwein, _Elf Jahre
  Gouverneur in Deutsch-Südwestafrika_ (Berlin, 1908), an authoritative
  work, largely historical; P. Rohrbach, _Deutsche Kolonialwirtschaft_,
  Band 1: _Südwestafrika_ (Berlin, 1907), a comprehensive economic
  study; I. Irle, _Die Herero, ein Beitrag zur Landes-, Volks- und
  Missionskunde_ (Gütersloh, 1906), a valuable summary of information
  concerning Damaraland; Major K. Schwabe, _Im deutschen Diamantenlande_
  (Berlin, 1909); T. Rehbock, _Deutsch-Südwestafrika, seine
  wirtschaftliche Erschliessung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der
  Nutzbarmachung des Wassers_ (Berlin, 1898); C. von François,
  _Deutsch-Südwestafrika: Geschichte der Kolonisation bis zum Ausbruch
  des Krieges mit Witbooi_, April 1893 (Berlin, 1899), a history of the
  protectorate up to 1893; H. Schintz, _Deutsch-Südwestafrika,
  Forschungsreisen durch die deutschen Schutzgebiete Gross-Nama und
  Hereroland, nach dem Kunene, &c., 1884-1887_ (Oldenburg, N.D. [1891]);
  H. von François, _Nama und Damara_ (Magdeburg, N.D. [1896]). See also
  for Ethnology, "Die Eingeborenen Deutsch-Südwestafrikas nach
  Geschichte, Charakter, Sitten, Gebräuchen und Sprachen," in
  _Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen_ (Berlin and
  Stuttgart) for 1899 and 1900; and G.W. Stow, _The Native Races of
  South Africa_ (London, 1905); ch. xvii. contains an account of the
  Afrikander family. For geology consult A. Schenk, "Die geologische
  Entwicklung Südafrikas (mit Karte)," _Peterm. Mitt._ (1888); Stromer
  von Reichenbach, _Die Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika_
  (Munich and Leipzig, 1896). Of early books of travel the most valuable
  are: F. Galton, _Tropical South Africa_ (1853; new ed. 1889); Charles
  J. Andersson, _Lake Ngami_ (1856), _The Okavango River_ (1861) and
  _Notes of Travel_ (1875). See also Sir J.E. Alexander, _An Expedition
  of Discovery into the Interior of Africa_ (London, 1838). Reports on
  the German colonies are published by the British foreign office. The
  _Kriegskarte von Deutsch-Südwestafrika_ (Berlin, 1904), in nine sheets
  on a scale of 1 : 800,000, will be found useful.     (F. R. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] As the result of wars with the natives, the population greatly
    decreased. The number of adult (native) males in the colony at the
    beginning of 1908 was officially estimated at 19,900, a figure
    indicating a total population of little more than 100,000.



GERMANTOWN, a residential district and former suburb, now the
Twenty-second Ward, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on
Wissahickon Creek, in the N. part of the city. It is served by the
Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading railways. There are many old
colonial houses and handsome modern residences along Main Street (the
old Germantown Road or Avenue). Prominent among the historic houses is
Cliveden, or the "Chew House," built about 1761 by Benjamin Chew
(1722-1810), who was chief-justice of Pennsylvania in 1774-1777 and was
imprisoned as a Loyalist in 1777, and whose home during the battle of
Germantown (see below) was occupied by British troops. The
well-preserved Morris House (1772) was the headquarters of General Howe
at the close of the battle, and in 1793, when Germantown, owing to the
yellow fever in Philadelphia, was the temporary capital of the United
States, it was occupied by President Washington. Three doors above stood
until 1904 the Ashmead House, used for a time by Count Nicholas Lewis
Zinzendorf and his daughters for their Moravian school, which was
removed to Bethlehem. In the same street, opposite Indian Queen Lane, is
the old Wister Mansion, built as a country-seat in 1744 and occupied by
British officers during the War of Independence. In another old house
(now Nos. 5275-5277), John Fanning Watson (1779-1860), the annalist of
Philadelphia, did most of his literary work. Just outside the ward
limits, in what has since become a part of Fairmont Park, is the house
in which David Rittenhouse, the astronomer, was born; it stands on
Monoshore Creek or Paper Mill Run, in what was long called Roxborough
(now the 21st ward of Philadelphia). In this vicinity the first paper
mill in America was erected in 1690 by a company of which William
Rittenhouse, David's great-grandfather, was the leading member. The King
of Prussia Inn, built about 1740, and the Mermaid Hotel, as old or
older, are interesting survivals of the inns and taverns of old
Germantown. The Germantown Academy was built in 1760, and after the
battle of Germantown was used by the British as a hospital. In
Germantown are also a Friends' (orthodox) school, a Friends' free
library, and the Germantown branch of the Philadelphia public library.
The first school in Germantown was established about 1701, and for the
first eighteen years was under the mastership of Francis Daniel
Pastorius (1651-1719), the leader in founding the town, who lived in a
house that stood on the site of the present First Methodist Episcopal
church, High Street and Main Street. He compiled a primer which was the
first school book produced in the state; with three others he drafted
and signed in 1688 what seems to have been the first public protest made
in America against slavery; and he is celebrated in Whittier's
_Pennsylvania Pilgrim_. Later the same school passed to Christopher Dock
(d. 1771), who in 1770 published an essay on teaching (written in 1750),
which is said to have been the first book on pedagogy published in
America. The first Bible printed in America in any European language was
published in Germantown in 1743 by Christopher Sauer (d. 1758), a
preacher of the German Baptist Brethren, who in 1739 established
Germantown's first newspaper, _The High German Pennsylvania Historian,
or Collection of Important News from the Kingdom of Nature and of the
Church_. His grandsons are said to have cast about 1772 the first
American printing type. The Friends were the first sect to erect a
meeting-house of their own (about 1693). The Mennonites built a log
meeting-house in 1709, and their present stone church was built in 1770.
The town hall of Germantown was used as a hospital during the last three
years of the Civil War. In Market Square a soldiers' monument was
erected in 1883. The Site and Relic Society of Germantown maintains a
museum of relics. Many of the early settlers were linen weavers, and
Germantown still manufactures textiles, knit goods and yarns.

Germantown was founded in October 1683 by thirteen families from
Crefeld, Germany, under the leadership of Francis Daniel Pastorius. The
township, as originally laid out, contained four distinct villages known
as Germantown, Cresheim, Sommerhousen and Crefield. Cresheim was later
known as Mount Airy, and Sommerhousen and Crefield became known as
Chestnut Hill. The borough of Germantown was incorporated in 1689. For
many years it was a straggling village extending about 2 m. along Main
Street. Its growth was more rapid from the middle of the 18th century.
In 1789 a motion for the permanent location of the national capital at
Germantown was carried in the Senate, and the same measure passed the
House, amended only with respect to the temporary government of the
ceded district; but the Senate killed the bill by voting to postpone
further consideration of it until the next session. Germantown was
annexed to Philadelphia in 1854.

_Battle of Germantown._--This famous encounter in the American War of
Independence was fought on the 4th of October 1777. After the battle of
Brandywine (q.v.) and the occupation of Philadelphia, the British force
commanded by Sir W. Howe encamped at Germantown, where Washington
determined to attack them. The Americans advanced by two roads, General
Sullivan leading the column on the right and General Greene that on the
left. Washington himself accompanied Sullivan, with whom were Stirling
(an officer who claimed to be earl of that name) and Anthony Wayne. The
right at first met with success, driving the British advanced troops
back on the main body near the Chew House. Colonel Musgrave, of the 40th
Foot, threw a portion of his regiment into this house, and General Agnew
came up with his command. The Americans under Stirling attempted to
dislodge Musgrave, thus losing time and alarming part of Sullivan's
advance who had pushed farther forward in the fog. General Greene on the
left was even less fortunate. Meeting with unexpected opposition at the
first point of attack his troops were thrown into confusion and
compelled to retreat. One of his brigades extended itself to the right
wing, and by opening fire on the Chew House caused Wayne to retreat, and
presently both of the American columns retired rapidly in the direction
of their camp. The surprise had failed, with the loss to Washington's
army of 673 men as against 500 on the side of the British. The British
General Agnew and the American General Nash were both mortally wounded.
In December Washington went into winter quarters at Valley Forge, 40 m.
west of Philadelphia. The British wintered in and around the city.

  See N.H. Keyser, "Old Historic Germantown," in the _Proceedings and
  Addresses of the Pennsylvania-German Society_ (Lancaster, 1906); S.W.
  Pennypacker, _The Settlement of Germantown, Pennsylvania, and the
  Beginning of German Emigration to North America_ (Philadelphia, 1899),
  and S.F. Hotchkin, _Ancient and Modern Germantown, Mount Airy and
  Chestnut Hill_ (Philadelphia, 1889).



GERMANY (Ger. _Deutschland_), or, more properly, THE GERMAN EMPIRE
(_Deutsches Reich_), a country of central Europe. The territories
occupied by peoples of distinctively Teutonic race and language are
commonly designated as German, and in this sense may be taken to
include, besides Germany proper (the subject of the present article),
the German-speaking sections of Austria, Switzerland and Holland. But
Germany, or the German empire, as it is now understood, was formed in
1871 by virtue of treaties between the North German Confederation and
the South German states, and by the acquisition, in the peace of
Frankfort (May 10, 1871), of Alsace-Lorraine, and embraces all the
countries of the former German Confederation, with the exception of
Austria, Luxemburg, Limburg and Liechtenstein. The sole addition to the
empire proper since that date is the island of Heligoland, ceded by
Great Britain in 1890, but Germany has acquired extensive colonies in
Africa and the Pacific (see below, _Colonies_).

The German empire extends from 47° 16' to 55° 53' N., and from 5° 52' to
22° 52' E. The eastern provinces project so far that the extent of
German territory is much greater from south-west to north-east than in
any other direction. Tilsit is 815 m. from Metz, whereas Hadersleben, in
Schleswig, is only 540 m. from the Lake of Constance. The actual
difference in time between the eastern and western points is 1 hour and
8 minutes, but the empire observes but one time--1 hour E. of
Greenwich. The empire is bounded on the S.E. and S. by Austria and
Switzerland (for 1659 m.), on the S.W. by France (242 m.), on the W. by
Luxemburg, Belgium and Holland (together 558 m.). The length of German
coast on the North Sea or German Ocean is 293 m., and on the Baltic 927
m., the intervening land boundary on the north of Schleswig being only
47 m. The eastern boundary is with Russia 843 m. The total length of the
frontiers is thus 4569 m. The area, including rivers and lakes but not
the _haffs_ or lagoons on the Baltic coast, is 208,830 sq. m., and the
population (1905) 60,641,278. In respect of its area, the German empire
occupied in 1909 the third place among European countries, and in point
of population the second, coming in point of area immediately after
Russia and Austria-Hungary, and in population next to Russia.

_Political Divisions._--The empire is composed of the following
twenty-six states and divisions: the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria,
Saxony and Württemberg; the grand-duchies of Baden, Hesse,
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg and Saxe-Weimar;
the duchies of Anhalt, Brunswick, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and
Saxe-Meiningen; the principalities of Lippe-Detmold, Reuss-Greiz,
Reuss-Schleiz, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt,
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Waldeck-Pyrmont; the free towns of Bremen,
Hamburg and Lübeck, and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine.

Besides these political divisions there are certain parts of Germany
which, not conterminous with political boundaries, retain appellations
derived either from former tribal settlements or from divisions of the
old Holy Roman Empire. These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the
districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Würzburg on the upper Main; Swabia
(Schwaben), in which is included Württemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden
and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the
Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish
Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden;
Vogtland,[1] the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of
the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the
kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the
upper Spree; Thuringia (Thüringen), the country lying south of the Harz
Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Friesland (Ost
Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and
the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and
west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch
frontier.

_Coast and Islands._--The length of the coast-line is considerably less
than the third part of the whole frontier. The coasts are shallow, and
deficient in natural ports, except on the east of Schleswig-Holstein,
where wide bays encroach upon the land, giving access to the largest
vessels, so that the great naval harbour could be constructed at Kiel.
With the exception of those on the east coast of Schleswig-Holstein, all
the important trading ports of Germany are river ports, such as Emden,
Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Stettin, Danzig, Königsberg, Memel. A great
difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts of the North
Sea and those of the Baltic. On the former, where the sea has broken up
the ranges of dunes formed in bygone times, and divided them into
separate islands, the mainland has to be protected by massive dikes,
while the Frisian Islands are being gradually washed away by the waters.
On the coast of East Friesland there are now only seven of these
islands, of which Norderney is best known, while of the North Frisian
Islands, on the western coast of Schleswig, Sylt is the most
considerable. Besides the ordinary waste of the shores, there have been
extensive inundations by the sea within the historic period, the gulf of
the Dollart having been so caused in the year 1276. Sands surround the
whole coast of the North Sea to such an extent that the entrance to the
ports is not practicable without the aid of pilots. Heligoland is a
rocky island, but it also has been considerably reduced by the sea. The
tides rise to the height of 12 or 13 ft. in the Jade Bay and at
Bremerhaven, and 6 or 7 ft. at Hamburg. The coast of the Baltic, on the
other hand, possesses few islands, the chief being Alsen and Fehmarn off
the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, and Rügen off Pomerania. It has no
extensive sands, though on the whole very flat. The Baltic has no
perceptible tides; and a great part of its coast-line is in winter
covered with ice, which also so blocks up the harbours that navigation
is interrupted for several months every year. Its _haffs_ fronting the
mouths of the large rivers must be regarded as lagoons or extensions of
the river beds, not as bays. The Pommersche or Oder Haff is separated
from the sea by two islands, so that the river flows out by three
mouths, the middle one (Swine) being the most considerable. The Frische
Haff is formed by the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, and by the Pregel,
and communicates with the sea by means of the Pillauer Tief. The
Kurische Haff receives the Memel, called Niemen in Russia, and has its
outlet in the extreme north at Memel. Long narrow alluvial strips called
_Nehrungen_, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic
coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of Lübeck, that
of Pomerania, east of Rügen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between
the promontories of Rixhöft and Brüsterort. The German coasts are well
provided with lighthouses.

  _Surface._--In respect of physical structure Germany is divided into
  two entirely distinct portions, which bear to one another a ratio of
  about 3 to 4. The northern and larger part may be described as a
  uniform plain. South and central Germany, on the other hand, is very
  much diversified in scenery. It possesses large plateaus, such as that
  of Bavaria, which stretches away from the foot of the Alps, fertile
  low plains like that intersected by the Rhine, mountain chains and
  isolated groups of mountains, comparatively low in height, and so
  situated as not seriously to interfere with communication either by
  road or by railway.


    Mountains and plateaus.

  Bavaria is the only division of the country that includes within it
  any part of the Alps, the Austro-Bavarian frontier running along the
  ridge of the Northern Tirolese or Bavarian Alps. The loftiest peak of
  this group, the Zugspitze (57 m. S. of Munich), is 9738 ft. in height,
  being the highest summit in the empire. The upper German plain sloping
  northwards from the Bavarian Alps is watered by the Lech, the Isar and
  the Inn, tributaries of the Danube, all three rising beyond the limits
  of German territory. This plain is separated on the west from the
  Swiss plain by the Lake of Constance (Bodensee, 1306 ft. above
  sea-level), and on the east from the undulating grounds of Austria by
  the Inn. The average height of the plain may be estimated at about
  1800 ft., the valley of the Danube on its north border being from 1540
  ft. (at Ulm) to 920 ft. (at Passau). The plain is not very fertile. In
  the upper part of the plain, towards the Alps, there are several
  lakes, the largest being the Ammersee, the Würmsee or Starnberger See
  and the Chiemsee. Many portions of the plain are covered by moors and
  swamps of large extent, called _Moose_. The left or northern bank of
  the Danube from Regensburg downwards presents a series of granitic
  rocks called the Bavarian Forest (Bayrischer Wald), which must be
  regarded as a branch of the Bohemian Forest (Böhmer Wald). The latter
  is a range of wooded heights on the frontier of Bavaria and Bohemia,
  occupying the least known and least frequented regions of Germany. The
  summits of the Bayrischer Wald rise to the height of about 4000 ft.,
  and those of the Böhmer Wald to 4800 ft., Arber being 4872 ft. The
  valley of the Danube above Regensburg is flanked by plateaus sloping
  gently to the Danube, but precipitous towards the valley of the
  Neckar. The centre of this elevated tract is the Rauhe Alb, so named
  on account of the harshness of the climate. The plateau continuing to
  the north-east and then to the north, under the name of the Franconian
  Jura, is crossed by the valley of the winding Altmühl, and extends to
  the Main. To the west extensive undulating grounds or low plateaus
  occupy the area between the Main and the Neckar.

  The south-western corner of the empire contains a series of better
  defined hill-ranges. Beginning with the Black Forest (Schwarzwald), we
  find its southern heights decline to the valley of the Rhine, above
  Basel, and to the Jura. The summits are rounded and covered with wood,
  the highest being the Feldberg (10 m. S.E. of Freiburg, 4898 ft.).
  Northwards the Black Forest passes into the plateau of the
  Neckarbergland (average height, 1000 ft.). The heights between the
  lower Neckar and the Main form the Odenwald (about 1700 ft.); and the
  Spessart, which is watered by the Main on three sides, is nothing but
  a continuation of the Odenwald. West of this range of hills lies the
  valley of the upper Rhine, extending about 180 m. from south to north,
  and with a width of only 20 to 25 m. In the upper parts the Rhine is
  rapid, and therefore navigable with difficulty; this explains why the
  towns there are not along the banks of the river, but some 5 to 10 m.
  off. But from Spires (Speyer) town succeeds town as far down as
  Düsseldorf. The western boundary of this valley is formed in the first
  instance by the Vosges, where granite summits rise from under the
  surrounding red Triassic rocks (Sulzer Belchen, 4669 ft.). To the
  south the range is not continuous with the Swiss Jura, the valley of
  the Rhine being connected here with the Rhone system by low ground
  known as the Gate of Mülhausen. The crest of the Vosges is pretty high
  and unbroken, the first convenient pass being near Zabern, which is
  followed by the railway from Strassburg to Paris. On the northern side
  the Vosges are connected with the Hardt sandstone plateau (Kalmit,
  2241 ft.), which rises abruptly from the plain of the Rhine. The
  mountains south of Mainz, which are mostly covered by vineyards, are
  lower, the Donnersberg, however, raising its head to 2254 ft. These
  hills are bordered on the west by the high plain of Lorraine and the
  coal-fields of Saarbrücken, the former being traversed by the river
  Mosel. The larger part of Lorraine belongs to France, but the German
  part possesses great mineral wealth in its rich layers of ironstone
  (siderite) and in the coal-fields of the Saar. The tract of the
  Hunsrück, Taunus and Eifel is an extended plateau, divided into
  separate sections by the river valleys. Among these the Rhine valley
  from Bingen to Bonn, and that of the Mosel from Trier to Coblenz, are
  winding gorges excavated by the rivers. The Eifel presents a sterile,
  thinly-peopled plateau, covered by extensive moors in several places.
  It passes westwards imperceptibly into the Ardennes. The hills on the
  right bank of the Rhine also are in part of a like barren character,
  without wood; the Westerwald (about 2000 ft.), which separates the
  valleys of the Sieg and Lahn, is particularly so. The northern and
  southern limits of the Niederrheinische Gebirge present a striking
  contrast to the central region. In the south the declivities of the
  Taunus (2890 ft.) are marked by the occurrence of mineral springs, as
  at Ems on the Lahn, Nauheim, Homburg, Soden, Wiesbaden, &c., and by
  the vineyards which produce the best Rhine wines. To the north of this
  system, on the other hand, lies the great coal basin of Westphalia,
  the largest in Germany. In the south of the hilly duchy of Hesse rise
  the isolated mountain groups of the Vogelsberg (2530 ft.) and the Rhön
  (3117 ft.), separated by the valley of the Fulda, which uniting
  farther north with the Werra forms the Weser. To the east of Hesse
  lies Thuringia, a province consisting of the far-stretching wooded
  ridge of the Thuringian Forest (Thüringerwald; with three peaks
  upwards of 3000 ft. high), and an extensive elevated plain to the
  north. Its rivers are the Saale and Unstrut. The plateau is bounded on
  the north by the Harz, an isolated group of mountains, rich in
  minerals, with its highest elevation in the bare summit of the Brocken
  (3747 ft.). To the west of the Harz a series of hilly tracts is
  comprised under the name of the Weser Mountains, out of which above
  Minden the river Weser bursts by the Porta Westphalica. A narrow
  ridge, the Teutoburger Wald (1300 ft.), extends between the Weser and
  the Ems as far as the neighbourhood of Osnabrück.

  To the east the Thuringian Forest is connected by the plateau of the
  Frankenwald with the Fichtelgebirge. This group of mountains,
  occupying what may be regarded as ethnologically the centre of
  Germany, forms a hydrographical centre, whence the Naab flows
  southward to the Danube, the Main westward to the Rhine, the Eger
  eastward to the Elbe, and the Saale northward, also into the Elbe. In
  the north-east the Fichtelgebirge connects itself directly with the
  Erzgebirge, which forms the northern boundary of Bohemia. The southern
  sides of this range are comparatively steep; on the north it slopes
  gently down to the plains of Leipzig, but is intersected by the deep
  valleys of the Elster and Mulde. Although by no means fertile, the
  Erzgebirge is very thickly peopled, as various branches of industry
  have taken root there in numerous small places. Around Zwickau there
  are productive coal-fields, and mining for metals is carried on near
  Freiberg. In the east a tableland of sandstone, called Saxon
  Switzerland, from the picturesque outlines into which it has been
  eroded, adjoins the Erzgebirge; one of its most notable features is
  the deep ravine by which the Elbe escapes from it. Numerous quarries,
  which supply the North German cities with stone for buildings and
  monuments, have been opened along the valley. The sandstone range of
  the Elbe unites in the east with the low Lusatian group, along the
  east of which runs the best road from northern Germany to Bohemia.
  Then comes a range of lesser hills clustering together to form the
  frontier between Silesia and Bohemia. The most western group is the
  Isergebirge, and the next the Riesengebirge, a narrow ridge of about
  20 miles' length, with bare summits. Excluding the Alps, the
  Schneekoppe (5266 ft.) is the highest peak in Germany; and the
  southern declivities of this range contain the sources of the Elbe.
  The hills north and north-east of it are termed the Silesian
  Mountains. Here one of the minor coal-fields gives employment to a
  population grouped round a number of comparatively small centres. One
  of the main roads into Bohemia (the pass of Landshut) runs along the
  eastern base of the Riesengebirge. Still farther to the east the
  mountains are grouped around the hollow of Glatz, whence the Neisse
  forces its way towards the north. This hollow is shut in on the east
  by the Sudetic group, in which the Altvater rises to almost 4900 ft.
  The eastern portion of the group, called the Gesenke, slopes gently
  away to the valley of the Oder, which affords an open route for the
  international traffic, like that through the Mülhausen Gate in Alsace.
  Geographers style this the Moravian Gate.

  The North German plain presents little variety, yet is not absolutely
  uniform. A row of low hills runs generally parallel to the mountain
  ranges already noticed, at a distance of 20 to 30 m. to the north. To
  these belongs the upper Silesian coal-basin, which occupies a
  considerable area in south-eastern Silesia. North of the middle
  districts of the Elbe country the heights are called the Fläming
  hills. Westward lies as the last link of this series the Lüneburger
  Heide or Heath, between the Weser and Elbe, north of Hanover. A second
  tract, of moderate elevation, sweeps round the Baltic, without,
  however, approaching its shores. This plateau contains a considerable
  number of lakes, and is divided into three portions by the Vistula and
  the Oder. The most eastward is the so-called Prussian Seenplatte.
  Spirdingsee (430 ft. above sea-level and 46 sq. m. in area) and
  Mauersee are the largest lakes; they are situated in the centre of the
  plateau, and give rise to the Pregel. Some peaks near the Russian
  frontier attain to 1000 ft. The Pomeranian Seenplatte, between the
  Vistula and the Oder, extends from S.W. to N.E., its greatest
  elevation being in the neighbourhood of Danzig (Turmberg, 1086 ft.).
  The Seenplatte of Mecklenburg, on the other hand, stretches from S.E.
  to N.W., and most of its lakes, of which the Müritz is the largest,
  send their waters towards the Elbe. The finely wooded heights which
  surround the bays of the east coast of Holstein and Schleswig may be
  regarded as a continuation of these Baltic elevations. The lowest
  parts, therefore, of the North German plain, excluding the sea-coasts,
  are the central districts from about 52° to 53° N. lat., where the
  Vistula, Netze, Warthe, Oder, Spree and Havel form vast swampy
  lowlands (in German called _Brüche_), which have been considerably
  reduced by the construction of canals and by cultivation, improvements
  due in large measure to Frederick the Great. The Spreewald, to the
  S.E. of Berlin, is one of the most remarkable districts of Germany. As
  the Spree divides itself there into innumerable branches, enclosing
  thickly wooded islands, boats form the only means of communication.
  West of Berlin the Havel widens into what are called the Havel lakes,
  to which the environs of Potsdam owe their charms. In general the soil
  of the North German plain cannot be termed fertile, the cultivation
  nearly everywhere requiring severe and constant labour. Long stretches
  of ground are covered by moors, and there turf-cutting forms the
  principal occupation of the inhabitants. The greatest extent of
  moorland is found in the westernmost parts of the plain, in Oldenburg
  and East Frisia. The plain contains, however, a few districts of the
  utmost fertility, particularly the tracts on the central Elbe, and the
  marsh lands on the west coast of Holstein and the north coast of
  Hanover, Oldenburg and East Frisia, which, within the last two
  centuries, the inhabitants have reclaimed from the sea by means of
  immense dikes.

  _Rivers._--Nine independent river-systems may be distinguished: those
  of the Memel, Pregel, Vistula (Weichsel), Oder, Elbe, Weser, Ems,
  Rhine and Danube. Of these the Pregel, Weser and Ems belong entirely,
  and the Oder mostly, to the German empire. The Danube has its sources
  on German soil; but only a fifth part of its course is German. Its
  total length is 1750 m., and the Bavarian frontier at Passau, where
  the Inn joins it, is only 350 m. distant from its sources. It is
  navigable as far as Ulm, 220 m. above Passau; and its tributaries the
  Lech, Isar, Inn and Altmühl are also navigable. The Rhine is the most
  important river of Germany, although neither its sources nor its
  mouths are within the limits of the empire. From the Lake of Constance
  to Basel (122 m.) the Rhine forms the boundary between the German
  empire and Switzerland; the canton of Schaffhausen, however, is
  situated on the northern bank of the river. From Basel to below
  Emmerich the Rhine belongs to the German empire--about 470 m. or
  four-sevenths of its whole course. It is navigable all this distance
  as are also the Neckar from Esslingen, the Main from Bamberg, the
  Lahn, the Lippe, the Ruhr, the Mosel from Metz, with its affluents the
  Saar and Sauer. Sea-going vessels sail up the Ems as far as Halte, and
  river craft as far as Greven, and the river is connected with a widely
  branching system of canals, as the Ems-Jade and Dortmund-Ems canals.
  The Fulda, navigable for 63 m., and the Werra, 38 m., above the point
  where they unite, form by their junction the Weser, which has a course
  of 271 m., and receives as navigable tributaries the Aller, the Leine
  from Hanover, and some smaller streams. Ocean-going steamers, however,
  cannot get as far as Bremen, and unload at Bremerhaven. The Elbe,
  after a course of 250 m., enters German territory near Bodenbach, 490
  m. from its mouth. It is navigable above this point through its
  tributary, the Moldau, to Prague. Hamburg may be reached by vessels of
  17 ft. draught. The navigable tributaries of the Elbe are the Saale
  (below Naumburg), the Havel, Spree, Elde, Sude and some others. The
  Oder begins to be navigable almost on the frontier at Ratibor, 480 m.
  from its mouth, receiving as navigable tributaries the Glatz Neisse
  and the Warthe. Only the lower course of the Vistula belongs to the
  German empire, within which it is a broad, navigable stream of
  considerable volume. On the Pregel ships of 3000 tons reach
  Königsberg, and river barges reach Insterburg; the Alle, its
  tributary, may also be navigated. The Memel is navigable in its course
  of 113 m. from the Russian frontier. Germany is thus a country
  abounding in natural waterways, the total length of them being
  estimated at 7000 m. But it is only the Rhine, in its middle course,
  that has at all times sufficient volume of water to meet the
  requirements of a good navigable river.

  _Lakes._--The regions which abound in lakes have already been pointed
  out. The Lake of Constance or Bodensee (204¾ sq. m.) is on the
  frontier of the empire, portions of the northern banks belonging
  severally to Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden. In the south the largest
  lakes are the Chiemsee (33 sq. m.); the Ammersee and the Würmsee. A
  good many smaller lakes are to be found in the Bavarian Alps. The
  North German plain is dotted with upwards of 500 lakes, covering an
  area of about 2500 sq. m. The largest of these are the three
  Haffs--the Oder Haff covering 370 sq. m., the Frische Haff, 332, and
  the Kurische Haff, 626. The lakes in the Prussian and Pomeranian
  provinces, in Mecklenburg and in Holstein, and those of the Havel,
  have already been mentioned. In the west the only lakes of importance
  are the Steinhuder Meer, 14 m. north-west of Hanover, and the
  Dümmersee on the southern frontier of Oldenburg. (P. A. A.)

  _Geology._--Germany consists of a floor of folded Palaeozoic rocks
  upon which rest unconformably the comparatively little disturbed beds
  of the Mesozoic system, while in the North German plain a covering of
  modern deposits conceals the whole of the older strata from view,
  excepting some scattered and isolated outcrops of Cretaceous and
  Tertiary beds. The rocks which compose the ancient floor are thrown
  into folds which run approximately from W.S.W. to E.N.E. They are
  exposed on the one hand in the neighbourhood of the Rhine and on the
  other hand in the Bohemian _massif_. With the latter must be included
  the Frankenwald, the Thüringerwald, and even the Harz. The oldest
  rocks, belonging to the Archaean system, occur in the south, forming
  the Vosges and the Black Forest in the west, and the greater part of
  the Bohemian _massif_, including the Erzgebirge, in the east. They
  consist chiefly of gneiss and schist, with granite and other eruptive
  rocks. Farther north, in the Hunsrück, the Taunus, the Eifel and
  Westerwald, the Harz and the Frankenwald, the ancient floor is
  composed mainly of Devonian beds. Other Palaeozoic systems are,
  however, included in the folds. The Cambrian, for example, is exposed
  at Leimitz near Hof in the Frankenwald, and the important coal-field
  of the Saar lies on the southern side of the Hunsrück, while
  Ordovician and Silurian beds have been found in several localities.
  Along the northern border of the folded belt lies the coal basin of
  the Ruhr in Westphalia, which is the continuation of the Belgian
  coal-field, and bears much the same relation to the Rhenish Devonian
  area that the coal basin of Liége bears to the Ardennes. Carboniferous
  and Devonian beds are also found south-east of the Bohemian _massif_,
  where lies the extensive coal-field of Silesia. The Permian, as in
  England, is not involved in the folds which have affected the older
  beds, and in general lies unconformably upon them. It occurs chiefly
  around the masses of ancient rock, and one of the largest areas is
  that of the Saar.

  Between the old rocks of the Rhine on the west and the ancient
  _massif_ of Bohemia on the east a vast area of Triassic beds extends
  from Hanover to Basel and from Metz to Bayreuth. Over the greater part
  of this region the Triassic beds are free from folding and are nearly
  horizontal, but faulting is by no means absent, especially along the
  margins of the Bohemian and Rhenish hills. The Triassic beds must
  indeed have covered a large part of these old rock masses, but they
  have been preserved only where they were faulted down to a lower
  level. Along the southern margin of the Triassic area there is a long
  band of Jurassic beds dipping towards the Danube; and at its eastern
  extremity this band is continuous with a synclinal of Jurassic beds,
  running parallel to the western border of the Bohemian _massif_, but
  separated from it by a narrow strip of Triassic beds. Towards the
  north, in Hanover and Westphalia, the Triassic beds are followed by
  Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits, the latter being here the more
  important. As in the south of England, the lower beds of the
  Cretaceous are of estuarine origin and the Upper Cretaceous overlaps
  the Lower, lying in the valley of the Ruhr directly upon the
  Palaeozoic rocks. In Saxony also the upper Cretaceous beds rest
  directly upon the Palaeozoic or Archaean rocks. Still more to the
  east, in the province of Silesia, both Jurassic and Cretaceous beds
  are again met with, but they are to a large extent concealed by the
  recent accumulations of the great plain. The Eocene system is unknown
  in Germany except in the foothills of the Alps; but the Oligocene and
  Miocene are widely spread, especially in the great plain and in the
  depression of the Danube. The Oligocene is generally marine. Marine
  Miocene occurs in N.W. Germany and the Miocene of the Danube valley is
  also in part marine, but in central Germany it is of fluviatile or
  lacustrine origin. The lignites of Hesse, Cassel, &c., are
  interstratified with basaltic lava-flows which form the greater part
  of the Vogelsberg and other hills. The trachytes of the Siebengebirge
  are probably of slightly earlier date. The precise age of the
  volcanoes of the Eifel, many of which are in a very perfect state of
  preservation, is not clear, but they are certainly Tertiary or
  Post-tertiary. Leucite and nepheline lavas are here abundant. In the
  Siebengebirge the little crater of Roderberg, with its lavas and
  scoriae of leucite-basalt, is posterior to some of the Pleistocene
  river deposits.

  A glance at a geological map of Germany will show that the greater
  part of Prussia and of German Poland is covered by Quaternary
  deposits. These are in part of glacial origin, and contain
  Scandinavian boulders; but fluviatile and aeolian deposits also occur.
  Quaternary beds also cover the floor of the broad depression through
  which the Rhine meanders from Basel to Mainz, and occupy a large part
  of the plain of the Danube. The depression of the Rhine is a trough
  lying between two faults or system of faults. The very much broader
  depression of the Danube is associated with the formation of the Alps,
  and was flooded by the sea during a part of the Miocene period.
       (P. La.)

  [Illustration: Goelogic Map.]

  _Climate._--The climate of Germany is to be regarded as intermediate
  between the oceanic and continental climates of western and eastern
  Europe respectively. It has nothing in common with the Mediterranean
  climate of southern Europe, Germany being separated from that region
  by the lofty barrier of the Alps. Although there are very considerable
  differences in the range of temperature and the amount of rainfall
  throughout Germany, these are not so great as they would be were it
  not that the elevated plateaus and mountain chains are in the south,
  while the north is occupied by low-lying plains. In the west no chain
  of hills intercepts the warmer and moister winds which blow from the
  Atlantic, and these accordingly influence at times even the eastern
  regions of Germany. The mean annual temperature of south-western
  Germany, or the Rhine and Danube basins, is about 52° to 54° F., that
  of central Germany 48° to 50°, and that of the northern plain 46° to
  48°. In Pomerania and West Prussia it is only 44° to 45°, and in East
  Prussia 42° to 44°. The mean January temperature varies between 22°
  and 34° (in Masuren and Cologne respectively); the mean July
  temperature, between 61° in north Schleswig and 68° at Cologne. The
  extremes of cold and heat are, as recorded in the ten years 1895-1905,
  7° in Königsberg and 93° in Heidelberg (the hottest place in Germany).
  The difference in the mean annual temperature between the south-west
  and north-west of Germany amounts to about 3°. The contrasts of heat
  and cold are furnished by the valley of the Rhine above Mainz, which
  has the greatest mean heat, the mildest winter and the highest summer
  temperature, and the lake plateau of East Prussia, where Arys on the
  Spirdingsee has a like winter temperature to the Brocken at 3200 ft.
  The Baltic has the lowest spring temperature, and the autumn there is
  also not characterized by an appreciably higher degree of warmth. In
  central Germany the high plateaus of the Erz and Fichtelgebirge are
  the coldest regions. In south Germany the upper Bavarian plain
  experiences an inclement winter and a cold summer. In Alsace-Lorraine
  the Vosges and the plateau of Lorraine are also remarkable for low
  temperatures. The warmest districts of the German empire are the
  northern parts of the Rhine plain, from Karlsruhe downwards,
  especially the Rheintal; these are scarcely 300 ft. above the
  sea-level, and are protected by mountainous tracts of land. The same
  holds true of the valleys of the Neckar, Main and Mosel. Hence the
  vine is everywhere cultivated in these districts. The mean summer
  temperature there is 66° and upwards, while the average temperature of
  January does not descend to the freezing point (32°). The climate of
  north-western Germany (west of the Elbe) shows a predominating oceanic
  character, the summers not being too hot (mean summer temperature 60°
  to 62°), and snow in winter remaining but a short time on the ground.
  West of the Weser the average temperature of January exceeds 32°; to
  the east it sinks to 30°, and therefore the Elbe is generally covered
  with ice for some months of the year, as are also its tributaries. The
  farther one proceeds to the east the greater are the contrasts of
  summer and winter. While the average summer warmth of Germany is 60°
  to 62°, the January temperature falls as low as 26° to 28° in West
  Prussia, Posen and Silesia, and 22° to 26° in East Prussia and upper
  Silesia. The navigation of the rivers is regularly interrupted by
  frost. Similarly the upper basin of the Danube, or the Bavarian plain,
  has a rather inclement climate in winter, the average for January
  being 25° to 26°.

  As regards rainfall, Germany belongs to those regions where
  precipitation takes place at all seasons, but chiefly in the form of
  summer rains. In respect to the quantity of rain the empire takes a
  middle position between the humidity of north-western Europe and the
  aridity of the east. There are considerable differences between
  particular places. The rainfall is greatest in the Bavarian tableland
  and the hilly regions of western Germany. For the Eifel, Sauerland,
  Harz, Thuringian Forest, Rhön, Vogelsberg, Spessart, the Black Forest,
  the Vosges, &c., the annual average may be stated at 34 in. or more,
  while in the lower terraces of south-western Germany, as in the
  Erzgebirge and the Sudetic range, it is estimated at 30 to 32 in.
  only. The same average obtains also on the humid north-west coast of
  Germany as far as Bremen and Hamburg. In the remaining parts of
  western Germany, on the shores of farther Pomerania, and in East
  Prussia, it amounts to upwards of 24 in. In western Germany there is a
  district famous for the scarcity of rain and for producing the best
  kind of wine: in the valley of the Rhine below Strassburg, in the
  Palatinate, and also in the valley of the Main, no more than from 16
  to 20 in. fall. Mecklenburg, Brandenburg and Lusatia, Saxony and the
  plateau of Thuringia, West Prussia, Posen and lower Silesia are also
  to be classed among the more arid regions of Germany, the annual
  rainfall being 16 to 20 in. Thunderstorms are most frequent in July,
  and vary between fifteen and twenty-five in the central districts,
  descending in the eastern provinces of Prussia to ten annually.

  _Flora._--The flora of Germany comprises 3413 species of phanerogamic
  and 4306 cryptogamic plants. The country forms a section of the
  central European zone, and its flora is largely under the influence of
  the Baltic and Alpine elements, which to a great degree here coalesce.
  All plants peculiar to the temperate zone abound. Wheat, rye, barley
  and oats are cultivated everywhere, but spelt only in the south and
  buckwheat in the north and north-west. Maize only ripens in the south.
  Potatoes grow in every part of the country, those of the sandy plains
  in the north being of excellent quality. All the commoner sorts of
  fruit--apples, pears, cherries, &c.--grow everywhere, but the more
  delicate kinds, such as figs, apricots and peaches, are confined to
  the warmer districts. The vine flourishes as far as the 51° N., but
  only yields good wine in the districts of the Rhine and Danube. Flax
  is grown in the north, and hemp more particularly in the central
  districts. Rape can be produced everywhere when the soil permits.
  Tobacco is cultivated on the upper Rhine and in the valley of the
  Oder. The northern plain, especially in the province of Saxony,
  produces beet (for sugar), and hops are largely grown in Bavaria,
  Württemberg, Alsace, Baden and the Prussian province of Posen.


    Forests.

  Speaking generally, northern Germany is not nearly so well wooded as
  central and southern Germany, where indeed most of the lower mountains
  are covered with timber, as is indicated by the frequent use of the
  termination _wald_ affixed to the names of the mountain ranges (as
  Schwarzwald, Thüringerwald, &c.). The "Seenplatten" are less wooded
  than the hill country, but the eastern portion of the northern
  lowlands is well provided with timber. A narrow strip along the shores
  of the Baltic is covered with oaks and beeches; farther inland, and
  especially east of the Elbe, coniferous trees are the most prevalent,
  particularly the Scotch fir; birches are also abundant. The mountain
  forests consist chiefly of firs, pines and larches, but contain also
  silver firs, beeches and oaks. Chestnuts and walnuts appear on the
  terraces of the Rhine valley and in Swabia and Franconia. The whole
  north-west of Germany is destitute of wood, but to compensate for
  this the people have ample supplies of fuel in the extensive stretches
  of turf.

  _Fauna._--The number of wild animals in Germany is not very great.
  Foxes, martens, weasels, badgers and otters are to be found
  everywhere; bears are found in the Alps, wolves are rare, but they
  find their way sometimes from French territory to the western
  provinces, or from Poland to Prussia and Posen. Among the rodents the
  hamster and the field-mouse are a scourge to agriculture. Of game
  there are the roe, stag, boar and hare; the fallow deer and the wild
  rabbit are less common. The elk is to be found in the forests of East
  Prussia. The feathered tribes are everywhere abundant in the fields,
  woods and marshes. Wild geese and ducks, grouse, partridges, snipe,
  woodcock, quails, widgeons and teal are plentiful all over the
  country, and in recent years preserves have been largely stocked with
  pheasants. The length of time that birds of passage remain in Germany
  differs considerably with the different species. The stork is seen for
  about 170 days, the house-swallow 160, the snow-goose 260, the snipe
  220. In northern Germany these birds arrive from twenty to thirty days
  later than in the south.

  The waters of Germany abound with fish; but the genera and species are
  few. The carp and salmon tribes are the most abundant; after them rank
  the pike, the eel, the shad, the roach, the perch and the lamprey. The
  Oder and some of the tributaries of the Elbe abound in crayfish, and
  in the stagnant lakes of East Prussia leeches are bred. In addition to
  frogs, Germany has few varieties of Amphibia. Of serpents there are
  only two poisonous kinds, the common viper and the adder
  (_Kreuzotter_).

_Population._--Until comparatively recent times no estimate of the
population of Germany was precise enough to be of any value. At the
beginning of the 19th century the country was divided into some hundred
states, but there was no central agency for instituting an exact census
on a uniform plan. The formation of the German Confederation in 1815
effected but little change in this respect, and it was left to the
different states to arrange in what manner the census should be taken.
On the foundation, however, of the German customs union, or
_Zollverein_, between certain German states, the necessity for accurate
statistics became apparent and care was taken to compile trustworthy
tables. Researches show the population of the German empire, as at
present constituted, to have been: (1816) 24,833,396; (1855) 36,113,644;
and (1871) 41,058,792. The following table shows the population and area
of each of the states included in the empire for the years 1871, 1875,
1900 and 1905:--

  _Area and Population of the German States._

    +-----------------------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+-------+
    |                             |  Area  |                   Population.                 |Density|
    |    States of the Empire.    |English +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+  per  |
    |                             | Sq. m. |   1871.   |   1875.   |   1900.   |   1905.   | Sq. m.|
    +-----------------------------+--------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-------+
    | Kingdoms--                  |        |           |           |           |           |       |
    |   Prussia                   |134,616 |24,691,433 |25,742,404 |34,472,509 |37,293,324 | 277.3 |
    |   Bavaria                   | 29,292 | 4,863,450 | 5,022,390 | 6,176,057 | 6,524,372 | 222.7 |
    |   Saxony                    |  5,789 | 2,556,244 | 2,760,586 | 4,202,216 | 4,508,601 | 778.8 |
    |   Württemberg               |  7,534 | 1,818,539 | 1,881,505 | 2,169,480 | 2,302,179 | 305.5 |
    | Grand-Duchies--             |        |           |           |           |           |       |
    |   Baden                     |  5,823 | 1,461,562 | 1,507,179 | 1,867,944 | 2,010,728 | 345.3 |
    |   Hesse                     |  2,966 |   852,894 |   884,218 | 1,119,893 | 1,209,175 | 407.6 |
    |   Mecklenburg-Schwerin      |  5,068 |   557,897 |   553,785 |   607,770 |   625,045 | 123.3 |
    |   Saxe-Weimar               |  1,397 |   286,183 |   292,933 |   362,873 |   388,095 | 277.8 |
    |   Mecklenburg-Strelitz      |  1,131 |    96,982 |    95,673 |   102,602 |   103,451 |  91.5 |
    |   Oldenburg                 |  2,482 |   314,459 |   319,314 |   399,180 |   438,856 | 176.8 |
    | Duchies--                   |        |           |           |           |           |       |
    |   Brunswick                 |  1,418 |   311,764 |   327,493 |   464,333 |   485,958 | 342.5 |
    |   Saxe-Meiningen            |    953 |   187,957 |   194,494 |   250,731 |   268,916 | 282.2 |
    |   Saxe-Altenburg            |    511 |   142,122 |   145,844 |   194,914 |   206,508 | 404.1 |
    |   Saxe-Coburg-Gotha         |    764 |   174,339 |   182,599 |   229,550 |   242,432 | 317.3 |
    |   Anhalt                    |    888 |   203,437 |   213,565 |   316,085 |   328,029 | 369.4 |
    | Principalities--            |        |           |           |           |           |       |
    |   Schwartzburg-Sondershausen|    333 |    75,523 |    76,676 |    80,898 |    85,152 | 255.7 |
    |   Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt   |    363 |    67,191 |    67,480 |    93,059 |    96,835 | 266.7 |
    |   Waldeck                   |    433 |    56,224 |    54,743 |    57,918 |    59,127 | 136.5 |
    |   Reuss-Greiz               |    122 |    45,094 |    46,985 |    68,396 |    70,603 | 578.7 |
    |   Reuss-Schleiz             |    319 |    89,032 |    92,375 |   139,210 |   144,584 | 453.2 |
    |   Schaumburg-Lippe          |    131 |    32,059 |    33,133 |    43,132 |    44,992 | 343.4 |
    |   Lippe                     |    469 |   111,135 |   112,452 |   138,952 |   145,577 | 310.4 |
    | Free Towns--                |        |           |           |           |           |       |
    |   Lübeck                    |    115 |    52,158 |    56,912 |    96,775 |   105,857 | 920.5 |
    |   Bremen                    |     99 |   122,402 |   142,200 |   224,882 |   263,440 |2661.0 |
    |   Hamburg                   |    160 |   338,974 |   388,618 |   768,349 |   874,878 |5467.9 |
    | Imperial Territory--        |        |           |           |           |           |       |
    |   Alsace-Lorraine           |  5,604 | 1,549,738 | 1,531,804 | 1,719,470 | 1,814,564 | 323.8 |
    |                             +--------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-------+
    |     German Empire           |208,780 |41,058,792 |42,727,360 |56,367,178 |60,641,278 | 290.4 |
    +-----------------------------+--------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-------+

  [Illustration: German Empire.]

  The population of the empire has thus increased, since 1871, by
  19,582,486 or 47.6%. The increase of population during 1895-1900 was
  greatest in Hamburg, Bremen, Lübeck, Saxony, Prussia and Baden, and
  least in Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Waldeck. Of the total population in
  1900, 54.3% was urban (i.e. living in towns of 2000 inhabitants and
  above), leaving 45.7% to be classified as rural. On the 1st of
  December 1905, of the total population 29,884,681 were males and
  30,756,597 females; and it is noticeable that the male population
  shows of late years a larger relative increase than the female, the
  male population having in five years increased by 2,147,434 and the
  female by only 2,126,666. The greater increase in the male population
  is attributable to diminished emigration and to the large increase in
  immigrants, who are mostly males. In 1905, 485,906 marriages were
  contracted in Germany, being at the rate of 8.0 per thousand
  inhabitants. In the same year the total number of births was
  2,048,453. Of these, 61,300 were stillborn and 174,494 illegitimate,
  being at the rate, respectively, of 3% and 8.5% of the total.
  Illegitimacy is highest in Bavaria (about 15%), Berlin (14%), and over
  12% in Saxony, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Saxe-Meiningen. It is lowest
  in the Rhine Province and Westphalia (3.9 and 2.6 respectively).
  Divorce is steadily on the increase, being in 1904, 11.1 per 10,000
  marriages, as against 8.1, 8.1, 9.3 and 10.1 for the four preceding
  years. The average deaths for the years 1901-1905 amounted to
  1,227,903; the rate was thus 20.2 per thousand inhabitants, but the
  death-rate has materially decreased, the total number of deaths in
  1907 standing at 1,178,349; the births for the same year were
  2,060,974. In connexion with suicides, it is interesting to observe
  that the highest rates prevail in some of the smaller and more
  prosperous states of the empire--for example, in Saxe-Weimar,
  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Altenburg (on a three years' average of
  figures), while the Roman Catholic country Bavaria, and the
  impoverished Prussian province of Posen show the most favourable
  statistics. For Prussia the rate is 20, and for Saxony it is as high
  as 31 per 100,000 inhabitants. The large cities, notably Berlin,
  Hamburg, Breslau and Dresden, show, however, relatively the largest
  proportion.

  In 1900 the German-speaking population of the empire amounted to
  51,883,131. Of the inhabitants speaking other languages there were:
  Polish, 3,086,489; French (mostly in Lorraine), 211,679; Masurian,
  142,049; Danish, 141,061; Lithuanian, 106,305; Cassubian, 100,213;
  Wendish, 93,032; Dutch, 80,361; Italian, 65,961; Moravian, 64,382;
  Czech, 43,016; Frisian, 20,677; English, 20,217; Walloon, 11,841. In
  1905 there were resident within the empire 1,028,560 subjects of
  foreign states, as compared with 778,698 in 1900. Of these 17,293 were
  subjects of Great Britain and Ireland, 17,184 of the United States of
  America and 20,584 of France. The bulk of the other foreigners
  residing in the country belonged to countries lying contiguous, such
  as Austria, which claimed nearly the half, Russia and Italy.

  _Languages._--The German-speaking nations in their various branches
  and dialects, if we include the Dutch and the Walloons, extend in a
  compact mass along the shores of the Baltic and of the North Sea, from
  Memel in the east to a point between Gravelines and Calais near the
  Straits of Dover. On this northern line the Germans come in contact
  with the Danes who inhabit the northern parts of Schleswig within the
  limits of the German empire. A line from Flensburg south-westward to
  Joldelund and thence northwestward to Hoyer will nearly give the
  boundary between the two idioms.[2] The German-French frontier
  traverses Belgium from west to east, touching the towns of St Omer,
  Courtrai and Maastricht. Near Eupen, south of Aix-la-Chapelle, it
  turns southward, and near Arlon south-east as far as the crest of the
  Vosges mountains, which it follows up to Belfort, traversing there the
  watershed of the Rhine and the Doubs. In the Swiss territory the line
  of demarcation passes through Bienne, Fribourg, Saanen, Leuk and Monte
  Rosa. In the south the Germans come into contact with Rhaeto-Romans
  and Italians, the former inhabiting the valley of the Vorder-Rhein and
  the Engadine, while the latter have settled on the southern slopes of
  the Alps, and are continually advancing up the valley of the Adige.
  Carinthia and Styria are inhabited by German people, except the valley
  of the Drave towards Klagenfurt. Their eastern neighbours there are
  first the Magyars, then the northern Slavs and the Poles. The whole
  eastern frontier is very much broken, and cannot be described in a few
  words. Besides detached German colonies in Hungary proper, there is a
  considerable and compact German (Saxon) population in Transylvania.
  The river March is the frontier north of the Danube from Pressburg as
  far as Brünn, to the north of which the German regions begin near
  Olmütz, the interior of Bohemia and Moravia being occupied by Czechs
  and Moravians. In these countries the Slav language has been steadily
  superseding the German. In the Prussian provinces of Silesia and Posen
  the eastern parts are mixed territories, the German language
  progressing very slowly among the Poles. In Bromberg and Thorn, in the
  valley of the Vistula, German is prevalent. In West Prussia some parts
  of the interior, and in East Prussia a small region along the Russian
  frontier, are occupied by Poles (Cassubians in West Prussia, Masurians
  in East Prussia). The total number of German-speaking people, within
  the boundaries wherein they constitute the compact mass of the
  population, may be estimated, if the Dutch and Walloons be included,
  at 65 millions.

  The geographical limits of the German language thus do not quite
  coincide with the German frontiers. The empire contains about 3-1/3
  millions of persons who do not make use of German in everyday life,
  not counting the resident foreigners.

  Apart from the foreigners above mentioned, German subjects speaking a
  tongue other than German are found only in Prussia, Saxony and
  Alsace-Lorraine. The following table shows roughly the distribution of
  German-speaking people in the world outside the German empire:--

    Austria-Hungary     12,000,000  |  Other European
    Netherlands (Dutch)  5,200,000  |    Countries       2,300,000
    Belgium (Walloon)    4,000,000  |  America          13,000,000
    Luxemburg              200,000  |  Asia                100,000
    Switzerland          2,300,000  |  Africa              600,000
    France                 500,000  |  Australia           150,000

  According to the census of the 1st of December 1900 there were
  51,634,757 persons speaking commonly one language and 248,374 speaking
  two languages. In the kingdom of Saxony, according to the census of
  1900, there were 48,000 Wends, mostly in Lusatia. With respect to
  Alsace-Lorraine, detailed estimates (but no census) gave the number of
  French in the territory of Lorraine at about 170,000, and in that of
  Alsace at about 46,000.

  The Poles have increased very much, owing to a greater surplus of
  births than in the case of the German people in the eastern provinces
  of Prussia, to immigration from Russia, and to the Polonization of
  many Germans through clerical and other influences (see _History_).
  The Poles are in the majority in upper Silesia (Government district of
  Oppeln; 55%) and the province of Posen (60%). They are numerous in
  West Prussia (34%) and East Prussia (14%).

  The Wends are decreasing in number, as are also the Lithuanians on the
  eastern border of East Prussia, Czechs are only found in Silesia on
  the confines of Bohemia.

  Russians flocked to Germany in thousands after the Russo-Japanese War
  and the insurrections in Russia, and the figures given for 1900 had
  been doubled in 1907. Males preponderate among the various
  nationalities, with the exception of the British, the larger
  proportion of whom are females either in domestic service or engaged
  in tuition.

  _Chief Towns._--According to the results of the census of the 1st of
  December 1905 there were within the empire 41 towns with populations
  exceeding 100,000, viz.:--

    +--------------------+----------------+-----------+
    |                    |     State.     |Population.|
    +--------------------+----------------+-----------+
    | Berlin             | Prussia        |2,040,148  |
    | Hamburg            | Hamburg        |  802,793  |
    | Munich             | Bavaria        |  538,393  |
    | Dresden            | Saxony         |  516,996  |
    | Leipzig            |    "           |  502,570  |
    | Breslau            | Prussia        |  470,751  |
    | Cologne            |    "           |  428,503  |
    | Frankfort-on-Main  |    "           |  334,951  |
    | Nuremberg          | Bavaria        |  294,344  |
    | Düsseldorf         | Prussia        |  253,099  |
    | Hanover            |   "            |  250,032  |
    | Stuttgart          | Württemberg    |  249,443  |
    | Chemnitz           | Saxony         |  244,405  |
    | Magdeburg          | Prussia        |  240,661  |
    | Charlottenburg     |    "           |  239,512  |
    | Essen              |    "           |  231,396  |
    | Stettin            |    "           |  224,078  |
    | Königsberg         |    "           |  219,862  |
    | Bremen             | Bremen         |  214,953  |
    | Duisburg           | Prussia        |  192,227  |
    | Dortmund           |    "           |  175,575  |
    | Halle              |    "           |  169,899  |
    | Altona             |    "           |  168,301  |
    | Strassburg         | Alsace-Lorraine|  167,342  |
    | Kiel               | Prussia        |  163,710  |
    | Elberfeld          |    "           |  162,682  |
    | Mannheim           | Baden          |  162,607  |
    | Danzig             | Prussia        |  159,685  |
    | Barmen             |    "           |  156,148  |
    | Rixdorf            |    "           |  153,650  |
    | Gelsenkirchen      |    "           |  147,037  |
    | Aix-la-Chapelle    |    "           |  143,906  |
    | Schöneberg         |    "           |  140,992  |
    | Brunswick          | Brunswick      |  136,423  |
    | Posen              | Prussia        |  137,067  |
    | Cassel             |    "           |  120,446  |
    | Bochum             |    "           |  118,455  |
    | Karlsruhe          | Baden          |  111,200  |
    | Crefeld            | Prussia        |  110,347  |
    | Plauen             | Saxony         |  105,182  |
    | Wiesbaden          | Prussia        |  100,953  |
    +--------------------+----------------+-----------+

  _Density of Population._--In respect of density of population,
  Germany with (1900) 269.9 and (1905) 290.4 inhabitants to the
  square mile is exceeded in Europe only by Belgium, Holland and
  England. Apart from the free cities, Hamburg, Bremen and
  Lübeck, the kingdom of Saxony is the most, and Mecklenburg-Strelitz
  the least, closely peopled state of the empire. The most
  thinly populated districts are found, not as might be expected in
  the mountain regions, but in some parts of the plains. Leaving out
  of account the small centres, Germany may be roughly divided into
  two thinly and two densely populated parts. In the former division
  has to be classed all the North German plain. There it is only in the
  valleys of the larger navigable rivers and on the southern border
  of the plain that the density exceeds 200 inhabitants per square mile.
  In some places, indeed, it is far greater, e.g. at the mouths of the
  Elbe and the Weser, in East Holstein, in the delta of the Memel and
  the environs of Hamburg. This region is bordered on the south by
  a densely peopled district, the northern boundary of which may be
  defined by a line from Coburg via Cassel to Münster, for in this part
  there are not only very fertile districts, such as the _Goldene Aue_ in
  Thuringia, but also centres of industry. The population is thickest
  in upper Silesia around Beuthen (coal-fields), around Ratibor, Neisse
  and Waldenburg (coal-fields), around Zittau (kingdom of Saxony),
  in the Elbe valley around Dresden, in the districts of Zwickau and
  Leipzig as far as the Saale, on the northern slopes of the Harz and
  around Bielefeld in Westphalia. In all these the density exceeds
  400 inhabitants to the square mile, and in the case of Saxony rises
  to 750. The third division of Germany comprises the basin of the
  Danube and Franconia, where around Nuremberg, Bamberg and
  Würzburg the population is thickly clustered. The fourth division
  embraces the valleys of the upper Rhine and Neckar and the district
  of Düsseldorf on the lower Rhine. In this last the proportion exceeds
  1200 inhabitants to the square mile.

  _Emigration._--There have been great oscillations in the actual
  emigration by sea. It first exceeded 100,000 soon after the Franco-German
  War (1872, 126,000), and this occurred again in the years
  1880 to 1892. Germany lost during these thirteen years more than
  1,700,000 inhabitants by emigration. The total number of those
  who sailed for the United States from 1820 to 1900 may be estimated
  at more than 4,500,000. The number of German emigrants to
  Brazil between 1870 and 1900 was about 52,000. The greater
  number of the more recent emigrants was from the agricultural
  provinces of northern Germany--West Prussia, Posen, Pomerania,
  Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover, and sometimes the
  emigration reached 1% of the total population of these provinces.
  In subsequent years the emigration of native Germans greatly
  decreased and, in 1905, amounted only to 28,075. But to this
  number must be added 284,787 foreigners who in that year were
  shipped from German ports (notably Hamburg and Bremen) to
  distant parts. Of the above given numbers of purely German
  emigrants 26,007 sailed for the United States of America; 243 to
  Canada; 333 to Brazil; 674 to the Argentine Republic; 7 to other
  parts of America; 57 to Africa; and 84 to Australia.

_Agriculture._--Despite the enormous development of industries and
commerce, agriculture and cattle-rearing still represent in Germany a
considerable portion of its economic wealth. Almost two-thirds of the
soil is occupied by arable land, pastures and meadows, and of the whole
area, in 1900, 91% was classed as productive. Of the total area 47.67%
was occupied by land under tillage, 0.89% by gardens, 11.02% by
meadow-land, 5.01% by pastures, and 0.25% by vineyards. The largest
estates are found in the Prussian provinces of Pomerania, Posen and
Saxony, and in East and West Prussia, while in the Prussian Rhine
province, in Baden and Württemberg small farms are the rule.

  The same kinds of cereal crops are cultivated in all parts of the
  empire, but in the south and west wheat is predominant, and in the
  north and east rye, oats and barley. To these in some districts are
  added spelt, buckwheat, millet, rice-wheat, lesser spelt and maize.
  In general the soil is remarkably well cultivated. The three years'
  rotation formerly in use, where autumn and spring-sown grain and
  fallow succeeded each other, has now been abandoned, except in
  some districts, where the system has been modified and improved.
  In south Germany the so-called _Fruchtwechsel_ is practised, the fields
  being sown with grain crops every second year, and with pease or
  beans, grasses, potatoes, turnips, &c., in the intermediate years.
  In north Germany the mixed _Koppelwirthschaft_ is the rule, by which
  system, after several years of grain crops, the ground is for two or
  three seasons in pasture.

  Taking the average of the six years 1900-1905, the crop of wheat
  amounted to 3,550,033 tons (metric), rye to 9,296,616 tons, barley to
  3,102,883 tons, and oats to 7,160,883 tons. But, in spite of this
  considerable yield in cereals, Germany cannot cover her home
  consumption, and imported on the average of the six years 1900-1905
  about 4½ million tons of cereals to supply the deficiency. The potato
  is largely cultivated, not merely for food, but for distillation into
  spirits. This manufacture is prosecuted especially in eastern Germany.
  The number of distilleries throughout the German empire was, in
  1905-1906, 68,405. The common beet (_Beta vulgaris_) is largely grown
  in some districts for the production of sugar, which has greatly
  increased of recent years. There are two centres of the beet sugar
  production: Magdeburg for the districts Prussian Saxony, Hanover,
  Brunswick, Anhalt and Thuringia, and Frankfort-on-Oder at the centre
  of the group Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania. Flax and hemp are
  cultivated, though not so much as formerly, for manufacture into linen
  and canvas, and also rape seed for the production of oil. The home
  supply of the former no longer suffices for the native demand. The
  cultivation of hops is in a very thriving condition in the southern
  states of Germany. The soil occupied by hops was estimated in 1905 at
  98,000 acres--a larger area than in Great Britain, which had in the
  same year about 48,000 acres. The total production of hops was 29,000
  tons in 1905, and of this over 25,000 were grown in Bavaria,
  Württemberg, Baden and Alsace-Lorraine. Almost the whole yield in hops
  is consumed in the country by the great breweries.

  Tobacco forms a most productive and profitable object of culture in
  many districts. The total extent under this crop in 1905 was about
  35,000 acres, of which 45% was in Baden, 12% in Bavaria, 30% in
  Prussia, and the rest in Alsace and Hesse-Darmstadt. In the north the
  plant is cultivated principally in Pomerania, Brandenburg and East and
  West Prussia. Of late years the production has somewhat diminished,
  owing to the extensive tobacco manufacturing industries of Bremen and
  Hamburg, which import almost exclusively foreign leaves.

  Ulm, Nuremberg, Quedlinburg, Erfurt, Strassburg and Guben are famed
  for their vegetables and garden seeds. Berlin is noted for its flower
  nurseries, the Rhine valley, Württemberg and the Elbe valley below
  Dresden for fruit, and Frankfort-on-main for cider.


    Vine.

  The culture of the vine is almost confined to southern and western
  Germany, and especially to the Rhine district. The northern limits of
  its growth extend from Bonn in a north-easterly direction through
  Cassel to the southern foot of the Harz, crossing 52° N. on the Elbe,
  running then east some miles to the north of that parallel, and
  finally turning sharply towards the south-west on the Warthe. In the
  valley of the Saale and Elbe (near Dresden), and in lower Silesia
  (between Guben and Grünberg), the number of vineyards is small, and
  the wines of inferior quality; but along the Rhine from Basel to
  Coblenz, in Alsace, Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse, and above all in
  the province of Nassau, the lower slopes of the hills are literally
  covered with vines. Here are produced the celebrated Rüdesheimer,
  Hochheimer and Johannisberger. The vines of the lower Main,
  particularly those of Würzburg, are the best kinds; those of the upper
  Main and the valley of the Neckar are rather inferior. The Moselle
  wines are lighter and more acid than those of the Rhine. The total
  amount produced in Germany is estimated at 1000 million gallons, of a
  value of £4,000,000; Alsace-Lorraine turning out 400 millions; Baden,
  175; Bavaria, Württemberg and Hesse together, 300; while the
  remainder, which though small in quantity is in quality the best, is
  produced by Prussia.


    Live stock.

  The cultivation of grazing lands in Germany has been greatly improved
  in recent times and is in a highly prosperous condition. The provinces
  of Schleswig-Holstein, Pomerania, Hanover (especially the marsh-lands
  near the sea) and the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin are
  particularly remarkable in this respect. The best meadow-lands of
  Bavaria are in the province of Franconia and in the outer range of the
  Alps, and those of Saxony in the Erzgebirge. Württemberg, Hesse and
  Thuringia also yield cattle of excellent quality. These large
  cattle-rearing centres not only supply the home markets but export
  live stock in considerable quantities to England and France. Butter is
  also largely exported to England from the North Sea districts and from
  Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg. The breeding of horses has
  attained a great perfection. The main centre is in East and West
  Prussia, then follow the marsh districts on the Elbe and Weser, some
  parts of Westphalia, Oldenburg, Lippe, Saxony and upper Silesia, lower
  Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine. Of the stud farms Trakehnen in East
  Prussia and Graditz in the Prussian province of Saxony enjoy a
  European reputation. The aggregate number of sheep has shown a
  considerable falling off, and the rearing of them is mostly carried on
  only on large estates, the number showing only 9,692,501 in 1900, and
  7,907,200 in 1904, as against 28,000,000 in 1860. As a rule,
  sheep-farming is resorted to where the soil is of inferior quality and
  unsuitable for tillage and the breeding of cattle. Far more attention
  is accordingly given to sheep-farming in northern and north-eastern
  Germany than in Schleswig-Holstein, Westphalia, the Rhineland and
  south Germany. The native demand for wool is not covered by the home
  production, and in this article the export from the United Kingdom to
  Germany is steadily rising, having amounted in 1905 to a value of
  £1,691,035, as against £742,632 in 1900. The largest stock of pigs is
  in central Germany and Saxony, in Westphalia, on the lower Rhine, in
  Lorraine and Hesse. Central Germany (especially Gotha and Brunswick)
  exports sausages and hams largely, as well as Westphalia, but here
  again considerable importation takes place from other countries. Goats
  are found everywhere, but especially in the hilly districts. Poultry
  farming is a considerable industry, the geese of Pomerania and the
  fowls of Thuringia and Lorraine being in especial favour. Bee-keeping
  is of considerable importance, particularly in north Germany and
  Silesia.

  On the whole, despite the prosperous condition of the German
  live-stock farming, the consumption of meat exceeds the amount
  rendered available by home production, and prices can only be kept
  down by a steady increase in the imports from abroad.

  _Fisheries._--The German fisheries, long of little importance, have
  been carefully fostered within recent years. The deep-sea fishing in
  the North Sea, thanks to the exertions of the German fishing league
  (_Deutscher Fischereiverein_) and to government support, is extremely
  active. Trawlers are extensively employed, and steamers bring the
  catches directly to the large fish markets at Geestemünde and Altona,
  whence facilities are afforded by the railways for the rapid transport
  of fish to Berlin and other centres. The fish mostly caught are cod,
  haddock and herrings, while Heligoland yields lobsters, and the
  islands of Föhr, Amrum and Sylt oysters of good quality. The German
  North Sea fishing fleet numbered in 1905 618 boats, with an aggregate
  crew of 5441 hands. Equally well developed are the Baltic fisheries,
  the chief ports engaged in which are Danzig, Eckernförde, Kolberg and
  Travemünde. The principal catch is haddock and herrings. The catch of
  the North Sea and Baltic fisheries in 1906 was valued at over
  £700,000, exclusive of herrings for salting. The fisheries do not,
  however, supply the demand for fish, and fresh, salt and dried fish is
  imported largely in excess of the home yield.

  _Mines and Minerals._--Germany abounds in minerals, and the
  extraordinary industrial development of the country since 1870 is
  largely due to its mineral wealth. Having left France much behind in
  this respect, it now rivals Great Britain and the United States.

  Germany produces more silver than any other European state, and the
  quantity is annually increasing. It is extracted from the ores in the
  mines of Freiburg (Saxony), the Harz Mountains, upper Silesia,
  Merseburg, Aix-la-Chapelle, Wiesbaden and Arnsberg. Gold is found in
  the sand of the rivers Isar, Inn and Rhine, and also, to a limited
  extent, on the Harz. The quantity yielded in 1905 was, of silver,
  about 400 tons of a value of £1,600,000, and gold, about 4 tons,
  valued at about £548,000.

  Lead is produced in considerable quantities in upper Silesia, the Harz
  Mountains, in the Prussian province of Nassau, in the Saxon Erzgebirge
  and in the Sauerland. The yield in 1905 amounted to about 153,000
  tons; of which 20,000 tons were exported.

  Copper is found principally in the Mansfeld district of the Prussian
  province of Saxony and near Arnsberg in the Sauerland, the ore
  yielding 31,713 tons in 1905, of which 5000 tons were exported.

  About 90% of the zinc produced in Europe is yielded by Belgium and
  Germany. It is mostly found in upper Silesia, around Beuthen, and in
  the districts of Wiesbaden and Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1905 no less than
  198,000 tons of block zinc were produced, of which 16,500 tons were
  exported.

  Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated
  below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the
  hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the
  Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the
  Saarbrücken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony
  and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum
  in almost all parts.


    Coal.

  Coal-mining appears to have been first practised in the 14th century
  at Zwickau (Saxony) and on the Ruhr. There are six large coal-fields,
  occupying an area of about 3600 sq. m., of which the most important
  occupies the basin of the Ruhr, its extent being estimated at 2800 sq.
  m. Here there are more than 60 beds, of a total thickness of 150 to
  200 ft. of coal; and the amount in the pits has been estimated at
  45,000 millions of tons. Smaller fields are found near Osnabrück,
  Ibbenbüren and Minden, and a larger one near Aix-la-Chapelle. The Saar
  coal-field, within the area enclosed by the rivers Saar, Nahe and
  Blies (460 sq. m.), is of great importance. The thickness of 80 beds
  amounts to 250 ft., and the total mass of coal is estimated at 45,400
  million tons. The greater part of the basin belongs to Prussia, the
  rest to Lorraine. A still larger field exists in the upper Silesian
  basin, on the borderland between Austria and Poland, containing about
  50,000 million tons. Beuthen is the chief centre. The Silesian
  coal-fields have a second centre in Waldenburg, east of the
  Riesengebirge. The Saxon coal-fields stretch eastwards for some miles
  from Zwickau. Deposits of less consequence are found in upper Bavaria,
  upper Franconia, Baden, the Harz and elsewhere.

  The following table shows the rapidly increasing development of the
  coal production. That of lignite is added, the provinces of Saxony and
  Brandenburg being rich in this product:--

    _Production of Coal and Lignite._

    +------+--------------------------------+-------------------------------+
    |      |              Coal.             |             Lignite.          |
    | Year.+-----------+----------+---------+-----------+----------+--------+
    |      |Quantities.|  Value.  |  Hands. |Quantities.|  Value.  | Hands. |
    +------+-----------+----------+---------+-----------+----------+--------+
    |      |Mill. Tons.|Mill. Mks.|         |Mill. Tons.|Mill. Mks.|        |
    | 1871 |    29.4   |   218.4  |    ..   |    8.5    |   26.2   |        |
    | 1881 |    48.7   |   252.3  | 180,000 |   12.8    |   38.1   | 25,600 |
    | 1891 |    73.7   |   589.5  | 283,000 |   20.5    |   54.2   | 35,700 |
    | 1899 |   101.6   |   789.6  | 379,000 |   34.2    |   78.4   | 44,700 |
    | 1900 |   109.3   |   966.1  | 414,000 |   40.5    |   98.5   | 50,900 |
    | 1905 |   121.2   |  1049.9  | 490,000 |   52.5    |  122.2   | 52,800 |
    +------+-----------+----------+---------+-----------+----------+--------+

  This production permits a considerable export of coal to the west and
  south of the empire, but the distance from the coal-fields to the
  German coast is such that the import of British coal cannot yet be
  dispensed with (1905, over 7,000,000 tons). Besides this, from
  7,000,000 to 8,000,000 tons of lignite come annually from Bohemia. In
  north Germany peat is also of importance as a fuel; the area of the
  peat moors in Prussia is estimated at 8000 sq. m., of which 2000 are
  in the north of Hanover.

  The iron-fields of Germany fall into three main groups: those of the
  lower Rhine and Westphalia, of which Dortmund and Düsseldorf are the
  centres; those of Lorraine and the Saar; and those of upper Silesia.
  The output of the ore has enormously increased of recent years, and
  the production of pig iron, as given for 1905, amounted to 10,875,000
  tons of a value of £28,900,000.

  Germany possesses abundant salt deposits. The actual production not
  only covers the home consumption, but also allows a yearly increasing
  exportation, especially to Russia, Austria and Scandinavia. The
  provinces of Saxony and Hanover, with Thuringia and Anhalt, produce
  half the whole amount. A large salt-work is found at Strzalkowo
  (Posen), and smaller ones near Dortmund, Lippstadt and Minden
  (Westphalia). In south Germany salt abounds most in Württemberg (Hall,
  Heilbronn, Rottweil); the principal Bavarian works are at the foot of
  the Alps near Freilassing and Rosenheim. Hesse and Baden, Lorraine and
  the upper Palatinate have also salt-works. The total yield of mined
  salt amounted in 1905 to 6,209,000 tons, including 1,165,000 tons of
  rock salt. The production has made great advance, having in 1850 been
  only 5 million cwts.

_Manufactures._--In no other country of the world has the manufacturing
industry made such rapid strides within recent years as in Germany. This
extraordinary development of industrial energy embraces practically all
classes of manufactured articles. In a general way the chief
manufactures may be geographically distributed as follows. Prussia,
Alsace-Lorraine, Bavaria and Saxony are the chief seats of the iron
manufacture. Steel is produced in Rhenish Prussia. Saxony is predominant
in the production of textiles, though Silesia and Westphalia manufacture
linen. Cotton goods are largely produced in Baden, Bavaria,
Alsace-Lorraine and Württemberg, woollens and worsteds in Saxony and the
Rhine province, silk in Rhenish Prussia (Elberfeld), Alsace and Baden.
Glass and porcelain are largely produced in Bavaria; lace in Saxony;
tobacco in Bremen and Hamburg; chemicals in the Prussian province of
Saxony; watches in Saxony (Glashütte) and Nuremberg; toys in Bavaria;
gold and silver filagree in Berlin and Aschaffenburg; and beer in
Bavaria and Prussia.


    Iron industry.

  It is perhaps more in respect of its iron industry than of its other
  manufactures that Germany has attained a leading position in the
  markets of the world. Its chief centres are in Westphalia and the
  Rhine province (_auf roter Erde_), in upper Silesia, in
  Alsace-Lorraine and in Saxony. Of the total production of pig iron in
  1905 amounting to over 10,000,000 tons, more than the half was
  produced in the Rhineland and Westphalia. Huge blast furnaces are in
  constant activity, and the output of rolled iron and steel is
  constantly increasing. In the latter the greatest advance has been
  made. The greater part of it is produced at or around Essen, where are
  the famous Krupp works, and Bochum. Many states have been for a
  considerable time supplied by Krupp with steel guns and battleship
  plates. The export of steel (railway) rails and bridges from this part
  is steadily on the increase.

  Hardware also, the production of which is centred in Solingen,
  Heilbronn, Esslingen, &c., is largely exported. Germany stands second
  to Great Britain in the manufacture of machines and engines. There are
  in many large cities of north Germany extensive establishments for
  this purpose, but the industry is not limited to the large cities. In
  agricultural machinery Germany is a serious competitor with England.
  The locomotives and wagons for the German railways are almost
  exclusively built in Germany; and Russia, as well as Austria, receives
  large supplies of railway plant from German works. In shipbuilding,
  likewise, Germany is practically independent, yards having been
  established for the construction of the largest vessels.


    Cotton and textiles.

  Before 1871 the production of cotton fabrics in France exceeded that
  in Germany, but as the cotton manufacture is pursued largely in
  Alsace, the balance is now against the former country. In 1905 there
  were about 9,000,000 spindles in Germany. The export of the goods
  manufactured amounted in this year to an estimated value of
  £19,600,000. Cotton spinning and weaving are not confined to one
  district, but are prosecuted in upper Alsace (Mülhausen, Gebweiler,
  Colmar), in Saxony (Zwickau, Chemnitz, Annaberg), in Silesia (Breslau,
  Liegnitz), in the Rhine province (Düsseldorf, Münster, Cologne), in
  Erfurt and Hanover, in Württemberg (Reutlingen, Cannstatt), in Baden,
  Bavaria (Augsburg, Bamberg, Bayreuth) and in the Palatinate.

  Although Germany produces wool, flax and hemp, the home production of
  these materials is not sufficient to meet the demand of manufactures,
  and large quantities of them have to be imported. In 1895 almost a
  million persons (half of them women) were employed in this branch of
  industry, and in 1897 the value of the cloth, buckskin and flannel
  manufacture was estimated at £18,000,000. The chief seats of this
  manufacture are the Rhenish districts of Aix-la-Chapelle, Düren, Eupen
  and Lennep, Brandenburg, Saxony, Silesia and lower Lusatia, the chief
  centres in this group being Berlin, Cottbus, Spremberg, Sagan and
  Sommerfeld.

  The manufacture of woollen and half-woollen dress materials centres
  mainly in Saxony, Silesia, the Rhine province and in Alsace. Furniture
  covers, table covers and plush are made in Elberfeld and Chemnitz, in
  Westphalia and the Rhine province (notably in Elberfeld and Barmen);
  shawls in Berlin and the Bavarian Vogtland; carpets in Berlin, Barmen
  and Silesia. In the town of Schmiedeberg in the last district, as also
  in Cottbus (Lusatia), oriental patterns are successfully imitated. The
  chief seats of the stocking manufacture are Chemnitz and Zwickau in
  Saxony, and Apolda in Thuringia. The export of woollen goods from
  Germany in 1905 amounted to a value of £13,000,000.

  Although linen was formerly one of her most important articles of
  manufacture, Germany is now left far behind in this industry by Great
  Britain, France and Austria-Hungary. This branch of textile
  manufacture has its principal centres in Silesia, Westphalia, Saxony
  and Württemberg, while Hirschberg in Silesia, Bielefeld in Westphalia
  and Zittau in Saxony are noted for the excellence of their
  productions. The goods manufactured, now no longer, as formerly,
  coarse in texture, vie with the finer and more delicate fabrics of
  Belfast. In the textile industry for flax and hemp there were, in
  1905, 276,000 fine spindles, 22,300 hand-looms and 17,600 power-looms
  in operation, and, in 1905, linen and jute materials were exported of
  an estimated value of over £2,000,000. The jute manufacture, the
  principal centres of which are Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick and Hamburg,
  has of late attained considerable dimensions.

  Raw silk can scarcely be reckoned among the products of the empire,
  and the annual demand has thus to be provided for by importation. The
  main centre of the silk industry is Crefeld and its neighbourhood;
  then come Elberfeld and Barmen, Aix-la-Chapelle, as well as Berlin,
  Bielefeld, Chemnitz, Stuttgart and the district around Mülhausen in
  Alsace.


    Paper.

  The manufacture of paper is prosecuted almost everywhere in the
  empire. There were 1020 mills in operation in 1895, and the exports in
  1905 amounted to more than £3,700,000 sterling, as against imports of
  a value of over £700,000. The manufacture is carried on to the largest
  extent in the Rhine province, in Saxony and in Silesia. Wall papers
  are produced chiefly in Rhenish Prussia, Berlin and Hamburg; the finer
  sorts of letter-paper in Berlin, Leipzig and Nuremberg; and
  printing-paper (especially for books) in Leipzig, Berlin and
  Frankfort-on-Main.


    Leather.

  The chief seat of the leather industry is Hesse-Darmstadt, in which
  Mainz and Worms produce excellent material. In Prussia large factories
  are in operation in the Rhine province, in Westphalia and Silesia
  (Brieg). Boot and shoe manufactures are carried on everywhere; but the
  best goods are produced by Mainz and Pirmasens. Gloves for export are
  extensively made in Württemberg, and Offenbach and Aschaffenburg are
  renowned for fancy leather wares, such as purses, satchels and the
  like.

  Berlin and Mainz are celebrated for the manufacture of furniture;
  Bavaria for toys; the Black Forest for clocks; Nuremberg for pencils;
  Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main for various perfumes; and Cologne for the
  famous eau-de-Cologne.


    Sugar.

  The beetroot sugar manufacture is very considerable. It centres mainly
  in the Prussian province of Saxony, where Magdeburg is the chief
  market for the whole of Germany, in Anhalt, Brunswick and Silesia. The
  number of factories was, in 1905, 376, and the amount of raw sugar and
  molasses produced amounted to 2,643,531 metric tons, and of refined
  sugar 1,711,063 tons.


    Beer.

  Beer is produced throughout the whole of Germany. The production is
  relatively greatest in Bavaria. The _Brausteuergebiet_ (beer excise
  district) embraces all the states forming the Zollverein, with the
  exception of Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden and Alsace-Lorraine, in which
  countries the excise duties are separately collected. The total number
  of breweries in the beer excise district was, in 1905-1906, 5995,
  which produced 1017 million gallons; in Bavaria nearly 6000 breweries
  with 392 million gallons; in Baden over 700 breweries with 68 million
  gallons; in Württemberg over 5000 breweries with 87 million gallons;
  and in Alsace-Lorraine 95 breweries with about 29 million gallons. The
  amount brewed per head of the population amounted, in 1905, roughly to
  160 imperial pints in the excise district; to 450 in Bavaria; 280 in
  Württemberg; 260 in Baden; and 122 in Alsace-Lorraine. It may be
  remarked that the beer brewed in Bavaria is generally of darker colour
  than that produced in other states, and extra strong brews are
  exported largely into the beer excise district and abroad.

_Commerce._--The rapid development of German trade dates from the
_Zollverein_ (customs union), under the special rules and regulations of
which it is administered. The Zollverein emanates from a convention
originally entered into, in 1828, between Prussia and Hesse, which,
subsequently joined by the Bavarian customs-league, by the kingdom of
Saxony and the Thuringian states, came into operation, as regards the
countries concerned, on the 1st of January 1834. With progressive
territorial extensions during the ensuing fifty years, and embracing the
grand-duchy of Luxemburg, it had in 1871, when the German empire was
founded, an area of about 209,281 sq. m., with a population of
40,678,000. The last important addition was in October 1888, when
Hamburg and Bremen were incorporated. Included within it, besides the
grand-duchy of Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and
Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories of
Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemünde, Heligoland, and small
portions of the districts of Constance and Waldshut, lying on the Baden
Swiss frontier. Down to 1879 Germany was, in general, a free-trade
country. In this year, however, a rigid protective system was introduced
by the _Zolltarifgesetz_, since modified by the commercial treaties
between Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, of
the 1st of February 1892, and by a customs tariff law of the 25th of
December 1902. The foreign commercial relations of Germany were again
altered by the general and conventional customs tariff, which came into
force on the 1st of March 1906. The Zolltarifgesetz of the 15th of July
1879, while restricting the former free import, imposed considerable
duties. Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific
instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four
articles--notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish
oils, ether, alum and soda--were unaffected by the change, while duties
were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had
previously been admitted duty free, such as pig iron, machines and
locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow, horses, cattle and sheep;
and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon
numerous other articles. Export duties were abolished in 1865 and
transit dues in 1861. The law under which Great Britain enjoyed the
"most favoured nation treatment" expired on the 31st of December 1905,
but its provisions were continued by the _Bundesrat_ until further
notice. The average value of each article is fixed annually in Germany
under the direction of the Imperial Statistical Office, by a commission
of experts, who receive information from chambers of commerce and other
sources. There are separate valuations for imports and exports. The
price fixed is that of the goods at the moment of crossing the frontier.
For imports the price does not include customs duties, cost of
transport, insurance, warehousing, &c., incurred after the frontier is
passed. For exports, the price includes all charges within the
territory, but drawbacks and bounties are not taken into account. The
quantities are determined according to obligatory declarations, and, for
imports, the fiscal authorities may actually weigh the goods. For
packages an official tax is deducted. The countries whence goods are
imported and the ultimate destination of exports are registered. The
import dues amounted in the year 1906, the first year of the revised
tariff, to about £31,639,000, or about 10s. 5d. per head of population.

  Statistics relating to the foreign trade of the Empire are necessarily
  confined to comparatively recent times. The quantities of such
  imported articles as are liable to duty have, indeed, been known for
  many years; and in 1872 official tables were compiled showing the
  value both of imports and of exports. But when the results of these
  tables proved the importation to be very much greater than the
  exportation, the conviction arose that the valuation of the exports
  was erroneous and below the reality. In 1872 the value of the imports
  was placed at £173,400,000 and that of the exports at £124,700,000. In
  1905 the figures were--imports, £371,000,000, and exports,
  £292,000,000, including precious metals.

Table A following shows the classification of goods adopted before the
tariff revision of 1906. From 1907 a new classification has been
adopted, and the change thus introduced is so great that it is
impossible to make any comparisons between the statistics of years
subsequent to and preceding the year 1906. Table B shows imports and
exports for 1907 and 1908 according to the new classification adopted.

  TABLE A.--_Classes of Imports and Exports, 1905._

  +-------------------------------------+-------------+-------------+
  |                                     |   Import.   |   Export.   |
  +-------------------------------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Refuse.                             |  £6,866,250 |  £1,170,200 |
  | Cotton and cottons.                 |  23,488,750 |  22,949,600 |
  | Lead and by-products.               |     996,300 |     979,400 |
  | Brush and sieve makers' goods.      |     102,400 |     515,450 |
  | Drugs, chemists' and oilmen's       |             |             |
  |   colours.                          |  15,896,900 |  23,196,250 |
  | Iron and iron goods.                |   3,156,500 |  33,126,400 |
  | Ores, precious metals, asbestos, &c.|  28,834,050 |   9,899,450 |
  | Flax and other vegetable spinning   |             |             |
  |   materials except cotton.          |   6,794,100 |   1,235,700 |
  | Grain and agricultural produce.     |  59,136,200 |   7,496,500 |
  | Glass.                              |     538,050 |   2,743,900 |
  | Hair, feathers, bristles.           |   3,218,600 |   1,848,150 |
  | Skins.                              |  18,965,500 |   9,548,450 |
  | Wood and wooden wares.              |  16,940,850 |   6,056,150 |
  | Hops.                               |     913,150 |   2,135,600 |
  | Instruments, machines, &c.          |   4,351,500 |  17,898,250 |
  | Calendars.                          |      34,300 |      74,700 |
  | Caoutchouc, &c.                     |   7,379,600 |   4,616,400 |
  | Clothes, body linen, millinery.     |     739,900 |   7,321,050 |
  | Copper and copper goods.            |   8,273,400 |  10,307,050 |
  | Hardware, &c.                       |   2,042,400 |  12,610,550 |
  | Leather and leather goods.          |   3,567,950 |   9,665,300 |
  | Linens.                             |   1,750,100 |   1,904,950 |
  | Candles.                            |      11,150 |      42,350 |
  | Literary and works of art.          |   3,066,050 |   9,025,500 |
  | Groceries and confectionery.        |  41,446,400 |  17,585,000 |
  | Fats and oils.                      |  12,510,600 |   2,631,600 |
  | Paper goods.                        |   1,086,800 |   7,158,800 |
  | Furs.                               |     265,700 |     720,200 |
  | Petroleum.                          |   5,036,600 |     132,300 |
  | Silks and silk goods.               |   9,523,300 |   8,889,000 |
  | Soap and perfumes.                  |     151,600 |     768,200 |
  | Playing cards.                      |         400 |      18,950 |
  | Stone goods.                        |   2,822,000 |   2,110,550 |
  | Coal, lignite, coke and peat.       |  10,136,800 |  15,096,450 |
  | Straw and hemp goods.               |     561,650 |     262,100 |
  | Tar, pitch, resin.                  |   2,504,400 |     834,100 |
  | Animals, and animal products.       |   9,926,200 |     590,700 |
  | Earthenware goods.                  |     391,650 |   5,076,350 |
  | Cattle.                             |  11,366,200 |     725,100 |
  | Oilcloth.                           |      43,150 |     177,300 |
  | Wools and woollen textiles.         |  25,290,200 |  21,562,900 |
  | Zinc and zinc goods.                |     682,250 |   2,413,600 |
  | Tin and japanned goods.             |   1,770,550 |     744,100 |
  | Goods insufficiently declared.      |     . .     |     806,300 |
  |                                     +-------------+-------------+
  |               Total.                |£352,317,250 |£284,626,900 |
  +-------------------------------------+-------------+-------------+

  TABLE B.--_Classes of Imports and Exports, 1907 and 1908._

  +-----------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+
  |                             |     Imports.    |     Exports.    |
  |                             +-----------------+-----------------+
  |     Groups of Articles.     | Value in £1000. | Value in £1000. |
  |                             +--------+--------+--------+--------+
  |                             |  1907. | 1908.* |  1907. | 1908.* |
  +-----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
  |Agricultural and forest      |        |        |        |        |
  |    produce**                |215,532 |205,512 | 45,796 | 50,324 |
  |  Agricultural produce***    | 93,253 |102,954 | 10,369 | 15,168 |
  |  Colonial produce and       |        |        |        |        |
  |    substitutes for the same | 12,151 | 12,328 |     84 |    108 |
  |  Southern fruit and fruit   |        |        |        |        |
  |    peel                     |  3,214 |  3,262 |     20 |     23 |
  |  Forest produce             | 28,166 | 26,299 |  4,066 |  3,967 |
  |  Resins                     |  8,216 |  8,209 |  2,500 |  2,325 |
  |  Animals and animal         |        |        |        |        |
  |      products**             | 63,283 | 61,794 |  9,607 |  9,676 |
  |    Hides and skins          | 16,920 | 17,699 |  5,383 |  5,453 |
  |  Meat, oil, sugar, beverages| 21,523 | 20,404 | 20,284 | 20,048 |
  |Mineral and fossil raw       |        |        |        |        |
  |    materials, mineral oils  | 47,575 | 45,540 | 26,166 | 26,208 |
  |  Earths and stones          |  6,541 |  7,542 |  3,250 |  3,006 |
  |  Ores, slag, cinders        | 16,465 | 15,451 |  1,407 |  1,206 |
  |  Mineral fuel               | 16,895 | 14,910 | 19,445 | 20,020 |
  |  Mineral oils and other     |        |        |        |        |
  |    fossil raw materials     |  7,168 |  7,209 |    558 |    491 |
  |  Coal-tar, coal-tar oils    |    506 |    428 |  1,506 |  1,485 |
  |Chemical and pharmaceutical  |        |        |        |        |
  |   products, colours         | 14,784 | 14,850 | 28,116 | 26,845 |
  |  Chemical primary materials,|        |        |        |        |
  |   acids, salts              |  9,226 |  9,550 |  9,661 |  9,832 |
  |  Colours and dyeing         |        |        |        |        |
  |   materials                 |    951 |    879 | 11,630 | 10,518 |
  |  Varnish, lacquer           |    189 |    158 |    206 |    221 |
  |  Ether, alcohol not included|        |        |        |        |
  |   elsewhere, essential      |        |        |        |        |
  |   oils, perfumery and       |        |        |        |        |
  |   cosmetics                 |  1,979 |  1,918 |  1,118 |  1,004 |
  |  Artificial manures         |    992 |  1,001 |  1,303 |  1,236 |
  |  Explosives of all kinds    |     86 |     74 |  1,612 |  1,269 |
  |  Other chemical and         |        |        |        |        |
  |   pharmaceutical products   |  1,361 |  1,270 |  2,586 |  2,765 |
  |Animal and vegetable textile |        |        |        |        |
  |   materials and wares       |        |        |        |        |
  |   thereof                   | 98,540 | 92,105 | 78,086 | 70,343 |
  |  Silk and silk goods        | 13,533 | 13,704 | 13,324 | 11,364 |
  |  Wool                       | 33,260 | 31,195 | 27,114 | 24,918 |
  |   Unworked wool             | 19,975 | 19,309 |  2,647 |  2,561 |
  |   Worked wool               |  4,625 |  4,961 |  3,799 |  3,393 |
  |   Wares of spun wool        |  8,660 |  6,925 | 20,668 | 18,964 |
  |  Cotton                     | 38,543 | 34,456 | 29,004 | 26,201 |
  |   Unworked cotton           | 27,705 | 26,167 |  3,264 |  2,987 |
  |   Worked cotton             |    980 |    950 |    912 |    891 |
  |   Cotton wares              |  9,858 |  7,338 | 24,828 | 22,324 |
  |  Other vegetable textile    |        |        |        |        |
  |   materials                 | 10,783 | 10,411 |  3,777 |  3,471 |
  |   Unworked                  |  7,923 |  7,819 |  1,125 |  1,211 |
  |   Worked                    |    166 |    168 |    122 |    137 |
  |   Wares thereof             |  2,685 |  2,423 |  2,531 |  2,124 |
  |Leather and leather wares,   |        |        |        |        |
  |   furriers' wares           |  6,695 |  6,657 | 16,778 | 17,835 |
  |  Leather                    |  2,658 |  2,804 |  7,503 |  8,328 |
  |  Leather wares              |  1,332 |  1,176 |  4,016 |  3,867 |
  |  Furriers' wares            |  2,698 |  2,672 |  5,237 |  5,616 |
  |Caoutchouc wares             |    694 |    754 |  2,328 |  2,325 |
  |  Wares of soft caoutchouc   |    670 |    735 |  1,694 |  1,723 |
  |  Hardened caoutchouc and    |        |        |        |        |
  |   wares thereof             |     24 |     19 |    634 |    602 |
  |Wares of animal or vegetable |        |        |        |        |
  | material for carving or     |        |        |        |        |
  | moulding                    |  2,448 |  2,068 |  4,260 |  4,131 |
  |Wooden wares                 |    859 |    769 |  1,707 |  1,666 |
  |Paper, cardboard and wares   |        |        |        |        |
  |  thereof                    |  1,349 |  1,205 |  9,342 |  9,111 |
  |Books, pictures, paintings   |  1,992 |  2,036 |  4,667 |  4,765 |
  |Earthenware                  |    467 |    377 |  5,224 |  4,612 |
  |Glass and glassware          |    747 |    728 |  5,671 |  5,149 |
  |Precious metals and wares    |        |        |        |        |
  |   thereof                   | 13,281 | 21,243 | 18,629 |  6,858 |
  |  Gold                       | 11,616 | 19,295 | 15,898 |  6,151 |
  |   Gold                      | 11,184 | 18,873 | 11,071 |  2,897 |
  |   Gold wares                |    432 |    422 |  4,827 |  3,254 |
  |  Silver                     |  1,665 |  1,948 |  2,731 |  2,707 |
  |   Silver                    |  1,434 |  1,716 |  1,206 |  1,418 |
  |   Silver wares              |    231 |    232 |  1,525 |  1,289 |
  |Base metals and wares        |        |        |        |        |
  |   thereof                   | 26,035 | 26,398 | 57,146 | 58,895 |
  |  Iron and iron wares        |  5,903 |  4,472 | 38,899 | 40,162 |
  |  Pig iron (including        |        |        |        |        |
  |   non-malleable alloys)     |  1,601 |    912 |    966 |    905 |
  |  Iron wares                 |  4,302 |  3,560 | 37,933 | 39,257 |
  |  Aluminium and aluminium    |        |        |        |        |
  |   wares                     |    546 |    453 |    368 |    273 |
  |  Raw aluminium              |    529 |    433 |    152 |     77 |
  |  Aluminium wares            |     17 |     20 |    216 |    196 |
  |  Lead and lead wares        |  1,438 |  1,484 |    945 |    985 |
  |    Raw lead (including      |        |        |        |        |
  |     waste)                  |  1,427 |  1,470 |    525 |    568 |
  |    Lead wares               |     11 |     14 |    420 |    417 |
  |  Zinc and zinc wares        |    727 |    847 |  2,433 |  2,489 |
  |    Raw zinc (including      |        |        |        |        |
  |     waste)                  |    706 |    825 |  1,631 |  1,784 |
  |    Zinc wares               |     21 |     22 |    802 |    705 |
  |  Tin and tin wares          |  2,405 |  2,629 |  1,380 |  1,236 |
  |    Raw tin (including       |        |        |        |        |
  |     waste)                  |  2,357 |  2,581 |    787 |    688 |
  |    Tin wares                |     48 |     48 |    593 |    548 |
  |  Nickel and nickel wares    |    400 |    540 |    246 |    298 |
  |    Raw nickel               |    375 |    527 |    160 |    233 |
  |    Nickel wares             |     25 |     13 |     86 |     65 |
  |  Copper and copper wares    | 13,803 | 15,088 |  7,998 |  8,470 |
  |    Raw copper (including    |        |        |        |        |
  |     copper coin, brass,     |        |        |        |        |
  |     tombac, &c.)            | 12,995 | 14,192 |  2,204 |  2,014 |
  |    Copper wares             |    808 |    896 |  5,794 |  6,456 |
  |  Instruments of precision   |    813 |    885 |  4,877 |  4,982 |
  |Machinery, vehicles          |  7,093 |  5,489 | 33,117 | 34,653 |
  |  Machinery                  |  4,090 |  3,451 | 19,041 | 20,684 |
  |  Electro-technical products |    411 |    451 |  8,227 |  9,107 |
  |  Vehicles and vessels       |  2,562 |  1,587 |  5,849 |  4,862 |
  |Firearms, clocks, musical    |        |        |        |        |
  |   instruments, toys         |  1,732 |  1,424 |  8,704 |  7,505 |
  |  Clocks and watches         |  1,382 |  1,134 |  1,296 |  1,210 |
  |  Musical instruments        |    223 |    170 |  3,176 |  2,780 |
  |  Toys                       |     39 |     35 |  3,949 |  3,273 |
  |                             +--------+--------+--------+--------+
  |               Total         |442,663 |429,636 |349,114 |336,347 |
  +-----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+--------+

      * Provisional figures only.
     ** Excluding vegetable and animal textile materials.
    *** Excluding vegetable textile materials.


  The following table shows the commercial intercourse in imports and
  exports, exclusive of bullion and coin, between Germany and the chief
  countries of the world in 1905, 1906 and 1907.

  _Imports._

  +---------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  |                     |       1905.       |       1906.       |       1907.       |
  |                     +--------+----------+--------+----------+--------+----------+
  |      Country.       | Value  |    of    | Value  |    of    | Value  |    of    |
  |                     |   in   | Germany's|   in   | Germany's|   in   | Germany's|
  |                     | £1000. |   Total  | £1000. |   Total  | £1000. |   Total  |
  |                     |        |  Imports.|        |  Imports.|        |  Imports.|
  +---------------------+--------+----------+--------+----------+--------+----------+
  | Belgium             | 13,439 |    3.8   | 14,315 |    3.6   | 14,586 |    3.4   |
  | Denmark             |  5,986 |    1.7   |  6,302 |    1.6   |  6,050 |    1.4   |
  | France              | 19,772 |    5.6   | 21,306 |    5.4   | 22,302 |    5.2   |
  | United Kingdom      | 35,320 |   10.1   | 40,531 |   10.3   | 48,014 |   11.2   |
  | Italy               | 10,350 |    3     | 11,851 |    3     | 14,030 |    3.3   |
  | Netherlands         | 12,077 |    3     | 11,864 |    3     | 11,187 |    2.6   |
  | Austria-Hungary     | 36,974 |   10.6   | 39,814 |   10.1   | 39,939 |    9.3   |
  | Rumania             |  4,568 |    1.3   |  5,774 |    1.5   |  7,365 |    1.7   |
  | Russia              | 47,816 |   13.6   | 52,528 |   13.4   | 54,447 |   12.7   |
  | Sweden              |  5,887 |    1.7   |  7,359 |    1.9   |  8,457 |    2     |
  | Switzerland         |  8,980 |    2.6   | 10,659 |    2.9   | 10,366 |    2.4   |
  | Spain               |  5,742 |    1.6   |  7,410 |    1.9   |  6,878 |    1.6   |
  | British South Africa|  1,769 |    0.5   |  1,766 |    0.4   |  2,258 |    0.5   |
  | Dominion of Canada  |    481 |    0.1   |    463 |    0.1   |    483 |    0.1   |
  | New Zealand         |     75 |    ..    |     87 |    ..    |     94 |    ..    |
  | British West Africa |  2,562 |    0.7   |  2,731 |    0.7   |  3,601 |    0.8   |
  | British India       | 13,657 |    3.9   | 15,842 |    4     | 20,016 |    4.7   |
  | Dutch Indies        |  5,848 |    1.7   |  7,002 |    1.8   |  9,199 |    2.1   |
  | Argentine Republic  | 18,150 |    5.2   | 18,302 |    4.7   | 21,756 |    5.1   |
  | Brazil              |  8,454 |    2.4   |  9,246 |    2.4   |  9,636 |    2.2   |
  | Chile               |  6,536 |    1.9   |  7,131 |    1.8   |  7,074 |    1.6   |
  | United States       | 48,770 |   13.9   | 60,787 |   15.4   | 64,864 |   15.1   |
  | Commonwealth of     |        |          |        |          |        |          |
  |   Australia         |  7,690 |    2.2   |  8,619 |    2.2   | 11,209 |    2.6   |
  +---------------------+--------+----------+--------+----------+--------+----------+

  _Exports._

  +---------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  |                     |       1905.       |       1906.       |       1907.       |
  |                     +--------+----------+--------+----------+--------=----------+
  |      Country.       | Value  |    of    | Value  |    of    | Value  |    of    |
  |                     |   in   | Germany's|   in   | Germany's|   in   | Germany's|
  |                     | £1000. |   Total  | £1000. |   Total  | £1000. |   Total  |
  |                     |        |  Exports.|        |  Exports.|        |  Exports.|
  +---------------------+--------+----------+--------+----------+--------+----------+
  | Belgium             | 15,364 |    5.5   | 17,509 |    5.6   | 16,861 |    5     |
  | Denmark             |  8,668 |    3.1   |  9,699 |    3.1   | 10,182 |    3     |
  | France              | 14,420 |    5.1   | 18,815 |    6     | 22,080 |    6.6   |
  | United Kingdom      | 51,253 |   18.2   | 52,473 |   16.8   | 52,135 |   15.5   |
  | Italy               |  8,045 |    2.9   | 11,354 |    3.6   | 14,893 |    4.4   |
  | Netherlands         | 21,295 |    7.6   | 21,799 |    7     | 22,232 |    6.6   |
  | Norway              |  3,447 |    1.2   |  3,573 |    1.2   |  4,211 |    1.3   |
  | Austria-Hungary     | 28,526 |   10.1   | 31,926 |   10.2   | 35,231 |   10.5   |
  | Rumania             |  2,144 |    0.8   |  3,140 |    1     |  3,372 |    1     |
  | Russia              | 17,027 |    6     | 19,962 |    6.4   | 21,531 |    6.4   |
  | Sweden              |  7,653 |    2.7   |  8,675 |    2.8   |  9,177 |    2.7   |
  | Switzerland         | 17,649 |    6.3   | 18,367 |    5.9   | 21,948 |    6.5   |
  | Spain               |  2,609 |    0.9   |  2,838 |    0.9   |  3,228 |    1     |
  | British South Africa|  1,687 |    0.6   |  1,607 |    0.5   |  1,422 |    0.4   |
  | Dominion of Canada  |  1,071 |    0.4   |  1,203 |    0.4   |  1,456 |    0.4   |
  | New Zealand         |    227 |    0.1   |    244 |    0.1   |    263 |    0.1   |
  | Turkey              |  3,484 |    1.3   |  3,357 |    1.1   |  4,011 |    1.2   |
  | British India       |  4,226 |    1.5   |  5,011 |    1.6   |  4,868 |    1.4   |
  | China               |  3,727 |    1.3   |  3,331 |    1.1   |  3,105 |    0.9   |
  | Japan               |  4,158 |    1.5   |  4,328 |    1.4   |  5,036 |    1.5   |
  | Argentine Republic  |  6,463 |    2.3   |  8,367 |    2.7   |  8,810 |    2.6   |
  | Brazil              |  3,525 |    1.3   |  4,364 |    1.4   |  5,118 |    1.5   |
  | United States       | 26,660 |    9.5   | 31,281 |   10     | 32,070 |    9.5   |
  | Commonwealth of     |        |          |        |          |        |          |
  |   Australia         |  2,264 |    0.8   |  2,863 |    0.9   |  3,004 |    0.9   |
  +---------------------+--------+----------+--------+----------+--------+----------+

  The commerce of Germany shows an upward tendency, which progresses
  _pari passu_ with its greatly increased production. The export of
  ships from the United Kingdom to the empire decreased during two
  years, 1903 (£305,682) and 1904 (£365,062), almost to a vanishing
  point, German yards being able to cope with the demands made upon them
  for the supply of vessels of all classes, including mercantile vessels
  and ships of war. In 1905 and subsequent years, however, the degree of
  employment in German yards increased to such an extent, principally
  owing to the placing of the Admiralty contracts with private builders,
  that the more urgent orders for mercantile vessels were placed abroad.

  The following tables give the value of trade between the United
  Kingdom and Germany in 1900 and  1905:--

  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  | Staple Imports into the United |           |           |
  |      Kingdom from Germany.     |   1900.   |   1905.   |
  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                |     £     |     £     |
  | Sugar                          | 9,164,573 |10,488,085 |
  | Glass and manufactures         | 1,078,648 | 1,108,117 |
  | Eggs                           | 1,017,119 |   764,966 |
  | Cottons and yarn               |   992,244 | 1,476,385 |
  | Woollens and yarn              | 1,312,671 | 1,984,475 |
  | Iron and steel and manufactures| 1,012,376 |   379,479 |
  | Machinery                      |   411,178 |   735,536 |
  | Paper                          |   523,544 |   528,946 |
  | Musical instruments            |   660,777 |   676,391 |
  | Toys                           |   644,690 |   714,628 |
  | Zinc and manufactures          |   461,023 |   673,602 |
  | Wood and manufactures          | 1,470,839 | 1,109,584 |
  | Chemicals                      |   513,200 |   735,830 |
  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+

  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  | Principal Articles exported by |           |           |
  |   Great Britain to Germany.    |   1900.   |   1905.   |
  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                |     £     |     £     |
  | Cottons and yarn               | 3,843,917 | 4,941,917 |
  | Woollens and yarn              | 3,743,842 | 3,795,591 |
  | Alpaca, &c., yarn              | 1,022,259 | 1,325,519 |
  | Wool                           |   742,632 | 1,691,035 |
  | Ironwork                       | 2,937,055 | 1,500,414 |
  | Herrings                       | 1,651,441 | 2,042,483 |
  | Machinery                      | 2,040,797 | 2,102,835 |
  | Coals, cinders                 | 4,267,172 | 3,406,535 |
  | New ships                      | 1,592,865 | 1,377,081 |
  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+

_Navigation._--The seamen of Frisia are among the best in the world, and
the shipping of Bremen and Hamburg had won a respected name long before
a German mercantile marine, properly so called, was heard of. Many
Hamburg vessels sailed under charter of English and other houses in
foreign, especially Chinese, waters. Since 1868 all German ships have
carried a common flag--black, white, red; but formerly Oldenburg,
Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Mecklenburg and Prussia had each its
own flag, and Schleswig-Holstein vessels sailed under the Danish flag.
The German mercantile fleet occupies, in respect of the number of
vessels, the fourth place--after Great Britain, the United States of
America and Norway; but in respect of tonnage it stands third--after
Great Britain and the United States only.

The following table shows its distribution on the 1st of January of the
two years 1905 and 1908:--

  +-----------------+-----------------+------------------+------------------+
  |                 |  Baltic Ports.  | North Sea Ports. |  Total Shipping. |
  |                 +-------+---------+-------+----------+-------+----------+
  |                 |Number.| Tonnage.|Number.| Tonnage. |Number.| Tonnage. |
  |-----------------+-------+---------+-------+----------+-------+----------+
  |1905--           |       |         |       |          |       |          |
  |  Sailing vessels|  386  |  19,067 | 2181  |  559,436 | 2567  |  578,503 |
  |  Steamers       |  486  | 236,509 | 1171  |1,537,563 | 1657  |1,774,072 |
  |-----------------+-------+---------+-------+----------+-------+----------+
  |          Totals |  872  | 255,576 | 3352  |2,096,999 | 4224  |2,352,575 |
  |                 +-------+---------+-------+----------+-------+----------+
  |1908--           |       |         |       |          |       |          |
  |  Sailing vessels|  394  |  17,472 | 2255  |  516,180 | 2649  |  533,652 |
  |  Steamers       |  521  | 274,952 | 140l  |1,981,831 | 1922  |2,256,783 |
  |                 +-------+---------+-------+----------+-------+----------+
  |          Totals |  915  | 292,424 | 3656  |2,498,011 | 4571  |2,790,435 |
  +-----------------+-------+---------+-------+----------+-------+----------+

In 1905, 2136 vessels of 283,171 tons, and in 1908, 2218 vessels of
284,081 tons, belonged to Prussian ports, and the number of sailors of
the mercantile marine was 60,616 in 1905 and 71,853 in 1908.

The chief ports are Hamburg, Stettin, Bremen, Kiel, Lübeck, Flensburg,
Bremerhaven, Danzig (Neufahrwasser), Geestemünde and Emden; and the
number and tonnage of vessels of foreign nationality entering and
clearing the ports of the empire, as compared with national shipping,
were in 1906:--

  +---------------+---------+----------+---------+----------+
  |               | Number  |          | Number  |          |
  | Foreign Ships.| entered | Tonnage. | cleared | Tonnage. |
  |               |in Cargo.|          |in Cargo.|          |
  +---------------+---------+----------+---------+----------+
  | Danish        |   5917  |1,589,346 |   5059  |1,219,388 |
  | British       |   5327  |5,129,017 |   3211  |2,552,268 |
  | Swedish       |   4891  |1,164,431 |   3317  |  747,656 |
  | Dutch         |   2181  |  458,401 |   1973  |  316,562 |
  | Norwegian     |   1565  |  817,483 |    720  |  347,811 |
  | Russian       |    720  |  250,564 |    439  |  143,983 |
  +---------------+---------+----------+---------+----------+

The ports of Hamburg and Bremen, which are the chief outlets for
emigration to the United States of America, carry on a vast commercial
trade with all the chief countries of the world, and are the main gates
of maritime intercourse between the United Kingdom and Germany.

The inland navigation is served by nearly 25,000 river, canal and
coasting vessels, of a tonnage of about 4,000,000.

_Railways._--The period of railway construction was inaugurated in
Germany by the opening of the line (4 m. in length) from Nuremberg to
Fürth in 1835, followed by the main line (71 m.) between Leipzig and
Dresden, opened throughout in 1839. The development of the railway
system was slow and was not conceived on any uniform plan. The want of a
central government operated injuriously, for it often happened that
intricate negotiations and solemn treaties between several sovereign
states were required before a line could be constructed; and, moreover,
the course it was to take was often determined less by the general
exigencies of commerce than by many trifling interests or desires of
neighbouring states. The state which was most self-seeking in its
railway politics was Hanover, which separated the eastern and western
parts of the kingdom of Prussia. The difficulties arising to Prussia
from this source were experienced in a still greater degree by the
seaports of Bremen and Hamburg, which were severely hampered by the
particularism displayed by Hanover.

The making of railways was from the outset regarded by some German
states as exclusively a function of the government. The South German
states, for example, have only possessed state railways. In Prussia
numerous private companies, in the first instance, constructed their
systems, and the state contented itself for the most part with laying
lines in such districts only as were not likely to attract private
capital.

The development of the German railway system falls conveniently into
four periods. The first, down in 1840, embraces the beginnings of
railway enterprise. The next, down to 1848, shows the linking-up of
various existing lines and the establishment of inter-connexion between
the chief towns. The third, down to 1881, shows the gradual
establishment of state control in Prussia, and the formation of direct
trunk lines. The fourth begins from 1881 with the purchase of
practically all the railways in Prussia by the government, and the
introduction of a uniform system of interworking between the various
state systems. The purchase of the railways by the Prussian government
was on the whole equably carried out, but there were several hard cases
in the expropriation of some of the smaller private lines.

The majority of the German railways are now owned by the state
governments. Out of 34,470 m. of railway completed and open for traffic
in 1906, only 2579 m. were the property of private undertakings, and of
these about 150 were worked by the state. The bulk of the railways are
of the normal 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge. Narrow-gauge (2½ ft.) lines--or light
railways--extended over 1218 m. in 1903, and of these 537 m. were worked
by the state.

The board responsible for the imperial control over the whole railway
system in Germany is the _Reichseisenbahnamt_ in Berlin, the
administration of the various state systems residing, in Prussia, in the
ministry of public works; in Bavaria in the ministry of the royal house
and of the exterior; in Württemberg in the ministry of the exterior; in
Saxony in the ministry of the interior; in Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt in
commissions of the ministry of finance; and in Alsace-Lorraine in the
imperial ministry of railways.

  The management of the Prussian railway system is committed to the
  charge of twenty "directions," into which the whole network of lines
  is divided, being those of Altona, Berlin, Breslau, Bromberg, Danzig,
  Elberfeld, Erfurt, Essen a.d. Ruhr, Frankfort-on-Main, Halle a.d.
  Saale, Hanover, Cassel, Kattowitz, Cologne, Königsberg, Magdeburg,
  Münster, Posen, Saarbrücken and Stettin. The entire length of the
  system was in 1906 20,835 m., giving an average of about 950 m. to
  each "direction." The smallest mileage controlled by a "direction" is
  Berlin, with 380 m., and the greatest, Königsberg, with 1200 m.

  The Bavarian system embraces 4642 m., and is controlled and managed,
  apart from the "general direction" in Munich, by ten traffic boards,
  in Augsburg, Bamberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Munich, Nuremberg,
  Regensburg, Rosenheim, Weiden and Würzburg.

  The system of the kingdom of Saxony has a length of 1616 m., and is
  controlled by the general direction in Dresden.

  The length of the Württemberg system is 1141 m., and is managed by a
  general direction in Stuttgart.

  Baden (state) controls 1233, Oldenburg (state) 382,
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin 726 and Saxe-Weimar 257 m. respectively. Railways
  lying within the other smaller states are mostly worked by Prussia.

  Alsace-Lorraine has a separate system of 1085 m., which is worked by
  the imperial general direction in Strassburg.

  By the linking-up of the various state systems several grand trunk
  line routes have been developed--notably the lines
  Berlin-Vienna-Budapest; Berlin-Cologne-Brussels and Paris;
  Berlin-Halle-Frankfort-on-Main-Basel; Hamburg-Cassel-Munich and
  Verona; and Breslau-Dresden-Bamberg-Geneva. Until 1907 no uniform
  system of passenger rates had been adopted, each state retaining its
  own fares--a condition that led to much confusion. From the 1st of May
  1907 the following tariff came into force. For ordinary trains the
  rate for first class was fixed at 1¼d. a mile; for second class at
  .7d.; for third class at ½d., and for fourth class at ¼d. a mile. For
  express trains an extra charge is made of 2s. for distances exceeding
  93 m. (150 kils.) in the two superior classes, and 1s. for a lesser
  distance, and of 1s. and 6d. respectively in the case of third class
  tickets. Fourth class passengers are not conveyed by express trains.
  The above rates include government duty; but the privilege of free
  luggage (as up to 56 lb.) has been withdrawn, and all luggage other
  than hand baggage taken into the carriages is charged for. In 1903
  371,084,000 metric tons of goods, including animals, were conveyed by
  the German railways, yielding £68,085,000 sterling, and the number of
  passengers carried was 957,684,000, yielding £29,300,000.

  The passenger ports of Germany affording oversea communications to
  distant lands are mainly those of Bremen (Bremerhaven) and Hamburg
  (Cuxhaven) both of which are situate on the North Sea. From them great
  steamship lines, notably the North German Lloyd, the Hamburg-American,
  the Hamburg South American and the German East African steamship
  companies, maintain express mail and other services with North and
  South America, Australia, the Cape of Good Hope and the Far East.
  London and other English ports, French, Italian and Levant coast towns
  are also served by passenger steamboat sailings from the two great
  North Sea ports. The Baltic ports, such as Lübeck, Stettin, Danzig
  (Neufahrwasser) and Königsberg, principally provide communication with
  the coast towns of the adjacent countries, Russia and Sweden.

_Waterways._--In Germany the waterways are almost solely in the
possession of the state. Of ship canals the chief is the Kaiser Wilhelm
canal (1887-1895), 61 m. long, connecting the North Sea and the Baltic;
it was made with a breadth at bottom of 72 ft. and at the surface of 213
ft., and with a depth of 29 ft. 6 in., but in 1908 work was begun for
doubling the bottom width and increasing the depth to 36 ft. In respect
of internal navigation, the principal of the greater undertakings are
the Dortmund-Ems and the Elbe-Trave canals. The former, constructed in
1892-1899, has a length of 150 m. and a mean depth of 8 ft. The latter,
constructed 1895-1900, has a length of 43 m. and a mean depth of about
7½ ft. A project was sanctioned in 1905 for a canal, adapted for vessels
up to 600 tons, from the Rhine to the Weser at Hanover, utilizing a
portion of the Dortmund-Ems canal; for a channel accommodating vessels
of similar size between Berlin and Stettin; for improving the waterway
between the Oder and the Vistula, so as to render it capable of
accommodating vessels of 400 tons; and for the canalization of the upper
Oder.

  On the whole, Germany cannot be said to be rich in canals. In South
  Germany the Ludwigs canal was, until the annexation of
  Alsace-Lorraine, the only one of importance. It was constructed by
  King Louis I. of Bavaria in order to unite the German Ocean and the
  Black Sea, and extends from the Main at Bamberg to Kelheim on the
  Danube. Alsace-Lorraine had canals for connecting the Rhine with the
  Rhone and the Marne, a branch serving the collieries of the Saar
  valley. The North German plain has, in the east, a canal by which
  Russian grain is conveyed to Königsberg, joining the Pregel to the
  Memel, and the upper Silesian coalfield is in communication with the
  Oder by means of the Klodnitz canal. The greatest number of canals is
  found around Berlin; they serve to join the Spree to the Oder and
  Elbe, and include the Teltow canal opened in 1906. The canals in
  Germany (including ship canals through lakes) have a total length of
  about 2600 m. Navigable and canalized rivers, to which belong the
  great water-systems of the Rhine, Elbe and Oder, have a total length
  of about 6000 m.

_Roads._--The construction of good highways has been well attended to in
Germany only since the Napoleonic wars. The separation of the empire
into small states was favourable to road-making, inasmuch as it was
principally the smaller governments that expended large sums for their
network of roads. Hanover and Thuringia have long been distinguished for
the excellence of their roads, but some districts suffer even still from
the want of good highways. The introduction of railways for a time
diverted attention from road-making, but this neglect has of late been
to some extent remedied. In Prussia the districts (_Kreise_) have
undertaken the charge of the construction of the roads; but they receive
a subsidy from the public funds of the several provinces. Turnpikes were
abolished in Prussia in 1874 and in Saxony in 1885. The total length of
the public roads is estimated at 80,000 m.

_Posts and Telegraphs._--With the exception of Bavaria and Württemberg,
which have administrations of their own, all the German states belong to
the imperial postal district (_Reichspostgebiet_). Since 1874 the postal
and telegraphic departments have been combined. Both branches of
administration have undergone a surprising development, especially since
the reduction of the postal rates. Germany, including Bavaria and
Württemberg, constitutes with Austria-Hungary a special postal union
(Deutsch-Österreichischer Postverband), besides forming part of the
international postal union. There are no statistics of posts and
telegraphs before 1867, for it was only when the North German union was
formed that the lesser states resigned their right of carrying mails in
favour of the central authority. Formerly the prince of Thurn-and-Taxis
was postmaster-general of Germany, but only some of the central states
belonged to his postal territory. The seat of management was
Frankfort-on-Main.

  The following table shows the growth in the number of post offices for
  the whole empire:--

    +------+-------------+-------------+
    | Year.|Post Offices.|Men employed.|
    +------+-------------+-------------+
    | 1872 |    7,518    |      ..     |
    | 1880 |    9,460    |      ..     |
    | 1890 |   24,952    |   128,687   |
    | 1899 |   36,388    |   206,945   |
    | 1904 |   38,658    |   261,985   |
    | 1907 |   40,083    |   319,026   |
    +------+-------------+-------------+

  In 1872 there were 2359 telegraph offices; in 1880, 9980; in 1890,
  17,200; and in 1907, 37,309. There were 188 places provided with
  telephone service in 1888, and 13,175 in 1899. The postal receipts
  amounted for the whole empire in 1907 to £33,789,460, and the
  expenditure to £31,096,944, thus showing a surplus of £2,692,516.

_Constitution._--The constitution of the German empire is, in all
essentials, that of the North German Confederation, which came into
force on the 7th of June 1867. Under this the presidency (_Praesidium_)
of the confederation was vested in the king of Prussia and his heirs. As
a result of the Franco-German war of 1870 the South German states joined
the confederation; on the 9th of December 1870 the diet of the
confederation accepted the treaties and gave to the new confederation
the name of German Empire (_Deutsche Reich_), and on the 18th of January
1871 the king of Prussia was proclaimed German emperor (_Deutscher
Kaiser_) at Versailles. This was a change of style, not of functions and
powers. The title is "German emperor," not "emperor of Germany," being
intended to show that the Kaiser is but _primus inter pares_ in a
confederation of territorial sovereigns; his authority as territorial
sovereign (_Landesherr_) extends over Prussia, not over Germany.

The imperial dignity is hereditary in the line of Hohenzollern, and
follows the law of primogeniture. The emperor exercises the imperial
power in the name of the confederated states. In his office he is
assisted by a federal council (_Bundesrat_), which represents the
governments of the individual states of Germany. The members of this
council, 58 in number, are appointed for each session by the governments
of the individual states. The legislative functions of the empire are
vested in the emperor, the Bundesrat, and the Reichstag or imperial
Diet. The members of the latter, 397 in number, are elected for a space
of five years by universal suffrage. Vote is by ballot, and one member
is elected by (approximately) every 150,000 inhabitants.

As regards its legislative functions, the empire has supreme and
independent control in matters relating to military affairs and the
navy, to the imperial finances, to German commerce, to posts and
telegraphs, and also to railways, in so far as these affect the common
defence of the country. Bavaria and Württemberg, however, have preserved
their own postal and telegraphic administration. The legislative power
of the empire also takes precedence of that of the separate states in
the regulation of matters affecting freedom of migration
(_Freizügigkeit_), domicile, settlement and the rights of German
subjects generally, as well as in all that relates to banking, patents,
protection of intellectual property, navigation of rivers and canals,
civil and criminal legislation, judicial procedure, sanitary police, and
control of the press and of associations.

The executive power is in the emperor's hands. He represents the empire
internationally, and can declare war if defensive, and make peace as
well as enter into treaties with other nations; he also appoints and
receives ambassadors. For declaring offensive war the consent of the
federal council must be obtained. The separate states have the privilege
of sending ambassadors to the other courts; but all consuls abroad are
officials of the empire and are named by the emperor.

Both the Bundesrat and the Reichstag meet in annual sessions convoked by
the emperor who has the right of proroguing and dissolving the Diet; but
the prorogation must not exceed 60 days, and in case of dissolution new
elections must be ordered within 60 days, and the new session opened
within 90 days. All laws for the regulation of the empire must, in order
to pass, receive the votes of an absolute majority of the federal
council and the Reichstag.

  Alsace-Lorraine is represented in the Bundesrat by four commissioners
  (_Kommissäre_), without votes, who are nominated by the Statthalter
  (imperial lieutenant).

  The fifty-eight members of the Bundesrat are nominated by the
  governments of the individual states for each session; while the
  members of the Reichstag are elected by universal suffrage and ballot
  for the term of five years. Every German who has completed his
  twenty-fifth year is prima facie entitled to the suffrage in the state
  within which he has resided for one year. Soldiers and those in the
  navy are not thus entitled, so long as they are serving under the
  colours. Excluded, further, are persons under tutelage, bankrupts and
  paupers, as also such persons who have been deprived of civil rights,
  during the time of such deprivation. Every German citizen who has
  completed his twenty-fifth year and has resided for a year in one of
  the federal states is eligible for election in any part of the empire,
  provided he has not been, as in the cases above, excluded from the
  right of suffrage. The secrecy of the ballot is ensured by special
  regulations passed on the 28th of April 1903. The voting-paper,
  furnished with an official stamp, must be placed in an envelope by the
  elector in a compartment set apart for the purpose in the polling
  room, and, thus enclosed, be handed by him to the presiding officer.
  An absolute majority of votes decides the election. If (as in the case
  of several candidates) an absolute majority over all the others has
  not been declared, a test election (_Stichwahl_) takes place between
  the two candidates who have received the greatest number of votes. In
  case of an equal number of votes being cast for both candidates, the
  decision is by lot.

  The subjoined table gives the names of the various states composing
  the empire and the number of votes which the separate states have in
  the federal council. Each state may appoint as many members to the
  federal council as it has votes. The table also gives the number of
  the deputies in the Reichstag.

    +-----------------------------------------+----------+----------+
    |                                         |  No. of  |  No. of  |
    |          States of the Empire.          |Members in|Members in|
    |                                         |Bundesrat.|Reichstag.|
    +-----------------------------------------+----------+----------+
    |Kingdom of Prussia                       |    17    |   236    |
    |    "       Bavaria                      |     6    |    48    |
    |    "       Saxony                       |     4    |    23    |
    |    "       Württemberg                  |     4    |    17    |
    |Grand duchy of Baden                     |     3    |    14    |
    |      "        Hesse                     |     3    |     9    |
    |      "        Mecklenburg-Schwerin      |     2    |     6    |
    |      "        Saxe-Weimar               |     1    |     3    |
    |      "        Mecklenburg-Strelitz      |     1    |     1    |
    |      "        Oldenburg                 |     1    |     3    |
    |Duchy of Brunswick                       |     2    |     3    |
    |    "    Saxe-Meiningen                  |     1    |     2    |
    |    "    Saxe-Altenburg                  |     1    |     1    |
    |    "    Saxe-Coburg-Gotha               |     1    |     2    |
    |    "    Anhalt                          |     1    |     2    |
    |Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen|     1    |     1    |
    |        "       Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt   |     1    |     1    |
    |        "       Waldeck                  |     1    |     1    |
    |        "       Reuss-Greiz              |     1    |     1    |
    |        "       Reuss-Schleiz            |     1    |     1    |
    |        "       Schaumburg-Lippe         |     1    |     1    |
    |        "       Lippe                    |     1    |     1    |
    |Free town of Lübeck                      |     1    |     1    |
    |    "        Bremen                      |     1    |     1    |
    |    "        Hamburg                     |     1    |     3    |
    |Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine    |    ..    |    15    |
    |                                         +----------+----------+
    |                          Total          |     58   |   397    |
    +-----------------------------------------+----------+----------+

  The Reichstag must meet at least once in each year. Since November
  1906 its members have been paid (see PAYMENT OF MEMBERS).

  The following table shows its composition after the elections of 1903
  and 1907:--

    +--------------------------------------------+-----+-----+
    |                   Parties.                 |1903.|1907.|
    +--------------------------------------------+-----+-----+
    | Centre                                     | 100 | 108 |
    | Social Democrats                           |  81 |  43 |
    | Conservatives                              |  51 |  60 |
    | National Liberals                          |  49 |  57 |
    | Freisinnige Volkspartei                    |  27 |  33 |
    | Reichspartei                               |  19 |  22 |
    | Alsatians, Guelphs and Danes               |  18 |   5 |
    | Poles                                      |  16 |  20 |
    | Wirtschaftliche Vereinigung (Reform Partei)|  12 |  21 |
    | Freisinnige Vereinigung                    |   9 |  16 |
    | Wilde (no party)                           |   9 |   5 |
    | Bund der Landwirte                         |   3 |   6 |
    | Bauernbund                                 |   3 |   1 |
    +--------------------------------------------+-----+-----+

All the German states have separate representative assemblies, except
Alsace-Lorraine and the two grand-duchies of Mecklenburg. The six larger
states have adopted the two-chamber system, but in the composition of
the houses great differences are found. The lesser states also have
chambers of representatives numbering from 12 members (in Reuss-Greiz)
to 48 members (in Brunswick), and in most states the different classes,
as well as the cities and the rural districts, are separately
represented. The free towns have legislative assemblies, numbering from
120 to 200 members.

Imperial measures, after passing the Bundesrat and the Reichstag, must
obtain the sanction of the emperor in order to become law, and must be
countersigned, when promulgated, by the chancellor of the empire
(_Reichskanzler_). All members of the federal council are entitled to be
present at the deliberations of the Reichstag. The Bundesrat, acting
under the direction of the chancellor of the empire, is also a supreme
administrative and consultative board, and as such it has nine standing
committees, viz.: for army and fortresses; for naval purposes; for
tariffs, excise and taxes; for trade and commerce; for railways, posts
and telegraphs; for civil and criminal law; for financial accounts; for
foreign affairs; and for Alsace-Lorraine. Each committee includes
representatives of at least four states of the empire.

For the several branches of administration a considerable number of
imperial offices have been gradually created. All of them, however,
either are under the immediate authority of the chancellor of the
empire, or are separately managed under his responsibility. The most
important are the chancery office, the foreign office and the general
post and telegraph office. But the heads of these do not form a cabinet.

  _The Chancellor of the Empire (Reichskanzler)._--The Prussian
  plenipotentiary to the Bundesrat is the president of that assembly; he
  is appointed by the emperor, and bears the title Reichskanzler. This
  head official can be represented by any other member of the Bundesrat
  named in a document of substitution. The Reichskanzler is the sole
  responsible official, and conducts all the affairs of the empire, with
  the exception of such as are of a purely military character, and is
  the intermediary between the emperor, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag.
  All imperial rescripts require the counter-signature of the chancellor
  before attaining validity. All measures passed by the Reichstag
  require the sanction of the majority of the Bundesrat, and only become
  binding on being proclaimed on behalf of the empire by the chancellor,
  which publication takes place through the _Reichsgesetzblatt_ (the
  official organ of the chancellor).

  _Government Offices._--The following imperial offices are directly
  responsible to the chancellor and stand under his control:--

  1. The foreign office, which is divided into three departments: (i.)
  the political and diplomatic; (ii.) the political and commercial;
  (iii.) the legal. The chief of the foreign office is a secretary of
  state, taking his instructions immediately from the chancellor.

  2. The colonial office (under the direction of a secretary of state)
  is divided into (i.) a civil department; (ii.) a military department;
  (iii.) a disciplinary court.

  3. The ministry of the interior or home office (under the conduct of a
  secretary of state). This office is divided into four departments,
  dealing with (i.) the business of the Bundesrat, the Reichstag, the
  elections, citizenship, passports, the press, and military and naval
  matters, so far as the last concern the civil authorities; (ii.)
  purely social matters, such as old age pensions, accident insurance,
  migration, settlement, poor law administration, &c.; (iii.) sanitary
  matters, patents, canals, steamship lines, weights and measures; and
  (iv.) commercial and economic relations--such as agriculture,
  industry, commercial treaties and statistics.

  4. The imperial admiralty (_Reichsmarineamt_), which is the chief
  board for the administration of the imperial navy, its maintenance and
  development.

  5. The imperial ministry of justice (_Reichsjustizamt_), presided over
  by a secretary of state. This office, not to be confused with the
  _Reichsgericht_ (supreme legal tribunal of the empire) in Leipzig,
  deals principally with the drafting of legal measures to be submitted
  to the Reichstag.

  6. The imperial treasury (_Reichsschatzamt_), or exchequer, is the
  head financial office of the empire. Presided over by a secretary of
  state, its functions are principally those appertaining to the control
  of the national debt and its administration, together with such as in
  the United Kingdom are delegated to the board of inland revenue.

  7. The imperial railway board (_Reichseisenbahnamt_), the chief
  official of which has the title of "president," deals exclusively with
  the management of the railways throughout the empire, in so far as
  they fall under the control of the imperial authorities in respect of
  laws passed for their harmonious interworking, their tariffs and the
  safety of passengers conveyed.

  8. The imperial post office (_Reichspostamt_), under a secretary of
  state, controls the post and telegraph administration of the empire
  (with the exception of Bavaria and Württemberg), as also those in the
  colonies and dependencies.

  9. The imperial office for the administration of the imperial railways
  in Alsace-Lorraine, the chief of which is the Prussian minister of
  public works.

  10. The office of the accountant-general of the empire
  (_Rechnungshof_), which controls and supervises the expenditure of the
  sums voted by the legislative bodies, and revises the accounts of the
  imperial bank (_Reichsbank_).

  11. The administration of the imperial invalid fund, i.e. of the fund
  set apart in 1871 for the benefit of soldiers invalided in the war of
  1870-71; and

  12. The imperial bank (_Reichsbank_), supervised by a committee of
  four under the presidency of the imperial chancellor, who is a fifth
  and permanent member of such committee.

  The heads of the various departments of state do not form, as in
  England, the nucleus of a cabinet. In so far as they are secretaries
  of state, they are directly responsible to the chancellor, who
  represents all the offices in his person, and, as has been said, is
  the medium of communication between the emperor and the Bundesrat and
  Reichstag.

  _Colonies._--The following table gives some particulars of the
  dependencies of the empire:--

    +------------------------------------+------------+-----------+------------+
    |                                    |            |   Area    |            |
    |                Name.               |  Date of   |(estimated)|    Pop.    |
    |                                    |Acquisition.|   sq. m.  |(estimated).|
    +------------------------------------+------------+-----------+------------+
    |In Africa--                         |            |           |            |
    | Togoland                           |    1884    |   33,700  |  1,000,000 |
    | Cameroon                           |    1884    |  190,000  |  3,500,000 |
    | S.W. Africa                        |    1884    |  322,450  |    200,000 |
    | East Africa                        |    1885    |  364,000  |  7,000,000 |
    |                                    +------------+-----------+------------+
    |         Total in Africa            |            |  910,150  | 11,700,000 |
    |In the Pacific--                    |            |           |            |
    | German New Guinea                  |    1884    |   70,000  |  110,000(?)|
    | Bismarck Archipelago               |    1884    |   20,000  |    188,000 |
    | Caroline, Pelew and Mariana Islands|    1899    |      800  |     41,600 |
    | Solomon Islands                    |    1886    |    4,200  |     45,000 |
    | Marshall Islands                   |    1885    |      160  |     15,000 |
    | Samoan Islands                     |    1899    |      985  |     33,000 |
    |                                    |            +-----------+------------+
    |        Total in Pacific            |            |   96,145  |    432,600 |
    |In Asia--                           |            |           |            |
    | Kiao-chow                          |    1897    |      117  |     60,000 |
    |                                    |            +-----------+------------+
    |       Total dependencies           |  1884-1899 |1,006,412  | 12,192,600 |
    +------------------------------------+------------+-----------+------------+

  Except Kiao-chow, which is controlled by the admiralty, the
  dependencies of the empire are under the direction of the colonial
  office. This office, created in 1907, replaced the colonial department
  of the foreign office which previously had had charge of colonial
  affairs. The value of the trade of the colonies with Germany in 1906
  was: imports into Germany, £1,028,000; exports from Germany,
  £2,236,000. For 1907 the total revenue from the colonies was £849,000;
  the expenditure of the empire on the colonies in the same year being
  £4,362,000. (See the articles on the various colonies.)

_Local Government._--In the details of its organization local
self-government differs considerably in the various states of the German
empire. The general principle on which it is based, however, is that
which has received its most complete expression in the Prussian system:
government by experts, checked by lay criticism and the power of the
purse, and effective control by the central authorities. In Prussia at
least the medieval system of local self-government had succumbed
completely to the centralizing policy of the monarchy, and when it was
revived it was at the will and for the purposes of the central
authorities, as subsidiary to the bureaucratic system. This fact
determined its general characteristics. In England the powers of the
local authorities are defined by act of parliament, and within the
limits of these powers they have a free hand. In Germany general powers
are granted by law, subject to the approval of the central authorities,
with the result that it is the government departments that determine
what the local elected authorities may do, and that the latter regard
themselves as commissioned to carry out, not so much the will of the
locality by which they are elected, as that of the central government.
This attitude is, indeed, inevitable from the double relation in which
they stand. A _Bürgermeister_, once elected, becomes a member of the
bureaucracy and is responsible to the central administration; even the
headman of a village commune is, within the narrow limits of his
functions, a government official. Moreover, under the careful
classification of affairs into local and central, many things which in
England are regarded as local (e.g. education, sanitary administration,
police) are regarded as falling under the sphere of the central
government, which either administers them directly or by means of
territorial delegations consisting either of individuals or of groups of
individuals. These may be purely official (e.g. the Prussian
_Regierung_), a mixture of officials and of elected non-official members
approved by the government (e.g. the _Bezirksausschuss_), or may consist
wholly of authorities elected for another purpose, but made to act as
the agents of the central departments (e.g. the _Kreisausschuss_). That
this system works without friction is due to the German habit of
discipline; that it is, on the whole, singularly effective is a result
of the peculiarly enlightened and progressive views of the German
bureaucracy.[3]

The unit of the German system of local government is the commune
(_Gemeinde_, or more strictly _Ortsgemeinde_). These are divided into
rural communes (_Landgemeinden_) and urban communes (_Stadtgemeinden_),
the powers and functions of which, though differing widely, are based
upon the same general principle of representative local self-government.
The higher organs of local government, so far as these are
representative, are based on the principle of a group or union of
communes (_Gemeindeverband_). Thus, in Prussia, the representative
assembly of the Circle (_Kreistag_) is composed of delegates of the
rural communes, as well as of the large landowners and the towns, while
the members of the provincial diet (_Provinziallandtag_) are chosen by
the _Kreistage_ and by such towns as form separate _Kreise_.

In Prussia the classes of administrative areas are as follows: (1) the
province, (2) the government district (_Regierungsbezirk_), (3) the
rural circle (_Landkreis_) and urban circle (_Stadtkreis_), (4) the
official district (_Amtsbezirk_), (5) the town commune (_Stadtgemeinde_)
and rural commune (_Landgemeinde_). Of these areas the provinces,
circles and communes are for the purposes both of the central
administration and of local self-government, and the bodies by which
they are governed are corporations. The _Regierungsbezirke_ and
_Amtsbezirke_, on the other hand, are for the purposes of the central
administration only and are not incorporated. The Prussian system is
explained in greater detail in the article PRUSSIA (q.v.). Here it must
suffice to indicate briefly the general features of local government in
the other German states, as compared with that in Prussia. The province,
which usually covers the area of a formerly independent state (e.g.
Hanover) is peculiar to Prussia. The _Regierungsbezirk_, however, is
common to the larger states under various names, _Regierungsbezirk_ in
Bavaria, _Kreishauptmannschaft_ in Saxony, _Kreis_ in Württemberg.
Common to all is the president (_Regierungspräsident_, _Kreishauptmann_
in Saxony), an official who, with a committee of advisers, is
responsible for the oversight of the administration of the circles and
communes within his jurisdiction. Whereas in Prussia, however, the
_Regierung_ is purely official, with no representative element, the
_Regierungsbezirk_ in Bavaria has a representative body, the _Landrat_,
consisting of delegates of the district assemblies, the towns, large
landowners, clergy and--in certain cases--the universities; the
president is assisted by a committee (_Landratsausschuss_) of six
members elected by the _Landrat_. In Saxony the _Kreishauptmann_ is
assisted by a committee (_Kreisausschuss_).

Below the _Regierungsbezirk_ is the _Kreis_, or Circle, in Prussia,
Baden and Hesse, which corresponds to the _Distrikt_ in Bavaria, the
_Oberamt_ in Württemberg[4] and the _Amtshauptmannschaft_ in Saxony. The
representative assembly of the Circle (_Kreistag_, _Distriktsrat_ in
Bavaria, _Amtsversammlung_ in Württemberg, _Bezirksversammlung_ in
Saxony) is elected by the communes, and is presided over by an official,
either elected or, as in the case of the Prussian _Landrat_, nominated
from a list submitted by the assembly. So far as their administrative
and legislative functions are concerned the German _Kreistage_ have been
compared to the English county councils or the Hungarian _comitatus_.
Their decisions, however, are subject to the approval of their official
chiefs. To assist the executive a small committee (_Kreisausschuss_,
_Distriktsausschuss_, &c.) is elected subject to official approval. The
official district (_Amtsbezirk_), a subdivision of the circle for
certain administrative purposes (notably police), is peculiar to
Prussia.

  _Rural Communes._--As stated above, the lowest administrative area is
  the commune, whether urban or rural. The laws as to the constitution
  and powers of the rural communes vary much in the different states. In
  general the commune is a body corporate, its assembly consisting
  either (in small villages) of the whole body of the qualified
  inhabitants (_Gemeindeversammlung_), or of a representative assembly
  (_Gemeindevertretung_) elected by them (in communes where there are
  more than forty qualified inhabitants). At its head is an elected
  headman (_Schulze_, _Dorfvorsteher_, &c.), with a small body of
  assistants (_Schöffen_, &c.). He is a government official responsible,
  _inter alia_, for the policing of the commune. Where there are large
  estates these sometimes constitute communes of themselves. For common
  purposes several communes may combine, such combinations being termed
  in Württemberg _Bürgermeistereien_, in the Rhine province
  _Amtsverbände_. In general the communes are of slight importance.
  Where the land is held by small peasant proprietors, they display a
  certain activity; where there are large ground landlords, these
  usually control them absolutely.

  _Towns._--The constitution of the towns (_Städteverfassung_) varies
  more greatly in the several states than that of the rural communes.
  According to the so-called _Stein'sche Städteverfassung_ (the system
  introduced in Prussia by Stein in 1808), which, to differentiate
  between it and other systems, is called the _Magistratsverfassung_ (or
  magisterial constitution), the municipal communes enjoy a greater
  degree of self-government than do the rural. In the magisterial
  constitution of larger towns and cities, the members of the
  _Magistrat_, i.e. the executive council (also called _Stadtrat_,
  _Gemeinderat_), are elected by the representative assembly of the
  citizens (_Stadtverordnetenversammlung_) out of their own body.

  In those parts of Germany which come under the influence of French
  legislation, the constitution of the towns and that of the rural
  communes (the so-called _Bürgermeistereiverfassung_) is identical, in
  that the members of the communal executive body are, in the same way
  as those of the communal assembly, elected to office immediately by
  the whole body of municipal electors.

  The government of the towns is regulated in the main by municipal
  codes (_Städteordnungen_), largely based upon Stein's reform of 1808.
  This, superseding the autonomy severally enjoyed by the towns and
  cities since the middle ages (see COMMUNE), aimed at welding the
  citizens, who had hitherto been divided into classes and gilds, into
  one corporate whole, and giving them all an active share in the
  administration of public affairs, while reserving to the central
  authorities the power of effective control.

  The system which obtains in all the old Prussian provinces (with the
  exception of Rügen and Vorpommern or Hither Pomerania) and in
  Westphalia is that of Stein, modified by subsequent laws--notably
  those of 1853 and 1856--which gave the state a greater influence,
  while extending the powers of the _Magistrat_. In Vorpommern and
  Rügen, and thus in the towns of Greifswald, Stralsund and Bergen,
  among others, the old civic constitutions remain unchanged. In the new
  Prussian provinces, Frankfort-on-Main received a special municipal
  constitution in 1867 and the towns of Schleswig-Holstein in 1869. The
  province of Hanover retains its system as emended in 1858, and
  Hesse-Nassau, with the exception of Frankfort-on-Main, received a
  special corporate system in 1897. The municipal systems of Bavaria,
  Württemberg and Saxony are more or less based on that of Stein, but
  with a wider sphere of self-government. In Mecklenburg there is no
  uniform system. In Saxe-Coburg, the towns of Coburg and Neustadt have
  separate and peculiar municipal constitutions. In almost all the other
  states the system is uniform. The free cities of Lübeck, Hamburg and
  Bremen, as sovereign states, form a separate class. Their
  constitutions are described in the articles on them.

  Where the "magisterial" constitution prevails, the members of the
  _Magistrat_, i.e. the executive council (also called variously
  _Stadtrat_, _Gemeindevorstand_, &c.), are as a rule elected by the
  representative assembly of the burgesses
  (_Stadtverordnetenversammlung_; also _Gemeinderat_, _städtischer
  Ausschuss_, _Kollegium der Bürgervorsteher_, _Stadtältesten_, &c.).
  The _Magistrat_ consists of the chief burgomaster (_Erster
  Bürgermeister_ or _Stadtschultheiss_, and in the large cities
  Oberbürgermeister), a second burgomaster or assessor, and in large
  towns of a number of paid and unpaid town councillors (_Ratsherren_,
  _Senatoren_, _Schöffen_, _Ratsmänner_, _Magistratsräte_), together
  with certain salaried members selected for specific purposes (e.g.
  _Baurat_, for building). Over this executive body the
  _Stadtverordneten_, who are elected by the whole body of citizens and
  unpaid, exercise a general control, their assent being necessary to
  any measures of importance, especially those involving any
  considerable outlay. They are elected for from three to six years; the
  members of the _Magistrat_ are chosen for six, nine or twelve years,
  sometimes even for life. In the large towns the burgomasters must be
  jurists, and are paid. The police are under the control of the
  _Magistrat_, except in certain large cities, where they are under a
  separate state department.

  The second system mentioned above (_Bürgermeistereiverfassung_)
  prevails in the Rhine province, the Bavarian Palatinate, Hesse,
  Saxe-Weimar, Anhalt, Waldeck and the principalities of Reuss and
  Schwarzburg. In Württemberg, Baden and Hesse-Nassau the system is a
  compromise between the two; both the town and rural communes have a
  mayor (_Bürgermeister_ or _Schultheiss_, as the case may be) and a
  _Gemeinderat_ for administrative purposes, the citizens exercising
  control through a representative _Gemeindeausschuss_ (communal
  committee).

_Justice._--By the Judicature Act--_Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz_--of 1879,
the so-called "regular litigious" jurisdiction of the courts of law was
rendered uniform throughout the empire, and the courts are now
everywhere alike in character and composition; and with the exception of
the _Reichsgericht_ (supreme court of the empire), immediately subject
to the government of the state in which they exercise jurisdiction, and
not to the imperial government. The courts, from the lowest to the
highest, are _Amtsgericht_, _Landgericht_, _Oberlandesgericht_ and
_Reichsgericht_. There are, further, _Verwaltungsgerichte_
(administrative courts) for the adjustment of disputes between the
various organs of local government, and other special courts, such as
military, consular and arbitration courts (_Schiedsgericht_). In
addition to litigious business the courts also deal with non-litigious
matters, such as the registration of titles to land, guardianship and
the drawing up and custody of testamentary dispositions, all which are
almost entirely within the province of the _Amtsgerichte_. There are
uniform codes of criminal law (_Strafgesetzbuch_), commercial law and
civil law (_Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch_), the last of which came into force
on the 1st of January 1900. The criminal code, based on that of Prussia
anterior to 1870, was gradually adopted by all the other states and was
generally in force by 1872. It has, however, been frequently emended and
supplemented.

  The lowest courts of first instance are the _Amtsgerichte_, each
  presided over by a single judge, and with jurisdiction in petty
  criminal and civil cases, up to 300 marks (£15). They are also
  competent to deal with all disputes as to wages, and letting and
  hiring, without regard to the value of the object in dispute. Petty
  criminal cases are heard by the judge (_Amtsrichter_) sitting with two
  _Schöffen_--assessors--selected by lot from the jury lists, who are
  competent to try prisoners for offences punishable with a fine, not
  exceeding 600 marks (£30) or corresponding confinement, or with
  imprisonment not exceeding three months. The _Landgerichte_ revise the
  decisions of the _Amtsgerichte_, and have also an original
  jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases and in divorce proceedings.
  The criminal chamber of the _Landgericht_ is composed of five judges,
  and a majority of four is required for a conviction. These courts are
  competent to try cases of felony punishable with a term of
  imprisonment not exceeding five years. The preliminary examination is
  conducted by a judge, who does not sit on the bench at the trial. Jury
  courts (_Schwurgerichte_) are not permanent institutions, but are
  periodically held. They are formed of three judges of the
  _Landgericht_ and a jury of twelve; and a two-thirds majority is
  necessary to convict. There are 173 _Landgerichte_ in the empire,
  being one court for every 325,822 inhabitants. The first court of
  second instance is the _Oberlandesgericht_, which has an original
  jurisdiction in grave offences and is composed of seven judges. There
  are twenty-eight such courts in the empire. Bavaria alone has an
  _Oberstes Landesgericht_, which exercises a revising jurisdiction over
  the _Oberlandesgerichte_ in the state. The supreme court of the German
  empire is the _Reichsgericht_, having its seat at Leipzig. The judges,
  numbering ninety-two, are appointed by the emperor on the advice of
  the federal council (_Bundesrat_). This court exercises an appellate
  jurisdiction in civil cases remitted, for the decision of questions of
  law, by the inferior courts and also in all criminal cases referred to
  it. It sits in four criminal and six civil senates, each consisting of
  seven judges, one of whom is the president. The judges are styled
  _Reichsgerichtsräte_ (counsellors of the imperial court).

  In the _Amtsgericht_ a private litigant may conduct his own case; but
  where the object of the litigation exceeds 300 marks (£15), and in
  appeals from the _Amtsgericht_ to the _Landgericht_, the plaintiff
  (and also the defendant) must be represented by an
  advocate--_Rechtsanwalt_.

  A _Rechtsanwalt_, having studied law at a university for four years
  and having passed two state examinations, if desiring to practise must
  be admitted as "defending counsel" by the _Amtsgericht_ or
  _Landgericht_, or by both. These advocates are not state officials,
  but are sworn to the due execution of their duties. In case a client
  has suffered damage owing to the negligence of the advocate, the
  latter can be made responsible. In every district of the
  _Oberlandesgericht_, the _Rechtsanwälte_ are formed into an
  _Anwaltkammer_ (chamber of advocates), and the council of each
  chamber, sitting as a court of honour, deals with and determines
  matters affecting the honour of the profession. An appeal lies from
  this to a second court of honour, consisting of the president, three
  judges of the _Reichsgericht_ and of three lawyers admitted to
  practice before that court.

  Criminal prosecutions are conducted in the name of the crown by the
  _Staatsanwälte_ (state attorneys), who form a separate branch of the
  judicial system, and initiate public prosecutions or reject evidence
  as being insufficient to procure conviction. The proceedings in the
  courts are, as a rule, public. Only in exceptional circumstances are
  cases heard _in camera_.

  Military offences come before the military court and serious offences
  before the _Kriegsgericht_. The court-martial is, in every case,
  composed of the commander of the district as president, and four
  officers, assisted by a judge-advocate (_Kriegsgerichtsrat_), who
  conducts the case and swears the judges and witnesses. In the most
  serious class of cases, three officers and two judge-advocates are the
  judges. The prisoner is defended by an officer, whom he may himself
  appoint, and can be acquitted by a simple majority, but only be
  condemned by a two-thirds majority. There are also _Kaufmanns-_ and
  _Gewerbegerichte_ (commercial and industrial courts), composed of
  persons belonging to the classes of employers and employees, under the
  presidency of a judge of the court. Their aim is the effecting of a
  reconciliation between the parties. From the decision of these courts
  an appeal lies to the _Landgericht_ where the amount of the object in
  dispute exceeds 100 marks (£5).

  The following table shows the number of criminal cases tried before
  the courts of first instance, with the number and sex of convicted
  persons, and the number of the latter per 10,000 of the civil
  population over twelve years of age:--

    +------+-------------------------+-------------------+---------+------------+
    |      |       Cases tried.      | Persons convicted.|         |Convictions |
    | Year.|-------------------------+-------------------|  Total. | per 10,000 |
    |      |Amtsgericht.|Landgericht.|  Males. |Females. |         |Inhabitants.|
    +------+------------+------------+---------+---------+---------+------------+
    | 1900 | 1,143,687  |   94,241   | 396,975 | 72,844  | 469,819 |   119.5    |
    | 1901 | 1,205,558  |  101,471   | 419,592 | 77,718  | 497,310 |   125.6    |
    | 1902 | 1,221,080  |  104,434   | 431,257 | 81,072  | 512,329 |   127.3    |
    | 1903 | 1,251,662  |  105,241   | 424,813 | 80,540  | 505,353 |   123.4    |
    | 1904 | 1,287,686  |  105,457   | 435,191 | 81,785  | 516,976 |   124.2    |
    +------+------------+------------+---------+---------+---------+------------+

  Of those convicted in 1904, 225,326 had been previously convicted.

_Poor Law._--A law passed by the North German Confederation of the 6th
of June 1870, and subsequently amended by an imperial law of the 12th of
March 1894, laid down rules for the relief of the destitute in all the
states composing the empire, with the exception of Bavaria and
Alsace-Lorraine. According to the system adopted, the public relief of
the poor is committed to the care of local unions (_Ortsarmenverbände_)
and provincial unions (_Landarmenverbände_), the former corresponding,
generally, to the commune, and the latter to a far wider area, a circle
or a province. Any person of eighteen years, who has continuously
resided with a local union for the space of two years, there acquires
his domicile. But any destitute German subject must be relieved by the
local union in which he happens to be at the time, the cost of the
relief being defrayed by the local or provincial union in which he has
his domicile. The wife and children have also their domicile in the
place where the husband or father has his.[5]

  Relief of the poor is one of the chief duties of the organs of local
  self-government. The moneys for the purpose are mainly derived from
  general taxation (poor rates per se being but rarely directly levied),
  special funds and voluntary contributions. In some German states and
  communes certain dues (such as the dog tax in Saxony), death duties
  and particularly dues payable in respect of public entertainments and
  police court fines, are assigned to the poor-relief chest. In some
  large towns the Elberfeld system of unpaid district visitors and the
  interworking of public and private charity is in force. The imperial
  laws which introduced the compulsory insurance of all the humbler
  workers within the empire, and gave them, when incapacitated by
  sickness, accident and old age, an absolute right to pecuniary
  assistance, have greatly reduced pauperism and crime.

_Workmen's Insurance._--On June 15, 1883, the Reichstag, as the result
of the policy announced by the emperor William I. in his speech from the
throne in 1881, passed an act making insurance against sickness,
accident, and incapacity compulsory on all workers in industrial
pursuits. By further laws, in 1885 and 1892, this obligation was
extended to certain other classes of workers, and the system was further
modified by acts passed in 1900 and 1903. Under this system every person
insured has a right to assistance in case of sickness, accident, or
incapacity, while in case of death his widow and children receive an
annuity.

  1. Insurance against sickness is provided for under these laws partly
  by the machinery already existing, i.e. the sick benefit societies,
  partly by new machinery devised to meet the new obligation imposed.
  The sick-funds (_Krankenkassen_) are thus of seven kinds: (1) free
  assistance funds (_Freie Hilfskassen_), either registered under the
  law of 1876, as modified in 1884 (_Eingeschriebene Hilfskassen_), or
  established under the law of the separate states (_landesrechtliche
  Hilfskassen_); (2) _Betriebs-_ or _Fabrikkrankenkassen_, funds
  established by individual factory-owners; (3) _Baukrankenkasse_, a
  fund established for workmen engaged on the construction (_Bau_) of
  particular engineering works (canal-digging, &c.), by individual
  contractors; (4) gild sick funds (_Innungskrankenkassen_), established
  by the gilds for the workmen and apprentices of their members; (5)
  miners' sick fund (_Knappschaftskasse_); (6) local sick fund
  (_Ortskrankenkasse_), established by the commune for particular crafts
  or classes of workmen; (7) _Gemeindekrankenversicherung_, i.e.
  insurance of members of the commune as such, in the event of their not
  subscribing to any of the other funds. Of these, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were
  created under the above-mentioned laws.

  The number of such funds amounted in 1903 to 23,271, and included
  10,224,297 workmen. The _Ortskrankenkassen_, with 4,975,322 members,
  had the greatest, and the _Baukrankenkassen_, with 16,459, the
  smallest number of members. The _Ortskrankenkassen_, which endeavour
  to include workmen of a like trade, have to a great extent, especially
  in Saxony, fallen under the control of the Social Democrats. The
  appointment of permanent doctors (_Kassenärzte_) at a fixed salary has
  given rise to much difference between the medical profession and this
  local sick fund; and the insistence on "freedom of choice" in doctors,
  which has been made by the members and threatens to militate against
  the interest of the profession, has been met on the part of the
  medical body by the appointment of a commission to investigate cases
  of undue influence in the selection.

  According to the statistics furnished in the _Vierteljahreshefte zur
  Statistik des deutschen Reiches_ for 1905, the receipts amounted to
  upwards of £10,000,000 for 1903, and the expenditure to somewhat less
  than this sum. Administrative changes were credited with nearly
  £600,000, and the invested funds totalled £9,000,000. The workmen
  contribute at the rate of two-thirds and the employers at the rate of
  one-third; the sum payable in respect of each worker varying from
  1½-3% of the earnings in the "communal sick fund" to at most l½-4% in
  the others.

  2. Insurance against old age and invalidity comprehends all persons
  who have entered upon their 17th year, and who belong to one of the
  following classes of wage-earners: artisans, apprentices, domestic
  servants, dressmakers, charwomen, laundresses, seamstresses,
  housekeepers, foremen, engineers, journeymen, clerks and apprentices
  in shops (excepting assistants and apprentices in chemists' shops),
  schoolmasters, schoolmistresses, teachers and governesses, provided
  the earnings do not exceed £100 per annum. The insured are arranged in
  five classes, according to the amount of their yearly earnings: viz.
  £17, 10s.; £27, 10s.; £47, 10s.; £57, 10s.; and £100. The
  contributions, affixed to a "pension book" in stamps, are payable each
  week, and amount, in English money, to 1.45d., 2.34d., 2.82d., 3.30d.
  and 4.23d. Of the contribution one half is paid by the employer and
  the other by the employee, whose duty it is to see that the amount has
  been properly entered in the pension book. The pensions, in case of
  invalidity, amount (including a state subsidy of £2, 10s. for each)
  respectively to £8, 8s.; £11, 5s.; £13, 10s.; £15, 15s.; and £18. The
  old-age pensions (beginning at 70 years) amount to £5, 10s.; £7; £8,
  10s.; £10; and £11, 10s. The old-age and invalid insurance is carried
  out by thirty-one large territorial offices, to which must be added
  nine special unions. The income of the forty establishments was, in
  1903, £8,500,000 (including £1,700,000 imperial subsidy). The capital
  collected was upwards of £50,000,000.

  It may be added that employees in mercantile and trading houses, who
  have not exceeded the age of 40 years and whose income is below £150,
  are allowed voluntarily to share in the benefits of this insurance.

  3. _Accident Insurance (Unfallversicherung)._--The insurance of
  workmen and the lesser officials against the risks of accident is
  effected not through the state or the commune, but through
  associations formed _ad hoc_. These associations are composed of
  members following the same or allied occupations (e.g. foresters,
  seamen, smiths, &c.), and hence are called "professional associations"
  (_Berufsgenossenschaften_). They are empowered, subject to the limits
  set by the law, to regulate their own business by means of a general
  meeting and of elected committees. The greater number of these
  associations cover a very wide field, generally the whole empire; in
  such cases they are empowered to divide their spheres into sections,
  and to establish agents in different centres to inquire into cases of
  accident, and to see to the carrying out of the rules prescribed by
  the association for the avoidance of accidents. Those associations, of
  which the area of operations extends beyond any single state, are
  subordinate to the control of the imperial insurance bureau
  (_Reichsversicherungsamt_) at Berlin; those that are confined to a
  single state (as generally in the case of foresters and husbandmen)
  are under the control of the state insurance bureau
  (_Landesversicherungsamt_).

  So far as their earnings do not exceed £150 per annum, the following
  classes are under the legal obligation to insure: labourers in mines,
  quarries, dockyards, wharves, manufactories and breweries;
  bricklayers and navvies; post-office, railway, and naval and military
  servants and officials; carters, raftsmen and canal hands; cellarmen,
  warehousemen; stevedores; and agricultural labourers. Each of these
  groups forms an association, which within a certain district embraces
  all the industries with which it is connected. The funds for covering
  the compensation payable in respect of accidents are raised by
  payments based, in agriculture, on the taxable capital, and in other
  trades and industries on the earnings of the insured. Compensation in
  respect of injury or death is not paid if the accident was brought
  about through the culpable negligence or other delict of the insured.
  In case of injury, involving incapacity for more than thirteen weeks
  (for the earlier period the _Krankenkassen_ provide), the weekly sum
  payable during complete or permanent incapacity is fixed at the ratio
  of two-thirds of the earnings during the year preceding the accident,
  and in case of partial disablement, at such a proportion of the
  earnings as corresponds to the loss through disablement. In certain
  circumstances (e.g. need for paid nursing) the sum may be increased to
  the full rate of the previous earnings. In case of death, as a
  consequence of injury, the following payments are made: (1) a sum of
  at least £2, 10s. to defray the expenses of interment; (2) a monthly
  allowance of one-fifth of the annual earnings as above to the widow
  and each child up to the age of 15.

  _Life Insurance._--There were forty-six companies in 1900 for the
  insurance of life. The number of persons insured was 1,446,249 at the
  end of that year, the insurances amounting to roughly £320,000,000.
  Besides these are sixty-one companies--of which forty-six are
  comprised in the above life insurance companies--paying subsidies in
  case of death or of military service, endowments, &c. Some of these
  companies are industrial. The transactions of all these companies
  included in 1900 over 4,179,000 persons, and the amount of insurances
  effected was £80,000,000.

_Religion._--So far as the empire as a whole is concerned there is no
state religion, each state being left free to maintain its own
establishment. Thus while the emperor, as king of Prussia, is _summus
episcopus_ of the Prussian Evangelical Church, as emperor he enjoys no
such ecclesiastical headship. In the several states the relations of
church and state differ fundamentally according as these states are
Protestant or Catholic. In the latter these relations are regulated
either by concordats between the governments and the Holy See, or by
bulls of circumscription issued by the pope after negotiation. The
effects of concordats and bulls alike are tempered by the exercise by
the civil power of certain traditional reserved rights, e.g. the
_placetum regium_, _recursus ab abusu_, _nominatio regia_, and that of
vetoing the nomination of _personae minus gratae_. In the Protestant
states the ecclesiastical authority remains purely territorial, and the
sovereign remains effective head of the established church. During the
19th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government
(by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, _pari passu_ with the
growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though
the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in
the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which
is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes. Where a sovereign
rules over a state containing a large proportion of both Catholics and
Protestants, which is usually the case, both systems coexist. Thus in
Prussia the relations of the Roman Catholic community to the Protestant
state are regulated by arrangement between the Prussian government and
Rome; while in Bavaria the king, though a Catholic, is legally _summus
episcopus_ of the Evangelical Church.

  According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German
  empire 35,231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20,327,913 Roman Catholics,
  6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to other
  confessions, 586,948 Jews, 11,597 members of other sects and 5938
  unclassified. The Christians belonging to other confessions include
  Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and Quakers,
  German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on following page shows
  the distribution of the population according to religious beliefs as
  furnished by the census of 1900.

  Almost two-thirds of the population belong to the Evangelical Church,
  and rather more than a third to the Church of Rome; the actual figures
  (based on the census of 1900) being (%) Evangelical Protestants, 62.5;
  Roman Catholics, 36.1; Dissenters and others, .043, and Jews, 1.0. The
  Protestants have not increased proportionately in number since 1890,
  while the Roman Catholics show a small relative increase. Three states
  in Germany have a decidedly predominant Roman Catholic population,
  viz. Alsace-Lorraine, Bavaria and Baden; and in four states the
  Protestant element prevails, but with from 24 to 34% of Roman
  Catholics; viz. Prussia, Württemberg, Hesse and Oldenburg. In Saxony
  and the eighteen minor states the number of Roman Catholics is only
  from 0.3 to 3.3% of the population.

    +--------------------------+-------------+-----------+-----------+--------+
    |          States.         |Evangelicals.| Catholics.|   Other   |  Jews. |
    |                          |             |           |Christians.|        |
    +--------------------------+-------------+-----------+-----------+--------+
    | Prussia                  | 21,817,577  |12,113,670 |  139,127  |392,322 |
    | Bavaria                  |  1,749,206  | 4,363,178 |    7,607  | 54,928 |
    | Saxony                   |  3,972,063  |   198,265 |   19,103  | 12,416 |
    | Württemberg              |  1,497,299  |   650,392 |    9,426  | 11,916 |
    | Baden                    |    704,058  | 1,131,639 |    5,563  | 26,132 |
    | Hesse                    |    746,201  |   341,570 |    7,368  | 24,486 |
    | Mecklenburg-Schwerin     |    597,268  |     8,182 |      487  |  1,763 |
    | Saxe-Weimar              |    347,144  |    14,158 |      361  |  1,188 |
    | Mecklenburg-Strelitz     |    100,568  |     1,612 |       62  |    331 |
    | Oldenburg                |    309,510  |    86,920 |    1,334  |  1,359 |
    | Brunswick                |    436,976  |    24,175 |    1,271  |  1,824 |
    | Saxe-Meiningen           |    244,810  |     4,170 |      395  |  1,351 |
    | Saxe-Altenburg           |    189,885  |     4,723 |      206  |     99 |
    | Saxe-Coburg-Gotha        |    225,074  |     3,330 |      515  |    608 |
    | Anhalt                   |    301,953  |    11,699 |      794  |  1,605 |
    | Schwarzburg-Sondershausen|     79,593  |     1,110 |       27  |    166 |
    | Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt   |     92,298  |       676 |       37  |     48 |
    | Waldeck                  |     55,285  |     1,831 |      164  |    637 |
    | Reuss-Greiz              |     66,860  |     1,043 |      444  |     48 |
    | Reuss-Schleiz            |    135,958  |     2,579 |      466  |    178 |
    | Schaumburg-Lippe         |     41,908  |       785 |      177  |    257 |
    | Lippe                    |    132,708  |     5,157 |      205  |    879 |
    | Lübeck                   |     93,671  |     2,190 |      213  |    670 |
    | Bremen                   |    208,815  |    13,506 |      876  |  1,409 |
    | Hamburg                  |    712,338  |    30,903 |    3,149  | 17,949 |
    | Alsace-Lorraine          |    372,078  | 1,310,450 |    4,301  | 32,379 |
    +--------------------------+-------------+-----------+-----------+--------+
    |                Total     | 35,231,104  |20,327,913 |  203,678  |586,948 |
    +--------------------------+-------------+-----------+-----------+--------+

  From the above table little can be inferred as to the geographical
  distribution of the two chief confessions. On this point it must be
  borne in mind that the population of the larger towns, on account of
  the greater mobility of the population since the introduction of
  railways and the abolition of restrictions upon free settlement, has
  become more mixed--Berlin, Leipzig, Hamburg, &c., showing
  proportionally more Roman Catholics, and Cologne, Frankfort-on-Main,
  Munich more Protestants than formerly. Otherwise the geographical
  limits of the confessions have been but little altered since the
  Thirty Years' War. In the mixed territories those places which
  formerly belonged to Roman Catholic princes are Roman Catholic still,
  and _vice versa_. Hence a religious map of South Germany looks like an
  historical map of the 17th century. The number of localities where the
  two confessions exist side by side is small. Generally speaking, South
  Germany is predominantly Roman Catholic. Some districts along the
  Danube (province of Bavaria, Upper Palatinate, Swabia), southern
  Württemberg and Baden, and in Alsace-Lorraine are entirely so. These
  territories are bordered by a broad stretch of country on the north,
  where Protestantism has maintained its hold since the time of the
  Reformation, including Bayreuth or eastern upper Franconia, middle
  Franconia, the northern half of Württemberg and Baden, with Hesse and
  the Palatinate. Here the average proportion of Protestants to Roman
  Catholics is two to one. The basin of the Main is again Roman Catholic
  from Bamberg to Aschaffenburg (western upper Franconia and lower
  Franconia). In Prussia the western and south-eastern provinces are
  mostly Roman Catholic, especially the Rhine province, together with
  the government districts of Münster and Arnsberg. The territories of
  the former principality of Cleves and of the countship of Mark
  (comprising very nearly the basin of the Ruhr), which went to
  Brandenburg in 1609, must, however, be excepted. North of Münster,
  Roman Catholicism is still prevalent in the territory of the former
  bishopric of Osnabrück. In the east, East Prussia (Ermeland excepted)
  is purely Protestant. Roman Catholicism was predominant a hundred
  years ago in all the frontier provinces acquired by Prussia in the
  days of Frederick the Great, but since then the German immigrants have
  widely propagated the Protestant faith in these districts. A
  prevailingly Roman Catholic population is still found in the district
  of Oppeln and the countship of Glatz, in the province of Posen, in the
  Polish-speaking _Kreise_ of West Prussia, and in Ermeland (East
  Prussia). In all the remaining territory the Roman Catholic creed is
  professed only in the Eichsfeld on the southern border of the province
  of Hanover and around Hildesheim.


    Protestant Church.

  The adherents of Protestantism are divided by their confessions into
  Reformed and Lutheran. To unite these the "church union" has been
  introduced in several Protestant states, as for example in Prussia and
  Nassau in 1817, in the Palatinate in 1818 and in Baden in 1822. Since
  1817 the distinction has accordingly been ignored in Prussia, and
  Christians are there enumerated only as Evangelical or Roman Catholic.
  The union, however, has not remained wholly unopposed--a section of
  the more rigid Lutherans who separated themselves from the state
  church being now known as Old Lutherans. In 1866 Prussia annexed
  Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein, where the Protestants were Lutherans,
  and Hesse, where the Reformed Church had the preponderance. The
  inhabitants of these countries opposed the introduction of the union,
  but could not prevent their being subordinated to the Prussian
  _Oberkirchenrat_ (high church-council), the supreme court of the state
  church. A synodal constitution for the Evangelical State Church was
  introduced in Prussia in 1875. The _Oberkirchenrat_ retains the right
  of supreme management. The ecclesiastical affairs of the separate
  provinces are directed by consistorial boards. The parishes
  (_Pfarreien_) are grouped into dioceses (_Sprengel_), presided over by
  superintendents, who are subordinate to the superintendent-general of
  the province. Prussia has sixteen superintendents-general. The
  ecclesiastical administration is similarly regulated in the other
  countries of the Protestant creed. Regarding the number of churches
  and chapels Germany has no exact statistics.


    Roman Catholic Church.

  There are five archbishoprics within the German empire: Gnesen-Posen,
  Cologne, Freiburg (Baden), Munich-Freising and Bamberg. The twenty
  bishoprics are: Breslau (where the bishop has the title of
  "prince-bishop"), Ermeland (seat at Frauenburg, East Prussia), Kulm
  (seat at Pelplin, West Prussia), Fulda, Hildesheim, Osnabrück,
  Paderborn, Münster, Limburg, Trier, Metz, Strassburg, Spires,
  Würzburg, Regensburg, Passau, Eichstätt, Augsburg, Rottenburg
  (Württemberg) and Mainz. Apostolic vicariates exist in Dresden (for
  Saxony), and others for Anhalt and the northern missions.

  The Old Catholics (q.v.), who seceded from the Roman Church in
  consequence of the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility,
  number roughly 50,000, with 54 clergy.


    Jews.

  It is in the towns that the Jewish element is chiefly to be found.
  They belong principally to the mercantile class, and are to a very
  large extent dealers in money. Their wealth has grown to an
  extraordinary degree. They are increasingly numerous in Hamburg,
  Berlin, Frankfort-on-Main, Breslau, Königsberg, Posen, Cologne,
  Nuremberg and Fürth. As a rule their numbers are proportionately
  greater in Prussia than elsewhere within the empire. But, since 1871,
  the Jewish population of Germany shows a far smaller increase than
  that of the Christian confessions, and even in the parts of the
  country where the Jewish population is densest it has shown a tendency
  to diminish. It is relatively greatest in the province of Posen, where
  the numbers have fallen from 61,982 (39.1 per thousand) in 1871 to
  35,327 (18.7 per thousand) in 1900. The explanation is twofold--the
  extraordinary increase (1) in their numbers in Berlin and the province
  of Brandenburg, and (2) in the number of conversions to the Christian
  faith. In this last regard it may be remarked that the impulse is less
  from religious conviction than from a desire to associate on more
  equal terms with their neighbours. Though still, in fact at least, if
  not by law, excluded from many public offices, especially from
  commands in the army, they nevertheless are very powerful in Germany,
  the press being for the most part in their hands, and they furnish in
  many cities fully one-half of the lawyers and the members of the
  corporation. It should be mentioned, as a curious fact, that the
  numbers of the Jewish persuasion in the kingdom of Saxony increased
  from 3358 (1.3 per thousand) in 1871 to 12,416 (3 per thousand) in
  1900.

_Education._--In point of educational culture Germany ranks high among
all the civilized great nations of the world (see EDUCATION:
_Germany_). Education is general and compulsory throughout the empire,
and all the states composing it have, with minor modifications, adopted
the Prussian system providing for the establishment of elementary
schools--_Volksschulen_--in every town and village. The school age is
from six to fourteen, and parents can be compelled to send their
children to a _Volksschule_, unless, to the satisfaction of the
authorities, they are receiving adequate instruction in some other
recognized school or institution.

  The total number of primary schools was 60,584 in 1906-1907; teachers,
  166,597; pupils, 9,737,262--an average of about one _Volksschule_ to
  every 900 inhabitants. The annual expenditure was over £26,000,000, of
  which sum £7,500,000 was provided by state subvention. There were also
  in Germany in the same year 643 private schools, giving instruction
  similar to that of the elementary schools, with 41,000 pupils. A good
  criterion of the progress of education is obtained from the
  diminishing number of illiterate army recruits, as shown by the
  following:

    +-----------+---------+------------------------+
    |           |         |Unable to Read or Write.|
    |           |Number of+--------+---------------+
    |   Years.  |Recruits.| Total. |   Per 1000    |
    |           |         |        |   Recruits.   |
    +-----------+---------+--------+---------------+
    | 1875-1876 | 139,855 |  3331  |     23.7      |
    | 1880-1881 | 151,180 |  2406  |     15.9      |
    | 1885-1886 | 152,933 |  1657  |     10.8      |
    | 1890-1891 | 193,318 |  1035  |      5.4      |
    | 1895-1896 | 250,287 |   374  |      1.5      |
    | 1898-1899 | 252,382 |   173  |      0.7      |
    | 1900-1901 | 253,000 |   131  |      0.45     |
    +-----------+---------+--------+---------------+

  Of the above 131 illiterates in 1900-1901, 114 were in East and West
  Prussia, Posen and Silesia.

_Universities and Higher Technical Schools._--Germany owes its large
number of universities, and its widely diffused higher education to its
former subdivision into many separate states. Only a few of the
universities date their existence from the 19th century; the majority of
them are very much older. Each of the larger provinces, except Posen,
has at least one university, the entire number being 21. All have four
faculties except Münster, which has no faculty of medicine. As regards
theology, Bonn, Breslau and Tübingen have both a Protestant and a
Catholic faculty; Freiburg, Munich, Münster and Würzburg are exclusively
Catholic; and all the rest are Protestant.

  The following table gives the names of the 21 universities, the dates
  of their respective foundations, the number of their professors and
  other teachers for the winter half-year 1908-1909, and of the students
  attending their lectures during the winter half-year of 1907-1908:

    +------------+-----------+----------+--------------------------------------+-------+
    |            |  Date of  |Professors|                Students.             |       |
    |            |Foundation.|   and    +---------+------+---------+-----------+ Total.|
    |            |           | Teachers.|Theology.| Law. |Medicine.|Philosophy.|       |
    +------------+-----------+----------+---------+------+---------+-----------+-------+
    | Berlin     |   1809    |    493   |   326   | 2747 |   1153  |   3934    |  8220 |
    | Bonn       |   1818    |    190   |   395   |  833 |    282  |   1699    |  3209 |
    | Breslau    |   1811    |    189   |   330   |  617 |    284  |    840    |  2071 |
    | Erlangen   |   1743    |     77   |   155   |  323 |    355  |    225    |  1058 |
    | Freiburg   |   1457    |    150   |   219   |  373 |    580  |    642    |  1814 |
    | Giessen    |   1607    |    100   |    63   |  204 |    331  |    546    |  1144 |
    | Göttingen  |   1737    |    161   |   102   |  441 |    188  |   1126    |  1857 |
    | Greifswald |   1456    |    105   |    68   |  188 |    186  |    361    |   803 |
    | Halle      |   1694    |    174   |   331   |  450 |    217  |   1239    |  2237 |
    | Heidelberg |   1385    |    177   |    55   |  357 |    385  |    879    |  1676 |
    | Jena       |   1558    |    116   |    48   |  267 |    265  |    795    |  1375 |
    | Kiel       |   1665    |    121   |    35   |  271 |    239  |    480    |  1025 |
    | Königsberg |   1544    |    152   |    68   |  317 |    218  |    502    |  1105 |
    | Leipzig    |   1409    |    234   |   303   | 1013 |    606  |   2419    |  4341 |
    | Marburg    |   1527    |    117   |   133   |  400 |    261  |    876    |  1670 |
    | Munich     |   1826    |    239   |   169   | 1892 |   1903  |   1979    |  5943 |
    | Münster    |   1902    |     95   |   278   |  458 |   ..    |    870    |  1606 |
    | Rostock    |   1418    |     65   |    48   |   67 |    211  |    322    |   648 |
    | Strassburg |   1872    |    167   |   241   |  369 |    255  |    844    |  1709 |
    | Tübingen   |   1477    |    111   |   464   |  467 |    263  |    384    |  1578 |
    | Würzburg   |   1582    |    102   |   106   |  331 |    625  |    320    |  1382 |
    +------------+-----------+----------+---------+------+---------+-----------+-------+

  Not included in the above list is the little academy--Lyceum
  Hosianum--at Braunsberg in Prussia, having faculties of theology
  (Roman Catholic) and philosophy, with 13 teachers and 150 students. In
  all the universities the number of matriculated students in 1907-1908
  was 46,471, including 320 women, 2 of whom studied theology, 14 law,
  150 philosophy and 154 medicine. There were also, within the same
  period, 5653 non-matriculated _Hörer_ (hearers), including 2486 women.

  Ten schools, technical high schools, or _Polytechnica_, rank with the
  universities, and have the power of granting certain degrees. They
  have departments of architecture, building, civil engineering,
  chemistry, metallurgy and, in some cases, anatomy. These schools are
  as follows: Berlin (Charlottenburg), Munich, Darmstadt, Karlsruhe,
  Hanover, Dresden, Stuttgart, Aix-la-Chapelle, Brunswick and Danzig; in
  1908 they were attended by 14,149 students (2531 foreigners), and had
  a teaching staff of 753. Among the remaining higher technical schools
  may be mentioned the three mining academies of Berlin, Clausthal, in
  the Harz, and Freiberg in Saxony. For instruction in agriculture there
  are agricultural schools attached to several universities--notably
  Berlin, Halle, Göttingen, Königsberg, Jena, Poppelsdorf near Bonn,
  Munich and Leipzig. Noted academies of forestry are those of Tharandt
  (in Saxony), Eberswalde, Münden on the Weser, Hohenheim near
  Stuttgart, Brunswick, Eisenach, Giessen and Karlsruhe. Other technical
  schools are again the five veterinary academies of Berlin, Hanover,
  Munich, Dresden and Stuttgart, the commercial colleges
  (_Handelshochschulen_) of Leipzig, Aix-la-Chapelle, Hanover,
  Frankfort-on-Main and Cologne, in addition to 424 commercial schools
  of a lesser degree, 100 schools for textile manufactures and numerous
  schools for special metal industries, wood-working, ceramic
  industries, naval architecture and engineering and navigation. For
  military science there are the academies of war (_Kriegsakademien_) in
  Berlin and Munich, a naval academy in Kiel, and various cadet and
  non-commissioned officers' schools.

  _Libraries._--Mental culture and a general diffusion of knowledge are
  extensively promoted by means of numerous public libraries established
  in the capital, the university towns and other places. The most
  celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (1,000,000 volumes and
  30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 MSS.); Heidelberg
  (563,000 volumes, 8000 MSS.); Göttingen (503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.);
  Strassburg (760,000 volumes); Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.);
  Hamburg (municipal library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart
  (400,000 volumes, 3500 MSS.); Leipzig (university library, 500,000
  volumes, 5000 MSS.); Würzburg (350,000 volumes); Tübingen (340,000
  volumes); Rostock (318,000 volumes); Breslau (university library,
  300,000 volumes, 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes);
  Bonn (265,000 volumes); and Königsberg (230,000 volumes, 1100 MSS.).
  There are also famous libraries at Gotha, Wolfenbüttel and Celle.

  _Learned Societies._--There are numerous societies and unions, some of
  an exclusively scientific character and others designed for the
  popular diffusion of useful knowledge. Foremost among German academies
  is the Academy of Sciences (_Akademie der Wissenschaften_) in Berlin,
  founded in 1700 on Leibnitz's great plan and opened in 1711. After
  undergoing various vicissitudes, it was reorganized by Frederick the
  Great on the French model and received its present constitution in
  1812. It has four sections: physical, mathematical, philosophical and
  historical. The members are (1) ordinary (50 in number, each receiving
  a yearly dotation of £30), and (2) extraordinary, consisting of
  honorary and corresponding (foreign) members. It has published since
  1811 a selection of treatises furnished by its most eminent men, among
  whom must be reckoned Schleiermacher, the brothers Humboldt, Grimm,
  Savigny, Böckh, Ritter and Lachmann, and has promoted philological and
  historical research by helping the production of such works as _Corpus
  inscriptionum Graecarum_; _Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum_; _Monumenta
  Germaniae historica_, the works of Aristotle, Frederick the Great's
  works and Kant's collected works. Next in order come (1) the Academy
  of Sciences at Munich, founded in 1759, divided into three classes,
  philosophical, historical and physical, and especially famous for its
  historical research; (2) the Society of Sciences (_Gesellschaft der
  Wissenschaften_) in Göttingen, founded in 1742; (3) that of Erfurt,
  founded 1758; (4) Görlitz (1779) and (5) the "Royal Saxon Society of
  Sciences" (_Königliche sächsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften_),
  founded in Leipzig in 1846. Ample provision is made for scientific
  collections of all kinds in almost all places of any importance,
  either at the public expense or through private munificence.

  _Observatories._--These have in recent years been considerably
  augmented. There are 19 leading observatories in the empire, viz. at
  Bamberg, Berlin (2), Bonn, Bothkamp in Schleswig, Breslau, Düsseldorf,
  Gotha, Göttingen, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Jena, Kiel, Königsberg,
  Leipzig, Munich, Potsdam, Strassburg and Wilhelmshaven.

  _Book Trade._--This branch of industry, from the important position it
  has gradually acquired since the time of the Reformation, is to be
  regarded as at once a cause and a result of the mental culture of
  Germany. Leipzig, Berlin and Stuttgart are the chief centres of the
  trade. The number of booksellers in Germany was not less than 10,000
  in 1907, among whom were approximately 6000 publishers. The following
  figures will show the recent progress of German literary production,
  in so far as published works are concerned:

    Year   1570  1600  1618  1650  1700  1750  1800  1840   1884    1902
    Books   229   791  1293   725   951  1219  3335  6904  15,607  26,902

  _Newspapers._--While in England a few important newspapers have an
  immense circulation, the newspapers of Germany are much more numerous,
  but on the whole command a more limited sale. Some large cities,
  notably Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, Dresden, Leipzig and Munich, have,
  however, newspapers with a daily circulation of over 100,000 copies,
  and in the case of some papers in Berlin a million copies is reached.
  Most readers receive their newspapers through the post office or at
  their clubs, which may help to explain the smaller number of copies
  sold.

  _Fine Arts._--Perhaps the chief advantage which Germany has derived
  from the survival of separate territorial sovereignties within the
  empire has been the decentralization of culture. Patronage of art is
  among the cherished traditions of the German princes; and even
  where--as for instance at Cassel--there is no longer a court, the
  artistic impetus given by the former sovereigns has survived their
  fall. The result has been that there is in Germany no such
  concentration of the institutions for the encouragement and study of
  the fine arts as there is in France or England. Berlin has no
  practical monopoly, such as is possessed by London or Paris, of the
  celebrated museums and galleries of the country. The picture galleries
  of Dresden, Munich and Cassel still rival that at Berlin, though the
  latter is rapidly becoming one of the richest in the world in works of
  the great masters, largely at the cost of the private collections of
  England. For the same reason the country is very well provided with
  excellent schools of painting and music. Of the art schools the most
  famous are those of Munich, Düsseldorf, Dresden and Berlin, but there
  are others, e.g. at Karlsruhe, Weimar and Königsberg. These schools
  are in close touch with the sovereigns and the governments, and the
  more promising pupils are thus from the first assured of a career,
  especially in connexion with the decoration of public buildings and
  monuments. To this fact is largely due the excellence of the Germans
  in grandiose decorative painting and sculpture, a talent for the
  exercise of which plenty of scope has been given them by the numerous
  public buildings and memorials raised since the war of 1870. Perhaps
  for this very reason, however, the German art schools have had no such
  cosmopolitan influence as that exercised by the schools of Paris, the
  number of foreign students attending them being comparatively small.
  It is otherwise with the schools of music, which exercise a profound
  influence far beyond the borders of Germany. Of these the most
  important are the conservatoires of Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, Munich
  and Frankfort-on-Main. The fame of Weimar as a seat of musical
  education, though it possesses an excellent conservatoire, is based
  mainly on the tradition of the abbé Liszt, who gathered about him here
  a number of distinguished pupils, some of whom have continued to make
  it their centre. Music in Germany also receives a great stimulus from
  the existence, in almost every important town, of opera-houses partly
  supported by the sovereigns or by the civic authorities. Good music
  being thus brought within the reach of all, appreciation of it is very
  wide-spread in all classes of the population. The imperial government
  maintains institutes at Rome and Athens which have done much for the
  advancement of archaeology.     (P. A. A.)

_Army._--The system of the "nation in arms" owes its existence to the
reforms in the Prussian army that followed Jena. The "nation in arms"
itself was the product of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars,
but it was in Prussia that was seen the systematization and the
economical and effective application of the immense forces of which the
revolutionary period had demonstrated the existence (see also ARMY;
CONSCRIPTION; FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS, &c.). It was with an army and a
military system that fully represented the idea of the "nation in arms"
that Prussia created the powerful Germany of later days, and the same
system was extended by degrees over all the other states of the new
empire. But these very successes contained in themselves the germ of new
troubles. Increased prosperity, a still greater increase in population
and the social and economic disturbances incidental to the conversion of
an agricultural into a manufacturing community, led to the practical
abandonment of the principle of _universal_ service. More men came
before the recruiting officer than there was money to train; and in 1895
the period of service with the colours was reduced from three to two
years--a step since followed by other military powers, the idea being
that with the same peace effective and financial grants half as many men
again could be passed through the ranks as before.

In 1907 the recruiting statistics were as follows:

  Number of young men attaining service age (including
    those who had voluntarily enlisted before their time)        556,772
  Men belonging to previous years who had been put back
    for re-examination, &., still borne on the lists             657,753
                                                               ---------
                                                               1,214,525

     _Deduct_--Physically unfit, &c.                  35,802
       Struck off                                        860

     Voluntarily enlisted in the army and navy,
       on or before attaining service age             57,739
     Assigned as recruits to the navy                 10,374
     Put back, &c.                                   684,193
                                                     -------
                                                                 788,968
                                                                 -------
  Available as army recruits, fit                                425,557
                                                                 -------
  Of these, (a) Assigned to the active army for two or three
         years' service with the colours          _         _    212,661
      (b) Assigned to the Ersatz-Reserve of the  |           |
         army and navy                           |_untrained_|    89,877
      (c) Assigned to the 1st levy of Landsturm  |_         _|   123,019
                                                                 -------
                                                                 425,557

Thus only half the men on whom the government has an effective hold go
to the colours in the end. Moreover few of the men "put back, &c.," who
figure on both sides of the account for any one year, and seem to
average 660,000, are really "put back." They are in the main those who
have failed or fail to present themselves, and whose names are retained
on the liability lists against the day of their return. Many of these
have emigrated.

By the constitution of the 16th of April 1871 every German is liable to
service and no substitution is allowed. Liability begins at the age of
seventeen, and actual service, as a rule, from the age of twenty. The
men serve in the active army and army reserve for seven years, of which
two years (three in the case of cavalry and horse artillery recruits)
are spent with the colours. During his four or five years in the
reserve, the soldier is called out for training with his corps twice,
for a maximum of eight weeks (in practice usually for six). After
quitting the reserve the soldier is drafted into the first ban of the
_Landwehr_ for five years more, in which (except in the cavalry, which
is not called out in peace time) he undergoes two trainings of from
eight to fourteen days. Thence he passes into the second ban and remains
in it until he has completed his thirty-ninth year--i.e. from six to
seven years more, the whole period of army and Landwehr service being
thus nineteen years. Finally, all soldiers are passed into the
_Landsturm_, in the first ban of which they remain until the completion
of their forty-fifth year. The second ban consists of untrained men
between the ages of thirty-nine and forty-five. Young men who reach a
certain standard of education, however, are only obliged to serve for
one year in the active army. They are called One-Year Volunteers
(_Einjährig-Freiwilligen_), defray their own expenses and are the chief
source of supply of reserve and Landwehr officers. That proportion of
the annual contingents which is dismissed untrained goes either to the
Ersatz-Reserve or to the 1st ban of the Landsturm (the Landwehr, it will
be observed, contains only men who have served with the colours). The
Ersatz consists exclusively of young men, who would in war time be
drafted to the regimental depots and thence sent, with what training
circumstances had in the meantime allowed, to the front. Some men of the
Ersatz receive a short preliminary training in peace time.

In 1907 the average height of the private soldiers was 5 ft. 6 in., that
of the non-commissioned officers 5 ft. 6½ in., and that of the one-year
volunteers 5 ft. 9½ in. A much greater proportion of the country
recruits were accepted as "fit" than of those coming from the towns.
Voluntary enlistments of men who desired to become non-commissioned
officers were most frequent in the provinces of the old Prussian
monarchy, but in Berlin itself and in Westphalia the enlistments fell
far short of the number of non-commissioned officers required for the
territorial regiments of the respective districts. Above all, in
Alsace-Lorraine one-eighth only of the required numbers were obtained.

  _Peace and War Strengths._--German military policy is revised every
  five years; thus a law of April 1905 fixes the strength and
  establishments to be attained on March 31, 1910, the necessary
  augmentations, &c., being carried out gradually in the intervening
  years. The peace strength for the latter date was fixed at 505,839 men
  (not including officers, non-commissioned officers and one-year
  volunteers), forming--

    633 battalions infantry.
    510 squadrons cavalry.
    574 batteries field and horse artillery.
     40 battalions foot artillery.
     29 battalions pioneers.
     12 battalions communication troops.
     23 train battalions, &c.

  The addition of about 25,000 officers and 85,000 non-commissioned
  officers, one-year men, &c., brings the peace footing of the German
  army in 1910 to a total of about 615,000 of all ranks.

  As for war, the total fighting strength of the German nation
  (including the navy) has been placed at as high a figure as
  11,000,000. Of these 7,000,000 have received little or no training,
  owing to medical unfitness, residence abroad, failure to appear,
  surplus of annual contingents, &c., as already explained, and not more
  than 3,000,000 of these would be available in war. The real military
  resources of Germany, untrained and trained, are thus about 7,000,000,
  of whom 4,000,000 have at one time or another done a continuous period
  of service with the colours.[6] This is of course for a war of defence
  _à outrance_. For an offensive war, only the active army, the reserve,
  the Ersatz and the 1st levy of the Landwehr would be really available.

  A rough calculation of the number of these who go to form or to
  reinforce the field armies and the mobilized garrisons may be given:

    Cadres of officers and non-commissioned officers  100,000
    From 7 annual contingents of recruits (i.e.
       active army and reserve)                     1,200,000
    From 5 contingents of Landwehr (1st ban)          600,000
    From 7 classes of Ersatz reserve called to the
       depots, able-bodied men                        400,000
    One-year volunteers recalled to the colours or
       serving as reserve and Landwehr officers       100,000
                                                    ---------
                                                    2,400,000

  These again would divide into a first line army of 1,350,000 and a
  second of 1,050,000. It is calculated that the field army would
  consist, in the third week of a great war, of 633 battalions, 410
  squadrons and 574 batteries, with technical, departmental and medical
  troops (say 630,000 bayonets, 60,000 sabres and 3444 guns, or 750,000
  men), and that these could be reinforced in three or four weeks by 350
  fresh battalions. Behind these forces there would shortly become
  available for secondary operations about 460 battalions of the 1st ban
  Landwehr, and 200 squadrons and about 220 batteries of the reserve and
  Landwehr. In addition, each would leave behind depot troops to form
  the nucleus on which the 2nd ban Landwehr and the Landsturm would
  eventually be built up. The total number of units of the three arms in
  all branches may be stated approximately at 2200 battalions, 780
  squadrons and 950 batteries.

  _Command and Organization._--By the articles of the constitution the
  whole of the land forces of the empire form a united army in war and
  peace under the orders of the emperor. The sovereigns of the chief
  states are entitled to nominate the lower grades of officers, and the
  king of Bavaria has reserved to himself the special privilege of
  superintending the general administration of the three Bavarian army
  corps; but all appointments are made subject to the emperor's
  approval. The emperor is empowered to erect fortresses in any part of
  the empire. It is the almost invariable practice of the kings of
  Prussia to command their forces in person, and the army commands, too,
  are generally held by leaders of royal or princely rank. The natural
  corollary to this is the assignment of special advisory duties to a
  responsible chief of staff. The officers are recruited either from the
  Cadet Corps at Berlin or from amongst those men, of sufficient social
  standing, who join the ranks as "avantageurs" with a view to obtaining
  commissions. Reserve and Landwehr officers are drawn from among
  officers and selected non-commissioned officers retired from the
  active army, and one-year volunteers who have passed a special
  examination. All candidates, from whatever source they come, are
  subject to approval or rejection by their brother officers before
  being definitively commissioned. Promotion in the German army is
  excessively slow, the senior subalterns having eighteen to twenty
  years' commissioned service and the senior captains sometimes thirty.
  The number of officers on the active list is about 25,000. The
  under-officers number about 84,000.

  The German army is organized in twenty-three army corps, stationed and
  recruited in the various provinces and states as follows: Guard,
  Berlin (general recruiting); I. Königsberg (East Prussia); II. Stettin
  (Pomerania); III. Berlin (Brandenburg); IV. Magdeburg (Prussian
  Saxony); V. Posen (Poland and part of Silesia); VI. Breslau (Silesia);
  VII. Münster (Westphalia); VIII. Coblenz (Rhineland); IX. Altona
  (Hanse Towns and Schleswig-Holstein); X. Hanover (Hanover); XI. Cassel
  (Hesse-Cassel); XII. Dresden (Saxony); XIII. Stuttgart (Württemberg);
  XIV. Karlsruhe (Baden); XV. Strassburg (Alsace); XVI. Metz (Lorraine);
  XVII. Danzig (West Prussia); XVIII. Frankfurt-am-Main (Hesse
  Darmstadt, Main country); XIX. Leipzig (Saxony); I. Bavarian Corps,
  Munich; II. Bavarian Corps, Würzburg; III. Bavarian Corps, Nuremberg.
  The formation of a XX. army corps out of the extra division of the
  XIV. corps at Colmar in Alsace, with the addition of two regiments
  from Westphalia and drafts of the XV. and XVI. corps, was announced in
  1908 as the final step of the programme for the period 1906-1910. The
  normal composition of an army corps on war is (a) staff, (b) 2
  infantry divisions, each of 2 brigades (4 regiments or 12
  battalions), 2 regiments of field artillery (comprising 9 batteries of
  field-guns and 3 of field howitzers, 72 pieces in all), 3 squadrons of
  cavalry, 1 or 2 companies of pioneers, a bridge train and 1 or 2
  bearer companies; (c) corps troops, 1 battalion rifles, telegraph
  troops, bridge train, ammunition columns, train (supply) battalion,
  field bakeries, bearer companies and field hospitals, &c., with, as a
  rule, one or two batteries of heavy field howitzers or mortars and a
  machine-gun group. The remainder of the cavalry and horse artillery
  attached to the army corps in peace goes in war to form the cavalry
  divisions. Certain corps have an increased effective; thus the Guard
  has a whole cavalry division, and the I. corps (Königsberg) has three
  divisions. Several corps possess an extra infantry brigade of two
  2-battalion regiments, but these, unless stationed on the frontiers,
  are gradually absorbed into new divisions and army corps. In war
  several army corps, cavalry divisions and reserve divisions are
  grouped in two or more "armies," and in peace the army corps are
  divided for purposes of superior control amongst several "army
  inspections."

  The cavalry is organized in regiments of cuirassiers, dragoons,
  lancers, hussars and mounted rifles,[7] the regiments having four
  service and one depot squadrons. Troopers are armed with lance, sword
  and carbine (for which in 1908 the substitution of a short rifle with
  bayonet was suggested). In peace time the highest permanent
  organization is the brigade of two regiments or eight squadrons, but
  in war and at manoeuvres divisions of three brigades, with horse
  artillery attached, are formed.

  The infantry consists of 216 regiments, mostly of three battalions
  each. These are numbered, apart from the eight Guard regiments and the
  Bavarians, serially throughout the army. Certain regiments are styled
  grenadiers and fusiliers. In addition there are eighteen chasseur or
  rifle battalions (_Jäger_). The battalion has always four companies,
  each, at war strength, 250 strong. The armament of the infantry is the
  model 1898 magazine rifle and bayonet (see RIFLE).

  The field (including horse) artillery consists in peace of 94
  regiments subdivided into two or three groups (_Abteilungen_), each of
  two or three 6-gun batteries. The field gun in use is the quick-firing
  gun 96/N.A. (see ORDNANCE: _Field Equipments_).

  The foot artillery is intended for siege and fortress warfare, and to
  furnish the heavy artillery of the field army. It consists of forty
  battalions. Machine gun detachments, resembling 4-gun batteries and
  horsed as artillery, were formed to the number of sixteen in
  1904-1906. These are intended to work with the cavalry divisions.
  Afterwards it was decided to form additional small groups of two guns
  each, less fully horsed, to assist the infantry, and a certain number
  of these were created in 1906-1908.

  The engineers are a technical body, not concerned with field warfare
  or with the command of troops. On the other hand, the pioneers (29
  battalions) are assigned to the field army, with duties corresponding
  roughly to those of field companies R.E. in the British service. Other
  branches represented in Great Britain by the Royal Engineers are known
  in Germany by the title "communication troops," and comprise railway,
  telegraph and airship and balloon battalions. The Train is charged
  with the duties of supply and transport. There is one battalion to
  each army corps.

  _Remounts._--The peace establishment in horses is approximately
  100,000. Horses serve eight to nine years in the artillery and nine to
  ten in the cavalry, after which, in the autumn of each year, they are
  sold, and their places taken by remounts. The latter are bought at
  horse-fairs and private sales, unbroken, and sent to the 25 remount
  depots, whence, when fit for the service, they are sent to the various
  units, as a rule in the early summer. Most of the cavalry and
  artillery riding horses come from Prussia proper. The Polish districts
  produce swift Hussar horses of a semi-eastern type. Hanover is second
  only to East Prussia in output of horses. Bavaria, Saxony and
  Württemberg do not produce enough horses for their own armies and have
  to draw on Prussia. Thirteen thousand four hundred and forty-five
  young horses were bought by the army authorities during 1907. The
  average price was about £51 for field artillery draught horses, £65
  for heavy draught horses, and £46 for riding horses.

  The military expenditure of Germany, according to a comparative table
  furnished to the House of Commons by the British war office in 1907,
  varied between £36,000,000 and £44,000,000 per annum in the period
  1899-1902, and between £42,000,000 and £51,000,000 per annum in that
  of 1905-1909.

  _Colonial Troops._--In 1906 these, irrespective of the brigade of
  occupation then maintained in north China and of special
  reinforcements sent to S.W. Africa during the Herrero war, consisted
  of the _German East Africa_ troops, 220 Europeans and 1470 natives;
  the _Cameroon_ troops, 145 European and 1170 natives; _S.W. African
  troops_, entirely European and normally consisting of 606 officers
  and men active and a reserve of ex-soldier settlers; the Kiao-Chau
  garrison (chiefly marines), numbering 2687 officers and men; and
  various small police forces in Togo, New Guinea, Samoa, &c.

  _Fortresses._--The fixed defences maintained by the German empire
  (apart from naval ports and coast defences) belong to two distinct
  epochs in the military policy of the state. In the first period
  (roughly 1871-1899), which is characterized by the development of the
  offensive spirit, the fortresses, except on the French and Russian
  frontiers, were reduced to a minimum. In the interior only Spandau,
  Cüstrin, Magdeburg, Ingolstadt and Ulm were maintained as defensive
  supporting points, and similarly on the Rhine, which was formerly
  studded with fortresses from Basel to Emmerich, the defences were
  limited to New Breisach, Germersheim, Mainz, Coblenz, Cologne and
  Wesel, all of a "barrier" character and not organized specially as
  centres of activity for field armies. The French frontier, and to a
  less extent the Russian, were organized offensively. Metz, already
  surrounded by the French with a girdle of forts, was extended and
  completed (see FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT) as a great entrenched
  camp, and Strassburg, which in 1870 possessed no outlying works, was
  similarly expanded, though the latter was regarded an instrument of
  defence more than of attack. On the Russian frontier Königsberg,
  Danzig, Thorn, Posen, Glogau (and on a smaller scale Boyen in East
  Prussia and Graudenz on the Vistula) were modernized and improved.

  From 1899, however, Germany began to pay more attention to her fixed
  defences, and in the next years a long line of fortifications came
  into existence on the French frontier, the positions and strength of
  which were regulated with special regard to a new strategic
  disposition of the field armies and to the number and sites of the
  "strategic railway stations" which were constructed about the same
  time. Thus, the creation of a new series of forts extending from
  Thionville (Diedenhofen) to Metz and thence south-eastward was coupled
  with the construction of twelve strategic railway stations between
  Cologne and the Belgian frontier, and later--the so-called
  "fundamental plan" of operations against France having apparently
  undergone modification in consequence of changes in the foreign
  relations of the German government--an immense strategic railway
  station was undertaken at Saarburg, on the right rear of Thionville
  and well away from the French frontier, and many important new works
  both of fortification and of railway construction were begun in Upper
  Alsace, between Colmar and Basel.

  The coast defences include, besides the great naval ports of
  Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea and Kiel on the Baltic, Danzig, Pillau,
  Memel, Friedrichsort, Cuxhaven, Geestemünde and Swinemünde.
       (C. F. A.)

_Navy._--The German navy is of recent origin. In 1848 the German people
urged the construction of a fleet. Money was collected, and a few
men-of-war were fitted out; but these were subsequently sold, the German
_Bundestag_ (federal council) not being in sympathy with the aspirations
of the nation. Prussia however, began laying the foundations of a small
navy. To meet the difficulty arising from the want of good harbours in
the Baltic, a small extent of territory near Jade Bay was bought from
Oldenburg in 1854, for the purpose of establishing a war-port there. Its
construction was completed at enormous expense, and it was opened for
ships by the emperor in June 1869 under the name of Wilhelmshaven. In
1864 Prussia, in annexing Holstein, obtained possession of the excellent
port of Kiel, which has since been strongly fortified. From the time of
the formation of the North German Confederation the navy has belonged to
the common federal interest. Since 1st October 1867 all its ships have
carried the same flag, of the national colours--black, white, red, with
the Prussian eagle and the iron cross.

From 1848 to 1868 the increase of the navy was slow. In 1851 it
consisted of 51 vessels, including 36 small gunboats of 2 guns each. In
1868 it consisted of 45 steamers (including 2 ironclads) and 44 sailing
vessels, but during the various wars of the period 1848-1871, only a few
minor actions were fought at sea, and for many years after the French
War the development of the navy did not keep pace with that of the
empire's commercial interests beyond the seas, or compete seriously with
the naval power of possible rivals. But towards the end of the 19th
century Germany started on a new naval policy, by which her fleet was
largely and rapidly increased. Details of this development will be found
in the article NAVY (see also _History_ below, _ad fin._). It will be
sufficient here to give the statistics relating to the beginning of the
year 1909, reference being made only to ships effective at that date and
to ships authorized in the construction programme of 1907:

    Modern battleships         20 effective, 4 approaching completion.
    Old battleships and coast
      defence ships            11 effective (4 non-effective).
    Armoured cruisers           9 effective, 1 approaching completion.
    Protected cruisers         31 effective, 2 approaching completion.
    Torpedo craft of modern
      types                   130 effective, 3 approaching completion.

  _Administration._--In 1889 the administration was transferred from the
  ministry of war to the imperial admiralty (_Reichsmarineamt_), at the
  head of which is the naval secretary of state. The chief command was
  at the same time separated from the administration and vested in a
  naval officer, who controls the movements of the fleet, its personnel
  and training, while the maintenance of the arsenals and dockyards,
  victualling and clothing and all matters immediately affecting the
  _matériel_, fall within the province of the secretary of state. The
  navy is divided between the Baltic (Kiel) and North Sea
  (Wilhelmshaven) stations, which are strategically linked by the Kaiser
  Wilhelm Canal (opened in 1895), across the Schleswig-Holstein
  peninsula. Danzig, Cuxhaven and Sonderburg have also been made naval
  bases.

  _Personnel._--The German navy is manned by the obligatory service of
  the essentially maritime population--such as sailors, fishermen and
  others, as well as by volunteers, who elect for naval service in
  preference to that in the army. It is estimated that the total
  seafaring population of Germany amounts to 80,000. The active naval
  personnel was, in 1906, 2631 officers (including engineers, marines,
  medical, &c.) and 51,138 under-officers and men, total 53,769. In
  addition, there is a reserve of more than 100,000 officers and men.
       (P. A. A.)

_Finance._--The imperial budget is voted every year by the Reichstag.
The "extraordinary funds," from which considerable sums appear annually
in the budget, were created after the Franco-German War. Part of the
indemnity was invested for definite purposes. The largest of these
investments served for paying the pensions of the invalided, and
amounted originally to £28,000,000. Every year, not only the interest,
but part of the capital is expended in paying these pensions, and the
capital sum was thus reduced in 1903 to £15,100,000, and in 1904 to
£13,200,000. Another fund, of about £5,200,000, serves for the
construction and armament of fortresses; while £6,000,000, known as the
_Reichskriegsschatz_--or "war treasure fund"--is not laid out at
interest, but is stored in coined gold and bullion in the Juliusturm at
Spandau. In addition to these, the railways in Alsace-Lorraine, which
France bought of the Eastern Railway Company for £13,000,000, in order
to transfer them to the control of Germany, are also the property of the
empire.

During the years 1908 and 1909 considerable public discussion and
political activity were devoted to the reorganization of German imperial
finance, and it is only possible here to deal historically with the
position up to that time, since further developments of an important
nature were already foreshadowed.

In 1871 the system accepted was that the imperial budget should be
financed substantially by its reliance on the revenue from what were the
obvious imperial resources--customs and excise duties, stamp duties,
post and telegraph receipts, and among minor sources the receipts from
the Alsace-Lorraine railways. But it was also provided that, for the
purpose of deficits, the states should, in addition, if required by the
imperial minister of finance, contribute their quotas according to
population--_Matrikular Beiträge_. It was not expected that these would
become chronic, but in a few years, and emphatically by the early
'eighties, they were found to be an essential part of the financial
system, owing to regular deficits. It had been intended that, in return
for the _Matrikular Beiträge_, regular assignments (_Überweisungen_)
should be returned to the states, in relief of their own taxation, which
would practically wipe out the contribution; but instead of these the
_Überweisungen_ were considerably less. Certain reorganizations were
made in 1887 and 1902, but the excess of the _Matrikular Beiträge_ over
the _Überweisungen_ continued; the figures in 1905 and 1908 being as
follows (in millions of marks):--

  +------+-------------+---------------+---------+
  |      | Matrikular- | Überweisungen.| Excess. |
  |      |  Beiträge.  |               |         |
  +------+-------------+---------------+---------+
  | 1905 |     213     |      189      |    24   |
  | 1908 |     346     |      195      |   150   |
  +------+-------------+---------------+---------+

These figures show how natural it was to desire to relieve the states by
increasing the direct imperial revenue.

Meanwhile, in spite of the "matricular contributions," the calls on
imperial finance had steadily increased, and up to 1908 were continually
met to a large extent by loans, involving a continual growth of the
imperial debt, which in 1907 amounted to 3643 millions of marks. The
imperial budget, like that of most European nations, is divided into two
portions, the ordinary and the extraordinary; and the increase under
both heads (especially for army and navy) became a recurrent factor. A
typical situation is represented by the main figures for 1905 and 1906
(in millions of marks):

  +------+-----------------------+----------+-----------+
  |      |      Expenditure.     |          |           |
  |      +-----------+-----------+ Revenue. | Raised by |
  |      | Ordinary. |  Extra-   |          |    Loan.  |
  |      |           | ordinary. |          |           |
  +------+-----------+-----------+----------+-----------+
  | 1905 |    2002   |    193    |   2053   |    341    |
  | 1906 |    2157   |    235    |   2118   |    258    |
  +------+-----------+-----------+----------+-----------+

The same process went on in 1907 and 1908, and it was necessarily
recognized that the method of balancing the imperial budget by a regular
increase of debt could not be satisfactory in a country where the
general increase of wealth and taxable capacity had meanwhile been
conspicuous. And though the main proposals made by the government for
new taxation, including new direct taxes, resulted in a parliamentary
deadlock in 1909, and led to Prince von Bülow's resignation as
chancellor, it was already evident that some important reorganization of
the imperial financial system was inevitable.

  _Currency._--The German empire adopted a gold currency by the law of
  the 4th of December 1871. Subsequently the old local coinages
  (_Landesmünzen_) began to be called in and replaced by new gold and
  silver coins. The old gold coins, amounting to £4,550,000, had been
  called in as early as 1873; and the old silver coins have since been
  successively put out of circulation, so that none actually remains as
  legal tender but the thaler (3s.). The currency reform was at first
  facilitated by the French indemnity, a great part of which was paid in
  gold. But later on that metal became scarcer; the London gold prices
  ran higher and higher, while silver prices declined. The average rate
  per ounce of standard silver in 1866-1870 was 60-5/8d., in January
  1875 only 57½d., in July 1876 as low as 49d. It rose in January 1877
  to 57½d., but again declined, and in September 1878 it was 50-5/8d.
  While the proportion of like weights of fine gold and fine silver in
  1866-1870 averaged 1 to 15.55, it was 1 to 17.79 in 1876, 1 to 17.18
  in 1877, and, in 1902, in consequence of the heavy fall in silver, the
  ratio became as much as 1 to 39. By the currency law of the 9th of
  July 1873, the present coinage system was established and remains,
  with certain minor modifications, now in force as then introduced. The
  unit is the mark (1 shilling)--the tenth part of the imperial _gold
  coin_ (Krone = crown), of which last 139½ are struck from a pound of
  pure gold. Besides these ten-mark pieces, there are Doppelkronen
  (double crowns), about equivalent in value to an English sovereign
  (the average rate of exchange being 20 marks 40 pfennige per £1
  sterling), and, formerly, half-crowns (halbe Kronen = 5 marks) in gold
  were also issued, but they have been withdrawn from circulation.
  Silver coins are 5, 2 and 1 mark pieces, equivalent to 5, 2 and 1
  shillings respectively, and 50 pfennige pieces = 6d. Nickel coins are
  10 and 5 pfennige pieces, and there are bronze coins of 2 and 1
  pfennige. The system is decimal; thus 100 pfennige = 1 mark, 1000
  pfennige = the gold krone (or crown), and 1d. English amounts roughly
  to 8 pfennige.

  _Banking._--A new banking law was promulgated for the whole empire on
  the 14th of March 1875. Before that date there existed thirty-two
  banks with the privilege of issuing notes, and on the 31st of December
  1872, £67,100,000 in all was in circulation, £25,100,000 of that sum
  being uncovered. The banking law was designed to reduce this
  circulation of notes; £19,250,000 was fixed as an aggregate maximum of
  uncovered notes of the banks. The private banks were at the same time
  obliged to erect branch offices in Berlin or Frankfort-on-Main for the
  payment of their notes. In consequence of this regulation numerous
  banks resigned the privilege of issuing notes, and at present there
  are in Germany but the following private note banks, issuing private
  notes, viz. the Bavarian, the Saxon, the Württemberg, the Baden and
  the Brunswick, in addition to the Imperial Bank. The Imperial Bank
  (Reichsbank) ranks far above the others in importance. It took the
  place of the Prussian Bank in 1876, and is under the superintendence
  and management of the empire, which shares in the profits. Its head
  office is in Berlin, and it is entitled to erect branch offices in any
  part of the empire. It has a capital of £9,000,000 divided into 40,000
  shares of £150 each, and 60,000 shares of £50 each. The Imperial Bank
  is privileged to issue bank-notes, which must be covered to the extent
  of 1s. 3d. in coined money, bullion or bank-notes, the remainder in
  bills at short sight. Of the net profits, a dividend of 3½% is first
  payable to the shareholders, 20% of the remainder is transferred to
  the reserve until this has reached a total of £3,000,000, and of the
  remainder again a quarter is apportioned to the shareholders and
  three-quarters falls to the imperial exchequer. If the net profits do
  not reach 3½%, the balance must be made good from the reserve. Private
  note banks are not empowered to do business outside the state which
  has conceded them the privilege to issue notes, except under certain
  limitations. One of these is that they agree that their privilege to
  issue private notes may be withdrawn at one year's notice without
  compensation. But this condition has not been enforced in the case of
  such banks as have agreed to accept as binding the official rate of
  discount of the Reichsbank after this has reached or when it exceeds
  4%. At other times they are not to discount at more than ¼% below the
  official rate of the Reichsbank, or in case the Reichsbank itself
  discounts at a lower rate than the official rate, at more than 1/8%
  below that rate.

  The following table shows the financial condition of the note-issuing
  banks, in thousands of marks, over a term of years:

    _Liabilities._

    +------+-------+----------+---------------+------------+------------------+
    | Year.| Banks.| Capital. |    Reserve.   |  Notes in  | Total, including |
    |      |       |          |               |Circulation.|other Liabilities.|
    +------+-------+----------+---------------+------------+------------------+
    | 1900 |   8   |  219,672 |     48,329    |  1,313,855 |     2,237,017    |
    | 1901 |   7   |  231,672 |     54,901    |  1,345,436 |     2,360,453    |
    | 1902 |   6   |  216,000 |     56,684    |  1,373,482 |     2,353,951    |
    | 1903 |   6   |  216,000 |     60,131    |  1,394,336 |     2,365,256    |
    | 1904 |   6   |  216,000 |     64,385    |  1,433,421 |     2,378,845    |
    +------+-------+----------+---------------+------------+------------------+

    _Assets._

    +------+-------+----------+----------------+-----------+------------------+
    | Year.| Banks.| Coin and | Notes of State |   Bills.  |       Total.     |
    |      |       | Bullion. |and other Banks.|           |                  |
    +------+-------+----------+----------------+-----------+------------------+
    | 1900 |   8   |  899,630 |     51,931     | 1,036,961 |     2,239,564    |
    | 1901 |   7   |  990,262 |     60,770     |   990,950 |     2,360,355    |
    | 1902 |   6   |1,052,391 |     54,389     |   901,408 |     2,354,253    |
    | 1903 |   6   |  973,953 |     54,231     |   984,604 |     2,356,511    |
    | 1904 |   6   |  996,601 |     66,372     |   947,358 |     2,379,234    |
    +------+-------+----------+----------------+-----------+------------------+

  The total turnover of the Imperial Bank was, in the first year of its
  foundation, 1¾ milliards pounds sterling; and, in 1899, 90 milliards.
  Eighty-five per cent of its bank-notes have been, on the average,
  covered by metal reserve.

  The total value of silver coins is not to exceed 10 marks, and that of
  copper and nickel 2½ marks per head of the population. While the
  coinage of silver, nickel and copper is reserved to the state, the
  coinage of gold pieces can be undertaken by the state for the account
  of private individuals on payment of a fixed charge. The coinage takes
  place in the six mints belonging to the various states--thus Berlin
  (Prussia), Munich (Bavaria), Dresden (in the Muldenerhütte near
  Freiberg, Saxony), Stuttgart (Württemberg), Karlsruhe (Baden) and
  Hamburg (for the state of Hamburg). Of the thalers, the Vereinsthaler,
  coined until 1867 in Austria, was by ordinance of the Bundesrat
  declared illegal tender since the 1st of January 1903. No one can be
  compelled to accept more than 20 marks in silver or more than 1 mark
  in nickel and copper coin; but, on the other hand, the Imperial Bank
  accepts imperial silver coin in payment to any amount.

  The total value of thalers, which, with the exception of the
  Vereinsthaler, are legal tender, was estimated in 1894 at about
  £20,000,000.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Cotta, _Deutschlands Boden_ (2 vols., 1853); H.A.
  Daniel, _Deutschland_ (1896); J. Kutzen, _Das deutsche Land_ (Breslau,
  1900); Von Klöden, _Geographisches Handbuch_, vol. ii. (1875); G.
  Neumann, _Das deutsche Reich_ (2 vols., 1874); O. Brunckow, _Die
  Wohnplätze des deutschen Reiches--auf Grund der amtlichen Materialien
  bearbeitet_ (new ed., Berlin, 1897); _Handbuch der Wirtschaftskunde
  Deutschlands_ (4 vols., Leipzig, 1901-1905); _Gothaischer
  genealogischer Hofkalender auf das Jahr 1907_ (Gotha); A. von W. Keil,
  _Neumanns Ortslexikon des deutschen Reiches_ (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1894);
  Meyer, _Konversations-Lexikon_ (1902 seqq.); Brockhaus,
  _Konversations-Lexikon_ (1900 seqq.); J. Kürschner, _Staats- Hof- und
  Kommunal-handbuch des Reiches und der Einzelstaaten_ (Leipzig, 1900);
  P. Hage, _Grundriss der deutschen Staats- und Rechtskunde_ (Stuttgart,
  1906), and for Statistical matter chiefly the following: _Centralblatt
  für das deutsche Reich. Herausgegeben im Reichsamt der Innern_
  (Berlin, 1900); _Die deutsche Armee und die kaiserliche Marine_
  (Berlin, 1889); _Gewerbe und Handel im deutschen Reich nach der
  gewerblichen Betriebszählung, vom 14. Juni 1895_ (Berlin, 1899);
  _Handbuch für das deutsche Reich auf das Jahr 1900, bearbeitet im
  Reichsamt der Innern_ (Berlin); _Handbuch für die deutsche
  Handelsmarine auf das Jahr 1900; Statistik des deutschen Reichs_,
  published by the _Kaiserliches Statistisches Amt_ (including trade,
  navigation, criminal statistics, sick insurance, &c.); _Statistisches
  Jahrbuch für das deutsche Reich_ (Berlin, 1906) and _Vierteljahrshefte
  für Statistik des deutschen Reichs_ (including census returns,
  commerce and railways). See also among English publications on
  geographical and statistical matter: _Annual Statement of the Trade of
  the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Possessions for
  the Year 1899_ (London, 1900); and G.G. Chisholm, _Europe_, being
  vols. i. and ii. of Stanford's _Compendium of Geography and Travel_
  (London, 1899 and 1900). The fullest general account of the geology of
  Germany will be found in R. Lepsius, _Geologie von Deutschland und den
  angrenzenden Gebieten_ (Stuttgart, first volume completed in 1892).
  Shorter descriptions will be found in E. Kayser, _Lehrbuch der
  geologischen Formationskunde_ (Stuttgart, English edition under the
  title _Text-book of Comparative Geology_), and H. Credner, _Elemente
  der Geologie_ (Leipzig).


ARCHAEOLOGY

From an archaeological point of view Germany is very far from being a
homogeneous whole. Not only has the development of the south differed
from that of the north, and the west been subjected to other influences
than those affecting the east, but even where the same influences have
been at work the period of their operation has often varied widely in
the different districts, so that in a general sketch of the whole
country the chronology can only be a very rough approximation. In this
article the dates assigned to the various periods in south Germany are
those given by Sophus Müller, on the lines first laid down by Montelius.
As regards north Germany, Müller puts the Northern Bronze age 500 years
later than the Southern, but a recent find in Sweden bears out
Montelius's view that southern influence made itself rapidly felt in the
North. The conclusions of Montelius and Müller are disputed by W.
Ridgeway, who maintains that the Iron age originated in central Europe,
and that iron must consequently have been worked in those regions as far
back as c. 2000 B.C.

_Older Palaeolithic Period._--The earliest traces of man's handiwork are
found either at the end of the pre-Glacial epoch, or in an inter-Glacial
period, but it is a disputed point whether the latter is the first of a
series of such periods. A typical German find is at Taubach, near
Weimar, where almond-shaped stone wedges, small flint knives, and
roughly-hacked pieces of porphyry and quartz are found, together with
the remains of elephants. There are also bone implements, which are not
found in the earliest periods in France.

_Palaeolithic Transition Period_ (_Solutré_).--More highly developed
forms are found when the mammoth has succeeded the elephant. Implements
of chipped stone for the purposes of boring and scraping suggest that
man worked hides for clothing. Ornaments of perforated teeth and shells
are found.

_Later Palaeolithic Period_ (_La Madeleine_).--The next period is marked
by the presence of reindeer. In the Hohlefels in the Swabian Achthal
there is still no trace of earthenware, and we find the skull of a
reindeer skilfully turned into a drinking-vessel. Saws, needles, awls
and bone harpoons are found. It is to be noticed that none of the German
finds (mostly in the south and west) show any traces of the highly
developed artistic sense so characteristic of the dwellers in France at
this period.

The gap in our knowledge of the development of Palaeolithic into
Neolithic civilization has recently been partially filled in by
discoveries in north Germany and France of objects showing rather more
developed forms than those of the former period, but still unaccompanied
by earthenware. It is a disputed point whether the introduction of
Neolithic civilization is due to a new ethnological element.

_Neolithic Age_ (in south Germany till c. 2000 B.C.).--Neolithic man
lived under the same climatic conditions as prevail to-day, but amidst
forests of fir. He shows advance in every direction, and by the end of
the later Neolithic period he is master of the arts of pottery and
spinning, is engaged in agricultural pursuits, owns domestic animals,
and makes weapons and tools of fine shape, either ground and polished or
beautifully chipped. Traces of Neolithic settlements have been found
chiefly in the neighbourhood of Worms, in the Main district and in
Thuringia. These dwellings are usually holes in the ground, and
presumably had thatched roofs. Our knowledge of the later Neolithic age,
as of the succeeding periods, is largely gained from the remains of
lake-dwellings, represented in Germany chiefly by Bavarian finds. The
lake-dwellings in Mecklenburg, Pomerania and East Prussia are of a
different type, and it is not certain that they date back to the Stone
age. Typical Neolithic cemeteries are found at Hinkelstein, Alzey and
other places in the neighbourhood of Worms. In these graves the
skeletons lie flat, while in other cemeteries, as at Flomborn in
Rhine-Hessen, and near Heilbronn, they are in a huddled position (hence
the name _Hockergräber_). Necklaces and bracelets of Mediterranean
shells point to a considerable amount of commerce. Other objects found
in the graves are small flint knives, stone axes, flint and lumps of
pyrites for obtaining fire, and, in the women's graves, hand-mills for
grinding corn. The earthenware vessels usually have rounded bottoms. The
earliest ornamentation consists of finger-imprints. Later we find two
periods of zigzag designs in south Germany with an intermediate stage of
spirals and wavy lines, while in north and east Germany the so-called
string-ornamentation predominates. Towards the end of the period the
inhabitants of north Germany erect megalithic graves, and in Hanover
especially the passage-graves.

_Bronze Age_ (in south Germany from c. 2000-1000 B.C.).--In the later
Stone age we note the occasional use of copper, and then the gradual
appearance of bronze. The bronze civilization of the Aegean seems to
have had direct influence along the basins of the Danube and Elbe, while
the culture of the western parts of central Germany was transmitted
through Italy and France. No doubt the pre-eminence of the north, and
especially of Denmark, at this period, was due to the amber trade,
causing southern influence to penetrate up the basin of the Elbe to
Jutland. The earlier period is characterized by the practice of
inhumation in barrows made of clays, stones or sand, according to the
district. Bronze is cast, whereas at a later time it shows signs of the
hammer. From the finds in Bavarian graves it appears that the chief
weapons were the dagger and the long pointed _Palstab_ (palstave), while
a short dagger fixed like an axe on a long shaft is characteristic of
the North. The women wore two bronze pins, a bracelet on each arm, amber
ornaments and a necklace of bronze tubes in spirals. One or two vases
are found in each barrow, ornamented with finger-imprints, "string"
decoration, &c. The later period is characterized by the practice of
cremation, though the remains are still placed in barrows. Swords make
their appearance. The women wear more and more massive ornaments. The
vases are highly polished and of elegant form, with zigzag decoration.

_Hallstatt Period_ (in Germany 8th-5th century B.C.).--The Hallstatt
stage of culture, named after the famous cemetery in upper Austria, is
marked by the introduction of iron (see HALLSTATT). In Germany its
centre is Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg, with the Thuringian forest as
the northern boundary. In Brandenburg, Lusatia, Silesia, Posen and
Saxony, where there was no strong Bronze age tradition, Hallstatt
influence is very noticeable. In west Prussia the urns with human faces
deserve notice. The dead are either buried in barrows or cremated, the
latter especially in north and east Germany. In Bavaria both practices
are resorted to, as at Hallstatt. The pottery develops beautiful form
and colour. Fibulae, often of the "kettle-drum" form, take the place of
the Bronze age pin.

_La Tène Period_ (4th-1st century B.C.).--Down to this time there is
very little evidence concerning the racial affinities of the population.
When our records first begin the western and southern portions of
Germany seem to have been inhabited by Celtic peoples (see below
"Ethnography"). La Tène, in Switzerland, has given its name to the
period, of which the earlier part corresponds to the time of Celtic
supremacy. It is interesting to note how the Celts absorb Roman and
still more Greek culture, even imitating foreign coins, and pass on
their new arts to their Teutonic neighbours; but in spite of the strong
foreign influence the Celtic civilization can in some sort be termed
national. Later it has a less rich development, betraying the political
decay of the race. Its centres in Germany are the southern districts as
far as Thuringia, and the valleys of the Main and Saar. The
ornamentation is of the conventionalized plant type: gold is freely
used, and enamel, of a kind different from the Roman enamel used later
in Germany, is applied to weapons and ornaments. Chariots are used in
war, and fortified towns are built, though we must still suppose the
houses to have consisted of a wooden framework coated with clay. In
these districts La Tène influence is contemporary with the use of
tumuli, but in the (non-Celtic) coast districts it must be sought in
urn-cemeteries.

_Roman Period_ (from the 1st century A.D.).--The period succeeding to La
Tène ought rather to be called Romano-Germanic, the relation of the
Teutonic races to the Roman civilization being much the same as that of
the Celts to classical culture in the preceding period. The Rhine lands
were of course the centre of Roman civilization, with Roman roads,
fortresses, stone and tiled houses and marble temples. By this time the
Teutonic peoples had probably acquired the art of writing, though the
origin of their national (Runic) alphabet is still disputed. The graves
of the period contain urns of earthenware or glass, cremation being the
prevalent practice, and the objects found include one or more coins in
accordance with Roman usage.

_Period of National Migrations_ (A.D. 300-500).--The grave-finds do not
bear out the picture of a period of ceaseless war painted by the Roman
historians. On the contrary, weapons are seldom found, at any rate in
graves, the objects in which bear witness to a life of extraordinary
luxury. Magnificent drinking-vessels, beautifully ornamented dice and
draughtsmen, masses of gay beads, are among the commonest grave-finds. A
peculiarity of the period is the development of decoration inspired by
animal forms, but becoming more and more tortuous and fantastic. Only
those eastern parts of Germany which were now occupied by Slavonic
peoples remained uninfluenced by this rich civilization.

_The Merovingian Period_ (A.D. 500-800) sees the completion of the work
of converting the German tribes to Christianity. _Reihengräber_,
containing objects of value, but otherwise like modern cemeteries, with
the dead buried in rows (_Reihen_), are found over all the Teutonic part
of Germany, but some tribes, notably the Alamanni, seem still to have
buried their dead in barrows. Among the Franks and Burgundians we find
monolithic sarcophagi in imitation of the Romans, and in other districts
sarcophagi were constructed out of several blocks of stone--the
so-called _Plattengräber_. The weapons are the _spatha_, or
double-bladed German sword, the _sax_ (a short sword, or long knife,
_semispathium_), the knife, shield, and the favourite German axe, though
this latter is not found in Bavaria. The ornaments are beads, earrings,
brooches, rings, bracelets, &c., thickly studded with precious stones.

  AUTHORITIES.--S. Müller, _Urgeschichte Europas_ (1905), and
  _Tierornamentik_ (1881); O. Montelius, "Chronologie der Bronzezeit in
  N. Deutschland und Skandinavien," in _Archiv für Anthropologie_, vols.
  xxv. and xxvi.; M. Hoernes, _Urgeschichte des Menschen_ (1892), and
  _Der diluviale Mensch in Europa_ (1903); M. Much, _Kupferzeit in
  Europa_ (1893); R. Munro, _Lake-dwellings of Europe_ (1890); J. Naue,
  _Bronzezeit in Ober-Bayern_ (1894); O. Tischler, _Ostpreussische
  Altertümer_ (1902); R. Virchow, _Über Hünengräber und Pfahlbauten_
  (1866); J. Mestorf, _Urnenfriedhöfe in Schleswig-Holstein_ (1886); A.
  Lissauer, _Prähistorische Denkmäler Preussens_ (1887); I. Undset,
  _Erstes Auftreten des Eisens in N. Europa_ (1882); L. Lindenschmit,
  _Handbuch der deutschen Altertumskunde_, i. (1880-1889); and W.
  Ridgeway, _Early Age of Greece_, i. (1901). Also articles by the above
  and others, chiefly in _Zeitschrift für Ethnologie_ (Berlin); _Archiv
  für Anthropologie_ (Brunswick); _Globus_ (Brunswick); _Westdeutsche
  Zeitschrift_ (Trier); _Schriften der physikalisch-ökonomischen
  Gesellschaft_ (Königsberg); _Nachrichten über deutsche Altertumskunde_
  (Berlin); _Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie_,
  &c.; _Beiträge zur Anthropologie Bayerns_ (Munich); and _Zeitschrift
  für deutsches Altertum_ (Berlin).     (B. S. P.)


ETHNOGRAPHY AND EARLY HISTORY

  Julius Caesar in Germany.

Our direct knowledge of Germany begins with the appointment of Julius
Caesar as governor of Gaul in 59 B.C. Long before that time there is
evidence of German communication with southern civilization, as the
antiquities prove, and occasional travellers from the Mediterranean had
made their way into those regions (e.g. Pytheas, towards the end of the
4th century), but hardly any records of their journeys survive. The
first Teutonic peoples whom the Romans are said to have encountered are
the Cimbri and Teutoni, probably from Denmark, who invaded Illyria, Gaul
and Italy towards the end of the 2nd century B.C. When Caesar arrived in
Gaul the westernmost part of what is now Germany was in the possession
of Gaulish tribes. The Rhine practically formed the boundary between
Gauls and Germans, though one Gaulish tribe, the Menapii, is said to
have been living beyond the Rhine at its mouth, and shortly before the
arrival of Caesar an invading force of Germans had seized and settled
down in what is now Alsace, 72 B.C. At this time the Gauls were being
pressed by the Germans along the whole frontier, and several of Caesar's
campaigns were occupied with operations, either against the Germans, or
against Gaulish tribes set in motion by the Germans. Among these we may
mention the campaign of his first year of office, 58 B.C., against the
German king Ariovistus, who led the movement in Alsace, and that of 55
B.C. in which he expelled the Usipetes and Tencteri who had crossed the
lower Rhine. During the period of Caesar's government he succeeded in
annexing the whole of Gaul as far as the Rhine. (For the campaigns see
CAESAR, JULIUS.)


  The campaign of other Roman leaders.

After peace had been established in Italy by Augustus, attempts were
made to extend the Roman frontier beyond the Rhine. The Roman prince
Nero Claudius Drusus (q.v.) in the year 12 B.C. annexed what is now the
kingdom of the Netherlands, and constructed a canal (Fossa Drusiana)
between the Rhine and the lake Flevo (Lacus Flevus), which partly
corresponded to the Zuyder Zee, though the topography of the district
has greatly altered. He also penetrated into regions beyond and crossed
the Weser, receiving the submission of the Bructeri, Chatti and
Cherusci. After Drusus' death in 9 B.C., while on his return from an
expedition which reached the Elbe, the German command was twice
undertaken by Tiberius, who in A.D. 5 received the submission of all the
tribes in this quarter, including the Chauci and the Langobardi. A Roman
garrison was left in the conquered districts between the Rhine and the
Elbe, but the reduction was not thoroughly completed. About the same
time the Roman fleet voyaged along the northern coast apparently as far
as the north of Jutland, and received the nominal submission of several
tribes in that region, including the Cimbri and the Charudes. In A.D. 9
Quintilius Varus, the successor of Tiberius, was surprised in the
_Saltus Teutobergensis_ between the Lippe and the Weser by a force
raised by Arminius, a chief of the Cherusci, and his army consisting of
three legions was annihilated. Germanicus Caesar, during his tenure of
the command of the Roman armies on the Rhine, made repeated attempts to
recover the Roman position in northern Germany and exact vengeance for
the death of Varus, but without real success, and after his recall the
Rhine formed for the greater part of its course the boundary of the
Empire. A standing army was kept up on the Rhine, divided into two
commands, upper and lower Germany, the headquarters of the former being
at Mainz, those of the latter at Vetera, near Xanten. A number of
important towns grew up, among which we may mention Trier (Augusta
Trevirorum), Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis), Bonn (Bonna), Worms
(Borbetomagus), Spires (Noviomagus), Strassburg (Argentoratum) and
Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum).

At a later date, however, probably under the Flavian emperors, the
frontier of upper Germany was advanced somewhat beyond the Rhine, and a
fortification, the _Pfahlgraben_, constructed to protect it. It led from
Hönningen on the Rhine, about half-way between Bonn and Coblenz, to
Mittenberg above Aschaffenburg on the Main, thence southwards to Lorch
in Württemberg, whence it turned east to the junction of the Altmühl
with the Danube at Kelheim.

During the wars of Drusus, Tiberius and Germanicus the Romans had ample
opportunity of getting to know the tribal geography of Germany,
especially the western part, and though most of our authorities lived at
a somewhat later period, it is probable that they derived their
information very largely from records of that time. It will be
convenient, therefore, to give an account of the tribal geography of
Germany in the time of Augustus, as our knowledge of the subject is much
more complete for his reign than for several centuries later.


  The German tribes.

Of the Gaulish tribes west of the Rhine, the most important was the
Treveri, inhabiting the basin of the Moselle, from whom the city of
Trier (Trèves) derives its name. The Rauraci probably occupied the south
of Alsace. To the south of the Treveri lay the Mediomatrici, and to the
west of them lay the important tribe of the Sequani, who had called in
Ariovistus. The Treveri claimed to be of German origin, and the same
claim was made by a number of tribes in Belgium, the most powerful of
which were the Nervii. The meaning of this claim is not quite clear, as
there is some obscurity concerning the origin of the name Germani. It
appears to be a Gaulish term, and there is no evidence that it was ever
used by the Germans themselves. According to Tacitus it was first
applied to the Tungri, whereas Caesar records that four Belgic tribes,
namely, the Condrusi, Eburones, Caeraesi and Paemani, were collectively
known as Germani. There is no doubt that these tribes were all
linguistically Celtic, and it is now the prevailing opinion that they
were not of German origin ethnologically, but that the ground for their
claim was that they had come from over the Rhine (cf. Caesar, _De Bello
Gallico_ ii. 4). It would therefore seem that the name Germani
originally denoted certain Celtic tribes to the east of the Rhine, and
that it was then transferred to the Teutonic tribes which subsequently
occupied the same territory.


  Their movements.

There is little doubt that during the last century before the Christian
era the Celtic peoples had been pushed considerably farther west by the
Teutonic peoples, a process which was still going on in Caesar's time,
when we hear of the overthrow of the Menapii, the last Gaulish tribe
beyond the Rhine. In the south the same process can be observed. The
Boii were expelled from their territories in Bohemia by the Marcomanni
in the time of Augustus, and the Helvetii are also recorded to have
occupied formerly lands east of the Rhine, in what is now Baden and
Württemberg. Caesar also mentions a Gaulish tribe named Volcae
Tectosages as living in Germany in his time. The Volcae Arecomici in the
south of France and the Tectosages of Galatia were in all probability
offshoots of this people. The name of the tribe was adopted in the
Teutonic languages as a generic term for all Celtic and Italian peoples
(O.H.G. _Walha_, A.S. _Wealas_), from which it is probably to be
inferred that they were the Celtic people with whom the Teutonic races
had the closest association in early times. It has been thought that
they inhabited the basin of the Weser, and a number of place-names in
this district are supposed to be of Celtic origin. Farther to the south
and west Ptolemy mentions a number of place-names which are certainly
Celtic, e.g. Mediolanion, Aregelia, Lougidounon, Lokoriton, Segodounon.
There is therefore great probability that a large part of western
Germany east of the Rhine had formerly been occupied by Celtic peoples.
In the east a Gaulish people named Cotini are mentioned, apparently in
the upper basin of the Oder, and Tacitus speaks of a tribe in the same
neighbourhood, the Osi, who he says spoke the Pannonian language. It is
probable, therefore, that in other directions also the Germans had
considerably advanced their frontier southwards at a comparatively
recent period.


  Tribes in the west and north.

Coming now to the Germans proper, the basin of the Rhine between
Strassburg and Mainz was inhabited by the Tribocci, Nemetes and
Vangiones, farther down by the Mattiaci about Wiesbaden, and the Ubii in
the neighbourhood of Cologne; beyond them were the Sugambri, and in the
Rhine delta the Batavi and other smaller tribes. All these tribes
remained in subjection to the Romans. Beyond them were the Tencteri,
probably about the basin of the Lahn, and the Usipetes about the basin
of the Ruhr. The basin of the Lippe and the upper basin of the Ems were
inhabited by the Bructeri, and in the same neighbourhood were the
Ampsivarii, who derive their name from the latter river. East of them
lay the Chasuarii, presumably in the basin of the Hase. The upper basin
of the Weser was inhabited by the Chatti, whose capital was Mattium,
supposed to be Maden on the Eder. To the north-west of them were
situated the Marsi, apparently between the Diemel and the Lippe, while
the central part of the basin of the Weser was inhabited by the
Cherusci, who seem to have extended considerably eastward. The lower
part of the river-basin was inhabited by the Angrivarii. The coastlands
north of the mouth of the Rhine were occupied by the Canninefates,
beyond them by the Frisii as far as the mouth of the Ems, thence onward
to the mouth of the Elbe by the Chauci. As to the affinities of all
these various tribes we have little definite information, but it is
worth noting that the Batavi in Holland are said to have been a branch
of the Chatti, from whom they had separated owing to a _seditio
domestica_. The basin of the Elbe was inhabited by Suebic tribes, the
chief of which were the Marcomanni, who seem to have been settled on the
Saale during the latter part of the 1st century B.C., but moved into
Bohemia before the beginning of the Christian era, where they at once
became a formidable power under their king Maroboduus. The Quadi were
settled somewhat farther east about the source of the Elbe. The
Hermunduri in the basin of the Saale were in alliance with the Romans
and occupied northern Bavaria with their consent. The Semnones
apparently dwelt below the junction of the Saale and Elbe. The
Langobardi (see LOMBARDS) possessed the land between the territory of
the Semnones and the mouth of the river. Their name is supposed to be
preserved in Bardengau, south of Hamburg. From later evidence it is
likely that another division of the Suebi inhabited western Holstein.
The province of Schleswig (perhaps only the west coast) and the islands
adjacent were inhabited by the Saxons, while the east coast, at least in
later times, was occupied by the Angli. The coast of Mecklenburg was
probably inhabited by the Varini (the later Warni). The eastern part of
Germany was much less known to the Romans, information being
particularly deficient as to the populations of the coast districts,
though it seems probable that the Rugii inhabited the eastern part of
Pomerania, where a trace of them is preserved in the name Rügenwalde.
The lower part of the basin of the Oder was probably occupied by the
Burgundiones, and the upper part by a number of tribes collectively
known as Lugii, who seem to correspond to the Vandals of later times,
though the early Roman writers apparently used the word Vandilii in a
wider sense, embracing all the tribes of eastern Germany. Among the
Lugii we may probably include the Silingae, who afterwards appear among
the Vandals in Spain, and whose name is preserved in Slavonic form in
that of the province Silesia. The Goths (Gotones) apparently inhabited
the basin of the Vistula about the middle of its course, but the lower
part of the basin was inhabited by non-Teutonic peoples, among whom we
may mention the Galindi, probably Prussians, and the Aestii, either
Prussian or Esthonian, in the coastlands at the mouth of the river, who
are known especially in connexion with the amber trade. To the east of
the Vistula were the Slavonic tribes (Veneti), and amongst them, perhaps
rather to the north, a Finnish population (Fenni), which disappeared in
later times.


  Domestic wars of the Germans.

In the time of Augustus by far the most powerful ruler in Germany was
Maroboduus, king of the Marcomanni. His supremacy extended over all the
Suebic tribes (except perhaps the Hermunduri), and most of the peoples
of eastern Germany, including apparently the Lugii and Goths. But in the
year A.D. 17 he became involved in an unsuccessful campaign against
Arminius, prince of the Cherusci, in which the Semnones and Langobardi
revolted against him, and two years later he was deprived of his throne
by a certain Catualda. The latter, however, was soon expelled by
Vibilius, king of the Hermunduri, and his power was transferred to
Vannius, who belonged to the Quadi. About the same time Arminius met his
death while trying to make himself king of the Cherusci. In the year 28
the Frisians revolted from the Romans, and though they submitted again
in the year 47, Claudius immediately afterwards recalled the Roman
troops to the left bank of the Rhine. In the year 50 Vannius, king of
the Suebi, was driven from the throne by Vibilius, king of the
Hermunduri, and his nephews Vangio and Sido obtained his kingdom. In the
year 58 the Chatti suffered a serious disaster in a campaign against the
Hermunduri. They seem, however, to have recovered very soon, and at the
end of the 1st century had apparently extended their power at the
expense of the Cherusci. During the latter part of the 1st century the
Chauci seem to have been enlarging their territories: as early as the
year 47 we find them raiding the Roman lands on the lower Rhine, and in
58 they expelled the Ampsivarii, who after several vain attempts to
acquire new possessions were annihilated by the neighbouring tribes.
During the last years of the 1st century the Angrivarii are found moving
westwards, probably under pressure from the Chauci, and the power of the
Bructeri was almost destroyed by their attack. In 69 the Roman territory
on the lower Rhine was disturbed by the serious revolt of Claudius
Civilis, a prince of the Batavi who had served in the Roman army. He was
joined by the Bructeri and other neighbouring tribes, but being defeated
by Petilius Cerealis (afterwards consular legate in Britain) at Vetera
and in other engagements gave up the struggle and arranged a
capitulation in A.D. 70. By the end of the 1st century the Chauci and
Chatti seem to have become by far the most powerful tribes in western
Germany, though the former are seldom mentioned after this time.

After the time of Tacitus our information regarding German affairs
becomes extremely meagre. The next important conflict with the Romans
was the Marcomannic War (166-180), in which all the Suebic tribes
together with the Vandals (apparently the ancient Lugii) and the
Sarmatian Iazyges seem to have taken part. Peace was made by the emperor
Commodus in A.D. 180 on payment of large sums of money.


  The Alamanni, the Goths and the Franks.

About the beginning of the 3rd century we find a forward movement in
south-west Germany among a group of tribes known collectively as
Alamanni (q.v.) who came in conflict with the emperor Caracalla in the
year 213. About the same time the Goths also made their first appearance
in the south-east and soon became the most formidable antagonists of
Rome. In the year 251 they defeated and slew the emperor Decius, and in
the reign of Gallienus their fleets setting out from the north of the
Black Sea worked great havoc on the coast of the Aegean (see GOTHS). It
is not to be supposed, however, that they had quitted their own lands on
the Vistula by this time. In this connexion we hear also of the Heruli
(q.v.), who some twenty years later, about 289, make their appearance in
the western seas. In 286 we hear for the first time of maritime raids by
the Saxons in the same quarter. About the middle of the 3rd century the
name Franks (q.v.) makes its first appearance, apparently a new
collective term for the tribes of north-west Germany from the Chatti to
the mouth of the Rhine.


  Arrival of the Huns.

In the 4th century the chief powers in western Germany were the Franks
and the Alamanni, both of whom were in constant conflict with the
Romans. The former were pressed in their rear by the Saxons, who at some
time before the middle of the 4th century appear to have invaded and
conquered a considerable part of north-west Germany. About the same time
great national movements seem to have been taking place farther east.
The Burgundians made their appearance in the west shortly before the end
of the 3rd century, settling in the basin of the Main, and it is
probable that some portions of the north Suebic peoples, perhaps the
ancient Semnones, had already moved westward. By the middle of the 4th
century the Goths had become the dominant power in eastern Germany, and
their King Hermanaric held a supremacy which seems to have stretched
from the Black Sea to Holstein. At his death, however, the supremacy of
eastern Germany passed to the Huns, an invading people from the east,
whose arrival seems to have produced a complete displacement of
population in this region. With regard to the course of events in
eastern Germany we have no knowledge, but during the 5th century several
of the peoples previously settled there appear to have made their way
into the lands south of the Carpathians and Riesengebirge, amongst whom
(besides the Goths) may be especially mentioned the Rugii and the
Gepides, the latter perhaps originally a branch of the Goths. According
to tradition the Vandals had been driven into Pannonia by the Goths in
the time of Constantine. We do not know how far northward the Hunnish
power reached in the time of Attila, but the invasion of this nation was
soon followed by a great westward movement of the Slavs.


  The Burgundians and other tribes.

In the west the Alamanni and the descendants of the Marcomanni, now
called Baiouarii (Bavarians), had broken through the frontiers of the
Roman provinces of Vindelicia and Noricum at the beginning of the 5th
century, while the Vandals together with some of the Suebi and the
non-Teutonic Alani from the east crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul in
406. About 435-440 the Burgundians were overthrown by Attila, and their
king Gunthacarius (Gundahar) killed. The remains of the nation shortly
afterwards settled in Gaul. About the same time the Franks overran and
occupied the modern Belgium, and in the course of the next half-century
their dominions were enormously extended towards the south (see FRANKS).
After the death of Attila in 453 the power of the Huns soon collapsed,
but the political divisions of Germany in the ensuing period are far
from clear.


  The Franks and others in the 6th century.

In the 6th century the predominant peoples are the Franks, Frisians,
Saxons, Alamanni, Bavarians, Langobardi, Heruli and Warni. By the
beginning of this century the Saxons seem to have penetrated almost, if
not quite, to the Rhine in the Netherlands. Farther south, however, the
old land of the Chatti was included in the kingdom of Clovis. Northern
Bavaria was occupied by the Franks, whose king Clovis subdued the
Alamanni in 495. To the east of the Franks between the Harz, the Elbe
and the Saale lay the kingdom of the Thuringi, the origin of whom is not
clear. The Heruli also had a powerful kingdom, probably in the basin of
the Elbe, and to the east of them were the Langobardi. The Warni
apparently now dwelt in the regions about the mouth of the Elbe, while
the whole coast from the mouth of the Weser to the west Scheldt was in
the hands of the Frisians. By this time all the country east of the
lower Elbe seems to have been Slavonic. In the north, perhaps in the
province of Schleswig, we hear now for the first time of the Danes.
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, endeavoured to form a confederacy
with the Thuringi, Heruli and Warni against Clovis in order to protect
the Visigoths in the early years of the 6th century, but very shortly
afterwards the king of the Heruli was slain by the Langobardi and their
existence as an independent power came to an end. In 531 the Thuringian
kingdom was destroyed by the Frankish king Theodoric, son of Clovis,
with whom the Saxons were in alliance.


  The Saxons and the Franks.

During the 6th and 7th centuries the Saxons were intermittently under
Frankish supremacy, but their conquest was not complete until the time
of Charlemagne. Shortly after the middle of the 6th century the Franks
were threatened with a new invasion by the Avars. In 567-568 the
Langobardi, who by this time had moved into the Danube basin, invaded
Italy and were followed by those of the Saxons who had settled in
Thuringia. Their lands were given by the Frankish king Sigeberht to the
north Suebi and other tribes who had come either from the Elbe basin or
possibly from the Netherlands. About the same time Sigeberht was
defeated by the Avars, and though the latter soon withdrew from the
Frankish frontiers, their course was followed by a movement of the
Slavs, who occupied the basin of the Elster and penetrated to that of
the Main.

By the end of the 6th century the whole basin of the Elbe except the
Saxon territory near the mouth had probably become Slavonic. To the east
of the Saale were the Sorbs (Sorabi), and beyond them the Daleminci and
Siusli. To the east of the Saxons were the Polabs (Polabi) in the basin
of the Elbe, and beyond them the Hevelli about the Havel. Farther north
in Mecklenburg were the Warnabi, and in eastern Holstein the Obotriti
and the Wagri. To the east of the Warnabi were the Liutici as far as the
Oder, and beyond that river the Pomerani. To the south of the Oder were
the Milcieni and the Lusici, and farther east the Poloni with their
centre in the basin of the Vistula. The lower part of the Vistula basin,
however, was in possession of Prussian tribes, the Prussi and Lithuani.

The Warni now disappear from history, and from this time the Teutonic
peoples of the north as far as the Danish boundary about the Eider are
called Saxons. The conquest of the Frisians by the Franks was begun by
Pippin (Pepin) of Heristal in 689 and practically completed by Charles
Martel, though they were not entirely brought into subjection until the
time of Charlemagne. The great overthrow of the Saxons took place about
772-773 and by the end of the century Charlemagne had extended his
conquests to the border of the Danes. By this time the whole of the
Teutonic part of Germany had been finally brought under his government.

  AUTHORITIES.--Caesar, _De bello Gallico_, especially i. 31 ff., iv.
  1-19, vi. 21 ff.; Velleius Paterculus, especially ii. 105 ff.; Strabo,
  especially pp. 193 ff., 290 ff.; Pliny, _Natural History_, iv. §§ 99
  ff., 106; Tacitus, Annales, i. 38 ff., ii. 5 ff., 44 ff., 62 f., 88;
  _Germania_, passim; _Histories_, iv.; Ptolemy ii. 9, §§ 2 ff., 11,
  iii. 5, §§ 19 ff.; Dio Cassius, passim; Julius Capitolinus; Claudius
  Mamertinus; Ammianus Marcellinus, passim; Zosimus; Jordanes, _De
  origine Getarum_; Procopius, _De bello Gothico_; K. Zeuss, _Die
  Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme_; O. Bremer in Paul's _Grundriss d.
  germ. Philologie_ (2nd ed.), vol. iii. pp. 735 ff.     (F. G. M. B.)


MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY

  Divisions of Germany.

When Clovis, or Chlodovech, became king of a tribe of the Salian Franks
in 481, five years after the fall of the Western empire, the region
afterwards called Germany was divided into five main districts, and its
history for the succeeding three centuries is mainly the history of the
tribes inhabiting these districts. In the north-east, dwelling between
the Rhine and the Elbe, were the Saxons (q.v.), to the east and south of
whom stretched the extensive kingdom of Thuringia (q.v.). In the
south-west the Alamanni occupied the territory afterwards called Swabia
(q.v.), and extended along the middle Rhine until they met the Ripuarian
Franks, then living in the northern part of the district which at a
later period was called after them, Franconia (q.v.); and in the
south-east were the Bavarians, although it was some time before their
country came to be known as Bavaria (q.v.).


  The wars of Clovis.

Clovis was descended from Chlogio, or Clodion, who had ruled over a
branch of the Salian Franks from 427 to 447, and whose successors,
following his example, had secured an influential position for their
tribe. Having obtained possession of that part of Gaul which lay between
the Seine and the Loire, Clovis turned his attention to his eastern
neighbours, and was soon engaged in a struggle with the Alamanni which
probably arose out of a quarrel between them and the Ripuarian Franks
for the possession of the middle Rhine. When in 496, or soon afterwards,
the Alamanni were defeated, they were confined to what was afterwards
known as Swabia, and the northern part of their territory was
incorporated with the kingdom of the Franks. Clovis had united the
Salian Franks under his rule, and he persuaded, or compelled, the
Ripuarian Franks also to accept him as their king; but on his death in
511 his kingdom was divided, and the Ripuarian, or Rhenish, Franks as
they are sometimes called, together with some of the Alamanni, came
under the rule of his eldest son Theuderich or Theodoric I. This was the
first of the many partitions which effectually divided the kingdom of
the Franks into an eastern and a western portion, that is to say, into
divisions which eventually became Germany and France respectively, and
the district ruled by Theuderich was almost identical with that which
afterwards bore the name of Austrasia. In 531 Theuderich killed
Hermannfried, king of the Thuringians, a former ally, with whom he had
quarrelled, conquered his kingdom, and added its southern portion to his
own possessions. His son and successor, Theudebert I., exercised a
certain supremacy over the Alamanni and the Bavarians, and even claimed
authority over various Saxon tribes between whom and the Franks there
had been some fighting. After his death in 548, however, the Frankish
power in Germany sank to very minute proportions, a result due partly to
the spirit of tribal independence which lingered among the German races,
but principally to the paralysing effect of the unceasing rivalry
between Austrasia and Neustria. From 548 the Alamanni were ruled by a
succession of dukes who soon made themselves independent; and in 555 a
duke of the Bavarians, who exercised his authority without regard for
the Frankish supremacy, is first mentioned. In Thuringia, which now only
consisted of the central part of the former kingdom, King Dagobert I.
set up in 634 a duke named Radulf who soon asserted his independence of
Dagobert and of his successor, Sigebert III. The Saxons for their part
did not own even a nominal allegiance to the Frankish kings, whose
authority on the right bank of the Rhine was confined to the district
actually occupied by men of their own name, which at a later date became
the duchy of Franconia. During these years the eastern border of Germany
was constantly ravaged by various Slavonic tribes. King Dagobert sent
troops to repel these marauders from time to time, but the main burden
of defence fell upon the Saxons, Bavarians and Thuringians. The virtual
independence of these German tribes lasted until the union of Austrasia
and Neustria in 687, an achievement mainly due to the efforts of Pippin
of Heristal, who soon became the actual, though not the nominal, ruler
of the Frankish realm. Pippin and his son Charles Martel, who was mayor
of the palace from 717 to 741, renewed the struggle with the Germans and
were soon successful in re-establishing the central power which the
Merovingian kings had allowed to slip from their grasp. The ducal office
was abolished in Thuringia, a series of wars reduced the Alamanni to
strict dependence, and both countries were governed by Frankish
officials. Bavaria was brought into subjection about the same time; the
Bavarian law, committed to writing between 739 and 748, strongly
emphasizes the supremacy of the Frankish king, whose authority it
recognizes as including the right to appoint and even to depose the duke
of Bavaria. The Saxons, on the other hand, succeeded in retaining their
independence as a race, although their country was ravaged in various
campaigns and some tribes were compelled from time to time to pay
tribute. The rule of Pippin the Short, both before and after his
coronation as king, was troubled by constant risings on the part of his
East Frankish or German subjects, but aided by his brother Carloman, who
for a time administered this part of the Frankish kingdom, Pippin was
generally able to deal with the rebels.


  The Saxons remain independent.

After all, however, even these powerful Frankish conquerors had but
imperfect success in Germany. When they were present with their
formidable armies, they could command obedience; when engaged, as they
often were, in distant parts of the vast Frankish territory, they could
not trust to the fulfilment of the fair promises they had exacted. One
of the chief causes of their ill-success was the continued independence
of the Saxons. Ever since they had acquired the northern half of
Thuringia, this warlike race had been extending its power. They were
still heathens, cherishing bitter hatred towards the Franks, whom they
regarded as the enemies both of their liberties and of their religion;
and their hatred found expression, not only in expeditions into Frankish
territory, but in help willingly rendered to every German confederation
which wished to throw off the Frankish yoke. Hardly any rebellion
against the dukes of the Franks, or against King Pippin, took place in
Germany without the Saxons coming forward to aid the rebels. This was
perfectly understood by the Frankish rulers, who tried again and again
to put an end to the evil by subduing the Saxons. They could not,
however, attain their object. An occasional victory was gained, and some
border tribes were from time to time compelled to pay tribute; but the
mass of the Saxons remained unconquered. This was partly due to the fact
that the Saxons had not, like the other German confederations, a duke
who, when beaten, could be held responsible for the engagements forced
upon him as the representative of his subjects. A Saxon chief who made
peace with the Franks could undertake nothing for the whole people. As a
conquering race, they were firmly compact; conquered, they were in the
hands of the victor a rope of sand.


  Christianity in Germany.

It was during the time of Pippin of Heristal and his son and grandson
that the conversion of the Germans to Christianity was mainly effected.
Some traces of Roman Christianity still lingered in the Rhine valley and
in southern Germany, but the bulk of the people were heathen, in spite
of the efforts of Frank and Irish missionaries and the command of King
Dagobert I. that all his subjects should be baptized. Rupert, bishop of
Worms, had already made some progress in the work of converting the
Bavarians and Alamanni, as had Willibrord among the Thuringians when St
Boniface appeared in Germany in 717. Appointed bishop of the Germans by
Pope Gregory II., and supported by Charles Martel, he preached with much
success in Bavaria and Thuringia, notwithstanding some hostility from
the clergy who disliked the influence of Rome. He founded or restored
bishoprics in Bavaria, Thuringia and elsewhere, and in 742 presided over
the first German council. When he was martyred in 755 Christianity was
professed by all the German races except the Saxons, and the church,
organized and wealthy, had been to a large extent brought under the
control of the papacy. The old pagan faith was not yet entirely
destroyed, and traces of its influence may still be detected in popular
beliefs and customs. But still Christianity was dominant, and soon
became an important factor in the process of civilization, while the
close alliance of the German church with the papacy was followed by
results of the utmost consequence for Germany.


  The work of Charlemagne.

The reign of Charlemagne is a period of great importance in the history
of Germany. Under his rule the first signs of national unity and a
serious advance in the progress of order and civilization may be seen.
The long struggle, which ended in 804 with the submission of the Saxons
to the emperor, together with the extension of a real Frankish authority
over the Bavarians, brought the German races for the first time under a
single ruler; while war and government, law and religion, alike tended
to weld them into one people. The armies of Charlemagne contained
warriors from all parts of Germany; and although tribal law was
respected and codified, legislation common to the whole empire was also
introduced. The general establishment of the Frankish system of
government and the presence of Frankish officials helped to break down
the barriers of race, and the influence of Christianity was in the same
direction. With the conversion of the Saxons the whole German race
became nominally Christian; and their ruler was lavish in granting lands
and privileges to prelates, and untiring in founding bishoprics,
monasteries and schools. Measures were also taken for the security and
good government of the country. Campaigns against the Slavonic tribes,
if sometimes failing in their immediate object, taught those peoples to
respect the power of the Frankish monarch; and the establishment of a
series of marches along the eastern frontier gave a sense of safety to
the neighbouring districts. The tribal dukes had all disappeared, and
their duchies were split up into districts ruled by counts (q.v.), whose
tendencies to independence the emperor tried to check by the visits of
the _missi dominici_ (q.v.). Some of the results of the government of
Charlemagne were, however, less beneficial. His coronation as Roman
emperor in 800, although it did not produce at the time so powerful an
impression in Germany as in France, was fraught with consequences not
always favourable for the former country. The tendencies of the tribe to
independence were crushed as their ancient popular assemblies were
discouraged; and the liberty of the freemen was curtailed owing to the
exigencies of military service, while the power of the church was rarely
directed to the highest ends.


  Louis I. and his sons.

The reign of the emperor Louis I. was marked by a number of abortive
schemes for the partition of his dominions among his sons, which
provoked a state of strife that was largely responsible for the
increasing weakness of the Empire. The mild nature of his rule,
however, made Louis popular with his German subjects, to whose support
mainly he owed his restoration to power on two occasions. When in 825
his son Louis, afterwards called "the German," was entrusted with the
government of Bavaria and from this centre gradually extended his
authority over the Carolingian dominions east of the Rhine, a step was
taken in the process by which East Francia, or Germany, was becoming a
unit distinguishable from other portions of the Empire; a process which
was carried further by the treaty of Verdun in August 843, when, after a
struggle between Louis the German and his brothers for their father's
inheritance, an arrangement was made by which Louis obtained the bulk of
the lands east of the Rhine together with the districts around Mainz,
Worms and Spires on the left bank. Although not yet a single people, the
German tribes had now for the first time a ruler whose authority was
confined to their own lands, and from this time the beginnings of
national life may be traced. For fifty years the main efforts of Louis
were directed to defending his kingdom from the inroads of his Slavonic
neighbours, and his detachment from the rest of the Empire necessitated
by these constant engagements towards the east, gradually gave both him
and his subjects a distinctive character, which was displayed and
emphasized when, in ratifying an alliance with his half-brother, the
West-Frankish king, Charles the Bald, the oath was sworn in different
tongues. The East and West Franks were unable to understand each other's
speech, so Charles took the oath in a Romance, and Louis in a German
dialect.


  Louis the German and his successors.

Important as is the treaty of Verdun in German history, that of Mersen,
by which Louis and Charles the Bald settled in 870 their dispute over
the kingdom of Lothair, second son of the emperor Lothair I., is still
more important. The additional territory which Louis then obtained gave
to his dominions almost the proportions which Germany maintained
throughout the middle ages. They were bounded on the east by the Elbe
and the Bohemian mountains, and on the west beyond the Rhine they
included the districts known afterwards as Alsace and Lorraine. His
jurisdiction embraced the territories occupied by the five ancient
German tribes, and included the five archbishoprics of Mainz, Treves
(Trier), Cologne, Salzburg and Bremen. When Louis died in 876 his
kingdom was divided among his three sons, but as the two elder of these
soon died without heirs, Germany was again united in 882 under his
remaining son Charles, called "the Fat," who soon became ruler of almost
the whole of the extensive domains of Charlemagne. There was, however,
no cohesion in the restored empire, the disintegration of which,
moreover, was hastened by the ravages of the Northmen, who plundered the
cities in the valley of the Rhine. Charles attempted to buy off these
redoubtable invaders, a policy which aroused the anger of his German
subjects, whose resentment was accentuated by the king's indifference to
their condition, and found expression in 887 when Arnulf, an
illegitimate son of Carloman, the eldest son of Louis the German, led an
army of Bavarians against him. Arnulf himself was recognized as German
or East-Frankish king, although his actual authority was confined to
Bavaria and its neighbourhood. He was successful in freeing his kingdom
for a time from the ravages of the Northmen, but was not equally
fortunate in his contests with the Moravians. After his death in 899 his
kingdom came under the nominal rule of his young son Louis "the Child,"
and in the absence of firm rule and a central authority became the prey
of the Magyars and other hordes of invaders.


  Feudalism in Germany.

During these wars feudalism made rapid advance in Germany. The different
peoples compelled to attend to their own defence appointed dukes for
special military services (see DUKE); and these dukes, chosen often from
members of the old ducal families, succeeded without much difficulty in
securing a more permanent position for themselves and their descendants.
In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also
ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century
dukes appear in Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine. These dukes
acquired large tracts of land of which they gave grants on conditions of
military service to persons on whom they could rely; while many
independent landowners sought their protection on terms of vassalage.
The same process took place in the case of great numbers of freemen of a
lower class, who put themselves at the service of their more powerful
neighbours in return for protection. In this manner the feudal tenure of
land began to prevail in almost all parts of Germany, and the elaborate
social system which became known as feudalism was gradually built up.
The dukes became virtually independent, and when Louis the Child died in
911, the royal authority existed in name only.


  Conrad I.

While Louis the Child lived the German dukes were virtually kings in
their duchies, and their natural tendency was to make themselves
absolute rulers. But, threatened as they were by the Magyars, with the
Slavs and Northmen always ready to take advantage of their weakness,
they could not afford to do without a central government. Accordingly
the nobles assembled at Forchheim, and by the advice of Otto the
Illustrious, duke of Saxony, Conrad of Franconia was chosen German king.
The dukes of Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine were displeased at this
election, probably because Conrad was likely to prove considerably more
powerful than they wished. Rather than acknowledge him, the duke of
Lotharingia, or Lorraine, transferred his allegiance to Charles the
Simple of France; and it was in vain that Conrad protested and
despatched armies into Lorraine. With the help of the French king the
duke maintained his ground, and for the time his country was lost to
Germany. Bavaria and Swabia yielded, but, mainly through the fault of
the king himself, their submission was of brief duration. The rise of
the dukes had been watched with extreme jealousy by the leading
prelates. They saw that the independence they had hitherto enjoyed would
be much more imperilled by powerful local governors than by a sovereign
who necessarily regarded it as part of his duty to protect the church.
Hence they had done everything they could to prevent the dukes from
extending their authority, and as the government was carried on during
the reign of Louis the Child mainly by Hatto I., archbishop of Mainz,
they had been able to throw considerable obstacles in the way of their
rivals. They had now induced Conrad to quarrel with both Swabia and
Bavaria, and also with Henry, duke of Saxony, son of the duke to whom he
chiefly owed his crown. In these contests the German king met with
indifferent success, but the struggle with Saxony was not very serious,
and when dying in December 919 Conrad recommended the Franconian nobles
to offer the crown to Henry, the only man who could cope with the
anarchy by which he had himself been baffled.


  Henry the Fowler.

The nobles of Franconia acted upon the advice of their king, and the
Saxons were very willing that their duke should rise to still higher
honours. Henry I., called "the Fowler," who was chosen German king in
May 919, was one of the best of German kings, and was a born statesman
and warrior. His ambition was of the noblest order, for he sank his
personal interests in the cause of his country, and he knew exactly when
to attain his objects by force, and when by concession and moderation.
Almost immediately he overcame the opposition of the dukes of Swabia and
Bavaria; some time later, taking advantage of the troubled state of
France, he accepted the homage of the duke of Lorraine, which for many
centuries afterwards remained a part of the German kingdom.


  Henry and the Magyars.

Having established internal order, Henry was able to turn to matters of
more pressing moment. In the first year of his reign the Magyars, who
had continued to scourge Germany during the reign of Conrad, broke into
Saxony and plundered the land almost without hindrance. In 924 they
returned, and this time by good fortune one of their greatest princes
fell into the hands of the Germans. Henry restored him to his countrymen
on condition that they made a truce for nine years; and he promised to
pay yearly tribute during this period. The barbarians accepted his
terms, and faithfully kept their word in regard to Henry's own lands,
although Bavaria, Swabia and Franconia they occasionally invaded as
before. The king made admirable use of the opportunity he had secured,
confining his efforts, however, to Saxony and Thuringia, the only parts
of Germany over which he had any control.


  Henry's work in Saxony.

In the southern and western German lands towns and fortified places had
long existed; but in the north, where Roman influence had only been
feeble, and where even the Franks had not exercised much authority until
the time of Charlemagne, the people still lived as in ancient times,
either on solitary farms or in exposed villages. Henry saw that, while
this state of things lasted, the population could never be safe, and
began the construction of fortresses and walled towns. Of every group of
nine men one was compelled to devote himself to this work, while the
remaining eight cultivated his fields and allowed a third of their
produce to be stored against times of trouble. The necessities of
military discipline were also a subject of attention. Hitherto the
Germans had fought mainly on foot, and, as the Magyars came on
horseback, the nation was placed at an immense disadvantage. A powerful
force of cavalry was now raised, while at the same time the infantry
were drilled in new and more effective modes of fighting. Although these
preparations were carried on directly under Henry's supervision, only in
Saxony and Thuringia the neighbouring dukes were stimulated to follow
his example. When he was ready he used his new troops, before turning
them against their chief enemy, the Magyars, to punish refractory
Slavonic tribes; and he brought under temporary subjection nearly all
the Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder. He proceeded also against the
Bohemians, whose duke was compelled to do homage.


  The Magyars return.

The truce with the Magyars was not renewed, whereupon in 933 a body of
invaders crossed, as in former years, the frontier of Thuringia. Henry
prudently waited until dearth of provisions forced the enemy to divide
into two bands. He then swept down upon the weaker force, annihilated
it, and rapidly advanced against the remaining portion of the army. The
second battle was more severe than the first, but not less decisive. The
Magyars, unable to cope with a disciplined army, were cut down in great
numbers, and those who survived rode in terror from the field. The exact
scenes of these conflicts are not known, although the date of the second
encounter was the 15th of March 933; but few more important battles have
ever been fought. The power of the Magyars was not indeed destroyed, but
it was crippled, and the way was prepared for the effective liberation
of Germany from an intolerable plague. While the Magyars had been
troubling Germany on the east and south, the Danes had been irritating
her on the north. Charlemagne had established a march between the Eider
and the Schlei; but in course of time the Danes had not only seized this
territory, but had driven the German population beyond the Elbe. The
Saxons had been slowly reconquering the lost ground, and now Henry,
advancing with his victorious army into Jutland, forced Gorm, the Danish
king, to become his vassal and regained the land between the Eider and
the Schlei. But Henry's work concerned the duchy of Saxony rather than
the kingdom of Germany. He concentrated all his energies on the
government and defence of northern and eastern Germany, leaving the
southern and western districts to profit by his example, while his
policy of refraining from interference in the affairs of the other
duchies tended to diminish the ill-feeling which existed between the
various German tribes and to bring peace to the country as a whole. It
is in these directions that the reign of Henry the Fowler marks a stage
in the history of Germany.


  The growth of towns.

When this great king died in July 936 every land inhabited by a German
population formed part of the German kingdom, and none of the duchies
were at war either with him or among themselves. Along the northern and
eastern frontier were tributary races, and the country was for the time
rid of an enemy which, for nearly a generation, had kept it in perpetual
fear. Great as were these results, perhaps Henry did even greater
service in beginning the growth of towns throughout north Germany. Not
content with merely making them places of defence, he decreed that they
should be centres for the administration of justice, and that in them
should be held all public festivities and ceremonies; he also instituted
markets, and encouraged traders to take advantage of the opportunities
provided for them. A strong check was thus imposed upon the tendency of
freemen to become the vassals of great lords. This movement had become
so powerful by the troubles of the epoch that, had no other current of
influence set in, the entire class of freemen must soon have
disappeared. As they now knew that they could find protection without
looking to a superior, they had less temptation to give up their
independence, and many of them settled in the towns where they could be
safe and free. Besides maintaining a manly spirit in the population, the
towns rapidly added to their importance by the stimulus they gave to all
kinds of industry and trade.


  Otto the Great.

Before his death Henry obtained the promise of the nobles at a national
assembly, or diet, at Erfurt to recognize his son Otto as his successor,
and the promise was kept, Otto being chosen German king in July 936.
Otto I. the Great began his reign under the most favourable
circumstances. He was twenty-four years of age, and at the coronation
festival, which was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, the dukes performed for the
first time the nominally menial offices known as the arch-offices of the
German kingdom. But these peaceful relations soon came to an end.
Reversing his father's policy, Otto resolved that the dukes should act
in the strictest sense as his vassals, or lose their dignities. At the
time of his coronation Germany was virtually a federal state; he wished
to transform it into a firm and compact monarchy. This policy speedily
led to a formidable rebellion, headed by Thankmar, the king's
half-brother, a fierce warrior, who fancied that he had a prior claim to
the crown, and who secured a number of followers in Saxony. He was
joined by Eberhard, duke of Franconia, and it was only by the aid of the
duke of Swabia, whom the duke of Franconia had offended, that the rising
was put down. This happened in 938, and in 939 a second rebellion, led
by Otto's brother Henry, was supported by the duke of Franconia and by
Giselbert, duke of Lorraine. Otto again triumphed, and derived immense
advantages from his success. The duchy of Franconia he kept in his own
hands, and in 944 he granted Lorraine to Conrad the Red, an energetic
and honourable count, whom he still further attached to himself by
giving him his daughter for his wife. Bavaria, on the death of its duke
in 947, was placed under his brother Henry, who, having been pardoned,
had become a loyal subject. The duchy of Swabia was also brought into
Otto's family by the marriage of his son Ludolf with Duke Hermann's
daughter, and by these means Otto made himself master of the kingdom.
For the time, feudalism in truth meant that lands and offices were held
on condition of service; the king was the genuine ruler, not only of
freemen, but of the highest vassals in the nation.


  Otto's wars with France and with the Slavs.

In the midst of these internal troubles Otto was attacked by the French
king, Louis IV., who sought to regain Lorraine. However, the German king
was soon able to turn his arms against his new enemy; he marched into
France and made peace with Louis in 942. Otto's subsequent interventions
in the affairs of France were mainly directed towards making peace
between Louis and his powerful and rebellious vassal, Hugh the Great,
duke of the Franks, both of whom were married to sisters of the German
king. Much more important than Otto's doings in France were his wars
with his northern and eastern neighbours. The duke of Bohemia, after a
long struggle, was brought to submission in 950. Among the Slavs between
the Elbe and the Oder the king was represented by Margrave Gero, a
warrior well fitted for the rough work he had to do, loyal to his
sovereign, but capable of any treachery towards his enemies, who
conquered much of the country north of Bohemia between the Oder and the
upper and middle Elbe. Margrave Billung, who looked after the Abotrites
on the lower Elbe, was less fortunate, mainly because of the
neighbourhood of the Danes, who, after the death of King Henry, often
attacked the hated Germans, but some progress was made in bringing this
district under German influence. Otto, having profound faith in the
power of the church to reconcile conquered peoples to his rule, provided
for the benefit of the Danes the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ripen and
Aarhus; and among those which he established for the Slavs were the
important bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg. In his later years he
set up the archbishopric of Magdeburg, which took in the sees of
Meissen, Zeitz and Merseburg.


  Otto in Italy.

Having secured peace in Germany and begun the real conquest of the
border races, Otto was by far the greatest sovereign in Europe; and, had
he refused to go beyond the limits within which he had hitherto acted,
it is probable that he would have established a united monarchy. But a
decision to which he soon came deprived posterity of the results which
might have sprung from the policy of his earlier years. About 951
Adelaide, widow of Lothair, son of Hugh, king of Italy, having refused
to marry the son of Berengar, margrave of Ivrea, was cast into prison
and cruelly treated. She appealed to Otto; other reasons called him in
the same direction, and in 951 he crossed the Alps and descended into
Lombardy. He displaced Berengar, and was so fascinated by Queen Adelaide
that within a few weeks he was married to her at Pavia. But Otto's son,
Ludolf, who had received a promise of the German crown, saw his rights
threatened by this marriage. He went to an old enemy of his father,
Frederick, archbishop of Mainz, and the two plotted together against the
king, who, hearing of their proceedings, returned to Germany in 952,
leaving Duke Conrad of Lorraine as his representative in Italy. Otto,
who did not suspect how deep were the designs of the conspirators, paid
a visit to Mainz, where he was seized and was compelled to take certain
solemn pledges which, after his escape, he repudiated.


  The civil war.

  Defeat of Magyars.

War broke out in 953, and the struggle was the most serious in which he
had been engaged. In Lorraine, of which duchy Otto made his brother
Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, administrator, his cause was triumphant;
but everywhere else dark clouds gathered over his head. Conrad the Red
hurried from Italy and joined the rebels; in Swabia, in Bavaria, in
Franconia and even in Saxony, the native land of the king, many sided
with them. It is extremely remarkable that this movement acquired so
quickly such force and volume. The explanation, according to some
historians, is that the people looked forward with alarm to the union of
Germany with Italy. There were still traditions of the hardships
inflicted upon the common folk by the expeditions of Charlemagne, and it
is supposed that they anticipated similar evils in the event of his
empire being restored. Whether or not this be the true explanation, the
power of Otto was shaken to its foundations. At last he was saved by the
presence of an immense external peril. The Magyars were as usual
stimulated to action by the disunion of their enemies; and Conrad and
Ludolf made the blunder of inviting their help, a proceeding which
disgusted the Germans, many of whom fell away from their side and
rallied to the head and protector of the nation. In a very short time
Conrad and the archbishop of Mainz submitted, and although Ludolf held
out a little longer he soon asked for pardon. Lorraine was given to
Bruno; but Conrad, its former duke, although thus punished, was not
disgraced, for Otto needed his services in the war with the Magyars. The
great battle against these foes was fought on the 10th of August 955 on
the Lechfeld near Augsburg. After a fierce and obstinate fight, in which
Conrad and many other nobles fell, the Germans were victorious; the
Magyars were even more thoroughly scourged than in the battles in which
Otto's father had given them their first real check. The deliverance of
Germany was complete, and from this time, notwithstanding certain wild
raids towards the east, the Magyars began to settle in the land they
still occupy, and to adapt themselves to the conditions of civilized
life.


  Otto crowned emperor.

Entreated by Pope John XII., who needed a helper against Berengar, Otto
went a second time to Italy, in 961; and on this occasion he received
from the pope at Rome the imperial crown. In 966 he was again in Italy,
where he remained six years, exercising to the full his imperial rights
in regard to the papacy, but occupied mainly in an attempt to make
himself master of the southern, as well as of the northern half of the
peninsula.


  Connexion of Germany with the Empire.

By far the most important act of Otto's eventful life was his assumption
of the Lombard and the imperial crowns. His successors steadily followed
his example, and the sovereign crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle claimed as his
right coronation by the pope in Rome. Thus grew up the Holy Roman
Empire, that strange state which, directly descending through the empire
of Charlemagne from the empire of the Caesars, contained so many
elements foreign to ancient life. We are here concerned with it only as
it affected Germany. Germany itself never until our own day became an
empire. It is true that at last the Holy Roman Empire was in reality
confined to Germany; but in theory it was something quite different.
Like France, Germany was a kingdom, but it differed from France in this,
that its king was also king in Italy and Roman emperor. As the latter
title made him nominally the secular lord of the world, it might have
been expected to excite the pride of his German subjects; and doubtless,
after a time, they did learn to think highly of themselves as the
imperial race. But the evidence tends to show that at first at least
they had no wish for this honour, and would have preferred their ruler
to devote himself entirely to his own people.

There are signs that during Otto's reign they began to have a distinct
consciousness of national life, their use of the word "deutsch" to
indicate the whole people being one of these symptoms. Their common
sufferings, struggles and triumphs, however, account far more readily
for this feeling than the supposition that they were elated by their
king undertaking obligations which took him for years together away from
his native land. So solemn were the associations of the imperial title
that, after acquiring it, Otto probably looked for more intimate
obedience from his subjects. They were willing enough to admit the
abstract claims of the Empire; but in the world of feudalism there was a
multitude of established customs and rights which rudely conflicted with
these claims, and in action, remote and abstract considerations gave way
before concrete and present realities. Instead of strengthening the
allegiance of the Germans towards their sovereign, the imperial title
was the means of steadily undermining it. To the connexion of their
kingdom with the Empire they owe the fact that for centuries they were
the most divided of European nations, and that they have only recently
begun to create a genuinely united state. France was made up of a number
of loosely connected lands, each with its own lord, when Germany, under
Otto, was to a large extent moved by a single will, well organized and
strong. But the attention of the French kings was concentrated on their
immediate interests, and in course of time they brought their unruly
vassals to order. The German kings, as emperors, had duties which often
took them away for long periods from Germany. This alone would have
shaken their authority, for, during their absence, the great vassals
seized rights which were afterwards difficult to recover. But the
emperors were not merely absent, they had to engage in struggles in
which they exhausted the energies necessary to enforce obedience at
home; and, in order to obtain help, they were sometimes glad to concede
advantages to which, under other conditions, they would have tenaciously
clung. Moreover, the greatest of all their struggles was with the
papacy; so that a power outside their kingdom, but exercising immense
influence within it, was in the end always prepared to weaken them by
exciting dissension among their people. Thus the imperial crown was the
most fatal gift that could have been offered to the German kings;
apparently giving them all things, it deprived them of nearly
everything. And in doing this it inflicted on many generations
incalculable and needless suffering.


  Otto and the duchies.

By the policy of his later years Otto did much to prepare the way for
the process of disintegration which he rendered inevitable by restoring
the Empire. With the kingdom divided into five great duchies, the
sovereign could always have maintained at least so much unity as Henry
the Fowler secured; and, as the experience of Otto himself showed, there
would have been chances of much greater centralization. Yet he threw
away this advantage. Lorraine was divided into two duchies, Upper
Lorraine and Lower Lorraine. In each duchy of the kingdom he appointed a
count palatine, whose duty was to maintain the royal rights; and after
Margrave Gero died in 965 his territory was divided into three marches,
and placed under margraves, each with the same powers as Gero. Otto gave
up the practice of retaining the duchies either in his own hands or in
those of relatives. Even Saxony, his native duchy and the chief source
of his strength, was given to Margrave Billung, whose family kept it for
many years. To combat the power of the princes, Otto, especially after
he became emperor and looked upon himself as the protector of the
church, immensely increased the importance of the prelates. They
received great gifts of land, were endowed with jurisdiction in criminal
as well as civil cases, and obtained several other valuable sovereign
rights. The emperor's idea was that, as church lands and offices could
not be hereditary, their holders would necessarily favour the crown. But
he forgot that the church had a head outside Germany, and that the
passion for the rights of an order may be not less intense than that for
the rights of a family. While the Empire was at peace with the popes the
prelates did strongly uphold it, and their influence was unquestionably,
on the whole, higher than that of rude secular nobles. But with the
Empire and the Papacy in conflict, they could not but abide, as a rule,
by the authority which had the most sacred claims to their loyalty. From
all these circumstances it curiously happened that the sovereign who did
more than almost any other to raise the royal power, was also the
sovereign who, more than any other, wrought its decay.


  Otto II.

Otto II. had been crowned German king at Aix-la-Chapelle and emperor at
Rome during his father's lifetime. Becoming sole ruler in May 973, his
troubles began in Lorraine, but were more serious in Bavaria, which was
now a very important duchy. Its duke, Henry, the brother of Otto I., had
died in 955 and had been succeeded by a young son, Henry, whose
turbulent career subsequently induced the Bavarian historian Aventinus
to describe him as _rixosus_, or the Quarrelsome. In 973 Burchard II.,
duke of Swabia, died, and the new emperor refused to give this duchy to
Henry, further irritating this duke by bestowing it upon his enemy,
Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto I. Having collected allies Henry
rebelled, and in 976 the emperor himself marched against him and drove
him into Bohemia. Bavaria was taken from him and given to Otto of
Swabia, but it was deprived of some of its importance. The southern
part, Carinthia, which had hitherto been a march district, was separated
from it and made into a duchy, and the church in Bavaria was made
dependent upon the king and not upon the duke. Having arrived at this
settlement Otto marched against the Bohemians, but while he was away
from Germany war was begun against him by Henry, the new duke of
Carinthia, who, forgetting the benefits he had just received, rose to
avenge the wrongs of his friend, the deposed duke Henry of Bavaria. The
emperor made peace with the Bohemians and quickly put down the rising.
Henry of Bavaria was handed over to the keeping of the bishop of Utrecht
and Carinthia received another duke.


  Otto and France.

In his anxiety to obtain possession of southern Italy, Otto I. had
secured as a wife for his son and successor Theophano, daughter of the
East Roman emperor, Romanus II., the ruler of much of southern Italy.
Otto II., having all his father's ambition with much of his strength and
haughtiness, longed to get away from Germany and to claim these remoter
districts. But he was detained for some time owing to the sudden
invasion of Lower Lorraine by Lothair, king of France, in 978. So
stealthily did the invader advance that the emperor had only just time
to escape from Aix-la-Chapelle before the town was seized and plundered.
As quickly as possible Otto placed himself at the head of a great army
and marched to Paris, but he was compelled to retreat without taking the
city, and in 980 peace was made.


  Otto in Italy.

At last, after an expedition against the Poles, Otto was able to fulfil
the wish of his heart; he went to Italy in 980 and never returned to
Germany. His claims to southern Italy were vehemently opposed, and in
July 982 he suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the East Roman
emperor's subjects and their Saracen allies. The news of this crushing
blow cast a gloom over Germany, which was again suffering from the
attacks of her unruly neighbours. The Saxons were able to cope with the
Danes and the German boundary was pushed forward in the south-east; but
the Slavs fought with such courage and success that during the reigns of
the emperors Otto II. and Otto III. much of the work effected by the
margraves Hermann Billung and Gero was undone, and nearly two centuries
passed before they were driven back to the position which they had
perforce occupied under Otto the Great. Such were the first-fruits of
the assumption of the imperial crown.


  Otto III.

About six months before his death in Rome, in December 983, Otto held a
diet at Verona which was attended by many of the German princes, who
recognized his infant son Otto as his successor. Otto was then taken to
Germany, and after his father's death he was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle
on Christmas Day 983. Henry of Bavaria was released from his confinement
and became his guardian; but as this restless prince showed an
inclination to secure the crown for himself, the young king was taken
from him and placed in the care of his mother Theophano. Henry, however,
gained a good deal of support both within and without Germany and caused
much anxiety to Otto's friends, but in 985 peace was made and he was
restored to Bavaria. While Theophano acted as regent, the chief
functions of government were discharged by Willigis, archbishop of Mainz
(d. 1011), a vigorous prelate who had risen from a humble rank to the
highest position in the German Church. He was aided by the princes, each
of whom claimed a voice in the administration, and, during the lifetime
of Theophano at least, a stubborn and sometimes a successful resistance
was offered to the attacks of the Slavs. But under the prevalent
conditions a vigorous rule was impossible, and during Otto's minority
the royal authority was greatly weakened. In Saxony the people were
quickly forgetting their hereditary connexion with the successors of
Henry the Fowler; in Bavaria, after the death of Duke Henry in 995, the
nobles, heedless of the royal power, returned to the ancient German
custom and chose Henry's son Henry as their ruler.


  The character of Otto.

In 995 Otto III. was declared to have reached his majority. He had been
so carefully trained in all the learning of the time that he was called
the "wonder of the world," and a certain fascination still belongs to
his imaginative and fantastic nature. Imbued by his mother with the
extravagant ideas of the East Roman emperors he introduced into his
court an amount of splendour and ceremonial hitherto unknown in western
Europe. The heir of the western emperors and the grandson of an eastern
emperor, he spent most of his time in Rome, and fancied he could unite
the world under his rule. In this vague design he was encouraged by
Gerbert, the greatest scholar of the day, whom, as Silvester II., he
raised to the papal throne. Meanwhile Germany was suffering severely
from internal disorders and from the inroads of her rude neighbours; and
when in the year 1000 Otto visited his northern kingdom there were hopes
that he would smite these enemies with the vigour of his predecessors.
But these hopes were disappointed; on the contrary, Otto seems to have
released Boleslaus, duke of the Poles, from his vague allegiance to the
German kings, and he founded an archbishopric at Gnesen, thus freeing
the Polish sees from the authority of the archbishop of Magdeburg.


  Henry II.

When Otto III. died in January 1002 there remained no representative of
the elder branch of the imperial family, and several candidates came
forward for the vacant throne. Among these candidates was Henry of
Bavaria, son of Duke Henry the Quarrelsome and a great-grandson of Henry
the Fowler, and at Mainz in June 1002 this prince was chosen German king
as Henry II. Having been recognized as king by the Saxons, the
Thuringians and the nobles of Lorraine, the new king was able to turn
his attention to the affairs of government, but on the whole his reign
was an unfortunate one for Germany. For ten years civil war raged in
Lorraine; in Saxony much blood was shed in petty quarrels; and Henry
made expeditions against his turbulent vassals in Flanders and
Friesland. He also interfered in the affairs of Burgundy, but the
acquisition of this kingdom was the work of his successor, Conrad II.
During nearly the whole of this reign the Germans were fighting the
Poles. Boleslaus of Poland, who was now a very powerful sovereign,
having conquered Lusatia and Silesia, brought Bohemia also under his
rule and was soon at variance with the German king. Anxious to regain
these lands Henry allied himself with some Slavonic tribes, promising
not to interfere with the exercise of their heathen religion, while
Boleslaus found supporters among the discontented German nobles. The
honours of the ensuing war were with Henry, and when peace was made in
1006 Boleslaus gave up Bohemia, but the struggle was soon renewed and
neither side had gained any serious advantage when peace was again made
in 1013. A third Polish war broke out in 1015. Henry led his troops in
person and obtained assistance from the Russians and the Hungarians;
peace was concluded in 1018, the Elbe remaining the north-east boundary
of Germany. Henry made three journeys to Italy, being crowned king of
the Lombards at Pavia in 1004 and emperor at Rome ten years later.
Before the latter event, in order to assert his right of sovereignty
over Rome, he called himself king of the Romans, a designation which
henceforth was borne by his successors until they received the higher
title from the pope. Hitherto a sovereign crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle had
been "king of the West Franks," or "king of the Franks and Saxons."
Henry was generous to the church, to which he looked for support, but he
maintained the royal authority over the clergy. Although generally
unsuccessful he strove hard for peace, and during this reign the
principle of inheritance was virtually established with regard to German
fiefs.


  Conrad II.

After Henry's death the nobles met at Kamba, near Oppenheim, and in
September 1024 elected Conrad, a Franconian count, to the vacant throne.
Although favoured by the German clergy the new king, Conrad II., had to
face some opposition; this, however, quickly vanished and he received
the homage of the nobles in the various duchies and seemed to have no
reason to dread internal enemies. Nevertheless, he had soon to battle
with a conspiracy headed by his stepson, Ernest II., duke of Swabia.
This was caused primarily by Conrad's avowed desire to acquire the
kingdom of Burgundy, but other reasons for dissatisfaction existed, and
the revolting duke found it easy to gather around him the scattered
forces of discontent. However, the king was quite able to deal with the
rising, which, indeed, never attained serious proportions, although
Ernest gave continual trouble until his death in 1030. With regard to
the German duchies Conrad followed the policy of Otto the Great. He
wished to control, not to abolish them. In 1026, when Duke Henry of
Bavaria died, he obtained the duchy for his son Henry, afterwards the
emperor Henry III.; later, despite the opposition of the nobles, he
invested the same prince with Swabia, where the ducal family had died
out. Franconia was in the hands of Conrad himself; thus Saxony,
Thuringia, Carinthia and Lorraine were the only duchies not completely
dependent upon the king.


  The neighbouring countries.

When Conrad ascended the throne the safety of Germany was endangered
from three different points. On the north was Denmark ruled by Canute
the Great; on the east was the wide Polish state whose ruler, Boleslaus,
had just taken the title of king; and on the south-east was Hungary,
which under its king, St Stephen, was rapidly becoming an organized and
formidable power. Peace was maintained with Canute, and in 1035 a treaty
was concluded and the land between the Eider and the Schlei was ceded to
Denmark. In 1030 Conrad waged a short war against Hungary, but here also
he was obliged to assent to a cession of territory. In Poland he was
more fortunate. After the death of Boleslaus in 1025 the Poles plunged
into a civil war, and Conrad was able to turn this to his own advantage.
In 1031 he recovered Lusatia and other districts, and in 1033 the Polish
duke of Mesislaus did homage to him at Merseburg. His authority was
recognized by the Bohemians, and two expeditions taught the Slavonic
tribes between the Elbe and the Oder to respect his power.


  Conrad in Italy.

In Italy, whither he journeyed in 1026 and 1036, Conrad was not
welcomed. Although as emperor and as king of the Lombards he was the
lawful sovereign of that country, the Germans were still regarded as
intruders and could only maintain their rights by force. The event which
threw the greatest lustre upon this reign was the acquisition of the
kingdom of Burgundy, or Arles, which was bequeathed to Conrad by its
king, Rudolph III., the uncle of his wife, Gisela. Rudolph died in 1032,
and in 1033 Conrad was crowned king at Peterlingen, being at once
recognized by the German-speaking population. For about two years his
rival, Odo, count of Champagne, who was supported by the
Romance-speaking inhabitants, kept up the struggle against him, but
eventually all opposition was overcome and the possession of Burgundy
was assured to the German king.


  The nobles and the land.

This reign is important in the history of Germany because it marks the
beginning of the great imperial age, but it has other features of
interest. In dealing with the revolt of Ernest of Swabia Conrad was
aided by the reluctance of the vassals of the great lords to follow them
against the king. This reluctance was due largely to the increasing
independence of this class of landholders, who were beginning to learn
that the sovereign, and not their immediate lord, was the protector of
their liberties; the independence in its turn arose from the growth of
the principle of heredity. In Germany Conrad did not definitely decree
that fiefs should pass from father to son, but he encouraged and took
advantage of the tendency in this direction, a tendency which was,
obviously, a serious blow at the power of the great lords over their
vassals. In 1037 he issued from Milan his famous edict for the kingdom
of Italy which decreed that upon the death of a landholder his fief
should descend to his son, or grandson, and that no fiefholder should be
deprived of his fief without the judgment of his peers. In another
direction Conrad's policy was to free himself as king from dependence
upon the church. He sought to regain lands granted to the church by his
predecessors; prelates were employed on public business much less
frequently than heretofore. He kept a firm hand over the church, but his
rule was purely secular; he took little or no interest in ecclesiastical
affairs. During this reign the centre and basis of the imperial power in
Germany was moved southwards. Saxony, the home of the Ottos, became less
prominent in German politics, while Bavaria and the south were gradually
gaining in importance.


  Henry III.

Henry III., who had been crowned German king and also king of Burgundy
during his father's lifetime, took possession of his great inheritance
without the slightest sign of opposition in June 1039. He was without
the impulsiveness which marred Conrad's great qualities, but he had the
same decisive judgment, wide ambition and irresistible will as his
father. During the late king's concluding years a certain Bretislaus,
who had served Conrad with distinction in Lusatia, became duke of
Bohemia and made war upon the disunited Poles, easily bringing them into
subjection. Thus Germany was again threatened with the establishment of
a great and independent Slavonic state upon her eastern frontier. To
combat this danger Henry invaded Bohemia, and after two reverses
compelled Bretislaus to appear before him as a suppliant at Regensburg.
The German king treated his foe generously and was rewarded by receiving
to the end of his reign the service of a loyal vassal; he also gained
the goodwill of the Poles by helping to bring about the return of their
duke, Casimir I., who willingly did homage for his land. The king of
Denmark, too, acknowledged Henry as his feudal lord. Moreover, by
several campaigns in Hungary the German king brought that country into
the position of a fief of the German crown. This war was occasioned by
the violence of the Hungarian usurper, Aba Samuel, and formed Henry's
principal occupation from 1041 to 1045.


  Henry's internal policy.

In Germany itself Henry acquired, during the first ten years of his
rule, an authority which had been unknown since the days of Otto the
Great. Early in his reign he had made a determined enemy of Godfrey the
Bearded, duke of upper Lorraine, who, in 1044, conspired against him and
who found powerful allies in Henry I., king of France, in the counts of
Flanders and Holland, and in certain Burgundian nobles. However, Godfrey
and his friends were easily worsted, and when the dispossessed duke
again tried the fortune of war he found that the German king had
detached Henry of France from his side and was also in alliance with the
English king, Edward the Confessor. While thus maintaining his authority
in the north-east corner of the country by alliances and expeditions,
Henry was strong enough to put the laws in motion against the most
powerful princes and to force them to keep the public peace. Under his
severe but beneficent rule, Germany enjoyed a period of internal quiet
such as she had probably never experienced before, but even Henry could
not permanently divert from its course the main political tendency of
the age, the desire of the great feudal lords for independence.


  Henry's wars.

Cowed, but unpacified and discontented, the princes awaited their
opportunity, while the king played into their hands by allowing the
southern duchies, Swabia, Bavaria and Carinthia, to pass from under his
own immediate control. His position was becoming gradually weaker when
in 1051 he invaded Hungary, where a reaction against German influence
was taking place. After a second campaign in 1052 the Hungarian king,
Andrew, was compelled to make peace and to own himself the vassal of the
German king. Meanwhile Saxony and Bavaria were permeated by the spirit
of unrest, and Henry returned from Hungary just in time to frustrate a
widespread conspiracy against him in southern Germany. Encouraged by the
support of the German rebels, Andrew of Hungary repudiated the treaty of
peace and the German supremacy in that country came to a sudden end.
Among the causes which undermined Henry's strength was the fact that the
mediate nobles, who had stood loyally by his father, Conrad, were not
his friends; probably his wars made serious demands upon them, and his
strict administration of justice, especially his insistence upon the
maintenance of the public peace, was displeasing to them.


  Henry and the church.

At the beginning of Henry's reign the church all over Europe was in a
deplorable condition. Simony was universally practised and the morality
of the clergy was very low. The Papacy, too, had sunk to a degraded
condition and its authority was annihilated, not only by the character
of successive popes, but by the fact that there were at the same time
three claimants for the papal throne. Henry, a man of deep, sincere and
even rigorous piety, regarded these evils with sorrow; he associated
himself definitely with the movement for reform which proceeded from
Cluny, and commanded his prelates to put an end to simony and other
abuses. Then moving farther in the same direction he resolved to strike
at the root of the evil by the exercise of his imperial authority. In
1046 he entered Italy at the head of an army which secured for him
greater respect than had been given to any German ruler since
Charlemagne, and at Sutri and in Rome he deposed the three rival popes.
He then raised to the papal see Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, who, as Pope
Clement II., crowned him emperor; after Clement three other German
popes--Damasus II., Leo IX. and Victor II.--owed their elevation to
Henry. Under these popes a new era began for the church, and in thus
reforming the Papacy Henry III. fulfilled what was regarded as the
noblest duty of his imperial office, but he also sharpened a weapon
whose keen edge was first tried against his son.

The last years of Henry III. form a turning-point in German history.
Great kings and emperors came after him, but none of them possessed the
direct, absolute authority which he freely wielded; even in the case of
the strongest the forms of feudalism more and more interposed themselves
between the monarch and the nation, and at last the royal authority
virtually disappeared. During this reign the towns entered upon an age
of prosperity, and the Rhine and the Weser became great avenues of
trade.


  The minority of Henry IV.

When Henry died in October 1056 the decline of the royal authority was
accelerated by the fact that his successor was a child. Henry IV., who
had been crowned king in 1054, was at first in charge of his mother, the
empress Agnes, whose weak and inefficient rule was closely watched by
Anno, archbishop of Cologne. In 1062, however, Anno and other prominent
prelates and laymen, perhaps jealous of the influence exercised at court
by Henry, bishop of Augsburg (d. 1063), managed by a clever trick to get
possession of the king's person. Deserted by her friends Agnes retired,
and forthwith Anno began to rule the state. But soon he was compelled to
share his duties with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, and a year or two
later Adalbert became virtually the ruler of Germany, leaving Anno to
attend to affairs in Italy. Adalbert's rule was very successful.
Compelling King Solomon to own Henry's supremacy he restored the
influence of Germany in Hungary; in internal affairs he restrained the
turbulence of the princes, but he made many enemies, especially in
Saxony, and in 1066 Henry, who had just been declared of age, was
compelled to dismiss him. The ambitious prelate, however, had gained
great influence over Henry, who had grown up under the most diverse
influences. The young king was generous and was endowed with
considerable intellectual gifts; but passing as he did from Anno's
gloomy palace at Cologne to Adalbert's residence in Bremen, where he was
petted and flattered, he became wayward and wilful.


  Henry's personal rule.

Henry IV. assumed the duties of government soon after the fall of
Adalbert and quickly made enemies of many of the chief princes,
including Otto of Nordheim, the powerful duke of Bavaria, Rudolph, duke
of Swabia, and Berthold of Zähringen, duke of Carinthia. In Saxony,
where, like his father, he frequently held his court, he excited intense
hostility by a series of injudicious proceedings. While the three Ottos
were pursuing the shadow of imperial greatness in Italy, much of the
crown land in this duchy had been seized by the nobles and was now held
by their descendants. Henry IV. insisted on the restoration of these
estates and encroached upon the rights of the peasants. Moreover, he
built a number of forts which the people thought were intended for
prisons; he filled the land with riotous and overbearing Swabians; he
kept in prison Magnus, the heir to the duchy; and is said to have spoken
of the Saxons in a tone of great contempt. All classes were thus
combined against him, and when he ordered his forces to assemble for a
campaign against the Poles the Saxons refused to join the host. In 1073
the universal discontent found expression in a great assembly at
Wormesleben, in which the leading part was taken by Otto of Nordheim, by
Werner, archbishop of Magdeburg, and by Burkhard II., bishop of
Halberstadt. Under Otto's leadership the Thuringians joined the rising,
which soon spread far and wide. Henry was surprised by a band of rebels
in his fortress at the Harzburg; he fled to Hersfeld and appealed to the
princes for support, but he could not compel them to aid him and they
would grant him nothing. After tedious negotiations he was obliged to
yield to the demands of his enemies, and peace was made at Gerstungen in
1074. Zealously carrying out the conditions of the peace, the peasants
not only battered down the detested forts, they even destroyed the
chapel at the Harzburg and committed other acts of desecration. These
proceedings alarmed the princes, both spiritual and secular, and Henry,
who had gained support from the cities of the Rhineland, was able to
advance with a formidable army into Saxony in 1075. He gained a
decisive victory, rebuilt the forts and completely restored the
authority of the crown.


  Pope Gregory VII.

In 1073, while Germany was in this confused state, Hildebrand had become
pope as Gregory VII., and in 1075 he issued his famous decree against
the marriage of the clergy and against their investiture by laymen. To
the latter decree it was impossible for any sovereign to submit, and in
Germany there were stronger reasons than elsewhere for resistance. A
large part of the land of the country was held by the clergy, and most
of it had been granted to them because it was supposed that they would
be the king's most efficient helpers. Were the feudal tie broken, the
crown must soon vanish, and the constitution of medieval society undergo
a radical change. Henry, who hitherto had treated the new pope with
excessive respect, now announced his intention of going to Rome and
assuming the imperial title. The pope, to whom the Saxons had been
encouraged to complain, responded by sending back certain of Henry's
messengers, with the command that the king should do penance for the
crimes of which his subjects accused him. Enraged by this unexpected
arrogance, Henry summoned a synod of German bishops to Worms in January
1076, and Hildebrand was declared deposed. The papal answer was a bull
excommunicating the German king, dethroning him and liberating his
subjects from their oath of allegiance.


  Effect of Henry's excommunication.

Never before had a pope ventured to take so bold a step. It was within
the memory even of young men that a German king had dismissed three
popes, and had raised in turn four of his own prelates to the Roman see.
And now a pope attempted to drag from his throne the successor of this
very sovereign. The effect of the bull was tremendous; no other was ever
followed by equally important results. The princes had long been chafing
under the royal power; they had shaken even so stern an autocrat as
Henry III., and the authority of Henry IV. was already visibly weakened.
At this important stage in their contest with the crown a mighty ally
suddenly offered himself, and with indecent eagerness they hastened to
associate themselves with him. Their vassals and subjects, appalled by
the invisible powers wielded by the head of the church, supported them
in their rebellion. The Saxons again rose in arms and Otto of Nordheim
succeeded in uniting the North and South German supporters of the pope.
Henry had looked for no such result as this; he did not understand the
influences which lay beneath the surface and was horrified by his
unexpected isolation. At a diet in Tribur he humbled himself before the
princes, but in vain. They turned from him and decided that the pope
should be asked to judge Henry; that if, within a year, the sentence of
excommunication were not removed, the king should lose his crown; and
that in the meantime he should live in retirement.


  Scene at Canossa.

Next came the strange scene at Canossa which burned itself into the
memory of Europe. For three days the representative of the Caesars
entreated to be admitted into the pope's presence. No other mode of
escape than complete subjection to Gregory had suggested itself, or was
perhaps possible; but it did not save him. Although the pope forgave
him, the German princes, resolved not to miss the chance which fortune
had given them, met in March 1077, and deposed him, electing Rudolph,
duke of Swabia, as his successor. But Henry's bitter humiliations
transformed his character; they brought out all his latent capacities of
manliness.


  The struggle over investitures.

The war of investitures that followed was the opening of the tremendous
struggle between the Empire and the Papacy, which is the central fact of
medieval history and which, after two centuries of conflict, ended in
the exhaustion of both powers. Its details belong more to the history of
Italy than to that of Germany, where it took the form of a fight between
two rival kings, but in Germany its effects were more deeply felt. The
nation now plucked bitter fruit from the seed planted by Otto the Great
in assuming the imperial crown and by a long line of kings and emperors
in lavishing worldly power upon the church. In the ambition of the
spiritual and the secular princes the pope had an immensely powerful
engine of offence against the emperor, and without the slightest scruple
this was turned to the best advantage.


  Henry IV. and the anti-kings.

When this struggle began it may be said in general that Henry was
supported by the cities and the lower classes, while Rudolph relied upon
the princes and the opponents of a united Germany; or, to make another
division, Henry's strength lay in the duchies of Franconia and Bavaria,
Rudolph's in Swabia and Saxony. In the Rhineland and in southern Germany
the cities had been steadily growing in wealth and power, and they could
not fail to realize that they had more to fear from the princes than
from the crown. Hence when Henry returned to Germany in 1078 Worms,
Spires and many other places opened their gates to him and contributed
freely to his cause; nevertheless his troops were beaten in three
encounters and Pope Gregory thundered anew against him in March 1080.
However, the fortune of war soon turned, and in October 1080 Rudolph of
Swabia was defeated and slain. Henry then carried the war into Italy; in
1084 he was crowned emperor in Rome by Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna,
whom, as Clement III., he had set up as an anti-pope, and in 1085
Gregory died an exile from Rome. Meanwhile in Germany Henry's opponents
had chosen Hermann, count of Luxemburg, king in succession to Rudolph of
Swabia. Hermann, however, was not very successful, and when Henry
returned to Germany in 1084 he found that his most doughty opponent,
Otto of Nordheim, was dead, and that the anti-king had few friends
outside Saxony. This duchy was soon reduced to obedience and was treated
with consideration, and when the third anti-king, Egbert, margrave of
Meissen, was murdered in 1090 there would have been peace if Germany had
followed her own impulses.


  Henry and the Papacy.

In the Papacy, however, Henry had an implacable foe; and again and again
when he seemed on the point of a complete triumph the smouldering embers
of revolt were kindled once more into flame. In Italy his son, Conrad,
was stirred up against him and in 1093 was crowned king at Monza; then
ten years later, when Germany was more peaceful than it had been for
years and when the emperor's authority was generally acknowledged, his
second son, Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry V., was induced to head
a dangerous rebellion. The Saxons and the Thuringians were soon in arms,
and they were joined by those warlike spirits of Germany to whom an age
of peace brought no glory and an age of prosperity brought no gain.
After some desultory fighting Henry IV. was taken prisoner and compelled
to abdicate; he had, however, escaped and had renewed the contest when
he died in August 1106.


  The First Crusade.

During this reign the first crusade took place, and the German king
suffered severely from the pious zeal which it expressed and
intensified. The movement was not in the end favourable to papal
supremacy, but the early crusaders, and those who sympathized with them,
regarded the enemies of the pope as the enemies of religion.


  Henry V. in Germany.

The early years of Henry V.'s reign were spent in campaigns in Flanders,
Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, but the new king was soon reminded that the
dispute over investitures was unsettled. Pope Paschal II. did not doubt,
now that Henry IV. was dead, that he would speedily triumph; but he was
soon undeceived. Henry V., who with unconscious irony had promised to
treat the pope as a father, continued, like his predecessors, to invest
prelates with the ring and the staff, and met the expostulations of
Paschal by declaring that he would not surrender a right which had
belonged to all former kings. Lengthened negotiations took place but
they led to no satisfactory result, while the king's enemies in Germany,
taking advantage of the deadlock, showed signs of revolt. One of the
most ardent of these enemies was Lothair of Supplinburg, whom Henry
himself had made duke of Saxony upon the extinction of the Billung
family in 1106. Lothair was humbled in 1112, but he took advantage of
the emperor's difficulties to rise again and again, the twin pillars of
his strength being the Saxon hatred of the Franconian emperors and an
informal alliance with the papal see. Henry's chief friends were his
nephews, the two Hohenstaufen princes, Frederick and Conrad, to whose
father Frederick the emperor Henry IV. had given the duchy of Swabia
when its duke Rudolph became his rival. The younger Frederick succeeded
to this duchy in 1105, while ten years later Conrad was made duke of
Franconia, a country which for nearly a century had been under the
immediate government of the crown. The two brothers were enthusiastic
imperialists, and with persistent courage they upheld the cause of their
sovereign during his two absences in Italy.


  The concordat of Worms.

At last, in September 1122, the investiture question was settled by the
concordat of Worms. By this compromise, which exhaustion forced upon
both parties, the right of electing prelates was granted to the clergy,
and the emperor surrendered the privilege of investing them with the
ring and the staff. On the other hand it was arranged that these
elections should take place in the presence of the emperor or his
representative, and that he should invest the new prelate with the
sceptre, thus signifying that the bishop, or abbot, held his temporal
fiefs from him and not from the pope. In Germany the victory remained
with the emperor, but it was by no means decisive. The Papacy was far
from realizing Hildebrand's great schemes; yet in regard to the question
in dispute it gained solid advantage, and its general authority was
incomparably more important than it had been half a century before.
During this period it had waged war upon the emperor himself. Instead of
acknowledging its inferiority as in former times it had claimed to be
the higher power; it had even attempted to dispose of the imperial crown
as if the Empire were a papal fief; and it had found out that it could
at any time tamper, and perhaps paralyse, the imperial authority by
exciting internal strife in Germany. Having thus settled this momentous
dispute Henry spent his later years in restoring order in Germany, and
in planning to assist his father-in-law, Henry I. of England, in France.
During this reign under the lead of Otto, bishop of Bamberg (c.
1063-1139), Pomerania began to come under the influence of Germany and
of Christianity.


  The reign of Lothair the Saxon.

The Franconian dynasty died out with Henry V. in May 1125, and after a
protracted contest Lothair, duke of Saxony, the candidate of the clergy,
was chosen in the following August to succeed him. The new king's first
enterprise was a disastrous campaign in Bohemia, but before this
occurrence he had aroused the enmity of the Hohenstaufen princes by
demanding that they should surrender certain lands which had formerly
been the property of the crown. Lothair's rebuff in Bohemia stiffened
the backs of Frederick and Conrad, and in order to contend with them the
king secured a powerful ally by marrying his daughter Gertrude to Henry
the Proud, a grandson of Welf, whom Henry IV. had made duke of Bavaria,
a duchy to which Henry himself had succeeded in 1126. Henry was perhaps
the most powerful of the king's subjects, nevertheless the dukes of
Swabia and Franconia withstood him, and a long war desolated South
Germany. This was ended by the submission of Frederick in 1134 and of
Conrad in the following year. Lothair's position, which before 1130 was
very weak, had gradually become stronger. He had put down the disorder
in Bavaria, in Saxony and in Lorraine; a diet held at Magdeburg in 1135
was attended by representatives from the vassal states of Denmark,
Hungary, Bohemia and Poland; and in 1136, when he visited Italy for the
second time, Germany was in a very peaceful condition. In June 1133
during the king's first visit to Italy he had received from Pope
Innocent II. the imperial crown and also the investiture of the
extensive territories left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany; and at
this time the pope seems to have claimed the emperor as his vassal, a
statement to this effect (_post homo fit papae, sumit quo dante
coronam_) being inscribed in the audience hall of the Lateran at Rome.

  (_Continued in volume 11 slice 8._)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] i.e. the territory once under the jurisdiction of an imperial
    _Vogt_ or _advocatus_ (see ADVOCATE).

  [2] The question, much disputed between Germans and Danes, is
    exhaustively treated by P. Lauridsen in F. de Jessen's _La Question
    de Sleswig_ (Copenhagen, 1906), pp. 114 et seq.

  [3] See the comparative study in Percy Ashley's _Local and Central
    Government_ (London, 1906).

  [4] The _Kreis_ in Württemberg corresponds to the _Regierungsbezirk_
    elsewhere.

  [5] The system of compulsory registration, which involves a
    notification to the police of any change of address (even temporary),
    of course makes it easy to determine the domicile in any given case.

  [6] Actually between 1883 and 1908 over five million recruits passed
    through the drill sergeant's hands, as well as perhaps 210,000
    one-year volunteers.

  [7] These last have a curious history. They were formed from about
    1890 onwards, by individual squadrons, two or three being voted each
    year. Ostensibly raised for the duties of mounted orderlies, at a
    time when it would have been impolitic to ask openly for more
    cavalry, they were little by little trained in real cavalry work,
    then combined in provisional regiments for disciplinary purposes and
    at last frankly classed as cavalry.





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