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Title: The Civil War Centennial Handbook
Author: Price, William H.
Language: English
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                        THE
                     CIVIL WAR
                CENTENNIAL HANDBOOK

                   FIRST EDITION
                 by William H. Price


         A Civil War Research Associate Series



                TABLE OF CONTENTS



                                                 Page

  =THE CIVIL WAR=                                  2

  =FACTS=

  The First Modern War                             5
  Brother Against Brother                          6
  They Also Served                                 9
  The Soldier, The Battle, The Losses             11
  The Cost of War                                 15
  Numbers and Losses                              17

  =PICTURES=

  The American soldier of the 1860's              20
  Camp life                                       23
  Passing time between campaigns                  25
  Religion and the soldier                        27
  Correspondents at the front                     28
  Ships of the line                               30
  Transportation and supplies                     41
  Tools of modern warfare                         45
  Field fortifications and entrenchments          49
  Communications                                  51
  Aerial reconnaissance                           52
  Spies and secret agents                         53
  The battle's overture                           54
  Appalling aftermath                             56
  Marks of total war                              62
  After four years--Appomattox                    64
  Last review of the Union Army                   65
  A Nation re-united                              66

  =UNIFORMS=

  Union regulation uniforms                       33
  Union regimental uniforms                       36
  Confederate regimental uniforms                 37
  Confederate regulation uniforms                 38

  =DATES AND PLACES=

  Chronology of battles                           67
  Map of the major battlefields                   70

  =RECOMMENDED READING=                           72



    THE
    CIVIL WAR
    CENTENNIAL HANDBOOK
    by William H. Price

    1861-1865      1961-1965

    [Illustration]

    Published by
    Prince Lithograph Co., Inc.
    4019 5th Rd. N., Arlington, Virginia
    Copyright 1961

    Printed in U. S. A.



THE CIVIL WAR

    _Here brothers fought for their principles
    Here heroes died to save their country
    And a united people will forever cherish
    the precious legacy of their noble manhood._

         --_PENNSYLVANIA MONUMENT AT VICKSBURG_


The Civil War, which began in the 1830's as a cold war and moved toward
the inevitable conflict somewhere between 1850 and 1860, was one of
America's greatest emotional experiences. When the war finally broke in
1861, beliefs and political ideals had become so firm that they
transcended family ties and bonds of friendship--brother was cast
against brother. The story of this supreme test of our Nation, though
one of tragedy, is also one of triumph, for it united a nation that had
been divided for over a quarter century.

Holding a place in history midway between the Revolutionary War of the
18th century and the First World War of the 20th, the American Civil War
had far-reaching effects: by the many innovations and developments it
stimulated, it became the forerunner of modern warfare; by the demands
it made on technology and production, it hastened the industrial
revolution in America. This conflict also provided the ferment from
which great personalities arise. Qualities of true greatness were
revealed in men like William Tecumseh Sherman, the most brilliant
strategist of modern times; Nathan Bedford Forrest, one of the greatest
of natural born leaders; Robert E. Lee, "one of the supremely gifted men
produced by our Nation"; and Abraham Lincoln, who, like the other great
men of that era, would be minor characters in our history had they not
been called upon in this time of crisis. And emerging from such trying
times were seven future Presidents of the United States, all officers of
the Union Army.

But the story of this sectional struggle is not only one of great
leaders and events. It is the story of 18,000 men in Gen. Sedgwick's
Corps who formed a marching column that stretched over ten miles of
road, and in that hot month of July 1863, the story of how they marched
steadily for eighteen hours, stopping only once to rest, until they
reached Gettysburg where the crucial battle was raging. It is the story
of more than two hundred young VMI Cadets, who without hesitation left
their classrooms to fight alongside hardened veterans at the battle of
New Market in 1864. Or it is the story of two brothers who followed
different flags and then met under such tragic circumstances on the
field of battle at Petersburg.

It is also a story of the human toil and machinery that produced more
than four million small arms for the Union Army and stamped from copper
over one billion percussion caps for these weapons during the four years
of war. Inside the Confederacy, it is the story of experiments with new
weapons--the submarine, iron-clad rams, torpedoes, and landmines--in an
attempt to overcome the North's numerical superiority.

It is the purpose of _The Civil War Centennial Handbook_ to present this
unusual story of the Civil War, a mosaic composed of fragments from the
lesser-known and yet colorful facts that have survived a century but
have been obscured by the voluminous battle narratives and campaign
studies.

Much of this material, when originally drafted, was selected by the
National Civil War Centennial Commission for their informative and
interesting _Facts About the Civil War_. This original material, revised
and enlarged, has grown into _The Civil War Centennial Handbook_.

The handbook is divided into five basic parts. The first is a
presentation of little-known and unusual facts about participants,
battles and losses, and the cost of war. The second is a graphic
portrayal of both the men and machines that made the war of the 1860's.
The special selection of photographs for this portion of the story were
made available through the courtesy of the National Archives and the
Library of Congress. Next are reproductions in color of Union and
Confederate uniforms from the _Official Records Atlas_ and the famous
paintings by H. A. Ogden. The fourth section is a reference table of
battles and losses listed in chronological order, accompanied by a map
showing the major engagements of the war. And primarily for the growing
number of new Civil War buffs, there is a roster of Civil War Round
Tables, as well as a recommended list of outstanding books on the Civil
War.

The material presented in The _Civil War Centennial Handbook_ has been
selected from standard sources, the most outstanding of which are: the
_Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies and Navies_,
Moore's _Rebellion Record_, Cullum's _Biographical Register of West
Point Graduates_, Phisterer's _Statistical Record_, Livermore's _Numbers
and Losses in the Civil War_, Fox's _Regimental Losses_, the _Dictionary
of American Biography_, Dyer's _Compendium of the War of the Rebellion_,
the _Annual Reports of the Secretary of War_, and last but far from
least, one of the richest sources of information available, my fellow
members of the District of Columbia Civil War Round Table.

[Illustration]



THE FIRST MODERN WAR

     _In the arts of life, man invents nothing; but in the arts of
     death he outdoes Nature herself, and produces by chemistry and
     machinery all the slaughter of plague, pestilence and famine.

                                           --_GEORGE BERNARD SHAW_


The arts of tactics and strategy were revolutionized by the many
developments introduced during the 1860's. Thus the Civil War ushered in
a new era in warfare with the ...

   FIRST practical machine gun.
   FIRST repeating rifle used in combat.
   FIRST use of the railroads as a major means of transporting
         troops and supplies.
   FIRST mobile siege artillery mounted on rail cars.
   FIRST extensive use of trenches and field fortifications.
   FIRST large-scale use of land mines, known as "subterranean
         shells".
   FIRST naval mines or "torpedoes".
   FIRST ironclad ships engaged in combat.
   FIRST multi-manned submarine.
   FIRST organized and systematic care of the wounded on the
         battlefield.
   FIRST widespread use of rails for hospital trains.
   FIRST organized military signal service.
   FIRST visual signaling by flag and torch during combat.
   FIRST use of portable telegraph units on the battlefield.
   FIRST military reconnaissance from a manned balloon.
   FIRST draft in the United States.
   FIRST organized use of Negro troops in combat.
   FIRST voting in the field for a national election by servicemen.
   FIRST income tax--levied to finance the war.
   FIRST photograph taken in combat.
   FIRST Medal of Honor awarded an American soldier.



BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER

     "_And why should we not accord them equal honor, for they were
     both Americans, imbued with those qualities which have made
     this country great._"

                                             _--BELL IRVIN WILEY_


PRESIDENT LINCOLN, the Commander-In-Chief of the Union Army, had four
brothers-in-law in the Confederate Army, and three of his sisters-in-law
were married to Confederate officers.

JEFFERSON DAVIS, Commander-in-Chief of the Confederate Army, served the
U.S. Army as a colonel during the Mexican War and held the post of
Secretary of War in President Pierce's cabinet. Previously, as a senior
United States Senator, he had been Chairman of the Senate Military
Affairs Committee. Lincoln and Davis were born in Kentucky, the only
state that has ever had two of its sons serve as President at the same
time.

JOHN TYLER, 10th President of the United States, was elected to the
Confederate States Congress in 1862, but died before it convened. On
March 4, 1861, Tyler's granddaughter unfurled the first flag of the
Confederacy when it was raised over the Confederate Capitol at
Montgomery, Alabama.

The Battle of Lynchburg, Virginia, in June 1864 brought together two
future Presidents of the United States--General RUTHERFORD B. HAYES and
Major WILLIAM McKINLEY, U.S.A.--and a former Vice-President--General
JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, C.S.A. Five other Union generals later rose to the
Presidency: ANDREW JOHNSON, U.S. GRANT, JAMES A. GARFIELD, CHESTER A.
ARTHUR, and BENJAMIN HARRISON.

The four Secretaries of War during the eleven years prior to the Civil
War were all from the South. All four later held office in the
Confederate government.

Fourteen of the 26 Confederate Senators had previously served in the
United States Congress. In the Confederate House of Representatives, 33
members were former U.S. Congressmen.

Confederate Generals ROBERT E. LEE and P.G.T. BEAUREGARD both ranked
second in their graduating classes at West Point, and both officers
later returned to hold the position of Superintendent of the Academy.
Lee's appointment to the rank of full colonel in the United States Army
was signed by President Lincoln.

In 1859 WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN was appointed the first president of
what is today the Louisiana State University. Although his chief claim
to fame was the destructive "March to the Sea", a portrait of the Union
general occupies a prominent place in the Memorial Tower of this
Southern university.

Over one-fourth of the West Point graduates who fought during the Civil
War were in the Confederate Army. Half of the 304 who served in Gray
were on active duty in the United States Army when war broke out. Of the
total number of West Pointers who went South, 148 were promoted to the
rank of general officer. In all, 313 of the 1,098 officers in the United
States Army joined the Confederacy.

One fourth of the officers in the United States Navy resigned to cast
their lot with the Confederate Navy. Of the 322 who resigned, 243 were
line officers.

When J.E.B. STUART raided Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in 1862, he was
pursued by Federal cavalry under the command of his father-in-law, Brig.
Gen. PHILIP ST. GEORGE COOKE, whose name is frequently confused with
that of Confederate General PHILIP ST. GEORGE COCKE, both West Pointers.
As if that weren't bad enough, there was a Union general by the name of
JEFFERSON DAVIS.

WILLIAM T. MAGRUDER (U.S.M.A. 1850) commanded a squadron of the 1st
United States Cavalry at First Manassas and during the Peninsula
Campaign. In August 1862 he was granted leave of absence, and two months
later he switched loyalties to join the Confederate Army. On July 3,
1863, he fell during the famous charge at Gettysburg.

The Virginia Military Institute graduated WILLIAM H. GILLESPIE in the
special war class of 1862. While awaiting his appointment as an officer
on "Stonewall" Jackson's staff, he deserted to the Union Army and became
Adjutant of the 14th West Virginia Cavalry.

If Blue and Gray didn't meet again at Gettysburg during the annual
reunions, they at least met on the banks of the Nile. No less than 50
former Union and Confederate officers held the rank of colonel or above
in the Army of the Khedive during the 1870's. Two ex-Confederate
generals and three former Union officers attained the rank of general in
the Egyptian Army, holding such positions as Chief of Staff, Chief of
Engineers, and Chief Ordnance Officer.

Only three Confederates ever held the rank of general in the United
States Army following the Civil War--MATTHEW C. BUTLER, FITZHUGH LEE,
and JOE WHEELER. Lee and Wheeler, though they served as generals in the
Confederate Army as well as in the United States Army during the Spanish
American War, both graduated at the bottom of their West Point classes.
When Lee and Wheeler were promoted to major general in 1901, their
commissions were signed by a former Yankee officer--President William
McKinley.

General GEORGE PICKETT, a native Virginian, was appointed to the United
States Military Academy from the State of Illinois. John Todd Stuart
obtained the appointment at the request of his law partner, Abraham
Lincoln.

The senior general in the Confederate Army, SAMUEL COOPER, hailed from
New York. Before the war, he had been Adjutant General of the United
States Army. From 1861 to 1865 he was the Adjutant and Inspector General
of the Confederate Army.

Fort Sumter was surrendered in 1861 by a Kentucky-born Union officer,
Major ROBERT ANDERSON. Confederate General JOHN C. PEMBERTON, a
Pennsylvanian by birth, surrendered Vicksburg in 1863. There was no
collusion in either surrender; both men were loyal supporters of their
respective causes.

The first Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy, Commodore
FRANKLIN BUCHANAN, commanded the C.S.S. _Virginia_ (_Merrimac_) in its
first engagement. On the first ship to surrender under the _Virginia's_
guns was Buchanan's brother, an officer of the U.S. Navy.

Major CLIFTON PRENTISS of the 6th Maryland Infantry (Union) and his
younger brother WILLIAM, of the 2nd Maryland Infantry (Confederate),
were both mortally wounded when their regiments clashed at Petersburg on
April 2, 1865--just seven days before hostilities ceased. Both were
removed from the battlefield and after a separation of four years, they
were taken to the same hospital in Washington. Each fought and each died
for his cause.



                     THEY ALSO SERVED

     _Fame is the echo of actions, resounding them to the world,
     save that the echo repeats only the last part, but fame relates
     all...._

                                                        --_FULLER_


Poet SIDNEY LANIER fought as a private in the 2nd Georgia Battalion
during the Seven Days' Battles near Richmond. In November 1862 he was
captured on a Confederate blockade-runner and imprisoned at Point
Lookout, Maryland. Sixteen years after the war he died from tuberculosis
contracted while in prison.

New England poet ALBERT PIKE commanded the Confederate Department of
Indian Territory. He wrote the stanzas of the popular Southern version
of _Dixie_, a tune which originated not in the South, but in New York
City during the 1850's.

At the battle of the Monocacy in 1864 Union General LEW WALLACE, author
of _Ben-Hur_, commanded the force defending Washington against General
Jubal Early's attack. After the war he served as Governor of New Mexico
and Minister to Turkey.

When the Marion Rangers organized in 1861, SAMUEL CLEMENS (Mark Twain)
joined as a lieutenant, but he left this Missouri Company before it was
mustered into Confederate service, having fired only one hostile shot
during the war.

Confederate Private HENRY MORTON STANLEY, of "Doctor Livingstone, I
presume" fame, survived a bloody charge at Shiloh only to be taken
prisoner. Later he joined the Union ranks and finished the war in Yankee
blue.

ANDREW CARNEGIE was a young man in his mid-twenties when he left his
position as superintendent of the Pittsburgh Division, Pennsylvania
Railroad to pitch in with workers rebuilding the rail line from
Annapolis to Washington. Later in 1861 he was given the position of
superintendent of military railways and government telegraph.

HENRY A. DUPONT, grandson of the DuPont industries founder, was awarded
the Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry at the battle of Cedar
Creek in October 1864. Captain DuPont, who had graduated from West Point
at the head of his class in 1861, went on to serve as United States
Senator from Delaware.

ELIAS HOWE presented each field and staff officer of the 5th
Massachusetts Regiment with a stallion fully equipped for service.
Later, he volunteered as a private, and when the State failed to pay his
unit, he met the regimental payroll with his own money.

At the age of 15 GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE ran away from home and joined the
Union Army. Neither he nor Elias Howe rose to officer rank, but both are
today in the Hall of Fame for their achievements--the air brake and the
sewing machine.

In 1861 CORNELIUS VANDERBILT presented a high-speed side-wheel steamer
to the United States Navy. At the time, there were less than 50 ships in
active naval service. The cruiser, named the _Vanderbilt_, captured
three blockade-runners during the war and in 1865 participated in the
bombardment and amphibious assault on Fort Fisher. The Federal Navy at
that time had grown to a fleet of more than 550 steam-powered ships.

Admiral GEORGE DEWEY, of Manila Bay fame, served as a young lieutenant
under Admiral Farragut during the attack on Port Hudson in 1863. His
ship was the only one lost in the engagement.

Colonel CHRISTOPHER C. ("Kit") CARSON commanded the 1st New Mexico
Volunteers (Union), and campaigned against the Comanche, Navajo, and
Apache Indians during the Civil War. In 1866 he was promoted to
brigadier general.

In his mid-teens JESSE JAMES joined the Confederate raiders led by
William Quantrill. The famous "Dead or alive" reward for Jesse in 1882
was issued by an ex-Confederate officer, Governor Thomas T. Crittenden
of Missouri.

[Illustration]



THE SOLDIER, THE BATTLE, THE LOSSES

     _"There's many a boy here today who looks on war as all glory,
     but, boys, it is all hell."_


                                        --_WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN_


Of the 2.3 million men enlisted in the Union Army, seventy per cent were
under 23 years of age. Approximately 100,000 were 16 and an equal number
15. Three hundred lads were 13 or less, and the records show that there
were 25 no older than 10 years.

The average infantry regiment of 10 companies consisted of 30 line
officers and 1300 men. However, by the time a new regiment reached the
battlefield, it would often have less than 800 men available for combat
duty. Sickness and details as cooks, teamsters, servants, and clerks
accounted for the greatly reduced numbers. Actually, in many of the
large battles the regimental fighting strength averaged no more than 480
men.

In 1864 the basic daily ration for a Union soldier was (in ounces):
20--beef, 18--flour, 2.56--dry beans, 1.6--green coffee, 2.4--sugar,
.64--salt, and smaller amounts of pepper, yeast powder, soap, candles,
and vinegar. While campaigning, soldiers seldom obtained their full
ration and many had to forage for subsistence.

In the Army of Northern Virginia in 1863 the rations available for every
100 Confederate soldiers over a 30-day period consisted of 1/4 lb. of
bacon, 18 oz. of flour, 10 lbs. of rice, and a small amount of peas and
dried fruit--when they could be obtained. (It is little wonder that Lee
elected to carry the war into Pennsylvania--if for no other reason than
to obtain food for an undernourished army.)

During the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862 "Stonewall" Jackson
marched his force of 16,000 men more than 600 miles in 35 days. Five
major battles were fought and four separate Union armies, totaling
63,000, were defeated.

In June 1864, the U.S.S. _Kearsarge_ sank the C.S.S. _Alabama_ in a
fierce engagement in the English Channel off Cherbourg, France.
Frenchmen gathered along the beach to witness the hour-long duel, which
inspired a young French artist, Edouard Manet, to paint the battle scene
that now hangs in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

The Confederate cruiser _Shenandoah_ sailed completely around the world
raiding Union commerce vessels and whalers. The ship and crew
surrendered to British authorities at Liverpool in November 1865, seven
months after Lee's surrender at Appomattox.

The greatest naval bombardment during the war was on Christmas Eve,
1864, at Fort Fisher, North Carolina. Fifty-seven vessels, with a total
of 670 guns, were engaged--the largest fleet ever assembled by the U.S.
Navy up to that time. The Army, Navy, and Marines combined in a joint
operation to reduce and capture the fort.

In July, 1862 the first Negro troops of the Civil War were organized by
General David Hunter. Known as the 1st South Carolina Regiment, they
were later designated the 33rd Regiment United States Colored Troops.
Some 186,000 Negro soldiers served in the Union Army, 4,300 of whom
became battle casualties.

At the battle of Fredericksburg in 1862, the line of Confederate
trenches extended a distance of seven miles. The troop density in these
defensive works was 11,000 per mile.

Over 900 guns and mortars bristled from the 68 forts defending the
Nation's Capital during the war. The fortifications, constructed by the
Engineer Corps during the early part of the war, circled the city on a
37-mile perimeter.

During Sherman's campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta, the Union Army of
the Tennessee, in a period of four months, constructed over 300 miles of
rifle pits, fired 149,670 artillery rounds and 22,137,132 rounds of
small-arms ammunition.

To fire a Civil War musket, eleven separate motions had to be made. The
regulation in the 1860's specified that a soldier should fire three
aimed shots per minute, allowing 20 seconds per shot and less than two
seconds per motion.

At the battle of Stone's River, Tennessee, in January, 1863, the Federal
infantry in three days exhausted over 2,000,000 rounds of ammunition,
and the artillery fired 20,307 rounds. The total weight of the
projectiles was in excess of 375,000 pounds.

At the Battle of First Bull Run or Manassas, it has been estimated that
between 8,000 and 10,000 bullets were fired for every man killed and
wounded.

The campaign against Petersburg, the longest sustained operation of the
war, began in the summer of 1864 and lasted for 10 months, until the
spring of '65. The fighting covered an area of more than 170 square
miles, with 35 miles of trenches and fortifications stretching from
Richmond to the southwest of Petersburg. During September, 1864, nearly
175 field and siege guns poured forth a daily average of 7.8 tons of
iron on the Confederate works.

The greatest cavalry battle in the history of the western hemisphere was
fought at Brandy Station, Virginia, on June 9, 1863. Nearly 20,000
cavalrymen were engaged for more than 12 hours. At the height of the
battle, along Fleetwood Hill, charges and countercharges were made
continuously for almost three hours.

The greatest regimental loss of the entire war was borne by the 1st
Maine Heavy Artillery. The unit saw no action until 1864, but in the
short span of less than one year, over half of its 2,202 men engaged in
battle were hit. In the assault on Petersburg in June, 1864, the
regiment lost 604 men killed and wounded in less than 20 minutes.

The largest regimental loss in a single battle was suffered by the 26th
North Carolina Infantry at Gettysburg. The regiment went into battle
with a little over 800 men, and by the end of the third day, 708 were
dead, wounded, or missing. In one company of 84, every officer and man
was hit.

Of the 46 Confederate regiments that went into the famous charge at
Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, 15 were commanded by General Pickett.
Thirteen of his regiments were led by Virginia Military Institute
graduates; only two of them survived the charge.

The heaviest numerical loss during any single battle was at Gettysburg,
where 40,322 Americans were killed or wounded. On the Union side 21 per
cent of those engaged were killed or wounded, in the Confederate ranks
30 per cent--the largest percentage of Confederates hit in any battle.
The largest percentage of Union soldiers hit in battle was at Port
Hudson in May 1863, where 26.7 per cent of those engaged were killed or
wounded.

During May and June 1864 the Armies of the Potomac and the James lost
77,452 men--a greater number than Lee had in his entire army.

Union Army hospitals treated over 6 million cases during the war. There
were twice as many deaths from disease as from hostile bullets. Diarrhea
and dysentery alone took the lives of 44,558 Union soldiers.

From 1861-1865 the Quartermaster Corps of the Union Army made 116,148
burials.

In the 79 National Civil War cemeteries, 54 per cent of the graves are
those of unknown soldiers. The largest Civil War cemetery is at
Vicksburg, where 16,000 soldiers rest; only 3,896 are known. At the
Confederate prison site in Salisbury, North Carolina, where 12,126 Union
soldiers are buried, 99 per cent are unknown.

[Illustration]



THE COST OF WAR

               _Nor deem the irrevocable Past
                As wholly wasted, wholly vain,
              If, rising on its wrecks, at last
                To something nobler we attain._

               --_HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW_


From 1861-1865 it cost the United States Government approximately 2
million dollars a day to prosecute the war; the Second World War cost
more than 113 million dollars a day.

In 1880 the Secretary of the Treasury reported that the Civil War had
cost the Federal Government 6.19 billion dollars. By 1910 the cost of
the war, including pensions and other veterans benefits, had reached
11.5 billion dollars. World War II was three months shorter than the
Civil War, but from 1942-1945 approximately 156 billion dollars was
spent on the military establishment.

The total cost of the war to the South has been estimated at 4 billion
dollars.

The public debt outstanding for an average population of 33 million rose
from $2.80 to $75 per capita between 1861 and 1865. In mid-1958 the per
capita debt stood at $1,493 for a population of 175.5 million.

In 1958 the government was providing pensions for 3,042 widows of Union
veterans. In June of that year, as a result of special legislation, 526
widows of Southern soldiers and the two surviving Confederate veterans
became eligible for Federal pensions. The last Union veteran, Albert
Woolson, had died in 1956, leaving the two Confederates, John Salling
and Walter Williams, to draw the highest Civil War pensions paid by the
United States Government. The last Civil War veteran, Walter Williams,
died in December 1959 at the age of 117. Since then, William's claim as
a veteran has been disputed in the newspapers, but sufficient evidence
does not exist to positively prove or disprove his military status.

The pursuit and capture of Jefferson Davis at Irwinville, Georgia, cost
the Federal Government $97,031.62.

From 1861-1865 it cost the Federal government, in millions of dollars:

    $727--to clothe and feed the Army
      18--to clothe and feed the Navy
     339--for transportation of troops and supplies
     127--for cavalry and artillery horses
      76--for the purchase of arms
       8--to maintain and provide for Confederate prisoners

Soldiers and sailors of the United States received 1.34 billion dollars
in pay during the war.

In 1861 an infantry private was paid $13 per month--compared to a
private's pay of $83 today. A Civil War colonel drew $95 per month and a
brigadier general $124. Their counterparts today are paid a monthly base
rate of $592 and $800.

During the 1860's the average cost of a musket was $13 as compared to
$105 for an M1 Garand in World War II.

[Illustration]


NUMBERS AND LOSSES

                                                North      South[1]
    Population                               22,400,000  9,103,000[2]
        Military Age Group (18-45)            4,600,000    985,000
    Trained Militia 1827-1861                 2,470,000    692,000
    Regular Army January, 1861                   16,400          0
        Military Potential 1861               2,486,400    692,000
    Total Individuals in Service 1861-1865    2,213,400  1,003,600

    Total Strength July, 1861                   219,400    114,000
    Total Strength January, 1863                962,300    450,200
    Peak Strength 1864-1865                   1,044,660    484,800
        Army                                    980,100    481,200
        Navy                                     60,700      3,000
        Marines                                   3,860        600

    Total Hit in Battle                         385,100    320,000
        Total Battle Deaths                     110,100     94,000
            Killed in Battle                     67,100     54,000
            Died of Wounds                       43,000     40,000
        Wounded (not mortally)[3]               275,000    226,000
    Missing in Action                             6,750        ---
    Captured[4]                                 211,400    462,000
    Died in Prison                               30,200     26,000
    Died of Disease                             224,000     60,000
    Other Deaths                                 34,800        ---
    Desertions[5]                               199,000     83,400
    Discharged                                  426,500     57,800
    Surrendered 1865                                       174,223

[Footnote 1: Confederate figures are based upon the best information and
estimates available.]

[Footnote 2: Includes 3,760,000 slaves in the seceded states.]

[Footnote 3: A number of these were returned to duty. In the Union Army,
those who were not fit for combat were placed in the Veteran Reserve
Corps and performed administrative duties.]

[Footnote 4: An undetermined number were exchanged and returned to
duty.]

[Footnote 5: Many deserters returned to duty. In the Union Army, where
$300 bounty was paid for a 3-year enlistment, it was not uncommon to
find a soldier picking up his bounty in one regiment and then deserting
to join another unit just for the additional bounty.]



CIVIL WAR ROUND TABLES


CALIFORNIA (3)

     La Jolla--Ezra J. Warner, P.O. Box 382.

     Los Angeles--(Southern California CWRT), Col. Paul "Reb"
     Benton, 466 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, California.

     Torrance--Peter A. LaRosa, 4240 West 178th Street.

COLORADO (1)

     Denver--(Colorado CWRT), Hubert Kaub, 740 Steele Street, Zone
     6.

CONNECTICUT (2)

     Hartford--W. J. Lowry, Hartford National Bank & Trust Company.

     Niantic--Norman B. Peck, Jr., Remagen Road.

DELAWARE (1)

     Wilmington--Dr. Richard H. Myers, 34 Paschall Road, Zone 3.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (1)

     Washington--James M. Lazard, Box 38, Army & Navy Club, Zone 5.

GEORGIA (1)

     Atlanta--Col. Allen P. Julian, 1753 Peachtree Street, N. E.

KENTUCKY (1)

     Lexington--(Kentucky CWRT), Dr. Hambleton Tapp, University of
     Kentucky.

ILLINOIS (8)

     Chicago--Gilbert Twiss, 18 West Chestnut Street.

     LaSalle--Dr. Russell C. Slater, 744 First Street.

     Lyons--(Gray and Blue CWRT), O. H. Felton, Box 106.

     Park Forest--Malcolm Macht, 495 Talala.

     Peoria--(National Blues CWRT), H. R. Sours, 2623 West Moss
     Avenue.

     Quad Cities--Mrs. Marilyn A. Hasselroth, Box 508, Milan,
     Illinois.

     Rockford--Timothy Hughes, 2208 Ridge Avenue.

     Springfield--George L. Cashman, Lincoln Lodge, Oak Ridge.

INDIANA (6)

     Evansville--Col. Robert M. Leich, P.O. Box 869, Zone 1.

     Indianapolis--Donald Shaner, 3122 North Richardt, Zone 26.

     Mishawaka--H. O. Soencer, Mishawaka Public Library.

     New Albany--Elsa Strassweg, 201 East Spring Street.

     South Bend--Ben R. Violette, 2220 Berkley Place, Zone 16.

     Terre Haute--(Vigo County CWRT), Ira Campbell, 426 South 17th
     Street.

IOWA (1)

     Cedar Rapids--Mrs. Robert A. Miller, 249 Blake Boulevard.

LOUISIANA (1)

     New Orleans--David L. Markstein, 2232 Wirth Place, Zone 15.

MARYLAND (2)

     Baltimore--Leonard Sandler, Nelmar Apartments 2-C, Zone 17.

     Hagerstown--Theron Rinehart, Box 1155.

MASSACHUSETTS (2)

     Andover--Stanley E. Butcher, 4 Washington Avenue.

     Boston--Richard H. Fitzpatrick, 15 Hathway Road, Lexington,
     Zone 73.

MICHIGAN (5)

     Battle Creek--Mrs. Pearl Foust, 150 Eldredge.

     Detroit--(Abraham Lincoln CWRT of Michigan), Lloyd C. Nyman,
     951 South Oxford Road, Grosse Pointe Woods, Zone 36.

     Flint--Philip C. Chinn, 2933 Wyoming Street.

     Jackson--Edward J. Young, 2535 Kibby Street.

     Kalamazoo--Mrs. Wesley R. Burrell, Galesburg, Michigan.

MINNESOTA (1)

     Twin Cities--William H. Rowe, 6040 James Avenue South,
     Minneapolis 19, Minnesota.

MISSISSIPPI (1)

     Jackson--(Mississippi CWRT), Mrs. Genevieve Wilde Barksdale,
     3405 Old Canton Road.

MISSOURI (2)

     Kansas City--Charles W. Jones, 1016 Baltimore Avenue.

     St. Louis--Gale Johnston, Jr., Projected Planning Company, Room
     200, 506 Olive Street, Zone 1.

NEBRASKA (1)

     Omaha--Frank E. Gibson, Public Library.

NEW JERSEY (2)

     Hackensack--(Bergen County CWRT), Miss Celeste Slauson, Johnson
     Free Public Library.

     Monmouth County--Mrs. Jeanne Marie Predham, 155 West Sylvania
     Avenue, Neptune City, New Jersey.

NEW YORK (6)

     Binghampton--Theodore E. Mulford, Link Aviation Inc.

     Fayetteville--(Onondaga County CWRT), E. H. Hobbs, 206
     Washington Building.

     Jamestown--E. J. Muzzy, 142 Prospect Street.

     Mayville--Robert Laughlin, Portage Street.

     New York City--Arnold Gates, 289 New Hyde Park Road, Garden
     City, N. Y.

     Rochester--William J. Welch, 80 Elaine Drive. Zone 23.

NORTH CAROLINA (1)

     High Point--(North Carolina CWRT), John R(ebel) Peacock, Box
     791.

OHIO (8)

     Chillicothe--(Gen. Joshua W. Sill Chapter), Kent Castor, Box
     273.

     Cincinnati--J. Louis Warm, 4165 Rose Hill Avenue, Zone 5.

     Cleveland--Edward T. Downer, 1105 Euclid Avenue, Zone 6.

     Dayton--Kathryn G. Crawford (Mrs. F. M.), 3438 East 5th Street,
     Zone 3.

     East Cleveland--James C. Pettit, 13905 Orinoco Avenue, Zone 12.

     Lancaster--(William T. Sherman Chapter), Dr. Robert H. Eyman,
     Sr., 137 West Mulberry Street.

     Toledo--Robert G. Morris, 2619 Powhatan Parkway, Zone 6.

     Wooster--Dr. A. B. Huff, 230 North Market Street.

OKLAHOMA (2)

     Stillwater--(CWRT of Oklahoma State University) LeRoy H.
     Fischer, History Department.

     Tulsa--R. L. Summers, 1204 North Tacoma Place.

PENNSYLVANIA (6)

     Bucks-Montgomery County--Edgar F. Hoskings, Jr., 31 East Park
     Avenue, Sellersville, Pennsylvania.

     Gettysburg--Jacob M. Sneads, 115 North Stratton Street.

     Philadelphia--(Lincoln Civil War Society), Arthur G. McDowell,
     1500 North Broad Street, Zone 21.

     Pittsburgh--Bernd P. Rose, Chamber of Commerce Building.

     Susquehanna CWRT--W. N. Barto, 39 South 2nd Street, Lewisburg,
     Pennsylvania.

     Washington--James R. Braden, 755 East Main Street.

TENNESSEE (2)

     LaFollette (Big Creek Gap CWRT), Guy Easterly, 139 North
     Tennessee Ave.

     Murfreesboro--(Nathan Bedford Forrest CWRT), Homer Pittard, Box
     688, Middle Tennessee State College.

TEXAS (2)

     Houston--Richard Colquette, 5589 Cedar Creek Drive, Zone 27.

     Waco--Lt. Col. H. G. Simpson, 2624 Austin Avenue.

VIRGINIA (6)

     Alexandria--William B. Hurd, 219 South Royal Street.

     Franklin--S. W. Rawls, Jr., 503 North Main Street.

     Lynchburg--James B. Noell, 303 Madison Street.

     Harrisonburg--(Shenandoah Valley CWRT), Grimes Henenberger, 345
     South Main Street.

     Richmond--John C. Stinson, 7202 Brigham Road.

     Winchester--Fred Y. Stotler, Sunnyside Station.

WEST VIRGINIA (1)

     Moundsville--Delf Norona, 315 Seventh Street.

WISCONSIN (2)

     Madison--Russ Spindler, Box 377, Zone 1.

     Milwaukee--H. P. Spangenberg, 203A South 77th Street.

CANADA (1)

     Toronto--(Canadian Round Table), A. P. Colesbury, 518 Dovecourt
     Road.

ENGLAND (1)

     London--(Confederate Research Club), Patrick C. Courtney, 34
     Highclere Avenue, Leigh Park, Havant, Hampshire, England,
     United Kingdom.

GERMANY (1)

     Wiesbaden--Lt. Col. Tom Nordan, Hdqs., USAFE, APO 633, N. Y.,
     N. Y.

[Illustration: _None too military in appearance, such ragged squads of
men and boys developed into an army that marched an average of 16 miles
a day._]

[Illustration: _Smartly dressed amphibious soldiers. Some of the 3,000
U.S. Marines of the Civil War made landings on Southern coasts, but the
majority served as gun crews aboard ship._]

[Illustration: _Jack-tars of the old Navy saw plenty of action in
clearing the Mississippi and chasing down Confederate raiders of the
high seas. Because of the high bounties and pay, many foreign seafarers
were attracted to both navies._]

[Illustration: _Ill-clad and poorly equipped, Confederate volunteers at
Pensacola, Florida, wait their turn for the smell of black powder._]

[Illustration: _On the silent battlefield at Gettysburg, veterans of
Lee's Army of Northern Virginia who survived the baptism by fire await
their fate as prisoners of war._]

[Illustration: _Regimental camp sites created sanitary problems that
went unsolved. Typhoid fever, diarrhea, and dysentery took the lives of
over 70,000 Union soldiers._]

[Illustration: _Private residences like the Wallach House at Culpeper,
Virginia, provided generals on both sides with comfortable quarters in
the field. Staff officers were usually tented on the lawns._]

[Illustration: _Log cabins often replaced tents during the winter months
when campaigning slackened and the armies settled down. In some camps it
was not uncommon to find visiting army wives._]

[Illustration: _Soldiers turned to a variety of activities to break the
long days and weeks of monotonous camplife. Even officers were not
immune to the horseplay._]

[Illustration: _When two or more Yanks or Rebs gathered together, a deck
of cards often made its appearance. Fearful of an angry God, soldiers
usually discarded such instruments of sin before entering battle._]

[Illustration: _Chess, a favorite pastime in camp, finds Colonel Martin
McMahon, General Sedgwick's adjutant, engaged in the contest that was a
favorite of Napoleon and many other military leaders._]

[Illustration: _A much disliked chore even in fair weather--a lone Union
soldier walks his post in the bitter cold at Nashville._]

[Illustration: _A forerunner of Father Francis Patrick Duffy, heroic
Chaplain of the famous 69th New York Regiment in World War I, says Mass
for the Shamrock Regiment of the 1860's. Most Civil War regiments had a
chaplain._]

[Illustration: _A contribution to camp religious life, the 50th New York
Engineers constructed this church for their comrades at Petersburg._]

[Illustration: _Newspaper correspondents like these from the_ New York
Herald _kept the public well informed, though they often revealed
valuable military information to the Confederacy. The New York paper
usually reached the Confederate War Department on the day following
publication._]

[Illustration: _With the technique of photo-engraving yet to be
developed, war scenes for newspapers and magazines had to be drawn and
reproduced from woodcuts. Artists such as A. R. Waud, shown here at
Gettysburg, vividly depicted the events for_ Harper's Weekly.]

[Illustration: _The Civil War as it appeared back home. It was almost 40
years before the public saw the thousands of photographs taken by Mathew
Brady and his contemporaries._]

[Illustration: _In a desperate attempt to raise the Federal blockade of
Southern ports, the Confederate Navy built the first ironclad. More than
a dozen of these rams, all similar to the_ Albemarle _(pictured above),
were constructed._]

[Illustration: _At first, ironclads were scoffed at by Federal naval
authorities, but the monitors, styled "iron coffins", proved their worth
in battle with the river navies. By 1865 fifty-eight of the turreted
vessels had been built, some of which became seagoing._]

[Illustration: _With untiring vigilance, steam-powered gunboats like
the_ Mendota _plied the Southern coastline to enforce the blockade
against Confederate trade with England and France._]

[Illustration: _The C.S.S._ Hunley_, a completely submersible craft, was
hand-propelled by a crew of eight. The 25-foot submarine sank off
Charleston along with her first and only victim, the U.S.S._
Housatonic.]

[Illustration: _Steam-powered torpedo boats of the Confederate Navy were
capable of partially submerging with only their stacks showing. These
tiny "Davids", named after the Biblical warrior, could be either manned
or remotely controlled from shore._]

[Illustration: U.S. Army Uniforms (LIEUT. GENERAL U.S. ARMY. UNDRESS;
BRIG. GENERAL U.S. ARMY. FULL DRESS; COLONEL OF INFANTRY U.S. ARMY. FULL
DRESS; CAPTAIN OF ARTILLERY U.S. ARMY. FULL DRESS)]

[Illustration: U.S. Army Uniforms (MAJOR OF CAVALRY, U.S. ARMY. FULL
DRESS; LIEUT. COLONEL, SURG., U.S. ARMY. OFFICERS OVERCOAT AND STAFF
TROWSERS; SERGEANT MAJOR, ARTILLERY, U.S. ARMY. FULL DRESS; SERGEANT,
INFANTRY, U.S. ARMY. FULL DRESS)]

[Illustration: U.S. Army Uniforms (PRIVATE, U.S. INFANTRY. FATIGUE
MARCHING ORDER; CORPORAL, CAVALRY, U.S. ARMY. FULL DRESS; PRIVATE, LIGHT
ARTILLERY, U.S. ARMY. FULL DRESS; GREAT COAT FOR ALL MOUNTED MEN CAVALRY)]

[Illustration: UNITED STATES UNIFORMS IN THE CIVIL WAR (REG. CAVALRY
PRIVATE. GEN. GRANT'S UNIFORM. ARTILLERY LINE OFFICER. DURYEA'S
ZOUAVE. HAWKIN'S ZOUAVE. REG. INFANTRY PRIVATE. DURYEA'S ZOUAVE LINE
OFFICER. CAMPAIGN UNIFORM INFANTRY. REG. ARTILLERY PRIVATE. INFANTRY
OVERCOAT.)]

[Illustration: CONFEDERATE UNIFORMS (NORTH CAROLINA MILITIA. REG.
INFANTRY PRIVATE. WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. MONTGOMERY TRUE BLUE. FIELD
OFFICER OF INFANTRY. GEN. LEE'S UNIFORM. REG. CAVALRY PRIVATE. LOUISIANA
TIGER. LOUISIANA ZOUAVE. REG. ARTILLERY PRIVATE.)]

[Illustration: C.S. Army Uniforms (GENERAL, C.S. ARMY. COLONEL,
INFANTRY, C.S. ARMY. COLONEL, ENGINEERS, C.S. ARMY. MAJOR, CAVALRY, C.S.
ARMY.)]

[Illustration: C.S. Army Uniforms (SURGEON, MAJOR MED. DEPT., C.S. ARMY.
CAPTAIN, ARTILLERY, C.S. ARMY. FIRST LIEUTENANT INFANTRY, C.S. ARMY.
SERGEANT, CAVALRY, C.S. ARMY.)]

[Illustration: C.S. Army Uniforms (CORPORAL, ARTILLERY, C.S. ARMY.
PRIVATE, INFANTRY, C.S. ARMY. INFANTRY, C.S. ARMY. OVERCOAT; CAVALRY,
C.S. ARMY. OVERCOAT)]

[Illustration: _In 1864 nearly 4,000 wagons traveled with Meade's Army
of the Potomac, each capable of carrying 2,500 pounds of supplies.
During one year the Federal Army purchased 14,500 wagons and captured an
additional 2,000._]

[Illustration: _"The muscles of his brawny arms are strong as
ironbands...." Union Army blacksmiths had to shoe nearly 500 new horses
and mules daily._]

[Illustration: _An old timer that traveled many miles of Virginia road
with a busy and tireless man--General U. S. Grant._]

[Illustration: _General Lee had hoped that Virginia's numerous streams
and rivers would delay Grant's advance, but Federal engineers with
portable pontoon bridges kept the army at Lee's heels._]

[Illustration: _This "cornstalk" bridge over Potomac Creek near
Fredericksburg was built by the Military Railroad construction corps
from 204,000 feet of standing timber in nine days._]

[Illustration: _In one year (1864-1865) the Federal Military Railroad,
with 365 engines and 4,203 cars, delivered over 5 million tons of
supplies to the armies in the field._]

[Illustration: _Schooners piled high with cartridge boxes lie in the
placid waters off Hampton Roads. In 1865 hundreds of Union troops and
supplies were moved by ocean transports, chartered at a daily cost of
$92,000._]

[Illustration: _Federal ships crowd the magazine wharf at City Point
with equipment and supplies for army wagons from Petersburg. Twenty per
cent of the total supply tonnage was transported by water._]

[Illustration: CIVIL WAR SMALL ARMS]

[Illustration: CIVIL WAR ARTILLERY]

  _MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE IN YARDS_

    _12-Pounder Howitzer              1,070_
    _6 & 12-Pounder Field Guns        1,200_
    _13-Inch Siege Mortar             3,520_
    _10-Pounder Parrott Rifle         5,000_
    _10-Inch Columbiad Siege Gun      5,650_
    _30-Pounder Parrott Rifle         8,450_
    _12-Pounder Whitworth Rifle       8,800_


                               _TYPICAL GUNNER'S TABLE_

               _12-Pounder Field Gun_          _Powder Charge 2.5 lbs._

   _Range (yards)_         _600_  _700_  _800_  _900_ _1,000_ _1,100_ _1,200_
   _Muzzle Elevation_       _1°_ _1°45'_  _2°_ _2°15'_ _2°30'_  _3°_  _3°30'_
   _Fuse Setting (sec.)_  _1.75_ _2.50_ _2.75_ _3.00_  _3.25_ _4.00_  _4.50_

[Illustration: _A 15-inch Rodman smoothbore, one of the largest guns
mounted during the war, stands as a silent sentry guarding the Potomac
at Alexandria, Virginia._]

[Illustration: _The Parrott Rifle, recognizable by the wrought iron
jacket reinforcing its breech, was one of the first rifled field guns
used by the U.S. Army._]

[Illustration: _Moved by special rail to the Petersburg front, the
13-inch mortar "Dictator" hurled 200-pound exploding shells at the
Confederate earthworks over two miles away._]

[Illustration: _Curious Federal soldiers inspect a Confederate armored
gun, the earliest rail artillery on record. This "land ram", designed by
Lt. John M. Brooke of the Confederate Navy, was first used at Savage
Station, Virginia, in 1862._]

[Illustration: _Gabions, open-end baskets filled with earth, proved as
effective as masonary in defensive works. Thousands of these baskets
were patiently made by hand for use in field and seacoast
fortifications._]

[Illustration: _Confederate sappers constructed a number of artillery
emplacements covering the avenues of approach to Atlanta. The guns in
this fortification overlook famous Peachtree Street._]

[Illustration: _Chevaux-de-frise, made of logs pierced by sharp stakes,
line the Georgia countryside. Confederate defensive measures such as
this were effective in stopping cavalry and preventing surprise frontal
attacks by infantry._]

[Illustration: _The Union military telegraph corps strung more than
15,000 miles of wire during the war. In one year, the Northern armies
kept the wires alive with nearly 1.8 million messages. Galvanic
batteries transported by wagon furnished the electricity._]

[Illustration: _Flag signals from natural elevations and signal towers
could be seen as far as 20 miles on a clear day. Military information
was often obtained by signalmen on both sides who copied each others
flag messages and tapped telegraph lines._]

[Illustration: _Balloon observation on the battlefield was made possible
by the portable gas generator. Here Professor T.S.C. Lowe's balloon is
inflated by mobile generators in front of Richmond in 1862._]

[Illustration: _Dodging Confederate shells which whizzed dangerously
close to the Intrepid, Professor Lowe telegraphed information on
emplacements directly from his balloon and made sketches of the approach
routes to Richmond._]

[Illustration: _Faulty intelligence furnished by detective Allan
Pinkerton (seated in rear) and his agents misled General George
McClellan during the Peninsula Campaign. The Pinkerton organization was
later replaced by a more efficient military intelligence bureau._]

[Illustration: _A. D. Lytle, a Baton Rouge photographer, provided
valuable intelligence to Confederate commanders. His photographs, like
this one posed by the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery, revealed the strength
and condition of Union organizations._]

[Illustration: _Artillerymen soften an objective for the infantry.
Although field artillery was used extensively, it frightened and
demoralized more men than it wounded. Only 20 per cent of the battle
casualties can be attributed to the artillery._]

[Illustration: _Assaults on fortified positions were costly, but here at
Petersburg war-weary infantrymen await their turn for another charge
against the Confederate works. Fourteen out of every hundred would
fall._]

[Illustration: _One of an estimated 584,000 Union and Confederate
soldiers wounded during the war. Of this number, over 80,000 died._]

[Illustration: _The Union ambulance corps provided one ambulance for
every 150 men during the Wilderness Campaign. In one convoy of 813
ambulances, over 7,000 sick and wounded were transported to the hospital
in Fredericksburg._]

[Illustration: _Amputees, like these Union soldiers who survived the
surgeon's scalpel, would never forget the traumatic ordeal. Most wounded
went through surgery while fully conscious with but a little morphine,
when available, to deaden the pain._]

[Illustration: _A floating palace with bathrooms and laundry, the
hospital ship_ Red Rover _gave many sick and wounded a better chance for
life than they would have had in the crowded field hospitals._]

[Illustration: _Carver Hospital, where thousands of stricken soldiers
recovered. Walt Whitman and Louisa May Alcott nursed many sick and
wounded in similar Washington hospitals._]

[Illustration: _The much-publicized Andersonville prison. The
declaration by Union authorities that medicine was a contraband of war
and their unwillingness to exchange prisoners contributed to the
deplorable prison deaths. Prisoners didn't fare better in the North.
Camp Douglas, Illinois, had the highest death rate of all Civil war
prisons--10 per cent of its prisoners died in one month._]

[Illustration: _Unknown warriors at Cold Harbor awaited a soldier's
burial that never came. Two years later the armies returned to the same
field of battle to find those who were forgotten--still waiting._]

[Illustration: _Boys volunteered for a man's job. This Confederate lad
gave his last full measure._]

[Illustration: _The muffled drum's sad roll has beat
  The soldier's last tattoo;
No more on Life's parade shall meet
  The brave and fallen few.

On Fame's eternal camping-ground
  Their silent tents are spread
And Glory guards, with solemn round,
  The bivouac of the dead._"
            --_THEODORE O'HARA_]

[Illustration: _Richmond 1865--Gaunt remains cast their shadow over the
former Confederate capital. The rampaging fire, started during the
evacuation, leveled the waterfront and the business district._]

[Illustration: _Charleston, South Carolina, shows the scars of modern
warfare. The concept of total war introduced during the 1860's carried
destruction beyond the battlefield._]

[Illustration: _The home of Wilmer McLean at Appomattox. Here the
tragic drama closed at 3:45 on Palm Sunday afternoon, April 9, 1865._]

[Illustration: THE SURRENDER AT APPOMATTOX; BASED UPON THE LITHOGRAPH
CALLED "THE DAWN OF PEACE." BY PERMISSION OF W. H. STELLE.]

[Illustration: _Pennsylvania Avenue--host to the Armies of Grant and
Sherman during the Grand Review._]

[Illustration: _The last reunion of Blue and Gray at Gettysburg. The
victories and the defeats ... they have become a common property and a
common responsibility of the American people._]


Losses in Killed, Wounded, and Missing in Engagements, Etc.,

WHERE THE TOTAL WAS FIVE HUNDRED OR MORE ON THE SIDE OF THE UNION
TROOPS. CONFEDERATE LOSSES GIVEN ARE GENERALLY BASED ON ESTIMATES.

   ---+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------+-------
      |         |                       |                             |CONFED-
      |         |                       |          UNION LOSS.        | ERATE
      |         |                       |                             | LOSS.
      |         |                       +------+-------+-------+------+-------
   NO.|DATE.    |         NAME.         |Killed|Wounded|Missing| Total| Total
   ---+---------+-----------------------+------+-------+-------+------+-------
      | 1861.   |                       |      |       |       |      |
     1|July 21  |Bull Run, Va.          |   481|  1,011|  1,460| 2,952|  1,752
     2|Aug 10   |Wilson's Creek, Mo.    |   223|    721|    291| 1,235|  1,095
     3|Sep 12-20|Lexington, Mo.         |    42|    108|  1,624| 1,774|    100
     4|Oct 21   |Ball's Bluff, Va.      |   223|    226|    445|   894|    302
     5|Nov 7    |Belmont, Mo.           |    90|    173|    235|   498|    966
      |         |                       |      |       |       |      |
      | 1862.   |                       |      |       |       |      |
     6|Feb 14-16|Fort Donelson, Tenn.   |   446|  1,735|    150| 2,331| 15,067
     7|Mar 6-8  |Pea Ridge, Ark.        |   203|    972|    174| 1,349|  5,200
     8|Mar 14   |New-Berne, N. C.       |    91|    466|    ---|   557|    583
     9|Mar 23   |Winchester, Va.        |   103|    440|     24|   567|    691
    10|Apr 6&7  |Shiloh, Tenn.          | 1,735|  7,882|  3,956|13,573| 10,699
    11|May 5    |Williamsburg, Va.      |   456|  1,400|    372| 2,228|  1,000
    12|May 23   |Front Royal, Va.       |    32|    122|    750|   904|    ---
    13|May 25   |Winchester, Va.        |    38|    155|    711|   904|    ---
    14|May 31-  |Seven Pines and Fair   |      |       |       |      |
         Jun 1  |  Oaks, Va.            |   890|  3,627|  1,222| 5,739|  7,997
    15|Jun 8    |Cross Keys, Va.        |   125|    500|    ---|   625|    287
    16|Jun 9    |Fort Republic, Va.     |    67|    361|    574| 1,002|    657
    17|Jun 16   |Secessionville, James  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Island, S. C.        |    85|    472|    128|   685|    204
    18|Jun 25   |Oak Grove, Va.         |    51|    401|     64|   516|    541
    19|Jun 26-  |Seven days' retreat;   |      |       |       |      |
      |  Jul 1 |  includes Mechanics-   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  ville, Gaines' Mills,|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Chickahominy, Peach  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Orchard, Savage      |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Station, Charles City|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Cross Roads, and     |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Malvern Hill         | 1,582|  7,709|  5,958|15,249| 17,583
    20|Jul 13   |Murfreesboro', Tenn.   |    33|     62|    800|   895|    150
    21|Aug 8    |Cedar Mountain, Va.    |   450|    660|    290| 1,400|  1,307
    22|Jul 20-  |Guerrilla campaign in  |      |       |       |      |
      |  Sep 20 |  Missouri; includes   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Porter's and Poindex-|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  ter's Guerrillas     |    77|    156|    347|   580|  2,866
    23|Aug 28&29|Groveton and           |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Gainesville, Va.     |   ---|    ---|    ---| 7,000|  7,000
    24|Aug 30   |Bull Run, Va. (2d)     |   800|  4,000|  3,000| 7,800|  3,700
    25|Aug 30   |Richmond Ky.           |   200|    700|  4,000| 4,900|    750
    26|Sep 1    |Chantilly, Va.         |   ---|    ---|    ---| 1,300|    800
    27|Sep 12-15|Harper's Ferry, Va.    |    80|    120| 11,583|11,783|    500
    28|Sep 14   |Turner's and Crampton's|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Gaps, South Mountain,|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Md.                  |   443|  1,806|     76| 2,325|  4,343
    29|Sep 14-16|Munfordsville Ky.      |    50|    ---|  3,566| 3,616|    714
    30|Sep 17   |Antietam, Md.          | 2,010|  9,416|  1,043|12,469| 25,899
    31|Sep 19-20|Iuka, Miss.            |   144|    598|     40|   782|  1,516
    32|Oct 3&4  |Corinth, Miss.         |   315|  1,812|    232| 2,359| 14,221
    33|Oct 5    |Big Hatchie River,     |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Miss.                |   ---|    ---|    ---|   500|    400
    34|Oct 8    |Perryville, Ky.        |   916|  2,943|    489| 4,348|  7,000
    35|Dec 7    |Prairie Grove, Ark.    |   167|    798|    183| 1,148|  1,500
    36|Dec 7    |Hartsville, Tenn.      |    55|    ---|  1,800| 1,855|    149
    37|Dec 12-18|Foster's expedition to |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Goldsboro', N.C.     |    90|    478|      9|   577|    739
    38|Dec 13   |Fredericksburg, Va.    | 1,180|  9,028|  2,145|12,353|  4,576
    39|Dec 20   |Holly Springs, Miss.   |   ---|    ---|  1,000| 1,000|    ---
    40|Dec 27   |Elizabethtown, Ky.     |   ---|    ---|    500|   500|    ---
    41|Dec 28&29|Chickasaw Bayou,       |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Vicksburg, Miss.     |   191|    982|    756| 1,929|    207
    42|Dec 31-  |Stone's River, Tenn.   |      |       |       |      |
      |  Jan 2  |                       | 1,533|  7,245|  2,800|11,578| 25,560
      |         |                       |      |       |       |      |
      |  1863.  |                       |      |       |       |      |
    43|Jan 1    |Galveston, Texas       |   ---|    ---|    600|   600|     50
    44|Jan 11   |Fort Hindman, Arkansas |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Post, Ark.           |   129|    831|     17|   977|  5,500
    45|Mar 4&5  |Thompson's Station,    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Tenn.                |   100|    300|  1,306| 1,706|    600
    46|Apr 27-  |Streight's raid from   |      |       |       |      |
      |  May 3  |  Tuscumbia, Ala., to  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Rome, Ga.            |    12|     69|  1,466| 1,547|    ---
    47|May 1    |Port Gibson, Miss.     |   130|    718|      5|   853|  1,650
    48|May 1-4  |Chancellorsville, Va.  | 1,512|  9,518|  5,000|16,030| 12,281
    49|May 16   |Champion Mills, Miss.  |   426|  1,842|    189| 2,457|  4,300
    50|May 18-  |Siege of Vicksburg,    |      |       |       |      |
      |  Jul 4  |  Miss.                |   545|  3,688|    303| 4,536| 31,277
    51|May 27-  |Siege of Port Hudson,  |      |       |       |      |
      |  Jul 9  |  La.                  |   500|  2,500|    ---| 3,000|  7,208
    52|Jun 6-8  |Milliken's Bend, La.   |   154|    223|    115|   492|    725
    53|Jun 9    |Beverly Ford and Brandy|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Station, Va.         |   ---|    ---|    ---|   500|    700
    54|Jun 13-15|Winchester, Va.        |   ---|    ---|  3,000| 3,000|    850
    55|Jun 23-30|Rosecrans' campaign    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  from Murfreesboro'   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  to Tullahoma, Tenn.  |    85|    462|     13|   560|  1,634
    56|July 1-3 |Gettysburg, Pa.        | 2,834| 13,709|  6,643|23,186| 31,621
    57|July 9-16|Jackson, Miss.         |   100|    800|    100| 1,000|  1,339

   ---+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------+-------
      |         |                       |                             |CONFED-
      |         |                       |          UNION LOSS.        | ERATE
      |         |                       |                             | LOSS.
      |         |                       +------+-------+-------+------+-------
   NO.|DATE.    |         NAME.         |Killed|Wounded|Missing| Total| Total
   ---+---------+-----------------------+------+-------+-------+------+-------
    58|Jul 18   |Second assault on Fort |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Wagner, S. C         |   ---|    ---|    ---| 1,500|    174
    59|Sep 19-20|Chickamauga, Ga.       | 1,644|  9,262|  4,945|15,851| 17,804
    60|Nov 3    |Grand Coteau, La.      |    26|    124|    576|   726|    445
    61|Nov 6    |Rogersville, Tenn.     |     5|     12|    650|   667|     30
    62|Nov 23-25|Chattanooga, Tenn.;    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  includes Orchard     |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Knob, Lookout        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Mountain, and        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Missionary Ridge.    |   757|  4,529|    330| 5,616|  8,684
    63|Nov 26-28|Operations at Mine Run,|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Va.                  |   100|    400|    ---|   500|    500
    64|Dec 14   |Bean's Station, Tenn.  |   ---|    ---|    ---|   700|    900
      |         |                       |      |       |       |      |
      | 1864.   |                       |      |       |       |      |
    65|Feb 20   |Olustee, Fla.          |   193|  1,175|    460| 1,828|    500
    66|Apr 8    |Sabine Cross Roads, La.|   200|    900|  1,800| 2,900|  1,500
    67|Apr 9    |Pleasant Hills, La.    |   100|    700|    300| 1,100|  2,000
    68|Apr 12   |Fort Pillow, Tenn.     |   350|     60|    164|   574|     80
    69|Apr 17-20|Plymouth, N. C.        |    20|     80|  1,500| 1,600|    500
    70|Apr 30   |Jenkins' Ferry, Saline |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  River, Ark.          |   200|    955|    ---| 1,155|  1,100
    71|May 5-7  |Wilderness, Va.        | 5,597| 21,463| 10,677|37,737| 11,400
    72|May 5-9  |Rocky Face Ridge, Ga.; |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  includes Tunnel Hill,|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Mill Creek Gap,      |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Buzzard Roost, Snake |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Creek Gap, and near  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Dalton               |   200|    637|   --- |   837|    600
    73|May 8-18 |Spottsylvania Court    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  House, Va.; includes |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  engagements on the   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Fredericksburg Road, |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Laurel Hill, and Nye |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  River                | 4,177| 19,687|  2,577|26,461|  9,000
    74|May 9-10 |Swift Creek, Va.       |    90|    400|    ---|   490|    500
    75|May 9-10 |Cloyd's Mountain and   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |New River Bridge, Va.  |   126|    585|     34|   745|    900
    76|May 12-16|Fort Darling, Drewry's |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Bluff, Va.           |   422|  2,380|    210| 3,012|  2,500
    77|May 13-16|Resaca, Ga.            |   600|  2,147|    ---| 2,747|  2,800
    78|May 15   |New Market, Va.        |   120|    560|    240|   920|    405
    79|May 16-30|Bermuda Hundred, Va.   |   200|  1,000|    ---| 1,200|  3,000
    80|May 23-27|North Anna River, Va.  |   223|  1,460|    290| 1,973|  2,000
    81|May 25-  |Dallas, Ga.            |      |       |       |      |
      |  Jun 4  |                       |   ---|    ---|    ---| 2,400|  3,000
    82|Jun 1-12 |Cold Harbor, Va.       | 1,905| 10,570|  2,456|14,931|  1,700
    83|Jun 5    |Piedmont, Va.          |   130|    650|    ---|   780|  2,970
    84|Jun 9-30 |Kenesaw Mountain, Ga.; |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  includes Pine        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Mountain, Pine Knob, |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Golgotha, Culp's     |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  House, general       |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  assault, Jun 27th:   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  McAfee's Cross Roads,|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Lattemore's Mills    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  and Powder Springs   | 1,370|  6,500|    800| 8,670|  4,600
    85|Jun 10   |Brice's Cross Roads,   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  near Guntown, Miss.  |   223|    394|  1,623| 2,240|    606
    86|Jun 10   |Kellar's Bridge,       |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Licking River, Ky.   |    13|     54|    700|   767|    ---
    87|Jun 11-12|Trevellian Station,    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Central Railroad, Va.|    85|    490|    160|   735|    370
    88|Jun 15-19|Petersburg, Va.;       |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  includes Baylor's    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Farm, Walthal, and   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Weir Bottom Church   | 1,298|  7,474|  1,814|10,586|    ---
    89|Jun 17&18|Lynchburg, Va.         |   100|    500|    400|   700|    200
    90|Jun 20-30|Trenches in front of   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Petersburg, Va.      |   112|    506|    800| 1,418|    ---
    91|Jun 22-30|Wilson's raid on the   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Weldon Railroad, Va. |    76|    265|    700| 1,041|    300
    92|Jun 22-23|Weldon Railroad, Va.   |   604|  2,494|  2,217| 5,315|    500
    93|Jun 27   |Kenesaw Mountain,      |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  general assault.     |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  See No. 2,345        |   ---|    ---|    ---| 3,000|    608
    94|Jul 1-31 |Front of Petersburg,   |      |       |       |      |
      |         | Va.; losses at the    |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Crater and Deep      |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Bottom not included  |   419|  2,076|  1,200| 3,695|    ---
    95|Jul 6-10 |Chattahoochee River,   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Ga.                  |    80|    450|    200|   730|    600
    96|Jul 9    |Monocacy, Md.          |    90|    579|  1,290| 1,959|    400
    97|Jul 13-15|Tupelo, Miss.; includes|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Harrisburg and Old   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Town Creek           |    85|    563|    ---|   648|    700
    98|Jul 20   |Peach Tree Creek, Ga.  |   300|  1,410|    ---| 1,710|  4,796
    99|Jul 22   |Atlanta, Ga.; Hood's   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  first sortie         |   500|  2,141|  1,000| 3,641|  8,499
   100|Jul 24   |Winchester, Va.        |   ---|    ---|    ---| 1,200|    600
   101|Jul 26-31|Stoneman's raid to     |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Macon, Ga.           |   ---|    100|    900| 1,000|    ---
   102|Jul 26-31|McCook's raid to       |      |       |       |      |
      |         | Lovejoy Station, Ga.  |   ---|    100|    500|   600|    ---
   103|Jul 28   |Ezra Chapel, Atlanta,  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Ga.; second sortie.  |   100|    600|    ---|   700|  4,642
   104|Jul 30   |Mine explosion at      |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Petersburg, Va.      |   419|  1,679|  1,910| 4,008|  1,200
   105|Aug 1-31 |Trenches before        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Petersburg, Va.      |    87|    484|    ---|   571|    ---
   106|Aug 14-18|Strawberry Plains, Deep|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Bottom Run, Va.      |   400|  1,755|  1,400| 3,555|  1,100
   107|Aug 18,  |Six Mile House, Weldon |      |       |       |      |
      |  19&21  |  Railroad, Va.        |   212|  1,155|  3,176| 4,543|  4,000
   108|Aug 21   |Summit Point, Va.      |   ---|    ---|    ---|   600|    400
   109|Aug 25   |Ream's Station, Va.    |   127|    546|  1,769| 2,442|  1,500
   110|Aug 31-  |Jonesboro', Ga.        |      |       |       |      |
      |  Sep 1  |                       |   ---|  1,149|    ---| 1,149|  2,000
   111|May 5-   |Campaign in Northern   |      |       |       |      |
      |  Sep 8  |  Georgia, from        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Chattanooga, Tenn.,  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  to Atlanta, Ga.      | 5,284| 26,129|  5,786|37,199|    ---
   112|Sep 1-   |Trenches before        |      |       |       |      |
      |  Oct 30 |  Petersburg, Va.      |   170|    822|    812| 1,804|  1,000
   113|Sep 19   |Opequan, Winchester,   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Va.                  |   653|  3,719|    618| 4,990|  5,500
   114|Sep 23   |Athens, Ala.           |   ---|    ---|    950|   950|     30
   115|Sep 24-  |Price's invasion of    |      |       |       |      |
      |  Oct 28 |  Missouri; includes a |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  number of engagements|   170|    336|    ---|   506|    ---
   116|Sep 28-30|New Market Heights, Va.|   400|  2,029|    ---| 2,429|  2,000
   117|Sep 30-  |Preble's Farm, Poplar  |      |       |       |      |
      |  Oct 1  |Springs Church, Va.    |   141|    788|  1,756| 2,685|    900
   ---+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------+-------
      |         |                       |                             |CONFED-
      |         |                       |          UNION LOSS.        | ERATE
      |         |                       |                             | LOSS.
      |         |                       +------+-------+-------+------+-------
   NO.|DATE.    |         NAME.         |Killed|Wounded|Missing| Total| Total
   ---+---------+-----------------------+------+-------+-------+------+-------
   118|Oct 5    |Allatoona, Ga.         |   142|    352|    212|   706|  1,142
   119|Oct 19   |Cedar Creek, Va.       |   588|  3,516|  1,891| 5,995|  4,200
   120|Oct 27   |Hatcher's Run, South   |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Side Railroad, Va.   |   156|  1,047|    699| 1,902|  1,000
   121|Oct 27&28|Fair Oaks, near        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Richmond, Va.        |   120|    783|    400| 1,303|    451
   122|Nov 28   |Fort Kelly, New Creek, |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  West Va.             |   ---|    ---|    700|   700|      5
   123|Nov 30   |Franklin, Tenn.        |   189|  1,033|  1,104| 2,326|  6,252
   124|Nov 30   |Honey Hill, Broad      |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  River, S. C.         |    66|    645|    ---|   711|    ---
   125|Dec 6-9  |Deveaux's Neck, S. C.  |    39|    390|    200|   629|    400
   126|Dec 15&16|Nashville, Tenn.       |   400|  1,740|    ---| 2,140| 15,000
      |         |                       |      |       |       |      |
      | 1865.   |                       |      |       |       |      |
   127|Jan 11   |Beverly, West Va.      |     5|     20|    583|   608|    ---
   128|Jan 13-15|Fort Fisher, N. C.     |   184|    749|     22|   955|  2,483
   129|Feb 5-7  |Dabney's Mills,        |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Hatcher's Run, Va.   |   232|  1,062|    186| 1,480|  1,200
   130|Mar 8-10 |Wilcox's Bridge, Wise's|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Fork, N. C.          |    80|    421|    600| 1,101|  1,500
   131|Mar 16   |Averysboro', N. C.     |    77|    477|    ---|   554|    865
   132|Mar 19-21|Bentonville, N. C.     |   191|  1,168|    287| 1,646|  2,825
   133|Mar 25   |Fort Steedman, in front|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  of Petersburg, Va.   |    68|    337|    506|   911|  2,681
   134|Mar 25   |Petersburg, Va.        |   103|    864|    209| 1,176|    834
   135|Mar 26-  |Spanish Fort, Ala.     |      |       |       |      |
      |  Apr 8  |                       |   100|    695|    ---|   795|    552
   136|Mar 22-  |Wilson's raid from     |    99|    598|     28|   725|  8,020
      |  Apr 24 |  Chickasaw, Ala., to  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Macon, Ga.; includes |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  a number of          |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  engagements          |      |       |       |      |
   137|Mar 31   |Boydton and White Oak  |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  Roads, Va.           |   177|  1,134|    556| 1,867|  1,235
   138|Apr 1    |Five Forks, Va.        |   124|    706|     54|   884|  8,500
   139|Apr 2    |Fall of Petersburg, Va.|   296|  2,565|    500| 3,361|  3,000
   140|Apr 6    |Sailor's Creek, Va.    |   166|  1,014|    ---| 1,180|  7,000
   141|Apr 6    |High Bridge, Appomattox|      |       |       |      |
      |         |  River, Va.           |    10|     31|  1,000| 1,041|    ---
   142|Apr 7    |Farmville, Va.         |   ---|    ---|    ---|   655|    ---
   143|Apr 9    |Fort Blakely, Ala.     |   113|    516|    ---|   629|  2,900
   144|Apr 9    |Surrender of Lee       |   ---|    ---|    ---|   ---| 26,000
   145|Apr 26   |Johnston surrendered   |   ---|    ---|    ---|   ---| 29,924
   146|May 4    |Taylor surrendered     |   ---|    ---|    ---|   ---| 10,000
   147|May 10   |Sam Jones surrendered  |   ---|    ---|    ---|   ---|  8,000
   148|May 11   |Jeff Thompson          |      |       |       |      |
      |         |  surrendered          |   ---|    ---|    ---|   ---|  7,454
   149|May 26   |Kirby Smith surrendered|   ---|    ---|    ---|   ---| 20,000
   ---+---------+-----------------------+------+-------+-------+------+-------


          Statement of the Number of Engagements

IN THE SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES DURING EACH YEAR OF THE WAR.

    ------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------
        STATES AND    |      |      |      |      |      |
       TERRITORIES.   |=1861=|=1862=|=1863=|=1864=|=1865=| Total
    ------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------
    New York          |   ---|   ---|     1|   ---|   ---|     1
    Pennsylvania      |   ---|   ---|     8|     1|   ---|     9
    Maryland          |     3|     9|    10|     8|   ---|    30
    Dist. of Columbia |   ---|   ---|   ---|     1|   ---|     1
    West Virginia     |    29|   114|    17|    19|     1|    80
    Virginia          |    30|    40|   116|   205|    28|   519
    North Carolina    |     2|    27|    18|    10|    28|    85
    South Carolina    |     2|    10|    17|     9|    22|    60
    Georgia           |   ---|     2|     8|    92|     6|   108
    Florida           |     3|     3|     4|    17|     5|    32
    Alabama           |   ---|    10|    12|    32|    24|    78
    Mississippi       |   ---|    42|    76|    67|     1|   186
    Louisiana         |     1|    11|    54|    50|     2|   118
    Texas             |     1|     2|     8|     1|     2|    14
    Arkansas          |     1|    42|    40|    78|     6|   167
    Tennessee         |     2|    82|   124|    89|     1|   298
    Kentucky          |    14|    59|    30|    31|     4|   138
    Ohio              |   ---|   ---|     3|   ---|   ---|     3
    Indiana           |   ---|   ---|     4|   ---|   ---|     4
    Illinois          |   ---|   ---|   ---|     1|   ---|     1
    Missouri          |    65|    95|    43|    41|   ---|   244
    Minnesota         |   ---|     5|     1|   ---|   ---|     6
    California        |   ---|     1|     4|     1|   ---|     6
    Kansas            |   ---|   ---|     2|     5|   ---|     7
    Oregon            |   ---|   ---|   ---|     3|     1|     4
    Nevada            |   ---|   ---|   ---|     2|   ---|     2
    Washington Ter.   |   ---|   ---|     1|   ---|   ---|     1
    Utah              |   ---|   ---|     1|   ---|   ---|     1
    New Mexico        |     3|     5|     7|     4|   ---|    19
    Nebraska          |   ---|   ---|     2|   ---|   ---|     2
    Colorado          |   ---|   ---|   ---|     4|   ---|     4
    Indian Territory  |   ---|     2|     9|     3|     3|    17
    Dakota            |   ---|     2|     5|     4|   ---|    11
    Arizona           |   ---|     1|     1|     1|     1|     4
    Idaho             |   ---|   ---|     1|   ---|   ---|     1
                      +------+------+------+------+------+------
                      |   156|   564|   627|   779|   135| 2,261
    ------------------+------+------+---- -+------+------+------

[Illustration: BATTLE FIELDS OF THE GREAT CIVIL WAR]



   RECOMMENDED READING


   Civil War in the Making: 1815-1860--_Avery O. Craven_
   The Coming of the Civil War--_Avery O. Craven_
   The Irrepressible Conflict--_Arthur C. Cole_


   West Point Atlas of American Wars, 2 vols.--_Vincent J.
         Esposito_
   The Story of the Confederacy--_Robert Selph Henry_
   Storm Over the Land: A Profile of the Civil War--_Carl Sandburg_
   The Confederate States of America--_E. Merton Coulter_
   The Compact History of the Civil War--_R. Ernest and Trevor N.
         Dupuy_
   The Civil War and Reconstruction--_James G. Randall_

   The Blue and the Gray--_Henry Steele Commager_
   The Common Soldier in the Civil War--_Bell Irvin Wiley_
   They Fought for the Union--_Francis A. Lord_
   Spies for the Blue and Gray--_Harnett Kane_

   Battles and Leaders, 4 vols.--_Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel,
         ed._
   The Civil War at Sea--_Virgil Carrington Jones_
   Lee's Lieutenants, 3 vols.--_Douglas Southall Freeman_
   R.E. Lee, 4 vols.--_Douglas Southall Freeman_
   Mr. Lincoln's Army--_Bruce Catton_
   Glory Road--_Bruce Catton_
   Stillness at Appomattox--_Bruce Catton_
   This Hallowed Ground--_Bruce Catton_
   The Generalship of U.S. Grant--_J.F.C. Fuller_
   Sherman--Soldier, Realist, American--_B.H. Lidell Hart_
   Stonewall Jackson: A Study in Command--_G.F.R. Henderson_
   The Civil War: A Soldier's View--_Jay Luvaas, ed._
   As They Saw Forrest--_Robert Selph Henry, ed._
   The Army of the Tennessee--_Stanley Horne_
   Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction--_William B. Hesseltine_
   Lincoln's War Cabinet--_Burton J. Hendrick_
   Organization and Administration of the Union Army, 2
         vols.--_Frederick A. Shannon_
   War Department 1861--_Alfred H. Meneely_
   Rebel Brass: The Confederate Command System--_Frank E. Vandiver_
   Jefferson Davis--_Hudson Strode_


   Photographic History of the Civil War, 10 vols.--_Francis T.
         Miller and Robert Lanier, ed._
   American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War--_Bruce
         Catton, ed._
   Divided We Fought--_Hirst Milhollen, Milton Kaplan, Hulen
         Stuart_

   Notes on U.S. Ordnance, 2 vols.--_James E. Hicks_
   U.S. Muskets, Rifles, and Carbines--_Arcadi Gluckman_
   Firearms of the Confederacy--_Claud Fuller and Richard Stuart_



            CIVIL WAR CENTENNIAL PROCLAMATION
                     No. 3882

     BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
                  A PROCLAMATION


The years 1961-1965 will mark the one hundredth anniversary of the
American Civil War.

That war was America's most tragic experience. But like all truly great
tragedies, it carries with it an enduring lesson and a profound
inspiration. It was a demonstration of heroism and sacrifice by men and
women of both sides, who valued principle above life itself and whose
devotion to duty is a proud part of our national inheritance.

Both sections of our magnificently reunited country sent into their
armies men who became soldiers as good as any who ever fought under any
flag. Military history records nothing finer than the courage and spirit
displayed at such battles as Chickamauga, Antietam, Kenesaw Mountain and
Gettysburg. That America could produce men so valiant and so enduring is
a matter for deep and abiding pride.

The same spirit on the part of the people back home supported those
soldiers through four years of great trial. That a Nation which
contained hardly more than 30 million people, North and South together,
could sustain 600,000 deaths without faltering is a lasting testimonial
to something unconquerable in the American spirit. And that a
transcending sense of unity and larger common purpose could, in the end,
cause the men and women who had suffered so greatly to close ranks once
the contest ended and to go on together to build a greater, freer and
happier America must be a source of inspiration as long as our country
may last.

By a joint resolution approved on September 7, 1957, the Congress
established the Civil War Centennial Commission to coordinate the
nationwide observances of the one hundredth anniversary of the Civil
War. This resolution authorized and requested the President to issue
proclamations inviting the people of the United States to participate in
those observances.

NOW THEREFORE, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, President of the United States
of America, do hereby invite all of the people of our country to take a
direct and active part in the Centennial of the Civil War.

I request all units and agencies of government, Federal, State and
local, and their officials, to encourage, foster and participate in
Centennial observances. And I especially urge our Nation's schools and
colleges, its libraries and museums, its churches and religious bodies,
its civic, service and patriotic organizations, its learned and
professional societies, its arts, sciences and industries, and its
informational media, to plan and carry out their own appropriate
Centennial observances during the years 1961 to 1965; all to the end of
enriching our knowledge and appreciation of this great chapter in our
Nation's history and of making this memorable period truly a Centennial
for all Americans.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of
the United States of America to be affixed.

     DONE at the City of Washington this 6th day of December in the
     year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty, and of the
     Independence of the United States of America the one hundred
     and eighty-fourth.

             By the President:

                                 Dwight D. Eisenhower


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

William H. Price is a pursuer of the lesser-known, but important, facts
about the Civil War; an interest that is reflected throughout this
unique handbook. Living in Northern Virginia, he has been over many
square miles of the battlefields on foot and, often with a surveyor's
transit, has plotted key sites and troop positions left obscure in the
records of the armies. He specializes in the smaller, yet significant
battles fought in Virginia--First Manassas, Cedar Mountain, Brandy
Station--and in the operations of the signals services and topographical
engineers. Modern data-processing techniques were applied to the Civil
War for the first time when he devised a new method of cataloguing the
war's battles, skirmishes, and engagements; this compilation, prepared
by International Business Machines Corporation, is being used by the
National and State Commissions in planning the numerous Civil War
Centennial events.

Virgil Carrington Jones, biographer of Ranger Mosby and author of "The
Civil War at Sea", has best and most accurately described Mr. Price as
"a walking encyclopedia of Civil War lore".

A native of North Carolina, he has served on the staff of the American
Military Institute and is a member of the Civil War Centennial
Commission of the District of Columbia.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Research indicates that the copyright was not renewed.

Page 18: Corrected Gary to Gray "Gray and Blue CWRT"

Page 19: Changed WISCONSIN (1) to WISCONSIN (2)

Page 20: Changed Shenanhoah to Shenandoah

Page 27: Changed 1960s to 1860s "for the Shamrock Regiment of the
1860's"

Page 32: Corrected spelling of "wariors" to "warriors"

Page 67: Abbreviated dates to narrow the table

Page 71: Corrected spelling of "Irrepressable" to "Irrepressible
Conflict"

Text uses both ironclad and iron-clad





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