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Title: Raemaekers' Cartoon History of the War, Volume 2 - The Second Twelve Months of War
Author: Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note:
Italics are rendered with underscores, e.g. _italics_.
Small caps are rendered with ALL-CAPS.
The oe ligature is rendered [oe], e.g. man[oe]uvres.



RAEMAEKERS'
CARTOON
HISTORY OF THE WAR

[Illustration: (signed) Louis Raemaekers]



RAEMAEKERS'

CARTOON

HISTORY OF THE WAR

COMPILED BY

J. MURRAY ALLISON

Editor of _Raemaekers' Cartoons_, _Kultur in Cartoons_, _The
Century Edition de Luxe Raemaekers' Cartoons_, _etc._

VOLUME TWO

THE SECOND TWELVE MONTHS OF WAR

NEW YORK

THE CENTURY CO.

1919

Copyright, 1919, by
THE CENTURY CO.



FOREWORD


The second year of the war opened in the West with the enemy, although
superior in man power and munitionment, pinned down to a defensive line
from Belfort to the sea. The new armies of the British Empire were still
being raised and trained, and neither England nor France had reached
their zenith in the production of guns and munitions. The western front
was to remain for a time comparatively inactive.

In the East the great Teutonic drive through Poland was still in
progress, although the Russian armies had everywhere escaped
envelopment, and their retreat was nearly at an end. Warsaw was occupied
by the Germans early in August. It was a moment chosen by Germany to
make an offer of separate peace to Russia. The enemy sought to gain by
bribery what his armies had failed to accomplish in the field. The offer
was rejected by Russia.

By October Germany's greatest military effort so far had failed and the
Russian armies stood intact from the Bukovina to Riga.

The next great development in the history of the war was the entry of
Bulgaria in October on the side of the Central Powers. Whilst great
German and Austro-Hungarian forces crossed the Danube in the north the
Bulgarians attacked Serbia on the flank. In a few weeks Serbia and
Montenegro suffered the fate of Belgium and Luxemburg, the British and
French troops not having arrived in time to render material aid to the
Serbians. Greece, failing to live up to her treaty with Serbia,
contributed to the defeat of that country and was for many months to
form a menace to the allied troops who were making the port of Salonika
their base in the Balkans.

In the meantime the western allies had taken the offensive in September,
the French attacking in Champagne and the British in Flanders. The
attack was not driven home and no further offensive upon a large scale
was to take place until July in the following year.

January saw Gallipoli evacuated by the Allies, releasing Turkish troops
for service in Mesopotamia which was doubtless to have its effect in the
fall of Kut and the capture of the garrison later on.

Late in February the great German offensive began at Verdun, an
offensive which was to prove the most costly defeat of the German arms
during the war. The Battle of Verdun continued for months and may be
said to have been definitely lost by the Germans by the 1st of July.

Meanwhile the Russian armies in the Caucasus and Armenia had beaten the
Turks in many engagements, taking amongst other towns the fortress of
Erzerum with great numbers of prisoners and military stores. The other
Russian armies in the north, reorganized and thoroughly equipped with
munitionment, began in June their magnificent advance all along their
line from Riga to the Carpathians.

The last month of the second year of the war witnessed the beginning of
the "big push" in the west, the Russian advance in the east, the retreat
of the Austrians in the Trentino, and the beginning of the Italians'
successful thrust upon the Isonzo.

It is with these major military operations of the year with which
Raemaekers' cartoons on the following pages deal.

He did not neglect to record, however, many of the minor happenings. The
various and devious peace moves of the enemy did not escape his comment
nor did the cold blooded murders of Nurse Cavell and Captain Fryatt. He
has recorded also many examples of German Zeppelin Ruthlessness and
German Piracy on the sea. Notable amongst the latter is the _Sussex_
crime and its subsequent diplomatic developments, which were to play
such an important part in America's entry into the war.

    J. M. A.



VOLUME TWO



_THE ANNIVERSARY, AUGUST, 1915_

_Bernhardi_: "_Have we not surpassed your most sanguine expectations?_"

       *       *       *       *       *


Total losses amongst all belligerents during first year of war:

      _Killed_     _Wounded_ _Missing and_       _Total_
                               _Prisoners_

     3,026,713     5,768,994     2,673,188    11,528,895



    _Nineteenth Century and After._

[Illustration]



_KING ALBERT'S ANSWER TO THE POPE_

"_With him who broke his word, devastated my country, burned my
villages, destroyed my towns, desecrated my churches, and murdered my
people, I will not make peace before he is expelled from my country and
punished for his crimes._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Today, on the sad anniversary of the terrible conflict, our heart gives
forth the wish that the war will soon end. We raise again our voice to
utter a fatherly cry for peace. May this cry, dominating the frightful
noise of arms, reach the warring peoples and their chiefs and induce
kindly and more serene intentions.

    _From the Papal Peace Appeal,
    August 1, 1916._

[Illustration]



_A STABLE PEACE_

_The Kaiser_: "_And remember, if they do not accept it, I deny it
altogether_"

       *       *       *       *       *


That the Dardanelles and Galicia had been offered by Berlin to
Petrograd; that Egypt was asked for Turkey, and that the mediation of
the Pope was desired on the basis of the restitution of Belgium, were
some of the reports which gained currency between Aug. 5, the date of
the fall of Warsaw, and Aug. 12, when the Novoe Vremya of Petrograd
confirmed the rumors of German overtures for a separate peace with
Russia.

Almost simultaneously from Petrograd and from Milan announcements that,
after the capture of Warsaw, Germany was seriously engaged in
preliminary negotiations for the establishment of a peace were
published.

Besides Galicia and the Dardanelles, the Novoe Vremya said, Germany
would guarantee the integrity of the Russian frontiers, at the same time
stipulating for Egypt on the pretext of ceding that country to Turkey,
and for a free hand to deal with Russia's allies. The report declared
that these offers were rejected by the Czar's Government.

    "_Current History_,"
    _New York._

[Illustration]



_THROWN TO THE SWINE_

       *       *       *       *       *


On August 5, 1915, Miss Cavell, an English woman, directress of a large
nursing home at Brussels, was quietly arrested by the German authorities
and confined in the prison of St. Gilles on the charge that she had
aided stragglers from the Allied Armies to escape across the frontier
from Belgium to Holland, furnishing them with money, clothing and
information concerning the route to be followed.

       *       *       *       *       *

We reminded him (Baron Von der Lancken) of the burning of Louvain and
the sinking of the _Lusitania_, and told him that this murder would stir
all civilized countries with horror and disgust. Count Harrach broke in
at this with the rather irrelevant remark that he would rather see Miss
Cavell shot than have harm come to one of the humblest German soldiers,
and his only regret was that they had not "three or four English old
women to shoot."

       *       *       *       *       *

The day brought forth another loathsome fact in connection with the
case. It seems the sentence of Miss Cavell was not pronounced in open
court. Her executioners, apparently in hope of concealing their
intentions from us, went into her cell and there behind locked doors
pronounced sentence upon her. It is all a piece with the other things
they have done.

    HUGH GIBSON,

    _First Secretary of the American
    Legation at Brussels._

[Illustration]



_THE MARTYRED NURSE_

_William_: "_Now you can bring me the American protest_"

       *       *       *       *       *


Even when I was ready to abandon all hope, Leval was unable to believe
that the German authorities would persist in their decision, and
appealed most touchingly and feelingly to the sense of pity for which we
looked in vain.

    HUGH GIBSON,
    _First Secretary American
    Legation at Brussels_.


To condemn any human being, even if he were the vilest criminal, at 5
o'clock in the afternoon and execute him at 2 A. M. was an act of
barbarism for which no possible condemnation is adequate.

Under these circumstances, it would be incredible, if the facts were not
beyond dispute, that the request of the United States for a little delay
was not only brutally refused, _but that our Legation was deliberately
misled and deceived until the death sentence had been inflicted_.

    JAMES M. BECK
    _In_ "_New York Times_."

[Illustration]



_THE YELLOW BOOK_

"_Unmasked_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The publication of the French Government Yellow Book in August dealing
with the diplomatic events which led up to the war proved that whilst
Germany was assuring the nations of her peaceful intentions she was
secretly preparing for war.

[Illustration]



_U'S_

_His Majesty_: "_Well, Tirpitz, you've sunk a great many?_"

_Tirpitz_: "_Yes, sire, here is another U coming down._"

       *       *       *       *       *


On August 26, 1915, Squadron-Commander A. W. Bigsworth destroyed
single-handed, a German submarine by bombs from his aeroplane off Ostend
on the coast of Belgium.

The British Admiralty said in reference to this episode:

"It is not the practice of the Admiralty to publish statements regarding
the losses of German submarines, important though they have been, in
cases where the enemy have no other sources of information as to the
time and place at which these losses have occurred. In the case referred
to above, however, the brilliant feat of Squadron-Commander Bigsworth
was performed in the immediate neighbourhood of the coast in occupation
of the enemy, and the position of the sunken submarine has been located
by a German destroyer."

[Illustration]



_Pallas Athene: "Has it come to this?"_

       *       *       *       *       *


When, on Sept. 21, after the Bulgarian mobilization had begun, M.
Venizelos, who was then Prime Minister of Greece, asked France and
ourselves for 150,000 men, it was on the express understanding that
Greece would mobilize also. Greece did, in fact, mobilize under his
direction on Sept. 24, but it was not until Oct. 2 that M. Venizelos
found himself able to agree to the landing of British and French troops
under the formal protest, a merely formal protest, which he had already
made to the French Government. On Oct. 4--I wish these dates to be borne
in mind--M. Venizelos announced what had happened to the Greek Chamber,
and at the same time declared that Greece must abide by her treaty with
Serbia. The next day the King repudiated the declaration and then M.
Venizelos resigned. The new Government which succeeded declined to
recognize that a casus foederis had arisen between Greece and Serbia, in
spite of our constant insistence that Greece should make common cause
with Serbia, and the new Greek Government, while declaring their desire
to remain on friendly terms with the Allies, declined to depart from
their attitude of neutrality.

    H. H. ASQUITH, _House of Commons_,
    _November 2, 1915_.

[Illustration]



_THE NEXT TO BE KICKED OUT_

_Dumba's Master_

       *       *       *       *       *


By reason of the admitted purpose and intent of Mr. Dumba to conspire to
cripple legitimate industries of the people of the United States and to
interrupt their legitimate trade and by reason of the flagrant violation
of diplomatic propriety in employing an American citizen protected by an
American passport as a secret bearer of official dispatches through the
lines of the enemy of Austria-Hungary, the President directs me to
inform your Excellency that Mr. Dumba is no longer acceptable to the
Government of the United States as the Ambassador of his Imperial
Majesty at Washington.

    _Official American Note Requesting the Recall of_
    MR. DUMBA, _the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador._

    _September, 1916._

[Illustration]



_SEPTEMBER, 1914, AND SEPTEMBER, 1915_

_The Crown Prince, 1914_: "_Now the war begins as we like it._"

_The Crown Prince, 1915_: "_But this is not as I wished it to
continue._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Towards the end of September, 1916, the British and French Armies began
an attack upon the German forces at Loos and in the Champagne. During
five days' fighting, over 25,000 prisoners and 125 guns were captured by
the Allies.

[Illustration]



_IDYLLIC NEUTRALITY_

_A daily smuggling scene on the Dutch frontier_

       *       *       *       *       *


Neutral countries whose frontiers march with those of Germany have
rendered enormous aid to the Central Powers by the supply of materials
and food. The general practice of evasion has been to smuggle home
produce of all sorts for which high prices were forthcoming and use for
local consumption similar products imported from other countries over
seas. The imports of many lines of merchandise into Holland alone are
known to have increased from fifty to one hundred per cent. compared
with pre-war figures.

[Illustration]



_WHAT SHOULD WE DO WITHOUT MICHAEL?_

_Michael_: "_For my 100 Marks I obtained a receipt. I gave this for
second 100 Marks and I received a second receipt. For the third loan I
gave the second receipt. Have I invested 300 Marks and has the
Government got 300, or have both of us got nothing?_"

       *       *       *       *       *


If we desire the possibility of shaping a peace in accordance with our
needs and our vital requirements, we must not forget the question of
cost. We must see to it that the whole future livelihood of our people
shall, so far as is in any way possible, be relieved of the burden. The
leaden weight of thousands of millions is due to the people who got up
this war. They, not we, shall drag it along with them. Of course, we
know that this is a matter of peculiar difficulty, but everything that
can be done in this direction shall be done.

We are paying the money almost exclusively to ourselves, whilst the
enemy is paying its loans abroad, a guarantee that in the future we
shall maintain the advantage.

    DR. HELFFERICH,
    _Reichstag, September, 1915._

[Illustration]



_WE DON'T UNDERSTAND THIS LOAN GAME_

_(In Germany there is a game by which children passing a coin from one
to another are supposed to, but do not, get richer.)_

       *       *       *       *       *


German statesmen and editors make a boast of the fact that so far they
have not raised any war funds by taxation. That is true, but they are
pursuing the far less commendable course of raising the money by loans
and by "hanky-panky" manipulations of currency paper. Dr. Helfferich,
the Imperial Minister of Finance, recently admitted that he dared not
impose further taxation, and it is a fair inference that he knew any
such proposals would be futile--that the burdens of the German taxpayers
are already as heavy as they can bear.

    _The Nineteenth Century and After._

[Illustration]



_THE GERMAN LOAN_

"_Don't breathe on the bubble or the whole will collapse_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The German war loans have been subscribed mainly by the great companies
of Germany; by the Savings Banks, the Banks, the Life and Fire Insurance
and Accident Insurance Companies, etc.

Furthermore, these loans have been pyramided; that is to say, a man who
subscribed and paid for one hundred thousand marks of loan number one
could, when loan number two was called for, take the bonds he had bought
of loan number one to his bank and on his agreement to spend the
proceeds in subscribing to loan number two, borrow from the bank eighty
thousand marks on the security of his first loan bonds, and so on.

    JAMES W. GERARD _in_
    "_My Four Years in Germany._"

[Illustration]



"_Wounded First_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Allan Liner _Hesperian_ was torpedoed by a German submarine in the
English Channel on the 4th September, 1915; on board were a number of
invalided Canadian troops. British admiralty patrol boats were quickly
on the spot and succeeded in saving all the passengers and crew with the
exception of eight souls.

[Illustration]



_THE MORNING PAPER_:--"_GREAT NEWS_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Press Bureau of the War Office announces that a fleet of hostile
airships visited the eastern counties and a portion of the London area
last night and dropped bombs.

The following military casualties, in addition to the one announced last
night, have been reported: Fourteen killed and thirteen wounded.

The Home Office announces the following casualties other than the
military casualties reported above: Killed--Men, 27; women, 9; children,
5; total, 41. Injured--Men, 64; women, 30; children, 7; total, 101.

Of these casualties 32 killed and 95 injured were in the London area,
and these figures include those announced last night.

    _London, October, 1915._

[Illustration]



_VAN TROMP AND DE REUTER_

"_So long as you permit Zeppelins to cross our land you surely should
cease to boast of our deeds._

_(Whenever a Dutchman wishes to speak of the great past of his country
he calls to mind the names of these heroes.)_

       *       *       *       *       *


Many of the Zeppelins that raided English towns and villages crossed
over Holland leaving and returning to their bases in Germany. This was
held to be a violation of the neutrality of Holland and "pro-Ally"
Dutchmen endeavored to make the question an international one.

[Illustration]



_THE MARSHES OF PINSK_

_The Kaiser_: "_When the leaves fall you'll have peace._"--_They have._

       *       *       *       *       *


The last of the great Austro-German strokes had failed, and before the
beginning of October, 1915, the line of the enemy in the east was
established precisely where it was to be found unchanged until the great
offensive delivered upon its southern part by the Russians in the
beginning of June, 1916. Lord Kitchener put the matter simply and in
words the accuracy of which could be gauged by the exasperation they
caused at Berlin, when he said that the enemy had now in the East "shot
his bolt." It was a phrase exactly true. The expense in men, the
difficulty of bringing up munitionment; the entry into territories with
worse roads and less opportunities of supply; the fact that the line now
reached was cut by the great belt of marshes in the centre--all these
things between them brought the great adventure to a stand.

    HILAIRE BELLOC.
    _in Land and Water._

[Illustration]



"_Cheer up, Austria, you have Germans and Bulgarians to help you this
time_"

       *       *       *       *       *


Until October, 1915, the Austro-Hungarian forces entrusted with the
invasion and subjection of Serbia had failed in their objectives.

After an initial success the armies of the Dual Empire met with several
defeats and were finally driven across the Danube. At the beginning of
the year the Serbian campaign was abandoned and Field Marshal Pottionek
in command of the Austrian Armies was removed from his post.

[Illustration]



_FERDINAND, THE CHAMELEON_

"_I was a Catholic, but needing Russian help, I became a Greek Orthodox.
Now I need the Austrians I again become Catholic. Should things turn out
badly I can again revert to Greek Orthodoxy._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Bulgaria must fight at the victor's side. The Germans and
Austro-Hungarians are victorious on all fronts. Russia soon will have
collapsed entirely. Then will come the turn of France, Italy, and
Serbia. Bulgaria would commit suicide if she did not fight on the side
of the central powers, which offer the only possibility of realizing her
desire for union of all Bulgarian peoples.

In the beginning none could foresee how events would develop and which
side would be victorious. If the Government had resolved to participate
in the great war it might have committed the fault of joining the side
that would have been beaten, and thus jeopardize the existence of the
present Bulgarian Empire.

    _From Bulgarian Manifesto.
    October, 1915._

[Illustration]



_SERBIA. AUTUMN, 1915_

"_Now we can make an end of him_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Balkan campaign is the easiest task ever intrusted to an army
leader. If the present plan is carried out it will be impossible for the
Allies to escape capture or disaster, and the only real military task is
to accomplish all this with the smallest possible loss to ourselves.

Even with the greatest force the Anglo-French Governments can muster the
Germanic armies will outnumber them two to one, while the Austro-German
artillery is in the proportion of five to one.

    _The Azest, Budapest,
    October, 1915._

[Illustration]



_OCTOBER IN SERBIA_

_(October in Holland is called the "butcher's month," as the flocks are
then killed preparatory to the winter.)_

       *       *       *       *       *


On October 7th, 1915, an army of 400,000 Austrians, Hungarians and
Germans forced the Danube and commenced the great drive on Serbia; by
the 10th the invaders had captured Belgrade. At the same moment the
Bulgarians in great force attacked the Serbians on their right flank and
by the 28th joined forces with the Teutonic troops.

[Illustration]



_THE KAISER COUNTS THE BAG_

       *       *       *       *       *


On October 13, 1915, about 9:30 at night, fire opened from the skies on
the centre of London. That same evening parts of the Eastern Counties
were attacked. In London alone 32 were killed and 95 injured, and the
total casualties for the whole area of the raid that night were 56
killed and 113 wounded. A number of houses were damaged, and several
fires started. Most of the victims were ordinary working folk, doing
their ordinary work. Motor omnibus conductors died in the street, a
messenger boy was killed when delivering a message, a potman died at his
work, a caterer was killed while returning from a Masonic lodge, a
carman's daughter was injured in the legs and lingered until the next
morning, a waitress was done to death while returning from a Young
Women's Guild, and so on.

    _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



"_THE ENTRY INTO CONSTANTINOPLE_"

_The Kaiser_: "_Who is this man?_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The German Emperor will spend Christmas in Constantinople at the head of
his victorious troops.

    _The Pesti-Napols, Budapest.
    October, 1915._

[Illustration]



_GO TO YOUR HEREDITARY ENEMY, BULGARIA_

       *       *       *       *       *


It must not be forgotten that Greece is an independent nation that
disposes of its fate in full sovereignty. The Austro-German attack on
Serbia releases Greece at least from the obligation of armed
intervention, and independent of that attack it is materially impossible
for Serbia to give Greece the support of 150,000 men stipulated in the
treaty in case of war with Bulgaria, the Entente powers have not
furnished a contingent equivalent.

    _Grecian Note of October 26, 1915._


I deplored the fact that Serbia is being left to be crushed by Bulgaria,
Greece's hereditary enemy, who will not scruple later to fall on Greece
herself.

    _From speech of_ VENIZELOS
    _before dissolution of his Government._
    _November 3, 1915._

[Illustration]



"_THEY BOWED THE KNEE BEFORE HIM_"

_The extermination of Armenian Christians, Autumn of 1915_

       *       *       *       *       *


These atrocities had as their deliberate object the extermination of the
Armenian race, and it is not difficult to assess the guilt. The guilt
lay with the Young Turkish Government at Constantinople and with the
local officials who acted in collusion with them. But there was a
greater criminal even than the Young Turkish Government, for behind
Turkey stood the country that was Turkey's ally and the dominant partner
in the policy she pursued. There was a considerable variation in the
conduct of individual Germans in Turkey. The German missionaries seem to
have stood laudably by their principles, and the German Vice-Consul at
Erzerum is said to have sent the exiles relief. But in the Aleppo
province and Cilicia the German officials, both military and civil,
threw themselves actively into the Young Turks' scheme; at Moush and Van
German officers are believed to have participated directly in the
slaughter, and at Erzerum they are reported to have taken their share of
the Armenian girls.

    _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_DRIVEN FROM THE TEMPLE OF HUMANITY_

       *       *       *       *       *


If the Porte considers it necessary that Armenian insurrections can
either go on or should be crushed so as to exclude all possibility of
their repetition, then there is no murder and no atrocity, but simply
measures of a justifiable and a necessary kind.

    COUNT VON REVENTLOW.


I was asked last night to define German militarism, and there is the
definition (above) in the devilish spirit of such a judgment and excuse
for the cowardly massacre of 800,000 human beings, not all men, but
thousands of women and children.

    T. P. O'CONNOR, M.P.
    _House of Commons,
    London, November 16, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE OLD SERB_

"_Fighting with the Bulgarians against the Turk I lost my brothers, my
sons fell fighting with the Greeks against Bulgaria, but only when the
Germans came were my wife and children killed._"

       *       *       *       *       *


In the three districts of Polzerie, Matchva, and Yadar, the various
kinds of death and torture inflicted were apportioned as follows:

                                                          _Males_ _Females_
  Victims shot                                                345        64
  Victims killed with knives                                  113        27
  Victims hanged                                                7         6
  Victims massacred and clubbed to death with sticks and       48        26
          butt-ends of rifles
  Victims disemboweled                                          2         4
  Victims burned alive                                         35        96
  Victims pinioned and robbed                                  52        12
  Victims whose arms were cut off, torn off, or broken          5         1
  Victims whose legs were cut off or broken                     3         0
  Victims whose noses were cut off                             28         6
  Victims whose ears were cut off                              31         7
  Victims whose eyes were put out                              30        38
  Victims whose genital organs were mutilated                   3         3
  Victims whose skin was cut in strips, or portions of         15         3
          their face detached
  Victims stoned                                               12         1
  Victims whose breasts were cut off                            0         2
  Victims cut in pieces                                        17        16
  Victims beheaded                                              1         0
  Little girl thrown to the pigs                                0         1
  Victims killed without the manner of their deaths           240         5
  being specified

    _Serbian Government Report_,
    PROFESSOR R. A. REISS,
    _University of Lausanne,
    Switzerland_.

[Illustration]



_NEW PEACE OFFERS_

_Von Bethmann-Hollweg_: "_The worst of it is, I must always deny having
been there._"

       *       *       *       *       *


In reality none of our enemies has approached us with suggestions of
peace. Our enemies have rather considered it to their interest to
attribute to us falsely offers of peace. Both facts have the same
explanation--self-deception beyond compare, which we would only make
worse if we approached them with peace proposals, instead of waiting for
them to come to us.

    VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG.
    _Reichstag, December 5, 1915._

[Illustration]



_FERDINAND S'EN VA T'EN GUERRE NE SAIT S'IL REVIENDRA_

       *       *       *       *       *


In true comradeship the glorious triumphal march of your Majesty's
nation in arms began, which, under the guidance of its illustrious War
Lord, has added one sublime leaf of glory to another in the history of
Bulgaria. In order to give visible expression to my feelings for such
deeds, and to the feelings of all Germany, I have begged your Majesty to
accept the dignity of Prussian Field Marshal, and I am, with my army,
happy that you, by accepting it, also in this sense _have become one of
us_.

    _The_ GERMAN EMPEROR _to_
    KING FERDINAND _of Bulgaria
    at Nish, Serbia, December, 1916._

[Illustration]



_THE VOICE OF THE PEOPLE_

_The Kaiser_: "_Don't bother about your people, 'Tino. They must do what
we say._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Venizelist "Patris" took another view of the situation on the same
date:

Only those who are unable to foresee things, or who are panic-stricken,
would be unable to foretell the evolution of the events immediately
following the Austro-German attack on Serbia. The Central Empires, not
disposing enough troops for this campaign, needed the Bulgars, with whom
they associated; but they also needed the neutrality of Greece, because
without it Bulgaria would be unable to cooperate with them, as she would
have to defend herself against Greece. In order to secure Bulgar help,
the Austro-Germans used the method of compensation. The whole of Serbian
Macedonia, a part of Old Serbia, an exit on the Adriatic Sea,
concessions at the expense of Turkey--all this was a part of the
national problem of the Bulgarian lust of conquest. It was in this way
that the Bulgarians undertook the assassin's job of striking Serbia from
behind. In order to secure the neutrality of Greece, the Austro-Germans
resorted to the Prussian method of terrorism, inasmuch as no other
concessions and compensations were at hand. Both methods have been
equally successful.

    _The Athens "Patris" Current History.
    Special Staff Correspondence. December, 1915._

[Illustration]



_TRUTH_

_As painted by the German Chancellor_

       *       *       *       *       *


It is well known that France granted loans to Russia only under the
condition that it develop its Polish fortresses and railroads against
us; also that England and France regarded Belgium as their route of
advance against us. We must protect ourselves politically and militarily
against this, and also insure our economic development.

As I said on Aug. 19, we are not the ones who are threatening the small
nations. We are battling in this struggle, forced upon us, not to
subjugate foreign nations, but to protect our life and freedom. This war
remains for the German Government what it was in the beginning and what
has been maintained in every pronunciamento--a defensive war of the
German Nation for its future.

    VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG.
    _Reichstag, December 9, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE EVACUATION OF GALLIPOLI_

"_What are you firing at? The British left twenty-four hours ago!_"

"_Sorry, Sir--and what a glorious victory._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The enemy were completely deceived. On the afternoon of December 20,
1915, a vigorous attack was begun in the Cape Helles area against some
trenches at the head of the Krithia ravine. With the help of fire from
warships, the trenches were taken with small loss, and held against
counter-attacks delivered that night. This operation helped to divert
the enemy's attention. At 3.30 A. M. on the morning of December 21 a
huge mine was exploded by the Anzacs near Russell's Top. The Turks
thought the Anzacs were about to attack, and for forty minutes they
blazed away furiously with their rifles at the empty trenches. The
Australians left many letters of farewell to the Turks, assuring them
that they were clean fighters and that the Australians hoped to meet
them again.

    _Times History of the War._


The retirement from Gallipoli was one of the finest operations in
military or naval history. It will take an imperishable place in our
national history.

    H. H. ASQUITH, _Prime Minister,
    House of Commons, January 10, 1916_.

[Illustration]



_CHRISTMAS, 1916_

"_The holy war is at the door_"

[Illustration]



_NEW YEAR'S FEAST OF KULTUR_

       *       *       *       *       *


The British Liner _Persia_ was sunk by a German submarine on December
30, 1915, southeast of Crete, while on her way to the Orient. American
Consul McNeeley, on his way to his post at Arden, was among the 335
persons who lost their lives, of which two or more were Americans.

[Illustration]



_THE POILU_

       *       *       *       *       *


We are not going to grow weary. France has confidence because you are
there. How often have I heard your officers say: "Never, in any age,
have we had a finer army. Never have men been better trained, braver,
more heroic than ours!" Everywhere that I have seen you I have felt
myself tremble with admiration and hope. You will conquer. The year now
opening will bring you, my friends, the pride of finishing the defeat of
the enemy, the joy of returning to your homes, and the sweetness of
celebrating the victory there amid those you love.

    _The President of France
    to French Troops, January, 1916._

[Illustration]



_THE TRIALS OF A COURT PAINTER_

"_I commenced this as the entry into Paris, but I must finish it as the
entry into Nish_"

       *       *       *       *       *


Hail Emperor, Cæsar and King! Thou art victor and glorious. In ancient
Nish all the peoples of the East salute thee, the redeemer, bringing to
the oppressed prosperity and salvation.

    KING FERDINAND OF BULGARIA
    TO THE GERMAN EMPEROR
    _On the occasion of the
    triumphal entry of the two
    Monarchs into Nish. January, 1916._

[Illustration]



_VON DER GOLTZ GOES TO THE PROMISED LAND_

       *       *       *       *       *


In January, 1916, Field Marshal Baron von der Goltz was appointed
commander in chief of the Turkish Armies in the Caucasus. The serious
nature of the Turkish situation in the Caucasus seems to have been
realised in Berlin but the veteran German general was unable to stem the
advance of the victorious Russians who were shortly afterwards to
capture the great fortress of Erzerum with its entire garrison, guns and
supplies.

[Illustration]



_THE BURIAL OF PRIVATE WALKER_

       *       *       *       *       *


On September 9, 1914, Joseph Walker enlisted for the duration of the
war; on January 11, 1916, the sea bore his dead body to the dyke at West
Capelle. This afternoon, at 1 P.M., while the northwest wind whistled
over Walcheren, the English soldier was buried in the churchyard of West
Capelle.

First the vice-consul in the name of England spread the British flag
over him who for England had sacrificed his young life. Four men of West
Capelle carried the coffin outside and placed it at the foot of the
tower, that old gray giant, which has witnessed so much world's woe,
here opposite the sea. It was a simple, but touching ceremony.

"Man that is born of a woman hath but a short time to live.... He cometh
forth like a flower and is cut down." Thus spoke the voice of the
minister and the wind carried his words, and the wind played with the
flag of England, the flag that flies over all seas, in Flanders, in
France, in the Balkans, in Egypt, as the symbol of threatened
freedom--the flag whose folds here covered a fallen warrior.

And in the roaring storm we went our way. There was he carried, the
soldier come to rest, and the flag fluttered in the wind and wrapped
itself round that son of England. Then the coffin sank into the ground
and the hearts of us, the departing witnesses, were sore. Earth fell on
it, and the preacher said: "Earth to earth, dust to dust."

    _From the Amsterdam Telegraaf,
    January, 1916._

[Illustration]



_"COME AND BE HAPPY AT POTSDAM"_

       *       *       *       *       *


The little Kingdom of Montenegro was conquered by the Austrians in
January, 1916. Although the Austrians were present in overwhelming
force, a substantial part of the Montenegrin Army were able to escape
and join the Serbs who were in Albania.

Upon the fall of Montenegro, the Kaiser invited the King to accept
German hospitality in Berlin. The King refused and escaped to France,
taking up his residence at Lyon.

[Illustration]



_TOM THUMB AND THE GIANT_

"_Come and save me, you know I am fond of children_"

       *       *       *       *       *


On February 1, 1916, the small fishing trawler _King Stephen_ from
Grimsby found the German Zeppelin L 19 floating in the North Sea with
her crew clinging to her. The captain of the trawler refused to take the
crew of the Zeppelin on board his boat, fearing he would be overpowered
and captured. His action caused a great outcry in Germany,
notwithstanding the fact that the Zeppelin was doubtless responsible for
the death of many women and children in England and had actually dropped
a bomb on a steamer during the previous night and left the crew to
perish.

[Illustration]



_ON THE WAY TO BAGDAD_

"_Halt_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The assault on the forts (Erzerum) and the principal position lasted
from February 11 till February 15 inclusive. After we had taken the
forts on the left flank of the principal Turkish line of defense,
extending about 27 miles, the fate of the forts in the centre and on the
right flank, and, after them, of the second line forts and the principal
defensive position, was decided on February 16 after short attacks.
These fortifications, which were full of Turkish dead, remained in our
possession.

During the assault on the fortress several Turkish regiments were
annihilated or made prisoners with all their officers. On the line of
forts alone we took 197 pieces of artillery of various calibres in good
condition. In the defence works of the central fortress we took another
126 pieces of artillery. In the fortified region of Erzerum we took a
large number of depôts of various kinds, which have already been
mentioned by the Headquarter Staff. The exact number of Turkish
prisoners is 235 officers and 12,753 men.

    _Russian Official Report on
    the Capture of Erzerum._

[Illustration]



_THE HOLY WAR_

_The Turk_: "_But he is so great._"

_William_: "_No one is great save Allah and I am his Prophet._"

       *       *       *       *       *


About the time Turkey became involved in the war a telegram was
published as having been sent from Kaiser Wilhelm to the Crown Prince
announcing with evident satisfaction that the supreme Moslem authorities
at Constantinople had given their sanction to the declaration of a Holy
War against Russia, England, and France "as oppressors of the Moslems."
At one time it looked as though the aspirations implied by this message
might be carried out. There was a mutiny at Singapore in which Moslem
troops were implicated; there were outbreaks in the Italian Tripolitana
and among the Senoussi tribesmen on the western border of Egypt; there
was at least a threat against the Suez Canal, from the direction of
Beersheba, and there was, or seemed to be, the possibility of a
pro-German uprising in Persia. The advance of the Russians from the
Caspian has dissipated this last possibility; the Suez Canal is no
longer even threatened; the Senoussi have given their submission.
Finally, from India, from Sultan Mohammed Aga Khan, who is the spiritual
head of the many million Moslems in India, comes a declaration which
shows that the hopes of a holy war, as it seems to have been expected in
Germany, were never anything more than a myth.

    "_Current History_," _New York._

[Illustration]



_The Kaiser_: "_Your ruthlessness has failed, Tirpitz; I must pin my
faith to Count Zeppelin._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The ruthless submarine policy introduced by von Tirpitz earlier in the
war and which was guaranteed to "bring proud Albion to her knees" had
completely failed in its object by Spring, 1916. After a bitter fight
between von Tirpitz and his opponents of whom the chief was the
Chancellor himself, the Admiral on March 16, 1916, resigned his office
of Secretary of State for the Imperial Navy.

[Illustration]



_GOTT STRAFE ENGLAND_

_"Father says I must do the same with France"_

       *       *       *       *       *


We have seen that corps were specially called back to the interior of
Germany for reposing, training and even feeding calculated towards the
end in view. Light railways were built upon every side. Heavy artillery
was concentrated to the number of over one thousand pieces--all that
could be spared--and slowly massed in the woods by Spincourt, and an
immense head of shell accumulated during the four winter months. The
unfit were thoroughly combed out and every possible man taken to swell
the German effectives. Class 1916 after some four months' training was
sent forward to the local depots behind the front with the object of
throwing it into the fighting the moment the losses should become
serious. Class 1917 began to be called out (in the month of December).
On the 19th of February, 1916, the first shots of the intensive
bombardment against the Verdun sector were fired, and on Monday the 21st
of February the great German offensive was launched.

    HILAIRE BELLOC.
    _in Land and Water._

[Illustration]



_William_: "_You lead new Regiments upon Verdun, whilst I weep over the
losses of the old ones._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Of the German Corps known to have been engaged the 3rd and 18th Corps
have been entirely used up, or "spent," as the military phrase goes. The
7th Reserve Corps has lost half, and the 15th Corps three-quarters, of
its available strengths. The German forces had by the evening of March 3
"used up," in addition to those already mentioned, a part of the 113th
Division, the 5th Reserve Corps, and the Bavarian Ersatz Division,
without taking into account the losses of other reinforcements, whose
presence on the battlefield has not yet been definitely ascertained.

None of the prisoners questioned estimated the losses suffered by their
companies at less than one-third of the total effectives. Taking into
account all available indications, it may safely be assumed that, during
the fighting of the last 13 days, the Germans have lost in killed,
wounded, and prisoners at least 100,000 men.

    LORD NORTHCLIFFE'S _Despatch
    from Verdun, March 4, 1916_

[Illustration]



"_NOBODY SEES ME, SO I CAN ALWAYS DENY IT._"

       *       *       *       *       *


In March, 1916, a great neutral passenger ship, the Dutch Liner
_Tubantia_, was sunk in the North Sea. All the passengers and crew were
saved with one exception. The Dutch Government protested to the German
Government which disclaimed all responsibility, stating that the
explosion which sunk the vessel must have been due to a British mine.
During the Dutch Government's investigation members of the crew
testified to having seen the wake of a torpedo although no submarine was
observed. Evidence was produced which indicated that the _Tubantia_ was
the victim of a submarine attack.

[Illustration]



_PAN GERMANICUS AS PEACE MAKER_

_The Dove_: "_They say they do not want peace as they have time
enough._"

_The Eagle_: "_Alas! That is just what we haven't got._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Gentlemen, I have spoken candidly. I have been able to say openly that
we desire peace, because the German Nation is sufficiently strong, and
because it is resolved to continue the fight in defense of home and
country should its enemies not wish for peace.

The Imperial Chancellor knows that the whole world is waiting in
breathless expectation his reply to our interpellation. I trust that he
will find the redeeming words, and that he will express his readiness to
enter into peace negotiations.

    PHILIP SCHEIDEMANN,
    _Chairman German Socialist Party,
    Reichstag, March, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_We have only come to see that the English don't threaten you._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Germans left no stones unturned to influence the Dutch in their
favor. They deluged the newspaper offices with free propaganda,
telegraphed at great expense from Berlin, and supplied free copies of
the Berlin Journals. Everything possible was to spread distrust of the
English, who were constantly accused of having designs on the integrity
of Holland and of desiring to take possession of the Scheldt. This was
carried so far that a panic was created on March 31, 1916, by the report
of landing of the Entente forces in Zeeland. The report, which was
without any foundation, was circulated by the Germans and spread like
wild fire around the country.

    _The Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_HOHENZOLLERN MADNESS_

_The storming of Dead Man's Hill_

       *       *       *       *       *


We figure that the attempt to rush this important position (their object
was to capture Le Mort Homme, in order to render untenable the key
sector of Pepper Hill and Douaumont) cost the Germans fully 30,000 men,
of whom an unusually high proportion were killed, owing to their
inability to succor and save the slightly wounded.

Perhaps now the enemy will realize that he has reached a stalemate, for
the abrupt breakdown of yesterday's attempt against Vaux and Douaumont
proves once more it is impossible to advance there while we hold Le Mort
Homme, and the latter must seem to be impregnable.

    _French Official Eyewitness.
    March 26, 1916._

[Illustration]



_"MY SON LIES HERE, WHERE ARE YOURS?"_

[Illustration]



THE OLD POILU

       *       *       *       *       *


Soldiers of the Army of Verdun! For three weeks you have been exposed to
the most formidable assaults yet attempted against us by the enemy.
Germany counted upon the success of this effort, which she believed to
be irresistible, and to which she has devoted her best troops and her
most powerful artillery. She hoped that the capture of Verdun would
revive the courage of her allies and would convince neutral countries of
German superiority. She had reckoned without you. Night and day, despite
a bombardment without precedent, you have resisted all attacks and
maintained our positions. The struggle is not yet at an end, for the
Germans require a victory. You will succeed in wresting it from them. We
have munitions and reserves in abundance; but, above all, you have
indomitable courage and faith in the destinies of the Republic. The eyes
of the country are upon you. You will be among those of whom it will be
said: they barred the road to Verdun to the Germans.

    GENERAL JOFFRE _to
    the French Army at Verdun,
    March, 1916._

[Illustration]



_"GERMAN CHIVALRY ON THE SEA"_

       *       *       *       *       *


The British Submarine _E13_ ran aground on the Danish Island of Saltholm
within the three mile limit. Whilst in this helpless position, unable to
attack or to defend herself she was shelled by a large German destroyer.
Of her crew of thirty, fifteen were killed.

[Illustration]



_THE ETERNAL BARRAGE_

       *       *       *       *       *


The British Official Press Bureau reports the German casualties during
February, 1916, at 35,198, of whom 10,211 were killed or died either of
wounds or sickness; 2,017 missing, 5,217 severely wounded, 1,340
prisoners, 11,865 slightly wounded. The German casualties during March,
including the slaughter at Verdun and the sanguinary struggles in the
eastern theatre, are estimated at 175,000. This estimate, added to the
previous reports, swell the German losses since the beginning of the
war--including all German nationalities: Prussians, Bavarians, Saxons,
and Württembergers, but excluding naval and colonial casualties--to the
grand total of 2,842,372, of which number about 660,000 were killed and
died of wounds, 40,000 died of sickness, 120,000 are prisoners, 220,000
are missing, 365,000 are severely wounded, 265,000 wounded, about
1,050,000 slightly wounded, 140,000 wounded remaining with units. The
number killed in action, estimating one-half the missing as killed, is
over 25 per cent. of the total.

[Illustration]



_VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG'S PEACE SONG_

       *       *       *       *       *


This new Europe in many respects cannot resemble the past. The blood
which has been shed will never be repaid, and the wealth which has been
destroyed can only slowly be replaced. But, whatever else this Europe
may be, it must be for the nations that inhabit it a land of peaceful
labor. The peace which shall end this war shall be a lasting peace. It
must not bear the germ of new wars, but must provide for a peaceful
arrangement of European questions.

    VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG.
    _Reichstag, April 5, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_WHY, I HAVE KILLED YOU TWICE AND YOU DARE TO COME BACK AGAIN!_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The capture of Trebizond, the most important Turkish city on the Black
Sea, marks another important step in Russia's historic campaign in Asia
Minor. After a sanguinary battle at Kara Dera on April 14 the Grand
Duke's troops broke through the fierce resistance of the Turks and, with
the cooperation of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, fought their way three
days later into the fortified city of Trebizond. With this strongest
point on the Anatolian coast in Russian hands, the menace to the back
door of Constantinople becomes imminent.

_Current History, New York._

[Illustration]



"_Mais quand la voix de Dieu l'appela il se voyait seul sur la terre au
milieu de fantomes tristes et sans nombre._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The latest estimate of German losses at Verdun is 200,000! Does the
Kaiser, at safe distance, still "look on"? What blessing has this
monarch of a great and productive realm brought upon his people?
Mourning, desolation, and irremediable misery! No triumph, no victory
can atone for such a deluge of blood and tears! That capricious
Personage "somewhere in Heaven," whom Wilhelm calls "Unser Gott," may
possibly resent the deliberate casting away of golden opportunities on
the part of his crowned earthly "familiar," to whom a peaceful world was
offered, only to be kicked aside for a battered helmet and broken sword!

"Thrust in thy sickle and reap!" O Emperor of a brief and bitter day!
The harvest of death, not life!--the harvest of curses, not blessings!
The thousands of dead men--dead in the very strength of
manhood--sacrificed in a holocaust on the flaming altar of the wickedest
war the world has ever seen, may have their own story to tell to "Unser
Gott"; so may the bereaved and wretched women whose husbands and sons
have been torn from their arms forever.

    MARIE CORELLI _in
    The Sunday Times, London,
    April, 1916._

[Illustration]



_THE DEPORTATIONS FROM LILLE_

       *       *       *       *       *


The attitude of England renders it increasingly difficult to feed the
population.

To lessen misery, the German authority has recently asked volunteers to
work in the country. This offer has not had the success which was
expected. Consequently the inhabitants will be removed by compulsion and
transported to the country. Those removed will be sent in the interior
of French occupied territory far behind the front, where they will be
employed in agriculture and in no way in military work.

    _German Proclamation.
    Lille, April, 1916._


Upon the order of General von Graevenitz and with the assistance of
Infantry Regiment 64, sent by the German General Headquarters, about
25,000 French, young girls from 16 to 20 years old, young women and men
up to the age of 55 years, without distinction of social condition, were
torn from their homes at Roubaix, Tourcoing, and Lille, pitilessly
separated from their families, and forced to do agricultural work in the
Departments of the Aisne and Ardennes.

    _French Official Report._

[Illustration]



_THE LAST THROW_

       *       *       *       *       *


These are not, as our enemies are pretending to believe, the last
exertions of an exhausted nation, but the hammer blows of a strong,
invincible people which commands sufficient reserves in men and all
other means for the continuation of the hammer blows.

    _The Prussian War Minister_,
    GENERAL WILD VON HOHENBORN,
    _the Reichstag, April 11, 1916._

[Illustration]



_RUSSIA TO FRANCE_

       *       *       *       *       *


On the 20th of April, 1916, a number of transports arrived at Marseilles
carrying a large number of Russian troops for the support of France. The
troops had come by water through the East. Russian troops continued to
arrive in France for some time afterwards.

[Illustration]



_THE DEATH'S HEAD HUSSAR AT VERDUN_

       *       *       *       *       *


In short, with ever-ebbing vigor, the German Army is smashing its head
against the walls of Verdun. The weight and vigor of the blows decrease,
but the suicidal mania continues. Two months have passed since the early
success of the German attack ended with the capture of Vaux village.
Each resumption of the attempt to take Verdun since that time has been a
cause for increasing wonder. What is there about this enterprise that
has turned it into a fatal obsession, from which the German high command
cannot escape, however great the cost of continuance?

    _From the Paris Figaro.
    April, 1915._

[Illustration]



_SIR JUDAS CASEMENT_

       *       *       *       *       *


On April 24 Sir Roger Casement, a former Consul General, was captured in
the act of trying to land German arms on the west coast of Ireland. He
had been conveyed thither in a German submarine, with two Irish soldiers
from German prisons. A German auxiliary cruiser loaded with 20,000
rifles and ammunition was taken and sunk at the same time. The vessel
was sunk by its own men, and the twenty-two German bluejackets on board
were made prisoners....

Casement had last been heard of in Germany, where he had attempted to
induce Irish prisoners of war to join an anti-British expedition to
Ireland. Testimony at his preliminary trial in London subsequently
showed that on Good Friday he had landed near Tralee from the German
submarine U-19 with a soldier named Bailey and another named Monteith.
In "McKinna's Fort" he was seen to drop a paper containing a code and
the words: "Await further instructions. Have decided to stay. Further
ammunition and rifles are needed. Send another ship." The small
collapsible boat in which he and his companions had landed also helped
to betray them, and Casement and Bailey were arrested before they could
get away in the automobile which was waiting for them.

    _Current History, New York._

[Illustration]



_GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND_

       *       *       *       *       *


The manifesto of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic did
not secure the support or signature of a single elected representative
of any section of the Irish people, or of any man who had won influence
by public services for Ireland. Its signatories were a convicted
dynamiter, a handful of minor poets, journalists and schoolmasters, a
junior corporation official, and a Syndicalist leader. The movement,
wrote Mr. Redmond, was insane and anti-patriotic: "Germany plotted it,
Germany organized it, Germany paid for it. So far as Germany's share in
it is concerned, it is a German invasion of Ireland, as brutal, as
selfish, as cynical as Germany's invasion of Belgium."

    _The Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_THE GRAVES OF ALL HIS HOPES_

[Illustration]



"_THE SUSSEX_"

"_You need cooling, my friend_"

       *       *       *       *       *


I have deemed it my duty, therefore, to say to the Imperial German
Government that if it is still its purpose to prosecute relentless and
indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the use of
submarines, notwithstanding the now demonstrated impossibility of
conducting that warfare in accordance with what the Government of the
United States must consider the sacred and undisputable rules of
International Law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity,
the Government of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion
that there is but one course it can pursue and that unless the German
Imperial Government should now declare and effect the abandonment of its
present methods of warfare against passenger and freight-carrying
vessels, this Government can have no choice but to sever diplomatic
relations with the Government of the German Empire altogether.

    PRESIDENT WILSON'S
    _Address to Congress,
    April 19, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_I THOUGHT YOU SAID YOU WERE TOO PROUD TO FIGHT!_"

       *       *       *       *       *


This decision I have arrived at, to break off diplomatic relations with
Germany unless her methods of submarine warfare were abandoned, with the
keenest regret; the possibility of the action contemplated I am sure all
thoughtful Americans will look forward to with unaffected reluctance.
But we cannot forget that we are in some sort and by the force of
circumstances the responsible spokesmen of the rights of humanity, and
that we cannot remain silent while those rights seem in process of being
swept utterly away in the maelstrom of this terrible war. We owe it to a
due regard for our own rights as a nation, to our sense of duty as a
representative of the rights of neutrals the world over, and to a just
conception of the rights of mankind to take this stand now with the
utmost solemnity and firmness.

    PRESIDENT WILSON'S
    _Address to Congress.
    April 19th, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_Indeed, I am the most humane fellow in the world._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The German Government attaches no less importance to the sacred
principles of humanity than the Government of the United States. It
again fully takes into account that both Governments for many years
cooperated in developing international law in conformity with these
principles, the ultimate object of which has always been to confine
warfare on sea and land to armed forces of belligerents and safeguard as
far as possible noncombatants against the horrors of war.

    _German Gov't. reply to
    U. S. Government in Sussex Case.
    May, 1916._

[Illustration]



_Von Tirpitz_: "_Well, my dears, I'm afraid you will have to improve
your manners--for a while at least._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The German Government notifies the Government of the United States that
German naval forces have received the following order:

In accordance with the general principles of visit and search and the
destruction of merchant vessels, recognized by international law, such
vessels, both within and without the area declared a naval war zone,
shall not be sunk without warning and without saving human lives unless
the ship attempt to escape or offer resistance.

    _Imperial German Government
    to United States Government.
    May 4, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_WELL, MR. PRESIDENT, IF YOU INSIST, WE SHALL TRY TO BEHAVE LIKE
GENTLEMEN._"

       *       *       *       *       *


In view of the circumstances the German Government frankly admits that
the assurance given to the American Government, in accordance with which
passenger vessels were not to be attacked without warning, has not been
adhered to in the present case. As was intimated by the undersigned in
the note of the 4th instant, the German Government does not hesitate to
draw from this resultant consequences. It therefore expresses to the
American Government its sincere regret regarding the deplorable incident
and declares its readiness to pay an adequate indemnity to the injured
American citizens. It also disapproved of the conduct of the commander,
who has been appropriately punished.

    VON JAGOW,
    _German Foreign Secretary
    to United States Government,
    8th May, 1916._

[Illustration]



_GOTT STRAFE VERDUN_

"_I wish I knew whether it is wiser to retreat or to advance_"

VERDUN

       *       *       *       *       *


For more than two months the battle of Verdun has raged almost
ceaselessly day and night. It is conceded that Germany has concentrated
picked troops and heavy guns in quantities never before seen in war.
Yet, apart from the first withdrawal of General Petain's army from
outlying positions to definite lines of defense, the two months fighting
has not given the attacking forces a gain of two miles.

    _Current History, New York._

[Illustration]



_GERMAN MILITARISM ON THE ALLIES' OPERATING TABLE_

"_For the sake of the world's future we must first use the knife_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Germans have come with floating mines in the open seas, threatening
belligerents and neutrals equally. They have come with the
undiscriminating and murderous Zeppelin, which does military damage only
by accident. They have come with the submarine, which destroys neutral
and belligerent ships and crews, in scorn alike of law and mercy. They
have come upon blameless nations with invasion, incendiarism, and
confiscation. They have come with poisonous gases and liquid fire. All
their scientific genius has been dedicated to wiping out human life.
They have forced these things into general use in the war.

The Prussian authorities apparently have but one idea of peace--an iron
peace imposed on other nations by German supremacy. They do not
understand that free men and free nations will rather die than submit to
that ambition, and that there can be no end to the war till that aim is
defeated and renounced.

    _From an interview with_
    SIR EDWARD GREY,
    _in the Chicago News,
    May, 1916._

[Illustration]



_EMPIRE DAY, 1916_

       *       *       *       *       *


When Germany challenged us nearly two years ago to uphold with our lives
the ideals by which we professed to live, we accepted the challenge, not
out of madness, nor for glory or for gain, but to make good those
professions. Since then the Allies and our empire have fought that they
may be free and all earth may be free from the intolerable domination of
German ideals. We did not foresee the size of the task when it opened.
We do not flinch from it now that the long months have schooled us to
full knowledge and have tempered us nationally and individually to meet
it. The nations within the empire have created, maintained, and
reinforced from their best the great armies they devote without question
to this issue. They have emerged, one by one, as powers clothed with
power through discipline and sacrifice, strong for good by their bitter
knowledge of the evil they are meeting, and wise in the unpurchasable
wisdom of actual achievement. Knowing as nations what it is we fight
for, realizing as men and women the resolve that has been added to us by
what each has endured, we go forward now under the proud banner of our
griefs and losses to greater effort, greater endurance, and, if need be,
heavier sacrifice, equal sponsors for the deliverance of mankind.

    RUDYARD KIPLING,
    _on Empire Day, May 24, 1916._

[Illustration]



_THE SPRING SONG_

[Illustration]



_THE GERMAN_:

"_If you will let me keep what I have I will let you go_"

       *       *       *       *       *


I have twice publicly stated that Germany has been and is prepared to
discuss the termination of the war upon a basis that offers guarantee
against further attack from a coalition of her enemies and insures peace
to Europe. You have read President Poincaré's answer to that.

One thing I do know--only when statesmen of the warring nations come
down to a basis of real facts, when they take the war situation as every
war map shows it to be, when, with honest and sincere will they are
prepared to terminate this terrible bloodshed and are ready to discuss
the war and peace problems with one another in a practical manner, only
then will we be nearing peace.

Whoever is not prepared to do that has the responsibility for it if
Europe continues to bleed and tear itself to pieces. I cast that
responsibility far from myself.

    VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG _to
    Berlin Correspondent of
    New York World.
    May 22, 1916._

[Illustration]



_THE WANDERING JEW_

"_Once I turned the Christ from my door; now I must wander from the
Northern to the Southern seas--from Eastern to the Western shores ...
asking for Peace, but never finding it._"

[Illustration]



_GRATITUDE OF THE WOMEN OF FRANCE TO THE KING OF SPAIN FOR THE TRACING
OF THE MISSING_

       *       *       *       *       *


The soul of the royal work for the discovery of the missing is Don
Emilio-Maria de Torres, Minister Plenipotentiary and private secretary
to his Majesty. It is in the offices of his Secretariat, in the Palacio
Real, that this work is installed; it was soon so crowded there that it
became necessary to give up to it four halls, and then eight, in order
that the collaborators, becoming more and more numerous, might work
comfortably. In May, 1916, the work of the King, already a year old,
occupied at Madrid twenty-eight persons, who began their day at eight in
the morning and sometimes worked far into the night.

    MME. GABRIELLE REVAL
    _in La Revue des Deux Mondes._

[Illustration]



_THE BILL_

       *       *       *       *       *


It is proved that from May 20 to May 25 (1916) seven different divisions
were flung into the battle on both sides of the Meuse. Four of these
were brought from other points of the Western front--two from Flanders,
two from the Somme.

On the left bank alone four divisions were employed in the last week-end
fighting. Without a thought of the enormous losses caused by our curtain
fire and machine guns, the German Command threw them one after the other
into the boiling pot east and west of Mort Homme. On May 22 alone,
before the capture of Cumières village, which has now been retaken, the
enemy made no fewer than 16 attacks upon the front from the Avocourt
Wood to the Meuse. Over 50,000 men sought that day to climb the slopes
of Mort Homme and the plateau of Hill 304. The great charnel heap had
15,000 fresh corpses flung upon it without the French lines having
yielded.

    _Official Despatch from Verdun front._

[Illustration]



_THE LAST RIDE_

[Illustration]



_CAGED_

       *       *       *       *       *


During an enterprise directed to the northward our high sea fleet on May
31 encountered the main part of the English fighting fleet, which was
considerably superior to our forces.

During the afternoon, between Skagerrak and Horn Reef, a heavy
engagement developed, which was successful to us, and which continued
during the whole night....

_The High Sea Fleet returned today (Thursday) into our port._

    _German Admiralty Report.
    Berlin, June 1, 1916._


On the afternoon of Wednesday, the 31st of May, a naval engagement took
place off the coast of Jutland.

The British ships on which the brunt of the fighting fell were the
battle cruiser fleet and some cruisers and light cruisers, supported by
four fast battleships. Among these the losses were heavy.

The German battle fleet, aided by low visibility, avoided a prolonged
action with our main forces. As soon as these appeared on the scene _the
enemy returned to port_, though not before receiving severe damage from
our battleships.

    _British Admiralty Report.
    London, June 2, 1916._

[Illustration]



_THE BATTLE OF JUTLAND_

_William Falstaff_: "_I know not what you call all, but if I fought not
with the whole British fleet, then I am a bunch of radish._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Our High Sea Fleet on May 31 encountered _the main part of the English
fleet_.

On our side the small cruiser _Wiesbaden_, by hostile gunfire during the
day engagement, and his Majesty's ship _Pommern_, during the night, as
the result of a torpedo, were sunk.

The fate of his Majesty's ship _Frauenlob_, which is missing, and of
some torpedo boats, which have not returned yet, is unknown.

    _German Admiralty Report. June 1, 1916._

       *       *       *       *       *


In order to prevent fabulous reports, it is again stated that in the
battle off Skagerrak on May 31 the German high sea forces were in battle
with _the entire modern English fleet_.

We were obliged to blow up the small cruiser _Elbing_, which, on the
night of May 31-June 1, owing to a collision with other German war
vessels, was heavily damaged.

    _German Admiralty Report. June 3, 1916._


We state that the total loss of the German high sea forces during the
battle of May 31-June 1 and the following time are: One battle cruiser,
one ship of the line of older construction, four small cruisers, and
five torpedo boats. Of these losses, the _Pommern_, launched in 1905;
the _Wiesbaden_, _Elbing_, _Frauenlob_, and five torpedo boats already
have been reported in official statements. For military reasons, we
refrained until now from making public the losses of the vessels
_Lützow_ and _Rostock_.

    _German Admiralty Report. June 8, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_AT LAST, TIRPITZ, I MAY TENDER MY IMPERIAL THANKS PUBLICLY._"

       *       *       *       *       *


After visiting my fleet, which returned victoriously from a heavy
battle, I feel I must again declare to you my imperial thanks for what
you have performed in my service in the technical domain and the domain
of organization. Our ships and weapons upheld themselves brilliantly in
the battle in the North Sea. It is also for you a day of glory.

    THE GERMAN EMPEROR _to_
    GRAND ADMIRAL VON TIRPITZ.
    _June, 1916._

Before the Battle of Jutland Von Tirpitz retired from his post as
Minister of the Navy on the ground of ill health. He is credited with
being responsible for the submarine policy of ruthlessness which the
German Government were forced to moderate on account of President
Wilson's firm attitude in the Sussex episode.

[Illustration]



"_We Had Almost Beaten the Boy When His Father Arrived and Then We Had
to Run for Our Lives._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Germans were driven back into their ports without so much as making
an effort to grapple with the main body of our Grand Fleet, and had the
temerity to claim what really was a rout as a complete victory. A couple
more such victories and there will be nothing left of the German Navy
worth speaking about. The truth is slowly leaking out, and its full
extent is not yet realized or appreciated. Our command of the seas, so
far from being impaired, has been more firmly and unshakably
established.

    H. H. ASQUITH,
    _British Prime Minister._

[Illustration]



_DER TAG_

_Thank God, "the Day" is over_

       *       *       *       *       *


First--It was admitted that "the small cruiser _Wiesbaden_ was sunk" and
that the _Pommern_--the character of that ship not being mentioned--had
also been destroyed; the light cruiser _Frauenlob_ was "missing," with
"some torpedo boats." The rest of the High Seas Fleet, it was declared,
"had returned to our harbors."

Second--It had to be confessed that the light cruiser _Elbing_ had been
sunk.

Third--A statement was issued to the effect that "one battle cruiser,
(the _Lützow_,) one ship of the line of older construction, (the
_Pommern_,) four smaller cruisers," (the _Wiesbaden_, _Elbing_,
_Frauenlob_, and _Rostock_,) and "five torpedo boats" (really
destroyers) represented "the total loss."

Fourth--It is now known that the battle cruiser _Seydlitz_ was run
ashore to save her from sinking. It is asserted by travelers who have
returned to Amsterdam that the battle cruiser _Derfflinger_ sank "on
being towed into Wilhelmshaven," and it is reported from Copenhagen that
the _Pommern_ was not the battleship which was torpedoed in the Baltic
by a British submarine in July last, but a new battle cruiser which was
named after the German State, thus perpetuating its association with the
navy. The story of the sinking of the dreadnought battleship
_Ostfriesland_ awaits confirmation.

    ARCHIBALD HURD
    _in the London Daily Telegraph._

[Illustration]



_German Admiral_: _How quiet it must be in those English harbors
blockaded by our Fleet._

[Illustration]



_THE DEATH OF KITCHENER_

       *       *       *       *       *


Field Marshal Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener, the British Secretary of
State for War, perished with his staff off the West Orkney Islands on
June 5 by the sinking of the British cruiser _Hampshire_, which struck a
mine and went down fifteen minutes later. "O death, where is thy sting?
O grave, where is thy victory?" Formerly they had sounded in our ears as
chords of solemn music, breathing consolation; now that we see them
clearly to be triumphant verities, living and everlasting truths, they
ring out like a trumpet call, summoning and inspiring the living to
stronger action. The work continues though the hand that moulded it
perishes; the body dies, but the soul lives on. There is no sting in the
grave when on either side men press forward to one immortal goal and
when living and dead battle together for incorruptible principles.
Whether individually we live or die signifies nothing, if that high
cause for which we fight wins. Lord Kitchener's death will not interfere
with the work he had undertaken, nor shall his passing delay, but rather
shall it hasten the victory to which he looked forward.

    _Land and Water, London, June 8, 1916._

[Illustration]



_Crown Prince_: "_We must have a higher pile to see Verdun, Father._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Crown Prince, after the gigantic effort of his armies, was
confronted with problems more vast, with a resistance more confident and
more efficient, than those which he had had to face in the opening days
of the Verdun offensive. In three days the French had been driven off
their first positions along a large portion of the Verdun front; over a
month later they were still defending with increasing vigour their
second line. Behind that line lay yet another, and the prospect of the
fall of Verdun was but faint upon the German horizon. The French could
already count upon victory, the price of Verdun having already been
exacted in the enemy's blood, without the position having been captured.
That price, it was said, had been fixed by the Imperial General Staff at
200,000 casualties.

    _The Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_THIS WILL MAKE WILLIAM JEALOUS; IT BEATS HIS NURSE CAVELL._

       *       *       *       *       *


Signor Baltisti, before the war, was Deputy for Trent in the Austrian
Parliament, and in that position was a strong advocate of irredentist
claims in the Trentino. When war broke out he joined a Trentino regiment
under the Italian flag.

He was captured by the Austrians in June, 1916, and executed, although
he wore an Italian uniform. His corpse was publicly hanged on a gibbet
in the city of Trent.

[Illustration]



_SUMMER TIME, 1916--FIVE ON A BENCH_

       *       *       *       *       *


The Summer of 1916 saw the Germans defeated at Verdun on the Somme and
at Riga. The Austrians were defeated in the Trentino and the Bukovina.
The Turks continued their retreat in Asia Minor and the Caucasus, while
the Entente Allies advanced upon the Bulgarians from Saloniki.

[Illustration]



_CIVILISATION_: "_WHAT IS THE VERDICT._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The Government has carried on the war in accordance with methods which
are even incompatible with everything which has been done hitherto--the
violation of Belgium and Luxemburg; the use of poison gases, which were
subsequently used by the other belligerents; there were Zeppelin bombs
which killed both combatants and noncombatants, a submarine war on
commerce, the torpedoing of the _Lusitania_, etc.; pillage and extortion
of tribute, beginning with Belgium; the internment and imprisonment of
the population of the eastern provinces; various devices for forcing
prisoners to work against their own country, by spying for the Central
Powers, thereby committing an act of high treason; contracts arranged
between Zimmermann and Sir Roger Casement in December, 1915, for the
formation of armed units of English prisoners of war, for the purpose of
forming the Irish brigade. Besides these, other attempts must be
mentioned, which were made among the foreigners in concentration camps
in Germany, threatening them with internment unless they betrayed their
own countries and placed themselves at Germany's disposal.

    KARL LIEBKNECHT.
    _June, 1916_.

[Illustration]



_TO THE END_

_War and Hunger_: "_Now you must accompany us to the end._"

_The Kaiser_: "_Yes, to my end._"

[Illustration]



_THE CONFEDERATES_

"_Did they believe that peace story in the Reichstag, Bethmann?_"

"_Yes, but the Allies didn't._"

       *       *       *       *       *


Germany, using in turn force when she believes herself strongest and
craft when she feels herself growing feebler, is today resorting to
craft. She is spreading abroad the illusive word "peace." Where does
this word come from? To whom has it been spoken? And on what conditions?
And to what end? By her ambiguous man[oe]uvres Germany reckons on
dividing the allied countries. No one among us will fall into such a
trap. I have said, and I repeat, that when blood flows in streams, when
our troops with so much self-sacrifice are giving up their lives, the
word "peace" is a sacrilege if it means that the aggressor will not be
punished and if tomorrow Europe runs the risk of again being delivered
up to the despotism, fantasy, and caprice of a military caste athirst
for pride and domination. It would be the dishonor of the Allies! What
should our reply be if tomorrow, after having concluded such a peace,
our countries were dragged anew into the frenzy of armaments? What would
future generations say if we committed such an act of folly and if we
missed the opportunity which is offered us of establishing on solid
foundations a lasting peace?

    ARISTIDE BRIAND,
    _Premier of France.
    June, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_BUNKERED_"

       *       *       *       *       *


It is one of the greatest sources of pride for the Verdun Army to have
earned the testimony of the great assembly which incarnates and
immortalizes the genius of the French tongue and the French race. The
Army of Verdun has had the good fortune to answer to the appeal
addressed to it by the country. Thanks to its heroic tenacity the
offensive of the Allies has already made brilliant progress ... and the
Germans are not at Verdun.

    GENERAL NIVELLE
    _to the French Army
    at Verdun, June, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_WE HAVE FINISHED OFF THE RUSSIANS._"

"_Wait a moment_"

       *       *       *       *       *

RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE, JUNE, 1916


The blow which the Russians have delivered to the Teutons has been one
of the hardest given to any belligerent during the entire war. Not even
the great German drive of last year has had the effect of the Russian
offense of the past six weeks. In this case it is much more than a loss
of territory; it is almost the destruction of an army. Russia had vast
reserves on which to fall back.

Austria apparently has none. Austria alone of all the belligerents is
practically exhausted. Only a week ago the Austrian Department of War
endeavored to get the consent of the Government to call into the
military service all men between the ages of 56 and 60. Nothing could
show more eloquently the very dire straits into which the Austrian Army
has fallen.

    J. B. W. GARDINER.
    _Current History._

[Illustration]



_THE COSSACKS' SONG OF VICTORY_

       *       *       *       *       *


The Petrograd official _communiqué_ of June 27, 1916, stated that the
prisoners and trophies captured by the armies of General Brusiloff
between June 4-23 amounted to 4,031 officers, 194,041 men, 219 guns,
besides 644 machine-guns, 196 bomb mortars, 146 artillery ammunition
wagons and 38 searchlights.

The enormous importance of the Russian victories of June, 1916, as a
step in the attrition of the enemy forces was patent; the losses
suffered by the enemy on the Eastern front during those three weeks were
about equal to those he had suffered at Verdun in 130 days of fighting.

    _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_CAPTAIN FRYATT_

       *       *       *       *       *


Captain Charles Fryatt, master of the Great Eastern Railway's steamer
_Brussels_, which was captured by German warships on June 23, 1916, and
taken to Zeebrugge, was tried by German courtmartial at Bruges, July 27,
condemned to death by shooting, and executed immediately. The charge
against him was that of attempting to ram the German submarine U-33.

His Majesty's Government find it difficult to believe that a master of a
merchant vessel who, after German submarines adopted the practice of
sinking merchant vessels without warning and without regard for the
lives of passengers or crew, took a step which appeared to afford the
only chance of saving not only his vessel, but the lives of all on
board, can have been deliberately shot in cold blood for this action.

    _British Foreign Office._

[Illustration]



_BEFORE THE SOMME_

_William_: "_Why are you so heavily bombarding the remains of that
'contemptible little British army?_"

_Prince of Bavaria_: "_I am afraid the remains are bombarding us._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The German view of the situation at the end of June was well shown in a
typical article by the military correspondent of the "Berliner
Tageblatt," Major Moraht, actually published on July 1.

The writer began by declaring that "all the belligerent armies were now
at a critical stage." The Allies had undoubtedly increased the energy
and the uniformity of their conduct of war, and their great resources in
money and men and their command of the sea would enable them to do
everything possible "to hamper Germany's final victory."

The British offensive was about to begin, and "without a serious
settlement of accounts with England on the battlefields in the west the
Germans would not come a step nearer to peace." Major Moraht and the
other German writers betrayed no sense of the immensity of the coming
events, and it was clear that the Germans had not begun to dream of the
defeats that were about to be inflicted upon them.

    _The Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_THE GERMAN TANGO_

"_From East to West, and West to East, I dance with thee_"

[Illustration]



_The Wolf_: "_Is it not time to stop all further bloodshed?_"

       *       *       *       *       *


During the early days of July, 1916, a general offensive on the part of
the Allies began.

The French and British armies attacked on the Somme, taking many towns
and villages and thousands of prisoners.

The Russians continued their victorious advance in the Bukowina and
began a tremendous offensive far north on the Riga front.

The Italian troops attacked in the Trentino and captured important
fortified Austrian positions.

[Illustration]



_THE DEUTSCHLAND DISPATCH_

"_Never mind, Mr. Wilson; it is only a little Lusitania blood on the
envelope_"

       *       *       *       *       *


On July 9th the German Merchant Submarine _Deutschland_ arrived at
Baltimore carrying a cargo of 1,000 tons of merchandise, principally dye
stuffs. According to a statement by Captain Koenig, commander of the
_Deutschland_, she was the first of a number of similar vessels which
were being built for the purpose of breaking the British blockade of
Germany.

It was stated at the time that the captain of the submarine brought a
personal letter from the German Emperor to President Wilson.

[Illustration]



_BALAAM AND HIS ASS_

       *       *       *       *       *


What, German people, is your duty in this hour? The army wants no
exhortations. It has fought superhumanly. It will fight until final
victory. But the people at home--this is their duty: To suffer in
silence, to bear their renunciations with dignity.

    THE KAISER, _July, 1916_.

[Illustration]



_TEAM WORK_

       *       *       *       *       *


The great armies recruited and trained by Lord Kitchener, with the
mountains of munitions piled up by Lloyd George, have become a
tremendous weapon in the skilled hands of General Sir Douglas Haig; and
they are supported on the right by a French army under General Foch that
has shown itself more than able to keep pace with them. It must not be
forgotten that the battle of the Somme is a joint enterprise of close
teamwork under the supreme direction of General Joffre.

Thus far we have heard less of the French than of the English wing, but
its achievement has been equally brilliant. The Germans caught between
these Frenchmen and Peronne, like those caught between the British and
Bapaume, have resisted to the limit of human endurance, but nothing
human could survive the awful blasting of high explosives to which their
first and second trench lines were subjected; and the Allies now have
the shells and the men to keep up the pressure indefinitely.

    _Current History, New York, July, 1916._

[Illustration]



"_I Hope, My Dear Friends and Allies, That I Have Been Able to Make You
Feel Happy and Confident Again._"

       *       *       *       *       *


The battle is raging, huge beyond all previous imagination. Rejuvenated,
perfectly equipped with all they want, Russia's armies again have broken
against our bulwarks in the east. France has experienced a regeneration
in this war of which she hardly believed herself capable. She has
dragged her dilatory English Ally into joining the offensive on the
Somme, and whatever inward worth the British army has it now has an
abundance of artillery.

    THE KAISER, _July, 1916_.

[Illustration]



_ANOTHER NAIL IN HINDENBURG_

(_In 1915 a gigantic statue of wood was erected in Berlin to
Hindenburg_)

       *       *       *       *       *


The problem implied in the second phase of the great Russian offensive
of 1916 had been solved completely in favour of our Allies. The enemy
had abandoned his entire front south of the Marshes, having lost in ten
weeks' fighting (May, June, July) in prisoners alone well over 300,000
men. The total casualties suffered by him in that campaign almost
equalled the original strength of his armies between the Pripet Marshes
and the Carpathian Mountains.

    _The Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



"_SEEMS TO BE NEUTRAL: SINK HIM!_"

       *       *       *       *       *


The freedom of the sea means to Germany that the German Navy is to
behave at sea as the German Army behaves on land. It means that neither
enemy civilians nor neutrals may possess rights against militant
Germany; that those who do not resist will be drowned, and those who do
will be shot.

Already 244 neutral merchantmen have been sunk in defiance of law and
humanity, and the number daily grows. Mankind, with the experience of
two years of war behind it, has made up its mind about German culture.
It is not, I think, without material for forming a judgment about German
freedom.

    A. J. BALFOUR,
    _First Lord of the Admiralty.
    July, 1916._

[Illustration]



_NOW ALSO THE AXE IS LAID UNTO THE ROOT OF THE TREE_

       *       *       *       *       *


As the second year of the war drew to its close important gains were
made by the Allied Armies on all fronts. On the Somme the British
occupied Mameton Wood, Trones Wood, and the villages of
Ovillers-la-Boiselle, Longueval, Podières. The French advanced on a
front of 10-1/2 miles and captured the German positions from Estrées to
Vermando-Villers. On the Eastern Front, the Russians crossed the
Carpathians in the south and pierced Hindenburg's Riga line at several
points.

On the Isonzo the Italians began a great drive towards Gorizia.

[Illustration]



_THE SPIRIT OF FRANCE_

"_France is dying._"--_Hindenburg_

       *       *       *       *       *


This year has been so full of a glory so pure that it will forever
illumine the human race. It has been a year in which France, the France
of Joan of Arc and Valmy, has risen, if possible, to even greater
heights.

Be the war of short or long duration, France accepts it. The country is
summoning its genius and changing its methods. Each French soldier
before the enemy repeats the words of Joan of Arc, "You can enchain me,
but you cannot enchain the fortunes of France."

    PAUL DESCHANEL, _President of French
    Chamber of Deputies._

[Illustration]



"_BEFORE THE FALL_"

[Illustration]



_Europe_: "_Am I not yet sufficiently civilised?_"

       *       *       *       *       *


_Direct Losses of Human Life During Two Years of War_
                         Dead    Wounded   Dead and    Invalids
                                            Wounded
    Austria-H'gry     718,000  1,777,000  2,495,000     533,000
    Belgium            50,000    110,000    160,000      33,000
    Bulgaria           25,000     60,000     85,000      18,000
    England           205,000    512,000    717,000     154,300
    France            885,000  2,115,000  3,000,000     634,000
    Germany           885,500  2,116,300  3,001,800     634,900
    Italy             105,000    245,000    350,000      73,500
    Russia          1,498,000  3,820,000  5,318,000   1,146,000
    Serbia            110,000    140,000    250,000      42,000
    Turkey            150,000    350,000    500,000     105,000
                    --------- ---------- ----------   ---------
    Total           4,631,500 11,245,300 15,876,800   3,373,700
    _From a Danish Estimate
    published by the War Study Society
    of Copenhagen._

[Illustration]





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use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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