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Title: Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 1 of 4: A-D)
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 1 of 4: A-D)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *

In this version [=e] signifies "e macron"; [)e] "e breve"; [.e] "e with dot
above"; and so forth.




LONDON: 47 Paternoster Row
EDINBURGH: 339 High Street

       *       *       *       *       *

_Pronouncing_, _Explanatory_, _Etymological_
1264 pp. Imp. 8vo, cloth, 12/6; hf.-mor., 18/-
"The best one volume dictionary in existence."

       *       *       *       *       *


This is the third English Dictionary which the present Editor has prepared,
and he may therefore lay claim to an unusually prolonged apprenticeship to
his trade. It is surely unnecessary for him to say that he believes this to
be the best book of the three, and he can afford to rest content if the
Courteous Reader receive it with the indulgence extended to his Library
Dictionary, published in the spring of 1898. It is based upon that work,
but will be found to possess many serviceable qualities of its own. It is
not much less in content, and its greater relative portability is due to
smaller type, to thinner paper, and still more to a rigorous compression
and condensation in the definitions, by means of which room has been found
for many additional words.

The aim has been to include all the common words in literary and
conversational English, together with words obsolete save in the pages of
Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, and the Authorised Version of the Bible. An
attempt has been made also to include the common terms of the sciences and
the arts of life, the vocabulary of sport, those Scotch and provincial
words which assert themselves in Burns, Scott, the Brontës, and George
Eliot, and even the coinages of word-masters like Carlyle, Browning, and
Meredith. Numberless compound idiomatic phrases have also been given a
place, in each case under the head of the significant word.

Correctness in technical matters has been ensured by consulting such books
as Smyth's _Sailor's Word-Book_, Voyle's _Military Dictionary_, Wilson's
_Stock-Exchange Glossary_, Lee's _Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical
Terms_, &c. Besides books of this class, the Editor has made constant use
of special books such as Schmidt's _Shakespeare-Lexicon_, Calderwood's
edition of Fleming's _Vocabulary of Philosophy_, Jamieson's _Scottish
Dictionary_, the _Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Words and Phrases_,
Yule and Burnell's _Anglo-Indian Glossary_, Addis and Arnold's _Catholic
Dictionary_, and the Dictionaries of the Bible of Sir William Smith and Dr

In Latin, his authority is Lewis and Short; in Greek, Liddell and Scott; in
Romance Philology, Diez and Scheler; in French, Littré; in Spanish,
Velazquez; in German, Weigand and Flügel; in Gaelic, Macleod and Dewar, and
M'Bain; in Hebrew, Gesenius.

In English etymology the Editor has consulted Professor Skeat's
_Dictionary_ and his _Principles of English Etymology_--First and Second
Series; the magistral _New English Dictionary_ of Dr James A. H. Murray and
Mr Henry Bradley, so far as completed; and the only less valuable _English
Dialect Dictionary_ of Professor Wright (begun 1896).

Two complete American _English Dictionaries_ still hold the first place as
works of reference, Professor Whitney's _Century Dictionary_ and Funk and
Wagnall's _Standard Dictionary_.

The Editor has great pleasure in acknowledging his personal obligations to
his brothers, the Rev. Robert P. Davidson, B.A., of Trinity College,
Oxford, and David G. Davidson, M.D., Edinburgh; and to his equally capable
and courteous colleagues, Mr J. R. Pairman and David Patrick, LL.D., Editor
of _Chambers's Encyclopædia_.

T. D.

       *       *       *       *       *



  PREFACE                                                           iii

  EXPLANATIONS TO THE STUDENT                                         v


  THE DICTIONARY                                                 1-1150

  PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES                                            1151

  ETYMOLOGY OF NAMES OF PLACES, ETC.                               1158

  MEDICINE AND MUSIC                                               1161

  CORRECT CEREMONIOUS FORMS OF ADDRESS                             1174


  AND MEANING                                                      1178

  GREEK, AND MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES                              1184

  ADDENDA                                                          1208

       *       *       *       *       *


THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORDS.--Every word is given in its _alphabetical_
order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after
and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has
its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are
also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its
meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the
signification of the affix: thus the meanings of _Darkness_ are obtained by
prefixing the meaning of _ness_, _state of being_, to those of _Dark_.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not
yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at
the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

THE PRONUNCIATION.--The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word,
by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used
has its ordinary unvarying sound, _no consonant being employed that has
more than one sound_. The same sounds are always represented by the same
letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No
consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of _th_,
which is printed in common letters when sounded as in _thick_, but in
italics when sounded as in _th_en. _Unmarked vowels_ have always their
short sounds, as in _lad_, _led_, _lid_, _lot_, _but_, _book_. The _marked
vowels_ are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of
each page:--

f[=a]te, fär; m[=e], h[.e]r; m[=i]ne; m[=o]te; m[=u]te; m[=oo]n; _th_en.

The vowel _u_ when marked thus, _ü_, has the sound heard in Scotch _bluid_,
_gude_, the French _du_, almost that of the German _ü_ in _Müller_. Where
more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first
is more accepted.

THE SPELLING.--When more than one form of a word is given, that which is
placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our
modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but
rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally
speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German.
The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the
representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern
English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional
forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the
present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise
of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an
enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling
reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise
moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without
unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the
superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of
progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A.
H. Murray:--the dropping of the final or inflexional silent _e_; the
restoration of the historical _-t_ after breath consonants; uniformity in
the employment of double consonants, as in _traveler_, &c.; the discarding
of _ue_ in words like _demagogue_ and _catalogue_; the uniform levelling of
the agent _-our_ into _-or_; the making of _ea = [)e]_ short into _e_ and
the long _ie_ into _ee_; the restoration of _some_, _come_, _tongue_, to
their old English forms, _sum_, _cum_, _tung_; a more extended use of _z_
in the body of words, as _chozen_, _praize_, _raize_; and the correction of
the worst individual monstrosities, as _foreign_, _scent_, _scythe_,
_ache_, _debt_, _people_, _parliament_, _court_, _would_, _sceptic_,
_phthisis_, _queue_, _schedule_, _twopence-halfpenny_, _yeoman_, _sieve_,
_gauge_, _barque_, _buoy_, _yacht_, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be
established in good usage, by the adoption of _-or_ for _-our_, as _color_,
_labor_, &c.; of _-er_ for _-re_, as _center_, _meter_, &c.; _-ize_ for
_-ise_, as _civilize_, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an
unaccented vowel, as _traveler_ for _traveller_; the adoption of _e_ for
_oe_ or _æ_ in _hemorrhage_, _diarrhea_, &c.

THE MEANINGS.--The current and most important meaning of a word is usually
given first. But in cases like _Clerk_, _Livery_, _Marshal_, where the
force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the
original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage

THE ETYMOLOGY.--The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings,
within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given
elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the
etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, BAN, BASE, the student is
referred to it; also that here the sign--is always to be read as meaning
'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or
correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are
inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the
rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its
Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose
that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon
are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed
from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given,
though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is
referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.

       *       *       *       *       *


  _aor._                    aorist.
  _abbrev._                 abbreviation.
  _abl._                    ablative.
  _acc._                    according.
  _accus._                  accusative.
  _adj._                    adjective.
  _adv._                    adverb.
  _agri._                   agriculture.
  _alg._                    algebra.
  _anat._                   anatomy.
  _app._                    apparently.
  _arch._                   archaic.
  _archit._                 architecture.
  _arith._                  arithmetic.
  _astrol._                 astrology.
  _astron._                 astronomy.
  _attrib._                 attributive.
  _augm._                   augmentative.
  _B._                      Bible.
  _biol._                   biology.
  _book-k._                 book-keeping.
  _bot._                    botany.
  _c._ (_circa_)            about.
  _c._, _cent._             century.
  _carp._                   carpentry.
  _cf._                     compare.
  _chem._                   chemistry.
  _cog._                    cognate.
  _coll._, _colloq._        colloquially.
  _comp._                   comparative.
  _conch._                  conchology.
  _conj._                   conjunction.
  _conn._                   connected.
  _contr._                  contracted.
  _cook._                   cookery.
  _corr._                   corruption.
  _crystal._                crystallography.
  _dat._                    dative.
  _demons._                 demonstrative.
  _der._                    derivation.
  _dial._                   dialect, dialectal.
  _Dict._                   Dictionary.
  _dim._                    diminutive.
  _dub._                    doubtful.
  _eccles._                 ecclesiastical history.
  _e.g._                    for example.
  _elect._                  electricity.
  _entom._                  entomology.
  _esp._                    especially.
  _ety._                    etymology.
  _fem._                    feminine.
  _fig._                    figuratively.
  _fol._                    followed; following.
  _fort._                   fortification.
  _freq._                   frequentative.
  _fut._                    future.
  _gen._                    genitive.
  _gener._                  generally.
  _geog._                   geography.
  _geol._                   geology.
  _geom._                   geometry.
  _ger._                    gerundive.
  _gram._                   grammar.
  _gun._                    gunnery.
  _her._                    heraldry.
  _hist._                   history.
  _hort._                   horticulture.
  _hum._                    humorous.
  _i.e._                    that is.
  _imit._                   imitative.
  _imper._                  imperative.
  _impers._                 impersonal.
  _indic._                  indicative.
  _infin._                  infinitive.
  _inten._                  intensive.
  _interj._                 interjection.
  _interrog._               interrogative.
  _jew._                    jewellery.
  _lit._                    literally.
  _mach._                   machinery.
  _masc._                   masculine.
  _math._                   mathematics.
  _mech._                   mechanics.
  _med._                    medicine.
  _metaph._                 metaphysics.
  _mil._                    military.
  _Milt._                   Milton.
  _min._                    mineralogy.
  _mod._                    modern.
  _Mt._                     Mount.
  _mus._                    music.
  _myth._                   mythology.
  _n._, _ns._               noun, nouns.
  _nat. hist._              natural history.
  _naut._                   nautical.
  _neg._                    negative.
  _neut._                   neuter.
  _n.pl._                   noun plural.
  _n.sing._                 noun singular.
  _N.T._                    New Testament.
  _obs._                    obsolete.
  _opp._                    opposed.
  _opt._                    optics.
  _orig._                   originally.
  _ornith._                 ornithology.
  _O.S._                    old style.
  _O.T._                    Old Testament.
  _p._, _part._             participle.
  _p.adj._                  participial adjective.
  _paint._                  painting.
  _paleog._                 paleography.
  _paleon._                 paleontology.
  _palm._                   palmistry.
  _pa.p._                   past participle.
  _pass._                   passive.
  _pa.t._                   past tense.
  _path._                   pathology.
  _perf._                   perfect.
  _perh._                   perhaps.
  _pers._                   person.
  _pfx._                    prefix.
  _phil._, _philos._        philosophy.
  _philol._                 philology.
  _phon._                   phonetics.
  _phot._                   photography.
  _phrenol._                phrenology.
  _phys._                   physics.
  _physiol._                physiology.
  _pl._                     plural.
  _poet._                   poetical.
  _pol. econ._              political economy.
  _poss._                   possessive.
  _Pr.Bk._                  Book of Common
  _pr.p._                   present participle.
  _prep._                   preposition.
  _pres._                   present.
  _print._                  printing.
  _priv._                   privative.
  _prob._                   probably.
  _Prof._                   Professor.
  _pron._                   pronoun;
  _prop._                   properly.
  _pros._                   prosody.
  _prov._                   provincial.
  _q.v._                    which see.
  _R.C._                    Roman Catholic.
  _recip._                  reciprocal.
  _redup._                  reduplication.
  _refl._                   reflexive.
  _rel._                    related; relative.
  _rhet._                   rhetoric.
  _sculp._                  sculpture.
  _Shak._                   Shakespeare.
  _sig._                    signifying.
  _sing._                   singular.
  _spec._                   specifically.
  _Spens_.                  Spenser.
  _subj._                   subjunctive.
  _suff._                   suffix.
  _superl._                 superlative.
  _surg._                   surgery.
  _term._                   termination.
  _teleg._                  telegraphy.
  _Tenn._                   Tennyson.
  _Test._                   Testament.
  _theat._                  theatre; theatricals.
  _theol._                  theology.
  _trig._                   trigonometry.
  _ult._                    ultimately.
  _v.i._                    verb intransitive.
  _voc._                    vocative.
  _v.t._                    verb transitive.
  _vul._                    vulgar.
  _zool._                   zoology.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Amer.       American.
  Ar.         Arabic.
  A.S.        Anglo-Saxon.
  Austr.      Australian.
  Bav.        Bavarian.
  Beng.       Bengali.
  Bohem.      Bohemian.
  Braz.       Brazilian.
  Bret.       Breton.
  Carib.      Caribbean.
  Celt.       Celtic.
  Chal.       Chaldean.
  Chin.       Chinese.
  Corn.       Cornish.
  Dan.        Danish.
  Dut.        Dutch.
  Egypt.      Egyptian.
  Eng.        English.
  Finn.       Finnish.
  Flem.       Flemish.
  Fr.         French.
  Fris.       Frisian.
  Gael.       Gaelic.
  Ger.        German.
  Goth.       Gothic.
  Gr.         Greek.
  Heb.        Hebrew.
  Hind.       Hindustani.
  Hung.       Hungarian.
  Ice.        Icelandic.
  Ind.        Indian.
  Ion.        Ionic.
  Ir.         Irish.
  It.         Italian.
  Jap.        Japanese.
  Jav.        Javanese.
  L.          Latin.
  Lith.       Lithuanian.
  L. L.       Low or Late Latin.
  M. E.       Middle English.
  Mex.        Mexican.
  Norm.       Norman.
  Norw.       Norwegian.
  O. Fr.      Old French.
  Pers.       Persian.
  Peruv.      Peruvian.
  Pol.        Polish.
  Port.       Portuguese.
  Prov.       Provençal.
  Rom.        Romance.
  Russ.       Russian
  Sans.       Sanskrit.
  Scand.      Scandinavian.
  Scot.       Scottish.
  Singh.      Singhalese.
  Slav.       Slavonic.
  Sp.         Spanish.
  Sw.         Swedish.
  Teut.       Teutonic.
  Turk.       Turkish.
  U.S.        United States.
  W.          Welsh.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


the first letter in our alphabet, its corresponding symbol standing first
also in many other alphabets derived from the Phoenician. It originated in
the hieroglyphic picture of an eagle (Old Egyptian _ahom_), the cursive
hieratic form of which was the original of the Phoenician _aleph_, an ox,
from a fancied resemblance to its head and horns.--A, as a note in music,
is the major sixth of the scale of C; A1, the symbol by which first-class
vessels are classed in Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping,
hence first-rate.

A, the indefinite article, a broken-down form of An, and used before words
beginning with the sound of a consonant. [_An_ was a new development, after
the Conquest, of the A.S. numeral _án_, one.]

A, ä or [=a], a _prep._, derived from the old prep. _on_, and still used,
as a prefix, in _a_foot, _a_field, _a_part, _a_sleep, now_a_days,
twice-_a_-day; also with verbal nouns, as _a_-building, to be _a_-doing, to
set _a_-going. It is now admitted only colloquially. [Short for A.S. _an_,
a dialectic form of _on_, on, in, at. See PREFIXES.]

A, ä, a dialectic corruption of _he_ or _she_, as in quoth_a_, (_Shak._)
'_A_ babbled of green fields.'--A, usually written _a'_, Scotch for _all_;
A, a form of the L. prep. _ab_, from, of, used before consonants, as in
Thomas _à_ Kempis, Thomas _à_ Becket, &c.

AARDVARK, ard'vark, _n._ the ground-hog of South Africa. [Dut. _aarde_,
earth; _vark_, found only in dim. _varken_, a pig.]

AARDWOLF, ard'w[=oo]lf, _n._ the earth-wolf of South Africa, a carnivore
belonging to a sub-family of the Hyænidæ. [Dut. _aarde_, earth, _wolf_,

AARONIC, -AL, [=a]-ron'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to AARON, the Jewish
high-priest, or to his priesthood.--_n._ AA'RON'S-ROD (_archit._), a rod
having one serpent twined round it.--AARON'S BEARD, a popular name for a
number of cultivated plants--among the best known, a species of Saxifrage
(_S. sarmentosa_), usually grown in hanging pots, from which hang long
stems, bearing clumps of roundish, hairy leaves.

AB, ab, _n._ the eleventh month of the Jewish civil year, and the fifth of
the ecclesiastical year, answering to parts of July and August. [Syriac.]

ABA, ab'a, _n._ a Syrian woollen stuff, of goat's or camel's hair, usually
striped; an outer garment made of this. [Ar.]

ABACA, ab'a-ka, _n._ the native name of the so-called Manilla hemp of
commerce--really a plantain, much grown in the Philippine Islands.

ABACK, a-bak', _adv._ (_naut._) said of sails pressed backward against the
mast by the wind--hence (_fig._) TAKEN ABACK, taken by surprise, [A.S. _on
bæc._ See ON and BACK.]


ABACTINAL, ab-ak'ti-nal, _adj._ (_zool._) remote from the actinal area,
without rays.--_adv._ ABAC'TINALLY.

ABACTION, ab-ak'shun, _n._ (_law_) the stealing of a number of cattle at
once.--_n._ ABAC'TOR, one who does this. [L. _abig[)e]re_, _abactum_, to
drive off.]


ABACUS, ab'a-kus, _n._ a counting-frame or table: (_archit._) a level
tablet on the capital of a column, supporting the entablature:--_pl._
AB'AC[=I].--_ns._ ABACIS'CUS, ABAC'ULUS, dims. of ABACUS; AB'ACIST, one who
counts with the abacus. [L.--Gr. _abax_, _abakos_, a board for reckoning

ABADDON, a-bad'don, _n._ the destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit:
(_Milton_) the bottomless pit, or abyss of hell itself. [Heb., from
_[=a]bad_, to be lost.]

ABAFT, a-baft', _adv._ and _prep._ on the aft, hind, or stern part of a
ship: behind. [Pfx. _a-_, for A.S. _on_, on, and _bæftan_, after, behind;
itself made up of pfx. _be-_, and _æftan_. See AFT.]

ABALIENATE, ab-[=a]l'yen-[=a]t, _v.t._ Same as ALIENATE.

ABANDON, a-ban'dun, _v.t._ to give up: to desert: to yield (one's self)
without restraint (with _to_).--_v.t._ ABAND' (_Spens._), to abandon.--_n._
ABAN'DON (_n_ to be nasalised), freedom from conventional restraints:
careless freedom of manners.--_adj._ ABAN'DONED, given up, as to a vice:
profligate: completely deserted: very wicked.--_adv._ ABAN'DONEDLY.--_n._
ABAN'DONMENT, act of abandoning: state of being given up: enthusiastic
surrender of self to a cause: (_law_) the renunciation of a claim. [O. Fr.
_bandon_, from the Teut. root _ban_, proclamation, came to mean decree,
authorisation, permission; hence _à bandon_--at will or discretion,
_abandonner_, to give up to the will or disposal of some one. See BAN,

ABASE, a-b[=a]s', _v.t._ to cast down: to humble: to degrade.--_adjs._
AB[=A]'SED, ABAISSÉ (_her._), depressed.--_n._ ABASE'MENT, state of
humiliation. [O. Fr. _abaissier_, to bring low--L. _ad_, to, and root of
BASE, adj.]

ABASH, a-bash', _v.t._ to confuse with shame or guilt.--_pa.p._ ABASHED'
(with _at_, of an occasion; _by_, of a cause).--_n._ ABASH'MENT, confusion
from shame. [O. Fr. _esbhir_ (Fr. _s'ébahir_), pr.p. _esbahiss-ant_, to be
amazed--L. _ex_, out, and interj. _bah_, expressive of astonishment.]

ABATE, a-b[=a]t', _v.t._ to lessen: to deduct (with _of_): to mitigate:
(_law_) to put an end to, do away with, as of an action or a nuisance, to
render null, as a writ.--_v.i._ to grow less.--_adjs._ AB[=A]T'ABLE,
capable of being abated; AB[=A]T'ED, beaten down or cut away, as the
background of an ornamental pattern in relief.--_n._ ABATE'MENT, the act of
abating: the sum or quantity abated: (_law_) the act of intruding on a
freehold and taking possession before the heir, the abandonment of an
action, or the reduction of a legacy: (_her._) a supposed mark of dishonour
on a coat of arms--apparently never actually used.--ABATED ARMS, those
whose edges have been blunted for the tournament. [O. Fr. _abatre_, to beat
down--L. _ab_, from, and _bat[)e]re_, popular form of _batu[)e]re_, to
beat: conn. with BEAT.]

ABATIS, ABATTIS, a'bat-is, _n.sing._ and _pl._ (_fort._) a rampart of trees
felled and laid side by side, with the branches towards the enemy. [Fr. See

ABATTOIR, a-bat-wär', _n._ a public slaughter-house. [Fr. See ety. of

ABATURE, ab'a-t[=u]r, _n._ the trail of a beast of the chase. [Fr.]

ABB, ab, _n._ properly woof- or weft-yarn, but sometimes warp-yarn. [Pfx.
_a-_, and WEB.]

ABBA, ab'a, _n._ father, a term retained in the Gr. text of the New
Testament, together with its translation 'father,' hence _Abba father_,
applied to God the Father: also a bishop in the Syriac and Coptic Churches.
[L.--Gr.--Syriac and Chaldee, _abb[=a]_--Heb. _ab_, father.]

ABBACY, ab'a-si, _n._ the office or dignity of an abbot: the establishment
under an abbot: an abbey.--_adj._ ABB[=A]'TIAL. [The earlier form was
_abbatie_--said by Dr Murray to have been originally a Scotch form.]

ABBATE, ab-bä'te, _n._ a title loosely applied to ecclesiastics in
Italy.--Also ABATE. [It.]

ABBAYE, an _arch._ form of ABBEY.

ABBÉ, ab'[=a], _n._ originally the French name for an abbot, but often used
in the general sense of a priest or clergyman. Before the Revolution, abbés
were often merely holders of benefices, enjoying a portion of the revenues,
although in minor orders, or even laymen. They were often tutors in noble
families, or men of letters, and were marked by a short violet-coloured

ABBESS, ab'es, _n._ the female superior of a religious community of women.
[Earlier ABBATESS, fem. of ABBOT.]

ABBEY, ab'e, _n._ a monastery of persons of either sex presided over by an
abbot or abbess: the church now or formerly attached to it: in Newstead
_Abbey_, &c., the name has been retained after the abbatial building had
become a private house:--_pl._ ABB'EYS. [O. Fr. _abaïe_ (Fr. _abbaye_)--L.
_abbatia_, See ABBA.]

ABBOT, ab'ut, _n._ the father or head of an abbey:--_fem._ ABB'ESS.--_n._
AB'BOTSHIP. [L. _abbas_, _abbatis_--ABBA.]

ABBREVIATE, ab-br[=e]'vi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make brief or short: to
abridge.--_ns._ ABBREVI[=A]'TION, ABBR[=E]'VIATURE, a shortening, a part of
a word put for the whole; ABBR[=E]'VIATOR, one who abbreviates.--_adj._
ABBR[=E]'VIATORY. [L. _abbrevi[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ab_, intensive, and
_brevis_, short. See BRIEF.]

ABC, ABCEE, [=a]-b[=e]-s[=e]', _n._ the alphabet from its first letters: a
first reading-book (_obs._), hence _fig._ the first rudiments of
anything.--ABC BOOK (_Shak._), a book to teach the _a_, _b_, _c_, or

ABDICATE, ab'di-k[=a]t, _v.t._ and _v.i._ formally to renounce or give up
office or dignity.--_adj._ AB'DICANT.--_n._ ABDIC[=A]'TION. [L. _ab_, from
or off, _dic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to proclaim.]

ABDOMEN, ab-d[=o]'men, _n._ the belly: the lower part of the trunk.--_adj._
ABDOM'INAL.--_adv._ ABDOM'INALLY.--_adj._ ABDOM'INOUS, pot-bellied. [L.]

ABDUCE, ab-d[=u]s', _v.t._ an earlier form of ABDUCT.--_adj._ ABDUC'ENT,
drawing back: separating. [L. _abduc[)e]re_--_ab_, from _duc[)e]re_,
_ductum_, to draw.]

ABDUCT, ab-dukt', _v.t._ to take away by fraud or violence.--_ns._
ABDUC'TION, the carrying away, esp. of a person by fraud or force;
ABDUC'TOR, one guilty of abduction: a muscle that draws away. [L.
_abduc[)e]re_. See ABDUCE.]

ABEAM, a-b[=e]m', _adv._ (_naut._) on the beam, or in a line at right
angles to a vessel's length. [Pfx. _a-_ (A.S. _on_), on, and BEAM.]

ABEAR, a-b[=a]r', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bear, to behave: (_prov._) to endure
or tolerate.--_n._ ABEAR'ANCE, (_obs._) behaviour. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, and

ABECEDARIAN, [=a]-be-se-d[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the a, b, c:
rudimentary.--ABECEDARIAN PSALMS (as the 119th) or HYMNS are such as are
divided into successive portions according to the letters of the alphabet.

ABED, a-bed', _adv._ in bed. [Pfx. _a-_, on, and BED.]

ABELE, a-b[=e]l', _n._ the white poplar-tree. [Dut. _abeel_; O. Fr. _abel_,
_aubel_--Late L. _albellus_, _albus_, white.]

ABERDEVINE, ab-[.e]r-de-v[=i]n', _n._ a bird-fancier's name for the siskin.
[Ety. uncertain; prob. a fanciful coinage.]

ABERRATE, ab'[.e]r-r[=a]t, _v.i._ to wander or deviate from the right
way:--_pr.p._ ab'err[=a]ting; _pa.p._ ab'err[=a]ted.--_ns._ ABER'RANCE,
ABER'RANCY (_rare forms_).--_adj._ ABER'RANT (_zool._ and _bot._),
wandering, deviating in some particulars from its group.--_n._
ABERR[=A]'TION, a wandering from the right path: deviation from truth or
rectitude: in science, deviation from the type: abnormal structure or
development.--ABERRATION OF LIGHT, an apparent alteration in the place of a
star, arising from the motion of the earth in its orbit, combined with the
progressive passage of light. [L. _aberr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ab_, from,
_err[=a]re_, to wander.]

ABET, a-bet', _v.t._ to incite by encouragement or aid (used chiefly in a
bad sense):--_pr.p._ abet'ting; _pa.p._ abet'ted.--_ns._ ABET'MENT;
ABET'TER, ABET'TOR, one who abets. [O. Fr. _abeter_--_à_ (--L. _ad_, to),
and _beter_, to bait, from root of BAIT.]

ABEYANCE, a-b[=a]'ans, _n._ a state of suspension or expectation: temporary
inactivity--also ABEY'ANCY.--The _v._ to ABEY is rare. [Fr.--_à_ (--L.
_ad_, to), and _bayer_, to gape in expectation, from imitative root _ba_,
to gape.]

ABHOMINABLE, an earlier spelling of ABOMINABLE.

ABHOR, ab-hor', _v.t._ to shrink from with horror: to detest: to
loathe:--_pr.p._ abhor'ring; _pa.p._ abhorred'.--_ns._ ABHOR'RENCE, extreme
hatred; (_obs._) ABHOR'RENCY.--_adj._ ABHOR'RENT, detesting; repugnant
(with _of_).--_ns._ ABHOR'RER, one who abhors; ABHOR'RING (_B._ and
_Shak._), object of abhorrence. [L. _abhorr[=e]re_, from _ab_, from, and
_horr[=e]re_. See HORROR.]

ABIB, [=a]'bib, _n._ the first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical, the
seventh of the civil year, later called Nisan, answering to parts of March
and April. [Heb., 'an ear of corn'--_[=a]bab_, to produce early fruit.]

ABIDE, a-b[=i]d', _v.t._ to bide or wait for: to endure: to
tolerate.--_v.i._ to remain in a place, dwell or stay:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
ab[=o]de'.--_n._ ABID'ANCE.--_adj._ ABID'ING, continual.--_n._ an
enduring.--_adv._ ABID'INGLY. [A.S. _ábídan_--pfx. _á-_ (= Goth. _us_ =
Ger. _er_), and _bídan_, to wait.]

ABIDE, a-b[=i]d', _v.t._ (_Shak._ and _Milton_) to redeem, pay the penalty
for, suffer. [M. E. _abyen_, confounded with ABIDE. See ABY.]

ABIES, ab'i-ez, _n._ the silver-fir.--_adj._ ABIET'IC, pertaining to trees
of the genus Abies. [L.]

ABIGAIL, ab'i-g[=a]l, _n._ a lady's-maid. [From _Abigail_, 1 Sam. xxv.]

ABILITY, a-bil'i-ti, _n._ quality of being able: power: strength:
skill.--_n.pl._ ABIL'ITIES, the powers of the mind. [O. Fr. _ableté_ (Fr.
_habileté_)--L. _habilitas_--_habilis_, easily handled, from _hab[=e]re_,
to have, hold. See ABLE.]

ABINTESTATE, ab-in-tes't[=a]t, _adj._ inheriting the estate of one who died
without having made a will. [L. _ab_, from, and INTESTATE.]

ABIOGENESIS, ab-i-o-jen'es-is, _n._ the origination of living by not-living
matter, spontaneous generation.--_adj._ ABIOGENET'IC--_n._ ABIO'GENIST, one
who believes in such. [Coined by Huxley in 1870; Gr. _a_, neg., _bios_,
life, _genesis_, birth.]

ABJECT, ab-jekt', _v.t._ (_obs._) to throw or cast down or away. [L.
_abjic[)e]re_, _-jectum_--_ab_, away, _jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

ABJECT, ab'jekt, _adj._ cast away: mean: worthless: cowering: base.--_n._
an outcast.--_ns._ ABJEC'TION, AB'JECTNESS, a mean or low state: baseness:
degradation.--_adv._ AB'JECTLY. [L. _abjectus_, cast away--_ab_, away,
_jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

ABJUDGE, ab-juj', _v.t._ (_rare_) to take away by judicial sentence. [L.
_ab_, from, and JUDGE.]

ABJUDICATE, ab-j[=oo]'di-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to give by judgment from one to
another. [L. _ab_, from, and JUDICATE.]

ABJURE, ab-j[=oo]r', _v.t._ to renounce on oath or solemnly: to recant: to
repudiate.--_n._ ABJUR[=A]'TION, official renunciation on oath of any
principle or pretension.--_adj._ ABJUR'ATORY.--_n._ ABJUR'ER. [L. _ab_,
from, _jur[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to swear.]

ABKARI, ab-kä'ri, _n._ the manufacture or sale of spirituous liquors: the
excise duty levied on such.--Also ABKA'RY. [Pers.]

ABLACTATION, ab-lak-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a weaning. [L. _ab_, from,
_lact[=a]re_, to suckle--_lac_, _lactis_, milk.]

ABLATION, ab-l[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of carrying away: (_geol._) the
wearing away of rock by the action of water.--_adj._ ABLATI'TIOUS. [L.
_ab_, from, _latum_, supine of _ferre_, to bear.]

ABLATIVE, ab'lat-iv, _adj._ used as a noun. The name applied to one of the
cases in the declension of nouns and pronouns in the Indo-European
languages, retained as in Latin and Sanskrit, or merged in another case, as
in the genitive in Greek. Its meaning was to express _direction from_ or
_time when_.--_adj._ ABLAT[=I]'VAL. [L. _ablativus_--_ab_, from, _ferre_,
_latum_, to take; as if it indicated taking away, or privation.]

ABLAUT, ab'lowt, _n._ (_philol._) vowel permutation, a substitution of one
root vowel for another in derivation, as in s_i_ng, s_a_ng, s_o_ng, s_u_ng,
distinct from the phonetic influence of a succeeding vowel, as in the
Umlaut. It is especially the change of a vowel to indicate tense-change in
strong verbs. [Ger., from _ab_, off, and _laut_, sound.]

ABLAZE, a-bl[=a]z', _adj._ in a blaze, on fire: gleaming brightly. [Prep.
_a_, and BLAZE.]

ABLE, [=a]'bl, _adj._ (comp. A'BLER; superl. A'BLEST) having sufficient
strength, power, or means to do a thing: skilful.--_adj._ A'BLE-BOD'IED, of
a strong body: free from disability, of a sailor, labourer, &c.:
robust.--_adv._ A'BLY. [See ABILITY.]

ABLEGATE, ab'le-g[=a]t, _n._ a papal envoy who carries the insignia of
office to a newly-appointed cardinal.

ABLOOM, a-bl[=oo]m', _adv._ in a blooming state. [Prep. _a_, on, and

ABLUENT, ab'l[=oo]-ent, _adj._ washing or cleaning by a liquid.--_n._ a
medicine which carries off impurities from the system. [L. _abluens_,
_-entis_, pr.p. of _ablu[)e]re_, to wash away--_ab_, from, away, and
_lu[)e]re_ = _lav[=a]re_, to wash. See LAVE.]

ABLUTION, ab-l[=oo]'shun, _n._ act of washing, esp. the body, preparatory
to religious rites: any ceremonial washing, symbolic of moral purification:
the wine and water used to rinse the chalice, drunk by the officiating
priest.--_adj._ ABLU'TIONARY. [L. _ablutio_--_ab_, away, _lu[)e]re_ =
_lav[=a]re_, to wash.]

ABNEGATE, ab'ne-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to deny.--_ns._ ABNEG[=A]'TION,
renunciation; AB'NEGATOR, one who abnegates or renounces. [L. _ab_, away,
and _neg[=a]re_, to deny.]

ABNORMAL, ab-nor'mal, _adj._ not normal or according to rule:
irregular--also ABNOR'MOUS.--_ns._ ABNORMAL'ITY, ABNOR'MITY.--_adv._
ABNOR'MALLY. [L. _ab_, away from, and NORMAL.]

ABOARD, a-b[=o]rd', _adv._ or _prep._ on board: in a ship, or in a train
(_Amer._). [Prep. _a_, on, and BOARD.]


ABODE, a-b[=o]d', _n._ a dwelling-place: stay. [See ABIDE.]

ABODE, a-b[=o]d', _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of ABIDE.

ABODEMENT, a-b[=o]d'ment, _n._ (_obs._) a foreboding: an omen. [From ABODE,
with suff. _-ment_. See BODE, FOREBODE.]

ABOLISH, ab-ol'ish, _v.t._ to put an end to: to annul.--_adj._
ABOL'ISHABLE, capable of being abolished.--_ns._ ABOL'ISHMENT (_rare_);
ABOLI'TION, the act of abolishing; ABOLI'TIONISM, advocacy of abolitionist
principles; ABOLI'TIONIST, one who seeks to abolish anything, esp. slavery.
[Fr. _abolir_, _aboliss_--from L. _abol[=e]re_, _-itum_--_ab_, from,
_ol[=e]re_, to grow. The prep. _ab_ here reverses the meaning of the simple

ABOMASUS, ab-[=o]-m[=a]'sus, _n._ the fourth stomach of ruminants, lying
close to the omasum or third stomach.--Also ABOM[=A]'SUM. [L. _ab_, and
_omasum_, paunch.]

ABOMINATE, ab-om'in-[=a]t, _v.t._ to abhor: to detest extremely.--_adj._
ABOM'INABLE, hateful: detestable, an old spelling is ABHOM'INABLE, to agree
with a fancied etymology in Lat. _ab homine_.--_n._
aversion: anything disgusting or detestable. [L. _abomin[=a]ri_,
_-[=a]tus_, to turn from as of bad omen. See OMEN.]

ABORD, a-b[=o]rd', _v.t._ (_arch._) to accost: (_Spens._) astray, at a
loss.--_n._ (_Spens._) harbour: act of approaching: manner of approach.
[Fr. _aborder_, _à bord_. See ABOARD and BORDER.]

ABORIGINAL, ab-o-rij'in-al, _adj._ first, primitive, indigenous.--_adv._

ABORIGINES, ab-o-rij'in-[=e]z, _n.pl._ the original inhabitants of a
country. [L. See ORIGIN.]

ABORT, ab-ort', _v.i._ to miscarry in birth: to remain in a rudimentary
state.--_n._ ABOR'TION, premature delivery, or the procuring of such:
anything that does not reach maturity: a mis-shapen being or
monster.--_adj._ ABORT'IVE, born untimely: unsuccessful: producing nothing:
brought forth in an imperfect condition: rudimentary.--_adv._
ABORT'IVELY.--_n._ ABORT'IVENESS. [L. _abor[=i]ri_, _abortus_--_ab_, from,
away, _or[=i]ri_, to rise.]

ABOUND, ab-ownd', _v.i._ to overflow, be in great plenty: to possess in
plenty (with _in_): to be filled with (used with _with_). [O. Fr.
_abunder_--L. _abund[=a]re_, to overflow, _ab_, from, _unda_, a wave.]

ABOUT, a-bowt', _prep._ round on the outside: around: here and there in:
near to: concerning: engaged in.--_adv._ around: nearly: here and
there.--BRING ABOUT, to cause to take place; COME ABOUT, to take place; GO
ABOUT, to prepare to do; PUT ABOUT, disturbed; TO BE ABOUT, to be astir;
TURN ABOUT, alternately. [A.S. _on bútan_; _on_, in, _bútan_, without,
itself compounded of _be_, by, and _útan_, locative of _út_, out.]

ABOVE, a-buv', _prep._ on the upside: higher than: more than.--_adv._
overhead: in a higher position, order, or power.--_adjs._ ABOVE'-BOARD,
open, honourable; ABOVE'-GROUND, alive: not buried. [A.S. _ábúfan_--_á_,
on, _bufan_, above, itself compounded of _be_, by, _ufan_, high, upwards,
prop. the locative of _uf_, up.]

ABRACADABRA, ab-ra-ka-dab'ra, _n._ a cabbalistic word, written in
successive lines, each shorter by a letter than the one above it, till the
last letter A formed the apex of a triangle. It was worn as a charm for the
cure of diseases. Now used generally for a spell or conjuring word: mere
gibberish. [First found in 2d-cent. poem (_Præcepta de Medicina_) by Q.
Serenus Sammonicus; further origin unknown.]

ABRADE, ab-r[=a]d', _v.t._ to scrape or rub off: to wear down by friction.
[L. _ab_, off, _rad[)e]re_, _rasum_, to scrape.]

ABRAHAM-MAN, [=a]'bra-ham-man, _n._ originally a lunatic beggar from
Bethlehem Hospital in London, marked by a special badge. Many sturdy
beggars assumed this, hence the phrase TO SHAM ABRAHAM, to feign sickness,
still used among sailors. [The wards in the old Bedlam are said to have
been distinguished by the names of saints and patriarchs, as _Abraham_.
Some find the origin of the name in an allusion to the parable of the
beggar Lazarus, who found his rest in _Abraham's_ bosom (Luke xvi.).]

ABRANCHIATE, a-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ having no gills.--Also ABRAN'CHIAL.
[Gr. _a_, priv., and _brangchia_, gills.]

ABRASION, ab-r[=a]'zhun, _n._ the act of rubbing off.--_adj._ and _n._


ABRAXAS, a-braks'as, _n._ a mystic word, or an amulet, consisting of a gem
engraved therewith on some part of it, often bearing a mystical figure of
combined human and animal form, used as a charm. [Said to be coined by the
Egyptian Gnostic Basilides in 2d century to express 365 in Greek letters;
thus [Greek: abraxas] used as numerals = 1 + 2 + 100 + 1 + 60 + 1 + 200.
But Mr C. W. King finds its origin in Heb. _ha-b'r[=a]k[=a]h_, 'the
blessing,' or 'sacred name,' used as the title of a Gnostic deity
representing the 365 emanations of the Divine Pl[=e]r[=o]ma or fullness.]

ABRAY, a-br[=a]', ABRAYD, a-br[=a]d', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to start out of
sleep: to awake.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to arouse, startle.--The more correct
form is _abraid_. [Made up of pfx. _a-_, and _abrédan_. A.S. _breydan_, to
twist. See BRAID.]

ABREAST, a-brest', _adv._ with fronts in a line: side by side: (_naut._)
opposite to. [Prep. _a_, on, and BREAST.]


ABRIDGE, a-brij', _v.t._ to make brief or short: to shorten: to epitomise:
to curtail, as privileges or authority.--_ns._ ABRIDG'MENT, ABRIDGE'MENT,
contraction: shortening of time, labour or privileges: a compendium of a
larger work: an epitome or synopsis: (_law_) the leaving out of certain
portions Of a plaintiff's demand, the writ still holding good for the
remainder. [O. Fr. _abregier_ (Fr. _abréger_)--L. _abbrevi[=a]re_. See

ABROACH, a-br[=o]ch', _adv._ broached: in a condition to let the liquor run
out: in a state to be diffused, afloat: astir. [Prep. _a_, and BROACH.]

ABROAD, a-brawd', _adv._ on the broad or open space: out of doors: public:
in another country. [Prep. _a_, and BROAD.]

ABROGATE, ab'ro-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to repeal (a law): to set aside.--_n._
ABROG[=A]'TION, act of repealing or setting aside.--_adj._ AB'ROGATIVE. [L.
_ab_, away, _rog[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to ask or propose a law.]

ABROOK, a-brook', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to brook, bear, or endure. [Pfx. _a-_,
and BROOK, _v._]

ABRUPT, ab-rupt', _adj._ the opposite of gradual, as if broken off: sudden:
unexpected: precipitous: (_of style_) passing from one thought to another
without transitions: (_of manners_) short, rude.--_n._ an abrupt
place.--_n._ ABRUP'TION, a sudden breaking off: violent separation:
(_Shak._) interruption, pause.--_adv._ ABRUPT'LY.--_n._ ABRUPT'NESS. [L.
_abruptus_--_ab_, off, _rump[)e]re_, _ruptum_, to break.]

ABSCESS, ab'ses, _n._ a collection of purulent matter within some tissue of
the body. [L. _abscessus_--_abs_, away, _ced[)e]re_, _cessum_, to go, to

ABSCIND, ab-sind', _v.t._ to cut off.--_n._ ABSCIS'SION, act of cutting
off, or state of being cut off: (_rhet._) a figure of speech in which the
words demanded by the sense are left unsaid, the speaker stopping short
suddenly. [L. _abscindo_; _ab_, off, _scindo_, to cut.]

ABSCISS, ab'sis, ABSCISSA, ab-sis'sa, _n._ the straight line cut off or
intercepted between the vertex of a curve and an ordinate, measured along
the principal axis:--_pl._ ABSCISS'ES, ABSCISS'Æ, ABSCISS'AS. [L.
_abscissus_, cut off, _pa.p._ of _abscind[)e]re_--_ab_, from,
_scind[)e]re_, to cut.]

ABSCOND, abs-kond', _v.i._ to hide, or quit the country, in order to escape
a legal process. [L. _abscond[)e]re_, _abs_, from or away, _cond[)e]re_, to

ABSENT, abs'ent, _adj._ being away: not present: inattentive--_v.t._
(abs-ent') to keep one's self away.--_ns._ ABS'ENCE, the state of being
away or not present: want: inattention; ABSENTEE', one who is absent on any
occasion: one who makes a habit of living away from his estate or his
office; ABSENTEE'ISM, the practice of absenting one's self from duty or
station, esp. of a landowner living away from his estate.--_adv._
AB'SENTLY. [L. _absent-_, pr.p. of _absum_--_ab_, away from, _sum_, _esse_,
to be.]

ABSINTH, ABSINTHE, ab'sinth, _n._ spirit combined with extract of
wormwood.--_adjs._ ABSINTH'IAN, ABSINTH'IATED, impregnated with absinth.
[Fr.--L. _absinthium_, wormwood--Gr.]

ABSOLUTE, ab'sol-[=u]t, _adj._ free from limits or conditions: complete:
unlimited: free from mixture: considered without reference to other things:
unconditioned, unalterable: unrestricted by constitutional checks (said of
a government): (_gram._) not immediately dependent: (_phil._) existing in
and by itself without necessary relation to any other being: capable of
being conceived of as unconditioned. In the sense of being finished,
perfect, it may be considered as opposed to the Infinite; but, in the sense
of being freed from restriction or condition, it is evident the Infinite
itself must be absolute. Opposite schools differ on the question whether
the Absolute can be known under conditions of consciousness.--_adv._
AB'SOLUTELY, separately: unconditionally: positively: completely.--_ns._
AB'SOLUTENESS; ABSOL[=U]'TION, release from punishment: acquittal:
remission of sins declared officially by a priest, or the formula by which
such is expressed; AB'SOLUTISM, government where the ruler is without
restriction; AB'SOLUTIST, a supporter of absolute government.--_adjs._
ABSOL'UTORY, ABSOLV'ATORY.--THE ABSOLUTE, that which is absolute,
self-existent, uncaused. [L. _absolutus_, pa.p. of _absolv[)e]re_. See

ABSOLVE, ab-zolv', _v.t._ to loose or set free: to pardon: to acquit: to
discharge (with _from_).--_ns._ ABSOLV'ER, one who gives absolution or
acquits; ABSOLV'ITOR, a decision favourable to a defender.--_v.t._
ASSOIL'ZIE, in Scots law, to absolve the accused on the grounds that the
evidence disproves or does not establish the charge. [L. _ab_, from,
_solv[)e]re_, _solutum_, to loose. See SOLVE.]

ABSONANT, ab'so-nant, _adj._ discordant: absurd: unnatural (with _to_ or
_from_)--opp. to _Consonant_. [L. _ab_, from, _sonant-_, pr.p. of
_son[=a]re_, to sound.]

ABSORB, ab-sorb', _v.t._ to suck in: to swallow up: to engage wholly.--_n._
ABSORBABIL'ITY.--_adj._ ABSORB'ABLE, that may be absorbed.--_p.adj._
ABSORBED', swallowed up: entirely occupied.--_advs._ ABSORB'EDLY,
ABSORB'INGLY.--_adj._ ABSORB'ENT, imbibing: swallowing.--_n._ that which
absorbs.--_n._ ABSORP'TION, the act of absorbing: entire occupation of
mind.--_adj._ ABSORP'TIVE, having power to absorb.--_n._ ABSORPTIV'ITY.
[Fr.--L. _ab_, from, _sorb[=e]re_, _-sorptum_, to suck in.]

ABSTAIN, abs-t[=a]n', _v.i._ to hold or refrain from.--_ns._ ABSTAIN'ER,
specially one who does not take alcoholic drinks; ABSTEN'TION, a
refraining. [Fr. _abstenir_--L. _abs_, from, _ten[=e]re_, to hold. See

ABSTEMIOUS, abs-t[=e]m'i-us, _adj._ temperate: sparing in food, drink, or
enjoyments.--_adv._ ABSTEM'IOUSLY.--_n._ ABSTEM'IOUSNESS. [L.
_abstemius_--_abs_, from, _temetum_, strong wine.]

ABSTERSION, abs-ter'shun, _n._ act of cleansing or washing away
impurities.--_v.t._ ABSTERGE', to cleanse, purge.--_adjs._ ABSTER'GENT,
serving to cleanse; ABSTER'SIVE, having the quality of cleansing:
purgative. [L. _absterg[=e]re_, _-tersum_, to wipe away.]

ABSTINENT, abs'tin-ent, _adj._ abstaining from: temperate.--_n._
ABS'TINENCE, an abstaining or refraining, especially from some indulgence
(with _from_)--also ABS'TINENCY.--_adv._ ABS'TINENTLY. [See ABSTAIN.]

ABSTRACT, abs-trakt', _v.t._ to draw away: to separate: to purloin.--_adj._
ABSTRACT'ED, drawn off (with _from_): removed: absent in mind.--_adv._
state of being abstracted: absence of mind: the operation of the mind by
which certain qualities or attributes of an object are considered apart
from the rest: a purloining.--_adj._ ABSTRACT'IVE, having the power of
abstracting.--_n._ anything abstractive: an abstract.--_adv._
ABS'TRACTLY.--_n._ ABS'TRACTNESS. [L. _abs_, away from, _trah[)e]re_,
_tractum_, to draw. See TRACE.]

ABSTRACT, abs'trakt, _adj._ general, as opposed to particular or individual
(the opposite of _abstract_ is _concrete_--a red colour is an abstract
notion, a red rose is a concrete notion; an abstract noun is the name of a
quality apart from the thing, as redness).--_n._ summary: abridgment:
essence. [L. _abstractus_, as if a quality common to a number of things
were drawn away from the things and considered by itself.]

ABSTRUSE, abs-tr[=oo]s', _adj._ hidden: remote from apprehension: difficult
to be understood.--_adv._ ABSTRUSE'LY.--_ns._ ABSTRUSE'NESS; ABSTRUS'ITY
(_Sir T. Browne_). [L. _abstrusus_, thrust away (from
observation)--_trud[)e]re_, _trusum_, to thrust.]

ABSURD, ab-surd', _adj._ obviously unreasonable or false:
ridiculous.--_ns._ ABSURD'ITY, ABSURD'NESS, the quality of being absurd:
anything absurd.--_adv._ ABSURD'LY. [L. _absurdus_--_ab_, from, _surdus_,
harsh-sounding, deaf.]

ABUNDANCE, ab-und'ans, _n._ ample sufficiency: great plenty.--_adj._
ABUND'ANT, plentiful.--_adv._ ABUND'ANTLY. [See ABOUND.]

ABUSE, ab-[=u]z', _v.t._ to use wrongly: to pervert: to revile: to
violate.--_ns._ ABUSE (ab-[=u]s'), ill use: misapplication: reproach:
vituperation; AB[=U]'SION (_Spens._), abuse: deception: reproach.--_adj._
ABUS'IVE, containing or practising abuse: full of abuses:
vituperative.--_adv._ ABUS'IVELY.--_n._ ABUS'IVENESS. [L. _ab_, away (from
what is right), _uti_, _usus_, to use.]

ABUT, a-but', _v.i._ to end: to border (on):--_pr.p._ abut'ting; _pa.p._
abut'ted.--_ns._ ABUT'MENT, that which abuts: (_archit._) what a limb of an
arch ends or rests on; ABUT'TAL, an abutment: (_pl._) the
boundaries.--_p.adj._ ABUT'TING, facing each other: front to front. [Fr.
_abouter_, lit. to join end to end (_à_, to, _bout_, end). See BUTT, the

ABY, ABYE, a-b[=i], _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_arch._) to pay the penalty: to
suffer for: to give satisfaction.--ABY occurs in Spens. with sense of
'abide.' [Pfx. _a-_, and A.S. _bycgan_. See BUY.]

ABYSM, a-bizm', _n._ a form of ABYSS.--_adj._ ABYS'MAL, bottomless:
unending.--_adv._ ABYSM'ALLY. [O. Fr. _abisme_, from Lat. _abyssimus_,
superl. of _abyssus_, bottomless.]

ABYSS, a-bis', _n._ a bottomless gulf: a deep mass of water.--_adj._
ABYSS'AL. [Gr. _abyssos_, bottomless--_a_, without, _byssos_, bottom.]

ACACIA, a-k[=a]'shi-a, _n._ a genus of thorny leguminous plants with
pinnate leaves. [L.--Gr. _akakia_--_ak[=e]_, a sharp point.]

ACADEME, ak-a-d[=e]m', _n._ (_obs._) an academy.

ACADEMIC, ak-ad-em'ik, _n._ a Platonic philosopher: a student in a college.

ACADEMY, ak-ad'em-i, _n._ (_orig._) the school of Plato: a higher school: a
society for the promotion of science or art.--_adjs._ ACADEM'IC, -AL, of an
academy: theoretical as opposed to practical.--_adv._
ACADEM'ICALLY.--_n.pl._ ACADEM'ICALS, the articles of dress worn by members
of an academy or college.--_ns._ ACADEMIC'IAN, ACAD'EMIST, a member of an
academy, or, specially, of the French Academy, or the Royal Academy in
London. [Gr. _Akad[=e]mia_, the name of the garden near Athens where Plato

ACADIAN, a-k[=a]'di-an, _adj._ of or native to Nova Scotia, Acadia being
the name given to the country by the first French settlers in 1604.

ACAJOU, ak'a-j[=oo], _n._ the gum or resin of a kind of red mahogany.
[Origin doubtful. See CASHEW.]

ACALEPHA, ak-a-l[=e]'fa, _n._ a class of Radiate marine animals, consisting
of soft gelatinous substance. The name was first applied to the Jelly-fish
tribe, but later was made to include the true _Medusæ_ or jelly-fishes, and
others.--Other forms are ACALEPH and ACALEPHAN. [Gr. _akal[=e]ph[=e]_, a

ACANTHOPTERYGIAN, ak-an-thop-t[.e]r-ij'i-an, _adj._ having spiny fins. [Gr.
_akantha_, thorn, _pteryx_, _pterygos_, a wing, a fin.]


ACANTHUS, a-kan'thus, _n._ a prickly plant, called bear's breech or
brank-ursine: (_archit._) an ornament resembling its leaves used in the
capitals of the Corinthian and Composite orders, &c.--also
_akanthos_--_ak[=e]_, a point, _anthos_, a flower.]

ACARPOUS, a-kar'pus, _adj._ (_bot._) without, or not producing, fruit. [Gr.
_a_, neg., and _karpos_, fruit.]

ACARUS, ak'ar-us, _n._ a genus of minute insects, of the class Arachnides,
embracing the mites and ticks:--_pl._ AC'AR[=I]. [L.; Gr. _akares_, minute,
too small to cut--_a_, neg., _keirein_, to cut short.]

ACATALECTIC, a-kat-a-lek'tik, _adj._ having the complete number of
syllables as a verse: without defect.--_n._ an acatalectic verse. [L.--Gr.
_a_, not, and CATALECTIC.]

ACATALEPSY, a-kat-a-lep'si, _n._ incomprehensibility, a term of the sceptic
school of Carneades, who thought nothing could be known to certainty by
man.--_adj._ ACATALEP'TIC. [Gr. _akatal[=e]psia_--_a_, neg., _kata_,
thoroughly, _l[=e]psis_, a seizing--_lambanein_, to take hold.]

ACATER, a-k[=a]t'[.e]r, _n._ (_obs._) a caterer.--_n.pl._ ACATES',
provisions: food. [O. Fr. _acateor_, _achatour_ (Fr. _acheteur_)--Low L.
_accapt[=a]t[=o]r-em_, _accaptare_, to acquire--L. _ad-_, to, and
_capt[=a]re_, to seize. See CATES.]

ACAULESCENT, a-kaw-les'ent, _adj._ without a stalk: (_bot._) having no stem
above ground, or only a very short one.--Also ACAU'LOUS. [_a_, neg., L.
_caulis_, a stalk, formed on pattern of ARBORESCENT.]

ACCABLE, ak-k[=a]'bl, _v.t._ (_obs._) to crush, to encumber. [Fr.
_accabler_, to crush.]

ACCADIAN, a-k[=a]'di-an, _adj._ of or belonging to Accad, an ancient city
mentioned in Gen. x. 10: the language preserved in the earliest form of
cuneiform writing.

ACCEDE, ak-s[=e]d', _v.i._ to come to, or arrive at, a place or condition:
to join one's self, hence to agree or assent (with _to_).--_ns._ ACCED'ER;
ACCED'ING. [L. _acced[)e]re_, _accessum_, to go near to--_ad_, to,
_ced[)e]re_, to go. See CEDE.]

ACCELERATE, ak-sel'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to increase the speed of: to hasten
the progress of.--_n._ ACCELER[=A]'TION, the act of hastening: increase of
speed.--_adj._ ACCEL'ERATIVE, quickening.--_n._ ACCEL'ERATOR, one who or
that which accelerates: a light van to take mails between a post-office and
a railway station.--_adj._ ACCEL'ERATORY. [L. _acceler[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _celer_, swift. See CELERITY.]

ACCEND, ak-send', _v.i._ (_obs._) to kindle.--_ns._ ACCENDIBIL'ITY,

ACCENT, ak'sent, _n._ modulation of the voice: stress on a syllable or
word: a mark used to direct this stress: any mode of utterance peculiar to
a country, a province, or an individual: (_poet._) a significant word, or
words generally: (_pl._) speech, language.--_v.t._ ACCENT', to express or
note the accent.--_adj._ ACCENT'UAL, relating to accent.--_n._
ACCENTUAL'ITY.--_adv._ ACCENT'UALLY.--_v.t._ ACCENT'UATE, to mark or
pronounce with accent: to make prominent.--_n._ ACCENTU[=A]'TION, the act
of marking or of pronouncing accents. [Fr.--L. _accentus_, a tone or
note--_ad_, to, _can[)e]re_, to sing.]

ACCENTOR, ak-sent'or, _n._ the so-called 'hedge-sparrow' (q.v.).

ACCEPT, ak-sept', _v.t._ to receive: to agree to: to promise to pay: (_B._)
to receive with favour.--_adj._ ACCEPTABLE (ak-sept'a-bl, or ak'sept-a-bl),
to be accepted: pleasing: agreeable.--_ns._ ACCEPT'ABLENESS,
ACCEPTABIL'ITY, quality of being acceptable.--_adv._ ACCEPT'ABLY.--_ns._
ACCEPT'ANCE, a favourable reception: an agreeing to terms: an accepted
bill; ACCEPT'ANCY, willingness to receive; ACCEPT'ANT, one who
accepts--also _adj._; ACCEPT[=A]'TION, a kind reception: the received
meaning of a word; ACCEPT'ER, ACCEPT'OR, one who accepts. [L.
_accept[=a]re_--_accip[)e]re_, _acceptum_--_ad_, to, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

ACCEPTILATION, ak-sept-il-[=a]'shun, _n._ (_Roman_ and _Scots law_) the
remission of a debt through an acquittance by the creditor testifying to
the receipt of money which never has been paid--a kind of legal fiction for
a free remission: (_theol._) the doctrine that the satisfaction rendered by
Christ was not in itself really a true or full equivalent, but was merely
accepted by God, through his gracious good-will, as sufficient--laid down
by Duns Scotus, and maintained by the Arminians. [L. _acceptilatio_.]

ACCESS, ak'ses, or ak-ses', _n._ liberty to come to, approach:
increase.--_n._ ACCESSIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ ACCESS'IBLE, that may be
approached.--_adv._ ACCESS'IBLY. [See ACCEDE.]

ACCESSARY, ak-ses'ar-i, or ak'ses-ar-i. Same as ACCESSORY. _Accessary_ is
now the usual spelling of both the adjective and the noun in their legal

ACCESSION, ak-sesh'un, _n._ a coming to: increase.--A DEED OF ACCESSION
(_Scots law_), a deed by which the creditors of a bankrupt approve of a
trust settlement executed by the debtor for the general behoof, and consent
to the arrangement proposed.

ACCESSORY, ak'ses-sor-i, _adj._ additional: contributing to: aiding:
(_law_) participating in a crime, as in reset of theft, and the like.--_n._
anything additional: one who aids or gives countenance to a crime.--_adj._
ACCESS[=O]R'IAL, relating to an accessory.--_adv._ AC'CESSORILY, in the
manner of an accessory: by subordinate means.

ACCIDENCE, ak'sid-ens, _n._ the part of grammar treating of the inflections
of words (because these changes are 'accidentals' of words and not

ACCIDENT, ak'sid-ent, _n._ that which happens: an unforeseen or unexpected
event: chance: an unessential quality or property.--_adj._ ACCIDENT'AL,
happening by chance: not essential.--_n._ anything not essential.--_ns._
ACCIDENTS, the unforeseen course of events. [L. _accid[)e]re_, to
happen--_ad_, to, _cad[)e]re_, to fall.]

ACCITE, ak-s[=i]t', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to cite or call, to summon:--_pr.p._
acc[=i]t'ing; _pa.p._ acc[=i]t'ed. [L. _acc[=i]re_, _-citum_--_ad_, to,
_ci[=e]re_, _citum_, to call.]

ACCLAMATION, ak-klam-[=a]'shun, _n._ a shout of applause--(_poet._)
ACCLAIM'.--_v.t._ ACCLAIM', to declare by acclamation.--_adj._
ACCLAM'ATORY, expressing acclamation. [L. _acclam[=a]re_--_ad_, to,
_clam[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to shout. See CLAIM.]

ACCLIMATISE, ak-kl[=i]m'at-[=i]z, _v.t._ to inure to a foreign
climate--also ACCLIM'ATE.--_n._ ACCLIMATIS[=A]'TION, the act of
acclimatising: the state of being acclimatised--also ACCLIM[=A]'TION,
ACCLIMAT[=A]'TION, the former anomalous, the second used in French. [Fr.
_acclimater_, from _à_ and _climat_. See CLIMATE.]

ACCLIMATURE, ak-kl[=i]'ma-t[=u]r, _n._ Same as ACCLIMATISATION.

ACCLIVITY, ak-kliv'i-ti, _n._ a slope upwards--opp. to _Declivity_, a slope
downwards.--_adj._ ACCL[=I]'VOUS, rising as an acclivity--also
ACCLIV'ITOUS. [L. _ad_, to, _clivus_, a slope.]

ACCLOY, ak-kloi', _v.t._ (_obs._) to cloy or choke: to fill to satiety: to
encumber. [See CLOY.]

ACCOAST, ak-k[=o]st', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to fly near the earth. [See

ACCOIL, ak-koil', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to gather together. [Through Fr.--L.
_ad_, to, _collig[)e]ere_, to collect. See COIL.]

ACCOLADE, ak-ol-[=a]d', _n._ a ceremony used in conferring knighthood,
formerly an embrace, a kiss, now a slap on the shoulders with the flat of a
sword. [Fr.--L. _ad_, to, _collum_, neck.]

ACCOMMODATE, ak-kom'mod-[=a]t, _v.t._ to adapt: to make suitable: to
adjust: to harmonise or force into consistency (_to_): to furnish or supply
(_with_): to provide entertainment for.--_p.adj._ ACCOM'MODATING, affording
accommodation: obliging: pliable: easily corrupted.--_n._
ACCOMMOD[=A]'TION, convenience: fitness: adjustment: obligingness: an
arrangement or compromise: (_theol._) an adaptation or method of
interpretation which explains the special form in which the revelation is
presented as unessential to its contents, or rather as often adopted by way
of compromise with human ignorance or weakness: a loan of money.--_adj._
ACCOM'MODATIVE, furnishing accommodation: obliging.--_ns._
accepted, or endorsed by one or more persons as security for a sum advanced
to another by a third party, as a banker; ACCOMMODATION LADDER, a stairway
at the outside of a ship's gangway to facilitate access to boats. [L. _ad_,
to, _commodus_, fitting. See COMMODIOUS.]

ACCOMPANABLE, ak-kum'pan-a-bl, _adj._ (_obs._) sociable. [From ACCOMPANY.]

ACCOMPANY, ak-kum'pan-i, _v.t._ to keep company with: to attend: to support
a singer by singing or playing on any instrument an additional part
(_with_, of music; _on_, of the instrument).--_ns._ ACCOM'PANIER;
ACCOM'PANIMENT, that which accompanies: (_mus._) the assisting of a solo
part by other parts, which may consist of a whole orchestra, or a single
instrument, or even subservient vocal parts; ACCOM'PANIST, one who
accompanies a singer on an instrument to sustain his voice. [Fr.
_accompagner_. See COMPANY.]

ACCOMPLICE, ak-kom'plis, _n._ an associate, esp. in crime, in modern use
(with _of_ and _with_ before a person, and _in_ or _of_ before the crime).
[L. _ad_, to, _complex_, _-icis_, joined.]

ACCOMPLISH, ak-kom'plish, _v.t._ to complete: to bring about: to effect: to
fulfil: to equip.--_adjs._ ACCOM'PLISHABLE, that may be accomplished;
ACCOM'PLISHED, complete in acquirements, especially graceful acquirements:
polished.--_n._ ACCOM'PLISHMENT, completion: ornamental acquirement. [Fr.
_acomplir_--L. _ad_, to, _compl[=e]re_, to fill up. See COMPLETE.]

ACCOMPT, ak-komt', _n._ an almost obsolete form of ACCOUNT; ACCOMPT'ABLE,


ACCORD, ak-kord', _v.i._ to agree: to be in correspondence
(_with_).--_v.t._ to cause to agree: to reconcile: to grant (_to_, of a
person).--_n._ agreement: harmony.--_n._ ACCORD'ANCE, agreement:
conformity--also ACCORD'ANCY.--_adj._ ACCORD'ANT, agreeing:
corresponding.--_adv._ ACCORD'ANTLY.--_p.adj._ ACCORD'ING, in accordance:
agreeing: harmonious.--_adv._ ACCORD'INGLY, agreeably: suitably: in
agreement (with what precedes).--ACCORDING AS, in proportion as, or
agreeably as; ACCORDING TO, in accordance with, or agreeably to.--OF ONE'S
OWN ACCORD, of one's own spontaneous motion. [O. Fr. _acorder_--L. _ad_,
to, _cor_, _cordis_, the heart.]

ACCORDION, ak-kor'di-on, _n._ a portable musical instrument consisting of a
hand-bellows, with keyboard on one side, the keys resting on free metal
reeds so arranged that each sounds two notes, one in expanding, the other
in contracting the bellows. [From ACCORD.]

ACCOST, ak-kost', _v.t._ to speak first to: to address.--_ns._ ACCOST',
ACCOST'ING (_obs._), address: greeting.--_adj._ ACCOST'ABLE, easy of
access. [O. Fr. _acoster_--Low L. _accost[=a]re_, to be side by side--L.
_ad_, to, _costa_, a side.]

ACCOUCHEMENT, ak-k[=oo]sh'mong, _n._ delivery in childbed. [Fr.
_accoucher_. See COUCH.]

ACCOUCHEUR, ak-k[=oo]-sh[.e]r', _n._ a man who assists women in
child-birth: a medical practitioner with this speciality:--_fem._
ACCOUCHEUSE (ak-k[=oo]-sh[.e]z'). [Fr.]

ACCOUNT, ak-kownt', _v.t._ to reckon: to judge, value.--_v.i._ (with _for_)
to give a reason: to give an account of money held in trust.--_n._ a
counting: statement: value: sake: a reckoning as to money, as in phrases
like, 'to render an account,' 'to settle an account,' 'to square accounts'
with any one, &c.--_adj._ ACCOUNT'ABLE, liable to account, responsible
(_for_, of the thing; _to_, of the person).--_ns._ ACCOUNT'ABLENESS,
ACCOUNTABIL'ITY, liability to give account, responsibility to fulfil
obligations.--_adv._ ACCOUNT'ABLY.--_ns._ ACCOUNT'ANCY, the office or work
of an accountant; ACCOUNT'ANT, one who keeps, or is skilled in, accounts;
ACCOUNT'ANTSHIP, the employment of an accountant; ACCOUNT'-BOOK, a book in
which accounts are kept.--ACCOUNT CURRENT, or open account, a course of
business dealings still going on between two persons, or a person and a
bank.--FOR ACCOUNT OF, on behalf of; FOR THE ACCOUNT, for settlement on the
regular fortnightly or monthly settling-day, instead of for cash (of sales
on the Stock Exchange).--IN ACCOUNT WITH, in business relations requiring
the keeping of an account with some one.--ON or TO ACCOUNT, an instalment
or interim payment.--TO MAKE ACCOUNT OF, to set value upon; TO TAKE INTO
ACCOUNT, to take into consideration; TO TAKE NO ACCOUNT OF, to overlook.
[O. Fr. _acconter_--L. _ad_, to, _comput[=a]re_, to reckon. See COMPUTE,

ACCOUPLE, ak-kup'l, _v.t._ (_obs._) to couple or link together. [O. Fr.
_acopler_--_à_, to, _cople_. See COUPLE.]

ACCOURAGE, ak-kur'[=a]j, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to encourage. [O. Fr.
_acorager_--_à_ (L. _ad_), and _corage_ (Fr. _courage_). See COURAGE.]

ACCOURT, ak-k[=o]rt', _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as COURT.

ACCOUTRE, ak-k[=oo]'t[.e]r, _v.t._ to dress or equip (esp. a
warrior):--_pr.p._ accou'tring; _pa.p._ accou'tred.--_n.pl._
ACCOU'TREMENTS, dress: military equipments--(_Spens._) ACCOU'STREMENTS.
[Fr. _accoutrer_, earlier _accoustrer_--of doubtful origin, prob. conn.
with O. Fr. _coustre_, _coutre_, a sacristan who had charge of sacred
vestments--Low L. _custor_--L. _custos_, a keeper.]

ACCOY, ak-koi', _v.t._ (_obs._) to still or quieten: to soothe: to subdue.
[O. Fr. _acoyer_--_à_, to, and _coi_, quiet--L. _quiet-um_. See COY.]

ACCREDIT, ak-kred'it, _v.t._ to give credit, countenance, authority, or
honour to: to furnish with credentials (with _to_, _at_): to vouch for
anything belonging to some one--to ascribe or attribute it to him
(_with_).--_v.t._ ACCRED'ITATE (_obs._).--_n._ ACCREDIT[=A]'TION, fact of
being accredited.--The _pa.p._ ACCRED'ITED, as _adj._, recognised. [Fr.
_accréditer_--_à_, to, _crédit_, credit. See CREDIT.]

ACCRESCENT, ak-kres'ent, _adj._ growing: ever-increasing.--_ns._
ACCRES'CENCE, gradual growth or increase; ACCR[=E]'TION, the process of
growing continuously: the growing together of parts externally, or
continuous coherence: that which has grown in such a way, any extraneous
addition.--_adj._ ACCR[=E]'TIVE. [L. _ad_, in addition, _cresc[)e]re_, to

ACCREW, ak-kr[=oo]' (_Spens._). Same as ACCRUE.

ACCRUE, ak-kr[=oo]', _v.i._ to spring or grow as a natural result (with
_from_): to fall to any one by way of advantage (with _unto_, _to_). [O.
Fr. _acrewe_, what grows up in a wood to the profit of the owner;
_acreistre_--L. _accresc[)e]re_.]

ACCUBATION, ak-ku-b[=a]'shun, _n._ a lying or reclining on a couch. [L.
_ad_, to, and _cubare_, to lie down.]

ACCUMBENT, ak-kumb'ent, _adj._ lying down or reclining on a couch. [L.
_ad_, to, _cumb[)e]re_, to lie.]

ACCUMULATE, ak-k[=u]m'[=u]l-[=a]t, _v.t._ to heap or pile up: to amass: to
take degrees by accumulation, to take a higher degree at the same time with
a lower, or at a shorter interval than usual.--_v.i._ to increase greatly:
to go on increasing.--_n._ ACCUMUL[=A]'TION, a heaping up: a heap, mass, or
pile.--_adj._ ACCUM'ULATIVE, heaping up.--_n._ ACCUM'ULATOR, a thing or
person that accumulates, esp. an apparatus for storing electricity.
[L.--_ad_, to, _cumulus_, a heap.]

ACCURATE, ak'k[=u]r-[=a]t, _adj._ done with care: exact.--_n._ AC'CURACY,
correctness: exactness.--_adv._ AC'CURATELY.--_n._ AC'CURATENESS. [L.
_accuratus_, performed with care (of things)--_ad_, to, _cura_, care.]

ACCURSE, ak-kurs', _v.t._ to curse: to devote to misery or
destruction.--_adj._ ACCURS'ED, subjected to a curse: doomed: worthy of a
curse: extremely wicked. [Pfx. _à-_, and A.S. _cursian_, to curse.]

ACCUSATIVE, ak-k[=u]z'a-tiv, _adj._ accusing.--_n._ (_gram._) the case
which expresses the direct object of transitive verbs (in English, the
objective)--primarily expressing destination or the goal of motion.--_adj._
ACCUS'ATIVAL. [Fr. _accusatif_--L. _accusativus_, 'of the nature of
accusation,' a translation of the Gr. _(pt[=o]sis) aitiatik[=e]_, (the
case) 'of accusing,' but also 'of or pertaining to what is caused or
effected' (_aitiaton_, effect, _aitia_, cause); hence, properly, the case
of the effect.]

ACCUSE, ak-k[=u]z', _v.t._ to bring a charge against: to blame (with _of_
before the thing charged, sometimes _for_).--_adj._ ACCUS'ABLE, that may be
accused.--_ns._ ACCUS'AL, accusation; ACCUS[=A]'TION, the act of accusing:
the charge brought against any one.--_adjs._ ACCUSAT[=O]'RIAL, of an
accuser; ACCUS'ATORY, containing accusation.--_n._ ACCUSE (_Shak._),
accusation.--_p.adj._ ACCUSED', charged with a crime: usually as a _n._,
the person accused.--_ns._ ACCUSE'MENT (_Spens._), a charge; ACCUS'ER, one
who accuses or brings a charge against another. [O. Fr. _acuser_--L.
_accus[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _causa_, cause.]

ACCUSTOM, ak-kus'tum, _v.t._ to make familiar by custom: to habituate (with
_to_).--_adj._ ACCUS'TOMARY.--_p.adj._ ACCUS'TOMED, usual: frequent:
habituated.--_n._ ACCUS'TOMEDNESS. [O. Fr. _acostumer_ (Fr.
_accoutumer_)--_à_, to, _costume_, _coustume_--L. _consuetudinem_. See

ACE, [=a]s, _n._ the one at dice, also at cards, dominoes, &c.: a single
point, an atom. [Fr.--L. _as_, unity--_as_, Tarentine Doric form of Gr.
_heis_, one.]

ACELDAMA, a-sel'da-ma, _n._ a field of blood--the name given to the field
outside Jerusalem bought with the blood-money of Jesus. [Gr.--Aramaic.]

ACEPHALAN, a-sef'a-lan, _n._ (_zool._) one of the Acephala, a class of
molluscs, which present no traces of a head.--_adj._ ACEPH'ALOUS, without a
head. [Gr. _a_, neg., _kephal[=e]_, the head.]

ACERBITY, as-[.e]r'bi-ti, _n._ bitterness: sourness: harshness:
severity.--_adj._ ACERB'. [Fr.,--L. _acerbitat-em_--L. _acerbus_, harsh to
the taste--_acer_, sharp.]

ACERIC, a-ser'ik, _adj._ obtained from the maple. [From L. _acer_, a

ACETABULUM, as-[=e]-tab'[=u]-lum, _n._ (_anat._) the cavity which receives
the head of the thigh-bone: also a glandular substance found in the
placenta of some animals:--_pl._ ACETAB'ULA. [L., a cup-shaped vessel.]

ACETIC, as-et'ik, _adj._ of the nature of vinegar: sour--also AC[=E]'TOUS,
ACETOSE'.--_n._ ACES'CENCE, a tendency to sourness.--_adj._
ACES'CENT.--_n._ AC'ETATE, salt of acetic acid which is the sour principle
in vinegar. [L. _acetum_, vinegar--_ac-[=e]re_, to be sour.]

ACETIFY, as-et'i-f[=i], _v.t._ or _v.i._ to turn into vinegar.--_n._
ACETIFIC[=A]'TION. [L. _acetum_, vinegar, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ACETOPATHY, as-et-op'a-thi, _n._ the treating of ailments by the external
application of dilute acetic acid. [L. _ac[=e]tum_, acid, and Gr. _pathos_,

ACETYLENE, a-set'i-l[=e]n, _n._ a powerful illuminant gas (C_2H_2) produced
commercially from carbide of calcium by means of water.


ACHARNEMENT, ä-shärn'ment (sometimes nasalised as in French), _n._ thirst
for blood, ferocity. [Fr. _acharner_, refl. _sacharner_, to thirst for

ACHATES, a-k[=a]ts', _n.pl._ (_Spens._). Same as CATES.

ACHATES, ä-k[=a]'tes, _n._ trusty comrade, from the 'fidus Achates' of
Virgil's _Æneid_--the constant companion of Æneas in his wanderings after
the fall of Troy.

ACHE, [=a]k, _n._ a continued pain.--_v.i._ to be in continued
pain:--_pr.p._ [=a]ch'ing; _pa.p._ [=a]ched.--_n._ ACH'ING, continued pain
or distress. [The verb is properly _ake_, the noun _ache_, as in _speak_
and _speech_. The A.S. noun _æce_ is from the verb _ac-an_, to ache.]

ACHENIUM, a-k[=e]'ni-um, _n._ (_bot._) a small hard one-seeded fruit, which
does not open when ripe, as in the buttercup.--Also ACHENE'. [From Gr. _a_,
neg., and _chainein_, to gape.]

ACHERON, ak'k[.e]r-on, _n._ death, hell--from the name of that river in the
infernal regions of classical mythology.--_adj._ ACHERON'TIC, deadly.

ACHIEVE, a-ch[=e]v', _v.t._ to bring to a head or end: to perform: to
accomplish: to carry out successfully: to gain, win.--_adj._ ACHIEV'ABLE,
that may be achieved.--_n._ ACHIEVE'MENT, a performance: an exploit: an
escutcheon or armorial shield granted in memory of some achievement,
applied especially to the escutcheon over the tomb of a dead person,
generally called a _hatchment_. [Fr. _achever_, from _à chief (venir)_--Low
L. _ad caput venire_, to come to a head. See CHIEF.]

ACHILLEAN, ak-il-l[=e]'an, _adj._ like Achilles, the great Greek hero in
the Trojan war, brave, swift of foot, unrelenting in wrath.--ACHILLES
TENDON, the attachment of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the calf
of the leg to the heel-bone, so named from the infant Achilles's mother,
Thetis, having held him by the heel when she dipped him into the Styx to
make him invulnerable.

ACHITOPHEL, ä-hit'[=o]-fel, _n._ an able but unprincipled counsellor, from
the name of David's sage counsellor who treacherously abetted the rebellion
of Absalom. Dryden in his famous satire applied the name to
Shaftesbury.--Also AHITH'OPHEL.

ACHROMATIC, a-kr[=o]m-at'ik, _adj._ transmitting light without colour, of a
lens or telescope.--_adv._ ACHROMAT'ICALLY.--_n._ ACHROM'ATISM, the state
of being achromatic.--_v.t._ ACHROM'ATIZE, to render achromatic. [Gr. _a_,
neg., and _chr[=o]ma_, _chromatos_, colour.]

ACICULAR, as-ik'[=u]-lar, _adj._ needle-shaped; slender and
sharp-pointed.--Also ACIC'ULATE, ACIC'ULATED. [L. _acicula_, dim. of
_acus_, a needle.]

ACID, as'id, _adj._ sharp: sour.--_n._ a sour substance: (_chem._) one of a
class of substances, usually sour, which turn vegetable blues to red, and
combine with alkalies, metallic oxides, &c. to form salts.--_adj._
ACID'IFIABLE, capable of being converted into an acid.--_ns._
ACIDIFIC[=A]'TION; ACID'ITY, the quality of being acid or sour--also
AC'IDNESS.--_v.t._ ACID'ULATE, to make slightly acid. [L. _ac-[=e]re_, to
be sour--root _ak_, sharp.]

ACIDIFY, as-id'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make acid: to convert into an
acid:--_pr.p._ acid'ifying; _pa.p._ acid'ified. [L. _acidus_, sour, and
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ACIDIMETER, as-id-im'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
strength of acids.--_n._ ACIDIM'ETRY, the act of such measurement. [ACID
and METER.]

ACIDULOUS, as-id'[=u]-lus, _adj._ slightly sour: subacid: containing
carbonic acid, as mineral waters: (_fig._) caustic, sharp. [L. _acidulus_,
dim. of _acidus_, sour. See ACID.]

ACIERAGE, [=a]'s[=e]-[.e]r-[=a]j, _n._ the covering of an engraved
copper-plate with a film of iron to ensure durability. [Fr. _acier_,
steel--L. _acies_, a sharp point, and _-age_.]

ACIFORM, as'i-form, _adj._ needle-shaped. [L. _acus_, a needle, and FORM,
from _forma_, shape.]

ACINIFORM, a-sin'i-form, _adj._ in clusters like grapes, or having the form
of grapes. [L. _acinus_, a grape.]

ACKNOW, ak-n[=o]', _v.t._ (_obs._) to know, to recognise.--_adj._ ACKNOWN
(_Shak._), known or acquainted. [A.S. _on_, in, on, _cnâwan_, to KNOW.]

ACKNOWLEDGE, ak-nol'ej, _v.t._ to own a knowledge of: to own as true: to
confess: to admit or give intimation of the receipt of.--_adj._
recognition: admission: confession: thanks: a receipt. [From the _v._
ACKNOW, with suffix _-ledge_.]

ACLINIC, ak-lin'ik, _adj._ without inclination, applied to the magnetic
equator, which cuts the terrestrial equator, inasmuch as on that line the
magnetic needle has no dip, but lies horizontal. [Gr. _aklin[=e]s_--_a_,
neg., _klin-ein_, to bend.]

ACME, ak'm[=e], _n._ the top or highest point: the culmination or
perfection in the career of anything: crisis, as of a disease.--ACME
SKATES, the name given to a kind of skates, formed of steel, fixed to the
boot by a mechanical device, permitting them to be quickly fixed on or
taken off. [Gr. _akm[=e]_--_ak[=e]_, a point.]

ACNE, ak'n[=e], _n._ a common skin disease, an inflammation of the
sebaceous follicles of the skin, often occurring on the nose. [A corr. of
Gr. _akm[=e]_, a point.]

ACOCK, a-kok', _adv._ in a cocked manner: defiantly.--A COCK-BILL
(_naut._), having the ends pointing upward, as of an anchor hanging by its
ring at the cat-head, in a position for dropping; or of the yards when
topped up by one lift to an angle with the deck--the symbol of mourning.
[Prep. _a_, and COCK.]

ACOEMETI, a-sem'[=e]-t[=i], _n.pl._ a congregation of monks founded in 460
near Constantinople, who by alternating choirs kept divine service going on
day and night without intermission in their monastery. [Gr. _akoimetoi_,
sleepless, _a_, neg., and _koimaein_, to put to sleep.]

ACOLD, a-k[=o]ld', _adj._ (_arch._) cold. [A.S. _acóled_, pa.p. of
_acólian_; pfx. _a-_, intens., and _cólian_, to COOL.]

ACOLYTE, ak'o-l[=i]t, ACOLYTH, ak'o-lith, _n._ an inferior church officer:
an attendant or assistant: (_R. C. Church_) one ordained to the fourth of
the minor orders, next to the sub-deacon. [Gr. _akolouthos_, an attendant.]

ACONITE, ak'o-n[=i]t, _n._ the plant wolf's-bane or monk's-hood:
poison.--_adj._ ACONIT'IC.--_n._ ACON'ITINE, the essential principle of
aconite. [L. _aconitum_--Gr. _akoniton_.]

ACOP, a-kop', _adv._ (_obs._) on the top or head: on high. [Prep. _a_, and
A.S. _cop_, _copp_, summit.]

ACORN, [=a]'korn, _n._ the seed or fruit of the oak.--_adj._
A'CORNED.--_n._ A'CORN-SHELL, a name for the Bal[)a]nus (L., acorn), a
genus of Cirripedes in the class Crustacea. [A.S. _æcern_, prob. from
_æcer_, field, hence meaning 'the fruit of the unenclosed land.' The modern
form is due to confusion with _oak_ (A.S. _ác_) and _corn_.]

ACOSMISM, a-koz'mizm, _n._ refusal to believe in the existence of an
eternal world. [Gr., _a_, neg., and _kosmos_, the world.]

ACOTYLEDON, a-kot-i-l[=e]'dun, _n._ a plant without distinct cotyledons or
seed-lobes.--_adj._ ACOTYL[=E]'DONOUS. [Gr. _a_, neg., and
_kotyl[=e]d[=o]n_. See COTYLEDON.]

ACOUSTIC, a-kowst'ik, _adj._ pertaining to the sense of hearing or to the
theory of sounds: used in hearing, auditory.--_n._ ACOUST'ICS, the science
of sound. [Fr.--Gr. _akoustikos_--_akouein_, to hear.]

ACOY. Same as ACCOY.

ACQUAINT, ak-kw[=a]nt', _v.t._ to make or let one to know: to inform a
person of a thing (_with_): to inform (with personal object only).--_ns._
ACQUAINT'ANCE, familiar knowledge: a person whom we know;
ACQUAINT'ANCESHIP, familiar knowledge.--_p.adj._ ACQUAINT'ED (_with_),
personally known: having personal knowledge of. [O. Fr. _acointer_--Low L.
_accognit[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, _cognitus_, known.]

ACQUEST, ak-kwest', _n._ an acquisition or thing acquired. [O. Fr.--L.
_acquisitus_, _acquir[)e]re_. See ACQUIRE.]

ACQUIESCE, ak-kwi-es', _v.i._ to rest satisfied or without making
opposition: to assent (with _in_).--_n._ ACQUIES'CENCE, quiet assent or
submission.--_adj._ ACQUIES'CENT, resting satisfied: easy:
submissive.--_advs._ ACQUIES'CENTLY, ACQUIES'CINGLY. [L.
_acquiesc[)e]re_--_ad_, and _quies_, rest.]

ACQUIRE, ak-kw[=i]r', _v.t._ to gain: to attain to.--_n._
ACQUIRABIL'ITY.--_adj._ ACQUIR'ABLE, that may be acquired.--_ns._
ACQUIRE'MENT, something learned or got by effort, rather than a gift of
nature; ACQUISI'TION, the act of acquiring: that which is acquired.--_adj._
ACQUIS'ITIVE, desirous to acquire.--_n._ ACQUIS'ITIVENESS, propensity to
acquire--one of the phrenologists' so-called faculties, with its special
organ. [O. Fr. _aquerre_--L. _acquir[)e]re_, _-quisitum_--_ad_, to, and
_quær[)e]re_, to seek.]

ACQUIST, ak-kwist', _n._ (_Milton_) a form of ACQUEST.

ACQUIT, ak-kwit', _v.t._ to free: to release: to settle, as a debt: to
behave or conduct (one's self): to declare innocent (with _of_ before the
thing of which acquitted):--_pr.p._ acquit'ting; _pa.p._ acquit'ted.--_ns._
ACQUIT'TAL, a judicial discharge from an accusation; ACQUIT'TANCE, a
discharge from an obligation or debt: a receipt in evidence of such a
discharge.--_v.t._ (_Shak._), to acquit, clear. [O. Fr. _acquiter_--L.
_ad_, to, _quiet[=a]re_, to give rest. See QUIT.]

ACRE, [=a]'k[.e]r, _n._ a measure of land containing 4840 sq. yards. The
Scotch acre contains 6150.4 sq. yards (48 Scotch--61 imperial acres): the
Irish, 7840 sq. yards (50 Irish--81 imperial acres): (_pl._) for lands,
estates generally: (_fig._) large quantities of anything.--_n._ A'CREAGE,
the number of acres in a piece of land.--_adj._ A'CRED, possessing acres or
land. [A.S. _æcer_; Ger. _acker_, L. _ager_, Gr. _agros_, Sans. _ajras_, a

ACRID, ak'rid, _adj._ biting to the taste: pungent: bitter.--_ns._
ACRID'ITY, AC'RIDNESS, quality of being acrid: a sharp, bitter taste. [L.
_acer_, _acris_, sharp--root _ak_, sharp.]

ACRIMONY, ak'ri-mun-i, _n._ bitterness of feeling or language.--_adj._
ACRIM[=O]'NIOUS, sharp, bitter.--_n._ ACRIM[=O]'NIOUSNESS, the state or
quality of being acrimonious: severity. [L. _acrimonia_--_acer_, sharp.]

ACRITOCHROMACY, a-krit-o-kr[=o]'ma-si, _n._ inability to distinguish
between colours: colour-blindness. [From Gr. _akritos_, undistinguishable
(--_a_, neg., and _krinein_, to separate), and _chr[=o]ma_, _-atos_,

ACRITUDE, ak'ri-t[=u]d, _n._ the quality of being acrid: a sharp bitter
taste: bitterness of temper or language. [L. _acritudo_--_acer_, sharp.]

ACROAMATIC, -AL, ak-ro-a-mat'ik, -al, _adj._ oral, esoteric,
secret--applied to the lectures of Aristotle delivered to a select circle
of students as opposed to his more popular lectures. [Gr.
_akroamatikos_--_akroasthai_, to hear.]

ACROBAT, ak'ro-bat, _n._ a rope-dancer: a tumbler: a vaulter.--_adj._
ACROBAT'IC.--_n._ ACROBAT'ISM, the art of the acrobat. [Gr. _akrobatos_,
walking on tiptoe; _akros_, point, _batos_--_bainein_, to go.]

ACROGEN, ak'ro-jen, _n._ a plant that grows at the top chiefly, as a
tree-fern.--_adj._ ACROG'ENOUS. [Gr. _akros_, top, _gen[=e]s_, born.]

ACROLITH, ak'ro-lith, _n._ a statue of the earlier Greek artists having the
trunk made of wood and the extremities of stone. [Gr.
_akrolithos_--_akros_, extreme, and _lithos_, stone.]

ACRONYCAL, a-kron'ik-al, _adj._ midnight, applied to stars that rise at
sunset and set at sunrise, or opposite to the sun.--_adv._ ACRON'YCALLY.
[Gr. _akros_, summit, middle (of time), and _nyx_, _nyktos_, night.]

ACROPOLIS, a-kro'pol-is, _n._ a citadel, esp. that of Athens. [Gr.
_akropolis_--_akros_, the highest, _polis_, a city.]

ACROSPIRE, ak'ro-sp[=i]r, _n._ (_bot._) the first leaf that appears when
corn sprouts. [Gr. _akros_, summit, end, _speira_, anything twisted round.]

ACROSS, a-kros', _prep._ or _adv._ crosswise: from side to side. [Prep.
_a_, and CROSS.]

ACROSTIC, a-kr[=o]'stik, _n._ a poem of which, if the first or the last
letter of each line be taken in succession, they will spell a name or a
sentence.--_adj._ ACR[=O]'STICAL.--_adv._ ACR[=O]'STICALLY.--_n._
ACR[=O]'STICISM, method of acrostics. [Gr. _akros_, extreme, and _stichos_,
a line.]

ACT, akt, _v.i._ to exert force or influence: to produce an effect: to
behave one's self: to feign.--_v.t._ to perform: to imitate or play the
part of.--_n._ something done or doing: an exploit: the very process of
doing something: a law or decision of a prince or legislative body: an
instrument in writing for verification: (_theol._) something done once for
all, in opposition to a work: a distinct section of a play: in
universities, a public disputation or lecture maintained by a candidate for
a degree.--_n._ ACT'ING, action: act of performing an assumed or a dramatic
part: feigning.--_adj._ performing some duty temporarily, or for
another.--_n._ ACT'OR, one who acts: a stage-player:--_fem._ ACT'RESS.--ACT
OF GOD, a result of natural forces, unexpected and not preventable by human
foresight.--IN ACT TO, on the very point of doing something.--TO ACT ON, to
act in accordance with; TO ACT UP TO, to come up in practice to some
expected standard: to fulfil. [L. _ag[)e]re_, _actum_; Gr. _agein_, to put
in motion; Sans. _aj_, to drive.]

ACTA, ak'ta, _n.pl._ proceedings in a court civil or ecclesiastical, or the
minutes of such.--ACTA MARTYRUM, the early accounts of the martyrs; ACTA
SANCTORUM, a general name for collections of accounts of saints and
martyrs, especially of the great collection of the Bollandists, begun in
1643, interrupted in 1794 at the fifty-third vol. (Oct. 6), but resumed in

ACTINIA, ak-tin'i-a, _n._ a genus of marine animals of the class Polypi,
growing on rocks or shells, with numerous tentacles or rays like the petals
of a flower, from which they are often called animal flowers or
sea-anemones. [From Gr. _aktis_, _aktinos_, a ray.]

ACTINIFORM, ak-tin'i-form, _adj._ having a radiated form. [Gr. _aktis_,
_aktinos_, ray, and FORM.]

ACTINISM, ak'tin-izm, _n._ the chemical force of the sun's rays, as
distinct from light and heat.--_adj._ AC'TINIC. [Gr. _aktis_, _aktinos_, a

ACTINOLITE, ak-tin'[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a green variety of hornblende. [Gr.
_aktis_, _akt[=i]nos_, a ray, _lithos_, a stone.]

ACTINOMETER, ak-tin-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
heat-intensity of the sun's rays or the actinic effect of light-rays. [Gr.
_aktis_, _aktinos_, ray, and METER.]

ACTINOMYCES, ak-ti-no-m[=i]'sez, _n._ the tiny ray-fungus.--_n._
ACTINOMYC[=O]'SIS, an inflammatory disease in cattle, swine, and sometimes
man, caused by that fungus. [Gr. _aktis_, _aktinos_, ray, and _myces_,

ACTINOZOA, ak'tin-[=o]-z[=o]'a, _n.pl._ one of the three classes of
Coelenterata, including sea-anemones, dead-men's fingers, corals, &c. [Gr.
_aktis_, _-inos_, a ray; _z[=o]a_, animals.]

ACTION, ak'shun, _n._ a state of acting: activity in the abstract: a deed:
operation: gesture: a battle: a lawsuit, or proceedings in a court: the
movement of events in a drama, novel, &c.--_adj._ AC'TIONABLE, liable to a
lawsuit.--_n._ AC'TION-TAK'ING (_Shak._), resenting an injury by a lawsuit
instead of fighting it out like a man of honour.

ACTIVATE, ak'ti-v[=a]t, _v.t._ (_Bacon_) to make active:--_pr.p._
ac'tiv[=a]ting; _pa.p._ ac'tiv[=a]ted.

ACTIVE, akt'iv, _adj._ that acts: busy: nimble: practical, as opposed to
speculative: effective: (_gram._) transitive.--_adv._ ACT'IVELY.--_ns._

ACTON, ak'tun, _n._ a stuffed leather jacket which used to be worn under a
coat of mail. [O. Fr. _auqueton_, through Sp. from Ar. _al-q[=u]tun_.]

ACTUAL, akt'[=u]-al, _adj._ real: existing in fact and now, as opp. to an
imaginary or past state of things.--_v.t._ ACT'UALISE, to make actual: to
realise in action.--_n._ ACTUAL'ITY.--_adv._ ACT'UALLY.

ACTUARY, akt'[=u]-ar-i, _n._ a registrar or clerk: one who makes the
calculations connected with an insurance office.--_adj._ ACTUA'RIAL. [L.
_actuarius (scriba)_, an amanuensis, a clerk.]

ACTUATE, akt'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to put into or incite to action: to
influence.--_n._ ACTU[=A]'TION. [L. _actus_, action. See ACT.]

ACULEATED, ak-[=u]l-e-[=a]t'ed, _p.adj._ pointed: (_fig._) pungent,
incisive. [L. _aculeatus_, _aculeus_, dim. of _acus_, needle.]

ACUMEN, ak-[=u]'men, _n._ sharpness: quickness of perception: penetration.
[L. See ACUTE.]

ACUMINATE, a-k[=u]'min-[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) having a long tapering
point--also AC[=U]'MINATED.--_v.t._ AC[=U]'MINATE, to sharpen: (_fig._)
give point to.--_n._ ACCUMIN[=A]'TION. [L. _acuminatum_, pa.p. of
_acumin[=a]re_, to make pointed--_acumen_, a point. See ACUMEN.]

ACUPRESSURE, ak-[=u]-presh'[=u]r, _n._ a mode of arresting hemorrhage from
cut arteries, by inserting a needle into the flesh so as to press across
the mouth of the artery. [L. _acus_, a needle, and PRESSURE.]

ACUPUNCTURE, ak-[=u]-pungkt'[=u]r, _n._ an operation for relieving pain by
puncturing the flesh with needles. [L. _acus_, a needle, and PUNCTURE.]

ACUTE, ak-[=u]t', _adj._ sharp-pointed: keen: opp. of dull: shrewd: shrill:
critical.--_adv._ ACUTE'LY.--_n._ ACUTE'NESS.--ACUTE ANGLE, an angle less
than a right angle (see ANGLE); ACUTE DISEASE, one coming to a violent
crisis, as opp. to _Chronic_. [L. _acutus_, pa.p. of _acu[)e]re_, to
sharpen, from root _ak_, sharp.]

ADAGE, ad'[=a]j, _n._ an old saying: a proverb. [Fr.--L. _adagium_, from
_ad_, to, and root of _aio_, I say.]

ADAGIO, a-d[=a]'g[=i]-o, _adv._ (_mus._) slowly.--_n._ a slow movement: a
piece in adagio time. [It. _ad agio_, at ease.]

ADAM, ad'am, _n._ the first man: unregenerate human nature: a gaoler.--_n._
AD'AMITE, one descended from Adam: one of a 2d-century heretical sect in
Northern Africa, and in the 15th in Germany, whose members, claiming the
primitive innocence of Eden, went about naked.--_adjs._ ADAMIT'IC,
-AL.--_n._ AD'AMITISM.

ADAMANT, ad'a-mant, _n._ a very hard stone: the diamond.--_adjs._
ADAMANT[=E]'AN (_Milton_), hard as adamant; ADAMAN'TINE, made of or like
adamant: that cannot be broken or penetrated. [L. and Gr. _adamas_,
_-antos_--_a_, neg., and _damaein_, to break, to tame. See TAME.]

ADAMIC, a-dam'ik, _adj._ relating to Adam.

ADAM'S-APPLE, ad'amz-ap'pl, _n._ the angular projection of the thyroid
cartilage of the larynx in front of the throat, so called from an idea that
part of the forbidden fruit stuck in Adam's throat.--ADAM'S ALE or WINE,

ADANSONIA, ad-an-s[=o]'ni-a, _n._ the baobab, monkey-bread, or
calabash-tree of West Africa. [So called from _Adanson_, a French botanist

ADAPT, ad-apt', _v.t._ to make apt or fit: to accommodate (with _to_ or
_for_).--_ns._ ADAPTABIL'ITY, ADAPT'ABLENESS.--_adj._ ADAPT'ABLE, that may
be adapted.--_n._ ADAPT[=A]'TION, the act of making suitable: fitness:
(_biol._) the process of advantageous variation and progressive
modification by which organisms are adjusted to the conditions of their
life--the perfected result of adaptation being a life in harmony with the
environment. [Fr.--L. _adapt[=a]re_--_ad_, to, and _apt[=a]re_, to fit.]

ADAR, [=a]'dar, _n._ the twelfth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical, the
sixth of the civil, year, corresponding to the later part of February and
the first part of March. [Heb. _ad[=a]r_.]

ADAYS, a-d[=a]z', _adv._ nowadays: at the present time. [Prep. _a_, and
gen. sing. of DAY, A.S. _ondæye_.]

ADD, ad, _v.t._ to put (one thing) to (another): to sum up (with _to_): to
increase.--_adjs._ ADD'ABLE, ADD'IBLE.--_ns._ ADDIBIL'ITY; ADDIT'AMENT
(_Charles Lamb_), an addition; ADDI'TION, the act of adding: the thing
added: the rule in arithmetic for adding numbers together: title,
honour.--_adj._ ADDI'TIONAL, that is added. [L.--_addëre_--_ad_, to,
_dãre_, to put.]

ADDAX, ad'aks, _n._ a species of large antelope found in Africa, with long
twisted horns. [African word.]

ADDEEM, ad-d[=e]m', _v.t._ to deem: to adjudge: to award. [Pfx. _ad-_, and

ADDENDUM, ad-den'dum, _n._ a thing to be added: an appendix:--_pl._

ADDER, ad'[.e]r, _n._ the popular English name of the viper.--_ns._
AD'DER'S-TONGUE, a genus of ferns the seeds of which grow on a spike
resembling a serpent's tongue; AD'DER'S-WORT, a wort or plant, so called
from its being supposed to cure the bite of serpents--also called
_Snakeweed_. [A.S. _nædre_; cf. Ger. _atter_ for _natter_. _An adder_ came
by mistake into use for _a nadder_; the reverse mistake is _a newt_ for _an
ewt_ or _eft_.]

ADDICT, ad-dikt', _v.t._ to give (one's self) up to (generally in a bad
sense): (_B._) to devote or dedicate one's self to.--_adjs._ ADDICT',
ADDICT'ED, given up to (with _to_).--_ns._ ADDICT'EDNESS, ADDIC'TION. [L.
_addic[)e]re_, _addictum_--_ad_, to, _dic[)e]re_, to declare.]

ADDLE, ad'dl, ADDLED, ad'dld, _adj._ diseased: putrid: barren,
empty.--_adjs._ AD'DLE-HEAD'ED, AD'DLE-PAT'ED, having a head or pate with
addled brains.--_n._ AD'DLEMENT. [M.E. _adele_--A.S. _adela_, mud; cf.
Scot, _eddle_, liquid manure.]

ADDOOM, ad-d[=oo]m', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to doom, to adjudge, to award. [Pfx.
_a-_, and DOOM.]

ADDORSED, ad-dorst', _p.adj._ (_her._) turned back to back.

ADDRESS, ad-dres', _v.t._ to direct (with _to_): to speak or write to: to
court: to direct in writing: to arrange properly: (_arch._) to don:
(_refl._) to turn one's skill or energies towards.--_n._ a formal
communication in writing: a speech: manners: dexterity: direction of a
letter:--_pl._ ADDRESS'ES, attentions of a lover.--TO ADDRESS ONE'S SELF TO
A TASK, to set about it. [Fr. _adresser_--Low L. _addirecti[=a]re_--L.
_ad_, to, _directum_, straight. See DRESS, DIRECT.]

ADDUCE, ad-d[=u]s', _v.t._ to bring forward: to cite or quote.--_adj._
ADD[=U]C'ENT, drawing forward or together, as of the adductor
muscles.--_n._ ADD[=U]C'ER.--_adj._ ADD[=U]C'IBLE.--_n._ ADDUC'TION, the
act of adducing or bringing forward: the movement by which a part of the
body is drawn forward by muscles.--_adj._ ADDUC'TIVE, tending to bring
forward. [L. _adduc[)e]re_--_ad_, to, and _ducUere_, to bring.]

ADDUCTOR, ad-dukt'ur, _n._ a muscle which draws one part towards another.

ADDULCE, ad-duls', _v.t._ (_obs._) to make sweet. [O. Fr. _adoulcir_--L.
_ad_, to, _dulcis_, sweet.]

ADELPHOUS, a-del'fus, _adj._ (_bot._) united in brotherhoods or bundles, as
stamens. [Gr. _adelphos_, brother.]

ADENITIS, ad-en-[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of the lymphatic glands. [Gr.
_ad[=e]n_, a gland, _-itis_, denoting inflammation.]

ADENOID, -AL, ad'en-oid, -al, _adj._ of a gland-like shape: glandular. [Gr.
_ad[=e]n_, a gland, _eidos_, form.]

ADENOTOMY, ad-en-ot'o-mi, _n._ a cutting or incision of a gland. [Gr.
_ad[=e]n_, a gland, _tom[=e]_, a cutting.]

ADEPT, ad-ept', or ad'ept, _adj._ completely skilled (_in_).--_n._ a
proficient.--_n._ ADEP'TION (_Bacon_), attainment. [L. _adeptus_ (_artem_),
having attained (an art), _pa.p._ of _adipisci_, to attain--_ad_, to, and

ADEQUATE, ad'e-kw[=a]t, _adj._ equal to: proportionate: sufficient.--_adv._
AD'EQUATELY.--_ns._ AD'EQUATENESS, AD'EQUACY, state of being adequate:
sufficiency. [L. _adæquatus_, made equal--_ad_, to, and _æquus_, equal.]

ADES, _n._ an obsolete variant of HADES.

ADHERE, ad-h[=e]r', _v.i._ to stick to: to remain fixed or attached (with
_to_): (_Shak._) to be consistent: (_Scots law_) to affirm a
judgment.--_n._ ADHER'ENCE, state of adhering: steady attachment.--_adj._
ADHER'ENT, sticking to.--_n._ one who adheres: a follower: a partisan (with
_of_)--a less common form is ADHER'ER. [L. _ad_, to, _hær[=e]re_, _hæsum_,
to stick.]

ADHESION, ad-h[=e]'zhun, _n._ the act of adhering or sticking to: steady
attachment: (_path._) a vital union between two surfaces of a living body
which have been either naturally or artificially separated.--_adj._
ADHES'IVE, sticky: apt to adhere.--_adv._ ADHES'IVELY.--_n._ ADHES'IVENESS.

ADHIBIT, ad-hib'it, _v.t._ to apply to: to use: to attach: to admit: to
devote to: to administer.--_n._ ADHIBI'TION, application: use. [L.
_adhib[=e]re_, _-itum_--_ad_, to, and _hab[=e]re_, to hold.]

ADIANTUM, ad-i-an'tum, _n._ maidenhair, a large genus of ferns. [Gr.
_adiantos_, _a_, neg., and _diantos_, capable of being wetted.]

ADIAPHORON, a-di-af'or-on, _n.pl._ in theology and ethics, things
indifferent--any tenet or usage which is considered as non-essential--also
ADIAPH'ORA.--_n._ ADIAPH'ORISM, tolerance in regard to non-essential points
in theology.--_adj._ ADIAPH'OROUS. [Gr., from _a_, neg., and _diaphoros_,
differing--_dia_, apart, _pherein_, to carry.]

ADIATHERMIC, [=a]-d[=i]-a-th[.e]r'mik, _adj._ impervious to radiant heat.
[Gr. _a_, neg., _dia_, through, _thermos_, heat.]

ADIEU, a-d[=u]', _adv._ (I commend you) to God: farewell.--_n._ a
farewell:--_pl._ ADIEUS or ADIEUX (a-d[=u]z'). [Fr. _à Dieu_, to God.]

ADIPOCERE, ad'i-p[=o]-s[=e]r, _n._ a fatty, waxy substance resulting from
the decomposition of animal bodies in moist places or under water, but not
exposed to air. [Through Fr. from L. _adeps_, _adipis_, soft fat, and
_cera_, wax.]

ADIPOSE, ad'i-p[=o]z, _adj._ fatty.--ADIPOSE TISSUE, the vesicular
structure in the animal body which contains the fat. [L. _adeps_, _adipis_,
soft fat.]

ADIT, ad'it, _n._ an opening or passage, esp. into a mine. [L.
_aditus--ad_, to, _[=i]re_, _itum_, to go.]

ADJACENT, ad-j[=a]s'ent, _adj._ lying near to: contiguous.--_n._
ADJAC'ENCY, the state of being near: that which is adjacent.--_adv._
ADJAC'ENTLY. [L. _ad_, to, _jac[=e]re_, to lie.]

ADJECTIVE, ad'jek-tiv, _n._ a word added to a noun to qualify it, or limit
it by reference to quality, number, or position.--_adj._
ADJECT[=I]V'AL.--_adv._ AD'JECTIVELY. [L. _adjectivum (nomen)_, an added
(noun)--_adjic[)e]re_, _-jectum_, to throw to, to add--_ad_, to,
_jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

ADJOIN, ad-join', _v.i._ to lie next to.--_adj._ ADJOIN'ING, joining to:
near: adjacent.--_n._ AD'JOINT, a civil officer who assists a French maire:
an assistant professor in a French college. [Through Fr. from L.
_adjung[)e]re_. See JOIN.]

ADJOURN, ad-jurn', _v.t._ to put off to another day: to postpone: to
discontinue a meeting in order to reconstitute it at another time or
place.--_v.i._ to suspend proceedings and disperse for any time specified,
or _sine die_, without such time being specified.--_n._ ADJOURN'MENT, the
act of adjourning: the interval it causes.--(_obs._) ADJOURN'AL. [O. Fr.
_ajorner_--Low L. _adiurn[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, Low L. _jurnus_, L.
_diurnus_, daily. See JOURNAL.]

ADJUDGE, ad-juj', _v.t._ to decide: to assign.--_n._ ADJUDG'MENT, the act
of adjudging: sentence. [O. Fr. _ajuger_--L. _adjudic[=a]re_. See JUDGE.]

ADJUDICATE, ad-j[=oo]'di-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to determine judicially: to
pronounce.--_v.i._ to pronounce judgment.--_ns._ ADJUDIC[=A]'TION (_Eng.
law_), an order of the Bankruptcy Court, adjudging the debtor to be a
bankrupt, and transferring his property to a trustee; ADJ[=U]'DICATOR. [L.
_adjudic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

ADJUNCT, ad'junkt, _adj._ joined or added to.--_n._ the thing joined or
added, as a qualifying addition to a name expressing any personal quality,
or the like: a person joined to another in some office or service:
(_gram._) any word or clause enlarging the subject or predicate: (_logic_)
any accompanying quality or non-essential attribute.--_n._ ADJUNC'TION, the
act of joining: the thing joined.--_adj._ ADJUNCT'IVE, joining.--_advs._
ADJUNCT'IVELY, ADJUNCT'LY, in connection with. [L. See JOIN.]

ADJURATION, ad-j[=oo]r-[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of adjuring: the charge or
oath used in adjuring.--_adj._ ADJUR'ATORY, containing an
adjuration.--_p.adj._ ADJUR'ING, acting as an adjuration. [Fr.--L.

ADJURE, ad-j[=oo]r', _v.t._ to charge on oath or solemnly: to cause to
swear (_B._ and _Milton_). [L.--_ad_, to, _jur[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to

ADJUST, ad-just', _v.t._ to arrange properly (with _to_): to regulate: to
settle.--_adj._ ADJUST'ABLE.--_n._ ADJUST'MENT, arrangement. [O. Fr.
_ajouster_--Low L. _adjuxt[=a]re_, to put side by side--L. _juxta_, near].

ADJUTAGE, ad'joo-t[=a]j, _n._ Same as _Ajutage_.

ADJUTANT, ad'joot-ant, _n._ a regimental staff officer not above the rank
of major, specially appointed to assist the commanding officer of a
garrison or regiment--there are also adjutants of auxiliary forces, of
depôts, of brigade, &c.: a large species of stork or crane found in
India.--_ns._ AD'JUTANCY, the office of an adjutant: assistance;
AD'JUTANT-GEN'ERAL, the head of his department on the general staff of the
army, the executive officer of the commander-in-chief. [L. _adjut[=a]re_ =
_adjuv[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _juv[=a]re_, to assist.]

ADMEASURE, ad-mezh'[=u]r, _v.t._ to measure: to apportion:--_pr.p._
admeas'[=u]ring; _pa.p._ admeas'[=u]red.--_n._ ADMEAS'UREMENT (see
MEASUREMENT). [Fr.--Late L. _admensur[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, _mensura_,

ADMINICLE, ad-min'i-kl, _n._ anything that aids or supports: an auxiliary:
(_law_) any corroboratory evidence.--_adj._ ADMINIC'ULAR.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ ADMINIC'ULATE. [L. _adminiculum_, a support--_ad_, to, _manus_,

ADMINISTER, ad-min'is-t[.e]r, _v.t._ to manage as a steward, substitute, or
executor: to supply: to conduct or execute, as offices of religion: to
apply: to impose.--_v.i._ to bring aid (with to).--_adjs._ ADMIN'ISTRABLE,
that may be administered; ADMIN'ISTRANT.--_n._ ADMINISTR[=A]'TION, the act
of administering: management: dispensation of sacraments: the power or
party that administers the government of the country.--_adj._
ADMIN'ISTRATIVE, that administers.--_n._ ADMINISTR[=A]'TOR, one who manages
or directs: the person to whom is committed, under a commission entitled
LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION, the administration or distribution of the
personal estate of any one dying intestate or leaving a will in which no
executor is named:--_fem._ ADMINISTR[=A]'TRIX.--_n._ ADMINISTR[=A]'TORSHIP.
[Through Fr. from L. _administr[=a]re_--ad, to, and _ministr[=a]re_, to

ADMIRAL, ad'mir-al, _n._ the chief commander of a navy--the ancient English
title of Lord High Admiral is now in abeyance, his functions falling to the
five Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty, and the High Court of Admiralty:
a naval officer of the highest rank. In the British navy, admirals are
distinguished into three classes--AD'MIRALS, VICE'-AD'MIRALS, and
REAR'-AD'MIRALS; the admiral carrying his colour at the main, the
vice-admiral at the fore, and the rear-admiral at the mizzen mast-head. In
former times each grade was subdivided into three sections, known as
admirals (or vice- or rear-admirals) of the Red, of the White, and of the
Blue, respectively: admiral-ship (Milton's _ammiral_) or flag-ship: the
chief ship in a fleet of merchantmen.--_ns._ AD'MIRALSHIP, the office of an
admiral; AD'MIRALTY, the board of commissioners for the administration of
naval affairs: the building where these transact business. [Through Fr.
from Ar. _am[=i]r_, a lord, a chief.]

ADMIRE, ad-m[=i]r', _v.t._ to have a high opinion of: to love.--_v.i._
(_arch._) to be affected with wonder at.--_adj._ AD'MIRABLE, worthy of
being admired.--_n._ AD'MIRABLENESS.--_adv._ AD'MIRABLY.--_ns._ ADMIR'ANCE
(_Spens._), admiration; ADMIR[=A]'TION, the act of admiring: wonder,
together with esteem, love, or veneration: (_B._, _Shak._, and _Milton_)
astonishment.--_adj._ AD'MIRATIVE.--_n._ ADM[=I]R'ER, one who admires: a
lover.--_adv._ ADM[=I]R'INGLY. [Fr. _admirer_--L. _ad_, at, _mir[=a]ri_, to

ADMIT, ad-mit', _v.t._ to allow to enter: to let in: to concede: to
acknowledge: to be capable of:--_pr.p._ admit'ting; _pa.p._
admit'ted.--_n._ ADMISSIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ ADMIS'SIBLE, that may be admitted
or allowed (generally, or specially as legal proof).--_ns._ ADMIS'SION,
ADMIT'TANCE, the act of admitting: anything admitted or conceded: leave to
enter.--_adj._ ADMIT'TABLE, that may be admitted.--_adv._ ADMIT'TEDLY.
[Through Fr. from L. _admitt[)e]re_, _-missum_--_ad_, to, _mitt[)e]re_, to

ADMIX, ad-miks', _v.t._ to mix with something else.--_n._ ADMIX'TURE, what
is added to the chief ingredient of a mixture. [L. _ad_, to, and MIX.]

ADMONISH, ad-mon'ish, _v.t._ to warn: to reprove mildly.--_n._
ADMON'ISHMENT, admonition. [O. Fr. _admonester_--Late L.
_admonest[=a]re_--_admonere_--_ad_, to, _monere_, to warn.]

ADMONITION, ad-mon-ish'un, _n._ kind reproof: counsel: advice:
ecclesiastical censure.--_adjs._ ADMON'ITIVE, ADMON'ITORY, containing
admonition.--_n._ ADMON'ITOR. [L. _admonition-em_. See ADMONISH.]

ADNASCENT, ad-nas'ent, _adj._ growing to or upon. [L. _adnascens_,
_-entis_, pr.p. of _adnasci_--_ad_, to, _nasci_, _natus_, to grow.]

ADNATE, ad-n[=a]t', _adj._ (_bot._) growing close to the stem. [L.
_adnatus_, usually _agnatus_--_ad_, to, _(g)natus_, born.]

ADO, a-d[=oo]', _n._ a to do: bustle: trouble: difficulty: stir or fuss.
[Contr. of _at do_ = _to do_, a form of the infin. borrowed from the

ADOBE, a-d[=o]'b[=a], _n._ and _adj._ a sun-dried brick, or made of such.
[Sp. _adobar_, to plaster.]

ADOLESCENT, ad-o-les'ent, _adj._ growing to manhood.--_n._ ADOLES'CENCE,
the period of youth, in man, from 14 to 25; in woman, from 12 to 21.
[Through Fr. from L. _adolescent-em_, _adolesc[)e]re_, to grow,
_adol[=e]re_, to magnify.]

ADONIS, a-d[=o]'nis, _n._ a beautiful youth, beloved by Aphrodite (Venus):
a beau or dandy.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ AD'ONISE, to make beautiful.

ADOORS, a-d[=o]rz', _adv._ (_obs._) at doors: at the door. [Prep, _a_, at,
and DOOR.]

ADOPT, ad-opt', _v.t._ to choose: to take up or embrace: to take into any
relationship: to take as one's own what is another's, as a child,
&c.--_ns._ ADOP'TIANISM, an 8th-century heresy akin to Nestorianism, that
Christ, in respect of his divine nature, was doubtless the Son of God; but
that, as to his human nature, he was only declared and adopted to be the
first-born Son of God; ADOP'TION, the act of adopting: the state of being
adopted: assumption: the taking into one language of words from another:
formal acceptance: choice: (_theol._) an act of divine grace by which the
redeemed in Christ are admitted to the privileges of the sons of
God.--_adjs._ ADOP'TIOUS (_Shak._), adopted; ADOPT'IVE, that adopts or is
adopted. [L. _adopt[=a]re_--_ad_, to, and, _opt[=a]re_, to choose.]

ADORE, ad-[=o]r', _v.t._ to worship: to love intensely.--_adj._ ADOR'ABLE,
worthy of being adored.--_n._ ADOR'ABLENESS.--_adv._ ADOR'ABLY.--_ns._
ADOR[=A]'TION, divine worship, homage: profound regard; ADOR'ER, one who
adores: a lover.--_adv._ ADOR'INGLY. [L. _ad_, to, _or[=a]re_, to pray. See

ADORN, ad-orn', _v.t._ to deck or dress: to embellish.--_n._ (_Spens._)
adornment.--_adj._ (_Milton_) adorned, ornate.--_n._ ADORN'MENT, ornament:
decoration. [O. Fr. _aörner_, _adorner_--L. _adorn[=a]re_--_ad_, to,
_orn[=a]re_, to furnish.]

ADOWN, a-down', _adv._ and _prep._ down. [A.S. _of-dúne_--_of_, from,
_dun_, a hill. See DOWN, a bank.]

ADRAD, a-drad', ADREAD, a-dred', _adj._ (_obs._) in a state of fear. [Prob.
from A.S. _of-drad_, _of-drede_, to terrify. See DREAD.]

ADRIFT, a-drift', _adj._ or _adv._ floating as driven (by the wind): moving
at random. [Prep. _a_, and DRIFT.]

ADROIT, a-droit', _adj._ dexterous: skilful.--_adv._ ADROIT'LY.--_n._
ADROIT'NESS. [Fr. _à droit_, according to right--L. _directus_, straight.

ADRY, a-dr[=i]', _adv._ thirsty. [Pfx. _a-_, and DRY.]

ADSCITITIOUS, ad-sit-ish'us, _adj._ added or assumed: additional. [L.
_adscisc[)e]re_, _-sc[=i]tum_, to take or assume--_ad_, to, _scisc[)e]re_,
to inquire--_sc[=i]re_, to know.]

ADSCRIPT, ad'skript, _adj._ written after: attached to the soil, of feudal
serfs--in this sense also used as a noun. [L. _adscriptus_--_ad_, to,
_scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

ADULATE, ad'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to fawn upon, to flatter:--_pr.p._
ad'[=u]l[=a]ting; _pa.p._ ad'[=u]l[=a]ted.--_n._ AD'ULATOR, a servile
flatterer.--_adj._ ADULATORY (ad'[=u]-l[=a]-tor-i). [L. _adul[=a]ri_,
_adulatus_, to fawn upon.]

ADULATION, ad-[=u]-l[=a]'shun, _n._ fawning: flattery. [L. _adul[=a]ri_,
_adulatus_, to fawn upon.]

ADULLAMITE, ad-ul'am-[=i]t, _adj._ an inhabitant of Adullam, where was a
cave to which flocked from all sides to David in exile men in debt,
distress, or discontent (1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2). The name was applied by John
Bright in 1866 to a Whig secession from the Liberal party.

ADULT, ad-ult', _adj._ grown: mature.--_n._ a grown-up person.--_n._
ADULT'NESS. [L. _adultus_--_adolesc[)e]re_, to grow. See ADOLESCENT.]

ADULTERATE, ad-ult'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to corrupt: to make impure (by
mixing).--_v.i._ (_obs._) to commit adultery.--_adj._ defiled by adultery:
spurious: corrupted by base elements.--_ns._ ADULT'ERANT, the person or
substance that adulterates; ADULTER[=A]'TION, the act of adulterating: the
state of being adulterated. [See ADULTERY.]

ADULTERY, ad-ult'[.e]r-i, _n._ violation of the marriage-bed, whether one's
own or another's: in Scripture applied loosely to unchastity
generally.--_n._ ADULT'ERER, a man guilty of adultery:--_fem._
ADULT'ERESS.--_adj._ ADULT'ERINE, resulting from adultery: spurious.--_n._
the offspring of adultery.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ ADULT'ERISE
(_arch._).--_adj._ ADULT'EROUS, guilty of adultery. [O. Fr. _avoutrie_,
_avoutre_, an adulterer--L. _adulterum_, prob. from _ad_, to, and _alter_,
another. The modern form of the word is due to a later approximation to the
Latin form.]

ADUMBRATE, ad-um'br[=a]t, or ad'-, _v.t._ to give a faint shadow of: to
exhibit imperfectly.--_adjs._ ADUM'BRANT, ADUM'BRATIVE, adumbrating or
giving a faint shadow.--_n._ ADUMBR[=A]'TION. [L. _adumbratus_,
_adumbr[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _umbra_, a shadow.]

ADUST, a-dust', _adj._ burnt up or scorched; browned with the sun. [L.
_adustus_, pa.p. of _adur[)e]re_, to burn up.]

ADVANCE, ad-vans', _v.t._ to put forward: to promote to a higher office: to
encourage the progress of: to propose: to supply beforehand: to pay before
the money is legally due, to pay on security.--_v.i._ to move or go
forward: to make progress: to rise in rank or in value.--_n._ progress:
improvement: a rise in price or value: a giving beforehand, also the sum so
given: a loan.--_n._ ADVANCE'MENT, promotion: improvement: payment of money
in advance.--IN ADVANCE, beforehand. [O. Fr. _avancer_--Late L. _abante_
(Fr. _avant_)--L. _ab ante_, from before.]

ADVANTAGE, ad-vant'[=a]j, _n._ superiority over another: gain or benefit:
at tennis, the point gained by either side after _deuce_, when both sides
stand at an equal score (more commonly VANT'AGE).--_v.t._ to benefit or
profit.--_adjs._ ADVAN'TAGEABLE, profitable: convenient (_rare_);
ADVANT[=A]'GEOUS, of advantage: useful (with _to_ and _for_).--_adv._
ANY ONE, to be known by a person without one's self knowing him; TO TAKE AT
ADVANTAGE, to avail one's self of any opportunity, often implying an unfair
sense. [Fr. _avantage_ (It. _vantaggio_)--Fr. _avant_, before. See

ADVENE, ad-v[=e]n', _v.i._ to accede: to be superadded to. [Through Fr.
from L. _adven[=i]re_, to come to.]

ADVENT, ad'vent, _n._ a coming or arrival: the first or the second coming
of Christ: the period immediately before the festival of the Nativity,
including four Sundays--from the first after St Andrew's Day (November 30)
to Christmas eve.--_n._ AD'VENTIST, one who believes in the second coming
of Christ to set up a kingdom on the earth: a millenarian--_adj._
ADVENT'UAL (_obs._), relating to Advent. [Through Fr. from L.
_adventus_--_ad_, to, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

ADVENTITIOUS, ad-vent-ish'us, _adj._ accidental: additional: foreign:
appearing casually.--_adv._ ADVENTI'TIOUSLY.--_adj._ ADVENT'IVE (_Bacon_),
adventitious.--_n._ a thing or person coming from without. [See ADVENT.]

ADVENTURE, ad-vent'[=u]r, _n._ a risk or chance: a remarkable incident: an
enterprise: trial of the issue: risk: a commercial speculation: the spirit
of enterprise.--_v.i._ to attempt or dare.--_v.t._ to risk or hazard:
(_refl._) to venture.--_v.i._ to risk one's self (with _on_, _into_,
_upon_): to dare, go so far as to.--_n._ ADVENT'URER, one who engages in
hazardous enterprises: a soldier of fortune, or speculator: one who pushes
his fortune by equivocal means, as false pretences, &c.:--_fem._
ADVENT'URESS.--_adjs._ ADVENT'UROUS, ADVENT'URESOME, enterprising: ready to
incur risk.--_adv._ ADVENT'UROUSLY.--_n._ ADVENT'UROUSNESS. [O. Fr.--L.
_adventurus_, about to happen, fut. perf. of _adven[=i]re_. See ADVENT.]

ADVERB, ad'v[.e]rb, _n._ a word added to a verb, adjective, or other adverb
to express some modification of the meaning or an accompanying
circumstance.--_adj._ ADVERB'IAL, pertaining to an adverb--used also as a
_n._--_adv._ ADVERB'IALLY. [L. _ad verbium_--_ad_, to, _verbum_, a word. It
is so called, not because it is added to a verb, but because it is a word
(_verbum_) joined to, or supplemental of, other words.]

ADVERSARIA, ad-v[.e]rs-[=a]r'i-a, _n.pl._ collections of miscellaneous
things in a commonplace-book: consecutive notes on any book. [L., lit.
things written on the opposite sides of the paper, from _adversus_,

ADVERSARY, ad'v[.e]rs-ar-i, _n._ an opponent: an enemy: Satan, as the
general adversary of mankind. [O. Fr. _aversier_--L. _adversarius_. See

ADVERSATIVE, ad-v[.e]rs'a-tiv, _adj._ denoting opposition, contrariety, or
variety. [See ADVERSE.]

ADVERSE, ad'v[.e]rs, _adj._ acting in a contrary direction (with _to_):
opposed to: unfortunate: injurious.--_adv._ AD'VERSELY.--_ns._
AD'VERSENESS, ADVERS'ITY, adverse circumstances: affliction: misfortune.
[Through Fr. from L. _adversus_--_ad_, to, and _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to

ADVERT, ad-v[.e]rt', _v.i._ to turn the mind to (with _to_): to refer to:
(_obs._) to regard or observe.--_ns._ ADVERT'ENCE, ADVERT'ENCY, attention
to: heedfulness: regard.--_adj._ ADVERT'ENT, attentive: heedful.--_adv._
ADVERT'ENTLY. [O. Fr. _avertir_, _avertiss-ant_--L. _advert[)e]re_--_ad_,
to, and _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

ADVERTISE, ad-v[.e]rt-[=i]z', or ad'-, _v.t._ to turn one's attention to:
to inform: to give public information or announcement of: (_obs._) to
instruct.--_ns._ ADVERT'ISEMENT, the act of advertising or making known: a
public notice in a newspaper or periodical: notoriety: (_obs._) news;
ADVERT[=I]S'ER, one who advertises: a paper in which advertisements are
published.--_p.adj._ ADVERT[=I]S'ING (_Shak._), attentive. [Fr., from L.

ADVICE, ad-v[=i]s', _n._ counsel: intelligence (usually in _pl._): formal
official intelligence about anything: specially skilled opinion, as of a
physician or lawyer.--_n._ ADVICE'-BOAT, a swift vessel employed in
conveying despatches.--_adjs._ ADVICE'FUL, AVIZE'FULL (_Spens._).--The form
ADVISO, advice, counsel (_Sir T. Browne_), and in CARAVAL OF ADVISO = an
advice-boat (_Fuller_), is obsolete--modern form AVISO. [O. Fr. _advis_
(Fr. _avis_)--L. _ad visum_, according to what is seen or seems best.]


ADVISE, ad-v[=i]z', _v.t._ to give advice or counsel to: to recommend: to
inform (usually with _of_).--_v.i._ to consult (_with_): (_obs._) to
deliberate:--_pr.p._ adv[=i]s'ing; _pa.p._ adv[=i]sed'.--_ns._
ADVISABIL'ITY, ADVIS'ABLENESS.--_adj._ ADVIS'ABLE, that may be advised or
recommended: prudent: expedient: open to advice.--_adv._
ADVIS'ABLY.--_adjs._ ADVIS'ATORY (_rare_); ADVISED', cautious: deliberate,
as in _well-advised_ and _ill-advised_.--_adv._ ADVIS'EDLY,
intentionally.--_ns._ ADVIS'EDNESS, deliberate consideration: prudent
procedure; ADVISE'MENT (_obs._ or _arch._), counsel, deliberation;
ADVIS'ER, one who advises or gives advice; ADVIS'ING (_Shak._), counsel,
advice. [O. Fr. _aviser_, from _advis_ or _avis_. See ADVICE.]

ADVOCACY, ad'vo-ka-si, _n._ the function of an advocate: a pleading for:
defence. [See ADVOCATE.]

ADVOCATE, ad'vo-k[=a]t, _n._ an intercessor or defender: one who pleads the
cause of another, esp. in a court of law in Scotland and France.--_v.t._ to
plead in favour of: to recommend.--_ns._ ADVOC[=A]'TION; AD'VOCATOR.--LORD
ADVOCATE, the first law-officer of the crown and public prosecutor of
crimes for Scotland. [O. Fr. _avocat_--L. _advocatus_--_advoc[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _voc[=a]re_, to call: to call in (another to help, as
in a lawsuit or in sickness).]

ADVOUTRER, ad-vow'tr[.e]r, _n._ (_obs._) an adulterer:--_fem._ ADVOU'TRESS.

ADVOUTRY, ad-vow'tri, _n._ (_obs._) adultery. [O. Fr. _avoutrie_--L.

ADVOWSON, ad-vow'zun, _n._ the right of patronage or presentation to a
church benefice.--_n._ ADVOWEE', one who has the right of advowson. [O. Fr.
_avoëson_--L. _advocation-em_, right of the patron--L. _advocatus_, a

ADYNAMIC, [=a]-di-nam'ik, _adj._ without strength: (_phys._) characterised
by the absence of force. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _dynamis_, strength.]

ADYTUM, ad'i-tum, _n._ the most sacred part of a heathen temple: the
chancel of a church:--_pl._ AD'YTA. [L.--Gr. _adyton_--_a_, neg., and
_dyein_, to enter.]

ADZE, ADZ, adz, _n._ a carpenter's tool consisting of a thin arched blade
with its edge at right angles to the handle. [A.S. _adesa_; ultimate origin

AE, [=a], or y[=a], modern Scotch form of A.S. _án_, one, used as an

ÆDILE, EDILE, [=e]'d[=i]l, _n._ a magistrate in ancient Rome who had the
charge of public buildings, games, markets, police, &c.--_n._ Æ'DILESHIP.
[L. _æd[=i]lis_, _ædes_, _-is_, a building.]

ÆGIS, [=e]'jis, _n._ (_orig._) a shield given by Jupiter to Minerva:
anything that protects. [L.--Gr. _aígis_.]

ÆGLOGUE, an archaic form of ECLOGUE.

ÆGROTAT, [=e]'gr[=o]-tät, _n._ in the English universities, a medical
certificate of inability from illness to attend lectures or
examinations.--_n._ ÆGER ([=e]'j[.e]r), sick, the word used at Oxford and
Cambridge in excusing absence on account of illness, hence a note
certifying a student to be _æger_ or sick. [L., 'he is sick,' 3d pers.
sing. pres. indic. of _ægrot[=a]re_, to be sick; _æger_, sick.]

ÆNEID, [=e]'n[=e]-id, _n._ an epic poem written by Virgil, the hero of
which is Æneas. [L. _Æneis_, _-idos_.]

ÆOLIAN, [=e]-[=o]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to or acted on by the wind:
aerial: of Æolis or Æolia, a district of Asia Minor colonised by the
Greeks.--Also Æ'[=O]LIC. [_Æolus_, the god of the winds.]

ÆOLIPILE, [=e]-ol'i-p[=i]l, _n._ an instrument consisting of a hollow ball
of metal partly filled with water, and having a small orifice through which
steam escapes on the application of heat, thus turning the ball. It is the
first instrument on record for showing the power of steam. [From L.
_Æolus_, and _pila_, ball.]

ÆON, EON, [=e]'on, _n._ a period of time, an age or one of a series of
ages, eternity: the personification of an age, a power emanating from the
supreme Deity, with its share in the creation and government of the
universe.--_adj._ Æ[=O]'NIAN, eternal. [Gr. _ai[=o]n_.]

AERATE, [=a]'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to put air into: to supply, or cause to
mix, with carbonic acid or other gas, as AERATED WATERS.--_ns._ A'ERATOR,
an apparatus for such purpose; AER[=A]'TION, exposure to the action of air:
the mixing or saturating with a gas: the oxygenation of the blood by
respiration. [L. _aër_, air.]

AERIAL, [=a]-[=e]r'i-al, _adj._ belonging to the air: inhabiting or
existing in the air: elevated, lofty, ethereal.--_ns._ AERIAL'ITY,

AERIE, [=a]'ri, or [=e]'ri, _n._ the nest of any bird of prey, esp. an
eagle: a house perched on some high or steep place: (_Shak._) the brood in
the nest, or a stock of children.--Also AERY, EYRIE, EYRY. [O. Fr. _aire_;
Low L. _aeria_, _aerea_--L. _area_, a spot of level ground. The form EYRY
seems to have been originally due to a confusion with M. E. _ey_, an egg.]

AERIFEROUS, [=a]-[.e]r-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ carrying or containing air. [L.
_aër_, air, and _ferre_, to carry.]

AERIFORM, [=a]'[.e]r-i-form, _adj._ having the form or nature of air or
gas: unsubstantial, unreal. [L. _aër_, air, and _forma_, form.]

AERIFY, [=a]'[.e]r-i-f[=i], _v.t._ to change from a solid or liquid state
into air or gas: to fill or combine with air.--_n._ AERIFIC[=A]'TION, act
of being aerified or changed from a solid or liquid state into air or gas:
act of combining air with anything: state of being filled with air. [L.
_aër_, air, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

AEROBIA, [=a]-[.e]r-[=o]'bi-a, _n.pl._ (_biol._) bacteria that require free
oxygen for the maintenance of their vitality.--_adj._ AER[=O]'BIC.

AERODYNAMICS, [=a]-[.e]r-o-di-nam'iks, _n._ the science of the motion of
the air and other gases, and of their mechanical effects when in motion.
[Gr. _a[=e]r_, _aeros_, air, and _dynamis_, power.]

AEROLITE, [=a]'[.e]r-o-l[=i]t, _n._ a meteoric stone or meteorite--also
A'EROLITH.--_n._ AEROLITHOL'OGY, that branch of science which treats of
aerolites.--_adj._ AEROLIT'IC. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, air, _lithos_, a stone.]

AEROLOGY, [=a]-[.e]r-ol'o-ji, _n._ the branch of science which treats of
the atmosphere.--_adj._ AEROLOG'ICAL.--_n._ AEROL'OGIST. [Gr. _a[=e]r_,
_aeros_, air, _logos_, discourse.]

AEROMANCY, [=a]-[.e]r-om'an-si, _n._ divination by means of atmospheric
phenomena: weather forecasting. [Fr.--L.--Gr. _a[=e]r_, air, _manteia_,

AEROMETER, [=a]-[.e]r-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
weight or density of air and gases. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, and METER.]

AEROMETRY, [=a]-[.e]r-om'e-tri, _n._ the measuring of the air, now called
pneumatics.--_adj._ AEROMET'RIC. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, _aeros_, air, _metron_, a

AERONAUT, [=a]'[.e]r-o-nawt, _n._ one who makes ascents in a
balloon.--_adjs._ AERONAUT'IC, AERONAUT'ICAL.--_n._ AERONAUT'ICS, the
science or art of aerial navigation. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, air, _naut[=e]s_,

AEROPHYTE, [=a]'[.e]r-o-f[=i]t, _n._ a plant nourished by the air, as
epiphytal orchids and many lichens. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, air, _phyton_, a plant.]

AEROSTAT, [=a]'[.e]r-o-stat, _n._ a machine formed to sustain weights in
the air: a flying machine--sometimes applied in the newspapers to the
aeronaut himself.--_adj._ AEROSTAT'IC--_n._ AEROST[=A]'TION, the art of
raising and guiding balloons. [Gr. _a[=e]r_, _aeros_, air, and _statos_,
standing--_hist[=e]mi_, I cause to stand.]

AEROSTATICS, [=a]-[.e]r-o-stat'iks, _n._ the science of the equilibrium of
air or of elastic fluids: the science of raising and guiding balloons. [Gr.
_a[=e]r_, air, _statikos_, relating to equilibrium. See STATICS.]

ÆRUGINOUS, [=e]-roo'ji-nus, _adj._ pertaining to or like copper-rust or
verdigris. [L. _æruginosus_--_ærugo_, _æruginis_, rust of copper--_æs_,
_æris_, brass, copper.]

AERY, [=a]'[.e]r-i, _adj._ aerial, incorporeal, spiritual,
visionary.--_adj._ AE'RYLIGHT (_Milton_), light as air.--As a noun, AERY is
a variant spelling of AERIE.

ÆSTHETICS, [=e]s-thet'iks, _n._ the feeling of beauty in objects, the
principles of taste and of art: the philosophy of the fine arts.--_n._
ÆS'THETE, a professed disciple of æstheticism, one who affects an
extravagant love of art.--_adjs._ ÆSTHET'IC, ÆSTHET'ICAL, pertaining to
æsthetics.--_adv._ ÆSTHET'ICALLY.--_ns._ ÆSTHETI'CIAN, ÆSTHET'ICIST, one
devoted to æsthetics; ÆSTHET'ICISM, the principles of æsthetics: the cult
of the beautiful, applied esp. to an art movement in London in the last
quarter of the 19th century, which aimed at carrying art into every home
and every relation of life, but made itself ridiculous by its fantastic and
superficial dogmatism, and its puerility.--_v.t._ ÆSTHET'ICIZE, to render
æsthetic, to refine. [Gr. _aisth[=e]tikos_, perceptive--_aisthanesthai_, to
feel or perceive.]

ÆSTIVAL, es-t[=i]'val, _adj._ pertaining to the summer. [L.
_æstivalis_--_æstas_, summer.]

ÆSTIVATION, es-ti-v[=a]'shun, _n._ (_bot._) the manner of folding of the
petals in the flower-bud: (_zool._) the act of remaining dormant during the
dry season--opposed to _Hibernation_: (_Bacon_) the passing of the summer:
a summer retreat. [L. _æstivus_, relating to summer--_æstas_, summer.]

ÆTHRIOSCOPE, [=e]'thri-o-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
minute variations of temperature due to the condition of the sky. [Gr.
_aithria_, the open sky, _skopos_, an observer.]

ÆTIOLOGY, [=e]-ti-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science or philosophy of causation,
esp. an inquiry into the origin and causes of a disease.--_adj._
ÆTIOLOG'ICAL. [L.--Gr. _aitiologia_--_aitia_, cause, _logos_, discourse.]

AFAR, a-fär', _adv._ from a far distance (usually preceded by _from_): to a
distance (usually followed by _off_). [A.S. _feor_, with prep. _of_ or
_on_. See FAR.]

AFEAR, AFFEAR, a-f[=e]r', _v.t._ (_obs._) to terrify.--_adj._ AFEARD'
(_Shak._), affected with fear, afraid. [Pfx. _a-_, and A.S. _færan_, to

AFFABLE, af'fa-bl, _adj._ condescending: easy to be spoken to (used with
_to_).--_ns._ AFFABIL'ITY, AF'FABLENESS.--_adv._ AF'FABLY. [Fr.--L.
_affabilis_--_aff[=a]ri_, to speak to--_ad_, to, and _f[=a]ri_, to speak.]

AFFAIR, af-f[=a]r', _n._ that which is to be done: business: any small
matter: a battle of minor importance: a matter of intimate personal
concern, as a duel--a so-called affair of honour, or an intrigue: (_pl._)
transactions in general: public concerns. [O. Fr. _afaire_ (Fr.
_affaire_)--_à_ and _faire_--L. _ad_, and _fac[)e]re_, to do. Cf. ADO.]

AFFAMISH, af-fam'ish, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_obs._) to cause to perish from
hunger. [Fr. _affamer_--L. _ad_, to, _fames_, hunger.]

AFFECT, af-fekt', _v.t._ to act upon: to produce a change upon: to move the
feelings: to assign, apply (only in _pass_.).--_adj._ AFFECT'ED, touched
with a feeling either for or against (with _by_): full of affectation:
feigned.--_adv._ AFFECT'EDLY.--_n._ AFFECT'EDNESS.--_adj._ AFFECT'ING,
having power to move the passions: pathetic.--_adv._ AFFECT'INGLY. [L.
_affic[)e]re_, _affectum_--_ad_, to, _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

AFFECT, af-fekt', _v.t._ to make a show or pretence of, to assume, to
counterfeit or pretend to, to take upon one's self to: (_obs._) to aim at,
seek to obtain: (_arch._) have a liking for, to love: to practise, wear, or
frequent: to haunt or inhabit by preference.--_n._ AFFECT[=A]'TION, a
striving after, or an attempt to assume, what is not natural or real:
pretence. [L. _affect[=a]re_, freq. of _affic[)e]re_. See AFFECT above.]

AFFECTION, af-fek'shun, _n._ kindness or love: attachment: (_Shak._)
affectation: an attribute or property: a disposition of mind: a disease or
abnormal state of body or mind.--_adjs._ AFFEC'TIONAL; AFFEC'TIONATE, full
of affection: loving: (_obs._) eager, passionate, well inclined to;
AFFEC'TIONATED (_obs._).--_adv._ AFFEC'TIONATELY.--_n._
AFFEC'TIONATENESS.--_adj._ AFFEC'TIONED (_B._), affected, disposed:
(_Shak._) full of affectation. [L. See AFFECT.]

AFFEER, af-f[=e]r', _v.t._ to fix the market value of: to reduce to a
certain fixed sum.--_adj._ AFFEERED' (_Shak._), confirmed.--_n._
AFFEER'MENT. [O. Fr. _affeurer_--Low L. _affor[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to,
_forum_, a market.]

AFFERENT, af'f[.e]r-ent, _adj._ (_anat._) bringing to, applied to the
nerves that convey sensations to the nerve centres. [L. _afferens_--_ad_,
to, and _ferre_, to carry.]

AFFETTUOSO, af-fet-t[=oo]-[=o]'so, _adj._ and _adv._ (_mus._) tender,
tenderly, with feeling--used as a noun by Burke.

AFFIANCE, af-f[=i]'ans, _n._ faith pledged to: marriage contract: trust:
affinity (_in_, _on_).--_v.t._ to pledge faith: to betroth.--_adj._ and
_n._ AFF[=I]'ANCED, betrothed. [O. Fr. _afiance_, _afier_--L. _ad_, to,
_fides_, faith.]

AFFIDAVIT, af-fi-d[=a]'vit, _n._ a written declaration on oath.
[_Affidavit_, 3d pers. sing. perf. of a Low L. _affid[=a]re_, to pledge
one's faith.]

AFFIED (_arch._), _pa.p._ of AFFY.

AFFILIATE, af-fil'i-[=a]t, _v.t._ to receive into a family as a son, or
into a society as a member: to attach to, or connect with, as minor
colleges with a university: to impute paternity to, to attribute to, to
father on or upon.--_n._ AFFILI[=A]'TION, the act of receiving into a
family or society as a member: (_law_) the assignment of an illegitimate
child to its father, the assignment of anything to its origin. [L.
_affili[=a]re_, to adopt--_ad_, to, _filius_, a son.]

AFFINE, af-f[=i]n', _n._ (_obs._) a relation, connection.--_adjs._ AFFINE',
AFFINED', related, bound by some tie. [O. Fr.--L. _affinis_,
neighbouring--_ad_, to, at, _finis_, a boundary.]

AFFINITY, af-fin'i-ti, _n._ nearness of kin, agreement, or resemblance:
causal relationship: structural resemblance between languages of ultimately
common origin: structural resemblance between plants, animals, or minerals
pointing to identity of stock: relationship by marriage, opposed to
consanguinity or relationship by blood: (_B._) social relationship: the
spiritual relationship between sponsors and their godchild: a mysterious
attraction supposed to exist between two persons: (_chem._) the peculiar
attraction between the atoms of two simple substances that makes them
combine to form a compound.--_adj._ AFFIN'ITIVE. [Fr.--L.
_affinitas_--_affinis_, neighbouring--_ad_, at, _finis_, boundary.]

AFFIRM, af-f[.e]rm', _v.t._ to assert confidently or positively: to ratify
a judgment: to confirm or maintain a statement of one's own or another's:
(_log._) to make a statement in the affirmative: (_law_) to make a formal
declaration or affirmation, without an oath.--_adj._ AFFIRM'ABLE, that may
be affirmed (with _of_).--_n._ AFFIRM'ANCE, affirmation, assertion,
confirmation.--_adj._ AFFIRM'ANT--also _n._, one who affirms.--_n._
AFFIRM[=A]'TION, act of asserting: that which is affirmed: (_law_) the
solemn declaration made by Quakers and others incapable of taking an
oath.--_adj._ and _n._ AFFIRM'ATIVE, that affirms or asserts: positive, not
negative: dogmatic.--_adv._ AFFIRM'ATIVELY.--_adj._ AFFIRM'ATORY. [O. Fr.
_afermer_--L. _affirm[=a]re_--_ad_, _firmus_, firm. See FIRM.]

AFFIX, af-fiks', _v.t._ to fix to: to add: to attach (_to_, _on_,
_upon_).--_n._ AF'FIX, an addition to a root, stem, or word, to modify its
meaning or use, whether _prefix_ or _suffix_: any appendage or addition.
[L. _affig[)e]re_, _-fixum_--_ad_, to, _fig[)e]re_, to fix. See FIX.]

AFFLATION, af-fl[=a]'shun, _n._ a breathing upon.--_p.adj._ AFFLAT'ED,
inspired. [From L. _affl[=a]re_, _fl[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, and _fl[=a]re_, to

AFFLATUS, af-fl[=a]'tus, _n._ inspiration, as of the poet or orator: esp.
religious inspiration, the divine afflatus = L. _afflatus divinus_. [See

AFFLICT, af-flikt', _v.t._ to give continued pain, distress, or grief: to
harass, or vex.--_pa.p._ AFFLICT'ED, harassed by disease of body or mind:
suffering.--_adj._ AFFLICT'ING, distressing.--_n._ AFFLIC'TION, state or
cause of pain or distress: misery: loss of friends, sickness, persecution.
&c.--_adj._ AFFLICT'IVE, causing distress. [L. _afflig[)e]re_,
_flictum_--_ad_, to, _flig[)e]re_, to dash to the ground.]

AFFLUENT, af'fl[=oo]-ent, _adj._ abounding: wealthy (with _in_).--_n._ a
stream flowing into a river or lake.--_ns._ AF'FLUENCE, abundance: wealth;
AF'FLUENCY (_obs._).--_adv._ AF'FLUENTLY.--_n._ AF'FLUENTNESS. [L.
_afflu[)e]re_, _affluent-em_--_ad_, to, _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

AFFLUX, af'fluks, AFFLUXION, af-flux'shun, _n._ a flowing to: an accession.
[L. _afflu[)e]re_, _affluxum_. See AFFLUENT.]

AFFORCE, af-f[=o]rs', _v.t._ (_law_) to reinforce a jury or other
deliberative body by specially skilled persons.--_n._ AFFORCE'MENT. [O. Fr.
_aforcer_--Low L. _exforti[=a]re_--L. _fortis_, strong.]

AFFORD, af-f[=o]rd', _v.t._ to yield or produce: to be able to sell, to
expend, or to bear the expense of. [M. E. _aforthen_, from A.S.
_geforthian_ or _forthian_, to further or cause to come forth.]

AFFOREST, af-for'est, _v.t._ to turn land into forest.--_n._
AFFOREST[=A]'TION. [Low L. _afforest[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, and _foresta_.

AFFRANCHISE, af-fran'chiz, _v.t._ to free from slavery, or from some
obligation. [O. Fr. _afranchir_, _afranchiss-_, from _à_, to, _franchir_,
to free, _franc_, free. See FRANK.]

AFFRAP, af-frap', _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to strike or strike down.
[It. _affrappare_--_af_ (_ad_), to, and _frapp[=a]re_ (Fr. _frapper_), to

AFFRAY, af-fr[=a]', _n._ a fight causing alarm: a brawl or fray: terror
(_Spens._).--_v.t._ to startle: to frighten: esp. in _pa.p._ AFFRAYED' =
afraid. [O. Fr. _afrayer_, _esfreer_ (Fr. _effrayer_)--Low L.
_exfredi[=a]re_, to break the king's peace--L. _ex_, and Old High Ger.
_fridu_ (Ger. _friede_), peace.]

AFFRET, af-fret', _n._ (_Spens._) a furious onset. [Prob. from It.
_affrettare_, to hasten.]

AFFRIENDED, af-frend'ed, _adj._ (_Spens._) made friends: reconciled.

AFFRIGHT, af-fr[=i]t', _v.t._ to frighten--also AFFRIGHT'EN.--_n._
AFFRIGHT', sudden terror.--_pa.p._ AFFRIGHT'ED, frightened.--_adv._
AFFRIGHT'EDLY.--_adj._ AFFRIGHT'FUL (_arch._).--_n._ AFFRIGHT'MENT, sudden
fear. [A.S. _afyrhtan_. See FRIGHT.]

AFFRONT, af-frunt', _v.t._ to meet face to face: to insult openly:
(_Shak._) to throw one's self in the way of.--_n._ contemptuous treatment:
an open insult: disgrace.--_adj._ AFFRONTÉ, _fem._ AFFRONTÉE, facing each
other: (_her._) of animals represented front to front, or expectant--opp.
to _Addorsed_; also looking frontwise, or toward the beholder.--_p.adj._
AFFRONT'ED, insulted, offended.--_adj._ AFFRONT'IVE.--TO PUT AN AFFRONT
UPON, TO OFFER AN AFFRONT TO = to openly insult a person. [O. Fr.
_afronter_--Low L. _affront[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, _front-_, the forehead.]

AFFUSION, af-f[=u]'zhun, _n._ the act of pouring upon or
sprinkling.--Baptism by affusion is effected by the pouring of water on the
subject, as distinct from baptism by dipping, or baptism by sprinkling. [L.
_affusion-em_, _affund[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _fund[)e]re_, _fusum_, to pour.]

AFFY, af-f[=i]', _v.t._ (_obs._) to pledge one's faith to, to
betroth.--_v.i._ to trust or confide:--_pr.p._ affy'ing; _pa.p._
aff[=i]ed'. [O. Fr. _afier_--Low L. _aff[=i]d[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _fides_,
faith. See AFFIANCE.]

AFIELD, a-f[=e]ld', _adv._ to, in, or on the field.

AFIRE, a-f[=i]r', _adv._ on fire: in a state of inflammation.

AFLAME, a-fl[=a]m', _adj._ and _adv._ flaming: glowing. [Pfx. _a-_, and

AFLOAT, a-fl[=o]t', _adv._ or _adj._ floating: at sea: unfixed: in

AFOOT, a-foot', _adv._ on foot: astir.

AFORE, a-f[=o]r', _prep._ (_B._ and _Shak._) beforehand, previously.

AFOREHAND, a-f[=o]r'hand, _adv._ before the regular time of accomplishment:
in advance.

AFORESAID, a-f[=o]r'sed, _adj._ said or named before.

AFORETHOUGHT, a-f[=o]r'thawt, _adj._ thought of or meditated before:

AFORETIME, a-f[=o]r't[=i]m, _adv._ in former or past times.

AFOUL, a-fowl', _adj._ or _adv._ entangled: in collision (with _of_).

AFRAID, a-fr[=a]d', _adj._ struck with fear: timid. [See AFFRAY.]

AFRESH, a-fresh', _adv._ anew.

AFRICAN, af'rik-an, _adj._ pertaining to Africa--also AF'RIC.--_ns._
AF'RICAN, a native of Africa; AFRICAND'ER, one born of white parents in
Cape Colony or other parts of South Africa. [L. _Africus_,
_Africanus_--_Afer_, African.]

AFRIT, a-frit', _n._ an evil demon in Arabian mythology.--Also AFREET'.
[Ar. _`ifr[=i]t_, a demon.]

AFRONT, a-frunt', _adv._ (_obs._) in front.

AFT, aft, _adj._ or _adv._ behind: near or towards the stern of a vessel.
[A.S. _æft-an_.]

AFTER, aft'[.e]r, _prep._ and _adv._ behind in place: later in time:
following in search of: in imitation of: in proportion to, or in agreement
with: concerning: subsequent to, or subsequently: afterward: after the
manner of, or in imitation of.--_adj._ behind in place: later in time: more
toward the stern of a vessel. [A.S. _æfter_, comp. of _af_, or _of_, the
primary meaning being 'more off,' 'farther away;' _-ter_ as a comparative
affix is seen in L. _al-ter_, Eng. _o-ther_. See OF.]

AFTERBIRTH, aft'[.e]r-b[.e]rth, _n._ the placenta and membranes which are
expelled from the uterus of the mother after the birth.

AFTERCLAP, aft'[.e]r-klap, _n._ an unexpected event happening after an
affair is supposed to be at an end.

AFTERCROP, aft'[.e]r-krop, _n._ a second crop in the same year.

AFTER-DAMP, aft'[.e]r-damp, _n._ choke-damp, arising in coal-mines after an
explosion of fire-damp.

AFTEREYE, aft-[.e]r-[=i]', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to look after.

AFTERGAME, aft'[.e]r-g[=a]m, _n._ a second game played to reverse the issue
of the first, hence the means employed after the first turn of affairs.

AFTERGLOW, aft'[.e]r-gl[=o], _n._ the glow often seen in the sky after

AFTERGUARD, aft'[.e]r-gärd, _n._ the men on the quarter-deck and poop who
work the after sails, not needing to go aloft: a drudge or person in a mean

AFTER-HANDS, af'ter-handz, _n.pl._ (_Tenn._) future labourers.

AFTER-IMAGE, aft'[.e]r-im'[=a]j, _n._ the image that remains for a brief
period after the eye has been withdrawn from the object.

AFTERINGS, aft'[.e]r-ingz, _n._ the last milk drawn in milking.

AFTERMATH, aft'[.e]r-math, _n._ a second mowing of grass in the same
season. [See MOW, MEADOW.]

AFTERMOST, aft'[.e]r-m[=o]st, _adj._ hindmost. [A.S. _æftemest_; Goth.
_af-tuma_, _-tuma_, being equiv. to L. _-tumus_ in _op-tumus_, best. Goth.
has also _af-tum-ists_ = A.S. _æf-tem-est_, which is thus a double
superlative.--Thus in aftermost, _r_ is intrusive and _-most_ is not the
adv. _most_.]

AFTERNOON, aft'[.e]r-n[=oo]n, _n._ the time between noon and evening.--_n._
AFT'ER-MORN (_Tenn._), the morrow.

AFTERPAINS, aft'[.e]r-p[=a]nz, _n._ the pains which succeed childbirth and
the expulsion of the afterbirth.

AFTERPIECE, aft'[.e]r-p[=e]s, _n._ a farce or other minor piece performed
after a play.

AFTERSUPPER, aft'[.e]r-sup-p[.e]r, _n._ the time between supper and

AFTERTHOUGHT, aft'[.e]r-thawt, _n._ thought or reflection after an action:
a later thought.

AFTERWARD, aft'[.e]r-ward, AFTERWARDS, aft'[.e]r-wardz, _adv._ in
after-time: later: subsequently. [A.S. _æftenweard_.]

AGA, AGHA, [=a]'ga, _n._ a Turkish commander or chief officer. [Turk.
_agh[=a]_, Pers. _ak_, _aka_, a lord.]

AGAIN, a-gen', _adv._ once more: in return: back. [A.S. _on-geán_, again,
opposite; Ger. _ent-gegen_.]

AGAINST, a-genst', also a-g[=a]nst', _prep._ opposite to: in opposition to:
in contact or collision with: in provision for: in exchange for, instead
of: (_B._ and _Shak._) by the time that, elliptically for 'against (the
time) at which' or 'that I come.' [Formed from _again_, with genitive
ending _-es_, as _whilst_ from _while_--the _-t_ being a later addition, as
in _amongs-t_, _amids-t_, &c.]

AGAMI, ag'a-mi, _n._ the golden-breasted trumpeter, a grallatorial bird of
South America. [Native name.]

AGAMOGENESIS, a-gam-o-jen'e-sis, _n._ reproduction without sex, found among
lower animals and in plants. [Gr. _a_, priv., _gamos_, marriage, _genesis_,

AGAMOUS, ag'a-mus, _adj._ (_bot._) having no visible flowers or organs of
fructification. [Gr. _agamos_--_a_, neg., and _gamos_, marriage.]

AGAPE, ag'a-p[=e], _n._ a love-feast, held by the early Christians at
communion time, when contributions were made for the poor:--_pl._
AG'APÆ.--_n._ AGAPEM'ON[=E] (Gr., 'love abode'), a community of religious
visionaries with unedifying ideas about the sexual relations, founded in
1859 at Charlinch, near Bridgwater, by one H. J. Prince, formerly an
Anglican clergyman. [Gr. _agap[=e]_, love.]

AGAPE, a-g[=a]p', _adj._ or _adv._ gaping from wonder, expectation, or
attention. [Lit., 'on gape.']

AGARIC, ag'ar-ik, _n._ a family of fungi, including the mushroom. [Gr.

AGASTRIC, a-gas'trik, _adj._ having no stomach. [Gr. _a_, neg., and
_gast[=e]r_, stomach.]

AGATE, ag'[=a]t, _n._ a precious stone composed of layers of quartz, of
different tints.--_adj._ AGATIF'EROUS. [Gr. _achat[=e]s_, said to be so
called because first found near the river _Achates_ in Sicily.]

AGATE, a-g[=a]t', _adv._ agoing, on the way. [Prep. _a_, and GATE; a
northern word.]

AGAVE, a-g[=a]'ve, _n._ a genus of herbaceous plants, natives of the warmer
parts of America, which in Mexico usually flower about the seventh or
eighth year, the stem rising to a height of forty feet. It is called also
the American Aloe and Century Plant, receiving the latter name from the
number of years (40-60, popularly a hundred) it takes to flower in our

AGAZED, a-g[=a]zd', _adj._ (_Shak._) struck with amazement. [Prob. a
variant of AGHAST.]

AGE, [=a]j, _n._ the ordinary length of human life: the time during which a
person or thing has lived or existed: mature years: legal maturity (at 21
years), or time of life with regard to crime, contracts, marriage, &c.: a
period of time: any great period of human history, as the Golden Age, the
Bronze Age, the Middle Ages, or of individual history, as the age of
infancy, the five--or seven--so-called ages of man: a generation of men: a
century.--_v.i._ to grow old:--_pr.p._ [=a]g'ing; _pa.p._ [=a]g'ed.--_adj._
AGED ([=a]j'ed), advanced in age: having a certain age.--_n.pl._ old
people.--_n._ AGEDNESS ([=a]j'ed-nes), condition of being aged or
old.--_adjs._ AGE'LESS; AGE'LONG. [O. Fr. _edage_ (Fr. _âge_)--L. _ætas_ =
_ævitas_--L. _ævum_, age; cog. with EVER.]

AGEN, a-gen', _adv._ Same as AGAIN.

AGENDA, aj-end'a, _n._ things to be done: a memorandum-book: (_obs._) a
ritual. [L. _agendus_, fut. perf. pass. of _ag[)e]re_, to do.]

AGENT, [=a]j'ent, _n._ a person or thing that acts or exerts power: any
natural force acting on matter: one authorised or delegated to transact
business for another.--_n._ AG'ENCY, the office or business, operation or
action, of an agent; instrumentality.--LAW AGENT, a general term in
Scotland, including Writers to the Signet, Solicitors to the Supreme Court,
and Procurators in the sheriff courts--the requirements are an indentured
apprenticeship of five years to a law agent, the passing of examinations in
general knowledge and in law, and formal admission by the Court of Session.
[L. _ag[)e]re_, to do. See ACT.]

AGGLOMERATE, ag-glom'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make into a ball: to collect
into a mass.--_v.i._ to grow into a mass.--_adjs._ AGGLOM'ERATE,
AGGLOM'ERATED, collected into a heap or mass.--_n._ AGGLOMER[=A]'TION, a
growing or heaping together: a mass: a cluster.--_adj._ AGGLOM'ERATIVE.
[_Agglomer[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, L. _glomus_, _glomeris_, a ball.

AGGLUTINATE, ag-gl[=oo]t'in-[=a]t, _v.t._ to cause to adhere by glue or
cement.--_adj._ AGGLUT'INANT, uniting or causing to stick together.--_ns._
AGGLUT'INATE, AGGLUT'INATIVE, a classification formerly much used in
contrast to _inflectional_, to describe such languages as Turkish, which
show, in the words of Whitney, an inferior degree of integration in the
elements of their words, or of unification of words, the suffixes and
prefixes retaining a certain independence of one another and of the root or
stem to which they are added; AGGLUTIN[=A]'TION, the act of uniting, as by
glue: adhesion of parts.--_adj._ AGGLUT'INATIVE, tending to or having power
to cause adhesion. [L. _agglutin[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _gluten_, glue. See

AGGRACE, ag-gr[=a]s', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to grace, to favour.--_n._
kindness: favour. [Low L. _aggrati[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, _gratia_, grace.]

AGGRANDISE, ag'grand-[=i]z, _v.t._ to make great or larger: to make greater
in power, rank, or honour.--_ns._ AGGRANDIS[=A]'TION; AGGRANDISEMENT
(ag'grand-[=i]z-ment, or ag-grand'iz-ment), act of aggrandising: state of
being aggrandised. [Fr., from L. _ad_, to, and _grandis_, large.]

AGGRATE, ag-gr[=a]t', _v.t._ (_obs._) to gratify or please. [It.
_aggratare_--L. _ad_, to, _gratus_, pleasing. See GRACE.]

AGGRAVATE, ag'grav-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make worse: to provoke.--_adj._
worse: any quality or circumstance which makes a thing worse: an
exaggeration. [L. _aggrav[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _gravis_, heavy. See GRAVE.]

AGGREGATE, ag'greg-[=a]t, _v.t._ to collect into a mass: to
accumulate.--_v.i._ (_rare_) to add as a member to a society: to combine
with.--_adj._ formed of parts taken together.--_n._ the sum total.--_adv._
AG'GREGATELY.--_n._ AGGREG[=A]'TION, act of aggregating: state of being
collected together: an aggregate.--_adj._ AG'GREGATIVE. [L. _aggreg[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, to bring together, as a flock--_ad_, to, _grex_, _gregis_, a

AGGRESS, ag-gres', _v.i._ to make a first attack: to begin a quarrel: to
intrude.--_adj._ AGGRESS'IVE, making the first attack, or prone to do so:
offensive as opposed to defensive.--_ns._ AGGRESS'IVENESS; AGGRESS'OR, one
who attacks first. [L. _aggredi_, _-gressus_--_ad_, to, _gradi_, to step.]

AGGRESSION, ag-gresh'un, _n._ first act of hostility or injury: a breach of
the peace: an attack on public privileges. [L. _aggredi_, _-gressus_--_ad_,
to, _gradi_, to step.]

AGGRIEVE, ag-gr[=e]v', _v.t._ to press heavily upon: to pain or injure. [O.
Fr. _agrever_ (Sp. _agraviar_)--L. _ad_, to, and _gravis_, heavy. See

AGHAST, a-gast', _adj._ stupefied with horror. [Properly _agast_; M. E.
_agasten_, to terrify; A.S. intens. pfx. _á-_, and _gæstan_, to terrify.
The primary notion of the root _gæs-_ (Goth. _gais-_) is to fix, stick; to
root to the spot with terror. See GAZE.]

AGILE, aj'il, _adj._ active: nimble.--_n._ AGIL'ITY, quickness of motion:
nimbleness--also AG'ILENESS. [Fr.--L. _agilis_--_ag[)e]re_, to do or act.]

AGIO, [=a]'ji-o, _n._ the difference between the real and nominal value of
money, or between metallic and paper money: the variations from fixed pars
or rates of exchange: discount. [It. _agio_, _aggio_, ease, convenience.]

AGIOTAGE, aj'i-o-t[=a]j, _n._ exchange business, hence the manoeuvres of
speculators to raise or depress the funds: stock-jobbing.

AGIST, a-jist', _v.t._ to take in the cattle of others to graze for a
certain sum: to charge lands or the like with any public burden.--_ns._
AGIST'MENT, the action of agisting: the price paid for cattle pasturing on
the land: a burden or tax; AGIST'OR, AGIST'ER, an officer who takes charge
of cattle agisted. [O. Fr. _agister_--L. _jacit[=a]re_, _jac[=e]re_, to

AGITATE, aj'i-t[=a]t, _v.t._ to keep moving: to stir violently: to disturb:
to discuss, or keep up the discussion of a question.--_n._ AGIT[=A]'TION,
commotion: perturbation of mind: discussion: public excitement.--_adj._
AG'ITATIVE.--_n._ AG'ITATOR, one who excites or keeps up a public
agitation. [L. _agit[=a]re_, freq. of _ag[)e]re_, to put in motion. See

AGLET, AIGLET, [=a]'glet, _n._ the tag or point of the lace or string by
which different parts of dress were fastened together, orig. to facilitate
passing through the eyelet-holes, afterwards themselves ornamental, like
Shakespeare's _aglet-baby_, and still surviving in the so-called
_aiguillettes_ or tagged points of braid hanging from the shoulder in some
military and naval uniforms: a technical name for white stay-laces. [Fr.
_aiguillette_, dim. of _aiguille_, a needle--from L. _acucula_ = _acicula_,
dim. of _acus_, a needle.]

AGLEY, AGLEE, a-gl[=e]', _adv._ (_Scot._) off the right line: wrong. [Pfx.
_a-_, and Scot. _gley_, _gleg_, squint.]

AGLIMMER, a-glim'[.e]r, _adv._ in a glimmering state.

AGLOW, a-gl[=o]', _adj._ and _adv._ very warm: red-hot.

AGNAIL, ag'n[=a]l, _n._ an inflammation round the toe- or finger-nail: a
whitlow: a hangnail. [A.S. _angnægl_--_ang_, tight, and _nægl_, a nail;
confounded in meaning by the dictionary-makers with Fr. _angonailles_,
blotches, sores--Low L. _anguinalia_, carbuncles.]

AGNAME, ag'n[=a]m, _n._ a name over and above the name and surname.--_adj._
AG'NAMED, styled by such a name. [L. _ag_ = _ad_, and NAME; formed after L.

AGNATE, ag'n[=a]t, _adj._ related on the father's side: allied.--_n._ a
relation by the father's side.--_adjs._ AGNAT'IC, AGNAT'ICAL.--_adv._
AGNAT'ICALLY.--_n._ AGN[=A]'TION. [L. _agnat-us_--_ad_, to, _nasci_, to be
born. See COGNATE.]

AGNISE, ag-n[=i]z', _v.t._ (_arch._) to acknowledge, to confess. [L.
_agnosc[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _gnosc[)e]re_, _nosc[)e]re_, to know.]

AGNOMEN, ag-n[=o]'men, _n._ a surname added to the family name, generally
on account of some great exploit, as _Africanus_ to P. Cornelius Scipio.
[L.--_ad_, to, and _gnomen_, _nomen_, a name.]

AGNOSTIC, ag-nos'tik, _n._ one who holds that we know nothing of things
beyond material phenomena--that a First Cause and an unseen world are
things unknown and apparently unknowable.--_n._ AGNOS'TICISM. [Coined by
Prof. Huxley in 1869 from the word in Acts, xvii. 23; _a_, privative, and
Gr. _gn[=o]stikos_, good at knowing. See GNOSTIC.]

AGNUS DEI, ag'nus-d[=e]'[=i], a part of the Mass beginning with the words
_Agnus Dei_, also the music set to it: a figure of a lamb emblematic of
Christ, bearing with its right foot the banner of the cross, and having the
nimbus inscribed with the cross around its head: a round cake of wax
stamped with such a figure, and blessed by the Pope. [L., lit. 'lamb of

AGO, a-g[=o]', AGONE, a-gon', _adv._ gone: past: since. [Pa.p. of A.S.
_[=a]g[=a]n_, to pass away--inten. pfx. _[=a]-_, and _g[=a]n_, to go.]

AGOG, a-gog', _adj._ or _adv._ eager: astir. [Perh. connected with O. Fr.
_en gogues_; _estre en ses gogues_, to be frolicsome, or Fr. _vivre à
gogo_, to live in abundance. The ultimate origin is unknown.]

AGOING, a-g[=o]'ing, _adv._ going on: current.


AGONIC, ag'on-ik, _adj._ having or making no angle.--AGONIC LINE, the line
of no magnetic variation--an irregular line passing through the magnetic
poles of the earth, along which the magnetic needle points directly north
or south. [Gr. _ag[=o]nos_; _a_, neg., _g[=o]nia_, angle.]

AGONIST, ag'o-nist, _n._ one who contends for a prize in public
games.--_adjs._ AGONIST'IC, -AL, relating to athletic contests:
combative.--_adv._ AGONIST'ICALLY.--_n._ AGONIST'ICS, the art and theory of
games and prize-fighting. [See AGONY.]

AGONY, ag'o-ni, _n._ a violent struggle: extreme suffering: the death
struggle in particular: Christ's anguish in Gethsemane.--_v.t._ AG'ONISE,
to struggle, suffer agony: to subject to agony.--_adj._ AG'ONISING, causing
agony.--_adv._ AG'ONISINGLY.--AGONY COLUMN, the part of a newspaper
containing special advertisements, as for missing friends and the like.
[Gr.--_ag[=o]n_, contest.]

AGOOD, a-good', _adv._ (_obs._) in good earnest, heartily. [A.S. pfx. _a-_,
and GOOD.]

AGORA, ag'o-ra, _n._ an assembly, hence a place of assembly, the
market-place. [Gr.]

AGOUTA, a-g[=oo]'ta, _n._ a rat-like animal of Hayti.

AGOUTI, a-g[=oo]'ti, _n._ a small South American rodent allied to the
guinea-pig. [Native word.]

AGRAFFE, a-graf', _n._ a kind of clasp or hook. [Fr. _agrafe_, a clasp--Low
L. _grappa_, Old High Ger. _chrapfo_ (Ger. _krappen_), a hook.]

AGRARIAN, ag-r[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ relating to land, or its management, as in
'agrarian crime,' &c., applied esp. to Roman laws for the equal
distribution of the public lands: rural.--_n._ AGR[=A]'RIANISM, an equal
division of lands: a political movement in favour of interference with the
ordinary conditions of private property in land. [L. _agrarius_--_ager_, a
field. See ACRE.]

AGREE, a-gr[=e]', _v.i._ to be of one mind: to concur: to assent to: to be
consistent, to harmonise: to determine, to settle: to resemble, to suit:
(_gram._) to be in concord with--taking the same gender, number, case, or
person: to do well with climate, &c. (followed by _with_ before the person
or thing agreeing: by _upon_, _on_, _for_, _to_, _in_ before the condition
of the agreement):--_pa.p._ agreed'.--_adj._ AGREE'ABLE, suitable:
pleasant: favourable to, consenting to.--_n._ AGREE'ABLENESS, suitableness:
conformity: quality of pleasing--also AGREEABIL'ITY.--_adv._
AGREE'ABLY.--_n._ AGREE'MENT, concord: conformity: harmony: a bargain or
contract. [O. Fr. _agréer_, to accept kindly--L. _ad_, to, and _gratus_,

AGRESTIC, a-gres'tik, _adj._ pertaining to the fields: rural: unpolished.
[L. _agrestis_--_ager_, a field.]

AGRICULTURE, ag'ri-kult-[=u]r, _n._ the art or practice of cultivating the
land.--_adj._ AGRICULT'URAL, relating to agriculture.--_n._ AGRICULT'URIST,
one skilled in agriculture: a farmer--also AGRICULT'URALIST. [L.
_agricultura_--_ager_, a field, _cultura_, cultivation. See CULTURE.]

AGRIMONY, ag'ri-mun-i, _n._ a genus of plants of the rose-group, with small
yellow flowers and bitter taste. [L. _agrimonia_, for _argemonia_, Gr.

AGRIN, a-grin', _adv._ on the grin.

AGRISE, a-gr[=i]z', _v.t._ (_obs._) to terrify, to make frightful. [A.S.
_[=a]gr[=i]san_, to dread.]

AGRONOMIAL, ag-r[=o]-n[=o]'mi-al, _adj._ relating to the management of
farms--also AGRONOM'IC.--_n._ AGRON'OMY, agricultural pursuits. [Gr.
_agronomos_; _agros_, a field, _nemein_, to deal out.]

AGROUND, a-grownd', _adv._ stranded.

AGUARDIENTE, a-gwär-di-[.e]n't[.e], _n._ a kind of grape-brandy made in
Spain and Portugal: any spirituous liquor, applied even to Mexican pulque.
[Sp., from _agua ardiente_, burning water; _agua_--L. _aqua_; _ardiente_,
_arder_--L. _ard[=e]re_, to burn.]

AGUE, [=a]'g[=u], _n._ a fever coming in periodical fits, accompanied with
shivering: chilliness: quaking.--_adj._ A'GUED, struck with ague:
shivering: cold; A'GUISH. [O. Fr. _aigue_ (Fr. _aigu_, sharp)--L. _acutus_.

AGUERRIED, a-ger'id, _adj._ inured to war, or instructed in it. [Fr.
_aguerrir_, to make warlike; _à_--Lat. _ad_, to, and _guerre_, war.]

AGUISE, a-g[=i]z', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to dress, to adorn. [Pfx. _a-_, and

AH, ä, _interj._ an exclamation of surprise, joy, pity, complaint, &c.

AHA, ä-hä', _interj._ an exclamation of exultation, pleasure, surprise, or

AHEAD, a-hed', _adv._ farther on: in advance: headlong, as in the phrase
'to go _ahead_.'

AHEAP, a-h[=e]p', _adv._ in a heap: in a state of collapse through terror
or astonishment.

AHEIGHT, a-h[=i]t', _adv._ (_arch._) on high, aloft.

AHEM, a-hem', _interj._ a lengthened form of HEM.


AHIGH, a-h[=i]', _adv._ an obsolete form of ON HIGH.

AHOLD, a-h[=o]ld', _adv._ (_Shak._) near the wind, so as to keep clear of
the land.

AHORSEBACK, a-hors'bak, _adv._ on horseback.

AHOY, a-hoi', _interj._ a nautical term used in hailing. [Form of interj.

AHULL, a-hul', _adv._ (_naut._) with sails furled, and helm lashed to the
lee-side, driving before the wind, stern foremost.

AHUNGERED, a-hung'g[.e]rd, _adj._ oppressed with hunger. [Erroneously
written AN HUNGERED, as in Bible.]

AIBLINS, [=a]b'linz, _adv._ (_Scot._) perhaps, possibly. [See ABLE.]

AID, [=a]d, _v.t._ to help, assist.--_n._ help: assistance, as in defending
an action: an auxiliary: subsidy or money grant to the king.--_n._
AID'ANCE, aid, help, support.--_adj._ AID'ANT, (_arch._) aiding,
helping.--_n._ AID'ER, one who brings aid: a helper.--_adjs._ AID'FUL;
AID'LESS.--COURT OF AIDS, the court that supervised the customs duties. [O.
Fr. _aider_--L. _adjut[=a]re_--_ad_, and _juv[=a]re_, _jutum_, to help.]

AIDE-DE-CAMP, [=a]d'-de-kong, _n._ an officer who carries the orders of a
general on the field, and brings him intelligence:--_pl._ AIDES'-DE-CAMP.
[Fr., assistant on the field.]

AIERY, a variant of AERIE.

AIGRETTE, [=a]'gret, _n._ (_zool._) a small white heron: (_bot._) the down
attached to vegetable seeds, as in the thistle: a plume composed of
feathers, or of precious stones, like a heron's crest. [Fr. _aigrette_.]

AIGUILLE, [=a]-gw[=e]l', _n._ a sharp, needle-like peak of rock, applied
esp. to many of the peaks near Mont Blanc: a slender boring-drill for
blasting. [Fr. See AGLET.]


AIL, [=a]l, _v.i._ to feel pain: to be in trouble.--_v.t._ to trouble,
afflict--_obs._ except in impers. phrase 'What ails you?'--_n._ trouble:
indisposition.--_n._ AIL'MENT, pain: indisposition: disease. [A.S. _eglan_,
to pain. See AWE.]

AILANTO, [=e]l-an'to, _n._ a lofty and beautiful tree, native to
South-eastern Asia, but grown to shade public walks in France and Italy.
Its leaves give food to a species of silkworm--it is sometimes called the
Vernis du Japon, or Japan Varnish, apparently by confusion with certain
species of Rhus.--Also AILAN'TUS. [Native Amboyna name, meaning 'tree of
the gods.']

AILETTE, [=a]l-let', _n._ an iron plate once worn by men-at-arms for
defence on the shoulder. [Fr., dim. of _aille_--L. _ala_, a wing.]

AIM, [=a]m, _v.i._ to point at with a weapon: to direct the intention or
endeavour (_at_): (_obs._) to conjecture.--_v.t._ to point, as a weapon or
firearm.--_n._ the pointing of a weapon: the thing pointed at: design:
intention.--_adj._ AIM'LESS, without aim.--_adv._ AIM'LESSLY.--_n._
AIM'WORTHINESS, good aim.--TO CRY AIM, in old writers, to encourage archers
when shooting by crying 'aim,' hence to applaud or encourage. [O. Fr.
_esmer_, to reckon--L. _æstim[=a]re_, to estimate. See ESTIMATE.]

AIN'T, [=a]nt, a colloquial contracted form of _are not_--also AN'T =
_aren't_, _are not_.--AN'T (_Shak._) occurs as a variant of _on't_ = _on
it_, _of it_.

AIR, [=a]r, _n._ the fluid we breathe: the atmosphere: any special
condition of atmosphere, as in 'the night-_air_,' 'to take the air:' a
light breeze: publicity: the bearing of a person: outward appearance,
manner, look: an assumed or affected manner: (_mus._) a rhythmical melody:
a song, also specially a sprightly song: the soprano part in a harmonised
composition, being that which gives it its character: (_pl._)
affectation.--_v.t._ to expose to the air: to dry: to expose to warm air:
(_obs._) to take an airing.--_ns._ AIR'-BATH, an arrangement for drying
substances in air of any desired temperature; AIR'-BED, a bed for the sick,
inflated with air; AIR'-BLAD'DER, in some fishes, an organ containing air,
by which they maintain their equilibrium in the water; AIR'-BRAKE, a
railway brake worked by compressed air.--_adj._ AIR'-BUILT, built in air:
having no solid foundation.--_ns._ AIR'-CELL, a cavity containing air;
AIR'-CUSH'ION, an air-tight cushion, which can be inflated; AIR'-DRAIN, an
ample space at the foot of foundation walls, for the sake of
dryness.--_adj._ AIR'DRAWN, drawn in air: visionary: (_Shak._)
imaginary.--_ns._ AIR'-EN'GINE, an engine put in motion by air expanded by
heat; AIR'-GAS, illuminating gas made by charging atmospheric air with
vapour of petroleum or other hydrocarbon; AIR'-GUN, a gun which discharges
bullets by means of compressed air.--_adv._ AIR'ILY, gaily.--_ns._
AIR'INESS, state of being airy; openness: liveliness; AIR'ING, exposure to
the air or fire: a short excursion in the open air; AIR'-JACK'ET, a jacket
with air-tight cavities, which being inflated renders a person buoyant in
water.--_adj._ AIR'LESS, void of air: not having free communication with
the open air.--_ns._ AIR'-LOCK, a small chamber for the entrance and exit
of men and materials, at the top of the caisson or hollow cylinder used for
founding the piers of bridges under water; AIR'-PUMP, an instrument for
pumping the air out of a vessel; AIR'-SAC, an air-cell or air-space, esp.
in the bones of birds; AIR'-SHAFT, a passage for air into a mine;
AIR'-SHIP, a navigable balloon; AIR'-SPACE, the cubic content of a room,
hospital-ward, or the like, with reference to the respirable air contained
in it.--_adj._ AIR'-TIGHT, so tight as not to admit air.--_n._
AIR'-VES'SEL, a vessel or tube containing air.--_adv._ AIR'WARDS, up in the
air.--_adj._ AIR'Y, consisting of or relating to air: open to the air: like
air: unsubstantial: light of heart: sprightly.--TO TAKE AIR, to get wind,
to become publicly known. [Fr.--L. _aër_--Gr.]

AIRLING, [=a]r'ling, _n._ (_obs._) a thoughtless, gay person.

AIRT, [=a]rt, _n._ (_Scot._) direction, quarter. [Gael. _aird_, _àrd_; Ir.

AISLE, [=i]l, _n._ any lateral division of any part of a church, whether of
nave, choir, or transept. The word is often erroneously applied to the
passage in a church between the pews or seats.--_adj._ AISLED, ([=i]ld),
having aisles. [O. Fr. _ele_, _aisle_ (Fr. _aile_)--L. _axilla_, _ala_, a

AIT, [=a]t, _n._ a small island in a river or lake. [A.S. forms, _íget_,
_ígeoth_, supply the key to the word, but its history is obscure.]

AITCHBONE, [=a]ch'b[=o]n, _n._ the bone of the rump: the cut of beef over
this bone. [Orig. _nache-_ or _nage_bone; O. Fr. _nache_, _nage_--L.
_nates_, buttock; _a nache_ became _aitch_, and erroneously _edge_-bone.]

AJAR, a-jär', _adv._ partly open. [A.S. _on_, on, _cyrr_, a turn.]

AJEE, AGEE, a-j[=e]', _adv._ (_Scot._ and _prov._) aside, off the straight,
ajar. [Prep. _a_, and _gee_, to move to one side; _jee_, a call to a horse
to move to one side.]

AJUTAGE, ADJUTAGE, ad'joo-t[=a]j, _n._ a tube adjusted to an orifice
through which water is discharged. [Fr.--Fr. _ajouter_. See ADJUST.]

AKE, [=a]k, old form of ACHE.

AKEE, a-k[=e]', _n._ the fruit of a small African sapindaceous tree, now
common in the West Indies.

AKIMBO, a-kim'bo, _adj._ with hand on hip and elbow bent outward. [Ety.
uncertain; Skeat suggests the Ice. _kengboginn_, bent into a crook, from
_kengr_, a crook, twist, kink, and _boginn_, bowed. Others connect the
_-kim_ with KEEN.]

AKIN, a-kin', _adj._ of kin: related by blood: having the same properties.
[OF and KIN.]

ALABASTER, al'a-bas-t[.e]r, _n._ a semi-transparent kind of gypsum or
sulphate of lime: the fine limestone deposited as stalagmites and
stalactites.--_adj._ made of alabaster.--_adj._ ALABAS'TRIAN. [Gr.
_alabastros_, said to be derived from _Alabastron_, a town in Egypt.]

ALACK, a-lak', _interj._ an exclamation denoting sorrow.

ALACK-A-DAY, a-lak'-a-d[=a], _interj._ (_rare_) an exclamation of sadness.
[Interj. _ah_, _lak_ (LACK), and DAY.]

ALACRITY, a-lak'ri-ti, _n._ briskness: cheerful readiness: promptitude. [L.
_alacris_, brisk.]

ALALIA, a-l[=a]'li-a, _n._ loss of speech. [Gr. _a_, priv., and _lalein_,
to talk.]

ALAMEDA, a-la-m[=e]'da, _n._ a public walk or promenade between two rows of
trees. [Sp.]

ALAMODE, a-la-m[=o]d', _adv._ and _adj._ according to the mode or
fashion.--_n._ a light kind of glossy silk for scarfs, hat-bands, &c.--_n._
ALAMODAL'ITY (_rare_).--ALAMODE BEEF, beef larded and stewed with
vegetables. [Fr. _à la mode_.]

ALAMORT, a-la-mort', _adj._ half-dead: in a depressed condition: dejected.
Sometimes erroneously ALL AMORT. [Fr. _à la mort_, to death. See MORTAL.]

ALAND, a-land', _adv._ on or to land: landed.

ALAR, [=a]'lar, _adj._ of, or having, wings.--Also A'LARY. [L. _ala_, a

ALARM, a-lärm', _n._ notice of danger: sudden surprise with fear: a
mechanical contrivance to arouse from sleep: a call to arms.--_v.t._ to
call to arms: to give notice of danger: to fill with dread.--_adv._
ALARM'INGLY.--_n._ ALARM'IST, one who excites alarm: one given to prophesy
danger.--_adj._ alarming. [Fr. _alarme_--It. _all' arme_, to arms--L. _ad_,
to, _arma_, arms.]

ALARUM, al-är'um, _n._ and _v.t._ same as ALARM--now used, except
poetically, only of an _alarum-clock_.

ALAS, a-las', _interj._ expressive of grief.--ALAS THE DAY, ALAS THE WHILE
(in old writers), ah! unhappy day, or time. [O. Fr. _ha las_, _a las_ (mod.
Fr. _hélas_); _ha!_ and _las_, _lasse_, wretched, weary--L. _lassus_,

ALATE, a-l[=a]t', _adv._ (_arch._) lately. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, on, and LATE.]

ALATE, al'[=a]t, _adj._ winged: (_bot._) bordered by a leafy
expansion.--Also AL'ATED. [L. _alatus_--_ala_, a wing.]

ALB, alb, _n._ in R.C. churches, a white linen vestment with tight sleeves,
reaching to the feet, worn by the officiating priest at the celebration of
the eucharist, under the chasuble, cope, or dalmatic. [A.S. _albe_--Low L.
_alba_, L. _albus_, white.]

ALBACORE, al'ba-k[=o]r, _n._ a large species of the tunny fish, found in
West Indian waters. [Port.--Ar. _al_, the, _bukr_, pl. _bak[=a]rat_, a
young camel.]

ALBATA, al-b[=a]'ta, _n._ a white silvery alloy of nickel, zinc, and
copper--also _British plate_ and _German Silver_. [L., _alb[=a]re_, to
whiten, _albus_, white.]

ALBATROSS, al'ba-tros, _n._ a large, long-winged, web-footed sea-bird of
remarkable powers of flight, found abundantly in the Southern Ocean,
particularly near the Cape of Good Hope. [Corr. from ALCATRAS (q.v.), perh.
with reference to _albus_, white, from its colour.]

ALBE, ALE-BE, awl-b[=e]', _obs._ forms of ALBEIT.

ALBEIT, awl-b[=e]'it, _adv._ although it be: notwithstanding: even if,
although. [All be it (that) = all though it be that]

ALBERT, al'bert, _n._ a short kind of watch-chain. [Named from Prince
_Albert_, husband of Queen Victoria.]

ALBESCENT, al-bes'ent, _adj._ becoming white: whitish.--_n._ ALBES'CENCE.
[L. _albescens_, -_entis_, pr.p. of _albesc[)e]re_, to grow white--_albus_,

ALBESPYNE, ALBESPINE, al'be-sp[=i]n, _n._ whitethorn, hawthorn. [O. Fr.
_albespine_, _aubespine_ (Fr. _aubépine_)--L. _alba spina_, white thorn.]

ALBIGENSES, al-bi-jen's[=e]z, _n.pl._ a name applied to antisacerdotal
sects in the south of France during the 12th and 13th centuries, infected
with Manichæan heresy, and extirpated with the most horrible cruelties.
[The town _Albi_.]

ALBINO, al-b[=i]'no, _n._ a human being or animal whose skin and hair are
abnormally white, and the pupil of the eye of pink colour:--_fem._
ALB[=I]'NESS:--_pl._ ALB[=I]'NOS.--_n._ AL'BINISM, state or condition of
being an albino. [Sp. _albino_, whitish--L. _albus_, white.]

ALBITE, al'b[=i]t, _n._ a species of mineral of the felspar family, of a
white colour, and forming a constituent of many kinds of rocks. [From L.
_albus_, white.]

ALBUGINEOUS, al-b[=u]-jin'e-us, _adj._ like the white of an egg or of the
eye. [L. _albugo_, _albuginis_, whiteness, from _albus_, white.]

ALBUM, al'bum, _n._ among the Romans, a white tablet or register on which
the prætor's edicts and such public notices were recorded: a blank book for
the insertion of portraits, autographs, poetical extracts, memorial verses,
postage-stamps, or the like.--_adj._ AL'BUM[=E]'AN, and _n._ AL'BUMESS,
whimsical coinages of Charles Lamb. [L. _albus_, white.]

ALBUMEN, al-b[=u]'men, _n._ the white of eggs: a like substance found in
animal and vegetable bodies.--_ns._ ALB[=U]'MIN, one of the classes of
albuminoids, such as are soluble in water, or in dilute acids or alkalis;
ALB[=U]'MINATE, one of a class of bodies in which albumin appears in weak
combination with a base.--_v.t._ ALBUMINISE' (_phot._), to cover or
impregnate with albumen: to coat paper with an albuminous solution.--_adj._
ALB[=U]'MINOUS, like or containing albumen: insipid. [L.--_albus_, white.]

ALBUMINOID, al-b[=u]'min-oid, _adj._ like albumen.--_n._ one of a class of
nitrogenous compounds derived from animal tissues. [ALBUMEN, and Gr.
_eidos_, form.]

ALBURNUM, al-burn'um, _n._ in trees, the white and soft parts of wood
between the inner bark and the heart-wood.--_adj._ ALBURN'OUS.
[L.--_albus_, white.]


ALCAIC, al-k[=a]'ik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the Greek lyrical poet,
Alcæus (_c._ 600 B.C.), or to the kind of verse invented by him. The most
common form consists of an anacrusis, a trochee, a spondee, and two
dactyls; a second, of a catalectic iambic pentameter, the third foot always
being a spondee; a third, of two dactyls followed by two trochees. The most
common arrangement was two lines of (1), followed by one of (2) and one of
(3). Cf. Tennyson's 'O mighty-mouth'd inventor of harmonies.'

ALCAID, ALCAYDE, al-k[=a]d', _n._ a governor: a chief magistrate: a gaoler.
[Sp. and Port.--Ar. _alk[=a][=i]d_--_al_, the, _q[=a][=i]d_, a leader,
_q[=a]da_, to lead.]

ALCALDE, al-kal'd[=a], _n._ a judge. [Sp.--Ar. _al-q[=a]d[=i]_.]

ALCATRAS, al'ka-tras, _n._ a name applied loosely to several large ocean
birds, as the pelican, gannet, frigate-bird, and even the albatross. [Sp.
_alcatraz_, a white pelican.]

ALCHEMY, ALCHYMY, al'ki-mi, _n._ the infant stage of chemistry, as
astrology was of astronomy.--A chief pursuit of the alchemists was to
transmute the other metals into gold, and to discover the elixir of
life.--_adj._ ALCHEM'IC--_n._ AL'CHEMIST, one skilled in alchemy. [Ar.
_Al-k[=i]m[=i][=a]_--_al_, the, and _k[=i]m[=i][=a]_--late Gr.
_ch[=e]meia_, 'transmution,' prob. as specially an Egyptian art, from
_Khem_, the native name of Egypt; confused with Gr. _ch[=u]meia_, pouring,
from _chein_, to pour, hence the old spellings _alchymy_, _chymistry_.]

ALCOHOL, al'k[=o]-hol, _n._ pure spirit, a liquid generated by the
fermentation of sugar and other saccharine matter, and forming the
intoxicating element of fermented liquors.--_adj._ ALCOHOL'IC, of or like
alcohol.--_n._ ALCOHOLIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ AL'COHOLISE, to convert into
alcohol, or saturate with it: to rectify.--_n._ AL'COHOLISM, a term
employed to denote the symptoms of disease produced by alcoholic
poisoning.--ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL, alcohol entirely free from water. [Ar.
_al-koh'l_--_al_, the, _koh'l_, fine powder of antimony used in the East to
stain the eyelids.]

ALCOHOLOMETER, al-k[=o]-hol-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for
ascertaining the strength of spirits.--_n._ ALCOHOLOM'ETRY, the process of
such measurement. [ALCOHOL and METER.]

ALCORAN, al'k[=o]-ran, _n._ the Koran. [_Al_, the Arabic article.]

ALCOVE, al'k[=o]v, or al-k[=o]v', _n._ a recess in a room: any recess: a
shady retreat. [Sp. _alcoba_, a place in a room railed off to hold a
bed--Ar. _al_, the, _qobbah_, a vault.]

ALDEHYDE, al'd[=e]-h[=i]d, _n._ a volatile fluid with a suffocating smell,
obtained by the oxidation of alcohol: a large class of compounds
intermediate between alcohols and acids. [From _Al. dehyd._, a contr. for
_Alcohol dehydrogenatum_.]

ALDER, awl'd[.e]r, _n._ a tree related to the birch, usually growing in
moist ground. [A.S. _alor_; Ger. _erle_; L. _alnus_.]

ALDER-LIEFEST, awl-d[.e]r-l[=e]f'est, _adj._ (_Shak._) most beloved of all.
[The M. E. gen. pl. forms _alra_, _alre_, _aller_, _alder_, survived till
about 1600; for _liefest_, see LIEF.]

ALDERMAN, awl'd[.e]r-man, _n._ in English and Irish boroughs, a civic
dignitary next in rank to the mayor.--They are usually chosen for three
years; those of London are chosen for life.--The name was assumed
incongruously enough for superior members of the county councils set up in
England in 1888: in Anglo-Saxon times, the governor of a shire until by
Canute displaced by the earl; thenceforward, any head man of a
guild.--_adjs._ ALDERMAN'IC, AL'DERMANLIKE, AL'DERMANLY, pompous and
portly. [A.S. _ealdor_ (from _eald_, old), senior, chief; _ealdorman_,
ruler, king, chief magistrate.]

ALDERN, awl'd[.e]rn, _adj._ made of alder.

ALDINE, al'd[=i]n, _adj._ applied to books printed by Aldus Manutius of
Venice, in 16th century.

ALE, [=a]l, _n._ a beverage made from an infusion of malt by fermentation:
a festival, so called from the liquor drunk.--_ns._ ALE'BERRY, a beverage
made from ale; ALE'CONNER, an ale-taster, a civic officer appointed to test
the quality of the ale brewed--A.S. _cunnere_, a trier; ALE'-HOUSE, a house
in which ale is sold. [A.S. _alu_; Ice. _öl_.]

ALEATORY, [=a]'l[=e]-a-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ depending on the throw of the dice:
dependent on certain contingencies. [L. _[=a]le[=a]t[=o]rius_, _[=a]lea_, a

ALEE, a-l[=e]', _adv._ on the lee-side. [See LEE.]

ALEFT, a-left', _adv._ on or to the left hand.

ALEGAR, al'e-gar, _n._ sour ale. [ALE, and Fr. _aigre_--L. _acer_, sour.]

ALEGER, al'e-j[.e]r, _adj._ (_Bacon_) lively, cheerful. [O. Fr.
_alègre_--L. _al[=a]cr-em_.]

ALEGGE, an obsolete form of ALLEGE.

ALEMBIC, al-em'bik, _n._ a vessel used by the old chemists in distillation.
[Ar. _al_, the, _anb[=i]q_--Gr. _ambiks_, a cup.]

ALENGTH, a-length', _adv._ at full length. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, on, and

ALERCE, a-lers', _n._ the wood of the sandarac-tree: the Chilian _Arbor
vitæ_--both of the pine family. [Sp.--Ar. _al arza_, cedar.]

ALERT, al-[.e]rt', _adj._ watchful: brisk.--_n._ a sudden attack or
surprise.--_adv._ ALERT'LY.--_n._ ALERT'NESS.--UPON THE ALERT, upon the
watch. [Fr.--It. _all' erta_, on the erect--_erto_, L. _erectus_, erect.]

ALEW, a-l[=u]' (_Spens._) an obsolete form of HALLOO.

ALEWIFE, [=a]l'w[=i]f, _n._ a fish of the same genus as the shad, about a
foot in length, common on the east coast of North America. [Said to be a
corr. of _aloofe_, the Indian name of a fish.]

ALEXANDRIAN, al-egz-an'dri-an, _adj._ relating to Alexandria in Egypt, or
its school of philosophy: relating to Alexander.

ALEXANDRINE, al-egz-an'drin, _n._ a rhyming verse of twelve syllables, six
iambic feet, so-called from its use in old French poems on _Alexander_ the
Great. It is the ordinary verse of French tragedy. French Alexandrines are
arranged in couplets, alternately acatalectic with masculine rhymes, and
hypercatalectic with feminine rhymes.

ALFA, al'fa, _n._ an African name for esparto grass--also spelt HALFA.

ALFALFA, al-fal'fa, _n._ a Spanish name for a variety of lucerne--used also
in some parts of the United States. [Sp. _alfalfa_, three-leaved grass; Ar.

ALFRESCO, al-fresk'o, _adv._ on the fresh, as to paint _al fresco_ = on the
fresh plaster: in the fresh or cool air. [It.]

ALGÆ, al'j[=e], _n._ (_bot._) a division of plants, embracing seaweeds.
[L., pl. of _alga_, seaweed.]

ALGATES, al'g[=a]ts, _adv._ (_obs._) always, altogether, at all events,
nevertheless.--Also AL'GATE. [Lit. _alle gate_, every way. See GATE.]

ALGEBRA, al'je-bra, _n._ a method of calculating by symbols--by means of
letters employed to represent the numbers, and signs to represent their
relations, thus forming a kind of universal arithmetic.--_adjs._
ALGEBR[=A]'IC, -AL, pertaining to algebra.--_n._ ALGEBR[=A]'IST, one
skilled in algebra. [It. and Sp., from Ar. _al-jebr_, the resetting of
anything broken, hence combination; _jabara_, to reunite.]

ALGERINE, al'je-r[=e]n, _adj._ of or belonging to Algeria in Northern
Africa.--_n._ a native of Algeria: a pirate.

ALGORISM, al'go-rizm, _n._ the Arabic system of numeration:
arithmetic.--Also AL'GORITHM [Through O. Fr. and Late L. from Ar.
_al-khow[=a]razm[=i]_, the native of Khw[=a]razm, the mathematician Abu
Ja'far Mohammed Ben Musa (9th century).]

ALGOUS, al'gus, _adj._ relating to or like the algæ or seaweeds.

ALGUAZIL, al-gwaz'il, _n._ in Spain, a warrant officer or sergeant.
[Sp.--Ar. _al-waz[=i]r_. See VIZIER.]

ALGUM, al'gum. Same as ALMUG.

ALHAMBRESQUE, al-ham'bresk, _adj._ after the style of the rich
ornamentation of the Alhambra, a palace of the Moorish kings of Granada in

ALIAS, [=a]'li-as, _adv._ otherwise.--_n._ an assumed name:--_pl._
A'LIASES. [L. _alias_, at another time, otherwise--_alius_, Gr. _allos_,

ALIBI, al'i-b[=i], _n._ the plea that a person charged with a crime was
elsewhere when it was committed. [L.--_alius_, other, _ibi_, there.]

ALICANT, al'i-kant, _n._ a Spanish wine formerly much esteemed, said to
have been made near Alicante in Spain.

ALIEN, [=a]l'yen, _adj._ foreign: different in nature: adverse to.--_n._
one belonging to another country: one not entitled to the rights of
citizenship.--_n._ AL'IENAGE, state of being an alien. [L.
_alienus_--_alius_, other.]

ALIENATE, [=a]l'yen-[=a]t, _v.t._ to transfer a right or title to another:
to withdraw the affections: to misapply.--_adj._ withdrawn:
estranged.--_n._ ALIENABIL'ITY.--_adj._ AL'IENABLE, capable of being
transferred to another.--_ns._ ALIEN[=A]'TION; ALIEN[=A]'TOR.--_adj._
AL'IENED, made alien, estranged.--_n._ AL'IENISM, the position of being a
foreigner. [L. See ALIEN.]

ALIENIST, [=a]l'yen-ist, _n._ one who specially treats mental diseases.

ALIFE, a-l[=i]f', _adv._ (_obs._) on my life, as one's life, excessively.

ALIGHT, a-l[=i]t', _v.i._ to come down, as from a horse (_from_): to
descend: to land anywhere (_upon_): to fall upon. [A.S. _alíhtan_, to come
down. See LIGHT, _v._]

ALIGHT, a-l[=i]t', _adj._ on fire: lighted up. [_a_, on, and LIGHT. See
LIGHT, _n._]

ALIGN, a-l[=i]n', _v.t._ to regulate by a line: to arrange in line, as
troops.--_n._ ALIGN'MENT, a laying out by a line: arrangement of soldiers
in a line or lines: the ground-plan of a railway or road. [Fr.
_aligner_--L. _ad_, and _linea_, a line.]

ALIKE, a-l[=i]k', _adj._ like one another: having resemblance.--_adv._ in
the same manner or form: equally: similarly. [A.S. _gelíc_, _anlíc_,
_onlíc_. See LIKE.]

ALIMENT, al'i-ment, _n._ nourishment: food: provision for maintenance,
alimony: support.--_v.t._ to support, sustain: make provision for the
maintenance of.--_adjs._ ALIMENT'AL, supplying food; ALIMENT'ARY,
pertaining to aliment: nutritive.--_ns._ ALIMENT[=A]'TION, the act or state
of nourishing or of being nourished; ALIMENT'IVENESS (_phrenol._), desire
for food or drink; AL'IMONY, an allowance for support made to a wife when
legally separated from her husband, or temporarily while the process is
pending.--ALIMENTARY CANAL, the principal part of the digestive apparatus
of animals, in man extending, with convolutions, about 30 feet from the
mouth to the anus--including pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small and large
intestine, &c. [L. _alimentum--al[)e]re_, to nourish.]


ALIPED, al'i-ped, _adj._ wing-footed.--_n._ an animal whose toes are
connected by a membrane serving as a wing, as the bat. [L. _alipes_--_ala_,
a wing, and _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

ALIQUANT, al'i-kwant, _adj._ an aliquant part of a number is one that will
not divide it without a remainder, thus 5 is an aliquant part of 12. [L.
_aliquantum_, somewhat, _alius_, another, and _quantus_, how great.]

ALIQUOT, al'i-kwot, _adj._ such a part of a number as will divide it
without a remainder. [L. _aliquot_, some, several--_alius_, other, _quot_,
how many.]

ALISMA, al-iz'ma, _n._ a small genus of aquatic plants, the chief being the
common water-plantain. [Gr.]

ALIVE, a-l[=i]v', _adj._ in life: susceptible. [Prep. _a = on_, and A.S.
_lífe_, dat. of _líf_, life.]

ALIZARIN, a-liz'a-r[=e]n, _n._ a colouring matter used in the dyeing of
Turkey red, formerly extracted from madder, the commercial name of which in
the Levant is _alizari_. [Fr.; Ar. _al_, the, and _'aç[=a]rah_, juice
pressed out.]

ALKAHEST, ALCAHEST, al'ka-hest, _n._ the universal solvent of the
alchemists. [A coinage of Paracelsus--on Arabic analogies.]

ALKALI, al'ka-li, or -l[=i], _n._ (_chem._) a substance which combines with
an acid and neutralises it, forming a salt. Potash, soda, and lime are
alkalies; they have an acrid taste (that of soap), and turn vegetable blues
to green:--_pl._ AL'KALIES.--_n._ ALKALES'CENCY, tendency to become
alkaline.--_adj._ ALKALES'CENT, tending to become alkaline: slightly
alkaline.--_n._ ALKALIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the strength of
alkalies.--_adj._ ALKALINE (al'ka-l[=i]n, or -lin), having the properties
of an alkali.--_n._ ALKALIN'ITY.--_v.t._ AL'KALISE, to render
alkaline:--_pr.p._ al'kal[=i]sing; _pa.p._ al'kal[=i]sed. See ACID. [Ar.
_al_-_qal[=i]y_, ashes.]

ALKALIFY, al'ka-li-f[=i], _v.t._ to convert into an alkali.--_v.i._ to
become alkaline:--_pr.p._ al'kalifying; _pa.p._ al'kalif[=i]ed.--_adj._
ALKALIF[=I]'ABLE, capable of being converted into an alkali. [ALKALI, and
L. _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ALKALOID, al'ka-loid, _n._ a vegetable principle possessing in some degree
alkaline properties.--_adj._ pertaining to or resembling alkali. [ALKALI,
and Gr. _eidos_, form or resemblance.]

ALKANET, al'ka-net, _n._ a plant, native of the Levant and Southern Europe,
cultivated for its root, which yields a red colouring matter: the dye
itself. [Sp. _alcaneta_.]

ALKORAN, _n._ Same as ALCORAN.

ALL, awl, _adj._ the whole of: every one of: any whatever.--_adv._ wholly:
completely: entirely: (_Shak._) only, alone.--_n._ the whole: everything:
the totality of things--the universe.--_n._ ALL'-FATH'ER, God.--ALL
(_obs._), entirely, altogether, as in 'all to-brake' (Judges, ix. 53). The
prefix _to-_ originally belonged to the verb (_tó brecan_), but as verbs
with this prefix were rarely used without _all_, the fact was forgotten,
and the _to_ was erroneously regarded as belonging to the _all_. Hence came
into use _all_-_to_ = wholly, utterly; ALL BUT, everything short of,
almost; ALL IN ALL, all things in all respects, all or everything
together--(_adverbially_) altogether; ALL OVER, thoroughly, entirely; ALL
OVER WITH, finished, done with (also _coll._, ALL UP with); ALL RIGHT, a
colloquial phrase expressing assent or approbation; ALL'S ONE, it is just
the same; ALL TO ONE (_obs._), altogether.--AFTER ALL, when everything has
been considered, nevertheless; AND ALL, and everything else; AND ALL THAT,
and all the rest of it, _et cetera_; AT ALL, in the least degree or to the
least extent.--FOR ALL, notwithstanding; FOR GOOD AND ALL, finally.--ONCE
FOR ALL, once only. [A.S. _all_, _eal_; Ger. _all_, Gael. _uile_, W.

ALLAH, al'la, _n._ the Arabic name of the one God. [Ar. _al-ilâh_, 'the
worthy to be adored.']

ALLANTOIS, a-lan't[=o]-is, _n._ a membranous sac-like appendage for
effecting oxygenation in the embryos of mammals, birds, and
reptiles.--_adjs._ ALLANT[=O]'IC, ALLAN'TOID. [Gr. _allas_, a sausage.]

ALLAY, al-l[=a]', _v.t._ to lighten, relieve: to make quiet or calm.--_n._
ALLAY'MENT (_obs._), state of being allayed: state of rest: that which
allays. [M. E. forms, _aleggen_, _aleyen_ (A.S. _a-lecgan_; lecgan, causal
of _licgan_, to lie); identical in form, and accordingly confounded in
meaning with M. E. words of Latin origin; _alegge_ (later _allege_, now
obs.)--L. _allevi[=a]re_; _alaye_ (modern _allay_, _alloy_)--L.
_allig[=a]re_; _aleye_ (obs.)--L. _alleg[=a]re_; _alegge_ (modern
_allege_)--Low L. _ex-litig[=a]re_.]

ALLAY, an obsolete form of ALLOY.

ALLEDGE. Old spelling of ALLEGE.

ALLEGE, al-lej', _v.t._ to produce as an argument or plea: to assert:
(_B_.) to give proofs--_n._ ALLEG[=A]'TION, an assertion.--_p.adj._
ALLEGED', cited, quoted. [Through O. Fr. forms from Low L.
_ex-litig[=a]re_, to clear at law. See ALLAY above.]

ALLEGIANCE, al-l[=e]j'i-ans, _n._ the duty of a subject to his liege or
sovereign.--_adj._ ALL[=E]'GIANT. [L. _ad_, to, and LIEGE.]

ALLEGORY, al'le-gor-i, _n._ a description of one thing under the image of
another.--_adjs._ ALLEGOR'IC, -al, in the form of an allegory:
figurative.--_adv._ ALLEGOR'ICALLY.--_v.t._ AL'LEGORISE, to put in form of
an allegory.--_v.i._ to use allegory.--_ns._ AL'LEGORIST, one who uses
allegory; ALLEGORIZ[=A]'TION. [Gr. _all[=e]goria_; _allos_, other, and
_agoreuein_, to speak.]

ALLEGRO, al-l[=e]'gr[=o], _adv._ and _adj._ (_mus._) a word denoting a
brisk movement.--_adv._ and _adj._ ALLEGRET'TO, somewhat brisk. [It.--L.
_alacer_, brisk.]

ALLELUIA, ALLELUIAH, al-le-l[=oo]'ya. Same as HALLELUIAH.

ALLEMANDE, al'le-mand, _n._ a name given to various Germain dances:
(_mus._) the first movement after the prelude in a suite. [Fr. _Allemande_,

ALLENARLY, al-len'ar-li, _adv._ solely, only--obsolete save only in Scotch
conveyancing. [All, and _anerly_, formed from _ane_, one.]

ALLEVIATE, al-l[=e]v'i-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make light: to mitigate.--_ns._
ALLEVI[=A]'TION; ALLEV'I[=A]TOR. [L. _ad_, _levis_, light.]

ALLEY, al'li, _n._ a walk in a garden or shrubbery: a passage in a city
narrower than a street: a long narrow enclosure for playing at bowls or
skittles:--_pl._ ALL'EYS. [O. Fr. _alee_ (Fr. _allée_), a passage, from
_aller_, to go, O. Fr. _aner_, most prob. from L. _adn[=a]re_, to go to by
water, or _adit[=a]re_, _ad[=i]re_.]

ALLEY, ALLY, al'li, _n._ a name given by boys to a choice taw or large
marble. [Contraction of _alabaster_, of which it was originally made.]

ALL-FIRED, awl-f[=i]rd', _adj._ (_slang_) infernal.--_adv._ excessively. [A
softening of _hell-fired_, U.S.]

ALL-FOOLS'-DAY, awl-f[=oo]lz'-d[=a], _n._ April first. [From the sportive
deceptions practised on that day.]

ALL-FOURS, awl-f[=o]rz', _n.pl._ (preceded by _on_) on four legs, or on two
hands and two feet: a game at cards played by two, so called from the four
particulars by which the reckoning is made--_high_, _low_, _Jack_, and _the
game_: also a game at dominoes.

ALL-HAIL, awl-h[=a]l', _interj._ all health! a phrase of salutation. [See
HAIL, interj.]

ALL-HALLOW, awl-hal'l[=o], ALL-HALLOWS, awl-hal'l[=o]z, _n._ the day of all
the holy ones. See ALL-SAINTS. [ALL and HALLOW.]


ALL-HALLOWN, awl-hal'l[=o]n, _n._ (_Shak._) fine summer weather late in the
season--near All-hallows-day.

ALL-HALLOW-TIDE, awl-hal'l[=o]-t[=i]d, _n._ the time near All-hallows-day.
[See HALLOW and TIDE.]

ALLHEAL, awl-h[=e]l', _n._ (_obs._) a balsam for all wounds, a
panacea--applied to various plants, as the mistletoe, the great valerian,

ALLIACEOUS, al-li-[=a]'shus, _adj._ pertaining to, or having the properties
of allium or garlic. [L. _allium_, garlic.]

ALLIANCE, al-l[=i]'ans, _n._ state of being allied: union by marriage or
treaty. [See ALLY.]

ALLIGATION, al-li-g[=a]'shun, _n._ (_arith._) a rule for finding the price
of a compound of ingredients of different values. [L. _alligatio_, a
binding together--_ad_, to, and _lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

ALLIGATOR, al'li-g[=a]-tur, _n._ an animal of the crocodile genus, found in
America. [Sp. _el lagarto_--L. _lacerta_, a lizard.]

ALLINEATION, ALINEATION, al-lin-e-[=a]'shun, _n._ the position of two or
more bodies in a straight line with a given point.

ALLISION, al-lizh'un, _n._ a striking against. [L. _allisio_, from
_allid[)e]re_--_ad_, and _læd[)e]re_, to hurt.]

ALLITERATION, al-lit-[.e]r-[=a]'shun, _n._ the recurrence of the same
letter at the beginning of two or more words following close to each other,
as in Churchill's '_a_pt _a_lliteration's _a_rtful _a_id:' the recurrence
of the same initial sound in the first accented syllables of words: initial
rhyme--the characteristic structure of versification of Old English and
Teutonic languages generally. Every alliterative couplet had two accented
syllables, containing the same initial consonants, one in each of the two
sections.--_v.i._ ALLIT'ERATE, to begin with the same letter: to constitute
alliteration.--_adj._ ALLIT'ERATIVE. [Fr.--L. _ad_, to, and _litera_, a

ALLOCATE, al'lo-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to place: to assign to each his share.--_n._
ALLOC[=A]'TION, act of allocating: allotment: an allowance made upon an
account. [L. _alloc[=a]re_, _ad_, to, and _loc[=a]re_, _locus_, a place.]

ALLOCUTION, al-lo-k[=u]'shun, _n._ a formal address, esp. of the Pope to
his clergy. [L. _allocutionem_--_ad_, to, and _loqui_, _locutus_, to

ALLODIAL, al-l[=o]'di-al, _adj._ held independent of a superior:
freehold--opp. to _Feudal_.

ALLODIUM, al-l[=o]'di-um, _n._ freehold estate: land held in the possession
of the owner without being subject to a feudal superior.--Also ALLOD, ALOD.
[Low L. _all[=o]dium_--Ger. _alôd_, _allôd_.]

ALLOGRAPH, al'l[=o]-graf, _n._ a writing made by one person on behalf of
another. [Gr. _allos_, other, _graph[=e]_, writing.]

ALLOPATHY, al-lop'a-thi, _n._ a name given by homeopathists to the current
or orthodox medical practice, to distinguish it from their own
Homeopathy.--_adj._ ALLOPATH'IC--_ns._ ALLOP'ATHIST, ALLOPATH. [Coined by
Hahnemann (1755-1843), Ger. _allopathie_--Gr. _allos_, other, _patheia_,
_pathos_, suffering.]

ALLOPHYLIAN, al-l[=o]-f[=i]l'i-an, _adj._ of another race, alien--applied
by Prichard (1786-1848) to the Turanian or non-Aryan and non-Semitic
languages of Europe and Asia.--_n._ ALLOPHYLE'. [L.--Gr. _alloph[=y]los_,
of another tribe; _allos_, other, _ph[=y]l[=e]_, a tribe.]

ALLOT, al-lot', _v.t._ to divide as by lot: to distribute in portions: to
parcel out:--_pr.p._ allot'ting; _pa.p._ allot'ted.--_n._ ALLOT'MENT, the
act of allotting: part or share allotted: a portion of a field assigned to
a cottager to labour for himself. [O. Fr. _aloter_; _lot_ is Teut., seen in
Goth. _hlauts_, A.S. _hlot_.]

ALLOTROPY, al-lot'ro-pi, _n._ the property in some elements, as carbon, of
existing in more than one form.--_adj._ ALLOT'ROPIC. [Gr.; _allos_,
another, and _tropos_, form.]

ALLOVERISHNESS, awl-[=o]'v[.e]r-ish-nes, _n._ a general sense of
indisposition over the whole body, a feeling of discomfort,
malaise.--_adj._ ALL[=O]'VERISH.

ALLOW, al-low', _v.t._ to grant: to permit: to acknowledge: to abate: make
allowance for: (_obs._) invest, entrust: assert, say (_coll._ in
U.S.).--_adj._ ALLOW'ABLE, that may be allowed: not forbidden:
lawful.--_n._ ALLOW'ABLENESS.--_adv._ ALLOW'ABLY.--_n._ ALLOW'ANCE, that
which is allowed: a limited portion of anything: a stated quantity--of
money, &c., to meet expenses: abatement: approbation: permission.--_v.t._
to put any one upon an allowance: to supply anything in limited
quantities.--TO MAKE ALLOWANCE FOR, to take excusing circumstances into
account. [O. Fr. _alouer_, to grant--L. _ad_, to, and _loc[=a]re_, to
place.--ALLOW, in the sense of _approve_ or _sanction_, as used in _B._ and
by old writers, has its root in L. _allaud[=a]re_--_ad-_, and _laud[=a]re_,
to praise.]

ALLOY, al-loi', _v.t._ to mix one metal with another: to reduce the purity
of a metal by mixing a baser one with it: (_fig._) to debase: to temper or
qualify.--_n._ a mixture of two or more metals (when mercury is one of the
ingredients, it is an _amalgam_): a baser metal mixed with a finer:
anything that deteriorates.--_n._ ALLOY'AGE, the act of alloying or mixing
metals: a mixture of different metals. [O. Fr. _alei_ (Fr. _aloi_),
_aleier_--L. _allig[=a]re_. The modern Fr. words _aloi_ and _aloyer_ were
confounded with Fr. _à loi_, to law, and the same confusion was transferred
into English.]

ALL-SAINTS'-DAY, awl-s[=a]nts'-d[=a], _n._ November 1, a feast of the
Church in honour of all the saints collectively. [See ALL-HALLOWS.]

ALL-SOULS'-DAY, awl-s[=o]lz'-d[=a], _n._ November 2, a feast of the Roman
Catholic Church kept in commemoration of all the faithful departed, for the
eternal repose of their souls.

ALLSPICE, awl'sp[=i]s, _n._ a name given to a kind of spice called Pimenta
or Jamaica pepper, from its being supposed to combine the flavour of
cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. [ALL and SPICE.]

ALLUDE, al-l[=u]d', _v.i._ to mention slightly, or convey an indirect
reference to, in passing: to refer to.--_n._ ALL[=U]'SION, an indirect
reference.--_adj._ ALLUS'IVE, alluding to: hinting at: referring to
indirectly.--_adv._ ALLUS'IVELY.--ALLUSIVE ARMS (_her._), also _canting_ or
_punning_ arms, and _armes parlantes_, those in which the charges convey
reference to the bearer's name or title, as the column of the Colonna
family, the Vele calf (O. Fr. _veël_, a calf), the Arundel martlets (O. Fr.
_arondel_, a young swallow). [L. _allud[)e]re_--_ad_, at, _lud[)e]re_,
_lusum_, to play.]

ALLUMETTE, al-[=u]-m[.e]t', _n._ a match for lighting. [Fr.]

ALLURE, al-l[=u]r', _v.t._ to draw on as by a lure or bait: to
entice.--_n._ ALLURE'MENT.--_adj._ ALLUR'ING, enticing: seductive:
charming.--_adv._ ALLUR'INGLY. [O. Fr. _alurer_--_à_, to, _lurer_, to

ALLUVION, al-l[=u]'vi-un, _n._ land gained from the sea by the washing up
of sand and earth. [L. _alluvio_--_allu[)e]re_. See ALLUVIUM.]

ALLUVIUM, al-l[=u]'vi-um, _n._ the mass of water-borne matter deposited by
rivers on lower lands:--_pl._ ALL[=U]'VIA.--_adj._ ALL[=U]'VIAL.
[L.--_allu[)e]re_, to wash to or on--_ad_, and _lu[)e]re_ = _lav[=a]re_, to

ALLY, al-l[=i]', _v.t._ to form a relation by marriage, friendship, treaty,
or resemblance.--_pa.p._ and _adj._ ALLIED'.--_n._ ALLY (al-l[=i]', or
al'l[=i]), a confederate: a prince or state united by treaty or
league:--_pl._ ALL[=I]ES', or AL'L[=I]ES. [O. Fr. _alier_--L.
_allig[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

ALMA, ALMAH, al'ma, _n._ an Egyptian dancing-girl.--Also ALME, ALMEH. [Ar.
_`almah_, learned, _`alamah_, to know.]

ALMACANTAR, al-mak-an'tar, _n._ a name for circles of altitude parallel to
the horizon, and hence for an astronomical instrument for determining time
and latitude. [Ar. _almuqantar[=a]t_, _qantarah_, an arch.]

ALMAGEST, al'ma-jest, _n._ a collection of problems in geometry and
astronomy, drawn up by the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy (about 140 A.D.), so
named by the Arabs as the greatest and largest on the subject. [Ar. _al_,
the, and Gr. _megistos_, greatest.]

ALMAIN, al'm[=a]n, _n._ (_obs._) an inhabitant of Germany: a kind of dance
music in slow time. [Fr. _Allemand_--_Allemanni_, an ancient German tribe.]

ALMANAC, al'ma-nak, _n._ a register of the days, weeks, and months of the
year, &c.--_n._ ALMANOG'RAPHER, an almanac-maker. [Most prob. the original
of the word as in Fr., It., and Sp. was a Spanish-Arabic _al-man[=a]kh_.
Eusebius has _almenichiaka_, an Egyptian word, prob. sig. 'daily
observation of things,' but the history of the word has not been traced,
and it is hazardous without evidence to connect this with the Arabic word.]

ALMANDINE, al'man-d[=i]n, _n._ a red transparent variety of the
garnet.--Also AL'MANDIN. [Earlier ALABANDINE--Low L.
_alabandina_--_Alabanda_, a town in Caria, a province of Asia Minor, where
it was found.]

ALMIGHTY, awl-m[=i]t'i, _adj._ possessing all might or power: omnipotent:
very powerful generally: (_slang_) mighty, great.--Older form
ALMIGHTY, God; THE ALMIGHTY DOLLAR, a phrase of Washington Irving's,
expressive of the greatness of the power of money. [A.S. _ælmeahtig_. See

ALMNER, an old spelling of ALMONER.

ALMOND, ä'mund, _n._ the fruit of the almond-tree.--_n.pl._ ALMONDS
(ä'mundz), the tonsils or glands of the throat, so called from their
resemblance to the fruit of the almond-tree. [O. Fr. _almande_ (Fr.
_amande_)--L. _amygdalum_--Gr. _amygdal[=e]_.]

ALMONER, al'mun-[.e]r, _n._ a distributer of alms.--_n._ AL'MONRY, the
place where alms are distributed. [O. Fr. _aumoner_, _aumonier_ (Fr.
_aumônier_)--Low L. _eleemosynarius_ (adj.). See ALMS.]

ALMOST, awl'm[=o]st, _adv._ nearly, all but, very nearly. [ALL and MOST.]

ALMRY, äm'ri, _n._ Same as ALMONRY.

ALMS, ämz, _n._ relief given out of pity to the poor.--_ns._ ALMS'-DEED, a
charitable deed; ALMS'-DRINK (_Shak._), leavings of drink; ALMS'-FEE, an
annual tax of one penny on every hearth, formerly sent from England to
Rome, Peter's pence; ALMS'HOUSE, a house endowed for the support and
lodging of the poor; ALMS'-MAN, a man who lives by alms. [A.S. _ælmysse_,
through Late L., from Gr. _ele[=e]mosyn[=e]_--_eleos_, compassion. Dr
Murray notes the Scot. and North Country _almous_, _awmous_, as an
independent adoption of the cognate Norse _almusa_; and the legal ALMOIGN,
ALMOIN, perpetual tenure by free gift of charity, from O. Fr., perhaps due
to a confusion with _alimonium_.]

ALMUCE, an early form of AMICE.

ALMUG, al'mug, _n._ the wood of a tree described in the Bible as brought
from Ophir in the time of Solomon, for the house and temple at Jerusalem,
and for musical instruments--probably the red sandalwood of India. [Heb.
_algummîm_, _almuggîm_. The better form is ALGUM.]

ALOE, al'[=o], _n._ a genus of plants of considerable medicinal importance,
of the 200 species of which as many as 170 are indigenous to the Cape
Colony.--The so-called American Aloe is a totally different plant (see
AGAVE).--_adj._ AL'OED, planted or shaded with aloes.--The ALOES WOOD of
the Bible was the heart-wood of _Aquilaria ovata_ and _Aquilaria
Agallochum_, large spreading trees. The wood contains a dark-coloured,
fragrant, resinous substance, much prized for the odour it diffuses in
burning. [The word was used erroneously in the Septuagint and New Testament
as a translation of the Heb. _ah[=a]l[=i]m_, _ah[=a]l[=o]th_ (Gr.
_agallochon_), an aromatic resin or wood--called later in Gr. _xylalo[=e]_,
from which descend _lignum aloes_, _lign-aloes_, _wood-aloes_, and
_aloes-wood_.--A.S. _aluwan_--L. _alo[=e]_--Gr. _alo[=e]_.]

ALOES, al'[=o]z, a purgative bitter drug, the inspissated juice of the
leaves of several almost tree-like species of aloe. Used both as a _sing.
n._, and as a _pl._ of ALOE.--_n._ and _adj._ ALOET'IC, a medicine
containing a large proportion of aloes.

ALOFT, a-loft', _adv._ on high: overhead: at a great height: (_naut._)
above the deck, at the masthead: sometimes used as equivalent to _aloof_
(_Mad. D'Arblay_). [Scand.; Icel. _á lopt_ (pron. _loft_), expressing
motion; _á lopti_, expressing positio_n._ Pfx. _a-_ = Icel. _á_ = A.S.
_on_, in. See LOFT.]

ALONE, al-[=o]n', _adj._ single: solitary: alone of its kind: of itself, or
by themselves.--_adv._ singly, by one's self only.--_n._ ALONE'NESS [ALL
and ONE.]

ALONG, a-long', _adv._ by or through the length of: lengthwise: throughout:
onward: (fol. by _with_) in company of.--_prep._ by the side of:
near.--_n.pl._ ALONG'SHORE-MEN, labourers employed about the docks or
wharves in the Thames and other rivers.--_prep._ ALONG'SIDE, by the side,
beside.--ALONG OF, (_arch._ or _dial._) owing to. [A.S. _andlang_--pfx.
_and-_, against, and _lang_, LONG.]

ALONGST, a-longst', _prep._ (_obs._ except _dial._) along: by the length.
[M. E. _alongest_, from _along_, with adv. gen. _-es_.]

ALOOF, a-l[=oo]f', _adv._ at a distance: apart.--_n._ ALOOF'NESS,
withdrawal from common action or sympathy. [Pfx. _a-_ (--A.S. _on_), on,
and LOOF, prob. Dut. _loef._ See LUFF.]

ALOPECIA, al-o-p[=e]'si-a, _n._ baldness: a skin-disease producing this.
[Gr. _alopekia_, fox-mange.]

ALOUD, a-lowd', _adv._ with a loud voice: loudly. [Prep. _a_ (--A.S. _on_),
and _hlúd_, noise; Ger. _laut_.]

ALOW, a-l[=o]', _adv._ in a low place--opp. to _Aloft_.

ALOW, al-low', _adv._ (_Scot._) ablaze. [Prep. _a_, and LOW, a flame.]

ALP, alp, _n._ a high mountain:--_pl._ ALPS, specially applied to the lofty
ranges of Switzerland.--_adjs._ ALP'EN; ALPINE (alp'in, or alp'[=i]n),
pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountains: very high.--_ns._
AL'PINIST, ALPES'TRIAN, one devoted to Alpine climbing. [L.; of Celtic
origin; cf. Gael. _alp_, a mountain; allied to L. _albus_, white (with

ALPACA, al-pak'a, _n._ the Peruvian sheep, akin to the llama, having long
silken wool: cloth made of its wool. [Sp. _alpaca_ or _al-paco_, from _al_,
Arab. article, and _paco_, most prob. a Peruvian word.]

ALPENHORN, al'pen-horn, _n._ a long powerful horn, wide and curved at the
mouth, used chiefly by Alpine cowherds.--Also ALP'HORN. [Gr. _Alpen_, of
the Alps, _horn_, horn.]

ALPENSTOCK, alp'n-stok, _n._ a long stick or staff used by travellers in
climbing the Alps. [Ger. _Alpen_, of the Alps; _stock_, stick.]

ALPHA, al'fa, _n._ the first letter of the Greek alphabet: the first or
beginning. [Gr. _alpha_--Heb. _aleph_, an ox, the name of the first letter
of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet. See A.]

ALPHABET, al'fa-bet, _n._ the letters of a language arranged in the usual
order.--_n._ ALPHABET[=A]'RIAN, one learning his alphabet, a beginner: a
student of alphabets.--_adjs._ ALPHABET'IC, -AL, relating to or in the
order of an alphabet.--_adv._ ALPHABET'ICALLY.--_v.t._ AL'PHABETISE, to
arrange alphabetically:--_pr.p._ al'phabet[=i]sing; _pa.p._
al'phabet[=i]sed. [Gr. _alpha_, _beta_, the first two Greek letters.]

ALPHONSINE, al'fons-[=i]n, _adj._ of Alphonso (X.) the Wise, king of
Castile, pertaining to his planetary tables, completed in 1252.

ALREADY, awl-red'i, _adv._ previously, or before the time
specified.--Sometimes used adjectively = present. [ALL and READY.]

ALS, an old form of ALSO.

ALSATIAN, al-s[=a]'shi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to Alsatia (Ger.
_Elsass_), a province between France and Germany.--_n._ a rogue or
debauchee, such as haunted Alsatia--a cant name for Whitefriars, a district
in London between the Thames and Fleet Street, which enjoyed privileges of
sanctuary down to 1697, and was consequently infested with lawless
characters. See Scott's _Fortunes of Nigel_.

ALSO, awl'so, _adv._ in like manner: further. [Compounded of _all_ and
_so_; A.S. _al_ and _swá_.]

ALT, alt, _n._ high tone, in voice or instrument.--IN ALT, in the octave
above the treble stave beginning with G; (_fig._) in an exalted and
high-flown mood.

ALTALTISSIMO, alt-al-tis'si-mo, _n._ the very highest summit. [It.
reduplicated comp. of _alto_, high, and _altissimo_, highest.]

ALTAR, awlt'ar, _n._ an elevated place or structure, block or stone, or the
like, on which sacrifices were anciently offered: in Christian churches,
the table on which the officiating priest consecrates the eucharist: the
communion table: (_fig._) a place of worship.--_ns._ ALT'ARAGE, offerings
made upon the altar during the offertory, provided for the maintenance of
the priest; ALT'AR-CLOTH, the covering of the altar, placed over and around
it, of silk, velvet, satin, or cloth, often used as including the frontal
(_antependium_), and the super-frontal; ALT'ARPIECE, a decorative screen,
retable, or reredos, placed behind an altar--a work of art, whether a
sacred painting or sculpture.--_n.pl._ ALT'AR-RAILS, rails separating the
sacrarium from the rest of the chancel.--_ns._ ALT'AR-STONE, the slab
forming the top or chief part of an altar; ALT'AR-TOMB, a monumental
memorial, in form like an altar, often with a canopy. These were often
placed over the vaults or burying-place, and frequently on the north and
south walls of choirs, aisles, and chantry chapels.--_adj._ ALT'ARWISE,
placed like an altar--north and south, at the upper end of the
chancel.--FAMILY ALTAR, the practice or the place of private devotional
worship in the family; HIGH ALTAR, the principal altar in a cathedral or
other church having more than one altar; PORTABLE ALTAR, a small tablet of
marble, jasper, or precious stone, used by special license for Mass when
said away from the parish altar, in oratories or other similar places. It
was termed _super-altare_, because commonly placed upon some other altar,
or some fitting construction of wood or stone. [L. _alt[=a]re_--_altus_,

ALTAZIMUTH, alt-az'i-muth, _n._ an instrument devised by Sir G. B. Airy for
determining the apparent places of the heavenly bodies on the celestial
sphere. [A contr. for '_altitude_ and _azimuth_ instrument.']

ALTER, awl't[.e]r, _v.t._ to make different: to change: (_U.S._) to
castrate.--_v.i._ to become different: to vary.--_ns._ ALTERABIL'ITY,
AL'TERABLENESS.--_adj._ AL'TERABLE, that may be altered.--_adv._
AL'TERABLY.--_adj._ AL'TERANT, altering: having the power of producing
changes.--_n._ ALTER[=A]'TION, change.--_adj._ AL'TERATIVE, having power to
alter.--_n._ a medicine that makes a change in the vital functions.--_n._
ALTER'ITY (_Coleridge_), the state of being other or different. [L.
_alter_, another--_al_ (root of _alius_, other), and the old comp. suffix
_-ter_ = Eng. _-ther_.]

ALTERCATE, al't[.e]r-k[=a]t, _v.i._ to dispute or wrangle.--_n._
ALTERC[=A]'TION, contention: controversy.--_adj._ ALTERC[=A]'TIVE. [L.
_alterc[=a]ri_, _-catus_, to bandy words from one to the other (_alter_).]

ALTER EGO, al't[.e]r [=e]'go, _n._ second self, counterpart, double. [L.
_alter_, other; _ego_, I.]

ALTERNATE, al't[.e]r-n[=a]t, or al-t[.e]r'n[=a]t, _v.t._ to cause to follow
by turns or one after the other.--_v.i._ to happen by turns: to follow
every other or second time--also AL'TERNISE.--_adjs._ AL'TERN (_Milton_),
alternate, acting by turns; ALTER'NANT (_geol._), in alternate layers;
ALTER'NATE, one after the other: by turns.--_adv._ ALTER'NATELY.--_ns._
alternating: interchange: reading or singing antiphonally.--_adj._
ALTER'NATIVE, offering a choice of two things.--_n._ a choice between two
things.--_adv._ ALTER'NATIVELY. [L. _alter_, other.]

ALTHÆA, al-th[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of plants including the marsh mallow and
the hollyhock. [Gr.]

ALTHOUGH, awl-_th_[=o]', _conj._ admitting all that: notwithstanding that.

ALTIMETER, al-tim'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring
heights.--_adj._ ALTIMET'RICAL.--_n._ ALTIM'ETRY. [L. _altus_, high, and

ALTISSIMO, al-tis'si-mo, _adj._ (_mus._) in phrase 'in altissimo,' in the
second octave above the treble stave beginning with G. [It. _altissimo_,
superl. of _alto_, high.]

ALTITUDE, alt'i-tude, _n._ height: a point or position at a height above
the sea: high rank or eminence.--_n.pl._ ALT'ITUDES, passion,
excitement.--_adj._ ALTIT[=U]'DINAL.--_n._ ALTITUDIN[=A]'RIAN, one given to
flightiness in doctrine or belief. [L. _altitudo_--_altus_, high.]

ALTO, alt'o, _n._ (_mus._) properly the same as counter-tenor, the male
voice of the highest pitch (now principally _falsetto_), and not the lowest
female voice, which is properly _contralto_, though in printed music the
second part in a quartet is always called _alto_. [It.--L. _altus_, high.]

ALTOGETHER, awl-too-ge_th_'[.e]r, _adv._ all together: wholly: completely:
without exception.

ALTO-RELIEVO, ALTO-RILIEVO, alt'o-re-l[=e]'vo, _n._ high relief: figures
projected by at least half their thickness from the background on which
they are sculptured. [It. _alto_, high. See RELIEF.]

ALTRUISM, al'tr[=oo]-ism, _n._ the principle of living and acting for the
interest of others.--_adj._ ALTRUIST'IC.--_adv._ ALTRUIST'ICALLY. [Fr.
_altruisme_, formed by Comte from It. _altrui_--L. _alter_, another.]

ALUM, al'um, _n._ a mineral salt, the double sulphate of alumina and
potash, used as a mordant in dyeing and for many purposes.--_adj._
AL'UMISH, having the character or taste of alum.--_ns._ AL'UM-SHALE, or
-SLATE, a slate consisting mainly of clay, iron pyrites, and coaly matter,
from which alum is obtained. [L. _alumen_.]

ALUMINA, al-[=u]'min-a, ALUMINE, al'[=u]-min, _n._ one of the earths, the
characteristic ingredient of common clay--the oxide of aluminium.--_adj._
AL[=U]'MINOUS, containing alum or alumina. [L. _alumen_, alum.]

ALUMINIUM, al-[=u]-min'i-um, _n._ the metallic base of alumina; a metal
somewhat resembling silver, and remarkable for its lightness, now made from
Bauxite.--ALUMINIUM BRONZE, an alloy lighter than gold, but like it in
colour. [First called _Aluminum_ by the discoverer, Sir H. Davy

ALUMNUS, al-um'nus, _n._ one educated at a college is called an _alumnus_
of it:--_pl._ ALUM'NI.--_n._ ALUM'NIATE, the period of pupilage.
[L.,--_al[)e]re_, to nourish.]

ALUNITE, al'un-[=i]t, _n._ a mineral consisting of common alum together
with normal hydrate of aluminium.--Also ALUM-STONE, ALUMIN'ILITE.

ALURE, al-l[=u]r', _n._ (_obs._) a place to walk in, a gallery, a covered
passage. [O. Fr. _aleure_, _aller_, to go.]

ALVEARY, al've-ar-i, _n._ a beehive: (_anat._) the hollow of the external
ear.--_adj._ AL'VEOLATE, pitted like a honeycomb. [L. _alvearium_,
beehive--_alveus_, a hollow vessel.]

ALVEOLAR, al've-o-lar, _adj._ (_anat._) of or belonging to the sockets of
the teeth, as the alveolar arch, the part of the upper jaw in which the
teeth are placed--also AL'VEOLARY.--_n._ AL'VEOLE, the hollow or socket of
a tooth--more common ALV[=E]'OLUS.

ALVINE, al'vin, _adj._ of or from the belly. [From L. _alvus_, belly.]

ALWAYS, awl'w[=a]z, ALWAY, awl'w[=a], _adv._ through all ways: continually:
for ever. [Gen. case of ALWAY.]

AM, am, the 1st pers. sing, of the verb To be. [A.S. _eom_; Gr. _ei-mi_;
Lat. _s-u-m_ (_as_-(_u_)-_mi_); Goth. _-im_; Sans. _as-mi_.]

AMADOU, am'a-d[=oo], _n._ a soft spongy substance, growing as a fungus on
forest trees, used as a styptic and as tinder. [Fr. _amadouer_, to allure
(as in the phrase 'to _coax_ a fire'); prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Norse
_mata_, to feed.]

AMAIN, a-m[=a]n', _adv._ with main force or strength: violently: at full
speed: exceedingly. [Pfx. _a-_ = _on_, and MAIN.]

AMALGAM, a-mal'gam, _n._ a compound of mercury with another metal: any soft
mixture: a combination of various elements: one of the ingredients in an
alloy.--_v.t._ AMAL'GAMATE, to mix mercury with another metal: to
compound.--_v.i._ to unite in an amalgam: to blend.--_n._ AMALGAM[=A]'TION,
the blending of different things: a homogeneous union of diverse
elements.--_adj._ AMALGAM[=A]'TIVE. [L. and Gr. _malagma_, an
emollient--Gr. _malassein_, to soften.]

AMANDINE, am'an-din, _n._ a kind of cold cream prepared from sweet almonds.
[Fr.--_amande_, almond.]

AMANUENSIS, a-man-[=u]-en'sis, _n._ one who writes to dictation: a copyist:
a secretary:--_pl._ AMANUEN'S[=E]S. [L.--_ab_, from, and _manus_, the

AMARACUS, a-mar'a-kus, _n._ (_Tennyson_) marjoram. [L.--Gr.]

AMARANTH, -US, am'ar-anth, -us, _n._ a genus of plants with richly-coloured
flowers, that last long without withering, as Love-lies-bleeding, early
employed as an emblem of immortality.--_adj._ AMARANTH'INE, pertaining to
amaranth: unfading. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. _amarantos_,
unfading--_a_, neg., and root _mar_, to waste away; allied to L. _mori_, to

AMARYLLIS, am-a-ril'is, _n._ a genus of bulbous-rooted plants, including
the narcissus, jonquil, &c. [_Amaryllis_, the name of a country girl in
Theocritus and Virgil.]

AMASS, a-mas', _v.t._ to gather in large quantity: to accumulate.--_adjs._
AMASS'ABLE.--_pa.p._ AMASSED'.--_n._ AMASS'MENT. [Fr. _amasser_--L. _ad_,
to, and _massa_, a mass.]

AMASTHENIC, am-as-then'ik, _adj._ uniting all the chemical rays of light
into one focus, applied to a lens perfect for photographic purposes. [Gr.
_hama_, together, _sthenos_, force.]

AMATE, a-m[=a]t', _v.t._ to accompany: (_Spens._) to match. [Pfx. _a-_, and

AMATE, a-m[=a]t', _v.t._ (_arch._) to subdue, to daunt, to stupefy. [O. Fr.
_amatir_, to subdue.]

AMATEUR, am'at-[=u]r, or am-at-[=a]r', _n._ one who cultivates a particular
study or art for the love of it, and not professionally: in general terms,
one who plays a game for pleasure, as distinguished from a professional who
plays for money--nearly every game has its special definition to meet its
own requirements.--_adjs._ AMATEUR; AMATEUR'ISH, imperfect and defective,
as the work of an amateur rather than a professional hand.--_adv._
_amator_, a lover, _am[=a]re_, to love.]

AMATIVE, am'at-iv, _adj._ relating to love: amorous.--_n._ AM'ATIVENESS,
propensity to love or to sexuality. [From L. _am[=a]re_, -_[=a]tum_, to

AMATORY, am'at-or-i, _adj._ relating to or causing love:
affectionate.--_adjs._ AM'ATORY, AMAT[=O]'RIAL, AMAT[=O]'RIAN
(_obs._).--_adv._ AMAT[=O]'RIALLY.

AMAUROSIS, am-aw-r[=o]'sis, _n._ total blindness when no change can be seen
in the eye sufficient to account for it; _Amblyopia_ being partial loss of
sight under similar circumstances. The old name was _Gutta serena_--the
'drop serene' of _Paradise Lost_, iii. 25.--_adj._ AMAUR[=O]'TIC. [Gr.
_amaur[=o]sis_, _amauros_, dark.]

AMAZE, a-m[=a]z', _v.t._ to confound with surprise or wonder.--_n._
astonishment: perplexity (much less common than AMAZE'MENT).--_adv._
AMAZ'EDLY, with amazement or wonder.--_n._ AMAZE'MENT, AMAZ'EDNESS
(_rare_), surprise mingled with wonder: astonishment.--_p.adj._ AMAZE'ING,
causing amazement, astonishment: astonishing.--_adv._ AMAZ'INGLY. [Pfx.
_a-_, and MAZE.]

AMAZON, am'az-on, _n._ one of a fabled nation of female warriors: a
masculine woman: a virago.--_adj._ AMAZ[=O]'NIAN, of or like an Amazon: of
masculine manners: warlike. [Popular Gr. ety. from _a_, neg., _mazos_, a
breast--they being fabled to cut off the right breast that they might draw
the bow to its head (of course all this is idle); some have suggested an
original in the Circassian _maza_, the moon.]

AMBAGE, am'b[=a]j, _n._ roundabout phrases: circuitous paths, windings:
dark and mysterious courses:--_pl._ AM'BAGES.--_adj._ AMB[=A]'GIOUS,
circumlocutory: circuitous.--_adv._ AMB[=A]'GIOUSLY.--_n._
AMB[=A]'GIOUSNESS--_adj._ AMB[=A]'GITORY (_rare_).

AMBASSADOR, am-bas'a-dur, _n._ a diplomatic minister of the highest order
sent by one sovereign power to another:--_fem._ AMBASS'ADRESS.--_adj._
EMBASSAGE, the position, or the business, of an ambassador: a number of men
despatched on an embassy or mission.--AMBASSADOR EXTRAORDINARY, an
ambassador sent on a special occasion, as distinguished from the ordinary
or resident ambassador. [It. _ambasciadore_--L. _ambactus_, derived by
Grimm from Goth. _andbahts_, a servant, whence Ger. _amt_, office; by Zeuss
and others traced to a Celtic source, and identified with W. _amaeth_, a

AMBE, am'b[=e], _n._ an old mechanical contrivance, ascribed to
Hippocrates, for reducing dislocations of the shoulder. [Gr. _amb[=e]_,
Ionic for _amb[=o]n_, a ridge.]

AMBER, am'b[.e]r, _n._ a yellowish fossil resin, used in making
ornaments.--_adjs._ AM'BERED (_obs._), flavoured with amber or ambergris;
AMB'ERY. [Fr.--Ar. _`anbar_, ambergris.]

AMBERGRIS, am'b[.e]r-gr[=e]s, _n._ a fragrant substance of an ash-gray
colour, found floating on the sea or on the seacoast of warm countries, and
in the intestines of the spermaceti whale. [Fr. _ambre gris_, gray amber.]

AMBERITE, am'be-r[=i]t, _n._ a smokeless powder.

AMBIDEXTER, am-bi-deks't[.e]r, _adj._ and _n._ able to use both hands with
equal facility: double-dealing, or a double-dealer.--_n._ AMBI'DEXTER'ITY,
superior cleverness or adaptability.--_adj._ AMBIDEX'TROUS. [L. _ambo_,
both, _dexter_, right hand.]

AMBIENT, am'bi-ent, _adj._ going round: surrounding: investing.--_n._ an
encompassing sphere: the air or sky. [L. _ambi_, about, _iens_, _ientis_,
pr.p. of _eo_, _[=i]re_, to go.]

AMBIGUOUS, am-big'[=u]-us, _adj._ of doubtful signification: indistinct:
wavering or uncertain: equivocal.--_n._ AMBIG[=U]'ITY, uncertainty or
dubiousness of meaning--also AMBIG'UOUSNESS.--_adv._ AMBIG'UOUSLY. [L.
_ambiguus_--_ambig[)e]re_, to go about--_ambi_, about, _ag[)e]re_, to

AMBIT, am'bit, _n._ a circuit: a space surrounding a house or town: extent
of meaning of words, &c.

AMBITION, am-bish'un, _n._ the desire of power, honour, fame,
excellence.--_n._ AMBI'TIONIST (_Carlyle_), an ambitious man.--_adj._
AMBI'TIOUS, full of ambition (with _of_, formerly _for_): strongly desirous
of anything--esp. power: aspiring: indicating ambition: showy or
pretentious.--_adv._ AMBI'TIOUSLY.--_n._ AMBI'TIOUSNESS. [Fr.--L.
_ambition_-_em_, the going about--that is, the canvassing for votes
practised by candidates for office in Rome--_ambi_, about, and _[=i]re_,
_itum_, to go.]

AMBLE, am'bl, _v.i._ to move as a horse by lifting together both legs on
one side alternately with those on the other side: to move at an easy pace
affectedly.--_n._ a pace of a horse between a trot and a walk.--_n._
AM'BLER, a horse that ambles: one who ambles in walking or dancing.--_n._
and _adj._ AM'BLING. [Fr. _ambler_--L. _ambul[=a]-re_, to walk about.]

AMBLYGON, am'bli-gon, _adj._ obtuse-angled. [Gr. _amblus_, obtuse, _gonia_,

AMBLYOPIA, am-bli-[=o]'pi-a, _n._ dullness of sight (see AMAUROSIS).--_n._
AMBLYOP'SIS, the bony fish found in the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, the
rudimentariness of whose eyes is due to darkness and consequent disuse.
[Gr.--_amblys_, dull, _[=o]ps_, eye.]

AMBLYSTOMA, am-blis't[=o]-ma, _n._ a genus of tailed amphibians in the
gill-less or salamandroid sub-order--the adult form of axolotl. [Gr.
_amblys_, blunt, _stoma_, mouth.]

AMBO, am'b[=o], _n._ a kind of reading-desk or pulpit, which in early
Christian churches was placed in the choir. The ambo had two ascents--one
from the east, and the other from the west. [Gr. _amb[=o]n_, a rising.]

AMBROSIA, am-br[=o]'zhi-a, _n._ the fabled food of the gods, which gave
immortal youth and beauty to those who ate it: the anointing oil of the
gods: any finely-flavoured beverage: something delightfully sweet and
pleasing.--_adj._ AMBR[=O]'SIAL, fragrant: delicious: immortal:
heavenly.--_adv._ AMBR[=O]'SIALLY.--_adj._ AMBR[=O]'SIAN, relating to
ambrosia: relating to St Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the 4th century.
[L.--Gr. _ambrosios_ = _ambrotos_, immortal--_a_, neg., and _brotos_,
mortal, for _mrotos_, Sans. _mrita_, dead--_mri_ (L. _mori_), to die.]


AMBRY, am'bri, _n._ a niche in churches in which the sacred utensils were
kept: a cupboard for victuals. [O. Fr. _armarie_, a repository for arms
(Fr. _armoire_, a cupboard)--L. _armarium_, a chest for arms--_arma_,

AMBS-ACE, [=a]mz'-[=a]s, _n._ double ace: the lowest possible throw at
dice: ill-luck: worthlessness. [O. Fr. _ambes as_--L. _ambas as_. See ACE.]

AMBULACRUM, am-b[=u]-l[=a]'krum, _n._ a row of pores in the shell of an
echinoderm, as a sea-urchin, through which the tube-feet protrude.--_adj._
AMBUL[=A]'CRAL. [L., a walk--_ambul[=a]re_, to walk.]

AMBULANCE, am'b[=u]l-ans, _n._ a carriage which follows an army and serves
as a movable hospital for the wounded--also used as an _adj._, as in
ambulance wagon.--_n._ AMBULAN'CIER, a man attached to an
ambulance.--_adj._ AM'BULANT, walking: moving from place to place: (_rare_)
unfixed.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ AM'BULATE (_rare_), to walk.--_p.adj._
AM'BULATING.--_n._ AMBUL[=A]'TION.--_adj._ AM'BULATORY, having the power or
faculty of walking: moving from place to place, not stationary:
mutable.--_n._ any part of a building intended for walking in, as the
aisles of a church, or the cloisters of a monastery: any kind of corridor.
[Fr.--L. _ambulans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _ambul[=a]re_, to walk about.]

AMBUSCADE, am'busk-[=a]d, _n._ a hiding to attack by surprise: a body of
troops in concealment: the hidden place of ambush--used also as a
_verb_.--_n._ AMBUSC[=A]'DO, a now archaic form of AMBUSCADE (common in
17th century):--_pl._ AMBUSC[=A]'DOES. [Fr. _embuscade_. See AMBUSH.]

AMBUSH, am'boosh, _n._ and _v._ same meanings as AMBUSCADE.--_n._
AM'BUSHMENT (_B._), ambush. [O. Fr. _embusche_ (mod. _embûche_),
_embuscher_, Low L. _embosc[=a]re_--_in_-, in, and _boscus_, a bush.]

AMEER, or AMERE, a-m[=e]r', _n._ a title of honour, also of an independent
ruler in Mohammedan countries. [Ar. _am[=i]r_. See ADMIRAL.]

AMELIORATE, a-m[=e]l'yor-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make better: to improve.--_v.i._
to grow better.--_n._ AMELIOR[=A]'TION, the condition of being made better:
improvement or the means of such.--_adj._ AMEL'IORATIVE. [L. _ad_, to, and
_melior_, better.]

AMEN, [=a]'men', or ä'men', _interj._ so let it be!--_v.t._ to say amen to
anything, to ratify solemnly. [Gr.--Heb. _[=a]m[=e]n_, firm, true.]

AMENABLE, a-m[=e]n'a-bl, _adj._ easy to be led or governed: liable or
subject to.--_ns._ AMENABIL'ITY, AMEN'ABLENESS.--_adv._ AMEN'ABLY. [Fr.
_amener_, to lead--_a_ = L. _ad_, and _mener_, to lead--Low L. _min[=a]re_,
to lead, to drive (as cattle)--L. _min[=a]ri_, to threaten.]

AMENAGE, am'e-n[=a]j, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to manage. [O. Fr. _amenager_. See

AMENANCE, am'e-nans, _n._ (_Spens._) conduct, behaviour. [O. Fr.
_amenance_, from root of AMENABLE.]

AMEND, a-mend', _v.t._ to correct: to improve: to alter in detail, as a
bill before parliament, often so fundamentally as to overthrow entirely the
thing originally proposed.--_v.i._ to grow or become better.--_adjs._
AMEND'ABLE, AMEND'ATORY, corrective.--_n._ AMEND'MENT, correction:
improvement: an alteration proposed on a bill under consideration: a
counter-proposal put before a public meeting: a counter-motion.--_n.pl._
AMENDS', supply of a loss: compensation: reparation. [Fr. _amender_ for
_emender_--L. _emend[=a]re_, to remove a fault--_e_, _ex_, out of, and
_menda_, a fault.]

AMENDE, ä-mend', _n._ a fine, penalty.--AMENDE HONORABLE, a public
confession and apology made for any offence. [Fr. See AMEND.]

AMENITY, am-en'i-ti, _n._ pleasantness, as regards situation, climate,
manners, or disposition. [Fr. _aménité_--L. _amoenitas_--_amoenus_,
pleasant, from root of _am_-_[=a]re_, to love.]

AMENORRHOEA, AMENORRHEA, a-men-[=o]-r[=e]'a, _n._ absence of menstruation.
[From Gr. _a_, priv., _m[=e]n_, month, _roia_, a flowing.]

AMENTUM, a-men'tum, AMENT, am'ent, _n._ a scaly sort of spike, as of the
willow: a catkin:--_pl._ AMEN'TA.--_adjs._ AMENT[=A]'CEOUS, AMEN'TAL. [L.
_amentum_, thong.]

AMERCE, a-m[.e]rs', _v.t._ to punish by a fine: to deprive of anything, or
inflict loss upon.--_n._ AMERCE'MENT, a penalty inflicted--also
AMERC'IAMENT. [O. Fr. _amercier_, to impose a fine--L. _merces_, wages,

AMERICAN, a-mer'ik-an, _adj._ pertaining to America, esp. to the United
States.--_n._ a native of America.--_v.t._ AMER'ICANISE, to render
American.--_n._ AMER'ICANISM, a custom, characteristic, word, phrase, or
idiom peculiar to Americans: condition of being an American citizen:
devotion to American institutions. [From _America_, so called unfairly from
_Amerigo_ Vespucci, a navigator who explored a small part of South America
seven years after the first voyage of Columbus.]

AMETHYST, a'meth-ist, _n._ a bluish-violet variety of quartz of which
drinking cups used to be made, which the ancients supposed prevented
drunkenness.--_adj._ AMETHYST'INE, [Gr. _amethystos_--_a_, neg.,
_methy-ein_, to be drunken--_meth[=u]_, wine, cog. with Eng. _mead_, Sans.
_madhu_, sweet.]

AMIABLE, [=a]m'i-a-bl, _adj._ lovable: worthy of love: of sweet
disposition.--_ns._ AMIABIL'ITY, AM'IABLENESS, quality of being amiable, or
of exciting love.--_adv._ AM'IABLY. [O. Fr. _amiable_, friendly--L.
_amicabilis_, from _amicus_, a friend; there is a confusion in meaning with
O. Fr. _amable_ (mod. Fr. _aimable_), lovable--L. _amabilis_--_am-[=a]re_,
to love.]

AMIANTUS, a-mi-ant'us, _n._ the finest fibrous variety of asbestos--it can
be made into cloth which when stained is readily cleansed by fire.--Also
AMIANTH'US. [Gr. _amiantos_, unpollutable--_a_, neg.,and _miain-ein_, to

AMICABLE, am'ik-a-bl, _adj._ friendly.--_ns._ AMICABIL'ITY,
AM'ICABLENESS.--_adv._ AM'ICABLY. [L. _amicabilis_--_amicus_, a friend,
_am-[=a]re_, to love.]

AMICE, am'is, _n._ a flowing cloak formerly worn by priests and pilgrims: a
strip of fine linen, with a piece of embroidered cloth sewn upon it, worn
formerly on the head, now upon the shoulders, by Roman Catholic priests in
the service of the Mass. [O. Fr. _amit_--L. _amictus_, _amic-[)e]re_, to
wrap about--_amb_, about, and _jac-[)e]re_, to throw.]

AMICE, am'is, _n._ a furred hood with long ends hanging down in front,
originally a cap or covering for the head, afterwards a hood, or cape with
a hood, later a mere college hood. [O. Fr. _aumuce_, of doubtful origin;
but at any rate cog. with Ger. _mutse_, _mütze_, Scot. _mutch_.]

AMID, a-mid', AMIDST, a-midst', _prep._ in the middle or midst:
among.--_adv._ AMID'MOST (_W. Morris_), in the very middle of.--_adv._ and
_n._ AMID'SHIPS, half-way between the stem and stern of a ship, [_a_, on,
and MID.]

AMIDE, am'[=i]d, _n._ one of the compound ammonias derived from one or more
molecules of common ammonia, by exchanging one or more of the three
hydrogen atoms for acid radicals of equivalent acidity.

AMINE, am'[=i]n, _n._ one of the compound ammonias, in which one or more of
the three hydrogen atoms in ammonia are exchanged for alcohol or other
positive radicals, or for a metal.

AMILDAR, am'il-dar, _n._ a factor or manager in India: a collector of
revenue amongst the Mahrattas. [Hind. _`amald[=a]r_--Ar. _`amal_, work.]

AMIR, a-m[=e]r'. Same as AMEER.

AMISS, a-mis', _adj._ in error: wrong.--_adv._ in a faulty manner.--_n._
AMISS'IBILITY.--_adjs._ AMISS'IBLE; AMISS'ING, wanting, lost. [_a_, on, and
MISS, failure.]

AMITY, am'i-ti, _n._ friendship: good-will. [Fr. _amitié_--_ami_--L.
_amicitia_, friendship, _amicus_, a friend. See AMICABLE.]

AMMIRAL, an old spelling of ADMIRAL.

AMMONIA, am-m[=o]n'i-a, _n._ a pungent gas yielded by smelling-salts,
burning feathers, &c.: a solution of ammonia in water (properly _liquid
ammonia_): a name of a large series of compounds, analogous to ammonia,
including _amines_, _amides_, and _alkalamides_.--_adjs._ AMMON'IAC,
AMMON[=I]'ACAL, pertaining to, or having the properties of, ammonia.--_ns._
AMMON'IAC, AMMON[=I]'ACUM, a whitish gum resin of bitter taste and heavy
smell, the inspissated juice of a Persian umbelliferous plant--used in
medicine for its stimulant and expectorant qualities; AMMON'IAPHONE, an
instrument invented about 1880, said to improve the quality of the singing
and speaking voice, being an apparatus for inhaling peroxide of hydrogen
and free ammonia.--_adj._ AMM[=O]N'IATED, containing ammonia.--_n._
AMMON'IUM, the hypothetical base of ammonia. [From _sal-ammoniac_, or
smelling-salts, first obtained by heating camel's dung in Libya, near the
temple of Jupiter Ammon.]

AMMONITE, am'mon-[=i]t, _n._ the fossil shell of an extinct genus of
molluscs, so called because they resemble the horns on the statue of
Jupiter Ammon, worshipped as a ram.

AMMUNITION, am-m[=u]n-ish'un, _n._ anything used for munition or defence:
military stores, formerly of all kinds (as still in the word used
adjectively, as in ammunition wagon, &c.), now esp. powder, balls, bombs,
&c.--_v.t._ to supply with ammunition. [O. Fr. _amunition_. See MUNITION.]

AMNESIA, am-n[=e]'si-a, _n._ loss of memory. [Gr. _amnesia_]

AMNESTY, am'nest-i, _n._ a general pardon of political offenders: an act of
oblivion.--_v.t._ to give amnesty to. [Gr. _a-mnestos_, not remembered.]

AMNION, am'ni-on, _n._ the innermost membrane enveloping the embryo of
reptiles, birds, and mammals. [Gr.--_amnos_, a lamb.]

AMOEBA, a-m[=e]b'a, _n._ a name given to a number of the simplest animals
or Protozoa, which consist of unit masses of living matter. They flow out
in all directions in blunt processes (_pseudopodia_, 'false feet'), and
have thus an endlessly varying form, hence the name:--_pl._
AMOEB'Æ.--_adjs._ AMOEB'IFORM, AMOEB'OID. [Gr. _amoib[=e]_, change.]

AMOEBÆAN, am-e-b[=e]'an, _adj._ answering alternately, responsive, as in
some of Virgil's eclogues. [L.--Gr. _amoibaios_, _amoib[=e]_, change,

AMOMUM, a-m[=o]'mum, _n._ a genus of herbaceous tropical plants (nat. ord.
_Scitamineæ_), allied to the ginger-plant, several species yielding the
cardamoms and grains of paradise of commerce. [Gr. _am[=o]mon_.]

AMONG, a-mung', AMONGST, a-mungst', _prep._ of the number of: amidst. [A.S.
_on-gemang_--_mengan_, to mingle.]

AMONTILLADO, a-mon-til-yä'do, _n._ a dry or little sweet kind of sherry of
a light colour and body. [Sp.]

AMORET, am'or-et, _n._ (_obs._) a sweetheart. [O. Fr. _amorette_--L.

AMORETTO, am-or-et'to, _n._ a lover: a cupid:--_pl._ AMORET'TI. [It.]

AMORNINGS, a-morn'ingz, _adv._ (_obs._) of mornings. [OF and MORNING.]

AMOROSO, am-or-ro'so, _adj._ (_mus._) tender: descriptive of love.--_n._
one in love, a gallant:--_pl._ AMOR[=O]'SI.--_n._ AMOR[=O]'SITY (_rare_),

AMOROUS, am'or-us, _adj._ easily inspired with love: fondly in love (with
_of_): relating to love.--_n._ AM'ORIST, a lover: a gallant.--_adv._
AM'OROUSLY.--_n._ AM'OROUSNESS. [O. Fr. _amorous_ (Fr. _amoureux_)--L.
_amoros-um_, _amor_, love.]

AMORPHA, a-mor'fa, _n._ a genus of North American shrubs of the bean
family, the false indigoes or lead-plants--also _bastard_ or _wild indigo_.

AMORPHISM, a-mor'fizm, _n._ a state of being amorphous or without
crystallisation even in the minutest particles.--_adj._ AMOR'PHOUS, without
regular shape, shapeless, uncrystallised. [Gr. _a_, neg., _morph[=e]_,

AMORT, a-mort', _adj._ (_obs._ or _arch._ merely) spiritless,
dejected.--_n._ AMORTIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ AMORT'[=I]SE, to alienate in
mortmain: to convey to a corporation:--_pr.p._ amort'[=i]sing; _pa.p._
amort'[=i]sed. [Fr. _à_, to, _mort_, death. See MORTAL.]

AMOUNT, a-mownt', _v.i._ to mount or rise to: to result in: to come in
meaning or substance to (with _to_).--_n._ the whole sum: the effect or
result. [O. Fr. _amonter_, to ascend--L. _ad_, to, _mont_, _mons_, a

AMOUR, am-[=oo]r', _n._ a love intrigue, or illicit affection: a love
affair (humorously only, for the old innocent sense is now obsolete).--_n._
AMOURETTE', a petty love affair: the love-grass, or quaking-grass: a
cupid.--AMOUR PROPRE, self-esteem ready to take offence at slights.
[Fr.--L. _amor_, love.]

AMOVE, a-m[=oo]v', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to stir up: to affect:--_pr.p._
amov'ing; _pa.p._ amoved'. [L. _admov[=e]re_--_ad_, to, and _mov-[=e]re_,
to move.]

AMOVE, a-m[=oo]v', _v.t._ to remove, esp. from a place (obsolete except in
law). [O. Fr. _amover_--L. _amov[=e]re_, _ab_, from, _mov-[=e]re_, to

AMPÈRE, am-pehr', _n._ in electricity, unit of current. [From _Ampère_, a
French electrician who died in 1836.]

AMPERSAND, am'p[.e]rs-and, _n._ a name formerly in use for the character
_&_ (also called _short and_), commonly placed at the end of the alphabet
in primers.--Also AM'PERZAND, AM'PUSSY-AND, and simply AM'PASSY. [A corr.
of _and per se and_--that is, _&_ standing by itself means _and_.]

AMPHIBALUS, am-fib'a-lus, _n._ an ecclesiastical vestment like the
chasuble. [L.--Gr., from _amphi_, around, _ball-ein_, to cast.]

AMPHIBIA, am-fib'i-a, AMPHIBIALS, AMPHIBIANS, _n.pl._ animals capable of
living both under water and on land.--_n._ AMPHIB'IAN.--_adj._ AMPHIB'IOUS.
[L.--Gr., from _amphi_, both, _bios_, life.]

AMPHIBOLE, am-fib'ol-[=e], _n._ the name of a group of minerals which are
essentially silicates of lime and magnesia, but these bases are often
partly replaced by alumina, and oxides of iron and manganese--tremolite,
nephrite (jade), and hornblende. [Gr.]

AMPHIBOLOGY, am-fib-ol'o-ji, _n._ the use of ambiguous phrases or such as
can be construed in two senses. A good example is Shakespeare's 'The duke
yet lives that Henry shall depose' (2 _Henry VI._, I. iv. 33)--also
AMPHIB'OLY.--_adjs._ AMPHIB'OLOUS, AMPHIBOL'IC. [Gr., from _amphi_, on both
sides, _ball-ein_, to throw.]

AMPHIBRACH, am'fi-brak, _n._ in prosody, a foot of three syllables--a
short, a long, and a short, as _[)a]m[=a]r[)e]_. The name is sometimes
applied in English to such a word as _amusement_, where an accented
syllable falls between two unaccented. [L.--Gr., made up of Gr. _amphi_, on
each side, _brachys_, short.]

AMPHICTYONIC, am-fik-ti-on'ik, _adj._ The Amphictyonic Council was an old
Greek assembly composed of deputies (Amphictyons) from twelve of the
leading states.--_n._ AMPHIC'TYONY, an association of such states. [Gr.
_amphiktyones_, 'those dwelling around.']

AMPHIMACER, am-fim'a-s[.e]r, _n._ in prosody, a foot of three syllables,
the middle one short, and the first and last long, as _c[=a]r[)i]t[=a]s_.
Sometimes applied to such Eng. words as _runaway_. [Gr., 'long at both
ends;' _amphi_, on both sides, _makros_, long.]

AMPHIOXUS, am-f[=i]-oks'us, _n._ the lancelet, one of the lowest backboned
animals, found on the sandy coasts of warm and temperate seas. The body is
about two inches long and pointed at both ends. [Gr. _amphi_, on both
sides, and _oxys_, sharp.]

AMPHIPODS, am'fi-pods, _n._ an order of small sessile-eyed crustaceans--a
familiar example is the sand-hopper. [Gr. _amphi_, both ways, _pous_,
_podos_, a foot.]

AMPHISBÆNA, am-fis-b[=e]'na, _n._ a family of lizard-snakes, chiefly found
in tropical America, which have their tails so rounded as to give them the
appearance of having a head at both ends.--_adj._ AMPHISB[=E]'NIC. [Gr.
_amphisbaina_--_amphi_, _amphis_, both ways, and _bain-ein_, to go.]

AMPHISCIANS, am-fish'i-anz, _n.pl._ the inhabitants of the torrid zone,
whose shadows are thrown both ways--that is, to the north one part of the
year, and to the south the other part, according as the sun is north or
south of the equator. [Gr. _amphiskios_--_amphi_, both ways, _skia_, a

AMPHISTOMOUS, am-fis't[=o]-mus, _adj._ having a mouth-like orifice at
either end, as some parasitic worms. [Gr., _amphistomos_, double mouthed.]

AMPHITHEATRE, am-fi-th[=e]'a-t[.e]r, _n._ an oval or circular edifice
having rows of seats one above another, around an open space, called the
arena, in which public spectacles are exhibited: anything like an
amphitheatre in form.--_adjs._ AMPHITHEAT'RICAL, AMPHITHEAT'RAL.--_adv._
AMPHITHEAT'RICALLY. [Gr. _amphi_, round about, _theatron_, a place for
seeing--_theaomai_, to see.]

AMPHITRYON, am-fit'ri-on, _n._ a host or entertainer. [From _Amphitryon_ in
Molière's comedy, who gives a great dinner. Amphitryon in Gr. mythology was
husband of Alcmene, who was deceived by Zeus in her husband's semblance,
and so became the mother of Hercules.]


AMPHORA, am'f[=o]-ra, _n._ a two-handled vessel or jar used by the Greeks
and Romans for holding liquids.--_adj._ AM'PHORIC (_med._), like the sound
produced by speaking into an amphora or any large vessel with a small
mouth. [Gr. _amphoreus_, _amphiphoreus_--_amphi_, on both sides,
_pher-ein_, to bear.]

AMPLE, am'pl, _adj._ spacious: large enough: abundant: liberal: copious, or
of great length.--_ns._ AM'PLENESS; AMPLI[=A]'TION, enlarging, an
enlargement.--_adj._ AMPLI[=A]'TIVE (_rare_).--_adv._ AM'PLY. [Fr.--L.
_amplus_, large.]

AMPLEXICAUL, am-pleks'i-kawl, _adj._ (_bot._) nearly surrounding the
stem--said of sessile leaves. [Modern L. _amplexicaulis_--L. _amplexus_,
embrace, and _caulis_, stem.]

AMPLIFY, am'pli-f[=i], _v.t._ to make more copious in expression: to add
to.--_n._ AMPLIFIC[=A]'TION, enlargement.--_adj._ AMPLIFIC[=A]'TORY.--_n._
AM'PLIFIER, one who amplifies: a lens which enlarges the field of vision.
[L. _amplus_, large, and _fac-[)e]re_, to make.]

AMPLITUDE, am'pli-t[=u]d, _n._ largeness: abundance: width: splendour: wide
range of mind: the distance from the east point of a horizon at which a
heavenly body rises, or from the west point at which it sets. [Fr.--L.

AMPUL, am'pul, _n._ a small earthenware or glass vessel of an oblong
globular form, used for containing consecrated oil or wine and water for
the eucharistic service--now more commonly AMPUL'LA. [O. Fr. _ampole_--L.


AMPULLA, am-pul'la, _n._ a small two-handled flask or bottle for holding
liquids or unguents: a vessel for holding consecrated oil or chrism, esp.
at the coronation of kings: a kind of cruet of transparent glass for
holding the wine and water used at the altar: (_biol._) the dilated end of
any canal or duct in an animal body, also the spongiole of a root in
AMPULLOS'ITY, turgidity of language, bombast. [L.; made up of _amb_, on
both sides, and _olla_, a jar; or an irregular dim. of _amphora_, a

AMPUTATE, am'p[=u]t-[=a]t, _v.t._ to cut off, as a limb of an animal.--_n._
AMPUT[=A]'TION. [L. _amb_, round about, _put[=a]re_, to cut.]

AMRITA, am-r[=e]'ta, _n._ the drink of the gods in Hindu mythology. [Sans.]

AMUCK, a-muk', _adv._ madly: in murderous frenzy--hardly ever used save in
the phrase 'to run _amuck_.' [Malay, _amoq_, intoxicated or excited to

AMULET, am'[=u]-let, _n._ a gem, scroll, or other object carried about the
person, as a charm against sickness, harm, or witchcraft. [Fr.--L.
_amul[=e]tum_, a word of unknown origin; curiously like the mod. Ar.
_himalat_, lit. 'a carrier,' applied to a shoulder-belt, by which a small
Koran is hung on the breast.]

AMUSE, a-m[=u]z', _v.t._ to occupy pleasantly: to divert: to beguile with
expectation: (_obs._) occupy the attention with: (_arch._) to
beguile.--_adj._ AMUS'ABLE, capable of being amused.--_n._ AMUSE'MENT, that
which amuses: pastime.--_adj._ AMUS'ING, affording amusement:
entertaining.--_adv._ AMUS'INGLY.--_n._ AMUS'INGNESS.--_adj._ AMUS'IVE
(_rare_), having the power to amuse or entertain.--_n._ AMUS'IVENESS. [Fr.

AMUSETTE, am-[=u]-z[.e]t', _n._ a light field-gun invented by Marshal Saxe.

AMUTTER, a-mut'[.e]r, _adv._ in a muttering state.

AMYGDALATE, a-mig'da-l[=a]t, _adj._ pertaining to, like, or made of
almonds.--_adj._ AMYGDAL[=A]'CEOUS, akin to the almond. [L. _amygdala_--Gr.
_amygdal[=e]_, an almond.]

AMYGDALIN, AMYGDALINE, a-mig'da-lin, _n._ a crystalline principle existing
in the kernel of bitter almonds.

AMYGDALOID, a-mig'da-loid, _n._ a variety of basaltic rock containing
almond-shaped nodules of other minerals, as quartz, felspar.--_adj._
AMYGDALOI'DAL. [Gr. _amygdal[=e]_, and _eidos_, form.]

AMYL, am'il, _n._ the fifth in the series of the alcohol radicals, a
natural product of the distillation of coal. As thus found, two molecules
are united together, usually called _diamyl_, being a colourless liquid
with an agreeable smell and burning taste.--_n._ AM'YLENE. [Gr. _amylon_,
starchy, fine meal.]

AMYLACEOUS, am-i-l[=a]'shus, _adj._ pertaining to or resembling starch. [L.
_amylum_, starch--Gr. _amylon_.]

AMYLOID, am'i-loid, _n._ a half-gelatinous substance like starch, found in
some seeds.--_adj._ AMYLOID'AL. [Gr. _amylon_, the finest flour, starch;
lit. 'unground'--_a_, neg., _myl[=e]_, a mill, and _eidos_, form.]

AN, an, _adj._ one: the indefinite article, used before words beginning
with the sound of a vowel. [A.S. _[=a]n_. See ONE.]

AN, an, _conj._ if. [A form of AND.]

ANA, [=a]'na, a suffix to names of persons or places, denoting a collection
of memorable sayings, items of gossip, or miscellaneous facts, as
_Johnsoniana_, _Tunbrigiana_, &c.: applied also to the literature of some
special subject, as _Boxiana_, _Burnsiana_, _Shakespeariana_.--_n.pl._
specially a collection of the table-talk of some one. [The neut. pl.
termination of L. adjectives in _-anus_ = pertaining to.]

ANABAPTIST, an-a-bapt'ist, _n._ one who holds that baptism ought to be
administered only to adults (by immersion), and therefore that those
baptised in infancy ought to be baptised again.--The name is disclaimed by
recent opponents of infant baptism both in England and the
Continent.--_v.i._ ANABAP'TISE.--_n._ ANABAPT'ISM.--_adj._ ANABAPTIST'IC.
[Gr. _ana_, again, _baptiz-ein_, to dip in water, to baptise.]

ANABASIS, an-ab'a-sis, _n._ a military advance into the interior of a
country--specially the title of the famous story of the unfortunate
expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes, and of the
retreat of his 10,000 Greek allies under the conduct of Xenophon. [Gr.;
made up of _ana_, up, and _bain-ein_, to go.]

ANABLEPS, an'a-bleps, _n._ a genus of bony fishes with open air-bladders,
and projecting eyes divided into an upper and lower portion, so that each
eye has two pupils. [Gr. _anablepsis_, 'a looking up.']

ANABOLISM, an-ab'ol-izm, _n._ the constructive processes within the
protoplasm, by which food or other material, at a relatively low level,
passes through an ascending series of ever more complex and unstable
combinations, till it is finally worked up into living matter. [Gr.
_anabol[=e]_, 'rising up.']

ANACANTHOUS, an-a-kan'thus, _adj._ without spine. [Gr. _an-_, without,
_akantha_, spine.]

ANACARD, an'a-kard, _n._ the cashew-nut, the fruit of the _Anacardium
occidentale_. [Gr., made up of _ana_, according to, and _kardia_, heart,
from the shape of the fruit.]

ANACATHARSIS, an-a-kath-ar'sis, _n._ vomiting or expectoration.--_n._
ANACATHAR'TIC, a medicine with this effect--expectorants, emetics,
sternutatorics, &c. [Gr.; made up of _ana_, up, and _kathair-ein_, to

ANACHARIS, an-ak'ar-is, _n._ a North American weed found in ponds and slow
streams, which was first found in Britain in 1842, and is now very
troublesome in the Trent, Derwent, and other rivers. [Made up of Gr. _ana_,
up, and _charis_, grace.]

ANACHORISM, a-nak'[=o]-rizm, _n._ (_rare_) something incongruous with the
spirit of the country. [Coined on the analogy of _anachronism_, from Gr.
_ana_, back, and _ch[=o]rion_, country, with suff. _ism_.]

ANACHRONISM, an-a'kron-izm, _n._ an error in regard to time, whereby a
thing is assigned to an earlier or to a later age than it belongs to:
anything out of keeping with the time.--_v.t._ ANA'CHRONISE.--_n._
ANA'CHRONOUSLY. [Gr. _ana_, backwards, _chronos_, time.]

ANACLASTIC, an-a-klas'tik, _adj._ pertaining to refraction: bending back.
[Gr. _ana_, back, _klaein_, break off.]

ANACOLUTHON, an-a-ko-l[=u]'thon, _n._ want of sequence in the construction
of a sentence, when the latter part does not grammatically correspond with
the former: a sentence exhibiting an ANACOLUTHIA, or the passing from one
construction to another before the former is completed. [Gr.
_anakolouthos_--_a_, _an_, neg., and _akolouthos_, following.]

ANACONDA, an-a-kon'da, _n._ a large South American water-snake of the
Python family, closely related to the boa-constrictor. [Singhalese (?).]

ANACREONTIC, an-a-kre-ont'ik, _adj._ after the manner of the Greek poet
Anacreon: free, convivial, erotic.--_n._ a poem in this vein.--_adv._

ANACRUSIS, an-a-kr[=oo]'sis, _n._ (_pros._) an upward beat at the beginning
of a verse, consisting of one or two unaccented syllables introductory to
the just rhythm. [Gr. from _ana_, up, _krou-ein_, to strike.]

ANADEM, an'a-dem, _n._ a band or fillet bound round the head: a wreath or
chaplet of flowers. [Gr. _anad[=e]ma_--_ana_, up, and _de-ein_, to bind.]

ANADROMOUS, an-ad'r[=o]-mus, _adj._ ascending rivers to spawn. [Gr. _ana_,
up, _dromos_, running.]

ANÆMIA, an-[=e]m'i-a, _n._ a term employed to denote those conditions in
which there is a deficiency of blood or of its red corpuscles: lack or
poverty of blood marked by paleness and languor.--_adj._ ANÆM'IC. [Gr.;
made up of _an_, neg., _haima_, blood.]

ANAEROBIA, an-[=a]-[.e]r-[=o]'bi-a, _n.pl._ (_biol._) bacteria which
flourish without free oxygen.--_adj._ ANAER[=O]'BIC.

ANÆSTHETIC, an-[=e]s-thet'ik, _adj._ producing insensibility to external
impressions.--_n._ a substance, as chloroform or cocaine, that produces
insensibility, whether general or local.--_ns._ ANÆSTH[=E]'SIA,
ANÆSTH[=E]'SIS, loss of feeling, insensibility.--_adv._
ANÆSTHET'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANÆS'THETISE. [Gr. _a_, _an_, neg.,
_aisth[=e]sis_, sensation--_aisthanomai_, to feel.]

ANAGLYPH, an'a-glif, _n._ an ornament carved in low relief.--_adj._
ANAGLYPT'IC. [Gr.; _ana_, up, _glyph-ein_, to carve.]

ANAGLYPTOGRAPHY, an-a-glip-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of engraving so as to
give the subject the appearance of being raised from the surface of the
paper as if embossed--used in representing coins, &c. [Gr. _anaglyptos_,
embossed, and _graphia_, writing.]

ANAGOGY, an'a-goj-i, _n._ the mystical interpretation or hidden sense of
words.--_adjs._ ANAGOG'IC, ANAGOG'ICAL.--_adv._ ANAGOG'ICALLY. [Gr.
_anag[=o]g[=e]_, elevation, _an-ag-ein_, to lift up.]

ANAGRAM, an'a-gram, _n._ a word or sentence formed by rewriting (in a
different order) the letters of another word or sentence: as, 'live' =
'evil,' 'Quid est veritas? = 'Est vir qui adest,' and 'Florence
Nightingale' = 'Flit on, cheering angel.'--Many pseudonyms are merely
anagrams, as 'Voltaire' = 'Arouet l. i.'--that is, 'Arouet le jeune (the
younger).'--_adjs._ ANAGRAMMAT'IC, ANAGRAMMAT'ICAL.--_adv._
ANAGRAMMAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANAGRAM'MAT[=I]SE, to transpose, so as to form
an anagram.--_ns._ ANAGRAM'MATISM, the practice of making anagrams;
ANAGRAM'MATIST, a maker of anagrams. [Gr. _ana_, again, _graph-ein_, to

ANAGRAPH, an'a-graf, _n._ a catalogue or inventory: a description. [Gr.
_anagraph[=e]_--_ana_, up, out, _graph-ein_, to write.]

ANAL, [=a]n'al, _adj._ pertaining to or near the anus.

ANALECTS, an'a-lekts, _n.pl._ collections of literary fragments--also
ANALEC'TA.--_adj._ ANALEC'TIC. [Gr. _analektos_--_analegein_, to
collect--_ana_, up, _legein_, to gather.]

ANALEPTIC, an-a-lep'tik, _adj._ restorative: comforting. [Gr.
_anal[=e]ptikos_, restorative--_anal[=e]psis_, recovery--_ana_, up, and
_lamban[=o]_, _l[=e]psomai_, to take.]

ANALGESIA, an-al-j[=e]'zi-a, _n._ painlessness, insensibility to pain. [Gr.
_an-_, priv., and _algein_, to feel pain.]

ANALOGY, an-al'o-ji, _n._ an agreement or correspondence in certain
respects between things otherwise different--a resemblance of relations, as
in the phrase, 'Knowledge is to the mind what light is to the eye:'
relation in general: likeness: (_geom._) proportion or the equality of
ratios: (_gram._) the correspondence of a word or phrase with the genius of
a language, as learned from the manner in which its words and phrases are
ordinarily formed: similarity of derivative or inflectional
processes.--_adjs._ ANALOG'ICAL, ANAL'OGIC.--_adv._ ANALOG'ICALLY.--_v.t._
ANAL'OGISE, to explain or consider by analogy:--_pr.p._ anal'og[=i]sing;
_pa.p._ anal'og[=i]sed.--_ns._ ANAL'OGISM (_obs._), investigation by
analogy: argument from cause to effect; ANAL'OGIST, one who adheres to
analogy; ANAL'OGON = analogue.--_adj._ ANAL'OGOUS, having analogy: bearing
some correspondence with or resemblance to: similar in certain
circumstances or relations (with _to_).--_adv._ ANAL'OGOUSLY.--_ns._
ANAL'OGOUSNESS; AN'ALOGUE, a word or body bearing analogy to, or
resembling, another: (_biol._) a term used to denote physiological,
independent of morphological resemblance.--Organs are _analogous_ to one
another, or are _analogues_, when they perform the same function, though
they may be altogether different in structure; as the wings of a bird and
the wings of an insect. Again, organs are _homologous_, or _homologues_,
when they are constructed on the same plan, undergo a similar development,
and bear the same relative position, and this independent of either form or
function. Thus the arms of a man and the wings of a bird are homologues of
one another, while the wing of a bird and the wing of a bat are both
analogous and homologous. [Gr. _ana_, according to, and _logos_, ratio.]

ANALPHABETE, an-al'fa-b[=e]t, _n._ and _adj._ one who does not know his
alphabet, an illiterate.--_adj._ ANALPHABET'IC. [Gr. _an_, neg., and

ANALYSIS, an-al'is-is, _n._ a resolving or separating a thing into its
elements or component parts--the tracing of things to their source, and so
discovering the general principles underlying individual phenomena. Its
converse is _synthesis_, the explanation of certain phenomena by means of
principles which are for this purpose assumed as established. Analysis as
the resolution of our experience into its original elements, is an
artificial separation; while synthesis is an artificial reconstruction:
(_gram._) the arrangement into its logical and grammatical elements of a
sentence or part of a sentence:--_pl._ ANAL'YSES.--_adj._
ANALYS'ABLE.--_n._ ANALYS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ AN'ALYSE, to resolve a whole
into its elements: to separate into component parts.--_n._ AN'ALYST, one
skilled in analysis, esp. chemical analysis.--_adjs._ ANALYT'IC, -AL,
pertaining to analysis: resolving into first principles.--_adv._
ANALYT'ICALLY.--_n.pl._ ANALYT'ICS, the name given by Aristotle to his
treatises on logic.--ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY, geometry treated by means of
ordinary algebra, with a reference, direct or indirect, to a system of
co-ordinates; ANALYTIC METHOD (_logic_) proceeds regressively or
inductively to the recognition of general principles, as opposed to the
_Synthetic_ method, which advances from principles to particulars. [Gr.
_analysis_, _analy-ein_, to unloose, _ana_, up, _ly-ein_, to loose.]

ANAMNESIS, an-am-n[=e]s'is, _n._ the recalling of things past to memory:
the recollection of the Platonic pre-existence: the history of his illness
given by the patient to his physician. [Gr.]

ANAMORPHOSIS, an-a-mor'fo-sis, _n._ a figure, appearing from one view-point
irregular or deformed, but from another regular and in proportion: (_bot._)
a gradual transformation, or an abnormal development of any part.--_adj._
ANAMOR'PHOUS. [Gr.; _ana_, back, _morph[=o]sis_, a shaping--_morph[=e]_,

ANANAS, an-an'as, _n._ the pine-apple: the West Indian penguin.--Also
ANAN'A. [Peruvian.]

ANANDROUS, an-an'drus, _adj._ without stamens, or male organs, applied to
female flowers. [Gr. _an_, neg., and _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

ANANTHEROUS, an-an'th[.e]r-us, _adj._ without anthers. [Gr. _an_, neg., and

ANANTHOUS, an-an'thus, _adj._ without flowers. [Gr. _an_, neg., and
_anthos_, a flower.]

ANAPÆST, ANAPEST, an'a-pest, _n._ (in verse) a foot consisting of three
syllables, two short and the third long, or (in Eng.) two unaccented and
the third accented, as _colonnadé_--a familiar example of a poem in this
metre is Byron's _Destruction of Sennacherib_.--_adjs._ ANAPÆS'TIC, -AL.
[Gr. _anapaistos_, reversed, because it is the dactyl reversed.]

ANAPHORA, an'af-or-a, _n._ (_rhet._) the repetition of the same word or
phrase in several successive clauses, as in 1 Cor. i. 20. [Gr.; _ana_,
back, _pher-ein_, to bear.]

ANAPHRODISIAC, an-af-r[=o]-diz'i-ak, _adj._ and _n._ tending to diminish
sexual desire, or a drug supposed to have that effect. [Fr. _an_, neg., and
adj. from APHRODITE.]

ANAPLASTY, an'a-plas-ti, _n._ the reparation of superficial lesions by the
use of adjacent healthy tissue, as by transplanting a portion of
skin.--_adj._ AN'APLASTIC. [Gr.; that may be formed anew, _ana_, again,
_plass-ein_, to form.]

ANAPLEROSIS, an'a-pl[=e]-r[=o]'sis, _n._ the filling up of a deficiency,
esp. in medicine: the filling up of parts that have been destroyed, as in
wounds, cicatrices, &c.--_adj._ ANAPLEROT'IC. [Gr.; from _ana_, up, and
_pl[=e]ro-ein_, to fill up.]

ANAPTOTIC, an-ap-tot'ik, _adj._ (_philol._) again uninflected--a term
sometimes applied to languages which have lost most of their inflections
through phonetic decay. [Gr. _ana_, again, _apt[=o]tos_, without case,
indeclinable, _apt[=o]s_, _-[=o]tos_, not falling, _pipt-ein_, to fall.]

ANARCHY, an'ark-i, _n._ the want of government in a state: political
confusion: conflict of opinion.--_adjs._ ANARCH'AL (_rare_); ANARCH'IC,
ANARCH'ICAL.--_v.t._ ANARCH'ISE.--_ns._ AN'ARCHISM, anarchy: the negation
of government--the name adopted by a phase of revolutionary socialism
associated with the names of Proudhon and Bakunin. Their ideal of society
was of one without government of any kind, when every man should be a law
unto himself; AN'ARCHIST, AN'ARCH, one who promotes anarchy. [Gr. _a_,
_an_, neg., _arch[=e]_, government.]

ANARTHROUS, an-är'thrus, _adj._ without the article, of Greek nouns:
(_entom._) having neither wings nor legs.--_adv._ ANAR'THROUSLY. [Gr. _an_,
neg., _arthron_, a joint, the article.]

ANASTATIC, an-a-stat'ik, _adj._ furnished with characters standing up, or
raised in relief--esp. of the anastatic printing process, in which copies
of drawings are printed from fac-similes produced in relief on zinc plates.
[Gr. _anastatikos_--_ana_, up, _statikos_, causing to stand--_hist[=e]mi_,
to make to stand.]

ANASTOMOSIS, an-as-to-m[=o]'sis, _n._ the union or intercommunication of
vessels with each other, as seen in the junction of the branches of the
arteries.--_v.i._ ANAS'TOMOSE, to communicate in such a way.--_adj._

ANASTROPHE, an-as'tro-fi, _n._ an inversion of the natural order of words,
as 'Loud roared the thunder,' for 'The thunder roared,' &c. [Gr.; _ana_,
back, and _streph-ein_, to turn.]

ANATHEMA, an-ath'em-a, _n._ a solemn ecclesiastical curse or denunciation
involving excommunication: any person or thing anathematised: generally,
any imprecation or expression of execration.--_n._
ANATHEMATIS[=A]'TION--_v.t._ ANATH'EMATISE, to pronounce
accursed.--ANATHEMA MARAN[=A]THA, as in 1 Cor. xvi. 22; _maranatha_ (Syr.
_m[=a]ran eth[=a]_, 'our Lord hath come') is properly a mere solemn formula
of confirmation, like _Amen_, having no other connection with the
antecedent _anathema_--it is so printed in the Revised Version.--It seems
to have been used by the early Christians as a kind of watchword of mutual
encouragement and hope. So the words in 1 Cor. xvi. 22 are nearly
equivalent to the similar expressions in Phil. iv. 5; Rev. xxii. 20. [The
classical Gr. _anath[=e]ma_ meant a votive offering set up in a temple,
_ana_, up, _tithenai_, to place; the _anath[)e]ma_ of the Septuagint and
New Testament meant something specially devoted to evil, as in Rom. ix. 3.]

ANATOMY, an-a'tom-i, _n._ the art of dissecting any organised body: science
of the structure of the body learned by dissection: a skeleton, a
shrivelled and shrunken body, a mummy: (_fig._) the lifeless form or shadow
of anything: humorously for the body generally: the detailed analysis of
anything, as in Burton's famous treatise, _The Anatomy of
Melancholy_.--_adjs._ ANATOM'IC, -AL, relating to anatomy.--_adv._
ANATOM'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANAT'OMISE, to dissect a body: (_fig._) to lay open
minutely.--_n._ ANAT'OMIST, one skilled in anatomy. [Gr. _ana_, up,
asunder, _temnein_, to cut.]

ANATOPISM, an-at'op-izm, _n._ (_rare_--_Coleridge_) a faulty arrangement.
[Gr. _ana_, up, _topos_, a place.]

ANATTA, an-at'ta, _n._ the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds of the _Bixa
orellana_, a medium-sized tree growing in Guiana and elsewhere. It yields a
dye which gives a bright orange tint to cloth, and is much used to add
colour to butter and cheese.--Also ANAT'TO, ANNAT'TO, ARNOT'TO. [Supposed
to be a native Amer. word.]

ANBURY, an'b[.e]r-i, _n._ a disease in turnips, produced by one of the
slime-fungi, and usually the result of improper cultivation. It is often
confounded with _Finger-and-toe_ (_dactylorhiza_), which is rather a
degeneration of the plant than a disease, the bulb branching out into a
number of taproots, while the skin remains unbroken. Anbury causes a
scabbed and broken skin, and tubercular growths on the roots and at the
base of the bulb. [Often explained as a disguised form of A.S. _ampre_, a
crooked swelling vein; more probably, a variant of _anbury_ = _angberry_,
A.S. _ang-_, pain, as in _ang-nail_.]

ANCESTOR, an'ses-tur, _n._ one from whom a person has descended: a
forefather:--_fem._ AN'CESTRESS.--_adj._ ANCES'TRAL.--_ns._
AN'CESTOR-WOR'SHIP, the chief element in the religion of China and other
countries--erroneously supposed by Herbert Spencer to be the foundation of
all religion; AN'CESTRY, a line of ancestors: lineage. [O. Fr.
_ancestre_--L. _antecessor_--_ante_, before, _ced[)e]re_, _cessum_, to go.]


ANCHOR, ang'kor, _n._ an implement for retaining a ship in a particular
spot by temporarily chaining it to the bed of a sea or river. The most
common form has two flukes, one or other of which enters the ground, and so
gives hold; but many modifications are used, some with movable arms, some
self-canting.--Anchors are distinguished as the _starboard_ and _port
bowers_, _sheet_, _spare_, _stream_, _kedge_, and _grapnel_, or _boat
anchors_: (_fig._) anything that gives stability or security.--_v.t._ to
fix by an anchor: to fasten.--_v.i._ to cast anchor: to stop, or rest
on.--_ns._ ANCH'ORAGE, the act of anchoring: the place where a ship anchors
or can anchor: (_Shak._) the anchor and all the necessary tackle for
anchoring: a position affording support: (_fig._) anything that gives a
resting-place or support to the mind: duty imposed on ships for anchoring;
ANCH'OR-HOLD, the hold of an anchor upon the ground: (_fig._)
security.--_adj._ ANCH'ORLESS, without such: unstable.--_n._
MUSHROOM-ANCHOR, an anchor with a saucer-shaped head on a central shank,
used for mooring.--AT ANCHOR, anchored.--TO CAST ANCHOR, to let down the
anchor, to take up a position; TO WEIGH ANCHOR, to take up the anchor so as
to be able to sail away. [A.S. _ancor_--L. _ancora_--Gr. _angkyra_,
_angkos_, a bend. Conn. with ANGLE.]

ANCHORET, ang'kor-et, ANCHORITE, ang'kor-[=i]t, _n._ one who has withdrawn
from the world, especially for religious reasons: a hermit.--The form
ANACH'ORET occurs in many books on church history for the recluses of the
East in the early history of the church.--_ns._ ANCH'OR (_Shak._), an
anchorite--earlier still also an anchoress, as in the book-title _Ancren
Riwle_, the 'Rule of Nuns;' ANCH'ORAGE, the retreat of a hermit;
ANCH'ORESS, a female anchorite: a nun--also ANC'RESS, ANK'RESS,
_anach[=o]r[=e]t[=e]s_--_ana_, apart, _ch[=o]rein_, to go.]

ANCHOVY, an-ch[=o]'vi, _n._ a small fish of the herring family, much fished
in the Mediterranean for pickling, and for a sauce made from it,
anchovy-paste, &c.--_n._ ANCH[=O]'VY-PEAR, the fruit of a myrtaceous
Jamaica tree, pickled and eaten like the East Indian mango, which it much
resembles in taste. [Sp. and Port. _anchova_; Fr. _anchois_. Of doubtful
etymology. The Basque _anchoa_, _anchua_, has been connected with _antzua_,

ANCHYLOSIS, ANKYLOSIS, ang-k[=i]-l[=o]'sis, _n._ the coalescence of two
bones, or the union of the different parts of a bone: stiffness in a joint
through destruction of the articular cartilages, or a thickening and
shortening of the natural fibrous tissues around the joint. [Gr.;
_angkylos_, crooked.]

ANCIENT, [=a]n'shent, _adj._ old: belonging to former times, specifically,
of times prior to the downfall of the western Roman empire (476 A.D.): of
great age or duration: of past times in a general sense: venerable:
antique, old-fashioned.--_n._ an aged man, a patriarch: a superior in age
or dignity.--_adv._ AN'CIENTLY.--_ns._ AN'CIENTNESS; AN'CIENTRY,
ancientness, seniority: ancestry: dignity of birth: (_Shak._) old
people.--_n.pl._ AN'CIENTS, those who lived in remote times, esp. the
Greeks and Romans of classical times: (_B._) elders.--THE ANCIENT OF DAYS,
a title in the Holy Scriptures for the Almighty, applied by Byron to
Athens. [Fr. _ancien_--Low L. _antianus_, old--L. _ante_, before. See

ANCIENT, [=a]n'shent, _n._ (_obs._) a flag or its bearer: an ensign. [Corr.
of Fr. _enseigne_. See ENSIGN.]

ANCILLARY, an'sil-ar-i, _adj._ subservient, subordinate (with _to_). [L.
_ancilla_, a maid-servant.]

ANCIPITAL, an-sip'i-tal, _adj._ two-headed: double: doubtful: (_bot._)
two-edged and flattened.--Also ANCIP'ITOUS. [L. _anceps_, _ancipit-is_,
double--_an_ for _amb_, on both sides, and _caput_, the head.]

ANCOME, ang'kum, _n._ (_prov._--Scot. _income_) a small inflammatory
swelling, coming on suddenly. [Same as INCOME.]

AND, and, _conj._ signifies addition, or repetition, and is used to connect
words and sentences, to introduce a consequence, &c.--in M. E. (but not
A.S.) it was used for _if_, and often also with added _if_, as in Luke xii.
45. _An_ became common for _and_ in this sense, as often in
Shakespeare.--It sometimes expresses emphatically a difference in quality
between things of the same class, as 'there are friends ... _and_ friends.'
[A.S., and in the other Teut. lang.; prob. allied to L. _ante_, Gr. _anti_,
over against.]

ANDANTE, an-dan'te, _adj._ and _n._ (_mus._) moving with moderate and even
expression: a movement or piece composed in andante time.--_adj._
ANDANTI'NO, of a movement somewhat slower than andante, but sometimes
meaning 'with less of andante' = somewhat quicker.--ANDANTE AFFETTUOSO,
slow but pathetically; ANDANTE CANTABILE, slow, but in a singing style;
ANDANTE CON MOTO, slow, but with emotion; ANDANTE GRAZIOSO, slow, but
gracefully; ANDANTE MAESTOSO, slow, with majesty; ANDANTE NON TROPPO, slow,
but not too much so. [It.--pr.p. of _andare_, to go.]

ANDEAN, an-d[=e]'an, _adj._ of or like the Andes Mountains.


ANDIRON, and'[=i]-urn, _n._ the iron bars which support the ends of the
logs in a wood fire, or in which a spit turns. [O. Fr. _andier_ (Mod. Fr.
_landier_--_l'andier_); Low. L. _anderius_, _andena_; further ety. dubious,
perhaps ultimately cog. with END. The termination was early confused with
_iron_, hence the spellings _and-iron_, _hand-iron_.]

ANDROCEPHALOUS, an-dro-sef'a-lus, _adj._ having a human head, as a sphinx
or Assyrian bull. [Gr. _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man, _kephal[=e]_, a head.]

ANDROGYNOUS, an-droj'i-nus, _adj._ having the characteristics of both male
and female in one individual: hermaphrodite: (_bot._) having an
inflorescence of both male and female flowers--also ANDROG'YNAL
(_rare_).--_n._ ANDROG'YNY, hermaphroditism. [Gr.; _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a
man, and _gyn[=e]_, woman.]

ANDROID, an'droid, _n._ an automaton resembling a human being.--Also

ANDROMEDA, an-drom'e-da, _n._ a genus of shrubs of the heath family: the
name of a northern constellation. [_Andromeda_, in Greek mythology, a
maiden bound to a rock, and exposed to a sea-monster, but delivered by

ANE, [=a]n, or yin, Scotch form of ONE.

ANEAL, ANELE, an-[=e]l', _v.t._ to anoint with oil: to administer extreme
unction. [M. E. _anele_, from an A.S. verb compounded of A.S. _on_, on, and
_ele_, oil.]

ANEAR, a-n[=e]r', _adv._ nearly: near.--_prep._ near.--_v.t._ to approach,
to come near to.

ANECDOTE, an'ek-d[=o]t, _n._ an incident of private life: a short
story.--_n._ AN'ECDOTAGE, anecdotes collectively: garrulous old
age.--_adjs._ AN'ECDOTAL, ANECDOT'ICAL, in the form of an anecdote. [Gr.;
'not published'--_a_, _an_, neg., and _ekdotos_, published--_ek_, out, and
_didonai_, to give.]


ANELECTROTONUS, an'el-ek-trot'on-us, _n._ (_phys._) the diminished
excitability of a nerve near the anode of an electric current passing
through it.--_adj._ AN'ELEC'TRIC, parting readily with its
electricity.--_n._ a body which readily gives up its electricity.--_n._
ANELEC'TRODE, the positive pole of a galvanic battery.--_adj._
AN'ELECTROT'ONIC. [Gr. _an_, up, _elektron_, amber.]

ANEMOGRAPH, a-nem'[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for measuring and recording
the direction and velocity of the wind. [Gr. _anemos_, wind, _graphein_, to

ANEMOMETER, a-ne-mom'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
velocity or pressure of the wind.--_adj._ ANEMOMET'RIC.--_n._ ANEMOM'ETRY,
the measurement of the force or velocity of the wind. [Gr. _anemos_, wind,
and METER.]

ANEMONE, a-nem'o-ne, _n._ a plant of the crowfoot family.--_n._
SEA'-ANEM'ONE, a popular name of Actinia and some allied genera of
Actinoza. [Gr. _anem[=o]ne_, said to be from _anemos_, wind, because some
of the species love exposed and wind-swept situations.]

AN-END, an-end', _prep. phrase_, to the end, continuously: upright.--MOST
AN-END, almost always.

ANENT, a-nent', _prep._ and _adv._ in a line with: against: towards: in
regard to, concerning, about. [Mainly prov. Eng. and Scot., M.E.
_anent_--A.S. _on-_ _efen_, 'on even with' (dat.).]

ANEROID, an'e-roid, _adj._ denoting a barometer by which the pressure of
the air is measured without the use of quicksilver or other fluid.--_n._ a
contr. of 'aneroid barometer.' [Fr.--Gr. _a_, neg., _n[=e]ros_, wet.]

ANEURISM, an'[=u]r-izm, _n._ a soft tumour arising from the dilatation of
an artery acting on a part weakened by disease or injury: (_fig._) any
abnormal enlargement--_adjs._ AN'EURISMAL, AN'EURISMATIC. [Gr.
_aneurysma_--_ana_, up, _eurys_, wide.]

ANEW, a-n[=u]', _adv._ afresh: again. [OF and NEW.]

ANFRACTUOUS, an-fract-[=u]'us, _adj._ winding, involved, circuitous.--_n._
ANFRACTUOS'ITY. [L. _anfractuösus_, _anfract-us_.]

ANGEL, [=a]n'jel, _n._ a divine messenger: a ministering spirit: an
attendant or guardian spirit: a person possessing the qualities attributed
to such--gentleness, purity, &c.: one supposed to have a special
commission, as the head of the Church in Rev. ii. and iii., or the _angel_
of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, who corresponds in a limited sense to
the bishop of other Christian denominations: (_poet._) a messenger
generally: in art, the conventional figure attributed to the angel--a
figure of great beauty, youthful, clothed in flowing garments, with wings:
an old Eng. coin = 10s., bearing the figure of an angel.--_n._ AN'GEL-FISH,
a voracious fish, allied to the shark, from six to eight feet long, with
large, wing-like pectoral fins.--_adjs._ ANGEL'IC (an-),
ANGEL'ICAL.--_adv._ ANGEL'ICALLY.--_ns._ ANGELOL'ATRY ([=a]n-),
angel-worship; ANGELOL'OGY, the doctrine regarding angels; ANGELOPH'ANY,
the manifestation of an angel to man. [Gr. _angelos_, a messenger.]

ANGELICA, an-jel'i-ka, _n._ a genus of umbelliferous plants, the roots and
seeds of some species of which are used in making gin, bitters, &c.--the
tender stalks and midribs of the leaves are candied and used as a
confection: confections.--_n._ AN'GEL-WAT'ER, a perfumed liquid, at first
made largely from angelica, then from ambergris, rose-water, orange-flower
water, &c. [From their supposed magical properties.]

ANGELUS, an'je-lus, _n._ the 'Hail, Mary,' or prayer to the Virgin,
containing the angelic salutation: the bell rung in Roman Catholic
countries at morning, noon, and sunset, to invite the faithful to recite
the Angelic Salutation. [From its first words, _'Angelus_ domini nuntiavit

ANGER, ang'ger, _n._ a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury,
and involving a desire for retaliation.--_v.t._ to make angry: to
irritate.--_adj._ AN'GERLESS.--_advs._ AN'GERLY, a 17th-cent. form (still
used in an archaic sense) for ANGRILY; ANG'RILY.--_n._ ANG'RINESS.--_adj._
ANG'RY, excited with anger: inflamed: lowering. [Ice. _angr_; allied to

ANGEVIN, an'je-vin, _adj._ pertaining to Anjou: relating to the Plantagenet
house that reigned in England from 1154 to 1485, its first king, Henry II.,
being son of Geoffrey V., Count of Anjou, and Matilda, daughter of Henry I.
of England. By some the term Angevin is only allowed until the loss of
Anjou under John (1204); by others, till the deposition of Richard II. in

ANGINA, an-j[=i]'na, _n._ any inflammatory affection of the throat, as
quinsy, croup, &c.: usually in medical phraseology with adjective, as
_Angina rheumatica_ = rheumatic sore throat.--ANGINA PECTORIS, a disease of
the heart marked by paroxysms of intense pain, beginning at the breastbone
and radiating thence mainly towards the left shoulder and arm. [L.
_ang[)i]na_. See ANGUISH.]

ANGIOCARPOUS, an-ji-[=o]-kar'pus, _adj._ having the fruit in an envelope
distinct from the calyx. [Gr. _angeion_, a case, _karpos_, fruit.]

ANGIOSPERM, an'ji-o-sperm, _n._ a plant whose ovules or future seeds are
enclosed in a closed ovary, and fertilised through the medium of a stigma,
while in _Gymnosperms_ the ovule is naked, and the pollen is applied
directly to its surface.--_adjs._ ANGIOSPERM'OUS, ANGIOSPERM'AL,


ANGLE, ang'gl, _n._ a corner: the point where two lines meet: (_geom._) the
inclination of two straight lines which meet, but are not in the same
straight line: any outlying corner or nook.--_adj._ ANG'ULAR, having an
angle or corner: (_fig._) stiff in manner: the opposite of easy or
graceful: bony and lean in figure.--_n._ ANGULAR'ITY.--_adj._ ANG'ULATED,
formed with angles. [Fr.--L. _angulus_; cog. with Gr. _angkylos_; both from
root _ank_, to bend, seen also in ANCHOR, ANKLE.]

ANGLE, ang'gl, _n._ a hook or bend: a fishing-rod with line and
hook.--_v.i._ to fish with an angle.--_v.t._ to entice: to try to gain by
some artifice.--_ns._ ANG'LER, one who fishes with an angle: a voracious
fish about three feet long, not uncommon on British shores, and called also
the _Fishing-frog_, the _Sea-devil_, and by the Scotch, _Wide-gab_;
ANG'LING, the art or practice of fishing with a rod and line. [A.S.
_angel_, a hook, allied to ANCHOR.]

ANGLES, ang'glz, _n.pl._ the Low German stock that settled in Northumbria,
Mercia, and East Anglia.

ANGLICAN, ang'glik-an, _adj._ English: belonging to, or characteristic of,
the Church of England.--_n._ ANG'LICANISM, attachment to English
institutions, esp. the English Church: the principles of the English
Church.--_v.t._ ANG'LICISE, to express in English idiom.--_n._ ANG'LICISM,
an English idiom or peculiarity of language.--_v.t._ ANG'LIFY, to make

ANGLO-, ang'glo, _pfx._ English--used in composition, as _Anglo_-Saxon,
&c.--_ns._ ANG'LO-CATH'OLIC, one who calls himself a Catholic of the
Anglican pattern, refusing the name of 'Protestant;' used adjectively, as
in 'Anglo-Catholic Library;' ANG'LO-CATHO'LICISM.--_adj._ and _n._
ANG'LO-SAX'ON, applied to the earliest form of the English language--the
term Old English is now preferred. Properly it should have referred only to
the Saxons of Wessex, Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex, as distinct from the
an opinion held by not a few well-meaning persons, innocent of scientific
ethnology, that the English are descended from the Israelites who were
carried into captivity by the Assyrians under Sargon in 721 B.C.

ANGLOMANIA, ang'glo-m[=a]n'i-a, _n._ a mania for what is English: an
indiscriminate admiration of English institutions.--_ns._ ANG'LOMAN
(_rare_), ANG'LOM[=A]N'IAC.

ANGLOPHOBIA, ang-gl[=o]-f[=o]'bi-a, _n._ fear and dislike of
England.--_ns._ AN'GLOPHOBE, ANGLOPH[=O]'BIST.--_adj._ ANGLOPH[=O]'BIC.
[Fr. _Anglophobe_--L. _Anglo-_, English, Gr. _phobein_, to fear.]

ANGORA, ang-g[=o]'ra, _n._ cloth made from the wool of the Angora
goat.--ANGORA WOOL, the long white silky hair of the Angora goat, highly
valued in manufactures. [_Angora_, a city of Asia Minor, famous for its
breed of goats.]

ANGOSTURA, ang-gos-t[=oo]'ra, _n._ a town of Venezuela, on the Orinoco
(renamed Ciudad Bolivar in 1819), giving its name to an aromatic bitter
bark, valuable as a febrifuge and tonic.--ANGOSTURA BITTERS is an essence
containing angostura, canella, cinchona, lemon peel, and other aromatics,
but much of what is sold under that name contains no angostura, but
consists mainly of cheretta or other simple tonic.


ANGUINE, ang'gw[=i]n, _adj._ of or like a snake. [L. _anguis_, _anguin-is_,
a snake.]

ANGUISH, ang'gwish, _n._ excessive pain of body or mind: agony.--_n._
ANG'UISHMENT. [O. Fr. _angoisse_--L. _angustia_, a strait,
straitness--_ang-u-[)e]re_, to press tightly: to strangle. See ANGER.]

ANHARMONIC, an-har-mon'ik, _adj._ not harmonic: in geometry, a term applied
to the section of a line by four points, A, B, C, D, when their mutual
distances are such that AB divided by CB is unequal to AD divided by CD;
the ratio between these two quotients being called the _anharmonic_ ratio
of AC.

ANHELATION, an-he-l[=a]'shun, _n._ difficult respiration: shortness of
breath. [L. _anhelatio_--_anhel[=a]re_, from _an_, for _amb_, around, and
_hal-[=a]re_, to breathe.]


ANHYDROUS, an-h[=i]'drus, _adj._ a term applied to a chemical substance
free from water.--_n.pl._ ANHY'DRIDES, a term now commonly given to the
compounds formerly known as anhydrous acids--in some cases the result of
the dehydration of acids, and in all cases representing in their
composition the acid _minus_ water.--_n._ ANHY'DRITE, a mineral consisting
of anhydrous sulphate of lime, with some slight addition of sea-salt,
appearing in several varieties--granular, fibrous, radiated and
translucent, compact and of various shades--white, blue, gray, red. [Gr.
_a_, _an_, neg., _hyd[=o]r_, water.]

ANIGHT, a-n[=i]t', _adv._ (_Shak._) of nights, at night. [OF and NIGHT.]

ANIL, an'il, _n._ a plant from whose leaves and stalks indigo is made. [Sp.
_anil_; Ar. _an-nil_ for _al-nil_, the indigo plant.]

ANILE, an'[=i]l, _adj._ old womanish: imbecile.--_n._ ANIL'ITY, imbecile
dotage. [L. _anus_, an old woman.]

ANILINE, an'il-in, _n._ a product of coal-tar extensively used in dyeing
and other industrial arts. [Port. _anil_, indigo, from which it was first

ANIMADVERT, an-im-ad-v[.e]rt', _v.i._ to criticise or censure.--_n._
ANIMADVER'SION, criticism, censure, or reproof. [L., to turn the mind
to--_animus_, the mind, _ad_, to, and _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

ANIMAL, an'im-al, _n._ an organised being, having life, sensation, and
voluntary motion--it is distinguished from a plant, which is organised and
has life, but not sensation or voluntary motion: the name sometimes implies
the absence of the higher faculties peculiar to man.--_adj._ of or
belonging to animals: sensual.--_n._ ANIMALIS[=A]'TION, the act of
converting into animal substance, or of endowing with animal attributes:
brutalisation.--_v.t._ AN'IMALISE, to endow with animal life: to convert
into animal matter:--_pr.p._ an'imal[=i]sing; _pa.p._ an'imal[=i]sed.--_n._
AN'IMALISM, the state of being actuated by animal appetites only: the
exercise or enjoyment of animal life, as distinct from intellectual:
brutishness: sensuality: (_rare_) a mere animal being.--_adv._ AN'IMALLY,
physically merely.--ANIMAL SPIRITS, nervous force: exuberance of health and
life: cheerful buoyancy of temper: (_Milton_) the spirit or principle of
volition and sensation. [L.--_anima_, air, life, Gr. _anemos_,
wind--_a[=o]_, _a[=e]mi_, Sans. _an_, to breathe, to blow.]

ANIMALCULE, an-im-al'k[=u]l, _n._ a small animal, esp. one that cannot be
seen by the naked eye:--_pl._ ANIMAL'CULES, ANIMAL'CULA.--_adj._
ANIMAL'CULAR. [L. _animalculum_, dim. of ANIMAL.]

ANIMATE, an'im-[=a]t, _v.t._ to give life to: to enliven or inspirit: to
actuate.--_adj._ living: possessing animal life.--_adj._ AN'IMATED, lively:
full of spirit: endowed with life.--_adv._ ANIMAT'EDLY.--_p.adj._
AN'IMATING.--_adv._ ANIMAT'INGLY.--_ns._ ANIM[=A]'TION, liveliness: vigour;
AN'IMATOR, he who, or that which, animates. [See ANIMAL.]

ANIME, an'im, _n._ the resin of the West Indian locust-tree--used also for
other gums and resins. [Said to be Fr. _animé_, living, from the number of
insects in it; but perhaps a native name.]

ANIMISM, an'im-izm, _n._ a theory which regards the belief in separate
spiritual existences as the germ of religious ideas. It is adopted by E. B.
Tylor in his _Primitive Culture_ as the minimum definition of religion,
being considered to have arisen simply from the evidence of the senses,
interpreted by the crude and child-like science of the savage: the theory
of Stahl, which regarded the vital principle and the soul as
identical.--_n._ AN'IMIST.--_adj._ AN'IMISTIC. [L. _anima_, the soul.]

ANIMOSITY, an-im-os'i-ti, _n._ bitter hatred: enmity. [L. _animositas_,
fullness of spirit.]

ANIMUS, an'im-us, _n._ intention: actuating spirit: prejudice against. [L.
_animus_, spirit, soul, as distinguished from _anima_, the mere life.]

ANISE, an'is, _n._ an umbelliferous plant, the aromatic seeds of which are
used in making cordials. The anise of Matt. xxiii. 23 (Gr. _an[=e]thon_) is
properly the dill.--_ns._ AN'ISEED; ANISETTE', a cordial or liqueur
prepared from anise seed. [Gr. _anison_.]

ANKER, angk'[.e]r, _n._ a liquid measure used in Northern Europe, formerly
in England, varying considerably--that of Rotterdam having a capacity of 10
old wine gallons, or 8-1/3 imperial gallons. [Dut.]

ANKLE, ANCLE, angk'l, _n._ the joint connecting the foot and leg.--_adj._
ANK'LED, having, or pertaining to ankles.--_n._ ANK'LET, an ornament for
the ankle. [A.S. _ancléow_, cog. with Ger. _enkel_, and conn. with ANGLE.]


ANLACE, ANELACE, an'l[=a]s, _n._ a short two-edged knife or dagger,
tapering to a point, formerly worn at the girdle. [Low L. _anelacius_;
perh. the old Welsh _anglas_.]

ANNA, an'a, _n._ an Indian coin worth nominally 1½d sterling, but always
the sixteenth part of a rupee. [Hind. _[=a]n[=a]_.]

ANNALS, an'alz, _n.pl._ records of events under the years in which they
happened: any historical work that follows the order of time in its
narrations, separating them off into single years, as the _Annals_ of
Tacitus: historical records generally: year-books.--_v.t._ ANN'ALISE, to
write annals: to record.--_n._ ANN'ALIST, a writer of annals. [L.
_annales_--_annus_, a year.]

ANNAT, an'at, ANNATE, an'[=a]t, _n._ the first-fruits, or one year's
income, or a specified portion of such, paid to the Pope by a bishop,
abbot, or other ecclesiastic, on his appointment to a new see or benefice.
It was abolished in England in 1534, and next year the right was annexed to
the crown, the fund thus arising being administered for the benefit of the
Church of England, afterwards transferred to the governors of Queen Anne's
Bounty, next to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: (_Scots law_) the
half-year's stipend payable for the vacant half-year after the death of a
parish minister, to which his family or nearest of kin have right under an
act of 1672. [Low L. _annata_--L. _annus_, a year.]


ANNEAL, an-[=e]l', _v.t._ to temper glass or metals by subjecting them to
great heat and gradual cooling: to heat in order to fix colours on, as
glass.--_n._ ANNEAL'ING. [Pfx. _an-_, and A.S. _ælan_, to burn.]

ANNELIDA, an-el'i-da, _n._ a class of animals comprising the red-blooded
worms, having a long body composed of numerous rings.--_n._ ANN'ELID. [L.
_annellus_, dim. of _annulus_, a ring.]

ANNEX, an-neks', _v.t._ to add to the end: to join or attach: to take
permanent possession of additional territory: to affix: append (with
_to_).--_n._ something added: a supplementary building--often with the Fr.
spelling _annexe_.--_n._ ANNEX[=A]'TION, act of annexing.--_n._ and _adj._
ANNEX[=A]'TIONIST.--_ns._ ANNEX'ION, ANNEX'MENT (_Shak._), addition: the
thing annexed. [Fr. _annexer_--L. _annex-um_, _annect[)e]re_: _ad_, to,
_nect-[)e]re_, to tie.]

ANNIHILATE, an-n[=i]'hil-[=a]t, _v.t._ to reduce to nothing: to put out of
existence: to render null and void, to abrogate.--_ns._ ANNIHIL[=A]'TION,
state of being reduced to nothing: act of destroying: (_theol._) the
destruction of soul as well as body; ANNIHIL[=A]'TIONISM, the belief that
the soul dies with the body.--_adj._ ANNIHIL[=A]'TIVE.--_n._
ANNIHIL[=A]'TOR, one who annihilates. [L. _annihilatus_, _annihil[=a]re_;
_ad_, to, _nihil_, nothing.]

ANNIVERSARY, an-ni-v[.e]rs'ar-i, _adj._ returning or happening every year:
annual.--_n._ the day of the year on which an event happened or is
celebrated: the celebration proper to such, esp. a mass or religious
service. [L. _anniversarius_; _annus_, a year, and _vert[)e]re_, _versum_,
to turn.]

ANNOTATE, an'not-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make notes upon.--_ns._ AN'NOTATION, a
note of explanation: comment; AN'NOTATOR, a writer of notes, a commentator.
[L. _annot[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _not[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to mark.]

ANNOUNCE, an-nowns', _v.t._ to declare: to give public notice of: to make
known.--_n._ ANNOUNCE'MENT. [O. Fr. _anoncer_--L. _annunti[=a]re_--_ad_,
to, _nunti_, _-[=a]re_, to deliver news.]

ANNOY, an-noi', _v.t._ to trouble: to vex: to tease: to harm, esp. in
military sense:--_pr.p._ annoy'ing; _pa.p._ annoyed'.--_ns._ ANNOY (now
poetic only), ANNOY'ANCE, that which annoys.--_adv._ ANNOY'INGLY. [O. Fr.
_anoier_ (It. _annoiare_); noun, _anoi_ (mod. _ennui_), acc. to Diez from
L. phrase, _in odio_, as in 'est mihi _in odio_' = 'it is to me hateful.']

ANNUAL, an'n[=u]-al, _adj._ yearly: coming every year: requiring to be
renewed every year: performed in a year.--_n._ a plant that lives out one
year: a book published yearly, esp. applied to the sumptuous books, usually
illustrated with good engravings, much in demand in the first half of the
19th century for Christmas, New Year, and birthday presents.--_adv._
AN'NUALLY. [Through Fr. from L. _annualis_--_annus_, a year.]

ANNUITY, an-n[=u]'i-ti, _n._ a payment generally (but not necessarily) of
uniform amount falling due in each year during a given term, such as a
period of years or the life of an individual, the capital sum not being
returnable.--_n._ ANN[=U]'ITANT, one who receives an annuity.--CERTAIN
ANNUITY, one for a fixed term of years, subject to no contingency whatever;
CONTINGENT ANNUITY, one that depends also on the continuance of some
status, as the life of a person whose duration is calculated by the theory
of probabilities. An annuity is usually held payable to the end of each
year survived; but when, in addition, a proportion of the year's annuity is
payable up to the day of death, the annuity is said to be COMPLETE--the
ordinary annuity being sometimes, for distinction, referred to as a CURTATE
ANNUITY. When the first payment is due in advance, the annuity is known as
an ANNUITY DUE; when the first payment is not to be made until the expiry
of a certain number of years, it is called a DEFERRED or REVERSIONARY

ANNUL, an-nul', _v.t._ to make null, to reduce to nothing: to
abolish:--_pr.p._ annul'ling; _pa.p._ annulled'.--_n._ ANNUL'MENT, the act
of annulling. [Fr. _annuler_--Low L. _annull[=a]-re_, to make into
nothing--L. _ad-_, to, _nullus_, none.]

ANNULAR, an'n[=u]l-ar, _adj._ ring-shaped.--_adjs._ AN'NULATE, AN'NULATED,
formed or divided into rings.--_ns._ ANNUL[=A]'TION, a ring or belt: a
circular formation; AN'NULET, a little ring: (_archit._) a small flat
fillet, encircling a column, &c., used either by itself or in connection
with other mouldings: (_her._) a little circle borne as a charge on coats
of arms.--_adj._ AN'NULOSE, having rings: composed of rings. [L.
_annularis_; _annulus_ or _anulus_, a ring--dim. of _anus_, a rounding or

ANNUNCIATION, an-nun-si-[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of announcing.--_v.t._
ANNUN'CIATE, to proclaim.--_n._ ANNUNCI[=A]'TION-DAY, the anniversary of
the Angel's salutation to the Virgin Mary, the 25th of March, Lady-day.

ANODE, an'[=o]d, _n._ a term in electrolysis introduced by Faraday to
designate the positive pole, or that surface by which the galvanic current
enters the body undergoing decomposition (_electrolyte_)--as opp. to
_Cathode_, the negative pole. [Gr. _ana_, up, _hodos_, way.]

ANODYNE, an'o-d[=i]n, _n._ a medicine that allays pain, whether acting on
the nerves and nerve terminations (aconite, belladonna, cocaine), on the
brain (chloral, Indian hemp), or on all these parts (opium, bromide of
potassium). [Gr.; _a_, _an_, neg., and _odyn[=e]_, pain.]

ANOINT, an-oint', _v.t._ to smear with ointment or oil: to consecrate with
oil.--_n._ ANOINT'MENT, the act of anointing or state of being
anointed.--THE ANOINTED, the Messiah. [= _an_+_oint_. See OINTMENT.]

ANOMALY, an-om'al-i, _n._ irregularity: deviation from rule: (_astron._)
the angle measured at the sun between a planet in any point of its orbit
and the last perihelion.--_adjs._ ANOMALIST'IC, -AL, anomalous: departing
from established rules: irregular.--_n._ ANOM'ALITE, an irregular
mineral.--_adj._ ANOM'ALOUS, irregular: deviating from rule.--ANOMALISTIC
YEAR, the interval that elapses between two successive passages of the
earth through its perihelion, or point of nearest approach to the sun = 365
days 6 hr. 13 min. 49 sec., being 4 min. 39 sec. longer than the sidereal
year. [Gr. _an[=o]malos_--_a_, _an_, neg., and _homalos_, even--_homos_,

ANON, an-on', _adv._ in one (instant): immediately.

ANONYMOUS, an-on'im-us, _adj._ wanting a name: not having the name of the
author, as distinguished from _pseudonymous_, when another than his real
name has been given.--_ns._ AN'ONYM, a person whose name is not given: a
pseudonym; ANONYM'ITY, the quality or state of being anonymous.--_adv._
ANON'YMOUSLY. [Gr. _an[=o]nymos_--_a_, _an_, neg., and _onoma_, name.]

ANOTHER, an-u_th_'[.e]r, _adj._ not the same: a different or distinct
(thing or person): one more: a second: one more of the same kind: any
other.--ONE ANOTHER, now used as a compound reciprocal pronoun (of two or
more); ONE WITH ANOTHER, taken all together, taken on the average.--YOU'RE
ANOTHER, the vulgar _Tu quoque_. [Orig. _an other_.]

ANSERINE, an's[.e]r-[=i]n, or -in, _adj._ relating to the goose or
goose-tribe: stupid, silly. [L. _anserinus_, _anser_.]

ANSWER, an's[.e]r, _v.t._ to reply to: to satisfy or solve: to repay: to
suit: to suffer the consequences of.--_v.i._ to reply: to reply favourably:
to act in conformity with, as 'to answer the helm:' to be accountable for
(with _for_): to correspond: to be advantageous to: to turn out well.--_n._
a reply: a solution.--_adj._ AN'SWERABLE, able to be answered: accountable:
suitable: equivalent: proportional (with _to_).--_adv._ AN'SWERABLY.--_n._
AN'SWERER.--_adv._ AN'SWERLESS. [A.S. _andswar-ian_--_andswaru_; _and-_,
against, _swerian_, to swear.]

ANT, ant, _n._ a small insect: the emmet or pismire.--_ns._ ANT'-BEAR, one
of the largest species of the ant-eaters, found in the swampy regions in
Central and Southern America, also called the _Great Ant-eater_; ANT'-COW
(see APHIDES); ANT'-EAT'ER, a genus of edentate South American quadrupeds,
feeding on insects, and chiefly on ants, which they procure by means of
their very long cylindrical tongue covered with a viscid saliva; ANT'-HILL,
the hillock raised by ants to form their nest: also figuratively applied,
as to the earth; ANT'-THRUSH, a general name applied to birds of tropical
and sub-tropical countries which feed to a large extent on ants. [A contr.
of EMMET--A.S. _æmete_.]

AN'T, a contr. of _aren't_, _are not_; colloquial for _am not_, _is not_,
_has not_.--AN'T = _on't_, _on it_ (_Shak._).

ANTACID, ant-as'id, _n._ a medicine which counteracts acidity.--_adj._
possessing such quality. [Gr. _anti_, against, and ACID.]

ANTAGONISM, ant-ag'on-izm, _n._ a contending or struggling against:
opposition (with _to_, and also _with_).--_n._ ANTAGONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
ANTAG'ONISE, to struggle violently against: to counteract the action of an
opposite muscle.--_p.adj._ ANTAG'ONISED, made antagonistic, opposed beyond
hope of reconciliation.--_n._ ANTAG'ONIST, one who contends or struggles
with another: an opponent.--_adjs._ ANTAG'ONIST, ANTAGONIST'IC, contending
against: opposed to.--_adv._ ANTAGONIS'TICALLY. [Gr. _anti_,
against--_ag[=o]n_, contest. See AGONY.]

ANTALKALI, ant-al'ka-li, _n._ anything that counteracts the action of an
alkali. [_Ant-_ and ALKALI.]

ANTARCTIC, ant-ärkt'ik, _adj._ opposite the Arctic: relating to the south
pole or to south polar regions.--_adj._ ANTARCT'ICAL.--_adv._
ANTARCT'ICALLY (_obs._). [Gr. _anti_, opposite, and ARCTIC.]

ANTARTHRITIC, ant-ar-thrit'ik, _adj._ counteracting gout. [Gr. _anti_,
against, and ARTHRITIC.]

ANTASTHMATIC, ant-ast-mat'ik, _adj._ counteracting asthma. [Gr. _anti_,
against, and ASTHMATIC.]

ANTECEDENT, an-te-s[=e]d'ent, _adj._ going before in time: prior.--_n._
that which precedes in time: (_gram._) the noun or pronoun to which a
relative pronoun refers: (_logic_) a statement or proposition from which
another is logically deduced: (_math._) the antecedent of a ratio is the
first of two terms which compose the ratio--the first and third in a series
of four proportionals: (_pl._) previous principles, conduct, history,
&c.--_n._ ANTECED'ENCE.--_adv._ ANTECED'ENTLY. [L. _antecedent-em_; _ante_,
before, _ced[)e]re_, _cessum_, to go.]

ANTECESSOR, an-te-ses'sor, _n._ (_rare_) a predecessor.

ANTECHAMBER, an'te-ch[=a]m-b[.e]r, _n._ a chamber or room leading to the
chief apartment. [Fr. _anti-chambre_, _ante-chambre_.]

ANTECHAPEL, an'te-cha-pl, _n._ the outer part of the west end of a college
chapel. [L. _ante_, before, and CHAPEL.]

ANTEDATE, an'te-d[=a]t, _n._ a date assigned which is earlier than the
actual date.--_v.t._ to date before the true time: to assign an event to an
earlier date: to bring about at an earlier date: to be of previous date: to
accelerate: to anticipate. [L. _ante_, before, and DATE.]

ANTEDILUVIAN, -AL, an-te-di-l[=u]'vi-an, -al, _adj._ existing or happening
before the Deluge or Flood: resembling the state of things before the
Flood: very old-fashioned, primitive.--_adv._ ANTEDIL[=U]'VIALLY.--_n._
ANTEDIL[=U]'VIAN, one who lived before the Flood: one who lives to be very
old. [See DELUGE.]

ANTEFIX, an'te-fiks, _n._ (usually in _pl._) term in ancient architecture,
used of the ornamental tiles placed on the eaves of buildings to conceal
the ends of the common or roofing tiles:--_pl._ AN'TEFIXES,
AN'TEFIXA.--_adj._ AN'TEFIXAL. [L. _ante_, before, in front, and _fixum_,
_fig[)e]re_, to fix.]

ANTELOPE, an'te-l[=o]p, _n._ a quadruped belonging to the hollow-horned
section of the order of Ruminants, differing from the goat in its beardless
chin--a gregarious, peaceable animal, remarkable for grace, agility, and
swiftness. [O. Fr. _antelop_--L. _antalopus_--Gr. _antholops_, of which the
origin is uncertain, perhaps from Gr. _anthein_, to blossom, shine, and
_[=o]ps_, eye, and thus equivalent to 'bright-eyes.']

ANTELUCAN, an-te-l[=oo]'kan, _adj._ before dawn or daylight. [L.
_antelucanus_--_ante_, before, _lux_, _luc-is_, light.]

ANTEMERIDIAN, an-te-me-ri'di-an, _adj._ before midday or noon. [See

ANTEMUNDANE, an-te-mun'd[=a]n, _adj._ before the existence or creation of
the world. [L. _ante_, before, and MUNDANE.]

ANTENATAL, an-te-n[=a]'tal, _adj._ existing before birth.--_n._
AN'TE-NA'TI, those born before a certain time, as opposed to _Post'-na'ti_,
those born after it--of Scotsmen born before 1603, and Americans before the
Declaration of Independence (1776). [L. _ante_, before, and NATAL.]

ANTE-NICENE, an'te-n[=i]'s[=e]n, _adj._ before the first general council of
the Christian Church held at Nice or Nicæa in Bithynia, 325 A.D.

ANTENNÆ, an-ten'[=e], _n.pl._ the feelers or horns of insects, crustaceans,
and myriopods.--_adjs._ ANTENN'AL, ANTENN'ARY, ANTENN'IFORM,
ANTENNIF'EROUS. [L. _antenna_, a sailyard, the L. translation of
Aristotle's _keraiai_, horns of insects, a word also used of the projecting
ends of sailyards.]

ANTENUPTIAL, an-te-nupsh'al, _adj._ before nuptials or marriage. [L.
_ante_, before, and NUPTIAL.]

ANTEORBITAL, an-te-or'bit-al, _adj._ situated in front of the eyes. [L.
_ante_, before, and ORBIT, eye-socket.]

ANTEPASCHAL, an-te-pas'kal, _adj._ relating to the time before Easter. [L.
_ante_, before, and PASCHAL.]

ANTEPAST, an'te-past, _n._ (_obs._) something to whet the appetite: a
foretaste. [L. _ante_, before, and _pastum_, _pasc[)e]re_, to feed.]

ANTEPENDIUM, an-te-pend'i-um, _n._ a frontlet, forecloth, frontal, or
covering for an altar, of silk, satin, or velvet, often richly embroidered.
[L. _ante_, before, and _pend-[)e]re_, to hang.]

ANTEPENULT, an-te-pen'ult, _n._ the syllable before the penult or next
ultimate syllable of a word: the last syllable of a word but two.--_adj._
ANTEPENULT'IMATE. [L. _ante_, before, and PENULT.]

ANTEPRANDIAL, an-te-prand'i-al, _adj._ before dinner. [L. _ante_, before,
and _prandium_, dinner.]

ANTERIOR, an-t[=e]'ri-or, _adj._ before, in time or place: in front.--_ns._
ANTERIOR'ITY, ANT[=E]'RIORNESS.--_adv._ ANT[=E]'RIORLY. [L.; comp. of
_ante_, before.]

ANTEROOM, an'te-r[=oo]m, _n._ a room before another: a room leading into a
principal apartment. [L. _ante_, before, and ROOM.]

ANTEVENIENT, an-te-v[=e]'ni-ent, _adj._ coming before, preceding. [L.
_antevenient-em_; _ante_, before, _ven-[=i]re_, to come.]

ANTHELION, ant-h[=e]l'yun, _n._ a luminous coloured ring observed by a
spectator on a cloud or fog-bank over against the sun:--_pl._ ANTHEL'IA.
[Gr. _anti_, opposite, _h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

ANTHELMINTIC, an-thel-mint'ik, _adj._ destroying or expelling worms. [Gr.
_anti_, against, and _helmins_, _helminthos_, a worm.]

ANTHEM, an'them, _n._ a piece of sacred music sung in alternate parts: a
piece of sacred music set to a passage from Scripture: any song of praise
or gladness.--_v.t._ to praise in an anthem.--_adv._ AN'THEMWISE. [A.S.
_antefn_--Gr. _antiph[=on]a_--_anti_, in return, _ph[=o]ne_, the voice. See


ANTHER, an'th[.e]r, _n._ the top of the stamen in a flower which contains
the pollen or fertilising dust.--_adjs._ AN'THERAL; ANTHERIF'EROUS, bearing
anthers; ANTH'EROID, resembling an anther. [L. _anthera_, which meant a
medicine extracted from flowers, and consisting esp. of the internal organs
of flowers--Gr. _anth[=e]ros_, flowery--_anthos_, a flower.]

ANTHERIDIUM, an-ther-id'i-um, _n._ the male reproductive organs of many
cryptogams, as ferns, horse-tails, mosses, &c. [L. _anthera_, and _-idium_,
Gr. dim. ending.]

ANTHEROZOOID, an-ther-o-z[=o]'oid, _n._ a minute moving body in the
antheridia of cryptogams. [L. _anthera_, and _zooid_--Gr. _z[=oo]eid[=e]s_,
like an animal--_z[=o]on_, animal, and _eidos_, shape.]

ANTHOCARPOUS, an-tho-kär'pus, _adj._ (_bot._) bearing fruit resulting from
many flowers, as the pine-apple. [From Gr. _anthos_, a flower, _karpos_,

ANTHOID, an'thoid, _adj._ flower-like. [Gr. _anthos_, a flower, and
_-eid[=e]s_, like.]

ANTHOLITE, an'tho-l[=i]t, _n._ a flower turned into stone, a fossil flower.
[Gr. _anthos_, a flower, _lithos_, stone.]

ANTHOLOGY, an-thol'oj-i, _n._ (_lit._) a gathering or collection of
flowers: a collection of poems or choice literary extracts, esp. epigrams,
orig. applied to the collections of Greek epigrams so called.--_adj._
ANTHOLOG'ICAL. [Gr. _anthos_, a flower, _legein_, to gather.]

ANTHOMANIA, an-th[=o]-m[=a]n'ya, _n._ a madness for flowers.----_n._
ANTHOM[=A]N'IAC. [Gr. _anthos_, and _mania_, madness.]

ANTHONY (ST), an'ton-i, the patron saint of swineherds: the smallest pig in
a litter.--ANTHONY'S FIRE, a popular name for erysipelas.

ANTHOZOA, an'tho-z[=o]-a, _n.pl._ another name for Actinozoa, one of the
three classes of Coelenterates, including sea-anemones, corals, &c. [Gr.
_anthos_, a flower, _z[=o]a_, animals.]

ANTHRACENE, an-thra-s[=e]n', _n._ a hydrocarbon obtained as one of the last
products in the distillation of coal-tar, of value as the source of
artificial alizarin. [Gr. _anthrax_, coal, and _-ene_.]

ANTHRACITE, an'thras-[=i]t, _n._ a kind of coal that burns nearly without
flame, smell, or smoke, consisting almost entirely of carbon, and not
readily ignited.--_adjs._ ANTHRACIF'EROUS, yielding anthracite;
ANTHRACIT'IC.--_n._ ANTHRACIT'ISM. [Gr. _anthrakit[=e]s_,
coal-like--_anthrax_, coal.]

ANTHRAX, an'thraks, _n._ a widely distributed and very destructive disease,
most common among sheep and cattle, the first infectious disease proved to
be due to the presence of microscopic vegetable organisms
(_bacilli_)--other names are _Splenic Apoplexy_, _Splenic Fever_, and as it
occurs in man, _Malignant Pustule_ and _Woolsorter's Disease_: a carbuncle
or malignant boil.--_adjs._ ANTHRA'CIC, AN'THRACOID. [L.--Gr. _anthrax_;
coal, a carbuncle.]

ANTHROPICAL, an-throp'ik-al, _adj._ (_rare_) connected with human nature.
[Gr. _anthropikos_, human, _anthr[=o]pos_, man.]

ANTHROPINISM, an-thr[=o]p'in-ism, _n._ the looking at things in their
relation to man. [Gr. _anthropinos_, human (_anthr[=o]pos_), and _-ism_.]

ANTHROPOCENTRIC, an-thr[=o]-po-sent'rik, _adj._ centring all the universe
in man. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, and _kentron_, centre.]

ANTHROPOGRAPHY, an-thro-pog'ra-fi, _n._ that branch of anthropology which
treats of the human race according to its geographical distribution. [Gr.
_anthr[=o]pos_, man, _graphia_, description--_graphein_, to write.]

ANTHROPOID, an'throp-oid, _adj._ in the form of or resembling man.--_n._
the anthropoid ape, the highest and most man-like monkey.--_adj._
AN'THROPOIDAL. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, _eidos_, form.]

ANTHROPOLATRY, an-thro-pol'a-tri, _n._ the giving of divine honours to a
human being, a term always employed in reproach. It was used by the
Apollinarians against the orthodox Christians of the 4th and 5th centuries,
with reference to the doctrine of the perfect human nature of Christ. [Gr.
_anthr[=o]pos_, man, _latreia_, worship.]

ANTHROPOLITE, an-throp'o-l[=i]t, _n._ human remains turned into stone,
fossil human remains. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, _lithos_, stone.]

ANTHROPOLOGY, an-throp-ol'oj-i, _n._ the science of man, more especially
considered as a social animal: the natural history of man in its widest
sense, treating of his relation to the brutes, his evolution, the different
races, &c.--_adj._ ANTHROPOLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ ANTHROPOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._
ANTHROPOL'OGIST, one versed in anthropology. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, and
_logos_, discourse--_legein_, to say.]

ANTHROPOMETRY, an-thr[=o]-pom'et-ri, _n._ the measurement of the human body
to discover its exact dimensions and the proportions of its parts, for
comparison with its dimensions at different periods, or in different races
and classes.--_adj._ ANTHROPOMET'RIC. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, and
_metrein_, to measure.]

ANTHROPOMORPHISM, an-throp-o-morf'izm, _n._ the representation of the Deity
in the form of man or with bodily parts: the ascription to the Deity of
human affections and passions.--_adj._ ANTHROPOMORPH'IC.--_v.t._
ANTHROPOMORPH'ISE, to regard as or render anthropomorphous.--_ns._
_anthr[=o]pos_, man, _morph[=e]_, form.]

ANTHROPOMORPHOSIS, an-thr[=o]-po-morf-os'is, or -morf'os-is, _n._
transformation into human shape.--_adj._ ANTHROPOMORPH'OUS, formed like or
resembling man. [Gr. _anthropomorph[=o]sis_--_anthr[=o]pos_, man, and a
verb of action, formed from _morph[=e]_, shape.]

ANTHROPOPATHISM, an-thro-pop'a-thizm, _n._ the ascription to the Deity of
human passions and affections--also ANTHROPOP'ATHY.--_adj._
ANTHROPOPATH'IC.--_adv._ ANTHROPOPATH'ICALLY. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man,
_pathos_, suffering, passion.]

ANTHROPOPHAGY, an-thro-pof'aj-i, _n._ cannibalism.--_n.pl._ ANTHROPOPH'AGI,
man-eaters, cannibals.--_ns._ ANTHROPOPHAGIN'IAN (_Shak._) a cannibal;
ANTHROPOPH'AGITE.--_adj._ ANTHROPOPH'AGOUS. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man,
_phag-ein_, to eat.]

ANTHROPOPHUISM, an-thr[=o]-pof'[=u]-izm, _n._ the ascription of a human
nature to the gods. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, and _phu[=e]_, nature, and

ANTHROPOSOPHY, an-thr[=o]-pos'o-fi, _n._ the knowledge of the nature of
men: human wisdom.--_n._ ANTHROPOS'OPHIST, one furnished with the wisdom of
men. [Gr. _anthr[=o]pos_, man, and _sophia_, wisdom.]

ANTHROPOTOMY, an-thr[=o]-pot'om-i, _n._ anatomy of the human body. [Gr.
_anthr[=o]pos_, man, and _temnein_, to cut.]

ANTI, ant'i, _pfx._ against, in opposition to, rivalling, simulating. It
forms numerous derivatives, alike nouns and adjectives, as _antichrist_,
_antipope_, _anticlimax_, _anti-tobacconist_; _anti-Ritualistic_,
_anti-Semite_. [Gr. _anti_, against, instead of, &c.]

ANTIAR, an'ti-ar, _n._ the upas-tree (see UPAS). [Jav. _antjar_.]

ANTI-ATTRITION, an'ti-at-trish'on, _n._ anything which counteracts
attrition or friction--also figuratively. [Pfx. ANTI- and ATTRITION.]

ANTIBILIOUS, an'ti-bil'yus, _adj._ of use against biliousness. [ANTI- and

ANTIBURGHER, an-ti-burg'[.e]r, _n._ that section of the Scottish Secession
Church which parted from the main body (the _Burghers_) in 1747, holding it
unlawful to take the oath administered to burgesses in Edinburgh, Glasgow,
and Perth, because of the reference to 'the true religion presently
professed within this realm.' They read into it an allusion to the Church
as by law established, while others interpreted it as signifying simply the
Protestant religion. [ANTI- and BURGHER.]

ANTIC, ant'ik, _adj._ grotesque: odd: ridiculous in shape, dress, &c.--_n._
a fantastic or ancient figure, caricaturing or combining grotesquely animal
or vegetable forms, or both together: (_Shak._) a grotesque pageant: a
buffoon, clown, mountebank: a trick, mostly in _pl._--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to
make grotesque.--_v.i._ AN'TICIZE (_Browning_), to play antics. [It.
_antico_, equivalent to It. _grottesco_, and orig. used of the fantastic
decorations composed of human and other forms found in the remains of
ancient Rome--L. _antiquus_.]

ANTICATHOLIC, an-ti-kath'o-lik, _adj._ opposed to what is Catholic. [ANTI-

ANTICHLOR, an'ti-kl[=o]r, _n._ a substance used in the making of paper to
free the pulp from the injurious after-effects of chlorine. [ANTI- and

ANTICHRIST, an'ti-kr[=i]st, _n._ the great opposer of Christ and
Christianity: the name of a great enemy of Christ always expected to appear
by the early Church, applied by some to the Pope and his power.--_adj._
ANTICHRISTIAN (-krist'-), relating to Antichrist: opposed to
Christianity.--_n._ ANTICHRIST'IANISM.--_adv._ ANTICHRIST'IANLY. [Gr.;
_anti_, against, and _Christ-os_.]

ANTICIPATE, an-tis'ip-[=a]t, _v.t._ to be beforehand with (another person
or thing), to forestall or preoccupy: to take in hand, or consider, before
the due time: to foresee: realise beforehand, or count upon as certain: to
expect.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to accelerate: to occur earlier than.--_adj._
and _n._ ANTIC'IPANT, anticipating, anticipative.--_n._ ANTICIP[=A]'TION,
act of anticipating: assignment to too early a time: foretaste: previous
notion, or presentiment: expectation.--_adjs._ ANTI'CIP[=A]TIVE,
[L. _anticip[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_[=a]nte_, before, _cap-[)e]re_, to take.]

ANTICIVIC, an-ti-siv'ik, _adj._ opposed to citizenship, esp. the conception
of it engendered by the French Revolution.--_n._ ANTICIV'ISM.

ANTICLIMAX, an-ti-kl[=i]m'aks, _n._ the opposite of climax: a sentence in
which the ideas become less important towards the close: also of any
descent as against a previous rise--e.g. Waller's

  'Under the Tropicks is our language spoke,
  And part of Flanders hath receiv'd our yoke.'

[Gr. _anti_, against, and CLIMAX.]

ANTICLINAL, an-ti-kl[=i]n'al, _adj._ sloping in opposite directions.--_n._
(_geol._) applied to strata which are inclined in opposite directions from
a common axis--in a roof-like form. [Gr. _anti_, against, _klin-ein_, to

ANTICYCLONE, an-ti-s[=i]'kl[=o]n, _n._ name given to the rotatory flow of
air from an atmospheric area of high pressure.--_adj._ ANTICYCLON'IC.

ANTIDOTE, an'ti-d[=o]t, _n._ that which is given against anything that
would produce bad effects: a counter-poison: (_fig._) anything that
prevents evil (with _against_, _for_, _to_).--_adj._ AN'TIDOTAL. [Gr.
_antidotos_--_anti_, against, _did[=o]mi_, to give.]


ANTIFEBRILE, an-ti-feb'r[=i]l, _adj._ efficacious against fever.--_n._ a
substance with such properties.--Also ANTIFEBRIF'IC.

ANTI-FEDERAL, an-ti-fed'e-ral, _adj._ opposed to federalism; applied to the
U.S. party whose fundamental principle was opposition to the strengthening
of the national government at the expense of the States. Later names for
the party were Republican, Democratic Republican, and Democratic

ANTIFRICTION, an-ti-frik'shun, _n._ anything which prevents friction.

ANTI-GALLICAN, an-ti-gal'ik-an, _adj._ and _n._ opposed to what is French:
or esp. opposed to the Gallican liberties of the French Church.--_n._

ANTIGROPELOS, an-ti-gr[=o]p'el-os, _n._ waterproof leggings. [Said to be
made up from Gr. _anti_, against, _hygros_, wet, and _p[=e]los_, mud. Prob.
this barbarous word was orig. an advertisement.]

ANTIHELIX, an'ti-h[=e]-liks, _n._ the inner curved ridge of the pinna of
the ear:--_pl._ ANTIH[=E]L'ICES.--Also AN'THELIX.

ANTI-JACOBIN, an'ti-jak'o-bin, _adj._ opposed to the Jacobins, a party in
the French Revolution, hence an opponent of the French Revolution, or of
democratic principles.--_n._ one opposed to the Jacobins: a weekly paper
started in England in 1797 by Canning and others to refute the principles
of the French Revolution.--_n._ AN'TI-JAC'OBINISM. [ANTI- and JACOBIN.]

ANTILEGOMENA, an-ti-leg-om'en-a, _n.pl._ a term applied to those books of
the New Testament not at first accepted by the whole Christian Church, but
ultimately admitted into the Canon--the seven books of 2 Peter, James,
Jude, Hebrews, 2 and 3 John, and the Apocalypse.--The other books were
called _Homologoumena_, 'agreed to.' [Gr., lit. 'spoken against.']

ANTILOGARITHM, an-ti-log'a-rithm, _n._ the complement of the logarithm of a
sine, tangent, or secant. [ANTI- and LOGARITHM.]

ANTILOGY, an-til'o-ji, _n._ a contradiction. [Gr. _antilogia_,
contradiction, _antilegein_, to contradict.]

ANTIMACASSAR, an-ti-mak-as'ar, _n._ a covering for sofas, cushions, &c., to
protect them from grease, esp. in the hair, also for ornament. [ANTI- and

ANTIMASK, ANTIMASQUE, an'ti-mask, _n._ a ridiculous interlude dividing the
parts of the more serious mask. [Gr. _anti_, against, and MASK.]

ANTIMETABOLE, an-ti-me-tab'ol-e, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure in which the same
words or ideas are repeated in inverse order, as Quarles's 'Be wisely
worldly, but not worldly wise.' [Gr.]

ANTIMETATHESIS, an'ti-me-tath'e-sis, _n._ inversion of the members of an
antithesis, as in Crabbe's 'A poem is a speaking picture; a picture, a mute
poem.' [Gr.]

ANTIMNEMONIC, an-ti-ne-mon'ik, _adj._ and _n._ tending to weaken the
memory. [ANTI- and MNEMONIC.]

ANTIMONARCHICAL, an-ti-mon-ark'i-kal, _adj._ opposed to monarchy and
monarchical principles.--_n._ ANTIMON'ARCHIST. [ANTI- and MONARCHICAL.]

ANTIMONY, an'ti-mun-i, _n._ a brittle, bluish-white metal of flaky,
crystalline texture, much used in the arts and in medicine.--_adjs._
ANTIM[=O]N'IAL, ANTIMON'IC. [Through Fr. from Low L. _antimonium_, of
unknown origin, prob. a corr. of some Arabic word.]

ANTI-NATIONAL, an-ti-nash'un-al, _adj._ hostile to one's nation.

ANTINEPHRITIC, an-ti-ne-frit'ik, _adj._ acting against diseases of the
kidney. [Gr. _anti_, against, and NEPHRITIC.]

ANTINOMIANISM, an-ti-n[=o]m'i-an-izm, _n._ the belief that Christians are
emancipated by the gospel from the obligation to keep the moral law--a
monstrous abuse and perversion of the Pauline doctrine of justification by
faith, esp. applied to the party of Johann Agricola in the German
Reformation.--_n._ and _adj._ ANTINOM'IAN, against the law: pertaining to
the Antinomians. [Gr. _anti_, against, _nomos_, a law.]

ANTINOMY, an'ti-nom-i, or an-tin'o-mi, _n._ a contradiction in a law: a
conflict of authority: conclusions discrepant though apparently
logical.--_adjs._ ANTIN[=O]'MIC, ANTIN[=O]'MICAL. [Gr. _anti_, against,
_nomos_, a law.]

ANTINOUS, an-tin'[=o]-us, _n._ an ideal of youthful manly beauty, from the
name of the favourite of the Roman emperor Hadrian so famous in ancient

ANTIOCHIAN, an-ti-[=o]'ki-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the city of
Antioch, or the eclectic system in philosophy of Antiochus of
Ascalon.--_n._ ANTI[=O]'CHIANISM, a school of theology in the 4th and 5th
centuries which spread over the whole Græco-Syrian Church, and was a revolt
against the allegorical interpretation of Scripture favoured by the
Alexandrian school.

ANTIODONTALGIC, an-ti-[=o]-dont-alj'ik, _adj._ of use against toothache.
[Gr. _anti_, against, _odous_, tooth, and _algein_, to suffer pain.]

ANTIPATHY, an-tip'ath-i, _n._ dislike: repugnance: opposition: the object
of antipathy (with _against_, _to_, _between_ of persons).--_adjs._
ANTIPATHET'IC, -AL; ANTIPATH'IC, belonging to antipathy: opposite:
contrary.--_n._ ANTIP'ATHIST, one possessed by an antipathy. [Gr. _anti_,
against, _pathos_, feeling.]

ANTIPERIODIC, an-ti-p[=e]-ri-od'ik, _adj._ destroying the periodicity of
diseases, such as ague, whose attacks recur at regular intervals: a drug
with such an effect, esp. cinchona bark and its alkaloids (quinine), and

ANTIPERISTALTIC, an-ti-per-i-stal'tik, _adj._ contrary to peristaltic
motion: acting upwards. [ANTI- and PERISTALTIC.]

ANTIPERISTASIS, an-ti-per-ist'a-sis, _n._ opposition of circumstances:
resistance exerted against any train of circumstances. [Gr.; _anti_,
against, and _peristasis_, a circumstance--_peri_, around, and
_hist[=e]mi_, make to stand.]

ANTIPHLOGISTIC, an-ti-floj-ist'ik, _adj._ of remedies acting against heat,
or inflammation, as blood-letting, purgatives, low diet.--_n._ a medicine
to allay inflammation. [ANTI- and PHLOGISTIC.]

ANTIPHON, an'tif-[=o]n, _n._ alternate chanting or singing: a species of
sacred song, sung by two parties, each responding to the other--also
ANTIPH'ONY.--_adj._ ANTIPH'ONAL, pertaining to antiphony.--_n._ a book of
antiphons or anthems--also ANTIPH'ONARY and ANTIPH'ONER.--_adjs._
ANTIPHON'IC, ANTIPHON'ICAL, mutually responsive.--_adv._ ANTIPHON'ICALLY.
[Gr.; _anti_, in return, and _ph[=o]n[=e]_, voice. A doublet of ANTHEM.]

ANTIPHRASIS, an-tif'ra-sis, _n._ (_rhet._) the use of words in a sense
opposite to the true one.--_adjs._ ANTIPHRAS'TIC, -AL, involving
antiphrasis: ironical.--_adv._ ANTIPHRAS'TICALLY. [Gr.; _anti_, against,
_phrasis_, speech.]

ANTIPODES, an-tip'od-[=e]z, _n.pl._ those living on the other side of the
globe, and whose feet are thus opposite to ours: the inhabitants of any two
opposite points of the globe: places on the earth's surface exactly
opposite each other, the region opposite one's own: the exact opposite of a
person or thing:--_sing._ AN'TIPODE.--_adjs._ ANTIP'ODAL,
ANTIPOD[=E]'AN.--AT ANTIPODES, in direct opposition. [Gr. _anti_, opposite
to, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

ANTIPOLE, an'ti-p[=o]l, _n._ the opposite pole: direct opposite. [ANTI- and

ANTIPOPE, an'ti-p[=o]p, _n._ a pontiff elected in opposition to one
canonically chosen, e.g. those who resided at Avignon in the 13th and 14th
centuries. [Gr. _anti_, against, and POPE.]

ANTIPOPULAR, an-ti-pop'[=u]-lar, _adj._ adverse to the people or the
popular cause. [ANTI- and POPULAR.]

ANTIPYRIN, an-ti-p[=i]'rin, _n._ a white crystalline powder, tasteless,
colourless, and soluble in water, obtained from coal-tar products by a
complex process, with valuable qualities as a febrifuge, but not as an
antiperiodic.--_adj._ ANTIPYRET'IC.

ANTIQUARY, an'ti-kwar-i, _n._ one who studies or collects old things, esp.
the monuments and relics of the past--but not very ancient things, and
rather from curiosity than archæological interest.--_adj._ (_Shak._)
ancient.--_adj._ and _n._ ANTIQU[=A]R'IAN, connected with the study of
antiquities, also one devoted to the study.--_n._ ANTIQU[=A]R'IANISM. [See

ANTIQUE, an-t[=e]k', _adj._ ancient: of a good old age, olden (now
generally rhetorical in a good sense): old-fashioned, after the manner of
the ancients.--_n._ anything very old: ancient relics: an American name for
a kind of type of thick and bold face in which the lines are of equal
thickness--_Egyptian_ in England.--_v.t._ AN'TIQUATE, to make antique, old,
or obsolete: to put out of use:--_pr.p._ an'tiqu[=a]ting; _pa.p._
an'tiqu[=a]ted.--_adj._ AN'TIQUATED, grown old, or out of fashion:
obsolete: superannuated.--_n._ ANTIQU[=A]'TION, the making obsolete:
abrogation: obsoleteness.--_adv._ ANTIQUE'LY.--_n._ ANTIQUE'NESS.--_adj._
ANTIQ'UISH, somewhat antique.--THE ANTIQUE, ancient work in art, the style
of ancient art. [Fr.--L. _antiquus_, old, ancient--_ante_, before.]

ANTIQUITY, an-tik'wi-ti, _n._ ancient times, esp. the times of the ancient
Greeks and Romans: great age: (_Shak._) old age, seniority: ancient style:
the people of old time: (_pl._) manners, customs, relics of ancient
times.--_n._ ANTIQUIT[=A]R'IAN, one attached to the practices and opinions
of antiquity. [Fr.--L. _antiquitat-em_--_antiquus_, ancient.]

ANTIRRHINUM, an-tir-r[=i]'num, _n._ the genus of plants to which Snapdragon
belongs. [Neo-Latin, from Gr. _anti_, opposite, and _ris_, _rinos_, nose;
from its resemblance to a beast's mouth.]

ANTISCIAN, an-tish'i-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to people living on
different sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon fall in opposite
directions.--_n.pl._ ANTIS'CI[=I]. [Gr.; _anti_, opposite, _skia_, a

ANTISCORBUTIC, an-ti-skor-b[=u]t'ik, _adj._ acting against scurvy.--_n._ a
remedy for scurvy. [Gr. _anti_, against, and SCORBUTIC.]

ANTISCRIPTURAL, an-ti-skrip't[=u]r-al, _adj._ opposed to Holy Scripture.

ANTI-SEMITES, an'ti-sem'[=i]ts, _n.pl._ the modern opponents of the Jews in
Russia, Roumania, Hungary, and Eastern Germany.--_adj._ ANTISEMIT'IC.

ANTISEPTIC, an-ti-sept'ik, _adj._ and _n._ counteracting putrefaction and
analogous fermentive changes: preventing moral decay.--_adv._
ANTISEPT'ICALLY. [Gr. _anti_, against, and _s[=e]pein_, to rot.]

ANTISOCIAL, an-ti-s[=o]sh'al, _adj._ opposed to the principles and usages
of society. [ANTI- and SOCIAL.]

ANTISPASMODIC, an-ti-spaz-mod'ik, _adj._ opposing spasms or
convulsions.--_n._ a remedy for spasms or convulsions. [Gr. _anti_,
against, and SPASMODIC.]

ANTISPAST, an'ti-spast, _n._ in metre, a foot composed of an iambus and a
trochee.--_adj._ ANTISPAST'IC. [Gr. _antispastos_, _antispa-ein_, to draw
into a contrary direction.]

ANTISTROPHE, an-tis'tr[=o]f-e, _n._ (_poet._) the returning movement from
left to right in Greek choruses and dances, the movement of the strophe
being from right to left: the stanza of a song alternating with the
strophe: an inverse relation.--_adj._ ANTISTROPH'IC, pertaining to the
antistrophe. [Gr.; _anti_, against, and _streph-ein_, to turn.]

ANTITHEISM, an-ti-th[=e]'izm, _n._ the doctrine which denies the existence
of a God.--_n._ ANTITH[=E]'IST.--_adj._ ANTITHEIST'IC.

ANTITHESIS, an-tith'e-sis, _n._ a figure in which thoughts or words are set
in contrast: a counter-thesis, counter-proposition: opposition: the
contrast:--_pl._ ANTITH'ES[=E]S.--_n._ ANT'ITHET (_rare_), an instance of
antithesis.--_adjs._ ANTITHET'IC, -AL.--_adv._ ANTITHET'ICALLY. [Gr.;
_anti_, against, _tith[=e]mi_, to place.]

ANTITOXIN, an-ti-tok'sin, _n._ the name applied to substances present in
the blood of an animal which neutralise the action of toxins or bacterial
poisons.--_adj._ ANTITOX'IC.

ANTITRADE, an'ti-tr[=a]d, _n._ a wind that blows in the opposite direction
to the trade-wind--that is, in the northern hemisphere from south-west, and
in the southern hemisphere from north-west.

ANTITRINITARIAN, an-ti-trin-it-[=a]r'i-an, _n._ and _adj._ opposed to the
doctrine of the Trinity.--_n._ ANTITRINITAR'IANISM.

ANTITYPE, an'ti-t[=i]p, _n._ that which corresponds to the type: that which
is prefigured by the type, as Christ by the paschal lamb.--_adjs._

ANTLER, ant'l[.e]r, _n._ a bony outgrowth from the frontal bones of
deer--restricted to males, except in the reindeer: branch of a stag's
horn.--_adj._ ANT'LERED. [O. Fr. _antoillier_--Late L. _ant(e)ocular-em_
(_ramum_), the branch of a stag's horn in front of the eyes.]

ANT-LION, ant'-l[=i]'on, _n._ the larva of an insect of the order
Neuroptera, remarkable for the ingenuity of its insect-catching habits.
[Trans. of Gr. _murm[=e]kole[=o]n_ in the Septuagint; _murm[=e]x_, ant,
_le[=o]n_, lion.]

ANTONOMASIA, ant-on-om-[=a]z'i-a, _n._ a figure of speech which uses an
epithet on the name of an office or attributive for a person's proper name,
e.g. his lordship for an earl; and conversely, e.g. a Napoleon for a great
conqueror. [Gr.; _anti_, instead, and _onomazein_, to name, _onoma_, a

ANTONYM, ant'[=o]-nim, _n._ a word which is the opposite of another. [Gr.
_anti_, against, _onoma_, a name.]

ANTRE, an't[.e]r, _n._ a cave or grotto. [Fr.; L. _antrum_, a cave.]

ANURA, a-n[=u]'ra, _n.pl._ tailless amphibia, as the frog and toad.--Also
ANOU'RA. [Gr. _an-_, priv., _oura_, tail.]

ANUS, [=a]n'us, _n._ the lower orifice of the bowels. [L., for _as-nus_,
'sitting-part,' from root _as_, to sit.]

ANVIL, an'vil, _n._ an iron block on which smiths hammer metal into
shape.--ON or UPON THE ANVIL, in preparation, under discussion. [A.S.
_anfilte_, _on filte_; _on_, on, and a supposed _filtan_, to weld,
appearing also in FELT.]

ANXIOUS, angk'shus, _adj._ uneasy regarding something doubtful:
solicitous.--_n._ ANX[=I]'ETY, state of being anxious--_adv._
AN'XIOUSLY.--_n._ AN'XIOUSNESS. [L. _anxius_--_ang-[)e]re_, to press
tightly. See ANGER, ANGUISH.]

ANY, en'ni, _adj._ one indefinitely: some: whoever. _n._ AN'YBODY, any
single individual.--_adv._ ANYHOW, in any way whatever: in any case, at
least.--_ns._ AN'YTHING, a thing indefinitely, as opposed to nothing: any
whit, to any extent; ANYTHING[=A]'RIAN, one with no beliefs in particular;
ANYTHING[=A]'RIANISM--_advs._ AN'YWAY, AN'YWAYS, in any manner: anyhow: in
any case; AN'YWHERE, AN'YWHEN, in any place whatever, at any time;
AN'YWISE, in any manner, to any degree.--ANY ONE, any single individual,
anybody.--AT ANY RATE, whatever may happen, at all events.--IF ANYTHING, if
in any degree. [A.S. _ænig_--_an_, one.]

AONIAN, [=a]-[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Aonia_ in Greece, or to the
Muses supposed to dwell there.--AONIAN FOUNT, the fountain Aganippe, on a
slope of Mount Helicon--the Æonian mount.

AORIST, [=a]'or-ist, _n._ the name of certain tenses in the Greek verb
expressing indefinite time.--_adj._ AORIST'IC. [Gr. _aoristos_,
indefinite--_a_, neg., and _horistos_, _horizein_, _horos_, a limit.]

AORTA, [=a]-or'ta, _n._ the great arterial trunk which, rising from the
left ventricle of the heart, sends its branches ramifying through the whole
body--in man subdivided into the _arch_, the _thoracic aorta_, and the
_abdominal aorta_.--_adjs._ AOR'TAL, AOR'TIC. [Gr. _aort[=e]_--_aeir-ein_,
to raise up.]

APACE, a-p[=a]s', _adv._ at a quick pace: swiftly: fast: said of the flight
of time generally. [Prep. _a_, and PACE.]

APAGOGIC, -AL, ap-a-goj'ik, -al, _adj._ proving indirectly by an _apagoge_
or reduction to an absurdity, the truth of the thesis being evinced through
the falsehood of its opposite--opposed to _direct_ or _ostensive_ proof.
[Gr. _apag[=o]g[=e]_, leading away, abduction, _apagein_, to lead off.]


APART, a-pärt', _adv._ separately: aside: asunder, parted: separate: away
from all employment: out of consideration, not considered for the moment
(with _from_).--_n._ APART'NESS.--TO SET APART, to separate, consecrate.
[Fr. _à part_--L. _a parte_, from the part or side.]

APARTMENT, a-pärt'ment, _n._ a separate room in a house occupied by a
particular person or party: (_arch._) a suite or set of such rooms--now in
this sense the _pl._: (_obs._) a compartment.--_adj._ APARTMENT'AL. [Fr.
_appartement_, a suite of rooms forming a complete dwelling, through Low
L., from L. _ad_, and _part[=i]re_, to divide--_pars_, a part.]

APATHY, ap'ath-i, _n._ want of feeling: absence of passion:
indifference.--_adjs._ APATHET'IC, APATHET'ICAL (_rare_).--_adv._
APATHET'ICALLY. [Gr.; _a_, neg., _pathos_, feeling.]

APATITE, ap'a-t[=i]t, _n._ a phosphate of lime of great variety of colour.
[Gr. _apat[=e]_, deceit, its form and colour being deceptive.]

APAY, a-p[=a]', _v.t._ (_arch._) to satisfy, content: (_obs._) to repay.
[O. Fr. _apayer_, from L. _ad_, and _pac[=a]re_ _pac-em_, peace.]

APE, [=a]p, _n._ a monkey: a monkey without a tail or with a very short
one: a simian proper, linking man and the lower animals, and hence termed
_Anthropoid_--gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, or gibbon: one who plays
the ape, a silly imitator: (_Shak._) an imitator in a good or neutral
sense.--_v.t._ to imitate as an ape.--_ns._ APE'DOM; APE'HOOD; AP'ERY,
conduct of one who apes, any ape-like action: a colony of apes.--_adj._
AP'ISH, like an ape: imitative: foppish.--_adv._ AP'ISHLY.--_ns._
AP'ISHNESS, AP'ISM (_Carlyle_).--GOD'S APE, a born fool.--TO LEAD APES IN
HELL, believed to be the lot of old maids there; TO MAKE ANY ONE HIS APE,
TO PUT AN APE IN HIS HOOD (_obs._), to make a fool of any one. [A.S. _apa_;
Ger. _affe_.]

APEAK, APEEK, a-p[=e]k', _adv._ (_naut._) vertical--the anchor is apeak
when the cable is drawn so as to bring the ship's bow directly over it.
[_a_, to, and PEAK.]

APELLES, a-pel'ez, _n._ any consummate artist, from the great Greek painter
_Apelles_, under Alexander the Great.

APEPSY, a-pep'si, APEPSIA, a-pep'si-a, _n._ weakness of digestion. [Gr.
_apepsia_, indigestion; _a_, priv., _peptein_, to digest.]

APERÇU, a-per's[=oo], _n._ a summary exposition: a brief outline. [Fr.
_aperçu_, pa.p. of _apercevoir_, to perceive.]

APERIENT, a-p[=e]'-ri-ent, _adj._ opening: mildly purgative.--_n._ any
laxative medicine. [L. _aperientem_, _aper[=i]re_, to open.]

APERT, a-pert', _adj._ (_arch._) open, public--opp. to _Privy_.--_n._
APERT'NESS. [L. _apert-um_, pa.p. of _aper[=i]re_, to open.]

APERTURE, a'p[.e]rt-[=u]r, _n._ an opening: the space through which light
passes in an optical instrument: a hole. [L. _apertura_--_aper[=i]re_, to

APETALOUS, a-pet'al-us, _adj._ (_bot._) without petals. [Gr. _a_, neg., and
_petalon_, a petal.]

APEX, [=a]'peks, _n._ the summit or point: the vertex of a triangle: the
culminating point, climax of anything:--_pl._ APEXES ([=a]'peks-ez), APICES
(ap'i-s[=e]z). [L. _apex_, the peak of the flamen's cap.]

APHÆRESIS, APHERESIS, a-fer'i-sis, _n._ (_gram._) the taking away of a
letter or syllable at the beginning of a word. [Gr. _aphairesis_, a taking
away, _apo_, away, and _haire-ein_, to take.]

APHANIPTERA, af-an-ip't[.e]r-a, _n.pl._ a small order of insects having but
rudimentary scales in place of wings.--_adj._ APHANIP'TEROUS. [Gr.
_aphan[=e]s_, invisible, _pteron_, wing.]

APHASIA, a-f[=a]'zi-a, _n._ inability to express thought in words by reason
of some brain disease: or, more widely still, the loss of the faculty of
interchanging thought, without any affection of the intellect or
will.--_adj._ APHAS'IC. [Gr.; _a_, neg., _phasis_, speech--_phanai_, to

APHELION, a-f[=e]'li-on, _n._ the point of a planet's orbit farthest away
from the sun:--_pl._ APH[=E]'LIA. [Gr. _apo_, from, _h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

APHELIOTROPIC, a-f[=e]-li-o-trop'ik, _adj._ turning away from the sun. [Gr.
_apo_, away, _h[=e]lios_, sun, and _tropikos_, belonging to
turning--_trep-ein_, to turn.]

APHEMIA, a-f[=e]m'i-a, _n._ loss of speech caused by difficulty in
articulation due to paralysis. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _ph[=e]m[=e]_, voice,
fame--_phanai_, to speak.]


APHESIS, af'es-is, _n._ the gradual loss of an unaccented vowel at the
beginning of a word, as in _squire_ = _esquire_--a special form of
Aphæresis.--_adj._ APHET'IC. [Coined by Dr Murray. Gr.]

APHIS, [=a]'fis, _n._ a family of small 'plant-lice' belonging to the order
of hemipterous insects, occurring in temperate regions as parasites on the
roots, leaves, stems, &c. of plants. Some kinds are tended, protected, and
imprisoned by ants for the 'honey-dew' which they secrete, hence called
Ant-cows:--_pl._ APHIDES (af'i-d[=e]z).--_adj._ and _n._ APHID'IAN. [Ety.
unknown; one conjecture connects the word with Gr. _apheideis_, unsparing
(_a_, neg., and _pheidomai_, to spare), from the remarkable rapidity of

APHONY, af-on-i, _n._ loss of voice: dumbness--the more common form is
APH[=O]'NIA.--_adjs._ APHON'IC, APHON'OUS, voiceless. [Gr. _a_, neg.,
_ph[=o]n[=e]_, voice.]

APHORISM, af'or-izm, _n._ a concise statement of a principle in any
science: a brief, pithy saying: an adage.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ APH'ORISE, to
coin or use aphorisms.--_ns._ APH'ORISER; APH'ORIST, a writer of
aphorisms.--_adj._ APHORIS'TIC, in the form of an aphorism.--_adv._
APHORIST'ICALLY. [Gr. _aphorizein_, to mark off by boundaries--_apo_, from,
and _horos_, a limit.]

APHRODISIAC, af-ro-diz'-i-ak, _adj._ exciting to sexual intercourse.--_n._
that which excites to sexual intercourse.--_adj._ APHRODIS'IAN, belonging
to Venus, devoted to sensual love. [Gr. _aphrodisiakos_--_Aphrodit[=e]_,
Venus, the goddess of love.]

APHTHÆ, af'th[=e], _n.pl._ small whitish ulcers on the surface of a mucous
membrane. [Gr. _aphtha_, mostly in pl. _aphthai_, usually connected with
_hapt-ein_, to set on fire.]

APHYLLOUS, a-fil'us, _adj._ (_bot._) destitute of leaves. [Gr. _a_, neg.,
_phyllon_, a leaf.]

APIARY, [=a]p'i-ar-i, _n._ a place where bees are kept.--_adjs._ APIAR'IAN,
AP'IAN, relating to bees or bee-keeping.--_n._ AP'IARIST, one who keeps an
apiary: one who studies the habits of bees. [L. _apiarium_--_apis_, a bee.]

APICAL, ap'ik-al, _adj._ relating to the apex, or top.--_adv._ AP'ICALLY.
[See APEX.]


APICIAN, a-pish'yan, _adj._ relating to _Apicius_, the Roman epicurean in
the time of Tiberius: luxurious and expensive in diet.

APICULTURE, [=a]'pi-cult-[=u]r, _n._ bee-keeping. [L. _apis_, bee, and
_cultura_, keeping--_col[)e]re_, to keep.]

APIECE, a-p[=e]s', _adv._ for each piece, thing, or person: to each
individually.--_adv._ APIEC'ES (_obs._), in pieces.

APINCH, a-pinsh', _adv._ pinching, so as to pinch. [Prep. _a_, and PINCH.]

APLACENTAL, ap-la-sen'tal, _adj._ having no placenta. [_a_ and PLACENTAL.

APLOMB, a-plom', _n._ the perpendicular, perpendicularity: self-possession,
coolness. [Fr. _aplomb_, perpendicular position--_à plomb_, according to


APLUSTRE, ap-lus't[.e]r, _n._ the ornament rising above the stern of
ancient ships, often a sheaf of volutes. [L.--Gr. _aphlaston_.]

APNOEA, ap-n[=e]'a, _n._ a cessation of breathing. [Gr. _apnoia_.]

APOCALYPSE, a-pok'al-ips, _n._ the name of the last book of the New
Testament containing the 'revelation' granted to St John: any revelation or
disclosure.--_ns._ APOC'ALYPST, APOC'ALYPT, a revealer of the
future.--_adjs._ APOCALYPT'IC, -AL.--_adv._ APOCALYPT'ICALLY.--_n._
APOCALYPT'IST, the writer of the Apocalypse.--APOCALYPTIC NUMBER, the
mystical number 666, spoken of in the Apocalypse. The best solution of the
riddle is Neron Kesar--Hebrew form of the Latin Nero Cæsar. The vowels _e_
and _a_ are not expressed in the ancient Hebrew writing: accordingly NeRON
KeSaR gives

  N     R    O   N     K    S     R
  50 + 200 + 6 + 50 + 100 + 60 + 200 = 666.

[Gr.; a revelation, an uncovering--_apo_, from, _kalypt-ein_, to cover.]

APOCARPOUS, ap-o-kär'pus, _adj._ (_bot._) having the carpels distinct. [Gr.
_apo_, from, _karpos_, fruit.]

APOCATASTASIS, a-po-ka-tast'a-sis, _n._ (_theol._) the final restitution of
all things, when at the appearance of the Messiah the kingdom of God shall
be extended over the whole earth--an idea extended by Origen to imply the
final conversion and salvation of all created beings, the devil and his
angels not excepted. [Gr.; _apo-kathistanai_, to set up again.]

APOCOPATE, a-pok'o-p[=a]t, _v.t._ to cut off the last letter or syllable of
a word:--_pr.p._ apoc'op[=a]ting; _pa.p._ apoc'op[=a]ted.--_ns._
APOCOP[=A]'TION; APOCOPE (a-pok'op-[=e]), _n._ the cutting off of the last
letter or syllable of a word. [Gr. _apo_, off, _koptein_, to cut.]

APOCRYPHA, a-pok'rif-a, _n._ as applied to religious writings = (1) those
suitable for the initiated only; (2) those of unknown date and origin; (3)
those which are spurious--the term generally means the fourteen books or
parts of books known as the Apocrypha of the Old Testament--found in the
Septuagint but not the Hebrew or Palestinian canon:--(1) First, or Third,
Esdras; (2) Second, or Fourth, Esdras; (3) Tobit; (4) Judith; (5) the parts
of Esther not found in Hebrew or Chaldee; (6) The Wisdom of Solomon; (7)
The Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; (8) Baruch; (9)
The Song of the Three Holy Children; (10) The History of Susannah; (11) Bel
and the Dragon; (12) The Prayer of Manasses, king of Judah; (13) First
Maccabees; (14) Second Maccabees. The Apocryphal books of the New
Testament, as the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gesta
Pilati, &c., stand on quite a different footing, never having been accepted
by any as canonical, or in any way authoritative: hidden or secret
things.--_adj._ APOC'RYPHAL, of doubtful authority. [Gr., 'things
hidden'--_apo_, from, _krypt-ein_, to hide.]

APODAL, ap'od-al, _adj._ without feet: without ventral fins. [Gr. _a_,
neg., _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

APODEICTIC, a-po-d[=i]k'tik, _adj._ a logical term signifying a proposition
which is necessarily true--demonstrative without demonstration, beyond
contradiction--opp. to _Dialectic_.--_adj._ APODEIC'TICAL.--_adv._
APODEIC'TICALLY. [Gr. _apodeiktikos_--_apodeiknunai_ (_apo_ and
_deiknunai_), to show off, demonstrate.]

APODIABOLOSIS, a-po-di-a-bol'o-sis, _n._ (_rare_--_Hare_) lowering to the
rank of a devil. [Gr. _apo_, and _diabolos_, devil. Formed like

APODOSIS, a-pod'o-sis, _n._ (_gram._) the consequent clause in a
conditional sentence, as opp. to the _Protasis_. [Gr.; _apo_, back,
_didonai_, to give.]

APODYTERIUM, a-po-di-t[=e]r'i-um, _n._ the apartment in an ancient bath
where the clothes were deposited. [Gr.; _apodyein_ (_apo_, from, and
_dy-ein_), to undress.]

APOGEE, ap'o-j[=e], _n._ properly the greatest distance of the earth from
any of the heavenly bodies (the earth being regarded as the centre of the
universe in the old Ptolemaic astronomy), now restricted to the sun and
moon, the sun's apogee corresponding to the earth's aphelion, and the
moon's being the point of its orbit farthest from the earth: the highest
point, climax--opp. to _Perigee_.--_adjs._ APOGÆ'IC, APOG[=E]'AN;
APOGEOTROP'IC, turning away from the ground (of leaves, &c.).--_adv._
APOGEOTROP'ICALLY.--_n._ APOGE[=O]T'ROPISM. [Gr. _apogaion_; _apo_, from,
_g[=e]_, the earth.]

APOGRAPH, a'po-graf, _n._ an exact copy. [Gr. _apographon_, a
copy--_apo-graph-ein_, to write off, copy.]

APOLAUSTIC, a-po-law'stik, _adj._ devoted to the search of enjoyment.--_n._
the philosophy of the pleasurable. [Gr. _apolaustikos_--_apolau-ein_, to

APOLLINARIANISM, a-pol-i-n[=a]'ri-an-izm, _n._ the doctrine that the
_Logos_, or divine nature in Christ, took the place of the rational human
soul or mind, and that the body of Christ was a spiritualised and glorified
form of humanity--taught by Apollinaris the younger, Bishop of Laodicea in
Syria (died 390 A.D.), condemned as denying the _true_ human nature of
Christ by the second Oecumenical Council at Constantinople (381).--_adj._

APOLLONIAN, a-po-l[=o]n'i-an, _adj._ having the characteristics of Apollo,
sun-god of the Greeks and Romans, patron of poetry and music: named from
_Apollonius_ of Perga, who studied conic sections in the time of Ptolemy
Philopator.--Also APOLLON'IC.

APOLLONICON, a-pol-[=o]n'i-kon, _n._ a chamber organ of vast power,
supplied with both keys and barrels, first exhibited in 1817. [Formed from
_Apollonic_, as _harmonicon_ from _harmonic_.]

APOLLYON, a-pol'yun, _n._ the destroyer: Satan (same as ABADDON, Rev. ix.
11). [Gr. _apolly[=o]n_, destroying utterly; _apolly-ein_, _apo-_, and
_ollynai_, to destroy.]

APOLOGETIC, -AL, a-pol-oj-et'ik, -al, _adj._ excusing: regretfully
acknowledging: said or written in defence.--_adv._ APOLOGET'ICALLY.--_n._
APOLOGET'ICS, that branch of theology concerned with the defence of
Christianity. It falls under the two heads of _natural_ and _revealed_
theology--in the former it proves the existence of God, of the soul in man,
a future state; in the latter, the canonicity, inspiration, and
trustworthiness of Scripture.

APOLOGUE, a'pol-og, _n._ a fable, parable, or short allegorical story,
intended to serve as a pleasant vehicle for some moral doctrine--applied
more particularly to one in which the actors are animals or inanimate
things, e.g. the apologue of Jotham in Judges, ix. 7-15. [Fr.--Gr.
_apologos_, a fable--_apo_, from, _logos_, speech.]

APOLOGY, a-pol'oj-i, _n._ something spoken to ward off an attack: a defence
or justification: frank acknowledgment of an offence: a poor substitute
(with _for_; _of_ is obsolete).--_v.i._ APOL'OGISE, to make excuse: to
express regret for a fault (with _for_).--_n._ APOL'OGIST, one who makes an
apology: a defender by argument. [Gr.; _apo_, from, _-logia_,
speaking--_leg-ein_, to speak.]

APOMORPHIA, a-po-morf'i-a, _n._ an alkaloid prepared from morphia by
heating hydrochloric acid--a rapid and powerful emetic. [Gr. _apo_, from,

APOOP, a-p[=oo]p', _adv._ on the poop, astern.

APOPETALOUS, ap-o-pet'al-us, _adj._ (_bot._) having distinct or free
petals. [Gr. _apo_, away, and _petalon_, a leaf.]

APOPHLEGMATIC, a-po-fleg-mat'ik, _adj._ and _n._ promoting the removal of
phlegm. [Gr. _apo-_, and PHLEGMATIC.]

APOPHTHEGM, APOTHEGM, a'po-them, _n._ a pithy saying, more short, pointed,
and practical than the aphorism need be, e.g. 'God helps them that help
themselves.'---_adjs._ APOPHTHEGMAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to the nature of an
apophthegm, pithy, sententious.--_adv._ APOPHTHEGMAT'ICALLY.--_v.i._
APOPHTHEG'MATISE, to speak in apophthegms.--_n._ APOPHTHEG'MATIST. [Gr.
_apophthegma_--_apo_, forth, and _phthengesthai_, to utter.]

APOPLEXY, a'po-pleks-i, _n._ loss of sensation and of motion by a sudden
stroke, generally applied by modern medical writers to rupture of a
blood-vessel, with hemorrhage in the brain or its membranes, whether with
or without consciousness--also figuratively.--_adjs._ APOPLEC'TIC, -AL,
pertaining to or causing apoplexy: suffering from, or likely to suffer
from, apoplexy.--_adv._ APOPLEC'TICALLY.--_n._ AP'OPLEX (_arch._),
apoplexy.--_adj._ AP'OPLEXED (_Shak._), affected with apoplexy. [Gr.
_apopl[=e]xia_--_apo_, from, away, and _pl[=e]ss-ein_, to strike.]

APOSIOPESIS, a-po-si-o-p[=e]'sis, _n._ a figure by which the speaker
suddenly stops as though unable or unwilling to proceed, e.g. Virgil,
_Æneid_, i. 135, 'Quos ego----' [Gr.;--_apo-si[=o]pa-ein_, to keep silent,
_apo_ and _si[=o]p[=e]_, silence.]

APOSTASY, APOSTACY, a-post'a-si, _n._ abandonment of one's religion,
principles, or party: a revolt from ecclesiastical obedience, from a
religious profession, or from holy orders.--_n._ APOST'ATE, one guilty of
apostasy: a renegade from his faith from unworthy motives.--_adj._ false:
traitorous: fallen.--_adjs._ APOSTAT'IC, -AL.--_v.i._ APOST'ATISE. [Gr. 'a
standing away;' _apo_, from, _stasis_, a standing.]

A POSTERIORI, [=a] pos-t[=e]-ri-[=o]'ri, _adj._ applied to reasoning from
experience, from effect to cause, as opposed to _a priori_ reasoning, from
cause to effect: empirical: gained from experience. _Synthetic_ and
_analytic_, _deductive_ and _inductive_, correspond in a general way to _a
priori_ and _a posteriori_. [L. _a_ = _ab_, from, _posteriori_, abl. of
_posterior_, comp. of _posterus_, after.]

APOSTIL, -ILLE, a-pos'til, _n._ a marginal note. [Fr. _apostille_. See

APOSTLE, a-pos'l, _n._ one sent to preach the gospel: specially, one of the
twelve disciples of Christ: the founder of the Christian Church in a
country, e.g. Augustine, the apostle of the English; Columba, of the Scots;
Boniface, of Germany, &c.: the principal champion or supporter of a new
system, or of some cause: the highest in the fourfold ministry of the
Catholic and Apostolic Church: one of the twelve officials forming a
presiding high council in the Mormon Church.--_ns._ APOS'TLESHIP, the
office or dignity of an apostle; APOST'OLATE, the office of an apostle:
leadership in a propaganda.--_adjs._ APOSTOL'IC, -AL.--_ns._ APOSTOL'ICISM,
profession of apostolicity; APOSTOLIC'ITY, the quality of being
apostolic--APOSTLES' CREED, the oldest form of Christian creed that exists,
early ascribed to the apostles, and indeed substantially, if not strictly,
apostolic; APOSTLE SPOONS, silver spoons with handles ending in figures of
the apostles, a common baptismal present in the 16th and 17th centuries;
APOSTLES, TEACHING OF THE TWELVE--often called merely the _Didach[=e]_ (Gr.
'teaching')--the title of a treatise discovered in 1883 on Christian
doctrine and government, closely connected with the last two books
(vii.-viii.) of the _Apostolic Constitutions_.--APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS and
CANONS, notes of ecclesiastical customs held to be apostolical, written in
the form of apostolic precepts, and erroneously ascribed by tradition to
Clement of Rome; APOSTOLIC FATHERS, the immediate disciples and
fellow-labourers of the apostles, more especially those who have left
writings behind them (Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Hermas,
Polycarp); APOSTOLIC SEE, the see of Rome; APOSTOLIC VICAR, the cardinal
representing the Pope in extraordinary missions.--APOSTOLICAL SUCCESSION,
the derivation of holy orders by an assumed unbroken chain of transmission
from the apostles through their natural successors, the bishops--the theory
of the Catholic Church: the assumption that a ministry so ordained enjoy
the succession of apostolic powers and privileges. [Gr.; one sent away,
_apo_, away, _stell-ein_, to send.]

APOSTROPHE, a-pos'trof-e, _n._ (_rhet._) a sudden turning away from the
ordinary course of a speech to address some person or object present or
absent, explained by Quintilian as addressed to a person present, but
extended by modern use to the absent or dead: a mark (') showing the
omission of a letter or letters in a word, also a sign of the modern Eng.
genitive or possessive case--orig. a mere mark of the dropping of the
letter _e_ in writing.--_adj._ APOSTROPH'IC.--_v.t._ APOS'TROPHISE, to
address by apostrophe. [Gr. _apo_, from, and STROPHE, a turning.]

APOTHECARY, a-poth'ek-ar-i, _n._ one who prepares and sells drugs for
medicinal purposes--a term long since substituted by _druggist_, although
still a legal description for licentiates of the Apothecaries' Society of
London, or of the Apothecaries' Hall of Ireland. [Through Fr. and L. from
Gr. _apoth[=e]k[=e]_, a storehouse--_apo_, away, and _tithe-nai_, to

APOTHECIUM, ap-[=o]-th[=e]'si-um, _n._ the spore-case in lichens. [Gr.
_apoth[=e]k[=e]_, a storehouse. See APOTHECARY.]


APOTHEOSIS, a-po-th[=e]'o-sis, or a-po-the-[=o]'sis, _n._ deification, esp.
the formal attribution of divine honours to a deceased Roman emperor, or
special object of the imperial favour--a logical corollary to the worship
of ancestors, degenerating naturally by anticipation into the adoration of
the living: the glorification of a principle or person: ascension to glory,
release from earthly life: resurrection.--_v.i._ APOTH[=E]'OSISE,
APOTH'EOSISE. [Gr.; _apotheo-ein_, _apo_, away from what he was, _theos_, a

APOZEM, a'po-zem, _n._ a decoction or infusion. [Gr. _apozema_--_apo_, off,
and _ze-ein_, to boil.]

APPAL, ap-pawl', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to wax faint, fail, decay.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ (_obs._) to dim, weaken: to terrify, dismay:--_pr.p._ appal'ling;
_pa.p._ appalled'.--_p.adj._ APPAL'LING, shocking.--_adv._ APPAL'LINGLY.
[Perh. from O. Fr. _apalir_, _apallir_, to wax pale, also to make pale. See

APPANAGE, APANAGE, ap'pan-[=a]j, _n._ the assignation or conveyance by the
crown of lands and feudal rights to the princes of the royal family, a
provision for younger sons, a dependency: any perquisite: an adjunct or
attribute.--_p.adj._ AP'PANAGED, endowed with an appanage. [Fr.
_apanage_--L. _ad_, and _pan-is_, bread.]

APPARATUS, ap-par-[=a]'tus, _n._ things prepared or provided, material: set
of instruments, tools, natural organs, &c.: materials for the critical
study of a document. [L.; _ad_, to, _par[=a]tus_ (_par[=a]re_), prepared.]

APPAREL, ap-par'el, _n._ covering for the body, dress: aspect, guise:
(_arch._) the rigging of a ship.--_v.t._ to dress, adorn:--_pr.p._
appar'elling or appar'eling; _pa.p._ appar'elled or appar'eled.--_ns._
APPAR'ELLING, APPAR'ELING. [O. Fr. _apareiller_, through obscure Low L.
forms from L. _par_, equal, like.]

APPARENT, ap-p[=a]r'ent, _adj._ that may be seen: evident: palpable:
seeming, as opposed to what really is: (_Shak._) by ellipsis for
heir-apparent.--_adv._ APPAR'ENTLY.--_ns._ APPAR'ENTNESS; HEIR'-APPAR'ENT,
applied to one who will undoubtedly inherit if he survives the present
possessor. [Through Fr. from L. _apparent-em_, _appar[=e]-re_.]

APPARITION, ap-par-ish'un, _n._ an appearance--of a visitor, a comet, the
appearance in history: an immaterial appearance--of a spirit of the
departed, as of a real being, a ghost: (_astron._) the first appearance of
a celestial body after occultation.--_adj._ APPARI'TIONAL. [See APPEAR.]

APPARITOR, ap-par'it-or, _n._ an officer who attends on a court, or on a
magistrate, to execute orders: still applied to the officer of an
archiepiscopal, episcopal, archidiaconal, or other ecclesiastical court,
sometimes to the beadle of a university bearing the mace: (_rare_) one who
appears. [L. See APPEAR.]

APPAY, ap-p[=a]', _v.t._ See APAY.

APPEACH, ap-p[=e]ch', _v.t._ (_obs._) to accuse, censure, or impeach.--_n._
APPEACH'MENT. [O. Fr. _empechier_--L. _impedic[=a]re_, to catch by the
feet--_in_, in, and _pedica_, a fetter. See IMPEACH.]

APPEAL, ap-p[=e]l', _v.i._ to call upon, have recourse to (with _to_): to
refer (to a witness or superior authority): make supplication or earnest
request to a person for a thing: to resort for verification or proof to
some principle or person.--_v.t._ to remove a cause (to another
court).--_n._ act of appealing: a supplication: removal of a cause to a
higher tribunal.--_adjs._ APPEAL'ABLE; APPEAL'ING, relating to
appeals.--_adv._ APPEAL'INGLY.--_n._ APPEAL'INGNESS. [O. Fr.
_apeler_--_appell[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to address, call by name; also to
appeal to, impeach.]

APPEAR, ap-p[=e]r', _v.i._ to become visible: to present one's self
formally before an authority or tribunal, hence to act as the
representative or counsel for another: to be manifest: to be in one's
opinion, to seem: to come into view, to come before the public, to be
published (of a book): to seem though not real.--_ns._ APPEAR'ANCE, the act
of appearing, e.g. in court to prosecute or answer a charge: the
publication of a book: the effect of appearing conspicuously, show, parade:
the condition of that which appears, form, aspect: outward look or show: a
natural phenomenon: an apparition; APPEAR'ER, one that appears: one who
puts in an appearance in court.--IT APPEARS (_impers._).--TO ALL
APPEARANCE, so far as appears to any one; TO KEEP UP APPEARANCES, to keep
up an outward show with intent to conceal the absence of the inward
reality; TO PUT IN AN APPEARANCE, to appear in person. [Through Fr. from L.
_appar[=e]-re_--_ad_, to, _par[=e]re_, _paritum_, to come forth.]

APPEASE, ap-p[=e]z', _v.t._ to pacify: propitiate one who is angry: to
quiet: to allay: to pacify by granting demands.--_adj._ APPEAS'ABLE.--_n._
APPEASE'MENT, the action of appeasing: the state of being appeased.--_adv._
APPEAS'INGLY. [O. Fr. _apese-r_, to bring to peace--L. _pac-em_, peace.]

APPELLANT, ap-pel'ant, _n._ one who makes an appeal from the decision of a
lower court to a higher: one who makes earnest entreaty of any kind:
(_obs._) one who challenges another to single combat: one of the clergy in
the Jansenist controversy who rejected the bull Unigenitus issued in 1713,
appealing to a pope 'better informed,' or to a general council.--_adj._
APPELL'ATE, relating to appeals. [See APPEAL.]

APPELLATION, ap-pel-[=a]'shun, _n._ that by which anything is called: a
name, especially one attached to a particular person.--_adj._
APPELL[=A]'TIONAL.--_n._ APPELL'ATIVE, a name common to all of the same
kind, as distinguished from a proper name: a designation.--_adj._ common to
many: general: of or pertaining to the giving of names.--_adv._

APPEND, ap-pend', _v.t._ to hang one thing to another: to add.--_n._
APPEND'AGE, something appended.--_adj._ APPEND'ANT, attached, annexed,
consequent.--_n._ an adjunct, quality.--_n._ APPENDIC[=I]'TIS, inflammation
of the vermiform appendix of the cæcum.--_adj._ APPENDIC'ULAR, of the
nature of or belonging to an appendix.--_n._ APPENDICUL[=A]'RIA, a genus of
Ascidians whose members retain the larval vertebrate characters which are
lost in the more or less degenerate sea-squirts.--_adj._ APPENDIC'ULATE,
furnished with appendages.--_n._ APPEND'IX, something appended or added: a
supplement: an addition to a book or document, containing matter
explanatory, but not essential to its completeness: (_anat._) a process,
prolongation, or projection:--_pl._ APPEND'IXES, APPEND'ICES.--APPENDIX
AURICULÆ, the appendix of the auricle of the heart; APPENDICES EPIPLOICÆ,
saccular processes, containing fat attached to the serous covering of the
process terminating the cæcum in man. [L. _ad_, to, _pend[)e]re_, to hang.]

APPENTICE, a-pen'tis, _n._ (_archit._) a pent-house.

APPERCEPTION, ap-er-sep'shun, _n._ the mind's perception of itself as a
conscious agent: an act of voluntary consciousness, accompanied with

APPERIL, a-per'il, _n._ (_Shak._) peril. [L. _ad_, and PERIL.]

APPERTAIN, ap-p[.e]r-t[=a]n', _v.i._ to belong to, as a possession, a
right, or attribute.--_n._ APPER'TAINANCE.--_p.adj._ APPERTAIN'ING, proper,
appropriate (with _to_).--_n._ APPERTAIN'MENT (_Shak._), that which
appertains to any rank or dignity.--_adj._ APPER'TINENT, pertaining or
belonging to.--_n._ (_Shak._) that which pertains to anything else.
[Through Fr. from L. _ad_, to, _pertin[=e]-re_, to belong. See PERTAIN.]

APPETENCY, ap'pet-ens-i, _n._ a seeking after: craving or appetite: desire,
especially sensual desire--also AP'PETENCE.--_adj._ AP'PETENT. [L.
_appetent-em_, _appet[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _pet[)e]re_, to seek.]

APPETITE, ap'pet-[=i]t, _n._ physical craving, accompanied with uneasy
sensation (hunger, thirst, sex): natural desire: inclination: desire for
food: hunger (with _for_).--_adjs._ AP'PETIBLE, AP'PETITIVE.--_v.t._
AP'PETISE, to create or whet appetite.--_ns._ APPETISE'MENT; APPETIS'ER,
something which whets the appetite.--_p.adj._ APPETIS'ING.--_adv._
APPETIS'INGLY. [Through Fr., from L. _appetitus_, _appet[)e]re_.]

APPLAUD, ap-plawd', _v.t._ to praise by clapping the hands: to praise
loudly: to express loudly approval of anything: to extol.--_n._
praise loudly expressed: acclamation.--_adj._ APPLAUS'IVE.--_adv._
APPLAUS'IVELY. [L. _applaud-[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _plaud[)e]re_, _plausum_, to
clap. See EXPLODE.]

APPLE, ap'l, _n._ the fruit of the apple-tree.--_ns._ AP'PLE-BLIGHT, the
rotting substances found on apple-trees, caused by the APPLE-APHIS (see
APHIS); AP'PLE-JOHN (_Shak._) a variety of apple considered to be in
perfection when shrivelled and withered--also JOHN'-AP'PLE; AP'PLE-PIE, a
pie made with apples; AP'PLE-WIFE, AP'PLE-WOM'AN, a woman who sells apples
at a stall.--APPLE OF DISCORD, any cause of envy and contention, from the
golden apple inscribed 'for the fairest,' thrown by Eris, goddess of
discord, into the assembly of the gods, and claimed by Aphrodite (Venus),
Pallas (Minerva), and Hera (Juno). The dispute being referred to Paris of
Troy, he decided in favour of Aphrodite, to the undying and fatal wrath of
Hera against his city; APPLE OF SODOM, or Dead Sea fruit, described by
Josephus as fair to look upon, but turning, when touched, into ashes: any
fair but disappointing thing; APPLE OF THE EYE, the eyeball: something
especially dear; APPLE-PIE ORDER, complete order. [A.S. _æppel_; cf. Ger.
_apfel_, Ice. _epli_, Ir. _abhal_, W. _afal_.]

APPLIQUÉ, ap'lik-[=a], _n._ work applied to, or laid on, another material,
either of metal-work or of lace or the like. [Pa.p. of Fr. _appliquer_.]

APPLY, ap-pl[=i]', _v.t._ to lay or put to: to administer a remedy: to
bring a general law to bear on particular circumstances: (_obs._) to
ascribe: to employ: to fix the mind on: to bring (a ship) to land.--_v.i._
to suit or agree: to have recourse to: to make request: (_Milton_) to
assign or impute blame to:--_pr.p._ apply'ing; _pa.p._ appl[=i]ed'.--_adj._
APPL[=I]'ABLE, that may be applied: compliant, well disposed.--_ns._
APPL[=I]'ABLENESS; APPL[=I]'ANCE, anything applied: means used: (_Shak._)
that may be applied: suitable.--_adv._ AP'PLICABLY.--_n._ AP'PLICANT, one
who applies: a petitioner.--_adj._ AP'PLICATE, put to practical use,
applied.--_n._ APPLIC[=A]'TION, the act of applying, e.g. the
administration of a remedy: diligence: employment, use of anything in
special regard to something else, as in the 'application' of a story to
real life, the lesson or moral of a fable: close thought or attention:
request: a kind of needlework, appliqué: (_obs._) compliance.--_adj._
AP'PLICATIVE, put into actual use in regard to anything: practical.--_adj._
and _n._ AP'PLICATORY, having the property of applying. [O. Fr.
_aplier_--L. _applic[=a]re_, _[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _plic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_,
to fold.]

APPOGGIATURA, ap-pod-ja-t[=u]'ra, _n._ an Italian musical term, designating
a form of embellishment by insertion of notes of passage in a melody. [It.
_appoggiare_, to lean upon. See APPUI.]

APPOINT, ap-point', _v.t._ to fix: to settle: assign, grant: to name to an
office: to destine, devote: to equip (_obs._ except in _pa.p._.).--_p.adj._
APPOINT'ED, established: furnished.--_n._ APPOINT'MENT, settlement:
engagement: direction: situation: arrangement: (_obs._) allowance paid to a
public officer: (_pl._) equipments. [O. Fr. _apointer_, Low L.
_appunctare_--L. _ad_, to, _punctum_, a point. See POINT.]

APPORTION, ap-p[=o]r'shun, _v.t._ to portion out: to divide in just shares:
to adjust in due proportion.--_n._ APPOR'TIONMENT. [L. _ad_, to, and

APPOSE, a'p[=o]z, _v.t._ to apply one thing to another, e.g. a seal to a
document: to place side by side. [Formed from L. _appon[)e]re_,

APPOS[=I]TE, ap'poz-[=i]t, _adj._ adapted: suitable.--_adv._
AP'POSITELY.--_n._ AP'POSITENESS. [L. _appositus_, pa.p. of _appon[)e]re_,
to put to--_ad_, to, _pon[)e]re_, to put.]

APPOSITION, ap-poz-ish'un, _n._ the act of adding: state of being placed
together or against: juxtaposition: (_gram._) the annexing of one noun to
another, in the same case or relation, in order to explain or limit the
first: also used of a public disputation by scholars, and still the word in
use for the 'Speech Day' at St Paul's School, London.--_adjs._
APPOSI'TIONAL; APPOS'ITIVE, placed in apposition. [See APPOSITE.]

APPRAISE, ap-pr[=a]z', _v.t._ to set a price on: to value with a view to
sale: to estimate the amount and quality of anything.--_adj._
APPRAIS'ABLE.--_ns._ APPRAIS'AL, appraisement; APPRAISE'MENT, a valuation:
estimation of quality; APPRAIS'ER, one who values property: one who
estimates quality. [Late in appearing; for some time used in the same sense
as _praise_. Perh. formed on analogy of the synonymous PRIZE, APPRIZE.]

APPRECIATE, ap-pr[=e]'shi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to estimate justly, to be fully
sensible of all the good qualities in the thing judged: to estimate highly:
to raise in value, to advance the quotation or price of, as opposed to
_depreciate_.--_v.i._ to rise in value.--_adj._ APPR[=E]'CIABLE.--_adv._
APPR[=E]'CIABLY.--_n._ APPRECI[=A]'TION, the act of setting a value on,
also specially of a work of literature or art: just--and also
favourable--estimation: rise in exchangeable value: increase in
value.--_adjs._ APPR[=E]'CIATIVE, APPR[=E]'CIATORY, implying
appreciation.--_n._ APPRECI[=A]'TOR, one who appreciates, or estimates
justly. [L. _appreti[=a]tus_, pa.p. of _appreti[=a]re_--_ad_, to, and
_pretium_, price.]

APPREHEND, ap-pre-hend', _v.t._ to lay hold of: to seize by authority: to
be conscious of by means of the senses: to lay hold of by the intellect: to
catch the meaning of: to consider or hold a thing as such: to fear.--_n._
apprehending or seizing: arrest: (_arch._) conscious perception:
conception: ability to understand: fear: (_obs._) sensitiveness,
sensibility to.--_adj._ APPREHENS'IVE, pertaining to the laying hold of
sensuous and mental impressions: intelligent, clever: having an
apprehension or notion of: fearful: anticipative of something
adverse.--_n._ APPREHENS'IVENESS. [L. _apprehend[)e]re_--_ad_, to,
_prehend[)e]re_, _-hensum_, to lay hold of.]

APPRENTICE, ap-prent'is, _n._ one bound to another to learn a trade or art:
one learning the rudiments of anything, a novice.--_v.t._ to bind as an
apprentice.--_ns._ APPRENT'ICEHOOD (_Shak._), apprenticeship;
APPRENT'ICESHIP, the state of an apprentice: a term of practical training:
specially, a period of seven years.--TO SERVE APPRENTICESHIP, to undergo
the training of an apprentice. [O. Fr. _aprentis_, _aprendre_, to learn--L.
_apprehend[)e]re_. See APPREHEND.]

APPRISE, ap-pr[=i]z', _v.t._ to give notice: to inform. [Fr. _apprendre_,
pa.p. _appris_--L. _adprend[)e]re_. See APPREHEND.]

APPRIZE, -ISE, a-pr[=i]z', _v.t._ (_Scots law_) to put a selling price on:
to value, appreciate.--_n._ APPRIZ'ER, a creditor for whom an appraisal is
made. [O. Fr. _apriser_--_à_, to, and _prisier_, to price, prize. See

APPROACH, ap-pr[=o]ch', _v.i._ to draw near: to draw nigh (of time or
events): to come near in quality, condition, &c.: (_arch._) to come into
personal relations with a person.--_v.t._ to come near to: to resemble:
attain to: to bring near in any sense.--_n._ a drawing near to in military
attack, in personal relations: access: a path or avenue: approximation:
(_pl._) trenches, &c., by which besiegers strive to reach a fortress.--_n._
APPROACHABI'LTY.--_adj._ APPROACH'ABLE. [O. Fr. _aprochier_, Low L.
_adpropiare_--L. _ad_, to, _prope_, near.]

APPROBATION, ap-prob-[=a]'shun, _n._ formal sanction: approval: (_Shak._)
confirmation.--_v.t._ AP'PROBATE, to approve authoritatively (_obs._ except
in U.S.): (_Scots law_) to approve of as valid.--_adjs._ AP'PROBATORY,
AP'PROBATIVE, of or belonging to one who approves.--TO APPROBATE AND
REPROBATE, a phrase in Scotch law which means that no one can be permitted
to accept and reject the same deed or instrument, analogous in the law of
England to Election. [See APPROVE.]

APPROOF, ap-pr[=oo]f', _n._ trial, proof: sanction, approbation.

APPROPINQUATE, ap-pro-pink'w[=a]t, _v.i._ to come near to.--_ns._
APPROPINQU[=A]'TION, APPROPIN'QUITY. [L. _appropinqu[=a]re_, to
approach--_ad_, to, and _propinquus_, near (_prope_).]

APPROPRIATE, ap-pr[=o]'pri-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make the private property of
any one: to take to one's self as one's own: to set apart for a purpose:
(_arch._) to select as suitable (with _to_).--_adj._ set apart for a
particular purpose: peculiar: suitable.--_adv._ APPROPRIATELY.--_ns._
APPR[=O]'PRIATENESS; APPROPRI[=A]'TION, the act of appropriating: in Church
law, the making over of a benefice to an owner who receives the tithes, but
is bound to appoint a vicar for the spiritual service of the parish: in
Constitutional law, the principle, that supplies granted by parliament are
only to be expended for particular objects specified by itself.--_adj._
appropriates.--APPROPRIATION CLAUSE, a clause in a parliamentary bill,
allotting revenue to any special purpose or purposes. [L. _appropri[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _proprius_, one's own. See PROPER.]

APPROVE, a-pr[=oo]v', _v.t._ to show, demonstrate (also reflexively): to
sanction or ratify: to think well of, to be pleased with, to commend:
(_Shak._) to put to the trial, hence also, to convict upon proof.--_v.i._
to judge favourably, to be pleased (with _of_).--_adj._ APPROV'ABLE,
deserving approval--_ns._ APPROV'AL, the act of approving: approbation;
APPROV'ER, one who approves: (_law_) an accomplice in crime admitted to
give evidence against a prisoner.--_adv._ APPROV'INGLY. [O. Fr.
_aprover_--L. _approb[=a]re_--_ad_, to, and _prob[=a]re_, to test or
try--_probus_, good.]

APPROVE, a-pr[=oo]v', _v.t._ (_law_) to turn to one's profit, increase the
value of. [Confused with APPROVE, but from O. Fr. _aproer_,
_approuer_--_à_, to (L. _ad_), and _pro_, _prou_, advantage. See PROW-ESS.]

APPROVEN, ap-pr[=oo]v'n, old _pa.p._ of APPROVE.

APPROXIMATE, ap-proks'im-[=a]t, _adj._ nearest or next: approaching
correctness.--_v.t._ to bring near.--_v.i._ to come near, to
approach.--_adv._ APPROX'IMATELY.--_n._ APPROXIM[=A]'TION, an approach: a
result in mathematics not rigorously exact, but so near the truth as to be
sufficient for a given purpose.--_adj._ APPROX'IMATIVE, approaching
closely. [L. _approxim[=a]re_, _-atum_--_ad_, to, _proximus_, nearest,
superl. of _prope_, near.]

APPUI, ap-w[=e]', _n._ the reciprocal action between the mouth of the horse
and the rider's hand.--_vs.t._ APPUI, APPUY, to support, e.g. to post
troops in order to support.--POINT D'APPUI, a point at which troops form as
a base of operations. [O. Fr. _apuyer_--Low L. _appodia-re_--L. _ad_, to,
and _podium_, support (Fr. _puy_, a hill).]

APPULSE, ap-puls', _n._ a striking against: the approach of a planet to a
conjunction with the sun or a star.--_n._ APPUL'SION.--_adj._ APPUL'SIVE.
[L. _appuls-us_--_appell-[)e]re_, _ad_, towards, _pell-[)e]re_, to drive.]

APPURTENANCE, ap-pur'ten-ans, _n._ that which appertains to: an appendage
or accessory: (_law_) a right belonging to a property.--_adj._ and _n._
APPUR'TENANT. [O. Fr. _apurtenance_. See APPERTAIN.]

APRICATE, ap'ri-k[=a]t, _v.i._ to bask in the sun.--_v.t._ (_rare_) to
expose to sunlight.--_n._ APRIC[=A]'TION. [L. _appricat-_, _apric[=a]ri_,
to bask in the sun, _apricus_, open to the sun.]

APRICOT, [=a]'pri-kot, _n._ a fruit of the plum kind, roundish, pubescent,
orange-coloured, of a rich aromatic flavour--older form A'PRICOCK. [Port.
_albricoque_ (Fr. _abricot_)--Ar. _al-birquq_. But _b[=i]rquq_ is a corr.
of Late Gr. _praikokion_, which is simply the L. _præcoquum_ or _præcox_,
early ripe; the form is perh. due to a fancied connection with L.
_apricus_, sunny. See PRECOCIOUS.]

APRIL, [=a]'pril, _n._ the fourth month of the year.--_n._ A'PRIL-FOOL, one
sent upon a bootless errand on the 1st of April, perhaps a relic of some
old Celtic heathen festival. In Scotland called _gowk_ (a cuckoo, a fool).
[L. _Aprilis_, usually regarded as from _aperire_, as the month when the
earth opens to bring forth new fruits.]

A PRIORI, [=a] pri-[=o]'r[=i], a term applied to reasoning from what is
prior, logically or chronologically, e.g. reasoning from cause to effect;
from a general principle to its consequences; even from observed fact to
another fact or principle not observed, or to arguing from pre-existing
knowledge, or even cherished prejudices; (_Kant_) from the forms of
cognition independent of experience.--_ns._ APRI[=O]'RISM, APRI[=O]'RITY;
APRI[=O]'RIST, one who believes in Kant's view of a priori cognition. [L.
_a_, _ab_, from, _priori_, abl. of _prior_, preceding.]

APRON, [=a]'prun, _n._ a cloth or piece of leather worn before one to
protect the dress, or as part of a distinctive official dress, as by
Freemasons, &c.--aprons of silk or the like are often worn by ladies for
mere ornament: the short cassock ordinarily worn by English bishops:
anything resembling an apron in shape or use, as a gig-apron, &c.--_v.t._
to cover with, as with an apron.--_adj._ A'PRONED.--_ns._ A'PRON-MAN
(_Shak._), a man who wears an apron, a mechanic; A'PRON-STRING, a string by
which an apron is attached to the person.--TO BE TIED TO A WOMAN'S
APRON-STRINGS, to be bound to a woman as a child is bound to its mother.
[O. Fr. _naperon_--_nappe_, cloth, tablecloth--L. _mappa_, a napkin.]

APROPOS, a-pro-p[=o]', _adv._ to the purpose: appropriately: in reference
to (with _to_ and _of_).--_adj._ opportune. [Fr. _à propos_. See PROPOSE.]

APSE, aps, _n._ an arched semicircular or polygonal recess at the east end
of the choir of a church--here, in the Roman basilica, stood the prætor's
chair.--_adj._ AP'SIDAL.--_n._ APSID'IOLE, a secondary apse, as one of the
apses on either side of the central or main apse in a church of triapsidal
plan. [See APSIS.]

APSIS, ap'sis, _n._ one of the two extreme points in the orbit of a planet,
one at the greatest, the other at the least distance from the sun: one of
the two points in the orbit of a satellite--one nearest to, the other
farthest from, its primary; corresponding, in the case of the moon, to the
perigee and apogee:--_pl._ APSIDES (ap'si-d[=e]z).--_adj._ AP'SIDAL. [L.
_apsis_--Gr. _hapsis_, a connection, an arch--_hapt-ein_, to connect. See

APT, apt, _adj._ liable: ready for or prone to anything: prompt, open to
impressions (with _at_).--_adv._ APT'LY.--_n._ APT'NESS. [L. _apt-us_, fit,
suitable, apposite; cog. with Gr. _hapt-ein_.]

APTEROUS, ap't[.e]r-us, _adj._ without wings.--_adj._ AP'TERAL, without
wings: (_archit._) without lateral columns. [Gr. _a_, neg., _pteron_, a

APTERYX, ap't[.e]r-iks, _n._ a bird found in New Zealand, wingless and
tailless, reddish-brown, about the size of a large hen. [Gr. _a_, neg.,
_pteryx_, wing.]

APTITUDE, apt'i-t[=u]d, _n._ fitness: tendency: readiness, teachableness,
talent (with _for_). [Low L. _aptitudo_--L. _apt-us_.]

APTOTE, ap't[=o]t, _n._ a noun without any variation of cases. [Gr.
_apt[=o]tos_--_a_, priv., _pt[=o]sis_, a falling, a case--_pipt-ein_, to

APYRETIC, a-pir-et'ik, _adj._ without pyrexia or fever, especially of those
days in which the intermission of fevers occurs in agues--_n._ APYREX'IA.
[Gr. _a_, neg., and _pyretos_, fever.]

AQUA-FORTIS, [=a]'kwa-for'tis, _n._ nitric acid, a powerful solvent, hence
used figuratively.--_ns._ AQUAFORT'IST, one who prepares etchings or
engravings by means of aqua-fortis; A'QUA-MIRAB'ILIS, a preparation
distilled from cloves, nutmeg, ginger, and spirit of wine; A'QUA-R[=E]'GIA,
a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, so called because it dissolves
the royal metal, gold; A'QUA TOFA'NA, a poisonous fluid (prepared from
arsenic) made in Palermo in the 17th cent. by a woman _Tofana_;
A'QUA-VI'TÆ, an old name for alcohol, used of brandy, whisky, &c.; cf. Fr.
_eau de vie_, and _usquebaugh_. [L. _aqua_, water, _fortis_, strong.]

AQUAMARINE, [=a]'kwa-ma-r[=e]n', _n._ the beryl.--_adj._ bluish-green,
sea-coloured. [L. _aqua_, water, _mar[=i]na_--_mare_, the sea.]

AQUARELLE, ak-wa-rel', _n._ water-colour painting, or a painting in
water-colours.--_n._ AQUAREL'LIST. [Fr.,--It. _acquerella_, _acqua_--L.

AQUARIUM, a-kw[=a]'ri-um, _n._ a tank or series of tanks for keeping
aquatic animals, usually made mostly of glass, filled with either fresh or
salt water, having rocks, plants, &c. as in nature: an artificial pond or
cistern for cultivating water-plants:--_pl._ AQU[=A]'RIUMS, AQU[=A]'RIA.
[L.--_aqua_, water.]

AQUARIUS, a-kw[=a]'ri-us, _n._ the water-bearer, the eleventh sign of the
zodiac, which the sun enters about 21st January, so called from the
constellation of the same name, supposed to represent a man holding his
left hand upward, and pouring with his right water from a vase into the
mouth of the Southern Fish. [L.--_aqua_, water.]

AQUATIC, a-kwat'ik, _adj._ relating to water: living or growing in
water.--_n.pl._ AQUAT'ICS, amusements on the water, as boating, &c.

AQUATINT, [=a]'kwa-tint, _n._ a mode of etching on copper, by which
imitations are produced of drawings in Indian ink, &c.--also
AQUATINT'A.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ A'QUATINT, to engrave in aquatint. [It.
_acqua tinta_--L. _aqua_, water, and _ting[)e]re_, _tinctum_, to wet, to

AQUEDUCT, ak'we-dukt, _n._ an artificial channel for conveying water, most
commonly understood to mean a bridge of stone, iron, or wood for conveying
water across a valley: also a bridge carrying a canal for the purposes of
navigation. [L. _aqua_, water--_duc[)e]re_, _ductum_, to lead.]

AQUEOUS, [=a]'kwe-us, _adj._ watery: deposited by water.--_adv._
A'QUEOUSLY.--AQUEOUS HUMOUR, the watery fluid which fills the space between
the cornea and the crystalline lens in the eye; AQUEOUS ROCKS, in geology,
rocks composed of matter deposited by water.

AQUIFEROUS, ak-wif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing water. [L. _aqua_, water,
_fero_, I bear.]

AQUIFORM, [=a]'kwi-form, _adj._ having the form of water. [L. _aqua_,
water, and FORM.]

AQUILINE, ak'wil-in, or -[=i]n, _adj._ relating to or like the eagle:
curved or hooked, like an eagle's beak. [L. _aquila_.]

AQUILON, ak'wi-lon, _n._ (_Shak._) the north wind. [L. _aquilo_, _-onis_.]

ARAB, ar'ab, _n._ a native of Arabia: an Arab horse, noted for its
gracefulness and speed: a neglected or homeless boy or girl--usually STREET
or CITY ARAB.--_adj._ of or belonging to Arabia.--_adj._ AR[=A]B'IAN,
relating to Arabia.--_n._ a native of Arabia.--_adj._ AR'ABIC, relating to
Arabia, or to its language.--_n._ the language of Arabia.--_ns._ AR'ABISM,
an Arabic idiom; AR'ABIST, one skilled in the Arabic language or
literature; AR'ABY, a poetical form of _Arabia_. [L. _Arabs_,
_Arab-em_--Gr. _Araps_.]

ARABA, ar-ä'ba, _n._ a heavy screened wagon used by the Tartars.--Also
AR'BA and AR[=O]'BA. [Ar. and Pers. _ar[=a]bah_.]


ARABESQUE, ar'ab-esk, _adj._ after the manner of Arabian designs.--_n._ a
fantastic painted or sculptured ornament among the Spanish Moors,
consisting of foliage and other parts of plants curiously
intertwined.--_adj._ AR'ABESQUED, so ornamented. [Fr.--It. _arabesco_;
_-esco_ corresponding to Eng. _-ish_.]

ARABINE, ar'ab-in, _n._ the essential principle of gum-arabic.

ARABLE, ar'a-bl, _adj._ fit for ploughing or tillage. [L.
_arabilis_--_ara-re_, cog. with Gr. _aro-ein_, to plough, A.S. _erian_,
Eng. EAR (v.t.), Ir. _araim_.]

ARACHNIDA, a-rak'ni-da, _n.pl._ a sub-class of Tracheate Arthropoda,
embracing spiders, scorpions, mites, &c., first separated by Lamarck from
the Insecta of Linnæus.--_adj._ ARACH'NIDAN.--_n._ and _adj._ ARACH'NOID,
like a cobweb.--_adjs._ ARACHNOI'DAL, ARACHNOLOG'ICAL.--_n._
ARACHNO'LOGIST, one who devotes himself to the study of
arachnida.--ARACHNOID MEMBRANE, one of the three coverings of the brain and
spinal cord, situated between the dura-mater and the pia-mater,
non-vascular, transparent, thin. [Gr. _arachn[=e]_, spider.]

ARAGONITE, ar'a-gon-[=i]t, _n._ a variety of calcium carbonate. [_Aragon_,
in Spain.]

ARAISE, a-r[=a]z', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to raise from the dead. [Pfx. _a-_, and

ARAMAIC, ar-a-m[=a]'ik, _adj._ relating to _Aramæa_, the whole of the
country to the north-east of Palestine, or to its language--also
ARAM[=E]'AN, AR'AMITE.--_n._ ARAM[=A]'ISM, an Aramaic idiom.

ARANEIFORM, ar-a-n[=e]'i-form, _adj._ in the form of a spider.--_adj._
like a spider's web. [L. _ar[=a]nea_, spider, and FORM.]

ARAPHOROSTIC, ar-af-or-os'tik, _adj._ (_Lytton_) seamless.--Also
AROPHOS'TIC. [Formed from Gr. _arraphos_, unsewed--_a_, neg., and
_hropt-ein_, to sew.]

ARAUCARIA, ar-aw-k[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of lofty evergreen trees of the
natural order Coniferæ or Pines, natives of S. America and Australasia.
[_Arauco_, name of a province, whence _Araucania_, a district in S. Chili.]

ARBALEST, är'bal-est, _n._ a crossbow of steel or horn used in war and the
AR'BALESTER, one armed with an arbalest. [O. Fr. _arbaleste_--L.
_arcuballista_--_arcus_, bow, and _ballista_, engine for throwing

ARBITER, är'bit-[.e]r, _n._ one chosen by parties in controversy to decide
between them: a judge having absolute power of decision: an arbitrator:
umpire:--_fem._ AR'BITRESS.--_ns._ AR'BITRAGE, exercise of the functions of
the arbiter; ARBIT'RAMENT, ARBIT'REMENT, the decision of an arbiter:
determination: choice.--_v.i._ AR'BITRATE, to act as an arbiter: to
determine.--_ns._ ARBITR[=A]'TION; AR'BITR[=A]TOR (same as
determination of the rate of exchange between two currencies when there are
one or more intermediate places through which the operations must pass.--TO
SUBMIT TO ARBITRATION, to defer a matter of private, public, or
international controversy to the judgment of certain persons selected.
[L.--_ar_ = _ad_, to, and _bit-[)e]re_ (cog. with Gr. _bai-nein_), to go or
come; sig. one who comes to look on, a witness, a judge.]

ARBITRARY, är'bi-trar-i, _adj._ not bound by rules: despotic, absolute,
arising from accident rather than from rule, varying, uncertain.--_adv._
AR'BITRARILY.--_n._ AR'BITRARINESS. [L. _arbitrarius_, arbiter.]


ARBOR, är'bur, _n._ the Latin word for tree.--_adjs._ ARBOR[=A]'CEOUS,
ARB[=O]R'EAL, of tree-like character.--_n._ ARBOR-DAY, in many of the
United States, a day yearly set apart for the general planting of trees by
school children--in Canada, the first Friday in May.--_adj._ ARB[=O]R'EOUS,
of or belonging to trees.--_ns._ ARBORES'CENCE, ARBORIS[=A]'TION, tree-like
growth.--_adj._ ARBORES'CENT, growing or formed like a tree: (_archit._)
branching like a tree.--_ns._ AR'BORET (_obs._), shrubbery: (_Spens._) a
little tree, shrub; ARBOR[=E]'TUM, a place in which specimens of trees and
shrubs are cultivated:--_pl._ ARBOR[=E]'TA.--_adj._ ARBORICUL'TURAL.--_ns._
AR'BORICULTURE, forestry, the culture of trees, esp. timber-trees;
ARBORICUL'TURIST; AR'BORIST, one who studies trees.--_adj._ AR'BOROUS,
formed by trees.--ARBOR VITÆ, a popular name of several evergreen shrubs of
the genus Thuja. When the human cerebellum is cut vertically, a tree-like
appearance seen receives this name.

ARBOR, är'bur, _n._ the main support of a machine: an axis or spindle on
which a wheel revolves. [L.]

ARBOUR, är'bur, _n._ an enclosed seat in a garden, covered with branches of
trees, plants, &c.: a bower: a shaded walk.--_adj._ AR'BOURED. [See

ARBUTE, är'b[=u]t, _n._ the strawberry-tree: an evergreen shrub, which
bears a scarlet fruit somewhat resembling the strawberry.--Also AR'BUTUS.
[L. _arbutus_, akin to _arbor_, tree.]

ARC, ärk, _n._ a segment of a circle or other curve. [O. Fr.--L. _arcus_, a

ARCADE, ärk-[=a]d', _n._ a row of arches supported by columns--the Gothic
counterpart to the classical colonnade: the row of piers, or columns and
arches, by which the aisles are divided from the nave of a church, or by
which cloisters are enclosed: a walk arched over: a long arched gallery
lined with shops on both sides. [Fr.--L. _arcata_, arched. See ARCH.]

ARCADIAN, ark-[=a]d'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Arcadia_ (_poet._ AR'CADY),
a district in Greece whose people were primitive in manners and given to
music and dancing: pastoral: simple, innocent.--_n._ ARCAD'IANISM.--_adv._

ARCANUM, ärk-[=a]n'um, _n._ a secret: a mystery: a secret remedy or
elixir:--_pl._ ARCAN'A.--_adj._ ARCANE' (_rare_). [L.--_arcanus_--_arca_, a

ARCATURE, ar-ka-t[=u]r, _n._ French for arcade, a small arcade: a blind
arcade for decorating wall spaces.

ARCH, ärch, _n._ a concave construction of stones or other materials, built
or turned on a centering over an open space, so as by mutual pressure to
support each other and sustain a superincumbent weight.--_v.t._ to cover
with an arch: to bend into the form of an arch.--_p.adj._ ARCHED, made with
an arch, or like an arch.--_ns._ ARCH'LET, a little arch; ARCH'WAY, an
arched or vaulted passage, esp. that leading into a castle.--ARCHES, or
COURT OF ARCHES, the ecclesiastical court of appeal for the province of
Canterbury, formerly held at the church of St-Mary-le-Bow (or 'of the
Arches'), from the arches that support its steeple. [O. Fr.,--L. _arca_,

ARCH, ärch, _adj._ cunning: waggish: roguish: shrewd, now mostly of women
and children.--_adv._ ARCH'LY.--_n._ ARCH'NESS. [Derived from the prefix
_arch-_, in its use in words like _arch_-rogue, &c.]

ARCH, ärch (ärk in _archangel_), _adj._ used as a prefix, now chiefly as an
intensive in an odious sense: the first or chief.--_ns._ ARCH'-EN'EMY, a
chief enemy: Satan--also ARCH'-FOE; ARCH'-FIEND, the supreme fiend: Satan;
ARCH'-FL[=A]'MEN, a chief flamen or priest; ARCH-HE'RESY; ARCH'-HE'RETIC, a
leader of heresy; ARCH'-MOCK' (_Shak._), the height of mockery;
ARCH'-P[=I]'RATE, a chief pirate; ARCH'-P[=O]'ET, a chief poet: (_obs._) a
poet-laureate; ARCH'-PREL'ATE, a chief prelate; ARCH'-PRIEST', a chief
priest: in early times, a kind of vicar to the bishop--later, a rural dean:
the title given to the superiors appointed by the Pope to govern the
secular priests sent into England from the foreign seminaries during the
period 1598-1621; ARCH'-TRAIT'OR, a chief traitor, sometimes applied esp.
to the devil, or to Judas. [A.S. _arce_, _ærce_, through L. from Gr.
_archi_, cog. with _arch-ein_, to begin.]

ARCHÆOLOGY, ärk-e-ol'oj-i, _n._ a knowledge of ancient art, customs, &c.:
the science which deduces a knowledge of past times from the study of their
existing remains.--_adj._ ARCHÆOLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ ARCHÆOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._
ARCHÆOL'OGIST. [Gr. _archaios_, ancient--_arch[=e]_, beginning, and
_logos_, discourse.]

ARCHÆOPTERYX, [=a]r-k[=e]-op't[.e]r-iks, _n._ the oldest known fossil bird,
found in the Jurassic limestone of Bavaria, having a long bony tail of
twenty vertebræ. [Gr. _archaios_, ancient, _pteryx_, wing.]

ARCHAIC, -AL, ärk-[=a]'ik, -al, _adj._ ancient: obsolete, esp. of
language.--_adj._ ARCHÆAN (ärk-[=e]'an), of or belonging to the earliest
zoological period.--_n._ ARCHÆOG'RAPHY.--_adj._ ARCHÆOZ[=O]'IC. (Gr.
_z[=o][=e]_, life), pertaining to the era of the earliest living beings on
the earth.--_adv._ ARCH[=A]'ICALLY.--_n._ ARCH[=A]'ICISM.--_v.t._
AR'CH[=A]ISE, to imitate the archaic.--_ns._ ARCH[=A]'ISM, an archaic or
obsolete word or phrase; ARCH[=A]'IST (_Mrs Browning_).--_adj._
ARCH[=A]IS'TIC, affectedly or imitatively archaic. [Gr.
_archaikos_--_archaios_, ancient--_arch[=e]_, beginning.]

ARCHANGEL, ärk-[=a]n'jel, _n._ an angel of the highest order.--_adj._

ARCHBISHOP, ärch-bish'up, _n._ a chief bishop: a metropolitan bishop who
superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops in his province, and also
exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.--_n._ ARCHBISH'OPRIC.
[ARCH, chief, and BISHOP.]

ARCHDEACON, ärch-d[=e]'kn, _n._ a chief deacon: the ecclesiastical
dignitary having the chief supervision of a diocese or part of it, next
under the bishop--the 'bishop's eye.'--_ns._ ARCHDEAC'ONRY, the office,
jurisdiction, or residence of an archdeacon; ARCHDEAC'ONSHIP, the office of
an archdeacon.--_adj._ ARCHID[=I]AC'ONAL.--_n._ ARCHID[=I]AC'ONATE. [ARCH,
chief, and DEACON.]

ARCHDIOCESE, ärch-d[=i]'o-s[=e]z, _n._ the diocese of an archbishop. [ARCH,
chief, and DIOCESE.]

ARCHDUKE, ärch-d[=u]k', _n._ a duke of specially exalted rank: a prince of
Austria:--_fem._ ARCHDUCH'ESS.--_adj._ ARCHD[=U]'CAL.--_ns._ ARCHDUCH'Y,
ARCHDUKE'DOM, the territory of an archduke or archduchess. [ARCH, chief,
and DUKE.]

ARCHER, ärch'[.e]r, _n._ one who shoots with a bow and arrows:--_fem._
ARCH'ERESS.--_ns._ ARCH'ER-FISH, an acanthopterygious fish of India which
catches insects by shooting water at them from its mouth; ARCH'ERY, the art
of shooting with the bow: a company of archers. [O. Fr. _archier_--L.
_arcari-um_, _arcus_, a bow.]

ARCHETYPE, ärk'e-t[=i]p, _n._ the original pattern or model, a
prototype.--_adj._ ARCHETYP'AL. [Gr. _archetypon_, _archi-_, and _typos_, a

ARCHIEPISCOPAL, ärk-i-ep-is'kop-al, _adj._ belonging to an
archbishop.--_ns._ ARCHIEPIS'COPACY, ARCHIEPIS'COPATE, dignity or province
of an archbishop. [See EPISCOPAL.]

ARCHIL, är'kil, _n._ a colouring substance obtained from various species of
lichens. [Corrupt form of ORCHIL--O. Fr. _orchel_, _orseil_ (Fr.
_orseille_)--It. _orcello_, origin undetermined.]

ARCHILOCHIAN, är-ki-l[=o]'ki-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Greek lyric poet
_Archilochus_ of Paros (714-676 B.C.), the supposed originator of iambic
metre, noted for the bitterness of his satire--hence the proverbial
phrases, 'Archilochian bitterness' and 'Parian verse:' a _lesser
Archilochian verse_ = a dactylic hexameter alternating with a penthemim; a
_greater Archilochian_, a verse consisting of four dactyls and three

ARCHIMAGE, är'ki-m[=a]j, _n._ a chief magician or enchanter. [Gr. _archi-_,
chief, and L. _magus_, a magician.]

ARCHIMANDRITE, är-ki-man'dr[=i]t, _n._ in the Greek Church, the superior of
a monastery, an abbot: sometimes the superintendent of several monasteries.
[Late Gr. _archimandrit[=e]s_--pfx. _archi_, first, and _mandra_, an
enclosure, a monastery.]


ARCHIMEDEAN, ärk-i-me-d[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Archimedes_, a
celebrated Greek mathematician of Syracuse (287-212 B.C.).--ARCHIMEDEAN
SCREW, a machine for raising water, in its simplest form consisting of a
flexible tube bent spirally round a solid cylinder, the ends of which are
furnished with pivots, so as to admit of the whole turning round its
axis.--PRINCIPLE OF ARCHIMEDES, a fundamental law in Hydrostatics, that a
body when immersed in a fluid weighs less than it does _in vacuo_ by the
weight of the fluid it displaces.

ARCHIPELAGO, ärk-i-pel'a-g[=o], _n._ the chief sea of the Greeks, or the
Ægean Sea: a sea abounding in small islands, also a group of such
islands:--_pl._ ARCHIPEL'AGOES.--_adj._ ARCHIPELAGIC (-aj'ik). [An Italian
compound from Gr. _archi-_, chief, _pelagos_, sea.]

ARCHITECT, ärk'i-tekt, _n._ a master-builder: one who designs buildings and
superintends their erection: a maker: any contriver, as the
Creator.--_adjs._ ARCHITECTON'IC, pertaining to architecture: constructive:
controlling, having direction: (_metaph._) pertaining to the arrangement of
knowledge.--_n._ the science of architecture: the systematic arrangement of
knowledge.--_adj._ ARCHITECT'URAL.--_n._ ARCHITECT'URE, the art or science
of building: structure: in specific sense, one of the fine arts, the art of
architecture--also used of any distinct style, e.g. Gothic, Byzantine
architecture. [Gr. _architekt[=o]n_--_archi-_, chief, and _tekt[=o]n_, a

ARCHITRAVE, ärk'i-tr[=a]v, _n._ (_archit._) the lowest division of the
entablature resting immediately on the abacus of the column: collective
name for the various parts, jambs, lintels, &c. which surround a door or
window.--_p.adj._ ARCH'ITRAVED. [It. from Gr. _archi-_, chief, and L.
_trab-em_, _trabs_, a beam.]

ARCHIVES, ärk'[=i]vz, _n._ the place in which government records are kept:
(_pl._) public records--also figuratively in both senses.--_adj._
ARCH'IVAL, pertaining to, or contained in, archives or records.--_n._
ARCH'IVIST, a keeper of archives or records. [Fr.--Gr. _archeion_,
magisterial residence--_arch[=e]_, government.]

ARCHIVOLT, är'ki-volt, _n._ the band or moulding which runs round the lower
part of the archstones of an arch. [Fr. _archivolte_, It. _archivolto_--L.
_arcus_, an arch, _volta_, a vault.]

ARCHOLOGY, ärk-ol'oj-i, _n._ (_rare_) doctrine of the origin of things: the
science of government. [Gr. _arch[=e]_, beginning, _logos_, discourse.]

ARCHON, ärk'on, _n._ one of nine chief magistrates of ancient
Athens.--_ns._ ARCH'ONSHIP, the office of an archon; ARCH'ONTATE, the
archon's tenure of office. [Gr. _arch-ein_, to be first, to rule.]

ARCHWISE, ärch'w[=i]z, _adv._ in the form of an arch. [ARCH, and WISE,

ARCTIC, ärk'tik, _adj._ relating to the constellation the Great Bear, or to
the north, used figuratively to express extreme cold.--ARCTIC CIRCLE, a
circle drawn round the North Pole, at a distance of 23½ degrees. [O. Fr.
_artique_--L. _arcticus_--Gr. _arktikos_--_arktos_, a bear.]

ARCTURUS, ärk-t[=u]'rus, _n._ the Bear-ward, a yellow star in the northern
hemisphere, fourth in order of brightness in the entire heavens. [Gr.
_arktouros_--_arktos_, a bear, and _ouros_, ward, guard (from its situation
at the tail of the bear).]

ARCUATE, är'k[=u]-[=a]t, ARCUATED, är'k[=u]-[=a]t-ed, _adj._ bent in the
form of a bow.--_n._ ARCU[=A]'TION. [L. _arcuatus_, pa.p. of _arcu-[=a]re_,
to bend like a bow--_arcus_, a bow.]


ARDEB, är'deb, _n._ an Egyptian dry measure of 5½ bushels. [Ar. _irdab_.]

ARDENT, ärd'ent, _adj._ burning: fiery: passionate: zealous:
fervid.--_adv._ ARD'ENTLY.--_n._ ARD'OUR, warmth of passion or feeling:
eagerness: enthusiasm (with _for_)--also ARD'ENCY.--ARDENT SPIRITS,
distilled alcoholic liquors, whisky, brandy, &c. The use of the word as =
'inflammable, combustible,' is obsolete, except in this phrase. [L.
_ardent-em_, _ard[=e]-re_, to burn.]

ARDUOUS, ärd'[=u]-us, _adj._ deep, difficult to climb: difficult to
accomplish: laborious.--_adv._ ARD'UOUSLY.--_n._ ARD'UOUSNESS. [L.
_arduus_, high; cog. with Celt. _ard_, high.]

ARE, ar, _n._ the unit of the French land measure, containing 100 sq.
metres = 119.6 English sq. yards. [Fr.--L. _area_.]

ARE, är, the plural of the present indicative of the verb _To be_. [Old
Northumbrian _aron_, of Scand. origin. This form ousted the older A.S.
_sind_, _sindon_. Both are cog. with Sans. _s-anti_, Gr. _eis-in_, L.
_sunt_, Ger. _s-ind_.]

AREA, [=a]'r[=e]-a, _n._ any plane surface or enclosed space: the sunken
space around the basement of a building: (_fig._) extent conceived by the
mind: (_geom._) the superficial contents of any figure. [L. _area_.]

AREAD, AREDE, a-r[=e]d', _v.t._ (_obs._) to make known, utter: guess:
interpret, explain: to counsel, advise. [A.S. _arédan_. See READ.]

AREAR, a-r[=e]r', _adv._ in the rear. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, on, to, and REAR.]

ARECA, ar'[=e]-ka, _n._ a genus of palm, one species of which, the
Betel-nut Palm, or Penang Palm (_Areca catechu_), bears nuts with austere
and astringent properties, which are chewed by the Malays with a little
lime in a leaf of the betel-pepper, making the lips and spittle red.

AREFACTION, ar-e-fak'shun, _n._ (_obs._) the action of drying.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ AR'EFY, to dry up, wither. [L. _arefac[)e]re_, to make
dry--_ar[=e]re_, to be dry, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ARENA, a-r[=e]'na, _n._ part of the ancient amphitheatre strewed with sand
for the combats of gladiators and wild beasts: any place of public contest:
a battlefield: place of action of any kind.--_adj._ AREN[=A]'CEOUS, sandy:
dry: (_geol._) applied to rocks composed entirely or largely of grains of
quartz.--_ns._ AREN[=A]'RIA, the sandwort, a genus of low herbs allied to
the chickweeds; AREN[=A]'TION, the application of hot sand to the body as a
remedy. [L. _ar[=e]na_, sand.]

AREOGRAPHY, [=a]-re-[=o]'gra-fi, _n._ description of the physical features
of the planet Mars. [Gr. _Ar[=e]s_, Mars, and _graphein_, to write.]

AREOLA, a-r[=e]'o-la, _n._ a small area: (_bot._) any slightly sunk spot,
on the surface: (_physiol._) the interstice in the tissue of an organised
substance: any circular spot such as that around the human nipple:--_pl._
AR[=E]'OLÆ.--_adj._ AR[=E]'OLATE, divided into small areas.--_n._
AREOL[=A]'TION, division into areolæ. [L. _areola_, a dim. of AREA.]

AREOMETER, ARÆOMETER, [=a]-re-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for
determining specific gravity, called also _Hydrometer_.--_n._ AREOM'ETRY,
the measuring the specific gravity of bodies. [Gr. _araios_, thin, and

AREOPAGUS, ar-e-op'ag-us, _n._ Mars' Hill, on which the supreme court of
ancient Athens was held: the court itself: also used of any important
tribunal.--_n._ AREOP'AGITE, a member of the Areopagus.--_adj._
AREOPAGIT'IC, pertaining to the Areopagus.--_n._ a speech on the model of
Isocrates's oration of that name addressed to the Areopagus. [Gr. _Areios
pagos_, hill of Ares, or Mars.]

ARET, ARETTE, a-ret', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to entrust, commit a charge to. [O.
Fr. _arete-r_, _à_-, to, _reter_--L. _reput[=a]re_, to reckon.]

ARÊTE, ar-[=a]t', _n._ a sharp ridge: esp. in French Switzerland, a rocky
edge on a mountain. [Fr.--L. _arista_, an ear of corn, fish-bone, spine.]

AREW, a-r[=oo]', _adv._ (_Spens._) arow, in a row.

ARGAL, ar'gal, _adv._ (_Shak._) corruption of L. _ergo_, therefore: hence
as a noun = a clumsy piece of reasoning.

ARGALI, är'ga-li, _n._ the great wild sheep of Siberia and Central Asia.

ARGAND, ar'gand, _n._ applied to a lamp and gas-burner invented by Aimé
_Argand_ (1755-1803).

ARGENT, ärj'ent, _adj._ and _n._ silver, or like silver, silvery-white:
(_her._) the silver or white colour in armorial bearings: (_poet._) esp. in
compounds like _argent_-clear, _argent_-lidded.--_adjs._ ARGENT'AL;
ARGENTIF'EROUS, bearing or containing silver; AR'GENTINE, relating to or
like silver: sounding like silver.--_n._ (_nat. hist._) white metal coated
with silver: a genus of small bony fishes with silvery sides, fished for
the nacre which they contain. [Fr.--L. _argentum_, silver.]

ARGIL, är'jil, _n._ potter's clay: pure clay or alumina.--_adjs._
ARGILL[=A]'CEOUS, of the nature of clay; ARGILLIF'EROUS, bearing or
abounding in clay. [L. _argilla_, Gr. _argilos_, white clay--_arg[=e]s_,

ARGIVE, ar'j[=i]v, _adj._ belonging to _Argos_: Greek.

ARGOL, är'gol, _n._ a hard crust formed on the sides of wine-vessels, from
which cream of tartar and tartaric acid are obtained--generally of a
reddish tinge. [Prob. conn. with Gr. _argos_, white.]

ARGON, ar'gon, _n._ a constituent element of our atmosphere, discovered in
1894 by Rayleigh and Ramsay.

ARGONAUT, är'go-nawt, _n._ one of those who sailed in the ship _Argo_ in
search of the golden fleece: also (_nat. hist._) a name of the nautilus, a
mollusc of the octopod type.--_adj._ ARGONAUT'IC. [Gr. _Arg[=o]_, and
_naut[=e]s_, a sailor.]

ARGOSY, är'go-si, _n._ a large merchant-vessel richly laden, esp. those of
Ragusa and Venice: also figuratively. [The forms _ragosie_, _rhaguse_, used
equally with _argosie_, _argosey_, &c., point to the derivation from It.
_Ragusea_, a ship belonging to Ragusa, a great medieval port on the
Adriatic, spelt in 16th-cent. English as _Aragouse_, _Arragosa_.]

ARGOT, är'go, or är'got, _n._ slang, originally that of thieves and
vagabonds: cant. [Fr.; of unknown origin.]

ARGUE, ärg'[=u], _v.t._ prove or evince: to prove by argument: to discuss:
(_obs._) to accuse.--_v.i._ to offer reasons: to dispute (with _against_,
_for_, _with_, _about_):--_pr.p._ arg'[=u]ing; _pa.p._ arg'[=u]ed.--_adj._
ARG'[=U]ABLE, capable of being argued.--_n._ ARG'[=U]ER, one who argues: a
reasoner.--TO ARGUE (a person) INTO, or OUT OF, to persuade him into, or
out of, a certain course of action. [O. Fr. _arguer_--L. _argut[=a]re_,
freq. of _argu[)e]re_, to prove.]

ARGUFY, ärg'[=u]-f[=i], _v.i._ to be evidence of something: to be of
importance: to argue, wrangle.--_v.t._ to weary with wrangling. [Illiterate
corr. of ARGUE.]

ARGUMENT, ärg'[=u]-ment, _n._ a statement, or reason based on such, offered
as proof: a series of reasons or a step in such: discussion: subject of a
discourse: summary of the subject-matter of a book: (_obs._) matter of
controversy.--_adjs._ ARGUMENT'ABLE, ARGUMENT'AL.--_n._ ARGUMENT[=A]'TION,
an arguing or reasoning.--_adj._ ARGUMENT'ATIVE.--_adv._

ARGUMENTUM, ärg-[=u]-ment'um, _n._ an argument.--The following are forms of
_indirect_ argument:--ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM, an appeal to the known
prepossessions or previous admissions of an opponent; ARGUMENTUM AD
IGNORANTIAM, an argument founded on the ignorance of an opponent;
ARGUMENTUM AD INVIDIAM, an argument appealing to the prejudices of the
person addressed; ARGUMENTUM AD JUDICIUM, an appeal to the common-sense of
mankind; ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM, an appeal to our reverence for some
respected authority; ARGUMENTUM BACULINUM, the argument of the cudgel--most
concise of arguments, an appeal to force; ARGUMENTUM PER IMPOSSIBILE, or
_Reductio ad absurdum_, the proof of a conclusion derived from the
absurdity of a contradictory supposition.--For the _Ontological_,
_Cosmological_, _Teleological_, and _Moral_ arguments in Theism, see under
these adjectives.

ARGUS, ärg'us, _n._ any very quick-eyed or watchful person, from _Argus_,
described in Greek mythology as having had a hundred eyes, some of which
were always awake: a genus of gallinaceous birds, remarkable for
magnificence of plumage--the only known species, the ARGUS PHEASANT, native
to Sumatra, &c. [Gr.--_argos_, bright.]

ARGUTE, är-g[=u]t', _adj._ shrill in sound: keen: shrewd.--_adv._
ARGUTE'LY.--_n._ ARGUTE'NESS. [L. _argutus_.]

ARGYRIA, ar-jir'i-a, _n._ silver poisoning. [Gr. _argyros_, silver.]

ARIA, [=a]'ri-a, _n._ an air or rhythmical song introduced in a cantata,
oratorio, or opera, and intended for one voice supported by instruments.
[It., from root of AIR.]

ARIAN, [=a]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Arius_ of Alexandria (died 336),
who denied the divinity of Christ.--_n._ one who adheres to the doctrines
of Arius: a Unitarian.--_v.t._ A'RIANISE.--_n._ A'RIANISM, the doctrines of
the Arians.

ARID, ar'id, _adj._ dry: parched.--_ns._ ARID'ITY, AR'IDNESS. [L.

ARIEL, [=a]'ri-el, _n._ a man's name in the Old Testament, variously
explained as 'lion of God,' 'hearth of God:' in later demonology, a
water-spirit: an angel: a spirit of the air. [Heb. _ari[=e]l_.]

ARIEL, [=a]'ri-el, _n._ a species of gazelle in Western Asia. [Ar.

ARIES, [=a]'ri-[=e]z, _n._ the Ram, the first of the signs of the zodiac,
which the sun enters on 21st M_arch._ [L.]

ARIETTA, ar-i-et'ta, _n._ a little aria or air.--Also ARIETTE'. [It.
_arietta_, dim. of _aria_.]

ARIGHT, a-r[=i]t', _adv._ in a right way: rightly.

ARIL, ar'il, ARILLUS, a-ril'lus, _n._ a peculiar covering of the seed of
some plants, formed by an expansion of the cord (_funiculus_) which
attaches the ovule to the placenta, or of the placenta itself.--_adjs._
AR'ILLARY, AR'ILLATED, having an aril. [Low L. _arillus_.]

ARIMASPIAN, ar-im-as'pi-an, _adj._ pertaining to the _Arimaspi_, described
by Herodotus as a one-eyed and fierce people inhabiting the most northern
region in the world, waging perpetual warfare with the neighbouring
griffins for their hoarded gold.

ARIOT, ä-r[=i]'ot, _adv._ in riot, riotously.

ARIPPLE, ä-rip'l, _adv._ in a ripple, rippling.

ARISE, a-r[=i]z', _v.i._ to rise up: to come up so as to be heard: to
ascend: to come into view: to spring:--_pa.t._ arose'; _pa.p._ aris'en.
[Pfx. _a-_, up, out, and RISE.]

ARISTARCH, ar'is-tärk, _n._ a severe critic. [From _Aristarchus_, a
grammarian of Alexandria about 160 B.C.]

ARISTATE, a-ris't[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) having awns. [L. _arista_, an awn.]

ARISTOCRACY, ar-is-tok'ras-i, _n._ government by the men of best birth or
condition: political power of a privileged order: the nobility or chief
persons of a state: the upper classes generally, also the persons noted for
superiority in any quality, taken collectively--also ARISTARCH'Y
(_rare_).--_n._ ARISTOCRAT (ar'is-to-krat, or ar-is'-), one who belongs to
or favours an aristocracy: a haughty person.--_adjs._ ARISTOCRAT'IC, -AL,
belonging to aristocracy: gentlemanly, stylish.--_adv._
ARISTOCRAT'ICALLY.--_n._ ARISTOCRAT'ISM. [Gr. _aristos_, best, and
_kratos_, power.]

ARISTOLOCHIA, ar-is-t[=o]-l[=o]'ki-a, _n._ a genus of shrubs, many
climbers, specially abundant in tropical South America. [Gr.; _aristos_,
best, _locheia_, child-birth, the roots of several species being formerly
thought useful in parturition.]

ARISTOTELIAN, ar-is-to-t[=e]'li-an, _adj._ relating to _Aristotle_ or to
his philosophy.

ARITHMANCY, ar'ith-man-si, _n._ divination by numbers.--Also ARITH'MOMANCY.
[Gr. _arithmos_, number, and _manteia_, divination.]

ARITHMETIC, ar-ith'met-ik, _n._ the science of numbers: the art of
reckoning by figures: a treatise on reckoning.--_adj._
in arithmetic--ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION, a series of numbers that increase
or diminish by a common difference, as 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22; or 12, 10½,
9, 7½, 6. To find the sum of such a series, multiply the sum of the first
and last terms by half the number of terms. [Gr. _arithm[=e]tik[=e]_
(_techn[=e]_, art), relating to numbers--_arithmos_, number.]

ARITHMOCRACY, ar-ith-mok'ras-i, _n._ a democracy of mere numbers.--_adj._
ARITHMOCRAT'IC. [A coinage of Kingsley--Gr. _arithmos_, number, _kratia_,

ARITHMOMETER, ar-ith-mom'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for working out
arithmetical calculations. [Gr. _arithmos_, number, _metron_, measure.]

ARK, ärk, _n._ a chest or coffer: in Jewish history, the wooden coffer in
which the Tables of the Law were kept--hence TO TOUCH or LAY HANDS ON THE
ARK, to touch irreverently what is sacred (2 Sam. vi. 6): a large floating
vessel, like that in which Noah escaped the Deluge (Gen.
vi.-viii.).--_adj._ and _n._ ARK'ITE. [A.S. _arc_--L. _arca_, a
chest--_arc[=e]re_, to guard.]

ARLES, ärlz, or [=a]rlz, _n._ earnest money given in confirmation of a
bargain, or of the engagement of a servant.--_ns._ ARLE'-PEN'NY,
ARLES'-PEN'NY. [Scot. and northern Eng.; M. E. _erles_--O. Fr. _erres_
(mod. Fr. _arrhes_)--L. _arrha_.]

ARM, ärm, _n._ the limb extending from the shoulder to the hand: anything
projecting from the main body, as an inlet of the sea, a rail or support
from a chair, sofa, or the like: one of the branches into which a main
trunk divides: (_fig._) power.--_ns._ ARM'-CHAIR, a chair with arms;
ARM'FUL; ARM'-HOLE, the hole in a garment through which the arm is
put.--_adv._ ARM'-IN-ARM, with arms interlinked, in close
communion.--_adj._ ARM'LESS.--_ns._ ARM'LET, a bracelet; ARM'-PIT, the pit
or hollow under the shoulder.--AT ARM'S LENGTH, away from any friendliness
or familiarity.--RIGHT ARM, the main support or assistant; SECULAR ARM, the
secular or temporal authority, as distinguished from the spiritual or
ecclesiastical.--WITH OPEN ARMS, with hearty welcome. [A.S.; cog. with L.
_armus_, the shoulder-joint, Gr. _harmos_, a joint.]

ARM, ärm, _n._ a weapon: a branch of the military service:--_pl._ ARMS,
weapons of offence and defence: war, hostilities: deeds or exploits of war:
armorial ensigns.--_v.t._ ARM, to furnish with arms or weapons: to
fortify.--_v.i._ to take arms.--_n._ AR'MATURE, armour: any apparatus for
defence: a piece of iron connecting the poles of a bent magnet.--_adj._
ARMED (ärmd, or arm'ed), furnished with arms: provided with means of
defence: (_bot._) having prickles or thorns: (_her._) having part of the
body different in colour from the rest, as a beak, claws, &c. of a
bird.--_n.pl._ FIRE'ARMS, such weapons as employ gunpowder, as guns and
pistols.--_n._ MAN'-AT-ARMS, a fully equipped and practised fighting
man.--_n.pl._ SMALL'-ARMS, such as do not require carriages, as opposed to
artillery.--ARMED TO THE TEETH, completely armed.--COLLEGE OF ARMS, the
Heralds' College, which grants armorial bearings.--IN ARMS WITH, quartered
with; OF ALL ARMS, of every kind of troops; STAND OF ARMS, a complete
equipment of arms for one soldier.--THE ARMED EYE, strengthened with a
magnifying-glass, as opp. to _naked eye_.--TO LAY DOWN ARMS, to surrender
or submit; UP IN ARMS, in readiness to fight. [Through Fr. from L. _arma_;
cog. with ARM.]

ARMADA, ärm-[=a]'da, _n._ a fleet of armed ships, esp. the self-styled
_Invincible_ Armada sent by Philip II. against England in 1588. [Sp.--L.
_armata_, _armare_, to arm.]

ARMADILLO, ärm-a-dil'o, _n._ a small American edentate quadruped, having
its body armed with bands of bony plates:--_pl._ ARMADILL'OS. [Sp., dim. of
_armado_, armed.]

ARMAGEDDON, är-mag-ed'on, _n._ the great symbolical battlefield of the
Apocalypse, in which the final struggle between the powers of good and evil
is to be fought out. [The name was no doubt suggested by the famous
battlefield of _Megiddo_, in the plain of Esdraelon.]

ARMAMENT, ärm'a-ment, _n._ forces armed or equipped for war: munitions of
war, esp. the great guns with which a ship is armed. [L.

ARMENIAN, ar-m[=e]'ni-an, _adj._ belonging to _Armenia_, in Western Asia:
belonging to the Armenian branch of the Christian Church.--_n._ a native of

ARMET, är'met, _n._ a helmet introduced about 1450 in place of the basinet,
consisting of an iron cap, spreading over the back of the neck, having in
front the visor, beaver, and gorget. [Fr.]

ARMGAUNT, ärm'gänt, _adj._ (_Shak._ once, _Ant. and Cleop._ I. v. 48), with
gaunt limbs (?). The word has not been satisfactorily explained, and is
most likely an error.

ARMIGER, är'mi-j[.e]r, _n._ an armour-bearer: one entitled to a
coat-of-arms: an esquire--also ARMI'GERO (_Shak._).--_adj._ ARMI'GEROUS.
[L.; _arma_, arms, _ger[)e]re_, to bear.]

ARMILLARY, är'mil-lar-i, or är-mil'lar-i, _adj._ resembling an armlet or
bracelet: consisting of rings or circles.--_n._ ARMIL'LA, in archæology, a
bracelet: one of the coronation ornaments: the regalia.--ARMILLARY SPHERE,
an instrument constructed to show the motions of the heavenly bodies. [L.
_armilla_, an _armlet_. See ARM (1).]

ARMINIAN, ar-min'yan, _n._ a follower of _Arminius_ (1560-1609), a Dutch
divine, who denied the Calvinistic doctrine of absolute predestination, as
well as irresistible grace.--_adj._ holding the doctrines of
Arminius.--_n._ ARMIN'IANISM.

ARMIPOTENT, ärm-ip'[=o]-tent, _adj._ powerful in arms. [L. _arma_, arms,
_potens_, _-entis_, powerful.]

ARMISTICE, ärm'ist-is, _n._ a short suspension of hostilities: a truce.
[Fr.--Low L. _armistitium_, from L. _arma_, arms, _sist[)e]re_--_stitum_,
to stop.]

ARMOIRE, arm'war, _n._ an ambry or cupboard. [Fr.]

ARMORIC, ar-mor'ik, _n._ the language of the inhabitants of _Armorica_, the
ancient name for Brittany. [L. _Armoricus_--Celt. _are-mor_, before the

ARMOUR, ärm'ur, _n._ defensive arms or dress: heraldic insignia: plating of
ships of war.--_adj._ ARM[=O]'RIAL, belonging to armour, or to the arms of
a family.--_ns._ ARM'OUR-BEAR'ER; ARM'OURER, a maker or repairer of, or one
who has the charge of, armour.--_adj._ ARM'OUR-PLAT'ED.--_ns._ ARM'OURY,
ARM'ORY, the place in which arms are made or kept: a collection of ancient
armour; COAT'-ARM'OUR, originally a vest of silk embroidered in colours,
worn by a knight over his armour. [See ARM (2).]

ARMOZEEN, ARMOZINE, är-mo-z[=e]n', _n._ a kind of taffeta or plain silk,
usually black, used for clerical gowns. [Fr. _armoisin_.]

ARMY, ärm'i, _n._ a large body of men armed for war and under military
command: a body of men banded together in a special cause, whether
travestying military methods, as the 'Salvation Army,' or not, as the 'Blue
Ribbon Army:' a host: a great number.--_ns._ ARM'Y-CORPS (-k[=o]r), a main
division of an army, a miniature army comprising all arms of the service;
ARM'Y-LIST, a list of all commissioned officers, issued periodically by the
War Office; ARM'Y-WORM, a European grub which collects in vast armies. [Fr.
_armée_--L. _armata_, _arm[=a]re_.]

ARNICA, är'ni-ka, _n._ a genus of composite plants, of which the species
_A. montana_, or Mountain Tobacco, formerly enjoyed a great repute in
medicine as a stimulant in paralytic affections, low fevers, &c.--its
flowers still yield a tincture externally applied to wounds and bruises.
[Mod. L.; origin unknown.]

ARNOTTO, ar-not'to. See ANATTA.

AROINT, a-roint', _interj._ (_Shak._) away! begone! used only twice in the
phrase, '_Aroint_ thee, witch:' to bid begone (_arch._ usage in
Browning).--_v.t._ to drive or frighten away. [Origin unknown; perh. in
some provincialism, like the Yorkshire _rynd-ta_, 'round-thee,'
'move-round,' spoken to a cow in her stall.]

AROMA, a-r[=o]'ma, _n._ sweet smell: the odorous principle of plants:
(_fig._) flavour or peculiar charm of any kind.--_adj._ AROMAT'IC,
fragrant: spicy.--_v.t._ AR[=O]'MATISE, to render aromatic: to
perfume:--_pr.p._ ar[=o]'matising; _pa.p._ ar[=o]'matised. [Through Fr. and
L. from Gr. _ar[=o]ma_.]

AROSE, a-r[=o]z', _pa.t._ of ARISE.

AROUND, a-rownd', _prep._ on all sides of: (_Amer._) round about.--_adv._
on every side: in a circle: (_Amer._) round, all about, [_a_, on, and

AROUSE, a-rowz', _v.t._ and _v.i._ same as ROUSE.--_ns._ AROUSE, AROUS'AL

AROW, a-r[=o]', _adv._ in a row: one following the other. [Prep. _a_, and


ARPEGGIO, är-pej'[=o], _n._ (_mus._) a chord of which the notes are given,
not simultaneously, but in rapid succession. [It. _arpeggiare_, to play
upon the harp--_arpa_, harp.]

ARPENT, är'pent, _n._ an old French measure for land still used in Quebec
and Louisiana = 100 sq. perches, varying with the perch from 1¼ acre to 5/6
of an acre. [Fr.--L. _arepennis_, said to be a Gallic word.]

ARQUEBUSE, är'kwi-bus, _n._ an old-fashioned hand-gun--also
HAR'QUEBUS.--_n._ ARQUEBUSIER'. [Fr. _arquebuse_--Dut. _haakbus_--_haak_,
hook, and _bus_, box, barrel of a gun; Ger. _hakenbüchse_.]

ARRACACHA, ar-a-kach'ä, _n._ an umbelliferous plant with esculent roots,
native to the northern parts of South America. [Native Ind. name.]

ARRACK, ar'ak, _n._ an ardent spirit used in the East, procured from
_toddy_ or the fermented juice of the coco and other palms, as well as from
rice and _jaggery_ sugar. [Ar. _`araq_, juice.]

ARRAH, ar'a, _interj._ Anglo-Irish expletive of emotion, wonder, &c.

ARRAIGN, ar-r[=a]n', _v.t._ to call one to account: to put a prisoner upon
trial: to accuse publicly.--_ns._ ARRAIGN'ER; ARRAIGN'ING; ARRAIGN'MENT.
[O. Fr. _aresnier_--Low L. _arration[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, _rationem_,

ARRANGE, ar-r[=a]nj', _v.t._ to set in a rank or row: to put in order: to
settle: (_mus._) to adapt a composition for instruments or voices for which
it was not originally written, as when orchestral or vocal compositions are
set for the pianoforte, or the reverse.--_v.i._ to come to an
agreement.--_n._ ARRANGE'MENT, act of arranging: classification:
settlement. [O. Fr. _arangier_--_à_ (--L. _ad_, to), and _rangier_,
_rengier_. See RANGE.]

ARRANT, ar'rant, _adj._ downright, notorious (used in a bad sense):
unmitigated.--_adv._ AR'RANTLY. [A variant of ERRANT. From its use in
phrases like 'arrant thief,' it passed naturally into a general term used
with other terms of abuse.]

ARRAS, ar'ras, _n._ tapestry: a hanging screen of such hung round the walls
of rooms.--_p.adj._ AR'RASED, covered with arras.--_n._ AR'RASENE, an
embroidery material of wool and silk stitched in like crewels. [From
_Arras_ in Northern France, where first manufactured.]

ARRAUGHT, ar-rawt', _adj._ (_Spens._) seized on by force:--_pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ of ARREACH. [See REACH.]

ARRAY, ar-r[=a]', _n._ order: dress: equipage.--_v.t._ to put in order: to
arrange: to dress, adorn, or equip. [O. Fr. _arroi_, array, equipage--L.
_ad_, and a Teut. root, found in Eng. READY, Ger. _bereit_, A.S.
_ger['æ]de_, preparation, Dan. _rede_, order.]

ARREAR, ar-r[=e]r', _n._ that which is in the rear or behind: that which
remains unpaid or undone (used mostly in _pl._).--_adv._ ARREAR', backward,
behind.--_n._ ARREAR'AGE (_Shak._), arrears. [O. Fr. _arere_, _ariere_ (Fr.
_arrière_)--L. _ad_, to, _retro_, back, behind.]

ARRECT, a-rekt', _adj._ upright: erected, as the ears: on the alert. [L.

ARREST, ar-rest', _v.t._ to stop: to seize: to catch the attention: to
apprehend by legal authority.--_n._ stoppage: seizure by warrant.--_adj._
ARREST'ABLE, liable to be arrested.--_n._ ARREST[=A]'TION, the act of
arresting: arrest.--_adj._ ARREST'IVE, with a tendency to arrest.--_n._
ARREST'MENT (_law_), detention of a person arrested till liberated on bail,
or by security: (_Scots law_) the process which prohibits a debtor from
making payment to his creditor until another debt due to the person making
use of the arrestment by such creditor is paid. [O. Fr. _arester_--L. _ad_,
to, _rest[=a]re_, to stand still.]

ARRET, ar-ret', or a-r[=a]', _n._ decision: judgment of a
tribunal--properly of the king or parliament of France. [Fr. _arrêt_. See

ARRIDE, a-r[=i]d', _v.t._ (_Lamb_) to please, gratify. [L. _arrid[=e]-re_.]

ARRIÈRE-BAN, är'yer-bän, or ä-r[=e]r'ban, _n._ in feudal times, the
sovereign's summons to all freemen to take the field: the army thus
collected. [O. Fr. _ariereban_, Old High Ger. _hari_, army, and _ban_,
public proclamation.]

ARRIS, ar'ris, _n._ a sharp ridge or edge on stone or metal. [See ARÊTE.]

ARRIVE, ar-r[=i]v', _v.i._ to reach any place: to attain to any object
(with _at_).--_ns._ ARR[=I]V'AL, the act of arriving: persons or things
that arrive; ARR[=I]V'ANCE (_Shak._), company arriving. [O. Fr.
_ariver_--Low L. _adrip[=a]re_--L. _ad_, to, _ripa_, a bank.]

ARROBA, a-r[=o]'ba, _n._ a weight of 25 or more pounds, used in Spanish and
Portuguese regions. [Ar.]

ARROGATE, ar'rog-[=a]t, _v.t._ to claim as one's own: to claim proudly or
unduly.--_ns._ AR'ROGANCE, AR'ROGANCY, undue assumption of
importance.--_adj._ AR'ROGANT, claiming too much: overbearing.--_adv._
AR'ROGANTLY.--_n._ ARROG[=A]'TION, act of arrogating: undue assumption. [L.
_arrog[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _rog[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to ask, to claim.]

ARRONDISSEMENT, ar-ron'd[=e]s-mäng, _n._ a subdivision of a French
department, comprising a number of communes. [Fr.--_arrondir_, to make

ARROW, ar'r[=o], _n._ a straight, pointed weapon, made to be shot from a
bow: any arrow-shaped pin or ornament: the chief shoot of a plant, esp. the
flowering stem of the sugar-cane.--_n._ AR'ROW-HEAD, the head or pointed
part of an arrow: an aquatic plant native to England, with arrow-shaped
leaves rising above the water--reputed good for hydrophobia.--_adj._
AR'ROW-HEAD'ED, shaped like the head of an arrow.--_n._ AR'ROW-SHOT, the
distance traversed by an arrow.--_adj._ AR'ROWY, of or like arrows. [A.S.
_earh_, _arwe_; cog. with L. _arcus_; akin to Ice. _ör_, _örvar_.]

ARROWROOT, ar'r[=o]-r[=oo]t, _n._ a starch obtained from the roots of
certain plants growing chiefly in West Indies, and much used as food for
invalids and children. [Said to be so named because used by the Indians of
South America as an antidote against wounds caused by poisoned _arrows_.]

'ARRY, ar'i, _n._ a jovial vulgar fellow who drops his h's:--_fem._
'AR'RIET.--_adj._ 'AR'RYISH, in holiday spirits. [From the vulgar Cockney
pronunciation of _Harry_.]

ARSE, ärs, _n._ the posterior parts of an animal.--_adv._ and _adj._
ARS'Y-VERS'Y, backside foremost, contrary. [A.S. _ears_; Ger. _arsch_, Sw.
_ars_; cog. with Gr. _orros_.]

ARSENAL, är'se-nal, _n._ a dock possessing naval stores: a public magazine
or manufactory of naval and military stores. [It. _arzenale_, _arsenale_
(Sp., Fr. _arsenal_)--Ar. _d[=a]r aççin[=a]`ah_, workshop; _d[=a]r_, house,
_al_, the, _cin[=a]`ah_, art.]

ARSENIC, ar'sen-ik, _n._ one of the chemical elements: a mineral poison: a
soft, gray-coloured metal.--_ns._ AR'SENATE, ARS[=E]'NIATE, a salt of
arsenic acid.--_adjs._ ARSEN'IC, -AL, composed of or containing arsenic: in
chemistry, applied to compounds; ARS[=E]'NIOUS, of or containing
arsenic.--_n._ AR'SENITE, a salt of arsenious acid. [Gr. _arsenikon_,
_arsen_, male; the alchemists fancied some metals male, others female.]

ARSIS, ar'sis, _n._ grammatical term applied to the elevation of the voice
to a higher pitch in speaking: (_mus._) the strong position in a bar: the
strong syllable in English metre:--_pl._ AR'S[=E]S. [L.--Gr.
_arsis_--_airein_, to lift.]

ARSON, ärs'on, _n._ the crime of wilfully burning houses or other
buildings.--_ns._ AR'SONITE, AR'SONIST (_rare_). [O. Fr. _arson_--L.
_arsion-em_, _ard[=e]re_, _arsum_, to burn.]

ART, ärt, 2d pers. sing. of the present tense of the verb _To be_. [A.S.

ART, ärt, _n._ practical skill guided by rules: human skill as opposed to
nature: skill as applied to subjects of taste, the fine arts--music,
painting, sculpture, architecture, and poetry: (_pl._) specially used of
certain branches of learning to be acquired as necessary for pursuit of
higher studies, or for the work of life, as in phrase 'faculty of arts,
master of arts:' the rules and methods of doing certain actions: a
profession, skilled trade, or craft: contrivance: cunning, artfulness, or
address: artifice, special faculty of some kind acquired by practice,
skill, dexterity, knack: special faculty of giving expression to æsthetic
or artistic quality, as in _art-furniture_, &c., supposed, by the buyer, in
this respect, to justify its price.--_adj._ ART'FUL, full of art: (_arch._)
dexterous, clever: cunning: produced by art.--_adv._ ART'FULLY.--_n._
ART'FULNESS.--_adj._ ART'LESS, simple: (_rare_) inartistic: guileless,
unaffected.--_adv._ ART'LESSLY.--_ns._ ART'LESSNESS; ARTS'MAN, one who
cultivates some practical knowledge: (_arch._) a man skilled in arts or in
learning.--_n.pl._ ART'-UN'IONS, associations having for their object the
promotion of an interest in the fine arts.--ART AND PART, as in the phrase
'to be art and part in,' originally in legal expressions like 'to be
concerned in either by art or part'--i.e. either by _art_ in contriving or
by _part_ in actual execution; now loosely used in the sense of
participating, sharing.--USEFUL ARTS as opposed to _Fine arts_, those in
which the hands and body are more concerned than the mind.--SCIENCE and ART
differ essentially in their aims--_Science_, in Mill's words, 'takes
cognisance of a _phenomenon_, and endeavours to ascertain its _law_; _Art_
proposes to itself an _end_, and looks out for means to effect it.' [L.
_ars_, _artis_. See ARM.]

ARTEMISIA, är-t[=e]-miz'i-a, _n._ a genus of composite plants, with a
peculiarly bitter taste, including Wormwood, Southernwood, &c.

ARTERY, är't[.e]r-i, _n._ a tube or vessel which conveys blood from the
heart (see AORTA)--also metaphorically: any main channel of
communication.--_adj._ ART[=E]R'IAL--_v.t._ ART[=E]R'IALISE, to make
arterial.--_ns._ ART[=E]RIOT'OMY, the cutting or opening of an artery, to
let blood; ARTER[=I]'TIS, inflammation of an artery. [L.--Gr. _art[=e]ria_,
orig. the windpipe most probably--Gr. _air-ein_, to raise. The ancient
conception of the artery as an air-duct gave rise to the derivation from
Gr. _a[=e]r_, air.]

ARTESIAN, är-t[=e]'zhan, _adj._ applied to wells made by boring until water
is reached. [From _Artois_ (L. _Artesium_), in the north of France, where
the oldest known well of this kind in Europe was sunk in 1126.]

ARTHRITIS, ar-thr[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of a joint: gout.--_adj._
ARTHRIT'IC, relating to or affecting the joints: gouty. [Gr.
_arthritikos_--_arthron_, a joint.]

ARTHROPODA, ar-throp'od-a, _n.pl._ a great division of the animal kingdom,
the body consisting of a definite number of segments, each having a pair of
hollow jointed limbs into which the body muscles proceed. It again divides
into two great groups--the water-breathers or Branchiata, and the
air-breathers or Tracheata.--_adj._ ARTHROP'ODAL. [Gr. _arthron_, joint,
and _pous_, _pod-os_, a foot.]

ARTICHOKE, är'ti-ch[=o]k, _n._ a thistle-like, perennial, eatable plant
with large scaly heads, like the cone of the pine, now growing wild in the
south of Europe, though probably a native of Asia.--JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE, a
totally different plant, a species of sunflower, bearing tubers like those
of the potato, Jerusalem being a corr. of It. _girasole_ ('turn-sun'),
sunflower. By a quibble on Jerusalem, the soup made from it is called
_Palestine soup_. [Old It. _articiocco_ (It. _carciofo_)--Old Sp.
_alcarchofa_--Ar. _al_-_kharsh[=o]fa_, _al-kharshuf_. Popular definitions
are many--e.g. the plant that _chokes_ the _garden_ or the _heart_.]

ARTICLE, ärt'i-kl, _n._ a separate element, member, or part of anything: a
particular substance: a single clause or term: a distinct point in an
agreement, or an agreement looked at as complete, as in 'articles of
apprenticeship,' &c.: rules or conditions generally: a section of any
document: a literary composition in a journal, newspaper, encyclopædia,
&c., treating of a subject distinctly and independently: (_gram._) the name
given to the adjectives _the_ (definite article) and _a_ or _an_
(indefinite article).--_v.t._ to draw up or bind by articles: to indict,
charge with specific accusations: bind by articles of
apprenticeship.--_adj._ ARTIC'ULAR, belonging to the joints.--ARTICLES OF
ASSOCIATION, regulations for the business of a joint-stock company
registered under the Companies Acts; ARTICLES OF FAITH, binding statement
of points held by a particular Church; ARTICLES OF WAR, code of regulations
for the government and discipline of the army and navy.--IN THE ARTICLE OF
DEATH (L. _in articulo mortis_), at the point of death.--LORDS OF THE
ARTICLES, a standing committee of the Scottish parliament who drafted the
measures to be submitted.--THE THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES, the articles of
religious belief finally agreed upon by the entire bishops and clergy of
the Church of England in 1562. [L. _articulus_, a little joint--_artus_, a

ARTICULATA, är-tik-[=u]-l[=a]'ta, _n._ one of the great primary divisions
of the animal kingdom, according to Cuvier, including those animals of
which the body is divided into a number of distinct joints--viz. the higher
worms or Annelids, and also the Insects, Crustaceans, Arachnids, and

ARTICULATE, är-tik'[=u]l-[=a]t, _adj._ distinct: clear.--_v.t._ to joint:
to form into distinct sounds, syllables, or words.--_v.i._ to speak
distinctly.--_adv._ ARTIC'ULATELY.--_ns._ ARTIC'ULATENESS;
ARTICUL[=A]'TION, a joining as of the bones: part between two joints:
distinctness, or distinct utterance: a consonant; ARTIC'ULATOR, one who
articulates or speaks: one who articulates bones and mounts skeletons. [L.
_articul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to furnish with joints, to utter distinctly.

ARTIFICE, art'i-fis, _n._ artificer's work: a contrivance: a trick or
fraud.--_n._ ARTIF'ICER, a workman: an inventor.--_adj._ ARTIFICIAL
(ärt-i-fish'yal), made by art: not natural: cultivated: not indigenous:
feigned: not natural in manners, affected.--_v.t._ and _v.i._
ARTIFIC'IALISE, to render artificial.--_ns._ ARTIFICIAL'ITY,
ARTIFIC'IALNESS.--_adv._ ARTIFIC'IALLY. [L. _artificium_--_artifex_,
_-ficis_, an artificer--_ars_, _artis_, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ARTILLERY, är-til'[.e]r-i, _n._ offensive weapons of war, esp. cannon,
mortars, &c.: the men who manage them: a branch of the military service:
gunnery.--_ns._ ARTILL'ERIST, one skilled in artillery or gunnery;
ARTILL'ERY-MAN, a soldier of the artillery. [O. Fr. _artillerie_,
_artiller_, to arm; through a supposed Low L. _artill[=a]re_--L. _ars_,
_artis_, art.]

ARTIODACTYLA, är-ti-o-dak'til-a, _n._ a sub-order of the great mammalian
order of Ungulata, having the third digit unsymmetrical in itself, but
forming a symmetrical pair with the fourth digit--as distinguished from the
_Perissodactyla_ (horse, tapir, rhinoceros), which have the third digit of
each limb symmetrical in itself, an odd number of digits on the hind-foot,
and at least twenty-two dorso-lumbar vertebræ. The Artiodactyla, again,
divide into two groups, the Non-Ruminantia and the Ruminantia.

ARTISAN, ärt'i-zan, _n._ one skilled in any art or trade: a mechanic.
[Fr.--It. _artigiano_, ult. from L. _artitus_, skilled in the arts--_ars_,
_artis_, art.]

ARTIST, ärt'ist, _n._ one who practises an art, esp. one of the fine arts,
as painting, sculpture, engraving, or architecture.--_adjs._ ARTIST'IC,
-AL, according to art.--_adv._ ARTIST'ICALLY.--_n._ ART'ISTRY, artistic
pursuits: artistic workmanship, quality, or ability. [Fr. _artiste_, It.
_artista_--L. _ars_, _artis_, art.]

ARTISTE, är-t[=e]st', _n._ one dexterous or tasteful in any art, as an
opera dancer, a cook, a hairdresser, &c. [Fr.]


ARUM, [=a]'rum, _n._ a genus of plants represented in England by the
Cuckoo-pint or Wake Robin (_A. maculatum_), whose root yields a wholesome
farina known as Portland Sago or Arrowroot. [L.--Gr. _aron_.]

ARUNDINACEOUS, a-run-di-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ relating to or like a
reed.--Also ARUNDIN'EOUS. [L. _arundinaceus_--_arundo_, a reed.]


ARVICOLA, är-vik'[=o]-lä, _n._ the general name of the family of animals to
which belong the water-vole and field-vole. [Coined from L. _arvum_, a
field, _col[)e]-re_, to inhabit.]

ARY, ä'ri, e'ri, _adj._ (_prov._) any. [A modification of _e'er a_ for
_ever a_. Cf. NARY.]

ARYAN, ar'i-an, or [=a]'ri-an, _adj._ relating to the family of nations
otherwise called Indo-European (comprehending the inhabitants of
Europe--except the Basques, Turks, Magyars, and Finns--and those of
Armenia, Persia, and North Hindustan), or to their languages--Sanskrit,
Zend, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, Lettic.--_v.t._ ARYANISE'.
[L. _arianus_, belonging to _Ariana_ or _Aria_ (Gr. _Areia_), the east part
of Ancient Persia--Sans. _Arya_ (cf. Old Pers. _Ariya_, and _Ir[=a]n_,
Persia), often traced to a root _ar_, plough.]

AS, az, _adv._, _conj._, and _pron._ in that degree, so far, _as ... as_:
the consequent in a co-relation expressing quantity, degree, &c., _as ...
as_, _such ... as_, _same ... as_: since, because: when, while: expressing
merely continuation or expansion, for instance: similarly: for example:
while: in like manner: that, who, which (after _such_, _same_).--AS
CONCERNING, AS TO, AS FOR, so far as concerns; AS IT WERE, so to speak, in
some sort; AS MUCH, the same; AS WELL (AS), just as much (as), equally
(with). [A worn-down form of _all-so_, A.S. _all-swá_, wholly so.]

AS, as, _n._ in Norse mythology, one of the gods, the inhabitants of
_Asgard_:--_pl._ AESIR ([=a]'ser). [Ice. _[=a]ss_, a god (pl. _æsir_)--A.S.
_[=o]s_, seen in such proper names as _Os_wold, _Os_ric.]

AS, as, _n._ Latin unit of weight, 12 ounces (L. _unciæ_): a copper coin,
the unit of the early monetary system of Rome.

ASAFOETIDA, as-a-fet'i-da, _n._ a medicinal gum-resin, having an offensive
smell, procured by drying the milky juice which flows from the root of the
plant _Ferula_ (_Narthex_) _asafoetida_. [Pers. _az[=a]_, mastic, and L.
_foetida_, stinking.]

ÅSAR, [=e]'sar, _n.pl._ the Swedish name for those long, winding banks and
ridges of gravel and sand which occur abundantly in the low grounds of
Sweden, supposed to mark the site of sub-glacial streams and rivers.--These
_åsar_ are the same as the Irish _eskar_ and the Scotch _kames_.

ASARABACCA, as-a-ra-bak'a, _n._ a European plant, a species of _Asarum_,
having acrid properties, formerly used in the preparation of snuffs for
catarrh, &c. [L. _asarum_, _bacca_, a berry.]

ASBESTOS, az-best'os, _n._ an incombustible mineral, a variety of
hornblende, of a fine fibrous texture, resembling flax: (_fig._) anything
unquenchable.--_adjs._ ASBES'TIC, ASBES'TOUS, ASBES'TINE, of or like
asbestos: incombustible. [Gr.; (lit.) unquenchable--_a_, neg., _sbestos_,

ASCARIS, as'ka-ris, _n._ a genus of parasitic worms, of the family
ASCAR'IDÆ, infesting the small intestines. [Gr. _askaris_, pl.

ASCEND, as-send', _v.i._ to climb or mount up: to rise, literally or
figuratively: to go backwards in the order of time.--_v.t._ to climb or go
up on: to mount.--_adjs._ ASCEND'ABLE, ASCEND'IBLE.--ASCENDING RHYTHM, in
prosody, a rhythm in which the arsis follows the thesis, as an iambic or
anapæstic rhythm: opposed to _descending_ rhythms, as the trochaic and
dactylic. [L. _ascend[)e]re_, _ascensum_--_ad_, and _scand[)e]re_, to

ASCENSION, as-sen'shun, _n._ a rising or going up.--_adjs._ ASCEND'ANT,
-ENT, superior: above the horizon.--_n._ superiority: (_astrol._) the part
of the ecliptic rising above the horizon at the time of one's birth; it was
supposed to have commanding influence over the person's life, hence the
phrase, 'in the ascendant:' superiority or great influence: (_rare_) an
ancestor.--_n._ ASCEND'ENCY, controlling influence--also ASCEND'ANCY,
ASCEND'ANCE, ASCEND'ENCE (_rare_).--_adj._ ASCEN'SIONAL, relating to
ascension.--_n._ ASCEN'SION-DAY, the festival held on Holy Thursday, ten
days before Whitsunday, to commemorate Christ's _ascension_ to
heaven.--_adj._ ASCEN'SIVE, rising: causing to rise.--_n._ ASCENT', act of
ascending: upward movement, as of a balloon: way of ascending: degree of
elevation or advancement: slope or gradient: a flight of steps.--LINE OF
ASCENT, ancestry.--RIGHT ASCENSION (_astron._), the name applied to one of
the arcs which determine the position relatively to the equator of a
heavenly body on the celestial sphere, the other being the declinator. [L.

ASCERTAIN, as-s[.e]r-t[=a]n', _v.t._ to determine: to obtain certain
knowledge of: (_rare_) to insure, certify, make certain.--_adj._
ASCERTAIN'ABLE.--_n._ ASCERTAIN'MENT. [O. Fr. _acertener_. See CERTAIN.]

ASCETIC, as-set'ik, _n._ one who rigidly denies himself ordinary sensual
gratifications for conscience' sake, one who aims to compass holiness
through self-mortification, the flesh being considered as the seat of sin,
and therefore to be chastened: a strict hermit.--_adjs._ ASCET'IC, -AL,
excessively rigid: austere: recluse.--_adv._ ASCET'ICALLY.--_n._
ASCET'ICISM. [Gr. _ask[=e]tikos_ (adj. _ask[=e]t[=e]s_), one that uses
exercises to train himself--_askein_, to work, take exercise, (_eccles._)
to mortify the body.]

ASCIAN, ash'yan, _n._ name given to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who
are shadowless at certain seasons, from the sun being right over their
heads. [Gr. _askios_, shadowless--_a_, neg., _skia_, a shadow.]

ASCIDIANS, a-sid'i-anz, _n.pl._ a group belonging to the tunicate Mollusca,
forming a class of degenerate survivors of ancestral vertebrates,
asymmetrical marine animals with a tubular heart and no feet, of a
double-mouthed flask shape, found at low-water mark on the sea-beach.--_n._
ASCID'IUM, a genus of Ascidians: (_bot._) a pitcher-shaped, leafy
formation, as in the _Nepenthes_. [Gr. _askidion_, dim. of _askos_, a
leathern bag, wine-skin.]


ASCLEPIAD, as-kl[=e]'pi-ad, ASCLEPIADIC, as-kl[=e]-pi-ad'ik, _n._ in
ancient prosody, a verse consisting of a spondee, two (or three) choriambi,
and an iambus: [--|-uu-|-uu-|u-|]--_adj._ ASCLEPIAD'IC. [_Asclepiad[=e]s_,
a Greek poet.]

ASCLEPIADS, as-kl[=e]'pi-adz, _n.pl._ an order of Greek physicians, priests
of Asclepius or Æsculapius, the god of medicine. [Gr. _askl[=e]pius_,

ASCLEPIAS, as-kl[=e]'pi-as, _n._ a genus of plants, native to North
America, giving name to the natural order of the Asclepidaceæ, and
containing the milk-weed, swallow-wort, &c.

ASCRIBE, a-skr[=i]b', _v.t._ to attribute, impute, or assign.--_adj._
ASCRIB'ABLE.--_n._ ASCRIP'TION, act of ascribing or imputing: any
expression of ascribing, or any formula for such, like the one ascribing
glory to God repeated at the end of a sermon. [L. _ascrib[)e]re_,
_-scriptum_--_ad_, to, _scrib-[)e]re_, to write.]

ASEITY, a-s[=e]'i-ti, _n._ self-origination. [L. _a_, from, _se_, self.]

ASEPTIC, a-sep'tik, _adj._ not liable to decay or putrefaction.--_n._
ASEP'TICISM. [From Gr. _a_, neg., _s[=e]ptos_, _s[=e]pomai_, to decay.]

ASEXUAL, a-seks'[=u]-al, _adj._ without sex, once applied to
cryptogams--agamic. [Gr. _a_, neg., and SEXUAL.]

ASGARD, as'gärd, _n._ the heaven of Norse mythology, abode of the twelve
gods and twenty-six goddesses, and of heroes slain in battle. [Ice.
_asgardhr_, _[=a]ss_, a god, _gardhr_, an enclosure.]

ASH, ash, _n._ a well-known timber tree, or its wood, which is white,
tough, and hard, much used in carpentry and wheel-work: the ashen shaft of
a spear, or a spear itself.--_adj._ ASH'EN.--_n._ GROUND'-ASH, or
ASH'-PLANT, an ash sapling.--MOUNTAIN ASH, the rowan-tree; QUAKING ASH, the
aspen. [A.S. _æsc_--Ger. _esche_, Ice. _askr_.]

ASHAKE, a-sh[=a]k', _adv. phrase_, shaking. [Prep. _a_, and SHAKE.]

ASHAMED, a-sh[=a]md', _adj._ affected with shame (with _of_ for the cause
of shame; _for_, the person).--_v.t._ and _v.i._ ASHAME', to feel shame: to
put to shame.--_n._ ASHAMED'NESS.--_p.adj._ ASHAM'ING. [Pa.p. of old verb

ASHES, ash'ez, _n.pl._ the dust or remains of anything burnt: the remains
of the human body when burnt: (_fig._) a dead body: used to express pallor,
from the colour of wood-ashes, as in 'pale as ashes,' 'ashy-pale.'--_n._
ASH'-BUCK'ET, a box or bucket in which house-ashes and general refuse are
collected for removal.--_adjs._ ASH'EN, ASH'EN-GRAY.--_ns._ ASH'ERY, a
place where potash or pearl-ash is made; ASH'-HEAP, a heap of ashes and
household refuse; ASH'-LEACH, a tub in which alkaline salts are dissolved
from wood-ashes; ASH'-PAN, a kind of tray fitted underneath a grate to
receive the ashes.--_adjs._ ASH'Y, ASH'Y-GRAY.--TO LAY IN ASHES, to destroy
utterly by burning. [A.S. _asce_; Ice. _aska_.]

ASHET, ash'et, _n._ (now only _Scot._) a large flat dish in which meat is
served. [Fr. _assiette_.]

ASHIVER, a-shiv'[.e]r, _adv. phrase_, quivering.

ASHKENAZIM, ash-k[=e]-naz'im, _n.pl._ the Polish and German Jews, as
distinguished from the _Sephardim_, the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. [Heb.
_Ashkenaz_, the name of a northern people in Gen. x., located in Arabia, by
later Jews identified with Germany.]

ASHLAR, ash'lar, ASHLER, ash'l[.e]r, _n._ hewn or squared stone used in
facing a wall, as distinguished from rough, as it comes from the
quarry--also in ASH'LAR-WORK, as opposed to _Rubble-work_.--_p.adj._
ASH'LARED.--_n._ ASH'LARING. [O. Fr. _aiseler_--L. _axillaris_, _axilla_,
dim. of _axis_, _assis_, axle; also plank (cf. Fr. _ais_, It. _asse_.]

ASHORE, a-sh[=o]r', _adv._ on shore. [Prep. _a_, and SHORE.]

ASH-WEDNESDAY, ash-wenz'd[=a], _n._ the first day of Lent, so called from
the Roman Catholic custom of sprinkling ashes on the head.

ASIAN, [=a]zh'yan, or [=a]sh'i-an, ASIATIC, [=a]-zhi-at'ik, or
[=a]sh-i-at'ik, _adj._ belonging to Asia: florid in literature or
art.--_n._ ASIAT'ICISM, imitation of Asiatic or Eastern manners.

ASIDE, a-s[=i]d', _adv._ on or to one side: privately: apart.--_n._ words
spoken in an undertone, so as not to be heard by some person present, words
spoken by an actor which the other persons on the stage are supposed not to
hear: an indirect effort of any kind.--_adj._ private, apart.--TO SET
ASIDE, to quash (a judgment).

ASINEGO, as-i-n[=e]'go, _n._ (_Shak._) a stupid fellow.--Also ASINI'CO.
[Sp. _asnico_--dim. of _asno_, L. _asinus_, ass.]

ASININE, as'in-[=i]n, _adj._ of or like an ass.--_n._ ASININ'ITY. [See

ASK, ask, _v.t._ to seek: to request, inquire, beg, question,
invite.--_v.i._ to request: to make inquiry (with _about_ and _for_--as to
ask one _after_ or _for_ another). [A.S. _áscian_, _ácsian_; Ger.
_heischen_, Ice. _æskja_, Sans. _esh_, to desire.]

ASKANCE, a-skans', ASKANT, a-skant', _adv._ sideways: awry: obliquely: with
a side glance, or with a side meaning.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to turn aside.--TO
EYE, LOOK, or VIEW ASKANCE, to look at with suspicion. [Ety. very obscure;
perh. conn. with It. _a schiáncio_, slopingly, or with Ice. _á-ská_, as in

ASKEW, a-sk[=u]', _adv._ obliquely: aside: awry. [See ASKANCE.]

ASLAKE, a-sl[=a]k', _v.t._ (_arch._) to slake: to mitigate. [Prep. _a_, and

ASLANT, a-slant', _adj._ or _adv._ obliquely.--Also ASKLENT' (_Scot._).

ASLEEP, a-sl[=e]p', _adj._ or _adv._ in sleep: sleeping: in the sleep of
death, dead. [Prep. _a_, and SLEEP.]

ASLOPE, a-sl[=o]p', _adj._ or _adv._ on the slope.

ASMOULDER, a-sm[=o]l'der, _adv. phrase_, smouldering.

ASNORT, a-snort', _adv. phrase_, snorting. [Prep. _a_, and SNORT.]

ASP, asp, ASPIC, asp'ik, _n._ a popular name applied loosely to various
genera of venomous serpents--now chiefly to the _Vipera aspis_ of Southern
Europe. Cleopatra's asp was probably the small _Vipera hasselquistii_, or
horned viper: the biblical asp (Heb. _pethen_) was probably the Egyptian
juggler's snake (_Naja haje_). [L.--Gr. _aspis_.]

ASPARAGUS, as-par'a-gus, _n._ a plant cultivated for its young shoots,
esteemed as a table delicacy.--_n._ ASPAR'AGINE, a nitrogenised
crystallised substance found in asparagus and other
vegetables.--_Sparrow-grass_ was long the form of the word in English.
[L.--Gr. _asparagos_.]

ASPECT, as'pekt (in _Shak._ and elsewhere, as-pekt'), _n._ look: view:
appearance, also applied figuratively to the mind: position in relation to
the points of the compass: the situation of one planet with respect to
another, as seen from the earth.--_v.i._ (_obs._) to look at.--_adj._
AS'PECTABLE, visible, worth looking at. [L. _aspectus_--_ad_, at,
_spec[)e]re_, to look.]

ASPEN, asp'en, _n._ the trembling poplar.--_adj._ made of or like the
aspen: tremulous: timorous.--_adj._ AS'PEN-LIKE. [A.S. _æspe_, Ger.

ASPER, as'p[.e]r, _n._ a small silver Turkish coin.


ASPERGES, as-per'jes, _n._ a short service introductory to the mass, so
called from the words _Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo et mundabor_ (Ps. li.).

ASPERGILL, -UM, as'p[.e]r-jil, -um, _n._ a kind of brush used in R.C.
churches for sprinkling holy water on the people.--Also ASPERGE',
ASPER'SOIR. [L. _asperg[)e]re_, to sprinkle, and dim. suffix.]

ASPERGILLUM, as-p[.e]r-jil'um, _n._ a remarkable genus of boring
Lamellibranch Molluscs, in which the shell has the form of an elongated
cone, terminating at the lower end in a disc, pierced by numerous small
tubular holes.--_n._ ASPERGIL'LUS, the name of a genus of minute fungi or
moulds occurring on decaying substances of various kinds.

ASPERITY, as-per'i-ti, _n._ roughness: harshness: bitter coldness. [L.
_asperitat-em_, _asper_, rough.]

ASPERMOUS, a-sp[.e]r'mus, ASPERMATOUS, a-sp[.e]r'ma-tus, _adj._ without
seeds. [Gr. _a_, neg., _sperma_, seed.]

ASPERSE, as-p[.e]rs', _v.t._ to slander or calumniate: to bespatter
(_with_).--_n._ ASPER'SION, calumny: slander: (_Shak._) a shower or
spray.--_adjs._ ASPERS'IVE, ASPERS'ORY, tending to asperse: defamatory.

ASPERSORIUM, as-per-s[=o]r'i-um, _n._ a vessel used in R.C. churches for
holding holy water.

ASPHALT, as-falt', or as'falt, ASPHALTUM, as-falt'um, _n._ a black or
dark-brown, hard, bituminous substance, anciently used as a cement, and now
for paving, cisterns, water-pipes, &c.--_v.t._ ASPHALT', to lay or cover
with asphalt.--_adj._ ASPHALT'IC. [Gr. _asphaltos_, from an Eastern word.]

ASPHETERISM, as-fet'er-izm, _n._ (_Southey_) denial of the right of private
property.--_v.i._ ASPHET'ERISE. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _spheteros_, one's

ASPHODEL, as'fo-del, _n._ a kind of lily--in Greek mythology, the peculiar
plant of the dead. In Greece they cover the bleakest hillsides with
enduring blossom.--_adj._ Elysian. [Gr. _asphodelos_, a plant of the lily
kind; cf. Homer's _asphodelos leim[=o]n_, the meadow of the dead. See

ASPHYXIA, as-fik'si-a, _n._ (_lit._) suspended animation, suffocation, when
the blood is in such a state as to render impossible a sufficiently free
exchange of carbonic acid for oxygen--also ASPHYX'Y.--_n._ ASPHYX'IANT, a
chemical substance which produces asphyxia.--_adj._ ASPHYX'I[=A]TED.--_ns._
ASPHYXI[=A]'TION; ASPHYX'I[=A]TOR. [Gr., a stopping of the pulse--_a_,
neg., _sphyxis_, the pulse.]

ASPIC, ASPICK, as'pik, _n._ (_poet._) a venomous serpent. [See ASP.]

ASPIC, as'pik, _n._ a savoury meat-jelly containing fish, game, hard-boiled
eggs, &c. [Littré suggests its derivation from _aspic_, asp, because it is
'cold as an aspic,' a French proverb.]

ASPIRANT, as-p[=i]r'ant, or as'pir-ant, _n._ one who aspires (with _after_,
_for_): a candidate.--_adj._ ambitious: mounting up (_rare_ in both
senses). [See ASPIRE.]

ASPIRATE, as'pir-[=a]t, _v.t._ to pronounce with a full breathing, as the
letter _h_ in _house_.--_n._ a mark of aspiration, the rough breathing in
Greek (`): an aspirated letter.--_p.adj._ AS'PERATED, made harsh.--_ns._
ASPIR[=A]'TION, pronunciation of a letter with a full breathing: an
aspirated sound (like Gr. _ch_, _th_, &c.): drawing air in; ASPIR[=A]'TOR,
an apparatus for drawing air or other gases through bottles or other
vessels: (_med._) an instrument for removing fluids from the cavities of
the body.--_adj._ ASP[=I]R'ATORY, relating to breathing.--TO DROP ONE'S
ASPIRATES, not to pronounce _h_, a mark of imperfect education or humble
social standing. [See ASPIRE.]

ASPIRE, as-p[=i]r' (followed by _to_ or _after_ with the object, or by an
infinitive), _v.i._ to desire eagerly: to aim at high things: to tower
up.--_n._ ASPIR[=A]'TION, eager desire.--_adj._ ASP[=I]R'ING.--_adv._
ASP[=I]R'INGLY.--_n._ ASP[=I]R'INGNESS. [Fr.--L. _aspir[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]

ASPLENIUM, as-pl[=e]'ni-um, _n._ spleenwort, a genus of ferns, mostly
tropical, with long or linear _sori_, with _indusium_ arising laterally
from above a vein--including the lady-fern, black maiden-hair, &c. [Gr.

ASPORT, as-p[=o]rt', _v.t._ (_rare_) to carry away, esp. in a bad
sense.--_n._ ASPORT[=A]'TION, feloniously carrying away. [L.
_asport[=a]re_--_abs_, away, and _port[=a]re_, to carry.]

ASPOUT, a-spowt', _adv. phrase_, spouting.

ASPRAWL, a-sprawl', _adv. phrase_, sprawling.

ASPREAD, a-spred', _adv. phrase_, spread out.

ASPROUT, a-sprowt', _adv. phrase_, sprouting.

ASQUAT, a-skwät', _adv. phrase_, squatting.

ASQUINT, a-skwint', _adv._ and _adj._ towards the corner of the eye:

ASS, as, _n._ a well-known quadruped of the horse family: (_fig._) a dull,
stupid fellow.--ASSES' BRIDGE, or PONS ASINORUM, a humorous name for the
fifth proposition of the first book of Euclid. [A.S. _assa_, the earlier
Teutonic form being _esol_, _esil_ (Goth. _asilus_)--L. _asinus_; Gr.
_onos_, ass. Perh. ult. of Semitic origin, as in Heb. _[=a]th[=o]n_, a



ASSAGAI, ASSEGAI, as'sa-g[=i], _n._ a slender spear of hard wood, tipped
with iron, some for hurling, some for thrusting with--used by the South
African tribes, notably the war-like Zulus.--_v.t._ to kill or slay with an
assagai. [Through Fr. or Port. from Ar. _azzagh[=a]yah_, _az_ = _al_, the
_zagh[=a]yah_, a Berber word.]

ASSAIL, as-s[=a]l', _v.t._ to assault: to attack.--_adj._
ASSAIL'ABLE.--_ns._ ASSAIL'ANT, one who assails or attacks; ASSAIL'MENT.
[O. Fr. _asaillir_--L. _assil[=i]re_--_ad_, upon, and _sal[=i]re_, to

ASSASSIN, as-as'in, _n._ one who, usually for a reward, kills by surprise
or secretly.--_v.t._ ASSAS'SINATE, to murder by surprise or secret assault:
(_Milton_) to maltreat: also figuratively, to destroy by treacherous means,
as a reputation.--_n._ (_obs._) one who assassinates.--_ns._
ASSASSIN[=A]'TION, secret murder; ASSAS'SINATOR. [Through Fr. or It. from
Ar. _hashsh[=a]sh[=i]n_, 'hashish-eaters,' a military and religious order
in Syria, of the 11th century, who became notorious for their secret
murders in obedience to the will of their chief, and fortified themselves
for their adventures by _hashish_, an intoxicating drug or drink made from

ASSAULT, as-sawlt', _n._ a sudden attack: a storming, as of a town: (_Eng.
law_) unlawful attempt to apply force to the person of another--when force
is actually applied, the act amounts to _battery_: an attack of any sort by
arguments, appeals, &c.--_v.t._ to make an assault or attack upon: (_law_)
to make an assault.--_n._ ASSAULT'ER.--ASSAULT AT ARMS, a display of attack
and defence in fencing. [O. Fr. _asaut_--L. _ad_, upon, _saltus_, a leap,
_sal[=i]re_, to leap. See ASSAIL.]

ASSAY, as-s[=a]', _v.t._ to determine the proportions of a metal in an ore
or alloy: endeavour (more usually _Essay_): (_Spens._) to affect or move:
(_Shak._) to put one to the proof, as to accost with a particular purpose,
to measure swords with another, &c.: (_poet._) put to proof, examine by
trial.--_v.i._ to attempt.--_n._ the determination of the quantity of metal
in an ore or alloy: the trial of anything, as in the ancient custom of
tasting the drink before handing it to a king or noble: an attempt or
endeavour: probation or trial: (_Spens._) ascertained purity.--_ns._
ASSAY'ER, one who assays, esp. metals; ASSAY'ING, the process of assaying
or determining the proportion of pure metal in an ore or alloy;
ASSAY'-MAS'TER, the officer who determines the amount of gold or silver in
coin or bullion. [O. Fr. _assayer_, n. _assai_. See ESSAY.]


ASSEMBLE, as-sem'bl, _v.t._ to call or bring together: to collect.--_v.i._
to meet together.--_ns._ ASSEM'BLAGE, a collection of persons or things;
ASSEM'BLANCE (_Spens._), an assembling: (_Shak._) semblance:
representation; ASSEM'BLY, the act of assembling: the company so assembled:
a gathering of persons for any purpose, as for religious worship or social
entertainment: specially applied to the lower house of the legislature in
some of the United States and British colonies: (_mil._) a drum-beat, esp.
that before a march, upon which the soldiers strike their tents;
ASSEM'BLY-ROOM, a room in which persons assemble, especially for
dancing.--GENERAL ASSEMBLY, in Scotland, Ireland, and the United States,
the highest court of the Presbyterian Church; LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, in many
of the British colonies, the title of the lower house of the legislature;
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, the first of the revolutionary assemblies in France,
which sat 1789-91--also called the _Constituent Assembly_, superseded in
1791 by the Legislative Assembly. [Fr. _assembler_--Late L.
_assimul[=a]re_, to bring together, _ad_, to, _similis_, like. See

ASSENT, as-sent', _v.i._ to think or concur with, to admit as true (with
_to_).--_n._ an agreeing or acquiescence: compliance.--_adj._
ASSENT[=A]'NEOUS, ready to agree.--_ns._ ASSENT'ER, ASSENT'OR, one of the
eight voters who indorse the proposer and seconder's nomination of a
candidate for election to the parliament of the United Kingdom.--_adjs._
ASSENT, in England, the sovereign's formal acquiescence in a measure which
has passed the two Houses of Parliament. [O. Fr. _asenter_, assent--L.
_assent[=a]re_, _assent[=i]re_, L. _ad_, to, _sent[=i]re_, to think.]

ASSENTATION, as-sen-t[=a]'shun, _n._ obsequious assent, adulation.--_n._
AS'SENTATOR (_obs._).--_adv._ ASSENT'ATORILY (_obs._). [L. _assent[=a]ri_,
to flatter, freq. of _assent[=i]ri_, assent, agree.]

ASSERT, as-s[.e]rt', _v.t._ to vindicate or defend by arguments or measures
(now used only of the cause as object or reflexive): to declare strongly:
to lay claim to or insist upon anything: to affirm: (_rare_) to bear
evidence of.--_adj._ ASSERT'ABLE.--_ns._ ASSERT'ER, ASSERT'OR, a champion,
one who makes a positive statement; ASSER'TION, affirmation: the act of
claiming one's rights: averment.--_adj._ ASSERT'IVE, asserting or
confirming confidently: positive: dogmatic.--_adv._ ASSERT'IVELY.--_n._
defend one's rights or opinions, sometimes with unnecessary zeal, to thrust
one's self forward. [L. _asser[)e]re_ (superl. _assertum_), _aliquem manu
in libertatem_, to lay hands on a slave in token of manumission, hence to
protect, affirm, declare--_ad_, to, and _ser[)e]re_, to join. Cf. SERIES.]

ASSESS, as-ses', _v.t._ to fix the amount of, as a tax (with _upon_): to
tax or fine: to fix the value or profits of, for taxation (with _at_): to
estimate.--_adj._ ASSESS'ABLE.--_ns._ ASSESS'MENT, act of assessing: a
valuation for the purpose of taxation: a tax; ASSESS'OR, a legal adviser
who sits beside a magistrate: one who assesses taxes: one who shares
another's dignity.--_adj._ ASSESS[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ ASSESS'ORSHIP. [Fr.--L.
_assess[=a]re_, freq. of _assid[=e]re_, _assessum_, to sit by, esp. of
judges in a court, from _ad_, to, at, _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

ASSETS, as'sets, _n.pl._ the property of a deceased or insolvent person,
considered as chargeable for all debts, &c.: the entire property of all
sorts belonging to a merchant or to a trading association. [From the
Anglo-Fr. law phrase _aver assetz_, to have sufficient, O. Fr. _asez_,
enough--L. _ad_, to, _satis_, enough.]

ASSEVERATE, as-sev'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to declare solemnly--an earlier form
is ASSEV'ER.--_adv._ ASSEVERAT'INGLY.--_n._ ASSEVER[=A]'TION, any solemn
affirmation or confirmation. [L. _assever[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to,
_severus_, serious. See SEVERE.]

ASSIDUITY, as-sid-[=u]'i-ti, _n._ constant application or diligence:
(_pl._) constant attentions, as to a lady.--_adj._ ASSID'UOUS, constant or
unwearied in application: diligent.--_adv._ ASSID'UOUSLY.--_n._
ASSID'UOUSNESS. [L. _assiduitas_--_assiduus_, sitting close at--_ad_, to,
at, _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

ASSIEGE, as-s[=e]j', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to besiege. [See SIEGE.]

ASSIENTO, as-[=e]-en'to, _n._ a word especially applied to an exclusive
contract between Spain and some foreign nation for the supply of African
slaves for its American possessions. [Sp., a seat, a seat in a court, a

ASSIGN, as-s[=i]n', _v.t._ to sign or mark out to one: to allot: to
appoint: to allege: to transfer: to ascribe or refer to: to suggest: to
fix, as a time: to point out exactly.--_n._ one to whom any property or
right is made over: (_pl._) appendages (_Shak._).--_adj._ ASSIGN'ABLE, that
may be assigned.--_ns._ ASSIGN[=A]'TION, an appointment to meet, used
chiefly of love-trysts, and mostly in a bad sense: (_Scots law_) the making
over of any right to another, equivalent to ASSIGNMENT; ASSIGNEE
(as-sin-[=e]'), one to whom any right or property is assigned: (_pl._) the
trustees of a sequestrated estate; ASSIGN'MENT, act of assigning: anything
assigned: the writing by which a transfer is made: (_Spens._) design.
[Fr.--L. _assign[=a]re_, to mark out--_ad_, to, _signum_, a mark or sign.]

ASSIGNAT, as-sin-yä', _n._ one of the notes (chiefly for 100 francs = £4
each) in the paper currency first issued in 1790 by the French
revolutionary government as bonds on the security of the appropriated
church lands.

ASSIMILATE, as-sim'il-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make similar or like to: to convert
into a like substance, as food in our bodies (with _to_, _with_).--_v.i._
to become like, or to be incorporated in.--_n._ ASSIM'ILABILITY
(_Coleridge_).--_adj._ ASSIM'ILABLE.--_n._ ASSIMIL[=A]'TION.--_adj._
ASSIM'IL[=A]TIVE, having the power or tendency to assimilate. [L.
_assimil[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _similis_, like.]

ASSIST, as-sist', _v.t._ to help.--_v.i._ to be present at a ceremony:
(_Shak._) to accompany.--_n._ ASSIST'ANCE, help: relief.--_adj._
ASSIST'ANT, helping or lending aid.--_n._ one who assists: a helper. [L.
_assist[)e]re_, to stand by--_ad_, to, _sist[)e]re_.]

ASSIZE, as-s[=i]z', _v.t._ to assess: to set or fix the quantity or
price.--_n._ a statute settling the weight, measure, or price of anything:
(_Scot._) a trial by jury, the jury: judgment, sentence, the Last Judgment:
(_pl._) the sessions or sittings of a court held periodically in English
counties, at which causes are tried by judges of the High Court of Justice
on circuit and a jury.--_n._ ASSIZ'ER, an officer who inspects weights and
measures. [O. Fr. _assise_, an assembly of judges, a set
rate--_asseoir_--L. _assid[=e]re_.]

ASSOCIATE, as-s[=o]'shi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to join with, as a friend or partner:
to unite in the same body.--_v.i._ to keep company (_with_): to combine or
unite.--_ns._ ASSOCIABIL'ITY, ASS[=O]'CIABLENESS.--_adjs._ ASS[=O]'CIABLE,
that may be joined or associated: sociable: companionable; ASS[=O]'CIATE,
joined or connected with.--_n._ one joined or connected with another: a
companion, friend, partner, or ally.--_ns._ ASS[=O]'CIATESHIP, office of an
associate; ASSOCI[=A]'TION, act of associating: union or combination: a
society of persons joined together to promote some object.--_adj._
ASS[=O]'CI[=A]TIVE, tending to association.--ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL, the game
as formulated by the Football Association (formed in 1863).--ASSOCIATION
(OF IDEAS), applied to laws of mental combination which facilitate
recollection: similarity: contiguity, repetition. [L. _associ[=a]tum_,
_associ[=a]re_--_ad_, to _socius_, a companion.]

ASSOIL, as-soil', _v.t._ to loosen from: to absolve or acquit: to solve:
(_Spens._) to remove, to let loose, to renew, to get rid of.--_n._
ASSOIL'MENT. [Through Fr. from L.--L. _ab_, from, _solv[)e]re_, to loose.]

ASSOIL, as-soil', _v.t._ to soil, stain, or make dirty. [L. _ad_, and SOIL.
See SOIL (2).]

ASSOILZIE, as-soil'y[=e], _v.i._ to free one accused from a charge: a Scots
law term, the same as the archaic _assoil_, to absolve from sin, discharge,
pardon. See ABSOLVITOR, under ABSOLVE. [Through Fr. from L.

ASSONANCE, as'son-ans, _n._ a correspondence in sound: in Spanish and
Portuguese poetry, a kind of rhyme, consisting in the coincidence of the
vowels of the corresponding syllables, without regard to the consonants, as
in _mate_ and _shape_, _feel_ and _need_.--_adjs._ AS'SSONANT, resembling
in sound; AS'SONANTAL, AS'SONANTIC.--_v.t._ AS'SONATE, to correspond in
sound. [Fr.--L. _asson[=a]re_, _as_ = _ad-_, to, _son[=a]re_, to sound.]

ASSORT, as-sort', _v.t._ to separate into classes: to arrange.--_v.i._ to
agree or be in accordance with: to fall into a class with, suit well with:
(_arch._) to keep company with.--_p.adj._ ASSORT'ED, classified, arranged
in sorts.--_ns._ ASSORT'EDNESS; ASSORT'MENT, act of assorting: a quantity
or number of things assorted: variety. [Fr. _assortir_--L. _ad_, to,
_sors_, a lot.]

ASSOT, as-sot', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to besot, to infatuate.--_p.adj._ ASSOT',
or ASSOT'TED (_Spens._), infatuated. [O. Fr. _asoter_--_à_, to, _sot_,
foolish. See SOT.]

ASSUAGE, as-sw[=a]j', _v.t._ to soften, mitigate, or allay.--_v.i._ to
abate or subside: to diminish.--_n._ ASSUAGE'MENT, abatement:
mitigation.--_adj._ ASSU[=A]'SIVE, softening, mild. [O. Fr., formed as if
from a L. _assuavi[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _suavis_, mild.]

ASSUBJUGATE, as-sub'j[=oo]-g[=a]t, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to reduce to

ASSUEFACTION, as-w[=e]-fak'shun, _n._ (_Sir T. Browne_) the act of
accustoming, habituation. [L. _assuefac[)e]re_--_assuetus_, accustomed, and
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ASSUETUDE, as'w[=e]-t[=u]d, _n._ (_obs._) custom, habit. [L. _assuetus_.]

ASSUME, as-s[=u]m', _v.t._ to adopt, take in: to take up, to take upon
one's self: to take for granted: to arrogate: to pretend to
possess.--_v.i._ to claim unduly: to be arrogant.--_adjs._ ASSUM'ABLE,
ASSUMP'TIVE, that may be assumed.--_adv._ ASSUM'ABLY, presumably.--_adj._
ASSUMED', appropriated, usurped: pretended: taken as the basis of
argument.--_advs._ ASSUM'EDLY, ASSUM'INGLY.--_adj._ ASSUM'ING, haughty:
arrogant. [L. _assum[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _sum[)e]re_, _sumptum_, to take.]

ASSUMPSIT, a-sump'sit, _n._ an action at law, wherein the plaintiff asserts
that the defendant undertook (L. _assumpsit_) to do a certain act and
failed to fulfil his promise: in the United States, the most common form of

ASSUMPTION, as-sum'shun, _n._ act of assuming: a supposition: the thing
supposed, a proposition: (_logic_) the minor premise in a
syllogism.--ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN, a church festival kept on the 15th of
August, based on the notion that after the death of Mary, her soul and body
were preserved from corruption and taken up to heaven by Christ and His
angels.--DEED OF ASSUMPTION (_Scots law_), a deed executed by trustees
under a trust-deed assuming a new trustee or settlement. [L. See ASSUME.]

ASSURE, a-sh[=oo]r', _v.t._ to make sure or secure: to give confidence:
(_Shak._) to betroth: to tell positively: to insure.--_adj._
ASSUR'ABLE.--_n._ ASSUR'ANCE, confidence: feeling of certainty:
self-reliance: impudence: positive declaration: insurance, as applied to
lives: the securing of a title to property: (_theol._) subjective certainty
of one's salvation: a solemn declaration or promise, a certain proof:
surety, warrant.--_adj._ ASSURED', certain: without doubt: insured:
overbold.--_adv._ ASSUR'EDLY.--_ns._ ASSUR'EDNESS; ASSUR'ER, one who gives
assurance: an insurer or underwriter: one who insures his life. [O. Fr.
_aseürer_ (Fr. _assurer_)--Late L. _adsecur[=a]re_--_ad_, to, _securus_,
safe. See SURE.]

ASSURGENT, as-ur'jent, _adj._ rising, ascending: (_bot._) rising in a curve
to an erect position: (_her._) of a bearing depicted as rising from the
sea.--_n._ ASSUR'GENCY, the tendency to rise.


ASSYRIAN, as-sir'i-an, _adj._ belonging to Assyria.--_n._ an inhabitant of
Assyria: the language of Assyria.--_ns._ ASSYRIOL'OGIST; ASSYRIOL'OGY, the
science of Assyrian antiquities. [Gr. _Assurios_--_Assuria_, Assyria.]

ASTARE, a-st[=a]r', _adv. phrase_, staring.

ASTART, a-start', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to start up suddenly: to happen, fall
out.--_adv._ with a start, suddenly. [Pfx. _a-_, and START.]

ASTATIC, a-stat'ik, _adj._ having a tendency not to stand still: losing
polarity, as a magnetic needle. [Gr. neg., _astatos_--_a_, neg., _statos_,
verb. adj. of _histanai_, to stand.]

ASTAY, a-st[=a]', _adv._ applied to an anchor when, in lifting it, the
cable forms such an angle with the surface of the water as to appear in a
line with the stays of the ship. [Prep. _a_, on, and STAY.]

ASTER, as't[.e]r, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order Compositæ,
with showy radiated flowers varying from white to lilac-blue or purple,
mostly perennial, flowering in late summer and autumn, hence often called
in England Michaelmas or Christmas daisies.--CHINA ASTER, the best-known
and most valued of the family, brought from China to France by a missionary
in the 18th century. [Gr. _ast[=e]r_, a star.]

ASTERIAS, as-t[=e]r'i-as, _n._ a genus of Echinoderms, containing the
common five-rayed starfish. [Gr. _ast[=e]rias_, a fish--_ast[=e]r_, a

ASTERISK, as't[.e]r-isk, _n._ a star, used in printing as a reference to a
note at the bottom or on the margin of the page, and sometimes as a mark of
the omission of words, thus *.--_n._ AS'TERISM, a group or collection of
small stars: a constellation: three asterisks placed to direct attention to
a passage: a property of some minerals which show a star-shaped luminous
figure when viewed by reflected light--e.g. the asteriated sapphire. [Gr.
_asteriskos_, dim. of _aster_, a star.]

ASTERN, a-st[.e]rn', _adv._ in the stern: towards the hinder part of a
ship: behind. [Prep. _a_, and STERN.]

ASTEROID, as't[.e]r-oid, _n._ one of the minor planetary bodies revolving
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.--_adj._ ASTEROID'AL. [Gr.
_ast[=e]r_, a star, _eidos_, form.]

ASTERT, a-st[.e]rt'. Same as ASTART.

ASTHENIA, as-th[=e]-n[=i]'a, _n._ debility, lack of strength.--_adj._
ASTHEN'IC [Gr. _a_, priv., and _sthenos_, strength.]

ASTHMA, ast'ma, _n._ a chronic disorder of the organs of respiration,
characterised by the occurrence of paroxysms in which the breathing becomes
difficult, and accompanied by wheezing and a distressing feeling of
tightness in the chest.--_adjs._ ASTHMAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to or affected
by asthma.--_adv._ ASTHMAT'ICALLY. [Gr. _asthma_, _asthmat-os_--_az-ein_,
to breathe hard, _a-ein_, to blow.]

ASTIGMATISM, a-stig'ma-tizm, _n._ a defective condition of the eye, in
which rays proceeding to the eye from one point are not correctly brought
to a focus at _one_ point.--_adj._ ASTIGMAT'IC. [Gr. _a_, neg., and
_stigma_, _stigmat-os_, a point.]

ASTIR, a-stir', _prep. phr._ or _adv._ on the move, out of bed, in motion
or excitement. [Prep. _a_, and STIR.]

ASTOMATOUS, as-tom'a-tus, _adj._ having no mouth, used of a division of the

ASTONISH, as-ton'ish, _v.t._ to impress with sudden surprise or wonder: to
amaze: (_Shak._) to stun--older form ASTON'Y, whence the _p.adj._
ASTON'IED, dazed, bewildered, greatly astonished.--ASTON', ASTUN',
ASTONED', ASTUNNED', are obsolete.--_p.adj._ ASTON'ISHED, amazed: (_obs._)
stunned.--_adj._ ASTON'ISHING, very wonderful, amazing.--_adv._
ASTON'ISHINGLY.--_n._ ASTON'ISHMENT, amazement: wonder: a cause for
astonishment. [From the earlier form, _Astone_; O. Fr. _estoner_; L.
_atton[=a]re_, to strike with a thunderbolt.]

ASTOUND, as-townd', _v.t._ to amaze, to strike dumb with
astonishment:--_pa.p._ astound'ed; _pr.p._ astound'ing.--_pa.p._ ASTOUND'
(_arch._).--_p.adj._ ASTOUND'ING. [ASTOUND (adj.) is developed from
ASTONED, hence the verb is a doublet of ASTONISH.]

ASTRADDLE, a-strad'dl, _adv._ sitting astride. [Prep. _a_, on, and


ASTRAGAL, as'tra-gal, _n._ (_archit._) a small semicircular moulding or
bead encircling a column: a round moulding near the mouth of a cannon: the
bars which hold the panes of a window. [Gr. _astragalos_, one of the
vertebræ, a moulding.]

ASTRAGALUS, as-trag'al-us, _n._ a bone of the foot, forming with the
leg-bones the hinge of the ankle-joint, by a convex upper surface and
smooth sides. [Gr.]

ASTRAKHAN, as'tra-kan, _n._ name given to lamb-skins with a curled wool
obtained from _Astrakhan_ on the Caspian Sea: a rough fabric made in
imitation of it.

ASTRAL, as'tral, _adj._ belonging to the stars: starry: in the science of
Theosophy, descriptive of a supersensible substance supposed to pervade all
space and enter into all bodies.--ASTRAL BODY, a living form composed of
astral fluid, a ghost or wraith; ASTRAL SPIRITS, pervading spirits supposed
to animate the heavenly bodies, forming, as it were, their souls--among the
most potent of demoniacal spirits in medieval demonology. [L. _astralis_,
_astrum_, a star.]

ASTRAND, a-strand', _adv._ stranded. [Prep. _a_, on, and STRAND.]

ASTRAY, a-str[=a]', _adv._ out of the right way. [Prep. _a_, on, and

ASTRICTION, as-trik'shun, _n._ a binding or contraction:
restriction.--_v.t._ ASTRICT', to bind, restrict. [L. _astriction-em_,
_astring[)e]re_. See ASTRINGENT.]

ASTRIDE, a-str[=i]d', _adv._ with the legs apart, or across. [Prep. _a_,
on, and STRIDE.]

ASTRINGENT, as-trin'jent, _adj._ binding: contracting: strengthening.--_n._
a medicine that causes costiveness.--_v.t._ ASTRINGE', to bind together: to
draw tight: hence to render constipated.--_n._ ASTRIN'GENCY.--_adv._
ASTRIN'GENTLY. [L. _astringent-em_, _astring[)e]re_--_ad_, to,
_string[)e]re_, to bind.]

ASTROLABE, as'tr[=o]-l[=a]b, _n._ an instrument for measuring the altitudes
of the sun or stars, now superseded by Hadley's quadrant and sextant. [Gr.;
_astron_, a star, _labb-_, _lambano_, I take.]

ASTROLATRY, as-trol'a-tri, _n._ the worship of the stars. [Gr. _astron_, a
star, _latreia_, worship.]

ASTROLOGY, as-trol'o-ji, _n._ the infant stage of the science of the stars,
out of which grew _Astronomy_; it was occupied chiefly in determining from
the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies their supposed influence
on human and terrestrial affairs.--_n._ ASTROL'OGER, one versed in
astrology.--_adjs._ ASTROLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ ASTROLOG'ICALLY. [Gr.
_astrologia_--_astron_, star, _logos_, knowledge.]

ASTRONOMY, as-tron'om-i, _n._ the laws or science of the stars or heavenly
bodies.--_n._ ASTRON'OMER, one versed in astronomy.--_adj._
_astronomia_--_astron_, star, _nomos_, a law.]

ASTROPHEL, as'tro-fel, _n._ a name applied by Spenser to some kind of
bitter herb.

ASTRUT, a-strut', _adv._ in a strutting manner. [Prep. _a_, on, and STRUT.]

ASTUTE, ast-[=u]t', _adj._ crafty: cunning: shrewd: sagacious.--_adv._
ASTUTE'LY.--_n._ ASTUTE'NESS.--The _adj._ AST[=U]'CIOUS, _adv._
AST[=U]'CIOUSLY, and _n._ AST[=U]'CITY are all _rare_. [L.
_astutus_--_astus_, crafty, akin perhaps to ACUTE.]

ASTYLAR, a-st[=i]'lar, _adj._ without columns. [Gr. _a_, neg., _stylos_, a

ASUDDEN, a-sud'en, _adv._ suddenly. [Prep. _a_, and SUDDEN.]

ASUNDER, a-sun'd[.e]r, _adv._ apart: into parts: separately. [Prep. _a_,
and SUNDER.]

ASWARM, a-swärm', _adv._ swarming. [Prep. _a_, and SWARM.]

ASWAY, a-sw[=a]', _adv._ swaying.

ASWIM, a-swim', _adv._ afloat.

ASWING, a-swing', _adv._ swinging.

ASWOON, a-sw[=oo]n', _adv._ in a swoon.

ASYLUM, a-s[=i]l'um, _n._ a place of refuge for debtors and for such as
were accused of some crime: an institution for the care or relief of the
unfortunate, such as the blind or insane: any place of refuge or
protection. [L.--Gr. _asylon_--_a_, neg., _syl[=e]_, right of seizure.]

ASYMMETRY, a-sim'e-tri, _n._ want of symmetry or proportion between
parts.--_adjs._ ASYMMET'RIC, -AL.--_adv._ ASYMMET'RICALLY. [Gr. See

ASYMPTOTE, a'sim-t[=o]t, _n._ (_math._) a line that continually approaches
nearer to some curve without ever meeting it.--_adjs._ ASYMPTOT'IC,
-AL.--_adv._ ASYMPTOT'ICALLY. [Gr. _asympt[=o]tos_, not coinciding--_a_,
not, _syn_, with, _pt[=o]tos_, apt to fall, _pipt-ein_, to fall.]

ASYNARTETE, a-sin'ar-t[=e]t, _adj._ and _n._ not connected, consisting of
two members having different rhythms; a verse of such a kind.--Also
ASYN'ARTETIC. [Gr.; _a_, neg., _syn_, together, _arta-ein_, to knit.]

ASYNCHRONISM, a-sin'kro-nizm, _n._ want of synchronism or correspondence in
time.--_adj._ ASYN'CHRONOUS.

ASYNDETON, a-sin'de-ton, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure in which the conjunctions
are omitted, as in Matt. x. 8.--_adj._ ASYNDET'IC. [Gr.; _a_, neg.,
_syndetos_, bound together, _syn_, together, _dein_, to bind.]

ASYNTACTIC, as-in-tak'tik, _adj._ loosely put together, irregular,
ungrammatical. [Gr.; _a_, neg., _syntaktos_, _syntass-ein_, to put in order

ASYSTOLE, a-sis'to-l[=e], _n._ (_med._) the condition of a heart the left
ventricle of which is unable to empty itself.--Also ASYS'TOLISM. [Made up
of Gr. _a_, neg., _systol[=e]_, contraction.]

AT, at, _prep._ denoting presence, nearness, or relation. Often used
elliptically, as in 'At him, good dog.' [A.S. _æt_; cog. with Goth, and
Ice. _at_, L. _ad_; Sans. _adhi_, on.]

ATABAL, at'a-bal, _n._ a Moorish kettledrum. [Sp.--Ar. _at-tabl_, the


ATAVISM, at'av-izm, _n._ frequent appearance of ancestral, but not
parental, characteristics in an animal or plant: reversion to an original
type.--_adj._ AT'AVISTIC. [L. _atavus_--_avus_, a grandfather.]

ATAXIA, at-ak'si-a, ATAXY, a-tax'i, or at'ax-i, _n._ (_med._) irregularity
of the functions of the body through disease, esp. inability to co-ordinate
voluntary movements, as in _locomotor ataxy_. [Gr.; _a_, neg., _taktos_,
_tassein_, to arrange.]

ATE, et, or [=a]t, _pa.t._ of EAT.

ATE, [=a]'t[=e], _n._ (_myth._) the goddess of mischief and of all rash
actions and their results. [Gr.]

ATELIER, at-el-y[=a]', _n._ a workshop, esp. an artist's studio. [Fr.]

ATHANASIA, ath-a-n[=a]'si-a, _n._ deathlessness.--Also ATHAN'ASY. [Gr.;
_athanatos_, _a_, neg., _thanatos_, death.]

ATHANASIAN, ath-a-n[=a]z'yan, _adj._ relating to _Athanasius_ (296-373), or
to the creed erroneously attributed to him.

ATHANOR, ath'a-nor, _n._ a self-feeding digesting furnace, used by the
alchemists, in which a uniform heat was maintained. [Ar. _at-tannur_, _at_
= _al_, the _n[=u]r_, fire.]

ATHEISM, [=a]'the-izm, _n._ disbelief in the existence of God.--_v.i._ and
_v.t._ A'THEISE, to talk or write as an atheist.--_n._ A'THEIST, one who
disbelieves in the existence of God.--_adjs._ ATHEIST'IC, -AL.--_adv._
ATHEIST'ICALLY.--_adj._ A'THEOUS (_Milton_), atheistic. [Fr.
_athéisme_--Gr. _a_, neg., and _theos_, God.]

ATHELING, ath'el-ing, _n._ a member of a noble family, latterly a prince of
the blood royal, or the heir-apparent. [A.S. _ætheling_; Ger. _adel_.]

ATHENÆUM, ATHENEUM, ath-e-n[=e]'um, _n._ a temple of Ath[=e]na or Minerva
at Athens, in which scholars and poets read their works: a public
institution for lectures, reading, &c. [Gr. _Ath[=e]naion_--_Ath[=e]na_ or
_Ath[=e]n[=e]_, the goddess Minerva.]

ATHENIAN, a-th[=e]'ni-an, _adj._ relating to Athens, the capital of
Greece.--_n._ a native of Athens.

ATHEOLOGY, a-th[=e]-ol'oj-i, _n._ opposition to theology.--_adj._
ATHEOLOG'ICAL. [Gr. _atheos_, without God, _logia_, discourse.]

ATHERINE, ath'er-[=i]n, _n._ a genus of small fishes, allied to the Gray
Mullet family, abundant in the Mediterranean--one species (_Atherina
presbyter_), found on the south coast of England, is often sold as a smelt.

ATHERMANCY, ath-er'man-si, _n._ the property of stopping radiant
heat.--_adj._ ATHER'MANOUS. [Gr. _a_, neg., _thermain-ein_, to heat.]

ATHEROMA, ath'er-[=o]-ma, _n._ a name formerly applied to cysts on the
scalp, with contents of the consistence of porridge, but now only used of a
common form of inflammation of arteries.--_adj._ ATHEROM'ATOUS. [Gr.;
_athar[=e]_, porridge.]

ATHIRST, a-th[.e]rst', _adj._ thirsty: eager for. [A.S. _of thyrst_. See

ATHLETE, ath'l[=e]t, _n._ a contender for victory in feats of strength: one
vigorous in body or mind. The form ATHL[=E]'TA survived till the later half
of the 18th century.--_adj._ ATHLET'IC, relating to athletics: strong,
vigorous.--_adv._ ATHLET'ICALLY.--_n._ ATHLETICISM (ath-let'i-sizm), the
act of engaging in athletic exercises: devotion to athletics.--_n.pl._
ATHLET'ICS, the art of wrestling, running, &c.: athletic sports. [Gr.
_athl[=e]t[=e]s_--_athlos_, contest.]

ATHRILL, a-thril', _adv._ thrilling.

ATHROB, a-throb', _adv._ throbbing.

ATHWART, a-thwawrt', _prep._ across.--_adv._ sidewise: wrongly:
perplexingly. [Prep. _a_, on, and THWART.]

ATILT, a-tilt', _adv._ on tilt: as a tilter.

ATIMY, at'i-mi, _n._ loss of honour: in ancient Athens, loss of civil
rights, public disgrace. [Gr. _atimia_--_a_, neg., _tim[=e]_, honour.]


ATLANTEAN, at-lan-t[=e]'an, _adj._ relating to or like _Atlas_, gigantic:
also relating to ATLAN'TIS, according to ancient tradition, a vast island
in the Atlantic Ocean, or to Bacon's ideal commonwealth of that name. [See

ATLANTES, at-lan't[=e]z, _n.pl._ figures of men used instead of columns.
[From ATLAS.]

ATLANTIC, at-lan'tik, _adj._ pertaining to Atlas, or to the Atlantic
Ocean.--_n._ the ocean between Europe, Africa, and America. [From Mount
_Atlas_, in the north-west of Africa, named from the Titan, Atlas.]

ATLAS, at'las, _n._ that piece of the human vertebral column which
articulates with the skull, so called because it supports the head: a
collection of maps. [Gr. _Atlas_, _Atlantis_, a Titan who bore the world on
his shoulders, and whose figure used to be given on the title-page of

ATLAS, at'las, _n._ a kind of silk-satin manufactured in the East. [Ar.]

ATMOLOGY, at-mol'o-ji, _n._ the science of the phenomena of aqueous
vapour.--_n._ ATMOL'OGIST. [Gr. _atmos_, vapour, and _logia_,
discourse--_legein_, to speak.]

ATMOLYSIS, at-mol'i-sis, _n._ a method of separating a mixture of gases by
taking advantage of their different rates of passage through a porous
septum. [Gr. _atmos_, vapour, and _lysis_, loosing--_lyein_, to loose.]

ATMOMETER, at-mom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the rate of
evaporation from a moist surface. [Gr. _atmos_, vapour, and METER.]

ATMOSPHERE, at'mo-sf[=e]r, _n._ the gaseous envelope that surrounds the
earth or any of the heavenly bodies: any gaseous medium: a conventional
unit of atmospheric pressure: (_fig._) any surrounding influence.--_adjs._
ATMOSPHER'IC, -AL, of or depending on the atmosphere.--_adv._
ATMOSPHER'ICALLY.--ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE, a variety of steam-engine in which
the steam is admitted only to the under side of the piston; ATMOSPHERIC
HAMMER, a hammer driven by means of compressed air; ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY, a
railway where the motive-power is derived from the pressure of the
atmosphere acting on a piston working in an iron tube of uniform bore. [Gr.
_atmos_, air, _sphaira_, a sphere.]

ATOLL, a-tol', or at'ol, _n._ a coral island consisting of a circular belt
of coral enclosing a central lagoon. [A Malay word.]

ATOM, at'om, _n._ a particle of matter so small that it cannot be cut or
divided, the unit of matter; anything very small.--_adjs._ ATOM'IC, -AL,
pertaining to atoms.--_ns._ ATOMIC'ITY; ATOMIS[=A]'TION (_med._) the
reduction of liquids to the form of spray; AT'OMISM, the doctrine that
atoms arranged themselves into the universe: the atomic theory; AT'OMIST,
one who believes in atomism.--_adj._ ATOMIS'TIC.--_adv._
ATOMIST'ICALLY.--_n._ AT'OMY, an atom, or mote: (_Shak._) a pygmy.--ATOMIC
PHILOSOPHY, a system of philosophy enunciated by Democritus, which taught
that the ultimate constituents of all things are indivisible particles,
differing in form and in their relations to each other; ATOMIC THEORY, the
hypothesis that all chemical combinations take place between the ultimate
particles of bodies, uniting each atom to atom, or in proportions expressed
by some simple multiple of the number of atoms. [Gr. _atomos_--_a_, not,
_temnein_, _tamein_, to cut. See ATOM.]

ATOMY, at'om-i, _n._ (_Shak._) a skeleton, walking skeleton. [Formerly also
_atamy_ and _natomy_, for _anatomy_, mistakingly divided _an atomy_.]

ATONE, at-[=o]n', _adv._ (_Spens._) at one, at once, together. [M.E. also
_attone_, earlier _atoon_, _aton_, _at one_, _at on_.]

ATONE, at-[=o]n', _v.i._ to give satisfaction or make reparation (with
_for_): to make up for deficiencies: (_Shak._) to agree, be in
accordance.--_v.t._ to appease, to expiate: (_arch._) harmonise, or
reconcile.--_ns._ ATONE'MENT, the act of atoning; reconciliation:
expiation: reparation: esp. (_theol._) the reconciliation of God and man by
means of the incarnation and death of Christ; ATON'ER.--_adv._ ATON'INGLY.
[See ATONE, above.]

ATONY, at'on-i, _n._ want of tone or energy: debility: relaxation.--_adj._
AT'ONIC (_pros._), without tone: unaccented. [Gr. _atonia_--_a_, neg.,
_tonos_, tone, strength. See TONE.]

ATOP, a-top', _adv._ on or at the top. [Prep. _a_, and TOP.]

ATRABILIAR, at-ra-bil'i-ar, _adj._ of a melancholy temperament:
hypochondriac: splenetic, acrimonious.--Also ATRABIL'IARY, ATRABIL'IOUS.
[L. _ater_, _atra_, black, _bilis_, gall, bile. See BILE.]

ATRAMENTAL, at-ra-men'tal, _adj._ (_Sir T. Browne_) inky, black. [From L.
_atramentum_, ink--_atra_, black.]

ATREMBLE, a-trem'bl, _adv._ trembling.

ATRIP, a-trip', _adv._ said of an anchor when it is just drawn out of the
ground in a perpendicular direction--of a sail, when it is hoisted from the
cap, sheeted home, and ready for trimming. [Prep. _a_, on, and TRIP.]

ATRIUM, [=a]'tri-um, _n._ the entrance-hall or chief apartment of a Roman
house. [Prob. orig. the kitchen, and so lit. 'the apartment blackened with
smoke'--L. _ater_, black; others connect the word with _ædes_, orig. a
fireplace, then a house, a temple.]

ATROCIOUS, a-tr[=o]'shus, _adj._ extremely cruel or wicked: heinous: very
grievous: execrable.--_adv._ ATR[=O]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ ATR[=O]'CIOUSNESS;
ATROC'ITY, atrociousness: an atrocious act. [L. _atrox_, _atrocis_,
cruel--_ater_, black.]

ATROPAL, at'ro-pal, _adj._ (_bot._) not inverted. [Gr. _atropos_--_a_,
neg., and _trepein_, to turn.]

ATROPHY, a'trof-i, _n._ an alteration of the vital processes in a living
organism, either animal or vegetable, resulting in a diminution of size and
functional activity of the whole organism (_general atrophy_), or of
certain of its organs or tissues: emaciation.--_adjs._ ATROPH'IC,
AT'ROPHIED. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _troph[=e]_, nourishment.]

ATROPIA, a-tr[=o]'pi-a, ATROPIN, ATROPINE, at'ro-pin, _n._ a poisonous
alkaloid existing in the deadly nightshade.--_n._ AT'ROPISM, poisoning by
atropin. [From Gr. _Atropos_, one of the _Fates_, who cuts the thread of

ATTACH, at-tach', _v.t._ to bind or fasten: to seize: to gain over: to
connect, associate: to join to in action or function: (_Shak._) to
arrest.--_v.i._ to adhere, to be fastened upon: (_rare_) to come into
effect.--_adj._ ATTACH'ABLE.--_p.adj._ ATTACHED', fastened, fixed, joined
by taste or affection (with _to_), fond, devoted to.--_n._ ATTACH'MENT, a
bond of fidelity or affection: the seizure of any one's goods or person by
virtue of a legal process. [O. Fr. _atachier_, from _à_ (--L. _ad_), and
the root of TACK (q.v.).]

ATTACHÉ, a-ta'sh[=a], _n._ a young diplomatist attached to the suite of an
ambassador. [Participle of Fr. _attacher_, to attach.]

ATTACK, at-tak', _v.t._ to fall upon violently: to assault: to assail with
unfriendly words or writing: to begin to affect, fall upon (of
diseases).--_n._ an assault or onset: the offensive part in any contest:
the beginning of active operations on anything, even dinner: severe
criticism or calumny.--_adj._ ATTACK'ABLE. [Fr. _attaquer_. See ATTACH, of
which it is a doublet.]

ATTAIN, at-t[=a]n', _v.t._ to reach or gain by effort: to obtain: to reach
a place: to reach.--_v.i._ to come or arrive: to reach.--_adj._
ATTAIN'MENT, act of attaining: the thing attained: acquisition: (_pl._)
acquirements in learning. [O. Fr. _ataindre_--L. _atting-[)e]re_--_ad_, to,
_tang-[)e]re_, to touch.]

ATTAINDER, at-t[=a]n'd[.e]r, _n._ act of attainting: (_law_) loss of civil
rights through conviction for high-treason.--_v.t._ ATTAINT', to convict:
to deprive of rights for being convicted of treason: to accuse of:
disgrace, stain (from a fancied connection with _taint_).--_n._ (_arch._)
the act of touching, a hit (in tilting): (_Shak._) infection: attainder: a
stain, disgrace.--Older _pa.p._ ATTAINT'--(_Shak._) corrupted,
tainted.--_ns._ ATTAINT'MENT, ATTAINT'URE, state of being attainted. [O.
Fr. _ataindre_--L. _atting-[)e]re_. See ATTAIN.]

ATTAR, at'ar, _n._ a very fragrant essential oil made in Turkey and other
Eastern lands, chiefly from the damask rose.--Also OTTO. [Pers. _atar_.]

ATTASK, at-task', _v.t._ to task. [Pfx. _a-_, and TASK.]

ATTEMPER, at-tem'p[.e]r, _v.t._ to mix in due proportion: to modify or
moderate: to adapt.--_p.adj._ ATTEM'PERED, tempered, mild, regulated. [O.
Fr. _atemprer_--L. _attemper[=a]re_--_ad_, to, and _temper[=a]re_. See

ATTEMPT, at-temt', _v.t._ to try or endeavour: to try to obtain: tempt,
entice: to make an effort or attack upon.--_v.i._ to make an attempt or
trial.--_n._ a trial: endeavour or effort: a personal assault: (_Milton_)
temptation: (_law_) any act which can fairly be described as one of a
series which, if uninterrupted and successful, would constitute a
crime.--_n._ ATTEMPTABIL'ITY.--_adj._ ATTEMPT'ABLE, that may be
attempted.--_n._ ATTEMPT'ER (_Milton_), a tempter. [O. Fr. _atempter_--L.
_attent[=a]re_--_ad_, and _tem-pt_, _tent[=a]re_, to try--_tend[)e]re_, to

ATTEND, at-tend', _v.t._ to wait on or accompany: to be present at: to wait
for: to give attention (with _to_).--_v.i._ to yield attention: to act as
an attendant: to wait, be consequent (with _to_, _on_, _upon_).--_ns._
ATTEND'ANCE, act of attending: (_B_.) attention, careful regard: presence:
the persons attending; ATTEND'ANCY (_obs._), attendance, a retinue:
(_obs._) relative position.--_adj._ ATTEND'ANT, giving attendance:
accompanying.--_n._ one who attends or accompanies: a servant: what
accompanies or follows: (_law_) one who owes a duty or service to
another.--_ns._ ATTEND'ER, one who gives heed: a companion:--_fem._
ATTEN'DRESS; ATTEND'MENT (_Sir T. Browne_), attention.--_adj._ ATTENT'
(_Spens._), giving attention.--_n._ (_Spens._) attention.--IN ATTENDANCE
ON, waiting upon, attending. [O. Fr. _atendre_--L. _attend[)e]re_--_ad_,
to, _tend[)e]re_, to stretch.]

ATTENTION, at-ten'shun, _n._ act of attending, as in to pay, give, call, or
attract attention: steady application of the mind: heed: civility,
courtesy: care.--_interj._ (_mil._) a cautionary word used as a command to
execute some manoeuvre.--_adj._ ATTENT'IVE, full of attention: courteous,
mindful.--_adv._ ATTENT'IVELY.--_n._ ATTENTI'VENESS. [L.
_attention-em_--_attend-[)e]re_. See ATTEND.]

ATTENUATE, at-ten'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make thin or lean: to break down
into finer parts: to reduce in density: reduce in strength or value,
simplify.--_v.i._ to become thin or fine: to grow less.--_n._ ATTEN'UANT,
anything possessing this property.--_adjs._ ATTEN'UATE, ATTEN'UATED, made
thin or slender: dilute, rarefied:--_n._ ATTENU[=A]'TION, process of making
slender: reduction of intensity, density, or force: specially in
homeopathy, the reduction of the active principles of medicines to minute
doses. [L. _attenu[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _tenuis_, thin.]

ATTEST, at-test', _v.t._ to testify or bear witness to: to affirm by
signature or oath: to give proof of, to manifest: (_obs._) to call to
witness.--_v.i._ to bear witness.--_n._ (_Shak._) witness,
testimony.--_adjs._ ATTEST'ABLE, ATTEST'ATIVE.--_ns._ ATTEST[=A]'TION, act
of attesting: administration of an oath; ATTEST'OR, ATTEST'ER, one who
attests or vouches for. [L. _attest[=a]ri_, _ad_, to, _testis_, a witness.]

ATTIC, at'ik, _adj._ pertaining to Attica or to Athens: chaste, refined,
elegant like the Athenians.--_v.t._ ATT'ICISE, to make conformable to the
language or idiom of Attica.--_v.i._ to use the idioms of the Athenians: to
side with the Athenians, to affect Attic or Greek style or manners.--_n._
AT'TICISM.--ATTIC SALT, wit of a dry, delicate, and refined quality. [Gr.
_Attikos_, Attic, Athenian, _Attik[=e]_, Attica, perh. from _akt[=e]_,
headland, though connected by some with _astu_, city.]

ATTIC, at'ik, _n._ (_archit._) a low story above the cornice that
terminates the main part of an elevation: a room in the roof of a house.
[Introduced in architecture from the idea that the feature to which it
alluded was constructed in the Athenian manner.]

ATTIRE, at-t[=i]r', _v.t._ to dress, array, or adorn: to prepare.--_n._
dress: any kind of covering, even the plants that clothe the soil:
(_Shak._) a dress or costume.--_ns._ ATTIRE'MENT, ATTIR'ING. [O. Fr.
_atirer_, put in order--_à tire_, in a row--_à_ (L. _ad_), to, and _tire_,
_tiere_, order, dress. See TIER.]

ATTITUDE, at'ti-t[=u]d, _n._ posture, or position: gesture: any condition
of things or relation of persons viewed as expressing some thought,
feeling, &c.--_adj._ ATTITUD'INAL.--_n._ ATTITUDIN[=A]'RIAN, one who
studies attitudes.--_v.i._ ATTITUD'INISE, to assume affected
attitudes.--_n._ ATTITUDIN[=I]'SER.--TO STRIKE AN ATTITUDE, to assume a
position or figure to indicate a feeling or emotion not really felt. [Fr.
or It. from L. _aptitudin-em_, _aptus_, fit.]

ATTOLLENT, at-tol'lent, _adj._ lifting up, raising.--_n._ a muscle with
this function. [L. _attollens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _attoll[)e]re_, to lift
up--_ad_, to, _toll[)e]re_, to lift.]

ATTORNEY, at-tur'ni, _n._ one legally authorised to act for another--hence
the sense of the phrases 'in person' and 'by attorney:' one legally
qualified to manage cases in a court of law: a solicitor--a solicitor or
attorney prepares cases and does general law business, while a barrister
pleads before the courts: (_pl._) ATTOR'NEYS.--_v.t._ ATTOR'NEY (_Shak._),
to perform by proxy, to employ as a proxy.--_ns._ ATTOR'NEY-GEN'ERAL, the
first ministerial law-officer of the Crown in England and Ireland: the
title of the king's attorney in the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall, and
the county palatine of Durham: in the United States, one of the seven
officials who constitute the president's cabinet, the head of the
department of Justice; ATTOR'NEYSHIP, ATTOR'NEYISM,
qualified legal agent; ATTORNEY IN FACT, or PRIVATE ATTORNEY, one duly
appointed by _letter_ or _power of attorney_ to act for another in matters
of contract, money payments, and the like.--LETTER WARRANT, or POWER OF
ATTORNEY, the formal instrument by one person authorising another to
perform certain acts for him. [O. Fr. _atorne_--Low L.
_attornatus_--_atorn[=a]re_, to commit business to another. See TURN.]

ATTRACT, at-trakt', _v.t._ to draw to or cause to approach: to allure: to
entice: to draw forth.--_adj._ ATTRACT'ABLE, that may be attracted.--_n._
ATTRAC'TION, act of attracting: the force which draws or tends to draw
bodies or their particles to each other: that which attracts.--_adj._
ATTRACT'IVE, having the power of attracting: alluring.--_advs._
ATTRACT'OR, ATTRACT'ER, an agent of attraction. [L. _attrah[)e]re_,
_attractus_--_ad_, to, _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

ATTRAHENT, at'tra-hent, _adj._ attracting or drawing.--_n._ that which
attracts. [L. _attrahens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _attrah[)e]re_. See ATTRACT.]

ATTRAP, at-trap', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to adorn with trappings: to dress or
array. [L. _ad_, to, and TRAP.]

ATTRIBUTE, at-trib'[=u]t, _v.t._ to ascribe, assign, or consider as
belonging.--_adj._ ATTRIB'UTABLE.--_ns._ AT'TRIBUTE, that which is
attributed: that which is inherent in, or inseparable from, anything: that
which can be predicated of anything: a quality or property;
ATTRIB[=U]'TION, act of attributing: that which is attributed:
commendation.--_adj._ ATTRIB'UTIVE, expressing an attribute.--_n._ a word
denoting an attribute. [L. _attribu[)e]re_, -_tributum_--_ad_, to,
_tribu_-_[)e]re_, to give.]

ATTRIST, at-trist', _v.t._ (_obs._) to sadden. [Fr.--L. _ad_, to,
_tristis_, sad.]

ATTRITE, at-tr[=i]t', _adj._ worn by rubbing or friction: (_theol._)
repentant through fear of punishment, not yet from the love of God.--_n._
ATTRI'TION, the rubbing of one thing against another: a wearing by
friction: (_theol._) a defective or imperfect sorrow for sin. [L.
_attritus_--_atter_-_[)e]re_--_ad_, and _ter[)e]re_, _tritum_, to rub.]

ATTUNE, at-t[=u]n', _v.t._ to put in tune: to make one sound accord with
another: to arrange fitly: to make musical.--_n._ ATTUNE'MENT. [L. _ad_,
to, and TUNE.]

ATWAIN, a-tw[=a]n', _adv._ in twain: (_arch._) asunder. [Prep. _a_, and

ATWEEN, a-tw[=e]n', _adv._ (_Spens._) between. [Prep. _a_, and TWAIN.]

ATWIXT, a-twikst', _adv._ (_Spens._) betwixt, between. [Pfx. _a_-, and
_'twixt_, BETWIXT.]

AUBADE, [=o]-bäd', _n._ a musical announcement of dawn: a sunrise song.
[Fr. _aube_, dawn--L. _alba_, white.]

AUBERGE, [=o]-b[.e]rj', _n._ an inn.--_adj._ AUBERG'ICAL (_H.
Walpole_).--_n._ AUBERGISTE ([=o]-b[.e]rj-[=e]st'). [Fr., of Teut. origin.

AUBERGINE, [=o]'ber-j[=e]n, _n._ the fruit of the egg-plant, the brinjal.
[Fr. dim. of _auberge_, a kind of peach--Sp. _albérchigo_--Ar. _al_, the,
_pérsigo_--L. _persicum_, a peach.]

AUBURN, aw'burn, _adj._ reddish brown. [The old meaning was a light yellow,
or lightish hue; Low L. _alburnus_, whitish--L. _albus_, white.]

AUCTION, awk'shun, _n._ a public sale in which the bidder offers an
increase on the price offered by another, and the articles go to him who
bids highest.--_v.t._ to sell by auction.--_adj._ AUC'TIONARY.--_n._
AUCTIONEER', one who is licensed to sell by auction.--_v.t._ to sell by
auction.--DUTCH AUCTION, a kind of mock auction at which the salesman
starts at a high price, and comes down till he meets a bidder. [L.
_auction_-_em_, an increasing--_aug[=e]re_, _auctum_, to increase.]

AUCTORIAL, awk't[=o]r-i-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to an author or his
trade. [L. _auctor_.]

AUDACIOUS, aw-d[=a]'shus, _adj._ daring: bold: impudent.--_adv._
AUD[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ AUD[=A]'CIOUSNESS, AUDACITY (aw-das'i-ti). [Fr.
_audacieux_--L. _audax_--_aud[=e]re_, to dare.]

AUDIBLE, awd'i-bl, _adj._ able to be heard.--_ns._ AUD'IBLENESS,
AUDIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ AUD'IBLY.--_n._ AUD'IENCE, the act of hearing: a
judicial hearing: admittance to a hearing: a ceremonial interview: an
assembly of hearers: a court of government or justice in Spanish America,
also the territory administered by it--Sp. _audiencia_.--_adj._ AUD'IENT,
listening: paying attention.--_n._ a hearer. [L. _audibilis_--_aud[=i]re_,
to hear, conn. with Ger. _ous_, _[=o]tos_, the ear.]

AUDIOMETER, awd-i-om'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring and
recording differences in the power of hearing.

AUDIPHONE, awd'i-f[=o]n, _n._ an instrument which is pressed against the
upper front teeth, the convex side outwards, in order to communicate sounds
to the teeth and bones of the skull, thence to the organs of hearing.

AUDIT, awd'it, _n._ an examination of accounts by one or more duly
authorised persons: a calling to account generally: a statement of account:
(_obs._) a periodical settlement of accounts: (_obs._) audience,
hearing.--_v.t._ to examine and verify by reference to vouchers, &c.--_ns._
AUDI'TION, the sense of hearing: the act of hearing: (_rare_) something
heard; AUD'ITOR, a hearer: one who audits accounts:--_fem._ AUD'ITRESS;
AUDIT[=O]R'IUM, in an opera-house, public hall, or the like, the space
allotted to the hearers: the reception-room of a monastery;
AUD'ITORSHIP.--_adj._ AUD'ITORY, relating to the sense of hearing.--_n._ an
audience: a place where lectures, &c., are heard.--AUDIT ALE, an ale of
special quality brewed for some Oxford and Cambridge colleges; orig. for
use on the day of audit. [L. _auditus_, a hearing--_aud[=i]re_, to hear.

AUGEAN, aw-j[=e]'an, _adj._ filthy: difficult. [From _Augeas_, a fabled
king of Elis in Greece, whose stalls, containing 3000 oxen, and uncleaned
for thirty years, were swept out by Hercules in one day by his turning the
river Alpheus through them.]

AUGER, aw'g[.e]r, _n._ a carpenter's tool used for boring holes in
wood.--_n._ AU'GER-BIT, an auger that fits into a carpenter's brace (see
BRACE). [A corr. of _nauger_, an auger, A.S. _nafugár_--_nafu_, a nave of a
wheel, _gár_, a piercer. See NAVE (of a wheel), GORE, a triangular piece.]

AUGHT, awt, _n._ a whit: ought: anything: a part. [A.S. _á-wiht_, contr. to
_áht_, whence _[=o]ht_, _[=o]ght_, and _ought_. Shakespeare, Milton, and
Pope use _ought_ and _aught_ without distinction. _Awiht_ is from _á_, _ó_,
ever, and _wiht_, creature, a wight, a thing.]

AUGITE, aw'j[=i]t, _n._ one of the Pyroxene group of minerals, closely
allied to hornblende, usually of a greenish colour, occurring crystallised
in prisms, and forming an essential component of many igneous
rocks.--_adj._ AUGIT'IC. [Gr. _aug[=e]_, brightness.]

AUGMENT, awg-ment', _v.t._ to increase: to make larger.--_v.i._ to grow
larger.--_n._ AUG'MENT, increase: (_gram._) the prefixed vowel to the past
tenses of the verb in Sanskrit and Greek. Sometimes applied also to such
inflectional prefixes as the _ge-_ of the German perfect
participle.--_adjs._ AUGMENT'ABLE, AUGMENT'ATIVE, having the quality or
power of augmenting.--_n._ (_gram._) a word formed from another to express
increase of its meaning.--_ns._ AUGMENT[=A]'TION, increase: addition:
(_her._) an additional charge in a coat-of-arms bestowed by the sovereign
as a mark of honour: (_mus._) the repetition of a melody in the course of
the piece in notes of greater length than the original: (_Scots law_) an
increase of stipend obtained by a parish minister by an action raised in
the Court of Teinds against the titular and heritors; AUGMENT'ER. [L.
_augmentum_, increase--_aug[=e]re_, to increase, Gr. _auxan-ein_.]

AUGUR, aw'gur, _n._ among the Romans, one who gained knowledge of secret or
future things by observing the flight and the cries of birds: a diviner; a
soothsayer.--_v.t._ to foretell from signs.--_v.i._ to guess or conjecture:
to forebode.--_adj._ AU'GURAL.--_ns._ AU'GURSHIP; AU'GURY, the art or
practice of auguring: an omen.--The words AU'GURATE and AUGUR[=A]'TION are
obsolete. [L.; prob. from _avis_, bird, and root, _gar_, in L.
_garr[=i]re_, to chatter, Sans. _gir_, speech.]

AUGUST, aw-gust', _adj._ venerable: imposing: sublime: majestic--_adv._
AUGUST'LY.--_n._ AUGUST'NESS. [L. _augustus_--_aug[=e]re_, to increase,

AUGUST, aw'gust, _n._ the eighth month of the year, so called after the
Roman emperor _Augustus_ Cæsar.

AUGUSTAN, aw-gust'an, _adj._ pertaining to the Emperor Augustus, or to the
time in which he reigned (31 B.C.-14 A.D.)--the most brilliant age in Roman
literature, hence applied to any similar age, as the reign of Anne in
English, or that of Louis XIV. in French literature: classic: refined.

AUGUSTINE, aw-gust'in, AUGUSTINIAN, aw-gus-tin'i-an, _n._ one of an order
of monks who derive their name and rule from St Augustine: (_theol._) one
who holds the opinions of St Augustine, esp. on predestination and
irresistible grace.--_adj._ AUGUSTIN'IAN, of or relating to St
Augustine.--_n._ AUGUSTIN'IANISM.

AUK, awk, _n._ a genus of web-footed sea-birds, with short wings used only
as paddles, found in the northern seas. The Great Auk is supposed to have
become extinct in 1844. [Ice. _álka_.]

AULA, aw'la, _n._ a hall.--_adj._ AUL[=A]'RIAN, relating to a hall.--_n._
at Oxford, a member of a hall, as distinguished from a collegian.--AULA
REGIS, also called _Curia Regis_, a name used in English history for a
feudal assembly of tenants-in-chief, for the Privy Council, and for the
Court of King's Bench. [L. _aula_, a hall.]

AULD, awld, _adj._ (_Scot._) old.--_adjs._ AULD'-FAR'RANT (lit.
'_favouring_ the old'), old-fashioned, wise beyond their years, as of
children; AULD'-WARLD, old-world, ancient.--AULD LANGSYNE, old long since,
long ago.

AULIC, awl'ik, _adj._ pertaining to a royal court.--AULIC COUNCIL (Ger.
_Reichshofrath_), a court or personal council of the Holy Roman Empire,
established in 1501 by Maximilian I., and co-ordinate with the Imperial
Chamber (_Reichskammergericht_). [L. _aulicus_--_aula_, Gr. _aul[=e]_, a
royal court.]

AUMAIL, aw-m[=a]l', _v.t._ to enamel: (_Spens._) to figure or variegate.

AUMBRY, awm'bri, _n._ Same as AMBRY.

AUMIL, o'mil, _n._ Same as AMILDAR.

AUMUCE, aw'm[=u]s, _n._ Same as AMICE.

AUNT, änt, _n._ a father's or a mother's sister--also the wife of one's
uncle: (_obs._) an old woman, a gossip, a procuress or bawd.--AUNT SALLY, a
pastime at English fairs, in which a wooden head is set on a pole, and in
the mouth a pipe, which has to be smashed by throwing sticks or the like at
it. [O. Fr. _ante_ (Fr. _tante_)--L. _amita_, a father's sister.]

AURA, awr'a, _n._ a supposed subtle emanation proceeding from anything,
esp. that essence which is claimed to emanate from all living things and to
afford an atmosphere for the operations of animal magnetism and such-like
occult phenomena: (_fig._) air, distinctive character: (_path._) a
sensation as of a current of cold air--a premonitory symptom of epilepsy
and hysteria.--_adj._ AUR'AL, pertaining to the air, or to a subtle vapour
or exhalation arising from a body. [L. _aura_.]

AURAL, awr'al, _adj._ pertaining to the ear.--_adv._ AUR'ALLY. [L. _auris_,

AURATE, awr'[=a]t, _n._ a compound of auric oxide with a base.--_adjs._
AUR'ATED, gold-coloured: compounded with auric acid; AUR'EATE, gilded:
golden.--_n._ AUR[=E]'ITY, the peculiar properties of gold. [L. _aurum_,

AURELIA, awr-[=e]l'ya, _n._ the chrysalis of an insect, from its golden
colour.--_adj._ AUREL'IAN--formerly also a name for an entomologist devoted
esp. to butterflies and moths. [L. _aurum_, gold.]


AUREOLA, awr-[=e]'o-la, _n._ in Christian art, the gold colour surrounding
the whole figure in sacred pictures, distinct from the _nimbus_, which only
covers the head, usually reserved for representations of the three Divine
Persons, of Christ, and the Virgin and Child: (_theol._) an increment to
the ordinary blessedness of heaven gained by virgins, martyrs, and doctors
for their triumph respectively over the flesh, the world, and the
devil.--_n._ AUR'EOLE, the aureola: the gold disc round the head in early
pictures symbolising glory: (_fig._) a glorifying halo: a halo of radiating
light, as in eclipses.--_p.adj._ AUR'EOLED, encircled with an aureole. [L.
_aureolus_, dim. of _aureus_, golden.]

AURIC, awr'ik, _adj._ pertaining to gold: (_chem._) applied to compounds in
which gold combines as a triad. [L. _aurum_, gold.]

AURICLE, awr'i-kl, _n._ the external ear: (_pl._) the two upper cavities of
the heart into which the blood comes from the veins.--_adj._ AUR'ICLED,
having appendages like ears.--_n._ AURIC'ULA, a species of primrose, also
called bear's ear, from the shape of its leaf.--_adj._ AURIC'ULAR,
pertaining to the ear: known by hearing, or by report.--_adv._
CONFESSION, secret, told in the ear. [L. _auricula_, dim. of _auris_, the

AURIFEROUS, awr-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing or yielding gold.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ AUR'IFY, to turn into gold. [L. _aurifer_--_aurum_, gold, _ferre_,
to bear.]

AURIFORM, awr'i-form, _adj._ ear-shaped. [L. _auris_, ear, and FORM.]

AURISCOPE, aw'ri-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for examining the Eustachian
passage of the ear. [L. _auris_, ear, and Gr. _skopein_, to look.]

AURIST, awr'ist, _n._ one skilled in diseases of the ear. [L. _auris_,

AUROCHS, awr'oks, _n._ the European bison or wild ox. [Ger. _auerochs_. Old
High Ger. _ûrohso_, _ur_ (L. _urus_, Gr. _ouros_), a kind of wild ox, and
_ochs_, ox.]

AURORA, aw-r[=o]'ra, _n._ the dawn: in poetry, the goddess of
dawn.--_adjs._ AUR[=O]'RAL, AUR[=O]'REAN.--_adv._ AUR[=O]'RALLY. [Acc. to
Curtius, a reduplicated form for _ausosa_; from a root seen in Sans. _ush_,
to burn; cog. with Gr. _[=e][=o]s_, dawn, _h[=e]lios_, the sun; Etruscan,
_Usil_, the god of the sun.]

AURORA BOREALIS, aw-r[=o]'ra b[=o]-r[=e]-[=a]'lis, the northern aurora or
light: a luminous meteoric phenomenon of electrical character seen in
northern latitudes, with a tremulous motion, and giving forth streams of
light.--AURORA AUSTRALIS (aws-tr[=a]'lis), a similar phenomenon in the
southern hemisphere:--_pl._ AUR[=O]'RAS. [L. _borealis_,
northern--_boreas_, the north wind. See AUSTRAL.]

AUSCULTATION, aws-kult-[=a]'shun, _n._ the art of discovering the condition
of the lungs and heart by applying the ear or the stethoscope to the
part.--_v.i._ to examine by auscultation.--_n._ AUSCULT[=A]'TOR, one who
practises auscultation, or an instrument for such: in Germany, a title
formerly given to one who had passed his first public examination in law,
and who was merely retained, not yet employed or paid by
government.--_adj._ AUSCULT'[=A]TORY, relating to auscultation. [L.
_auscult[=a]re_, to listen.]

AUSONIAN, aw-s[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ Italian. [L. _Ausonia_, a poetical name
for Italy.]

AUSPICE, aw'spis, _n._ an omen drawn from observing birds:
augury--generally used in _pl._ AU'SPICES, protection: patronage: a good
start (generally in phrase, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF).--_v.t._ AU'SPICATE, to
foreshow: to initiate or inaugurate with hopes of good luck:--_pr.p._
au'spic[=a]ting; _pa.p._ au'spic[=a]ted.--_adj._ AUSPI'CIOUS, having good
auspices or omens of success: favourable: fortunate: propitious.--_adv._
AUSPI'CIOUSLY.--_n._ AUSPI'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.--L. _auspicium_--_auspex_,
_auspicis_, a bird-seer, from _avis_, a bird, _spec[)e]re_, to observe.]

AUSTER, aws't[.e]r, _n._ the south wind. [L.]

AUSTERE, aws-t[=e]r', _adj._ harsh: severe: stern: grave: sober: severe in
self-discipline, strictly moral or abstinent: severely simple, without
luxury.--_adv._ AUSTERE'LY.--_ns._ AUSTERE'NESS, AUSTER'ITY, quality of
being austere: severity of manners or life: harshness: asceticism: severe
simplicity of style, dress, or habits. [L. _austerus_--Gr.
_aust[=e]ros_--_au-ein_, to dry.]

AUSTRAL, aws'tral, _adj._ southern.--_adj._ AUSTRALASIAN
(aws-tral-[=a]'zhi-an), pertaining to Australasia, or the islands and
island-groups that lie to the south of Asia.--_n._ a native or colonist of
one of these.--_adj._ AUSTR[=A]'LIAN, of or pertaining to Australia, a
large island between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.--_n._ an aboriginal
native of Australia proper, later also a white colonist or resident. [L.
_australis_--_auster_, the south wind.]

AUSTRIAN, aws'tri-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to Austria, an empire of
Central Europe.--_n._ a native of Austria.

AUSTRINGER, aw'string-[.e]r, _n._ a keeper of goshawks.--Also A'STRINGER.
[O. Fr. _ostruchier_, _austruchier_. See OSTRICH.]

AUTARCHY, awt'är-ki, _n._ absolute power. [Gr., from _autos_, self, and
_archein_, to rule.]

AUTHENTIC, -AL, aw-thent'ik, -al, _adj._ real: genuine, as opposed to
_counterfeit_, _apocryphal_: original: true: entitled to acceptance, of
established credibility. A distinction is sometimes made between
_authentic_ and _genuine_--the former, that the writing is trustworthy, as
setting forth real facts; the latter, that we have it as it left its
author's hands--an _authentic_ history: a _genuine_ text.--_adv._
AUTHENT'ICALLY. [Fr. and L. from Gr. _authent[=e]s_, one who does anything
with his own hand--_autos_, self.]

AUTHENTICATE, aw-thent'ik-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make authentic: to prove
genuine: to give legal validity to: to certify the authorship of.--_ns._
AUTHENTIC[=A]'TION, act of authenticating: confirmation; AUTHENTIC'ITY,
quality of being authentic: state of being true or in accordance with fact:

AUTHOR, awth'or, _n._ one who originates or brings anything into being: a
beginner or first mover of any action or state of things: the writer of an
original book: elliptically for an author's writings: one's authority for
something: an informant:--_fem._ AUTH'ORESS.--_adjs._ AUTH[=O]'RIAL,
to give authority to: to sanction: to permit: to justify: to establish by
authority.--_adj._ AUTH'ORLESS, anonymous.--_ns._ AUTH'ORLING, a petty
author; AUTH'ORSHIP, AUTH'ORING, AUTH'ORISM, state or quality of being an
author. [Through Fr. from L. _auctor_--_aug[=e]re_, _auctum_, to cause
things to increase, to produce.]

AUTHORITY, awth-or'it-i, _n._ legal power or right: power derived from
office or character: weight of testimony: permission:--_pl._ AUTHOR'ITIES,
precedents: opinions or sayings carrying weight: persons in power.--_adj._
AUTHOR'ITATIVE, having the sanction or weight of authority:
dictatorial.--_adv._ AUTHOR'ITATIVELY.--_n._ AUTHOR'ITATIVENESS. [L.
_auctoritatem_, _auctoritas_, _auctor_.]

AUTOBIOGRAPHY, aw-to-b[=i]-og'raf-i, _n._ the biography or life of a person
written by himself.--_n._ AUTOBIOG'RAPHER, one who writes his own
life.--_adjs._ AUTOBIOGRAPH'IC, -AL. [Gr. _autos_, one's self, _bios_,
life, _graphein_, to write.]

AUTO-CAR, aw'to-kär, _n._ a vehicle for the road moved from within by
steam, electric power, &c. instead of by traction. [Gr. _autos_, self, and

AUTOCARPOUS, aw-to-kär'pus, _adj._ applied to such fruit as consists only
of the pericarp, with no adnate parts. [Gr. _autos_, self, _karpos_,

AUTOCHTHON, aw-tok'thon, _n._ one of the primitive inhabitants of a
country: an aboriginal:--_pl._ AUTOCH'THONS and AUTOCH'THONES.--_adj._
AUTOCH'THONOUS.--_ns._ AUTOCH'THONY, AUTOCH'THONISM, the condition of being
autochthonous. [Gr.; made up of _autos_, self, _chth[=o]n_, _chthonos_, the
soil; the Athenians claiming to have actually sprung from the soil on which
they lived.]

AUTOCRAT, aw'to-krat, _n._ one who rules by his own power: an absolute
sovereign.--_n._ AUTOC'RACY, an absolute government by one man:
despotism.--_adj._ AUTOCRAT'IC,--_adv._ AUTOCRAT'ICALLY. [Gr.
_autokrat[=e]s_--_autos_, self, _kratos_, power.]

AUTO-DA-FÉ, aw'to-da-f[=a]', _n._ the public declaration of the judgment
passed on heretics in Spain and Portugal by the Inquisition, also the
infliction of the punishment which immediately followed thereupon, esp. the
public burning of the victims:--_pl._ AUTOS-DA-FÉ. [Port. _auto da fé_ =
Sp. _auto de fe_; _auto_--L. _actum_, act; _da_--L. _de_, of; and _fe_--L.
_fides_, faith.]

AUTOGENOUS, aw-toj'e-nus, _adj._ self-generated: independent.--_n._
AUTOG'ENY, a mode of spontaneous generation. [Gr. _autogen[=e]s_, _autos_,
self, _genos_, offspring.]

AUTOGRAPH, aw'to-graf, _n._ one's own handwriting: a signature: an original
manuscript.--_v.t._ to write with one's hand.--_adj._ AUTOGRAPH'IC.--_adv._
AUTOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ AU'TOGRAPHY, act of writing with one's own hand:
reproduction of the outline of a writing or drawing by fac-simile. [Gr.
_autos_, self, _graph[=e]_, writing.]

AUTOGRAVURE, aw-to-grav'[=u]r, _n._ a process of photo-engraving akin to
autotype. [Gr. _auto_, self; Fr. _gravure_, engraving.]

AUTOLATRY, aw-tol'a-tri, _n._ worship of one's self.--_n._ AUTOL'OGY is
merely a justifiable enough scientific study of ourselves. [Gr. _autos_,
self, _latreia_, worship.]

AUTOLYCUS, aw-tol'i-kus, _n._ a thief: a snapper up of unconsidered
trifles: a plagiarist. [From the character in Shakespeare's _Winter's

AUTOMATON, aw-tom'a-ton, _n._ a self-moving machine, or one which moves by
concealed machinery: a living being regarded as without consciousness: the
self-acting power of the muscular and nervous systems, by which movement is
effected without intelligent determination: a human being who acts by
routine, without intelligence:--_pl._ AUTOM'ATONS, AUTOM'ATA.--_adjs._
AUTOMAT'IC, -AL.--_adv._ AUTOMAT'ICALLY.--_ns._ AUTOM'ATISM, automatic or
involuntary action: power of self-moving: power of initiating vital
processes from within the cell, organ, or organism, independently of any
direct or immediate stimulus from without: the doctrine that animals are
automata, their motions, &c., being the result of mechanical laws;
AUTOM'ATIST, one who holds the doctrine of automatism. [Gr. _automatos_,
self-moving--_autos_, self, and a stem _mat-_, to strive after, to move.]

AUTOMOBILE, aw-to-m[=o]'bil, _adj._ self-moving.--_n._ a motor-car. [Gr.
_autos_, self, L. _mobilis_, mobile.]

AUTOMORPHIC, aw-to-mor'fik, _adj._ marked by automorphism, the ascription
to others of one's own characteristics. [Gr. _autos_, self, _morph[=e]_,

AUTONOMY, aw-ton'om-i, _n._ the power or right of self-government: (Kant's
_philos._) the doctrine that the human will carries its guiding principle
within itself.--_adjs._ AUTON'OMOUS, AUTONOM'IC. [Gr.--_autos_, and
_nomos_, law.]

AUTONYM, aw'ton-im, _n._ a writing published under the author's real name.
[Gr. _autos_, self, _onoma_, a name.]

AUTOPHAGOUS, aw-tof'ag-us, _adj._ self-devouring.--_n._ AUTOPH'AGY,
sustenance by self-absorption of the tissues of the body. [Gr. _autos_,
self, _phagein_, to eat.]

AUTOPHOBY, aw-tof'ob-i, _n._ a shrinking from making any reference to one's
self. [Gr. _autos_, self, _phobia_, fear.]

AUTOPHONY, aw-tof'on-i, _n._ observation of the resonance of one's own
voice, heard by placing the ear to the patient's chest. [Gr. _autos_, self,
_ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

AUTOPLASTY, aw'to-plas-ti, _n._ a mode of surgical treatment which consists
in replacing a diseased part by means of healthy tissue from another part
of the same body. [Gr. _auto-plastos_, self-formed.]

AUTOPSY, aw'top-si, _n._ personal inspection, esp. the examination of a
body after death.--Also AUTOP'SIA. [Gr.; _autos_, self, _opsis_, sight.]

AUTOPTIC, -AL, aw-topt'ik, -al, _adj._ seen with one's own eyes.--_adv._

AUTOSCHEDIASM, aw-to-sked'i-azm, _n._ anything extemporised.--_v.t._
AUTOSCHED'IASE.--_adj._ AUTOSCHEDIAS'TIC. [Gr. _autos_, self, _schedios_,

AUTOTHEISM, aw'to-th[=e]-izm, _n._ assumption of divine powers: the
doctrine of the self-subsistence of God, esp. of the second person in the
Trinity.--_n._ AU'TOTHEIST, a self-deifier. [Gr. _autos_, self, _theos_, a

AUTOTYPE, aw'to-t[=i]p, _n._ a true impress or copy of the original: a
process of printing from a photographic negative in a permanent black or
other pigment.--_v.t._ to reproduce by such a process.--_n._
AUTOTYPOG'RAPHY, a process by which drawings made on gelatine are
transferred to a plate from which impressions may be taken. [Gr. _autos_,
self, _typos_, a stamp.]

AUTUMN, aw'tum, _n._ the third season of the year when fruits are gathered
in, popularly comprising the months of August, September, and October--in
North America, September, October, and November. Astronomically, in the
northern hemisphere, it begins at the autumnal equinox, when the sun enters
Libra, 22d September, and ends at the winter solstice, when the sun enters
Capricorn, 21st December.--_adj._ AUTUM'NAL.--_adv._ AUTUM'NALLY. [L.
_autumnus_, _auctumnus_, anciently referred to aug-[=e]re, as the season of
increase; by Corssen and others, to the Sans. _av_, to do good to.]

AUXESIS, awk-s[=e]'sis, _n._ gradual deepening in force of meaning:
hyperbole. [Gr.]

AUXILIAR, awg-zil'yar, AUXILIARY, awg-zil'yar-i, _adj._ helping:
subsidiary, as troops.--_ns._ AUXIL'IAR, an auxiliary; AUXIL'IARY, a
helper: an assistant: (_gram._) a verb that helps to form the moods and
tenses of other verbs. [L. _auxiliaris_--_auxilium_, help--_aug-[=e]re_, to

AVA, ä'va, _n._ native name in the Sandwich Islands for a species of
cordyline yielding an intoxicating drink, also called _kava_: any similar

AVAIL, a-v[=a]l', _v.t._ to be of value or service to: to benefit: to take
the benefit of (used reflexively with _of_).--_v.i._ to be of use: to
answer the purpose: (_obs._) to take or draw advantage: (_Amer._) to
inform, assure of.--_n._ benefit: profit: service.--_adj._ AVAIL'ABLE, that
one may avail one's self of, utilise: profitable: suitable, obtainable:
accessible.--_ns._ AVAIL'ABLENESS, AVAILABIL'ITY, quality of being
available: power in promoting an end in view: validity.--_advs._
AVAIL'ABLY; AVAIL'INGLY, in an availing manner. [Fr.--L. _ad_, to,
_val-[=e]re_, to be strong, to be worth.]


AVALANCHE, av'al-ansh, _n._ a mass of snow and ice sliding down from a
mountain: a snow-slip.--_v.i._ AV[=A]LE' (_Spens._), to descend.--_v.t._
(_Spens._) to cause to descend. [Fr. _avaler_, to slip down--L. _ad_, to,
_vall-em_, the valley.]

AVANT, av'ang, prefix used as _adj._ in combination, as in AV'ANT-COUR'IER,
one who runs before, in _pl._ the skirmishers or advance-guard of an army;
AV'ANT-GARDE, the vanguard of an army. [Fr.;--L. _ante_.]


AVARICE, av'ar-is, _n._ eager desire for wealth: covetousness.--_adj._
AVARI'CIOUS, extremely covetous: greedy.--_adv._ AVARI'CIOUSLY.--_n._
AVARI'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.--L. _avaritia_--_avarus_, greedy--_av[=e]re_, to pant

AVAST, a-väst', _interj._ (_naut._) hold fast! stop! [Dut. _houd vast_,
hold fast.]

AVATAR, a-va-tär', _n._ the descent of a Hindu deity in a visible form:
incarnation: (_fig._) supreme glorification of any principle. [Sans.;
_ava_, away, down, _tar_, to pass over.]

AVAUNT, a-vawnt', _interj._ move on! begone! (_Shak._) used as _n._ 'to
give her the _avaunt_.'--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to advance: (_obs._) depart.
[Fr. _avant_, forward--L. _ab_, from, _ante_, before.]

AVAUNT, a-vawnt', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to advance boastfully. [O. Fr.
_avanter_--Low L. _vanitare_, to boast--L. _vanus_, vain.]

AVE, [=a]'v[=e], _interj._ and _n._ be well or happy: hail, an address or
prayer to the Virgin Mary: in full, _Ave Mar[=i]'a_.--AVE MARIA, or AVE
MARY, the Hail Mary, or angelic salutation (Luke, i. 28). [L. _av[=e]re_,
to be well or propitious. See ANGELUS.]

AVENACEOUS, av'en-[=a]-shus, _adj._ of the nature of oats. [L. _avena_,

AVENGE, a-venj', _v.t._ to vindicate: take vengeance on some one on account
of some injury or wrong (with _on_, _upon_; _of_ obsolete).--_adj._
AVENGE'FUL.--_ns._ AVENGE'MENT; AVENG'ER, one who avenges:--_fem._
AVENG'ERESS. [O. Fr. _avengier_--L. _vindic[=a]re_. See VENGEANCE.]

AVENS, [=a]'vens, _n._ popular name of two species of _Geum_--the herb
bennet (once used to flavour ale) and the sub-alpine mountain-avens. [Fr.]


AVENTAIL, AVENTAILE, av'en-t[=a]l, _n._ the flap or movable part of a
helmet in front, for admitting air to the wearer. [O. Fr. _esventail_,
air-hole--L. _ex_, out, _ventus_, wind.]

AVENTRE, a-ven'tr, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to throw, as a spear or
dart. [O. Fr. _venter_, to cast to the wind.]

AVENTURE, a-vent'[=u]r, _v.t._ obsolete form of ADVENTURE.

AVENTURINE, a-ven't[=u]-rin, _n._ a brown, spangled kind of Venetian glass:
a kind of quartz.--Also AVAN'TURINE. [It. _avventura_, chance--because of
the accidental discovery of the glass.]

AVENUE, av'en-[=u], _n._ the principal approach to a country-house, usually
bordered by trees: a double row of trees, with or without a road: a wide
and handsome street, with or without trees, esp. in America: any passage or
entrance into a place: (_fig._) means of access or attainment. [Fr.: from
L. _ad_, to, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

AVER, a-v[.e]r', _v.t._ to declare to be true: to affirm or declare
positively: (_law_) to prove or justify a plea:--_pr.p._ aver'ring; _pa.p._
averred.--_n._ AVER'MENT, positive assertion: (_law_) a formal offer to
prove a plea: the proof offered. [Fr. _avérer_--L. _ad_, and _verus_,

AVERAGE, av'[.e]r-[=a]j, _n._ the mean value or quantity of a number of
values or quantities: any expense incurred beyond the freight, payable by
the owner of the goods shipped, as in the phrase PETTY AVERAGE: any loss or
damage to ship or cargo from unavoidable accidental causes--PARTICULAR
AVERAGE. Again, GENERAL AVERAGE is the apportionment of loss caused by
measures taken for the ship's safety, as cutting away the masts, throwing
overboard cargo, accepting towage, or the like.--_adj._ containing a mean
value: ordinary.--_v.t._ to fix an average.--_v.i._ to exist in, or form, a
mean quantity. [Dr Murray says the word first appears about 1500 in
connection with the maritime trade of the Mediterranean (Fr. _avarie_, Sp.
_averia_, It. _avaria_); probably _averia_ is a derivative of It. _avere_
(O. Fr. _aveir_), goods, the original sense being a 'charge on property or
goods.' The It. _avere_ and O. Fr. _aveir_ meant goods, substance,
cattle--L. _hab[=e]re_, to have. The Old Eng. _aver_ in the same sense is
obsolete, but in Scotland _aver_ still means an old horse.]

AVERROISM, av-er-[=o]'izm, _n._ the doctrine of the Arabian philosopher
Averrhoes (died 1198), that the soul is perishable, the only immortal soul
being the world-soul from which individual souls went forth, and to which
they return.--_n._ AVERR[=O]'IST, one who holds this doctrine.

AVERRUNCATE, a-v[.e]r-ungk'[=a]t, _v.t._ (_rare_) to avert or ward off: to
pull up by the roots.--_ns._ AVERRUNC[=A]'TION, act of averting:
extirpation; AVERRUNC'[=A]TOR, an instrument for cutting off branches of
trees. [L. _averrunc[=a]re_, to avert.]

AVERSE, a-v[.e]rs', _adj._ having a disinclination or hatred (with _to_;
_from_ is, however, still used): disliking: turned away from anything:
turned backward; (_her._) turned so as to show the back, as of a right
hand.--_n._ AVERS[=A]'TION (_obs._).--_adv._ AVERSE'LY.--_n._ AVERSE'NESS.
[L. _aversus_, turned away, _pa.p._ of _avert-[)e]re_. See AVERT.]

AVERSION, a-v[.e]r'-shun, _n._ dislike: hatred: the object of dislike. [See

AVERT, a-v[.e]rt', _v.t._ to turn from or aside: to prevent: ward
off.--_p.adj._ AVERT'ED.--_adv._ AVERT'EDLY.--_adj._ AVERT'IBLE, capable of
being averted. [L. _avert-[=e]re_--_ab_, from, _vert-[)e]re_, to turn.]


AVES, [=a]'v[=e]z, _n.pl._ birds. [L.]

AVIARY, [=a]'vi-ar-i, _n._ a place for keeping birds.--_n._ A'VIARIST, one
who keeps an aviary. [L. _aviarium_--_avis_, a bird.]

AVICULTURE, [=a]'vi-kul-t[=u]r, _n._ rearing of birds: bird-fancying. [L.
_avis_, bird, and CULTURE.]

AVIDITY, a-vid'i-ti, _n._ eagerness: greediness.--_adj._ AV'ID, greedy:
eager. [L. _aviditas_--_avidus_, greedy--_av[=e]re_, to pant after.]

AVIFAUNA, [=a]'vi-fawn-a, _n._ the whole of the birds found in a region or
country: the fauna as regards birds. [L. _avis_, bird, and FAUNA.]


AVISO. See ADVISO (under ADVICE).--AVIS, AVISE, obsolete forms of
ADVISE.--_adj._ AVISE'FUL (_Spens._), watchful, circumspect.

AVITAL, av'i-tal, _adj._ of a grandfather: ancestral. [L. _avitus_,
pertaining to a grandfather (_avus_).]

AVIZANDUM, av-iz-an'dum, _n._ (_Scots law_) private consideration of a case
by a judge before giving judgment.--Also AVISAN'DUM. [Gerund of Low L.
_avisare_, to advise.]

AVOCADO, a-vo-kä'do, _n._ the alligator-pear, a West Indian fruit. [Corr.
from Mexican.]

AVOCATION, a-vo-k[=a]'shun, _n._ formerly and properly, a diversion or
distraction from one's regular employment--now, one's proper business =
VOCATION: business which calls for one's time and attention: (_arch._)
diversion of the thoughts from any employment: the calling of a case from
an inferior to a superior court. [Through Fr. from _avocation-em_, a
calling away--_ab_, from, _voc[=a]re_, to call.]

AVOCET, AVOSET, av'o-set, _n._ a widely spread genus of birds, with webbed
feet, long legs, bare thighs, a long, slender, upward-curved, elastic bill,
and snipe-like habit. [Fr. _avocette_, It. _avosetta_.]

AVOID, a-void', _v.t._ to try to escape from: to shun: (_law_) to
invalidate: (_Shak._) to leave, to quit.--_adj._ AVOID'ABLE.--_n._
AVOID'ANCE, the act of avoiding or shunning: act of annulling. [Pfx. _a-_ =
Fr. _es_ = L. _ex_, out, and VOID.]

AVOIRDUPOIS, av-or-d[=u]-poiz', _adj._ or _n._ a system of weights in which
the lb. equals 16 oz. [O. Fr. _aveir de pes_ (_avoir du pois_), to have
weight--L. _hab-[=e]re_, to have, _pensum_, that which is weighed.]


AVOUCH, a-vowch', _v.t._ to avow: to assert or own positively: to maintain:
guarantee; to appeal to. _v.i._ to give assurance of.--_n._ (_Shak._)
evidence.--_adj._ AVOUCH'ABLE.--_n._ AVOUCH'MENT. [O. Fr. _avochier_--L.
_advoc[=a]re_, to call to one's aid. See VOUCH.]

AVOURE, a-vowr', _n._ (_Spens._) confession, acknowledgment, justification.
[See AVOW.]

AVOW, a-vow', _v.t._ to declare openly: to own or confess: to affirm or
maintain: (_law_) to justify an act done.--_n._ a solemn promise: a
vow.--_pa.p._ as _adj._ self-acknowledged.--_adj._ AVOW'ABLE.--_ns._
AVOW'ABLENESS, AVOW'ANCE (_obs._); AVOW'AL, a positive declaration: a frank
confession.--_adv._ AVOW'EDLY.--_n._ AVOW'RY (_law_), the act of avowing
and justifying in one's own right the distraining of goods: (_obs._)
advocacy considered as personified in a patron saint. [O. Fr. _avouer_,
orig. to swear fealty to--L. _ad_, and Low L. _vot[=a]re_--_votum_, a vow.
See VOW.]

AVULSE, a-vuls', _v.t._ to pluck or tear away.--_n._ AVUL'SION, forcible
separation. [L. _avell-[)e]re_, _avulsum_.]

AVUNCULAR, a-vung'k[=u]-lar, _adj._ pertaining to an uncle.--_v.t._ or
_v.i._ AVUNC'ULISE (_Fuller_), to act like an uncle. [L. _avunculus_, an

AWAIT, a-w[=a]t', _v.t._ to wait or look for: to be in store for: to
attend: (_obs._) to lie in wait for, to watch. [Through Fr. from the common
Teutonic root of Ger. _wacht_, _en_, Eng. WAIT.]

AWAKE, a-w[=a]k', _v.t._ to rouse from sleep: to rouse from a state of
inaction.--_v.i._ to cease sleeping: to rouse one's self from sleep or
indifference:--_pa.p._ awaked', or awoke'.--_adj._ not asleep:
vigilant.--_adj._ AWAK'ABLE, capable of being awakened.--_v.t._ and _v.i._
AWAK'EN, to awake: to rouse into interest or attention: (_theol._) to call
to a sense of sin.--_adj._ AWAK'ENABLE.--_ns._ AWAK'ENMENT, AWAK'ING,
AWAK'ENING, the act of awaking or ceasing to sleep: an arousing from
indifference: a revival of religion.--TO BE AWAKE TO, to be fully aware of
anything. [A.S. _awæcnan_. See WAKE, WATCH.]

AWANTING, a-wont'ing, _adj._ wanting: missing. [Framed as if from a verb
_awant_--mostly Scotch.]

AWARD, a-wawrd', _v.t._ to adjudge: to determine.--_n._ judgment: final
decision, esp. of arbitrators.--_adj._ AWARD'ABLE, that may be
awarded.--_n._ AWARD'MENT. [O. Fr. _ewarder_, _eswarder_, from an assumed
Romanic form compounded of _ex_, thoroughly, and _guardare_, watch. See

AWARE, a-w[=a]r', _adj._ wary: informed, conscious (with _of_)--_ns._
AWARE'DOM (_H. Walpole_), AWARE'NESS. [A.S. _gewær_, pfx. _ge-_, and _wær_,
cautious. See WARY.]

AWARN, a-wawrn', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to warn. [Pfx, _a-_, and WARN.]

AWASH, a-wosh', _adv._ on a level with the surface of the water: floating
at the mercy of the waves. [Pfx. _a-_, and WASH.]

AWASTE, a-w[=a]st', _adv._ wasting.

AWATCH, a-wotch', _adv._ watching.

AWAVE, a-w[=a]v', _adv._ waving.

AWAY, a-w[=a]', _adv._ onward, along: forthwith: in the direction of,
about: absent: gone, dead, fainted.--_interj._ begone!--AWAY
(elliptically), to go away, esp. imperatively, AWAY! or AWAY WITH
YOU!--AWAY WITH HIM = take him away.--FIRE AWAY, fire at once, without
hesitation.--I CANNOT AWAY WITH = bear or endure.--MAKE AWAY WITH, to
destroy.--ONCE AND AWAY, once in a way (the usual modern form),
once.--THERE AWAY, in that direction, thereabout.--TO DO AWAY (_with_), to
make an end of anything; TO EXPLAIN AWAY, to explain till the thing that
needs explanation is itself removed; TO FALL AWAY (with _from_), to desert;
TO FIGHT AWAY, to go on fighting; TO WORK AWAY, to keep on working. [A.S.
_a-weg_--prep. _a_, on, _weg_, way, lit. 'on one's way.']

AWE, aw, _n._ reverential fear, or wonder: dread: (_arch._) power to
inspire awe.--_v.t._ to strike with or influence by fear.--_adj._ AWE'LESS,
without fear.--_n._ AWE'LESSNESS.--_adjs._ AWE'SOME, AW'SOME (_Scot._),
full of awe: inspiring awe: weird, dreadful.--_v.t._ AWE'-STRIKE, to strike
with awe.--_adjs._ AWE'-STRUCK, struck or affected with awe; AW'FUL, full
of awe: dreadful: inspiring respect: expressive of awe: (_slang_) ugly: and
as a mere intensive of anything.--_adv._ AW'FULLY (also in _slang_ merely =
very).--_n._ AW'FULNESS. [Ice. _agi_, A.S. _ege_, fear; cog. with Gael.
_eaghal_; Gr. _achos_, anguish.]

AWEARY, a-w[=e]'ri, _adj._ weary (with _of_).--_adj._ AWEA'RIED, weary.
[Pfx. _a-_, and WEARY.]

A-WEATHER, a-we_th_'[.e]r, _adv._ (_naut._) towards the weather or windward
side, in the direction from which the wind blows, applied to the position
of a helm when its tiller is moved to the windward side of the ship--opp.
to _A-lee_. [Prep. _a_, on, and WEATHER.]

A-WEEK, a-w[=e]k', _adv. phrase_, in the week, per week. [Prep. _a_, and

A-WEIGH, a-w[=a]', _adv._ in the act of being weighed, as an anchor, when
the strain on the cable has just raised it from the bottom. [Prep. _a_, and

AWHAPE, a-hw[=a]p', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to strike: to terrify. [Dr Murray
compares the Goth. _af hwapjan_, to choke, which would give an A.S.
_ofhweppan_. See WHAP.]

AWHILE, a-hw[=i]l', _adv._ for some time: for a short time. [A.S. _áne
hwíle_ = a while; combined as early as 13th century.]

A-WING, a-wing', _adv. phrase_, on the wing. [Prep. _a_, and WING.]

AWKWARD, awk'ward, _adj._ clumsy: ungraceful: embarrassed: difficult to
deal with: (_Shak._) unfavourable: (_obs._) froward.--_adj._
AWK'WARDISH.--_adv._ AWK'WARDLY, clumsily, embarrassingly,
dangerously.--_n._ AWK'WARDNESS. [Prob. Ice. _afug_, turned wrong way, and
suff. _-ward_, expressing direction.]

AWL, awl, _n._ a pointed instrument for boring small holes in leather.
[A.S. _æl_; cog. with Ice. _alr_, Ger. _ahle_.]

AWN, awn, _n._ a scale or husk: beard of corn or grass.--_adjs._ AWNED;
AWN'LESS; AWN'Y. [Ice. _ögn_; Ger. _ahne_.]

AWNING, awn'ing, _n._ a covering to shelter from the sun's rays. [Perh. due
to the Fr. _auvent_, a screen of cloth before a shop window, with Eng.
ending _-ing_. Skeat suggests Pers. _áwan_, _áwang_, anything suspended.
The history of the word is still unsolved.]

AWOKE, a-w[=o]k', did awake--_pa.t._ of AWAKE.

AWORK, a-wurk', _adv._ at work. [Prep. _a_, and WORK.]

AWRACK, a-rak', _adv._ in a state of wreck.

AWRONG, a-rong', _adv._ wrongly.

AWRY, a-r[=i]', _adj._ twisted to one side: distorted, crooked: wrong:
perverse.--_adv._ unevenly: perversely: erroneously.--TO LOOK AWRY, to look
askance at anything; TO WALK AWRY, to go wrong. [Prep. _a_, on, and WRY.]

AXE, AX, aks, _n._ a well-known tool or instrument for hewing or chopping,
usually of iron with a steel edge:--_pl._ AX'ES. [A.S. _æx_; L. _ascia_;
Gr. _axin[=e]_.]

AXILE, aks'il, _adj._ lying in the axis of anything, as an embryo in the
axis of a seed.

AXILLA, aks'il-la, _n._ (_anat._) the armpit.--_ns._ AX'ILLA, AX'IL
(_bot._), the angle between the upper side of a branch and the trunk, or a
petiole and the stem it springs from.--_adjs._ AX'ILLAR, AX'ILLARY. [L.
_axilla_, the armpit.]

AXINOMANCY, aks'in-o-man-si, _n._ a mode of divination from the motions of
an axe poised upon a stake, or of an agate placed upon a red-hot axe. [Gr.
_axin[=e]_, an axe, and _manteia_, divination.]

AXIOM, aks'yum, _n._ a self-evident truth: a universally received principle
in an art or science.--_adjs._ AXIOMAT'IC, AXIOMAT'ICAL.--_adv._
AXIOMAT'ICALLY. [Gr. _axi[=o]ma_--_axio-ein_, to think worth, to take for
granted--_axios_, worth.]

AXIS, aks'is, _n._ the axle, or the line, real or imaginary, on which a
body revolves: the straight line about which the parts of a body or system
are systematically arranged, or which passes through the centre of all the
corresponding parallel sections of it, as of a cylinder, globe, or
spheroid. The axis of a curved line is formed by a right line dividing the
curve into two symmetrical parts, as in the parabola, ellipse, and
hyperbola:--_pl._ AXES (aks'[=e]z).--_adj._ AX'IAL.--_adv._ AX'IALLY.--_n._
AX'OID, a curve generated by the revolution of a point round an advancing
axis.--AXIS OF A LENS, the right line passing through a lens in such a
manner as to be perpendicular to both sides of it; AXIS OF A TELESCOPE, a
right line which passes through the centres of all the glasses in the tube;
AXIS OF INCIDENCE, the line passing through the point of incidence
perpendicularly to the refracting surface; AXIS OF REFRACTION, the
continuation of the same line through the refracting medium; AXIS OF THE
EQUATOR, the polar diameter of the earth, which is also the axis of
rotation; AXIS OF THE EYE, the right line passing through the centres of
the pupil and the crystalline lens. [L. _axis_; cf. Gr. _ax[=o]n_, Sans.
_aksha_, A.S. _eax_.]

AXIS, aks'is, _n._ the hog-deer of India. [L. _axis_, Pliny's name for an
Indian quadruped.]

AXLE, aks'l, AXLE-TREE, aks'l-tr[=e], _n._ the pin or rod in the nave of a
wheel on which the wheel turns: a pivot or support of any kind; the
imaginary line of ancient cosmographers on which a planet revolved.--_adj._
AX'LED. [More prob. Norse _öxull_ than a dim. from A.S. _eax_.]

AXOLOTL, aks'o-lotl, _n._ a reptile found in Mexico, allied to the tailed
batrachia, but distinguished by retaining its gills through life.

AY, [=a], _interj._ ah! oh! alas! esp. in _ay me!_ [M. E. _ey_, _ei_, perh.
from Fr. _ahi_, _aï_; cf. Sp. _ay de mi!_]

AY, AYE, [=i], _adv._ yea: yes: indeed.--_n._ AYE ([=i]), a vote in the
affirmative: (_pl._) those who vote in the affirmative. [Perh. a dial. form
of _aye_, ever; perh. a variant of _yea_.]

AYAH, [=a]'ya, _n._ a native Indian waiting-maid. [Anglo-Ind.: Hind.
_[=a]ya_, derived from the Port. _aia_, nurse.]

AYE, AY, [=a], _adv._ ever: always: for ever.--FOR AYE, FOR EVER AND AYE,
for ever, to all eternity.--In combination, with sense of 'ever,' as in
Shakespeare's 'aye-remaining,' &c. [Ice. _ei_, ever; A.S. _a_; conn. with

AYE-AYE, [=i]'[=i], _n._ a quadruped about the size of a hare found in
Madagascar, closely allied to the lemurs, with much of the aspect of a
squirrel. [Malagasy _aiay_.]

AYELP, a-y[.e]lp', _adv._ yelping.

AYENBITE, [=i]'en-b[=i]t, _n._ (_obs._) remorse, as in the book-title
_Ayenbite of Inwyt_ ('remorse of conscience'). [M. E. _ayen_, again bite.]

AYGULETS, obsolete form of AIGLETS.

AYME, obsolete form of AIM.


AZALEA, a-z[=a]'le-a, _n._ a genus of shrubby plants, with fine white,
yellow, or crimson flowers, mostly natives of China or North America,
closely allied to the rhododendron. [Gr. _azaleos_, dry--_aza_, dryness.]

AZIMUTH, az'im-uth, _n._ the arc of the horizon between the meridian of a
place and a vertical circle passing through any celestial body.--_adj._
AZ'IMUTHAL, pertaining to the azimuth. [Ar. _as-sum[=u]t_, _as_ = _al_,
the, _s[=u]mut_, _samt_, direction. See ZENITH.]

AZO-, in combination, for AZOTE.

AZOIC, a-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ without life: before the existence of animal
life: formed when there was no animal life on the globe, as rocks. [Gr.
_a_, neg., and _z[=o][=e]_, life--_za-ein_, to live.]

AZONIC, a-zon'ik, _adj._ not limited to a zone, not local. [Gr.; _a_, neg.,
_z[=o]n[=e]_, a belt region.]

AZOTE, a-z[=o]t', _n._ an old name for nitrogen, so called because it does
not sustain animal life.--_adj._ AZOT'IC.--_v.t._ AZ'OTISE, to impregnate
with acid.--_n._ AZ'OTITE, a salt of azotic or nitrous acid.--_adj._
AZOT'OUS, nitrous. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _za-ein_, to live.]

AZOTH, äz'[=o]th, _n._ the alchemist's name for mercury: Paracelsus's
universal remedy. [From Ar. _az-z[=a][=u]g_, _az_ = _al_, the,
_z[=a][=u]g_, from Pers. _zh[=i]wah_, quicksilver.]

AZRAEL, az'r[=a]-el, _n._ in Mohammedan mythology, the angel of death.

AZTEC, az'tek, _adj._ relating to or descended from the Aztecs, the
dominant tribe in Mexico at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards.

AZURE, azh'[=u]r, or [=a]'zh[=u]r, _adj._ of a faint blue: sky-coloured;
clear, cloudless.--_n._ a delicate blue colour: the sky.--_adjs._
AZUR[=E]'AN, AZ'URINE, azure.--_n._ AZ'URITE, blue carbonate of
copper.--_adjs._ AZ'URN (_Milton_), azure; AZ'URY, bluish. [O. Fr.
_azur_--Low L. _azura_--Ar. (_al_) _lazward_, Pers. _l[=a]jward_, lapis
lazuli, blue colour.]

AZYGOUS, az'i-gus, _adj._ not yoked or joined with another: (_anat._) not
one of a pair, as a muscle. [Gr. _azygos_--_a_, neg., and _zygos_, a yoke,
from _zeugnumi_, to join.]

AZYMOUS, az'i-mus, _adj._ unfermented: unleavened.--_ns._ AZ'YM, AZ'YME,
unleavened bread; AZ'YMITE, a member of a church using unleavened bread in
the Eucharist--a name applied by the Eastern Church to the Western, as well
as to the Armenian and Maronite Churches. [Gr. _azymos_--_a_, neg.,
_[=e]zym_, leaven.]

       *       *       *       *       *


the second letter of our alphabet, called by the Phoenicians _beth_, 'the
house,' coresponding to Greek [Greek: beta], '_beta_.'--B in music is the
seventh note of the scale of C major; B or B FLAT, a humorous euphemism for
the domestic _bug_.

BAA, bä, _n._ the cry of a sheep.--_v.i._ to cry or bleat as a sheep.--_n._
BAA'ING. [From the sound.]

BAAL, b[=a]'al, _n._ the chief male deity of the Phoenician nations: a
false god generally:--_pl._ B[=A]'ALIM.--_ns._ B[=A]'ALISM; B[=A]'ALITE.

BABBLE, bab'bl, _v.i._ to speak like a baby: to make a continuous murmuring
sound like a brook, &c.: to make a babbling noise: to tell secrets.--_v.t._
to prate: to utter.--_adjs._ BAB'BLATIVE, BAB'BLY.--_ns._ BAB'BLE,
BAB'BLEMENT, BAB'BLING, idle senseless talk: prattle: confused murmur, as
of a stream; BAB'BLER, one who babbles. [Prob. imit., from the repeated
syllable _ba_; cf. Dut. _babbelen_, Ger. _pappelen_, Fr. _babiller_.]

BABE, b[=a]b, BABY, b[=a]'bi, _n._ an infant or child: a doll, puppet: the
reflection of one's self in miniature seen in the pupil of another's
eye.--_ns._ B[=A]'BY-FARM'ER, one who takes in infants to nurse on payment;
B[=A]'BYHOOD.--_adj._ B[=A]'BYISH.--_n._ B[=A]'BY-JUMP'ER, a seat suspended
from the ceiling of a room by elastic straps, to enable a baby to jump.
[Prob. imitative. See BABBLE.]

BABEL, b[=a]'bel, _n._ a lofty structure: a confused combination of sounds:
a scene of confusion.--_ns._ B[=A]'BELDOM, B[=A]'BELISM. [Heb. _Babel_,
explained in Gen. xi. as confusion.]

BABIROUSSA, -RUSSA, ba-bi-r[=oo]'sa, _n._ a species of wild hog found in
the East Indies, often called the horned or deer hog. [Malay _bâbi_, hog,
and _rûsa_, deer.]

BABOO, bä'b[=oo], _n._ orig. the Hindu title corresponding to our _Mr_, but
often applied disparagingly to a Hindu with a superficial English
education, or adjectively as in 'baboo English,' which is more copious than
correct, with long and learned words often most ingeniously
misapplied.--_ns._ BA'BOODOM, BA'BOOISM. [Hind. _b[=a]b[=u]_.]

BABOON, ba-b[=oo]n', _n._ a species of large monkey, having a long face,
dog-like tusks, large lips, and a short tail.--_n._ BABOON'ERY.--_adj._
BABOON'ISH. [Fr. _babouin_; remoter origin unknown.]

BABYLONIAN, bab-i-l[=o]n'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to Babylon: hence (_fig._)
huge, gigantic: Romish, popish (_obs._ from the identification with Rome of
the scarlet woman of Rev. xvii.); BABEL-LIKE, confused in language.--Also

BACCALAUREATE, bak-ka-law're-[=a]t, _n._ the university degree of
bachelor.--_adj._ BACCALAU'REAN [Low L. _baccalaureus_, corrupted from,
_baccalarius_, with some imaginary reference to _bacca lauri_, the laurel
berry. See BACHELOR.]

BACCARAT, BACCARA, bak-ar-[=a]', _n._ a French game of cards played by any
number of betters and a banker. [Fr. _baccara_.]

BACCATE, bak'[=a]t, _adj._ having berries: berry-like or pulpy.--_adjs._
BACCIFEROUS (bak-sif'[.e]r-us), bearing berries; BAC'CIFORM, of the shape
of a berry; BACCIV'OROUS, living on berries. [L. _baccatus_--_bacca_, a

BACCHANAL, bak'a-nal, _n._ a worshipper of Bacchus: one who indulges in
drunken revels: a dance or song in honour of Bacchus.--_adj._ relating to
drunken revels--also BACCHAN[=A]'LIAN.--_ns.pl._ BACCHAN[=A]'LIA,
BAC'CHANALS, originally feasts in honour of Bacchus: drunken revels.--_n._
BACCHAN[=A]'LIANISM.--_n._ and _adj._ BACCHANT (bak'kant), a priest of
Bacchus, the god of wine: a reveller: a drunkard.--_n._ BACCHANTE
(bak-kant', bak'kant, bak-kant'i), a priestess of Bacchus, the god of wine:
a female bacchanal:--_pl._ BACCHANT'ES.--_adj._ BACCHIC (bak'kik), relating
to Bacchus: jovial: drunken. [L. _Bacchanalis_, _Bacchus_, Gr. _Bacchos_,
the god of wine.]

BACCY, BACCO, abbreviations of TOBACCO.

BACHARACH, bak'ar-ak, _n._ an excellent wine named from Bacharach, a town
on the Rhine.

BACHELOR, bach'el-or, _n._ a young knight who followed the banner of
another, as being too young to display his own: an unmarried man: one who
has taken his first degree at a university.--_ns._ BACH'ELORHOOD,
popular name of the double-flowered yellow or white varieties of
buttercup.--KNIGHT BACHELOR, title of one who has been knighted, but not
attached to any special order. [O. Fr. _bacheler_. Ety. disputed; acc. to
Brachet from Low L. _baccalarius_, a farm-servant, orig. a cowherd, from
_bacca_, Low L. for _vacca_, a cow.]

BACILLUS, ba-sil'us, _n._ properly the name of a distinct genus of
Schizomycetes, but popularly used in the same sense as BACTERIUM:--_pl._
BACIL'L[=I].--_adjs._ BACIL'LAR, BACIL'LARY, of the shape or nature of a
bacillus, consisting of little rods.--_n._ BACIL'LICIDE, that which
destroys bacilli.--_adj._ BACIL'LIFORM. [Low L. _bacillus_, dim. of
_baculus_, a rod.]

BACK, bak, _n._ a brewer's or dyer's tub or trough. [Dut. _bak_.]

BACK, bak, _n._ the hinder part of the body in man, and the upper part in
beasts, extending from the neck and shoulders to the extremity of the
backbone: put for the whole body in speaking of clothes: the hinder part,
or the part opposite to the front side: the convex part of a book, opposite
to the opening of the leaves: the thick edge of a knife or the like: the
upright hind part of a chair: the surface of the sea, or of a river: the
keel and keelson of a ship: (_football_) one of the players stationed
behind the 'forwards,' the full back's duty being merely to guard the goal:
(_mining_) that side of an inclined mineral lode which is nearest the
surface of the ground--the _back_ of a level is the ground between it and
the level above.--_adv._ to the place from which one came: to a former
state or condition: behind: behind in time: in return: again.--_v.t._ to
get upon the back of: to help, as if standing at one's back: to force back:
to support one's opinion by a wager or bet--'to back a horse,' to bet money
on his winning in a race, 'to back the field,' to bet upon all the horses
in a field, against one in particular: to countersign a warrant, or indorse
a cheque or bill; to write or print at the back of, as a parliamentary
bill, or the like: to put or propel backward, or in the opposite direction,
by reversing the action, as of an engine or a boat--hence the phrases, TO
BACK THE OARS, TO BACK WATER.--_v.i._ to move or go back.--_n._ BACK'-BAND,
a broad strap or chain passing over the cart saddle, and serving to keep up
the shafts of a vehicle.--_v.t._ BACK'BITE, to speak evil of any one behind
his back or in his absence.--_ns._ BACK'BITER; BACK'BITING; BACK'-BOARD, a
board placed at the back of a cart, boat, &c.: a board fastened across the
back to straighten the figure; BACK'BOND (_Scots law_), a deed attaching a
qualification or condition to the terms of a conveyance or other
instrument--used when particular circumstances render it necessary to
express in a separate form the limitations or qualifications of a right;
BACK'BONE, the bone of the back, the vertebral column: the main support of
anything: mainstay: firmness, reliableness; BACK'-DOOR, a door in the back
part of a building: (_attrib._) unworthily secret: clandestine.--_adj._
BACKED, as in humpbacked.--_ns._ BACK'-END, the later part of a season: the
late autumn; BACK'ER, one who backs or supports another in a contest: one
who bets on a horse or the like; BACK'-FALL, a fall on the back in
wrestling--also figuratively: a lever in the coupler of an organ;
BACK'FRIEND (_obs._), a pretended friend: a backer, a friend who stands at
one's back; BACK'GROUND, ground at the back: a place of obscurity: the
space behind the principal figures of a picture; BACK'-HAIR, the long hair
at the back of a woman's head; BACK'-HAND, the hand turned backwards in
making a stroke: handwriting with the letters sloped backwards.--_adj._
BACK'-HAND'ED, with the hand turned backward (as of a blow):
indirect.--_ns._ BACK'-HAND'ER, a blow with the back of the hand: an extra
glass of wine out of turn, the bottle being passed back; BACK'ING, support
at the back: mounting of a horse: the action of putting back: a body of
helpers: anything used to form a back or line the back; BACK'ING-DOWN,
shirking; BACK'-LASH, the jarring reaction of a wheel in a machine when the
motion is not uniform; BACK'-LOG, a log at the back of a fire.--_adj._
BACK'MOST, farthest to the back.--_ns._ BACK'-PIECE, BACK'-PLATE, a piece
or plate of armour for the back; BACK'-SET, a setting back, reverse: an
eddy or counter-current; BACK'SIDE, the back or hinder side or part of
anything: the hinder part of an animal; BACK'-SIGHT, in surveying, a sight
taken backwards: the sight of a rifle nearer the stock; BACK'-SLANG, slang
in which every word is pronounced backwards.--_v.t._ BACKSLIDE', to slide
or fall back in faith or morals:--_pa.p._ backslid', or
backslid'den.--_ns._ BACKSLID'ER; BACKSLID'ING.--_n.pl._ BACK'STAIRS, back
or private stairs of a house.--_adj._ secret or underhand.--_n.pl._
BACK'STAYS, ropes or stays extending from the topmast-heads to the sides of
a ship, and slanting a little backward, to second the shrouds in supporting
the mast when strained by a weight of sail in a fresh wind: any stay or
support at the back.--_ns._ BACK'STITCH, a method of sewing in which, for
every new stitch, the needle enters behind, and comes out in front of, the
end of the previous one; BACK'SWORD, a sword with a back or with only one
edge: a stick with a basket-handle; BACKSWORD'MAN (_Shak._); BACK'-WASH, a
backward current.--_v.t._ to affect with back-wash: to clean the oil from
wool after combing.--_n._ BACK'WATER, water held back in a mill-stream or
river by the obstruction of a dam below--a pool or belt of water connected
with a river, but not in the line of its course or current: water thrown
back by the turning of a water-wheel: a backward current of water: the
swell of the sea formed by the paddles of a steamship.--_n.pl._ BACK'WOODS,
the forest or uncultivated part of a country beyond the cleared country, as
in North American BACKWOODS'MAN.--BACK! go back, turn back
(_imperatively_).--AT THE BACK OF (in U.S. often BACK OF), in support or
pursuit; ON, UPON THE BACK OF, weighing down as a burden.--TO AND BACK
(_Shak._), forward and backward.--TO BACK DOWN, to abandon one's opinion or
position; TO BACK OUT, to recede from an engagement or promise; TO BACK UP,
to give support to; TO BE ON ONE'S BACK, to have come to the end of one's
resources; TO BREAK THE BACK OF, to overburden, to complete the hardest
part of a task; TO CAST BEHIND THE BACK (_B._), to forgive; TO SET or PUT
UP THE BACK, to arouse to resentment; TO THE BACKBONE, thoroughly. [A.S.
_bæc_, Sw. _bak_, Dan. _bag_.]

BACKARE, BACCARE, bak'[=a]re, _interj._ (_Shak._) back! stand back! [Perh.
for _back there!_]

BACKET, bak'et (_Scot._), _n._ a shallow wooden trough for carrying ashes,
coals, &c. [Fr. _baquet_, dim. of _bac_, back.]

BACKGAMMON, bak-gam'un, _n._ a game played by two persons on a board with
dice and fifteen men or pieces each. [M.E. _gamen_, play; and named from
the fact that the pieces are sometimes taken up and obliged to go
_back_--that is, re-enter at the table. Always called _Tables_ till the
17th century.]

BACKSHEESH, BACKSHISH, bak'sh[=e]sh, _n._ a gift or present of money in the
East, a gratuity or tip. [Pers.]

BACKWARD, bak'ward, _adv._ towards the back: on the back: towards the past:
from a better to a worse state: in a direction opposite to the normal--also
BACK'WARDS.--_adj._ BACK'WARD, keeping back: unwilling: slow: late: dull or
stupid.--_n._ the past portion of time.--_n._ BACK'WARDATION, percentage
paid by a seller of stock for keeping back its delivery till the following
to and fro.--TO RING BELLS BACKWARD, to ring them, beginning with the bass
bell, in order to give tidings of dismay. [BACK, and affix WARD, WARDS, in
the direction of.]

BACON, b[=a]'kn, _n._ swine's flesh salted or pickled and dried: (_Shak._)
a rustic, 'chaw-bacon.'--TO SAVE or SELL ONE'S BACON, i.e. one's own flesh
or body. [O. Fr. _bacon_, of Teut. origin; cf. Old High Ger. _bahho_,
_bacho_; Ger. _bache_.]

BACONIAN, bak-[=o]n'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to Lord Bacon (1561-1626), or
to his philosophy, which was inductive or based on experience.

BACTERIUM, bak-t[=e]'ri-um, _n._, BACTERIA, bak-t[=e]'ri-a, _n.pl._
Schizomycetes, extremely small, single-celled, fungoid plants, single or
grouped, reproducing rapidly by cross division or by the formation of
spores, almost always associated with the decomposition of albuminoid
substances, and regarded as the germs or active cause of many
diseases.--_ns._ BACTERIOL'OGIST; BACTERIOL'OGY, the scientific study of
bacteria. [Gr. _bakt[=e]rion_, dim. of _baktron_, stick, staff.]

BACULINE, bak'[=u]-l[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to the stick or cane--in
flogging. [L. _baculum_.]

BACULITE, bak'[=u]-l[=i]t, _n._ a genus of fossil shells, allied to the
ammonites, having a shell of perfectly straight form, tapering to a point.
[L. _baculum_, a stick.]

BAD, bad, _adj._ ill or evil: wicked: hurtful: incorrect, faulty:
unfavourable: painful:--_comp._ WORSE; _superl._ WORST.--_adj._ BAD'DISH,
somewhat bad: not very good.--_adv._ BAD'LY.--_ns._ BAD'NESS.--BAD BLOOD,
angry feeling; BAD COIN, false coin; BAD DEBTS, debts that cannot be
recovered; BAD SHOT, a wrong guess.--TO GO BAD, to decay; TO GO TO THE BAD,
to go to ruin; TO THE BAD, to a bad condition: in deficit.--WITH BAD GRACE,
unwillingly. [Ety. very obscure. The M. E. _badde_ is referred by Zupitza
to A.S. _bæddel_, a hermaphrodite, _bædling_, an effeminate fellow.]

BADE, bad, _pa.t._ of BID.

BADGE, baj, _n._ a mark or sign by which a person or object is known or
distinguished. [M.E. _bage_--Low L. _bagia_, _bagea_, connected by Skeat
with Low L. _baga_, a golden ring, from L. _bacca_, _baca_, a berry, also
the link of a chain.]

BADGER, baj'[.e]r, _n._ a burrowing, nocturnal, hibernating animal about
the size of a fox, eagerly hunted by dogs.--_v.t._ to pursue with
eagerness, as dogs hunt the badger: to pester or worry.--_ns._
BADG'ER-BAIT'ING, the sport of setting dogs to draw out a badger from its
hole; BADG'ER-DOG, a long-bodied and short-legged dog used in drawing the
badger--the Ger. _dachshund_.--_adj._ BADG'ER-LEGGED, having legs of
unequal length, as the badger was vulgarly supposed to have.--_adv._
BADG'ERLY, like a badger: grayish-haired, elderly.--TO OVERDRAW ONE'S
BADGER, to overdraw one's banking account. [Prob. from BADGE and suffix
-ARD, in reference to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead.
Derivations connecting the word with O. Fr. _blaier_, thus meaning 'little
corn hoarder,' in allusion to a popular notion about the animal's habits,
seem to be erroneous.]

BADINAGE, bad'in-äzh, _n._ light playful talk: banter. [Fr.
_badinage_--_badin_, playful or bantering.]

BADMINTON, bad'min-ton, _n._ a cooling summer drink compounded of claret,
sugar, and soda-water: a predecessor of lawn-tennis, played with
shuttlecocks. [From _Badminton_ in Gloucester, a seat of the Duke of

BAFF, bäf, _v.t._ (_golf_) to strike the ground with a club in playing, and
so to send the ball up in the air.

BAFFLE, baf'fl, _v.t._ to check or make ineffectual: (_obs._) to cheat,
hoodwink, bewilder, bring to nought: (_obs._) to disgrace publicly.--_ns._
BAF'FLE (_obs._), confusion, check; BAF'FLER, a bewilderer, confounder.--TO
BAFFLE OUT OF (_obs._), to juggle out of anything. [Prob. Scotch and
connected with _bauchle_; but cf. Fr. _beffler_, from O. Fr. _befe_,
mockery. Paul Meyer suggests a derivation from Prov. _baf_, interj. of

BAFT, baft, _n._ a coarse fabric, originally Oriental, now manufactured in
and shipped from England. [Pers. _baft_, woven.]

BAFT, baft, _n._ _adv._ and _prep._ behind, in the rear (mostly _naut._).
[A.S. _beæftan_, from _be_, by, and _æftan_, behind.]

BAG, bag, _n._ a sack, pouch: specially the silken pouch to contain the
back-hair of the wig: a measure of quantity for produce: a game-bag, i.e.
the quantity of fish or game secured: an udder: (_vulg._ in _pl._)
trousers.--_v.i._ to bulge, swell out: (_naut._) to drop away from the
right course.--_v.t._ to cram full: to put into a bag, specially of game,
hence to kill game, to seize, steal:--_pr.p._ bag'ging; _pa.p._
bagged.--_ns._ BAG'GING, cloth or material for bags; BAG'GIT, a salmon that
has just spawned.--_adj._ BAG'GY, loose like a bag: inflated,
verbose.--_ns._ BAG'MAN, a familiar name for a commercial traveller;
BAG'-WIG, an 18th-cent. wig, the back-hair of which was enclosed in an
ornamental bag.--BAG AND BAGGAGE, originally a military expression, hence
the phrase, 'to march out with bag and baggage,' i.e. with all belongings
saved: to make an honourable retreat: now used in the sense of 'to clear
out completely.'--BAG OF BONES, an emaciated living being.--IN THE BOTTOM
OF THE BAG, remaining as a last resource; THE WHOLE BAG OF TRICKS, every
expedient; TO GIVE ONE THE BAG TO HOLD, to engage any one and meanwhile
disappear; TO LET THE CAT OUT OF THE BAG, to disclose the secret. [M. E.
_bagge_, perh. Scand.; not Celtic, as Diez suggests.]

BAGASSE, ba-gas', _n._ refuse in sugar-making. [Fr.; Sp. _bagazo_, husks of
grapes or olives after pressing.]

BAGATELLE, bag-a-tel', _n._ a trifle: a piece of music in a light style: a
game played on a board (7 feet long and 21 inches broad) with nine balls
and a cue, the object being to put the balls down into as many numbered
holes at the farther semicircular end of the board. [Fr.--It. _bagatella_,
a conjurer's trick, a trifle.]

BAGGAGE, bag'[=a]j, _n._ the tents, provisions, and other necessaries of an
army: (_U.S._) traveller's luggage; a worthless woman: a saucy woman. [O.
Fr. _bagage_--_baguer_, to bind up, from which we may infer all the
meanings, without reference to Fr. _bagasse_, It. _bagáscia_, a strumpet.]

BAGNIO, ban'y[=o], _n._ a bath, esp. one with hot baths: an Oriental place
of detention: a stew or house of ill-fame. [It. _bagno_--L. _balneum_, a


BAGPIPE, bag'p[=i]p, _n._ a musical wind-instrument, consisting of a
leathern bag fitted with pipes. The Highland bagpipe has five pipes: _a_,
the mouthpiece, to keep the bag filled with air; _b_, the chanter, having a
reed and finger-holes to produce the melody; and _c_, three drones with
reeds, tuned to act as a bass to the chanter: (_pl._) an inflated,
senseless talker.--_n._ BAG'PIPER.

BAH, bä, _interj._ an exclamation of disgust or contempt. [Fr.]

BAHADUR, ba-had'[=oo]r, _n._ a title of respect often added by natives to
the names of English officers in India. [Hind. _bahadur_, brave.]

BAIGNOIRE, b[=a]n'war, _n._ a box at the theatre on a level with the
stalls. [Orig. = 'bathing-box,' Fr. _baigner_, to bathe.]

BAIL, b[=a]l, _n._ one who procures the release of an accused person by
becoming guardian or security for his appearing in court: the security
given: (_Spens._) jurisdiction.--_v.t._ to set a person free by giving
security for him: to release on the security of another.--_adj._
BAIL'ABLE.--_ns._ BAIL'-BOND, a bond given by a prisoner and his surety
upon being bailed; BAIL'-DOCK, BALE'-DOCK, a room at the Old Bailey,
London, in which prisoners were kept during the trials; BAILEE', one to
whom goods are delivered in trust upon a contract; BAIL'ER, one who
delivers goods to another in trust; BAIL'MENT, a delivery of goods in
trust: the action of bailing a prisoner; BAILS'MAN, one who gives bail for
another.--TO ACCEPT, ADMIT TO, ALLOW BAIL, are all said of the magistrate;
the prisoner OFFERS, SURRENDERS TO HIS BAIL; the one who provides it GOES,
GIVES, or STANDS BAIL.--TO GIVE LEG BAIL, to be beholden to one's legs for
escape. [O. Fr. _bail_, jurisdiction--_baillier_, to control, deliver.
Primarily implying 'custody' or 'charge,' the word became associated with
Norm. Fr. _bailler_, to deliver--L. _bajulus_.]

BAIL, b[=a]l, _v.t._ (_rare_) to confine.--TO BAIL UP (_Australia_), to
secure a cow's head during milking: to disarm travellers so as to be able
to rob them without resistance. [Prob. conn. with the preceding word.]

BAIL, b[=a]l, _n._ palisades, barriers: a pole separating horses in an open
stable. [M. E.--O. Fr. _baile_, perh. from _baillier_, to enclose. Others
suggest a derivation from L. _baculum_, a stick.]

BAIL, b[=a]l, _n._ one of the cross pieces on the top of the wicket in
cricket.--_n._ BAIL'ER, a ball bowled so as to hit the bails. [Prob. conn.
with the preceding word.]

BAIL, b[=a]l, _v.t._ to clear (a boat) of water with bails or shallow
buckets.--_n._ a man or instrument for bailing water out of a ship, pit,
&c.--Also spelled BALE. [Fr. _baille_, a bucket, perh. from Low L.
_bacula_, dim. of _baca_.]

BAILEY, b[=a]l'i, _n._ the outer court of a feudal castle: either of the
two courts formed by the spaces between the circuits of walls, hence OUTER
and INNER BAILEY.--THE OLD BAILEY in London, the Central Criminal Court,
from the ancient _bailey_ between Lud Gate and New Gate. [Fr. _baille_,
from Low L. _ballium_.]

BAILIE, b[=a]l'i, _n._ a municipal officer in Scotland corresponding to an
English alderman: (_obs._) a sheriff's officer; but cf. Scotch
WAT'ER-BAIL'IES, constables employed to carry out the Tweed Fisheries Acts:
(_obs._) the chief magistrate of a Scottish barony or part of a county,
with functions like a sheriff's. [O. Fr. _bailli_, land-steward, officer of
justice. See BAILIFF.]

BAILIFF, b[=a]l'if, _n._ formerly any king's officer, e.g. sheriffs,
mayors, &c., but applied specially to the chief officer of a hundred, still
the title of the chief magistrate of various towns (e.g. High-bailiff of
Westminster, cf. Bailiff of Dover Castle, also the _bailly_ or first civil
officer of the Channel Islands: a sheriff's officer: an agent or
land-steward.--_n._ BAIL'IWICK, the jurisdiction of a bailiff. [O. Fr.
_baillif_--Low L. _bajulivus_--_bajalus_, carrier, administrator. See

BAIRAM, b[=i]'ram, _n._ the name of two Mohammedan festivals--the _Lesser
Bairam_ lasting three days, after the feast of Ramadan, and the _Greater
Bairam_ seventy days later, lasting four days. [Pers.]

BAIRN, b[=a]rn, _n._ (_Scot._) a child.--_adj._ BAIRN'-LIKE.--_ns._
BAIRN'TEAM, BAIRN'TIME, brood of children. [A.S. _bearn_--_beran_, to

BAISEMAIN, b[=a]z'mang, _n._ (_obs._) mostly in _pl._, compliment paid by
kissing the hand. [Fr. _baiser_, to kiss, and _main_, hand.]

BAIT, b[=a]t, _n._ food put on a hook to allure fish or make them bite: any
allurement or temptation: a refreshment taken on a journey, or the time
taken up by such.--_v.t._ to set food as a lure: to give refreshment on a
journey: to set dogs on a bear, badger, &c.: to worry, persecute,
harass.--_v.i._ to take refreshment on a journey. [M. E. _beyten_--Scand.
_beita_, to make to bite, causal of _bíta_, to bite.]

BAIZE, b[=a]z, _n._ a coarse woollen cloth with a long nap, used mainly for
coverings, linings, &c., but in some countries for clothing. [Fr. _baies_,
_pl._ of _bai_--L. _badius_, bay-coloured.]


BAKE, b[=a]k, _v.t._ to dry, harden, or cook by the heat of the sun or of
fire: to prepare bread or other food in an oven: to harden as by
frost.--_v.i._ to work as a baker: to become firm through heat.--_pa.p._
baked (b[=a]kt); _pr.p._ b[=a]k'ing.--_ns._ BAKE'HOUSE, a house or place
used for baking in; BAKE'MEAT (_B._), pastry, pies.--_pa.p._ BAK'EN =
_baked_.--_ns._ BAK'ER, one who bakes bread, &c.--(_obs._) BAX'TER;
BAK'ERY, a bakehouse; BAKE'STONE, a flat stone or plate of iron on which
cakes are baked in the oven; BAK'ING, the process by which bread is baked:
the quantity baked at one time. [A.S. _bacan_; cog. with Ger. _backen_, to
bake, Gr. _phog-ein_, to roast.]


BALAAM, b[=a]'lam, _n._ a prophet who strives to mislead, like Balaam in
Numb. xxii.-xxiv.: unimportant paragraphs kept in readiness to fill up a
newspaper.--_ns._ B[=A]'LAAM-BOX, or -BAS'KET, a place in which paragraphs
such as the foregoing are kept in readiness; B[=A]'LAAMITE.--_adj._

BALANCE, bal'ans, _n._ an instrument for weighing, usually formed of two
dishes or scales hanging from a beam supported in the middle: act of
weighing two things: equality or just proportion of weight or power, as the
balance of power: the sum required to make the two sides of an account
equal, hence the surplus, or the sum due on an account: what is needed to
produce equilibrium, a counterpoise: (_watchmaking_) a contrivance which
regulates the speed of a clock or watch.--_v.t._ to weigh in a balance: to
counterpoise: to compare: to settle, as an account, to examine and test
accounts in book-keeping, to make the debtor and creditor sides of an
account agree.--_v.i._ to have equal weight or power, &c.: to hesitate or
fluctuate.--_p.adj._ BAL'ANCED, poised so as to preserve equilibrium: well
arranged, stable.--_ns._ BAL'ANCER, an acrobat; BAL'ANCE-SHEET, a sheet of
paper showing a summary and balance of accounts; BAL'ANCE-WHEEL, a wheel in
a watch or chronometer which regulates the beat or rate. [Fr.--L. _bilanx_,
having two scales--_bis_, double, _lanx_, _lancis_, a dish or scale.]


BALAS, bal'as, _n._ a variety of the spinel ruby. [O. Fr. _balais_ (It.
_balascio_)--Low L. _balascus_--Pers. _Badakhsh[=a]n_, a place near
Samarcand where they are found.]

BALATA, bal'a-ta, _n._ the gum of the bullet or bully tree of South
America, used as a substitute for gutta-percha in insulating

BALBUTIENT, bal-b[=u]'shi-ent, _adj._ stammering. [L.
_balbutiens_--_balb[=u]t[=i]re_, to stutter.]

BALCONY, balk'on-i (18th c., bal-k[=o]'ni), _n._ a stage or platform
projecting from the wall of a building within or without, supported by
pillars or consoles, and surrounded with a balustrade or railing: in
theatres, usually the gallery immediately above the dress circle.--_n._
BAL'CONETTE, a miniature balcony.--_adj._ BAL'CONIED. [It.
_balc[=o]ne_--_balco_, of Teut. origin; Old High Ger. _balcho_ (Ger.
_balken_), Eng. BALK.]

BALD, bawld, _adj._ without hair (feathers, &c.) on the head (or on other
parts of the body): bare, unadorned, destitute of literary grace: paltry,
trivial: undisguised.--_ns._ BALD'-COOT, popular name for the coot, from
its pure white wide frontal plate: a monk--also BALD'ICOOT; BALD'-EA'GLE, a
common but inaccurate name for the American white-headed eagle, used as the
national emblem.--_adj._ BALD'-FACED, having white on the face, as a
horse.--_n._ BALD'HEAD, a person bald on the head.--_adjs._ BALD'-HEADED;
BALD'ISH, somewhat bald.--_adv._ BALD'LY.--_ns._ BALD'NESS; BALD'PATE, one
destitute of hair: a kind of wild-duck.--_adjs._ BALD'PATE, BALD'PATED,
destitute of hair. [Orig. 'shining,' 'white,' Ir. and Gael. _bàl_, 'white'
spot; but perh. conn. with _ball_ in the sense of 'rounded,' whence
'smooth,' 'hairless.']

BALDACHIN, bal'da-kin, _n._ silk brocade: a canopy, either supported on
pillars, or fastened to the wall, over a throne, pulpit, or altar, &c.: in
R.C. processions, a canopy borne over the priest who carries the Host. [It.
_baldacchino_, Fr. _baldaquin_, a canopy, from It. _Baldacco_, Bagdad,
whence was brought the stuff of which they were made.]

BALDERDASH, bawl'd[.e]r-dash, _n._ idle senseless talk: anything jumbled
together without judgment: obscene language or writing. [Ety. dub.; but cf.
the prov. Eng. _balder_, to use coarse language, Dut. _balderen_, to roar.
Some adduce Welsh _baldorrdus_--_baldordd_, idle noisy talk.]

BALDMONEY, bawld'mun-i, _n._ popular name for several kinds of Gentian.
[Ety. quite unknown.]

BALDRICK, bawld'rik, _n._ a warrior's belt or shoulder-sash: (_Spens._) the
zodiac, being regarded as a gem-studded belt. [O. Fr. _baldrei_ (Mid. High
Ger. _balderich_, girdle)--Low L. _baldringus_, perh. from L. _balteus_.]

BALE, b[=a]l, _n._ a bundle, or package of goods: (_obs._) the set of dice
for any special game.--_v.t._ to make into bales. [M. E. _bale_, perh. from
O. Fr. _bale_--Old High Ger. _balla_, _palla_, ball. See BALL.]

BALE, b[=a]l, _v.t._ to throw out water [See BAIL.]

BALE, b[=a]l, _n._ evil, injury, mischief: misery: woe.--_adj._ BALE'FUL,
full of misery, destructive: full of sorrow, sad.--_adv._ BALE'FULLY.--_n._
BALE'FULNESS.--BLISS AND BALE are often alliteratively opposed; also BOOT
AND BALE. [A.S. _bealu_; Old High Ger. _balo_; Ice. _böl_.]

BALE, b[=a]l, _n._ (_arch._--_Morris_) a fire, funeral pyre: (_Scot._) a
beacon-fire.--_n._ BALE'-FIRE, a blazing fire: a beacon-fire: a bonfire.
Spenser confounds with BALE, woe. [A.S. _bæl_; Scand. _bál_; cog. with Gr.
_phalos_, bright. See BELTANE.]

BALEEN, b[=a]-l[=e]n', _n._ the whalebone of commerce. [Fr.--L. _balæna_,


BALISTRARIA, bal-is-tr[=a]r'i-a, _n._ an aperture or loophole in the wall
of a fortification through which crossbowmen might discharge their
bolts.--_n._ BAL'ISTER (_obs._), name for an arbalester or crossbowman,
also an arbalest or crossbow itself. [Low L. _ballistrarius_, _balistra_, a
variant form of _ballista_, a crossbow.]

BALK, BAULK, bawk, _n._ a ridge left unploughed, intentionally or through
carelessness: (_obs._) an omission: squared timber: a tie-beam of a house,
stretching from wall to wall, esp. when laid so as to form a loft, 'the
balks:' (_obs._) the beam of a balance: the rope by which fishing-nets are
fastened together: a hindrance or disappointment.--_v.t._ to ignore, pass
over: refuse: avoid: let slip: to check, disappoint, or elude: to meet
arguments with objections.--_v.i._ to swerve, pull up: (_Spens._) lie out
of the way.--_n._ BALK'-LINE, in billiards, a line drawn across the table
28½ inches from the face of the bottom cushion--a ball is said to be in
balk when within this space. [A.S. _balca_, ridge; Old High Ger. _balcho_.]

BALL, bawl, _n._ anything round: any celestial body, esp. the 'globe:' the
golden orb borne with the sceptre as the emblem of sovereignty: a globular
body to play with in tennis, football, golf, billiards, &c.: any rounded
protuberant part of the body: a bullet, or any missile thrown from an
engine of war: a rounded mass of anything: a throw or delivery of the ball
at cricket: a well-known game played with a ball.--_v.i._ to gather itself
into a ball, become clogged.--_ns._ BALL'-CART'RIDGE, a cartridge
containing both powder and ball [BALL and CARTRIDGE]; BALL'-COCK, the
stopcock of a cistern, attached to one end of a lever, at the other end of
which is a hollow metal ball which rises and falls with the [Illustration]
water, thus regulating the supply; BALL'-FLOW'ER, an ornament of the
decorated style of Gothic architecture, resembling a ball placed in a
circular flower.--_adj._ BALL'-PROOF, proof against balls discharged from
firearms.--BALL AND SOCKET, a joint formed of a ball partly enclosed in a
cup, thus insuring great strength; BALL OF THE EYE, the eye within the lids
and socket.--NO BALL, a ball unfairly bowled.--THREE GOLDEN or BRASS BALLS,
the sign of a pawnbroker.--TO HAVE THE BALL AT ONE'S FEET, to have a thing
in one's power; TO KEEP THE BALL UP or ROLLING, to keep from flagging; TO
TAKE UP THE BALL, to take one's turn in anything.--WIDE BALL, one out of
the batsman's reach. [M. E. _bal_, Scand. _böllr_; cog. with Old High Ger.
_ballo_, _pallo_.]

BALL, bawl, _n._ an entertainment of dancing.--_n._ BALL'ROOM.--TO OPEN THE
BALL, to begin the dancing, to begin operations. [O. Fr. _bal_, _baller_,
to dance--Low L. _ballare_, referred by some to Gr. _ballizein_.]

BALLAD, bal'lad, _n._ a simple spirited narrative poem in short stanzas of
two or four lines, in which a story is told in straightforward verse, often
with great elaborateness and detail in incident, but always with graphic
simplicity and force--a sort of minor epic: a simple song, usually of a
romantic or sentimental nature, in two or more verses, each sung to the
same melody, as in the so-called Ballad Concerts: any popular song, often
scurrilous.--_ns._ BAL'LADIST, a writer or singer of ballads;
BAL'LAD-MONGER, a dealer in ballads. [Fr. _ballade_, from _ballare_, to
dance, being orig. a song sung to the rhythmic movement of a dancing
chorus--a dramatic poem sung or acted in the dance, of which a shadow
survives in the ring-songs of our children.]

BALLADE, ba-lad', _n._ a poem of one or more terns or triplets of seven or
eight lined stanzas, each ending with the same line as refrain, and usually
an envoy: now frequently used of any poem in stanzas of equal
length.--BALLADE ROYAL, stanzas of seven or eight lines of ten
syllables--called also _Rime_ or _Rhythm royal_. [An earlier spelling of

BALLADINE, bal'a-d[=e]n, _n._ a female public dancer. [Fr.]

BALLAST, bal'last, _n._ heavy matter employed to give a ship sufficient
immersion in the water, to insure her safe sailing with spread canvas, when
her cargo and equipment are too light: that which renders anything
steady.--_v.t._ to load with ballast: to make or keep steady: (_Shak._)
load.--_n._ BAL'LAST-HEAV'ER. [Probably the Old Sw. _barlast_--_bar_, bare,
and _last_, load, the mere load.]

BALLERINA, bal-ler-[=e]n'a, _n._ a female dancer:--_pl._ BALLERINE
(bal-ler-in'), BALLERIN'AS. [It.]

BALLET, bal'l[=a], _n._ a theatrical exhibition composed of dancing,
posturing, and pantomimic action: (_obs._) a dance. [Fr.; dim. of _bal_, a

BALLISTA, BALISTA, bal-lis'ta, _n._ a Roman military engine in the form of
a crossbow, which, like the _catapulta_ and the _onager_, propelled large
and heavy missiles, chiefly through the reaction of a tightly twisted rope,
or else by a violent movement of levers.--_adj._ BALLIS'TIC,
projectile.--_ns._ BALLIS'TIC-PEN'DULUM, an instrument for ascertaining the
velocity of military projectiles; BALLIS'TITE, an improved kind of
gunpowder. [L.--Gr. _ballein_, to throw.]

BALLIUM, bal'li-um, _n._ the Low L. form of BAILEY.

BALLOON, bal-l[=oo]n', _n._ an inflated air-tight envelope of paper or
silk, constructed to float in the air and carry a considerable weight when
filled with heated air or light gas: anything inflated, empty: (_obs._) a
game played with a large inflated ball.--_v.i._ to ascend in a balloon: to
puff out like a balloon.--_n._ BALLOON'IST, an aeronaut. [It. _ballone_,
augmentative of _balla_, ball.]

BALLOT, bal'ut, _n._ a little ball or ticket used in voting: a method of
secret voting by putting a ball or ticket into an urn or box.--_v.i._ to
vote by ballot: to select by secret voting (with _for_): draw lots
for:--_pr.p._ bal'loting; _pa.p._ bal'loted.--_ns._ BAL'LOTAGE, in France,
the second ballot to decide which of two candidates has come nearest to the
legal majority; BAL'LOT-BOX, a box to receive balls or tickets when voting
by ballot. [It. _ballotta_, dim. of _balla_, ball. See BALL.]

BALM, bäm, _n._ an aromatic substance: a fragrant and healing ointment:
aromatic fragrance: anything that heals or soothes pain: a tree yielding
balm: name of some fragrant garden herbs.--_v.t._ (_arch._) to embalm:
(_Shak._) to anoint with fragrant oil: (_arch._) to soothe.--_n._
BALM'INESS.--_adj._ BALM'Y, fragrant: mild and soothing: bearing
balm.--BALM, or BALSAM, OF GILEAD, the resin of the tree _Balsamodendron
Gileadense_, formerly esteemed as an antiseptic, the name originating in
the belief that this is the substance mentioned in the Bible as found in
Gilead, and called in the English translation 'balm.' [O. Fr. _basme_--L.
_balsamum_. See BALSAM.]

BALM-CRICKET, bäm'-krik'et, _n._ (_Tennyson_) a cicada. [Ger. _baum_, a
tree, and CRICKET.]

BALMORAL, bal-mor'al, _n._ a kind of Scotch cap: a figured woollen
petticoat: a kind of boot lacing in front.

BALNEOLOGY, bal-ne-ol'o-ji, _n._ the scientific study of bathing and of
mineral springs. [L. _balneum_, bath.]

BALSAM, bawl'sam, _n._ the common name of a genus of succulent herbaceous
plants: a resinous oily substance generally supposed to be derived from a
species of Balsamodendron, early famous in the East for its fragrance and
medicinal virtues: (_fig._) any healing agent.--_v.t._ to heal: (_rare_)
embalm.--_adjs._ BALSAM'IC, BAL'SAMOUS, having the qualities of balsam:
soothing; BALSAMIF'EROUS, producing balsam; BAL'SAMY, fragrant.--CANADA
BALSAM, a kind of turpentine obtained from the Balm of Gilead fir. [L.
_balsamum_--Gr. _balsamon_; prob. of Semitic origin.]

BALTIMORE, bal'tim-[=o]r, _n._ a finch-like perching bird of the starling
family, very common in North America, called also _Baltimore oriole_,
_Fire-bird_, &c. [From Lord _Baltimore_, whose livery was orange and
black--its colour.]


BALUSTER, bal'ust-[.e]r, _n._ a small pillar used as a support to the rail
of a staircase, &c.--_adj._ BAL'USTERED.--_n._ BAL'USTRADE, a row of
balusters joined by a rail, forming an ornamental parapet to a balcony, &c.
[Fr. _balustre_--Low L. _balaustium_--Gr. _balaustion_, the flower of the
pomegranate; from the similarity of form.]

BAM, bam, _n._ a slang word for a hoax: a false tale.--_v.t._ to cheat or
hoax. [See BAMBOOZLE.]

BAMBINO, bam-bi'no, _n._ a term in art descriptive of the child Jesus, esp.
of the swaddled figure of the infant Saviour exhibited at Christmas in
Catholic churches. [It., dim. of _bambo_.]

BAMBOO, bam-b[=oo]', _n._ a gigantic Indian reed or grass, with
hollow-jointed stem, and of hard texture. [Malay _bambu_.]

BAMBOOZLE, bam-b[=oo]'zl, _v.t._ to deceive: to confound or mystify.--_n._
BAMBOO'ZLEMENT. [Of cant origin--but not Gipsy; first appears about 1700.]

BAN, ban, _n._ a proclamation: sentence of banishment: outlawry:
anathematisation: a denunciation: a curse.--_v.t._ (_arch._) to curse:
(_prov._) to chide or rail upon: to anathematise: to proscribe. [A.S.
_bannan_, to summon; the noun _bann_ does not appear in A.S. (which has
_gebann_), but is a common Teut. word, as in Old High Ger. and Scand.
_bann_. The O. Fr. _ban_ and Low L. _bannum_ are of the same origin.]

BAN, ban, _n._ the governor of a BANAT, an old name for the military
divisions on the eastern boundaries of the Hungarian kingdom.--_ns._
BANATE, BANNAT. [Pers. _b[=a]n_, lord.]

BANAL, b[=a]n'al, or ban'al, _adj._ commonplace, trivial.--_n._ BANAL'ITY,
triviality. [Fr.]

BANANA, ba-nä'na, _n._ a gigantic herbaceous plant, remarkable for its
nutritious fruit. [Sp. or Port. _banana_, from the native name in Guinea.]

BANBURY, ban'ber-i, _n._ a kind of cake made at _Banbury_, a town in

BANCO, bang'ko, _n._ a commercial term meaning the standard money in which
a bank keeps its accounts, as distinguished from the current money of the
place.--IN BANCO, applied to the sittings of a superior court of common law
as a full court distinguished from sittings at Nisi Prius or on circuit.
[It. See BANK.]

BAND, band, _n._ that by which loose things are held together: (_fig._) a
moral bond of restraint or of obligation: a tie or connecting piece:
(_pl._) shackles, bonds, fetters (_B._): (_arch._) an agreement or promise
given: (_arch._) security given: (_Spens._) a pledge. [M. E. _band_,
_bond_; A.S. _bend_, from _bindan_, to bind. See BIND.]

BAND, band, _n._ a strip of cloth, or the like, to bind round anything, as
a hat-band, waist-band, &c.: a stripe crossing a surface distinguished by
its colour or appearance: the neck-band or collar of a shirt, also the
collar or ruff worn by both sexes in the 17th century (termed a
falling-band later, when turned down over the shoulders): (_pl._) the pair
of linen strips hanging down in front from the collar, worn by some
Protestant clergymen and by English barristers.--_n._ BAND'AGE, a strip or
swathe of cloth used by surgeons to keep a part of the body at rest, to
apply pressure, or to retain dressings or apparatus in position--the two
chief varieties, the roller and the triangular handkerchief bandage: a
piece of cloth used to blindfold the eyes.--_v.t._ to bind with such.--_n._
BAND'BOX, a light kind of box for holding bands, caps, millinery,
&c.--_p.adj._ BAND'ED, fastened as with a band: striped with bands:
leagued, allied.--_ns._ BAND'FISH, a name given to various kinds of fish
with long, thin, flat bodies; BAND'SAW, an endless saw, consisting of a
toothed steel belt; BAND'STER, one who binds the sheaves after the reapers.
[M. E. _bande_--O. Fr. _bande_, of Teut. origin; cf. A.S. _bindan_; Ger.
_binde_, a band, Eng. BIND.]

BAND, band, _n._ a number of persons bound together for any common purpose:
a troop of conspirators, confederates, &c.: a body of musicians, the
company of musicians attached to a particular regiment in the army:
(_Scot._) band = bond.--_v.t._ to bind together.--_v.i._ to associate,
assemble, confederate.--_ns._ BAND'MASTER, the leader of a band of
musicians; BANDS'MAN, a member of a band of musicians; BAND'-STAND, a
platform for accommodating a band of musicians.--BAND OF HOPE, an
association of young persons--often mere infants--pledged to lifelong
abstinence from alcoholic drinks--first instituted about 1847. [Fr.
_bande_, of Teut. origin; cf. BEND, BIND.]

BAND, band, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to ban or banish.

BAND, an obsolete _pa.t._ of BIND.

BANDANA, BANDANNA, ban-dan'a, _n._ a kind of silk or cotton coloured
handkerchief, with a pattern of spots or diamond prints, originally from
India. [Hind. _bandhn[=u]_, the mode of dyeing these, _b[=a]ndh_, a cord.]

BANDEAU, ban'd[=o], _n._ a fillet or narrow band worn by women to bind
their hair:--_pl._ BAN'DEAUX. [Fr.]

BANDELET, band'e-let, _n._ (_archit._) a small flat moulding or fillet
surrounding a column. [Fr. _bandelette_.]

BANDELIER, ban-de-l[=e]r', _n._ a form of BANDOLEER.

BANDEROL, BANDEROLE, ban'de-r[=o]l, _n._ a small banner or streamer, as
that borne on the shaft of a lance: (_archit._) a flat band with an
inscription common in Renaissance buildings. [Fr.]

BANDICOOT, ban'di-k[=oo]t, _n._ a genus of insectivorous marsupials found
in Australia: the largest species of rat, found in India and Ceylon, called
also _Malabar rat_ and _Pig-rat_. [Telegu _pandikokku_, pig-rat.]


BANDIT, ban'dit, _n._ an outlaw: a robber:--_pl._ BAN'DITS, BANDITT'I. [It.
_bandito_--Low L. _bannire_, _bandire_, to proclaim. See BAN.]

BANDOG, ban'dog, _n._ a dog tied up as a watch-dog, or because of its
ferocity. [BAND, fastening, and DOG.]

BANDOLEER, BANDOLIER, ban-do-l[=e]r', _n._ a leathern belt worn by
musketeers, to which their ammunition was fixed. [O. Fr.
_bandouillere_--It. _bandoliera_, _banda_, a band.]

BANDOLINE, ban'do-lin, _n._ a gummy substance used for stiffening the hair
and keeping it in shape. [Prob. from BAND.]

BANDORE, ban-d[=o]r', _n._ a musical instrument like a guitar, with three
or more strings. [Sp. _bandurria_, Fr. _mandore_; L. _pandura_, Gr.

BANDROL, band'r[=o]l, _n._ Same as BANDEROL.

BANDS, of clergymen and barristers. See BAND (2).

BANDY, ban'di, _n._ a club bent at the end for striking a ball: a game at
ball with such a club (_bandy-ball_ = _hockey_).--_v.t._ to beat to and fro
as with a bandy: to toss from one to another (as words _with_ any one) = to
discuss or debate; to give and take blows or reproaches: (_Shak._) to
fight, strive:--_pa.p._ ban'died.--_n._ BAN'DYING.--_adj._ BAN'DY-LEGGED,
having bandy or crooked legs. [Fr. _bander_, perh. conn. with _bande_, a

BANE, b[=a]n, _n._ destruction: death: mischief: poison.--_v.t._ (_arch._)
to harm, to poison.--_adj._ BANE'FUL, destructive.--_adv._
BANE'FULLY.--_n._ BANE'FULNESS. [A.S. _bana_, a murderer; Ice. _bani_,

BANG, bang, _n._ a heavy blow: a sudden loud noise: an explosion.--_v.t._
to beat: to strike violently: to slam, as a door: to make a loud noise: to
beat or surpass, to bounce upon.--_interj._ BANG, used with verbs like
'go,' &c., and in such a phrase as 'bang off.'--_p.adj._ BANG'ING, dealing
blows: overwhelming.--_adj._ BANG'-UP (_slang_), in the height of style or
fashion.--_n._ BANG'STER (_prov._), a braggart, a victor. [Scand. _banga_,
to hammer; cf. Ger. _bengel_, a cudgel.]

BANG, bang, _n._ a woman's hair cut square across the brow.--_p.adj._
BANGED, wearing the hair in such a way.--_n._ BANG'-TAIL, a horse's tail
with the end squared. [An Americanism, doubtless from the phrase 'bang

BANG. Same as BHANG.

BANGLE, bang'gl, _n._ a ring, bracelet, or anklet.--_adj._ BAN'GLED,
adorned with such. [Hind. _bangr[=i]_.]

BANIAN, BANYAN, ban'yan, _n._ an Indian tree of the fig family, remarkable
for its vast rooting branches: a Hindu trader, esp. from Guzerat, sometimes
loosely applied to all Hindus in Western Asia: a loose flannel jacket or
gown worn in India.--BANIAN DAYS, a sailor's phrase, meaning days on which
no meat is served out, hence days of short commons generally, from the
abstinence from flesh of the Banian merchants. [Port. _banian_, perh.
through Ar. _bany[=a]n_, from Hind. _banya_--Sans. _vanij_, a merchant.]

BANISH, ban'ish, _v.t._ to condemn to exile: to drive away: to expel (with
_from_, _out of_).--_n._ BAN'ISHMENT, exile. [Fr. _bannir_--Low L.
_bannire_, to proclaim. See BAN.]

BANISTER, ban'ist[.e]r, _n._ a corr. of BALUSTER.

BANJO, ban'jo, _n._ a musical instrument of the guitar kind, played with
the fingers, but without frets to guide the stopping, having a long neck, a
body of stretched parchment like a drum, and from five to nine catgut
strings. [Corr. of Fr. _bandore_ or _pandore_--L. _pandura_--Gr.

BANK, bangk, _n._ a mound or ridge of earth: the earthy margin of a river,
lake, &c.: the raised edge of a road, railway cutting, &c.: (_min._) the
surface at the pit-mouth, as in banksman: rising ground in the sea.--_v.t._
to enclose with a bank: to deposit or pile up: to make up a fire by
covering it with a heap of fuel so pressed down as to remain a long time
burning slowly--_banked fires_.--_n._ BANKS'MAN, an overseer at a
pit-mouth.--FROM BANK TO BANK, from the time the collier begins to descend
the pit for his spell of work till he reaches the top again. [M. E.
_banke_, of Scand. origin; cog. with BANK, BENCH.]

BANK, bangk, _n._ a bench in a galley: a tier or rank of oars: the bench on
which judges sat. [O. Fr. _banc_, of Teut. origin, cog. with the foregoing

BANK, bangk, _n._ a place where money is deposited: an institution for the
keeping, lending, and exchanging, &c. of money: in games of hazard, the
money the proprietor, who plays against all the others, has before
him.--_v.t._ to deposit in a bank, as money.--_ns._ BANK'-[=A]'GENT, the
head of a branch bank; BANK'-BILL, a bill drawn by one bank upon another,
payable at a future date, or on demand; BANK'-CHEQUE, an order to pay
issued upon a bank; BANK'ER, one who keeps a bank: one employed in banking
business:--_fem._ BANK'ERESS; BANK'-HOL'IDAY, a day on which banks are
legally closed, bills falling due on these being payable the following day;
BANK'ING, the business of a banker.--_adj._ pertaining to a bank.--_ns._
BANK'-NOTE, a note issued by a bank, which passes as money, being payable
to bearer on demand; BANK'-PAP'ER, bank-notes in circulation; BANK'-STOCK,
a share or shares in the capital stock of a bank; BRANCH'-BANK, a branch
office of a bank; SAV'INGS-BANK, one intended originally to develop a
spirit of saving amongst the poor.--BANK ANNUITIES, the consolidated three
per cent. annuities--British Government funds.--BANK OF ISSUE, one that
issues its own notes, or promises to pay; JOINT-STOCK BANK, one of which
the capital is subscribed by a large number of shareholders; PRIVATE BANK,
one carried on by any number of persons less than ten.--TO BREAK THE BANK,
to win, as in faro, from the management a certain sum which has been fixed
upon as the limit the bank is willing to lose on any one day; TO PLAY
AGAINST THE BANK, to take the risks of a game against the manager who holds
the bank, as at rouge-et-noir, &c. [Fr. _banque_, of Teut. origin, cog.
with two foregoing words.]

BANKRUPT, bangk'rupt, _n._ one who breaks or fails in business; an
insolvent person.--_adj._ insolvent: destitute (with _of_).--_n._
BANK'RUPTCY, the state of being or act of becoming bankrupt. [Fr.
_banque-route_, It. _banca rotta_.]

BANKSIA, bangk'sia, _n._ a genus of Australian shrubs, named in honour of
Sir Joseph Banks (1744-1820).

BANNER, ban'[.e]r, _n._ a military standard: a flag or ensign bearing some
device, as in processions, &c.--_adj._ BAN'NERED, furnished with banners.
[O. Fr. _banere_--Low L. _bandum_, _bannum_; cog. with BAND and BIND.]

BANNERET, ban'[.e]r-et, _n._ a higher class of knight, inferior to a baron.
[Fr. dim. of BANNER.]

BANNEROL, ban'[.e]r-ol, _n._ Same as BANDEROL.

BANNING, ban'ning, _n._ cursing. [See BAN.]

BANNOCK, ban'nok, _n._ a flat home-made cake of oatmeal, barley, or
pease-meal. [Gael. _bannach_.]

BANNS, banz, _n.pl._ a proclamation of marriage.--TO FORBID THE BANNS, to
make formal objection to a projected marriage. [From BAN.]

BANQUET, bangk'wet, _n._ a feast: any rich treat or entertainment: a course
of sweetmeats, fruit, and wine, separately, or after the principal
meal--still used in the Scotch phrase, 'a cake and wine banquet.'--_v.t._
to give a feast to.--_v.i._ to fare sumptuously.--_ns._ BANQ'UETER,
BANQ'UETEER; BANQ'UETING; BANQ'UETING-HOUSE. [Fr.;--_banc_, bench, like It.
_banchetto_, from _banco_.]

BANQUETTE, bang-ket', _n._ a raised way inside a parapet; the long seat
behind the driver in a French diligence. [Fr.; It. _banchetta_, dim. of
_banca_, seat.]

BANSHEE, ban'sh[=e], _n._ a female fairy in Ireland and elsewhere, who
makes herself known by wailings and shrieks before a death in the
particular family to which she is attached. [Ir. _bean sídhe_, Old Ir. _ben
síde_, woman of the fairies.]

BANTAM, ban'tam, _n._ a small variety of the common domestic fowl, supposed
to be named from _Bantam_ in Java, notable for courage.--_adj._ of
bantam-breed: little and combative.

BANTER, bant'[.e]r, _v.t._ to assail with good-humoured raillery: to joke
or jest at: (_arch._) to impose upon, trick.--_n._ humorous raillery:
jesting.--_ns._ BANT'ERER; BANT'ERING.--_adv._ BANT'ERINGLY.--_adj._
BANT'ERY (_Carlyle_). [Ety. quite unknown.]

BANTING, bant'ing, _n._ a system of diet for reducing superfluous
fat.--_n._ BANT'INGISM. [From W. _Banting_ (1797-1878), a London
cabinetmaker, who recommended it to the public in 1863.]

BANTLING, bant'ling, _n._ a child. [So called from the _bands_ in which it
is wrapped.]

BANTU, ban't[=oo], _n._ a native name sometimes applied to the South
African family of languages and the peoples speaking these, including
Kaffirs and Zulus, Bechuans, and the peoples from the Hottentot country to
the Gulf of Guinea.

BANXRING, bangks'ring, _n._ a small insectivorous animal of Java and
Sumatra. [Jav.]


BAOBAB, b[=a]'o-bab, _n._ a magnificent tree, native to tropical Western
Africa, whose trunk is 20 to 30 feet thick, called also the _Monkey-bread
Tree_. [African.]

BAPHOMET, baf'[=o]-m[.e]t, _n._ the alleged name of a mysterious idol the
Templars were accused of worshipping.--_adj._ BAPH'OMETIC. [A medieval
corr. of the name _Mahomet_.]

BAPTISE, bapt-[=i]z', _v.t._ to administer baptism to: to christen, give a
name to.--_n._ BAPT'ISM, immersion in or sprinkling with water as a
religious ceremony--a sign and seal of the covenant of grace. It is
symbolic of spiritual purification, and as a religious rite marks
initiation into the Christian community.--_adj._ BAPTIS'MAL.--_adv._
BAPTIS'MALLY.--_ns._ BAPT'IST, one who baptises: one who approves only of
baptising by immersion, and that only to persons who profess their faith in
Christ; BAP'TISTERY, a place where baptism is administered, either a
separate building or a portion of a church.--BAPTISMAL REGENERATION, the
doctrine of the remission of sin original and actual, and of the new birth
into the life of sanctifying grace, in and through the sacrament of
baptism; BAPTISM BY DESIRE, the grace given to a believer who ardently
desires baptism, but dies before he can receive it; BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD,
the vicarious baptism of a living Christian for an unbaptised dead
Christian, who was thereby accounted baptised and received into bliss--it
is supposed to be alluded to in 1 Cor. xv. 29; BAPTISM OF BLOOD, martyrdom
for Christ's sake; BAPTISM OF FIRE, the gift of the Holy Spirit: martyrdom
by fire for Christ's sake: (_fig._) any trying ordeal to be endured, as a
young soldier's first experience of being under fire; CLINICAL BAPTISM,
baptism administered to sick persons; CONDITIONAL (or HYPOTHETICAL)
BAPTISM, baptism administered to those about whom it is doubtful whether
they were baptised or whether the form of their earlier baptism was valid;
NAME OF BAPTISM, the Christian or personal name given at baptism; PRIVATE
BAPTISM, baptism administered at home, or elsewhere, not in the church.
[Gr. _baptiz-ein_--_bapt-ein_, to dip in water.]

BAR, bär, _n._ a rod of any solid substance: a bolt: a hindrance or
obstruction--the barrier of a city or street, as the bars of York, Temple
Bar, a toll-bar: a bank of sand or other matter at the mouth of a river:
any terminus or limit (of life)--e.g. as in TO CROSS THE BAR: the railing
that encloses a space in a tavern, the counter across which drinks are
served, a public-house: the wooden rail dividing off the JUDGE'S SEAT, at
which prisoners are placed for arraignment or sentence--hence, TO APPEAR AT
THE BAR, TO PASS THE BAR = to be formally referred for trial from a lower
court to a higher: any tribunal: the pleaders in a court as distinguished
from the judges: a division in music.--_v.t._ to fasten or secure, as with
a bar: to hinder or exclude:--_pr.p._ bar'ring; _pa.p._ barred.--_ns._
BAR'-[=I]'RON, iron in malleable bars; BAR'MAID, a female waiter at the bar
of a tavern or hotel.--_prep._ BAR'RING, excepting, saving.--_ns._
BAR'RING-OUT, the shutting of the school-room doors and windows by the
pupils against the master, in order to enforce assent to their demands;
BAR'WOOD, a kind of red dye-wood imported from Africa in bars. [O. Fr.
_barre_--Low L. _barra_, perh. of Celt. origin.]


BARAGOUIN, bä-rag-w[=e]n, _n._ any jargon or unintelligible language. [Fr.;
from Bret. _bara_, bread, and _gwîn_, wine, supposed to have originated in
the Breton soldiers' astonishment at white bread.]

BARB, bärb, _n._ the beard-like jag near the point of an arrow, fish-hook,
&c.--_v.t._ to arm with barbs, as an arrow, &c.: to shave, trim, mow, to
pierce, as with a barb.--_adjs._ BARB'ATE (_bot._), bearing a hairy tuft;
BARB'ATED, barbed, bearded.--_n._ BARBE, a term applied by the Waldenses to
their teachers.--_adjs._ BARBED, furnished with a barb: of a horse, armed
or caparisoned with a barb or bard; BARB'ELLATE (_bot._), having barbed or
bearded bristles. [Fr.--L. _barba_, a beard.]

BARB, bärb, _n._ a swift kind of horse, the breed of which came from
_Barbary_ in North Africa.


BARBAROUS, bär'bar-us, _adj._ uncivilised: rude: savage: brutal.--_adjs._
BAR'BARESQUE, pertaining to _Barbary_: barbarous, esp. in art;
BARB[=A]R'IAN, uncivilised: savage: without taste or refinement:
foreign.--_n._ an uncivilised man, a savage: a cruel, brutal man.--_adj._
BARBAR'IC, foreign: uncivilised.--_n._ BARBARIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
BAR'BARISE, to make barbarous: to corrupt as a language.--_ns._ BAR'BARISM,
savage life: rudeness of manners: an incorrect form of speech; BARBAR'ITY,
savageness: cruelty.--_adv._ BAR'BAROUSLY.--_n._ BAR'BAROUSNESS. [L.--Gr.
_barbaros_, foreign, lit. stammering, from the unfamiliar sound of foreign

BARBARY APE, bär'bar-i [=a]p, _n._ the magot, or small tailless ape found
in Africa and also on the rock of Gibraltar.

BARBECUE, bärb'e-k[=u], _v.t._ to roast whole, as a pig: to cure flesh by
exposing it on a barbecue.--_n._ a framework on which to dry and smoke meat
above a fire: an animal roasted whole: an open floor on which coffee-beans
and the like are spread out to dry: (_Amer._) a large social or political
entertainment, where the hospitalities are on a lavish scale. [Sp.
_barbacoa_--Haytian _barbacòa_, a framework of sticks set upon posts.]

BARBEL, bärb'el, _n._ a fresh-water fish with beard-like appendages at its
mouth. [O. Fr. _barbel_--Low L. _barbellus_--L. _barba_, a beard.]

BARBER, bärb'[.e]r, _n._ one who shaves beards and dresses hair.--_ns._
BARB'ER-MONG'ER (_Shak._), a man decked out by his barber, a fop;
BARB'ER-SUR'GEON, one who let blood and drew teeth as well as shaved--the
company of Barber-surgeons was incorporated in 1461, but by an act in 1545
barbers were confined to the more humble function.--BARBER'S BLOCK, a round
block on which wigs are made; BARBER'S POLE, the barber's sign in England,
a pole striped spirally with alternate bands of colours, generally red or
black and white, having often a brass basin hung at the end. [Fr.--L.
_barba_, a beard.]

BARBERRY, bär'ber-i, _n._ a thorny shrub with yellow flowers and red
berries, common in hedges. [Low L. _berberis_; the Ar. _barbaris_ is

BARBETTE, bar-b[.e]t', _n._ an earthen terrace inside the parapet of a
rampart, serving as a platform for heavy guns: in ironclad ships, a heavily
armoured redoubt amidships. [Fr.]

BARBICAN, bär'bi-kan, _n._ a projecting watch-tower over the gate of a
castle or fortified town, esp. the outwork intended to defend the
drawbridge. [O. Fr. _barbacane_, also in Sp., Port., and It. forms; perh.
of Ar. or Pers. origin. Col. Yule suggests _b[=a]bkh[=a]nah_, gate-house,
name in the East for a towered gateway.]

BARBULE, bärb'[=u]l, _n._ (_bot._) a small barb or beard: a pointed
barb-like process fringing the barbs of a feather. [See BARBEL.]

BARCAROLLE, bär'ka-r[=o]l, _n._ a boat-song of the Venetian gondoliers: a
musical composition of a similar character. [It. _barcaruolo_, a boatman,
from _barca_, a bark, a barge, a boat.]

BARD, bärd, _n._ a poet and singer among the ancient Celts: a poet--dims.
BARD'LING, BARD'LET, poetaster.--_n._ BARD'-CRAFT (_Browning_).--_adj._
BARD'IC. [Gael. and Ir. _bàrd_.]

BARDED, bärd'ed, _adj._ caparisoned, as horses.--_n._ BARD (_obs._), the
protective covering of a war-horse or a man-at-arms. [Fr. _barde_--Sp.
_albarda_, pack-saddle, perh. from Ar. _al-barda`ah_; _al_, the, and
_barda`ah_, mule's pack-saddle.]

BARE, b[=a]r, _adj._ uncovered: naked: open to view: poor, scanty:
unadorned: (_Shak._) unarmed: mere or by itself: (_Shak._) paltry,
desolate: empty: (_Spens._) rude.--_v.t._ to strip or uncover.--_adj._
BARE'BACKED, with bare back: unsaddled.--_n._ BARE'BONE (_Shak._), a very
lean person.--_adj._ BARE'FACED, with the face uncovered: (_Shak._) avowed:
impudent.--_adv._ BARE'FACEDLY.--_n._ BARE'FACEDNESS.--_adjs._ BARE'FOOT,
-ED, having the feet bare, often of some monastic orders; BARE'-GNAWN
(_Shak._), gnawed bare; BARE'HEADED, having the head bare; BAR'ISH
(_Carlyle_), somewhat bare; BARE'LEGGED, having the legs bare.--_adv._
BARE'LY.--_ns._ BARE'NESS; BARE'SARK, a fierce Norse fighter, a
berserker.--_adv._ in a shirt only. [A.S. _bær_; Ger. _baar_, _bar_; Ice.

BARE, b[=a]r, old _pa.t._ of BEAR.

BARAGE, ba-r[=a]zh', _n._ a light, silky dress-stuff, named from _Barèges_
in the Pyrenees.

BARGAIN, bär'gin, _n._ a contract or agreement: a favourable transaction:
an advantageous purchase: (_Shak._) chaffering.--_v.i._ to make a contract
or agreement: to chaffer: to count on, take into consideration (with
_for_): to lose by bad bargaining (with _away_).--_n._ BAR'GAINER.--BARGAIN
AND SALE, in law, a mode of conveyance whereby property may be assigned or
transferred for valuable consideration.--INTO THE BARGAIN, over and above;
TO MAKE THE BEST OF A BAD BARGAIN, to make the best of difficult
circumstances; TO SELL ANY ONE A BARGAIN (_Shak._), to befool him; TO
STRIKE A BARGAIN, to come to terms about a purchase. [O. Fr.
_bargaigner_--Low L. _barcaniare_; acc. to Diez from _barca_, a boat.]

BARGE, bärj, _n._ flat-bottomed freight boat, with or without sails, used
on rivers and canals: the second boat of a man-of-war: a large pleasure or
state boat.--_ns._ BAR'GEE, a bargeman; BARGE'MAN, The manager of a barge;
BARGE'-MAS'TER, the proprietor of a barge. [O. Fr. _barge_--Low L. _barga_.
Prob. a doublet of BARK, a barge.]


BARGE-BOARD, barj'-b[=o]rd, _n._ a board extending along the edge of the
gable of a house to cover the rafters and keep out the rain. [The _barge_
here may be conn. with Low L. _bargus_, a gallows.]

BARGHEST, bär'gest, _n._ a dog-like goblin portending death. [Perh. conn.
with Ger. _berg-geist_, mountain-ghost.]


BARILLA, bar-il'a, _n._ an impure carbonate of soda obtained by burning
several marine plants (that grow chiefly on the east coast of Spain), used
in the manufacture of soap, glass, &c. [Sp. _barrilla_.]

BARITONE, bar'i-t[=o]n. Same as BARYTONE.

BARIUM, b[=a]'ri-um, _n._ the metal present in heavy spar (sulphate of
baryta) and baryta, formerly thought to be white, but now known to possess
a yellow colour.--_adj._ BAR'IC. [From BARYTA; cf. _soda_, _sodium_.]

BARK, bärk, _n._ the abrupt cry uttered by a dog, wolf, &c.--_v.i._ to yelp
like a dog: to clamour.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to utter with a bark.--_n._
BARK'ER, a shop-tout: (_slang_) a pistol, cannon.--HIS BARK IS WORSE THAN
HIS BITE, his angry expressions are worse than his actual deeds. [A.S.
_beorcan_, prob. a variety of _brecan_, to crack, snap. See BREAK.]

BARK, BARQUE, bärk, _n._ a barge: a ship of small size, square-sterned,
without head-rails: technically, a three-masted vessel whose mizzen-mast is
_fore-and-aft_ rigged instead of being square-rigged, like the fore and
main masts--barks of over 3000 tons are now frequently built.--_ns._
BAR'KANTINE, BAR'QUENTINE, a three-masted vessel, with the fore-mast
square-rigged, and the main-mast and mizzen-mast fore-and-aft rigged. [Fr.
_barque_--Low L. _barca_; perh. from Gr. _baris_, a Nile-boat.]

BARK, bärk, _n._ the rind or covering of the trunk and branches of a tree:
that used in tanning or dyeing, or the residue thereof, laid upon a street
to deaden the sound, &c.: the envelopment or outer covering of
anything.--_v.t._ to strip or peel the bark from: to rub off
(_skin_).--_n._ BARK'-BED, a hotbed made of spent bark.--_v.t._ BARK'EN, to
dry up into a barky substance.--_v.i._ to become like bark.--_adjs._
cinchona, from which quinine is made. [Scand. _börkr_; Dan. _bark_.]

BARKER'S MILL, bärk'[.e]rz mil, a water-wheel invented in the 18th century
by Dr _Barker_.

BARLEY, bär'li, _n._ a hardy grain used for food, but chiefly for making
malt liquors and spirits.--_ns._ BAR'LEY-BREE, -BROTH, strong ale;
BAR'LEY-CORN, personified as _John Barleycorn_, the grain from which malt
is made: a single grain of barley: a measure of length = 1/3 of an inch;
BAR'LEY-SU'GAR, a mixture of sugar with a decoction of pearl-barley, boiled
till it is candied; BAR'LEY-WAT'ER, a decoction of pearl-barley;
PEARL'-BAR'LEY, the grain stripped of husk and pellicle, and completely
rounded by grinding; POT'-BAR'LEY, the grain deprived by milling of its
outer husk, used in making broth, &c. [A.S. _bærlíc_, _bere_, and suffix

BARLEY, bär'li, _interj._ (_Scot._) a term used in games in demand of a
truce, parley (of which it is most prob. a corruption).

BARLEY-BRAKE, bär'li-br[=a]k, _n._ an old country game, originally played
by three couples, of which one, left in a middle den called 'hell,' had to
catch the others, who could break or separate when about to be overtaken.
[Perh. from the grain, _barley_, because often played in a barley-field; or
perh. from the word preceding.]

BARM, bärm, _n._ froth of beer or other fermenting liquor, used as leaven:
yeast.--_adjs._ BARM'Y; BARM'Y-BRAINED, flighty. [A.S. _beorma_; cog. with
Dan. _bärme_, Ger. _bärme_.]

BARMBRACK, bärm'brak, _n._ a currant-bun. [Ir. _bairigen breac_, speckled

BARM-CLOTH, bärm'-kloth, _n._ (_Morris_) an apron. [A.S. _barm_, bosom,
_-beran_, to bear, and CLOTH.]

BARMECIDE, bär'me-s[=i]d, _n._ one who offers an imaginary or pretended
banquet or other benefit.--_adjs._ BAR'MECIDE, BARMEC[=I]'DAL. [From a
story in the _Arabian Nights_, in which a beggar is entertained to an
imaginary feast by one of the _Barmecides_, a Persian family who attained
to great influence at the court of the Abbasside caliphs.]

BARMKIN, bärm'kin, _n._ the rampart of a castle.

BARN, bärn, _n._ a building in which grain, hay, &c. are stored.--_v.t._ to
store in a barn.--_ns._ and _adjs._ BARN'-DOOR, BARN'-YARD, as in barn-yard
fowl.--_n._ BARN'-OWL, the commonest of British owls.--BARN-DOOR, in
cricket, used of a player who blocks every ball: humorously, any large
target. [A.S. _bere-ern_, contracted _bern_, from _bere_, barley, _ern_, a

BARNABY, bärn'a-bi, _n._ form of _Barnabas_, the apostle.--_n._ BAR'NABITE,
a member of the congregation of regular canons of St Paul, founded at Milan
in 1530, so called from their preaching in the church of St Barnabas
11th June, in Old Style reckoned the longest day.

BARNACLE, bär'na-kl, _n._ a shellfish which adheres to rocks and the
bottoms of ships: a companion who sticks closely.--_n._ BAR'NACLE-GOOSE, a
species of wild goose belonging to the Northern seas, so called from a
notion that they were produced from the barnacles mentioned. [O. Fr.
_bernaque_--Low L. _bernaca_; by some referred to a supposed form
_pernacula_, dim. of _perna_, a kind of shellfish; by others to a Celtic

BARNACLE, bär'na-kl, _n._ an instrument consisting of two branches joined
by a hinge, placed on the nose of horses to keep them quiet: (_pl._) a
colloquial term for 'spectacles.'--_adj._ BAR'NACLED. [O. Fr. _bernac_, of
which _bernacle_ seems to be a dim. form. The sense of 'spectacles' has
been traced to O. Fr. _bericle_, eye-glass--_berillus_, beryl; but this is

BARNEY, bär'ni, _n._ (_slang_) humbug: a prize-fight.

BARNUMISE, bär'num-[=i]z, _v.t._ to advertise and display on a great
scale.--_n._ BAR'NUMISM. [From _Barnum_, a great showman (1810-91).]

BAROGRAPH, bar'o-graf, _n._ a barometer which records automatically
variations of atmospheric pressure. [Gr. _baros_, weight, _graphein_, to

BAROMETER, bar-om'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument by which the weight or
pressure of the atmosphere is measured, and changes of weather, or heights
above sea-level, indicated.--_adj._ BAROMET'RIC.--_adv._
BAROMET'RICALLY.--_n._ BAROM'ETRY. [Gr. _baros_, weight, _metron_,

BAROMETZ, bar'o-metz, _n._ the hairy prostrate stem of a fern found near
the Caspian Sea, at one time supposed to be at once plant and animal, to
grow on a stalk, and to eat grass like a lamb, &c.; hence also called, as
by Mandeville, the _Scythian Lamb_. [Erroneous form of Russ. _baranetz_,
dim. of _baran_, ram.]


BARON, bar'on, _n._ a title of rank, the lowest in the House of Peers:
formerly a title of the judges of the Court of Exchequer: in feudal times
the tenants-in-chief of the Crown, later the peers or great lords of the
realm generally: till 1832, the name for the parliamentary representatives
of the Cinque Ports: in Germany, the signification, instead of becoming
restricted as in England, has become extended--the greater or dynasty
barons having all been elevated to higher titles, a large number being
designated barons in virtue of a diploma from some reigning prince, the
title being used also by all his descendants.--_ns._ BAR'ONAGE, the whole
body of barons; BAR'ON-BAIL'IE, a magistrate appointed by the lord-superior
in a burgh of barony; BAR'ONESS, a baron's wife, or a lady holding a
baronial title in her own right.--_adj._ BAR[=O]N'IAL, pertaining to a
baron or barony.--_n._ BAR'ONY, the territory of a baron: in Ireland, a
division of a county: in Scotland, a large freehold estate, or manor, even
though not carrying with it a baron's title and rank: the rank of
baron.--BARON OF BEEF, a joint consisting of two sirloins left uncut at the
backbone. [O. Fr. _barun_, _-on_--Low L. _baro_, _-onem_; in the Romance
tongues the word meant a man as opposed to a woman, a strong man, a
warrior; traced by some to Celt. _bar_, a hero; by others to Old High Ger.
_bero_, bearer, carrier.]

BARONET, bar'on-et, _n._ the lowest hereditary title in the United Kingdom
(of England--now of Great Britain--since 1611; of Scotland--or of Nova
Scotia--since 1625; of Ireland, since 1619).--_ns._ BAR'ONETAGE, the whole
body of baronets: a list of such; BAR'ONETCY.--_adj._ BARONET'ICAL. [Dim.
of BARON.]

BAROQUE, bar-[=o]k', _adj._ originally a jeweller's term, but applied in
art generally to extravagant ornamental designs: whimsical, odd. [Fr.
_baroque_; perh. from L. _verruca_, wart, but referred by some to Ar.
_bur[=a]q_, hard earth mixed with stones.]

BAROSCOPE, bar'[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for indicating changes in
the density of the air. [Gr. _baros_, weight, _skopein_, to see.]

BAROUCHE, ba-r[=oo]sh', _n._ a double-seated four-wheeled carriage with a
falling top. [It. _baroccio_--L. _birotus_, two-wheeled, from _bis_, twice,
_rota_, a wheel.]

BARQUE. Same as BARK (2).

BARQUENTINE, bär'ken-t[=e]n, _n._ same as BARKANTINE (q.v. under BARK, a
ship). [Formed from BARQUE, like BRIGANTINE from BRIG.]

BARRACAN, bar'a-kan, _n._ a thick, strong stuff resembling camlet. [Fr.;
It.--Ar. _barrak[=a]n_, a dark dress, Pers. _barak_, a stuff made of
camel's hair.]

BARRACE, bar'as, _n._ (_obs._) the lists in a tournament. [O. Fr.
_barras_--_barre_, bar.]

BARRACK, bar'ak, _n._ a building for soldiers, esp. in garrison (generally
in _pl._). [Fr. _baraque_ (It. _baracca_, Sp. _barraca_, a tent); acc. to
Diez from _barra_, bar.]

BARRACOON, bar'a-k[=oo]n, _n._ a depôt for slaves. [Sp.--_barraca_.]

BARRACOOTA, -CUDA, bar'a-k[=oo]'ta, -k[=oo]'da, _n._ a voracious West
Indian fish.--Also BARRACOU'TA, an Australian food-fish. [Sp.]

BARRAGE, bär'[=a]j, _n._ the forming of an artificial bar in order to
deepen a river. [Fr. _barrage_--_barre_, bar.]

BARRATOR, bar-[=a]t'or, _n._ one who vexatiously stirs up lawsuits,
quarrels, &c.--_adj._ BAR'RATROUS.--_adv._ BAR'RATROUSLY.--_n._ BAR'RATRY,
fraudulent practices on the part of the master or mariners of a ship to the
prejudice of the owners: vexatious litigation, or the stirring up of suits
and quarrels among subjects, forbidden under penalties to lawyers: traffic
in offices of church or state. [O. Fr. _barateor_--_barat_, deceit; traced
by some to Gr. _prattein_, by others to a Celt. or a Scand. origin.]

BARREL, bar'el, _n._ a cylindrical wooden vessel made of curved staves
bound with hoops: the quantity which such a vessel contains (36 imperial
gallons of ale and beer): a certain weight or quantity of other goods
usually sold in casks called barrels: anything long and hollow, as the
barrel of a gun, or cylindrical and barrel-shaped.--_v.t._ to put in a
barrel.--_n._ BAR'REL-BULK, a measurement of five cubic feet.--_p.adj._
BAR'RELLED, having a barrel or barrels: placed in a barrel.--_ns._
BAR'REL-OR'GAN, an organ in which the music is produced by a barrel or
cylinder set with pins, the revolution of which opens the key-valves and
produces the music; BARREL-VAULT, a vault with a simple semi-cylindrical
roof.--_adj._ BAR'REL-VAULT'ED. [Fr. _baril_ (Sp. _barril_, It.
_barile_)--Low L. _barile_, _barillus_, possibly from _barra_, bar.]

BARREN, bar'en, _adj._ incapable of bearing offspring: unfruitful: dull,
stupid: unprofitable (with _of_).--_adj._ BAR'REN-BEAT'EN.--_adv._
[O. Fr. _barain_, _brahain_, _brehaing_, perh. from _bar_, man, as if
'male-like, not producing offspring.']

BARRET, bar'et, _n._ a flat cap, esp. the BIRETTA (q.v.). [Fr. _barrette_,
Sp. _birreta_. See BIRETTA.]

BARRICADE, bar'ik-[=a]d, _n._ a temporary fortification raised to hinder
the advance of an enemy, as in the street fights of Parisian
insurrections.--_v.t._ to obstruct: to fortify.--Earlier form
BARRIC[=A]'DO. [Fr.; _barrique_, a cask, the first street barricades having
consisted of casks filled with stones, &c. See BAR.]

BARRICO, bar-[=e]'ko, _n._ a small cask. [Sp.]

BARRIER, bar'i-[.e]r, _n._ a defence against attack: a limit or boundary: a
fence, railing, gate where customs are collected: the lists in a
tournament: any obstacle that keeps apart: (_pl._) a martial exercise in
15th and 16th centuries.--_v.t._ to shut by means of a barrier.--_n._
BAR'RIER-REEF, a coral-reef surrounding an island or fringing a coast with
a navigable channel inside.--BARRIER ACT, an act passed by the General
Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1697 as a security against
innovations, decreeing that changes in the law of the Church, even when
approved by the Assembly, shall not become law till approved also by a
majority of presbyteries. [O. Fr. _barrière_--Low L. _barraria_--_barra_,

BARRISTER, bar'is-t[.e]r, _n._ one who is qualified to plead at the bar in
an English or Irish law-court.--_adj._ BARRIST[=E]R'IAL.--_n._
BAR'RISTERSHIP.--REVISING BARRISTER, a barrister appointed annually by the
English judges to revise the lists and settle who are the persons entitled
to vote for members of parliament. [From _barra_, bar, the suffix being

BARROW, bar'r[=o], _n._ a small hand or one-wheel carriage used to bear or
convey a load.--_n._ BAR'ROW-TRAM, the shaft of a barrow. [M. E. _barewe_,
from an assumed A.S. form _bearwe_--_beran_, to bear.]

BARROW, bar'r[=o], _n._ originally a mountain, hillock: a mound raised over
graves in former times. [A.S. _beorg_; cog. with Ger. _berg_.]

BARROW, bar'r[=o], _n._ a long sleeveless flannel garment for infants.
[A.S. _beorgan_, to protect.]


BARTER, bär't[.e]r, _v.t._ to give one thing in exchange for another (with
_for_, _away_).--_v.i._ to traffic by exchanging.--_n._ traffic by exchange
of commodities.--_n._ BAR'TERER, one who barters. [Prob. from O. Fr.

BARTHOLOMEW-TIDE, bar-thol'o-m[=u]-t[=i]d, _n._ the day of the festival of
St Bartholomew, 24th August: the name was also applied to things sold at
the fair.--Often spelt BAR'TLEMY.--BLACK BARTHOLOMEW, 24th August 1662, the
day on which the Act of Uniformity came into force within the Church of


BARTISAN, bär'ti-zan, _n._ a small overhanging turret projecting from an
angle on the top of a tower. [Apparently an adaptation by Scott of Scot.
_bertisene_, traceable to O. Fr. _bretesche_, a parapet of wood.]

BARTON, bar'ton, _n._ a farm-yard. [A.S. _bere-tún_, yard, _bere_, barley,
and _tún_, enclosure.]

BARYCENTRIC, bar-i-sen'trik, _adj._ pertaining to the centre of gravity.
[Gr. _barys_, heavy, _kentron_, centre.]

BARYTA, ba-r[=i]'ta, BARYTES, ba-r[=i]'t[=e]z, _n._ the earth present in
the minerals _witherite_ and _heavy spar_.--_adj._ BARYT'IC, of or
containing baryta. [From Gr. _barys_, heavy.]

BARYTONE, bar'i-t[=o]n, _n._ a deep-toned male voice between bass and
tenor: a singer with such a voice: in Greek, applied to words not having an
acute accent on the last syllable. [Through Fr. from Gr. _barys_, heavy,
deep, and _tonos_, a tone.]

BASALT, bas-awlt', _n._ a hard, dark-coloured rock of igneous
origin.--_adj._ BASALT'IC. [L. _basaltes_, an African word.]

BASANITE, bas'an-[=i]t, _n._ a kind of quartz serviceable for testing the
purity of the precious metals by the marks made. [Gr. _basanos_,

BASBLEU. Same as BLUE-STOCKING (q.v. under BLUE).


BASCULE, bas'k[=u]l, _n._ an apparatus of the lever kind, in which one end
is raised while the other is depressed. [Fr. _bas_, down, and _cul_, the

BASE, b[=a]s, _n._ that on which a thing rests: foot: bottom: foundation:
support: the chief ingredient, as in dyeing and chemistry: the
starting-point, in a race: the fixed goal across which the ball is struck
in hockey, the fixed stations at base-ball: the point from which the
operations of a campaign are conducted: a measured line serving as a basis
for trigonometrical calculations: the surface on which a plane or solid
figure stands: (_chem._) a term applied to a compound body, generally
consisting of a metal united with oxygen; (_archit._) the foot or lower
member of a pillar, on which the shaft rests: (_her._) the lower portion of
the shield--any figure placed on it is said to be 'in base:' a small
portion of the base of a shield parted off by a horizontal line is
sometimes called a base.--_v.t._ to found or place on a base:--_pr.p._
b[=a]s'ing; _pa.p._ based (b[=a]st).--_adjs._ BAS'AL, BAS'ILAR, pertaining
to or situated at the base, esp. of the skull; BASE'LESS, without a base or
foundation.--_ns._ BASE'LESSNESS; BASE'MENT, the base or lowest story of a
building.--_adj._ BAS'EN-WIDE (_Spens._), widely extended.--_n._
BASE'-PLATE, the foundation plate of a piece of heavy machinery.--_n.pl._
BAS'ES, a kind of embroidered mantle which hung down from the middle to
about the knees or lower, worn by knights on horseback: (_Spens._) armour
for the legs.--_ns._ BASE'-STRING, the string of a musical instrument that
gives the lowest note; BASE'-V[=I]OL (same as BASS-VIOL).--_adj._ BAS'IC
(_chem._), belonging to or of the nature of a base.--_v.t._ BAS'IFY
(_chem._), to convert into a salifiable base:--_pr.p._ b[=a]s'ifying;
_pa.p._ b[=a]s'if[=i]ed. [Fr.--L.--Gr. _basis_--_ba-_, in _bainein_, to

BASE, b[=a]s, _adj._ low in place, value, estimation, or principle: mean:
vile: worthless: debased: counterfeit: (_law_) servile, as opposed to
_free_: humble: (_B._ and _Shak._) lowly.--_adj._ BASE'-BORN,
illegitimate.--_adv._ BASE'LY.--_adj._ BASE'-MIND'ED, of a low mind or
spirit: mean.--_n._ BASE'NESS.--_adj._ BASE'-SPIR'ITED, mean-spirited. [Fr.
_bas_--Low L. _bassus_, thick, fat, a vulgar Roman word, found also in name

BASE, b[=a]s, _v.t._ a form of ABASE.

BASE, b[=a]s, _n._ an old game played by two sides occupying contiguous
spaces, called _bases_ or _homes_, off which any player is liable to be
touched with the hand or struck by a ball by the enemy, and so attached to
their sides. Forms of this game are known as _Prisoner's Base_ or _Bars_,
and _Rounders_, and the national American game of _Base-ball_ is a
development from it.

BASE-BALL, b[=a]s'-bawl, _n._ a game played with a bat and a ball, and run
round bases, marking the circuit to be taken by each player of the inside
after striking the ball. There are nine players on each side; the pitcher,
of the one side, throws the ball; one of the other side tries to hit it as
it passes him; and the runs to the bases are regulated according as the
ball falls inside or outside certain lines, &c. A development from
rounders, base-ball has been the American national game since 1865.
[Coupled with cricket in Jane Austen's _Northanger Abbey_ (written 1798).]

BASECOURT, b[=a]s'k[=o]rt, _n._ the outer court of a mansion, which
contained the stable-yard and servants' accommodation, as distinguished
from the principal quadrangle: an inferior court of justice. [Fr.


BASH, bash, _v.t._ to beat or smash in.--_n._ BASH. [Prob. Scand.]

BASHAW, ba-shaw', _n._ a pasha: a haughty man--now usually written PASHA or
PACHA (q.v.).--_ns._ BASHAW'ISM, BASHAW'SHIP. [Turk.]

BASHFUL, bash'f[=oo]l, _adj._ easily confused: modest: shy: wanting
confidence.--_v.i._ BASH (_Spens._), to be abashed.--_adv._
BASH'FULLY.--_n._ BASH'FULNESS.--_adj._ BASH'LESS, unashamed. [See ABASH.]

BASHI-BAZOUK, bash'i-ba-z[=oo]k', _n._ a Turkish irregular trooper. They
are mostly Asiatics, and are brutal plundering ruffians, capable, as in
1876 in Bulgaria, of the most devilish atrocities. [Turk. _bashi-bozuq_.]

BASHLYK, bash'lik, _n._ a kind of hood with long ends worn in Russia.
[Russ. _bashluik[)u]_, a Caucasian hood.]

BASIL, baz'il, _n._ a mainly tropical or subtropical genus of Labiatæ,
characterised by a pleasant aromatic smell and taste, and reckoned amongst
_sweet herbs_.--SWEET BASIL is an Indian annual long cultivated in Europe
for seasoning purposes. [O. Fr. _basile_--L. _basilisca_--Gr. _basilikon_,

BASIL, baz'il, _n._ a sheepskin roughly tanned and undressed.


BASILICA, baz-il'ik-a, _n._ among the Romans, a large oblong hall, with
double colonnades and a semicircular apse at the end, used for judicial and
commercial purposes--many of them were afterwards converted into Christian
churches: a magnificent church built after the plan of the ancient
basilica.--_adj._ BASIL'ICAN. [L. _basilica_, Gr. _basilik[=e]_ (_oikia_, a
house), belonging to a king, from _basileus_, a king.]

BASILICON, baz-il'ik-on, _n._ a name given to various kinds of ointment as
possessing sovereign virtues. [Gr. _basilikon_, royal.]

BASILISK, baz'il-isk, _n._ a fabulous creature, about a foot long, with a
black-and-yellow skin and fiery red eyes, so named, according to Pliny,
from the crest on the head like a crown--variously regarded as a kind of
dragon or cockatrice: in modern zoology, a harmless crested lizard of
tropical South America: an ancient brass cannon throwing a shot of about
200 lb. weight. [Gr. _basiliskos_, dim. of _basileus_, a king.]

BASIN, b[=a]s'n, _n._ a wide open vessel or dish: any hollow place
containing water, as a dock: the area drained by a river and its
tributaries. [O. Fr. _bacin_--Low L. _bachinus_, perh. from the Celtic.]


BASINET, bas'i-net, _n._ a light globular headpiece worn alone with a
visor, or with the great helm resting on the shoulders, worn over it.--Also

BASIS, b[=a]s'is, _n._ the foundation, or that on which a thing rests: the
pedestal of a column: the groundwork or first principle:--_pl._ BAS'ES.
[See BASE (1).]

BASK, bask, _v.i._ to lie in the warmth or sunshine. [Scand. _badask_, to

BASKET, bas'ket, _n._ a vessel made of plaited twigs, rushes, or other
flexible materials.--_ns._ BAS'KETFUL, as much as fills a basket;
BAS'KET-HILT, the hilt of a sword with a covering wrought like basket-work
to defend the hand from injury; BAS'KET-MAK'ER; BAS'KET-WORK, any structure
of interlaced twigs or the like. [Prob. the L. _bascauda_; the W. _basged_
is apparently borrowed from the English.]

BASQUE, bask, _adj._ relating to the _Basques_, or their wonderful
language, with its extreme variability of dialects--the only example of a
consistently incorporating language.--_n._ a native of the Basque
provinces: the distinctive language of the Basques: a kind of short-skirted
jacket worn by women, a continuation of the bodice a little below the
waist.--_adj._ BASQUED (baskt), furnished with a basque.--_n._ BASQ'UINE,
an outer petticoat worn by Basque and Spanish women. [Fr. _Basque_--Low L.
_Vasco_, an inhabitant of _Vasconia_, whence _Gascony_. The Basques
themselves call their tongue _Eskuara_, _Euscara_, whence the Fr.

BAS-RELIEF, bä-re-l[=e]f', BASS-RELIEF, bas're-l[=e]f', _n._ (_sculp._)
figures which do not stand far out from the ground on which they are
formed--also used in the Italian form BASS'O-RILIE'VO. [See BASE, low, and

BASS, b[=a]s, _n._ the low or grave part in music.--_adj._ low, deep,
grave.--_v.t._ to sound in a deep tone.--_ns._ BASS'-HORN, a musical
wind-instrument, a modification of the bassoon, much lower and deeper in
its tones; THOR'OUGH-BASS, the theory of harmony. [See BASE, low.]

BASS. Same as BAST.

BASS, BASSE, bas, _n._ a marine fish allied to the perch. [A.S. _bærs_; cf.
Ger. _bars_, the perch.]

BASSA, bas'sa, _n._ Same as BASHAW.

BASSET, bas'et, _n._ a short-legged dog used in unearthing foxes and
badgers: an old Venetian game at cards, resembling faro, widely popular in
the 18th century: (_geol._) the outcrop or emergence of mineral strata at
the surface.--_v.i._ to incline upward so as to appear at the surface, to
crop up.--_n._ BAS'SET-HORN (It. _corno di bassetto_), the richest and
softest of all wind-instruments, similar to a clarionet in tone and
fingering, but with a twice-bent wooden tube, having a compass of two and a
half octaves. [Fr. _bas_, low.]

BASSINET, BASSINETTE, bas'si-net, _n._ a kind of basket with a hood in
which an infant is placed as in a cradle: a similarly shaped perambulator.
[Fr. dim. of _basin_, a basin.]

BASSO, bas'so, _n._ the same as BASS (1): also a bass singer.

BASSOON, bas-[=oo]n', _n._ (It. _fagotto_) a musical wind-instrument
filling an important place in the modern orchestra, of the reed species,
made of maple-wood or plane-tree, its compass from B flat below the bass
stave to C in the treble.--The DOUBLE BASSOON (It. _contrafagotto_) sounds
an octave lower.--_n._ BASSOON'IST. [It. _bassone_, augmentative of
_basso_, low, from root of BASE.]

BASS-VIOL, b[=a]s'-v[=i]'ol, _n._ a musical instrument with four strings,
used for playing the bass in concerted music; the violoncello. [See BASS,
low, and VIOL.]

BAST, bast, _n._ the inner bark of the lime-tree: matting made of it. [A.S.
_bæst_; Dut., Dan., Ger. _bast_.]

BASTARD, bas'tard, _n._ a child born of parents not married.--_adj._ born
out of wedlock: not genuine: resembling, but not identical with, the
species bearing the name: of abnormal shape or size: false.--_n._
BAS'TARD-BAR, a popular but inaccurate name for the baton-sinister in
heraldry.--_v.t._ BAS'TARDISE, to prove to be a bastard.--_adv._ BAS'TARDLY
(_obs._).--_ns._ BAS'TARD-WING, three, four, or five feathers springing
from the side of the wing of a bird near the point, attached to a bony
process which is the homologue of the thumb in some mammalia; BAS'TARDY,
BAS'TARDISM, the state of being a bastard.--BASTARD TITLE, an abbreviated
title of a book on an otherwise blank page preceding the full title-page;
BASTARD TYPES, types cast with an extra deep bevel to obviate the use of
leads, as Longprimer face on Pica body. [Fr. _bâtard_; O. Fr. _fils de
bast_, son of the pack-saddle, _bast_ (_bât_) being a coarse saddle for
beasts of burden.]

BASTE, b[=a]st, _v.t._ to beat with a stick. [Prob. conn. with Ice.
_beysta_, Dan. _böste_, to beat.]

BASTE, b[=a]st, _v.t._ to drop fat or butter over meat while roasting to
keep it from burning and to improve the flavour. [Ety. unknown.]

BASTE, b[=a]st, _v.t._ to sew slightly or with long stitches. [O. Fr.
_bastír_, from Old High Ger. _bestan_, to sew.]

BASTILLE, bast-[=e]l', _n._ an old fortress in Paris long used as a stale
prison, and demolished by a revolutionary mob in July 1789: any prison
regarded as a symbol of tyranny. [Fr.--O. Fr. _bastir_ (Fr. _bâtir_), to

BASTINADO, bast-in-[=a]d'o, _v.t._ to beat with a baton or stick, esp. on
the soles of the feet (a form of punishment in the East):--_pr.p._
bastin[=a]d'ing or bastin[=a]d'oing; _pa.p._ bastin[=a]d'ed or
bastin[=a]d'oed.--_ns._ BASTINADE', BASTIN[=A]D'O. [Sp. _bastonada_, Fr.
_bastonnade_--_baston_, _bâton_. See BATON.]

BASTION, bast'yun, _n._ a kind of tower at the angles of a
fortification.--_adj._ BAST'IONED. [Fr.--O. Fr. _bastir_, to build.]

BAT, bat, _n._ a heavy stick: a flat club for striking the ball in cricket,
a club for base-balls, a batsman: the clown's sword in a pantomime: a piece
of brick: (_slang_) rate of speed, style.--_v.i._ to use the bat in
cricket:--_pr.p._ bat'ting; _pa.p._ bat'ted.--_ns._ BAT'TER, BATS'MAN, one
who wields the bat at cricket, &c.; BAT'TING, the management of a bat in
playing games: cotton fibre prepared in sheets. [Perh. from A.S. _bat_ (a
doubtful form), prob. Celt. _bat_, staff.]

BAT, bat, _n._ an animal with a body like a mouse, but which flies on wings
attached mainly to its fore-feet, but extending along its sides to the
hind-feet. [M. E. _bakke_, apparently from Scand.; cf. Dan. _aftenbakke_,

BATABLE, b[=a]t'a-bl, _adj._ debatable, disputable. [A contr. of

BATATA, ba-tä'ta, _n._ a plant with tuberous roots, the sweet potato. [Sp.
_batata_, potato.]

BATAVIAN, ba-t[=a]'vi-an, _adj._ pertaining to the ancient _Batavi_ in the
Low Countries, or to the modern Dutch, their descendants.

BATCH, bach, _n._ the quantity of bread baked or of anything made or got
ready at one time: a set. [From BAKE.]

BATE. Same as ABATE.

BATE, b[=a]t, _n._ (_Spens._) strife, contention.--_adj._ BATE'-BREED'ING
(_Shak._). [Abbrev. of DEBATE.]

BATE, b[=a]t, _n._ diminution (_dial._, esp. in combination).

BATE, b[=a]t, _v.i._ (_Shak._) to beat the wings impatiently: (_obs._) to
be impatient. [O. E. _batre_--Low L. _bat[)e]re_.]

BATEAU, bä-to', _n._ a light river-boat, esp. those used on Canadian
rivers. [Fr.--O. Fr. _batel_, boat.]

BATELESS, b[=a]t'les, _adj._ (_Shak._) that cannot be bated or blunted.

BATFOWLING, bat'fowl-ing, _n._ the catching birds at night when at roost.
[BAT, club, and FOWL.]

BATH, bäth, _n._ water for plunging the body into: a bathing: a house for
bathing: a place for undergoing medical treatment by means of bathing:
(_phot._) a solution in which plates are plunged:--_pl._ BATHS
(bä_th_z).--_ns._ BATH'-BRICK, a preparation of siliceous silt,
manufactured at Bridgwater in the form of bricks, and used in cleaning
knives; BATH'CHAIR, a large wheeled chair for invalids; BATH'HOUSE;
BATH'MAN; BATH'ROOM; BATH'-STONE, a building stone quarried at Bath;
BATH'WOMAN; BLOOD'-BATH, a massacre.--BATH GUIDE, a poem of the 18th
century, often taken as a type of 'Society' verse.--ORDER OF THE BATH, an
English order of knighthood, so named from the bath before installation
(including three classes--military and civil knights grand-cross, G.C.B.;
knights commanders, K.C.B.; and companions, C.B.). [A.S. _bæth_, cog. with
Ger. _bad_.]

BATH, bäth, _n._ the largest Jewish liquid measure, containing about six
gallons. [Heb.]

BATHE, b[=a]_th_, _v.t._ to wash as in a bath: to wash or moisten with any
liquid: to moisten, suffuse, encompass.--_v.i._ to take a bath.--_n._ the
act of taking a bath.--_ns._ BATH'ING-BOX, a box for bathers to undress and
dress in; BATH'ING-MACHINE', a small carriage in which a bather may be
carried out into water conveniently deep for bathing. [A.S. _bathian_; Old
High Ger. _badôn_, _bathôn_ (Ger. _baden_).]

BATHOMETER, bath-om'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for ascertaining depth.
[Gr. _bathos_, depth, _metron_, measure.]

BATHORSE, baw'hors, _n._ a packhorse carrying the baggage of an officer.
[Fr. _bât_, a pack-saddle.]

BATHOS, b[=a]'thos, _n._ a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the mean
in writing or speech.--_adj._ BATHET'IC, irregularly formed on the analogy
of _pathos_, _pathetic_. [Gr. _bathos_, depth, from _bathys_, deep.]

BATHYBIUS, bath-ib'i-us, _n._ name given to a supposed low form of life at
the bottom of some parts of the deep sea. [Formed from Gr. _bathys_, deep,
and _bios_, life.]

BATHYMETRY, bath-im'et-ri, _n._ the science of measuring the depth of seas
and lakes. [Gr. _bathys_, deep, _metria_, measurement.]

BATING, b[=a]t'ing, _prep._ abating, excepting.

BATISTE, ba-t[=e]st', _n._ usual French name for cambric: applied in
commerce to a fine texture of linen and cotton. [Littré derives from
_Baptiste_, the original maker; others from its use in wiping the heads of
children after baptism.]

BATLET, bat'let, _n._ a wooden mallet used by laundresses for beating
clothes. [Dim. of BAT.]

BATMAN, bat'man, baw'man, _n._ a man who has charge of a bathorse. [See


BATON, bat'on, BATOON, ba-toon', _n._ a staff or truncheon, esp. of a
policeman: a marshal's staff.--_v.t._ to strike with a baton.--_n._
BAT'ON-SIN'ISTER, a well-known heraldic indication of illegitimacy,
improperly called BAR-SINISTER, a diminutive of a bend-sinister, not
extending to the sides of the shield, so as to resemble a marshal's baton
laid diagonally over the family arms from left to right. [Fr. _bâton_--Low
L. _basto_, a stick; of unknown origin.]

BATRACHIA, ba-tr[=a]'ki-a, _n.pl._ the order of reptiles which includes the
frogs.--_adj._ and _n._ BATR[=A]'CHIAN. [From Gr. _batrachos_, a frog.]

BATSWING, bats'wing, _n._ a kind of gas-burner, with a slit at the top
which causes the flame to take the shape of a bat's wing.

BATTA, bat'ta, _n._ an allowance to officers in the British Indian army in
addition to their ordinary pay: subsistence money. [Hind.]

BATTAILANT, bat't[=a]l-ant, _adj._ (_Spens._) fighting.--_adj._ BAT'TAILOUS
(_arch._), war-like. [Fr. _bataillant_, pr.p. of _batailler_, to fight. See

BATTALIA, bat-t[=a]l'ya, _n._ the order of battle: the main body of an army
in array. [It. _battaglia_. Doublet of BATTLE.]

BATTALIA PIE, bat-t[=a]l'ya p[=i], titbits in a pie: articles like
pin-cushions, embroidered by nuns in convents with scenes from the Bible.
[Corrupted from Fr. _béatilles_, dim. formed from L. _beatus_.]

BATTALION, bat-al'yun, _n._ a body of soldiers consisting of several
companies: a body of men drawn up in battle-array. [Fr.; from root of

BATTELS, bat'lz, _n.pl._ an Oxford term signifying accounts for provisions
received from college kitchens and butteries: applied generally to the
whole of the sums for tuition, &c., charged in college accounts.--_v.i._
BAT'TILL, BAT'TEL (_Spens._), to fatten. [Late L. _batilli_, perh. conn.
with BATTLE, to feed.]

BATTEN, bat'n, _v.i._ to grow fat: to live in luxury.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to
fatten. [Ice. _batna_, to grow better--_bati_, advantage; cf. Dut. _baten_,
to avail.]

BATTEN, bat'n, _n._ a piece of board: a ledge, clamp: in ships, a strip of
wood used to fasten down the hatches.--_n._ BAT'TENING, battens forming a
structure. [Same as BATON.]

BATTER, bat'er, _v.t._ to beat with successive blows: to wear with beating
or by use: to attack with artillery.--_n._ ingredients beaten along with
some liquid into a paste: paste for sticking.--_ns._ BAT'TERING-CHARGE, the
full charge of powder for a cannon; BAT'TERING-RAM, an ancient engine for
battering down walls, consisting of a large beam with an iron head like
that of a ram. [O. Fr. _batre_ (Fr. _battre_), from the root of BAT.]

BATTER, bat'[.e]r, _n._ the inclination of a wall from the
perpendicular.--_v.i._ to slope backward from the perpendicular. [Perh.
from Fr. _battre_, to beat down.]

BATTERY, bat'[.e]r-i, _n._ (_Shak._) a wound: a number of cannon with their
equipment: the place on which cannon are mounted: the men and horses
attending one battery, constituting the unit in the artillery: an
instrument used in electric and galvanic experiments: (_law_) an assault by
beating or wounding: apparatus for preparing or serving meals.--CROSS
BATTERIES, two batteries commanding the same spot from different
directions; FLOATING BATTERY (see FLOAT); MASKED BATTERY, a battery in
action out of the enemy's view; TO CHANGE ONE'S BATTERY, to alter the
direction of attacking.

BATTLE, bat'l, _n._ a contest between opposing armies: a fight or
encounter: (_arch._) a body of troops in battle array, esp. in phrase 'main
battle.'--_v.i._ to contend in fight: to maintain, champion (with
_against_, _with_).--_ns._ BAT'TLE-AXE, -AX, a kind of axe once used in
battle; BAT'TLE-CRY, a war-shout; BAT'TLEFIELD, the place on which a battle
is fought; BAT'TLE-PIECE, a passage, or a painting, describing a
battle.--_adj._ BAT'TLE-SCARRED, scarred in battle.--_ns._ BAT'TLESHIP, a
war-ship of the first class; PITCHED'-BAT'TLE, a battle fought on chosen
ground.--BATTLE ROYAL, a general mêlée--HALF THE BATTLE, said of anything
which ensures success.--LINE OF BATTLE, troops in array for battle;
LINE-OF-BATTLE SHIP, a ship strong enough to form one of the line.--TO
JOIN, DO BATTLE, to fight. [Fr. _bataille_--_battre_, to beat. See BATTER.]

BATTLE, bat'l, _adj._ (_dial._) nourishing.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to feed. [Most
prob. from Ice. _bati_, improvement. See BATTEN.]

BATTLEDOOR, BATTLEDORE, bat'l-d[=o]r, _n._ a light bat for striking a ball
or shuttlecock.--NOT TO KNOW A B FROM A BATTLEDOOR, to be thoroughly
ignorant. [Sp. _batidor_, a beater, a washing-beetle; but this is

BATTLEMENT, bat'l-ment, _n._ a wall or parapet on the top of a building
with openings or embrasures, originally used only on fortifications: the
towering roof of heaven,--_adj._ BAT'TLEMENTED, fortified with
battlements--also _pa.p._ BAT'TLED (_poet._).

BATTOLOGY, bat-ol'o-ji, _n._ repetition in speech or writing.--_adj._
BATTOLOG'ICAL. [Gr. _battos_, a person who repeated himself, and _legein_,
to speak.]

BATTUE, bat-t[=oo]', _n._ a method of hunting in which the woods are beaten
and the game driven from cover into some place for the convenience of the
shooters: any indiscriminate slaughter. [Fr.--_battre_, to beat.]


BAUBLE, baw'bl, _n._ a trifling piece of finery: a child's plaything: a
stick surmounted by a head with ass's ears, and forming the mock emblem of
the court-jester: a piece of childish foolery: (_Shak._) a foolish
person.--_adj._ BAU'BLING (_obs._), trifling. [O. Fr. _babel_, prob. from
the root seen in L. _babulus_, a babbler.]

BAUDEKIN, bawd'i-kin, BAWDKIN, bawd'kin. Same as BALDACHIN.

BAUDRIC, bawd'rik. Same as BALDRICK.

BAUDRONS, bawd'runs, _n._ Scotch name for the cat. [Perh. of Celt. origin;
cf. Ir. _beadrac_, frolicsome, Gael. _beadrach_, a frolicsome girl.]


BAUSOND, bawz'ond, _adj._ (_obs._) having white spots, esp. on the
forehead, or a white stripe down the face.--_adj._ BAUS'ON-FACED (_Scott_),
with a face like a badger. [O. Fr. _bausant_ (It. _balzano_), black and
white spotted. Further ety. dub.]

BAUXITE, b[=o]'z[=i]t, _n._ a clay found at Les _Baux_, near Arles,
yielding alumina.--Also BEAU'XITE.

BAVARDAGE, bav-ar-d[=a]j', _n._ chattering. [Fr. _bavard_,
garrulous--_bave_, drivel.]

BAVIN, bav'in, _n._ a fagot of brushwood.--BAVIN WITS (_Shak._), wits that
blaze and die like bavins. [O. Fr. _baffe_, a fagot; but this is doubtful.]

BAWBEE, baw-b[=e]', _n._ a halfpenny: originally a Scotch coin of base
silver equivalent to six Scotch pennies. [Ety. dub., but very prob. derived
from a 16th-cent. Scotch mint-master, the laird of _Sillebawby_; others
identify with 'baby.']


BAWCOCK, baw'kok, _n._ (_Shak._) a fine fellow. [From Fr. _beau_, fine, and
_coq_, a cock.]

BAWD, bawd, _n._ a procurer or procuress of women for lewd purposes--_fem._
only since about 1700.--_n._ BAWD'RY.--_adj._ BAWD'Y, obscene, unchaste,
filthy.--_n._ BAWD'Y-HOUSE, a brothel. [Perh. abbrev. from BAWD'STROT, a
word for a pander, now obsolete, derived from O. Fr. _baldestrot_--_bald_,
gay, and perh. the Teut. root found in _strut_.]

BAWD, bawd, _n._ (_Shak._) a hare. [Perh. a contr. of BAUDRONS.]

BAWL, bawl, _v.i._ to shout or cry out loudly (with _at_, _against_).--_n._
a loud cry or shout.--_n._ BAWL'ER. [Perh. from Low L. _baulare_, to bark
like a dog; but cf. Ice. _baula_, to low like a cow, _baula_, a cow.]

BAWN, bawn, _n._ a fortification round a house: an enclosure for cattle.
[Ir. _bábhun_, enclosure.]


BAY, b[=a], _adj._ reddish brown inclining to chestnut.--_n._ elliptical
for 'bay-horse.'--_n._ BAYARD (b[=a]'ard), a bay-horse: a name for any
horse generally, from 'Bayard,' the famous bay-coloured magic horse given
to Renaud by Charlemagne: a man recklessly blind to danger: a fellow bold
in his ignorance: a type of the knight, from _Bayard_ (1476-1524), 'the
knight without fear and without reproach.' [Fr. _bai_--L. _badius_,

BAY, b[=a], _n._ an inlet of the sea with a wider opening than a gulf: an
inward bend of the shore. [Fr. _baie_--Low L. _baia_, a harbour.]


BAY, b[=a], _n._ the space between two columns: (_Shak._) the space under
one house gable: any recess.--_n._ BAY'-WIN'DOW, any window forming a
recess.--_adj._ BAY'-WIN'DOWED. [O. Fr. _baée_--_baer_, to gape, be open;
prob. conn. with the foregoing word.]

BAY, b[=a], _n._ the laurel-tree: (_pl._) an honorary garland or crown of
victory, originally of laurel: literary renown.--_ns._ BAY'BERRY; BAY'-RUM,
an aromatic stimulant used for the skin and hair, and prepared by
distilling the leaves of the bay-berry (_Pimenta acris_) with rum, or
otherwise mixing the volatile oil of the leaves with alcohol. [O. Fr.
_baie_, a berry--L. _baca_.]

BAY, b[=a], _n._ barking, baying (esp. of a dog when in pursuit): the
combined cry of hounds in conflict with a hunted animal: used often of the
last stand of a hunted animal when it faces the hounds at close
quarters.--_v.i._ to bark (esp. of large dogs).--_v.t._ to bark at: to
utter by baying: to follow with barking: to bring to bay.--TO HOLD, KEEP AT
BAY, said of the hunted animal; TO STAND, BE, AT BAY, at close quarters.
[These senses show a confusion of two distinct words, according to Murray:
(1) to hold at bay = O. Fr. _tenir a bay_ = It. _tenere a bada_, _bay_,
_bada_, denoting the suspense indicated by the open mouth; (2) in the
phrase 'to stand at bay,' the word points to O. Fr. _abai_, barking,
_bayer_, to bark.]

BAY, BAYE, b[=a], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bathe.

BAYADÈRE, b[=a]-ya-d[=e]r', _n._ a Hindu dancing-girl. [Fr.--Port.

BAYONET, b[=a]'on-et, _n._ a stabbing instrument of steel fixed to the
muzzle of a musket or rifle: military force: (_pl._) soldiers armed with
bayonets.--_v.t._ to stab with a bayonet. [Fr. _baïonnette_, perh. from
_Bayonne_, in France, where it was supposed to have been first made; others
derive from O. Fr. _bayon_, arrow.]

BAYOU, b[=a]'[=oo], _n._ name given to the marshy offshoots of lakes and
rivers, esp. in North America. [Perh. corrupted from Fr. _boyau_, gut.]

BAY-SALT, b[=a]'-sält, _n._ salt obtained by slow evaporation originally
from sea-water. [Prob. from BAY, an inlet, and SALT.]

BAZAAR, BAZAR, ba-zär', _n._ an Eastern marketplace or exchange: a fancy
fair in imitation of an Eastern bazaar. [Pers. _b[=a]z[=a]r_, a market.]

BDELLIUM, del'i-um, _n._ a kind of gum. [Gr. _bdellion_, used to translate,
but prob. unconnected with Heb. _b'd[=o]lakh_, Gen. ii. 12.]

BE, b[=e], _v.i._ to live: to exist: to have a certain state or
quality:--_pr.p._ b[=e]'ing; _pa.p._ been.--_n._ BE'-ALL (_Shak._), the
whole being. [A.S. _béon_; Ger. _bin_; Gael. _bi_, to exist; W. _byw_, to
live; Gr. _phu-ein_, L. _fui_, _fio_, Sans. _bhu_, to be, orig. meaning to

BEACH, b[=e]ch, _n._ the shore of the sea or of a lake, esp. when sandy or
pebbly: the strand.--_v.t._ to haul a boat up on the beach.--_n._
BEACH'-COMB'ER, a long rolling wave: a drunken loafer about the wharfs in
Pacific seaports: a settler on a Pacific island who maintains himself by
pearl-fishery, and often by less reputable means.--_adjs._ BEACHED, having
a beach, driven on a beach; BEACH'Y, pebbly. [Orig. a prov. Eng. word for
shingle. The derivation from Ice. _bakki_, bank, is untenable.]

BEACON, b[=e]'kn, _n._ a fire on an eminence used as a sign of danger: a
hill on which such could be lighted: anything that warns of danger, esp. an
erection of stone, wood, or iron often bearing a light, and marking rocks
or shoals in rivers or navigable channels.--_v.t._ to act as a beacon to:
to light up: to mark by means of beacons.--_n._ FLOAT'ING-BEA'CON, a
light-ship. [A.S. _béacn_, a beacon, a sign.]

BEAD, b[=e]d, _n._ a little ball pierced for stringing, a series of which
forms the _rosary_ or _paternoster_, used in counting the prayers recited:
any small ball of glass, amber, &c. strung in a series to form a necklace:
a bead-like drop: the small knob of metal forming the front-sight of a
gun--whence the Americanism, TO DRAW A BEAD UPON = to take aim at:
(_archit._) a narrow moulding with semicircular section.--_v.t._ to furnish
with beads.--_v.i._ to form a bead or beads.--_adj._ BEAD'ED, furnished
with beads.--_ns._ BEAD'-HOUSE, a house for poor people who were required
to pray for the soul of the founder: an almshouse; BEAD'ING, a moulding in
imitation of beads.--_adj._ BEAD'-PROOF, of such proof or strength as to
carry beads or bubbles when shaken, as alcoholic liquors.--_ns._
BEAD'-ROLL, in pre-Reformation times, a roll or list of the dead to be
prayed for, hence a list of names, a long series: a rosary; BEADS'MAN,
BEDES'MAN, one employed to pray for others, or one endowed to do so:
(_Scot._) a public alms-man or licensed beggar:--_fem._
BEADS'WOMAN.--_adj._ BEAD'Y, bead-like, small and bright (of eyes): covered
with beads or bubbles.--TO SAY, TELL, COUNT ONE'S BEADS, to offer a prayer.
[A.S. _bed_, _gebed_, a prayer, from _biddan_, to pray. See BID.]

BEADLE, b[=e]d'l, _n._ a mace-bearer (esp. of the '_bedels_' or
'_bedells_,' official attendants of the Oxford and Cambridge
vice-chancellors): a petty officer of a church, college, parish, &c.: a
parish officer with the power of punishing petty offenders: in Scotland,
used of the 'church-officer' attending on the clergyman: (_obs._) a
messenger or crier of a court.--_ns._ BEAD'LEDOM, BEAD'LEHOOD, stupid
officiousness; BEAD'LESHIP, BED'ELSHIP, the office of beadle or bedel.
[A.S. _bydel_--_béodan_, to proclaim, to bid.]

BEADMAN. Same as BEADSMAN (q.v. under BEAD).

BEAGLE, b[=e]'gl, _n._ a small hound tracking by scent, formerly much used
in hunting hares, but now superseded by the harrier: a spy: a bailiff: a
small kind of shark.--The beagle was often followed by men on foot, hence
FOOT'-BEA'GLE. [Ety. unknown. The Fr. _bigle_ is borrowed from English. Dr
Murray suggests Fr. _bégueule_, from _béer_, to gape, and _gueule_,

BEAK, b[=e]k, _n._ the bill of a bird: anything pointed or projecting: the
nose: in the ancient galley, a pointed iron fastened to the prow for
piercing the enemy's vessel: (_slang_) a magistrate.--_adj._ BEAKED
(b[=e]kt). [O. Fr. _bec_--Low L. _beccus_, of Celt. (Gaulish) origin.]

BEAKER, b[=e]k'[.e]r, _n._ a large drinking-bowl or cup, or its contents: a
glass vessel marked for measuring liquids, with a beak or pointed mouth,
used by chemists. [Scand. _bikarr_ (Scot. _bicker_), prob. from Low L.
_bicarium_, acc. to Diez from Gr. _bikos_, a drinking-bowl.]

BEAM, b[=e]m, _n._ a large and straight piece of timber or iron forming one
of the main supports against lateral pressure of a building, ship, &c.:
(_fig._) from the figure of the mote and the beam--Matt. vii. 3: any of the
transverse pieces of framing extending across a ship's hull, the greatest
width of a ship or boat: the part of a balance from which the scales hang:
the pole of a carriage: a cylinder of wood in a loom: a ray of
light.--_v.t._ to send forth light: to shine.--_n._ BEAM'-EN'GINE, a
steam-engine which has a beam connecting the piston-rod with the crank of
the wheel-shaft, as distinguished from one that has its piston-rod directly
attached to the crank.--_adv._ BEAM'ILY.--_n._ BEAM'INESS.--_adjs._
BEAM'LESS, without beams: emitting no rays of light; BEAM'Y, shining.--A
BEAM SEA, one rolling against the ship's side.--BEFORE THE BEAM, the
bearing of any object when seen more in advance than _on_ the beam; ABAFT
THE BEAM, the reverse.--LEE or WEATHER BEAM, the side away from _or_
towards the wind.--ON HER BEAM ENDS, a phrase applied to the position of a
ship when so much inclined to one side that the beams become nearly
vertical.--ON THE STARBOARD BEAM, applied to any distant point out at sea,
at right angles to the keel, and on the starboard or right-hand (as viewed
from the stern) side of the ship; ON THE PORT BEAM similarly applies to the
left hand. [A.S. _béam_, a tree, stock of a tree, a ray of light; Ger.
_baum_, a tree; Gr. _phyma_, a growth--_phy-ein_, to grow.]

BEAN, b[=e]n, _n._ the name of several kinds of leguminous plants and their
seeds: applied also to the seeds of some other plants, from their bean-like
form, as the Calabar bean, &c.--_ns._ BEAN'-FEAST, an annual dinner given
by employers to their hands, perhaps from there having been served on such
occasions _beans_ or a BEAN'-GOOSE, a species of goose said to be so called
from its fondness for devouring new-sown beans; BEAN'-KING, the king of the
festivities on Twelfth Night, chosen on his finding a bean hidden in the
Twelfth Cake. [A.S. _béan_; Ger. _bohne_, W. _ffäen_; L. _faba_.]

BEAR, b[=a]r, _v.t._ to carry or support: to endure: to admit of: to be
entitled to: to afford: to import: to manage: to behave or conduct one's
self: to bring forth or produce.--_v.i._ to suffer: to be patient: to have
reference to: to press (with _on_ or _upon_): to be situated:--_pr.p._
bear'ing; _pa.t._ b[=o]re; _pa.p._ b[=o]rne (but the _pa.p._ when used to
mean 'brought forth' is _born_).--_adj._ BEAR'ABLE, that may be borne or
endured.--_n._ BEAR'ABLENESS.--_adv._ BEAR'ABLY.--_ns._ BEAR'ER, one who or
that which bears, esp. one who assists in carrying a body to the grave: a
carrier or messenger; BEAR'ING, behaviour: situation of one object with
regard to another: relation: that which is borne upon an escutcheon:
(_mach._) the part of a shaft or axle in contact with its supports;
BEAR'ING-CLOTH, the mantle or cloth in which a child was carried to the
font; BEAR'ING-REIN, the fixed rein between the bit and the saddle, by
which a horse's head is held up in driving and its neck made to arch.--BEAR
HARD (_Shak._), to press or urge; BEAR IN HAND (_Shak._), to keep in
expectation, to flatter one's hopes; TO BEAR A HAND, to give assistance; TO
BEAR AWAY, to sail away; TO BEAR DOWN (with _upon_ or _towards_), to sail
with the wind; TO BEAR OUT, to corroborate; TO BEAR UP, to keep up one's
courage; TO BEAR UP FOR (_a place_), to sail towards; TO BEAR WITH, to make
allowance for; TO BE BORNE IN (upon the) MIND, to be forcibly impressed
upon it; TO BRING TO BEAR, to bring into operation (with _against_,
_upon_); TO LOSE ONE'S BEARINGS, to become uncertain as to one's position.
[A.S. _beran_; Goth. _bairan_, L. _ferre_, Gr. _pher-ein_, Sans. _bhri_.]

BEAR, an obsolete form of BIER.

BEAR, b[=a]r, _n._ a heavy quadruped of the order Carnivora, with long
shaggy hair and hooked claws: any rude, rough, or ill-bred fellow: one who
sells stocks for delivery at a future date, anticipating a fall in price so
that he may buy first at an advantage--opp. to _Bull_: the old phrase 'a
bearskin jobber' suggests an origin in the common proverb, 'to sell the
bearskin before one has caught the bear' (hence TO BEAR, to speculate for a
fall): (_astron._) the name of two constellations, the Great and the Little
Bear.--_ns._ BEAR'-BER'RY, a trailing plant of the heath family, a species
of the Arbutus; BEAR'BINE, a species of convolvulus, closely allied to the
bindweed; BEAR'-GAR'DEN, an enclosure where bears are kept; a rude,
turbulent assembly.--_adj._ BEAR'ISH, like a bear.--_ns._ BEAR'ISHNESS;
BEAR'-LEAD'ER, a person who leads about a bear for exhibition: the tutor or
governor of a youth at the university or on travel; BEAR'S'-BREECH, a
common name for plants of the genus Acanthus; BEAR'S'-EAR, a common English
name for the auricula; BEAR'S'-FOOT, a species of hellebore; BEAR'SKIN, the
skin of a bear: a shaggy woollen cloth for overcoats: the high fur cap worn
by the Guards in England; BEAR'-WARD, a warden or keeper of bears. [A.S.
_bera_; Ger. _bär_; cf. L. _fera_, a wild beast, akin to Gr. _th[=e]r_,
Æolian _ph[=e]r_.]

BEAR, b[=e]r, _n._ barley, applied in Scotland to the now little grown
variety _Hordeum hexastichon_. [A.S. _bere_.]

BEARD, b[=e]rd, _n._ the hair that grows on the chin and adjacent parts of
a grown man's face: the tuft on the lower jaw of a goat, seal, &c.: the
barbel of the cod, loach, &c.; prickles on the ears of corn: the barb of an
arrow: the gills of oysters, &c.--_v.t._ to take by the beard: to oppose to
the face.--_adj._ BEARD'ED, having a beard: prickly: barbed.--_n._
BEARD'-GRASS, a kind of bearded grass.--_adj._ BEARD'LESS. [A.S.; W.
_barf_, Ger. _bart_, Russ. _boroda_, L. _barba_.]

BEAST, b[=e]st, _n._ an irrational animal, as opposed to man: a four-footed
animal: a brutal person: the Beast, Antichrist in the Revelation--dim.
BEAST'IES.--_n.pl._ BEAST'-F[=A]'BLES, stories in which animals play human
parts--a widely-spread primitive form of literature, often surviving in
more or less developed forms in the more advanced civilisations.--_ns._
BEAST'HOOD; BEAST'LIHEAD (_Spens._), the state or nature of a beast,
beastliness; BEAST'LINESS.--_adj._ BEAST'LY, like a beast in actions or
behaviour: coarse: obscene: (_colloq._) vile, disagreeable. [O. Fr. _beste_
(Fr. _bête_)--L. _bestia_.]


BEAT, b[=e]t, _v.t._ to strike repeatedly: to break or bruise: to strike,
as bushes, in order to rouse game: to thrash: to overcome: to be too
difficult for: to spread flat and thin by beating with a tool, as gold by a
gold-beater--also TO BEAT OUT.--_v.i._ to give strokes repeatedly: to
throb: to dash, as a flood or storm:--_pr.p._ beat'ing; _pa.t._ beat;
_pa.p._ beat'en.--_n._ a recurrent stroke: a stroke recurring at intervals,
or its sound, as of a watch or the pulse: a round or course, as a
policeman's _beat_: a place of resort.--_adj._ weary: fatigued.--_adj._
BEAT'EN, made smooth or hard by beating or treading: trite: worn by
use.--_ns._ BEAT'ER, one that beats or strikes: one who rouses or beats up
game: a crushing instrument; BEAT'ING, the act of striking: chastisement by
blows: regular pulsation or throbbing: rousing of game: exercising the
brain.--BEATEN WORK, metal shaped by being hammered on an anvil or block of
the necessary shape.--DEAD BEAT, completely exhausted.--TO BEAT ABOUT THE
BUSH, to approach a subject in an indirect way; TO BEAT A RETREAT, to
retreat, originally to beat the drum as a signal for retreat; TO BEAT OFF,
to drive back; TO BEAT OUT, to work out fully, to make gold or silver leaf
out of solid metal; TO BEAT THE AIR, to fight to no purpose, or against an
imaginary enemy; TO BEAT THE BOUNDS, to trace out the boundaries of a
parish in a periodic survey or perambulation, certain natural objects in
the line of journey being formally struck with a rod, and sometimes also
the boys whipped to make them remember; TO BEAT THE BRAINS, to puzzle one's
brains about something; TO BEAT THE TATTOO (_mil._), to sound the drum for
evening roll-call; TO BEAT UP, to alarm by a sudden attack: to disturb: to
pay an untimeous visit to any one--also in 'to beat up for recruits,' to go
about a town to enlist men. [A.S. _béatan_, pa.t. _béot_.]

BEATH, b[=e]th, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bathe. [A.S. _bethian_, to foment.]

BEATIFY, b[=e]-at'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make blessed or happy: to declare to
be in the enjoyment of eternal happiness in heaven.--_adjs._ BEATIF'IC,
-AL, making supremely happy.--_adv._ BEATIF'ICALLY.--_n._
BEATIFIC[=A]'TION, act of beatifying: (_R.C. Church_) a declaration by the
Pope that a person is blessed in heaven, authorising a certain definite
form of public reverence payable to him--the first step to
canonisation.--BEATIFIC VISION, a glimpse of the glory of heaven, esp. that
which first bursts upon the disembodied soul. [L. _beatus_, blessed, and
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

BEATITUDE, b[=e]-at'i-t[=u]d, _n._ heavenly happiness, or happiness of the
highest kind: (_pl._) sayings of Christ in Matt. v., declaring the
possessors of certain virtues to be blessed. [L. _beatitudo_--_beatus_,

BEAU, b[=o], _n._ a man attentive to dress or fashion: a fop or dandy: a
lover:--_pl._ BEAUX (b[=o]z):--_fem._ BELLE.--_n._ BEAU'-ID[=E]'AL, ideal
excellence, or an imaginary standard of perfection: the person in which
such is realised.--_adj._ BEAU'ISH.--_ns._ BEAU'-MONDE, the gay or
fashionable world; _Beaupere'_ (_Spens._), a term of courtesy for 'father,'
esp. of ecclesiastical persons: a companion. [Fr. _beau_, _bel_--L.
_bellus_, fine, gay, as if for a _benulus_, dim. of _benus_ = _bonus_,

BEAUJOLAIS, b[=o]-zh[=o]-l[=a], _n._ a kind of red wine produced in
South-eastern France. [From _Beaujolais_, a subdivision of the old province
of Lyonnais.]

BEAUNE, b[=o]n, _n._ a red wine of Burgundy. [From the town of _Beaune_.]

BEAUTY, b[=u]'ti, _n._ a pleasing combination of qualities in a person or
object: a particular grace or excellence: a beautiful person, esp. a woman,
also applied collectively to the beautiful women of a special place:
(_pl._) beautiful passages or extracts from the poets.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to
make beautiful.--_adj._ BEAU'TEOUS, full of beauty: fair: handsome.--_adv._
BEAU'TEOUSLY.--_ns._ BEAU'TEOUSNESS; BEAU'TIFIER, one who or that which
beautifies or makes beautiful.--_adj._ BEAU'TIFUL, fair: with qualities
that give delight to the senses, esp. the eye and ear, or which awaken
admiration in the mind.--_adv._ BEAU'TIFULLY.--_v.t._ BEAU'TIFY, to make
beautiful: to grace: to adorn.--_v.i._ (_rare_) to become beautiful, or
more beautiful.--_ns._ BEAU'TY-SLEEP, the sleep before midnight, considered
the most refreshing; BEAU'TY-SPOT, a patch placed on the face to heighten
or draw attention to a woman's beauty; a foil, or anything that emphasises
beauty by contrast. [O. Fr. _biaute_ (Fr. _beauté_)--Low L.
_bellitat-em_--L. _bellus_.]


BEAVER, b[=e]v'[.e]r, _n._ an amphibious rodent quadruped valuable for its
fur: the fur of the beaver: a hat made of the beaver's fur: a hat: a glove
of beaver fur.--_adj._ BEAV'ERISH (_Carlyle_), like a beaver, merely
instinctive.--_n._ BEAV'ERY, a place where beavers are kept. [A.S. _befer_,
_beofor_; Dut. _bever_, Ger. _biber_, Gael, _beabhar_, L. _fiber_.]

BEAVER, b[=e]v'[.e]r, _n._ in medieval armour, the covering for the lower
part of the face, the visor being that for the upper part--later the
movable beaver was confounded with the visor.--_adj._ BEAV'ERED. [So called
from a fancied likeness to a child's bib. O. Fr. _bavière_, from _bave_,

BEBEERU, b[=e]-b[=e]'r[=oo], _n._ the native name of the green-heart tree
of Guiana.--_n._ BEBEERINE (b[=e]-b[=e]'rin), an alkaloid yielded by it,
and used as a substitute for quinine.

BEBLUBBERED, be-blub'[.e]rd, _p.adj._ disfigured by weeping [Pfx. _be-_,

BECALL, be-kawl', _v.t._ to call names, miscall.

BECALM, be-käm', _v.t._ to make calm, still, or quiet.--_p.adj._ BECALMED',
motionless from want of wind. [Pfx. _be-_, and CALM.]

BECAME, be-k[=a]m', _pa.t._ of BECOME.

BECAUSE, be-kawz', _adv._ and _conj._ because of: for the reason that: on
account of: for (followed by _of_). [Prep. _by_, and CAUSE.]

BECCAFICO, bek-a-f[=e]'ko, _n._ a small bird of the family of Sylviadæ or
Warblers, considered a delicacy by the Italians:--_pl._ BECCAFI'COES. [It.,
from _beccare_ to peck, and _fico_, a fig.]

BECHANCE, be-chans', _v.t._ to happen by chance: to befall--_adv._ by
chance: accidentally. [A.S. _be-_, by, and CHANCE.]

BECHARM, be-chärm', _v.t._ to charm: to enchant.

BÊCHE-DE-MER, b[=a]sh'-d[.e]-m[=a]r, _n._ the trepang or sea-slug, a
species of Holothuria, much esteemed in China as a food delicacy. [Fr.]

BECK, bek, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as BEAK.

BECK, bek, _n._ a brook. [Ice. _bekkr_; Ger. _bach_.]

BECK, bek, _n._ a sign with the finger or head: a nod: (_Scot._) a gesture
of salutation.--_v.i._ to make such a sign.--_v.t._ to call by a nod.--AT
ONE'S BECK, subject to one's will. [A contr. of BECKON.]

BECKET, bek'et, _n._ (_naut._) a loop of rope having a knot at one end and
an eye at the other: a large hook, or a wooden bracket used to keep loose
tackle or spars in a convenient place. [Prob. Dut. _bogt_, _bocht_, a
'bend' of rope.]

BECKON, bek'n, _v.t._ to nod or make a sign to. [A.S. _bíecnan_--_béacn_, a
sign. See BEACON.]

BECLOUD, be-klowd', _v.t._ to obscure by clouds: to dim.

BECOME, be-kum', _v.i._ to pass from one state to another: to come to be:
to be the fate or end of (followed by _of_).--_v.t._ to suit or befit, to
grace or adorn fittingly (with _dat._ object):--_pa.t._ bec[=a]me'; _pa.p._
become'.--_adj._ BECOM'ING, suitable to: graceful.--_adv._
BECOM'INGLY.--_n._ BECOM'INGNESS. [A.S. _becuman_. See COME.]

BECURL, be-kurl', _v.t._ to curl.

BED, bed, _n._ a couch or place to sleep on: a plot in a garden: a place in
which anything rests, in carpentry, architecture, &c.: conjugal union, the
marriage-bed, matrimonial rights and duties: the channel of a river:
(_geol._) a layer or stratum.--_v.t._ to place in bed, as a couple after a
wedding: to provide a bed, or to make a bed, for: to sow or plant: to lay
in layers.--_v.i._ to cohabit or use the same bed with another:--_pr.p._
bed'ding; _pa.p._ bed'ded.--_ns._ BED'CHAMBER (see BED'ROOM); BED'DING, a
collective name for the mattress, bed-clothes, &c., also litter for
cattle.--_adj._ BED'FAST, confined to bed.--_ns._ BED'FELLOW, a sharer of
the same bed; BED'MAKER, the name at Cambridge and elsewhere for those who
make the beds and sweep the rooms in college; BED'-OF-HON'OUR, the grave of
a soldier who has fallen in battle; BED'-OF-JUS'TICE (Fr. _lit. de
justice_), the king's throne in the Parlement of Paris, also a sitting at
which the king was present, chiefly for the registration of his own
decrees; BED'PLATE (_mech._), the foundation plate of an engine, lathe,
&c.; BED'POST, a post forming an angle of a bedstead, often in former days
high enough to support a canopy; BED'PRESSER (_Shak._), a heavy, lazy
fellow.--_adjs._ BED'RID, BED'RIDDEN, confined to bed by age or sickness:
worn out.--_ns._ BED'RIGHT (_Shak._), the privilege of the marriage-bed;
BED'ROCK, the solid rock underneath superficial formations; BED'ROOM, a
room in which there is a bed: a sleeping apartment--_Bedchamber_ was the
earlier form.--_n.pl._ BED'-SORES, painful ulcers that often arise in a
long confinement to bed, esp. over the bony prominences of the body--the
lower parts of the spine, the haunch bones, the heel, and the elbow.--_ns._
BED'-STAFF, a staff or stick formerly used about a bed, in old times a
handy weapon, whence perhaps the phrase, 'in the twinkling of a bed-staff;'
BED'STEAD, a frame for supporting a bed; BED'STRAW, the name applied to a
genus of the Rubiaceæ, of which eleven species are found in England, the
most familiar our Lady's Bedstraw, or Yellow Bedstraw (_Galium verum_),
sometimes called Cheese Rennet from its property of curdling milk;
BED'SWERVER (_Shak._), one who is false to his marriage vow; BED'TICK, the
case in which feathers, hair, chaff, &c. are put for bedding.--_adv._
BED'WARD, in the direction of bed: towards bedtime.--_n._ BED'WORK
(_Shak._), work easily performed, as if done in bed.--BED AND BOARD, food
and lodging: full connubial relations; BED OF DOWN, or ROSES, any easy or
comfortable place.--LORDS OF THE BEDCHAMBER, twelve officers in the British
royal household who wait in turn upon the sovereign's person; in the reign
of a queen the office is performed by ladies.--TO BE BROUGHT TO BED, to be
confined in child-birth (with _of_); TO KEEP ONE'S BED, to remain in bed;
TO LIE IN THE BED ONE HAS MADE, to have to accept the consequences of one's
own conduct; TO MAKE A BED, to put a bed in order after it has been used.
[A.S. _bed_; Ger. _bett_, Ice. _bedr_.]

BEDABBLE, be-dab'l, _v.t._ to dabble or wet. [Pfx. _be-_, and DABBLE.]

BEDAD, be-dad', _interj._ an Irish minced oath, from _begad_ = by God.

BEDAGGLE, be-dag'l, _v.t._ to soil by dragging along the wet ground.

BEDARKEN, be-dark'n, _v.t._ to cover with darkness.

BEDASH, be-dash', _v.t._ to bespatter with water.

BEDAUB, be-dawb', _v.t._ to daub over or smear with any dirty matter.

BEDAZZLE, be-daz'l, _v.t._ to dazzle or overpower by any strong
light.--_pa.p._ BEDAZ'ZLED, BEDAZED', stupefied, besotted.--_n._

BEDE. Same as BEAD, a prayer.

BEDEAFEN, be-def'n, _v.t._ to make deaf: to stun.

BEDECK, be-dek', _v.t._ to deck or ornament.

BEDEGUAR, bed'e-gar, _n._ a soft spongy gall found on the branches of some
species of roses, esp. the sweet-brier, called also the sweet-brier sponge.
[Through Fr. from Pers. and Ar. _b[=a]d[=a]-war_, lit. 'wind-brought.']

BEDEL, b[=e]'dl, BEDELL, be-del', archaic forms of BEADLE (q.v.), still
used at Oxford and Cambridge.

BEDESMAN. Same as BEADSMAN (q.v. under BEAD).

BEDEVIL, be-dev'il, _v.t._ to throw into confusion: to 'play the devil'
with: to torment: to treat with devilish malignity.--_pass._ to be
possessed of a devil, to be devil-rid.--_n._ BEDEV'ILMENT.

BEDEW, be-d[=u]', _v.t._ to moisten gently, as with dew.

BEDIGHT, be-d[=i]t', _adj._ (_poet._) adorned. [Pfx. _be-_, and DIGHT.]

BEDIM, be-dim', _v.t._ to make dim or dark.--_pa.p._ BEDIMMED'.

BEDIZEN, be-d[=i]z'n, _v.t._ to dress gaudily.--_adj._ BEDIZ'ENED.--_n._

BEDLAM, bed'lam, _n._ an asylum for lunatics: a madhouse: a place of
uproar.--_adj._ fit for a madhouse.--_ns._ BED'LAMISM, anything
characteristic of madness; BED'LAMITE, a madman. [Corrupted from
_Bethlehem_ (St Mary of Bethlehem), the name of a priory in London,
afterwards converted into a madhouse.]

BEDOUIN, bed'[=oo]-in, _n._ the name given to those Arabs who live in tents
and lead a nomadic life. [Fr.--Ar. _b[=a]d[=a]win_, dwellers in the

BEDRAGGLE, be-drag'l, _v.t._ to soil by dragging in the wet or dirt--most
common, the _p.adj._ BEDRAG'GLED. [See DRAGGLE.]

BEDRAL, bed'ral, _n._ a beadle.--Also BED'ERAL. [A Scand. form of BEADLE.]

BEDRENCH, be-drensh', _v.t._ to drench or wet thoroughly.

BEDROP, be-drop', _v.t._ to drop upon.--_pa.p._ BEDROPT', sprinkled as with
drops: strewn.

BEDUCK, be-duk', _v.t._ to duck or plunge under water.

BEDUIN, a form of BEDOUIN.

BEDUNG, be-dung', _v.t._ to manure: to befoul with dung.

BEDUST, be-dust', _v.t._ to cover with dust.

BEDWARF, be-dwawrf', _v.t._ to make dwarfish.

BEDYE, be-d[=i]', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to dye or stain.

BEE, b[=e], _n._ a four-winged insect that makes honey: (_U.S._) a
gathering of persons to unite their labour for the benefit of one
individual or family, or for some joint amusement or exercise, as 'a
quilting bee,' 'a husking bee,' 'a spelling bee' (from the bee's habit of
combined labour).--Compound words are BEE'-FLOW'ER, BEE'-GAR'DEN,
BEE'-HOUSE, BEE'-MAS'TER.--_ns._ BEE'-BREAD, the pollen of flowers
collected by bees as food for their young; BEE'-EAT'ER, a brightly-plumaged
family of birds nearly allied to the kingfisher, which feeds on bees;
BEE'-GLUE, the soft glutinous matter by which bees fix their combs to the
hive; BEE'HIVE, a case or box in which bees are kept, of straw-work, wood,
&c.--Scotch _Bee-skep_.--_adj._ shaped like a beehive, dome-shaped.--_ns._
BEE'-LINE, the most direct road from one point to another, like the
honey-laden bee's way home to the hive; BEE'-MOTH, a species of moth whose
larvæ are very destructive to young bees; BEES'WAX, the wax secreted by
bees, and used by them in constructing their cells.--_v.t._ to polish with
beeswax.--_n._ BEES'WING, a filmy crust of tartar formed in port and some
other wines after long keeping.--_adj._ BEES'WINGED, so old as to show
beeswing.--A BEE IN ONE'S BONNET, a whimsical or crazy fancy on some point.
[A. S. _béo_; Ger. _biene_.]

BEECH, b[=e]ch, _n._ a common forest tree with smooth silvery-looking bark
and small edible nuts.--_adj._ BEECH'EN.--_ns._ BEECH'-MAST, the mast or
nuts of the beech-tree, which yield a valuable oil; BEECH'-OIL, oil
expressed from the nuts of the beech-tree. [A.S. _bóece_, _béce_; Ger.
_buche_, L. _fagus_, Gr. _ph[=e]gos_--from root of _phag-ein_, to eat.]

BEEF, b[=e]f, _n._ the flesh of an ox or cow:--_pl._ BEEVES, used in
original sense, oxen.--_adj._ consisting of beef.--_ns._ BEEF'-EAT'ER
(b[=e]f'-[=e]t'[.e]r), a popular name for a yeoman of the sovereign's
guard, also of the warders of the Tower of London [the obvious ety. is the
right one, there being no such form as _buffetier_, connected with
_buffet_, a sideboard, as often stated]; BEEF'INESS; BEEF'STEAK, a thick
slice of beef for broiling or frying; BEEF'TEA, a stimulating rather than
nutritious food for invalids, being the juice of beef strained off, after
simmering chopped beef in water.--_adjs._ BEEF'-WIT'TED, BEEF'-BRAINED,
dull or heavy in wits: stupid.--_n._ BEEF'-WOOD, an Australian wood, of
reddish colour, used in cabinetwork.--_adj._ BEEF'Y, like beef, fleshy,
stolid. [O. Fr. _boef_ (Fr. _boeuf_)--L. _bos_, _bovis_; cf. Gr. _bous_,
Gael. _bò_, Sans. _go_, A.S. _cú_.]

BEELZEBUB, b[=e]-el'ze-bub, _n._ the name under which the Philistines at
Ekron worshipped their god _Baal_ or _Bel_: (_New Test._) the prince of the
evil spirits. [Heb. _ba'al z'b[=u]b_, fly-lord.]

BEEN, b[=e]n, _pa.p._ of BE.

BEENAH, b[=e]'na, _n._ a primitive form of marriage (the name taken from
Ceylon) in which the man goes to live with his wife's family--he is an
unimportant person in the family, and the children are not counted his, but
belong to the family and kindred of the wife.

BEER, b[=e]r, _n._ an alcoholic beverage made by fermentation from malted
barley flavoured with hops. It was anciently distinguished from ale by
being hopped; now _beer_ is the generic name of malt liquor, including ale
and porter.--_ns._ BEER'-EN'GINE, BEER'-PUMP, a machine for drawing beer up
from the casks to the bar; BEER'-HOUSE, a house where beer or malt liquors
are sold; BEER'INESS; BEER'-MON'EY, money given to soldiers in the British
army, in lieu of beer and spirits.--_adj._ BEER'Y, of or affected by
beer.--BEER AND SKITTLES, a phrase used vaguely for Bohemian pleasures,
from a simple form supposed to be a rustic ideal.--BITTER BEER = pale ale,
a highly hopped beer made from the very finest selected malt and hops; MILD
or SWEET ale being of greater gravity or strength, and comparatively
lightly hopped; BLACK BEER, a kind of beer made at Danzig, black and
syrupy; SMALL BEER, weak beer, hence trifling things, as in the familiar
phrase, 'to think no small beer of one's self.' [A.S. _béor_; Ger. and Dut.
_bier_, Ice. _bjorr_.]

BEESTINGS, b[=e]st'ingz, _n._ the first milk drawn from a cow after
calving. [A.S. _býsting_, _béost_; Ger. and Dut. _biest_.]

BEET, b[=e]t, _n._ a plant with a carrot-shaped succulent root, eaten as
food, from which sugar is extracted.--_ns._ BEET'-FLY, a two-winged insect,
which deposits its eggs on beet or mangel-wurzel, and whose larvæ are
injurious to the plant; BEET'ROOT, the root of the beet plant. [A.S. _béte_
(Fr. _bette_)--L. _b[=e]ta_.]

BEET, BETE, b[=e]t, _v.t._ (_obs._ except _dial._) to improve, mend, to
kindle a fire, to rouse. [A.S. _bóetan_, _bétan_; cf. _bót_, BOOT.]

BEETLE, b[=e]'tl, _n._ an order of insects technically known as Coleoptera,
usually with four wings, the front pair forming hard and horny covers for
those behind, which alone are used in flight.--The BLACK BEETLE or
cockroach is not a true beetle. [M.E. _bityl_--A.S. _bitula_, _bitela_,
_bítan_, to bite.]

BEETLE, b[=e]'tl, _n._ a heavy wooden mallet used for driving wedges,
crushing or beating down paving-stones, or the like: a wooden pestle-shaped
utensil for mashing potatoes, beating linen, &c.--_n._ BEE'TLE-HEAD, a
heavy, stupid fellow.--_adj._ BEE'TLE-HEAD'ED. [A.S. _bíetel_; cog. with
_béatan_, to beat.]

BEETLE-BROWED, b[=e]'tl-browd, _adj._ with overhanging or prominent brow:
scowling.--_v.i._ BEE'TLE, to jut, to hang over--first used by
Shakespeare.--_n._ BEET'LING.--_p.adj._ jutting out: prominent:
overhanging. [Dr Murray notes that the word is first found in the compound
_bitel_-browed, in the 14th century, and favours the explanation, 'with
eyebrows like a beetle's'--i.e. projecting eyebrows. See BEETLE (1).]

BEEVES, b[=e]vz, _n.pl._ cattle, oxen. [See BEEF.]

BEFALL, be-fawl', _v.t._ to fall or happen to: to occur to.--_v.i._ to
happen or come to pass: (_Spens._) to fall in one's way:--_pr.p._
befall'ing; _pa.t._ befell'; _pa.p._ befall'en. [A.S. _befeallan_. See

BEFANA, BEFFANA, be-fä'na, _n._ an Epiphany present or gift--a corruption
of _Epiphania_, which name in Italy has become personified for children as
a toy-bringing witch or fairy called _La Befana_.

BEFIT, be-fit', _v.t._ to fit, or be suitable to: to be proper to, or right
for:--_pr.p._ befit'ting; _pa.p._ befit'ted.--_adj._ BEFIT'TING.--_adv._
BEFIT'TINGLY. [Pfx. _be-_, and FIT.]

BEFLOWER, be-flow'[.e]r, _v.t._ to cover or besprinkle with flowers.

BEFOAM, be-f[=o]m', _v.t._ to bespatter or cover with foam.

BEFOGGED, be-fogd', _adj._ enveloped in fog: confused.

BEFOOL, be-f[=oo]l', _v.t._ to make a fool of, or deceive: to treat as a

BEFORE, be-f[=o]r', _prep._ in front of (_time_ or _place_): in presence or
sight of (_Before_ God): under the cognisance of, as in before the court,
the magistrate, or the house: previous to: in preference to: superior
to.--_adv._ in front: sooner than hitherto.--_conj._ previous to the time
when (often with _that_).--_advs._ BEFORE'HAND, before the time: by way of
preparation; BEFORE'TIME, in former time.--TO BE BEFOREHAND WITH, to
forestall in any action. [A.S. _beforan_. See FORE.]

BEFORTUNE, be-for't[=u]n, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to happen to, to befall.

BEFOUL, be-fowl', _v.t._ to make foul: to soil.

BEFRIEND, be-frend', _v.t._ to act as a friend to: to favour.

BEFRINGE, be-frinj', _v.t._ to adorn with fringes.

BEG. Same as BEY.

BEG, beg, _v.i._ to ask alms or charity, esp. habitually (with _of_,
_from_; _for_, of the thing asked).--_v.t._ to ask earnestly: to beseech:
to pray: to take for granted what ought to have been proved, esp. in the
phrase in logic, 'to beg the question'--the fallacy of the _Petitio
Principii_:--_pr.p._ beg'ging; _pa.p._ begged.--_n._ BEG'GAR, one who begs:
one who lives by begging: a mean fellow, a poor fellow--often used with a
playful and even affectionate sense.--_v.t._ to reduce to beggary: to
exhaust or impoverish: (_fig._) to go beyond the resources of, as of
description.--_ns._ BEG'GARDOM, the fraternity of beggars;
BEG'GARLINESS.--_adj._ BEGGARLY, poor: mean: worthless.--_adv._
meanly.--_ns._ BEG'GAR-MY-NEIGH'BOUR, a game at cards which goes on till
one of the players has gained all the other's cards; BEG'GARY, extreme
poverty.--_adv._ BEG'GINGLY.--TO BEG OFF, to obtain another's release
through entreaty, to seek that one's self may be relieved of some penalty
or liability.--TO GO A-BEGGING, to be in want of a purchaser, or of a
person to fill it (of a situation, &c.). [The ety. is very obscure; the
words _beg_ and _beggar_ first appear in the 13th century, and Dr Murray
thinks the most likely derivation is from the O. Fr. _begart_, _begard_,
and _begar_ (L. _beghardus_ = _beghard_), or its synonym _beguine_ and
derivative verb _beguigner_, _beguiner_, to act the beguin. The _Beghards_
or _Beguines_ were a lay mendicant order, and in the 13th century
mendicants calling themselves by these names swarmed over Western Europe.]

BEGAD, be-gad', _interj._ a minced oath, softened from 'By God.'

BEGAN, b[=e]-gan', _pa.t._ of BEGIN.

BEGEM, be-jem', _v.t._ to adorn, as with gems.

BEGET, be-get', _v.t._ to produce or cause: to generate: to produce as an
effect, to cause:--_pr.p._ beget'ting; _pa.t._ begat', begot'; _pa.p._
begot', begot'ten.--_n._ BEGET'TER, one who begets: a father: the agent
that occasions or originates anything. [A.S. _begitan_, to acquire. See


BEGIFT, be-gift', _v.t._ to present with gifts.

BEGILD, be-gild', _v.t._ to gild: to cover or overlay with gold-leaf.

BEGIN, be-gin', _v.i._ to take rise: to enter on something new: to
commence.--_v.t._ to enter on: to commence (with _at_, _with_,
_upon_):--_pr.p._ begin'ning; _pa.t._ began'; _pa.p._ begun'.--_ns._
BEGIN'NER, one who begins: one who is beginning to learn or practise
anything; BEGIN'NING, origin or commencement: rudiments--(_Spens._)
BEGINNE'.--_adj._ BEGIN'NINGLESS. [A.S. _beginnan_ (more usually
_onginnan_), from _be_, and _ginnan_, to begin.]

BEGIRD, be-gird', _v.t._ to gird or bind with a girdle; to surround or
encompass (_with_):--_pa.t._ begirt', begird'ed; _pa.p._ begirt'. [A.S.
_begyrdan_. See GIRD.]

BEGLERBEG, b[.e]g'l[.e]r-b[.e]g, _n._ the governor of a Turkish province,
in rank next to the grand vizier. [Turk., lit. 'bey of beys.']

BEGLOOM, be-gl[=oo]m', _v.t._ to render gloomy.

BEGNAW, be-naw', _v.t._ to gnaw or bite, to eat away.

BEGONE, be-gon', _interj._ lit. be gone! be off! get away! In WOE'-BEGONE',
beset with woe, we have the _pa.p._ of A.S. _begán_, to go round, to beset.

BEGONIA, be-g[=o]n'ya, _n._ a genus of plants cultivated in our greenhouses
for their pink flowers and their remarkable unequal-sided and often
coloured leaves--'Elephant's Ears,' 'Angel's Wings.' [Named from the
botanist Michel _Begon_, 1638-1710.]

BEGORED, be-g[=o]rd', _adj._ (_Spens._) besmeared with gore.

BEGOT, be-got', BEGOTTEN, be-got'n, _pa.p._ of BEGET.

BEGRIME, be-gr[=i]m', _v.t._ to grime or soil deeply.

BEGRUDGE, be-gruj', _v.t._ to grudge: to envy any one the possession of.

BEGUILE, be-g[=i]l', _v.t._ to cheat or deceive: to divert attention from
anything tedious or painful: to divert or amuse: to wile any one into some
course.--_ns._ BEGUILE'MENT; BEGUIL'ER.--_adv._ BEGUIL'INGLY. [See GUILE.]

BEGUINES, beg'in (see BEG).--_n._ BEGUINAGE (beg'in-[=a]j), an
establishment for _Beguines_.

BEGUM, b[=e]'gum, _n._ a Hindu princess or lady of rank. [Urdu _begam_.]

BEGUN, be-gun', _pa.p._ of BEGIN.

BEHALF, be-häf', _n._ favour or benefit: cause: sake, account: part--only
in phrases 'on,' 'in behalf of,' 'on his behalf.' [M. E. _behalve_--A.S.
_be healfe_, by the side. See HALF.]

BEHAPPEN, be-hap'n, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to happen to.

BEHAVE, be-h[=a]v', _v.t._ to bear or carry, to conduct (with
_self_).--_v.i._ to conduct one's self, also to conduct one's self well: to
act.--_n._ BEHAVIOUR (be-h[=a]v'yür), conduct: manners or deportment, esp.
good manners: general course of life: treatment of others.--TO BE UPON
ONE'S BEHAVIOUR, to be placed where one's best behaviour is politic or
necessary. [Formed, according to Dr Murray, in 15th century from _be-_ and
HAVE; apparently unconnected with A.S. _behabban_.]

BEHEAD, be-hed', _v.t._ to cut off the head.--_ns._ BEHEAD'AL (_rare_);
BEHEAD'ING, the act of cutting off the head.

BEHELD, be-held', _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BEHOLD.

BEHEMOTH, b[=e]'he-moth, _n._ an animal described in the book of Job,
usually taken to be the hippopotamus. [Either the pl. of Heb. _behêmâh_, a
beast, or a Hebraistic form of the Egyptian _p-ehe-mout_, 'water-ox.']

BEHEST, be-hest', _n._ command: charge. [A.S. _beh['æ]s_, a promise. See

BEHIGHT, be-h[=i]t', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to promise, to entrust, to speak to,
to command, to reckon or esteem to be:--_pr.p._ beh[=i]ght'ing; _pa.t._
beh[=o]te'; _pa.p._ beh[=i]ght.--_n._ (_obs._) a vow, a promise. [A.S.
_behátan_, _be-_, and _hátan_, to call.]

BEHIND, be-h[=i]nd', _prep._ at the back of (_place_, or as _support_):
remaining after or coming after (_time_, _rank_, _order_): inferior to, or
not so far advanced as.--_adv._ at the back, in the rear: backward:
past.--_adj._ or _adv._ BEHIND'HAND, being behind: tardy, or in arrears of
debt, &c.: clandestine. [A.S. _behindan_; Ger. _hinten_. See HIND.]

BEHOLD, be-h[=o]ld', _v.t._ to look upon: to contemplate.--_v.i._ to look:
to fix the attention:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ beheld'.--_imper._ or _interj._
see! lo! observe!--_adj._ BEHOLD'EN, bound in gratitude: obliged (with
_to_).--_n._ BEHOLD'ER, one who beholds: an onlooker.--_adj._ BEHOLD'ING
(_Shak._), beholden.--_n._ (_Shak._) sight, contemplation. [A.S.
_behealdan_, to hold, observe--pfx. _be-_, and _healdan_, to hold.]

BEHOOF, be-h[=oo]f', _n._ benefit: convenience (with _to_, _for_, _on_).

BEHOT, BEHOTE (_Spens._) _pa.t._ of BEHIGHT.

BEHOVE, BEHOOVE, be-h[=oo]v, _v.t._ to be fit, right, or necessary for--now
only used impersonally with _it_.--_adj._ BEHOVE'FUL, useful:
profitable.--_adv._ BEHOVE'FULLY (_obs._). [M. E. _behóf_, dat. behove;
A.S. _behófian_, to be fit, to stand in need of.]

BEHOWL, be-howl', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to howl at. Warburton first suggested
this as an emendation for 'behold' in _Midsummer Night's Dream_, V. 379.

BEIGE, b[=a]zh, _n._ a woollen fabric made of undyed wool. [Fr.]

BEIN, b[=e]n, _adj._ and _adv._ (_Scot._) comfortable: well off: well
found: (_slang_) good.--_n._ BEIN'NESS. [M. E. _bene_, of dubious origin;
the derivation has been sought in Scand. _beinn_, or in L. _bene_, Fr.

BEING, b[=e]'ing, _n._ existence: substance: essence: any person or thing
existing.--_adj._ B[=E]'ING, existing, present.--_adj._
B[=E]'INGLESS.--_n._ B[=E]'INGNESS. [From the _pr.p._ of BE.]

BEINKED, b[=e]-inkt', _p.adj._ smeared with ink.

BEJADE, be-j[=a]d', _v.t._ (_obs._) to tire out.

BEJAN, b[=e]'jan, _n._ a freshman at the universities of Aberdeen and St
Andrews, and formerly in several continental universities. [Fr. _bejaune_,
a novice, from _bec jaune_, 'yellow beak,' a term used for a nestling or
unfledged bird.]

BEJESUIT, be-j[.e]z'[=u]-it, _v.t._ to initiate or seduce into Jesuitism.

BEJEWEL, be-j[=oo]'[.e]l, _v.t._ to deck with jewels.

BEKAH, b[=e]'ka, _n._ (_B._) a half-shekel (4.39 drs. avoir.). [Heb.]

BEKISS, be-kis', _v.t._ to cover with kisses.

BEKNAVE, be-n[=a]v', _v.t._ to call or treat as a knave.

BEKNOWN, b[=e]-n[=o]n', _p.adj._ known, acquainted.

BELABOUR, be-l[=a]'bur, _v.t._ to beat soundly.

BEL-ACCOYLE, bel-ak-koil', _n._ (_Spens._) favourable or kind reception.
[O. Fr. _bel acoil_, fair welcome. See ACCOIL.]

BELACE, be-l[=a]s', _v.t._ to adorn with lace.

BELAMOUR, bel'a-m[=oo]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a gallant: a fair lady: a kind of
flower. [Fr. _bel amour_, fair love.]

BELAMY, bel'a-mi, _n._ (_Spens._) a good or intimate friend. [Fr. _bel
ami_, fair friend.]

BELATE, be-l[=a]t', _v.t._ to make late: to retard:--_pr.p._ bel[=a]t'ing;
_pa.p._ bel[=a]t'ed.--_p.adj._ BEL[=A]T'ED, made too late: out of date:
benighted.--_n._ BEL[=A]T'EDNESS.

BELAUD, be-lawd', _v.t._ to laud or praise highly.


BELAY, be-l[=a]', _v.t._ (_naut._) to fasten a running rope by coiling it
round a cleat or BELAY'ING-PIN: to make fast: (_Spens._) to lay ornament
round anything.--BELAY THERE (_naut. slang_), hold! that is enough. [A.S.
_belecgan_; Ger. _belegen_, Dut. _beleggen_. See LAY.]

BELCH, belch, belsh, _v.t._ to void wind from the stomach by the mouth: to
eject violently: to cast up, as of the smoke from a volcano or a
cannon.--_n._ eructation. [A.S. _bealcian_; Dut. _balken_.]

BELCHER, bel'sher, _n._ a neckerchief with dark-blue ground, mottled with
white spots, each having a dark-blue spot in the centre. [From Jim
_Belcher_, a famous English boxer.]

BELDAM, BELDAME, bel'dam, _n._ an old woman, esp. an ugly one: a hag, a
furious woman: (_obs._) a grandmother. [Formed from _dam_, mother, and
_bel-_, expressing relationship. Cf. _belsire_.]

BELEAGUER, be-l[=e]g'[.e]r, _v.t._ to lay siege to.--_n._ BELEAG'UERMENT.
[Dut. _belegeren_, to besiege--_be_, and _leger_, camp. See LEAGUER.]

BELEE, be-l[=e]', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to place on the lee-side of.

BELEMNITE, bel'em-n[=i]t, _n._ a fossil pointed like a dart, being the
internal shell of a genus of cephalopods, formerly known as _Thunder-bolt_,
_Thunder-stone_, _Elf-bolt_. [Gr. _belemnit[=e]s_--_belemnon_, a dart.]

BELFRY, bel'fri, _n._ the part of a steeple or tower in which bells are
hung: a bell-tower, sometimes standing apart: a movable wooden tower, used
in the Middle Ages in attacking a fortification.--_adj._ BEL'FRIED, having
a belfry. [Orig. and properly a watch-tower, from O. Fr. _berfroi_--Mid.
High Ger. _berchfrit_--_frid_, _frit_, a tower, _bergan_, to protect.]

BELGARD, bel-gärd', _n._ (_Spens._) fair or kind looks. [It. _bel guardo_,
lovely look.]

BELGIAN, bel'ji-an, _adj._ belonging to _Belgium_, a country of
Europe.--_n._ a native of Belgium.

BELGIC, bel'jik, _adj._ pertaining to the _Belgæ_ who anciently possessed
Belgium, or to _Belgium_. [L. _Belgicus_--_Belgæ_, the Belgians.]

BELGRAVIAN, bel-gr[=a]'vi-an, _adj._ belonging to _Belgravia_ (a
fashionable part of London), or to fashionable life: aristocratic.

BELIAL, b[=e]l'yal, _n._ a name for the devil, and, in Milton, for one of
the fallen angels. Not a proper name in Old Test. [Heb. _b'li-ya`al_,
_b'li_, without _ya`al_, usefulness.]

BELIE, be-l[=i]', _v.t._ to give the lie to: to speak falsely of: to
present in a false character: to counterfeit: to be false to: falsify:
(_Shak._) to fill with lies:--_pr.p._ bely'ing; _pa.p._ bel[=i]ed'. [A.S.
_be_, and LIE.]

BELIEVE, be-l[=e]v', _v.t._ to regard as true: to trust in.--_v.i._ to be
firmly persuaded of anything: to exercise faith (with _in_, _on_): to think
or suppose.--_n._ BELIEF', persuasion of the truth of anything: faith: the
opinion or doctrine believed: intuition, natural judgment (as used by some
philosophers).--_adjs._ BELIEF'LESS; BELIEV'ABLE, that may be
believed.--_n._ BELIEV'ER, one who believes: a professor of
Christianity.--_p.adj._ BELIEV'ING, trustful.--_adv._ BELIEV'INGLY.--THE
BELIEF (_arch._), the Apostles' Creed.--TO MAKE BELIEVE, to pretend. [M. E.
_bileven_--_bi-_, _be-_, and _leven_. Murray says that _believe_ is an
erroneous spelling of the 17th century, prob. after _relieve_. The A.S.
form _geléfan_ survived to the 14th century; the present compound, which
superseded it, appears in the 12th century.]

BELIKE, be-l[=i]k', _adv._ probably: perhaps. [A.S. pfx. _be-_, and LIKE.]

BELITTLE, be-lit'l, _v.t._ to make small: to cause to appear small, to
depreciate or disparage.--_n._ BELIT'TLEMENT.--_adj._ BELIT'TLING. [Pfx.
_be-_, and LITTLE.]

BELIVE, be-l[=i]v', _adv._ (_Scot._) with speed: soon, erelong. [M. E. _bi
life_; _be_, _bí_, by, _life_, dat. of _l[=i]f_, life.]

BELL, bel, _n._ a hollow vessel of metal, which gives forth a ringing sound
when struck by the tongue or clapper suspended inside--as in _church-bell_,
_hand-bell_, _alarm-bell_, _night-bell_, _marriage-bell_, &c.: a corolla
shaped like a bell: the body of a Corinthian or composite capital, without
the surrounding foliage: anything bell-shaped, as in _diving-bell_,
_bell-glass_, the _bell_ or outward-turned orifice of a trumpet, &c.: a
bell rung to tell the hour: (_naut._) the bell struck on shipboard every
half-hour as many times as there are half-hours of the watch elapsed--'two
bells,' 'three bells,' &c., meaning that there are two or three half-hours
past; the watch of four hours is eight bells.--_v.t._ to furnish with a
bell, esp. in TO BELL THE CAT, to take the leading part in any hazardous
movement, from the ancient fable of the mice who proposed to hang a warning
bell round the cat's neck.--_ns._ BELL'COTE (_archit._), an ornamental
[Illustration] structure made to contain one or two bells, and often
crowned by a small spire; BELL'-CRANK, a rectangular lever in the form of a
crank, used for changing the direction of bell-wires; BELL'-FOUND'ER, one
who founds or casts bells; BELL'-GLASS, a bell-shaped glass for sheltering
flowers; BELL'-HANG'ER, one who hangs and repairs bells; BELL'MAN, one who
rings a bell, esp. on the streets, before making public announcements: a
town-crier; BELL'-MET'AL, the metal of which bells are made--an alloy of
copper and tin; BELL'-PUNCH, a hand-punch containing a signal-bell, used
for punching a hole in a ticket in order to keep a record of the number of
fares taken; BELL'-RING'ER, one whose business it is to ring a bell on
stated occasions: a performer with musical hand-bells; BELL'-ROPE, the rope
by which a bell is rung.--_adj._ BELL'-SHAPED.--_ns._ BELL'-TOW'ER, a tower
built to contain one or more bells, a campanile; BELL'-TUR'RET, a turret
containing a bell-chamber, usually crowned with a spire; BELL'-WETH'ER, the
leading sheep of a flock, on whose neck a bell is hung: (_fig._) any loud,
turbulent fellow, esp. the leader of a mob.--BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE, a
phrase popularly used in reference to a form of excommunication ending with
the words, 'Do to [shut] the book, quench the candle, ring the bell.'--TO
BEAR or CARRY OFF THE BELL, to have or to gain the first place. [A.S.
_belle_; cog. with Dut. _bel_.]

BELL, bel, _n._ a bubble formed in a liquid. [Ety. dub.; cf. Dut. _bel_, a
bubble in water, perh. from L. _bulla_, bubble in water.]

BELL, bel, _v.i._ to bellow, roar: to utter loudly.--_n._ the cry of a stag
at rutting-time. [A.S. _bellan_, to roar; cf. Ger. _bellen_.]

BELLADONNA, bel'la-don-na, _n._ the deadly nightshade or dwale, all parts
of which are narcotic and poisonous from the presence therein of the
alkaloid atropia: the drug prepared from the foregoing. [It. _bella donna_,
fair lady; one property of belladonna is to enlarge the pupil, and so add a
brilliance to the eyes.]

BELLARMINE, bel'lar-m[=e]n, _n._ a large stoneware drinking jug with a big
belly and a narrow neck, decorated with a bearded face, originally that of
Cardinal _Bellarmine_, made in mockery by the Dutch Protestants.

BELLE, bel, _n._ a handsome woman: the chief beauty of a place: a fair lady
generally. [Fr. _belle_--L. _bella_, _bellus_.]

BELLES-LETTRES, bel-let'r, _n.pl._ polite or elegant literature, including
poetry, fiction, criticism, æsthetics, &c.--_ns._ BELLET'RIST,
BELLET'TRIST.--_adj._ BELLETRIS'TIC. [Fr., lit. 'fine letters.']

BELLIBONE, bel'i-b[=o]n, _n._ (_Spens._) a beautiful and good woman.

BELLICOSE, bel'ik-[=o]s, _adj._ contentious, war-like.--_adv._
BEL'LICOSELY.--_n._ BELLICOS'ITY. [L. _bellicosus_.]

BELLIED, bel'lid, _p.adj._ with a belly, esp. a big belly, pot-bellied:
bulging: puffed out. [See BELLY.]

BELLIGERENT, bel-ij'[.e]r-[.e]nt, _adj._ carrying on regular war.--_n._ a
party or person waging such.--_n._ BELLIG'ERENCY. [L. _belligerant-em_,
_belliger[=a]re_, to wage war.]

BELLONA, bel'l[=o]-na, _n._ the Roman goddess of war--hence (_fig._) a
woman of great spirit and vigour.

BELLOW, bel'l[=o], _v.i._ to roar like a bull: to make any violent outcry,
often with sense of contempt or ridicule: to shout aloud: to roar, as of
cannon, the ocean, &c.--with objective, to give forth a loud sound.--_n._
the roar of a bull: any deep sound or cry. [M. E. _belwen_; there is an
A.S. _bellan_, to roar.]

BELLOWS, bel'l[=o]z, or bel'lus, _n.pl._ an instrument for producing a
current of air so as to blow up a fire, either in a kitchen, a furnace, or
a forge--or for producing the current of air by which the pipes and reeds
of an organ are sounded: (_fig._) that which fans the fire of hatred,
jealousy, &c.: the lungs. [Same as BELLY (q.v.); now used only in _pl._,
the sing. not having survived the 15th century.]

BELLY, bel'li, _n._ the part of the body between the breast and the thighs,
containing the bowels: the stomach, as the receptacle of the food: the
bowels proper: the womb or uterus: the interior of anything: the bulging
part of anything, as a bottle, or any concave or hollow surface, as of a
sail: the inner or lower surface of anything, as opposed to the _back_, as
of a violin, &c.--_adj._ ventral, abdominal: (_theol._) belonging to the
flesh, carnal.--_v.i._ to swell or bulge out.--_ns._ BEL'LY-BAND, a
saddle-girth: a band fastened to the shafts of a vehicle, and passing under
the belly of the horse drawing it; BEL'LYFUL, a sufficiency; BEL'LY-GOD,
one who makes a god of his belly, a glutton.--_p.adj._ BEL'LYING.--_n._
BEL'LY-TIM'BER, provisions. [M. E. _bali_, _bely_--A.S. _bælig_, _belig_;
_bælg_, _belg_, bag.]

BELOMANCY, bel'o-man-si, _n._ a kind of divination by means of arrows. [Gr.
_belos_, a dart, _manteia_, divination.]

BELONG, be-long', _v.i._ to go along with: to pertain to: to be one's
property: to be a part of, or appendage of, or in any way connected with:
to be specially the business of: (_U.S._) to be a native of, or have a
residence in.--_n.pl._ BELONG'INGS, circumstances or relations of any
person: possessions: persons connected, relatives: accessories. [_Bi-_,
_be-longen_, intens. of _longen_, with pfx. _be-_. See LONG.]

BELOVED, be-luvd', or be-luv'ed, _p.adj._ much loved, very dear--often
compounded with _well-_; _best-_, &c.--_n._ one who is much loved.--_adj._
BELOV'ING (_Shak._) = loving.

BELOW, be-l[=o]', _prep._ beneath in place, rank, or quality: underneath:
not worthy of.--_adv._ in a lower place: (_fig._) on earth, or in hell, as
opposed to heaven. [Pfx. _be-_, and adj. LOW.]

BELT, belt, _n._ a girdle, zone, or band: such a piece, as of leather, worn
by way of ornament, or given as a prize or badge of victory in wrestling or
the like: a broad strip of anything, different in colour or material: that
which confines or restrains: (_geog._) a strait.--_v.t._ to surround with a
belt, or to invest formally with such, as in knighting a man: to encircle:
to thrash with a belt.--_p.adj._ BELT'ED, wearing a belt, of a knight:
marked with a belt, as the 'belted kingfisher.'--_n._ BELT'ING, flexible
belts for the transmission of motion in machinery, made of leather,
indiarubber, &c.--as in _chainbelt_, _crossed belt_, _endless belt_, &c.; a
thrashing.--TO HOLD THE BELT, to hold the championship in wrestling,
boxing, or the like. [A.S. _belt_; Ice. _belti_, Gael. _balt_, L.

BELTANE, bel't[=a]n, _n._ an ancient Celtic heathen festival, held in the
beginning of May, when bonfires were lighted on the hills: the first day of
May (O.S.)--one of the four old quarter-days of Scotland, the others being
Lammas, Hallowmas, and Candlemas.--_adj._ in _Beltane_ games, &c. [Gael.
_bealltainn_, _beilteine_; usually explained as 'Beal's fire,' _Beal_ being
a supposed Celtic deity who has been courageously identified with the Baal
or Bel of the Phoenicians and other Semitic peoples, and Gael. _teine_,
fire. But even this last is doubtful.]

BELUGA, be-l[=oo]'ga, _n._ the white whale, one of the dolphin family,
closely allied to the narwhal, 12 to 16 feet long, of creamy-white colour,
found in droves round Greenland and all over the Arctic seas: applied also
to a great Russian sturgeon--the _Acipenser Huso_. [Russ.]

BELVEDERE, bel've-d[=e]r, _n._ a pavilion or raised turret or lantern on
the top of a house, open for the view, or to admit the cool evening breeze:
a summer-house on an eminence in a park or garden. [It. _belvedere_; _bel_,
beautiful, _vedere_, a view.]

BEMA, b[=e]'ma, _n._ the tribune or rostrum from which Athenian orators
made their speeches--hence the apse or chancel of a basilica. [Gr.
_b[=e]ma_, a step.]

BEMAD, be-mad', _v.t._ to madden.

BEMAUL, be-mawl', _v.t._ to maul thoroughly.

BEMAZED, be-m[=a]zd', _p.adj._ stupefied, bewildered.

BEMBEX, bem'beks, _n._ a genus of solitary sand-wasps, with broad heads and
very large eyes, noted for their making a loud buzz during their rapid
flight. [Gr. _bembix_.]

BEMEAN, be-m[=e]n', _v.t._ to make mean, to lower or debase: (_obs._) to

BEMIRE, be-m[=i]r', _v.t._ to soil with mire.--_p.adj._ BEMIRED'.

BEMOAN, be-m[=o]n', _v.t._ to lament: bewail: to pity.--_v.i._ to
grieve.--_ns._ BEMOAN'ER; BEMOAN'ING.

BEMOCK, be-mok', _v.t._ to mock at, to deride.

BEMOIL, be-moil', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to bemire, to bedraggle.

BEMONSTER, be-mon'ster, _v.t._ to make monstrous: to regard or treat as a

BEMOUTH, be-mowth', _v.i._ to declaim, to overpraise.

BEMUD, be-mud', _v.t._ to bespatter with mud: to confuse.

BEMUDDLE, be-mud'l, _v.t._ to confuse or muddle completely.

BEMUFFLE, be-muf'l, _v.t._ to wrap or muffle up completely.

BEMUSE, be-m[=u]z', _v.t._ to put in confusion: stupefy.

BEN, ben, _n._ a mountain peak. [Gael. _beann_.]

BEN, ben, _prep._ and _adv._ in toward the inner apartment of a
house.--_n._ the inner apartment of a house, as opposed to the _But_ or
kitchen through which one must generally pass first.--TO BE FAR BEN WITH
ONE, to be on terms of great intimacy or friendship with; TO LIVE BUT AND
BEN, to live respectively in these rooms, in close neighbourhood with any
one. [M. E. _binne_--A.S. _binnan_, within.]

BENCH, bensh, _n._ a long seat or form with or without a back: a seat in a
boat: a mechanic's work-table: a judge's seat: the body or assembly of
judges: a tribunal: the dignity of holding an official seat, as the 'bench
of bishops,' the 'civic bench.'--_v.t._ to place on or furnish with
benches.--_ns._ BENCH'ER, a senior member of an inn of court; BENCH'ERSHIP;
BENCH'-MARK, a surveyor's mark cut on a rock, gatepost, wall, or the like,
into which a crooked iron is set so as to form a bench or temporary support
for the levelling instrument; BENCH'-WAR'RANT, one issued by a judge rather
than a justice or magistrate. [A.S. _benc_; cog. with Ger. and Dut.


BEND, bend, _v.t._ to curve or bow: to make crooked: to turn or
incline--mostly in passive, to be inclined _to_, _towards_, to be given
_to_: to subdue: to direct to a certain point: to apply closely, to strain,
to nerve one's self to: (_naut._) to tie, fasten, make fast.--_v.i._ to be
crooked or curved: to incline in any direction: to stoop: to lean: to bow
in submission (with _to_, _before_, _towards_):--_pa.p._ bend'ed or
bent.--_n._ a curve or crook: the bent part of anything; (_her._) one of
the nine ordinaries, consisting of the space contained between two parallel
lines crossing the shield diagonally from dexter chief to sinister base. It
is said to occupy a fifth part of the shield unless charged, when it
occupies a third part--its diminutives are the _Bendlet_, _Cotise_, and
_Ribbon_.--BEND SINISTER, an occasionally occurring variety of the bend,
drawn from sinister chief to dexter base. [Old Eng. _bendan_.]

BEND, bend, _n._ in leather, half a butt cut lengthwise.

BENEATH, be-n[=e]th', _prep._ under, or lower in place: inside of, behind:
unworthy the dignity of, unbecoming. [A.S. _bi-nathan_.]

BENEDICITE, ben-[=e]-dis'i-te, _n._ the canticle beginning _'Benedicite_
omnia opera Domini' ('O all ye works of the Lord'), from the Apocryphal
_Song of the Three Holy Children_--in the Anglican morning service an
alternate to the _Te Deum_: the blessing before a repast.

BENEDICT, ben'e-dikt, _n._ a common name for a newly married man, esp. a
bachelor who has long held out against marriage, but at last
succumbed--from _Benedick_ in Shakespeare's _Much Ado about
Nothing_.--_adj._ blessed: benign.

BENEDICTINE, ben-e-dik'tin, _adj._ pertaining to St Benedict or his
monastic rule.--_n._ a Black Friar or monk of the order founded at Monte
Cassino by St _Benedict_ of Nursia (480-543), which became famous for its
learning: a cordial or liqueur resembling Chartreuse, distilled at Fécamp
in Normandy--once distilled by Benedictine monks.

BENEDICTION, ben-e-dik'shun, _n._ a solemn invocation of the divine
blessing on men or things--a priestly benediction is defined by Romanists
as a formula of imperative prayer which transmits a certain grace or virtue
to the object over which it is pronounced: a brief and popular service in
the Romish Church, consisting of certain canticles and antiphons sung in
presence of the host, and concluding with the priest making the sign of the
cross over the people with the monstrance, and giving in silence the
benediction of the most holy sacrament.--_adj._ BENEDICT'ORY.--_n._
BENEDICT'US, the canticle of Zacharias (Luke, i. 68-79), used in the Roman
service of matin-lauds, and occurring after the second lesson in Anglican
matins.--_p.adj._ BENEDIGHT' (_Longfellow_), blessed.--APOSTOLIC
BENEDICTION, that given in 2 Cor. xiii. 14.

BENEFACTION, ben-e-fak'shun, _n._ the act of doing good: a good deed done
or benefit conferred: a grant or endowment.--_n._ BENEFAC'TOR, one who
gives a benefit to another, esp. one who leaves a legacy to some charitable
or religious institution, a patron:--_fem._ BENEFAC'TRESS.--_adj._
BENEFAC'TORY. [L. _benefaction-em_.]

BENEFICE, ben'e-fis, _n._ any kind of church promotion or dignity, esp.
with cure of souls, such as rectories, vicarages, and other parochial
cures, as distinguished from bishoprics, deaneries, cathedral preferments,
&c.: an ecclesiastical living.--_adj._ BEN'EFICED, possessed of a benefice.
[Through Fr. from L. _beneficium_.]

BENEFICENCE, be-nef'i-sens, _n._ active goodness: kindness: charity: a
beneficent gift.--_n._ BENEFIC'ENCY (_obs._).--_adjs._ BENEF'ICENT;
BENEFICEN'TIAL.--_adv._ BENEF'ICENTLY. [L. _beneficentia_.]

BENEFICIAL, ben-e-fish'al, _adj._ useful; advantageous: (_law_) enjoying
the usufruct of property.--_adj._ BENEF'IC, of good influence
astrologically: beneficent, kindly.--_adv._ BENEFIC'IALLY.--_ns._
BENEFIC'IALNESS; BENEFIC'IARY, a legal term to denote a person who enjoys,
or has the prospect of enjoying, any interest or estate held in trust by
others. [L. _beneficium_.]

BENEFIT, ben'e-fit, _n._ a kindness: a favour: any advantage, natural or
other: a performance at a theatre, the proceeds of which go to one of the
company.--_v.t._ to do good to.--_v.i._ to gain advantage (with
_from_),--_ns._ BEN'EFIT-OF-CLER'GY, in old English law, the exemption of
the persons of ecclesiastics from criminal process before a secular judge,
they being responsible only to their ordinary. This privilege, at first
limited to those in actual orders, was in 1350 extended to all manner of
clerks, and in later practice to all who could read, whether of clergy or
laity; BEN'EFIT-OF-IN'VENTORY (_Scots law_), a legal privilege whereby an
heir secured himself against unlimited liability for his ancestor, by
giving up within the _annus deliberandi_ an inventory of his heritage or
real estate, to the extent of which alone was the heir liable.--BENEFIT
SOCIETIES, associations for mutual benefit chiefly among the labouring
classes, better known as _Friendly societies_. [M. E. _benfet_, through Fr.
from L. _benefactum_.]

BENET, be-net', _v.t._ to catch in a net, to ensnare.

BENET, ben'et, _n._ an exorcist, the third of the four lesser orders in the
Roman Church. [Through Fr. from L. _benedict-us_, blessed.]

BENEVOLENCE, ben-ev'ol-ens, _n._ disposition to do good: an act of
kindness: generosity: a gift of money, esp. for support of the poor: (_Eng.
hist._) a kind of forced loan or contribution, levied by kings without
legal authority, first so called under Edward IV. in 1473.--_adj._
BENEV'OLENT, charitable, generous, well disposed to.--_adv._ BENEV'OLENTLY.
[Through Fr. from L. _benevolentia_.]

BENGALI, ben-gaw'l[=e], _adj._ of or belonging to _Bengal_.--_n._ a native
of Bengal: the language of Bengal.--_n._ BENGAL'-LIGHT, a brilliant
signal-light used at sea in a case of shipwreck, and in ordinary pyrotechny
for illuminating a district of country--prepared from nitre, sulphur, and
the black sulphide of antimony.

BENIGHTED, be-n[=i]t'ed, _adj._ overtaken by night: involved in darkness,
intellectual or moral: ignorant.--_v.t._ BENIGHT', to involve in such
darkness: to cloud with disappointment.--_ns._ BENIGHT'ENING; BENIGHT'ER;

BENIGN, ben-[=i]n', _adj._ favourable, esp. in astrology, as opposed to
_malign_: gracious: kindly: (_med._) of a mild type, as opposed to
malignant: salubrious.--_n._ BENIG'NANCY, benignant quality.--_adj._
BENIG'NANT, kind: gracious: beneficial.--_adv._ BENIG'NANTLY.--_n._
BENIG'NITY, goodness of disposition: kindness: graciousness: favourable
circumstances--of climate, weather, disease, planets.--_adv._ BENIGN'LY.
[O. Fr. _benigne_--L. _benignus_, for _benigenus_; _bene_, well, _genus_,

BENISON, ben'izn, _n._ benediction, blessing, esp. blessing of God. [O. Fr.
_beneiçun_--L. _benediction-em_.]

BENITIER, b[=a]-n[=e]'ti[=a], _n._ the vase or vessel for holy water in
R.C. churches, known in England as the holy-water font, vat, pot, stone,
stock, or stoup. [Fr.--Low L. _benedictarium_--L. _benedictus_.]

BENJAMIN, ben'jä-min, _n._ a kind of overcoat formerly worn by men.
[Suggested possibly by 'Joseph's coat.' The Gipsy _béngari_, 'waistcoat,'
has been proposed as an etymon.]

BENJAMIN, ben'jä-min, _n._ gum benjamin, an essence made from
benzoin.--_n._ BEN'JAMIN-TREE, a North American aromatic shrub, with
stimulant tonic bark and berries: the tree which yields benzoin--_Styrax
Benzoin_. [A corr. of BENZOIN.]

BENNET, ben'et, _n._ the herb Bennet or common avens (_Geum urbanum_), a
yellow-flowered wayside plant throughout Europe. [Through Fr. from L.
'herba _benedicta_,' the flower being a protective against the devil.]

BENNET, ben'et, _n._ the same as BENT, indeed an earlier form.

BENT, bent, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BEND.

BENT, bent, _n._ leaning or bias: tendency: intention: natural inclination
of the mind towards anything: the condition of being bent, curved form:
(_rare_) slope or declivity: (_Shak._) a cast, as of the eye: the extent to
which a bow may be bent--degree of tension, capacity of endurance, as in
the phrase 'to the top of one's bent' = to the full measure of one's
inclination. [See BEND.]

BENT, bent, _n._ any stiff or wiry grass: the old dried stalks of grasses:
a special genus (_Agrostis_) containing about sixty species of grasses, all
slender and delicate in appearance, and some useful as pasture-grasses and
for hay: a place covered with such, a heath: a hillside.--Often
BENT'-GRASS.--BEN'NET is a variant, a name applied to the wild
barley-grass.--_adj._ BENT'Y.--TO TAKE TO THE BENT (_Scot._), to fly to the
moors, to escape from some danger by flight. [A.S. _beonet_, found in
place-names, as _Beonetléah_, Bentley; the history is obscure, but the word
is doubtless Teut.; cf. Ger. _binse_.]

BENTHAMISM, ben'tham-izm, _n._ a name applied to the social and political
doctrines of Jeremy _Bentham_ (1748-1832), whose leading principle is the
doctrine of utility, that happiness is identical with pleasure, summed up
in Priestley's famous phrase, 'the greatest happiness of the greatest

BENUMB, be-num', _v.t._ to make insensible or powerless: to stupefy (now
chiefly of _cold_): to deaden the feelings: to paralyse
generally.--_p.adj._ BENUMBED'.--_ns._ BENUMBED'NESS, BENUMB'MENT. [Pfx.
_be-_ and NUMB.]

BENZENE, ben'z[=e]n, _n._ a compound of carbon and hydrogen, discovered by
Faraday in 1825, in a tarry liquid resulting from the distillation of oil.
It is found amongst the products of the destructive distillation of a great
many organic bodies, but the most abundant source is coal-tar. It must not
be confounded with _benzine_ or _benzoyl_, which names have at different
times been used for benzene.--BEN'ZINE is the name given to a distillate
from American petroleum, which is much used as a substitute for turpentine,
and for dissolving oils and fats; BEN'ZOYL is the commercial name applied
to a mixture of substances, including benzene and its homologues.--BEN'ZOL
is synonymous with benzene, while BEN'ZOLINE is a name applied to benzine
and impure benzene indiscriminately.

BENZOIN, ben'z[=o]-in, or -zoin, _n._ gum benjamin, the aromatic and
resinous juice of the _Styrax Benzoin_ of Java and Sumatra. It is used in
perfumery, in pastilles, and for incense, and its compound tincture yields
Friar's Balsam or Jesuit's Drops, and is used in making court-plaster. [In
the 16th century, BENJOIN. Most prob. through It. from Ar. _lub[=a]n
j[=a]w[=i]_, frankincense of Java, Sumatra, &c.]

BEPAINT, be-p[=a]nt', _v.t._ to paint over: to colour.

BEPAT, be-pat', _v.t._ to pat frequently, to beat.

BEPATCHED, be-patcht', _p.adj._ mended with patches: wearing patches on the
face by way of adornment.

BEPEARL, be-p[.e]rl', _v.t._ to cover over with pearls.

BEPELT, be-p[.e]lt', _v.t._ to pelt vigorously.

BEPEPPER, be-pep'[.e]r, _v.t._ to pelt with a rain of shot or of blows.

BEPESTER, be-pest'[.e]r, _v.t._ to vex or pester greatly.

BEPITY, be-pit'i, _v.t._ to pity greatly.

BEPLUMED, be-pl[=oo]md', _p.adj._ adorned with feathers.

BEPOMMEL, be-pom'el, _v.t._ to pommel soundly.

BEPOWDER, be-pow'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to powder over.

BEPRAISE, be-pr[=a]z', _v.t._ to praise extravagantly.

BEPROSE, be-pr[=o]z', _v.t._ to reduce to prose: to discuss in prose, and

BEPUFF, be-puf', _v.t._ to puff out: to praise beyond measure.

BEQUEATH, be-kw[=e]th', _v.t._ to leave personal property by will to
another: to transmit to posterity, to leave behind: to commit or entrust to
any one.--_adj._ BEQUEATH'ABLE.--_ns._ BEQUEATH'AL, BEQUEATH'MENT. [A.S.
_becweðan_; pfx. _be-_,and _cweðan_, to say. See QUOTH.]

BEQUEST, be-kwest', _n._ act of bequeathing: that which is bequeathed, a
legacy. [M. E. _bi-queste_--A.S. _bi'-cwiss_; _bi'-_, a form of pfx. _be-_,
_qithan_, to say. See QUOTH.]

BERATE, be-r[=a]t', _v.t._ (_U.S._) to scold or chide vigorously.

BERBER, b[.e]r'b[.e]r, _n._ and _adj._ a member of one of the Hamitic
tribes inhabiting the mountainous regions of Barbary and the northern
portions of the Great Desert, originally occupying the whole southern coast
of the Mediterranean: the language spoken by the Berbers. [Derived by Barth
either from the name of their supposed ancestor, _Ber_, which we recognise
in the L. A_-fer_, an African; or from the Gr. and L. term _Barbari_.]

BERE, another spelling of BEAR, barley (q.v.).

BEREAN, b[=e]-r[=e]'an, _n._ one of an extinct Scottish sect of the 18th
century, named from the people of _Berea_ (Acts, xvii. 11, who derived all
knowledge of God from the Bible, but differed little from ordinary

BEREAVE, be-r[=e]v', _v.t._ to rob a person of anything valued: to leave
destitute:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bereaved'--the latter also BEREFT'.--_adj._
BEREAVED', robbed by death of some dear relative or friend.--_n._
BEREAVE'MENT, the fact or state of being so bereaved. [A.S. _beréafian_, to
plunder. See REAVE.]

BERET, BERRET, b[.e]r'et, _n._ a flat woollen cap worn by the Basques.

BERG, berg, _n._ a mass or mountain of ice.--_ns._ BERG'FALL, the fall of a
mountain rock; BERG'FIELD, an expanse of ice covered with bergs. [See

BERGAMASK, b[.e]r'ga-mask, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Bergamo_, whose
natives are clownish in manners and dialect.--_n._ a rustic dance of

BERGAMOT, b[.e]r'ga-mot, _n._ a kind of citron whose aromatic rind yields
the well-known oil of Bergamot, used in making pomades, fragrant essences,
eau de Cologne, liqueurs, &c.: the essence so extracted. [From the town of

BERGAMOT, b[.e]r'ga-mot, _n._ a group of varieties of pear of fine flavour.
[Fr.--It.--Turk. _begarm[=u]di_.]

BERGMEHL, b[.e]rg'm[=a]l, _n._ a deposit of diatomaceous white earth or
powder, that used in Norway to be mixed with flour and used as food. [Ger.

BERIBERI, ber'i-ber-i, _n._ an Eastern disease marked by anæmia, paralysis,
and dropsical symptoms. [Singh.]

BERKELEIANISM, berk'l[=e]-an-izm, _n._ the philosophy of Bishop _Berkeley_
(1685-1753), who maintained that the world we see and touch is not an
abstract independent substance, of which conscious mind may be an effect,
but is the very world which is presented to our senses, and which depends
for its actuality on being perceived.--_adj._ and _n._ BERKELEI'AN.

BERLIN, b[.e]r'lin, _n._ an old-fashioned four-wheeled covered carriage,
with a seat behind covered with a hood--also BER'LINE.--BERLIN BLUE,
Prussian blue; BERLIN WOOL, a fine dyed wool for worsted-work, knitting,

BERM, b[.e]rm, _n._ a ledge: esp. a fortification. [Fr. _berme_; Ger.

BERNARDINE, b[.e]r'nard-in, _adj._ Cistercian. [From St _Bernard_ of
Clairvaux, founder of the order.]

BEROB, be-rob', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to rob or plunder.

BERRY, ber'i, _n._ a popular term for any small succulent fruit, but
restricted in botanical language to simple fruits with pericarp succulent
throughout, whether developed from superior (grape, potato, bitternut,
belladonna, bryony, asparagus, tomato), or more commonly inferior ovary
(gooseberry, currant, barberry, bilberry, &c.)--thus, strictly, the
strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, are not berries.--_v.i._ to come into
berry, to swell.--_adj._ BER'RIED, bearing berries. [A.S. _berie_.]

BERSAGLIERI, b[=a]r-sal-y[=a]'r[=e], _n.pl._ the riflemen or sharpshooters
of the Italian army, first organised in the Sardinian army in 1836. [It.;
pl. of _bersagliere_, _bersaglio_, a mark.]

BERSERK, -ER, b[.e]r'serk, -[.e]r, _n._ a Norse warrior whom the sight of
the field of battle would fill with a frenzied and resistless fury--'the
berserker rage.' [Ice. _berserkr_; Vigfusson explains the word as
'bear-sark,' and most probably a reference to the uncanny Werewolf
superstition is involved.]

BERTH, b[.e]rth, _n._ a ship's station at anchor; a room or sleeping-place
in a ship, a sleeping-carriage, &c.: any allotted or assigned place: a
situation or place of employment, usually a comfortable one--even without
such a qualifying adjective as 'a snug berth.'--_v.t._ to moor a ship: to
furnish with a berth.--TO GIVE A WIDE BERTH TO, to keep well away from
generally. [A doublet of BIRTH; from BEAR.]

BERYL, b[.e]r'il, _n._ a precious stone resembling the emerald, but
colourless, yellowish, greenish yellow or blue--its finer varieties are
called precious beryl, and sometimes aquamarine. It has important uses as a
magic crystal in which the future becomes visible.--_adj._ beryl-like in
colour. [O. Fr. _beryl_--L. _beryllus_--Gr. _b[=e]ryllos_.]

BESAINT, be-s[=a]nt', _v.t._ to make a saint of.--_pa.p._ BESAINT'ED,
canonised: haunted with saints.

BESCATTER, be-skat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to scatter over.

BESCRAWL, be-skrawl', _v.t._ to scrawl or scribble over.

BESCREEN, be-skr[=e]n', _v.t._ to screen: to overshadow.

BESCRIBBLE, be-skrib'l, _v.t._ to write in a scribbling hand: to scribble
about or upon.

BESEECH, be-s[=e]ch', _v.t._ to entreat, to implore (as a person, _for_ a
thing, or _to do_ a thing): to ask or pray earnestly: to
solicit--(_Spens._) BESEEKE':--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ besought'.--_ns._
BESEECH'MENT. [Pfx. _be-_, and M. E. _sechen_, to SEEK.]

BESEEM, be-s[=e]m', _v.t._ to be seemly or fit for: to become: to be fit
for or worthy of: (_Spens._) to become or appear.--_ns._ BESEEM'ING,

BESEEN, be-s[=e]n', _pa.p._ of good appearance, comely: well furnished
(with _well_).--BESEE' is quite obsolete.

BESET, be-set', _v.t._ to surround or set round with anything (now only in
_pa.p._): to surround with hostile intentions, to besiege: to occupy so as
to allow none to go out or in: to assail, perplex, endanger, as by
temptations, obstacles, &c.:--_pr.p._ beset'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
beset'.--_ns._ BESET'MENT; BESET'TER.--_p.adj._ BESET'TING, that besets, as
in 'besetting sin.'

BESHADOW, be-shad'[=o], _v.t._ to cast a shadow over.

BESHAME, be-sh[=a]m', _v.t._ to put to shame.

BESHINE, be-sh[=i]n', _v.i._ to light up.--_p.adj._ BESHONE'.

BESHREW, be-shr[=oo]', _v.t._ to invoke evil upon, to curse--now only in
such mild imprecations as 'beshrew me,' or 'thee'--prob. not imperative but
elliptical, like '(I) thank you.' [Pfx. _be-_, and SHREW.]

BESIDE, be-s[=i]d', _prep._ and _adv._ by the side of, near: over and above
(in this sense, now usually BESIDES'), distinct from: apart from, not
falling within, as of a question, resolution, &c.--BESIDE THE MARK, away
from the mark aimed at, irrelevant.--TO BE BESIDE ONE'S SELF, to be out of
one's senses. [M. E. _bi siden_--A.S. _be si'dan_, by the side (dat.).]

BESIDES, be-s[=i]dz', _prep._ and _adv._ in addition, otherwise, aside:
over and above, in addition to, away from. [BESIDE, with the _s_ of the
_adv._ gen.]

BESIEGE, be-s[=e]j', _v.t._ to lay siege to: to beset with armed forces: to
throng round.--_n._ BESIEG'ER.--_adv._ BESIEG'INGLY (_rare_), urgently.

BESIGH, be-s[=i]', _v.t._ to sigh over.

BESING, be-sing', _v.t._ to celebrate in song.--_p.adj._ BESUNG'.

BESIT, be-sit', _v.t._ (_obs._) to besiege: to sit well on, as clothes, to
become.--_p.adj._ BESIT'TING (_Spens._), becoming.

BESLAVE, be-sl[=a]v', _v.t._ to make a slave of: to call slave.

BESLAVER, be-sl[=a]v'[.e]r, _v.t._ to slaver or slobber upon: to cover with
fulsome flattery.

BESLOBBER, be-slob'[.e]r, _v.t._ to besmear with the spittle running from
one's mouth: to cover with drivelling kisses: to flatter fulsomely.--_v.t._
BESLUB'BER, to bedaub or besmear.

BESMEAR, be-sm[=e]r', _v.t._ to smear over: to bedaub: to pollute.

BESMIRCH, be-smirch', _v.t._ to soil, as with smoke or soot: to
sully.--_v.t._ BESMUTCH', to besmirch.

BESMUT, be-smut', _v.t._ to blacken with soot.--_p.adj._ BESMUT'TED.


BESOM, b[=e]'zum, _n._ an implement for sweeping, a broom: any cleansing or
purifying agent: (_Scot._) a term of reproach for a woman.--_ns._
B[=E]'SOM-HEAD, a blockhead; B[=E]'SOM-RID'ER, a witch.--TO JUMP THE BESOM
(see BROOM). [A.S. _besema_, _besma_; a common Teut. word; Ger. _besen_,
Dut. _bezem_.]

BESORT, be-sort', _v.t._ (_obs._, _Shak._) to match with, befit,
become.--_n._ suitable company.

BESOT, be-sot', _v.t._ to make sottish, dull, or stupid: to make a sot of:
to cause to dote on: to infatuate (_with_):--_pr.p._ besot'ting; _pa.p._
besot'ted.--_p.adj._ BESOT'TED, infatuated.--_adv._ BESOT'TEDLY.--_n._

BESOUGHT, be-sawt', _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BESEECH.

BESOULED, be-s[=o]ld', _adj._ endowed with a soul.

BESPANGLE, be-spang'gl, _v.t._ to adorn with spangles, or with anything
sparkling or shining.

BESPATE, be-sp[=a]t', _p.adj._ spit upon.

BESPATTER, be-spat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to spatter or sprinkle with dirt or
anything moist: to defame.

BESPEAK, be-sp[=e]k', _v.t._ to speak for or engage beforehand: to
stipulate or ask for: to betoken.--_v.i._ (_obs._) to speak:--_pa.t._
besp[=o]ke'; _pa.p._ besp[=o]ke' and besp[=o]k'en.--_n._ an actor's
benefit, so called because the actor's friends and patrons bespeak or
choose the piece to be performed that night.

BESPECKLE, be-spek'l, _v.t._ to mark with speckles or spots.

BESPECTACLED, be-spek'ta-kld, _pa.p._ having spectacles on.

BESPEED, be-sp[=e]d', _v.t._ to help on.--_p.adj._ BESPED'.

BESPICE, be-sp[=i]s', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to season with spice: to drug or

BESPOKE, be-sp[=o]k', BESPOKEN, be-sp[=o]k'n, _pa.p._ of BESPEAK, ordered,
as boots, clothes, &c.

BESPOT, be-spot', _v.t._ to cover with spots.--_p.adj._ BESPOT'TED.--_n._

BESPOUT, be-spowt', _v.t._ to spout over: to declaim pompously.

BESPREAD, be-spred', _v.t._ to spread over: to cover:--_pr.p._
bespread'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bespread'.

BESPRENT, be-sprent', _pa.p._ sprinkled over: scattered. [A.S.
_besprengan_. See SPRINKLE.]

BESPRINKLE, be-spring'kl, _v.t._ to sprinkle over.

BESSEMER, bes'[.e]m-[.e]r, _adj._ derived from the name of the inventor,
Sir H. _Bessemer_, applied to steel for rails, tires, ship-plates, &c.,
prepared by the Bessemer process.

BEST, best, _adj._ (serves as _superl._ of GOOD) good in the highest
degree: first: highest: most excellent.--_n._ one's utmost endeavour: the
highest perfection.--_adv._ (_superl._ of WELL) in the highest degree: in
the best manner.--_v.t._ (_coll._) to get the better of.--BEST MAN and BEST
MAID, the groomsman and bridesmaid at a wedding.--AT THE BEST, or AT BEST,
in the best possible way, at most after every allowance is made; FOR THE
BEST, with the best intentions; I WERE BEST = it were best _for me_.--TO
HAVE THE BEST OF IT, to gain the advantage in a contest; TO MAKE THE BEST
OF ONE'S WAY, to go by the best possible road; TO PUT ONE'S BEST FOOT
FOREMOST, to do the best, or to make the best show, one can. [A.S. _betst_,
_betest_. See BETTER.]

BESTAIN, be-st[=a]n', _v.t._ to stain all over.

BESTEAD, be-sted', _v.t._ to help, relieve: to be of use to, to
avail.--_v.i._ to profit, be advantageous.

BESTEAD, BESTED, be-sted', _p.adj._ set about (_with_): beset (with _by_,
of foes; _with_, of dangers, &c.): situated--usually with _ill_, _hard_,

BESTIAL, best'i-al, _adj._ like a beast: rude: brutally sensual.--_n._
(_Scot._) a collective name for cattle.--_v.t._ BEST'IALISE, to make like a
beast.--_ns._ BEST'IALISM, irrationality; BESTIAL'ITY, beastliness:
disgusting vice. [L. _bestialis_. See BEAST.]

BESTIARY, best'i-ar-i, _n._ the name given to a class of books of great
popularity in the Middle Ages, describing all the animals of creation, real
or fabled, generally illustrated by drawings, and allegorised for
edification. [Low L. _bestiarium_, a menagerie.]

BESTICK, be-stik', _v.t._ to stick over, as with sharp points.

BESTILL, be-stil', _v.t._ to make quiet, to hush.

BESTIR, be-st[.e]r', _v.t._ to put into lively action: arouse into
activity: (_refl._) to rouse one's self--_p.adj._ BESTIR'RING.

BESTORM, be-storm', _v.t._ to assail with storms or tumult.

BESTOW, be-st[=o]', _v.t._ to stow, place, or put by: to give or confer: to
accommodate with quarters: to apply (with _on_ and _upon_): (_refl._,
_Shak._) to acquit one's self.--_ns._ BESTOW'AL, act of bestowing:

BESTRADDLE, be-strad'dl, _v.t._ to bestride.

BESTRAUGHT, be-strawt', _adj._ (_obs._) distraught: distracted: mad.
[Formed with pfx. _be-_, on the analogy of _distraught_--L. _dis-tractus_.]

BESTREAK, be-str[=e]k', _v.t._ to overspread with streaks.

BESTREW, be-str[=oo]', _v.t._ to strew or scatter loosely over:--_pa.p._
bestrewed', bestr[=o]wn', bestrewn' (_with_).

BESTRIDE, be-str[=i]d', _v.t._ to stride over: to sit or stand across: to
defend, protect, from the sense of standing over a fallen man to defend
him:--_pa.t._ bestrid', bestr[=o]de'; _pa.p._ bestrid', bestrid'den.

BESTUCK, be-stuk', _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BESTICK, to stick about, adorn:
to transfix.

BESTUD, be-stud', _v.t._ to adorn as with studs, as the sky with stars.

BET, bet, _n._ a wager: something staked to be lost or won on the result of
a doubtful issue, as a horse-race, or the like.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to lay
or stake, as a bet:--_pr.p._ bet'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bet or
bet'ted.--_ns._ BET'TER, one who bets--also BET'TOR; BET'TING, act of
betting or proposing a wager.--AN EVEN BET, an equal chance.--YOU BET, in
American slang, certainly. [Prob. shortened from the noun ABET.]

BETAKE, be-t[=a]k', _v.t._ to take one's self to, to go (with _self_): to
apply or have recourse:--_pa.t._ betook'; _pa.p._ bet[=a]k'en.

BETEEM, be-t[=e]m', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to grant, to suffer, to allow. [Most
prob. from pfx. _be-_, and TEEM.]

BETEL, b[=e]'tl, _n._ the betel-nut, or nut of the areca palm, with lime
and the leaves of the Betel-Pepper, chewed by the Malays as a stimulant.
[Through Port. from Malay _vettila_.]

BETHANKIT, be-thank'it, Scotch for 'God be thanked.'

BETHEL, beth'el, _n._ a hallowed spot, a name applied by some Methodists to
their places of worship: an old ship fitted up in a port as a place of
worship for sailors. [Heb. _B[=e]th-[=e]l_, house of God.]

BETHINK, be-thingk', _v.t._ to think on or call to mind: to recollect
(generally followed by a reflective pronoun and _of_): to propose to one's
self.--_v.i._ to consider:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bethought (be-thawt').
[A.S. _bithencan_; cf. Ger. _bedenken_. See THINK.]

BETHRALL, be-thrawl', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to enslave.

BETHUMB, be-thum', _v.t._ to mark with the thumbs:--_pa.p._ bethumbed'.

BETHUMP, be-thump', _v.t._ to thump or beat soundly.

BETHWACK, be-thwak', _v.t._ to thrash soundly.

BETIDE, be-t[=i]d', _v.i._ to happen to, to befall--in third person, and
often impersonally, with dative object, now little used save in phrase,
'woe betide!': (_rare_) to betoken:--_pa.p._ (_Shak._) BETID'. [See TIDE.]

BETIME, be-t[=i]m', _v.i._ (_Shak._) to betide.

BETIMES, be-t[=i]mz', _adv._ in good time: early: seasonably: speedily.
[Pfx. _be-_, and TIME, with _adv._ gen. _-s_; like _besides_ from beside.]

BETITLE, be-t[=i]'tl, _v.t._ to give a name to.

BETOIL, be-toil', _v.t._ to weary with toil.

BETOKEN, be-t[=o]'kn, _v.t._ to show by a sign: to foreshow. [See TOKEN.]

BETONY, bet'on-i, _n._ a common British labiate plant growing in woods, of
great repute in ancient and medieval medicine, used to dye wool yellow.
[Fr.--L. _betonica_, _vettonica_.]

BETOOK, be-took', _pa.t._ of BETAKE.

BETOSSED, be-tost', _pa.p._ (_Shak._) agitated.

BETRAY, be-tr[=a]', _v.t._ to give up treacherously: to disclose in breach
of trust: to let go basely or weakly: to deceive the innocent and trustful,
to seduce: to discover or show: to show signs of.--_ns._ BETRAY'AL, act of
betraying; BETRAY'ER, a traitor, the seducer of a trustful girl. [Pfx.
_be-_, and O. Fr. _traïr_ (Fr. _trahir_)--L. _trad[)e]re_, to deliver up.]

BETRIM, be-trim', _v.t._ to trim or set in order, to deck, to dress.

BETRODDEN, be-trod'n, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BETREAD', to tread over or
walk upon.

BETROTH, be-troth', _v.t._ to contract or promise in order to marriage: to
affiance: (_obs._) to pledge one's self to any cause.--_ns._ BETROTH'AL,
BETROTH'MENT, an agreement or contract with a view to marriage. [Pfx.
_be-_, and TROTH or TRUTH.]

BETTER, bet'[.e]r, _adj._ (serves as _comp._ of GOOD) good in a greater
degree: preferable: improved: more suitable: larger: kinder: stronger in
health.--_adv._ (_comp._ of WELL) well in a greater degree: more fully or
completely: over or more than: with greater advantage: (_pl._)
superiors.--_v.t._ to make better (also reflexively, to better one's self),
to improve: to benefit: also with intransitive sense, to grow
better.--_p.adjs._ BET'TERED, improved, amended; BET'TERING,
improving.--_ns._ BET'TERING, BET'TERMENT, BET'TERNESS.--_adj._
BET'TERMOST.--BETTER HALF, a jocose term for a wife, once applied seriously
to either wife or husband, and even the soul as opposed to the body.--I HAD
BETTER = I should hold it better to--the original construction having been
a dative pronoun.--TO BE BETTER OFF, to be in superior circumstances; TO BE
BETTER THAN ONE'S SELF, to do more than one had promised; TO GET THE BETTER
OF, to gain the advantage over. [A.S. _bet_ (adv.), _betera_, better; Goth.
_batiza_, Ger. _besser_. Prob. cog. with BOOT.]

BETTY, bet'ti, _n._ a man who troubles himself with the women's work in a
household: a _slang_ name for a burglar's jemmy or _jenny_. [_Betty_,
_Bet_, familiar abbrev. of _Elizabeth_.]

BETUMBLED, be-tum'bld, _adj._ (_Shak._) tumbled or disordered.

BETUTOR, be-t[=u]'tor, _v.t._ to tutor or instruct.

BETWEEN, be-tw[=e]n', BETWIXT, be-twikst', _prep._ in the middle of two, of
space, time, or degree: in the middle or intermediate space, to defend or
separate: expressing reciprocal relation from one to another: by the joint
action of two or more persons.--_ns._ BETWEEN'-DECKS, the space between any
two decks of a ship; BETWEEN'ITY (_rare_), state of being between.--_prep._
BETWEEN'-WHILES, at intervals.--BETWEEN OURSELVES, in confidence; BETWIXT
AND BETWEEN, in a middling position.--TO GO BETWEEN, to act as a mediator.
[A.S. _betwéonum_ _betweónan_--_be_, and _twegen_, _twa_, two, twain.]


BEVEL, bev'el, _n._ a slant or inclination of a surface: an instrument
opening like a pair of compasses, and adjustable for measuring
angles.--_adj._ having the form of a bevel: slanting.--_v.t._ to form with
a bevel or slant:--_pr.p._ bev'elling; _pa.p._ bev'elled.--_ns._
BEV'EL-GEAR, BEV'EL-WHEELS (_mech._), wheels working on each other in
different planes, the cogs of the wheels being bevelled or at oblique
angles to the shafts.--_p.adj._ BEV'ELLED, cut to an oblique angle, sloped
off. [Fr. _biveau_, an instrument for measuring angles; orig. unknown.]

BEVER, an obsolete form of BEAVER.

BEVERAGE, bev'[.e]r-[=a]j, _n._ drink: a mixture of cider and water: any
agreeable liquor for drinking.--_n._ BE'VER, a small repast between meals:
(_obs._) a time for drinking.--_v.i._ to take such a repast. [O. Fr.
_bevrage_ (Fr. _breuvage_), _beivre_--L. _bibere_, to drink.]

BEVY, bev'i, _n._ a brood or flock of birds, esp. of quails: a company,
esp. of ladies. [M. E. _bevey_, prob. the same as O. Fr. _bevee_, _buvee_,
drink, It. _bevuta_, a draught; the transference of sense being perh. from
a drink or a drinking-bout to a drinking-party.]

BEWAIL, be-w[=a]l', _v.t._ to lament: to mourn loudly over (esp. the
dead).--_v.i._ to utter lamentations.--_adjs._ BEWAIL'ABLE, BEWAIL'ING.
[See WAIL.]

BEWARE, be-w[=a]r', _v.i._ to be on one's guard: to be suspicious of
danger: to take care (with _of_; with clause--_lest_, _that_, _not_,
_how_). [From the words _be_ and _ware_ run together. See WARY.]

BEWEEP, be-w[=e]p', _v.t._ to weep over, to lament.--_p.adj._ BEWEPT',
disfigured by weeping.

BEWELTERED, be-wel't[.e]rd, _p.adj._ besmeared by weltering in blood. [Pfx.
_be-_, and WELTER.]

BEWET, be-wet', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to wet or moisten.

BEWIG, be-wig', to cover with a wig.--_p.adj._ BEWIGGED'.

BEWILDER, be-wil'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to perplex or lead astray.--_p.adj._
BEWIL'DERED, lost, confused in mind, trackless.--_adj._
mental confusion: perplexity. [Pfx. _be-_, and prov. Eng. _wildern_, a

BEWITCH, be-wich', _v.t._ to affect by witchcraft (mostly malignantly): to
fascinate or charm.--_ns._ BEWITCH'ERY, BEWITCH'MENT.--_adj._ BEWITCH'ING,
charming, enchanting.--_adv._ BEWITCH'INGLY.

BEWRAY, be-r[=a]', _v.t._ (_B._) to accuse: to point out: to betray or
divulge unintentionally. [M. E. _bewreien_, _be-_, and A.S. _wrégan_, to

BEY, b[=a], _n._ a Turkish governor of a town or province. [Turk. _beg_,
pronounced _b[=a]_, a governor.]

BEYOND, be-yond', _prep._ on the farther side of: farther onward than: out
of reach of: past in time: above, superior to.--BEYOND MEASURE,
excessively; BEYOND SEAS, abroad; THE BACK OF BEYOND (_De Quincey_, &c.), a
humorous phrase for any place a great way off; TO BE BEYOND ONE, to pass
his comprehension; TO GO BEYOND, to surpass: to circumvent: (_B._, _Shak._)
to overreach. [A.S. _begeondan_--pfx. _be-_, and _geond_, across, beyond.
See YON.]

BEZANT, be-zant', or bez'ant, _n._ a gold coin, first struck at _Byzantium_
or Constantinople: (_her._) a small circle or, like a gold coin.

BEZEL, bez'l, _n._ the part of the setting of a precious stone which
encloses it: the oblique side or face of a cut gem: the grooved flange or
rim in which a watch-glass is set: the slope at the edge of a chisel or
plane (usually BAS'IL). [From an O. Fr. word represented by mod. Fr.
_biseau_; its ult. origin uncertain.]

BEZIQUE, be-z[=e]k', _n._ a game at cards for two, three, or four persons,
played with two to four packs, from which cards with from two to six pips
have been removed. The name _Bezique_ itself is applied to the combination
of the knave of diamonds and queen of spades. [Fr. _besigue_, of obscure

BEZOAR, b[=e]'z[=o]r, _n._ a stony concretion found in the stomachs of
goats, antelopes, llamas, chamois, &c., formerly esteemed an antidote to
all poisons. [Through Sp. _bezaar_ and Ar. _b[=a]zahr_, from Pers.
_p[=a]d-zahr_, counter-poison, _zahr_, poison.]

BEZONIAN, be-z[=o]'ni-an, _n._ (_Shak._) a beggar, a low fellow. [It.
_bisogno_; Sp. _bisoño_, Fr. _bisogne_.]

BEZZLE, bez'l, _v.i._ (_obs._) to drink hard: to squander:--_pr.p._
bezz'ling; _pa.p._ bezz'led. [O. Fr. _besiler_. See EMBEZZLE.]

BHANG, bang, _n._ the native name for the Indian preparation of hemp which
is smoked or swallowed for its narcotic and intoxicating qualities--in
Arabic known as _hashish_. [See ASSASSIN. Hind. _bh[=a]ng_; Pers. _bang_;
Sans. _bhang[=a]_.]

BIAS, b[=i]'as, _n._ a bulge or greater weight on one side of a bowl (in
the game of bowling), making it slope or turn to one side: a slant or
leaning to one side: a one-sided inclination of the mind, prejudice: any
special influence that sways the mind.--_v.t._ to cause to turn to one
side: to prejudice or prepossess:--_pa.p._ b[=i]'ased or
b[=i]'assed.--_ns._ B[=I]'AS-DRAW'ING (_Shak._), a turn awry; B[=I]'ASING,
a bias or inclination to one side. [Fr. _biais_, of dubious origin; Diez
suggests L. _bifax_, _bifacem_, two-faced.]

BIAXAL, b[=i]-aks'al, _adj._ having two optic axes.--Also BIAXIAL. [L.
_bi-_, and AXIAL.]

BIB, bib, _n._ a cloth put under an infant's chin: a similar article of
dress for adults, worn over the breast or above the apron.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ to drink, to tipple.--_adj._ B[=I]B[=A]'CIOUS.--_ns._ BIB[=A]'TION,
tippling; BIB'BER, a tippler: chiefly used in composition as (_B._)
wine-bibber. [M. E. _bibben_, most prob. from L. _bib-[)e]re_, to drink.]

BIB, bib, _n._ a fish of the same genus as the cod and haddock, also called
the _Pout_.

BIBBLE-BABBLE, bib'bl-bab'bl, _n._ (_Shak._) idle talk. [Reduplication of

BIBLE, b[=i]'bl, _n._ the sacred writings of the Christian Church,
consisting of the Old and New Testaments.--_adj._ BIB'LICAL, of or relating
to the Bible: scriptural.--_adv._ BIB'LICALLY.--_ns._ BIB'LICISM, biblical
doctrine, learning, or literature; BIB'LICIST, B[=I]B'LIST, one versed in
biblical learning: one who makes Scripture the sole rule of faith.
[Fr.--Low L. _biblia_, fem. sing., earlier neut. pl., from Gr. _ta biblia_,
lit. 'the books,' esp. the canonical books of Scripture, _biblion_, a book,
dim. of _biblos_, papyrus, paper.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY, bib-li-og'raf-i, _n._ the description or knowledge of books,
in regard to their authors, subjects, editions, and history.--_n._
BIBLIOG'RAPHER, one versed in bibliography or the history of books.--_adj._
BIBLIOGRAPH'IC. [Gr. _biblion_, a book, _graphia_, description.]

BIBLIOLATRY, bib-li-ol'at-ri, _n._ superstitious reverence for the
Bible.--_ns._ BIBLIOL'ATRIST, BIBLIOL'ATER, one given to bibliolatry. [Gr.
_biblion_, a book, _latreia_, worship.]

BIBLIOLOGY, bib-li-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ an account of books: biblical
literature, or theology. [Gr. _biblion_, a book, _logos_, discourse.]

BIBLIOMANCY, bib'li-[=o]-man-si, _n._ divination by selecting passages of
the Bible at hazard, and drawing from them indications concerning future
events. [Gr. _biblion_, a book, _manteia_, divination.]

BIBLIOMANIA, bib-li-[=o]-m[=a]n'i-a, _n._ a mania for possessing _rare_ and
curious books.--_n._ BIBLIOM[=A]N'IAC, one who has a mania for possessing
_rare_ and curious books.--_adj._ BIBLIOMAN[=I]'ACAL. [Gr. _biblion_, a
book, and MANIA.]

BIBLIOPHILE, bib'li-[=o]-f[=i]l, _n._ a lover of books, esp. a collector of
_rare_ books. [Fr.--Gr. _biblion_, a book, _philos_, friend.]

BIBLIOPOLE, bib'li-[=o]-p[=o]l, _n._ a bookseller.--Also BIBLIOP'OLIST.
[Gr. _biblion_, a book, _p[=o]leein_, to sell.]

BIBULOUS, bib'[=u]-lus, _adj._ drinking or sucking in: spongy. [L.
_bibulus_--_bib-[)e]re_, to drink.]

BICAMERAL, b[=i]-kam'[.e]r-al, _adj._ having two chambers. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and _camera_, chamber.]

BICARBONATE, b[=i]-kär'bon-[=a]t, _n._ a carbonate or salt having two
equivalents of carbonic acid to one equivalent of base. [L. _bi-_, twice,

BICE, b[=i]s, _n._ a pale blue or green paint. [Fr. _bis_.]

BICENTENARY, b[=i]-sen'te-na-ri, BICENTENNIAL, b[=i]-sen-ten'ni-al, _adj._
pertaining to the two hundredth.--_n._ the two hundredth anniversary.

BICEPHALOUS, b[=i]-sef'al-us, _adj._ double-headed. [L. _bis_, twice, and
Gr. _k[=e]phal[=e]_, head.]

BICEPS, b[=i]'seps, _n._ the muscle in front of the arm between the
shoulder and elbow. [L. _biceps_, two-headed--_bis_, twice, and _caput_,

BICHROMATE, b[=i]-kr[=o]'m[=a]t, _adj._ having two parts of chromic acid to
one of other ingredients. [L. _bis_, twice, and CHROMATE.]

BICIPITAL, b[=i]-sip'it-al, _adj._ (_anat._) having two heads or
origins.--Earlier form BICIP'ITOUS.

BICKER, bik'[.e]r, _v.i._ to contend in a petty way: to quiver: to move
quickly and tremulously, as running water.--_n._ a fight, a quarrel: a
clattering noise: a short run.--_n._ BICK'ERMENT (_Spens._), bickering,
strife. [Acc. to Skeat, _bicker_ = _pick-er_, or _peck-er_, to _peck_
repeatedly with the _beak_.]

BICKER, bik'[.e]r, _n._ a bowl for holding liquor, esp. of wood: a vessel
made of wooden staves for holding porridge. [Scot. form of BEAKER.]

BICONCAVE, b[=i]-kon'k[=a]v, _adj._ concave on both sides. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and CONCAVE.]

BICONVEX, b[=i]-kon'veks, _adj._ convex on both sides. [L. _bi-_, twice,
and CONVEX.]

BICORPORATE, b[=i]-kor'por-[=a]t, _adj._ (_her._) double-bodied, as the
head of a lion to which two bodies are attached. [L. _bis_, twice, and

BICUSPID, b[=i]-kus'pid, _adj._ having two cusps: a pre-molar tooth. [L.
_bi-_, twice, and CUSP.]

BICYCLE, b[=i]'si-kl, _n._ a cycle or velocipede with two wheels furnished
with rubber tires, arranged one before the other, impelled by pedals, and
steered by transverse handles affixed to the front wheel--also BIKE
(_colloq._).--_n._ B[=I]'CYCLIST. [Formed from L. _bi-_, _bis_, twice, and
Gr. _kyklos_, a circle.]

BID, bid, _v.t._ to offer: to propose: to proclaim, as the banns of
marriage: to invite: to command: to make an offer, and to increase the
amount offered for a thing--at an auction:--_pr.p._ bid'ding; _pa.t._ bid
or bade; _pa.p._ bid, bid'den.--_n._ an offer of a price.--_ns._ BID'DER,
one who bids or offers a price; BID'DING, offer: invitation: command;
BID'DING-PRAY'ER, a form of prayer directed to be used before all sermons,
lectures, and homilies preached apart from the daily service or holy
communion--as university sermons, so called because in it the preacher is
directed to bid or exhort the people to pray for certain specified
objects.--TO BID FAIR, to seem likely. [A.S. _béodan_; Goth. _biudan_, Ger.
_bieten_, to offer.]

BID, bid, _v.t._ to ask for: (nearly _obs._): to pray. [A.S. _biddan_;
Goth. _bidjan_; Ger. _bitten_; the connection with BID, to command, is dub.
See BEAD.]

BIDE, b[=i]d, _v.t._ and _v.i._ same as ABIDE, to wait for.--_n._ BID'ING
(_Shak._), residence, habitation. [A.S. _bídan_; Goth. _beidan_.]

BIDENTATE, b[=i]-dent'[=a]t, _adj._ having two teeth.--Also BIDENT'AL. [L.
_bi-_; twice, _dens_, _dentis_, a tooth.]

BIELD, b[=e]ld, _n._ (_Wordsworth_) shelter: protection. [Scot.; conn. with

BIENNIAL, b[=i]-en'yal, _adj._ lasting two years: happening once in two
years.--_n._ a plant that lasts two years.--_adv._ BIENN'IALLY. [L.
_biennalis_--_bi-_, twice, and _annus_, a year.]

BIER, b[=e]r, _n._ a carriage or frame of wood for bearing the dead to the
grave. [A.S. _b['æ]r_; Ger. _bahre_, L. _fer-etrum_. From root of verb


BIFACIAL, b[=i]-f[=a]'shyal, _adj._ having two like faces or opposite
surfaces. [L. _bi-_, twice, and FACIAL.]

BIFFINS, bif'inz, _n._ apples slowly dried in bakers' ovens and flattened
into cakes--prepared in great quantities in Norfolk. [Said to be properly
_beefins_, because like raw beef.]

BIFIDATE, bif'id-[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) cleft in two.--Also BIF'ID. [L.
_bifidus_--_bi-_, _bis_, twice, and _find[)e]re_, perf. _fidi_, to cleave
or split.]

BIFLORATE, b[=i]-fl[=o]'r[=a]t, _adj._ bearing two flowers. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and _flos_, _floris_, a flower.]

BIFOLD, b[=i]'f[=o]ld, _adj._ twofold: (_Shak._) of two kinds. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and FOLD.]

BIFOLIATE, b[=i]-f[=o]'li-[=a]t, _adj._ having two leaves. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and FOLIATE.]

BIFORM, b[=i]'form, _adj._ having two forms. [L. _bi-_, twice, and FORM.]

BIFURCATE, b[=i]-fur'k[=a]t, BIFURCATED, b[=i]-fur'k[=a]t-ed, _adj._
two-forked; having two prongs or branches.--_n._ BIFURC[=A]'TION, a forking
or division into two branches. [L. _bifurcus_--_bi-_, _bis_, twice,
_furca_, a fork.]

BIG, big, _adj._ large or great: pregnant: great in air, mien, or spirit:
loud: pompous, esp. 'to talk big,' 'look big.'--_adjs._ BIG-BELL'IED,
having a big belly; pregnant (_with_); BIG'GISH, rather big.--_ns._
BIG'NESS, bulk, size; BIG'WIG (_colloq._), a leading man, a person of some
importance. [M. E. _big_; origin very obscure--Skeat suggests that it is
_bilg_, the _l_ being dropped, and compares Ice. _belgja_, to puff out.]

BIG, big, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to build, to pile up.--_n._ BIG'GIN, anything
built, a house. [Sc. _byggja_; A.S. _búian_.]

BIGAMY, big'am-i, _n._ the crime of having two wives or two husbands at
once.--_n._ BIG'AMIST, one who has committed bigamy. [Fr.--L. _bi-_, _bis_,
twice, and Gr. _gamos_, marriage.]

BIGG, big, _n._ a kind of barley. [Scand.; Ice. _bygg_, Dan. _byg_.]

BIGGIN, big'in, _n._ a child's cap or hood. [Fr. _béguin_, from the cap
worn by the _Beguines_, a religious society of women in France.]

BIGHT, b[=i]t, _n._ a bend of the shore, or small bay: a bend or coil of a
rope. [A.S. _byht_; cf. Dan. and Sw. _bugt_, Dut. _bocht_; from _b[=u]gan_,
to bow.]

BIGNONIA, big-n[=o]'ni-a, _n._ a genus of tropical plants with
trumpet-shaped flowers, named from the Abbé _Bignon_, Louis XIV.'s

BIGOT, big'ot, _n._ one blindly and obstinately devoted to a particular
creed or party.--_adj._ BIG'OTED, having the qualities of a bigot.--_n._
BIG'OTRY, blind or excessive zeal, esp. in religious matters. [O. Fr.; of
dub. origin; variously conn. with _Visigoth_, they being Arians, while the
Franks were orthodox; with Sp. _bigote_, a moustache; with _Beguine_
(q.v.); and by Wace with a worthless legend that the Norman Rollo, in
refusing to kiss the foot of Charles the Simple, said, 'Ne se, _bi got_.']

BIJOU, be-zh[=oo]', _n._ a trinket: a jewel: a little box:--_pl._ BIJOUX
(be-zh[=oo]').--_n._ BIJOU'TRY, jewellery: small articles of virtu. [Fr.]

BIKE, b[=i]k, _n._ a nest of wasps, wild bees, &c.: a swarm of people.
[Scot.; ety. dub.]


BILABIATE, b[=i]-l[=a]'bi-[=a]t, _adj._ having two lips, as some corollas.
[L. _bi-_, twice, and LABIATE.]

BILANDER, b[=i]'land-[.e]r, _n._ a two-masted hoy, having her mainsail bent
to the whole length of her yard, hanging fore and aft, and inclined to the
horizontal at an angle of about 45º.--Also BY'LANDER. [Dut. _bijlander_.]

BILATERAL, b[=i]-lat'[.e]r-al, _adj._ having two sides.--_adv._
BILAT'ERALLY. [L. _bi-_, twice, and LATERAL.]

BILBERRY, bil'ber-i, _n._ called also _Whortleberry_, a shrub and its
berries, which are dark blue. [Cf. Dan. _böllebær_; Scot. _blaeberry_; Ger.

BILBO, bil'b[=o], _n._ a rapier or sword:--_pl._ BILBOES (bil'b[=o]z),
fetters. [From _Bilbao_, in Spain.]

BILE, b[=i]l, _n._ a thick bitter fluid secreted by the liver--yellow in
man and carnivorous animals, green in vegetable feeders: (_fig._)
ill-humour.--_n._ BILE'-DUCT, the duct which conveys the bile from the
liver and the gall-bladder to the small intestine.--_adjs._ BIL'IARY,
belonging to or conveying bile; BIL'IOUS, pertaining to or affected by
bile.--_adv._ BIL'IOUSLY. [Fr.--L. _bilis_.]

BILGE, bilj, _n._ the bulging part of a cask: the broadest part of a ship's
bottom.--_v.i._ to spring a leak by a fracture in the bilge, as a
ship.--_ns._ BILGE'-PUMP; BILGE'-WAT'ER.--_adj._ BILG'Y, having the
appearance and disagreeable smell of bilge-water. [Most prob. conn. with

BILHARZIA, bil'här-zi-a, _n._ a human parasitic flat worm in the fluke or
Trematode order, with differentiated sexes. [From the helminthologist,
Theodor _Bilharz_.]

BILINGUAL, b[=i]-ling'wal, _adj._ of or containing two tongues or
languages.--Also BILIN'GUAR. [L. _bilinguis_--_bi-_, twice, _lingua_,

BILITERAL, b[=i]-lit'[.e]r-al, _adj._ consisting of two letters. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and _litera_, a letter.]

BILK, bilk, _v.t._ to elude; to cheat. [Perh. a dim. of BALK; at first a
term in cribbage.]


BILL, bil, _n._ a kind of concave battle-axe with a long wooden handle: a
kind of hatchet with a long blade and wooden handle in the same line with
it, often with a hooked point, used in cutting thorn hedges or in
pruning.--_ns._ BILL'HOOK, a bill or hatchet having a hooked or curved
point; BILL'MAN, a soldier armed with a bill. [A.S. _bil_; Ger. _bille_.]

BILL, bil, _n._ the beak of a bird, or anything like it, applied even to a
sharp promontory, as Portland Bill: the point of the fluke of an
anchor--hence BILL'-BOARD, _n._, used to protect the planking from being
injured by the bill when the anchor is weighed.--_v.i._ to join bills as
doves: to caress fondly.--_adj._ BILLED. [A.S. _bile_, most prob. the same
word as the preceding.]

BILL, bil, _n._ an account of money: a draft of a proposed law: a written
engagement to pay a sum of money at a fixed date: a placard or
advertisement: any written statement of particulars: in the criminal law of
England, the formal name of a written accusation of serious crime preferred
before a grand-jury.--_n._ BILL'-BOOK, a book used in commerce in which an
entry is made of all bills accepted and received.--_n.pl._ BILL'-BROK'ERS,
persons who, being skilled in the money-market, the state of mercantile and
personal credit, and the rates of exchange, engage, either on their own
account or that of their employers, in the purchase and sale of foreign and
inland bills of exchange and promissory notes: the business of
BILL'-DISCOUNT'ERS, or discount-brokers, again, consists in discounting or
advancing the amount of bills of exchange and notes which have some time to
run before they come due, on the faith of the credit of the parties to the
bill.--_n._ BILL'-CHAM'BER, a department of the Court of Session in
Scotland which deals with summary business--so called because formerly both
summonses and diligence or execution were for the most part commenced by a
writ called a bill; BILL'-STICK'ER, one who sticks or posts up bills or
placards.--BILL OF ADVENTURE, a writing by a merchant stating that goods
shipped by him, and in his name, are the property of another, whose
adventure or chance the transaction is--the shipping merchant, on the other
hand, undertaking to account to the adventurer for the produce; BILL OF
COMPLAINT, the name given in the English Court of Chancery, prior to the
Judicature Act of 1873, to the formal statement of the facts and prayer for
relief submitted by a plaintiff to the court; BILL OF COSTS, an account
stating in detail the charges and disbursements of an attorney or solicitor
in the conduct of his client's business; BILL OF EXCEPTIONS, a statement of
objections, by way of appeal, against the decision of a judge who is trying
a case with a jury in the Court of Session; BILL OF EXCHANGE, a document
purporting to be an instrument of pecuniary obligation for value received,
and which is employed for the purpose of settling a debt in a manner
convenient to the parties concerned; BILL OF FARE, in a hotel, the list of
dishes or articles of food; BILL OF HEALTH, an official certificate of the
state of health on board ship before sailing; BILL OF LADING, a paper
signed by the master of a ship, by which he makes himself responsible for
the safe delivery of the goods specified therein; BILL OF MORTALITY, an
official account of the births and deaths occurring in a certain district
within a given time; BILL OF SALE, in English law, a formal deed assigning
personal property, the usual mode of transferring ships, and valuable as
mercantile securities over stock-in-trade, furniture, &c.; BILL OF SIGHT,
an entry of imported goods of which the merchant does not know the quantity
or the quality; BILL OF STORE, a license from the customs authorities to
reimport British goods formerly exported; BILL OF VICTUALLING, a list of
necessary stores shipped from the bonded warehouse, or for drawback on
board vessels proceeding on oversea voyages. [Through Low L. _billa_, from
L. _bulla_, anything round, a knob, a seal appended to a charter, hence a
document bearing a seal, &c. See BULL, an edict.]

BILLET, bil'et, _n._ a little note or paper: a ticket assigning quarters to
soldiers.--_v.t._ to quarter or lodge, as soldiers. [Fr.; dim. of BILL.]


BILLET, bil'et, _n._ a small log of wood used as fuel: (_archit._) an
ornament in Norman architecture resembling billets of wood.--_n._
BILL'ET-HEAD, a billet or round piece of wood fixed in the bow or stern of
a whale-boat, round which the harpoon-line is turned when the whale is
struck. [Fr. _billette_--_bille_, the young stock of a tree, prob. of Celt.
orig., perh. allied to BOLE, the trunk of a tree.]

BILLET-DOUX, bil-e-d[=oo]', _n._ a sweet note: a love-letter. [Fr.
_billet_, a letter, _doux_, sweet.]

BILLIARDS, bil'yardz, _n._ a game played with a cue or mace and balls on a
table having pockets at the sides and corners.--_adj._ BILL'IARD.--_n._
BILL'IARD-MARK'ER, a person who marks the points made by the players. [Fr.
_billard_--_bille_, a ball.]

BILLINGSGATE, bil'ingz-g[=a]t, _n._ foul and abusive language like that
once familiar to the ear at _Billingsgate_ (the great fish-market of

BILLION, bil'yun, _n._ a million or thousand thousand of millions
(1,000,000,000,000); or, according to the French method of numeration, one
thousand millions (1,000,000,000). [L. _bi-_, twice, and MILLION.]

BILLON, bil'on, _n._ base metal: esp. an alloy of silver with copper, tin,
or the like. [Fr., from same root as BILLET.]

BILLOW, bil'[=o], _n._ a great wave of the sea swelled by the wind:
(_poet._) a wave, the sea.--_v.i._ to roll in large waves.--_adjs._
BILL'OWED, BILL'OWY. [Scand.; Ice. _bylgja_; Sw. _bölja_, Dan. _bölge_, a
wave. See BILGE, BULGE.]

BILLY, BILLIE, bil'i, _n._ a comrade, a companion-in-arms: an Australian
bushman's boiling-pan or tea-pot:--_pl._ BILL'IES.--_n._ BILL'Y-GOAT, a
he-goat. [Prob. from _Bill_, a familiar abbrev. of William.]

BILLYBOY, bil'i-boi, _n._ a bluff-bowed one-masted trading-vessel. [Prob.
conn. with BILANDER.]

BILLYCOCK, bil'i-kok, _n._ a man's low-crowned felt hat. [From
_bully-cocked_, i.e. cocked like the bullies.]

BILOBED, b[=i]'l[=o]bd, BILOBULAR, b[=i]-lob'[=u]-lar, _adj._ having two
lobes. [L. _bi-_, twice, and _lobe_, a LOBULE.]

BILOCATION, b[=i]-lok-[=a]'shun, _n._ the power of being in two places at
the same time. [Coined from _bi-_, twice, and LOCATION.]

BILOCULAR, b[=i]-lok'[=u]-lar, _adj._ divided into two cells. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and L. _loculus_, dim. of _locus_, place.]

BIMANA, b[=i]m'an-a, or bim'an-a, _n._ a term used by Blumenbach, Cuvier,
&c., to describe the human species in contrast to other mammals--now rarely
used, men and monkeys being now zoologically united in the old Linnæan
order--Primates.--_adj._ B[=I]'MANOUS.

BIMENSAL, b[=i]-mens'al, _adj._ happening once in two months:
bimonthly.--_adj._ BIMES'TRIAL, of two months' duration. [L. _bi-_, and
_mensis_, a month.]

BIMETALLISM, b[=i]-met'al-izm, _n._ the name given to a monetary system in
which gold and silver are on precisely the same footing as regards mintage
and legal tender.--_adj._ BIMETAL'LIC, adapted to that standard.--_n._ and
_adj._ BIMET'ALLIST. [A recent coinage, from Gr. _bi-_, double, and METAL.]

BIMONTHLY, b[=i]-munth'li, _adj._ once in two months; also twice a month.
[L. _bi-_, two, and MONTH.]

BIN, bin, _n._ a place for storing corn, wine. [A.S. _binn_, a manger.]

BIN, bin, (_Shak._) used for BE and BEEN.

BINARY, b[=i]'nar-i, _adj._ composed of two: twofold.--_adjs._ B[=I]'NATE,
growing in pairs: double; BINAUR'AL, having two ears: needing the use of
both ears.--BINARY SCALE (_math._), the scale of notation whose radix or
base is 2 (instead of 10); BINARY THEORY (_chem._), that which assumes all
salts to contain merely two substances, either both simple, or one simple
and the other a compound playing the part of a simple body. [L.
_binarius_--_bini_, two by two--_bis_, twice.]

BIND, b[=i]nd, _v.t._ to tie or fasten together with a band (with _to_,
_upon_): to encircle round (with _about_, _with_): to sew a border on: to
tie up or bandage a limb, or the like: to fasten together (the leaves of a
book) and put a cover on: to lay under obligation to answer a charge: to
oblige by oath or promise _to_ or _from_ an action: to restrain, to make
fast any one--also of disease, a magic spell, a passion, &c.: to hold or
cement firmly: to render hard.--_v.i._ to produce constipation:--_pa.t._
and _pa.p._ bound.--_n._ a stalk of hops, so called from its twining or
binding itself round a pole or tree: the indurated clay of coal-mines:
(_mus._) the tie for grouping notes together.--_ns._ BIND'ER, one who
binds, as books or sheaves: an attachment to a reaping-machine for tying
the bundles of grain cut and thrown off, a reaping-machine provided with
such; BIND'ERY (U.S.), a bookbinder's establishment.--_adj._ BIND'ING,
restraining: obligatory.--_n._ the act of binding: anything that binds: the
covering of a book.--_ns._ BIND'WEED, the convolvulus, a genus of plants,
so called from their twining or binding; BINE, the slender stem of a
climbing plant.--I DARE or WILL BE BOUND, I will be responsible for the
statement. [A.S. _bindan_; cog. with Ger. _binden_, Sans. _bandh_.]

BINERVATE, b[=i]-n[.e]rv'[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) applied to leaves that have
two ribs or nerves: (_entom._) having the wings supported by two nerves.
[L. _bi-_, _bis_, twice, and NERVE.]

BING, bing, _n._ a heap or pile, often applied like BIN. [Scand.]

BINGO, bing'[=o], _n._ a familiar name for brandy. [Prob. B, and STINGO.]

BINK, bingk, _n._ a Scotch form of BENCH.

BINNACLE, bin'a-kl, _n._ (_naut._) the box in which on shipboard the
compass is kept. [Formerly _bittacle_--Port. _bitácola_--L. _habitaculum_,
a dwelling-place--_habit-[=a]re_, to dwell.]

BINOCLE, bin'o-kl, _n._ a telescope through which an object can be viewed
with both eyes at the same time.--_adj._ BINOC'ULAR, having two eyes:
suitable for two eyes.--_adv._ BINOC'ULARLY. [L. _bini_, two by two,
_oculus_, an eye.]

BINOMIAL, b[=i]-n[=o]m'i-al, _adj._ and _n._ (_alg._) a quantity consisting
of two terms or parts, as _a_+b.--BINOMIAL THEOREM, a series of analytical
formulæ by which any power of a binomial can be expressed and developed.
[L. _bi-_, _bis_, twice, and _nomen_, a name, a term.]

BINTURONG, bin't[=u]-rong, _n._ the native name for an Indian
prehensile-tailed carnivore, akin to the civet.

BIO-, b[=i]'[=o], a prefix from Gr. _bios_, life, used in many scientific
words to express having organic life.--_adj._ BIOBIBLIOGRAPH'ICAL, dealing
with the life and writings of any one.--_n._ B[=I]'OBLAST, a formative
cell, a minute mass of bioplasm or protoplasm about to become a definite
cell.--_adj._ BIODYNAM'ICAL.--_ns._ BIODYNAM'ICS, that part of biology
which deals with vital force; BIOGENESIS (-jen'e-sis), the process of
natural generation of life from life, as opposed to spontaneous generation,
or abiogenesis.--_adj._ BIOGENET'IC.--_ns._ BIOG'ENIST; BIOG'ENY;
BIOMAG'NETISM, animal magnetism; BIOM'ETRY, the measurement or calculation
of the probable duration of life; B[=I]'OPLASM, the germinal matter of all
living beings.

BIOGRAPH, b[=i]'o-graf, _n._ a name sometimes applied to a form of the
zoetrope contrived so as to exhibit the successive movements of a living
body, thus simulating life. [Gr. _bios_, life, _graphein_, to write,

BIOGRAPHY, b[=i]-og'raf-i, _n._ a written account or history of the life of
an individual: the art of writing such accounts.--_n._ BIOG'RAPHER, one who
writes biography.--_adjs._ BIOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ BIOGRAPH'ICALLY. [Gr.
_bios_, life, _graphein_, to write.]

BIOLOGY, b[=i]-ol'oj-i, _n._ the science that treats of life or of
organised beings, which seeks to classify and generalise the multitude of
phenomena presented by and peculiar to the living world.--_adj._
BIOLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ BIOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._ BIOLO'GIST, one who studies
biology. [Gr. _bios_, life, _logos_, a discourse.]

BIOTAXY, b[=i]'[=o]-tak-si, _n._ classification according to the sum of the
morphological character. [Gr. _bios_, life, and TAXIS.]

BIOTIC, b[=i]-ot'ik, _adj._ pertaining to life. [Gr. _bios_, life.]

BIPAROUS, bip'ar-us, _adj._ bearing two at a birth. [L. _bis_, twice,
_par-[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

BIPARTITE, bi'part-[=i]t, or b[=i]-pärt'[=i]t, _adj._ divided into two like
parts.--_n._ BIPARTI'TION, the act of dividing into two corresponding
parts. [L. _bi-_, _bis_, twice, _partitus_, divided--_part-[=i]re_, to

BIPED, b[=i]'ped, _n._ an animal with two feet.--_adjs._ B[=I]'PED,
B[=I]'PEDAL, having two feet. [L. _bipes_--_bi-_, _bis_, twice, _ped-em_,

BIPENNATE, b[=i]-pen'[=a]t, BIPENNATED, b[=i]-pen'[=a]t-ed, _adj._ having
two wings. [L. _bi-_, and PENNATE.]

BIPENNIS, b[=i]-pen'nis, _n._ an axe with two blades, one on each side of
the handle, usually seen depicted in the hands of the Amazons. [L.--_bis_,
twice, _penna_, wing.]

BIPETALOUS, b[=i]-pet'al-us, _adj._ having two petals or flower-leaves. [L.
_bi-_, twice, and PETAL.]

BIPINNATE, b[=i]-pin'n[=a]t, _adj._ doubly pinnate. [L. _bi-_, twice, and

BIQUADRATIC, b[=i]-kwod-rat'ik, _n._ a quantity twice squared, or raised to
the fourth power.--BIQUADRATIC EQUATION, an equation with one unknown
quantity raised to the fourth power; BIQUADRATIC ROOT, the square root of
the square root of a number. [L. _bi-_ twice, and _quadratus_, squared.]

BIQUINTILE, b[=i]-kwin'til, _n._ (_astron._) the aspect of planets when
they are twice the fifth part (144 degrees) of a great circle from each
other. [L. _bi-_, twice, _quintus_, the fifth.]

BIRCH, b[.e]rch, _n._ a hardy forest-tree, with smooth, white bark and very
durable wood: a rod for punishment, consisting of a birch twig or
twigs.--_adjs._ BIRCH, BIRCH'EN, made of birch. [A.S. _berc_, _bierce_;
Ice. _björk_, Sans. _bh[=u]rja_.]

BIRD, b[.e]rd, _n._ a general name for feathered animals.--_v.i._ to catch
or snare birds.--_ns._ BIRD'-BOLT (_Shak._), a short thick bolt or arrow
with a blunted point, used for killing birds without piercing them;
BIRD'-CAGE, a cage or box made of wire and wood for holding birds;
BIRD'-CALL, an instrument used by fowlers to call or allure birds to them,
by imitating their notes; BIRD'-CATCH'ER, one who catches birds: a fowler;
BIRD'-CATCH'ING, the art or practice of catching birds; BIRD'-CHER'RY, a
bush bearing an astringent wild-fruit in drupes.--_adj._ BIRD'-EYED, having
eyes quick of sight, like those of a bird: quick-sighted.--_ns._
BIRD'-FAN'CIER, one who has a fancy for rearing birds: one who keeps birds
for sale; BIRD'ING (_Shak._), catching birds by means of hawks trained for
the purpose; BIRD'ING-PIECE, a fowling-piece; BIRD'-LIME, a sticky
substance used for catching birds; BIRD'-OF-PAR'ADISE, a kind of Eastern
bird with splendid plumage; BIRD'S'-EYE, a kind of tobacco; BIRD'S'-NEST,
the nest in which a bird lays her eggs and hatches her young;
BIRD'-SP[=I]'DER, a species of large spiders which prey on small birds,
found in Brazil.--_adj._ BIRD'-WIT'TED, flighty: incapable of sustained
attention.--BIRD'S-EYE VIEW, a general view from above, as if by a bird on
the wing, a representation of such, a general view or résumé of a subject;
BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL, the popular name of several leguminous plants, having
clusters of cylindrical pods resembling a bird's foot.--A LITTLE BIRD TOLD
ME, I heard in a way I will not reveal. [A.S. _brid_, the young of a bird,
a bird: either from root of BREED (_bredan_, to breed) or of BIRTH
(_beran_, to bear).]

BIREME, b[=i]'r[=e]m, _n._ an ancient vessel with two rows of oars.
[Fr.--L. _biremis_--_bi-_, twice, and _remus_, an oar.]


BIRETTA, bir-et'a, _n._ a square cap worn by clergy--by priests, black;
bishops, purple; cardinals, red. [It. _berretta_--Low L. _birretum_, a

BIRK, b[.e]rk, _n._ Scotch and prov. Eng. for BIRCH.--_adj._ BIRK'EN
(_Scot._), birchen.

BIRKIE, birk'i, _n._ a strutting or swaggering fellow: a fellow
generally.--_adj._ active. [_Scot._ A dubious connection with Scand.
_berkja_, to bark, boast, has been suggested.]

BIRL, birl, _v.t._ to spin anything round: to throw down a coin as one's
share in a joint contribution.--_v.i._ to whirl round. [_Scot._, an
onomatopoeic word.]

BIRLE, birl, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_Scot._) to ply with drink: to
carouse.--_ns._ BIRL'ER (_Cumberland_); BIRL'ING, the act of drawing
liquor. [A.S. _byrelian_, _byrele_, a cup-bearer, _beran_, to bear.]

BIRLINN, bir'lin, _n._ a chief's barge in the Western Isles. [Gael.]

BIRMINGHAMISE, bir'ming-ham-[=i]z, _v.t._ to make up artificially. [See

BIROSTRATE, b[=i]-ros'tr[=a]t, _adj._ having a double beak. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and _rostratus_, beaked--_rostrum_, a beak.]

BIRR, bir, _n._ impetus: a violent push: stress in pronunciation: any sharp
whirring sound. [_Scot._; Ice. _byrr_, a favouring wind.]

BIRSE, birs, _n._ bristle.--_adj._ BIRS'Y.--TO LICK THE BIRSE, to draw a
hog's bristle through the mouth--part of the ceremony of citizenship in
Selkirk; TO SET UP ONE'S BIRSE, to rouse the wrath of, from the habit of
animals bristling up when enraged. [Scot.; A.S. _byrst_.]

BIRSLE, birs'l, _v.t._ to scorch, to toast. [Scot.]

BIRTH, b[.e]rth, _n._ a ship's station at anchor. [Same as BERTH.]

BIRTH, b[.e]rth, _n._ the act of bearing or bringing forth: the offspring
born: dignity of family: origin.--_n._ BIRTH'DAY, the day on which one is
born, or the anniversary of that day.--_adj._ relating to the day of one's
birth.--_ns._ BIRTH'DAY-BOOK, a book in diary form, in which the birthdays
of one's friends are entered in their autographs; BIRTH'DOM (_Shak._),
birthright; BIRTH'-MARK, a peculiar mark on one's body at birth;
BIRTH'NIGHT, the night on which one is born, or the anniversary of that
night; BIRTH'PLACE, the place of one's birth; BIRTH'RIGHT, the right or
privilege to which one is entitled by birth: native rights.--_adj._
BIRTH'-STRANG'LED (_Shak._), strangled in birth.--_n._ BIRTH'-WORT, a genus
of perennial plants, formerly used medicinally in cases of difficult
parturition. [M. E. _birÞe_, prob. Scand.; cf. Goth, _ga-baurÞs_, Ger.

BIS, bis, _adv._ twice: (_mus._) a direction that a passage is to be
repeated [L.].--_n._ B[=I]SEG'MENT, a segment of a line or figure cut into
two equal parts.--_adjs._ B[=I]SER'RATE (_bot._), doubly serrate;
B[=I]SEX'UAL, of both sexes: (_bot._) applied to flowers which contain both
stamens and pistils within the same envelope.

BISCAYAN, bis'k[=a]-an, _adj._ and _n._ of or pertaining to the Basque
province of _Biscay_ in Spain, or its people: Basque generally: a long
heavy musket, or the bullet fired by such.

BISCUIT, bis'kit, _n._ hard dry bread in small cakes: a kind of unglazed
earthenware. [O. Fr. _bescoit_ (mod. _biscuit_)--L. _bis_, twice,
_coqu[)e]re_, _coctum_, to cook or bake.]

BISE, b[=e]z, _n._ a cold north or north-east wind prevalent at certain
seasons in Switzerland and neighbouring parts of France and Italy. [Fr.]

BISECT, b[=i]-sekt', _v.t._ to cut into two equal parts.--_n._ BISEC'TION.
[L. _bi_, twice, and _sec[=a]re_, _sectum_, to cut.]

BISERIAL, b[=i]-s[=e]'ri-al, _adj._ arranged in two series or rows. [L.
_bi-_, and SERIES.]

BISHOP, bish'op, _n._ in the Western and Eastern Churches, and in the
Anglican communion, a clergyman consecrated for the spiritual direction of
a diocese, under an archbishop, and over the priests or presbyters and
deacons: a spiritual overseer in the early Christian Church, whether of a
local church or of a number of churches--the terms _bishop_ [Gr.
_episcopos_] and _presbyter_ [Gr. _presbyteros_] are used interchangeably
in the New Testament for the officers who direct the discipline and
administer the affairs of a single congregation--the differentiation in
function and dignity is, however, well marked by the end of the 2d century:
one of the pieces or men in chess, from the upper part being carved into
the shape of a bishop's mitre (formerly the _archer_): a wholesome hot
drink compounded of red wine (claret, Burgundy, &c.) poured warm or cold
upon ripe bitter oranges, sugared and spiced to taste.--_v.t._
(_jocularly_) to play the bishop, to confirm: to supply with bishops: to
let milk or the like burn while cooking.--_ns._ BISH'OPESS, a she-bishop, a
bishop's wife; BISH'OPRIC, the office and jurisdiction of a bishop: a
_biscop_--L. _episcopus_--Gr. _episcopos_, an overseer--_epi_, upon,
_skop-ein_, to view.]


BISMAR, bis'mar, _n._ a kind of steelyard still used in Orkney. [Dan.

BISMILLAH, bis-mil'a, _interj._ in the name of Allah or God--a common
Mohammedan exclamation. [Ar.]

BISMUTH, biz'muth, _n._ a brittle metal of a reddish-white colour used in
the arts and in medicine. [Ger. _bismuth_, _wissmuth_; origin unknown.]

BISON, b[=i]'son, or bis'on, _n._ a large wild animal like the bull, found
in Lithuania, the Caucasus, &c., with shaggy hair and a fatty hump on its
shoulders.--The American 'buffalo' is also a bison. [From L. pl.
_bisontes_, prob. of Teut. origin; cf. Old High Ger. _wisunt_, A.S.

BISQUE, bisk, _n._ a rich soup made of meat or fish slowly stewed and
seasoned, crayfish soup.--Also BISK. [Fr.]

BISQUE, bisk, _n._ pottery that has undergone the first firing before being
glazed. [See BISCUIT.]

BISQUE, bisk, _n._ a term at tennis for the odds given by one player to
another, in allowing him to score one point once during the set--a means of
equalising a strong and a weak player. [Fr.]

BISSEXTILE, bis-sext'il, _n._ leap-year.--_adj._ containing the BISSEXT (L.
_bissextus_), or extra day which the Julian calendar inserts in
leap-year--the sixth before the kalends of March, 24th February. [L. _bis_,
twice, and _sextus_, sixth.]

BISSON, bis'son, _adj._ (_Shak._) blind, blinding. [A.S. _bísene_, blind.]

BISTORT, bis'tort, _n._ a perennial plant with astringent properties
(_Polygonum bistorta_), so named from its twisted roots, called also
_Snakeweed_ and _Adder's Wort_. [Fr.--L. _bistorta_; _bis_, twice, _torta_,

BISTOURY, bis't[=oo]r-i, _n._ a narrow surgical knife for making incisions,
having a straight, convex, or concave edge. [Fr.]

BISTRE, BISTER, bis't[.e]r, _n._ a pigment of a warm brown colour made from
the soot of wood, esp. beechwood.--_adj._ BIS'TRED. [Fr. _bistré_; origin

BISULCATE, b[=i]-sul'k[=a]t, _adj._ (_zool._) cloven-footed. [L. _bi-_,
twice, _sulcus_, a furrow.]

BISULPHATE, b[=i]-sul'f[=a]t, _n._ a salt of sulphuric acid, in which
one-half of the hydrogen of the acid is replaced by a metal. [L. _bi-_,
twice, and SULPHATE.]

BIT, bit, _n._ a bite, a morsel: a small piece: the smallest degree: a
small tool for boring (see BRACE): the part of the bridle which the horse
holds in his mouth (see BRIDLE)--hence, TO TAKE THE BIT IN HIS TEETH, to be
beyond restraint.--_v.t._ to put the bit in the mouth; to curb or
restrain:--_pr.p._ bit'ting; _pa.p._ bit'ted.--BIT BY BIT, piecemeal,
gradually. [From BITE.]

BITCH, bich, _n._ the female of the dog, wolf, and fox. [A.S. _bicce_; Ice.

BITE, b[=i]t, _v.t._ to seize or tear with the teeth: to sting or pain: to
wound by reproach: to deceive, or take in--now only passive:--_pa.t._ bit;
_pa.p._ bit or bit'ten.--_n._ a grasp by the teeth: a nibble at the bait by
a fish: something bitten off: a mouthful.--_v.t._ BITE'-IN, to eat out the
lines of an etching with acid: to repress.--_n._ BIT'ER, one who bites: a
fish apt to take the bait: a cheat.--_n._ and _adj._ BIT'ING.--TO BITE THE
DUST, to fall, to die; TO BITE THE THUMB, to express defiance by putting
the thumbnail into the mouth and knocking it against the teeth. [A.S.
_bítan_; Goth. _beitan_, Ice. _bita_, Ger. _beissen_.]

BITT, bit, _v.t._ (_naut._) to fasten round the BITTS (q.v.).


BITTER, bit'[.e]r, _adj._ biting or acrid to the taste: sharp:
painful.--_n._ any substance having a bitter taste.--_adj._
BITT'ERISH.--_adv._ BITT'ERLY.--_n._ BITT'ERNESS.--_n.pl._ BITT'ERS, a
liquid prepared from bitter herbs or roots, and used as a stomachic.--_n._
BITT'ER-SWEET, the Woody Nightshade, a slender, climbing hedge-plant,
having red poisonous berries, said to be named from its root, when chewed,
having first a bitter, then a sweet taste: (_Shak._) an apple that has a
compound taste of sweet and bitter: a mixture of sweet and bitter. [A.S.
_bítan_, to bite.]

BITTER (_Spens._), used for BITTERN.

BITTERN, bit'[.e]rn, _n._ a bird of the heron family, said to have been
named from the resemblance of its voice to the lowing of a bull. [M. E.
_bittour_--Fr.--Low L. _butorius_ (_bos_, _taurus_).]

BITTERN, bit'[.e]rn, _n._ an oily liquid remaining in salt-works after the
crystallisation of the salt, and used in the manufacture of Epsom salts.

BITTOR, BITTOUR, bit'tur, _n._ (_Dryden_) the bird BITTERN.

BITTS, bits, _n._ a frame in the forepart of a ship round which the cables
are passed when the vessel rides at anchor.

BITUMEN, bi-t[=u]'men, or bit'yu-men, _n._ a name applied to various
inflammable mineral substances, as naphtha, petroleum, asphaltum.--_v.t._
BIT[=U]'MINATE, to mix with or make into bitumen--also
BIT[=U]'MINISE.--_adjs._ BIT[=U]'MINOUS, BIT[=U]MED' (_Shak._), impregnated
with bitumen. [L.]

BIVALVE, b[=i]'valv, _n._ an animal having a shell in two valves or parts,
like the oyster: a seed-vessel of like kind.--_adj._ having two
valves.--_adj._ BIVALV'ULAR. [L. _bi-_, twice, _valva_, a valve.]

BIVIOUS, biv'i-us, _adj._ leading two, or different, ways. [L.
_bivius_--_bi-_, twice, _via_, a way.]

BIVOUAC, biv'[=oo]-ak, _n._ the resting at night of soldiers in the open
air, instead of under cover in camp.--_v.i._ to pass the night in the open
air:--_pr.p._ biv'ouacking; _pa.p._ biv'ouacked. [Fr.--Ger. _beiwacht_, to
watch beside--_bei_ by, _wachen_, to watch.]

BI-WEEKLY, b[=i]'-w[=e]k'li, _adj._ properly, occurring once in two weeks,
but usually twice in every week. [L. _bi-_, twice, and WEEK.]

BIZARRE, bi-zär', _adj._ odd: fantastic: extravagant.--_n._ BIZAR'RERIE.
[Fr.--Sp. _bizarro_, high-spirited; acc. to Littré, adapted from Basque
_bizarre_, the beard.]


BLAB, blab, _v.i._ to talk much: to tell tales.--_v.t._ to tell what ought
to be kept secret (with _out_, _forth_):--_pr.p._ blab'bing; _pa.p._
blabbed.--_n._ an open-mouthed person, a tattler: tattling.--_n._ BLAB'BER,
one who blabs. [M. E. _blabbe_, a chatterer, also BLABBER, to babble, with
which cf. Norse _blabbra_, Ger. _plappern_.]

BLACK, blak, _adj._ of the darkest colour: without colour: obscure: dismal:
sullen: horrible: dusky: foul, dirty: malignant: dark-haired, wearing dark
armour or clothes.--_n._ black colour: absence of colour: a negro:
mourning: the dark smut which attacks wheat: a speck of black on the face,
a sooty particle in the air: black clothes, esp. dress trousers.--_v.t._ to
make black: to soil or stain: to draw in black.--_n._ BLACK'AMOOR, a black
Moor: a negro.--_adjs._ BLACK'-AND-TAN, having black hair on the back, and
tan or yellowish-brown elsewhere, esp. of a terrier; BLACK'-A-VISED, of
dark complexion (probably originally _black-à-vis_).--_v.t._ BLACK'BALL, to
reject in voting by putting a black ball into a ballot-box.--_ns._
BLACK'BALLING, the act of so rejecting a candidate; BLACK'-BAND, iron ore
containing enough of coal to calcine it; BLACK'-BEE'TLE, a cockroach;
BLACK'BERRY, the berry of the bramble; BLACK'BIRD, a species of thrush of a
black colour: a current name for a negro or Polynesian kidnapped for
labour; BLACK'BIRDING, the kidnapping of such; BLACK'BOARD, a board painted
black, used in schools for writing, forming figures, &c.--_adjs._
BLACK'-BOD'ING, of evil omen; BLACK'-BROWED, having black eyebrows:
sullen.--_ns._ BLACK'-CAP, a bird, a species of warbler, so called from its
black crown: (_cook._) an apple roasted until it is black, and served up in
a custard: the full-dress cap put on by English judges when about to
pronounce sentence of death; BLACK'-CATT'LE, oxen, bulls, and cows;
BLACK'-CHALK, a variety of clay-slate of a bluish-black colour, used for
drawing, and also for making black paint; BLACK'COCK, a species of grouse,
common in the north of England and in Scotland; BLACK'-CURR'ANT, a garden
shrub with black fruit used in making preserves; BLACK'-DEATH, a name given
to the plague of the 14th century from the black spots which appeared on
the skin; BLACK'-DRAUGHT, the popular name for a purgative medicine
consisting chiefly of senna and Epsom salts; BLACK'-DROP, a liquid
preparation of opium, vinegar, and sugar.--_v.t._ BLACK'EN, to make black:
to defame.--_adj._ BLACK'FACED, having a black face: dismal.--_ns._
BLACK'-FLAG, the flag of a pirate, or that hoisted at the execution of a
criminal--from its colour; BLACK'-FRIAR, a friar of the Dominican order, so
called from his black mantle (over a white woollen habit): (_pl._) the
region in a city, as London, where their convent stood; BLACKGUARD
(blag'ärd), originally applied to the lowest menials about a court, who
took charge of the pots, kettles, &c.: a low, ill-conducted fellow.--_adj._
low: scurrilous.--_v.t._ to treat as a blackguard; _v.i._ to play the
blackguard.--_n._ BLACK'GUARDISM.--_adv._ BLACK'GUARDLY.--_ns._
BLACK'-HEART'EDNESS; BLACK'-HOLE, formerly the name for the punishment-cell
in a barrack: the memorable black-hole in the Fort-William barracks at
Calcutta, into which, in in 1756, as many as 146 Europeans were thrust over
night, of whom only 23 were found surviving in the morning; BLACK'ING, a
substance used for blacking leather, &c.--_adj._ BLACK'ISH.--_ns._
BLACK'-JACK, a vessel for holding drink, originally made of leather:
(_naut._) the flag of a pirate; BLACK'-LEAD, a black mineral (plumbago, not
lead) used in making pencils, blacking grates, &c.; BLACK'LEG, a low,
gambling fellow: a turf-swindler: a term applied by strikers to men willing
to work for the wages against which themselves have struck--also
BLACK'-NEB; BLACK'-LET'TER, the old English (also called Gothic) letter
([Black-letter]); BLACK'-LIST, a list of defaulters; BLACK'-MAR[=I]'A, the
closely covered, usually black-painted van in which prisoners are conveyed
between the court and the prison; BLACK'-MON'DAY, Easter Monday, so called
on account of the sufferings experienced by the army of Edward III. from
the severity of the weather on that day in 1360; BLACK'-MONK, a monk of the
order of St Benedict, from his garments; BLACK'NESS; BLACK'-PUDD'ING, a
blood-pudding (q.v.).; BLACK'-ROD, the usher of the chapter of the Garter
and of the House of Lords, so called from the black wand tipped with a
golden lion which he carries; BLACK'-SHEEP, a disreputable member of a
family or group; BLACK'SMITH, a smith who works in iron, as opposed to a
_Whitesmith_, or one who works in tin; BLACK'THORN, a species of
dark-coloured thorn: the sloe: a stick made from its stem.--_adjs._
BLACK'-TRESSED, having black tresses; BLACK-VISAGED (blak'-viz'[=a]jd),
having a black visage or appearance.--_n._ BLACK'-WASH, a lotion of calomel
and lime-water: anything that blackens.--BLACK AND BLUE, with the livid
colour of a bruise in the flesh; BLACK BOOK, an official book bound in
black, a book recording the names of persons deserving punishment; BLACK
EYE, an eye of which the iris is dark--a point of beauty: a discoloration
around the eye due to a blow or fall; BLACK FELLOW, a native in
Australia.--IN BLACK AND WHITE, in writing or in print: in art, in no
colours but black and white.--TO BE BLACK IN THE FACE, to have the face
purple through strangulation, passion, or effort; TO BE IN ANY ONE'S BLACK
BOOKS, to have incurred any one's displeasure; TO BLACK OUT, to obliterate
with black. [A.S. _blac_, _blæc_, black.]

BLACK-ART, blak'-ärt, _n._ necromancy: magic. [Acc. to Trench, a
translation of the Low L. _nigromantia_, substituted erroneously for the
Gr. _necromanteia_ (see NECROMANCY), as if the first syllable had been L.
_niger_, black.]

BLACKMAIL, blak'm[=a]l, _n._ rent or tribute formerly paid to robbers for
protection: hush-money extorted under threat of exposure or denunciation,
esp. of a baseless charge.--_v.t._ to extort money from a person by this
expedient. [BLACK and A.S. _mal_, tribute, toll.]

BLAD, blad, _n._ a fragment of anything, a good lump. [Scot.]

BLADDER, blad'[.e]r, _n._ a thin bag distended with liquid or air: the
receptacle for the urine.--_adjs._ BLADD'ERED, BLADD'ERY, swollen like a
bladder.--_n._ BLADD'ERWORT, a genus of slender aquatic plants, the leaves
floating. [A.S. _bl['æ]dre_--_blawan_; Old Ger. _blahan_, _blajan_, to
blow; Ger. _blase_, bladder--_blasen_, to blow; cf. L. _flat-us_, breath.]

BLADE, bl[=a]d, _n._ the leaf or flat part of grass or corn: the cutting
part of a knife, sword, &c.: the flat part of an oar: a dashing
fellow.--_n._ BLADE'BONE, the flat bone at the back of the shoulder: the
scapula.--_adj._ BLAD'ED. [A.S. _blæd_; Ice. _blad_, Ger. _blatt_.]

BLAE, bl[=a], _adj._ blackish or blue in colour: livid: bleak.--_n._
BLAE'BERRY, Scotch name for the bilberry or whortleberry. [M. E. _blo_,
_bloo_--Scand. _blá_.]

BLAGUE, blag, _n._ blustering humbug. [Fr.]

BLAIN, bl[=a]n, _n._ a boil or blister. [A.S. _blegen_, a blister, prob.
from _blawan_, to blow.]

BLAME, bl[=a]m, _v.t._ to find fault with: to censure.--_n._ imputation of
a fault: crime: censure.--_adj._ BLAM'ABLE, deserving of blame:
faulty.--_n._ BLAM'ABLENESS.--_adv._ BLAM'ABLY.--_adj._ BLAME'FUL, meriting
blame: criminal.--_adv._ BLAME'FULLY.--_n._ BLAME'FULLNESS.--_adj._
BLAMELESS, without blame: guiltless: innocent.--_adv._ BLAME'LESSLY.--_ns._
BLAME'LESSNESS; BLAME'WORTHINESS, quality of being worthy of blame:
blamableness.--_adj._ BLAME'WORTHY, worthy of blame: culpable. [Fr.
_blâmer_, _blasmer_--Gr. _blasph[=e]me_-_ein_, to speak ill. See

BLANCH, blansh, _v.t._ to whiten.--_v.i._ to grow white. [Fr.
_blanchir_--_blanc_, white. See BLANK.]

BLANC-MANGE, bla-mawngzh', _n._ a white jelly prepared with milk. [Fr.
_blanc_, white, _manger_, food.]

BLAND, bland, _adj._ smooth: gentle: mild.--_adv._ BLANDLY.--_n._
BLAND'NESS. [L. _blandus_, perh.--_mla_(_n_)_dus_--Eng. _mild_.]

BLAND, bland, _n._ an Orcadian name for butter-milk and water. [Scand.

BLANDISH, bland'ish, _v.t._ to flatter and coax, to cajole.--_n._
BLAND'ISHMENT, act of expressing fondness: flattery: winning expressions or
actions. [Fr. _blandir_, _blandiss-_, from L. _bland[=i]ri_.]

BLANK, blangk, _adj._ without writing or marks, as in white paper: empty,
empty of results: vacant, confused: (_poetry_) not having rhyme.--_n._ a
paper without writing: a lottery-ticket having no mark, and therefore
valueless: an empty space, a void, or vacancy: (_archery_) the white mark
in the centre of a target at which an arrow is aimed, hence the object or
aim of anything: a form of document having blank spaces afterwards to be
filled in.--_v.t._ to make pale: (_Milton_) to confuse.--_n._
BLANK'-CART'RIDGE, a cartridge without a bullet.--_p.adj._ BLANKED, a
minced form of _damned_, from the usual form of printing d----d.--_adv._
BLANK'LY.--_ns._ BLANK'NESS; BLANK'-VERSE, verse without rhyme, esp. the
heroic verse of five feet. [Fr. _blanc_, from root of Ger. _blinken_, to
glitter--Old High Ger. _blichen_, Gr. _phlegein_, to shine.]

BLANKET, blangk'et, _n._ a white woollen covering for beds: a covering for
horses, &c.--_v.t._ to cover with a blanket: to toss in a blanket.--_n._
BLANK'ETING, cloth for blankets: the punishment of being tossed in a
blanket. [Fr. _blanchet_, dim. of _blanc_, from its null white colour,]

BLARE, bl[=a]r, _v.i._ to roar, to sound loudly, as a trumpet.--_n._ roar,
noise. [M. E. _blaren_, orig. _blasen_, from A.S. _blæsan_, to blow. See

BLARNEY, blar'ni, _n._ pleasing flattery or cajoling talk.--_v.t._ to
beguile with such. [_Blarney_ Castle, near Cork, where there is a stone
difficult to reach, he who kisses which ever after possesses the gift of

BLASÉ, bla-z[=a], _adj._ fatigued with pleasures, used up. [Fr. _blaser_.]

BLASH, blash, _n._ watery stuff.--_adj._ BLASH'Y. [Scot.]

BLASPHEME, blas-f[=e]m', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to speak impiously of, as of
God: to curse and swear.--_n._ BLASPHEM'ER.--_adj._ BLAS'PHEMOUS,
containing blasphemy: impious.--_adv._ BLAS'PHEMOUSLY.--_n._ BLAS'PHEMY,
profane speaking: contempt or indignity offered to God. [Gr.
_blasph[=e]me-ein_--_blaptein_, to hurt, _ph[=e]mi_ to speak. See BLAME.]

BLAST, blast, _n._ a blowing or gust of wind: a forcible stream of air:
sound of a wind instrument; an explosion of gunpowder: anything
pernicious.--_v.t._ to strike with some pernicious influence, to blight: to
affect with sudden violence or calamity: to rend asunder with
gunpowder.--_adj._ BLAST'ED, blighted: cursed, damned.--_ns._
BLAST'-FUR'NACE, a smelting furnace into which hot air is blown;
BLAST'-HOLE, a hole in the bottom of a pump through which water enters;
BLAST'ING, the separating of masses of stone by means of an explosive
substance; BLAST'ING-GEL'ATINE, a powerful explosive made of gun-cotton and
nitro-glycerine; BLAST'MENT, withering or shrivelling up caused by
blasting; BLAST'-PIPE, a pipe in a steam-engine, to convey the waste-steam
up the chimney. [A.S. _bl['æ]st_; cf. Ice. _beása_; Ger. _blasen_.]

BLASTODERM, blas'to-derm, _n._ an embryological term applied to the layer
or layers of cells arising from the germinal disc, or the portion of a
partially segmenting egg which undergoes division. [Gr. _blasto-_,
_blastos_, a sprout, _derma_, _dermat-_, skin.]

BLATANT, bl[=a]t'ant, _adj._ noisy, clamorous, loud.--_adv._ BLAT'ANTLY.
[Prob. a coinage of Spenser.]

BLATE, bl[=a]t, _adj._ bashful, timidly awkward. [Scot.; A.S. _blát_,

BLATTER, blat't[.e]r, _v.i._ to talk overmuch, to prate.--_v.i._ to hurry
or rush noisily.--_n._ a clatter of words, sound of rapid motion. [L.

BLAWORT, blä'wort, _n._ the harebell: the corn blue-bottle.--Also
BL[=E]'WART. [Scot. BLAE, and _wort_, herb.]

BLAY, bl[=a], _n._ the fish _bleak_.--Also BLEY. [See BLEAK, a fish.]

BLAZE, bl[=a]z, _n._ a rush of light or of flame: a bursting out or active
display: a white spot on the face of a horse or ox: a mark made on a tree
by cutting off a strip of bark to mark a track or a boundary.--_v.i._ to
burn with a flame: to throw out light.--_n._ BLAZ'ER, a cricket or golf
jacket of bright colour.--BLAZES, from the fires of hell, in imprecations
like TO BLAZES; also LIKE BLAZES = with fury.--TO BLAZE A TREE, to make a
white mark by cutting off a piece of the bark. [A.S. _blæse_, a torch, from
root of BLOW.]

BLAZE, bl[=a]z, Blazon, bl[=a]'zn, _v.t._ to proclaim, to spread
abroad.--_n._ BLAZ'ER (_Spens._), one who spreads abroad or proclaims.
[Same as BLARE; BLAZON is the M. E. _blasen_, with the _n_ retained.]

BLAZON, bl[=a]'zn, _v.t._ to make public: to display: to draw or to explain
in proper terms the figures, &c., in armorial bearings.--_n._ the science
or rules of coats-of-arms.--_ns._ BLAZ'ONER, one who blazons: a herald: a
slanderer; BLAZ'ONRY, the art of drawing or of deciphering coats-of-arms:
heraldry. [Fr. _blason_, a coat-of-arms, from root of BLAZE.]

BLEACH, bl[=e]ch, _v.t._ to make pale or white: to whiten, as textile
fabrics.--_v.i._ to grow white.--_ns._ BLEACH'ER, one who bleaches, or that
which bleaches; BLEACH'ERY, a place for bleaching; BLEACH'-FIELD, a place
for bleaching cloth: a bleacher's office or works; BLEACH'ING, the process
of whitening or decolourising cloth; BLEACH'ING-GREEN, a green for
bleaching clothes on; BLEACH'ING-POW'DER, chloride of lime. [A.S.
_bl['æ]can_, from root of BLEAK.]

BLEAK, bl[=e]k, _adj._ colourless: dull and cheerless: cold,
unsheltered.--_adv._ BLEAK'LY.--_n._ BLEAK'NESS. [A.S. _blæc_, _blâc_,
pale, shining; a different word from _blac_ (without accent), black. The
root is _blican_, to shine.]

BLEAK, bl[=e]k, _n._ a small white river-fish.

BLEAR, bl[=e]r, _adj._ (as in BLEAR-EYED, bl[=e]r'-[=i]d) sore or inflamed:
dim or blurred with inflammation. [Low Ger. _bleer-oged_, 'blear-eyed.']

BLEAT, bl[=e]t, _v.i._ to cry as a sheep.--_n._ the cry of a sheep, any
similar cry, even of the human voice.--_n._ BLEAT'ING, the cry of a sheep.
[A.S. _bl['æ]tan_; L. _bal[=a]re_, Gr. _bl[=e]ch[=e]_, a bleating; root
_bla-_; formed from the sound.]

BLEB, bleb, _n._ a transparent blister of the cuticle: a bubble, as in
water. [See BULB.]

BLED, bled, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BLEED.

BLEE, bl[=e], _n._ (_Mrs Browning_) complexion, colour. [A.S. _bléo_.]

BLEED, bl[=e]d, _v.i._ to lose blood: to die by slaughter: to issue forth
or drop as blood: to have money extorted from one: to feel great pity for,
as in the phrase, 'the heart bleeds:' to be as red as blood.--_v.t._ to
draw blood from, esp. surgically: to extort sums of money from:--_pa.t._
and _pa.p._ bled.--_n._ BLEED'ING, a discharge of blood: the operation of
letting blood.--_adj._ full of compassion: emitting sap: terribly weakened
by war: (_Shak._) bloody. [A.S. _blédan_. See BLOOD.]

BLEMISH, blem'ish, _n._ a stain or defect: reproach.--_v.t._ to mark with
any deformity: to tarnish: to defame.--_n._ BLEM'ISHMENT (_Spens._), the
state of being blemished, disgrace. [O. Fr. _blesmir_, _blemir_, pr.p.
_blemissant_, to stain, of dubious origin. Prof. Skeat thinks it Scand.,
Ice. _blâman_, livid colour--_blâr_, BLUE.]

BLENCH, blensh, _v.i._ to shrink or start back: to flinch. [From root of

BLENCH, blensh, _adj._ or _adv._ based on the payment of a nominal yearly
duty.--Also BLANCH. [See BLANK.]

BLEND, blend, _v.t._ to mix together: to confound.--_v.i._ to be mingled or
mixed:--_pa.p._ blend'ed and blent.--_n._ a mixture:--_n._ BLEND'ING, the
act of mingling: the process by which the fusion of paints is effected.
[A.S. _blandan_.]

BLENDE, blend, _n._ native sulphuret of zinc. [Ger. _blenden_, to dazzle,
from the lustre of the crystals.]

BLENHEIM, blen'em, _n._ a kind of spaniel named from the Duke of
Marlborough's house.

BLENNORRHOEA, blen-no-r[=e]'a, _n._ discharge of mucus. [Gr. _blennos_,

BLENNY, blen'ni, _n._ a genus of acanthopterygious fishes, covered with
mucus or slimy matter. [Gr. _blennos_, mucus.]

BLENT, blent, (_obs._) _pa.p._ of BLEND--mixed: mingled: (_Spens._)
blinded, obscured.

BLESS, bles, _v.t._ to invoke a blessing upon: to make joyous, happy, or
prosperous: to consecrate by some religious rite, to cross one's self: to
extol as holy, to pronounce happy, to invoke the divine favour upon: to
wish happiness to: to praise or glorify:--_pa.p._ blessed (blest), or
blest.--_adj._ BLESS'ED, happy: prosperous: happy in heaven,
beatified.--_adv._ BLESS'EDLY.--_ns._ BLESS'EDNESS; BLESS'ING, a wish or
prayer for happiness or success: any means or cause of happiness: (_B._) a
gift or present: a form of invoking the favour of God at a meal.--_adv._
BLESS'INGLY.--SINGLE BLESSEDNESS, the celibate life, the unmarried state
generally. [A.S. _blétsian_, to bless, prob. from _blót_, sacrifice; the
word taken as--_benedic[)e]re_.]

BLESS, bles, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to brandish. [BLAZE(?).]

BLEST, blest, _pa.p._ of BLESS.

BLETHER, ble_th_'er, _v.i._ to talk garrulous nonsense.--_n._ fluent,
garrulous nonsense--also BLATH'ER.--_p.adj._ BLETH'ERING,
over-talkative.--_ns._ BLETH'ERSKATE, BLATH'ERSKITE (_Amer._), a
blustering, noisy, talkative fellow. [M. E. _blather_, of Scand. origin,
Ice. _blaðra_, to talk foolishly, _blaðr_, nonsense.]

BLEW, bl[=oo], _pa.t._ of BLOW.

BLEWITS, bl[=u]'its, _n._ a kind of mushroom. [Fr. BLUE.]

BLIGHT, bl[=i]t, _n._ a disease in plants, which blasts or withers them:
anything that injures or destroys.--_v.t._ to affect with blight: to blast:
to frustrate.--_p.adj._ BLIGHT'ING, withering, blasting. [Dr Murray notes
that it first appears in literature in the 17th century; prob. orig. of
Scand. origin; cf. Ice. _blettr_, a stain; perh. related to BLEACH, BLEAK.]

BLIN, blin, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to cease.--_n._ cessation: stoppage. [A.S.
_blinnan_, to cease, pfx. _be-_, and _linnan_, to cease.]

BLIND, bl[=i]nd, _adj._ without sight: dark: ignorant or undiscerning:
without an opening.--_n._ something to mislead: a window-screen: a
shade.--_v.t._ to make blind; to darken, obscure, or deceive; to
dazzle.--_pa.p._ bl[=i]nd'ed; _pr.p._ bl[=i]nd'ing.--_ns._ BLIND'AGE
(_mil._) a temporary wooden screen faced with earth as a protection against
splinters of shell and the like; BLIND'-COAL, non-bituminous coal.--_adj._
BLIND'ED, deprived of sight: without intellectual discernment.--_n._
BLIND'ER, one who or that which blinds; (_pl._) a horse's blinkers.--_adj._
BLIND'FOLD, having the eyes bandaged, so as not to see: thoughtless:
reckless.--_v.t._ to cover the eyes: to mislead.--_adj._ BLIND'ING, tending
to make blind.--_pr.p._ making blind.--_adv._ BLIND'LY.--_ns._ BLIND'NESS,
want of sight, ignorance, folly; BLIND'-SIDE, the side on which a person is
blind to danger: weak point; BLIND'WORM, a small reptile, like a snake,
having eyes so small as to be supposed blind.--BLIND-MAN'S BUFF, a game in
which one of the party is blindfolded and tries to catch the others. [A.S.
_blind_; Ice. _blindr_.]

BLINK, blingk, _v.i._ to glance, twinkle, or wink: to see obscurely, or
with the eyes half-closed: to shine unsteadily.--_v.t._ to shut out of
sight: to avoid or evade.--_n._ a glimpse, glance, or wink: a momentary
gleam of light, a spark.--_n._ BLINK'ARD, one who blinks or has bad
eyes.--_p.adj._ BLINKED, affected with blinking.--_n.pl._ BLINK'ERS, pieces
of leather fastened to the cheek-pieces of a horse's head-stall in driving
to prevent him seeing in any direction except straightforward. [M. E. a
variant of _blenk_, prob. the same as BLENCH (q.v.).]

BLIRT, blirt, _n._ (_Scot._) a fit of crying.--_v.i._ to burst into tears.
[Prob. the same as BLURT.]

BLISS, blis, _n._ the highest happiness: the special happiness of heaven,
heaven.--_adj._ BLISS'FUL.--_adv._ BLISS'FULLY.--_n._
BLISS'FULNESS.--_adj._ BLISS'LESS, without bliss. [A.S. _blíðs_, _blíðe_,

BLIST, blist, _pa.t._ (_Spens._) wounded: struck. [From Fr. _blesser_, to

BLISTER, blis't[.e]r, _n._ a thin bubble or bladder on the skin, containing
watery matter: a pustule: a plaster applied to raise a blister.--_v.t._ to
raise a blister.--_ns._ BLIS'TER-BEE'TLE, BLIS'TER-FLY, the cantharis, or
Spanish fly, used for blistering; BLIS'TER-PLAS'TER, a plaster made of
Spanish flies used to raise a blister; BLIS'TER-STEEL, BLIS'TERED-STEEL,
steel blistered in the process of manufacture, used for making tools,
&c.--_adj._ BLIS'TERY. [M. E.; most prob. O. Fr. _blestre_, conn. with Old
Norse _blástr_, _blása_, to blow; Ger. _blase_.]

BLITHE, bl[=i]th, _adj._ happy: gay; sprightly.--_adv._ BLITHE'LY.--_n._
BLITHE'NESS.--_adj._ BLITHE'SOME, joyous.--_adv._ BLITHE'SOMELY.--_n._
BLITHE'SOMENESS. [A.S. _blíðe_, joyful. See BLISS.]

BLIVE, bl[=i]v, _adv._ (_Spens._). Same as BELIVE.

BLIZZARD, bliz'ard, _n._ a blinding storm of wind and snow, a
snow-squall.--_adjs._ BLIZZ'ARDLY, BLIZZ'ARDOUS. [A modern coinage--most
prob. onomatopoeic, on the analogy of _blow_, _blast_, &c.]

BLOAT, bl[=o]t, _v.t._ to swell or puff out: to dry by smoke (applied to
fish).--_v.i._ to swell or dilate: to grow turgid.--_p.adj._
BLOAT'ED.--_n._ BLOAT'ER, a herring partially dried in smoke, esp. at
Yarmouth. [Scand., as in Sw. _blöt_, soft.]

BLOB, blob, _n._ a drop of liquid: anything soft and round, like a
gooseberry: a round spot. [Imit.]


BLOCK, blok, _n._ an unshaped mass of wood or stone, &c.: the wood on which
criminals were wont to be beheaded: (_mech._) a pulley together with its
framework; a piece of wood on which something is formed: a connected group
of houses: an obstruction: a blockhead.--_v.t._ to enclose or shut up: to
obstruct: to shape or sketch out roughly.--_n._ BLOCKADE', the blocking up
of a place by surrounding it with troops or by ships.--_v.t._ to block up
by troops or ships.--_ns._ BLOCK'-HEAD, one with a head like a block, a
stupid fellow; BLOCK'-HOUSE, a small temporary fort generally made of
logs.--_adj._ BLOCK'ISH, like a block: stupid: dull.--_ns._
BLOCK'-PRINT'ING, printing of BLOCK'-BOOKS, from engraved wooden blocks or
pages; BLOCK'-SHIP, a war-ship, inefficient for service in action on
account of age, but useful in defence of ports; BLOCK'-SYS'TEM, a system of
working trains in which no train is allowed on to a section of line so long
as any other train is on that section; BLOCK'-TIN, tin in the form of
blocks or ingots. [Widely spread, but acc. to Skeat, of Celt. origin, Gael.
_ploc_, Old Ir. _blog_, a fragment. See PLUG.]

BLOKE, bl[=o]k, _n._ a fellow, a man familiarly. [Ety. quite unknown--at
any rate not Gipsy.]

BLONCKET, blongk'et, _adj._ (_Spens._) gray. [Fr. _blanchet_, whitish, dim.
of _blanc_, white.]

BLONDE, blond, _n._ a person of fair complexion with light hair and blue
eyes--opp. to _Brunette_.--_adj._ of a fair complexion: fair. [Fr.]

BLOND-LACE, blond'-l[=a]s, _n._ lace made of silk, so called from its

BLONT, blont, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as BLUNT.

BLOOD, blud, _n._ the red fluid in the arteries and veins of men and
animals: descent, of human beings, good birth: relationship, kindred:
elliptically for a blood-horse, one of good pedigree: a rake or swaggering
dandy about town: the blood-royal, as in 'princes of blood:' temperament:
bloodshed or murder: the juice of anything, esp. if red: the supposed seat
of passion--hence temper, anger, as in the phrase, 'his blood is up,' &c.:
the sensual nature of man.--_interj._ 'S BLOOD--God's blood.--_adjs._
BLOOD'-BESPOT'TED (_Shak._), spotted with blood; BLOOD'-BOLT'ERED
(_Shak._), sprinkled with blood as from a bolter or sieve; BLOOD'-BOUGHT,
bought at the expense of blood or life; BLOOD'-FROZ'EN (_Spens._), having
the blood frozen or chilled.--_ns._ BLOOD'GUILT'INESS, the guilt of
shedding blood, as in murder; BLOOD'HEAT, heat of the same degree as that
of the human blood (about 98° Fahr.); BLOOD'-HORSE, a horse of the purest
and most highly prized blood, origin, or stock.--_adj._ BLOOD'-HOT, as hot
or warm as blood.--_n._ BLOOD'HOUND, a large hound formerly employed in
tracing human beings: a blood-thirsty person.--_adv._ BLOOD'ILY.--_adj._
BLOOD'LESS, without blood, dead: without the shedding of blood: (_Shak._)
without spirit or activity.--_ns._ BLOOD'-LET'TING, the act of letting
blood, or bleeding by opening a vein; BLOOD'-MON'EY, money earned by laying
or supporting a capital charge against any one, esp. if the charge be false
or made by an accomplice; BLOOD'-POIS'ONING, a name popularly, but loosely,
used of pyæmia and allied diseases; BLOOD'-PUD'DING, a pudding made with
blood and other materials; BLOOD'-REL[=A]'TION, one related by blood or
marriage; BLOOD'-SAC'RIFICE (_Shak._), a sacrifice made with bloodshed;
BLOOD'SHED, the shedding of blood: slaughter.--_adjs._ BLOOD'SHOT (of the
eye), red or inflamed with blood; BLOOD'-SIZED, sized or smeared with
blood.--_n._ BLOOD'-SPAV'IN, a disease of horses consisting of the swelling
of a vein on the inside of the hock, from a checking of the blood.--_adj._
BLOOD'-STAINED, stained with blood: guilty of murder.--_ns._ BLOOD'-STONE,
a dark-green variety of quartz, variegated with blood-like spots of red
jasper, the heliotrope; a brown ore of iron, hematite; BLOOD'-SUCK'ER, an
animal that sucks blood, esp. a leech: an extortioner, one who sponges upon
another.--_adj._ BLOOD'-SUCK'ING (_Shak._), that sucks or draws
blood.--_ns._ BLOOD'-TAX, conscription or universal military service, as
drawing from the nation a certain number of lives or recruits annually;
BLOOD'-THIRST'INESS, thirst or desire for shedding blood.--_adj._
BLOOD'-THIRST'Y, having a thirst or desire to shed blood.--_ns._
BLOOD'-VES'SEL, a vessel in which blood circulates, a vein or artery;
BLOOD'-WORM, a small red earthworm used by anglers.--_adj._ BLOOD'Y, of the
nature of blood: stained with blood: murderous, cruel: vulgarly, as an
_adj._ emphasising anger or the like: as an _adv._ employed as a mere
intensive--most prob. from the habits of the 'bloods' about the beginning
of the 18th century (Etheredge, '_bloody_-drunk').--_v.t._ to make
bloody.--_n._ BLOOD'Y-BONES, a phrase, together with _Rawhead_, applied to
a children's bugbear.--_adjs._ BLOOD'Y-EYED; BLOOD'Y-FACED.--_ns._
BLOOD'Y-FLUX, dysentery, in which the discharges from the bowels are mixed
with blood; BLOOD'Y-HAND (_her._), the armorial device of Ulster, hence of
baronets.--_adj._ BLOOD'Y-MIND'ED.--_ns._ BLOOD'Y-MIND'EDNESS;
BLOOD'Y-SWEAT, a sweat accompanied with the discharge of blood.--AVENGER OF
BLOOD, the next-of-kin to a murdered man, whose duty it was to avenge his
death--the Hebrew _Goël_.--EATING OF BLOOD, prohibited under the Old
Testament dispensation, Jews still killing their own butcher-meat.--IN
BLOOD, in full vigour; IN HOT or COLD BLOOD, under or free from excitement
or sudden passion. [A.S. _blód_--root _blówan_, to bloom; cog. with Old.
Fris. _blód_, Ger. _blut_.]

BLOOM, bl[=oo]m, _v.i._ to put forth blossoms: to flower: to be in a state
of beauty or vigour: to flourish: to give a bloom or warm tint to
anything.--_n._ a blossom or flower: the opening of flowers: rosy colour:
the prime or highest perfection of anything: the first freshness of beauty
of anything: the flush or glow on the cheek--(_Spens._) BLOSME.--_p.adj._
BLOOM'ING, bright, shining, flourishing: (_slang_) full-blown.--_adjs._
BLOOM'LESS, without bloom; BLOOM'Y, flowery: flourishing. [Ice. _blóm_; cf.
Goth. _blôma_, Ger. _blume_.]

BLOOMER, bl[=oo]m'[.e]r, _n._ and _adj._ a dress for women, partly
resembling men's dress, devised by Mrs _Bloomer_ of New York about 1849,
consisting of a jacket with close sleeves, a skirt falling a little below
the knee, and a pair of Turkish trousers.

BLOOMERY, bl[=oo]m'[.e]r-i, _n._ the first forge through which iron passes
after it has been melted from the ore, and where it is made into BLOOMS, or
rough ingots, for hammering or drawing out.

BLORE, bl[=o]r, _n._ a violent gust of wind. [Prob. related to BLARE and


BLOSSOM, blos'om, _n._ a flower-bud, the flower that precedes
fruit.--_v.i._ to put forth blossoms or flowers: to flourish and
prosper.--_n._ BLOSS'OMING.--_adj._ BLOSS'OMY, covered with flowers,
flowery. [A.S. _blóstm_, _blóstma_, from root of BLOOM.]

BLOT, blot, _n._ a spot or stain: an obliteration, as of something written:
a stain in reputation.--_v.t._ to spot or stain: to obliterate or destroy:
to disgrace: to dry writing with blotting-paper:--_pr.p._ blot'ting;
_pa.p._ blot'ted.--_n._ and _adj._ BLOT'TESQUE, a painting executed with
heavy blot-like touches, a daub or (_fig._) a vigorous descriptive
sketch.--_n._ BLOTTING-P[=A]'PER, unsized paper, used for absorbing
ink.--_adj._ BLOT'TY. [Prob. Scand., as in Dan. _plet_, Ice. _blettr_, a

BLOT, blot, _n._ a piece liable to be taken at backgammon: a weak place in
anything. [Ety. obscure; Dut. _bloot_, naked.]

BLOTCH, bloch, _n._ a dark spot on the skin: a pustule.--_v.t._ to mark or
cover with blotches.--_adjs._ BLOTCHED, BLOTCH'Y. [Prob. formed on BLOT.]

BLOUSE, blowz, _n._ a loose sack-like outer garment, somewhat like the
English smock-frock. [Fr.]

BLOW, bl[=o], _n._ a stroke or knock: a sudden misfortune or calamity.--AT
A BLOW, by a single action, suddenly; TO COME TO BLOWS, TO EXCHANGE BLOWS,
to come to hostilities; WITHOUT STRIKING A BLOW, without a struggle. [A.S.
_bléowan_ is doubtful, cog. with Dut. _blouwen_, to dress (beat) flax, Ger.
_bl[=a]uen_, to beat hard. The noun appears in the 15th century without
evidence of parentage.]

BLOW, bl[=o], _v.i._ to bloom or blossom:--_pr.p._ bl[=o]w'ing; _pa.p._
bl[=o]wn. [A.S. _blówan;_ Ger. _blühen_. See BLOOM, BLOSSOM.]

BLOW, bl[=o], _v.i._ to produce a current of air: to move, as air or the
wind.--_v.t._ to drive air upon or into: to drive by a current of air, as
'to blow away, down,' &c.: to sound, as a wind-instrument: to breathe hard
or with difficulty: to spout, as whales: (_prov._) to boast: to spread by
report: to fan or kindle:--_pa.t._ blew (bl[=oo]); _pa.p._ blown
(bl[=o]n).--_ns._ BLOW'-BALL, the downy head of a dandelion in seed;
BLOW'ER, a metal plate put upon the upper part of a fireplace, so as to
increase the draught through the fire: a machine for driving a blast of
air, as into a furnace; BLOW'-FLY, or _Flesh-fly_, an insect of the order
Diptera, and of the large family Muscidæ, to which the common house-fly and
blue-bottle belong.--_p.adj._ BLOWN, out of breath, tired: swelled: stale,
worthless.--_n._ BLOW'PIPE, a pipe through which a current of air is blown
on a flame, to increase its heat: a kind of weapon much used by some of the
Indian tribes of South America both in hunting and war, consisting of a
long straight tube in which a small poisoned arrow is placed, and forcibly
expelled by the breath.--_adj._ BLOW'Y.--TO BLOW HOT AND COLD, to be
favourable and unfavourable by turns, to be irresolute; TO BLOW OFF (steam,
&c.), to allow to escape, to escape forcibly; TO BLOW ONE'S OWN TRUMPET, to
sound one's own praises; TO BLOW OVER, to pass away, to subside, as a
danger or a scandal; TO BLOW UP, to shatter or destroy by explosion: to
scold; TO BLOW UPON, to take the bloom, freshness, or the interest off
anything, to bring into discredit: to inform upon. [A.S. _bláwan_; Ger.
_blähen_, _blasen_; L. _flare_.]

BLOWZE, blowz, _n._ a ruddy, fat-faced wench.--_adjs._ BLOWZED, BLOWZ'Y,
fat and ruddy, or flushed with exercise, dishevelled, slatternly. [Perh.
related to root of BLUSH; or of cant origin.]

BLUBBER, blub'[.e]r, _n._ the fat of whales and other sea animals.--_v.i._
to weep effusively.--_p.adj._ BLUBB'ERED, of a face swollen with weeping.
[M. E. _blober_, _bluber_; most likely onomatopoeic]

BLUCHER, bl[=oo]ch'[.e]r, _n._ a strong leather half-boot or high shoe,
named from Marshal _Blücher_, the Prussian general at Waterloo.

BLUDGEON, blud'jun, _n._ a short stick with a heavy end to strike with.
[First in 18th century; origin very obscure; from a cant word conn. with

BLUE, bl[=oo], _n._ the colour of the sky when unclouded--hence the sea,
the sky, as in 'a bolt from the blue:' one of the seven primary
colours.--_adj._ of the colour blue: learned, pedantic: indecent or
obscene, as in _blue_ stories.--_ns._ BLUE'-BEARD, a monster who murders a
series of wives in Perrault's famous _conte_, before he is himself cut off:
one who is 'unfortunate' with his wives after the fashion of Henry VIII.;
BLUE'BELL, a plant that bears blue bell-shaped flowers; BLUE'-BIRD, a small
American bird akin to the warblers; BLUE'-BLACK, black with a tinge of
blue; BLUE'-BOOK, the name popularly applied to the reports and other
papers printed by parliament, because usually stitched up in blue paper
wrappers; BLUE'-BOT'TLE, a common name for the Blue Cornflower: a familiar
name for a policeman or beadle; BLUE'-CAP, a fish of the salmon kind with
blue spots on its head: the blue titmouse: (_Shak._) a Scotchman, from his
blue bonnet; BLUE'-EYE, a beautiful little bird in New South Wales, one or
the honey-eaters; BLUE'-FISH, a fish of the family Scomberidæ, abundant on
the east coast of North America.--_n.pl._ BLUE'-GOWNS, the name commonly
given to a former class of privileged mendicants in Scotland--called also
the _King's Bedesmen_.--_ns._ BLUE'-GRASS, a permanent grass found in
Europe and North America; BLUE'-GUM, a kind of Eucalyptus; BLUE'-JACK'ET, a
seaman in the navy, as distinguished from a marine; BLUE'-JAY, a common
North American bird of the [Illustration] jay family; BLUE'NESS;
BLUE'-NOSE, a nickname for a Nova Scotian; BLUE'-P[=E]'TER, a blue flag
with white square in the centre, used in the navy as a signal for sailing;
BLUE'PILL, a mercurial pill, used as a purgative in cases of torpid or
inflamed liver; BLUE'-STOCK'ING, a name given to learned ladies who display
their acquirements in a pedantic manner, to the neglect of womanly
graces--about 1750 Mrs Montague and others began to substitute literary
conversation for cards, and the name implying a disregard for the
conventional costume of polite society was suggested by the blue stockings
of Benjamin Stillingfleet--the French _bas bleu_ is a translation;
BLUE'-STONE, blue copperas, sulphate of copper; BLUE'-THROAT, or
BLUE'-BREAST, a beautiful and melodious bird, nearly allied to the
nightingale; BLUE'-WING, a kind of duck, either a sub-genus of Anas, or a
special genus Cyanopterus--the best-known species, the Common or Lunate
Blue-wing, the Blue-winged Teal of the United States.--_adj._ BL[=U]'ISH,
slightly blue.--BLUE BLOOD, aristocratic blood--the _sangre azul_ of the
Spanish hidalgoes; BLUE BONNET, a round flat cap of blue woollen, much worn
in Scotland: a blue-bonneted Scotch peasant or soldier; BLUE-BOTTLE FLY,
the meat-fly or blow-fly; BLUE-COAT BOY, a scholar of Christ's
Hospital--also (from the blue coat having formerly been the usual dress of
servants) a servant, beadle, soldier; BLUE DEVIL, an evil demon: (_pl._)
deep despondency, the apparitions seen in delirium tremens; BLUE FUNK
(_slang_), great terror; BLUE RIBBON, a term applied to any great prize, as
the Derby stakes--from the blue ribbon worn by Knights of the Garter: the
badge assumed by the so-called Blue Ribbon Army introduced from America in
1878; BLUE WATER, the deep sea, as opposed to port or a narrow
channel.--LIGHT BLUE, and DARK BLUE, the distinctive colours in their
athletic contests of Eton and Cambridge, and of Harrow and Oxford
respectively; THE BLUES, the Royal Horse Guards; THE BLUES (for blue
devils), a colloquial expression for depression of spirits.--TO BE A BLUE,
to be chosen to represent Oxford or Cambridge at an inter-university
contest in cricket, football, rowing, or athletics; AN OLD BLUE, one once
so chosen.--TO DRINK TILL ALL'S BLUE, until everything around one looks
blue; TO LOOK BLUE, to be down-spirited.--TRUE BLUE, faithful to the
principles of the political party wearing blue as its colour, in many
places identified with Conservative. [M. E. _blew_--O. Fr. _bleu_, of Teut.
origin; as also Scand. _blá_, which gave M. E. _bla_, _blo_, and modern

BLUFF, bluf, _adj._ blustering: rough and hearty in manners: outspoken:
steep.--_n._ a high steep bank overlooking the sea or a river: the act of
bluffing at cards, as in poker--hence any kind of boastful swagger intended
to impose upon another: (_slang_) an excuse.--_adjs._ BLUFF'-BOWED, having
broad and flat bows, as a ship; BLUFF'-HEAD'ED, applied to a ship having
her stem too straight up.--_adv._ BLUFF'LY.--_n._ BLUFF'NESS. [Prob. Dut.]

BLUNDER, blun'der, _v.i._ to make a gross mistake, to flounder about: to
utter thoughtlessly.--_n._ a gross mistake.--_p.adj._ BLUN'DERING, apt to
make gross mistakes: apt to stumble.--TO BLUNDER AWAY, to throw away some
opportunity or advantage. [M. E. _blondren_; prob. conn. with BLAND; perh.
from Ice. _blunda_, to doze.]

BLUNDERBUSS, blun'd[.e]r-bus, _n._ a short hand-gun with a wide bore.
[Corr. of Dut. _donderbus_--_donder_, thunder, _bus_, a box, barrel of a
gun, a gun; Ger. _donnerbüchse_.]

BLUNT, blunt, _adj._ having a dull edge or point; rough, outspoken,
dull.--_v.t._ to dull the edge or point: to weaken.--_n._ (_slang_)
money.--_adj._ BLUNT'ISH.--_adv._ BLUNTLY.--_n._ BLUNT'NESS.--_adj._
BLUNT'-WIT'TED (_Shak._) dull, stupid. [Orig. sleepy, dull; prob. conn.
with Ice. _blunda_, to doze; perh. akin to BLIND.]

BLUR, blur, _n._ a blot, stain, or spot.--_v.t._ to blot, stain, obscure,
or blemish (with _out_, _over_):--_pr.p._ blur'ring; _pa.p._ blurred. [A
variety of BLEAR.]

BLURT, blurt, _v.t._ to utter suddenly or unadvisedly (with _out_).--_n._
an abrupt outburst.--_p.adj._ BLURT'ING, impulsively frank. [From sound.

BLUSH, blush, _n._ a red glow on the face caused by shame, modesty, &c.:
any reddish colour: sudden appearance.--_v.i._ to show shame or confusion
by growing red in the face: to grow red.--_n._ BLUSH'ET (_Ben Jonson_), a
young, modest girl.--_adj._ BLUSH'FUL, full of blushes: modest--_n._
BLUSH'ING, the act of turning red: the appearance of colour upon the
cheek.--_p.adj._ showing blushes: modest.--_adv._ BLUSH'INGLY.--AT THE
FIRST BLUSH, at the first glance.--TO PUT TO THE BLUSH, to cause to blush.
[Prob. Scand.; cog. with A.S. _blysa_, a blaze. See BLAZE, BLOWZE.]

BLUSTER, blus't[.e]r, _v.i._ to make a noise like a blast of wind: to bully
or swagger.--_n._ a blast or roaring as of the wind: bullying or boasting
language: a storm of anger.--_n._ BLUS'TERING, a noisy blowing as of a
blast: swaggering: noisy pretension.--_adj._ stormy: tumultuous:
boastful.--_adv._ BLUS'TERINGLY.--_adjs._ BLUS'TEROUS (_Shak._) noisy:
boastful; BLUS'TERY, stormy: (_Carlyle_) swaggering. [An augmentative of

BO, b[=o], _interj._ a word used to frighten children.--TO SAY BO TO A
GOOSE, to open the mouth, to say even a word.

BOA, b[=o]'a, _n._ a genus of serpents which includes the largest species
of serpents (the BOA-CONSTRIC'TOR), which kill their prey by constriction
or pressure: a long serpent-like coil of fur, feathers, or the like, worn
round the neck by ladies. [Perh. conn. with L. _bos_, an ox.]

BOAD. Same as ABODE, _pa.p._ of ABIDE: also the same as BODE.

BOANERGES, bo-an-erj'es, _n._ a noisy preacher or shouting orator. ['Sons
of thunder'--Mark, iii. 17.]

BOAR, b[=o]r, _n._ the male of swine, or its flesh.--_adj._ BOAR'ISH,
swinish: brutal.--_n._ BOAR'-SPEAR, a spear used in boar-hunting. [A.S.
_bár_; Dut. _beer_; Ger. _bär_.]

BOARD, b[=o]rd, _n._ a broad and thin strip of timber: a table to put food
on: food: a table round which persons meet for some kind of business: any
council or authorised body of men, as a 'school-board:' the deck of a ship:
(_pl._) the stage: a kind of thick stiff paper, as in pasteboard,
Bristol-board, esp. that used in the binding of books.--_v.t._ to cover
with boards: to supply with food at fixed terms: to enter a ship: to
attack.--_v.i._ to receive food or take meals.--_ns._ BOARD'ER, one who
receives board (food): one who boards a ship; BOARD'ING, the act of
covering with boards: the covering itself: act of boarding a ship;
BOARD'ING-HOUSE, a house where boarders are kept; BOARD'ING-PIKE, a pike
used in boarding a ship, or in defending it when attacked;
BOARD'ING-SCHOOL, a school in which board is given as well as instruction;
BOARD'-SCHOOL, a school under control of a school-board, as elected by the
Elementary Education Act of 1870.--_n.pl._ BOARD'-W[=A]'GES, wages allowed
to servants to keep themselves in food.--ABOVE BOARD, openly.--BY THE
BOARD, over the board or side of a ship--hence, TO GO BY THE BOARD, to be
lost or destroyed.--TO SWEEP THE BOARD, to take all the cards. [A.S.
_bord_, a board, the side of a ship; Ice. _borð_, the side of a ship: conn.
either with BEAR or with BROAD.]

BOAST, b[=o]st, _v.i._ to talk vaingloriously: to brag (with _of_),--_v.t._
to brag of: speak proudly or confidently of, esp. justifiably: to magnify
or exalt one's self.--_n._ an expression of pride: a brag: the cause of
boasting.--_adj._ BOAST'FUL, given to brag.--_adv._ BOAST'FULLY.--_ns._
BOAST'FULNESS, BOAST'ING, ostentatious display: vaunting.--_adj._
BOAST'LESS, without boasting; simple, unostentatious. [M. E. _bost_, of
doubtful origin; apparently W. _bostio_, Gael. _bòsd_, a bragging, are

BOAT, b[=o]t, _n._ a small open vessel usually moved by oars: a small ship:
a vessel like a boat in shape, as a 'sauce-boat.'--_v.i._ to sail about in
a boat.--_ns._ BOAT'-HOOK, an iron hook fixed to a pole used for pulling or
pushing off a boat; BOAT'-HOUSE, a house or shed for a boat: BOAT'ING, the
art or practice of sailing in boats; BOAT'MAN, a man who has charge of a
boat: a rower.--IN THE SAME BOAT, in the same circumstances.--TO HAVE AN
OAR IN ANOTHER'S BOAT, to meddle with the affairs of others. [A.S. _bát;_
Dut. _boot_; Fr. _bateau_.]

BOATSWAIN, b[=o]t'sw[=a]n (_colloq._ b[=o]'sn), _n._ a petty officer on
board ship who looks after the boats, rigging, &c., and calls the seamen to
duty with a whistle. [BOAT, and _swain_, Scand. _sveinn_, a boy.]

BOB, bob, _v.i._ to move quickly up and down, to dangle: to fish with a
bob.--_v.t._ to move in a short, jerking manner:--_pr.p._ bob'bing; _pa.p._
bobbed.--_n._ a short jerking motion: a slight blow: anything that moves
with a bob or swing: a pendant: a knot of hair, as in BOB'-WIG, one with
the ends turned up into short curls: a bunch of lobworms, used in catching
eels: any small roundish body: the refrain or burden of a song: a term in
bell-ringing--a BOB MINOR is rung upon six bells; a BOB MAJOR on eight; a
BOB ROYAL on ten; a BOB MAXIMUS on twelve.--_adj._ BOB'BISH, in good
spirits.--_n._ BOB'BLE, the movement of water in commotion. [Perh. Celt.,
Gael. _baban_, _babag_.]

BOB, bob, _n._ (_slang_) a shilling. [Hardly the O. Fr. _bobe_ = 1½d.]

BOB, bob, BOBBY, bob'i, _n._ a shortened familiar form of _Robert_: a
familiar name for a policeman--from Sir Robert Peel, Home Secretary at the
passing of the Metropolitan Police Act of 1828.--_n._ LIGHT'-BOB, a soldier
of the light infantry.

BOBADIL, bob'a-dil, _n._ a swaggering boaster, from Ben Jonson's _Every Man
in his Humour_.

BOBBERY, bob'er-i, _n._ a noisy row. [Hindi _b[=a]p re!_ O father!--_Col.

BOBBIN, bob'in, _n._ a small piece of wood on which thread is wound.--_n._
BOBB'INET, a kind of fine netted lace made by machines. [Fr. _bobine_,
prob. Celt.; cf. Gael. _baban_, a tassel.]

BOBOLINK, bob'[=o]-lingk, _n._ a North American singing bird, found in the
northern states in spring and summer. [At first _Bob Lincoln_, from the
note of the bird.]

BOBSTAYS, bob'st[=a]z, _n.pl._ (_naut._) ropes or stays used to confine the
bowsprit downward to the stem or cutwater, and counteract the strain of the

BOBTAIL, bob't[=a]l, _n._ a short or cut tail: a word applied in contempt
to the rabble, as in 'tag-rag and _bobtail_.'--_adj._ BOB'TAILED, with tail
cut short.


BODE, b[=o]d, _v.t._ to portend or prophesy.--_v.i._ to be an omen: to
foreshow.--_adj._ BODE'FUL, boding, ominous.--_n._ BODE'MENT, an omen,
presentiment.--_pr.p._ BOD'ING, presaging.--_n._ an omen or portent. [A.S.
_bodian_, to announce--_bod_, a message; allied to BID.]

BODE, b[=o]d (_Spens._). Same as ABODE.

BODEGA, bo-d[=e]'ga, _n._ a wine-shop. [Sp.]

BODGE, boj, _v.i._ to make bad work, to fail.--_n._ BODG'ER, a botcher, a
pedlar. [A form of BOTCH.]

BODICE, bod'is, _n._ a woman's outer garment covering the waist and bust:
the close-fitting waist or body of a woman's gown.

BODIKIN, bod'i-kin, _n._ a form of an oath, ''Od's bodikins' = God's little

BODKIN, bod'kin, _n._ a small dagger: a small instrument for pricking holes
or for dressing the hair: a large blunt needle.--TO SIT, or RIDE, BODKIN,
to be wedged in tight between two others. [Prob. conn. with W. _bidog_, a

BODLE, bod'l, _n._ a Scotch copper coin, equal to about one-sixth of an
English penny, the smallest coin. [Said to be named from a mint-master, one

BODRAGES, bod'r[=a]-jiz, _n.pl._ (_Spens._) a hostile attack, a raid. [Ir.
_buaidhreadh_, a disturbance.]

BODY, bod'i, _n._ the whole frame of a man or lower animal: the main part
of an animal, as distinguished from the limbs: the main or middle part of
anything: matter, as opposed to spirit: substance or substantial quality: a
mass: a person: a number of persons united by some common tie.--_v.t._ to
give form to: to embody:--_pr.p._ bod'ying; _pa.p._ bod'ied.--_adj._
BOD'ILESS, without a body: incorporeal.--_adv._ BOD'ILY, relating to the
body, esp. as opposed to the mind.--_ns._ BOD'Y-COL'OUR, a term applied to
paints to express their degree of consistence, substance, and tingeing
power; BOD'Y-CUR'ER (_Shak._), a doctor; BOD'YGUARD, a guard to protect the
person, esp. of the sovereign; BOD'Y-POL'ITIC, the collective body of the
people in its political capacity; BOD'Y SERV'ANT, a personal attendant;
BOD'Y-SNATCH'ER, one who secretly disinters the bodies of the dead for the
purposes of dissection. [A.S. _bodig_, of dubious origin.]

BOEOTIAN, be-[=o]'shyan, _adj._ pertaining to _Boeotia_ in Greece, noted
for the dullness of its inhabitants--hence stupid, dull.

BOER, b[=oo]r, _n._ a Dutch colonist at the Cape engaged in agriculture.
[Dut. _boer_. See BOOR.]

BOG, bog, _n._ soft ground: a marsh or quagmire.--_v.t._ to sink or to
entangle.--_n._ BOG'-BUTT'ER, a mineral substance, resembling butter, found
in Irish bogs.--_adj._ BOGG'Y.--_ns._ BOG'LET, BOG'LAND; BOG'-MOSS, a genus
of moss plants; BOG'-OAK, trunks of oak embedded in bogs and preserved from
decay--of a deep black colour, often used for making ornaments; BOG'-ORE, a
kind of iron ore found in boggy land; BOG'-SPAV'IN, a lesion of the
hock-joint of the horse, consisting in distension of the capsule enclosing
the joint, usually arising suddenly from a sprain in action; BOG'-TROT'TER,
one who lives in a boggy country, hence an Irishman. [Ir. _bogach_; Gael.
_bog_, soft.]


BOGGLE, bog'l, _v.i._ to stop or hesitate as if at a bogle: to start with
fright: to make difficulties about a thing: to equivocate.--_n._ a scruple,
objection: a bungle.--_n._ BOGG'LER, one who boggles: a doubter: (_Shak._)
one who starts from the right path. [See BOGLE.]

BOGIE, BOGEY, b[=o]g'i, _n._ a low truck on four wheels, so constructed as
to turn easily, a trolly: a revolving under-carriage, as in a locomotive
engine. [Ety. unknown; perh. conn. with BOGY, a fiend.]

BOGLE, b[=o]g'l, _n._ a spectre or goblin: a scarecrow: a bugbear, or
source of terror--also BOGG'LE.--BOGG'ARD is a common form in the North
country. [Scot. _bogle_, a ghost; W. _bwg_, a goblin. See BUG.]

BOGUS, b[=o]'gus, _adj._ counterfeit, spurious. [An American cant word, of
very doubtful origin--it may possibly be ult. related to BOGY.]

BOGY, BOGEY, b[=o]g'i, _n._ a goblin: a bugbear or special object of dread,
the devil.--_n._ BOG'YISM. [A form of BOGGLE and BOGGARD.]

BOHEA, bo-h[=e]', _n._ the lowest quality of black tea: tea generally.

BOHEMIAN, bo-h[=e]'mi-an, _n._ and _adj._ applied to persons of loose or
irregular habits: an artist or man of letters, or indeed any one, who sets
social conventionalities aside.--_n._ BOH[=E]'MIANISM. [Fr. _bohémien_, a
gipsy, from the belief that these wanderers came from _Bohemia_.]


BOIL, boil, _v.i._ to bubble up from the action of heat: to be hot: to be
excited or agitated.--_v.t._ to heat to a boiling state: to cook or dress
by boiling.--_ns._ BOIL'ER, one who boils: that in which anything is
boiled: a vessel in which steam, usually for a steam-engine, is generated:
a vessel for heating water for baths, &c.; BOIL'ING, the bubbling up of any
liquid by the application of heat: the act of dressing food by boiling
water.--_adj._ bubbling: swelling with heat or passion.--_n._
BOIL'ING-POINT, the temperature at which liquids begin to boil under
heat.--TO BOIL DOWN, to reduce in bulk by boiling, to extract the substance
of, to epitomise; TO BOIL OVER, to bubble over the sides of the containing
vessel, to break out into unrestrained indignation. [O. Fr. _boillir_--L.
_bull[=i]re_--_bulla_, a bubble.]

BOIL, boil, _n._ an inflamed swelling or tumour. [A.S. _býl_; Ger.

BOISTEROUS, bois't[.e]r-us, _adj._ wild: noisy: turbulent: stormy.--_adv._
BOIS'TEROUSLY.--_n._ BOIS'TEROUSNESS. [M. E. _boistous_, approximating, but
not in sense, to the O. Fr. _boisteus_, whence modern _boiteux_, lame. The
Celtic words throw no light upon its origin.]

BOLAS, b[=o]'las, _n._ missiles used by the South American _gauchos_,
consisting of balls or stones strung together, swung round the head and
hurled, usually so as to entangle the legs of an animal running. [Sp.]

BOLD, b[=o]ld, _adj._ daring or courageous: forward or impudent:
presumptuous: executed with spirit: striking to the sight, well marked:
steep or abrupt.--_v.t._ BOLD'EN (_obs._), to make bold.--_adj._
BOLD'FACED, impudent.--_adv._ BOLD'LY.--_n._ BOLD'NESS.--TO MAKE BOLD, to
take the liberty, to make free. [A.S. _bald_; Old High Ger. _bald_, Ice.

BOLE, b[=o]l, _n._ the round stem or body of a tree. [Scand. _bolr_; Ger.
_bohle_, a plank.]

BOLE, b[=o]l, _n._ an earthy mineral resembling clay in structure, and
consisting essentially of silica, alumina, red oxide of iron, and water;
the bole of Lemnos, _Lemnian Earth_, is red in colour, and was once used as
a tonic and astringent medicine. [Gr. _b[=o]los_, a clod.]

BOLE, b[=o]l, _n._ a recess in a wall: an opening to admit light and air.
[Scot.; origin unknown.]

BOLERO, bo-l[=a]'ro, or bo-l[=e]'ro, _n._ Spanish national dance: also the
air to which it is danced. [Sp.]

BOLETUS, bol-[=e]'tus, _n._ a genus of fungi, having a pore-like surface
occupying the place of gills. [Gr. _b[=o]lit[=e]s_, mushroom.]

BOLIDE, bol'[=i]d, _n._ a large meteor or fireball. [Fr.--L. _bolid-em_,
_bolis_--Gr. _bolis_, _ballein_, to throw.]

BOLIN, an obsolete form of BOWLINE.

BOLL, b[=o]l, _n._ one of the round heads or seed-vessels of flax, poppy,
&c.: a pod or capsule.--_p.adjs._ BOLLED (b[=o]ld), swollen, podded; BOLLEN
(b[=o]ln), swollen (_Shak._). [A form of BOWL; A.S. _bolla_.]

BOLL, b[=o]l, _n._ a measure of capacity for grain, &c., used in Scotland
and the north of England--in Scotland = 6 imperial bushels; in England,
varying from 2 to 6 bushels: also a measure of weight, containing, for
flour, 140 lb. [Scot. _bow_; prob. a Scand. word; cf. Ice. _bolli_.]

BOLLANDIST, bol'an-dist, _n._ one of the Jesuit writers who continued the
_Acta Sanctorum_ (q.v.), begun by John _Bolland_ (1596-1665).

BOLLARD, bol'ard, _n._ a post on a wharf to which vessels are secured: a
thick piece of wood on the forepart of a whale-boat, round which the line
is turned when a whale is harpooned. [Prob. BOLE.]

BOLOGNA, bol-[=o]n'ya, _adj._ from a town of Italy, which gives its name to
Bologna phial, Bologna phosphorus, and Bologna or 'Polony'
sausages.--_adj_. BOLOGN'ESE.

BOLOMETER, b[=o]-lom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring minute
amounts of radiant heat. [Gr. _bol[=e]_, ray (_ballein_, to throw),
_metron_, a measure.]

BOLSTER, b[=o]l'st[.e]r, _n._ a long round pillow or cushion: a pad:
anything resembling it in form or use, esp. any piece of mechanism
affording a support against pressure.--_v.t._ to support with a bolster: to
hold up.--_p.adj._ BOL'STERED, supported: swelled out.--_n._ BOL'STERING, a
propping up or supporting. [A.S. _bolster_; from root of BOWL.]

BOLT, b[=o]lt, _n._ a bar or pin used to fasten a door, &c.: an arrow: a
thunderbolt, as in 'a bolt from the blue.'--_v.t._ to fasten with a bolt:
to throw or utter precipitately: to expel suddenly: to swallow
hastily.--_v.i._ to rush away (like a bolt from a bow): to start up:
(_U.S._) to break away from one's political party.--_ns._ BOLT'-HEAD, the
head of a bolt: a chemical flask; BOLT'-ROPE, a rope sewed all round the
edge of a sail to prevent it from tearing; BOLT'SPRIT (same as
BOWSPRIT).--_adv._ BOLT'-UP'RIGHT, upright and straight as a bolt or
arrow.--_n._ BOLT'-UP'RIGHTNESS. [A.S. _bolt_; Old High Ger. _bolz_.]

BOLT, b[=o]lt, _v.t._ (better spelling, BOULT), to sift, to separate the
bran from, as flour: to examine by sifting: to sift through coarse
cloth.--_ns._ BOLT'ER, a sieve: a machine for separating bran from flour;
BOLT'ING, the process by which anything is bolted or sifted;
BOLT'ING-HUTCH, a hutch or large box into which flour falls when it is
bolted. [O. Fr. _bulter_, or _buleter_ = _bureter_, from _bure_--Low L.
_burra_, a coarse reddish-brown cloth--Gr. _pyrros_, reddish.]

BOLUS, b[=o]'lus, _n._ a rounded mass of anything: a large pill. [L.
_bolus_--Gr. _b[=o]los_, a lump.]

BOMB, bom, or bum, _n._ a hollow projectile, usually of cast-iron, fired
from a mortar, filled with gunpowder and fitted with a time-fuse: any
similar missile or case of explosives, as a dynamite bomb.--_n._ BOM'BARD,
an engine or great gun for throwing bombs: (_Shak._) a barrel or large
vessel for holding liquor.--_v.t._ BOMBARD', to attack with bombs.--_ns._
BOMBARDIER', the lowest non-commissioned officer in the British artillery,
formerly a man employed about the mortars and howitzers; BOMBARD'MENT;
BOMBAR'DON, a deep-toned brass instrument, with a tube likened to a
bombard.--_adj._ BOMB'-PROOF, proof or secure against the force of
bombs.--_ns._ BOMB'-SHELL (same as BOMB); BOMB'-VESS'EL, BOMB'-KETCH, a
vessel for carrying the mortars used in bombarding from the
sea.--BOMBARDIER BEETLE, a name given to several species of beetles, which
discharge an acrid volatile fluid with explosive force from the abdomen.
[Fr. _bombe_--L. _bombus_--Gr. _bombos_, a humming sound--an imitative

BOMBASINE, BOMBAZINE, bom'-, bum-ba-z[=e]n', _n._ a twilled or corded
fabric of silk and worsted, or of cotton and worsted.--_n._ BOM'BAX, a
genus of silk-cotton trees, native to tropical America. [Fr.
_bombasin_--Low L. _bombasinum_--Gr. _bombyx_, silk.]

BOMBAST, bom'-, bum'bast, _n._ inflated or high-sounding language:
originally cotton or any soft material used for stuffing garments.--_adj._
BOMBAS'TIC, high-sounding: inflated. [Low L. _bombax_, cotton--Gr.
_bombyx_, silk.]


BOMBAY-DUCK, bom-b[=a]'-duk, _n._ a fish of the family Scopelidæ, nearly
allied to the salmon and trout family, which is salted, dried, and eaten as
a relish.

BOMBYX, bom'biks, _n._ the silkworm. [Gr.]

BON, bong, _adj._ good--French, occurring in some English but not
Anglicised phrases, as BON ACCORD, good-will, agreement; BON MOT, a jest or
smart saying; BON TON, good style, the fashionable world; BON VIVANT, one
who lives well or luxuriously.

BONA FIDE, b[=o]'na f[=i]d'[=a], _adv._ and _adj._ in good faith, with
sincerity, genuine. [L.]

BONANZA, bon-an'za, _n._ a term common in the Pacific States for a rich
mass of gold: any mine of wealth or stroke of luck. [Sp.]

BONAPARTISM, b[=o]'na-pärt-izm, _n._ attachment to the dynasty of Napoleon
_Bonaparte_, Emperor of the French.--_n._ B[=O]'NAPARTIST.

BONA-ROBA, b[=o]'na-r[=o]'ba, _n._ (_Shak._) a showy wanton, a courtesan.
[It. _buona roba_, lit. a fine gown.]

BONBON, bong'bong, _n._ a sweetmeat.--_n._ BONBON'IERE, a fancy box for
holding such. [Fr., 'very good'--_bon_, good.]


BOND, bond, _n._ that which binds, a band: link of connection or union: a
writing of obligation to pay a sum or to perform a contract: any
constraining or any cementing force: in building, the connection of one
stone or brick with another, made by lapping the one over the other as the
work is carried up, as in ENGLISH BOND, FLEMISH BOND, &c.: (_pl._)
imprisonment, captivity.--_adj._ bound: in a state of servitude.--_v.t._ to
put imported goods in the customs' warehouses till the duties on them are
paid--hence BONDED STORES or WAREHOUSES, TO TAKE OUT OF BOND, &c.--_p.adj._
BOND'ED, secured by bond, as duties.--_ns._ BOND'ER, a binding stone or
brick; BOND'-HOLD'ER, a person who holds bonds of a private person or
public company; BOND'ING, that arrangement by which goods remain in the
customs' warehouses till the duties are paid; BOND'MAID, BOND'WOMAN,
BONDS'WOMAN, a woman-slave; BOND'MAN, a man-slave; BOND'MANSHIP;
BOND'SERV'ANT, a slave; BOND'-SERV'ICE, the condition of a bond-servant:
slavery; BOND'-SLAVE, a slave; BONDS'MAN, a bondman or slave: a surety;
BOND'-STONE, a stone which reaches a considerable distance into or entirely
through a wall for the purpose of binding it together; BOND'-TIM'BER,
timber built into a wall as it is carried up for the purpose of binding it
together in a longitudinal direction.--BONDED DEBT, the debt of a
corporation represented by the bonds it has issued, as contrasted with its
_floating_ debt. [A variant of _band_--A.S. _bindan_, to bind.]

BONDAGE, bond'[=a]j, _n._ state of being bound: captivity: slavery.--_n._
BOND'AGER, a female outworker in the Border and North country, whom the
_hind_ or married cottar was bound to provide for the farm-work. [O. Fr.;
Low L. _bondagium_, a kind of tenure. Acc. to Skeat, this is from A.S.
_bonda_, a boor, a householder, from Ice. _bóndi_ = _búandi_, a tiller, a
husbandman, _búa_, to till, cog. with A.S. _búan_.]

BONE, b[=o]n, _n._ a hard substance forming the skeleton of mammalian
animals: a piece of the skeleton of an animal: (_pl._) the bones
collectively: mortal remains: pieces of bone held between the fingers of
the hand and rattled together to keep time to music: dice, as made of bone,
ivory, &c.--_v.t._ to take the bones out of, as meat: to seize, to
steal.--_ns._ BONE'-ACHE (_Shak._), aching or pain in the bones; BONE'-ASH,
BONE'-EARTH, the remains when bones are burnt in an open furnace;
BONE'-BLACK, the remains when bones are heated in a close vessel.--_adj._
BONED--used in composition, as high-boned: having bones: having the bones
removed.--_ns._ BONE'-DUST, ground or pulverised bones, used in
agriculture; BONE'-LACE, lace woven with bobbins, which were frequently
made of bone.--_adj._ BONE'LESS, wanting bones.--_ns._ BONE'-SET'TER, one
who treats broken bones without being a duly qualified surgeon;
BONE'-SH[=A]K'ER, a name familiarly given to the earlier forms of bicycle
before india-rubber tires; BONE'-SPAV'IN, a bony excrescence or hard
swelling on the inside of the hock of a horse.--_adj._ BON'Y, full of, or
consisting of, bones.--A BONE OF CONTENTION, something that causes strife;
A BONE TO PICK, something to occupy one, a difficulty, a grievance,
controversy, dispute.--TO MAKE NO BONES OF, to have no scruples in regard
to something; TO THE BONE, to the inmost part. [A.S. _bán_, Ger. _bein_.]

BONFIRE, bon'f[=i]r, _n._ a large fire in the open air on occasions of
public rejoicing, &c.--originally a fire in which bones were burnt. [Not
Fr. _bon_, good, and FIRE.]

BONGRACE, bon'gr[=a]s, _n._ a shade from the sun once worn by women on the
front of the bonnet: a broad-brimmed hat or bonnet. [Fr.]

BONHOMIE, bon'o-m[=e], _n._ easy good-nature. [Fr.; _bon homme_, a good

BONIFACE, bon'i-f[=a]s, _n._ a generic name for an innkeeper, like 'mine
host' or 'landlord'--from the hearty _Boniface_ of Farquhar's _Beaux'

BONING, b[=o]n'ing, _n._ the act of estimating straightness by looking
along a series of poles, as in _boning-rod_ or _telescope_.

BONITO, bo-n[=e]to, _n._ a name given to several fishes of the mackerel
family--the Stripe-bellied Tunny of the tropical parts of the Atlantic and
Pacific; the Mediterranean Bonito; the Plain Bonito. [Sp.]

BONNE, bon, _n._ a French nursemaid. [Fr.; _fem._ of _bon_, good.]

BONNE-BOUCHE, bon-b[=oo]sh, _n._ a delicious morsel. [Fr.]

BONNET, bon'et, _n._ a covering for the head worn by women, without a brim,
tied on by strings, and now letting the whole face be seen, although
formerly a bonnet (esp. a POKE'-BONN'ET) covered the sides of the face: a
soft cap: the velvet cap within a coronet: (_fort._) a small work before
the salient or flanked angle of the ravelin: (_naut._) an additional part
laced to the foot of jibs, or other fore-and-aft sails, to gather more
wind: a wire-covering over a chimney-top: a decoy or pretended player or
bidder at a gaming-table or an auction, the accomplice of a thimble-rigger
or other petty swindler.--_v.t._ to put a bonnet on: to crush a man's hat
over his eyes.--_adj._ and _p.adj._ BONN'ETED.--_ns._ BONN'ET-PIECE, a gold
coin of James V. of Scotland, on which the king wears a bonnet instead of a
crown; BONN'ET-ROUGE, the red cap of liberty of the French Revolution,
shaped like a nightcap.--BONNET LAIRD, a Scotch name for a petty landowner
who wore a bonnet, not the hat of the gentry.--BALMORAL BONNET, a flat cap
resembling the Scotch (Lowland) bonnet; GLENGARRY BONNET, rising to a point
in front, with ribbons hanging down behind; SCOTCH BONNET, of a broad,
round, flat shape, of dark-blue colour, with a tuft on the top, the fabric
thick-milled woollen, without seam or lining--like the Basque _béret_. [O.
Fr.--Low L. _bonnetum_, orig. the name of a stuff.]

BONNY, bon'i, _adj._ beautiful: handsome: gay: plump: pleasant-looking: as
a general term expressing appreciation = considerable, &c., often
ironically: cheerful: (_Shak._) stout, strong.--_adv._ BONN'ILY,
beautifully: gaily.--_n._ BONN'INESS, handsomeness: gaiety. [Fr. _bon_,
_bonne_--L. _bonus_.]

BONSPIEL, bon'sp[=e]l, _n._ a great curling-match. [Dr Murray suggests an
assumed Dut. _bondspel_, from _bond_ = _verbond_, 'covenant, alliance,
compact,' and; _spel_, play; the word having entered Scotch as a whole,
_spiel_, _spel_, having never been in common use for 'play.']

BONUS, b[=o]n'us, _n._ a premium beyond the usual interest for a loan: an
extra dividend to shareholders: an extra gratuity paid to workmen: a
douceur or bribe. [L. _bonus_, good.]

BONZE, bon'ze, _n._ a Buddhist priest. [Jap. _bonzó_ or _bonzi_, a priest.]

BOO, BOOH, b[=oo], _interj._ a sound expressive of disapprobation or
contempt.--_v.i._ to utter 'boo!' to hoot.--_v.t._ BOO'-HOO', to weep

BOOBY, b[=oo]'bi, _n._ a silly or stupid fellow: a sea-bird, of the gannet
tribe, remarkable for its apparent stupidity in allowing itself to be
knocked down with a stick.--_adjs._ BOO'BY, BOO'BYISH, like a booby:
stupid.--_ns._ BOO'BYISM; BOO'BY-TRAP, a rude form of practical joke among
boys, by which something is made to fall upon some one entering a door, or
the like. [Sp. _bobo_, a dolt: may prob. be cog. with Ger. _bube_.]

BOODLE, b[=oo]d'l, _n._ a crowd, pack--'the whole boodle:' stock-in-trade,
capital. [May be conn. with Dut. _boedel_.]

BOODLE, b[=oo]d'l, _n._ (_slang_) a stupid noodle.

BOODY, b[=oo]d'i, _v.i._ to sulk or mope. [Fr. _bouder_, to pout.]

BOOK, book, _n._ a collection of sheets of paper bound together, either
printed, written on, or blank: a literary composition: a division of a
volume or subject: the Bible: a betting-book, or record of bets made with
different people: (_fig._) any source of instruction: the libretto of an
opera, &c.: (_pl._) formal accounts of transactions, as minutes of
meetings, records kept of his business by a merchant.--_v.t._ to write in a
book.--_ns._ BOOK'-ACCOUNT', an account of debt or credit in a book;
BOOK'BINDER, one who binds books; BOOK'BINDING, the art or practice of
binding or putting the boards on books; BOOK'-CASE, a case with shelves for
books; BOOK'-CLUB, an association of persons who buy new books for
circulation among themselves; BOOK'-DEBT, a debt for articles charged by
the seller in his book-account.--_adj._ BOOK'FUL, full of information
gathered from books.--_ns._ BOOK'-HOLD'ER, one who holds the book of the
play and prompts the actor in the theatre; BOOK'-HUNT'ER, one who rejoices
in discovering _rare_ books; BOOK'ING-OF'FICE, an office where names are
booked or tickets are taken.--_adj._ BOOK'ISH, fond of books: acquainted
only with books.--_ns._ BOOK'ISHNESS; BOOK'-KEEP'ING, the art of keeping
accounts in a regular and systematic manner; BOOK'-LAND, land taken from
the _folcland_ or common land, and granted by _bóc_ or written charter to a
private owner; BOOK'-LEARN'ING, learning got from books, as opposed to
practical knowledge.--_adj._ BOOK'LESS, without books, unlearned.--_ns._
BOOK'LET, a small book; BOOK'-MAK'ER, one who makes up books from the
writings of others, a compiler: one who makes a system of bets in such a
way that the gains must exceed the losses, entering them in a memorandum
book; BOOK'-MAK'ING, the art or practice of compiling books from the
writings of others: compilation: systematic betting; BOOK'-MAN, a scholar,
student; BOOK'-MARK, something placed in a book to mark a particular page
or passage; BOOK'-MATE (_Shak._), a mate or companion in the study of
books: a schoolfellow; BOOK'-MUS'LIN, muslin used in bookbinding;
BOOK'-OATH (_Shak._), an oath made on the Book or Bible; BOOK'PLATE, a
label usually pasted inside the cover of a book, bearing the owner's name,
crest, coat-of-arms, or peculiar device; BOOK'-POST, the department in the
Post-office for the transmission of books; BOOK'SELLER, one who sells
books; BOOK'SELLING; BOOK'SHELF, a shelf on which books are placed;
BOOK'SHOP, a shop where books are sold; BOOK'-STALL, a stall or stand,
generally in the open air, where books are sold; BOOK'-STAND, a book-stall:
a stand or support for holding up a book when reading; BOOK'-TRADE, the
trade of dealing in books; BOOK'WORM, a worm or mite that eats holes in
books: a hard reader: one who reads without discrimination or profit.--TO
BE UPON THE BOOKS, to have one's name in an official list; TO BRING TO
BOOK, to bring to account; TO TAKE A LEAF OUT OF ANOTHER'S BOOK, to follow
the example of some one; TO TALK LIKE A BOOK, to talk pedantically, or in a
preternaturally well-informed manner. [A.S. _bóc_, a book, the beech; Ger.
_buche_, the beech, _buch_, a book, because the Teutons first wrote on
beechen boards.]

BOOM, b[=oo]m, _n._ a pole by which a sail is stretched: a chain or bar
stretched across a harbour. [Dut. _boom_, a beam, a tree.]

BOOM, b[=oo]m, _v.i._ to make a hollow sound or roar: to go on with a rush,
to become suddenly prosperous.--_v.t._ to push anything into sudden
prominence:--_pa.p._ boomed (b[=oo]md); _pr.p._ boom'ing.--_n._ a hollow
roar, as of the sea, the cry of the bittern, &c.: a sudden increase of
activity in business, or the like--often the direct consequence of puffing
advertisements or less legitimate intrigues.--_p.adj._ BOOM'ING, rushing
with violence. [From a Low Ger. root found in A.S. _byme_, a trumpet, Dut.
_bommen_, to drum; like BOMB, of imit. origin.]


BOOMERANG, b[=oo]m'e-rang, _n._ a hard-wood missile used by the natives of
Australia, shaped like the segment of a circle, and so balanced that when
thrown to a distance it returns towards the thrower. [Australian.]

BOON, b[=oo]n, _n._ a petition: a gift or favour. [Ice. _bôn_, a prayer;
A.S. _ben_.]

BOON, b[=oo]n, _adj._ gay, merry, or kind. [Fr. _bon_--L. _bonus_, good.]

BOOR, b[=oo]r, _n._ a countryman, a peasant: a Dutch colonist in South
Africa: a coarse or awkward person.--_adj._ BOOR'ISH, like a boor: awkward
or rude.--_adv._ BOOR'ISHLY.--_n._ BOOR'ISHNESS. [Dut. _boer_; Ger.
_bauer_. The A.S. _gebúr_, a farmer, may explain the East Anglian _bor_,
neighbour, as a form of address.]

BOORD, an obsolete form of BOARD.


BOOT, b[=oo]t, _n._ a covering for the foot and lower part of the leg
generally made of leather: an infamous instrument of judicial torture, in
which the legs were forced into a strong case and wedges driven in until
bone, muscle, and marrow were crushed together--also BOOT'IKIN: a box or
receptacle in a coach.--_v.t._ to put on boots.--_n._ BOOT'-CLOS'ER, one
who closes the upper leathers of boots.--_pa.p._ BOOT'ED, having boots on,
equipped for riding.--_ns._ BOOT'-HOOK, an instrument for pulling on long
boots; BOOT'HOSE (_Shak._), hose or stockings used in place of boots;
BOOT'-JACK, an instrument for taking off boots; BOOT'LACE, a lace for
fastening boots; BOOT'-LAST, BOOT'-TREE, the last or wooden mould on which
boots or shoes are made or stretched to keep their shape.--_adj._
BOOT'LESS, without boots: referring also, as in Tennyson's metaphorical
use, 'wedded to a bootless calf,' to the ancient custom at a marriage by
proxy of the quasi bridegroom putting one unbooted leg into the bride's
bed.--_n._ BOOTS, the servant at an inn who cleans the boots, runs
messages, &c.--in combination, as Lazy_boots_, Sly_boots_.--BOOT AND SADDLE
(a corr. of Fr. _bouteselle_, place saddle), the signal to cavalry to
mount.--LIKE OLD BOOTS (_slang_), vigorously, heartily.--SIX FEET IN HIS
BOOTS, quite six feet high.--TO DIE IN HIS BOOTS, to be cut off in the
midst of health, as by the rope; TO HAVE ONE'S HEART IN ONE'S BOOTS, to be
in a state of extreme terror. [O. Fr. _bote_ (mod. _botte_)--Low L.
_botta_, _bota_, of dubious origin.]

BOOT, b[=oo]t, _v.t._ to profit or advantage.--_n._ advantage: profit: any
reparation or compensation paid, like the _man-bote_ of old English law:
(_Shak._) booty.--_adj._ BOOT'LESS, without boot or profit:
useless.--_adv._ BOOT'LESSLY.--_n._ BOOT'LESSNESS.--TO BOOT, in addition;
TO MAKE BOOT OF (_Shak._), to make profit of. [A.S. _bót_, compensation,
amends, whence _betan_, to amend, to make BETTER.]

BOOTES, bo-[=o]'tez, _n._ a northern constellation beside the Great Bear,
containing the bright star Arcturus. [Gr.; an ox-driver.]

BOOTH, b[=oo]th, _n._ a hut or temporary erection formed of slight
materials: a covered stall at a fair or market. [Ice. _buð_, Ger. _bude_.]

BOOTY, b[=oo]t'i, _n._ spoil taken in war or by force: plunder, a
prize.--TO PLAY BOOTY, to join with others in order to cheat one player, to
play a game with intention to lose. [Ice. _býti_, share--_býta_, to


BO-PEEP, bo-p[=e]p', _n._ a simple play among children in which one peeps
from behind something and cries 'Bo.'

BORA, b[=o]'ra, _n._ a strong north-east wind in the upper Adriatic. [Diez
explains the word as a Venetian variant of It. _borea_--L. _boreas_; acc.
to others, Slav.; cf. Servian _bura_.]

BORACHIO, bor-ach'i-o, _n._ a Spanish wine-bottle of leather: a drunken
fellow. [Sp. _borracha_.]

BORAGE, bur'[=a]j, _n._ a plant of the genus Borago, formerly in great
repute as a cordial. [Low L. _borago_.]

BORAX, b[=o]'raks, _n._ a mineral salt used for soldering, as a flux in
metallurgy, in enamelling and glazing, as a mordant in dyeing, as a
substitute for soap, and also in medicine.--_adj._ BORAC'IC, of or relating
to borax.--_ns._ BOR'ACITE, a mineral composed of boracic acid and
carbonate of magnesia; B[=O]'RATE, a salt of boracic acid.--BORACIC ACID,
an acid obtained by dissolving borax, and also found native in mineral
springs in Italy. [Through Fr. and Low L. _borax_, _borac-em_, from Ar.

BORDAR, bord'ar, _n._ a villein who held his hut at his lord's pleasure.
[Low L. _bordarius_; of Teut. origin. See BOARD.]

BORDEAUX, bor-d[=o]', _n._ claret, wine of _Bordeaux_, a great city in the
south-west of France.

BORDEL, bor'del, _n._ a house for prostitution. [O. Fr. _bordel_, a
cabin--Low L. _borda_.]

BORDER, bord'[.e]r, _n._ the edge or margin of anything: the march or
boundary of a country, esp. that between England and Scotland: a flower-bed
in a garden: a piece of ornamental edging or trimming round a garment,
&c.--_v.i._ to resemble (with _on_): to be adjacent (with _upon_,
_with_).--_v.t._ to make or adorn with a border: to bound.--_ns._
BORD'ERER, one who dwells on the border of a country; BORD'ER-LAND.--_adj._
BORD'ERLESS. [O. Fr. _bordure_; from root of BOARD.]


BORDURE, bor'd[=u]r, _n._ (_her._) a border surrounding a shield, generally
said to occupy one-fifth of the field. [BORDER.]

BORE, b[=o]r, _v.t._ to pierce so as to form a hole; to weary or
annoy.--_n._ a hole made by boring: the size of the cavity of a gun; a
person or thing that wearies (not from the foregoing, according to Dr
Murray, who says both verb and noun arose after 1750).--_ns._ BOR'ER, the
person or thing that bores: a genus of sea-worms that pierce wood; a name
common to many insects that pierce wood; BOR'ING, the act of making a hole
in anything: a hole made by boring: (_pl._) the chips produced by boring.
[A.S. _borian_, to bore; cf. Ger. _bohren_; allied to L. _for-[=a]re_, to
bore, Gr. _pharynx_, the gullet.]

BORE, b[=o]r, did bear, _pa.t._ of BEAR.

BORE, b[=o]r, _n._ a tidal flood which rushes with great violence up the
estuaries of certain rivers, also called _Eagre_. [Ice. _bára_, a wave or

BOREAS, b[=o]'re-as, _n._ the north wind.--_adj._ B[=O]'REAL. [L. and Gr.]

BORIC. Same as BORACIC (q.v. under BORAX).

BORN, bawrn,--_pa.p._ of BEAR, to bring forth.--BORN AGAIN, having received
new spiritual life or regeneration through Christ.--BORN IN, or WITH,
inherited by birth; BORN OF, sprung from.--A BORN FOOL, one whose folly is
from his birth--also in compounds, as _English-born_, _eldest-born_,
_base-born_, _gently-born_, _well-born_, &c.--IN ONE'S BORN DAYS, in one's

BORNE, b[=o]rn, _pa.p._ of BEAR, to carry.

BORNÉ, bor'n[=a], _adj._ limited, narrow-minded. [Fr. pa.p. of _borner_, to

BORON, b[=o]'ron, _n._ a simple non-metallic element present in borax and
boracic acid, obtained in crystals which resemble diamonds. [See BORAX.]

BOROUGH, bur'[=o], _n._ a town with a corporation and special privileges
granted by royal charter; a town that sends representatives to
parliament.--_ns._ BOR'OUGH-ENGLISH, a custom in some ancient English
boroughs, by which estates descend to the youngest son or the youngest
brother; BOR'OUGHMONGER, one who buys or sells the patronage of boroughs;
BOR'OUGH-REEVE, the chief municipal official in some unincorporated English
towns prior to 1835.--CLOSE or POCKET BOROUGH, a borough the representation
of which was in the nomination of some person--common before 1832; COUNTY
BOROUGH, a borough of above 50,000 inhabitants, constituted by the Local
Government Act of 1888; ROTTEN BOROUGH, one which still returned members to
parliament although the constituency had disappeared--all abolished in
1832.--The Scotch terms are grouped under BURGH. [A.S. _burg_, _burh_, a
city, from _beorgan_; Ger. _bergen_, to protect.]

BORREL, bor'el, _adj._ (_Spens._) rustic, clownish. [O. Fr. _burel_, coarse
cloth worn by peasantry.]

BORROW, bor'[=o], _v.t._ to obtain on loan or trust: to adopt from a
foreign source: to derive one's authority from another (with _from_,
_of_).--_p.adj._ BORR'OWED, taken on loan, counterfeit, assumed.--_n._
BORR'OWER.--BORROWING DAYS, the last three days of March (O.S.), supposed
in Scotch folklore to have been borrowed by March from April, and to be
especially stormy. [A.S. _borgian_--_borg_, _borh_, a pledge, security.]

BORSTALL, bor'stal, _n._ a way up a hill, still used in the district of the
Downs. [A.S. _beorh_, a hill, and _stigel_, a stile.]

BORT, bort, _n._ diamond-dust. [Fr.]

BORZOI, bor'zoi, _n._ a breed of dogs of great grace and beauty, in shape
like a gigantic greyhound, though covered with a soft coat about the length
of a deerhound's. [Russ.]

BOSCAGE, bosk'[=a]j, _n._ thick foliage: woodland. [Fr. _boscage_,
_bocage_--Low L. _boscus_ (hence Fr. _bois_), conn. with Ger. _busch_, Eng.

BOSH, bosh, _n._ used also as _interj._ nonsense, foolish talk or opinions.
[Turk. _bosh_, worthless, frequent in Morier's popular novel _Ayesha_

BOSKY, bosk'i, _adj._ woody or bushy: shady.--_ns._ BOSK'ET, BOSK
(_Tennyson_), a thicket.

BOSOM, b[=oo]z'um, _n._ the breast of a human being, or the part of the
dress which covers it: (_fig._) the seat of the passions and feelings: the
heart: embrace, enclosure, as within the arms: any close or secret
receptacle.--_adj._ (in composition) confidential: intimate.--_v.t._ to
enclose in the bosom.--ABRAHAM'S BOSOM, the abode of the blessed dead.--TO
TAKE TO ONE'S BOSOM, to marry: to make an intimate friend of. [A.S. _bósm_;
Ger. _busen_.]

BOSON, b[=o]'sn, _n._ a corruption of BOATSWAIN.


BOSS, bos, _n._ a knob or stud: a raised ornament.--_v.t._ to ornament with
bosses.--_adj._ BOSS'Y, having bosses.--_p.adj._ BOSSED, embossed. [O. Fr.
_boce_ (Fr. _bosse_), from Old Ger. _bôzan_, to beat.]

BOSS, bos, _n._ the chief or leader: the master, manager, or foreman: the
person who pulls the wires in political intrigues.--_adj._ chief:
excellent.--_v.t._ to manage or control.--TO BOSS THE SHOW, to be supreme
director of an enterprise. [Amer.; from the New York Dutch _baas_, master;
cog. with Ger. _base_, a cousin.]

BOSTANGI, bos-tan'ji, _n._ a Turkish guard of the palace. [Turk.]

BOSTON, bost'on, _n._ a game at cards, somewhat similar to whist. [From
_Boston_ in Mass., U.S.]

BOSWELLIAN, bos-wel'li-an, _adj._ after the manner of _Boswell_, the famous
biographer of Samuel Johnson.--_v.i._ BOS'WELLISE, to write after the
manner of Boswell--full of an absolute admiration for one's hero and
interest in him descending to the smallest particulars.--_n._ BOS'WELLISM.


BOTANY, bot'an-i, _n._ the science of plants.--_adj._ BOTAN'IC.--_adv._
BOTAN'ICALLY.--_v.i._ BOT'ANISE, to seek for and collect plants for
study.--_ns._ BOT'ANIST, one skilled in botany; BOT'ANOMANCY, divination by
means of plants, esp. the leaves of the sage and fig.--BOTANY BAY, a famous
convict settlement in New South Wales, near to what is now Sydney: convict
settlements generally. [Gr. _botan[=e]_, herb, plant--_bosk-ein_, to feed,
L. _vescor_, I feed myself; perh. cog. with A.S. _woed_.]

BOTARGO, bot-ar'go, _n._ a relish made of mullet or tunny roe. [It.--Ar.]

BOTCH, boch, _n._ a swelling on the skin: a clumsy patch: ill-finished
work.--_v.t._ to patch or mend clumsily: to put together unsuitably or
unskilfully.--_ns._ BOTCH'ER, one who botches; BOTCH'WORK,
BOTCH'ERY.--_adj._ BOTCH'Y, marked with or full of botches. [From root of


BOTH, b[=o]th, _adj._ and _pron._ the two: the one and the other.--_conj._
as well: on the one side. [Ice. _bathi_, Ger. _beide_; A.S. _bâ_; cf. L.
_am-bo_, Gr. _am-ph[=o]_, Sans. _ubha_, orig. _ambha_.]

BOTHER, bo_th_'[.e]r, _v.t._ to perplex or tease.--_ns._ BOTH'ER;
BOTHER[=A]'TION.--_adj._ BOTH'ERSOME. [Murray notes that the word first
appeared in the writings of Irish-born men, as Dr Sheridan, Swift, and
Sterne. Perh. from Ir. _buaidhirt_, trouble.]

BOTHY, BOTHIE, both'i, _n._ a humble cottage or hut: a temporary house for
men engaged in some common work, esp. the barely furnished quarters
provided for farm-servants, generally unmarried men, in the eastern and
north-eastern counties of Scotland.--The BOTHY SYSTEM is apparently
economical, but is detrimental to health and to morality.

BOTONÉ, BOTTONY, bot'un-i, _adj._ (_her._) having buds or knobs at the
extremity, applied to a cross having each arm terminated in three buds,
like trefoil. [O. Fr. See BUTTON.]

BO-TREE, b[=o]'-tr[=e], _n._ the name given in Ceylon to the Pipal or
Peepul of India (_Ficus religiosa_), held sacred by the Buddhists, and
planted close by every temple. [Singh. _bo_, from Pali _bodhi_, perfect

BOTS, BOTTS, botz, _n._ the larvæ of the botfly found in the flesh and in
the intestines of animals.--_n._ BOT'FLY, a family of dipterous insects,
resembling the blue-bottle fly, which deposit their eggs on cattle. [Ety.
unknown; hardly conn. with BITE.]

BOTTINE, bot'[=e]n, _n._ a high boot, a half-boot. [Fr., dim. of _botte_, a

BOTTLE, bot'l, _n._ a bundle of hay.--TO LOOK FOR A NEEDLE IN A BOTTLE OF
HAY, to engage in a hopeless se_arch._ [O. Fr. _botel_.]

BOTTLE, bot'l, _n._ a hollow vessel for holding liquids: the contents of
such a vessel: the habit of drinking.--_v.t._ to enclose in bottles.--_n._
BOTT'LE-CHART, one which purports to show the track of sealed bottles
thrown from ships into the sea.--_p.adj._ BOTT'LED, enclosed in bottles:
shaped or protuberant like a bottle: kept in restraint.--_ns._
BOTT'LE-GLASS, a coarse green glass used in the making of bottles;
BOTT'LE-GOURD, or _False Calabash_, a climbing, musky-scented Indian
annual, whose fruit is shaped like a bottle, an urn, or a club.--_adjs._
BOTT'LE-GREEN, dark green in colour, like bottle-glass.--BOTT'LE-HEAD,
BOTT'LE-NOSED, having a rounded prominent head, with a short snout, as a
certain genus of whale.--_ns._ BOTT'LE-HOLD'ER, one who attends upon a
boxer at a prize-fight, a backer or supporter generally; BOTT'LE-IMP, an
imp supposed to be confined in a bottle; BOTT'LE-WASH'ER, one whose
business it is to wash out the bottles, a factotum generally.--A
THREE-BOTTLE MAN, one who could drink three bottles without losing his
decorum.--TO BOTTLE OFF, to draw from the cask and put into bottles; TO
BOTTLE UP (one's wrath, &c.), to keep enclosed as in a bottle; TO BRING UP
ON THE BOTTLE, to rear an infant artificially rather than by the breast; TO
PASS THE BOTTLE, to make the drink go round; TO PASS THE BOTTLE OF SMOKE,
to acquiesce in some falsehood, to make pretence. [O. Fr. _bouteille_, dim.
of _botte_, a vessel for liquids--Low L. _butis_, a vessel.]

BOTTOM, bot'um, _n._ the lowest part of anything: that on which anything
rests or is founded: the sitting part of the human body: the foot of a
page, &c.: low land, as in a valley: the keel of a ship, hence the vessel
itself: the fundamental character of anything, as physical stamina,
financial resources, &c.: the portion of a wig hanging down over the
shoulder, as in 'full-bottom'--full-bottomed wig: (_Shak._) a ball of
thread.--_v.t._ to found or rest upon: (_Shak._) to wind round or
upon.--_adj._ BOTT'OMED.--_ns._ BOTT'OM-GLADE, a glade or open space in a
bottom or valley; BOTT'OM-GRASS (_Shak._) grass growing on bottom
lands.--_adj._ BOTT'OMLESS.--_n._ BOTT'OMRY, a contract by which money is
borrowed on the security of a ship or bottom.--BOTTOMLESS PIT--hell.--AT
BOTTOM, in reality.--FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE HEART, from the very heart.--TO
BE AT THE BOTTOM OF, to be the real origin of; TO STAND ON ONE'S OWN
BOTTOM, to be independent of; TO TOUCH BOTTOM, to reach the lowest point.
[A.S. _botm_; Ger. _boden_; conn. with L. _fundus_, bottom, Gael. _bonn_,
the sole.]


BOUDOIR, b[=oo]d'war, _n._ a lady's private room. [Fr.--_bouder_, to pout,
to be sulky.]

BOUFFANT, boof'ang, _adj._ puffed out, in dressmaking. [Fr.]


BOUGAINVILLÆA, b[=oo]g-[=a]n-vil-[=e]'a, _n._ a neotropical genus of
Nyctaginaceæ, frequently trained over trellises or under the roofs of
greenhouses, their triplets of flowers almost concealed by rosy or purple
bracts. [From the first French circumnavigator of the globe, Louis Antoine
de _Bougainville_ (1729-1811).]

BOUGH, bow, _n._ a branch of a tree: the gallows. [A.S. _bóg_, _bóh_, an
arm, the shoulder (Ger. _bug_, the shoulder, the bow of a ship)--A.S.
_bugan_, to bend.]

BOUGHT, bawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BUY.--BOUGHT'EN in an archaic form.

BOUGHT, bowt, _n._ a bight or bend: (_Spens._) a twist or coil: the bend of
a sling in which the stone is placed. [See BIGHT.]

BOUGIE, b[=oo]'zhi, _n._ an instrument made of elastic, gum, wax, or metal,
for distending contracted mucous canals, as the gullet, bowels, or urethra.
[Fr. a 'wax candle,' because the instrument was orig. made of waxed linen,
from _Bougie_ in Algeria.]

BOUILLABAISSE, b[=oo]-lya-b[=a]s', _n._ a Provençal kind of fish chowder,
familiar through Thackeray's appreciative ballad. [Fr.]

BOUILLI, b[=oo]'-y[=e], _n._ boiled or stewed meat.--_n._ BOUILLON
(b[=oo]-yong), soup. [Fr. See BOIL.]

BOULDER, b[=o]ld'[.e]r, _n._ a large stone rounded by the action of water:
(_geol._) a mass of rock transported by natural agencies from its native
bed.--_adj._ containing boulders.--_n._ BOULD'ER-CLAY (see TILL, 4). [Acc.
to Wedgwood, from Swed. _bullra_, Dan. _buldre_, to roar like thunder, as
large pebbles do.]

BOULEVARD, b[=oo]l'e-vär, _n._ a broad walk or promenade bordered with
trees, originally applied to those formed upon the demolished
fortifications of a town.--_n._ BOUL'EVARDIER, a frequenter of the
boulevards. [Fr.--Ger. _bollwerk_. See BULWARK.]

BOULEVERSEMENT, b[=oo]l-vers-mang, _n._ an overturning. [Fr.]

BOULT, b[=o]lt, _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as BOLT (2).

BOUN, BOWNE, bown, _v.t._ (used _refl._) to prepare one's self, to have
recourse to.--_v.i._ to prepare, dress: to set out, to go to a
place--(_Spens._) BOUND. [_Boun_, earlier form of _bound_--revived by

BOUNCE, bowns, _v.i._ to jump or spring suddenly: to bound like a ball, to
throw one's self about: (_obs._) to beat: to burst into or out of a room,
&c.: to boast, to exaggerate.--_n._ a heavy, sudden blow: a leap or spring:
a boast: a bold lie.--_adv._ and _interj._ expressing sudden
movement.--_n._ BOUNC'ER, one who bounces: something big: a bully: a
liar.--_adj._ BOUNC'ING, large and heavy: lusty: swaggering. [Dut.
_bonzen_, to strike, from _bons_, a blow.]

BOUND, bownd, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BIND, confined, bandaged: intimately
connected with--'bound up in:' of books, having a cover of, as 'bound in
morocco,' &c. (with _in_): under obligation or necessity to, as 'bound to
win.'--_n._ BOUND'-BAIL'IFF, a sheriff's officer, so called from his bond
given to the sheriff for the discharge of his duty.

BOUND, bownd, _n._ a limit or boundary: the limit of anything, as
patience--'to break bounds,' to go beyond what is reasonable or allowable:
(_pl._) a border-land, land generally within certain understood limits, the
district.--_v.t._ to set bounds to: to limit, restrain, or surround.--_n._
BOUND'ARY, a visible limit: border: termination.--_p.adj._ BOUND'ED,
restricted, cramped.--_n._ BOUND'ER, a boisterous or overbearing
person.--_adj._ BOUND'LESS, having no limit: vast.--_n._ BOUND'LESSNESS.
[O. Fr. _bonne_--Low L. _bodina_, of doubtful origin; cf. Bret. _bonn_, a

BOUND, bownd, _v.i._ to spring or leap.--_n._ a spring or leap.--_p.adj._
BOUND'ING, moving forward with a bound: leaping.--BY LEAPS AND BOUNDS, by
startlingly rapid stages. [Fr. _bondir_, to spring, in O. Fr. to
resound--L. _bombit[=a]re_. See BOOM, the sound.]

BOUND, bownd, _adj._ ready to go--as in 'outward bound,' &c. [Ice. _búinn_,
pa.p of _búa_, to prepare.]

BOUNDEN, bownd'n, _adj._ binding: required: obligatory. [From BIND.]

BOUNTY, bown'ti, _n._ liberality in bestowing gifts: the gift bestowed:
money offered as an inducement to enter the army, or as a premium to
encourage any branch of industry.--_adjs._ BOUN'TEOUS, BOUN'TIFUL, liberal
in giving: generous.--_advs._ BOUN'TEOUSLY, BOUN'TIFULLY.--_ns._
in Farquhar's _Beaux' Stratagem_, now used for the great lady of any
district. [O. Fr. _bontet_ (_bonté_), goodness--L.

BOUQUET, b[=oo]k'[=a], _n._ a bunch of flowers: a nosegay: the perfume
exhaled by wine. [Fr. _bosquet_, dim. of _bois_, a wood--It. _bosco_. See

BOURASQUE, b[=oo]-rask', _n._ a tempest. [Fr. _bourrasque_; It. _borasco_,
a storm.]

BOURBONIST, b[=oo]r'bun-ist, _n._ an adherent of the _Bourbons_, the old
French royal dynasty.

BOURD, b[=oo]rd, _n._ (_Spens._) a jest, sport.--_n._ BOURD'ER (_obs._), a
jester. [O. Fr. _bourde_, origin unknown.]

BOURDON, b[=oo]r'dun, _n._ the refrain of a song: a bass stop in an organ
or harmonium. [See BURDEN.]

BOURDON, b[=oo]r'dun, _n._ (_obs._) a pilgrim's staff: a club. [Fr.--Low L.
_burdon-em_, a mule.]

BOURG, burg, _n._ Same as BURGH, BOROUGH.

BOURGEOIS, bur-jois', _n._ a kind of printing type, larger than brevier and
smaller than longprimer. [Fr.--perh. from the name of the typefounder.]

BOURGEOISIE, b[=oo]rzh'waw-z[=e], _n._ the middle class of citizens, esp.
traders. [From Fr. _bourgeois_, a citizen, often taken as a typical word
for the mercantile middle class--used also adjectively, like such in
manners or ways of thinking.]

BOURGEON, bur'jun, _v.i._ to put forth sprouts or buds: to grow. [Fr.
_bourgeon_, a bud, shoot.]

BOURIGNIAN, b[=oo]r-in'yan, _adj._ of or pertaining to Antoinette
_Bourignon_ (1616-80), a religious visionary who made religion consist in
inward emotion, not in knowledge or practice.--BOURIGN'IANISM was strong in
Scotland about the beginning of the 18th century, and ministers at
ordination renounced it down till 1889.


BOURN, BOURNE, b[=o]rn, or b[=oo]rn, _n._ a boundary, a limit, or goal:
(_Keats_) domain. [Fr. _borne_, a limit. See BOUND (2).]


BOURSE, b[=oo]rs, _n._ an exchange where merchants meet for business. [Fr.
_bourse_. See PURSE.]

BOURTREE, b[=oo]r'tr[=e], _n._ the elder-tree--also BOUN'TREE.--_n._
BOUR'TREE-GUN, a pop-gun made of a piece of its wood by taking out the
pith. [_Scot._; ety. unknown.]

BOUSE, BOOZE, BOOSE, b[=oo]z, _v.i._ to drink deeply.--_n._ a drinking
bout.--_adj._ BOUS'ING, drinking.--_n._ BOUS'INGKEN, a low
drinking-shop.--_adj._ BOUS'Y, inclined to bouse: drunken. [Dut. _buysen_,
to drink deeply--_buis_, a tube or flask; allied to BOX.]

BOUSTROPHEDON, bow-strof-[=e]'don, _adj._ and _adv._ written ploughwise,
alternately from right to left and from left to right--a form of alphabetic
writing intermediate between the oldest Greek inscriptions (from right to
left, as in Semitic scripts) and the more convenient method of left to
right (from 7th century). [Gr.; _bou-strophos_, ox-turning.]

BOUT, bowt, _n._ a turn, trial, or round: an attempt: a contest or trial--a
fencing bout, or a continued fit of drinking. [Doublet of BIGHT; from root
of BOW, to bend.]

BOUTADE, b[=oo]-tad', _n._ a sudden outburst. [Fr.; _bouter_, to thrust.]

BOUTS-RIMÉS, b[=oo]-r[=e]-m[=a]', _n.pl._ rhyming words given out by some
one of a party as the endings of a stanza, the others having to fill up the
lines as best they may. [Fr.]

BOVINE, b[=o]'v[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to cattle. [L. _bos_, _bovis_, Gr.
_bous_, an ox or cow.]

BOVRIL, bov'ril, _n._ a registered trade-mark applied to a special meat
extract. [Coined from Gr. _bous_, _bovis_, an ox, and _vril_, the electric
fluid represented as the one common origin of the forces in matter, in
Lytton's novel _The Coming Race_, 1871.]

BOW, bow, _v.i._ to bend the body in saluting a person, acknowledging a
compliment, &c.: to submit.--_v.t._ to bend or incline downwards, to crush
down (with _down_, _to_, _in_ or _out_, _up_ or _down_).--_n._ a bending of
the body in saluting a person.--_adj._ BOW'-BACKED, crook-backed.--A BOWING
ACQUAINTANCE, a slight acquaintance.--TO MAKE ONE'S BOW, to retire
ceremoniously, to leave the stage. [A.S. _búgan_, to bend; akin to L.
_fug-[)e]re_, to flee, to yield.]

BOW, b[=o], _n._ a piece of elastic wood or other material for shooting
arrows, bent by means of a string stretched between its two ends: anything
of a bent or curved shape, as the rainbow: the instrument by which the
strings of a violin are sounded: a ring of metal forming a handle: a knot
composed of one or of two loops and two ends (_single bow_, _double bow_),
a looped knot of ribbons, a necktie or the like, so tied.--_adj._ BOW'BENT
(_Milton_), bent like a bow.--_n._ BOW'-BOY, a boy archer: (_Shak._)
Cupid.--_n.pl._ BOW'-COM'PASSES, compasses, one leg of which slides on a
bow or curved plate of metal to steady its motion: a small pair of
compasses for describing circles with ink or pencil.--_adj._ BOWED.--_ns._
BOW'-HAND, in archery, the left hand, the one by which the bow is held:
(_mus._) the right hand, the one that draws the bow; BOW'-LEG, a leg
crooked like a bow.--_adj._ BOW'-LEGGED, having crooked legs.--_ns._
BOW'LINE, a rope from the weather side of the square sails (to which it is
fastened by _bridles_) to the larboard or starboard bow, to keep the sail
close to the wind; BOW'MAN, an archer; BOW'SHOT, the distance to which an
arrow can be shot from a bow; BOW'STRING, the string by which a bow is
drawn: a string with which the Turks strangled offenders; BOW'-WIN'DOW, a
bent or semicircular window.--_adj._ BOW'-WIN'DOWED (_slang_),
pot-bellied.--_n._ BOW'YER (_obs._), a bowman: a maker of bows.--BOWLINE
KNOT, a simple but secure knot, used in fastening the bowline bridles to
the cringles.--ON THE BOW HAND, wide of the mark.--TO DRAW THE LONG BOW, to
make extravagant statements; TO HAVE TWO (or more) STRINGS TO ONE'S BOW, to
have other alternatives. [A.S. _boga_; cog. with Ger. _bogen_.]

BOW, bow, _n._ the general name for the stem and forepart of a ship, or
that which cuts the water--often used in _pl._, the ship being considered
to have starboard and port bows, meeting at the stem.--_ns._ BOW'ER,
BOW'ER-ANCH'OR, an anchor at the bow or forepart of a ship--usually two,
the _best-bower_ and the _small-bower_; BOW'-OAR, the oar nearest the
bow.--A BOLD, or BLUFF, BOW, a broad bow; A LEAN BOW, a narrow one.--ON THE
BOW, within 45° of the point right ahead.

BOWDLERISE, bowd'l[.e]r-[=i]z, _v.t._ to expurgate a book or writing, to
remove indelicate words or phrases, esp. to do so unnecessarily.--_ns._
(1754-1825), who published an expurgated Shakespeare in ten volumes in

BOWELS, bow'elz, _n.pl._ the interior parts of the body, the entrails, the
intestines: the interior part of anything: (_fig._) the heart, pity,
tenderness (the emotions being supposed to be seated in the bowels--_B._
and _Shak._).--_v.t._ BOW'EL, to take out the bowels. [O. Fr. _boel_--L.
_botellus_, a sausage, also an intestine.]

BOWER, bow'[.e]r, _n._ a shady enclosure or recess in a garden, an arbour:
an inner apartment, esp. the private room of a lady, a boudoir.--_n._
BOW'ER-BIRD, an Australian bird of the Starling family, remarkable for its
habit of making bower-like erections ornamented with gay feathers, shells,
&c.--_adj._ BOW'ERY, containing bowers: shady. [A.S. _búr_, a chamber;
Scot, _byre_--root A.S. _búan_, to dwell.]

BOWER, bow'[.e]r, _n._ the name in euchre for the two highest cards, the
knave of trumps, and the other knave of the same colour, the _right_ and
_left_ bower respectively. [Ger. _bauer_, peasant.]


BOWIE-KNIFE, b[=o]'i-n[=i]f, _n._ a dagger-knife with a blade about twelve
inches long, carried in the southern states of America--so named from its
inventor, Colonel _Bowie_.

BOWL, b[=o]l, _n._ a wooden ball used for rolling along the ground.--_v.t._
and _v.i._ to play at bowls: to roll along like a bowl: to throw a ball, as
in cricket.--_ns._ BOWL'ER, one who plays at bowls: one who bowls the ball
in cricket; BOWL'ING, the act of playing at bowls, or of throwing a ball,
as in cricket; BOWL'ING-AL'LEY, a long narrow covered place for bowling;
BOWL'ING-GREEN, a green or grassy plat kept smooth for bowling. [Fr.
_boule_--L. _bulla_.]

BOWL, b[=o]l, _n._ a basin for domestic use, esp. of earthenware or
porcelain, nearly hemispherical in shape: a large punch-bowl, for brewing
punch in: a round drinking-cup, rather wide than deep--hence 'the bowl,'
'the flowing bowl,' as synonyms for conviviality; the round hollow part of
anything. [A.S. _bolla_. See BOLE.]

BOWLDER, b[=o]ld'[.e]r, _n._ Same as BOULDER.


BOWSPRIT, b[=o]'sprit, _n._ a strong spar projecting over the stem-head or
bows of a sailing-ship, and also of a steamship when her stem is of the
curved or cutwater description. [Dut. _boegspriet_.]

BOX, boks, _n._ a tree remarkable for the hardness and smoothness of its
wood--also BOX-TREE (_Shak._): a case or receptacle for holding anything:
the contents of a box: a small house or lodge, as a _shooting-box_, &c.: in
a theatre, a small enclosure with several seats--_the boxes_ = their
occupants, the ladies: an old square pew or similar enclosure, as a
_sentry-box_, _signal-box_, &c.: the driver's seat on a carriage: the case
in which the ship's compass is kept.--_v.t._ to put into or furnish with
boxes: (_slang_) to overturn a watchman in his box.--_ns._ BOX'-BED, a kind
of bed once common in Scotch cottages, having its ends, sides, and roof of
wood, and capable of being closed in front by two sliding panels; BOX'-DAY,
one of the Court of Session vacation days when papers ordered to be
deposited in court must be lodged.--_adj._ BOX'EN, made of or like
boxwood.--_ns._ BOX'ING-DAY, in England, the day after Christmas, when
boxes or presents are given; BOX'-[=I]'RON, a hollow smoothing-iron which
is heated by a heater put into it; BOX'-KEEP'ER, an attendant who opens the
doors of boxes at theatres or other places of public amusement;
BOX'-LOBB'Y, the lobby leading to the boxes in a theatre; BOX'WOOD, wood of
the box-tree.--IN THE WRONG BOX, in a false position, in a scrape.--TO BE
IN A BOX, to be in a fix; TO BOX HARRY, to take a beefsteak, mutton-chop,
or bacon and eggs with tea or ale, instead of the regulation dinner of the
commercial traveller; TO BOX THE COMPASS, to name the 32 points in their
order and backwards, hence to make a complete roundabout in any opinion.
[A.S. _box_--L. _buxus_--Gr. _pyxos_, the tree, _pyxis_, a box.]

BOX, boks, _n._ a blow on the head or ear with the hand.--_v.t._ to strike
with the hand or fist.--_v.i._ to fight with the fists.--_ns._ BOX'ER;
BOX'ING, the act of fighting with the fists: a combat with the fists;
BOX'ING-GLOVE, a padded glove worn in boxing.

BOXHAUL, boks'hawl, _v.t._ to veer a ship sharp round on her heel, by
putting the helm a-lee, bracing the head-yards flat aback, and hauling to
windward the head-sheets.

BOY, boy, _n._ a male child: a lad: a young man generally, used for 'man'
in Ireland and elsewhere: (_Shak._) a camp-follower: (_obs._) knave: a
native servant in South India, China, a male negro slave or native labourer
in the South Seas.--_v.t._ to play the boy.--_n._ BOY'HOOD.--_adj._
BOY'ISH.--_adv._ BOY'ISHLY.--_n._ BOY'ISHNESS.--BOY'S LOVE, a popular name
for southernwood; BOY'S PLAY, trifling. [M. E. _boi_, _boy_; Fris. _boi_;
Dut. _boef_, Ger. _bube_.]

BOYAR, boy'är, _n._ an order of the old Russian aristocracy, holding the
chief military and civil offices prior to the reforms of Peter the Great.

BOYCOTT, boy'kot, _v.t._ to shut out from all social and commercial
intercourse--a kind of secular excommunication. [From Captain _Boycott_ of
County Mayo, who was so treated by his neighbours in Dec. 1880.]

BRABBLE, brab'bl, _v.i._ to babble or clamour: to brawl or wrangle.--_n._
(_Shak._) a clamorous contest, a brawl: a quibble. [Dut. _brabbelen_, to
stammer, to jabber.]

BRACCIO, brach'yo, _n._ an Italian measure of length, varying from half a
yard to a yard:--_pl._ BRACCIA (brach-ya). [It., an arm.]


BRACE, br[=a]s, _n._ anything that draws together and holds tightly: a
bandage: a pair or couple: an instrument of wood or iron used by carpenters
and metal-workers for turning boring tools: in printing, a mark connecting
two or more words or lines (}): (_pl._) straps for supporting the trousers:
ropes for squaring or traversing horizontally the yards of a ship.--_v.t._
to tighten or strengthen, to give firmness to.--_adj._ BRAC'ING, giving
strength or tone. [O. Fr. _brace_ (Fr. _bras_), the arm, power--L.
_brachium_, Gr. _brachi[=o]n_, the arm, as holding together.]

BRACE, br[=a]s, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to embrace, encompass.

BRACELET, br[=a]s'let, _n._ an ornament for the wrist. [Fr.; dim. of O. Fr.
_brac_. See BRACE.]

BRACH, brach, _n._ a dog for the chase, a bitch-hound. [O. Fr. _brachet_,
pl. _brachès_, dim. of _brac_--Low L. _bracco_, of Teut. origin.]

BRACHIAL, brak'i-al, _adj._ belonging to the arm.--BRACHIAL ARTERY, the
great arterial trunk supplying the upper extremity between the armpit and
the elbow--the direct continuation of the axillary artery. [See BRACE.]

BRACHIOPODA, brak-i-op'o-da, BRACHIOPODS, brak'i-o-pods, _n.pl._ a class of
shelled animals having certain affinities with worms and with Polyzoa, but
less with molluscs, provided with two long arm-like processes arising from
the sides of the mouth, probably respiratory, and certainly serving to waft
little food particles to the mouth. [Gr. _brachi[=o]n_, an arm, and _pous_,
_pod-os_, a foot.]

BRACHYCEPHALIC, brak-i-sef-al'ik (also sef'-), BRACHYCEPHALOUS,
brak-i-sef'al-us, _adj._ short-headed, applied in ethnology to skulls of
which the breadth is at least four-fifths of the length--opp. to

BRACHYPTEROUS, brak-ip't[.e]r-us, _adj._ lit. short-winged: having wings
which, when folded, do not reach to the base of the tail. [Gr. _brachys_,
short, _pteron_, a wing.]

BRACK, brak, _n._ a flaw in cloth. [See BREAK.]

BRACKEN, brak'en, _n._ fern. [See BRAKE.]

BRACKET, brak'et, _n._ a support for something fastened to a wall, the
ornamental metal pipe bearing gas-lamps, &c.: (_pl._) in printing, the
marks [ ] used to enclose one or more words: one of the side pieces of a
gun-carriage, supporting the trunnions.--_v.t._ to support by brackets: to
enclose by brackets: to group two names, as in an honour list, implying
equality. [Fr. _braguette_; Sp. _bragueta_--L. _braca_, _bracæ_, breeches.]

BRACKISH, brak'ish, _adj._ saltish: applied to water mixed with salt or
with sea-water.--_n._ BRACK'ISHNESS. [Dut. _brak_, brackish; prob. the same
as _brak_, refuse.]

BRACT, brakt, _n._ an irregularly developed leaf at the base of the
flower-stalk.--_adjs._ BRAC'TEAL, BRAC'TEATE, BRACT'ED, BRAC'TEOLATE.--_n._
BRAC'TEOLE, a little bract at the base of the stalk of a single flower
which is itself on a main stalk supporting several flowers.--_adj._
BRACT'LESS, destitute of bracts. [L. _bractea_, a thin plate of metal,

BRAD, brad, _n._ a small nail having a slight projection at the top on one
side instead of a head.--_n._ BRAD'AWL, an awl to pierce holes. [Scot.
_brod_, an instrument for pricking with; Ice. _broddr_, a pointed piece of

BRADYPEPTIC, brad-i-pep'tik, _adj._ slow of digestion. [Gr. _bradys_, slow,
and PEPTIC.]

BRAE, br[=a], _n._ (_Scot._) the slope above a river bank, a hill-slope.
[Scand. _brá_.]

BRAG, brag, _v.i._ to boast or bluster:--_pr.p._ brag'ging; _pa.p._
bragged.--_n._ a boast or boasting: the thing boasted of: a game at cards,
very like poker.--_adj._ BRAG'GING.--_advs._ BRAG'GINGLY, BRAG'LY
(_Spens._). [Most prob. Celt.; cf. W. _bragio_, to boast; Ir. _bragaim_.
The Fr. _braguer_, to brag, and _bragard_, a braggart, are not the parents
of the Eng. word.]

BRAGGADOCIO, brag-a-d[=o]'shi-o, _n._ and _adj._ a braggart or boaster:
empty boasting. [From _Braggadochio_, a boastful character in Spenser's
_Faerie Queene_.]

BRAGGART, brag'art, _adj._ boastful.--_n._ a vain boaster.--_n._
BRAGG'ARDISM (_Shak._), boastfulness. [Fr. _bragard_, vain, bragging; prob.
of Celt. origin; Diez prefers Scand., and quotes Sw. _brak_, Dan. _brag_,

BRAHMAN, brä'man, BRAHMIN, brä'min, _n._ a person of the highest or
priestly caste among the Hindus.--_adjs._ BRAHMAN'IC, -AL, BRAHMIN'IC, -AL,
BRAH'MINEE, appropriated to the Brahmans.--_ns._ BRAH'MANISM, BRAH'MINISM,
one of the religions of India, the worship of Brahma. [From _Brahma_, the
supreme post-Vedic Hindu deity.]

BRAID, br[=a]d, _v.t._ to plait or entwine.--_n._ cord, or other texture
made by plaiting.--_p.adj._ BRAID'ED, plaited, embroidered, trimmed with
braid.--_n._ BRAID'ING, the act of making braids: embroidery with braid.
[A.S. _bregdan_; Ice. _bregða_, to weave.]

BRAID, br[=a]d, _adj._ (_Shak._) dissembling, deceitful. [A.S. _brægd_,
falsehood, from _bregdan_, _brægd_, to weave.]

BRAID, br[=a]d, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to upbraid, to reproach. [Prob. from
_Abraid_, or BRAID (1).]

BRAIDISM, br[=a]d'ism, _n._ mesmerism or hypnotism. [From Dr James _Braid_,
who practised it about 1842.]

BRAIL, br[=a]l, _n._ a piece of leather to bind up a hawk's wing: (_pl._)
the feathers about a hawk's rump: (_naut._) one of the ropes used to truss
up a sail.--_v.t._ to haul in, as a sail, by pulling upon the brails. [O.
Fr. _brail_--L. _bracale_, a waist-belt for holding up the

BRAILLE, br[=a]l, _n._ and _adj._ a kind of type for the blind, having
arbitrary signs consisting of varying combinations of six points arranged
thus ([Braille pattern]), there being sixty-two possible combinations of
these six points. [From Louis _Braille_, the inventor.]

BRAIN, br[=a]n, _n._ the term applied to that part of the central nervous
system which in vertebrated animals is contained within the cranium or
skull, and in the invertebrata, to the nervous ganglia near the head end of
the body: the seat of the intellect and of sensation: the
intellect.--_v.t._ to dash out the brains of: (_Shak._) to conceive
of.--_n._ BRAIN'-COR'AL, the popular name of certain kinds of coral, so
called from their general resemblance to a brain.--_p.adj._ BRAINED, having
brains.--_n._ BRAIN'-FE'VER, a loose popular term which includes congestion
of the brain and its membranes, delirium tremens, and inflammation of the
brain substance itself.--_adjs._ BRAIN'ISH (_Shak._), brain-sick,
hot-headed, furious; BRAIN'LESS, without brains or understanding:
silly.--_n._ BRAIN'-PAN, the skull.--_adj._ BRAIN'-SICK, diseased in the
understanding, deranged.--_adv._ BRAIN'SICK'LY (_Shak._).--_n._
BRAIN'-SICK'NESS. [A.S. _brægn_; Dut. _brein_, prov. Ger. _bregen_]

BRAIRD, br[=a]rd, _n._ the first shoots of corn or other crop.--_v.i._ to
appear above ground. [Orig. _Scot._; A.S. _brerd_, the edge, and _brord_, a

BRAISE, br[=a]z, _v.t._ to stew meat together with slices of bacon, &c.,
properly with a charcoal fire above and below the braising-pan.--_p.adj._
BRAISED. [Fr. _braiser_.]

BRAKE, br[=a]k, obsolete, _pa.t._ of BREAK.

BRAKE, br[=a]k, _n._ a fern: a place overgrown with ferns or briers; a
thicket.--_adj._ BRAK'Y. [A doublet of BRACKEN; ety. dub.]

BRAKE, br[=a]k, _n._ an instrument to break flax or hemp: a harrow: a
contrivance for retarding by friction the speed of carriages, wagons,
trains, or revolving drums.--_adj._ BRAKE'LESS, without a brake.--_ns._
BRAKE'MAN, the man whose business it is to manage the brake of a
railway-train; BRAKE'-VAN, the carriage wherein the brake is worked;
BRAKE'-WHEEL, the wheel to which a brake is applied. [From root of BREAK;
cf. Dut. _braak_, a flax-brake.]

BRAKE, br[=a]k, _n._ a handle, as of a pump: a lever for working a machine.
[Prob. through O. Fr. _brac_, from L. _brachium_, an arm.]

BRAMAH-PRESS, brä'ma-pres, _n._ a hydraulic press invented by Joseph
_Bramah_ of London (1748-1814), inventor also of the BRAMAH-LOCK, &c.

BRAMBLE, bram'bl, _n._ a wild prickly shrub bearing blackberries, a
blackberry bush: any rough prickly shrub.--_ns._ BRAM'BLE-BERR'Y,
BRAM'BLE-BUSH, a collection of brambles growing together; BRAM'BLE-FINCH,
BRAM'BLING, a bird nearly allied to the chaffinch.--_adj._ BRAM'BLY. [A.S.
_brémel_; Dut. _braam_, Ger. _brom-beere_.]

BRAME, br[=a]m, _n._ (_Spens._) sharp passion, longing. [It. _brama_.]

BRAN, bran, _n._ the refuse of grain: the inner husks of corn sifted from
the flour: the coarser part of anything.--_n._ BRAN'FULNESS.--_adj._
BRAN'NY. [O. Fr. _bran_, bran; prob. Celt.]

BRANCARD, brank'ard, _n._ a horse litter. [Fr.]

BRANCH, bransh, _n._ a shoot or arm-like limb of a tree: anything like a
limb of a tree: any offshoot or subdivision, a section or department of a
subject: any subordinate division of a business, &c., as a branch-bank or
pawn-shop.--_v.t._ to divide into branches.--_v.i._ to spread out as a
branch (with _out_, _off_, _from_).--_adj._ BRANCHED.--_ns._ BRANCH'ER, a
young hawk or other bird when it leaves the nest and begins to take to the
branches; BRANCH'ERY, branches collectively.--_adjs._ BRANCH'ING, furnished
with or shooting out branches; BRANCH'LESS.--_ns._ BRANCH'LET, a little
branch; BRANCH'-P[=I]'LOT, one who holds the Trinity House certificate;
BRANCH'-WORK, ornamental figured patterns.--_adj._ BRANCH'Y.--ROOT AND
BRANCH, thoroughly--used also adjectively, as in a 'root-and-branch'
policy. [Fr. _branche_--Low L. _branca_, a beast's paw--L. _brachium_.]

BRANCHIÆ, brangk'i-[=e], _n.pl._ gills.--_adjs._ BRANCH'IAL; BRANCH'IATE,
furnished with branchiæ.--_n._ BRANCHIOP'ODA, a sub-order of Crustaceans in
the order with leaf-like feet (Phyllopods), to which the gills are
attached. [L.--Gr.]

BRAND, brand, _n._ a piece of wood burning or partly burned: a mark burned
into anything with a hot iron: a trade-mark, made by burning or otherwise,
as on casks: a particular sort of goods, from the trade-marks by which they
are known, as cigars, &c.: a sword, so called from its glitter: a mark of
infamy: a general name for the fungoid diseases or blights of grain
crops--_bunt_, _mildew_, _rust_, and _smut_.--_v.t._ to burn or mark with a
hot iron: to fix a mark of infamy upon.--_adj._ BRAND'ED.--_n._ BRAND'ER, a
gridiron.--_v.t._ to cook on the gridiron, as beef-steaks.--_p.adjs._
iron to brand with: a trivet or tripod to set a pot or kettle upon:
(_Spens._) a sword--also BRAND'ISE, a trivet; BRAND'LING, a red worm used
by anglers, found commonly in tan-pits.--_adj._ BRAND'-NEW, quite new (as
if newly from the fire).--_n._ BRAND'RETH, a stand of wood for a cask or
hayrick, a rail round a well.--A BRAND FROM THE BURNING, one snatched out
of a pressing danger--from Amos, iv. 11. [A.S. _brand_, _brond_, from root
of BURN.]

BRANDISH, brand'ish, _v.t._ to wave or flourish as a brand or weapon.--_n._
a waving or flourish. [Fr. _brandissant_--_brandir_, from root of BRAND.]

BRANDY, brand'i, _n._ an ardent spirit distilled from wine.--_adj._
BRAN'DIED, heartened or strengthened with brandy.--_n._ BRAND'Y-PAWNEE',
brandy and water. [Formerly _brandwine_--Dut. _brandewijn_--_branden_, to
burn, to distil, and _wijn_, wine; cf. Ger. _branntwein_.]

BRANGLE, brang'l, _v.i._ (_arch._) to wrangle, squabble.--_n._ (_obs._) a
brawl.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ BRAND'LE, to shake, cause to waver: to
waver.--_n._ BRANG'LING, disputing. [Prob. the two words are the same; Fr.

BRANK, brangk, _n._ buckwheat. [Prob. Celt.; cf. L. _brance_, a Gallic name
of a white kind of corn.]

BRANK, brangk, _v.i._ to prance, toss the head: to strut or
swagger.--_adj._ BRANK'Y (_Scot._), showy. [Prob. a variant of PRANK.]


BRANKS, brangks, _n._ (seldom in _sing._) a scold's bridle, having a hinged
iron framework to enclose the head and a bit or gag to fit into the mouth
and compress the tongue. [Scot.; ety. very obscure; cf. M. E. _bernak_,
whence BARNACLE and BRAKE; Ger. _pranger_, the pillory, Dut. _prang_, a
fetter; the Gael. _brangus_, _brangas_, is most prob. borrowed.]

BRANKURSINE, brangk'ur-sin, _n._ the plant Acanthus, called also
_Bear's-breech_. [Low L. _branca_, _ursina_, a bear's paw.]

BRAN-NEW, bran'-n[=u], _adj._ corruption of BRAND-NEW.

BRANSLE, bran'sl, _n._ (_obs._) a dance: a song for dance music. [Fr.]


BRANTLE, bran'tl, _n._ a kind of dance.

BRASERO. Same as BRAZIER (q.v. under BRAZE).

BRASH, brash, _n._ broken and angular fragments of rock which occasionally
form the basement bed of alluvial deposits: fragments of crushed ice:
clippings of hedges or trees.--_adj._ BRASH'Y. [Prob. Fr. _brèche_.]

BRASH, brash, _n._ a slight attack of illness: an eructation or belching of
acid water from the stomach--water-brash: a sudden burst of rain: (_obs._)
an attack.--_v.t._ to disturb. [Scot.; prob. onomatopoeic.]

BRASS, bräs, _n._ an alloy of copper and zinc: (_fig._) impudence: money in
cash: a monumental plate of brass inlaid on slabs of stone in the pavements
of ancient churches.--_n.pl._ BRASS'ARTS, the brass pieces which, in plate
armour, protected the upper part of the arms, and united the shoulder and
elbow pieces.--_ns._ BRASS'-BAND, a band or company of musicians who
perform on brass instruments; BRASS'ET, a casque or armour covering for the
head: a helmet; BRASS'FOUND'ER, a maker of articles in brass.--_adjs._
BRASS'-PAVED (_Spens._), durable, as if paved with brass; BRASS'-VIS'AGED,
brazen-faced, impudent.--_n._ BRASS'Y, a wooden golf-club with a brass
sole.--_adj._ of or like brass: impudent: unfeeling: pitiless: harsh in
tone. [A.S. _braes_; prob. related to Sw. _brasa_, fire.]

BRASSERIE, bras'er-[=e], _n._ in France, any beer garden or saloon. [Fr.]

BRASSICA, bras'i-ka, _n._ the turnip and cabbage genus of Cruciferæ. [L.]


BRAT, brat, _n._ a contemptuous name for a child, as in 'beggar's brat:'
any over-garment of coarse cloth, a child's pinafore, an apron.--_n._
BRAT'CHET, a little brat--better BRAT'LING. [A.S. _bratt_; of Celtic
origin, Old Ir. _brat_, a plaid, Gael. _brat_, an apron.]

BRATTICE, brat'is, _n._ a wooden partition, as in the shaft of a coal-pit,
&c.--_v.t._ to line with wood the sides of a shaft, &c.--_n._
BRATT'ICE-CLOTH, strong tarred cloth used in mines in place of wooden
bratticing. [O. Fr. _breteske_--Low L. _bretachia_; prob. Teut.]

BRATTLING, brat'ling, _n._ a clattering noise: quarrel: tumult--also
BRAT'TLE.--_v.i._ BRAT'TLE, to make a clattering noise. [Onomatopoeic.]

BRAVADO, brav-[=a]'do, or brav-ä'do, _n._ a display of bravery: a boastful
threat: a swaggerer:--_pl._ BRAV[=A]'DOES.--_v.i._ to play the bravado.
[Sp. _bravada_. See BRAVE.]

BRAVE, br[=a]v, _adj._ daring, courageous: noble: finely dressed, showy,
handsome (Scot. BRAW): a general word for excellent, capital.--_v.t._ to
meet boldly: to defy.--_n._ (_obs._) a bully, a hired assassin: a brave
soldier, esp. among the North American Indians: (_arch._) bravado:
(_arch._) bravo.--_adv._ BRAVE'LY (Scot. BRAW'LY), excellently, well.--_n._
BRAV'ERY, courage: heroism: finery, showy dress. [Fr. _brave_; It. and Sp.
_bravo_; prob. from Celt., as in Bret. _braga_, to strut about, Gael.
_breagh_, fine. See BRAG.]

BRAVO, bräv'o, _n._ a daring villain: a hired assassin:--_pl._ BRAVOES
(bräv'[=o]z). [It. and Sp.]

BRAVO, bräv'o, _interj._ well done: excellent. [It.]

BRAVURA, bräv-[=oo]r'a, _n._ (_mus._) a term applied to a florid air or
song with difficult and rapid passages requiring great spirit and dash in
execution. [It.]

BRAWL, brawl, _n._ a noisy quarrel.--_v.i._ to quarrel noisily: to murmur
or gurgle.--_n._ BRAWL'ING, the act of quarrelling noisily.--_adj._
quarrelsome: noisy. [M. E. _brallen_, of doubtful origin; prob. cog. with
Dut. _brallen_, Ger. _prahlen_, to boast.]

BRAWL, brawl, _n._ a kind of French dance. [Fr. _braule_.]

BRAWN, brawn, _n._ muscle, esp. of the arm or calf of the leg: thick flesh:
muscular strength: a boar: a preparation of meat made from pig's head and
ox-feet, cut up, boiled, and pickled.--_adj._ BRAWNED.--_n._ BRAWN'INESS,
quality of being brawny: muscularity.--_adj._ BRAWN'Y, fleshy: muscular:
strong. [O. Fr. _braon_, from Old Ger. _brato_, flesh (for roasting), Old
Ger. _brâto_ (Ger. _braten_), to roast.]

BRAXY, brak'si, _n._ and _adj._ a Scotch name loosely used for several
totally different disorders of sheep.--BRAXY MUTTON, the flesh of a braxy
sheep; also, generally, of any sheep that has died of disease or accident.
[Prob. the original form is _bracks_, the sing. of which is a variant of

BRAY, br[=a], _v.t._ to break, pound, or grind small, as in a mortar.--_n._
BRAY'ER, an instrument to grind or spread ink in printing. [O. Fr. _breier_
(Fr. _broyer_); It. _brigare_.]

BRAY, br[=a], _n._ the cry of the ass: any harsh grating sound.--_v.i._ to
cry like an ass: to give forth harsh sounds, esp. of the trumpet.--_ns._
BRAY'ER, one who brays like an ass; BRAY'ING, the noise of an ass: any
harsh noise.--_adj._ making a harsh noise. [O. Fr. _brai_, _brait_;
_braire_--Low L. _bragire_, prob. of Celt. origin.]

BRAZE, br[=a]z, _v.t._ to solder with an alloy of brass and zinc.--_adj._
BR[=A]'ZEN, of or belonging to brass: impudent.--_v.t._ to face or confront
with impudence--as in 'to brazen it out.'--_n._ BR[=A]'ZEN-FACE, one having
a brazen or impudent face: one remarkable for impudence.--_adj._
BR[=A]'ZEN-FACED, impudent.--_adv._ BR[=A]'ZENLY.--_ns._ BR[=A]'ZENNESS,
BR[=A]'ZENRY, effrontery; BR[=A]'ZIER, BR[=A]'SIER, a pan for holding
burning coals--also BRAS'ERO; BR[=A]Z'ING, soldering. [O. Fr. _braser_, to
burn; most prob. related to BRASS.]

BRAZIER, br[=a]'zi-[.e]r, _n._ one who works in BRASS (q.v.).

BRAZIL, bra-zil', _n._ usually BRAZIL'-WOOD, the hard reddish wood of an
East Indian tree, known as sappan, used in dyeing.--_n._ BRAZIL'IAN, a
native of Brazil, in South America.--_adj._ belonging to Brazil.--_n._
BRAZIL'-NUT, the edible seed of a large tree, native of Brazil. [O. Fr.
_bresil_ (Sp. _brasil_, It. _brasile_)--Low L. _brasilium_, a red dye-wood,
brought from the East, itself prob. a corr. of some Oriental word. When a
similar wood was discovered in South America the country became known as
_terra de brasil_, land of red dye-wood, whence _Brasil_, Brazil.]

BREACH, br[=e]ch, _n._ a break or opening, as in the walls of a fortress: a
breaking of law, &c., violation of contract, covenant, promise, &c.: a
quarrel: a broken condition or part of anything, a break: a gap in a
fortification--hence 'to stand in the breach,' often used figuratively: a
break in a coast-line, bay, harbour, creek (Judges, v. 17).--_v.t._ to make
a breach or opening in a wall, &c.--BREACH OF PROMISE, often used simply
for breach of promise of marriage; BREACH OF THE PEACE, a violation of the
public peace by riot or the like. [A.S. _bryce_, _brice_; related to

BREAD, bred, _n._ food made of flour or meal baked: food:
livelihood.--_ns._ BREAD'-BAS'KET, a basket for holding bread: (_slang_)
the stomach; BREAD'-CHIP'PER (_Shak._), one who chips bread, an
under-butler; BREAD'-CORN, corn of which bread is made.--_n.pl._
BREAD'-CRUMBS, bread crumbled down for dressing dishes of fried fish,
&c.--_n._ BREAD'FRUIT-TREE, a tree of the South Sea Islands, producing a
fruit which, when roasted, forms a good substitute for bread; BREAD'-NUT,
the fruit of a tree, a native of Jamaica, closely allied to the
breadfruit-tree, which is used as bread when boiled or roasted;
BREAD'-ROOM, an apartment in a ship's hold where the bread is kept;
BREAD'-ROOT, a herbaceous perennial plant of North America, with a
carrot-like root which is used as food; BREAD'-STUD'Y, any branch of study
taken up as a means of gaining a living; BREAD'-STUFF, the various kinds of
grain or flour of which bread is made; BREAD'-TREE, a tree of South Africa
which has a great deal of starch in its stem, and is used as bread by the
natives; BREAD'-WIN'NER, one who earns a living for a family.--BREAD
BUTTERED ON BOTH SIDES, very fortunate circumstances.--TO TAKE THE BREAD
OUT OF ONE'S MOUTH, to deprive of the means of living. [A.S. _bréad_, prob.
from a Teut. root meaning a fragment, like the Scot. and Norse country use
of 'a _piece_,' for a bit of bread. The usual A.S. word was _hláf_.]

BREADED, bred'ed, _pa.p._ (_Spens._) = BRAIDED.

BREADTH, bredth, _n._ extent from side to side: width: a style in painting
in which details are strictly subordinated to the harmony of the whole
composition.--_adv._ BREADTH'WAYS, broadside on. [A.S. _br['æ]du_; Ger.
_briete_. See BROAD.]

BREAK, br[=a]k, _v.t._ to part by force: to shatter: to crush: to tame, or
wear out: to violate, or outrage, as a law, a bargain, &c.: to check by
intercepting, as a fall: to interrupt, as silence, or the monotony of
anything, or in 'to break one off a habit:' to make bankrupt: to degrade
from rank, as an officer.--_v.i._ to part in two: to burst forth: to open
or appear, as the morning: to become bankrupt: to crack or give way, as the
voice: to dissolve, as frost: to collapse in foam, as a wave: to fall out,
as with a friend:--_pa.t._ br[=o]ke; _pa.p._ br[=o]k'en.--_n._ the state of
being broken: an opening: a pause or interruption: (_billiards_) a
consecutive series of successful strokes, also the number of points
attained by such: the dawn.--_ns._ BREAK'AGE, the action of breaking, or
its consequences: an interruption; BREAK'-DOWN, a dance, vigorous rather
than graceful, in which much noise is made by the feet of the one
performer; BREAK'ER, a wave broken on rocks or the shore.--_adj._
BREAK'-NECK, likely to cause a broken neck.--_ns._ BREAK'-PROM'ISE,
BREAK'-VOW, one who makes a practice of breaking his promise or vow;
BREAK'WATER, a barrier to break the force of the waves.--BREAK A JEST, to
utter a jest unexpectedly; BREAK A LANCE WITH, to enter into a contest with
a rival; BREAK AWAY, to go away abruptly, as from prison, &c.: to be
scattered, as clouds after a storm; BREAK BULK, to open the hold and take
out a portion of the cargo; BREAK COVER, to burst forth from concealment,
as a fox; BREAK DOWN, to crush down or level: to collapse, to fail
completely; BREAK FORTH, to burst out, issue; BREAK GROUND, to commence
digging or excavation: to begin; BREAK IN, to train to labour, as a horse;
BREAK IN, IN UPON, or INTO, to enter violently or unexpectedly, to
interpose abruptly in a conversation, &c.; BREAK LOOSE, to extricate one's
self forcibly: to break through all restraint; BREAK NEWS, to make anything
known, esp. of bad news, with caution and delicacy; BREAK OFF, to separate
by breaking, put an end to; BREAK OUT, to appear suddenly: to break through
all restraint; BREAK SHEER (said of a ship riding at anchor), to be forced
by wind or tide out of a position clear of the anchor; BREAK THE HEART, to
destroy with grief; BREAK THE ICE (_fig._), to get through first
difficulties: BREAK UP, to break open; BREAK UPON THE WHEEL, to punish by
stretching a criminal on a wheel and breaking his bones; BREAK WIND, to
void wind from the stomach; BREAK WITH, to fail out, as friends may do.
[A.S. _brecan_; Ger. _brechen_.]

BREAK, BRAKE, br[=a]k, _n._ a large wagonette: a carriage frame, all wheels
and no body, used in breaking in horses. [BREAK, _v.t._]

BREAKER, br[=a]k'[.e]r, _n._ a small water-cask, used on shipboard. [Prob.
a corr. of Sp. _bareca_, a barrel.]

BREAKFAST, brek'fast, _n._ a break or breaking of a fast: the first meal of
the day.--_v.i._ to take breakfast.--_v.t._ to furnish with
breakfast.--_ns._ BREAK'FASTING, the act of taking breakfast: a party at
breakfast; BREAK'FAST-SET, the china or other ware used at breakfast.

BREAM, br[=e]m, _n._ a small fresh-water fish nearly allied to the bleak: a
family of sea-breams or Sparidæ. [O. Fr. _bresme_ (Fr. _brême_)--Old Ger.
_brahsema_ (mod. Ger. _brassen_).]

BREAM, br[=e]m, _v.t._ to clean, as a ship's bottom, by burning off
seaweed, shells, &c. [Prob. conn. with BROOM, Dut. _brem_.]

BREARE, BRERE, br[=e]r, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as BRIER.

BREAST, brest, _n._ the forepart of the human body between the neck and the
belly: one of the two mammary glands in women, forming soft protuberances
on the chest: the corresponding part of any animal: (_fig._) conscience,
disposition, affections.--_v.t._ to bear the breast against: to oppose
manfully: to mount.--_n._ BREAST'-BONE, the bone running down the middle of
the breast, to which the first seven ribs are attached.--_adv._
BREAST'-DEEP, deep, as up to the breast.--_adj._ BREAST'ED, having a
breast.--_adv._ BREAST'-HIGH, high as the breast--_ns._ BREAST'-KNOT, a
knot of ribbons worn on the breast; BREAST'PIN, an ornamental pin for the
breast; BREAST'PLATE, a plate or piece of armour for the breast: (_B._) an
embroidered square of linen worn on the breast of the Jewish high-priest,
bearing twelve precious stones, each inscribed with the name of one of the
tribes of Israel; BREAST'-PLOUGH, a kind of spade for cutting turf, with a
cross-bar against which the breast is pressed; BREAST'RAIL, the upper rail
of a breastwork; BREAST'SUMMER, BRES'SUMMER, a summer or beam supporting
the whole front of a building in the same way as a lintel supports the
portion over an opening; BREAST'-WALL, a retaining wall; BREAST'-WHEEL, a
water-wheel which is turned by water delivered upon it at about half its
height; BREAST'WORK, a hastily constructed earthwork.--TO MAKE A CLEAN
BREAST OF, to make a full confession. [A.S. _bréost_; Ger. _brust_, Dut.

BREATH, breth, _n._ the air drawn into and then expelled from the lungs:
power of breathing: life: the time occupied by once breathing: a very
slight breeze.--_adjs._ BREATH'FUL (_Spens._), full of breath or air, also
full of scent or odour; BREATH'LESS, out of breath: dead: excessively
eager, as if holding one's breath from excitement.--_n._
BREATH'LESSNESS.--TO CATCH THE BREATH, to stop breathing for an instant; TO
SPEND ONE'S BREATH, as in profitless talk; TO TAKE BREATH, to recover
freedom of breathing; WITH BATED BREATH, with breath restrained from
reverence or fear. [A.S. _br[/æ]th_; Ger. _brodem_, steam, breath.]

BREATHE, br[=e]_th_, _v.i._ to draw in and expel breath or air from the
lungs: to take breath, to rest or pause: to live.--_v.t._ to draw in and
expel from the lungs, as air: to infuse: to give out as breath: to utter by
the breath or softly, to whisper: to express: to keep in breath, to
exercise: to tire by some brisk exercise.--_ns._ BREATH'ER, one who
breathes or lives: a spell of exercise; BREATH'ING, the act of breathing:
aspiration, secret prayer: respite.--_adj._ life-like.--_ns._
BREATH'ING-TIME, time to breathe or rest; BREATH'ING-WHILE, time sufficient
for drawing breath: any very short period.--TO BREATHE AGAIN, to be
relieved from an anxiety; TO BREATHE FREELY, to be at ease; TO BREATHE
UPON, to tarnish or soil. [See BREATH.]

BRECCIA, brech'ya, _n._ a conglomerate rock composed of angular and unworn
fragments, cemented together by lime or other mineral substance.--_adj._
BRECCIATED (brech'y[=a]t-ed), noting rocks composed of breccia, [It.; cf.
Fr. _brèche_, breach, flint pebble.]

BRED, bred, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BREED.

BREDE, br[=e]d, _n._ an obsolete form of BRAID.

BREE, br[=e], _n._ the eyebrow. [Still in Scot.; A.S. _br['æ]w_, _bréaw_;
cf. Ger. (_augen_)_braue_.]

BREE, br[=e], _n._ the liquor in which anything has been
boiled--_barley-bree_. [A.S. _briw_; cf. Ger. _brei_.]

BREECH, br[=e]ch, _n._ the lower part of the body behind: the hinder part
of anything, esp. of a gun.--_v.t._ to put into breeches: to flog.--_adj._
BREECHED.--_n.pl._ BREECHES (brich'ez), a garment worn by men on the lower
limbs of the body, strictly, as distinguished from trousers, coming just
below the knee, but often used generally for trousers--(KNEE-BREECHES, see
under KNEE).--_n._ BREECH'ING, a part of a horse's harness attached to the
saddle, which comes round the breech and is hooked to the shafts: a strong
rope attached to the breech of a gun to secure it to a ship's side.--_adj._
(_Shak._) subject to whipping.--_n._ BREECH'-LOAD'ER, a firearm loaded by
introducing the charge at the breech instead of the muzzle.--BREECHES
BIBLE, a name often given to the Geneva Bible produced by the English
Protestant exiles in 1560, so named from the rendering 'breeches' in Gen.
iii. 7; BREECHES PART (_theat._), a part in which a girl wears men's
clothes.--TO WEAR THE BREECHES, (said of a wife), to usurp the authority of
the husband: to be master. [A.S. _bréc_; found in all Teut. languages; cf.
Ger. _bruch_, Dut. _brock_.]

BREED, br[=e]d, _v.t._ to generate or bring forth: to train or bring up: to
cause or occasion.--_v.i._ to be with young: to produce offspring: to be
produced or brought forth:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bred.--_n._ that which is
bred, progeny or offspring: kind or race.--_ns._ BREED'-BATE (_Shak._), one
who is constantly breeding or producing debate or strife; BREED'ER, one who
breeds or brings up; BREED'ING, act of producing: education or
manners.--BREEDING IN-AND-IN, pairing of similar forms: marrying always
among near relations. [A.S. _brédan_, to cherish, keep warm; Ger. _brüten_,
to hatch.]

BREEKS, br[=e]ks, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) breeches, trousers.

BREER, BRERE, br[=e]r, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to sprout.

BREEZE, br[=e]z, _n._ a gentle gale: a wind: a disturbance or quarrel: a
whispered rumour.--_adjs._ BREEZE'LESS, without a breeze: motionless;
BREEZ'Y, fanned with or subject to breezes.--TO BREEZE UP, to freshen into
a breeze. [Old Sp. _briza_, It. _brezza_ (Fr. _brise_, a cold wind).]

BREEZE, br[=e]z, _n._ (_Shak._) the gadfly.--Also written BREESE, BRIZE.
[A.S. _briosa_.]

BREGMA, breg'ma, _n._ the part of the skull where the frontal and the two
parietal bones join--sometimes divided into the right and left
bregmata.--_adj._ BREGMAT'IC. [Gr.]

BREHON, br[=e]'hon, _n._ an ancient Irish judge.--BREHON LAWS, the name
given by the English to the system of jurisprudence which prevailed among
the native Irish from an early period till towards the middle of the 17th
century. [Ir. _breitheamh_, pl. _breitheamhuin_.]

BRELOQUE, bre-lok', _n._ an ornament attached to a watch-chain. [Fr.]

BREME, BREEM, br[=e]m, _adj._ (_Spens._) fiery, stern, boisterous, sharp.
[Prob. related to A.S. _bréman_, to rage.]

BREN, bren, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to burn.--_pa.p._ and _adj._ BRENT. [See

BRENT, brent, _adj._ (_Scot._) lofty: smooth, unwrinkled. [A.S. _brant_,
steep; cog. with Ice. _brattr_.]

BRENT-GOOSE, brent'-g[=oo]s, _n._ a small species of wild goose, having the
head, neck, long wing feathers, and tail black, the belly white, the rest
slaty-gray--it visits the British coasts in winter.--Also BRANT'-GOOSE, or
BRENT BARNACLE, and often confounded with the barnacle goose. [Prob.
_branded_ = brindled.]


BRETHREN, bre_th_'ren, _pl._ of BROTHER (q.v.).

BRETON, bret'un, _adj._ belonging to Brittany or _Bretagne_, in France.


BRETWALDA, bret-wal'da, _n._ a title of supremacy applied by the
_Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ to Egbert and seven earlier kings, whose
superiority was more or less acknowledged by other kings. [Lit. 'Lord of
the _Britons_,' or 'of Britain.']

BREVE, br[=e]v, _n._ a pope's letter: the longest note now used in music,
[Breve]. [It. _breve_--L. _brevis_, short.]

BREVET, brev'et, _n._ a military commission entitling an officer to take
rank above that for which he receives pay.--_n._ BREVET'CY, the condition
of one holding brevet rank. [Fr.--L. _brevis_, short.]

BREVIARY, br[=e]v'i-ar-i, _n._ book containing the daily service of the
R.C. Church. [Fr. _bréviaire_--L. _brevis_, short.]

BREVIATE, br[=e]'vi-[=a]t, _n._ a short compendium: a lawyer's brief. [L.
_brevi[=a]tus_--_brevi[=a]re_, to shorten--_brevis_, short.]

BREVIER, brev-[=e]r', _n._ a small type between bourgeois and minion,
originally used in printing breviaries.

BREVITY, brev'it-i, _n._ shortness: conciseness. [L. _brevitas_--_brevis_,

BREW, br[=oo], _v.t._ to prepare a liquor, as from malt and other
materials: to contrive or plot.--_v.i._ to perform the operation of brewing
ale or beer: to be gathering or forming.--_ns._ BREW'AGE, something brewed:
mixed liquor; BREW'ER, one who brews; BREW'ERY, BREW'-HOUSE, a place for
brewing; BREW'ING, the act of making liquor from malt: the quantity brewed
at once; BREW'STER (now only _Scot._), a brewer. [A.S. _bréowan_; cf. Ger.

BRIAR. Same as BRIER (1).

BRIAREAN, br[=i]-[=a]'re-an, _adj._ relating to _Briareus_, a
hundred-handed giant: hence many-handed. [Gr.--_briaros_, strong.]


BRIBE, br[=i]b, _n._ something given to influence unduly the judgment or
corrupt the conduct: allurement.--_v.t._ to influence by a bribe: to gain
over.--_v.i._ to practise bribery.--_ns._ BRIB'ER, one who bribes;
BRIB'ERY, the act of giving or taking bribes; BRIB'ERY-OATH, an oath taken
by an elector that he has not been bribed. [O. Fr. _bribe_, a lump of
bread; origin dub.]

BRIC-À-BRAC, brik'a-brak, _n._ old curiosities, or other articles of value.
[Acc. to Littré, formed after the phrase _de bric et de broc_, 'by hook and
by crook.']

BRICK, brik, _n._ an oblong or square piece of burned clay: a loaf of bread
in the shape of a brick: (_slang_) a reliable friend, a good
fellow.--_v.t._ to lay or pave with brick.--_ns._ BRICK'BAT, a piece of
brick; BRICK'CLAY, a clay used in making bricks; BRICK'-DUST, dust made by
pounding bricks, a colour like that of brick-dust; BRICK'-EARTH, earth used
in making bricks; BRICK'-FIELD, a place where bricks are made; BRICK'-KILN,
a kiln in which bricks are burned; BRICK'LAYER, one who lays or builds with
bricks; BRICK'LAYING; BRICK'MAKER, one whose trade is to make bricks;
BRICK'-TEA, tea pressed into cakes; BRICK'-WORK, a structure formed of
bricks.--LIKE A BRICK, with good-will. [Fr. _brique_, from root of BREAK.]

BRICKLE, brik'l, _adj._ (_Spens._ and _Scot._) apt to break: weak:
troublesome. [Older form of BRITTLE.]

BRICOLE, brik'el, or brik-[=o]l', _n._ an ancient engine for throwing
stones: the rebound of a ball from the wall of a tennis-court, an indirect
stroke. [Fr.--Low L. _briccola_.]

BRIDAL, br[=i]d'al, _n._ a marriage feast: a wedding.--_adj._ belonging to
a bride or a wedding: nuptial. [BRIDE, and ALE, a feast.]

BRIDE, br[=i]d, _n._ a woman about to be married: a woman newly
married.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to act the bride.--_ns._ BRIDE'-ALE
(_obs._)--BRIDAL, the ale-drinking at a marriage feast; BRIDE'-BED, the
marriage bed; BRIDE'CAKE, the bride's cake, or cake distributed at a
wedding; BRIDE'-CHAM'BER, a nuptial apartment; BRIDE'GROOM, a man about to
be married: a man newly married; BRIDE'MAID, BRIDE'S'-MAID, BRIDE'MAN,
BRIDE'S'-MAN, young unmarried people who attend the bride and bridegroom at
a wedding. [A.S. _brýd_; Ice. _brúdr_, Ger. _braut_, a bride.]

BRIDEWELL, br[=i]d'wel, _n._ a house of correction: a gaol. [From a palace
near St _Bride's Well_ in London.]

BRIDGE, brij, _n._ a structure raised across a river, &c., or anything like
such: the narrow raised platform whence the captain of a steamer gives
directions: a thin upright piece of wood supporting the strings in a violin
or similar instrument.--_v.t._ to build a bridge over.--_n._ BRIDGE'-HEAD,
a fortification covering the end of a bridge nearest to the enemy's
position.--_adj._ BRIDGE'LESS, without a bridge.--_n._ BRIDGE'-OF-BOATS, a
bridge resting on boats moored abreast across a piece of water. [A.S.
_brycg_; Ger. _brucke_, Ice. _bryggja_.]

BRIDGE, brich, _n._ a modification of whist in which the dealer does not
turn up the last card, but has the option (which he may pass to his
partner) of declaring which suit shall be trumps.

BRIDLE, br[=i]'-dl, _n._ the apparatus on a horse's head, by which it is
controlled: any curb or restraint: a gesture expressing pride or
vanity.--_v.t._ to put on or manage by a bridle: to check or
restrain.--_v.i._ to hold up the head proudly or affectedly.--_ns._
BR[=I]'DLE-HAND, the hand which holds the bridle in riding--the left hand;
BR[=I]'DLE-PATH, a path or way for horsemen; BR[=I]'DLER, one who governs
or restrains as by a bridle; BRI'DLE-REIN, the strap of a bridle.--TO
BRIDLE UP (at something), to take something amiss. [A.S. _brídel_; Old High
Ger. _brittel_.]

BRIDOON, brid'[=oo]n, _n._ the light snaffle usual in a military bridle, in
addition to the ordinary bit, controlled by a separate rein. [Fr. _bridon_,
_bride_, a bridle.]

BRIEF, br[=e]f, _n._ a short account of a client's case for the instruction
of counsel: a writ: a short statement of any kind.--_adj._ short:
concise.--_adj._ BRIEF'LESS.--_adv._ BRIEF'LY.--_n._ BRIEF'NESS.--IN BRIEF,
in few words.--KING'S BRIEFS, royal mandates ordering collections to be
made in chapels for building churches, &c.; PAPAL BRIEF, such documents as
are issued without some of the solemnities proper to bulls.--THE BRIEF AND
THE LONG (_Shak._), the short and the long.--TO BE BRIEF, to speak in a few
words; TO HOLD A BRIEF, to be retained as counsel in a case; TO TAKE A
BRIEF, to undertake a case. [Fr. _bref_--L. _brevis_, short.]

BRIER, br[=i]'er, _n._ a prickly shrub: a common name for the wild rose:
(_Scot._) the thorn of the brier--also BR[=I]'AR.--_adjs._ BR[=I]'ERY,
BR[=I]'ERED, having briers. [A.S. _brér_.]

BRIER, BRIAR, br[=i]'[.e]r, _n._ the white heath, a shrub grown in France,
from the root of which tobacco-pipes are made: a pipe of this wood. [Fr.
_bruyère_, heath.]


BRIG, brig, _n._ a two-masted, square-rigged vessel. [Shortened from

BRIGADE, brig-[=a]d', _n._ a body of troops consisting of two or more
regiments of infantry or cavalry, and commanded by a general officer, two
or more of which form a division: a band of people more or less
organised.--_v.t._ to form into brigades.--_ns._ BRIGADE'-M[=A]'JOR, a
staff-officer attached to a brigade; BRIGADIER', BRIGADIER'-GEN'ERAL, a
general officer of the lowest grade, who has command of a brigade. [Fr.
_brigade_--It. _brigata_--Low L. _briga_, strife.]

BRIGAND, brig'and, _n._ a robber or freebooter.--_ns._ BRIG'ANDAGE,
freebooting: plundering; BRIG'ANDINE, BRIG'ANTINE, a coat-of-mail, composed
of linen or leather, with steel rings or plates sewed upon it. [Fr.--It.
_brigante_--_briga_, strife.]

BRIGANTINE, brig'an-t[=i]n, _n._ a two-masted vessel, with the mainmast of
a schooner and the foremast of a brig. [Fr. _brigantin_--It. _brigantine_,
a pirate ship.]

BRIGHT, br[=i]t, _adj._ shining: full of light: clear: beautiful: cheerful:
clever: illustrious.--_adv._ (_Shak._) brightly: clearly.--_v.t._
BRIGHT'EN, to make bright or brighter.--_v.i._ to grow bright or brighter:
to clear up.--_adv._ BRIGHT'LY.--_n._ BRIGHT'NESS.--_adj._ BRIGHT'SOME,
bright: brilliant. [A.S. _beorht_; cog. with Goth. _bairhts_, clear, L.
_flagr_-_[=a]re_, to flame.]

BRIGHT'S-DISEASE, br[=i]ts'-diz-[=e]z', _n._ a generic name for a group of
diseases of the kidneys, which may be defined as comprising cases where
structural changes in the kidneys, usually inflammatory, but without
suppuration, lead to the presence of albumen in the urine. [From Dr Richard
_Bright_ (1789-1858).]

BRIGUE, brig, _v.i._ to intrigue.--_n._ strife, intrigue.--_n._ BRIGU'ING,
canvassing. [Fr. _brigue_; derivation uncertain.]

BRILL, bril, _n._ a fish of the same kind as the turbot, spotted with
white. [Ety. unknown.]


BRILLIANT, bril'yant, _adj._ sparkling: glittering: splendid.--_n._ a
diamond of the finest cut (as opposed to _rose-cut_ or other
patterns).--_ns._ BRILL'IANCY, BRILL'IANCE.--_adv._ BRILL'IANTLY.--_n._
BRILL'IANTNESS.[Fr. _brillant_, pr.p. of _briller_, to shine, which, like
Ger. _brille_, an eyeglass, is from Low L. _beryllus_, a beryl.]

BRIM, brim, _n._ the margin or brink of a river or lake: the upper edge of
a vessel: the rim of a hat.--_v.t._ to fill to the brim.--_v.i._ to be full
to the brim:--_pr.p._ brim'ming; _pa.p._ brimmed.--_adj._ BRIM'FUL, full to
the brim.--_n._ BRIM'FULNESS (_Shak._), fullness to the top.--_adjs._
BRIM'LESS, without a brim; BRIMMED, brimful: having a brim--used in
composition.--_n._ BRIM'MER, a bowl full to the brim or top.--_adj._
BRIM'MING. [M. E. _brymme_--_bremman_, to roar.]

BRIMSTONE, brim'st[=o]n, _n._ sulphur: (_fig._) a virago.--FIRE AND
BRIMSTONE! an ejaculation. [Lit. burning stone; from A.S. _brýne_, a
burning--_byrnan_, to burn, and STONE; cf. Ger. _bernstein_.]

BRINDED, brin'ded, BRINDLED, brin'dld, _adj._ marked with spots or
streaks.--_n._ BRIN'DLE, state of being brindled. [See BRAND.]

BRINE, br[=i]n, _n._ salt water: the sea.--_ns._ BRINE'-PIT, a pit or pan
in which brine is evaporated, so as to form salt: a salt spring;
BRINE'-SHRIMP, a small crustacean.--_adjs._ BRIN'ISH, like brine: somewhat
salt; BRIN'Y, pertaining to brine or to the sea: salt.--THE BRINY
(_slang_), the sea. [A.S. _brýne_, a burning; applied to salt liquor, from
its burning, biting quality.]

BRING, bring, _v.t._ to fetch: to carry: to procure: to occasion: to draw
or lead:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ brought (brawt).--BRING ABOUT, to bring to
pass, effect; BRING DOWN, to humble; BRING FORTH, to give birth to,
produce; BRING HOME, to prove, to impress; BRING IN, to introduce; BRING
OFF, to bring away, as by a boat from a ship, to rescue; BRING ON, to cause
to advance; BRING OUT, to express: to produce before the public, as a book,
a play, a subscription: to introduce a young woman formally into so-called
society; BRING OVER, to convert; BRING ROUND, to restore from illness;
BRING TO, to check the course of, as a ship, by trimming the sails so as to
counteract each other; BRING UNDER, to subdue; BRING UP, to rear or
educate. [A.S. _bringan_, to carry, to bring; allied perh. to BEAR.]

BRINJARRY, brin-zhar'i, _n._ a travelling dealer in grain and salt in
Southern India. [Hind. _b[=a]nj[=a]ra_.]

BRINK, bringk, _n._ the edge or border of a steep place or of a river:
(_fig._) the very verge of time, at the very point of something--e.g. TO BE
ON THE BRINK OF DEATH. [Dan. _brink_, declivity; Ice. _bringa_, a hillock.]

BRIO, br[=i]'o, _n._ liveliness, vivacity. [It. _brio_.]

BRIOCHE, bri-osh', _n._ a sponge-cake. [Fr.]


BRIQUETTE, bri-ket', _n._ a brick-shaped block of coal formed from
coal-dust. [Fr. _briquette_, dim. of _brique_, a BRICK.]

BRISK, brisk, _adj._ full of life and spirit: active: sharp: effervescing,
as liquors.--_v.t._ to enliven, freshen.--_v.i._ to cheer up.--_adjs._
BRISK'ISH, BRISK'Y, (_Shak._).--_adv._ BRISK'LY.--_n._ BRISK'NESS. [Dr
Murray notes that the word is first found in the end of the 16th century;
prob. W. _brysg_, swift of foot; cf. Gael. _brisg_, Ir. _briosg_.]

BRISKET, brisk'et, _n._ the breast of an animal: the part of the breast
next to the ribs. [Fr. _brechet_, _brichet_.]

BRISTLE, bris'l, _n._ a short, stiff hair, as of swine.--_v.i._ to stand
erect, as bristles.--_v.t._ to cover, as with bristles: to make
bristly:--_pr.p._ bris'tling; _pa.p._ brist'led.--_adj._ BRISTLED
(bris'ld), furnished with bristles.--_n._ BRIST'LINESS.--_adj._ BRIST'LY,
set with bristles: rough.--TO SET UP ONE'S BRISTLES, to show temper. [A.S.
_byrst_; Scot. _birse_; cog. with Ger. _borste_, Ice. _burst_.]

BRISTOL-BOARD, bris'tul-b[=o]rd, _n._ a smooth pasteboard.--_ns._
BRIS'TOL-BRICK, an earthy material for scouring cutlery, like bath-brick;
BRIS'TOL-D[=I]'AMOND, a kind of crystal found near Bristol. [From the town
of _Bristol_, in England.]

BRISURE, bri-zh[=u]r', _n._ (_fort._) any part of a rampart or parapet
which breaks off at an angle from the general direction: (_her._) a
variation of a coat-of-arms, showing the relation of a younger to the main
line. [Fr.--_briser_, to break.]

BRITANNIA-METAL, brit-an'i-a-met'l, _n._ a metallic alloy largely used in
the manufacture of spoons, &c.

BRITANNIC, brit-an'ik, _adj._ pertaining to _Britannia_ or Great Britain:
British.--_adj._ BRITISH, in ethnography, Old Celtic as opposed to
Anglo-Saxon: pertaining to Great Britain or its people--_ns._ BRIT'ISHER, a
British subject (Amer.); BRIT'ON, a native of Britain.

BRITTLE, brit'l, _adj._ apt to break: easily broken: frail.--_ns._
BRITT'LENESS; BRITT'LE-STARS, or _Sand-stars_, one of the classes of
Echinodermata, including forms not far removed from starfishes. [A.S.
_bréotan_, to break.]

BRITZKA, BRITZSKA, brits'ka, _n._ an open four-wheeled carriage with
shutters to close at pleasure, and only one seat.--Also BRITSCHKA, BRITSKA.
[Polish _bryczka_, dim. of _bryka_, a wagon.]

BROACH, br[=o]ch, _n._ a tapering, pointed instrument, used chiefly for
boring: a spit: a church spire.--_v.t._ to pierce as a cask, to tap: to
open up or begin: to utter.--_n._ BROACH'ER, a broach or spit: one who
broaches or utters.--TO BROACH THE ADMIRAL, to steal some liquor from a
cask while being carried by rail or otherwise, or when in store; TO BROACH
TO, to turn a ship to windward. [Fr. _brocher_, to pierce, _broche_, an
iron pin--L. _brocchus_, a projecting tooth.]

BROAD, brawd, _adj._ wide: large, free or open: outspoken: coarse,
indelicate: of pronunciation, e.g. a broad accent.--_advs._ BROAD,
BROAD'LY.--_ns._ BROAD'-AR'ROW, a mark, thus ([Broad arrow]), stamped on
materials belonging to Government; BROAD'-BRIM, a hat with a broad brim,
such as those worn by Quakers: (_coll._) a Quaker.--_adj._ BROAD'CAST,
scattered or sown abroad by the hand: dispersed widely.--_adv._ by throwing
at large from the hand, only in phrases, as, 'to scatter broadcast,'
&c.--_v.t._ to scatter freely.--_n._ BROAD'CLOTH, a fine kind of woollen
fulled cloth, used for men's garments.--_v.t._ BROAD'EN, to make broad or
broader.--_v.i._ to grow broad or extend in breadth.--_adj._ BROAD'-EYED
(_Shak._), having a wide or extended survey.--_ns._ BROAD'-GAUGE (see
GAUGE); BROAD'NESS.--_n.pl._ BROADS, lake-like expansions of rivers.--_ns._
BROAD'SIDE, the side of a ship: all the guns on one side of a ship of war,
or their simultaneous discharge: a sheet of paper printed on one side,
otherwise named BROAD'SHEET; BROAD'SWORD, a cutting sword with a broad
blade: a man armed with such a sword.--BROAD CHURCH, a party within the
Church of England which advocates a broad and liberal interpretation of
dogmatic definitions and creed subscription--the name was first used in
1833 by W. J. Conybeare. [A.S. _brád_, Goth. _braids_.]

BROBDINGNAGIAN, brob-ding-n[=a]'ji-an, _n._ an inhabitant of the fabulous
region of _Brobdingnag_ in _Gulliver's Travels_, the people of which were
of great stature--hence a gigantic person.--_adj._ gigantic.--_adj._
BROBDINGNAG', immense.

BROCADE, brok-[=a]d', _n._ a silk stuff on which figures are
wrought.--_adj._ BROCAD'ED, woven or worked in the manner of brocade:
dressed in brocade. [It. _broccato_, Fr. _brocart_, from It. _broccare_,
Fr. _brocher_, to prick, stitch; from root of BROACH.]

BROCAGE, br[=o]k'[=a]j, _n._ Obsolete spelling of BROKAGE (q.v. under

BROCARD, brok'ärd, _n._ an elementary law or principle: a canon: (_Fr._) a
gibe. [Fr. _brocard_, Low L. _brocarda_, from _Brocard_ or Burchard, Bishop
of Worms, who published a book of ecclesiastical rules.]

BROCCOLI, brok'o-li, _n._ a cultivated kind of cabbage resembling
cauliflower, of which it is originally a hardy variety. [It.; _pl._ of
_broccolo_, a sprout, dim. of _brocco_, a skewer, a shoot.]

BROCH, broh, _n._ the local name applied in the north of Scotland to the
ancient dry-built circular castles, known also to the Gaelic-speaking
people as _duns_, and to antiquaries as _Pictish towers_.--Also BROGH and
BROUGH. [Old Norse _borg_; A.S. _burh_.]

BROCH, br[=o]ch, obsolete spelling of BROACH.

BROCHURE, bro-sh[=oo]r', _n._ a pamphlet. [Lit. a small book stitched,
Fr.--_brocher_, to stitch--_broche_, a needle. See BROACH.]

BROCK, brok, _n._ a badger--hence, from the smell, a dirty, stinking
fellow.--_adj._ BROCKED (_Scot._), variegated, having a mixture of black
and white. [From the Celt., as in Gael. _broc_, a badger, which is from
Gael. _breac_, speckled.]

BRODE, br[=o]d, _adv._ (_Spens._). Same as ABROAD.

BRODEKIN, BRODKIN, br[=o]d'kin, _n._ a buskin. [Fr. _brodequin_.]

BROG, brog, _n._ a pointed steel instrument used for piercing holes:
(_Scot._) an awl.--_v.t._ to prick. [Ety. dub.; the Gael. _brog_; an awl,
is prob. borrowed.]

BROGUE, br[=o]g, _n._ a stout coarse shoe: a dialect or manner of
pronunciation, esp. the Irish. [Ir. and Gael. _brog_, a shoe.]

BROIDER, broid'[.e]r, BROIDERY, broid'[.e]r-i. Same as EMBROIDER,
EMBROIDERY.--BROIDERED (_B._) = _Embroidered_.

BROIL, broil, _n._ a noisy quarrel: a confused disturbance--(_Scot._)
BRUL'YIE, BRUL'ZIE.--_n._ BROIL'ER, one who stirs up broils. [Fr.
_brouiller_, to trouble.]

BROIL, broil, _v.t._ to cook over hot coals: to grill.--_v.i._ to be
greatly heated. [Ety. dub.]

BROKE, br[=o]k, _pa.t._ and old _pa.p._ of BREAK.--_p.adj._ BROK'EN, rent
asunder: infirm: humbled or crushed: dispersed, routed: altered in
direction: shattered in estate or position: incomplete, fragmentary:
uncertain.--_adjs._ BROK'EN-BACKED, having the back broken, applied to a
ship so loosened in her frame as to droop at both ends; BROK'EN-DOWN,
decayed, ruined in character or strength; BROK'EN-HEART'ED, crushed with
grief: greatly depressed in spirit.--_adv._ BROK'ENLY.--_ns._ BROK'EN-MAN,
one under outlawry, esp. in the Highlands and Border country; BROK'EN-MEAT,
the leavings of a banquet; BROK'ENNESS.--_adj._ BROK'EN-WIND'ED, having
short breath or disordered respiration, as a horse.

BROKER, br[=o]k'[.e]r, _n._ one employed to buy and sell for others: a
second-hand dealer: a pander: a commissioner.--_v.i._ BROKE, to bargain,
negotiate: (_Shak._) to act as a pander or go-between:--_pr.p._
br[=o]k'ing; _pa.p._ br[=o]ked.--_ns._ BROK'ERAGE, BROK'AGE, the business
of a broker: the commission charged by a broker: a commission charged for
transacting business for others; BROK'ERY, the business of a
broker.--_p.adj._ BROK'ING, doing business as a broker: practised by
brokers. [M. E. _brocour_--A.S. _brucan_; Ger. _brauchen_, to use, to


BROME-GRASS, br[=o]m'-gras, _n._ a kind of grass bearing a strong
resemblance to oats. [Gr. _br[=o]mos_, and _bromos_, grass.]

BROMINE, br[=o]m'in, _n._ one of the elements, closely allied to chlorine,
so called from its disagreeable smell.--_adj._ BROM'IC, pertaining to
bromine.--_ns._ BROM'ATE, a combination of bromic acid with a salifiable
base; BROM'IDE, a combination of bromine with a base.--BROMIC ACID, an acid
composed of bromine and oxygen. [Gr. _br[=o]mos_, a disagreeable odour.]

BRONCHIÆ, brongk'i-[=e], _n.pl._ a name given to the ramifications of the
windpipe which carry air into the lungs.--_adjs._ BRONCH'IC,
BRONCH'IAL.--_n._ BRONCH[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the bronchiæ. [L.--Gr.
_bronchia_, the bronchial tubes.]

BRONCHO, BRONCO, brong'ko, _n._ (_U.S._) a half-tamed horse. [Sp. _bronco_,
rough, sturdy.]


BRONZE, bronz, _n._ an alloy of copper and tin used in various ways since
the most ancient times: anything cast in bronze: the colour of bronze:
(_fig._) impudence.--_adj._ made of bronze: coloured like bronze.--_v.t._
to give the appearance of bronze to: (_fig._) to harden.--_adj._ BRONZED,
coated with bronze: hardened.--_ns._ BRONZE'-STEEL, or _Steel-bronze_, a
specially hardened bronze; BRONZE'-WING, BRONZE'-PI'GEON, a species of
Australian pigeon having wings marked with a lustrous bronze
colour.--_v.t._ BRONZ'IFY, to make into bronze.--_ns._ BRONZ'ING, the
process of giving the appearance of bronze; BRONZ'ITE, a lustrous kind of
diallage.--_adj._ BRONZ'Y, having the appearance of bronze.--BRONZE AGE or
PERIOD, a term in prehistoric archæology denoting the condition or stage of
culture of a people using bronze as the material for cutting implements and
weapons--as a stage of culture coming between the use of stone and the use
of iron for those purposes--not an absolute division of time, but a
relative condition of culture. [Fr.--It. _bronzo_--L. _Brundusium_, the
modern _Brindisi_.]

BROO, br[=oo] (mod. Scot.--vowel sounded like Ger. _ü_), _n._ (_Scot._)
broth. [Ety. dub.: prob. O. Fr. _bro_, _breu_, broth; prob conn. with

BROOCH, br[=o]ch, _n._ an ornamental pin or instrument for fastening any
article of dress, consisting for the most part either of a ring or disc, or
of a semicircle, there being a pin in either case passing across it,
fastened at one end with a joint or loop, and at the other with a
hook.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to adorn as with a brooch. [Fr. _broche_, a spit.

BROOD, br[=oo]d, _v.t._ to sit upon or cover in order to breed or hatch: to
hatch: to cover, as with wings: to mature or foster with care: to meditate
moodily upon.--_v.i._ to sit as a hen on eggs: to hover over: to think
anxiously for some time: to meditate silently (with _on_, _over_): to be
bred.--_n._ something bred: offspring, children, or family: a race, kind:
parentage: the number hatched at once.--_adj._ for breeding, as in
_brood_-mare, &c.--_adv._ BROOD'INGLY.--_adj._ BROOD'Y, inclined to sit or
incubate. [A.S. _bród_; Dut. _broed_; what is hatched.]

BROOK, br[=oo]k, _n._ a small stream.--_ns._ BROOK'LET, a little brook;
BROOK'LIME, a species of speedwell found in ditches. [A.S. _bróc_, water
breaking forth; Dut. _broek_, Ger. _bruch_.]

BROOK, br[=oo]k, _v.t._ to enjoy: to bear or endure. [A.S. _búrcan_, to
use, enjoy; Ger. _brauchen_, L. _frui_, _fructus_.]

BROOL, br[=oo]l, _n._ a deep murmur. [Ger. _brüll_, a roar.]

BROOM, br[=oo]m, _n._ a name given to a number of species of shrubs of the
closely allied genera Cytisus, Genista, and Spartium: a besom made of its
twigs.--_v.t._ to sweep with a broom.--_ns._ BROOM'-CORN, a species of
plant resembling maize, cultivated for its seed and its spikes, of which
brooms are made; BROOM'-RAPE, a parasitic plant found adhering to the root
of broom, clover, &c.; BROOM'STAFF, BROOM'STICK, the staff or handle of a
broom.--_adj._ BROOM'Y, abounding in or consisting of broom.--TO MARRY OVER
THE BROOMSTICK, or TO JUMP THE BESOM, to go through an irregular form of
marriage, in which both jump over a broomstick. [A.S. _bróm_; Ger. _bram_.]

BROOSE, brüz, _n._ (_Scot._) a race at weddings in Scotland. [Derivation

BROSE, br[=o]z, _n._ a simple and nutritious food, made by pouring boiling
water or milk on oatmeal, seasoned with salt and butter.--ATHOLE BROSE, a
mixture of whisky and honey. [Scot.; O. Fr. _broez_.]

BROTH, broth, _n._ an infusion or decoction of vegetable and animal
substances in water.--A BROTH OF A BOY (_Irish_), a first-rate fellow.
[A.S. _broth_--_bréowan_, to brew. See BREW.]

BROTHEL, broth'el, _n._ a house of ill-fame. [M. E. _brothel_--A. S.
_broð-en_, ruined, _bréðen_, to go to ruin.]

BROTHER, bruth'[.e]r, _n._ a male born of the same parents: any one closely
united with or resembling another; associated in common interests,
occupation, &c.: a fellow-member of a religious order, a fellow-member of a
guild, &c.: a fellow-creature, fellow-citizen, a co-religionist: (_B._) a
kinsman: _pl._ BROTH'ERS and BRETH'REN, the latter esp. used in the sense
of fellow-membership of guilds, religious communities, &c., and is a name
given to certain sections of the Church of Christ, as Christian Brethren,
Moravian Brethren, Plymouth Brethren, &c.--_ns._ BROTH'ER-GER'MAN, a
brother having the same father and mother, in contradistinction to a
_half-brother_, by one parent only; BROTH'ERHOOD, the state of being a
brother: an association of men for any purpose; BROTH'ER-IN-LAW, the
brother of a husband or wife: a sister's husband.--_adjs._ BROTH'ER-LIKE,
BROTH'ERLY, like a brother: kind: affectionate.--_n._ BROTH'ERLINESS, state
of being brotherly: kindness. [A.S. _broðor_; cog. with Ger. _bruder_,
Gael. _brathair_, Fr. _frère_, L. _frater_, Sans. _bhrátar_.]

BROUGHAM, br[=oo]'am, or br[=oo]m, _n._ a one-horse close carriage, either
two or four wheeled, named after Lord _Brougham_ (1778-1868).

BROUGHT, brawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BRING.

BROW, brow, _n._ the eyebrow: the ridge over the eyes: the forehead: the
edge of a hill: a gallery in a coalmine running across the face of the
coal: (_fig._) aspect, appearance.--_v.t._ BROW'BEAT, to bear down with
stern looks or speech: to bully.--_adjs._ BROW'-BOUND, having the brow
bound as with a crown: crowned; BROW'LESS, without shame. [A.S. _brú_; Ice.

BROWN, brown, _adj._ of a dark or dusky colour, inclining to red or yellow:
dark-complexioned: sunburnt.--_n._ a dark-reddish colour: (_slang_) a
copper.--_v.t._ to make brown, or give a brown colour to: to roast
brown.--_ns._ BROWN'-BESS, the old British flint-lock musket--from the
brown walnut stock; BROWN'-BILL, a foot-soldier's or watchman's halbert,
painted brown; BROWN'-BREAD, bread of a brown colour, made of unbolted
flour; BROWN'-COAL, commonly called _Lignite_, an imperfect kind of coal
which exhibits more of its woody structure than ordinary coal;
BROWN'-GEORGE, a hard biscuit: a brown earthen vessel; BROWN'ING, the
process of imparting a brown colour to iron articles: a preparation for
giving a brown colour to gravy, &c., or for dressing brown leather.--_adj._
BROWN'ISH.--_ns._ BROWN'NESS; BROWN'-P[=A]'PER, coarse and strong paper
used chiefly for wrapping; BROWN'-SPAR, a name given to certain varieties
of dolomite or magnesian limestone, distinguished by their brownish colour;
BROWN'-STOUT, a kind of porter; BROWN'-STUD'Y, gloomy reverie:
absent-mindedness.--_adj._ BROWN'Y (_Shak._), of a brown colour.--TO DO
BROWN (_slang_), to do thoroughly, to deceive or take in completely. [A.S.
_brún_; Dut. _bruin_, Ger. _braun_.]

BROWNIE, brown'i, _n._ a kind of domestic spirit in the folklore of
Scotland, represented as a good-humoured, drudging goblin, who attached
himself to farmhouses, and occupied himself overnight in churning,
thrashing corn, and the like. [_Brown._]

BROWNIST, brown'ist, _n._ one holding the Church principles of Robert
_Browne_ (1550-1633), which may be said to have given birth to the
Independents or Congregationalists of England.

BROWSE, browz, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to feed on the shoots or leaves of
plants.--_ns._ BROWSE, BROWS'ING, the shoots and leaves of plants: fodder:
the action of the verb browse. [O. Fr. _brouster_ (Fr.
_brouter_)--_broust_, a sprout.]

BROWST, browst, _n._ (_Scot._) a brewing. [BREW.]

BRUCKLE, bruk'l, _adj._ (_Scot._) liable to break, brittle. [A.S.
_brucol_--_brekan_, to BREAK.]

BRUIN, br[=oo]'in, _n._ a bear, so called from the name of the bear in the
famous beast-epic _Reynard the Fox_, just as _reynard_ and _chanticleer_
have also passed from proper names into common names, often written without
capitals. [_Bruin_ = _brown_.]

BRUISE, br[=oo]z, _v.t._ to crush by beating or pounding: to oppress: to
box or fight with the fists: to ride recklessly in hunting, careless alike
of horse and crops: to reduce to small fragments.--_n._ a wound made by
anything heavy and blunt.--_p.adj._ BRUISED, hurt by a heavy blow, with
skin crushed and discoloured.--_n._ BRUIS'ER, one that bruises: a
boxer.--_p.adj._ BRUIS'ING, boxing. [A.S. _brýsan_, to crush, with which,
says Dr Murray, afterwards coalesced Fr. _brisie-r_; _bruisier_, _bruser_,
to break.]

BRUIT, br[=oo]t, _n._ noise: something noised abroad: a rumour or
report.--_v.t._ to noise abroad: to report: to celebrate. [Fr. _bruit_--Fr.
_bruire_; cf. Low L. _brug[=i]tus_; prob. imit.]

BRULZIE, BRUILZIE, brül'yi, _n._ Scotch and northern form of BROIL.

BRUMAIRE, br[=oo]m[=a]r', _n._ the second month in the French revolutionary
calendar, extending from Oct. 22 to Nov. 20. [Fr. _brume_, fog--L. _bruma_,

BRUME, br[=oo]m, _n._ fog.--_adjs._ BRUM'AL, relating to winter; BRUM'OUS,
foggy, wintry. [L. _bruma_, winter, contr. from _brevima_, the shortest

BRUMMAGEM, brum'a-jem, _adj._ showy but worthless, sham, counterfeit. [From
a popular pronunciation of _Birmingham_.]

BRUNETTE, br[=oo]n-et', _n._ a girl with a brown or dark complexion. [Fr.
dim. of _brun_, brown.]

BRUNONIAN, br[=oo]-no'ni-an, _adj._ relating to the system of medicine
founded by Dr John _Brown_ of Edinburgh (1736-88)--all diseases _sthenic_,
those depending on an excess of excitement, or _asthenic_, those resulting
from a deficiency of it.

BRUNT, brunt, _n._ the shock of an onset or contest: the force of a blow:
the chief stress or crisis of anything.--_v.t._ to bear the brunt of. [Ice.
_bruna_, to advance like fire, is usually given; Dr Murray suggests that it
may be an onomatopoeia of Eng. itself (cf. DUNT), or connected with
_burnt_--Scot. _brunt_.]

BRUSH, brush, _n._ an instrument for removing dust, usually made of
bristles, twigs, feathers, or stiff grass stems: a kind of hair-pencil used
by painters: a painter, one who uses the brush: brushwood: a skirmish or
encounter: the tail of a fox: (_elect._) a brush-like discharge of sparks:
one of the bundles of copper wires or flexible strips in contact with the
commutator of the armature on opposite sides, and which carry off the
positive and negative currents of electricity generated.--_v.t._ to remove
dust, &c., from by sweeping: to touch lightly in passing: remove (with
_off_): to thrash.--_v.i._ to move over lightly: to make off with a
rush.--_n._ BRUSH'ING, the act of rubbing or sweeping.--_adj._ in a lively
manner: brisk.--_ns._ BRUSH'-WHEEL, a wheel used in light machinery to turn
another by having the rubbing surface covered with stiff hairs or bristles;
BRUSH'WOOD, rough close bushes: a thicket.--_adj._ BRUSH'Y, rough,
rugged.--TO BRUSH UP, to brighten, revive. [O. Fr. _brosse_, a brush,
brushwood--Low L. _bruscia_; Diez connects the Fr. with Old High Ger.
_burst_, _bursta_, bristle.]

BRUSQUE, br[=oo]sk, _adj._ blunt, abrupt in manner, rude.--_adv._
BRUSQUE'LY.--_ns._ BRUSQUE'NESS; BRUSQUE'RIE. [Fr. _brusque_; rude. See

BRUSSELS, brus'elz, _n._ contracted from BRUSSELS-CARPET, a kind of carpet
in which the worsted threads are arranged in the warp, and are interwoven
into a network of linen. Still, the bulk of the carpet consists of
wool.--_n.pl._ BRUSS'ELS-SPROUTS, a variety of the common cabbage with
sprouts like miniature cabbages. [Named from _Brussels_ in Belgium.]

BRUST, brust, _pa.p._ (_Spens._). Same as BURST.

BRUTE, br[=oo]t, _adj._ belonging to the lower animals: irrational: stupid:
rude.--_n._ one of the lower animals.--_adj._ BRUT'AL, like a brute:
unfeeling: inhuman.--_v.t._ BRUT'ALISE, to make like a brute, to
degrade.--_v.i._ to live like a brute.--_n._ BRUTAL'ITY.--_adv._
BRUT'ALLY.--_n._ BRUTE'NESS, brute-like state: brutality: (_Spens._)
stupidity.--_v.t._ BRUT'IFY, to make brutal, stupid, or
uncivilised:--_pr.p._ brutify'ing; _pa.p._ brutif[=i]ed'.--_adj._ BRUT'ISH,
brutal: (_B._) unwise.--_adv._ BRUT'ISHLY.--_n._ BRUT'ISHNESS.--THE BRUTE
CREATION, the lower animals. [Fr. _brut_--L. _brutus_, dull, irrational.]

BRUTUS, br[=oo]'tus, _n._ a kind of wig: a way of wearing the hair brushed
back from the forehead, popular at the time of the French Revolution, when
it was an affectation to admire the old Romans, as _Brutus_.

BRYOLOGY, br[=i]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the study of mosses. [Gr. _bryon_, moss, and
_logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

BRYONY, br[=i]'o-ni, _n._ a wild climbing plant, common in English
hedgerows.--BLACK BRYONY, a climbing plant similar to bryony in habit and
disposition, but which may be readily distinguished by its simple, entire,
heart-shaped leaves, which are smooth and somewhat glossy. [L.--Gr.

BRYOZOA, br[=i]-[=o]-z[=o]'a, _n.pl._ an old name for the Polyzoa, from
their resemblance to mosses.

BRYTHONIC, br[=i]th-on'ik, _adj._ a name introduced by Prof. Rhys for the
second of the two great divisions of Celtic ethnology. The _Goidelic_ or
_Gadhelic_ group embraces Irish, Manx, and Gaelic; the _Brythonic_ group,
Welsh, Breton, and Cornish. [_Brython_, one of the Welsh words for the
Welsh and so-called Ancient Britons.]

BUB, bub, _n._ (_slang_) strong drink.

BUBALIS, b[=u]'bal-is, _n._ a genus in the Antelope division of
hollow-horned, even-toed Ruminants, not to be confused with the genus
_Bubalus_, the Buffalo. [Gr.]

BUBBLE, bub'l, _n._ a bladder of water blown out with air: anything empty:
a cheating scheme.--_adj._ unsubstantial, deceptive.--_v.i._ to rise in
bubbles.--_v.t._ to cheat with bubble schemes:--_pr.p._ bubb'ling; _pa.p._
bubb'led.--_adj._ BUBB'LY.--_n._ BUBB'LY-JOCK, a Scotch name for a
turkey-cock.--BUBBLE AND SQUEAK, meat and cabbage fried together.--TO
BUBBLE OVER, as of a pot boiling, with anger, mirth, &c. [Cf. Sw. _bubbla_,
Dut. _bobbel_.]

BUBO, b[=u]'bo, _n._ an inflammatory swelling of the glands in the groin or
armpit.--_adj._ BUBON'IC, accompanied by buboes.--_n._ B[=U]B'UKLE, a
ridiculous word of Fluellen's for a red pimple, corrupted from _bubo_ and
_carbuncle_. [L.--Gr. _boub[=o]n_, the groin.]

BUCCAL, buk'al, _adj._ pertaining to the cheek. [L.]

BUCCANEER, BUCCANIER, buk-an-[=e]r', _n._ one of the piratical adventurers
in the West Indies during the 17th century, who plundered the Spaniards
chiefly.--_v.i._ to act as a buccaneer.--_n._ BUCCANEER'ING.--_adj._
BUCCANEER'ISH. [Fr. _boucaner_, to smoke meat--Carib. _boucan_, a wooden
gridiron. The French settlers in the W.I. cooked their meat on a _boucan_
in native fashion, and were hence called _boucaniers_.]

BUCCINATOR, buk-sin-[=a]'tor, _n._ the name of a flat muscle forming the
wall of the cheek, assisting in mastication and in the blowing of
wind-instruments.--_adj._ BUCCINAT'ORY. [L.;--_buccinare_.]

BUCENTAUR, b[=oo]-sen'tawr, _n._ a mythical monster half man and half bull:
the state barge of Venice used annually on Ascension Day in the ancient
ceremony of the marriage of the state with the Adriatic. [It. _bucentoro_,
usually explained as from Gr. _bous_, an ox, _kentauros_, a centaur.]

BUCEPHALUS, b[=u]-sef'a-lus, _n._ the famous war-horse of Alexander the
Great: a familiar name for a riding-horse. [Gr.; _bous_, ox, _kephal[=e]_,

BUCK, buk, _n._ the male of the deer, goat, hare, and rabbit--often used
specifically of the male of the fallow-deer: a dashing young
fellow.--_v.i._ (of a horse or mule--a BUCK'JUMPER) to attempt to throw by
a series of rapid jumps into the air, coming down with the back arched, the
head down, and the forelegs stiff: (_U.S._) to make obstinate resistance to
any improvements.--_ns._ BUCK'EEN, a poor Irish gentleman, without means to
support his gentility; BUCK'-EYE, the American horse-chestnut; BUCK'HORN,
the material of a buck's horn; BUCK'-HOUND, a small kind of staghound used
for hunting bucks; BUCK'-SHOT, a large kind of shot, used in shooting deer;
BUCK'SKIN, a soft leather made of deerskin or sheepskin: a strong twilled
woollen cloth, cropped of nap and carefully finished.--_adj._ made of the
skin of a buck.--_n.pl._ BUCK'SKINS, breeches made usually of the cloth,
not of the leather.--_ns._ BUCK'THORN, a genus of shrubs, the berry of
which supplies the sap-green used by painters; BUCK'-TOOTH, a projecting
tooth. [A.S. _buc_, _bucca_; Dut. _bok_, Ger. _bock_, a he-goat.]

BUCK, buk, _v.t._ to soak or steep in lye, a process in bleaching.--_n._
lye in which clothes are bleached.--_n._ BUCK'-BAS'KET, a basket in which
clothes are carried to be bucked. [Ety. obscure; M. E. _bouken_; cog. words
are Ger. _bäuchen_, _beuchen_.]

BUCKBEAN, buk'b[=e]n, _n._ the marsh-trefoil, a plant common in bogs in
Britain. [Corr. of _Bogbean_.]

BUCKET, buk'et, _n._ a vessel for drawing or holding water, &c.; one of the
compartments on the circumference of a water-wheel, or one of the scoops of
a dredging-machine: the leather socket for holding the whip in driving, or
for the carbine or lance when mounted: a name given to the pitcher in some
orchids.--_ns._ BUCK'ETFUL, as much as a bucket will hold; BUCK'ETING
(_U.S._), jerky rowing; BUCK'ET-SHOP, slang term for the offices of
'outside brokers'--mere agents for bets on the rise or fall of prices of
stock, &c.; BUCK'ET-WHEEL, a contrivance for raising water by means of
buckets attached to the circumference of a wheel.--GIVE THE BUCKET, to
dismiss; KICK THE BUCKET (_slang_), to die. [Prob. conn. with A.S. _búc_, a
pitcher; or O. Fr. _buket_, a pail. Not Gael. _bucaid_, a bucket.]

BUCKIE, buk'i, _n._ (_Scot._) a shellfish such as the whelk: a refractory
person. [Scot., prob. related somehow to L. _buccinum_, a shellfish.]

BUCKLE, buk'l, _n._ a metal instrument consisting of a rim and tongue, used
for fastening straps or bands in dress, harness, &c.--_v.t._ to fasten with
a buckle: to prepare for action: to engage in close fight.--_v.i._ to bend
or bulge out: to engage with zeal in a task.--_n._ BUCK'LER, a small shield
used for parrying. [Fr. _boucle_, the boss of a shield, a ring--Low L.
_buccula_, dim. of _bucca_, a cheek.]

BUCKRA, buk'ra, _n._ a word used by West Indian and American negroes for a
white man--said in a dialect of the Calabar coast to mean 'demon.'

BUCKRAM, buk'ram, _n._ a coarse open-woven fabric of cotton or linen made
very stiff with size, used for the framework of ladies' bonnets, for the
inside of belts and collars of dresses, and for bookbinding: stiffness in
manners and appearance.--_adj._ made of buckram: stiff: precise.--_v.t._ to
give the quality of buckram. [O. Fr. _boquerant_.]


BUCKWHEAT, buk'hw[=e]t, _n._ a species of Polygonum, grown in Germany,
Brittany, &c., for feeding horses, cattle, and poultry--buckwheat cakes are
esteemed on American breakfast-tables. [Prob. Dut. _boekweit_, or Ger.

BUCOLIC, -AL, b[=u]-kol'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to the tending of
cattle: pastoral: rustic, countrified.--_n._ BUCOL'IC, a pastoral poem.
[L.--Gr. _boukolikos_--_boukolos_, a herdsman.]

BUD, bud, _n._ the first shoot of a tree or plant: used of young people, as
a term of endearment.--_v.i._ to put forth buds: to begin to grow.--_v.t._
to put forth as buds: to graft, as a plant, by inserting a bud under the
bark of another tree:--_pr.p._ bud'ding; _pa.p._ bud'ded.--_n._ BUD'DING, a
method of propagation by means of buds.--_adjs._ BUD'DY; BUD'LESS.--TO NIP
IN THE BUD, to destroy at its very beginning. [M. E. _budde_; prob. related
to Dut. _bot_, a bud.]

BUDDHA, b[=oo]d'da, _n._ an epithet applied to Sakyamuni or Gautama, the
founder of the Buddhist religion.--_ns._ BUD'DHISM, the religion founded by
Buddha; BUD'DHIST, a believer in Buddhism.--_adjs._ BUDDHIST'IC, BUD'DHIST,
pertaining to Buddhism.--ESOTERIC BUDDHISM (see THEOSOPHY). [Sans.
_buddha_, wise, from _budh_, to know.]

BUDDLE, bud'l, _v.t._ to wash ore with a _buddle_ or inclined hutch over
which water flows.

BUDGE, buj, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to move or stir.--_n._ BUDG'ER, one who
stirs. [Fr. _bouger_--It. _bulicare_, to boil, to bubble--L. _bullire_.]

BUDGE, buj, _n._ lambskin fur.--_adj._ pompous: stiff. [Derivation

BUDGET, buj'et, _n._ a sack with its contents: a compact collection of
things: a socket in which the end of a cavalry carbine rests: that
miscellaneous collection of matters which aggregate into the annual
financial statement made to parliament by the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
[Fr. _bougette_, dim. of _bouge_, a pouch--L. _bulga_.]

BUFF, buf, _n._ a pliant and uncracking leather used for soldiers' belts
and other military purposes, made out of salted and dried South American
light ox and cow hides: a military coat: the colour of buff: a light
yellow: the bare skin: (_pl._) certain regiments in the British army, so
named from their buff-coloured facings--e.g. East Kent Regiment, Ross-shire
Buffs.--_ns._ BUFF'-COAT, a strong military coat: a soldier; BUFF'-WHEEL,
BUFF'-STICK, a wheel or stick covered with buff-leather or the like, and
sprinkled with emery, for polishing.--IN BUFF, naked. [Fr. _buffle_, a

BUFF, buf, _n._ (_obs._) a buffet, blow, or stroke.--_v.t._ to strike. [O.
Fr. _buffe_, a blow.]

BUFFALO, buf'a-l[=o], _n._ a genus of the ox kind, the tame, often
domesticated Asiatic buffalo, and the entirely wild and fierce Cape
buffalo. The so-called American buffalo is really a 'bison.' [It.
_buffalo_, through L. from Gr. _boubalos_.]

BUFFER, buf'[.e]r, _n._ a mechanical apparatus for deadening the force of a
concussion, as in railway carriages: a fellow, as in 'old buffer.'--_n._
BUFF'ER-STATE, a neutral country lying between two others, whose relations
are or may become strained.

BUFFET, buf'et, _n._ a blow with the fist, a slap.--_v.t._ to strike with
the hand or fist: to contend against.--_n._ BUFF'ETING, a striking with the
hand, boxing: contention. [O. Fr. _bufet_--_bufe_, a blow, esp. on the

BUFFET, buf'et, _n._ a kind of sideboard: a low stool: a refreshment-bar
(in this sense often pronounced buf'[=a]). [Fr. _buffet_; origin unknown.]

BUFFOON, buf-[=oo]n', _n._ one who amuses by jests, grimaces, &c.: a clown:
a fool.--_ns._ BUFF'O, the comic actor in an opera; BUFFOON'ERY, the
practices of a buffoon; ludicrous or vulgar jesting. [Fr. _bouffon_--It.
_buffone_, _buffare_, to jest.]

BUG, bug, _n._ an object of terror.--_ns._ BIG-BUG (_slang_), an
aristocrat; BUG'ABOO, a bogy, or object of terror; BUG'BEAR, an object of
terror, generally imaginary.--_adj._ causing fright. [M. E. _bugge_, prob.
W. _bwg_, a hobgoblin.]

BUG, bug, _n._ a name applied loosely to certain insects, esp. to one
(_Cimex lectularius_) that infests houses and beds: in America applied to
any insect.

BUGGERY, bug'g[.e]r-i, _n._ the crime of bestiality, unnatural vice. [Fr.
_bougre_--L. _Bulgarus_, a Bulgarian, a heretic.]

BUGGY, bug'i, _n._ a name given to several kinds of light carriages or
gigs--in America, a light one-horse, four-wheeled vehicle with one seat; in
England, two-wheeled; in India, provided with a hood to ward off the sun.
[By some conn. with BOGIE; ety. really quite unknown.]

BUGLE, b[=u]'gl, BUGLE-HORN, b[=u]'gl-horn, _n._ a hunting-horn, originally
a buffalo-horn: a treble musical instrument, usually made of copper, like
the trumpet, but having the bell less expanded and the tube shorter and
more conical: (_Spens._) a buffalo or wild ox--dim. B[=U]'GLET.--_v.i._
B[=U]'GLE, to sound a bugle.--_n._ B[=U]'GLER, one who plays upon the
bugle. [O. Fr. _bugle_;--L. _buculus_, dim. of _bos_, an ox.]

BUGLE, b[=u]'gl, _n._ a slender elongated kind of bead, usually
black.--_adj._ (_Shak._) like bugles. [Prob. conn. with Low L. _bugulus_;
prob. obscurely conn. with Dut. _beugel_, a ring.]

BUGLE, b[=u]'gl, _n._ a palæarctic genus of plants of the natural order
_Labiatæ_, with blue or sometimes white or purple flowers. [Fr., It.
_bugola_--Low L. _bugula_, _bugillo_.]

BUGLOSS, b[=u]'glos, _n._ a name popularly applied to many plants of the
natural order _Boragineæ_, more strictly to _Anchusa arvensis_, a common
weed in corn-fields in Britain. [Fr. _buglosse_--L. _buglossa_--Gr.
_bougl[=o]ssos_--_bous_, ox, _gl[=o]ssa_, tongue.]

BUGONG, b[=u]'gong, _n._ a noctuoid moth.

BUHL, b[=u]l, _n._ unburnished gold, brass, or mother-of-pearl worked in
patterns for inlaying: furniture ornamented with such. [From André Charles
_Boule_ (1642-1732), a cabinet-maker in the service of Louis XIV.]

BUHRSTONE, bur'st[=o]n, _n._ a variety of quartz, containing many small
empty cells, which give it a peculiar roughness of surface, particularly
adapting it for millstones.--Often BURR'-STONE. [Perh. conn. with BURR,
from its roughness.]

BUILD, bild, _v.t._ to erect, as a house or bridge: to form or construct,
as a railway, &c.--_v.i._ to depend (with _on_, _upon_):--_pa.p._ built or
build'ed.--_n._ construction: make.--_ns._ BUILD'ER, one who builds, or who
controls the actual work of building; BUILD'ING, the art of erecting
houses, &c.: anything built: a house.--_p.adj._ BUILT, formed or
shaped.--BUILD IN, to enclose by building; BUILD UP, to close up by
building, as a door: to erect any edifice, as a reputation: to edify
spiritually, as the church. [A.S. _gebyld_, _bold_, a dwelling, from an
assumed _byldan_, to build.]

BUIRDLY, bürd'li, _adj._ stalwart, large and well made. [_Scot._, a variant
of BURLY.]

BUISSON, bw[=e]-song, _n._ a fruit-tree trained on a low stem, the branches
closely pruned. [Fr.]

BUIST, büst, _n._ (_Scot._) a mark put on sheep or cattle to indicate
ownership: a box.--_v.t._ to mark with such. [Ety. dub.]

BUKSHI, BUKSHEE, buk'sh[=e], _n._ the paymaster in native Indian states.
[Hind. _bakshi_--_baksh_, pay.]

BULB, bulb, _n._ an onion-like root: any protuberance or enlargement
resembling such.--_v.i._ to form bulbs: to bulge out or swell.--_adjs._
BUL'BOSE, BUL'BY.--_ns._ BUL'BULE, a little bulb: a young bulb which grows
from an old one; BUL'BUS, a bulb. [L. _bulbus_--Gr. _bolbos_, an onion.]

BULBUL, bool'bool, _n._ the Persian nightingale. [Arab.]

BULDERING, bul'der-ing, _adj._ (_prov._) hot, sultry.

BULGARIAN, bul-g[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Bulgaria_ or its
language.--_n._ a native of Bulgaria: the Bulgarian language
(Slavonic).--_n._ BUL'GAR, a member of an ancient Finnic or Ugrian tribe
which moved from the Volga towards Bulgaria.--_adj._ BULGAR'IC.--_n._ the
ancient language of the foregoing.

BULGE, bulj, _n._ the widest part of a cask, a round protuberance,
swelling.--_v.i._ to swell out.--_ns._ BUL'GER, a wooden golf-club with a
convex face; BUL'GINESS.--_adj._ BUL'GY--TO GET THE BULGE ON ONE (_slang_),
to get a decided advantage over a person. [O. Fr. _boulge_, prob. L.
_bulga_, a leather knapsack; a Gallic word.]

BULIMY, b[=u]l'i-mi, _n._ an unnatural hunger. [Gr.; _bous_, ox, _limos_,

BULK, bulk, _n._ a stall or framework built in front of a shop.--_n._
BULK'ER, a street thief or strumpet. [Ety. dub.; Prof. Skeat suggests
Scand. _bálk-r_, beam, and Dr Murray quotes also an A.S. _bolca_, gangway
of a ship.]

BULK, bulk, _n._ magnitude or size: the greater part: any huge body or
structure: the whole cargo in the hold of a ship.--_v.i._ to be in bulk: to
be of weight or importance.--_v.t._ to put or hold in bulk.--_ns._
BULK'HEAD, a partition separating one part of the interior of a ship from
another, either transverse or longitudinal, and usually made watertight;
BULK'INESS.--_adj._ BULK'Y, having bulk: of great size,
unwieldy.--COLLISION BULKHEAD, that nearest the bow--usually the only one
in sailing-ships.--TO LOAD IN BULK, to put the cargo in loose; TO SELL IN
BULK, to sell the cargo as it is in the hold: to sell in large quantities.
[Prob. Scand.; Ice. _bulki_, a heap.]

BULL, bool, _n._ the male of the ox kind: an old male whale, fur-seal, &c.:
a sign of the zodiac: one who tries artificially and unduly to raise the
price of stocks, and speculates on a rise.--_adj._ denoting largeness of
size--used in composition, as bull-trout: favourable to the bulls,
rising.--_v.t._ to try to raise, as the price of shares, artificially: to
copulate with a cow, of a bull.--_v.i._ to be in heat, of a cow.--_ns._
BULL'-BAITING, the sport of baiting or exciting bulls with dogs; BULL'-BAT
(_U.S._), the night-hawk or goat-sucker; BULL'-BEEF, the beef or flesh of
bulls, coarse beef: (_Shak._, in _pl._) BULL'-BEEVES; BULL'-BEGG'AR, a
hobgoblin, &c.; BULL'-CALF, a male calf: a stupid fellow, a lout;
BULL'-DANCE, a dance of men only; BULL'DOG, a breed of dogs of great
courage, formerly used for baiting bulls, its general appearance that of a
smooth-coated, compact dog, low in stature, but broad and powerful, with a
massive head, large in proportion to its body: a person of obstinate
courage: a short-barrelled revolver of large calibre: a proctor's attendant
at Oxford and Cambridge.--_v.t._ BULL'-DOSE (_U.S._) to intimidate, bully:
flog.--_n._ BULL'-D[=O]S'ER.--_adj._ BULL'-FACED, having a large
face.--_ns._ BULL'-FIGHT, a popular spectacle in Spain, in which a bull is
goaded to fury in a kind of circus by mounted _picadores_ armed with
lances, and finally despatched by a specially skilful _espada_ or
swordsman; BULL'-FIGHT'ER; BULL'-FINCH, a species of red-breasted finch a
little larger than the common linnet, closely allied to the grossbeaks and
crossbills: a kind of hedge hard to jump; BULL'-FROG, a large North
American frog.--_adj._ BULL'-FRONT'ED, having a front or forehead like a
bull.--_n._ BULL'-HEAD, or _Miller's Thumb_, a small river fish remarkable
for its large, flat head.--_adj._ BULL'-HEAD'ED, impetuous and
obstinate.--_n._ BULL'-HEAD'EDNESS.--_adj._ BULL'ISH.--_ns._ BULL'OCK, an
ox or castrated bull; BULL'-ROAR'ER, a provincial English name for a boy's
plaything, made of an oblong piece of wood, to one end of which a string is
tied, then twisted tightly round the finger, when the whole is whirled
rapidly round and round until a loud and peculiar whirring noise is
produced--the native Australian _turndun_, the _rhombos_ of the Greek
mysteries; BULL'S'-EYE, the central boss formed in making a sheet of blown
glass (hence _adj._ BULL'S'-EYED), a round piece of glass in a lantern, a
policeman's lantern, a round opening or window: the centre of a target, of
a different colour from the rest, and usually round: a thick lump of
coloured or striped candy; BULL'-TERR'IER, a species of dog, a cross-breed
between the bulldog and the terrier; BULL'-TROUT, a large trout of the
salmon genus, also migratory in its habits, often called the _Gray Trout_;
BULL'-WHACK, a heavy whip.--_v.t._ to lash with such.--_n._ BULL'WORT, the
bishop's weed.--BULL INTO, to plunge hastily into.--A BULL IN A CHINA-SHOP,
a synonym for a man who does harm through ignorance or fury, a man
completely out of place.--TAKE THE BULL BY THE HORNS, to face a danger or
difficulty with courage, to take the initiative boldly in a struggle. [M.E.
_bole_, prob. Scand. _bole_, _boli_; most prob. cog. with BELLOW.]

BULL, bool, _n._ an edict of the pope which has his seal affixed.--_adj._
BULLAN'TIC--_n._ BULL'ARY, a collection of papal bulls. [L. _bulla_, a
knob, a leaden seal.]

BULL, bool, _n._ a ludicrous blunder in speech implying some obvious
absurdity or contradiction, often said to be an especial prerogative of
Irishmen--'I was a fine child, but they changed me.' [Prob. O. Fr. _boul_,

BULL, bool, _n._ drink made by pouring water into a cask that had held

BULLA, bool'a, _n._ a round metal ornament worn by ancient Roman children:
a seal attached to a document: anything rounded or globular. [L.]

BULLACE, bool'l[=a]s, _n._ a shrub closely allied to the sloe and the plum,
its fruit making excellent pies or tarts. [O. Fr. _beloce_, of uncertain
origin; prob. Celt.]

BULLATE, bul'[=a]t, _adj._ blistered, inflated--_ns._ BULL[=A]'TION;

BULLARY, bul'a-ri, _n._ a house in which salt is prepared by boiling.

BULLER, bool'er, _n._ the boiling of a torrent. [Dan. _bulder_.]

BULLET, bool'et, _n._ the projectile of lead or other metal discharged from
any kind of small-arm: a plumb or sinker in fishing.--_n._ BULL'ET-HEAD, a
head round like a bullet: (_U.S._) an obstinate fellow.--_adjs._
BULL'ET-HEAD'ED; BULL'ET-PROOF, proof against bullets. [Fr. _boulet_, dim.
of _boule_, a ball--L. _bulla_. See BULL, an edict.]

BULLETIN, bool'e-tin, _n._ an official report of public news. [Fr.,--It.

BULLION, bool'yun, _n._ gold and silver in the mass and uncoined, though
occasionally used as practically synonymous with the precious metals,
coined and uncoined: a heavy twisted cord fringe, often covered with gold
or silver wire.--_n._ BULL'IONIST, one in favour of an exclusive metallic
currency. [Ety. dub.; but apparently related to Low L. _bullio_, a boiling,

BULLY, bool'i, _n._ a blustering, noisy, overbearing fellow: a ruffian
hired to beat or intimidate any one: a fellow who lives upon the gains of a
prostitute: (_obs._) a term of familiarity to either man or woman.--_adj._
blustering: brisk: (_U.S._) first-rate.--_v.i._ to bluster.--_v.t._ to
threaten in a noisy way:--_pr.p._ bull'ying; _pa.p._ bull'ied.--_n._
BULL'YISM.--_v.t._ BULL'YRAG (_coll._), to assail with abusive language, to
overawe.--_ns._ BULL'YRAGGING; BULL'Y-ROOK, a bully.--BULLY FOR YOU, bravo!
[Perh. Dut. _boel_, a lover; cf. Ger. _buhle_.]

BULLY, bool'i, _n._ a miner's hammer.

BULLY-TREE, bool'i-tr[=e], _n._ a name given to several West Indian
sapotaceous trees yielding good timber.--Also BULL'ET-TREE, BULL'ETRIE,

BULRUSH, bool'rush, _n._ a large strong rush, which grows on wet land or in
water--often applied to the cat's-tail (_Typha_).--_adj._ BUL'RUSHY.

BULSE, buls, _n._ a bag for diamonds, &c.: a package or certain quantity of
such. [Port. _bolsa_--Low L. _bursa_, a purse. See PURSE.]

BULWARK, bool'wark, _n._ a fortification or rampart: a breakwater or
sea-wall: any means of defence or security.--_v.t._ to defend. [Cf. Ger.

BUM, bum, _n._ (_Shak._) the buttocks.--_ns._ BUM'-BAIL'IFF, an
under-bailiff; BUM'-BOAT, boat for carrying provisions to a ship,
originally a Thames scavenger's boat. [Ety. dub., prob. from _bump_, from
sense of 'swelling.']

BUM, bum, _v.i._ to hum or make a murmuring sound, as a bee: (_slang_) to
live dissolutely.--_pr.p._ bum'ming; _pa.p._ bummed.--_n._ a humming sound:
a spree, debauch: a dissipated fellow. [Onomatopoeic.]

BUMBAZE, bum'b[=a]z, _v.t._ to confound, bamboozle.

BUMBLE-BEE, bum'bl-b[=e], _n._ a large kind of bee that makes a bumming or
humming noise: the humble-bee.--_n._ BUM'-CLOCK (_Scot._), a drone-beetle.
[M. E. _bumble_, freq. of BUM, and BEE.]

BUMBLEDOM, bum'bl-dom, _n._ fussy pomposity. [From _Bumble_, name of the
beadle in Dickens's _Oliver Twist_.]

BUMBLE-FOOT, bum'bl-foot, _n._ a disease of domestic fowls, marked by
inflammation of the ball of the foot: a club-foot.--_adj._ BUM'BLE-FOOT'ED,

BUMBLE-PUPPY, bum'bl-pup'i, _n._ whist played regardless of rules: the game
of nine-holes.--_n._ BUM'BLE-PUPP'IST, one who plays whist without knowing
the game.

BUMBO, bum'b[=o], _n._ a punch of rum or gin with sugar, nutmeg, &c.

BUMKIN, BUMPKIN, bum'kin, _n._ a short beam of timber projecting from each
bow of a ship, for the purpose of extending the lower corner of the
foresail to windward: a small outrigger over the stern of a boat, usually
serving to extend the mizzen. [From BOOM, and dim. termination _kin_.]

BUMMALO, bum'a-l[=o], _n._ a small fish dried and salted all round the
coast of India--_Bombay duck_ and _nehar_.--Also BUMMAL[=O]'TI. [East Ind.]

BUMMAREE, bum'ar-[=e], _n._ a middleman in the Billingsgate fish-market.
[Ety. unknown: hardly the Fr. _bonne marée_, good fresh sea-fish.]

BUMMER, bum'[.e]r, _n._ a plundering straggler or camp-follower during the
American Civil War: a dissolute fellow, a loafer, a sponge.

BUMMLE, bum'l, _v.i._ (_prov._) to blunder.--_n._ an idle fellow.

BUMMOCK, bum'ok, _n._ (_Scot._) a brewing of ale. [Ety. unknown.]

BUMP, bump, _v.i._ to make a heavy or loud noise.--_v.t._ to strike with a
dull sound: to strike against: to overtake and impinge upon the stern or
side of a boat by the boat following, the bumper consequently taking the
place of the bumped in rank--also 'to make a bump:' to spread out material
in printing so as to fill any desired number of pages.--_n._ a dull heavy
blow: a thump: a lump caused by a blow, one of the protuberances on the
surface of the skull confidently associated by phrenologists with certain
distinct qualities or propensities of the mind, hence colloquially for
organ: the noise of the bittern.--_n._ BUMP'ER, a cup or glass filled to
the brim for drinking a toast: anything large or generous in measure: a
crowded house at a theatre or concert.--_adj._ as in a 'bumper
house.'--_v.i._ to drink bumpers.--_n._ BUMPOL'OGY, phrenology.--_adj._
BUMP'Y. [Onomatopoeic.]

BUMPKIN, bump'kin, _n._ an awkward, clumsy rustic: a clown.--_adj._
BUMP'KINISH. [Prob. Dut. _boomken_, a log.]

BUMPTIOUS, bump'shus, _adj._ offensively self-assertive.--_adv._
BUMP'TIOUSLY.--_n._ BUMP'TIOUSNESS. [Prob. formed from BUMP.]

BUN, bun, _n._ a kind of sweet cake. [Prob. from O. Fr. _bugne_, a

BUN, bun, _n._ a dry stalk: a hare's scut: a rabbit. [Prob. Gael. _bun_, a

BUNCE, buns, _n._ (_slang_) extra gain--used as an interjection.

BUNCH, bunsh, _n._ a number of things tied together or growing together: a
definite quantity fastened together, as of linen yarn (180,000 yards), &c.:
a cluster: something in the form of a tuft or knot.--_v.i._ to swell out in
a bunch.--_v.t._ to make a bunch of, to concentrate.--_adjs._ BUNCH'-BACKED
(_Shak._), having a bunch on the back, crook-backed; BUNCHED, humped,
protuberant.--_ns._ BUNCH'-GRASS, a name applied to several West American
grasses, growing in clumps; BUNCH'INESS, the quality of being bunchy: state
of growing in bunches.--_adj._ BUNCH'Y, growing in bunches or like a bunch,
bulging.--BUNCH OF FIVES, the fist with the five fingers clenched. [Ety.


BUNDESRATH, b[=oo]n'des-rät, _n._ the Federal Council of the German Empire,
its members annually appointed by the governments of the various states.

BUNDLE, bun'dl, _n._ a number of things loosely bound together: an
aggregation of one or more kinds of tissue traversing other tissues: a
definite measure or quantity, as two reams of paper, twenty hanks of linen
yarn, &c.--_v.t._ to bind or tie into bundles.--_v.i._ to pack up one's
things for a journey, to go hurriedly or in confusion (with _away_, _off_,
_out_).--_n._ BUN'DLING, an old custom in Wales, New England, and elsewhere
for sweethearts to sleep on the same bed without undressing.--TO BUNDLE
OFF, BUNDLE OUT, to send away unceremoniously or summarily. [Conn. with

BUNG, bung, _n._ the stopper of the hole in a barrel: a large cork:
(_Shak._) a sharper.--_v.t._ to stop up with a bung: to thrash
severely.--_ns._ BUNG'-HOLE, a hole in a cask through which it is filled,
closed by a bung; BUNG'-VENT, a small hole in a bung to let gasses escape,
&c.--BUNG UP, to bruise. [Ety. dub.]

BUNGALOW, bung'ga-l[=o], _n._ the kind of house usually occupied by
Europeans in the interior of India, and commonly provided for officers'
quarters in cantonments.--DÂK-BUNGALOWS are houses for travellers. [Hind.
_bangl[=a]_, Bengalese.]

BUNGLE, bung'l, _n._ anything clumsily done: a gross blunder.--_v.i._ to
act in a clumsy, awkward manner.--_v.t._ to make or mend clumsily: to
manage awkwardly.--_p.adj._ BUNG'LED, done clumsily.--_n._
BUNG'LER.--_p.adj._ BUNG'LING, clumsy, awkward: unskilfully or ill
done.--_adv._ BUNG'LINGLY. [Ety. obscure; prob. onomatopoeic; Prof. Skeat
quotes a dial. Sw. _bangla_, to work ineffectually; Mr F. Hindes Groome
suggests Gipsy _bongo_, left, awkward.]

BUNION, bun'yun, _n._ a lump or inflamed swelling on the ball of the great
toe. [Ety. unknown; Prof. Skeat suggests It. _bugnone_, a botch.]

BUNK, bungk, _n._ a box or recess in a ship's cabin, a sleeping-berth
anywhere.--_v.i._ to occupy the same bunk, sleep together.--_n._ BUNK'ER, a
large bin or chest used for stowing various things, as coals, &c.: a hazard
in a golf-links, originally confined to sand-pits, but now often used for
hazards generally. [Prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Ice. _bunki_, Dan. _bunke_,
a heap.]

BUNKO, BUNCO, bung'k[=o], _n._ (_U.S._) a form of confidence-trick by which
a simple fellow is swindled or taken somewhere and robbed.--_v.t._ to rob
or swindle in such a way.--_n._ BUNK'O-STEER'ER, that one of the swindling
confederates who allures the victim.

BUNKUM, bung'kum, _n._ empty clap-trap oratory, bombastic speechmaking
intended for the newspapers rather than to persuade the audience.--Also
BUN'COMBE. [From _Buncombe_, the name of a county in North Carolina.
Bartlett quotes a story of how its member once went on talking in congress,
explaining apologetically to the few hearers that remained that he was
'only talking for Buncombe.']

BUNNY, bun'i, _n._ a pet name for a rabbit. [Ety. unknown; prob. conn. with
Gael. _bun_, a root.]

BUNODONT, b[=u]'n[=o]-dont, _adj._ having tuberculate molars--opp. to
_Lophodont_. [Gr. _bounos_, a rounded hill, _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]

BUNSEN, b[=oo]n'sen, or bun'sen, _adj._ applied to some of the inventions
of the great chemist, R. W. _Bunsen_ of Heidelberg.--_n._ BUN'SEN-BURN'ER,
a gas-burner in which a plentiful supply of air is caused to mingle with
the gas before ignition, so that a smokeless flame of low luminosity but
great heating power is the result.

BUNT, bunt, _n._ a parasitic disease of wheat and other grains.--_adjs._
BUNT'ED, BUNT'Y. [Ety. unknown.]

BUNT, bunt, _n._ the bagging part of a fishing-net, a sail, &c.--_v.i._ to
belly, as a sail. [Ety. unknown.]

BUNT, bunt, _v.i._ to push with the horns, butt: to spring, rear.--_n._ a
push.--_n._ BUNT'ING, pushing: a boys' game, played with sticks and a small
piece of wood: a strong timber, a stout prop.

BUNTER, bunt'[.e]r, _n._ a rag-picker, a low woman.

BUNTING, bunt'ing, _n._ a thin worsted stuff of which ships' colours are
made. [Ety. dub.]

BUNTING, bunt'ing, _n._ a genus of birds in the Finch family nearly allied
to the crossbills.

BUNTLINE, bunt'l[=i]n, _n._ a rope passing from the foot-rope of a square
sail, led up to the masthead and thence on deck, to help in hauling the
sail up to the yard.

BUOY, boi, _n._ a floating cask or light piece of wood fastened by a rope
or chain to indicate shoals, the position of a ship's anchor, &c.--_v.t._
to fix buoys or marks: to keep afloat, bear up, or sustain: to raise the
spirits.--_ns._ BUOY'AGE, a series of buoys or floating beacons to mark the
course for vessels: the providing of buoys; BUOY'ANCY, capacity for
floating lightly on water or in the air: specific lightness: (_fig._)
lightness of spirit, cheerfulness.--_adj._ BUOY'ANT, light: cheerful.--_n._
BUOY'ANTNESS. [Dut. _boei_, buoy, fetter, through Romance forms (Norman
_boie_), from Low L. _boia_, a collar of leather.]

BUPHAGA, b[=u]'f[=a]-ga, _n._ a small genus of African perching birds,
nearly related to the starlings, feeding on the larvæ of gadflies and the
like, which they find on the backs of cattle, camels, &c.--Also
_Beef-eater_ and _Ox-pecker_. [Gr., _bous_, an ox, _phagein_, to eat.]

BUPRESTIS, b[=u]-pres'tis, _n._ a genus of beetles, typical of a large
family, _Buprestidæ_, those occurring in warmer countries having lively
colour and metallic sheen--some known as Golden Beetles. [L.,--Gr.
_bouprestis_, _bous_, an ox, _pr[=e]thein_, to swell.]

BUR, BURR, bur, the prickly seed-case or head of certain plants, which
sticks to clothes: any impediment or inconvenient adherent: any lump,
ridge, &c., more or less sharp, a knot on a tree, knot in thread, knob at
the base of a deer's horn, &c.: waste raw silk: the sweetbread or pancreas:
(_Scot._) club-moss: the name for various tools and appliances, as the
triangular chisel for clearing the corners of mortises, &c.: the blank
driven out of a piece of sheet-metal by a punch: a partly vitrified
brick.--_ns._ BUR'DOCK, a dock with a bur or prickly head; BUR'-THIS'TLE,
the spear-thistle.--BUR IN THE THROAT, something seeming to stick in the
throat, producing a choking sensation. [Cog. with Dan. _borre_, a bur.]

BUR, BURR, bur, _n._ the rough sound of _r_ pronounced in the throat, as in
Northumberland--_v.i._ to whisper hoarsely, to murmur. [Usually associated
with preceding, but perh. from the sound.]

BUR, bur, _n._ in an engraving, a slight ridge of metal raised on the edges
of a line by the graver or the dry point, producing an effect like a smear,
but dexterously used by some etchers, as Rembrandt, to deepen their

BURBLE, burb'l, _n._ trouble, disorder.--_v.t._ to trouble, confuse.
[Scot.; prob. conn. with O. Fr. _barbouiller_, to confound.]

BURBOT, bur'bot, _n._ a fresh-water fish, like the eel, having a longish
beard on its lower jaw. [Fr. _barbote_--L. _barba_, a beard.]

BURD, burd, _n._ (_obs._) for BIRD, a poetic name for a girl or lady.--_n._
BUR'DALANE, the last surviving child of a family.

BURDASH, burd'ash, _n._ a fringed sash worn round the waist by fine
gentlemen in the time of Anne and George I.

BURDEN, bur'dn, _n._ a load: weight: cargo: that which is grievous,
oppressive, or difficult to bear, as blame, sin, sorrow, &c.:
birth.--_v.t._ to load: to oppress: to encumber.--_adjs._ BUR'DENOUS,
BUR'DENSOME, heavy: oppressive.--BURDEN OF PROOF, in legal procedure,
signifies the obligation to establish by evidence certain disputed facts.
[A.S. _byrthen_--_beran_, to bear.]

BURDEN, bur'dn, _n._ part of a song repeated at the end of every stanza,
refrain: the leading idea of anything: a load of care, sorrow, or
responsibility. [Fr. _bourdon_, a humming tone in music--Low L. _burdo_, a
drone or non-working bee.]

BURDEN, bur'dn, _n._ (_Spens._) a pilgrim's staff. [See BOURDON.]


BUREAU, b[=u]r'[=o], _n._ a writing-table or chest of drawers: a room or
office where such a table is used: a department for the transacting of
public business:--_pl._ BUREAUX (b[=u]r'[=o]), BUREAUS (b[=u]r'[=o]z). [Fr.
_bureau_--O. Fr. _burel_, russet cloth--L. _burrus_, red.]

BUREAUCRACY, b[=u]r[=o]'kras-i, _n._ a system of government centralised in
graded series of officials, responsible only to their chiefs, and
controlling every detail of public and private life.--_ns._ BUREAU'CRAT,
BUREAU'CRATIST, one who advocates government by bureaucracy.--_adj._
BUREAUCRAT'IC, relating to or having the nature of a bureaucracy.--_adv._
BUREAUCRAT'ICALLY. [BUREAU, and Gr. _kratein_, to govern.]

BURETTE, b[=u]-ret', _n._ a flask-shaped vessel for holding liquids, an
altar-cruet. [Fr.]

BURGAGE, bur'g[=a]j, _n._ a tenure in socage for a yearly rent: a tenure in
Scotland in royal burghs under nominal service of watching. [O. Fr.]


BURGANET, bur'ga-net, _n._ a 16th-century helmet.--Also BUR'GONET. [Lit.

BURGEE, bur'j[=e], _n._ a swallow-tailed flag or pennant: a kind of small
coal for furnaces.

BURGEON, bur'jun, _n._ and _v.i._ Same as BOURGEON.

BURGH, bur'[=o], _n._ the Scotch word corresponding to the English
BOROUGH.--_ns._ BURG (same as BOROUGH); BURG'AGE, a system of tenure where
the king or other person is lord of an ancient borough, city, or town, by
which the citizens hold their lands or tenements, for a certain annual
rent; BURGESS (bur'jes), BUR'GHER, an inhabitant of a borough: a citizen or
freeman: a magistrate of certain towns: one able to take the usual
burgesses' oath (see ANTIBURGHER).--_adj._ BUR'GHAL, relating to a
burgh.--_n._ BURG'OMASTER, the chief magistrate of a German or a Dutch
borough, answering to the English term mayor.--BURGH OF BARONY, a
corporation consisting of the inhabitants of a determinate tract of land
within the _barony_, and municipally governed by magistrates and a council
whose election is either vested in the baron superior of the district, or
vested in the inhabitants themselves; BURGH OF REGALITY, a burgh of barony,
spiritual or temporal, enfranchised by crown charter, with regal or
exclusive criminal jurisdiction within their own
territories.--PARLIAMENTARY BURGH, one like Paisley, Greenock, Leith, whose
boundaries, as first fixed in 1832, were adopted for municipal purposes,
with regard to which they stand practically in the same position as royal
burghs; POLICE BURGH, a burgh constituted by the sheriff for purposes of
improvement and police, the local authority being the police commissioners;
ROYAL BURGH, a corporate body deriving its existence, constitution, and
rights from a royal charter, such being either actual and express, or
presumed to have existed.

BURGLAR, burg'lar, _n._ one who breaks into a house by night to
steal.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to commit burglary.--_adj._
BURGL[=A]R'IOUS.--_adv._ BURGL[=A]R'IOUSLY.--_v.t._ BURG'LARISE.--_n._
BURG'LARY, breaking into a house by night to steal. [Ety. dub.]


BURGOO, bur'g[=oo], _n._ a dish made of boiled oatmeal seasoned with salt,
butter, and sugar, used by seamen. [Derivation unknown.]

BURGRAVE, bur'gr[=a]v, _n._ the governor of a town or castle. [Ger.

BURGUNDY, bur'gun-di, _n._ a generous French red wine, so called from
_Burgundy_, the district where it is made.

BURIAL, ber'i-al, _n._ the act of laying a dead body in the grave:
interment.--_ns._ BUR'IAL-AISLE, an aisle in a church used for burials;
BUR'IAL-GROUND, BUR'IAL-PLACE, a piece of ground set apart for
burying.--BURIAL SERVICE, a religious service or form of ritual
accompanying a burial; BURIAL SOCIETY, an insurance society for providing
the expenses of burial. [A.S. _byrgels_, a tomb. See BURY.]

BURIN, b[=u]r'in, _n._ a kind of chisel of tempered steel, used in copper
engraving--the distinctive style of a master is frequently described by
such expressions as a _soft_, a _graphic_, or a _brilliant_ burin.--_n._
BUR'INIST, an engraver. [Fr.; from root of BORE.]

BURKE, burk, _v.t._ to murder, esp. by stifling: hence (_fig._) to put an
end to quietly. [From _Burke_, an Edinburgh Irishman (hanged 1829), who
committed the crime in order to sell the bodies of his victims for

BURL, burl, _n._ a small knot in thread, a knot in wood.--_v.t._ to pick
knots, &c., from, in finishing cloth.--_ns._ BUR'LING-[=I]'RON;
BUR'LING-MACHINE'.--_adj._ BUR'LY, knotty.

BURLAP, bur'lap, _n._ a coarse canvas for wrappings, &c.--usually in _pl._
[Origin unknown.]

BURLESQUE, bur-lesk', _n._ a ludicrous representation--in speaking, acting,
writing, drawing--a low and rude grade of the comic, whose legitimate
office is to turn to laughter pretension and affectation.--_adj._ jocular:
comical.--_v.t._ to turn into burlesque: to ridicule.--_p.adj._
BURLESQUED', caricatured.--_adv._ BURLESQUE'LY. [It. _burlesco_; prob. from
Low L. _burra_, a flock of wool, a trifle.]

BURLETTA, bur-let'a, _n._ a musical farce: comic opera. [It.;--dim. of
_burla_, a jest.]

BURLY, bur'li, _adj._ bulky: boisterous, bluff.--_n._ BUR'LINESS. [M. E.
_borlich_; prob. Old High Ger. _burl[=i]h_, high, _b[=o]r_, a height.]

BURMESE, bur'm[=e]z, _adj._ relating to _Burma_ in Farther India, or its
language.--_n._ a native of Burma, or the language of Burma--also BUR'MAN.

BURN, burn, _n._ a small stream or brook: a spring or fountain. [A.S.
_burna_; cog. with Dut. and Ger. _born_.]

BURN, burn, _v.t._ to consume or injure by fire.--_v.i._ to be on fire: to
feel excess of heat: to be inflamed with passion:--_pa.p._ burned or
burnt.--_n._ a hurt or mark caused by fire.--_ns._ BURN'ER, the part of a
lamp or gas-jet from which the flame arises; BURN'ING, act of consuming by
fire: conflagration: inflammation.--_adj._ very hot: scorching: ardent:
excessive.--_ns._ BURN'ING-GLASS, a convex lens concentrating the sun's
rays at its focus; BURN'ING-HOUSE, a kiln; BURN'ING-MIRR'OR, a concave
mirror for producing heat by concentrating the sun's rays; BURN'ING-POINT,
the temperature at which a volatile oil in an open vessel will take fire
from a match held close to its surface; BURNT'-EAR, a kind of smut in oats,
wheat, &c., caused by a microscopic fungus; BURNT'-OFF'ERING, something
offered and burned upon an altar as a sacrifice--amongst the Hebrews,
apparently offerings of dedication and to some extent of expiation;
BURNT'-SIENN'A (see SIENNA); BURN'-THE-WIND (_Scot._), a blacksmith.--BURN
A HOLE IN ONE'S POCKET, said of money, when one is eager to spend it; BURN
BLUE, to burn with a bluish flame like that of brimstone; BURN DAYLIGHT
(_Shak._), to waste time in superfluous actions; BURN DOWN, to burn to the
ground; BURN IN, to eat into, as fire: to fix and render durable, as
colours, by means of intense heat, to imprint indelibly on the mind;
BURNING BUSH, the emblem of the Presbyterian churches of Scotland, with the
motto, 'Nec tamen consumebatur,' adopted from Ex. iii. 2, in memory of the
unconquerable courage of the Covenanters under the cruel persecutions of
the 17th century; BURNING QUESTION, one being keenly discussed; BURN ONE'S
BOATS, to cut one's self off, as Cortes did, from all chance of retreat, to
stake everything on success; BURN ONE'S FINGERS, to suffer from interfering
in others' affairs, from embarking in speculations, &c.; BURN OUT, to
destroy by means of burning: to burn till the fire dies down from want of
fuel; BURN THE WATER, to spear salmon by torchlight; BURN UP, to consume
completely by fire: to be burned completely. [A.S.; the weak verb
_boernan_, _boernde_, _boerned_, has been confused with _beornan_,
_byrnan_, _barn_, _bornen_; cf. Ger. _brennen_, to burn.]

BURNET, bur'net, _n._ the English name of two closely united genera of
_Rosaceæ_--the Great Burnet common in meadows all over Europe; the Common
Burnet growing on chalky soils, its slightly astringent leaves used in
salads or soups, also as an ingredient in 'cool tankard.' [From its _brown_

BURNISH, burn'ish, _v.t._ to polish: to make bright by rubbing.--_n._
polish: lustre.--_ns._ BURN'ISHER, an instrument employed in burnishing;

BURNOUS, bur-n[=oo]s', _n._ a mantle with a hood much worn by the Arabs.
[Fr.--Ar. _burnus_.]

BURNT, _pa.p._ of BURN (q.v.).

BURR. Same as BUR (q.v.).

BURREL, bur'el, _n._ a kind of coarse russet cloth in medieval times. [See

BURRO, bur'[=o], _n._ a donkey. [Sp.]

BURROCK, bur'ok, _n._ a small weir or dam in a river, to direct the current
toward fish-traps.

BURROW, bur'[=o], _n._ a hole in the ground dug by certain animals for
shelter or defence.--_v.i._ to make holes underground as rabbits: to dwell
in a concealed place.--_ns._ BURR'OW-DUCK, the sheldrake or bergander;
BURR'OWING-OWL, a small long-legged diurnal American owl nesting in
burrows; BURR'OWSTOWN (_Scot._), a town that is a burgh. [Ety. obscure;
prob. a variant of Borough--A.S. _beorgan_, to protect.]

BURSA, bur'sa, _n._ a pouch or sac, esp. a synovial cavity formed where
tendons pass over the harder parts of the body:--_pl._ BUR'SÆ
(-s[=e]).--_adj._ BUR'SAL.--_ns._ BURS[=A]'LIS, a muscle moving the
nictitating membrane, as in birds; BURSAL'OGY, knowledge about the bursæ.

BURSAR, burs'ar, _n._ one who keeps the purse, a treasurer: in Scotland, a
student maintained at a university by funds derived from endowment.--_adj._
BURSAR'IAL.--_ns._ BURS'ARSHIP, the office of a bursar; BURS'ARY, in
Scotland, the allowance paid to a bursar; BURSE, a purse, an obsolete form
of BOURSE.--_adjs._ BURSIC'ULATE, bursiform: resembling a small pouch, or
provided with such; BURS'IFORM, pouch-shaped. [Low L. _bursarius_--_bursa_,
a purse--Gr. _byrsa_, skin or leather.]

BURSCH, b[=oo]rsh, _n._ a German student:--_pl._ BURSCH'EN.--_n._
BURSCH'ENISM. [Ger. _bursch_, a companion, student.]

BURST, burst, _v.t._ to break into pieces: to break open suddenly or by
violence: to disturb, interrupt.--_v.i._ to fly open or break in pieces: to
break forth or away: to break into some sudden expression of feeling--e.g.
'to burst into song:'--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ burst.--_n._ a sudden outbreak:
a hard gallop: a spurt: a drunken bout.--BURST IN, to force one's way
violently into; BURST INTO BLOSSOM, to begin to blossom; BURST INTO TEARS,
to fall a-crying; BURST OUT, to force one's way out violently; BURST UP
(_coll._), to explode: to fail, become bankrupt.--A BURST UP, a collapse,
failure.--ON THE BURST, on the spree. [A.S. _berstan_; Ger. _bersten_;
Gael. _brisd_, to break.]

BURSTEN, bur'stn, _obs. pa.p._ of BURST.

BURTHEN, bur'thn, _n._ and _v.t._ For BURDEN.

BURTON, bur'ton, _n._ a tackle variously used.

BURY, ber'i, _v.t._ to hide in the ground: to cover: to place in the grave,
as a dead body: to hide or blot out of remembrance:--_pr.p._ bur'ying;
_pa.p._ bur'ied.--_ns._ BUR'YING-GROUND, BUR'YING-PLACE, ground set apart
for burying the dead: a graveyard.--BURY THE HATCHET, to cease strife.
[A.S. _byrgan_, to bury; Ger. _bergen_, to hide.]

BURY, ber'i, _n._ a delicate pear of several varieties.--Also BURR'EL,
BURR'EL-PEAR. [Cf. the Fr. _beurré_, as in '_Beurré_ d'Angoulême.']

BUS, BUSS, bus, _n._ Short for OMNIBUS.

BUSBY, bus'bi, _n._ a fur hat with short bag hanging down from the top on
its right side, of the same colour as the facings of the regiment, worn by
hussars, and, in the British army, by horse artillerymen also. [Prob.

BUSCON, bus'kon, _n._ (_U.S._) a miner paid by a percentage of the ore he
raises. [Sp.]

BUSH, boosh, _n._ a shrub thick with branches: anything of bushy tuft-like
shape: any wild uncultivated country, esp. at the Cape or in Australia: a
bunch of ivy hung up as a tavern sign, a tavern itself--'Good wine needs no
bush.'--_v.i._ to grow thick or bushy.--_v.t._ to set bushes about, support
with bushes: to cover seeds by means of the bush-harrow.--_n._ BUSH'-CAT,
the serval.--_adj._ BUSHED, lost in the bush.--_ns._ BUSH'-HARR'OW, a light
kind of harrow used for covering grass-seeds, formed of a barred frame
interwoven with bushes or branches; BUSH'INESS; BUSH'MAN, a settler in the
uncleared land of America or the Colonies, a woodsman: one of a native race
in South Africa (Dut. _boschjesman_); BUSH'-RANG'ER, in Australia, a
lawless fellow, often an escaped criminal, who takes to the bush and lives
by robbery; BUSH'-SHRIKE, a tropical American ant-thrush; BUSH'TIT, a small
long-tailed titmouse of West America, building a large
hanging-nest.--_v.i._ BUSH'-WHACK, to range through the bush: to fight in
guerilla warfare.--_ns_. BUSH'-WHACK'ER, a guerilla fighter: a country
lout: a short heavy scythe for cutting bushes; BUSH'-WHACK'ING, the habits
or practice of bush-whackers: the process of forcing a way for a boat by
pulling at the bushes overhanging a stream.--_adj._ BUSH'Y, full of bushes:
thick and spreading.--BEAT ABOUT THE BUSH, to go round about anything, to
evade coming to the point. [M. E. _busk_, _busch_; from a Teut. root found
in Ger. _busch_, Low L. _boscus_, Fr. _bois_.]

BUSH, boosh, _n._ the metal box or lining of any cylinder in which an axle
works.--_v.t._ to furnish with a bush.--_n._ BUSH'-MET'AL, hard brass,
gun-metal, a composition of copper and tin, used for journals, bearings,
&c. [Dut. _bus_--L. _buxus_, the box-tree.]

BUSHEL, boosh'el, _n._ a dry measure of 8 gallons, for measuring grain,
fruit, &c. [O. Fr. _boissiel_, from the root of BOX.]

BUSHEL, boosh'el, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_U.S._) to mend or alter, as men's

BUSINESS, biz'nes, _n._ employment: engagment: trade, profession, or
occupation: one's concerns or affairs: a matter or affair: (_theat._)
action as distinguished from dialogue.--_adj._ BUS'INESS-LIKE, methodical,
systematic, practical.--DO THE BUSINESS FOR, to settle, make an end of: to
ruin.--GENTEEL BUSINESS (_theat._), such parts as require good
dressing.--MAKE IT ONE'S BUSINESS, to undertake to accomplish something or
see it done; MEAN BUSINESS, to be in earnest; MIND ONE'S OWN BUSINESS, to
confine one's self to one's own affairs.--SEND ABOUT ONE'S BUSINESS, to
dismiss promptly.

BUSK, busk, _v.t._ or _v.i._ to prepare: to dress one's self. [Ice. _búa_,
to prepare, and _-sk_, contr. of _sik_, the recip. pron.--_self_.]

BUSK, busk, _n._ the piece of bone, wood, or steel in the front of a
woman's stays: a corset.--_adj._ BUSKED. [Fr. _busc_, which Scheler thinks
a doublet of _bois_; Littré, the same as It. _busto_, a bust.]

BUSK, busk, _v.i._ (_naut._) to cruise along a shore, to beat about: to
seek. [Prob. Sp. _buscar_, to seek.]

BUSKET, busk'et, _n._ (_Spens._) a little bush.


BUSKIN, busk'in, _n._ a kind of half-boot with high heels worn in ancient
times by actors of tragedy--hence, the tragic drama as distinguished from
comedy: a half-boot.--_adj._ BUSK'INED, dressed in buskins, noting tragedy:
tragic: dignified. [Ety. uncertain; cognates may be found in the O. Fr.
_brousequin_; Dut. _broos-ken_; Sp. _borceguí_.]

BUSKY, busk'i, _adj._ (_Shak._). Same as BOSKY.

BUSS, bus, _n._ a rude or playful kiss, a smack.--_v.t._ to kiss, esp. in a
rude or playful manner. [M. E. _bass_, prob. from Old Ger. _bussen_, to
kiss, but modified by Fr. _baiser_, to kiss, from L. _basium_, a kiss.]

BUSS, bus, _n._ a small two-masted Dutch vessel, used in the herring and
mackerel fisheries. [O. Fr. _busse_, Low L. _bussa_; cf. Ger. _büse_.]

BUSSU-PALM, bus'soo-päm, _n._ a palm growing along the Amazon, with leaves
as long as 30 feet and 5 feet broad, forming good thatch.

BUST, bust, _n._ a sculpture representing the head and breast of a person:
the upper part of the human body, a woman's bosom.--_adj._ BUST'ED,
breasted: adorned with busts. [Fr. _buste_; It. and Sp. _busto_.]

BUST, bust, _n._ and _v._ a vulgar form of Burst.--_n._ BUST'ER, something
large: a frolic: (_slang_) a roisterer.

BUSTARD, bus'tard, _n._ a genus of birds, sometimes made the type of a
large family, usually ranked in the order of marsh birds like the cranes.
[Fr. _bistard_, corr. from L. _avis tarda_, slow bird.]

BUSTLE, bus'l, _v.i._ to busy one's self noisily: to be active, often with
more noise than actual work.--_n._ hurried activity: stir: tumult.--_n._
BUST'LER. [There is a M. E. _bustelen_, of doubtful relations; perh. conn.
with _bluster_, or with Ice. _bustl_, a splash, or with A.S. _bysig_,

BUSTLE, bus'l, _n._ a stuffed pad or cushion worn by ladies under the skirt
of their dress, the intention to improve the figure.

BUSY, biz'i, _adj._ fully employed: active: diligent: meddling.--_v.t._ to
make busy: to occupy:--_pr.p._ busying (biz'i-ing); _pa.p._ busied
(biz'id).--_adv._ BUS'ILY.--_n._ BUS'YBODY, one busy about others' affairs,
a meddling person.--_adj._ BUS'YLESS (_Shak._), without business.--_n._
BUS'YNESS, state of being busy. [A.S. _bysig_.]

BUT, but, _prep._ or _conj._ without: except: besides: only: yet:
still.--Used as a noun for a verbal objection; also as a verb, as in
Scott's '_but_ me no _buts_.'--_adj._ (_Scot._) outside, as in 'but
end.'--BUT AND BEN, a house having an outer and an inner room. [A.S.
_be-útan_, _bútan_, without--_be_, by, and _útan_, out--near and yet

BUT, but, _n._ Same as BUTT.

BUTCHER, booch'[.e]r, _n._ one whose business is to slaughter animals for
food: one who delights in bloody deeds.--_v.t._ to slaughter animals for
food: to put to a bloody death, to kill cruelly: (_fig._) to spoil
anything, as a bad actor or the like.--_ns._ BUTCH'ER-BIRD, a shrike;
BUTCH'ERING, BUTCH'ING, the act of killing for food, or cruelly.--_adv._
BUTCH'ERLY, butcher-like, cruel, murderous.--_ns._ BUTCH'ER-MEAT,
BUTCH'ER'S-MEAT, the flesh of animals slaughtered by butchers, as
distinguished from fish, fowls, and game; BUTCH'ER'S-BROOM, a genus of
plants of the lily order, the common one being an evergreen shrub, a bunch
of which is used by butchers for sweeping their blocks; BUTCH'ERY, great or
cruel slaughter: a slaughter-house or shambles. [O. Fr. _bochier_,
_bouchier_, one who kills he-goats--_boc_, a he-goat; allied to Eng. BUCK.]


BUTLER, but'l[.e]r, _n._ a servant who has charge of the liquors, plate,
&c.--_v.i._ to act as butler.--_ns._ BUT'LERSHIP, BUT'LERAGE; BUT'LERY, the
butler's pantry. [Norm. Fr. _butuiller_--Low L. _buticularius_. See


BUTT, but, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to strike with the head, as a goat, &c.--_n._
a push with the head of an animal.--_n._ BUTT'ER, an animal that butts. [O.
Fr. _boter_, to push, strike.]

BUTT, but, _n._ a large cask: a wine-butt = 126 gallons, a beer and sherry
butt = 108 gallons. [Cf. Fr. _botte_, Sp. _bota_, Low L. _butta_.]

BUTT, but, _n._ a mark for archery practice: a mound behind musketry or
artillery targets: one who is made the object of ridicule.--_n._
BUTT'-SHAFT (_Shak._), a shaft or arrow for shooting at butts with. [Fr.
_but_, goal.]

BUTT, but, or in longer form, BUTT'-END, _n._ the thick and heavy end: the
stump. [Ety. dub.]

BUTT, but, _n._ an ox-hide minus the _offal_ or pieces round the margins.

BUTTE, b[=u]t, but, _n._ any conspicuous and isolated hill or peak, esp. in
the Rocky Mountain region. [Fr.]

BUTTER, but'[.e]r, _n._ an oily substance obtained from cream by
churning.--_v.t._ to spread over with butter.--_ns._ BUTT'ER-BIRD, the name
in Jamaica for the rice-bunting; BUTT'ER-BOAT, a table vessel for holding
melted butter; BUTT'ER-BUMP, a bittern; BUTT'ER-BUR, -DOCK, the sweet
coltsfoot; BUTT'ERCUP, a plant of the Crowfoot genus, with a cup-like
flower of a golden yellow; BUTT'ER-FING'ERS, one who lets a cricket-ball he
ought to catch slip through his fingers; BUTT'ER-FISH (see GUNNEL);
BUTT'ERFLY, the name of an extensive group of beautiful winged insects:
(_fig._) a light-headed person.--_adj._ light, flighty, like a
butterfly.--_ns._ BUTT'ERINE, an artificial fatty compound sold as a
substitute for butter--since 1887 only allowed to be sold under the names
_margarine_ or _oleo-margarine_; BUTT'ER-MILK, the milk that remains after
the butter has been separated from the cream by churning; BUTT'ER-NUT, the
oily nut of the North American white walnut, the tree itself or its
light-coloured close-grained wood: the nut of a lofty timber-tree of
Guiana--the _souari-nut_; BUTT'ER-SCOTCH, a kind of toffee containing a
large admixture of butter; BUTT'ER-TREE, a genus of plants found in the
East Indies and in Africa, remarkable for a sweet buttery substance yielded
by their seeds when boiled; BUTT'ER-WIFE, BUTT'ER-WOM'AN, a woman who makes
and sells butter; BUTT'ER-WORT, a genus of small plants found in marshy
places, so called either from the power of the leaves to coagulate milk, or
from their peculiar sliminess.--_adj._ BUTT'ERY, like butter. [A.S.
_butere_; Ger. _butter_; both from L. _butyrum_--Gr. _boutyron_--_bous_ ox,
_tyros_, cheese.]

BUTTERY, but'[.e]r-i, _n._ a storeroom in a house for provisions, esp.
liquors.--_ns._ BUTT'ERY-BAR, the ledge for holding tankards in the
buttery; BUTT'ERY-HATCH, a half-door over which provisions are handed from
the buttery. [Fr. _bouteillerie_, lit. 'place for bottles.' See BUTLER,

BUTTOCK, but'ok, _n._ the rump or protuberant part of the body behind: a
term in wrestling.--_ns._ BUTT'OCK-MAIL (_Scot._), the fine formerly
exacted by the Church as part of the discipline for the offence of
fornication. [Dim. of BUTT, end.]

BUTTON, but'n, _n._ a knob of metal, bone, &c., used to fasten the dress:
the knob at the end of a foil: the head of an unexpanded mushroom: the knob
of an electric bell, &c.: anything of small value, as in the phrase, 'I
don't care a button:' a person who acts as a decoy: (_pl._) young
mushrooms, sheep's dung.--_v.t._ to fasten by means of buttons: to close up
tightly.--_v.i._ to be fastened with buttons.--_ns._ BUTT'ON-BUSH, a North
American shrub of the madder family, having globular flower-heads;
BUTT'ON-HOLE, the hole or slit in the dress by which the button is
held.--_v.t._ to detain in talk, as if by taking hold of a man by the
button.--_ns._ BUTT'ON-HOOK, a hook for pulling the buttons of gloves and
shoes through the button-holes; BUTT'ON-WOOD, a small West Indian evergreen
tree of the myrobalan family: the plane-tree of the United States--also
BUTT'ON-BALL and incorrectly _Sycamore_.--_adj._ BUTT'ONY, decorated with
buttons.--BOY IN BUTTONS, a boy servant in livery, a page. [Fr. _bouton_,
any small projection, from _bouter_, to push.]

BUTTRESS, but'res, _n._ a projecting support built on to the outside of a
wall: any support or prop.--_v.t._ to prop or support, as by a buttress.
[Acc. to Dr Murray, perh. from O. Fr. _bouterez_, apparently from _bouter_,
to push, bear against.]

BUTTY, but'i, _n._ (_prov._) a chum, comrade, esp. one who takes a contract
for working out a certain area of coal, or a partner in such.--_ns._

BUTYRIC, b[=u]-tir'ik, _adj._ pertaining to or derived from butter.--_n._
B[=U]'TYL, an alcohol radical.--_adj._ BUTYR[=A]'CEOUS, buttery, containing
butter.--_n._ B[=U]'TYRATE, a salt of butyric acid.--BUTYRIC ACID, a
volatile fatty acid possessing the disagreeable odour of rancid butter. [L.

BUXOM, buks'um, _adj._ yielding, elastic: gay, lively, jolly.--_n._
BUX'OMNESS, the quality of being buxom: liveliness: gaiety. [M. E.
_buhsum_, pliable, obedient--A.S. _búgan_, to bow, yield, and affix SOME.]

BUY, b[=i], _v.t._ to purchase for money: to bribe: to obtain in exchange
for something:--_pr.p._ buy'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ bought (bawt).--_adj._
BUY'ABLE, capable of being bought.--_n._ BUY'ER, one who buys, a
purchaser.--BUY AND SELL (_Shak._), to barter; BUY IN, to purchase a stock:
to buy back for the owner at an auction; BUY OFF, or OUT, to gain release
from military service by payment of money; BUY OVER, to gain by bribery;
BUY UP, to purchase the whole stock. [A.S. _bycgan_; Goth. _bugjan_.]

BUZZ, buz, _v.i._ to make a humming noise like bees.--_v.t._ to whisper or
spread secretly.--_n._ the noise of bees and flies: a humming sound: a
whispered report.--_n._ BUZZ'ER, one who buzzes: (_Shak._) a whisperer or
tell-tale.--_adv._ BUZZ'INGLY.--_adj._ BUZZ'Y. [From the sound.]

BUZZ, buz, _v.t._ to drink to the bottom.

BUZZARD, buz'ard, _n._ a bird of prey of the falcon family: a blockhead: a
name for some night moths and cockchafers.--_n._ BUZZ'ARD-CLOCK, a
cockchafer, the dor. [Fr. _busard_; prob. from L. _buteo_, a kind of

BY, b[=i], _prep._ at the side of: near to: through, denoting the agent,
cause, means, &c.--_adv._ near: passing near: in presence of: aside,
away.--_adv._ BY'-AND-BY, soon, presently.--_ns._ BY'-BLOW, a side blow: an
illegitimate child; BY'-COR'NER, an out-of-the-way place; BY'-DRINK'ING
(_Shak._), drinking between meals; BY'-ELEC'TION, a parliamentary election
during the sitting of parliament: BY'-END, a subsidiary aim; BY'-FORM, a
form of a word slightly varying from it; BY'-G[=O]'ING, the action of
passing by, esp. IN THE BY-GOING.--_adj._ BY'GONE.--_ns._ BY'-LANE, a side
lane or passage out of the common road; BY'-M[=O]'TIVE, an unavowed motive;
BY'NAME, a nickname; BY'-PASS'AGE, a side passage.--_adj._ BY'-PAST
(_Shak._), past: gone by.--_ns._ BY'PATH, a side path; BY'-PLACE, a retired
place; BY'PLAY, a scene carried on, subordinate to and apart from the main
part of the play; BY'-PR[=O]'DUCT, an accessory product resulting from some
specific process or manufacture; BY'ROAD, a retired side road; BY'ROOM
(_Shak._), a side or private room; BY'-SPEECH, a casual speech; BY'STANDER,
one who stands by or near one--hence a looker-on; BY'-STREET, an obscure
street; BY'-THING, a thing of minor importance; BY'-TIME, leisure time;
BY'WAY, a private and obscure way; BY'WORD, a common saying: a proverb: an
object of common derision; BY'WORK, work for leisure hours.--BY-THE-BY, BY
THE WAY, in passing.--LET BYGONES BE BYGONES, let the past alone. [A.S.
_bi_, _big_; Ger. _bei_, L. _ambi_.]

BY, BYE, b[=i], _n._ anything of minor importance, a side issue, a thing
not directly aimed at: the condition of being odd, as opposed to _even_,
the state of being left without a competitor, as in tennis, &c.: in
cricket, a run stolen by the batsman on the ball passing the wicket-keeper
and long-stop, the batsman not having struck the ball.--BY-THE-BYE, or -BY,
incidentally, by the way.

BYCOCKET, b[=i]'kok-et, _n._ a turned-up peaked cap worn by noble persons
in the 15th century--sometimes erroneously _abacot_. [O. Fr. _bicoquet_,
prob. _bi-_ (L. _bis_), double, _coque_, a shell.]

BYDE, b[=i]d, _v.i._ Same as BIDE.

BYLANDER, obsolete form of BILANDER.

BYLAW, BYE-LAW, b[=i]'-law, _n._ the law of a city, town, or private
corporation: a supplementary law or regulation. [The same as BYRLAW, from
Ice. _byarlög_, Dan. _by-lov_, town-law; Scot. _bir-law_; from Ice. _bua_,
to dwell. See BOWER. _By_, town, is the suffix in many place-names. The
_by_ in bylaw is generally confused with the preposition.]

BYNEMPT, b[=i]-nempt', _pa.t._ of obsolete verb _Bename_ (_Spens._), named.
[A.S. pfx. _by-_, _be-_, and _nemnen_, to name. See NAME.]

BYOUS, b[=i]'us, _adj._ (_Scot._) extraordinary.--_adv._ BY'OUSLY.

BYRE, b[=i]r, _n._ (_Scot._) a cow-house. [A.S. _býre_ _pl._
dwellings--_búr_, a bower. See BOWER.]

BYRLADY, bir-l[=a]'di, contraction for _By our Lady_.

BYRLAW, bir'law, _n._ a sort of popular jurisprudence formerly in use in
Scotland, in villages and among husbandmen, concerning neighbourhood to be
kept among themselves.--_n._ BYR'LAW-MAN, still in parts of Scotland, an
arbiter, oddsman, or umpire. [A.S. _burh_, a borough.]

BYRONIC, b[=i]-ron'ik, _adj._ possessing the characteristics of Lord
_Byron_ (1788-1824), or of his poetry, overstrained in sentiment or
passion, cynical and libertine.--_adv._ BYRON'ICALLY.--_n._ BY'RONISM.

BYSSOLITE, bis'o-l[=i]t, _n._ an olive-green variety of actinolite, in long
crystals.--Also AMIAN'TUS. [Gr. _byssos_, byssus, _lithos_, stone.]

BYSSUS, bis'us, _n._ a fine yellowish flax, and the linen made from it: the
bundle of fine silky filaments by which many shellfish attach themselves to
rocks, &c.: a genus of cryptogamic plants of a silky fibrous texture found
on decaying wood, in mines, &c., and other dark places.--_adjs._
BYSSIF'EROUS, bearing or having a byssus; BYSS'INE, made of fine linen.
[L.--Gr. _byssos_, a fine flaxen or silky substance.]

BYZANT, biz'ant. Same as BEZANT.

BYZANTINE, biz-an't[=i]n, biz'-, _adj._ relating to _Byzantium_ or
Constantinople.--_n._ an inhabitant thereof.--_n._ BYZAN'TINISM, the
manifestation of Byzantine characteristics.--BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE, the
style prevalent in the Eastern Empire down to 1453, marked by the round
arch springing from columns or piers, the dome supported upon pendentives,
capitals elaborately sculptured, mosaic or other incrustations, &c.;
BYZANTINE CHURCH, the Eastern or Greek Church; BYZANTINE EMPIRE, the
Eastern or Greek Empire from 395 A.D. to 1453; BYZANTINE HISTORIANS, the
series of Greek chroniclers of the affairs of the Byzantine Empire down to
its fall in 1453.

       *       *       *       *       *


the third letter of our alphabet, originally having the sound of _g_, then
of _k_, and finally, in some languages, equivalent to _s_: (_mus._) name of
one of the notes of the gamut, also the sound on which the system is
founded--the scale C major has neither flats nor sharps, and therefore is
called the _natural scale_.

CAABA, kä'a-ba, _n._ the Moslem Holy of Holies, a square building at Mecca,
containing the famous Black Stone built into the south-east corner at a
height convenient for being kissed. [Ar.]

CAAING-WHALE, kä'ing-hw[=a]l, _n._ one of the Cetacea, in the dolphin
family, very gregarious, and oftener stranded than any other 'whale'--16 to
24 feet long, and 10 feet in girth. Other names are _Pilot-whale_,
_Black-fish_, _Social Whale_, _Grindhval_. [Scot. _ca_, to drive.]

CAB, kab, _n._ a public carriage of various sizes and shapes, with two or
four wheels, drawn by one horse.--_ns._ CAB'BY, a shortened form of
CAB'MAN, one who drives a cab for hire; CAB'-STAND, a place where cabs
stand for hire; CAB'-TOUT, one whose business it is to call cabs.--CABMEN'S
SHELTER, a place of shelter for cabmen while waiting for hire. [Shortened

CAB, kab, _n._ a Hebrew dry measure = nearly three pints. [Heb.
_kab_--_kabab_, to hollow.]

CABAL, ka-bal', _n._ a small party united for some secret design: the plot
itself: a name in English history esp. given to five unpopular ministers of
Charles II. (1672), whose initials happened to make up the word.--_v.i._ to
form a party for a secret purpose: to plot:--_pr.p._ cabal'ling.--_n._
CABAL'LER, a plotter or intriguer. [Fr. _cabale_; from CABALA.]

CABALLERO, kä-bä-ly[=a]'r[=o], _n._ a Spanish gentleman: a Spanish dance.

CABALLINE, kab'a-lin, _adj._ pertaining to, or suited to, a horse. [L.
_caballinus_--_caballus_, a horse.]

CABARET, kab'a-ret, _n._ a small tavern. [Fr., prob. for
_cabanaret_--_cabane_, a hut.]

CABAS, CABA, kab'a, _n._ a woman's work-basket or reticule: a rush basket
or pannier. [Fr.]

CABBAGE, kab'[=a]j, _n._ a well-known kitchen vegetable.--_ns._
CABB'AGE-BUTT'ERFLY, a large butterfly whose larvæ injure the leaves of
cabbage and other cruciferous plants; CABB'AGE-MOTH, a moth whose larva
feeds on the cabbage; CABB'AGE-PALM, CABB'AGE-TREE, a name given in
different countries to different species of palm, the great terminal bud of
which is eaten cooked like cabbage, or sometimes also raw in salads;
CABB'AGE-ROSE, a species of rose which has a thick form like a
cabbage-head; CABB'AGE-WORM, the larva of the cabbage-butterfly or of the
cabbage-moth. [Fr. _caboche_, head (_choux cabus_, a cabbage); from L.
_caput_, the head.]

CABBAGE, kab'[=a]j, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to purloin, esp. a tailor of portions
of a customer's cloth.--_n._ cloth so appropriated.

CABBALA, CABALA, kab'a-la, _n._ a secret science of the Jewish rabbis for
the interpretation of the hidden sense of Scripture, claimed to be handed
down by oral tradition.--_ns._ CABB'ALISM, the science of the cabbala;
CABB'ALIST, one versed in the cabbala.--_adjs._ CABBALIST'IC, -AL, relating
to the cabbala: having a hidden meaning. [Heb. _qabb[=a]l[=a]h_, tradition,
_qibb[=e]l_, to receive.]

CABER, k[=a]b'[.e]r, _n._ a pole, generally the stem of a young tree, which
is poised and tossed or hurled by Highland athletes. [Gael.]

CABIN, kab'in, _n._ a hut or cottage: a small room, esp. in a ship, for
officers or passengers--hence CAB'IN-PASS'ENGER, one paying for superior
accommodation.--_v.t._ to shut up in a cabin.--_v.i._ to dwell in a
cabin.--_n._ CAB'IN-BOY, a boy who waits on the officers or those who live
in the cabin of a ship. [Fr. _cabane_--Low L. _capanna_.]

CABINET, kab'in-et, _n._ (_obs._) a little cabin or hut: (_Shak._) the bed
or nest of a beast or bird: a small room, closet, or private apartment: a
case of drawers for articles of value: a private room for consultation,
esp. a king's--hence THE CABINET, a limited number of the chief ministers
who govern England, being the leaders of the majority in parliament.--_ns._
CAB'INET-COUN'CIL, a council or consultation of the members of the Cabinet;
CAB'INET-EDI'TION (of a book), one less in size and price than a library
edition, but still elegant in format; CAB'INET-MAK'ER, a maker of cabinets
and other fine furniture; CAB'INET-PH[=O]'TOGRAPH, one of the size larger
than a carte-de-visite. [Dim. of CABIN; cf. mod. Fr. _cabinet_.]

CABIRI, ka-b[=i]'r[=i], _n.pl._ ancient divinities of Semitic origin,
associated with fire and creative energy, worshipped in mysteries in
Lemnos, Samothrace, and Indros--also CABEI'RI.--_adjs._ CABIR'IAN,

CABLE, k[=a]'bl, _n._ a strong rope or chain which ties anything, esp. a
ship to her anchor: a nautical measure of 100 fathoms; a cable for
submarine telegraphs composed of wires embedded in gutta-percha and encased
in coiled strands of iron wire; a bundle of insulated wires laid
underground in a street: a cable-message.--_v.t._ to provide with a cable,
to tie up: to transmit a message, or to communicate with any one by
submarine telegram.--_ns._ C[=A]'BLEGRAM, a message sent by submarine
telegraph cable; C[=A]'BLE-MOULD'ING, a bead or moulding carved in
imitation of a thick rope; C[=A]'BLING, a bead or moulding like a thick
rope, often worked in flutes: the filling of flutes with a moulding like a
cable.--SLIP THE CABLE, to let it run out. [Fr.--Low L. _caplum_, a
halter--_cap-[)e]re_, to hold.]

CABOB, ka-bob', _n._ an Oriental dish of pieces of meat roasted with herbs:
roast meat generally in India. [Ar. _kab[=a]b_.]

CABOCHED, CABOSHED, ka-bosht', _adj._ (_her._) bearing the head of an
animal, with only the face seen. [Fr. _caboché_--L. _caput_, head.]

CABOCHON, ka-b[=o]-shong, _n._ a precious stone polished but uncut.--EN
CABOCHON, rounded on top and flat on back, without facets--garnets,
moonstone, &c. [Fr.]

CABOODLE, ka-b[=oo]'dl, _n._ (_slang_) crowd, company.

CABOOSE, ka-b[=oo]s', _n._ the kitchen or cooking-stove of a ship. [Dut.
_kombuis_; cf. Ger. _kabuse_.]


CABRIOLET, kab-ri-[=o]-l[=a]', _n._ a covered carriage with two or four
wheels drawn by one horse. [Fr. See CAPRIOLE. By 1830 shortened into CAB.]

CACAO, ka-k[=a]'o, ka-kä'o, _n._ the chocolate-tree, from the seeds of
which chocolate is made. [Mex. _cacauatl_.]

CACHÆMIA, CACHEMIA, ka-k[=e]'mi-a, _n._ a morbid state of the
blood.--_adj._ CACH[=E]'MIC. [Gr. _kakos_, bad, _haima_, blood.]

CACHALOT, kash'a-lot, _n._ the sperm-whale. [Fr.]

CACHE, kash, _n._ a hiding-place for treasure, for stores of provisions,
ammunition, &c.: the stores themselves so hidden.--_v.t._ to hide
anything.--_n._ CACHE'POT, an ornamental flower-pot enclosing a common one
of earthenware. [Fr. _cacher_, to hide.]

CACHET, kash'[=a], _n._ a seal, any distinctive stamp.--LETTRE DE CACHET, a
letter under the private seal of the king of France under the old régime,
by which the royal pleasure was made known to individuals, and the
administration of justice often interfered with. [Fr.]

CACHEXY, ka-kek'si, _n._ a bad state of body: a depraved habit of
mind.--_adjs._ CACHEC'TIC, -AL. [L.--Gr. _kachexia_--_kakos_, bad, _hexis_,

CACHINNATION, kak-in-[=a]'shun, _n._ loud laughter.--_adj._ CACHIN'NATORY.
[L. _cachinnation-em_, _cachinn[=a]re_, to laugh loudly--from the sound.]

CACHOLONG, kash'o-long, _n._ a variety of quartz or of opal, generally of a
milky colour. [Fr.]


CACHOU, kash'[=oo], _n._ a sweetmeat, made in the form of a pill, of
extract of liquorice, cashew-nut, or the like, used by some smokers in the
hope to sweeten their breath. [Fr.]

CACHUCHA, kach'[=oo]ch-a, _n._ a lively Spanish dance. [Sp.]

CACIQUE, ka-s[=e]k', _n._ a native chief among the West Indian aborigines.

CACKLE, kak'l, _n._ the sound made by a hen or goose.--_v.i._ to make such
a sound.--_ns._ CACK'LER, a fowl that cackles: a talkative, gossiping
person; CACK'LING, noise of a goose or hen. [M. E. _cakelen_; cog. with
Dut. _hakelen_.]

CACODEMON, kak-o-d[=e]'mon, _n._ an evil spirit: (_Shak._) a nightmare.
[Gr. _kakos_, bad, and DEMON.]

CACODYL, kak'o-dil, _n._ a colourless stinking liquid, composed of arsenic,
carbon, and hydrogen. [Gr. _kak[=o]d[=e]s_, ill-smelling.]

CACOETHES, kak-o-[=e]'th[=e]z, _n._ an obstinate habit or disposition. [Gr.
_kakos_, bad, _[=e]thos_, habit.]

CACOGASTRIC, kak-[=o]-gas'trik, _adj._ pertaining to a disordered stomach,
dyspeptic. [Gr. _kakos_, bad, _gast[=e]r_, the stomach.]

CACOGRAPHY, kak-og'ra-fi, _n._ bad writing or spelling.--_adj._
CACOGRAPH'IC [Gr. _kakos_, bad, and _graphia_, writing.]

CACOLET, kak'o-l[=a], _n._ a military mule-litter for sick and wounded.
[Fr.; prob. Basque.]

CACOLOGY, ka-kol'o-ji, _n._ bad grammar or pronunciation. [Gr. _kakos_,
bad, _logos_, speech.]

CACOON, ka-k[=oo]n', _n._ a large seed of a tropical climber of the bean
family, used for making scent-bottles, snuff boxes, purses, &c.: a
purgative and emetic seed of a tropical American climber of the gourd

CACOPHONY, ka-kof'[=o]-ni, _n._ a disagreeable sound: discord of
harsh-sounding. [Gr. _kakos_, bad, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

CACTUS, kak'tus, _n._ an American plant, generally with prickles instead of
leaves.--_adj._ CACT[=A]'CEOUS, pertaining to or like the cactus. [Gr., a
prickly plant found in Sicily.]

CAD, kad, _n._ a low, mean, or vulgar fellow: a bus driver or conductor, a
tavern-yard loafer.--_adj._ CAD'DISH. [Short for CADET.]

CADASTRAL, ka-das'tral, _adj._ pertaining to a CADASTRE or public register
of the lands of a country for fiscal purposes: applied also to a survey on
a large scale, like our Ordnance Survey on the scale of 25 inches to the
mile. [Fr.--Low L. _capitastrum_, register for a poll-tax--L. _caput_, the

CADAVEROUS, ka-dav'[.e]-rus, _adj._ looking like a dead body:
sickly-looking.--_n._ CAD[=A]V'ER (_surg._ and _anat._), a corpse.--_adj._
CADAV'ERIC.--_n._ CADAV'EROUSNESS. [L. _cadaver_, a dead
body--_cad-[)e]re_, to fall dead.]

CADDICE, CADDIS, kad'dis, _n._ the larva of the May-fly and other species
of Phryganea, which lives in water in a sheath formed of fragments of wood,
stone, shell, leaves, &c., open at both ends--caddis-worms form excellent
bait for trout.--_n._ CAD'DIS-FLY.

CADDIE, kad'i, _n._ a lad who attends a golfer at play, carrying his clubs:
in 18th century a messenger or errand porter in Edinburgh. [See CADET.]

CADDIS, kad'dis, _n._ (_Shak._) worsted ribbon. [O. Fr. _cadaz_, _cadas_.]

CADDY, kad'i, _n._ a small box for holding tea. [Malay _kati_, the weight
of the small packets in which tea is made up.]

CADE, k[=a]d, _n._ a barrel or cask. [Fr.--L. _cadus_, a cask.]

CADE, k[=a]d, _n._ and _adj._ a lamb or colt brought up by hand, a pet
lamb. [Ety. unknown.]

CADEAU, kad'o, _n._ a present. [Fr.]

CADENAS, kad'e-nas, _n._ in medieval times, a locked casket containing a
great man's table requisites, knife, fork, spoon, &c., often in the form of
a ship. [O. Fr.,--L. _catena_, a chain.]

CADENCE, k[=a]'dens, _n._ the fall of the voice at the end of a sentence:
tone, sound, modulation.--_adj._ C[=A]'DENCED, rhythmical.--_n._
C[=A]'DENCY, regularity of movement: (_her._) the relative status of
younger sons.--_adj._ C[=A]'DENT (_Shak._), falling.--_n._ CADEN'ZA, a
flourish given by a solo voice or instrument at the close of a movement.
[Fr.--L. _cad-[)e]re_, to fall.]

CADET, ka-det', _n._ the younger or youngest son: a member of the younger
branch of a family: in the army, one who serves as a private to become an
officer: a student in a military school.--_n._ CADET'SHIP.--CADET CORPS,
parties of boys undergoing military training. [Fr. _cadet_, formerly
_capdet_--Low L. _capitettum_, dim. of _caput_, the head.]

CADGE, kaj, _v.i._ to beg or go about begging.--_n._ CADG'ER, a carrier who
collects country produce, a hawker: a fellow who picks up his living about
the streets. [Prob. conn. with CATCH.]

CADGY, kaj'i, _adj._ (_prov._) frolicsome: wanton. [Cf. Dan. _kaad_,
wanton, Ice. _kátr_, merry.]

CADI, k[=a]'di, _n._ a judge in Mohammedan countries. [Ar. _q[=a]d[=i]_, a

CADMEAN, kad-m[=e]'an, _adj._ relating to _Cadmus_, who introduced the
original Greek alphabet.

CADMIA, kad'mi-a, _n._ oxide of zinc, containing from 10 to 20 per cent. of
cadmium. [Gr. _kadmia_, _kadmeia_ (_ge_), Cadmean (earth), calamine.]

CADMIUM, kad'mi-um, _n._ a white metal occurring in zinc ores. [See

CADRANS, kad'rans, _n._ a wooden instrument by which a gem is adjusted
while being cut. [Fr. _cadran_, a quadrant.]

CADRE, kad'r, _n._ a nucleus, framework, esp. the permanent skeleton of a
regiment or corps, the commissioned and non-commissioned officers, &c.,
around whom the rank and file may be quickly grouped. [Fr.]


CADUCEUS, ka-d[=u]'se-us, _n._ (_myth._) the rod carried by Mercury, the
messenger of the gods--a wand surmounted with two wings and entwined by two
serpents.--_adj._ CAD[=U]'CEAN. [L., akin to Gr. _k[=e]rukeion_, a herald's
wand--_k[=e]rux_, a herald.]

CADUCIBRANCHIATE, ka-d[=u]i-si-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ losing the gills on
attaining maturity, as all the salamanders.--_n.pl._ CADUCIBRANCHI[=A]'TA.
[L. _caducus_, caducous, _branchiæ_, gills.]

CADUCOUS, ka-d[=u]'kus, _adj._ falling early, as leaves or flowers.--_n._
CAD[=U]'CITY, transitoriness, senility. [L. _caducus_--_cad-[)e]re_, to

CÆCUM, s[=e]'kum, _n._ a blind sac: a sac or bag having only one opening,
connected with the intestine of an animal.--_adj._ CÆ'CAL. [L.--_cæcus_,

CAEN-STONE, k[=a]'en-st[=o]n, _n._ a cream-coloured limestone brought from
_Caen_ in France.

CÆSAR, s[=e]'zar, _n._ an absolute monarch, an autocrat, from the Roman
dictator Caius Julius Cæsar (100-44 B.C.).--_adj._ CÆSAR'EAN, relating to
the popular name for Hysterotomy, the delivery of a child by cutting
through the walls of the abdomen, as is said to have been the case with

CÆSIUM, s[=e]z'i-um, _n._ a silver-white, soft, and extensile alkaline
metal, almost always found along with rubidium, discovered by Bunsen and
Kirchhoff in 1860 by spectrum analysis.--_adj._ CÆS'IOUS, bluish green. [L.
_cæsius_, bluish gray.]

CÆSURA, CESURA, s[=e]-z[=u]'ra, _n._ a syllable cut off at the end of a
word after the completion of a foot: a pause in a verse.--_adj._
CÆS[=U]'RAL. [L.--_cæd[)e]re_, _cæsum_, to cut off.]

CAFÉ, käf'[=a], _n._ a coffee-house, a restaurant.--CAFÉ CHANTANT, a public
place of entertainment where the guests hear music while sipping their
liquor. [Fr.]

CAFFEINE, kaf'e-in, or kaf-[=e]'in, _n._ the alkaloid or active principle
of coffee and tea. [Fr. _caféine_. See COFFEE.]

CAFFRE, kaf'f[.e]r, _n._ more correctly KAFIR (q.v.).

CAFTAN, kaf'tan, _n._ a Persian or Turkish vest. [Turk. _qaftán_.]

CAGE, k[=a]j, _n._ a place of confinement: a box made of wire and wood for
holding birds or small animals: (_mining_) a frame with one or more
platforms for cars, used in hoisting in a vertical shaft: the framework
supporting a peal of bells.--_v.t._ to imprison in a cage--_p.adj._ CAGED,
confined.--_ns._ CAGE'LING, a bird kept in a cage; CAGE'-WORK, open work
like the bars of a cage. [Fr.--L. _cavea_, a hollow place.]

CAGOT, kag'[=o], _n._ one of an outcast race found scattered in the
district of the western Pyrenees, most likely the descendants of lepers.
[Fr.; origin unknown.]

CAHIER, ka-y[=a]', _n._ a writing-book, memorandum or report: a memorial.

CAHOOT, ka-h[=oo]t', _n._ (_U.S._) company or partnership.

CAILLACH, k[=i]l'yah, _n._ an old woman. [Gael. _cailleach_.]



CAIN, k[=a]n, _n._ a murderer, from _Cain_, who killed his brother Abel
(Gen. iv.).--_adj._ CAIN'-COL'OURED (_Shak._), reddish, the traditional
colour of the hair of Cain and Judas.--_n._ CAIN'ITE, a descendant of Cain:
a member of a 2d-century set of Gnostics who revered Cain and Judas.

CAIN, KAIN, k[=a]n, _n._ in old Scots law, rent paid in kind, esp. in
poultry, &c.--TO PAY THE CAIN, to pay the penalty. [Ir. and Gael, _cáin_,
rent, tax.]

CAINOZOIC, k[=a]-no-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ belonging to the third of the great
periods of geology, the same as the Tertiary (q.v.). [Gr. _kainos_, newly
made, recent, _z[=o]on_, animal.]

CAIQUE, kä-[=e]k', _n._ a light skiff used on the Bosporus: the skiff of a
galley. [Fr.,--Turk. _kaik_, a boat.]

CAIRD, k[=a]rd, _n._ a tramping tinker, a gipsy, a vagrant. [Gael. and Ir.

CAIRN, k[=a]rn, _n._ a heap of stones, esp. one raised over a grave, or as
a landmark on a mountain-top.--_n._ CAIRN'GORM-STONE, or simply CAIRNGORM,
a name often given by jewellers to brown or yellow quartz or rock-crystal,
because found among the Cairngorm Mountains in Aberdeenshire. [Celt.

CAISSON, k[=a]s'on, _n._ a tumbril or ammunition wagon: a chest filled with
explosive materials: a strong case for keeping out the water while the
foundations of a bridge are being built: an apparatus for lifting a vessel
out of the water for repairs or inspection: the pontoon or floating gate
used to close a dry-dock. [Fr., from _caisse_, a case or chest. See CASE.]

CAITIFF, k[=a]'tif, _n._ a mean despicable fellow.--_adj._ mean,
base.--_n._ CAI'TIVE (_Spens._), captive, subject. [O. Fr. _caitif_, (Fr.
_chétif_)--L. _captivus_, a captive--_cap-[)e]re_, to take.]

CAJOLE, ka-j[=o]l', _v.t._ to coax: to cheat by flattery.--_ns._
CAJOLE'MENT, coaxing for the purpose of deluding: wheedling language:
flattery; CAJOL'ER; CAJOL'ERY. [Fr. _cajoler_, to chatter; ety. dub.]

CAJUPUT, kaj'i-put, _n._ a pungent, volatile, aromatic oil, distilled from
the leaves of two trees native to Australia.--Also CAJ'EPUT. [Malay.]

CAKE, k[=a]k, _n._ a piece of dough that is baked: a small loaf of fine
bread: any flattened mass baked, as _pan_-_cake_, &c., or as soap, wax,
tobacco, &c.: a thin hard-baked kind of oaten-bread--whence Scotland is
styled the 'Land of Cakes:' fancy bread, sweetened: a composition of bread
with butter, sugar, spices, currants, raisins, &c., baked into any
form--_plum-cake_, _tea-cake_, _wedding-cake_.--_v.t._ to form into a cake
or hard mass.--_v.i._ to become baked or hardened.--_adj._ CAK'Y.--CAKES
AND ALE, a phrase covering vaguely all the good things of life.--TO TAKE
THE CAKE (_slang_), to carry off the honours, rank first. [Scand. _kaka_;
cog. with Ger. _kuche_, Dut. _koek_.]

CALABAR-BEAN, käl'a-bär-b[=e]n, _n._ the seed of _Physostigma venenosum_,
the ordeal bean of Old Calabar, used in the form of an emulsion in cases of
witchcraft, the accused being plainly innocent if he can throw off the
poison by vomiting.

CALABASH, kal'a-bash, _n._ a tree of tropical America, bearing a large
melon-like fruit, the shell of which, called a calabash, is used for
domestic purposes, as holding liquids, &c. [Fr. _calebasse_--Sp.
_calabaza_--Pers. _kharbuz_, melon.]

CALABOOSE, kal'a-b[=oo]s, _n._ a prison in New Orleans, esp. a common
lock-up. [Sp. _calabozo_, a dungeon.]

CALADIUM, kal-[=a]'di-um, _n._ a genus of plants of the Arum family, with
edible starchy root-stocks. [Latinised from Malay _kél[=a]dy_.]

CALAMANCO, kal-a-mangk'o, _n._ a satin-twilled woollen stuff, checkered or
brocaded in the warp. [Dut. _kalamink_, Ger. _kalmank_, Fr. _calmande_;
origin unknown.]

CALAMANDER, kal'a-man-d[.e]r, _n._ a hard and valuable cabinet-wood of a
brownish colour, with black stripes, brought from India and Ceylon. [Prob.

CALAMARY, kal'a-mar-i, _n._ a popular name applied to numerous forms of
cuttle-fish or Cephalopoda, more esp. to _Loligo vulgaris_.--Also SQUID.
[Sp. _calamar_--Fr. _calmar_--L. _calamarius_, _calamus_, a pen.]

CALAMINE, kal'a-m[=i]n, _n._ an ore consisting essentially of carbonate of
zinc. [Fr.--Low L. _calamina_, most prob. from L. _cadmia_.]

CALAMINT, kal'a-mint, _n._ a genus of Labiate plants closely allied to balm
and thyme. [Fr.--Low L. _calamentum_, through L. from Gr. _kalaminth[=e]_.]

CALAMITE, kal'a-m[=i]t, _n._ a fossil plant abundant in the coal-measures,
believed to be a kind of gigantic horse-tails (_Equisetaceæ_). [Formed from
L. _calamus_, a reed.]

CALAMITY, kal-am'i-ti, _n._ a great misfortune: affliction.--_adj._
CALAM'ITOUS, making wretched, disastrous.--_adv._ CALAM'ITOUSLY, in a
calamitous manner.--_n._ CALAM'ITOUSNESS, the quality of producing
distress: distress: misery. [Fr. _calamité_--L. _calamitat-em_.]

CALAMUS, kal'a-mus, _n._ the traditional name of the sweet flag, which is
no doubt the _Calamus aromaticus_ of Roman authors, and probably the sweet
calamus and sweet cane of Scripture, but not the fragrant lemon-grass of
India: a genus of palms whose stems make canes or rattans: the reed pen
used by the ancients in writing. [L.--Gr.]

CALASH, ka-lash', _n._ a light low-wheeled carriage with a folding top: a
silk and whalebone hood worn by ladies to shade the face. [Fr. _calèche_;
of Slav. origin, as Bohem. _kolésa_, Russ. _koleso_, a wheel.]

CALAVANCE, kal'a-vans, _n._ a name for certain varieties of pulse.--Also
CAR'AVANCE. [Sp. _garbanzo_, chickpea, said to be the Basque _garbantzu_.]

CALCANEUM, kal-k[=a]'n[=e]-um, _n._ a bone of the tarsus or ankle, forming
in man the prominence of the heel, the _os calcis_: in birds, the
hypotarsus.--_adjs._ CALC[=A]'NEAL, CALC[=A]'NEAN. [L., the heel--_calx_,
the heel.]

CALCAR, kal'kar, _n._ (_bot._) a spur or spur-like projection, esp. from
the base of a petal: (_anat._) an eminence in the lateral ventricles of the
brain, the hippocampus minor or calcar avis.--_adjs._ CAL'CARATE;
CALCAR'IFORM; CAL'CARINE. [L., a spur--_calx_, _calcis_, the heel.]

CALCAR, kal'kar, _n._ an oven or furnace for calcining the materials of
frit before melting--also _Fritting-furnace_: an arch or oven for

CALCAREOUS, kal-k[=a]'re-us, _adj._ like or containing chalk or lime,
whether waters, rocks, or soils.--_n._ CALC[=A]'REOUSNESS.--_adj._
CALCARIF'EROUS, better CALCIF'EROUS, containing lime. [L. _calcarius_, from
_calx_, lime.]

CALCEAMENTUM, kal-s[=e]-a-men'tum, _n._ a red silk embroidered sandal
forming part of the insignia of the Holy Roman Empire. [L.]

CALCED, kalst, _adj._ shod, wearing shoes--opp. to _Discalced_--of
Carmelites.--_v.t._ CAL'C[=E]ATE, to shoe.--_adjs._ CAL'C[=E]ATE, -D, shod;
CAL'C[=E]IFORM (_bot._), having the form of a slipper; CAL'C[=E]OLATE,
calceiform. [Low L. _calceus_, a shoe--_calx_, _calcis_, the heel.]

CALCEOLARIA, kal-se-o-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a South American genus of
_Scrophulariaceæ_, largely cultivated as half-hardy or greenhouse plants
for the beauty and variety in colour of the two-lipped slipper-like
flowers. [L. _calceolus_, dim. of _calceus_, a shoe.]

CALCIUM, kal'si-um, _n._ the metal present in chalk, stucco, and other
compounds of lime.--_adjs._ CAL'CIC, containing calcium; CAL'CIFIC,
calcifying or calcified.--_v.i._ CAL'CIFIC[=A]'TION, the process of
calcifying, a changing into lime.--_adjs._ CAL'CIFORM, like chalk, pebbly;
CALCIF'UGOUS, avoiding limestone.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ CAL'CIFY, to make
calcic: to turn into bony tissue.--_adjs._ CALCIG'ENOUS, forming lime;
CALCIG'EROUS, containing lime.--_n._ CAL'CIMINE, a white or tinted wash for
ceilings, walls, &c., consisting of whiting, with glue, &c.--_v.t._ to wash
with such.--_adj._ CAL'CINABLE, capable of being calcined.--_n._
CALCIN[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ CAL'CINE, or CALCINE', to reduce to a calx or
chalky powder by the action of heat, to burn to ashes.--_v.i._ to become a
calx or powder by heat.--_ns._ CAL'CITE, native calcium carbonate, or
carbonate of lime--also called CALC[=A]'REOUS SPAR and CALC'SPAR;
CALC'-SIN'TER, CALC'-TUFF, TRA'VERTIN, a porous deposit from springs or
rivers which in flowing through limestone rocks have become charged with
calcium carbonate. [Formed from L. _calx_, chalk.]


CALCULATE, kal'k[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to count or reckon: to think out: to
adapt, fit (only passive, with _for_): (_U.S._) to think, purpose.--_v.i._
to make a calculation: to estimate.--_adjs._ CAL'CULABLE; CAL'CULATING,
given to forethought, deliberately selfish and scheming.--_n._
CALCUL[=A]'TION, the art or process of calculating: estimate:
forecast.--_adj._ CAL'CUL[=A]TIVE, relating to calculation.--_n._
CAL'CUL[=A]TOR, one who calculates. [L. _calcul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to
reckon by help of little stones--_calculus_, dim. of _calx_, a little

CALCULUS, kal'k[=u]-lus, _n._ a stone-like concretion which forms in
certain parts of the body: one of the higher branches of
mathematics:--_pl._ CALCULI (kal'k[=u]-li).--_adj._ CAL'CULOSE, stony or
like stone: gritty: affected with stone or with gravel.--CALCULUS OF FINITE
DIFFERENCES not merely does not consider differentials, but does not assume
continuity.--DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS, a method of treating the values of
ratios of differentials or the increments of quantities continually
varying; INTEGRAL CALCULUS, the summation of an infinite series of
differentials. [L.--_calx_.]


CALEDONIAN, kal-e-d[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Caledonia_, or
Scotland.--_n._ a Scotchman.

CALEFACTION, kal-e-fak'shun, _adj._ act of heating: state of being
heated.--_adj._ CALEF[=A]'CIENT, warming.--_n._ anything that warms: a
blister or superficial stimulant.--_adj._ CALEFAC'TIVE, communicating
heat.--_n._ CALEFAC'TOR, a small stove.--_adj._ CALEFAC'TORY,
warming.--_n._ a room in which monks warmed themselves: a warming-pan, a
pome.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ CAL'EFY, to grow warm: to make warm.--_n._
CALES'CENCE, increasing warmth. [L.,--_cal[=e]re_, to grow hot,
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

CALENDAR, kal'en-dar, _n._ the mode of adjusting the natural divisions of
time with respect to each other for the purposes of civil life: an almanac
or table of months, days, and seasons, or of special facts, &c., as in the
'gardener's calendar,' &c.: a list of documents arranged chronologically
with summaries of contents, as in 'calendar of state papers:' a list of
canonised saints, or of prisoners awaiting trial: any list or
record.--_v.t._ to place in a list: to analyse and index.--_ns._
CAL'ENDARER, CAL'ENDARIST. [O. Fr. _calendier_--L. _calendarium_, an
account-book, _kalendæ_, calends.]

CALENDER, kal'en-d[.e]r, _n._ a press consisting of two rollers for
smoothing and dressing cloth, paper, &c.: a person who calenders, properly
a calendrer.--_v.t._ to dress in a calender.--_ns._ CAL'ENDERING;
CAL'ENDRER, one whose business it is to calender cloth; CAL'ENDRY, a place
where calendering is done. [Fr. _calandre_--L. _cylindrus_--L.

CALENDER, kal'en-d[.e]r, _n._ a word somewhat loosely used for dervish in
Persia and Central Asia. [Pers.]

CALENDS, kal'endz, _n._ among the Romans, the first day of each month. [L.
_Kalendæ_--_cal[)a]re_, Gr. _kalein_, to call, because the beginning of the
month was proclaimed.]

CALENTURE, kal'en-t[=u]r, _n._ a kind of fever or delirium occurring on
board ship in hot climates. [Fr. and Sp.--L. _calent-em_, _cal[=e]re_, to
be hot.]


CALF, käf, _n._ the young of the cow and of some other animals, as marine
mammals: calf-skin leather, bookbinding in such: a stupid or a cowardly
person:--_pl._ CALVES (kävz).--_ns._ CALF'-LOVE, an attachment between a
boy and girl; CALF'S'-FOOT, CALVES'-FOOT, the foot of the calf, used in
making a palatable jelly; CALF'-SKIN, the skin of the calf, making a good
leather for bookbinding and shoes.--DIVINITY CALF, a dark-brown calf
bookbinding, with blind stamping, and without gilding--common in the
binding of theological books; GOLDEN CALF, the idol set up by Aaron during
the absence of Moses on Sinai, or those erected by Jeroboam at Bethel and
Dan: worship of Mammon or wealth; HALF-CALF, a bookbinding in which the
back and corners are in calf-skin; MOTTLED CALF, a light coloured
bookbinding, decorated by the sprinkling of acid in drops; SMOOTH CALF, a
binding in plain or undecorated calf leather.--THE CALVES OF OUR LIPS
(Hosea, xiv. 2), an offering of praise (the Septuagint reads, 'The fruit of
our lips').--TREE CALF, a bright brown calf bookbinding, stained by acids
with a pattern resembling the trunk and branches of a tree. [A.S. _cealf_;
Ger. _kalb_.]

CALF, käf, _n._ the thick fleshy part of the leg behind.--_adj._ CALF'LESS,
with a thin, poor calf. [Ice. _kalfi_; perh. the same word as the

CALIBAN, kal'i-ban, _n._ a man of beastly nature, from the monster in
Shakespeare's _Tempest_.

CALIBRE, CALIBER, kal'i-b[.e]r, _n._ the size of the bore of a gun:
diameter: intellectual capacity.--_adj._ CAL'IBERED.--_v.t._ CAL'IBR[=A]TE,
to determine the calibre of.--_n._ CALIBR[=A]'TION. [Fr. _calibre_, the
bore of a gun; prob. L. _qu[=a] libr[=a]_, with what weight, or from Ar.
_q[=a]lib_, a form.]

CALICO, kal'i-k[=o], _n._ a cotton cloth, first brought from _Calicut_ in
India: plain white unprinted cotton cloth, bleached or unbleached: coarse
printed cotton cloth.--_adj._ made of calico: spotted--_n._
CAL'ICO-PRINT'ER, one employed in printing calicoes.

CALID, kal'id, _adj._ warm.--_n._ CALID'ITY. [L. _calidus_, hot.]

CALIF, CALIPH, k[=a]'lif, or kal'if, _n._ the name assumed by the
successors of Mohammed.--_ns._ CAL'IFATE, CAL'IPHATE, the office, rank, or
government of a calif. [Fr.--Ar. _khal[=i]fah_, a successor.]

CALIGINOUS, kal-ij'en-us, _adj._ dim, obscure, dark.--_n._ CALIGINOS'ITY.
[L. _caliginos-us_.]


CALIPASH, kal'i-pash, _n._ the part of a turtle close to the upper shell,
consisting of a fatty gelatinous substance of a dull greenish colour.--_n._
CAL'IPEE, the white portion from the belly--a fatty gelatinous substance of
a light-yellowish colour. [Prob. corr. of West Ind. words.]

CALIPERS, kal'i-p[.e]rz, CALIPER-COMPASSES, kal'i-p[.e]r-kum'pasez, _n.pl._
compasses with legs suitable for measuring the inside or outside diameter
of bodies. [Corr. of CALIBER.]


CALIPPIC, kal-ip'ik, _adj._ four Metonic cycles less one day, or
seventy-six years. [From the Greek astronomer _Callipus_, a contemporary of

CALISAYA, kal-i-s[=a]'ya, _n._ a variety of Peruvian bark.

CALIVER, kal'i-v[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) a kind of light musket. [Same as


CALIXTIN, CALIXTINE, kal-iks'tin, _adj._ of or belonging to the more
moderate party among the Hussites, so called from their demanding the cup
(L. _calix_) as well as the bread for the laity--also called U'TRAQUISTS
(L. _uterque_, both).--_n._ a follower of the Syncretist Lutheran divine,
George _Calixtus_ (1586-1656).


CALK, kawk, _n._ a pointed piece of iron on a horse-shoe to prevent
slipping--also CALK'IN and CALK'ER.--_v.t._ to provide a shoe with a calk.
[L. _calc-em_, _calx_, a heel.]

CALK, CALQUE, kawk, _v.t._ to chalk, as the back of a drawing, &c., in
order to transfer it, to copy by tracing.--_n._ CALK'ING, the copying of a
picture by means of tracing.

CALL, kawl, _v.i._ to cry aloud (with _out_; _to_, _after_, _at_, _up_,
_down_): to make a short visit (with _upon_, _for_, _at_).--_v.t._ to name:
to summon: to appoint or proclaim: to designate or reckon: to select for a
special office, as in 'called to be an apostle,' 'to be called to the bar:'
(_coll._) to call bad names to some one.--_n._ a summons or invitation: an
impulse: a demand: a short visit: a shrill whistle: the cry of a bird:
admission to the rank of barrister: an invitation to the pastorate of a
congregation, also the written form of such with appended list of names of
persons concurring: (_coll._) occasion, cause.--_ns._ CALL'-AT-LARGE, a
form of pastoral call sometimes adopted by a presbytery where a
congregation is not unanimous, in which the name of the person to be called
is not inscribed beforehand, and names cannot be adhibited by mandate;
CALL'-BIRD, a bird trained to allure others into snares; CALL'-BOY, a boy
who waits upon the prompter in a theatre, and calls the actors when wanted
on the stage; CALL'ER, one who pays a short visit; CALL'ING, that station
to which a person is called by Providence to fill: one's trade, profession,
or occupation; CALL'ING-CRAB, a popular name for the fiddler-crab, which
waves its larger claw when disturbed; CALL'-NOTE, the note by which a bird
or beast calls its young.--CALL ATTENTION TO, to point out; CALL AWAY, to
divert the mind; CALL BACK, to recall; CALL FOR, to ask loudly: claim; CALL
FORTH, to bring or summon to action; CALL FOR TRUMPS, to lay down such
cards at whist as will induce one's partner to lead a trump; CALL IN, to
bring in from outside, as the notes in circulation, &c.; CALL IN QUESTION,
to challenge; CALL OFF, to summon away; CALL ON, or UPON, to invoke, appeal
to; CALL OUT, to challenge to fight, esp. a duel: to summon to service,
bring into operation; CALL OVER, to read aloud a list; CALL TO ACCOUNT, to
summon to render an account; CALL UP, to summon from beneath, or to a
tribunal. [A.S. _ceallian_; Ice. _kalla_, Dut. _kallen_.]

CALL, kawl, _n._ (_Spens._) a caul or cap.

CALLANT, käl'ant, _n._ a lad. [A modern Scotch word; Dut. _kalant_.]

CALLER, kal'[.e]r, _adj._ fresh: (_Scot._) cool. [Prob. the same as

CALLET, kal'et, _n._ (_Shak._) a scold, a woman of bad character, a trull.
[Prob. Fr. _caillette_, a frivolous gossip; or prob. the Gael. _caille_,
girl, may be related.]

CALLID, kal'id, _adj._ shrewd.--_n._ CALLID'ITY, shrewdness. [L.
_callidus_, expert.]

CALLIGRAPHY, CALIGRAPHY, kal-lig'ra-fi, _n._ fine penmanship;
characteristic style of writing.--_adjs._ CALLIGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_ns._
CALLIG'RAPHIST, CALLIG'RAPHER. [Gr., _kalos_, beautiful, _graphein_, to

CALLIOPE, kal-[=i]'o-pe, _n._ the muse of epic poetry: an instrument
producing musical notes by means of steam-whistles, played by a keyboard.


CALLISTHENICS, kal-is-then'iks, _n.pl._ exercises for the purpose of
promoting gracefulness as well as strength of body.--_adj._ CALLISTHEN'IC.
[Gr. _kalos_, beautiful, _sthenos_, strength.]

CALLOUS, kal'us, _adj._ hardened: unfeeling or insensible.--_n._
CALLOS'ITY, a hard swelling on the skin.--_adv._ CALL'OUSLY.--_n._
CALL'OUSNESS. [L. _callosus_--_callus_, hard skin.]

CALLOW, kal'[=o], _adj._ not covered with feathers: unfledged, unbearded:
inexperienced: low-lying and liable to be submerged.--_n._ an alluvial
flat. [A.S. _calu_; Ger. _kahl_, L. _calvus_, bald.]

CALLUS, kal'us, _n._ a thickening of the skin: a term employed in old
surgical works for the exuded material by which fractures of bones are
consolidated together. [L.]

CALM, käm, _adj._ still or quiet: serene, tranquil.--_n._ absence of
wind--also in _pl._: repose: serenity of feelings or actions.--_v.t._ to
make calm: to quiet.--_ns._ CALM'ANT, CALM'ATIVE--in medical
language.--_adjs._ CALM'ATIVE, CALM'ANT, CALMED, CALM'Y (_Spens._)--_adv._
CALM'LY.--_n._ CALM'NESS. [Fr. _calme_ (It. _calma_), from Low L.
_cauma_--Gr. _kauma_, noonday heat--_kai-ein_, to burn.]


CALOMEL, kal'[=o]-mel, _n._ the popular name of one of the compounds of
mercury and chlorine, much used in medicine. [Fr. _calomel_, which Littré
derives from Gr. _kalos_, fair, _melas_, black.]

CALORIC, ka-lor'ik, _n._ heat: the supposed principle or cause of
heat.--_n._ CALORES'CENCE, the transmutation of heat rays into luminous
rays.--_adj._ CALORIF'IC, causing heat: heating.--_ns._ CALORIFIC[=A]'TION;
CALORIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the specific heat of a body;
CALORIM'ETRY, the art or process of measuring heat; CAL'ORIST, one who held
heat to be a subtle fluid called caloric; CAL'ORY, the usually accepted
thermal unit, being the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature
of a kilogram of water from 0° to 1° centigrade. [Fr. _calorique_, formed
by Lavoisier from L. _calor_, heat.]

CALOTTE, kal-ot', _n._ a plain skull-cap or coif worn by R.C. clergy. [Fr.]

CALOTYPE, kal'[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a kind of photography.--_n._ CAL'OTYPIST,
one who makes calotypes. [Gr. _kalos_, beautiful, _typos_, an image. Name
given in 1840 by W. H. Fox Talbot (1800-77) to his method of photographing
by the action of light on nitrate of silver.]

CALOYER, ka-loi'[.e]r, _n._ a Greek monk, esp. of the order of St Basil.
[Fr.,--It.--Late Gr. _kalog[=e]ros_, _kalos_, beautiful, _g[=e]ros_, aged.]

CALP, kalp, _n._ the name applied in Ireland to beds of shale, sandstone,
&c. containing thin seams of coal.

CALPAC, CALPACK, kal'pak, _n._ a triangular felt cap, worn by Turks and
Tartars. [Turk.]


CALTROP, kal'trop, _n._ an instrument armed with four spikes, so arranged
that one always stands upright, used to obstruct the progress of an enemy's
cavalry, or of besiegers of a fortification.--Also CAL'TRAP. [A.S.
_coltetræppe_, _calcatrippe_--L. _calc-em_, heel, _trappa_, a trap.]

CALUMBA, ka-lum'ba, _n._ the root of an East African plant, extensively
used in medicine as a stomachic and tonic. [From _Colombo_ in Ceylon.]

CALUMET, kal'[=u]-met, _n._ the 'peace pipe' of the North American Indians,
a tobacco-pipe having a stem of reed or painted wood about 2½ feet long,
decorated with feathers, with a large bowl, usually of soap-stone.
[_Calumet_ is a Norman name for a shepherd's pipe (Fr. _chalumeau_--L.
_calamellus_, _calamus_), given by the early French settlers from its

CALUMNY, kal'um-ni, _n._ false accusation: slander.--_v.t._ CALUM'NI[=A]TE,
to accuse falsely: to slander.--_v.i._ to spread evil reports.--_ns._
of the nature of calumny: slanderous.--_adv._ CALUM'NIOUSLY.--OATH OF
CALUMNY, a method in the law of Scotland for the prevention of calumnious
and unnecessary suits, by which both parties at the beginning of a cause
swear, either by themselves or their counsel, that the facts set forth by
them are true--usual only in actions of divorce, &c. [L. _calumnia_, prob.
for _calvomnia_, from _calvi_, _calv[)e]re_, to deceive.]

CALVARY, kal'va-ri, _n._ the name of the place where Jesus was crucified:
(_R.C._) a series of representations of the various scenes of Christ's
crucifixion: an eminence crowned with one or three crosses bearing
life-size figures of Jesus and the two thieves. [The Anglicised form of the
Vulgate _calvaria_, which was the L. rendering of the Gr. _kranion_, as
that again of the Aramaic _gogulth[=o]_ or _gogolth[=a]_ (Heb.
_gulg[=o]leth_--Græcised form _golgotha_), all three words meaning skull.]

CALVE, käv, _v.i._ to bring forth a calf. [A.S. _cealfian_. See CALF.]

CALVERED, kal'verd, _p.adj._ from obsolete verb CAL'VER, to prepare salmon
or other fish when freshly caught. [Prob. the same as Scot. _Caller_.]

CALVINISM, kal'vin-izm, _n._ the doctrines of the great Genevan religious
reformer, John _Calvin_ (1509-1564), as these are given in his
_Institutio_, esp. as regards particular election, predestination, the
incapacity for true faith and repentance of the natural man, efficacious
grace, and final perseverance.--_n._ CAL'VINIST, one who holds the
doctrines of Calvin.--_adjs._ CALVINIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to Calvin or

CALVITIES, kal-vish'i-[=e]z, _n._ baldness. [L.,--_calvus_, bald.]

CALX, kalks, _n._ chalk or lime: the substance of a metal or mineral which
remains after being subjected to violent heat:--_pl._ CALXES (kalk's[=e]z),
or CALCES (kal's[=e]z). [L. _calx_, lime.]

CALYCANTHUS, kal-i-kan'thus, _n._ a small order of square-stemmed aromatic
shrubs, natives of North America and Japan. [Made up of CALYX and Gr.

CALYPTRA, ka-lip'tra, _n._ a hood, covering, esp. that of the theca or
capsule of mosses.--_adjs._ CALYP'TRATE, furnished with such;
CALYP'TRIFORM, CALYPTRIMOR'PHOUS, having the form of a calyptra.--_n._
CALYP'TROGEN, the root-cap. [Gr., a veil.]

CALYX, CALIX, kal'iks, or k[=a]'liks, _n._ the outer covering or cup of a
flower, its separate leaves termed sepals:--_pl._ CALYCES, or
CALYXES.--_adjs._ CAL'YCATE, having a calyx; CALYC[=I]F'EROUS, bearing the
petals and stamens borne upon the calyx; CALYC'IFORM, having the form of a
calyx; CAL'YCINE, CALYC'INAL, pertaining to a calyx.--_n._ CAL'YCLE, an
accessory calyx outside the true one.--_adjs._ CAL'YCLED, having a calycle;
CAL'YCOID, CALYCOI'DEOUS, like a calyx. [L.,--Gr. _kalyx_--_kalyptein_, to

CAM, kam, _n._ (_mech._) a device for changing a regular rotary motion into
a reciprocating motion, various forms of which are the cam-wheel and shaft,
the heart-wheel, the wiper-wheel, and the eccentric. [Dut. _kam_.]

CAMAIEU, kam'[=i]-[=u], _n._ a cameo: a painting in monochrome, or in
simple colours not imitating nature: a style of printing pictures producing
the effect of a pencil-drawing.--Also CAM'AYEU. [Fr. See CAMEO.]

CAMARADERIE, kam-a-rad-r[=e]', _n._ good-fellowship: the intimacy of
comradeship. [Fr.]

CAMARILLA, kam-ar-il'a, _n._ a body of secret intriguers, esp. of a court
party against a king's legitimate ministers: a small room. [Sp. dim. of
_camara_, a chamber.]

CAMASS, ka-mas', _n._ a small plant growing in the north-western United
States, also its nutritious bulb.--_ns._ CAMASS'IA, a genus of liliaceous
plants nearly related to the European _Scilla_; CAMASS'-RAT, a small gopher
rodent which devours the bulbs of the camass.

CAMBER, kam'b[.e]r, _n._ a convexity upon an upper surface, as of a deck
amidships, a bridge, or lintel: the curve of a ship's plank: a small dock
in the royal yards where timber is loaded and discharged.--_v.t._ to curve
ship-planks, to arch slightly. [Fr.--L. _camer[=a]re_, to vault.]

CAMBIST, kam'bist, _n._ one skilled in the science of exchange.--_ns._
CAM'BISM, CAM'BISTRY. [It--L. _camb[=i]re_, to exchange.]

CAMBERWELL BEAUTY, kam'ber-wel b[=u]'ti, _n._ (_Vanessa antiopa_) a fancy
name for one of the largest and most beautiful of British butterflies.

CAMBIUM, kam'bi-um, _n._ a layer of vascular tissue formed between the wood
and the bark of exogens, in which the annual growth is formed. [Low
L.--_cambium_--L. _camb[=i]re_, to change.]

CAMBOGE, obsolete form of GAMBOGE.

CAMBREL, kam'brel, _n._ a bent piece of wood or iron on which butchers hang
the carcasses of animals: the hock of a horse. [Prob. conn. with CAMBER.]

CAMBRIAN, kam'bri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Cambria_ or Wales: Welsh: the
name given by Sedgwick in 1836 to a group or series of sedimentary deposits
which come next in order to the Archæan System.--_n._ an inhabitant of
Cambria, or Wales. [Formed from _Cymry_, Welshmen, or _Cymru_, Wales.]

CAMBRIC, k[=a]m'brik, _n._ a kind of fine white linen, originally
manufactured at _Cambrai_ in the French department of Nord.

CAMBUCA, kam-b[=u]'ka, _n._ a pastoral staff: a curved stick used in the
game of pall-mall.--Also CAMBUT'TA. [Low L., of Celt. origin.]

CAME, k[=a]m, did come _pa.t._ of COME.

CAMEL, kam'el, _n._ an animal of Asia and Africa with one or two humps on
its back, used as a beast of burden and for riding.--_adj._ CAM'EL-BACKED,
hump-backed.--_ns._ CAM'ELEER, one who drives or rides a camel; CAM'ELINE,
camlet.--_adj._ CAM'ELISH, like a camel, obstinate.--_n._ CAM'ELRY, troops
mounted on camels.--CAMEL'S HAIR, the hair of the camel: the hair of the
squirrel's tail used for paint-brushes; CAMEL'S THORN, a shrub of the bean
family which camels eat greedily. [L. _camelus_--Gr. _kam[=e]los_--Heb.


CAMELLIA, ka-mel'ya, _n._ a species of evergreen shrubs, natives of China
and Japan, noted for the singular beauty of their flowers. [Named from
Kamel, Latinised _Camellus_, a Moravian Jesuit, who collected plants in the
Philippine Islands in 1639.]

CAMELOPARD, kam'el-[=o]-pärd, or kam-el'[=o]-pärd, _n._ the giraffe.
[L.,--Gr. _cam[=e]lopardalis_; from Gr. _kam[=e]los_, the camel, and
_pardalis_, the panther.]

CAMELOT, kam'lot, _n._ Same as CAMLET.

CAMEO, kam'[=e]-[=o], _n._ an engraved gem in which the figure or subject
is carved in relief. [It. _camméo_ (Fr. _camée_)--Low L. _cammæus_ traced
by Littré to Gr. _kamnein_, to work; by the late Mr C. W. King through an
Ar. form, 'an amulet,' from Pers. _camahen_, loadstone, the usual material
for Babylonian cylinders.]

CAMERA, kam'[.e]r-a, _n._ the variety of camera-obscura used by
photographers.--_ns._ CAM'ERA-L[=U]'CIDA, an instrument by which the rays
of light from an object are reflected by a specially shaped prism, forming
an image on the paper underneath; CAM'ERA-OBSC[=U]'RA, an instrument for
throwing the images of external