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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 3 - "Gordon, Lord George" to "Grasses"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 3 - "Gordon, Lord George" to "Grasses"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GOUDIMEL, CLAUDE: "... musical composer of the 16th
      century, was born about 1510." 'musical' amended from 'muscial'.

    ARTICLE GOYA Y LUCIENTES, FRANCISCO: "Finding it convenient to
      retire for a time from Madrid, he decided to visit Rome at his own
      cost ..." 'it' amended from 'in'.

    ARTICLE GRAMMAR: "...Fritz Mauthner, Beiträge zu einer Kritik der
      Sprache vol. iii. (1902) ..." 'zu' amended from 'zur'.

    ARTICLE GRAMONT, ANTOINE AGÉNOR ALFRED: "So far, then, as this
      declaration is concerned, it is clear that Gramont's responsibility
      must be shared with his sovereign and his colleagues ..."
      'responsibility' amended from 'responsiblity'.

    ARTICLE GRAND ISLAND: "The most important industry of the county is
      the raising and feeding of sheep and meat cattle." 'meat' amended
      from 'neat'.

    ARTICLE GRANTH: "There are thirty-one such measures in the Adi
      Granth, and the hymns are arranged according to the measures to
      which they are composed." 'measures' amended from 'neasures'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME XII, SLICE III

      Gordon, Lord George to Grasses



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  GORDON, LORD GEORGE                GOZZOLI, BENOZZO
  GORDON, SIR JOHN WATSON            GRAAFF REINET
  GORDON, LEON                       GRABBE, CHRISTIAN DIETRICH
  GORDON, PATRICK                    GRABE, JOHN ERNEST
  GORDON-CUMMING, ROUALEYN GEORGE    GRACCHUS
  GORE, CATHERINE GRACE FRANCES      GRACE, WILLIAM GILBERT
  GORE, CHARLES                      GRACE
  GORE                               GRACES, THE
  GOREE                              GRACIÁN Y MORALES, BALTASAR
  GORGE                              GRACKLE
  GÖRGEI, ARTHUR                     GRADISCA
  GORGES, SIR FERDINANDO             GRADO
  GORGET                             GRADUAL
  GORGIAS                            GRADUATE
  GORGON, GORGONS                    GRADUATION
  GORGONZOLA                         GRADUS
  GORI                               GRAETZ, HEINRICH
  GORILLA                            GRAEVIUS, JOHANN GEORG
  GORINCHEM                          GRAF, ARTURO
  GORING, GEORGE GORING              GRAF, KARL HEINRICH
  GORKI, MAXIM                       GRÄFE, ALBRECHT VON
  GÖRLITZ                            GRAFE, HEINRICH
  GÖRRES, JOHANN JOSEPH VON          GRÄFE, KARL FERDINAND VON
  GORSAS, ANTOINE JOSEPH             GRAFFITO
  GORST, SIR JOHN ELDON              GRAFLY, CHARLES
  GORTON, SAMUEL                     GRÄFRATH
  GORTON                             GRAFT
  GORTYNA                            GRAFTON, DUKES OF
  GÖRTZ, GEORG HEINRICH VON          GRAFTON, RICHARD
  GÖRZ                               GRAFTON (New South Wales)
  GÖRZ AND GRADISCA                  GRAFTON (Massachusetts, U.S.A.)
  GOSCHEN, GEORGE JOACHIM GOSCHEN    GRAFTON (West Virginia, U.S.A.)
  GOS-HAWK                           GRAHAM, SIR GERALD
  GOSHEN (Egypt)                     GRAHAM, SIR JAMES ROBERT GEORGE
  GOSHEN (Indiana, U.S.A.)           GRAHAM, SYLVESTER
  GOSLAR                             GRAHAM, THOMAS
  GOSLICKI, WAWRZYNIEC               GRAHAME, JAMES
  GOSLIN                             GRAHAM'S DYKE
  GOSNOLD, BARTHOLOMEW               GRAHAM'S TOWN
  GOSPATRIC                          GRAIL, THE HOLY
  GOSPEL                             GRAIN
  GOSPORT                            GRAINS OF PARADISE
  GOSS, SIR JOHN                     GRAIN TRADE
  GOSSAMER                           GRAM
  GOSSE, EDMUND                      GRAMMAR
  GOSSE, PHILIP HENRY                GRAMMICHELE
  GOSSEC, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH            GRAMMONT
  GOSSIP                             GRAMONT, ANTOINE AGÉNOR ALFRED
  GOSSNER, JOHANNES EVANGELISTA      GRAMONT, PHILIBERT
  GOSSON, STEPHEN                    GRAMOPHONE
  GOT, FRANÇOIS JULES EDMOND         GRAMPIANS, THE
  GÖTA                               GRAMPOUND
  GOTARZES                           GRAMPUS
  GOTHA                              GRANADA, LUIS DE
  GOTHAM, WISE MEN OF                GRANADA (Nicaragua)
  GOTHENBURG                         GRANADA (province of Spain)
  GOTHIC                             GRANADA (town of Spain)
  GÖTHITE                            GRANADILLA
  GOTHS                              GRANARIES
  GOTLAND                            GRANBY, JOHN MANNERS
  GOTO ISLANDS                       GRAN CHACO
  GOTTER, FRIEDRICH WILHELM          GRAND ALLIANCE, WAR OF THE
  GOTTFRIED VON STRASSBURG           GRAND CANARY
  GÖTTINGEN                          GRAND CANYON
  GÖTTLING, CARL WILHELM             GRAND-DUKE
  GOTTSCHALK                         GRANDEE
  GOTTSCHALL, RUDOLF VON             GRAND FORKS (Canada)
  GOTTSCHED, JOHANN CHRISTOPH        GRAND FORKS (North Dakota, U.S.A.)
  GÖTZ, JOHANN NIKOLAUS              GRAND HAVEN
  GOUACHE                            GRANDIER, URBAN
  GOUDA                              GRAND ISLAND
  GOUDIMEL, CLAUDE                   GRANDMONTINES
  GOUFFIER                           GRAND RAPIDS
  GOUGE, MARTIN                      GRAND RAPIDS
  GOUGE                              GRANDSON
  GOUGH, HUGH GOUGH                  GRANET, FRANÇOIS MARIUS
  GOUGH, JOHN BARTHOLOMEW            GRANGE
  GOUGH, RICHARD                     GRANGEMOUTH
  GOUJET, CLAUDE PIERRE              GRANGER, JAMES
  GOUJON, JEAN                       GRANITE
  GOUJON, JEAN MARIE ALEXANDRE       GRAN SASSO D'ITALIA
  GOULBURN, EDWARD MEYRICK           GRANT, SIR ALEXANDER
  GOULBURN, HENRY                    GRANT, ANNE
  GOULBURN                           GRANT, CHARLES
  GOULD, AUGUSTUS ADDISON            GRANT, SIR FRANCIS
  GOULD, BENJAMIN APTHORP            GRANT, GEORGE MONRO
  GOULD, SIR FRANCIS CARRUTHERS      GRANT, JAMES
  GOULD, JAY                         GRANT, JAMES AUGUSTUS
  GOUNOD, CHARLES FRANÇOIS           GRANT, SIR JAMES HOPE
  GOURD                              GRANT, SIR PATRICK
  GOURGAUD, GASPAR                   GRANT, ROBERT
  GOURKO, JOSEPH VLADIMIROVICH       GRANT, ULYSSES SIMPSON
  GOURMET                            GRANT
  GOUROCK                            GRANTH
  GOURVILLE, JEAN HERAULD            GRANTHAM, THOMAS ROBINSON
  GOUT                               GRANTHAM
  GOUTHIÈRE, PIERRE                  GRANTLEY, FLETCHER NORTON
  GOUVION SAINT-CYR, LAURENT         GRANTOWN
  GOVAN                              GRANULITE
  GOVERNMENT                         GRANVELLA, ANTOINE PERRENOT
  GOVERNOR                           GRANVILLE, GRANVILLE LEVESON-GOWER
  GOW, NIEL                          GRANVILLE, JOHN CARTERET
  GOWER, JOHN                        GRANVILLE (Australia)
  GOWER                              GRANVILLE (France)
  GOWN                               GRANVILLE (Ohio, U.S.A.)
  GOWRIE, JOHN RUTHVEN               GRAPE
  GOWRIE                             GRAPHICAL METHODS
  GOYA                               GRAPHITE
  GOYANNA                            GRAPTOLITES
  GOYA Y LUCIENTES, FRANCISCO        GRASLITZ
  GOYÁZ                              GRASMERE
  GOYEN, JAN JOSEPHSZOON VAN         GRASS AND GRASSLAND
  GOZLAN, LÉON                       GRASSE, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH PAUL
  GOZO                               GRASSE
  GOZZI, CARLO                       GRASSES
  GOZZI, GASPARO



GORDON, LORD GEORGE (1751-1793), third and youngest son of Cosmo George,
duke of Gordon, was born in London on the 26th of December 1751. After
completing his education at Eton, he entered the navy, where he rose to
the rank of lieutenant in 1772, but Lord Sandwich, then at the head of
the admiralty, would not promise him the command of a ship, and he
resigned his commission shortly before the beginning of the American
War. In 1774 the pocket borough of Ludgershall was bought for him by
General Fraser, whom he was opposing in Inverness-shire, in order to
bribe him not to contest the county. He was considered flighty, and was
not looked upon as being of any importance. In 1779 he organized, and
made himself head of the Protestant associations, formed to secure the
repeal of the Catholic Relief Act of 1778. On the 2nd of June 1780 he
headed the mob which marched in procession from St George's Fields to
the Houses of Parliament in order to present the monster petition
against the acts. After the mob reached Westminster a terrific riot
ensued, which continued several days, during which the city was
virtually at their mercy. At first indeed they dispersed after
threatening to make a forcible entry into the House of Commons, but
reassembled soon afterwards and destroyed several Roman Catholic
chapels, pillaged the private dwellings of many Roman Catholics, set
fire to Newgate and broke open all the other prisons, attacked the Bank
of England and several other public buildings, and continued the work of
violence and conflagration until the interference of the military, by
whom no fewer than 450 persons were killed and wounded before the riots
were quelled. For his share in instigating the riots Lord Gordon was
apprehended on a charge of high treason; but, mainly through the skilful
and eloquent defence of Erskine, he was acquitted on the ground that he
had no treasonable intentions. His life was henceforth full of
crack-brained schemes, political and financial. In 1786 he was
excommunicated by the archbishop of Canterbury for refusing to bear
witness in an ecclesiastical suit; and in 1787 he was convicted of
libelling the queen of France, the French ambassador and the
administration of justice in England. He was, however, permitted to
withdraw from the court without bail, and made his escape to Holland;
but on account of representations from the court of Versailles he was
commanded to quit that country, and, returning to England, was
apprehended, and in January 1788 was sentenced to five years'
imprisonment in Newgate, where he lived at his ease, giving dinners and
dances. As he could not obtain securities for his good behaviour on the
termination of his term of imprisonment, he was not allowed to leave
Newgate, and there he died of delirious fever on the 1st of November
1793. Some time before his apprehension he had become a convert to
Judaism, and had undergone the initiatory rite.

  A serious defence of most of his eccentricities is undertaken in _The
  Life of Lord George Gordon, with a Philosophical Review of his
  Political Conduct_, by Robert Watson, M.D. (London, 1795). The best
  accounts of Lord George Gordon are to be found in the _Annual
  Registers_ from 1780 to the year of his death.



GORDON, SIR JOHN WATSON (1788-1864), Scottish painter, was the eldest
son of Captain Watson, R.N., a cadet of the family of Watson of
Overmains, in the county of Berwick. He was born in Edinburgh in 1788,
and was educated specially with a view to his joining the Royal
Engineers. He entered as a student in the government school of design,
under the management of the Board of Manufactures. His natural taste for
art quickly developed itself, and his father was persuaded to allow him
to adopt it as his profession. Captain Watson was himself a skilful
draughtsman, and his brother George Watson, afterwards president of the
Scottish Academy, stood high as a portrait painter, second only to Sir
Henry Raeburn, who also was a friend of the family. In the year 1808
John sent to the exhibition of the Lyceum in Nicolson Street a subject
from the _Lay of the Last Minstrel_, and continued for some years to
exhibit fancy subjects; but, although freely and sweetly painted, they
were altogether without the force and character which stamped his
portrait pictures as the works of a master. After the death of Sir Henry
Raeburn in 1823, he succeeded to much of his practice. He assumed in
1826 the name of Gordon. One of the earliest of his famous sitters was
Sir Walter Scott, who sat for a first portrait in 1820. Then came J. G.
Lockhart in 1821; Professor Wilson, 1822 and 1850, two portraits; Sir
Archibald Alison, 1839; Dr Chalmers, 1844; a little later De Quincey,
and Sir David Brewster, 1864. Among his most important works may be
mentioned the earl of Dalhousie (1833), in the Archers' Hall, Edinburgh;
Sir Alexander Hope (1835), in the county buildings, Linlithgow; Lord
President Hope, in the Parliament House; and Dr Chalmers. These, unlike
his later works, are generally rich in colour. The full length of Dr
Brunton (1844), and Dr Lee, the principal of the university (1846), both
on the staircase of the college library, mark a modification of his
style, which ultimately resolved itself into extreme simplicity, both of
colour and treatment.

During the last twenty years of his life he painted many distinguished
Englishmen who came to Edinburgh to sit to him. And it is significant
that David Cox, the landscape painter, on being presented with his
portrait, subscribed for by many friends, chose to go to Edinburgh to
have it executed by Watson Gordon, although he neither knew the painter
personally nor had ever before visited the country. Among the portraits
painted during this period, in what may be termed his third style, are
De Quincey, in the National Portrait Gallery, London; General Sir Thomas
Macdougall Brisbane, in the Royal Society; the prince of Wales, Lord
Macaulay, Sir M. Packington, Lord Murray, Lord Cockburn, Lord Rutherford
and Sir John Shaw Lefevre, in the Scottish National Gallery. These
latter pictures are mostly clear and grey, sometimes showing little or
no positive colour, the flesh itself being very grey, and the handling
extremely masterly, though never obtruding its cleverness. He was very
successful in rendering acute observant character. A good example of his
last style, showing pearly flesh-painting freely handled, yet highly
finished, is his head of Sir John Shaw Lefevre.

John Watson Gordon was one of the earlier members of the Royal Scottish
Academy, and was elected its president in 1850; he was at the same time
appointed limner for Scotland to the queen, and received the honour of
knighthood. Since 1841 he had been an associate of the Royal Academy,
and in 1851 he was elected a royal academician. He died on the 1st of
June 1864.



GORDON, LEON, originally JUDAH LOEB BEN ASHER (1831-1892),
Russian-Jewish poet and novelist (Hebrew), was born at Wilna in 1831 and
died at St Petersburg in 1892. He took a leading part in the modern
revival of the Hebrew language and culture. His satires did much to
rouse the Russian Jews to a new sense of the reality of life, and Gordon
was the apostle of enlightenment in the Ghettos. His Hebrew style is
classical and pure. His poems were collected in four volumes, _Kol Shire
Yehudah_ (St Petersburg, 1883-1884); his novels in _Kol Kithbe Yehuda_
(Odessa, 1889).

  For his works see _Jewish Quarterly Review_, xviii. 437 seq.



GORDON, PATRICK (1635-1699), Russian general, was descended from a
Scottish family of Aberdeenshire, who possessed the small estate of
Auchleuchries, and were connected with the house of Haddo. He was born
in 1635, and after completing his education at the parish schools of
Cruden and Ellon, entered, in his fifteenth year, the Jesuit college at
Braunsberg, Prussia; but, as "his humour could not endure such a still
and strict way of living," he soon resolved to return home. He changed
his mind, however, before re-embarking, and after journeying on foot in
several parts of Germany, ultimately, in 1655, enlisted at Hamburg in
the Swedish service. In the course of the next five years he served
alternately with the Poles and Swedes as he was taken prisoner by
either. In 1661, after further experience as a soldier of fortune, he
took service in the Russian army under Alexis I., and in 1665 he was
sent on a special mission to England. After his return he distinguished
himself in several wars against the Turks and Tatars in southern Russia,
and in recognition of his services he in 1678 was made major-general, in
1679 was appointed to the chief command at Kiev, and in 1683 was made
lieutenant-general. He visited England in 1686, and in 1687 and 1689
took part as quartermaster-general in expeditions against the Crim
Tatars in the Crimea, being made full general for his services, in spite
of the denunciations of the Greek Church to which, as a heretic, he was
exposed. On the breaking out of the revolution in Moscow in 1689, Gordon
with the troops he commanded virtually decided events in favour of the
tsar Peter I., and against the tsaritsa Sophia. He was therefore during
the remainder of his life in high favour with the tsar, who confided to
him the command of his capital during his absence from Russia, employed
him in organizing his army according to the European system, and
latterly raised him to the rank of general-in-chief. He died on the 29th
of November 1699. The tsar, who had visited him frequently during his
illness, was with him when he died, and with his own hands closed his
eyes.

  General Gordon left behind him a diary of his life, written in
  English. This is preserved in MS. in the archives of the Russian
  foreign office. A complete German translation, edited by Dr Maurice
  Possalt (_Tagebuch des Generals Patrick Gordon_) was published, the
  first volume at Moscow in 1849, the second at St Petersburg in 1851,
  and the third at St Petersburg in 1853; and _Passages from the Diary
  of General Patrick Gordon of Auchleuchries_ (1635-1699), was printed,
  under the editorship of Joseph Robertson, for the Spalding Club,
  Aberdeen, 1859.



GORDON-CUMMING, ROUALEYN GEORGE (1820-1866), Scottish traveller and
sportsman, known as the "lion hunter," was born on the 15th of March
1820. He was the second son of Sir William G. Gordon-Cumming, 2nd
baronet of Altyre and Gordonstown, Elginshire. From his early years he
was distinguished by his passion for sport. He was educated at Eton, and
at eighteen joined the East India Co.'s service as a cornet in the
Madras Light Cavalry. The climate of India not suiting him, after two
years' experience he retired from the service and returned to Scotland.
During his stay in the East he had laid the foundation of his collection
of hunting trophies and specimens of natural history. In 1843 he joined
the Cape Mounted Rifles, but for the sake of absolute freedom sold out
at the end of the year and with an ox wagon and a few native followers
set out for the interior. He hunted chiefly in Bechuanaland and the
Limpopo valley, regions then swarming with big game. In 1848 he returned
to England. The story of his remarkable exploits is vividly told in his
book, _Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South
Africa_ (London, 1850, 3rd ed. 1851). Of this volume, received at first
with incredulity by stay-at-home critics, David Livingstone, who
furnished Gordon-Cumming with most of his native guides, wrote: "I have
no hesitation in saying that Mr Cumming's book conveys a truthful idea
of South African hunting" (_Missionary Travels_, chap. vii.). His
collection of hunting trophies was exhibited in London in 1851 at the
Great Exhibition, and was illustrated by a lecture delivered by
Gordon-Cumming. The collection, known as "The South Africa Museum," was
afterwards exhibited in various parts of the country. In 1858
Gordon-Cumming went to live at Fort Augustus on the Caledonian Canal,
where the exhibition of his trophies attracted many visitors. He died
there on the 24th of March 1866.

  An abridgment of his book was published in 1856 under the title of
  _The Lion Hunter of South Africa_, and in this form was frequently
  reprinted, a new edition appearing in 1904.



GORE, CATHERINE GRACE FRANCES (1799-1861), English novelist and
dramatist, the daughter of Charles Moody, a wine-merchant, was born in
1799 at East Retford, Nottinghamshire. In 1823 she was married to
Captain Charles Gore; and, in the next year, she published her first
work, _Theresa Marchmont, or the Maid of Honour_. Then followed, among
others, the _Lettre de Cachet_ (1827), _The Reign of Terror_ (1827),
_Hungarian Tales_ (1829), _Manners of the Day_ (1830), _Mothers and
Daughters_ (1831), and _The Fair of May Fair_ (1832), _Mrs Armytage_
(1836). Every succeeding year saw several volumes from her pen: The
_Cabinet Minister_ and _The Courtier of the Days of Charles II._, in
1839; _Preferment_ in 1840. In 1841 _Cecil, or the Adventures of a
Coxcomb_, attracted considerable attention. _Greville, or a Season in
Paris_ appeared in the same year; then _Ormington, or Cecil a Peer,
Fascination, The Ambassador's Wife_; and in 1843 _The Banker's Wife_.
Mrs Gore continued to write, with unfailing fertility of invention, till
her death on the 29th of January 1861. She also wrote some dramas of
which the most successful was the _School for Coquettes_, produced at
the Haymarket (1831). She was a woman of versatile talent, and set to
music Burns's "And ye shall walk in silk attire," one of the most
popular songs of her day. Her extraordinary literary industry is proved
by the existence of more than seventy distinct works. Her best novels
are _Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcomb_, and _The Banker's Wife_.
_Cecil_ gives extremely vivid sketches of London fashionable life, and
is full of happy epigrammatic touches. For the knowledge of London clubs
displayed in it Mrs Gore was indebted to William Beckford, the author of
_Vathek_. _The Banker's Wife_ is distinguished by some clever studies of
character, especially in the persons of Mr Hamlyn, the cold calculating
money-maker, and his warm-hearted country neighbour, Colonel Hamilton.

Mrs Gore's novels had an immense temporary popularity; they were
parodied by Thackeray in _Punch_, in his "Lords and Liveries by the
author of _Dukes and Déjeuners_"; but, tedious as they are to
present-day readers, they presented on the whole faithful pictures of
the contemporary life and pursuits of the English upper classes.



GORE, CHARLES (1853-   ), English divine, was born in 1853, the 3rd son
of the Hon. Charles Alexander Gore, brother of the 4th earl of Arran.
His mother was a daughter of the 4th earl of Bessborough. He was
educated at Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford, and was elected
fellow of Trinity College in 1875. From 1880 to 1883 he was
vice-principal of the theological college at Cuddesdon, and, when in
1884 Pusey House was founded at Oxford as a home for Dr Pusey's library
and a centre for the propagation of his principles, he was appointed
principal, a position which he held until 1893. As principal of Pusey
House Mr Gore exercised a wide influence over undergraduates and the
younger clergy, and it was largely, if not mainly, under this influence
that the "Oxford Movement" underwent a change which to the survivors of
the old school of Tractarians seemed to involve a break with its basic
principles. "Puseyism" had been in the highest degree conservative,
basing itself on authority and tradition, and repudiating any compromise
with the modern critical and liberalizing spirit. Mr Gore, starting from
the same basis of faith and authority, soon found from his practical
experience in dealing with the "doubts and difficulties" of the younger
generation that this uncompromising attitude was untenable, and set
himself the task of reconciling the principle of authority in religion
with that of scientific authority by attempting to define the boundaries
of their respective spheres of influence. To him the divine authority of
the Catholic Church was an axiom, and in 1889 he published two works,
the larger of which, _The Church and the Ministry_, is a learned
vindication of the principle of Apostolic Succession in the episcopate
against the Presbyterians and other Protestant bodies, while the second,
_Roman Catholic Claims_, is a defence, couched in a more popular form,
of the Anglican Church and Anglican orders against the attacks of the
Romanists.

So far his published views had been in complete consonance with those of
the older Tractarians. But in 1890 a great stir was created by the
publication, under his editorship, of _Lux Mundi_, a series of essays by
different writers, being an attempt "to succour a distressed faith by
endeavouring to bring the Christian Creed into its right relation to the
modern growth of knowledge, scientific, historic, critical; and to
modern problems of politics and ethics." Mr Gore himself contributed an
essay on "The Holy Spirit and Inspiration." The book, which ran through
twelve editions in a little over a year, met with a somewhat mixed
reception. Orthodox churchmen, Evangelical and Tractarian alike, were
alarmed by views on the incarnate nature of Christ that seemed to them
to impugn his Divinity, and by concessions to the Higher Criticism in
the matter of the inspiration of Holy Scriptures which appeared to them
to convert the "impregnable rock," as Gladstone had called it, into a
foundation of sand; sceptics, on the other hand, were not greatly
impressed by a system of defence which seemed to draw an artificial line
beyond which criticism was not to advance. None the less the book
produced a profound effect, and that far beyond the borders of the
English Church, and it is largely due to its influence, and to that of
the school it represents, that the High Church movement developed
thenceforth on "Modernist" rather than Tractarian lines.

In 1891 Mr Gore was chosen to deliver the Bampton lectures before the
university, and chose for his subject the Incarnation. In these lectures
he developed the doctrine, the enunciation of which in _Lux Mundi_ had
caused so much heart-searching. This is an attempt to explain how it
came that Christ, though incarnate God, could be in error, e.g. in his
citations from the Old Testament. The orthodox explanation was based on
the principle of accommodation (q.v.). This, however, ignored the
difficulty that if Christ during his sojourn on earth was not subject to
human limitations, especially of knowledge, he was not a man as other
men, and therefore not subject to their trials and temptations. This
difficulty Gore sought to meet through the doctrine of the [Greek:
kenôsis]. Ever since the Pauline epistles had been received into the
canon theologians had, from various points of view, attempted to explain
what St Paul meant when he wrote of Christ (2 Phil. ii. 7) that "he
emptied himself and took upon him the form of a servant" ([Greek:
heauton ekenôsen morphên doulou labôn]). According to Mr Gore this means
that Christ, on his incarnation, became subject to all human
limitations, and had, so far as his life on earth was concerned,
stripped himself of all the attributes of the Godhead, including the
Divine omniscience, the Divine nature being, as it were, hidden under
the human.[1]

_Lux Mundi_ and the Bampton lectures led to a situation of some tension
which was relieved when in 1893 Dr Gore resigned his principalship and
became vicar of Radley, a small parish near Oxford. In 1894 he became
canon of Westminster. Here he gained commanding influence as a preacher
and in 1898 was appointed one of the court chaplains. In 1902 he
succeeded J. J. S. Perowne as bishop of Worcester and in 1905 was
installed bishop of Birmingham, a new see the creation of which had been
mainly due to his efforts. While adhering rigidly to his views on the
divine institution of episcopacy as essential to the Christian Church,
Dr Gore from the first cultivated friendly relations with the ministers
of other denominations, and advocated co-operation with them in all
matters when agreement was possible. In social questions he became one
of the leaders of the considerable group of High Churchmen known,
somewhat loosely, as Christian Socialists. He worked actively against
the sweating system, pleaded for European intervention in Macedonia, and
was a keen supporter of the Licensing Bill of 1908. In 1892 he founded
the clerical fraternity known as the Community of the Resurrection. Its
members are priests, who are bound by the obligation of celibacy, live
under a common rule and with a common purse. Their work is pastoral,
evangelistic, literary and educational. In 1898 the House of the
Resurrection at Mirfield, near Huddersfield, became the centre of the
community; in 1903 a college for training candidates for orders was
established there, and in the same year a branch house, for missionary
work, was set up in Johannesburg in South Africa.

  Dr Gore's works include _The Incarnation_ (Bampton Lectures, 1891),
  _The Creed of the Christian_ (1895), _The Body of Christ_ (1901), _The
  New Theology and the Old Religion_ (1908), and expositions of _The
  Sermon on the Mount_ (1896), _Ephesians_ (1898), and _Romans_ (1899),
  while in 1910 he published _Orders and Unity_.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Cf. the Lutheran theologian Ernst Sartorius in his _Lehre von der
    heiligen Liebe_ (1844), _Lehre_ ii. pp. 21 et seq.: "the Son of God
    veils his all-seeing eye and descends into human darkness and as
    child of man opens his eye as the gradually growing light of the
    world of humanity, until at the right hand of the Father he allows it
    to shine forth in all its glory." See Loofs, Art. "Kenosis" in
    Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 1901), x. 247.



GORE. (1) (O. Eng. _gor_, dung or filth), a word formerly used in the
sense of dirt, but now confined to blood that has thickened after being
shed. (2) (O. Eng. _gára_, probably connected with _gare_, an old word
for "spear"), something of triangular shape, resembling therefore a
spear-head. The word is used for a tapering strip of land, in the
"common or open field" system of agriculture, where from the shape of
the land the acre or half-acre strips could not be portioned out in
straight divisions. Similarly "gore" is used in the United States,
especially in Maine and Vermont, for a strip of land left out in
surveying when divisions are made and boundaries marked. The triangular
sections of material used in forming the covering of a balloon or an
umbrella are also called "gores," and in dressmaking the term is used
for a triangular piece of material inserted in a dress to adjust the
difference in widths. To gore, i.e. to stab or pierce with any sharp
instrument, but more particularly used of piercing with the horns of a
bull, is probably directly connected with _gare_, a spear.



GOREE, an island off the west coast of Africa, forming part of the
French colony of Senegal. It lies at the entrance of the large natural
harbour formed by the peninsula of Cape Verde. The island, some 900 yds.
long by 330 broad, and 3 m. distant from the nearest point of the
mainland, is mostly barren rock. The greater part of its surface is
occupied by a town, formerly a thriving commercial entrepôt and a strong
military post. Until 1906 it was a free port. With the rise of Dakar
(q.v.), c. 1860, on the adjacent coast, Goree lost its trade and its
inhabitants, mostly Jolofs, had dwindled in 1905 to about 1500. Its
healthy climate, however, makes it useful as a sanatorium. The streets
are narrow, and the houses, mainly built of dark-red stone, are
flat-roofed. The castle of St Michael, the governor's residence, the
hospital and barracks, testify to the former importance of the town.
Within the castle is an artesian well, the only water-supply, save that
collected in rain tanks, on the island. Goree was first occupied by the
Dutch, who took possession of it early in the 17th century and called it
Goeree or Goedereede, in memory of the island on their own coast now
united with Overflakkee. Its native name is Bir, i.e. a belly, in
allusion to its shape. It was captured by the English under Commodore
(afterwards Admiral Sir Robert) Holmes in 1663, but retaken in the
following year by de Ruyter. The Dutch were finally expelled in 1677 by
the French under Admiral d'Estrées. Goree subsequently fell again into
the hands of the English, but was definitely occupied by France in 1817
(see SENEGAL: _History_).



GORGE, strictly the French word for the throat considered externally.
Hence it is applied in falconry to a hawk's crop, and thus, with the
sense of something greedy or ravenous, to food given to a hawk and to
the contents of a hawk's crop or stomach. It is from this sense that the
expression of a person's "gorge rising at" anything in the sense of
loathing or disgust is derived. "Gorge," from analogy with "throat," is
used with the meaning of a narrow opening as of a ravine or valley
between hills; in fortification, of the neck of an outwork or bastion;
and in architecture, of the narrow part of a Roman Doric column, between
the echinus and the astragal. From "gorge" also comes a diminutive
"gorget," a portion of a woman's costume in the middle ages, being a
close form of wimple covering the neck and upper part of the breast, and
also that part of the body armour covering the neck and collarbone (see
GORGET). The word "gorgeous," of splendid or magnificent appearance,
comes from the O. Fr. _gorgias_, with the same meaning, and has very
doubtfully been connected with gorge, a ruffle or neck-covering, of a
supposed elaborate kind.



GÖRGEI, ARTHUR (1818-   ), Hungarian soldier, was born at Toporcz, in
Upper Hungary, on the 30th of January 1818. He came of a Saxon noble
family who were converts to Protestantism. In 1837 he entered the
Bodyguard of Hungarian Nobles at Vienna, where he combined military
service with a course of study at the university. In 1845, on the death
of his father, he retired from the army and devoted himself to the study
of chemistry at Prague, after which he retired to the family estates in
Hungary. On the outbreak of the revolutionary War of 1848, Görgei
offered his sword to the Hungarian government. Entering the Honvéd army
with the rank of captain, he was employed in the purchase of arms, and
soon became major and commandant of the national guards north of the
Theiss. Whilst he was engaged in preventing the Croatian army from
crossing the Danube, at the island of Csepel, below Pest, the wealthy
Hungarian magnate Count Eugene Zichy fell into his hands, and Görgei
caused him to be arraigned before a court-martial on a charge of treason
and immediately hanged. After various successes over the Croatian
forces, of which the most remarkable was that at Ozora, where 10,000
prisoners fell into his hands, Görgei was appointed commander of the
army of the Upper Danube, but, on the advance of Prince Windischgrätz
across the Leitha, he resolved to fall back, and in spite of the
remonstrances of Kossuth he held to his resolution and retreated upon
Waitzen. Here, irritated by what he considered undue interference with
his plans, he issued (January 5th, 1849) a proclamation throwing the
blame for the recent want of success upon the government, thus virtually
revolting against their authority. Görgei retired to the Hungarian
Erzgebirge and conducted operations on his own initiative. Meanwhile the
supreme command had been conferred upon the Pole Dembinski, but the
latter fought without success the battle of Kapolna, at which action
Görgei's corps arrived too late to take an effective part, and some time
after this the command was again conferred upon Görgei. The campaign in
the spring of 1849 was brilliantly conducted by him, and in a series of
engagements, he defeated Windischgrätz. In April he won the victories of
Gödöllö Izaszeg and Nagy Sarló, relieved Komorn, and again won a battle
at Acs or Waitzen. Had he followed up his successes by taking the
offensive against the Austrian frontier, he might perhaps have dictated
terms in the Austrian capital itself. As it was, he contented himself
with reducing Ofen, the Hungarian capital, in which he desired to
re-establish the diet, and after effecting this capture he remained
inactive for some weeks. Meanwhile, at a diet held at Debreczin, Kossuth
had formally proposed the dethronement of the Habsburg dynasty and
Hungary had been proclaimed a republic. Görgei had refused the
field-marshal's bâton offered him by Kossuth and was by no means in
sympathy with the new régime. However, he accepted the portfolio of
minister of war, while retaining the command of the troops in the field.
The Russians had now intervened in the struggle and made common cause
with the Austrians; the allies were advancing into Hungary on all sides,
and Görgei was defeated by Haynau at Pered (20th-21st of June). Kossuth,
perceiving the impossibility of continuing the struggle and being
unwilling himself to make terms, resigned his position as dictator, and
was succeeded by Görgei, who meanwhile had been fighting hard against
the various columns of the enemy. Görgei, convinced that he could not
break through the enemy's lines, surrendered, with his army of 20,000
infantry and 2000 cavalry, to the Russian general Rüdiger at Vilagos.
Görgei was not court-marshaled, as were his generals, but kept in
confinement at Klagenfurt, where he lived, chiefly employed in chemical
work, until 1867, when he was pardoned and returned to Hungary. The
surrender, and particularly the fact that his life was spared while his
generals and many of his officers and men were hanged or shot, led,
perhaps naturally, to his being accused of treason by public opinion of
his countrymen. After his release he played no further part in public
life. Even in 1885 an attempt which was made by a large number of his
old comrades to rehabilitate him was not favourably received in Hungary.
After some years' work as a railway engineer he retired to Visegrád,
where he lived thenceforward in retreat. (See also HUNGARY: _History_.)

General Görgei wrote a justification of his operations (_Mein Leben und
Wirken in Ungarn_ 1848-1859, Leipzig, 1852), an anonymous paper under
the title _Was verdanken wir der Revolution?_ (1875), and a reply to
Kossuth's charges (signed "Joh. Demár") in _Budapesti Szemle_, 1881,
25-26. Amongst those who wrote in his favour were Captain Stephan Görgei
(_1848 és 1849 böl_, Budapest, 1885), and Colonel Aschermann (_Ein
offenes Wort in der Sache des Honvéd-Generals Arthur Görgei_,
Klausenburg, 1867).

  See also A. G. Horn, _Görgei, Oberkommandant d. ung. Armee_ (Leipzig,
  1850); Kinety, _Görgei's Life and Work in Hungary_ (London, 1853);
  Szinyei, in _Magyár Irók_ (iii. 1378), Hentaller, _Görgei as a
  Statesman_ (Hungarian); Elemár, _Görgei in 1848-1849_ (Hungarian,
  Budapest, 1886).



GORGES, SIR FERDINANDO (c. 1566-1647), English colonial pioneer in
America and the founder of Maine, was born in Somersetshire, England,
probably in 1566. From youth both a soldier and a sailor, he was a
prisoner in Spain at the age of twenty-one, having been captured by a
ship of the Spanish Armada. In 1589 he was in command of a small body of
troops fighting for Henry IV. of France, and after distinguishing
himself at the siege of Rouen was knighted there in 1591. In 1596 he was
commissioned captain and keeper of the castle and fort at Plymouth and
captain of St Nicholas Isle; in 1597 he accompanied Essex on the
expedition to the Azores; in 1599 assisted him in the attempt to
suppress the Tyrone rebellion in Ireland, and in 1600 was implicated in
Essex's own attempt at rebellion in London. In 1603, on the accession of
James I., he was suspended from his post at Plymouth, but was restored
in the same year and continued to serve as "governor of the forts and
island of Plymouth" until 1629, when, his garrison having been without
pay for three and a half years, his fort a ruin, and all his
applications for aid having been ignored, he resigned. About 1605 he
began to be greatly interested in the New World; in 1606 he became a
member of the Plymouth Company, and he laboured zealously for the
founding of the Popham colony at the mouth of the Sagadahoc (now the
Kennebec) river in 1607. For several years following the failure of that
enterprise in 1608 he continued to fit out ships for fishing, trading
and exploring, with colonization as the chief end in view. He was
largely instrumental in procuring the new charter of 1620 for the
Plymouth Company, and was at all times of its existence perhaps the most
influential member of that body. He was the recipient, either solely or
jointly, of several grants of territory from it, for one of which he
received in 1639 the royal charter of Maine (see MAINE). In 1635 he
sought to be appointed governor-general of all New England, but the
English Civil War--in which he espoused the royal cause--prevented him
from ever actually holding that office. A short time before his death at
Long Ashton in 1647 he wrote his _Briefe Narration of the Originall
Undertakings of the Advancement of Plantations into the Parts of
America_. He was an advocate, especially late in life, of the feudal
type of colony.

  See J. P. Baxter (ed.), _Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of
  Maine_ (3 vols., Boston, 1890; in the Prince Society Publications),
  the first volume of which is a memoir of Gorges, and the other volumes
  contain a reprint of the _Briefe Narration_, Gorges's letters, and
  other documentary material.



GORGET (O. Fr. _gorgete_, dim. of _gorge_, throat), the name applied
after about 1480 to the collar-piece of a suit of armour. It was
generally formed of small overlapping rings of plate, and attached
either to the body armour or to the armet. It was worn in the 16th and
17th centuries with the half-armour, with the plain cuirass, and even
occasionally without any body armour at all. During these times it
gradually became a distinctive badge for officers, and as such it
survived in several armies--in the form of a small metal plate affixed
to the front of the collar of the uniform coat--until after the
Napoleonic wars. In the German army to-day a gorget-plate of this sort
is the distinctive mark of military police, while the former officer's
gorget is represented in British uniforms by the red patches or tabs
worn on the collar by staff officers and by the white patches of the
midshipmen in the Royal Navy.



GORGIAS (c. 483-375 B.C.), Greek sophist and rhetorician, was a native
of Leontini in Sicily. In 427 he was sent by his fellow-citizens at the
head of an embassy to ask Athenian protection against the aggression of
the Syracusans. He subsequently settled in Athens, and supported himself
by the practice of oratory and by teaching rhetoric. He died at Larissa
in Thessaly. His chief claim to recognition consists in the fact that he
transplanted rhetoric to Greece, and contributed to the diffusion of the
Attic dialect as the language of literary prose. He was the author of a
lost work _On Nature or the Non-existent_ ([Greek: Peri tou mê ontos ê
peri physeôs], fragments edited by M. C. Valeton, 1876), the substance
of which may be gathered from the writings of Sextus Empiricus, and also
from the treatise (ascribed to Theophrastus) _De Melisso, Xenophane,
Gorgia_. Gorgias is the central figure in the Platonic dialogue
_Gorgias_. The genuineness of two rhetorical exercises (_The Encomium of
Helen_ and _The Defence of Palamedes_, edited with Antiphon by F. Blass
in the Teubner series, 1881), which have come down under his name, is
disputed.

  For his philosophical opinions see SOPHISTS and SCEPTICISM. See also
  Gomperz, _Greek Thinkers_, Eng. trans. vol. i. bk. iii. chap. vii.;
  Jebb's _Attic Orators_, introd. to vol. i. (1893); F. Blass, _Die
  attische Beredsamkeit_, i. (1887); and article RHETORIC.



GORGON, GORGONS (Gr. [Greek: Gorgô], [Greek: Gorgones], the "terrible,"
or, according to some, the "loud-roaring"), a figure or figures in Greek
mythology. Homer speaks of only one Gorgon, whose head is represented in
the _Iliad_ (v. 741) as fixed in the centre of the aegis of Zeus. In the
_Odyssey_ (xi. 633) she is a monster of the under-world. Hesiod
increases the number of Gorgons to three--Stheno (the mighty), Euryale
(the far-springer) and Medusa (the queen), and makes them the daughters
of the sea-god Phorcys and of Keto. Their home is on the farthest side
of the western ocean; according to later authorities, in Libya (Hesiod,
_Theog._ 274; Herodotus ii. 91; Pausanias ii. 21). The Attic tradition,
reproduced in Euripides (_Ion_ 1002), regarded the Gorgon as a monster,
produced by Gaea to aid her sons the giants against the gods and slain
by Athena (the passage is a _locus classicus_ on the aegis of Athena).

The Gorgons are represented as winged creatures, having the form of
young women; their hair consists of snakes; they are round-faced,
flat-nosed, with tongues lolling out and large projecting teeth.
Sometimes they have wings of gold, brazen claws and the tusks of boars.
Medusa was the only one of the three who was mortal; hence Perseus was
able to kill her by cutting off her head. From the blood that spurted
from her neck sprang Chrysaor and Pegasus, her two sons by Poseidon. The
head, which had the power of turning into stone all who looked upon it,
was given to Athena, who placed it in her shield; according to another
account, Perseus buried it in the market-place of Argos. The hideously
grotesque original type of the Gorgoneion, as the Gorgon's head was
called, was placed on the walls of cities, and on shields and
breastplates to terrify an enemy (cf. the hideous faces on Chinese
soldiers' shields), and used generally as an amulet, a protection
against the evil eye. Heracles is said to have obtained a lock of
Medusa's hair (which possessed the same powers as the head) from Athena
and given it to Sterope, the daughter of Cepheus, as a protection for
the town of Tegea against attack (Apollodorus ii. 7. 3). According to
Roscher, it was supposed, when exposed to view, to bring on a storm,
which put the enemy to flight. Frazer (_Golden Bough_, i. 378) gives
examples of the superstition that cut hair caused storms. According to
the later idea of Medusa as a beautiful maiden, whose hair had been
changed into snakes by Athena, the head was represented in works of art
with a wonderfully handsome face, wrapped in the calm repose of death.
The Rondanini Medusa at Munich is a famous specimen of this conception.
Various accounts of the Gorgons were given by later ancient writers.
According to Diod. Sic. (iii. 54. 55) they were female warriors living
near Lake Tritonis in Libya, whose queen was Medusa; according to
Alexander of Myndus, quoted in Athenaeus (v. p. 221), they were terrible
wild animals whose mere look turned men to stone. Pliny (_Nat. Hist._
vi. 36 [31]) describes them as savage women, whose persons were covered
with hair, which gave rise to the story of their snaky hair and girdle.
Modern authorities have explained them as the personification of the
waves of the sea or of the barren, unproductive coast of Libya; or as
the awful darkness of the storm-cloud, which comes from the west and is
scattered by the sun-god Perseus. More recent is the explanation of
anthropologists that Medusa, whose virtue is really in her head, is
derived from the ritual mask common to primitive cults.

  See Jane E. Harrison, _Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion_
  (1903); W. H. Roscher, _Die Gorgonen und Verwandtes_ (1879); J. Six,
  _De Gorgone_ (1885), on the types of the Gorgon's head; articles by
  Roscher and Furtwängler in Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_, by G.
  Glotz in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des antiquités_, and by
  R. Gädechens in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyclopädie_; N. G.
  Polites ([Greek: Ho peri tôn Gorgonôn mythos para tô Hellênikô laô],
  1878) gives an account of the Gorgons, and of the various
  superstitions connected with them, from the modern Greek point of
  view, which regards them as malevolent spirits of the sea.



GORGONZOLA, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Milan, from
which it is 11 m. E.N.E. by steam tramway. Pop. (1901) 5134. It is the
centre of the district in which is produced the well-known Gorgonzola
cheese.



GORI, a town of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Tiflis and
49 m. by rail N.W. of the city of Tiflis, on the river Kura; altitude,
2010 ft. Pop. (1897) 10,457. The surrounding country is very
picturesque. Gori has a high school for girls, and a school for Russian
and Tatar teachers. At one time celebrated for its silk and cotton
stuffs, it is now famous for corn, reputed the best in Georgia, and the
wine is also esteemed. The climate is excellent, delightfully cool in
summer, owing to the refreshing breezes from the mountains, though these
are, however, at times disagreeable in winter. Gori was founded (1123)
by the Georgian king David II., the Renovater, for the Armenians who
fled their country on the Persian invasion. The earliest remains of the
fortress are Byzantine; it was thoroughly restored in 1634-1658, but
destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia in the 18th century. There is a church
constructed in the 17th century by Capuchin missionaries from Rome. Five
miles east of Gori is the remarkable rock-cut town of Uplis-tsykhe,
which was a fortress in the time of Alexander the Great of Macedon, and
an inhabited city in the reign of the Georgian king Bagrat III.
(980-1014).



GORILLA (or PONGO), the largest of the man-like apes, and a native of
West Africa from the Congo to Cameroon, whence it extends eastwards
across the continent to German East Africa. Many naturalists regard the
gorilla as best included in the same genus as the chimpanzee, in which
case it should be known as _Anthropopithecus gorilla_, but by others it
is regarded as the representative of a genus by itself, when its title
will be _Gorilla savagei_, or _G. gorilla_. That there are local forms
of gorilla is quite certain: but whether any of these are entitled to
rank as distinct species may be a matter of opinion. It was long
supposed that the apes encountered on an island off the west coast of
Africa by Hanno, the Carthaginian, were gorillas, but in the opinion of
some of those best qualified to judge, it is probable that the creatures
in question were really baboons. The first real account of the gorilla
appears to be the one given by an English sailor, Andrew Battel, who
spent some time in the wilds of West Africa during and about the year
1590; his account being presented in Purchas's _Pilgrimage_, published
in the year 1613. From this it appears that Battel was familiar with
both the chimpanzee and the gorilla, the former of which he terms engeco
and the latter pongo--names which ought apparently to be adopted for
these two species in place of those now in use. Between Battel's time
and 1846 nothing appears to have been heard of the gorilla or pongo, but
in that year a missionary at the Gabun accidentally discovered a skull
of the huge ape; and in 1847 a sketch of that specimen, together with
two others, came into the hands of Sir R. Owen, by whom the name
_Gorilla savagei_ was proposed for the new ape in 1848. Dr Thomas
Savage, a missionary at the Gabun, who sent Owen information with regard
to the original skull, had, however, himself proposed the name
_Troglodytes gorilla_ in 1847. The first complete skeleton of a gorilla
sent to Europe was received at the museum of the Royal College of
Surgeons in 1851, and the first complete skin appears to have reached
the British Museum in 1858. Paul B. du Chaillu's account (1861) of his
journeys in the Gabun region popularized the knowledge of the existence
of the gorilla. Male gorillas largely exceed the females in size, and
attain a height of from 5½ ft. to 6½ ft., or perhaps even more. Some of
the features distinguishing the gorilla from the mere gorilla-like
chimpanzees will be found mentioned in the article PRIMATES. Among them
are the small ears, elongated head, the presence of a deep groove
alongside the nostrils, the small size of the thumb, and the great
length of the arm, which reaches half-way down the shin-bone (tibia) in
the erect posture. In old males the eyes are overhung by a beetling
penthouse of bone, the hinder half of the middle line of the skull bears
a wall-like bony ridge for the attachment of the powerful jaw-muscles,
and the tusks, or canines, are of monstrous size, recalling those of a
carnivorous animal. The general colour is blackish, with a more or less
marked grey or brownish tinge on the hair of the shoulders, and
sometimes of chestnut on the head. Mr G. L. Bates (in _Proc. Zool.
Soc._, 1905, vol. i.) states that gorillas only leave the depths of the
forest to enter the outlying clearings in the neighbourhood of human
settlements when they are attracted by some special fruit or succulent
plant; the favourite being the fruit of the "mejom," a tall cane-like
plant (perhaps a kind of _Amomum_) which grows abundantly on deserted
clearings. At one isolated village the natives, who were unarmed,
reported that they not unfrequently saw and heard the gorillas, which
broke down the stalks of the plantains in the rear of the habitations to
tear out and eat the tender heart. On the old clearings of another
village Mr Bates himself, although he did not see a gorilla, saw the
fresh tracks of these great apes and the torn stems and discarded fruit
rinds of the "mejoms," as well as the broken stalks of the latter, which
had been used for beds. On another occasion he came across the bed of an
old gorilla which had been used only the night before, as was proved by
a negro woman, who on the previous evening had heard the animal breaking
and treading down the stalks to form its couch. According to native
report, the gorillas sleep on these beds, which are of sufficient
thickness to raise them a foot or two above the ground, in a sitting
posture, with the head inclined forwards on the breast. In the first
case Mr Bates states that the tracks and beds indicated the presence of
three or four gorillas, some of which were small. This account does not
by any means accord with one given by von Koppenfels, in which it is
stated that while the old male gorilla sleeps in a sitting posture at
the base of a tree-trunk (no mention being made of a bed), the female
and young ones pass the night in a nest in the tree several yards above
the ground, made by bending the boughs together and covering them with
twigs and moss. Mr Bates's account, as being based on actual inspection
of the beds, is probably the more trustworthy. Even when asleep and
snoring, gorillas are difficult to approach, since they awake at the
slightest rustle, and an attempt to surround the one heard making his
bed by the woman resulted in failure. Most gorillas killed by natives
are believed by Mr Bates to have been encountered suddenly in the
daytime on the ground or in low trees in the outlying clearings. Many
natives, even if armed, refuse, however, to molest an adult male
gorilla, on account of its ferocity when wounded. Mr Bates, like Mr
Winwood Reade, refused to credit du Chaillu's account of his having
killed gorillas, and stated that the only instance he knew of one of
these animals being slain by a European was an old male (now in Mr
Walter Rothschild's museum at Tring) shot by the German trader Paschen
in the Yaunde district, of which an illustrated account was published in
1901. Mr E. J. Corns states, however, that two European traders,
apparently in the "'eighties" of the 19th century, were in the habit of
surrounding and capturing these animals as occasion offered.[1] Fully
adult gorillas have never been seen alive in captivity--and perhaps
never will be, as the creature is ferocious and morose to a degree. So
long ago as the year 1855, when the species was known to zoologists only
by its skeleton, a gorilla was actually living in England. This animal,
a young female, came from the Gabun, and was kept for some months in
Wombwell's travelling menagerie, where it was treated as a pet. On its
death, the body was sent to Mr Charles Waterton, of Walton Hall, by whom
the skin was mounted in a grotesque manner, and the skeleton given to
the Leeds museum. Apparently, however, it was not till several years
later that the skin was recognized by Mr A. D. Bartlett as that of a
gorilla; the animal having probably been regarded by its owner as a
chimpanzee. A young male was purchased by the Zoological Society in
October 1887, from Mr Cross, the Liverpool dealer in animals. At the
time of arrival it was supposed to be about three years old, and stood
2½ ft. high. A second, a male, supposed to be rather older, was acquired
in March 1896, having been brought to Liverpool from the French Congo.
It is described as having been thoroughly healthy at the date of its
arrival, and of an amiable and tractable disposition. Neither survived
long. Two others were received in the Zoological Society's menagerie in
1904, and another was housed there for a short time in the following
year, while a fifth was received in 1906. Falkenstein's gorilla,
exhibited at the Westminster aquarium under the name of pongo, and
afterwards at the Berlin aquarium, survived for eighteen months.
"Pussi," the gorilla of the Breslau Zoological Gardens, holds a record
for longevity, with over seven years of menagerie life. Writing in 1903
Mr W. T. Hornaday stated that but one live gorilla, and that a tiny
infant, had ever landed in the United States; and it lived only five
days after arrival.     (R. L.*)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In 1905 the Rev. Geo. Grenfell reported that he had that summer
    shot a gorilla in the Bwela country, east of the Mongala affluent of
    the Congo.



GORINCHEM, or GORCUM, a fortified town of Holland in the province of
south Holland, on the right bank of the Merwede at the confluence of the
Linge, 16 m. by rail W. of Dordrecht. It is connected by the Zederik and
Merwede canals with Amsterdam, and steamers ply hence in every
direction. Pop. (1900) 11,987. Gorinchem possesses several interesting
old houses, and overlooking the river are some fortified gateways of the
17th century. The principal buildings are the old church of St Vincent,
containing the monuments of the lords of Arkel; the town hall, a prison,
custom-house, barracks and a military hospital. The charitable and
benevolent institutions are numerous, and there are also a library and
several learned associations. Gorinchem possesses a good harbour, and
besides working in gold and silver, carries on a considerable trade in
grain, hemp, cheese, potatoes, cattle and fish, the salmon fishery being
noted. Woerkum, or Woudrichem, a little below the town on the left bank
of the Merwede, is famous for its quaint old buildings, which are
decorated with mosaics.



GORING, GEORGE GORING, LORD (1608-1657), English Royalist soldier, son
of George Goring, earl of Norwich, was born on the 14th of July 1608. He
soon became famous at court for his prodigality and dissolute manners.
His father-in-law, Richard Boyle, earl of Cork, procured for him a post
in the Dutch army with the rank of colonel. He was permanently lamed by
a wound received at Breda in 1637, and returned to England early in
1639, when he was made governor of Portsmouth. He served in the Scottish
war, and already had a considerable reputation when he was concerned in
the "Army Plot." Officers of the army stationed at York proposed to
petition the king and parliament for the maintenance of the royal
authority. A second party was in favour of more violent measures, and
Goring, in the hope of being appointed lieutenant-general, proposed to
march the army on London and overawe the parliament during Strafford's
trial. This proposition being rejected by his fellow officers, he
betrayed the proceedings to Mountjoy Blount, earl of Newport, who passed
on the information indirectly to Pym in April. Colonel Goring was
thereupon called on to give evidence before the Commons, who commended
him for his services to the Commonwealth. This betrayal of his comrades
induced confidence in the minds of the parliamentary leaders, who sent
him back to his Portsmouth command. Nevertheless he declared for the
king in August. He surrendered Portsmouth to the parliament in September
1642 and went to Holland to recruit for the Royalist army, returning to
England in December. Appointed to a cavalry command by the earl of
Newcastle, he defeated Fairfax at Seacroft Moor near Leeds in March
1643, but in May he was taken prisoner at Wakefield on the capture of
the town by Fairfax. In April 1644 he effected an exchange. At Marston
Moor he commanded the Royalist left, and charged with great success,
but, allowing his troopers to disperse in search of plunder, was routed
by Cromwell at the close of the battle. In November 1644, on his
father's elevation to the earldom of Norwich, he became Lord Goring. The
parliamentary authorities, however, refused to recognize the creation of
the earldom, and continued to speak of the father as Lord Goring and the
son as General Goring. In August he had been dispatched by Prince
Rupert, who recognized his ability, to join Charles in the south, and in
spite of his dissolute and insubordinate character he was appointed to
supersede Henry, Lord Wilmot, as lieut.-general of the Royalist horse
(see GREAT REBELLION). He secured some successes in the west, and in
January 1645 advanced through Hampshire and occupied Farnham; but want
of money compelled him to retreat to Salisbury and thence to Exeter. The
excesses committed by his troops seriously injured the Royalist cause,
and his exactions made his name hated throughout the west. He had
himself prepared to besiege Taunton in March, yet when in the next month
he was desired by Prince Charles, who was at Bristol, to send
reinforcements to Sir Richard Grenville for the siege of Taunton, he
obeyed the order only with ill-humour. Later in the month he was
summoned with his troops to the relief of the king at Oxford. Lord
Goring had long been intriguing for an independent command, and he now
secured from the king what was practically supreme authority in the
west. It was alleged by the earl of Newport that he was willing to
transfer his allegiance once more to the parliament. It is not likely
that he meditated open treason, but he was culpably negligent and
occupied with private ambitions and jealousies. He was still engaged in
desultory operations against Taunton when the main campaign of 1645
opened. For the part taken by Goring's army in the operations of the
Naseby campaign see GREAT REBELLION. After the decisive defeat of the
king, the army of Fairfax marched into the west and defeated Goring in a
disastrous fight at Langport on the 10th of July. He made no further
serious resistance to the parliamentary general, but wasted his time in
frivolous amusements, and in November he obtained leave to quit his
disorganized forces and retire to France on the ground of health. His
father's services secured him the command of some English regiments in
the Spanish service. He died at Madrid in July or August 1657. Clarendon
gives him a very unpleasing character, declaring that "Goring ... would,
without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery
to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite; and in truth wanted
nothing but industry (for he had wit, and courage, and understanding and
ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or man) to have been as
eminent and successful in the highest attempt of wickedness as any man
in the age he lived in or before. Of all his qualifications
dissimulation was his masterpiece; in which he so much excelled, that
men were not ordinarily ashamed, or out of countenance, with being
deceived but twice by him."

  See the life by C. H. Firth in the _Dictionary of National Biography_;
  Dugdale's _Baronage_, where there are some doubtful stories of his
  life in Spain; the _Clarendon State Papers_; Clarendon's _History of
  the Great Rebellion_; and S. R. Gardiner's _History of the Great Civil
  War_.



GORKI, MAXIM (1868-   ), the pen-name of the Russian novelist Alexei
Maximovich Pyeshkov, who was born at Nizhni-Novgorod on the 26th of
March 1868. His father was a dyer, but he lost both his parents in
childhood, and in his ninth year was sent to assist in a boot-shop. We
find him afterwards in a variety of callings, but devouring books of all
sorts greedily, whenever they fell into his hands. He ran away from the
boot-shop and went to help a land-surveyor. He was then a cook on board
a steamer and afterwards a gardener. In his fifteenth year he tried to
enter a school at Kazan, but was obliged to betake himself again to his
drudgery. He became a baker, than hawked about _kvas_, and helped the
barefooted tramps and labourers at the docks. From these he drew some of
his most striking pictures, and learned to give sketches of humble life
generally with the fidelity of a Defoe. After a long course of drudgery
he had the good fortune to obtain the place of secretary to a barrister
at Nizhni-Novgorod. This was the turning-point of his fortunes, as he
found a sympathetic master who helped him. He also became acquainted
with the novelist Korolenko, who assisted him in his literary efforts.
His first story was _Makar Chudra_, which was published in the journal
_Kavkaz_. He contributed to many periodicals and finally attracted
attention by his tale called _Chelkash_, which appeared in _Russkoe
Bogatsvo_ ("Russian wealth"). This was followed by a series of tales in
which he drew with extraordinary vigour the life of the _bosniaki_, or
tramps. He has sometimes described other classes of society, tradesmen
and the educated classes, but not with equal success. There are some
vigorous pictures, however, of the trading class in his _Foma Gordeyev_.
But his favourite type is the rebel, the man in revolt against society,
and him he describes from personal knowledge, and enlists our sympathies
with him. We get such a type completely in _Konovalov_. Gorki is always
preaching that we must have ideals--something better than everyday life,
and this view is brought out in his play _At the Lowest Depths_, which
had great success at Moscow, but was coldly received at St Petersburg.

  For a good criticism of Gorki see _Ideas and Realities in Russian
  Literature_, by Prince Kropotkin. Many of his works have been
  translated into English.



GÖRLITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the
left bank of the Neisse, 62 m. E. from Dresden on the railway to
Breslau, and at the junction of lines to Berlin, Zittau and Halle. Pop.
(1885) 55,702, (1905) 80,931. The Neisse at this point is crossed by a
railway bridge 1650 ft. long and 120 ft. high, with 32 arches. Görlitz
is one of the handsomest, and, owing to the extensive forests of 70,000
acres, which are the property of the municipality, one of the wealthiest
towns in Germany. It is surrounded by beautiful walks and fine gardens,
and although its old walls and towers have now been demolished, many of
its ancient buildings remain to form a picturesque contrast with the
signs of modern industry. From the hill called Landskrone, about 1500
ft. high, an extensive prospect is obtained of the surrounding country.
The principal buildings are the fine Gothic church of St Peter and St
Paul, dating from the 15th century, with two stately towers, a famous
organ and a very heavy bell; the Frauen Kirche, erected about the end of
the 15th century, and possessing a fine portal and choir in pierced
work; the Kloster Kirche, restored in 1868, with handsome choir stalls
and a carved altar dating from 1383; and the Roman Catholic church,
founded in 1853, in the Roman style of architecture, with beautiful
glass windows and oil-paintings. The old town hall (Rathaus) contains a
very valuable library, having at its entrance a fine flight of steps.
There is also a new town hall which was erected in 1904-1906. Other
buildings are: the old bastion, named Kaisertrutz, now used as a
guardhouse and armoury; the gymnasium buildings in the Gothic style
erected in 1851; the Ruhmeshalle with the Kaiser Friedrich museum, the
house of the estates of the province (Ständehaus), two theatres and the
barracks. Near the town is the chapel of the Holy Cross, where there is
a model of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem made during the 15th century.
In the public park there is a bust of Schiller, a monument to Alexander
von Humboldt, and a statue of the mystic Jakob Böhme (1575-1624); a
monument has been erected in the town in commemoration of the war of
1870-71, and also one to the emperor William I. and a statue of Prince
Frederick Charles. In connexion with the natural history society there
is a valuable museum, and the scientific institute possesses a large
library and a rich collection of antiquities, coins and articles of
_virtu_. Görlitz, next to Breslau, is the largest and most flourishing
commercial town of Silesia, and is also regarded as classic ground for
the study of German Renaissance architecture. Besides cloth, which forms
its staple article of commerce, it has manufactories of various linen
and woollen wares, machines, railway wagons, glass, sago, tobacco,
leather, chemicals and tiles.

Görlitz existed as a village from a very early period, and at the
beginning of the 12th century received civic rights. It was then known
as Drebenau, but on being rebuilt after its destruction by fire in 1131
it received the name of Zgorzelice. About the end of the 12th century it
was strongly fortified, and for a short time it was the capital of a
duchy of Görlitz. It was several times besieged and taken during the
Thirty Years' War, and it also suffered considerably in the Seven Years'
War. In the battle which took place near it between the Austrians and
Prussians on the 7th of September 1757, Hans Karl von Winterfeldt, the
general of Frederick the Great, was slain. In 1815 the town, with the
greater part of Upper Lusatia, came into the possession of Prussia.

  See Neumann, _Geschichte von Görlitz_ (1850).



GÖRRES, JOHANN JOSEPH VON (1776-1848), German writer, was born on the
25th of January 1776, at Coblenz. His father was a man of moderate
means, who sent his son to a Latin college under the direction of the
Roman Catholic clergy. The sympathies of the young Görres were from the
first strongly with the French Revolution, and the dissoluteness and
irreligion of the French exiles in the Rhineland confirmed him in his
hatred of princes. He harangued the revolutionary clubs, and insisted on
the unity of interests which should ally all civilized states to one
another. He then commenced a republican journal called _Das rote Blatt_,
and afterwards _Rübezahl_, in which he strongly condemned the
administration of the Rhenish provinces by France.

After the peace of Campo Formio (1797) there was some hope that the
Rhenish provinces would be constituted into an independent republic. In
1799 the provinces sent an embassy, of which Görres was a member, to
Paris to put their case before the directory. The embassy reached Paris
on the 20th of November 1799; two days before this Napoleon had assumed
the supreme direction of affairs. After much delay the embassy was
received by him; but the only answer they obtained was "that they might
rely on perfect justice, and that the French government would never lose
sight of their wants." Görres on his return published a tract called
_Resultate meiner Sendung nach Paris_, in which he reviewed the history
of the French Revolution. During the thirteen years of Napoleon's
dominion Görres lived a retired life, devoting himself chiefly to art or
science. In 1801 he married Catherine de Lasaulx, and was for some years
teacher at a secondary school in Coblenz; in 1806 he moved to
Heidelberg, where he lectured at the university. As a leading member of
the Heidelberg Romantic group, he edited together with K. Brentano and
L. von Arnim the famous _Zeitung für Einsiedler_ (subsequently re-named
_Tröst-Einsamkeit_), and in 1807 he published _Die teutschen
Volksbücher_. He returned to Coblenz in 1808, and again found occupation
as a teacher in a secondary school, supported by civic funds. He now
studied Persian, and in two years published a _Mythengeschichte der
asiatischen Welt_, which was followed ten years later by _Das
Heldenbuch von Iran_, a translation of part of the _Shahnama_, the epic
of Firdousi. In 1813 he actively took up the cause of national
independence, and in the following year founded _Der rheinische Merkur_.
The intense earnestness of the paper, the bold outspokenness of its
hostility to Napoleon, and its fiery eloquence secured for it almost
instantly a position and influence unique in the history of German
newspapers. Napoleon himself called it _la cinquième puissance_. The
ideal it insisted on was a united Germany, with a representative
government, but under an emperor after the fashion of other days,--for
Görres now abandoned his early advocacy of republicanism. When Napoleon
was at Elba, Görres wrote an imaginary proclamation issued by him to the
people, the intense irony of which was so well veiled that many
Frenchmen mistook it for an original utterance of the emperor. He
inveighed bitterly against the second peace of Paris (1815), declaring
that Alsace and Lorraine should have been demanded back from France.

Stein was glad enough to use the _Merkur_ at the time of the meeting of
the congress of Vienna as a vehicle for giving expression to his hopes.
But Hardenberg, in May 1815, warned Görres to remember that he was not
to arouse hostility against France, but only against Bonaparte. There
was also in the _Merkur_ an antipathy to Prussia, a continual expression
of the desire that an Austrian prince should assume the imperial title,
and also a tendency to pronounced liberalism--all of which made it most
distasteful to Hardenberg, and to his master King Frederick William III.
Görres disregarded warnings sent to him by the censorship and continued
the paper in all its fierceness. Accordingly it was suppressed early in
1816, at the instance of the Prussian government; and soon after Görres
was dismissed from his post as teacher at Coblenz. From this time his
writings were his sole means of support, and he became a most diligent
political pamphleteer. In the wild excitement which followed Kotzebue's
assassination, the reactionary decrees of Carlsbad were framed, and
these were the subject of Görres's celebrated pamphlet _Teutschland und
die Revolution_ (1820). In this work he reviewed the circumstances which
had led to the murder of Kotzebue, and, while expressing all possible
horror at the deed itself, he urged that it was impossible and
undesirable to repress the free utterance of public opinion by
reactionary measures. The success of the work was very marked, despite
its ponderous style. It was suppressed by the Prussian government, and
orders were issued for the arrest of Görres and the seizure of his
papers. He escaped to Strassburg, and thence went to Switzerland. Two
more political tracts, _Europa und die Revolution_ (1821) and _In Sachen
der Rheinprovinzen und in eigener Angelegenheit_ (1822), also deserve
mention.

In Görres's pamphlet _Die heilige Allianz und die Völker auf dem
Kongress zu Verona_ he asserted that the princes had met together to
crush the liberties of the people, and that the people must look
elsewhere for help. The "elsewhere" was to Rome; and from this time
Görres became a vehement Ultramontane writer. He was summoned to Munich
by King Ludwig of Bavaria as Professor of History in the university, and
there his writing enjoyed very great popularity. His _Christliche
Mystik_ (1836-1842) gave a series of biographies of the saints, together
with an exposition of Roman Catholic mysticism. But his most celebrated
ultramontane work was a polemical one. Its occasion was the deposition
and imprisonment by the Prussian government of the archbishop Clement
Wenceslaus, in consequence of the refusal of that prelate to sanction in
certain instances the marriages of Protestants and Roman Catholics.
Görres in his _Athanasius_ (1837) fiercely upheld the power of the
church, although the liberals of later date who have claimed Görres as
one of their own school deny that he ever insisted on the absolute
supremacy of Rome. _Athanasius_ went through several editions, and
originated a long and bitter controversy. In the _Historisch-politische
Blätter_, a Munich journal, Görres and his son Guido (1805-1852)
continually upheld the claims of the church. Görres received from the
king the order of merit for his services. He died on the 29th of January
1848.

  Görres's _Gesammelte Schriften_ (only his political writings) appeared
  in six volumes (1854-1860), to which three volumes of _Gesammelte
  Briefe_ were subsequently added (1858-1874). Cp. J. Galland, _Joseph
  von Görres_ (1876, 2nd ed. 1877); J. N. Sepp, _Görres und seine
  Zeitgenossen_ (1877), and by the same author, _Görres_, in the series
  _Geisteshelden_ (1896). A _Görres-Gesellschaft_ was founded in 1876.



GORSAS, ANTOINE JOSEPH (1752-1793), French publicist and politician, was
born at Limoges (Haute-Vienne) on the 24th of March 1752, the son of a
shoemaker. He established himself as a private tutor in Paris, and
presently set up a school for the army at Versailles, which was attended
by commoners as well as nobles. In 1781 he was imprisoned for a short
time in the Bicêtre on an accusation of corrupting the morals of his
pupils, his real offence being the writing of satirical verse. These
circumstances explain the violence of his anti-monarchical sentiment. At
the opening of the states-general he began to publish the _Courrier de
Versailles à Paris et de Paris à Versailles_, in which appeared on the
4th of October 1789 the account of the banquet of the royal bodyguard.
Gorsas is said to have himself read it in public at the Palais Royal,
and to have headed one of the columns that marched on Versailles. He
then changed the name of his paper to the _Courrier des
quatre-vingt-trois départements_, continuing his incendiary propaganda,
which had no small share in provoking the popular insurrections of June
and August 1792. During the September massacres he wrote in his paper
that the prisons were the centre of an anti-national conspiracy and that
the people exercised a just vengeance on the guilty. On the 10th of
September 1792 he was elected to the Convention for the department of
Seine-et-Oise, and on the 10th of January 1793 was elected one of its
secretaries. He sat at first with the Mountain, but having been long
associated with Roland and Brissot, his agreement with the Girondists
became gradually more pronounced; during the trial of Louis XVI. he
dissociated himself more and more from the principles of the Mountain,
and he voted for the king's detention during the war and subsequent
banishment. A violent attack on Marat in the _Courrier_ led to an armed
raid on his printing establishment on the 9th of March 1793. The place
was sacked, but Gorsas escaped the popular fury by flight. The facts
being reported to the Convention, little sympathy was shown to Gorsas,
and a resolution (which was evaded) was passed forbidding
representatives to occupy themselves with journalism. On the 2nd of June
he was ordered by the Convention to hold himself under arrest with other
members of his party. He escaped to Normandy to join Buzot, and after
the defeat of the Girondists at Pacy-sur-Eure he found shelter in
Brittany. He was imprudent enough to return to Paris in the autumn,
where he was arrested on the 6th of October and guillotined the next
day.

  See the _Moniteur_, No. 268 (1792), Nos. 20, 70 new series 18 (1793);
  M. Tourneux, _Bibl. de l'hist. de Paris_, 10,291 seq. (1894).



GORST, SIR JOHN ELDON (1835-   ). English statesman, was born at Preston
in 1835, the son of Edward Chaddock Gorst, who took the name of Lowndes
on succeeding to the family estate in 1853. He graduated third wrangler
from St John's College, Cambridge, in 1857, and was admitted to a
fellowship. After beginning to read for the bar in London, his father's
illness and death led to his sailing to New Zealand, where he married in
1860 Mary Elizabeth Moore. The Maoris had at that time set up a king of
their own in the Waikato district and Gorst, who had made friends with
the chief Tamihana (William Thomson), acted as an intermediary between
the Maoris and the government. Sir George Grey made him inspector of
schools, then resident magistrate, and eventually civil commissioner in
Upper Waikato. Tamihana's influence secured his safety in the Maori
outbreak of 1863. In 1908 he published a volume of recollections, under
the title of _New Zealand Revisited: Recollections of the Days of my
Youth_. He then returned to England and was called to the bar at the
Inner Temple in 1865, becoming Q.C. in 1875. He stood unsuccessfully for
Hastings in the Conservative interest in 1865, and next year entered
parliament as member for the borough of Cambridge, but failed to secure
re-election at the dissolution of 1868. After the Conservative defeat of
that year he was entrusted by Disraeli with the reorganization of the
party machinery, and in five years of hard work he paved the way for the
Conservative success at the general election of 1874. At a bye-election
in 1875 he re-entered parliament as member for Chatham, which he
continued to represent until 1892. He joined Sir Henry Drummond-Wolff,
Lord Randolph Churchill and Mr Arthur Balfour in the "Fourth Party," and
he became solicitor-general in the administration of 1885-1886 and was
knighted. On the formation of the second Salisbury administration (1886)
he became under-secretary for India and in 1891 financial secretary to
the Treasury. At the general election of 1892 he became member for
Cambridge University. He was deputy chairman of committees in the House
of Commons from 1888 to 1891, and on the formation of the third
Salisbury administration in 1895 he became vice-president of the
committee of the council on education (until 1902). Sir John Gorst
adhered to the principles of Tory democracy which he had advocated in
the days of the fourth party, and continued to exhibit an active
interest in the housing of the poor, the education and care of their
children, and in social questions generally, both in parliament and in
the press. But he was always exceedingly "independent" in his political
action. He objected to Mr Chamberlain's proposals for tariff reform, and
lost his seat at Cambridge at the general election of 1906 to a tariff
reformer. He then withdrew from the vice-chancellorship of the Primrose
League, of which he had been one of the founders, on the ground that it
no longer represented the policy of Lord Beaconsfield. In 1910 he
contested Preston as a Liberal, but failed to secure election.

His elder son, SIR J. ELDON GORST (b. 1861), was financial adviser to
the Egyptian government from 1898 to 1904, when he became assistant
under-secretary of state for foreign affairs. In 1907 he succeeded Lord
Cromer as British agent and consul-general in Egypt.

  An account of Sir John Gorst's connexion with Lord Randolph Churchill
  will be found in the _Fourth Party_ (1906), by his younger son, Harold
  E. Gorst.



GORTON, SAMUEL (c. 1600-1677), English sectary and founder of the
American sect of Gortonites, was born about 1600 at Gorton, Lancashire.
He was first apprenticed to a clothier in London, but, fearing
persecution for his religious convictions, he sailed for Boston,
Massachusetts, in 1636. Constantly involved in religious disputes, he
fled in turn to Plymouth, and (in 1637-1638) to Aquidneck (Newport),
where he was publicly whipped for insulting the clergy and magistrates.
In 1643 he bought land from the Narraganset Indians at Shawomet--now
Warwick--where he was joined by a number of his followers; but he
quarrelled with the Indians and the authorities at Boston sent soldiers
to arrest Gorton and six of his companions. He served a term of
imprisonment for heresy at Charlestown, after which he was ejected from
the colony. In England in 1646 he published the curious tract
"Simplicities Defence against Seven Headed Policy" (reprinted in 1835),
giving an account of his grievances against the Massachusetts
government. In 1648 he returned to New England with a letter of
protection from the earl of Warwick, and joining his former companions
at Shawomet, which he named Warwick, in honour of the earl, he remained
there till his death at the end of 1677. He is chiefly remembered as the
founder of a small sect called the Gortonites, which survived till the
end of the 18th century. They had a great contempt for the regular
clergy and for all outward forms of religion, holding that the true
believers partook of the perfection of God.

  Among his quaint writings are: _An Incorruptible Key composed of the
  CX. Psalms wherewith you may open the rest of the Scriptures_ (1647),
  and _Saltmarsh returned from the Dead_, with its sequel, _An Antidote
  against the Common Plague of the World_ (1657). See L. G. Jones,
  _Samuel Gorton: a forgotten Founder of our Liberties_ (Providence,
  1896).



GORTON, an urban district in the Gorton parliamentary division of
Lancashire, England, forming an eastern suburb of Manchester. Pop.
(1901) 26,564. It is largely a manufacturing district, having cotton
mills and iron, engineering and chemical works.



GORTYNA, or GORTYN, an important ancient city on the southern side of
the island of Crete. It stood on the banks of the small river Lethaeus
(Mitropolipotamo), about three hours distant from the sea, with which it
communicated by means of its two harbours, Metallum and Lebena. It had
temples of Apollo Pythius, Artemis and Zeus. Near the town was the
famous fountain of Sauros, inclosed by fruit-bearing poplars; and not
far from this was another spring, overhung by an evergreen plane tree
which in popular belief marked the scene of the amours of Zeus and
Europa. Gortyna was, next to Cnossus, the largest and most powerful city
of Crete. The two cities combined to subdue the rest of the island; but
when they had gained their object they quarrelled with each other, and
the history of both towns is from this time little more than a record of
their feuds. Neither plays a conspicuous part in the history of Greece.
Under the Romans Gortyna became the metropolis of the island. Extensive
ruins may still be seen at the modern village of Hagii Deka, and here
was discovered the great inscription containing chapters of its ancient
laws. Though partly ruinous, the church of St Titus is a very
interesting monument of early Christian architecture, dating from about
the 4th century.

  See also CRETE, and for a full account of the laws see GREEK LAW.



GÖRTZ, GEORG HEINRICH VON, BARON VON SCHLITZ (1668-1719), Holstein
statesman, was educated at Jena. He entered the Holstein-Gottorp
service, and after the death of the duchess Hedwig Sophia, Charles
XII.'s sister, became very influential during the minority of her son
Duke Charles Frederick. His earlier policy aimed at strengthening
Holstein-Gottorp at the expense of Denmark. With this object, during
Charles XII.'s stay at Altranstädt (1706-1707), he tried to divert the
king's attention to the Holstein question, and six years later, when the
Swedish commander, Magnus Stenbock, crossed the Elbe, Görtz rendered him
as much assistance as was compatible with not openly breaking with
Denmark, even going so far as to surrender the fortress of Tönning to
the Swedes. Görtz next attempted to undermine the grand alliance against
Sweden by negotiating with Russia, Prussia and Saxony for the purpose of
isolating Denmark, or even of turning the arms of the allies against
her, a task by no means impossible in view of the strained relations
between Denmark and the tsar. The plan foundered, however, on the
refusal of Charles XII. to save the rest of his German domains by ceding
Stettin to Prussia. Another simultaneous plan of procuring the Swedish
crown for Duke Charles Frederick also came to nought. Görtz first
suggested the marriage between the duke of Holstein and the tsarevna
Anne of Russia, and negotiations were begun in St Petersburg with that
object. On the arrival of Charles XII. from Turkey at Stralsund, Görtz
was the first to visit him, and emerged from his presence chief minister
or "grand-vizier" as the Swedes preferred to call the bold and crafty
satrap, whose absolute devotion to the Swedish king took no account of
the intense wretchedness of the Swedish nation. Görtz, himself a man of
uncommon audacity, seems to have been fascinated by the heroic element
in Charles's nature and was determined, if possible, to save him from
his difficulties. He owed his extraordinary influence to the fact that
he was the only one of Charles's advisers who believed, or pretended to
believe, that Sweden was still far from exhaustion, or at any rate had a
sufficient reserve of power to give support to an energetic
diplomacy--Charles's own opinion, in fact. Görtz's position, however,
was highly peculiar. Ostensibly, he was only the Holstein minister at
Charles's court, in reality he was everything in Sweden except a Swedish
subject--finance minister, plenipotentiary to foreign powers, factotum,
and responsible to the king alone, though he had not a line of
instructions. But he was just the man for a hero in extremities, and his
whole course of procedure was, of necessity, revolutionary. His chief
financial expedient was to debase, or rather ruin, the currency by
issuing copper tokens redeemable in better times; but it was no fault of
his that Charles XII., during his absence, flung upon the market too
enormous an amount of this copper money for Görtz to deal with. By the
end of 1718 it seemed as if Görtz's system could not go on much longer,
and the hatred of the Swedes towards him was so intense and universal
that they blamed him for Charles XII.'s tyranny as well as for his own.
Görtz hoped, however, to conclude peace with at least some of Sweden's
numerous enemies before the crash came and then, by means of fresh
combinations, to restore Sweden to her rank as a great power. It must be
admitted that, in pursuance of his "system," Görtz displayed a genius
for diplomacy which would have done honour to a Metternich or a
Talleyrand. He desired peace with Russia first of all, and at the
congress of Åland even obtained relatively favourable terms, only to
have them rejected by his obstinately optimistic master. Simultaneously,
Görtz was negotiating with Cardinal Alberoni and with the whigs in
England; but all his ingenious combinations collapsed like a house of
cards on the sudden death of Charles XII. The whole fury of the Swedish
nation instantly fell upon Görtz. After a trial before a special
commission which was a parody of justice--the accused was not permitted
to have any legal assistance or the use of writing materials--he was
condemned to decapitation and promptly executed. Perhaps Görtz deserved
his fate for "unnecessarily making himself the tool of an unheard-of
despotism," but his death was certainly a judicial murder, and some
historians even regard him as a political martyr.

  See R. N. Bain, _Charles XII._ (London, 1895), and _Scandinavia_,
  chap. 12 (Cambridge, 1905); B. von Beskow, _Freherre Georg Heinrich
  von Görtz_ (Stockholm, 1868).     (R. N. B.)



GÖRZ (Ital. _Gorizia_; Slovene, _Gorica_), the capital of the Austrian
crownland of Görz and Gradisca, about 390 m. S.W. of Vienna by rail. Pop
(1900) 25,432, two-thirds Italians, the remainder mostly Slovenes and
Germans. It is picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Isonzo in
a fertile valley, 35 m. N.N.W. of Trieste by rail. It is the seat of an
archbishop and possesses an interesting cathedral, built in the 14th
century and the richly decorated church of St Ignatius, built in the
17th century by the Jesuits. On an eminence, which dominates the town,
is situated the old castle, formerly the seat of the counts of Görz, now
partly used as barracks. Owing to the mildness of its climate Görz has
become a favourite winter-resort, and has received the name of the Nice
of Austria. Its mean annual temperature is 55° F.; while the mean winter
temperature is 38.7° F. It is adorned with several pretty gardens with a
luxuriant southern vegetation. On a height to the N. of the town is
situated the Franciscan convent of Castagnavizza, in whose chapel lie
the remains of Charles X. of France (d. 1836), the last Bourbon king, of
the duke of Angoulême (d. 1844), his son, and of the duke of Chambord
(d. 1883). Seven miles to the north of Görz is the Monte Santo (2275
ft.), a much-frequented place on which stands a pilgrimage church. The
industries include cotton and silk weaving, sugar refining, brewing, the
manufacture of leather and the making of rosoglio. There is also a
considerable trade in wooden work, vegetables, early fruit and wine.
Görz is mentioned for the first time at the beginning of the 11th
century, and received its charter as a town in 1307. During the middle
ages the greater part of its population was German.



GÖRZ AND GRADISCA, a county and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by
Carniola, S. by Istria, the Triestine territory and the Adriatic, W. by
Italy and N. by Carinthia. It has an area of 1140 sq. m. The coast line,
though extending for 25 m., does not present any harbour of importance.
It is fringed by alluvial deposits and lagoons, which are for the most
part of very modern formation, for as late as the 4th or 5th centuries
Aquileia was a great seaport. The harbour of Grado is the only one
accessible to the larger kind of coasting craft. On all sides, except
towards the south-west where it unites with the Friulian lowland, it is
surrounded by mountains, and about four-sixths of its area is occupied
by mountains and hills. From the Julian Alps, which traverse the
province in the north, the country descends in successive terraces
towards the sea, and may roughly be divided into the upper highlands,
the lower highlands, the hilly district and the lowlands. The principal
peaks in the Julian Alps are the Monte Canin (8469 ft.), the Manhart
(8784 ft.), the Jalouc (8708 ft.), the Krn (7367 ft.), the Matajur (5386
ft.), and the highest peak in the whole range, the Triglav or Terglou
(9394 ft.). The Julian Alps are crossed by the Predil Pass (3811 ft.),
through which passes the principal road from Carinthia to the Coastland.
The southern part of the province belongs to the Karst region, and here
are situated the famous cascades and grottoes of Sankt Kanzian, where
the river Reka begins its subterranean course. The principal river of
the province is the Isonzo, which rises in the Triglav, and pursues a
strange zigzag course for a distance of 78 m. before it reaches the
Adriatic. At Görz the Isonzo is still 138 ft. above the sea, and it is
navigable only in its lowest section, where it takes the name of the
Sdobba. Its principal affluents are the Idria, the Wippach and the Torre
with its tributary the Judrio, which forms for a short distance the
boundary between Austria and Italy. Of special interest not only in
itself but for the frequent allusions to it in classical literature is
the Timavus or Timavo, which appears near Duino, and after a very short
course flows into the Gulf of Trieste. In ancient times it appears,
according to the well-known description of Virgil (_Aen._ i. 244) to
have rushed from the mountain by nine separate mouths and with much
noise and commotion, but at present it usually issues from only three
mouths and flows quiet and still. It is strange enough, however, to see
the river coming out full formed from the rock, and capable at its very
source of bearing vessels on its bosom. According to a probable
hypothesis it is a continuation of the above-mentioned river Reka, which
is lost near Sankt Kanzian.

Agriculture, and specially viticulture, is the principal occupation of
the population, and the vine is here planted not only in regular
vineyards, but is introduced in long lines through the ordinary fields
and carried up the hills in terraces locally called _ronchi_. The
rearing of the silk-worm, especially in the lowlands, constitutes
another great source of revenue, and furnishes the material for the only
extensive industry of the country. The manufacture of silk is carried on
at Görz, and in and around the village of Haidenschaft. Görz and
Gradisca had in 1900 a population of 232,338, which is equivalent to 203
inhabitants per square mile. According to nationality about two-thirds
were Slovenes, and the remainder Italians, with only about 2200 Germans.
Almost the whole of the population (99.6%) belongs to the Roman Catholic
Church. The local diet, of which the archbishop of Görz is a member
_ex-officio_, is composed of 22 members, and the crownland sends 5
deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes the
province is divided into 4 districts and an autonomous municipality,
Görz (pop. 25,432), the capital. Other principal places are Cormons
(5824), Monfalcone (5536), Kirchheim (5699), Gradisca (3843) and
Aquileia (2319).

Görz first appears distinctly in history about the close of the 10th
century, as part of a district bestowed by the emperor Otto III. on
John, patriarch of Aquileia. In the 11th century it became the seat of
the Eppenstein family, who frequently bore the title of counts of
Gorizia; and in the beginning of the 12th century the countship passed
from them to the Lurngau family which continued to exist till the year
1500, and acquired possessions in Tirol, Carinthia, Friuli and Styria.
On the death of Count Leonhard (12th April 1500) the fief reverted to
the house of Habsburg. The countship of Gradisca was united with it in
1754. The province was occupied by the French in 1809, but reverted
again to Austria in 1815. It formed a district of the administrative
province of Trieste until 1861, when it became a separate crownland
under its actual name.



GOSCHEN, GEORGE JOACHIM GOSCHEN, 1st VISCOUNT (1831-1907), British
statesman, son of William Henry Göschen, a London merchant of German
extraction, was born in London on the 10th of August 1831. He was
educated at Rugby under Dr Tait, and at Oriel College, Oxford, where he
took a first-class in classics. He entered his father's firm of Frühling
& Göschen, of Austin Friars, in 1853, and three years later became a
director of the Bank of England. His entry into public life took place
in 1863, when he was returned without opposition as member for the city
of London in the Liberal interest, and this was followed by his
re-election, at the head of the poll, in the general election of 1865.
In November of the same year he was appointed vice-president of the
Board of Trade and paymaster-general, and in January 1866 he was made
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, with a seat in the cabinet. When
Mr Gladstone became prime minister in December 1868, Mr Goschen joined
the cabinet as president of the Poor Law Board, and continued to hold
that office until March 1871, when he succeeded Mr Childers as first
lord of the admiralty. In 1874 he was elected lord rector of the
university of Aberdeen. Being sent to Cairo in 1876 as delegate for the
British holders of Egyptian bonds, in order to arrange for the
conversion of the debt, he succeeded in effecting an agreement with the
Khedive.

In 1878 his views upon the county franchise question prevented him from
voting uniformly with his party, and he informed his constituents in the
city that he would not stand again at the forthcoming general election.
In 1880 he was elected for Ripon, and continued to represent that
constituency until the general election of 1885, when he was returned
for the Eastern Division of Edinburgh. Being opposed to the extension of
the franchise, he was unable to join Mr Gladstone's government in 1880;
declining the post of viceroy of India, he accepted that of special
ambassador to the Porte, and was successful in settling the Montenegrin
and Greek frontier questions in 1880 and 1881. He was made an
ecclesiastical commissioner in 1882, and when Sir Henry Brand was raised
to the peerage in 1884, the speakership of the House of Commons was
offered to him, but declined. During the parliament of 1880-1885 he
frequently found himself unable to concur with his party, especially as
regards the extension of the franchise and questions of foreign policy;
and when Mr Gladstone adopted the policy of Home Rule for Ireland, Mr
Goschen followed Lord Hartington (afterwards duke of Devonshire) and
became one of the most active of the Liberal Unionists. His vigorous and
eloquent opposition to Mr Gladstone's Home Rule Bill of 1886 brought him
into greater public prominence than ever, but he failed to retain his
seat for Edinburgh at the election in July of that year. On the
resignation of Lord Randolph Churchill in December 1886, Mr Goschen,
though a Liberal Unionist, accepted Lord Salisbury's invitation to join
his ministry, and became chancellor of the exchequer. Being defeated at
Liverpool, 26th of January 1887, by seven votes, he was elected for St
George's, Hanover Square, on the 9th of February. His chancellorship of
the exchequer during the ministry of 1886 to 1892 was rendered memorable
by his successful conversion of the National Debt in 1888 (see National
Debt). With that financial operation, under which the new 2¾% Consols
became known as "Goschens," his name will long be connected. Aberdeen
University again conferred upon him the honour of the lord rectorship in
1888, and he received a similar honour from the University of Edinburgh
in 1890. In the Unionist opposition of 1893 to 1895 Mr Goschen again
took a vigorous part, his speeches both in and out of the House of
Commons being remarkable for their eloquence and debating power. From
1895 to 1900 Mr Goschen was first lord of the admiralty, and in that
office he earned the highest reputation for his business-like grasp of
detail and his statesmanlike outlook on the naval policy of the country.
He retired in 1900, and was raised to the peerage by the title of
Viscount Goschen of Hawkhurst, Kent. Though retired from active politics
he continued to take a great interest in public affairs; and when Mr
Chamberlain started his tariff reform movement in 1903, Lord Goschen was
one of the weightiest champions of free trade on the Unionist side. He
died on the 7th of February 1907, being succeeded in the title by his
son George Joachim (b. 1866), who was Conservative M.P. for East
Grinstead from 1895 to 1900, and married a daughter of the 1st earl of
Cranbrook.

In educational subjects Goschen had always taken the greatest interest,
his best known, but by no means his only, contribution to popular
culture being his participation in the University Extension Movement;
and his first efforts in parliament were devoted to advocating the
abolition of religious tests and the admission of Dissenters to the
universities. His published works indicate how ably he combined the wise
study of economics with a practical instinct for business-like progress,
without neglecting the more ideal aspects of human life. In addition to
his well-known work on _The Theory of the Foreign Exchanges_, he
published several financial and political pamphlets and addresses on
educational and social subjects, among them being that on _Cultivation
of the Imagination_, Liverpool, 1877, and that on _Intellectual
Interest_, Aberdeen, 1888. He also wrote _The Life and Times of Georg
Joachim Goschen, publisher and printer of Leipzig_ (1903). (H. Ch.)



GOS-HAWK, i.e. goose-hawk, the _Astur palumbarius_ of ornithologists,
and the largest of the short-winged hawks used in falconry. Its English
name, however, has possibly been transferred to this species from one of
the long-winged hawks or true falcons, since there is no tradition of
the gos-hawk, now so called, having ever been used in Europe to take
geese or other large and powerful birds. The genus _Astur_ may be
readily distinguished from _Falco_ by the smooth edges of its beak, its
short wings (not reaching beyond about the middle of the tail), and its
long legs and toes--though these last are stout and comparatively
shorter than in the sparrow-hawks (_Accipiter_). In plumage the gos-hawk
has a general resemblance to the peregrine falcon, and it undergoes a
corresponding change as it advances from youth to maturity--the young
being longitudinally streaked beneath, while the adults are transversely
barred. The irides, however, are always yellow, or in old birds orange,
while those of the falcons are dark brown. The sexes differ greatly in
size. There can be little doubt that the gos-hawk, nowadays very rare in
Britain, was once common in England, and even towards the end of the
18th century Thornton obtained a nestling in Scotland, while Irish
gos-hawks were of old highly celebrated. Being strictly a woodland-bird,
its disappearance may be safely connected with the disappearance of the
ancient forests in Great Britain, though its destructiveness to poultry
and pigeons has doubtless contributed to its present scarcity. In many
parts of the continent of Europe it still abounds. It ranges eastward to
China and is much valued in India. In North America it is represented by
a very nearly allied species, _A. atricapillus_, chiefly distinguished
by the closer barring of the breast. Three or four examples
corresponding with this form have been obtained in Britain. A good many
other species of _Astur_ (some of them passing into _Accipiter_) are
found in various parts of the world, but the only one that need here be
mentioned is the _A. novae-hollandiae_ of Australia, which is remarkable
for its dimorphism--one form possessing the normal dark-coloured plumage
of the genus and the other being perfectly white, with crimson irides.
Some writers hold these two forms to be distinct species and call the
dark-coloured one _A. cinereus_ or _A. raii_.     (A. N.)



GOSHEN, a division of Egypt settled by the Israelites between Jacob's
immigration and the Exodus. Its exact delimitation is a difficult
problem. The name may possibly be of Semitic, or at least non-Egyptian
origin, as in Palestine we meet with a district (Josh. x. 41) and a city
(_ib._ xv. 51) of the same name. The Septuagint reads [Greek: Gesem
Arabias] in Gen. xlv. 10, and xlvi. 34, elsewhere simply [Greek: Gesem].
In xlvi. 28 "Goshen ... the land of Goshen" are translated respectively
"Heroopolis ... the land of Rameses." This represents a late Jewish
identification. Ptolemy defines "Arabia" as an Egyptian nome on the
eastern border of the delta, with capital Phacussa, corresponding to the
Egyptian nome Sopt and town Kesem. It is doubtful whether Phacussa be
situated at the mounds of Fakus, or at another place, Saft-el-Henneh,
which suits Strabo's description of its locality rather better. The
extent of Goshen, according to the apocryphal book of Judith (i. 9, 10),
included Tanis and Memphis; this is probably an overstatement. It is
indeed impossible to say more than that it was a place of good pasture,
on the frontier of Palestine, and fruitful in edible vegetables and in
fish (Numbers xi. 5).     (R. A. S. M.)



GOSHEN, a city and the county-seat of Elkhart county, Indiana, U.S.A.,
on the Elkhart river, about 95 m. E. by S. of Chicago, at an altitude of
about 800 ft. Pop. (1890) 6033; (1900) 7810 (462 foreign-born); (1910)
8514. Goshen is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis,
and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways, and is connected by
electric railway with Warsaw and South Bend. The city has a Carnegie
library, and is the seat of Goshen College (under Mennonite control),
chartered as Elkhart Institute, at Elkhart, Ind., in 1895, and removed
to Goshen and opened under its present name in 1903. The college
includes a collegiate department, an academy, a Bible school, a normal
school, a summer school and correspondence courses, and schools of
business, of music and of oratory, and in 1908-1909 had 331 students, 73
of whom were in the Academy. Goshen is situated in a good farming region
and is an important lumber market. There is a good water-power. Among
the city's manufactures are wagons and carriages, furniture,
wooden-ware, veneering, sash and doors, ladders, lawn swings, rubber
goods, flour, foundry products and agricultural machinery. The
municipality owns its water works and its electric-lighting system.
Goshen was first settled in 1828 and was first chartered as a city in
1868.



GOSLAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover,
romantically situated on the Gose, an affluent of the Oker, at the north
foot of the Harz, 24 m. S.E. of Hildesheim and 31 m. S.W. from
Brunswick, by rail. Pop. (1905) 17,817. It is surrounded by walls and is
of antique appearance. Among the noteworthy buildings are the "Zwinger,"
a tower with walls 23 ft. thick; the market church, in the Romanesque
style, restored since its partial destruction by fire in 1844, and
containing the town archives and a library in which are some of Luther's
manuscripts; the old town hall (Rathaus), possessing many interesting
antiquities; the Kaiserworth (formerly the hall of the tailors' gild and
now an inn) with the statues of eight of the German emperors; and the
Kaiserhaus, the oldest secular building in Germany, built by the emperor
Henry III. before 1050 and often the residence of his successors. This
was restored in 1867-1878 at the cost of the Prussian government, and
was adorned with frescoes portraying events in German history. Other
buildings of interest are:--the small chapel which is all that remains
since 1820 of the old and famous cathedral of St Simon and St Jude
founded by Henry III. about 1040, containing among other relics of the
cathedral an old altar supposed to be that of the idol Krodo which
formerly stood on the Burgberg near Neustadt-Harzburg; the church of the
former Benedictine monastery of St Mary, or Neuwerk, of the 12th
century, in the Romanesque style, with wall-paintings of considerable
merit; and the house of the bakers' gild now an hotel, the birthplace of
Marshal Saxe. There are four Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic
church, a synagogue, several schools, a natural science museum,
containing a collection of Harz minerals, the Fenkner museum of
antiquities and a number of small foundations. The town has equestrian
statues of the emperor Frederick I. and of the German emperor William I.
The population is chiefly occupied in connexion with the sulphur,
copper, silver and other mines in the neighbourhood. The town has also
been long noted for its beer, and possesses some small manufactures and
a considerable trade in fruit.

Goslar is believed to have been founded by Henry the Fowler about 920,
and when in the time of Otto the Great the mineral treasures in the
neighbourhood were discovered it increased rapidly in prosperity. It was
often the meeting-place of German diets, twenty-three of which are said
to have been held here, and was frequently the residence of the
emperors. About 1350 it joined the Hanseatic League. In the middle of
the 14th century the famous _Goslar statutes_, a code of laws, which was
adopted by many other towns, was published. The town was unsuccessfully
besieged in 1625, during the Thirty Years' War, but was taken by the
Swedes in 1632 and nearly destroyed by fire. Further conflagrations in
1728 and 1780 gave a severe blow to its prosperity. It was a free town
till 1802, when it came into the possession of Prussia. In 1807 it was
joined to Westphalia, in 1816 to Hanover and in 1866 it was, along with
Hanover, re-united to Prussia.

  See T. Erdmann, _Die alte Kaiserstadt Goslar und ihre Umgebung in
  Geschichte, Sage und Bild_ (Goslar, 1892); Crusius, _Geschichte der
  vormals kaiserlichen freien Reichstadt Goslar_ (1842-1843); A.
  Wolfstieg, _Verfassungsgeschichte von Goslar_ (Berlin, 1885); T.
  Asche, _Die Kaiserpfalz zu Goslar_ (1892); Neuburg, _Goslars Bergbau
  bis 1552_ (Hanover, 1892); and the _Urkundenbuch der Stadt Goslar_,
  edited by G. Bode (Halle, 1893-1900). For the _Goslarische Statuten_
  see the edition published by Göschen (Berlin, 1840).



GOSLICKI, WAWRZYNIEC (? 1533-1607), Polish bishop, better known under
his Latinized name of Laurentius Grimalius Goslicius, was born about
1533. After having studied at Cracow and Padua, he entered the church,
and was successively appointed bishop of Kaminietz and of Posen.
Goslicki was an active man of business, was held in high estimation by
his contemporaries and was frequently engaged in political affairs. It
was chiefly through his influence, and through the letter he wrote to
the pope against the Jesuits, that they were prevented from establishing
their schools at Cracow. He was also a strenuous advocate of religious
toleration in Poland. He died on the 31st of October 1607.

  His principal work is _De Optimo senatore_, &c. (Venice, 1568). There
  are two English translations published respectively under the titles
  _A commonwealth of good counsaile_, &c. (1607), and _The Accomplished
  Senator, done into English by Mr Oldisworth_ (1733).



GOSLIN, or GAUZLINUS (d. c. 886), bishop of Paris and defender of the
city against the Northmen (885), was, according to some authorities, the
son of Roricon II., count of Maine, according to others the natural son
of the emperor Louis I. In 848 he became a monk, and entered a monastery
at Reims, later he became abbot of St Denis. Like most of the prelates
of his time he took a prominent part in the struggle against the
Northmen, by whom he and his brother Louis were taken prisoners (858),
and he was released only after paying a heavy ransom (_Prudentii
Trecensis episcopi Annales_, ann. 858). From 855 to 867 he held
intermittently, and from 867 to 881 regularly, the office of chancellor
to Charles the Bald and his successors. In 883 or 884 he was elected
bishop of Paris, and foreseeing the dangers to which the city was to be
exposed from the attacks of the Northmen, he planned and directed the
strengthening of the defences, though he also relied for security on the
merits of the relics of St Germain and St Geneviève. When the attack
finally came (885), the defence of the city was entrusted to him and to
Odo, count of Paris, and Hugh, abbot of St Germain l'Auxerrois. The city
was attacked on the 26th of November, and the struggle for the
possession of the bridge (now the Pont-au-Change) lasted for two days;
but Goslin repaired the destruction of the wooden tower overnight, and
the Normans were obliged to give up the attempt to take the city by
storm. The siege lasted for about a year longer, while the emperor
Charles the Fat was in Italy. Goslin died soon after the preliminaries
of the peace had been agreed on, worn out by his exertions, or killed by
a pestilence which raged in the city.

  See Amaury Duval, _L'Évêque Gozlin ou le siège de Paris par les
  Normands, chronique du IX^e siècle_ (2 vols., Paris, 1832, 3rd ed.
  _ib._ 1835).



GOSNOLD, BARTHOLOMEW (d. 1607), English navigator. Nothing is known of
his birth, parentage or early life. In 1602, in command of the
"Concord," chartered by Sir Walter Raleigh and others, he crossed the
Atlantic; coasted from what is now Maine to Martha's Vineyard, landing
at and naming Cape Cod and Elizabeth Island (now Cuttyhunk) and giving
the name Martha's Vineyard to the island now called No Man's Land; and
returned to England with a cargo of furs, sassafras and other
commodities obtained in trade with the Indians about Buzzard's Bay. In
London he actively promoted the colonization of the regions he had
visited and, by arousing the interest of Sir Ferdinando Gorges and other
influential persons, contributed toward securing the grants of the
charters to the London and Plymouth Companies in 1606. In 1606-1607 he
was associated with Christopher Newport in command of the three vessels
by which the first Jamestown colonists were carried to Virginia. As a
member of the council he took an active share in the affairs of the
colony, ably seconding the efforts of John Smith to introduce order,
industry and system among the motley array of adventurers and idle
"gentlemen" of which the little band was composed. He died from swamp
fever on the 22nd of August 1607.

  See _The Works of John Smith_ (Arber's Edition, London, 1884); and J.
  M. Brereton, _Brief and True Relation of the North Part of Virginia_
  (reprinted by B. F. Stevens, London, 1901), an account of Gosnold's
  voyage of 1602.



GOSPATRIC (fl. 1067), earl of Northumberland, belonged to a family which
had connexions with the royal houses both of Wessex and Scotland. Before
the Conquest he accompanied Tostig on a pilgrimage to Rome (1061); and
at that time was a landholder in Cumberland. About 1067 he bought the
earldom of Northumberland from William the Conqueror; but, repenting of
his submission, fled with other Englishmen to the court of Scotland
(1068). He joined the Danish army of invasion in the next year; but was
afterwards able, from his possession of Bamburgh castle, to make terms
with the conqueror, who left him undisturbed till 1072. The peace
concluded in that year with Scotland left him at William's mercy. He
lost his earldom and took refuge in Scotland, where Malcolm seems to
have provided for him.

  See E. A. Freeman, _Norman Conquest_, vol. i. (Oxford, 1877), and the
  _English Hist. Review_, vol. xix. (London, 1904).



GOSPEL (O. Eng. _godspel_, i.e. good news, a translation of Lat. _bona
annuntiatio_, or _evangelium_, Gr. [Greek: euangelion]; cf. Goth. _iu
spillon_, "to announce good news," Ulfilas' translation of the Greek,
from _iu_, that which is good, and _spellon_ to announce), primarily the
"glad tidings" announced to the world by Jesus Christ. The word thus
came to be applied to the whole body of doctrine taught by Christ and
his disciples, and so to the Christian revelation generally (see
CHRISTIANITY); by analogy the term "gospel" is also used in other
connexions as equivalent to "authoritative teaching." In a narrower
sense each of the records of the life and teaching of Christ preserved
in the writings of the four "evangelists" is described as a Gospel. The
many more or less imaginative lives of Christ which are not accepted by
the Christian Church as canonical are known as "apocryphal gospels" (see
APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE). The present article is concerned solely with
general considerations affecting the four canonical Gospels; see for
details of each, the articles under MATTHEW, MARK, LUKE and JOHN.

_The Four Gospels._--The disciples of Jesus proclaimed the Gospel that
He was the Christ. Those to whom this message was first delivered in
Jerusalem and Palestine had seen and heard Jesus, or had heard much
about Him. They did not require to be told who He was. But more and more
as the work of preaching and teaching extended to such as had not this
knowledge, it became necessary to include in the Gospel delivered some
account of the ministry of Jesus. Moreover, alike those who had followed
Him during His life on earth, and all who joined themselves to them,
must have felt the need of dwelling on His precepts, so that these must
have been often repeated, and also in all probability from an early time
grouped together according to their subjects, and so taught. For some
time, probably for upwards of thirty years, both the facts of the life
of Jesus and His words were only related orally. This would be in
accordance with the habits of mind of the early preachers of the Gospel.
Moreover, they were so absorbed in the expectation of the speedy return
of Christ that they did not feel called to make provision for the
instruction of subsequent generations. The Epistles of the New Testament
contain no indications of the existence of any written record of the
life and teaching of Christ. Tradition indicates A.D. 60-70 as the
period when written accounts of the life and teaching of Jesus began to
be made (see MARK, GOSPEL OF, and MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF). This may be
accepted as highly probable. We cannot but suppose that at a time when
the number of the original band of disciples of Jesus who survived must
have been becoming noticeably smaller, and all these were advanced in
life, the importance of writing down that which had been orally
delivered concerning the Gospel-history must have been realized. We also
gather from Luke's preface (i. 1-4) that the work of writing was
undertaken in these circumstances and under the influence of this
feeling, and that various records had already in consequence been made.

But do our Gospels, or any of them, in the form in which we actually
have them, belong to the number of those earliest records? Or, if not,
what are the relations in which they severally stand to them? These are
questions which in modern criticism have been greatly debated. With a
view to obtaining answers to them, it is necessary to consider the
reception of the Gospels in the early Church, and also to examine and
compare the Gospels themselves. Some account of the evidence supplied in
these two ways must be given in the present article, so far as it is
common to all four Gospels, or to three or two of them, and in the
articles on the several Gospels so far as it is especial to each.

1. _The Reception of the Gospels in the Early Church._--The question of
the use of the Gospels and of the manner in which they were regarded
during the period extending from the latter years of the 1st century to
the beginning of the last quarter of the 2nd is a difficult one. There
is a lack of explicit references to the Gospels;[1] and many of the
quotations which may be taken from them are not exact. At the same time
these facts can be more or less satisfactorily accounted for by various
circumstances. In the first place, it would be natural that the habits
of thought of the period when the Gospel was delivered orally should
have continued to exert influence even after the tradition had been
committed to writing. Although documents might be known and used, they
would not be regarded as the authorities for that which was
independently remembered, and would not, therefore, necessarily be
mentioned. Consequently, it is not strange that citations of sayings of
Christ--and these are the only express citations in writings of the
Subapostolic Age--should be made without the source whence they were
derived being named, and (with a single exception) without any clear
indication that the source was a document. The exception is in the
little treatise commonly called the Epistle of Barnabas, probably
composed about A.D. 130, where (c. iv. 14) the words "many are called
but few chosen" are introduced by the formula "as it is written."

For the identification, therefore, of the source or sources used we have
to rely upon the amount of correspondence with our Gospels in the
quotations made, and in respect to other parallelisms of statement and
of expression, in these early Christian writers. The correspondence is
in the main full and true as regards spirit and substance, but it is
rarely complete in form. The existence of some differences of language
may, however, be too readily taken to disprove derivation. Various forms
of the same saying occurring in different documents, or remembered from
oral tradition and through catechetical instruction, would sometimes be
purposely combined. Or, again, the memory might be confused by this
variety, and the verification of quotations, especially of brief ones,
was difficult, not only from the comparative scarcity of the copies of
books, but also because ancient books were not provided with ready means
of reference to particular passages. On the whole there is clearly a
presumption that where we have striking expressions which are known to
us besides only in one of our Gospel-records, that particular record has
been the source of it. And where there are several such coincidences the
ground for the supposition that the writing in question has been used
may become very strong. There is evidence of this kind, more or less
clear in the several cases, that all the four Gospels were known in the
first two or three decades of the 2nd century. It is fullest as to our
first Gospel and, next to this one, as to our third.

After this time it becomes manifest that, as we should expect, documents
were the recognized authorities for the Gospel history; but there is
still some uncertainty as to the documents upon which reliance was
placed, and the precise estimation in which they were severally held.
This is in part at least due to the circumstance that nearly all the
writings which have remained of the Christian literature belonging to
the period _circa_ A.D. 130-180 are addressed to non-Christians, and
that for the most part they give only summaries of the teaching of
Christ and of the facts of the Gospel, while terms that would not be
understood by, and names that would not carry weight with, others than
Christians are to a large extent avoided. The most important of the
writings now in question are two by Justin Martyr (_circa_ A.D.
145-160), viz. his _Apology_ and his _Dialogue with Trypho_. In the
former of these works he shows plainly his intention of adapting his
language and reasoning to Gentile, and in the latter to Jewish, readers.
In both his name for the Gospel-records is "Memoirs of the Apostles."
After a great deal of controversy there has come to be very wide
agreement that he reckoned the first three Gospels among these Memoirs.
In the case of the second and third there are indications, though slight
ones, that he held the view of their composition and authorship which
was common from the last quarter of the century onwards (see MARK,
GOSPEL OF, and LUKE, GOSPEL OF), but he has made the largest use of our
first Gospel. It is also generally allowed that he was acquainted with
the fourth Gospel, though some think that he used it with a certain
reserve. Evidence may, however, be adduced which goes far to show that
he regarded it, also, as of apostolic authority. There is a good deal of
difference of opinion still as to whether Justin reckoned other sources
for the Gospel-history besides our Gospels among the Apostolic Memoirs.
In this connexion, however, as well as on other grounds, it is a
significant fact that within twenty years or so after the death of
Justin, which probably occurred _circa_ A.D. 160, Tatian, who had been a
hearer of Justin, produced a continuous narrative of the Gospel-history
which received the name _Diatessaron_ ("through four"), in the main a
compilation from our four Gospels.[2]

Before the close of the 2nd century the four Gospels had attained a
position of unique authority throughout the greater part of the Church,
not different from that which they have held since, as is evident from
the treatise of Irenaeus _Against Heresies_ (c. A.D. 180; see esp. iii.
i. 1 f. and x., xi.) and from other evidence only a few years later. The
struggle against Gnosticism, which had been going on during the middle
part of the century, had compelled the Church both to define her creed
and to draw a sharper line of demarcation than heretofore between those
writings whose authority she regarded as absolute and all others. The
effect of this was no doubt to enhance the sense generally entertained
of the value of the four Gospels. At the same time in the formal
statements now made it is plainly implied that the belief expressed is
no new one. And it is, indeed, difficult to suppose that agreement on
this subject between different portions of the Church could have
manifested itself at this time in the spontaneous manner that it does,
except as the consequence of traditional feelings and convictions, which
went back to the early part of the century, and which could hardly have
arisen without good foundation, with respect to the special value of
these works as embodiments of apostolic testimony, although all that
came to be supposed in regard to their actual authorship cannot be
considered proved.

2. _The Internal Criticism of the Gospels._--In the middle of the 19th
century an able school of critics, known as the Tübingen school, sought
to show from indications in the several Gospels that they were composed
well on in the 2nd century in the interests of various strongly marked
parties into which the Church was supposed to have been divided by
differences in regard to the Judaic and Pauline forms of Christianity.
These theories are now discredited. It may on the contrary be
confidently asserted with regard to the first three Gospels that the
local colouring in them is predominantly Palestinian, and that they
show no signs of acquaintance with the questions and the circumstances
of the 2nd century; and that the character even of the Fourth Gospel is
not such as to justify its being placed, at furthest, much after the
beginning of that century.

We turn to the literary criticism of the Gospels, where solid results
have been obtained. The first three Gospels have in consequence of the
large amount of similarity between them in contents, arrangement, and
even in words and the forms of sentences and paragraphs, been called
Synoptic Gospels. It has long been seen that, to account for this
similarity, relations of interdependence between them, or of common
derivation, must be supposed. And the question as to the true theory of
these relations is known as the _Synoptic Problem_. Reference has
already been made to the fact that during the greater part of the
Apostolic age the Gospel history was taught orally. Now some have held
that the form of this oral teaching was to a great extent a fixed one,
and that it was the common source of our first three Gospels. This oral
theory was for a long time the favourite one in England; it was never
widely held in Germany, and in recent years the majority of English
students of the Synoptic Problem have come to feel that it does not
satisfactorily explain the phenomena. Not only are the resemblances too
close, and their character in part not of a kind, to be thus accounted
for, but even many of the differences between parallel contexts are
rather such as would arise through the revision of a document than
through the freedom of oral delivery.

It is now and has for many years been widely held that a document which
is most nearly represented by the Gospel of Mark, or which (as some
would say) was virtually identical with it, has been used in the
composition of our first and third Gospels. This source has supplied the
Synoptic Outline, and in the main also the narratives common to all
three. Questions connected with the history of this document are treated
in the article on MARK, GOSPEL OF.

There is also a considerable amount of matter common to Matthew and
Luke, but not found in Mark. It is introduced into the Synoptic Outline
very differently in those two Gospels, which clearly suggests that it
existed in a separate form, and was independently combined by the first
and third evangelists with their other document. This common matter has
also a character of its own; it consists mainly of pieces of discourse.
The form in which it is given in the two Gospels is in several passages
so nearly identical that we must suppose these pieces at least to have
been derived immediately or ultimately from the same Greek document. In
other cases there is more divergence, but in some of them this is
accounted for by the consideration that in Matthew passages from the
source now in question have been interwoven with parallels in the other
chief common source before mentioned. There are, however, instances in
which no such explanation will serve, and it is possible that our first
and third evangelists may have used two documents which were not in all
respects identical, but which corresponded very closely on the whole.
The ultimate source of the subject matter in question, or of the most
distinctive and larger part of it, was in all probability an Aramaic
one, and in some parts different translations may have been used.

This second source used in the composition of Matthew and Luke has
frequently been called "The Logia" in order to signify that it was a
collection of the sayings and discourses of Jesus. This name has been
suggested by Schleiermacher's interpretation of Papias' fragment on
Matthew (see MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF). But some have maintained that the
source in question also contained a good many narratives, and in order
to avoid any premature assumption as to its contents and character
several recent critics have named it "Q." It may, however, fairly be
called "the Logian document," as a convenient way of indicating the
character of the greater part of the matter which our first and third
evangelists have taken from it, and this designation is used in the
articles on the Gospels of Luke and Matthew. The reconstruction of this
document has been attempted by several critics. The arrangement of its
contents can, it seems, best be learned from Luke.

3. One or two remarks may here be added as to the bearing of the results
of literary criticism upon the use of the Gospels. Their effect is to
lead us, especially when engaged in historical inquiries, to look beyond
our Gospels to their sources, instead of treating the testimony of the
Gospels severally as independent and ultimate. Nevertheless it will
still appear that each Gospel has its distinct value, both historically
and in regard to the moral and spiritual instruction afforded. And the
fruits of much of that older study of the Gospels, which was largely
employed in pointing out the special characteristics of each, will still
prove serviceable.

  AUTHORITIES.--1. German Books: _Introductions to the New
  Testament_--H. J. Holtzmann (3rd ed., 1892), B. Weiss (Eng. trans.,
  1887), Th. Zahn (2nd ed., 1900), G. A. Jülicher (6th ed., 1906; Eng.
  trans., 1904); H. v. Soden, _Urchristliche Literaturgeschichte_, vol.
  i. (1905; Eng. trans., 1906). Books on the Synoptic Gospels,
  especially the Synoptic Problem: H. J. Holtzmann, _Die synoptischen
  Evangelien_ (1863); Weizsäcker, _Untersuchungen über die evangelische
  Geschichte_ (1864); B. Weiss, _Das Marcus-Evangelium und seine
  synoptischen Parallelen_ (1872); _Das Matthäus-Evangelium und seine
  Lucas-Parallelen_ (1876); H. H. Wendt, _Die Lehre Jesu_ (1886); A.
  Resch, _Agrapha_ (1889); &c.; P. Wernle, _Die synoptische Frage_
  (1899); W. Soltau, _Unsere Evangelien, ihre Quellen und ihr
  Quellenwert_ (1901); H. J. Holtzmann, _Hand-Commentar zum N.T._, vol.
  i. (1889); J. Wellhausen, _Das Evangelium Marci_, _Das Evangelium
  Matthäi_, _Das Evangelium Lucas_ (1904), _Einleitung in die drei
  ersten Evangelien_ (1905); A. Harnack, _Sprüche und Reden Jesu, die
  zweite Quelle des Matthäus und Lukas_ (1907).

  2. French Books: A. Loisy, _Les Évangiles synoptiques_ (1907-1908).

  3. English Books: G. Salmon, _Introduction to the New Testament_ (1st
  ed., 1885; 9th ed., 1904); W. Sanday, _Inspiration_ (Lect. vi., 3rd
  ed., 1903); B. F. Westcott, _An Introduction to the Study of the
  Gospels_ (1st ed., 1851; 8th ed., 1895); A. Wright, _The Composition
  of the Four Gospels_ (1890); J. E. Carpenter, _The First Three
  Gospels, their Origin and Relations_ (1890); A. J. Jolley, _The
  Synoptic Problem_ (1893); J. C. Hawkins, _Horae synopticae_ (1899); W.
  Alexander, _Leading Ideas of the Gospels_ (new ed., 1892); E. A.
  Abbott, _Clue_ (1900); J. A. Robinson, _The Study of the Gospels_
  (1902); F. C. Burkitt, _The Gospel History and its Transmission_
  (1906); G. Salmon, _The Human Element in the Gospels_ (1907); V. H.
  Stanton, _The Gospels as Historical Documents_: Pt. I., _The Early Use
  of the Gospels_ (1903); Pt. II., _The Synoptic Gospels_ (1908).

  4. Synopses.--W. G. Rushbrooke, _Synopticon, An Exposition of the
  Common Matter of the Synoptic Gospels_ (1880); A. Wright, _The
  Synopsis of the Gospels in Greek_ (2nd ed., 1903).

  See also the articles on each Gospel, and the article BIBLE, section
  _New Testament_.     (V. H. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For the only two that can be held to be such in the first half of
    the 2nd century, and the doubts whether they refer to our present
    Gospels, see MARK, GOSPEL OF, and MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF.

  [2] The character of Tatian's _Diatessaron_ has been much disputed in
    the past, but there can no longer be any reasonable doubt on the
    subject after recent discoveries and investigations. (An account of
    these may be seen most conveniently in _The Diatessaron of Tatian_,
    by S. Hemphill; see under TATIAN.)



GOSPORT, a seaport in the Fareham parliamentary division of Hampshire,
England, facing Portsmouth across Portsmouth harbour, 81 m. S.W. from
London by the London & Southwestern railway. Pop. of urban district of
Gosport and Alverstoke (1901), 28,884. A ferry and a floating bridge
connect it with Portsmouth. It is enclosed within a double line of
fortifications, consisting of the old Gosport lines, and, about 3000
yds. to the east, a series of forts connected by strong lines with
occasional batteries, forming part of the defence works of Portsmouth
harbour. The principal buildings are the town hall and market hall, and
the church of Holy Trinity, erected in the time of William III. To the
south at Haslar there is a magnificent naval hospital, capable of
containing 2000 patients, and adjoining it a gunboat slipway and large
barracks. To the north is the Royal Clarence victualling yard, with
brewery, cooperage, powder magazines, biscuit-making establishment, and
storehouses for various kinds of provisions for the royal navy.

Gosport (Goseporte, Gozeport, Gosberg, Godsport) was originally included
in Alverstoke manor, held in 1086 by the bishop and monks of Winchester
under whom villeins farmed the land. In 1284 the monks agreed to give up
Alverstoke with Gosport to the bishop, whose successors continued to
hold them until the lands were taken over by the ecclesiastical
commissioners. After the confiscation of the bishop's lands in 1641,
however, the manor of Alverstoke with Gosport was granted to George
Withers, but reverted to the bishop at the Restoration. In the 16th
century Gosport was "a little village of fishermen." It was called a
borough in 1461, when there are also traces of burgage tenure. From 1462
one bailiff was elected annually in the borough court, and government by
a bailiff continued until 1682, when Gosport was included in Portsmouth
borough under the charter of Charles II. to that town. This was
annulled in 1688, since which time there is no evidence of the election
of bailiffs. With this exception no charter of incorporation is known,
although by the 16th century the inhabitants held common property in the
shape of tolls of the ferry. The importance of Gosport increased during
the 16th and 17th centuries owing to its position at the mouth of
Portsmouth harbour, and its convenience as a victualling station. For
this reason also the town was particularly prosperous during the
American and Peninsular Wars. About 1540 fortifications were built there
for the defence of the harbour, and in the 17th century it was a
garrison town under a lord-lieutenant.



GOSS, SIR JOHN (1800-1880), English composer, was born at Fareham,
Hampshire, on the 27th of December 1800. He was elected a chorister of
the Chapel Royal in 1811, and in 1816, on the breaking of his voice,
became a pupil of Attwood. A few early compositions, some for the
theatre, exist, and some glees were published before 1825. He was
appointed organist of St Luke's, Chelsea, in 1824, and in 1838 became
organist of St Paul's in succession to Attwood; he kept the post until
1872, when he resigned and was knighted. His position in the London
musical world of the time was an influential one, and he did much by his
teaching and criticism to encourage the study and appreciation of good
music. In 1876 he was given the degree of Mus.D. at Cambridge. Though
his few orchestral works have very small importance, his church music
includes some fine compositions, such as the anthems "O taste and see,"
"O Saviour of the world" and others. He was the last of the great
English school of church composers who devoted themselves almost
exclusively to church music; and in the history of the glee his is an
honoured name, if only on account of his finest work in that form, the
five-part glee, Ossian's "Hymn to the sun." He died at Brixton, London,
on the 10th of May 1880.



GOSSAMER, a fine, thread like and filmy substance spun by small spiders,
which is seen covering stubble fields and gorse bushes, and floating in
the air in clear weather; especially in the autumn. By transference
anything light, unsubstantial or flimsy is known as "gossamer." A thin
gauzy material used for trimming and millinery, resembling the "chiffon"
of to-day, was formerly known as gossamer; and in the early Victorian
period it was a term used in the hat trade, for silk hats of very light
weight.

The word is obscure in origin, it is found in numerous forms in English,
and is apparently taken from _gose_, goose and _somere_, summer. The
Germans have _Mädchensommer_, maidens' summer, and _Altweibersommer_,
old women's summer, as well as _Sommerfäden_, summer-threads, as
equivalent to the English gossamer, the connexion apparently being that
gossamer is seen most frequently in the warm days of late autumn (St
Martin's summer) when geese are also in season. Another suggestion is
that the word is a corruption of _gaze à Marie_ (gauze of Mary) through
the legend that gossamer was originally the threads which fell away from
the Virgin's shroud on her assumption.



GOSSE, EDMUND (1849-   ), English poet and critic, was born in London on
the 21st of September 1849, son of the zoologist P. H. Gosse. In 1867 he
became an assistant in the department of printed books in the British
Museum, where he remained until he became in 1875 translator to the
Board of Trade. In 1904 he was appointed librarian to the House of
Lords. In 1884-1890 he was Clark Lecturer in English literature at
Trinity College, Cambridge. Himself a writer of literary verse of much
grace, and master of a prose style admirably expressive of a wide and
appreciative culture, he was conspicuous for his valuable work in
bringing foreign literature home to English readers. _Northern Studies_
(1879), a collection of essays on the literature of Holland and
Scandinavia, was the outcome of a prolonged visit to those countries,
and was followed by later work in the same direction. He translated
Ibsen's _Hedda Gabler_ (1891), and, with W. Archer, _The Master-Builder_
(1893), and in 1907 he wrote a life of Ibsen for the "Literary Lives"
series. He also edited the English translation of the works of Björnson.
His services to Scandinavian letters were acknowledged in 1901, when he
was made a knight of the Norwegian order of St Olaf of the first class.
Mr Gosse's published volumes of verse include _On Viol and Flute_
(1873), _King Erik_ (1876), _New Poems_ (1879), _Firdausi in Exile_
(1885), _In Russet and Silver_ (1894), _Collected Poems_ (1896).
_Hypolympia, or the Gods on the Island_ (1901), an "ironic phantasy,"
the scene of which is laid in the 20th century, though the personages
are Greek gods, is written in prose, with some blank verse. His
_Seventeenth Century Studies_ (1883), _Life of William Congreve_ (1888),
_The Jacobean Poets_ (1894), _Life and Letters of Dr John Donne, Dean of
St Paul's_ (1899), _Jeremy Taylor_ (1904, "English Men of Letters"), and
_Life of Sir Thomas Browne_ (1905) form a very considerable body of
critical work on the English 17th-century writers. He also wrote a life
of Thomas Gray, whose works he edited (4 vols., 1884); _A History of
Eighteenth Century Literature_ (1889); a _History of Modern English
Literature_ (1897), and vols. iii. and iv. of an _Illustrated Record of
English Literature_ (1903-1904) undertaken in connexion with Dr Richard
Garnett. Mr Gosse was always a sympathetic student of the younger school
of French and Belgian writers, some of his papers on the subject being
collected as _French Profiles_ (1905). _Critical Kit-Kats_ (1896)
contains an admirable criticism of J. M. de Heredia, reminiscences of
Lord de Tabley and others. He edited Heinemann's series of "Literature
of the World" and the same publisher's "International Library." To the
9th edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ he contributed numerous
articles, and his services as chief literary adviser in the preparation
of the 10th and 11th editions incidentally testify to the high position
held by him in the contemporary world of letters. In 1905 he was
entertained in Paris by the leading _littérateurs_ as a representative
of English literary culture. In 1907 Mr Gosse published anonymously
_Father and Son_, an intimate study of his own early family life. He
married Ellen, daughter of Dr G. W. Epps, and had a son and two
daughters.



GOSSE, PHILIP HENRY (1810-1888), English naturalist, was born at
Worcester on the 6th of April 1810, his father, Thomas Gosse (1765-1844)
being a miniature painter. In his youth the family settled at Poole,
where Gosse's turn for natural history was noticed and encouraged by his
aunt, Mrs Bell, the mother of the zoologist, Thomas Bell (1792-1880). He
had, however, little opportunity for developing it until, in 1827, he
found himself clerk in a whaler's office at Carbonear, in Newfoundland,
where he beguiled the tedium of his life by observations, chiefly with
the microscope. After a brief and unsuccessful interlude of farming in
Canada, during which he wrote an unpublished work on the entomology of
Newfoundland, he travelled in the United States, was received and
noticed by men of science, was employed as a teacher for some time in
Alabama, and returned to England in 1839. His _Canadian Naturalist_
(1840), written on the voyage home, was followed in 1843 by his
_Introduction to Zoology_. His first widely popular book was _The Ocean_
(1844). In 1844 Gosse, who had meanwhile been teaching in London, was
sent by the British Museum to collect specimens of natural history in
Jamaica. He spent nearly two years on that island, and after his return
published his _Birds of Jamaica_ (1847) and his _Naturalist's Sojourn in
Jamaica_ (1851). He also wrote about this time several zoological works
for the S.P.C.K., and laboured to such an extent as to impair his
health. While recovering at Ilfracombe, he was attracted by the forms of
marine life so abundant on that shore, and in 1853 published _A
Naturalist's Rambles on the Devonshire Coast_, accompanied by a
description of the marine aquarium invented by him, by means of which he
succeeded in preserving zoophytes and other marine animals of the
humbler grades alive and in good condition away from the sea. This
arrangement was more fully set forth and illustrated in his _Aquarium_
(1854), succeeded in 1855-1856 by _A Manual of Marine Zoology_, in two
volumes, illustrated by nearly 700 wood engravings after the author's
drawings. A volume on the marine fauna of Tenby succeeded in 1856. In
June of the same year he was elected F.R.S. Gosse, who was a most
careful observer, but who lacked the philosophical spirit, was now
tempted to essay work of a more ambitious order, publishing in 1857 two
books, _Life_ and _Omphalos_, embodying his speculations on the
appearance of life on the earth, which he considered to have been
instantaneous, at least as regarded its higher forms. His views met with
no favour from scientific men, and he returned to the field of
observation, which he was better qualified to cultivate. Taking up his
residence at St Marychurch, in South Devon, he produced from 1858 to
1860 his standard work on sea-anemones, the _Actinologia Britannica_.
_The Romance of Natural History_ and other popular works followed. In
1865 he abandoned authorship, and chiefly devoted himself to the
cultivation of orchids. Study of the Rotifera, however, also engaged his
attention, and his results were embodied in a monograph by Dr C. T.
Hudson (1886). He died at St Marychurch on the 23rd of August 1888.

  _His life was written by his son, Edmund Gosse._



GOSSEC, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH (1734-1829), French musical composer, son of a
small farmer, was born at the village of Vergnies, in Belgian Hainaut,
and showing early a taste for music became a choir-boy at Antwerp. He
went to Paris in 1751 and was taken up by Rameau. He became conductor of
a private band kept by La Popelinière, a wealthy amateur, and gradually
determined to do something to revive the study of instrumental music in
France. He had his own first symphony performed in 1754, and as
conductor to the Prince de Condé's orchestra he produced several operas
and other compositions of his own. He imposed his influence upon French
music with remarkable success, founded the Concert des Amateurs in 1770,
organized the École de Chant in 1784, was conductor of the band of the
Garde Nationale at the Revolution, and was appointed (with Méhul and
Cherubini) inspector of the Conservatoire de Musique when this
institution was created in 1795. He was an original member of the
Institute and a chevalier of the legion of honour. Outside France he was
but little known, and his own numerous compositions, sacred and secular,
were thrown into the shade by those of men of greater genius; but he has
a place in history as the inspirer of others, and as having powerfully
stimulated the revival of instrumental music. He died at Passy on the
16th of February 1829.

  See the _Lives_ by P. Hédouin (1852) and E. G. J. Gregoir (1878).



GOSSIP (from the O.E. _godsibb_, i.e. God, and _sib_, akin, standing in
relation to), originally a god-parent, i.e. one who by taking a
sponsor's vows at a baptism stands in a spiritual relationship to the
child baptized. The common modern meaning is of light personal or social
conversation, or, with an invidious sense, of idle tale-bearing.
"Gossip" was early used with the sense of a friend or acquaintance,
either of the parent of the child baptized or of the other god-parents,
and thus came to be used, with little reference to the position of
sponsor, for women friends of the mother present at a birth; the
transition of meaning to an idle chatterer or talker for talking's sake
is easy. The application to the idle talk of such persons does not
appear to be an early one.



GOSSNER, JOHANNES EVANGELISTA (1773-1858), German divine and
philanthropist, was born at Hausen near Augsburg on the 14th of December
1773, and educated at the university of Dillingen. Here like Martin Boos
and others he came under the spell of the Evangelical movement promoted
by Johann Michael Sailer, the professor of pastoral theology. After
taking priest's orders, Gossner held livings at Dirlewang (1804-1811)
and Munich (1811-1817), but his evangelical tendencies brought about his
dismissal and in 1826 he formally left the Roman Catholic for the
Protestant communion. As minister of the Bethlehem church in Berlin
(1829-1846) he was conspicuous not only for practical and effective
preaching, but for the founding of schools, asylums and missionary
agencies. He died on the 20th of March 1858.

  _Lives_ by Bethmann-Hollweg (Berlin, 1858) and H. Dalton (Berlin,
  1878).



GOSSON, STEPHEN (1554-1624), English satirist, was baptized at St
George's, Canterbury, on the 17th of April 1554. He entered Corpus
Christi College, Oxford, 1572, and on leaving the university in 1576 he
went to London. In 1598 Francis Meres in his _Palladis Tamia_ mentions
him with Sidney, Spenser, Abraham Fraunce and others among the "best for
pastorall," but no pastorals of his are extant. He is said to have been
an actor, and by his own confession he wrote plays, for he speaks of
_Catilines Conspiracies_ as a "Pig of mine own Sowe." To this play and
some others, on account of their moral intention, he extends indulgence
in the general condemnation of stage plays contained in his _Schoole of
Abuse, containing a pleasant invective against Poets, Pipers, Plaiers,
Jesters and such like Caterpillars of the Commonwealth_ (1579). The
euphuistic style of this pamphlet and its ostentatious display of
learning were in the taste of the time, and do not necessarily imply
insincerity. Gosson justified his attack by considerations of the
disorder which the love of melodrama and of vulgar comedy was
introducing into the social life of London. It was not only by
extremists like Gosson that these abuses were recognized. Spenser, in
his _Teares of the Muses_ (1591), laments the same evils, although only
in general terms. The tract was dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney, who
seems not unnaturally to have resented being connected with a pamphlet
which opened with a comprehensive denunciation of poets, for Spenser,
writing to Gabriel Harvey (Oct. 16, 1579) of the dedication, says the
author "was for hys labor scorned." He dedicated, however, a second
tract, _The Ephemerides of Phialo ... and A Short Apologie of the
Schoole of Abuse_, to Sidney on Oct. 28th, 1579. Gosson's abuse of poets
seems to have had a large share in inducing Sidney to write his
_Apologie for Poetrie_, which probably dates from 1581. After the
publication of the _Schoole of Abuse_ Gosson retired into the country,
where he acted as tutor to the sons of a gentleman (_Plays Confuted_.
"To the Reader," 1582). Anthony à Wood places this earlier and assigns
the termination of his tutorship indirectly to his animosity against the
stage, which apparently wearied his patron of his company. The
publication of his polemic provoked many retorts, the most formidable of
which was Thomas Lodge's _Defence of Playes_ (1580). The players
themselves retaliated by reviving Gosson's own plays. Gosson replied to
his various opponents in 1582 by his _Playes Confuted in Five Actions_,
dedicated to Sir Francis Walsingham. Meanwhile he had taken orders, was
made lecturer of the parish church at Stepney (1585), and was presented
by the queen to the rectory of Great Wigborough, Essex, which he
exchanged in 1600 for St Botolph's, Bishopsgate. He died on the 13th of
February 1624. _Pleasant Quippes for Upstart New-fangled Gentlewomen_
(1595), a coarse satiric poem, is also ascribed to Gosson.

  The _Schoole of Abuse and Apologie_ were edited (1868) by Prof. E.
  Arber in his _English Reprints_. Two poems of Gosson's are included.



GOT, FRANÇOIS JULES EDMOND (1822-1901), French actor, was born at
Lignerolles on the 1st of October 1822, and entered the Conservatoire in
1841, winning the second prize for comedy that year and the first in
1842. After a year of military service he made his début at the Comédie
Française on the 17th of July 1844, as Alexis in _Les Héritiers_ and
Mascarelles in _Les Précieuses ridicules_. He was immediately admitted
_pensionnaire_, and became _sociétaire_ in 1850. By special permission
of the emperor in 1866 he played at the Odéon in Emile Augier's
_Contagion_. His golden jubilee at the Théâtre Français was celebrated
in 1894, and he made his final appearance the year after. Got was a fine
representative of the grand style of French acting, and was much admired
in England as well as in Paris. He wrote the libretto of the opera
_François Villon_ (1857) and also of _L'Esclave_ (1874). In 1881 he was
decorated with the cross of the Legion of Honour.



GÖTA, a river of Sweden, draining the great Lake Vener. The name,
however, is more familiar in its application to the canal which affords
communication between Gothenburg and Stockholm. The river flows out of
the southern extremity of the lake almost due south to the Cattegat,
which it enters by two arms enclosing the island of Hisingen, the
eastern forming the harbour and bearing the heavy sea-traffic of the
port of Gothenburg. The Göta river is 50 m. in length, and is navigable
for large vessels, a series of locks surmounting the famous falls of
Trollhättan (q.v.). Passing the abrupt wooded Halleberg and Hunneberg
(royal shooting preserves) Lake Vener is reached at Venersborg. Several
important ports lie on the north, east and south shores (see VENER).
From Sjötorp, midway on the eastern shore, the western Göta canal leads
S.E. to Karlsborg. Its course necessitates over twenty locks to raise it
from the Vener level (144 ft.) to its extreme height of 300 ft., and
lower it over the subsequent fall through the small lakes Viken and
Botten to Lake Vetter (q.v.; 289 ft.), which the route crosses to
Motala. The eastern canal continues eastward from this point, and a
descent is followed through five locks to Lake Boren, after which the
canal, carried still at a considerable elevation, overlooks a rich and
beautiful plain. The picturesque Lake Roxen with its ruined castle of
Stjernarp is next traversed. At Norsholm a branch canal connects Lake
Glan to the north, giving access to the important manufacturing centre
of Norrköping. Passing Lake Asplången, the canal follows a cut through
steep rocks, and then resumes an elevated course to the old town of
Söderköping, after which the Baltic is reached at Mem. Vessels plying to
Stockholm run N.E. among the coastal island-fringe (_skärgård_), and
then follow the Södertelge canal into Lake Mälar. The whole distance
from Gothenburg to Stockholm is about 360 m., and the voyage takes about
2½ days. The length of artificial work on the Göta canal proper is 54
m., and there are 58 locks. The scenery is not such as will bear adverse
weather conditions; that of the western canal is without any interest
save in the remarkable engineering work. The idea of a canal dates from
1516, but the construction was organized by Baron von Platten and
engineered by Thomas Telford in 1810-1832. The falls of Trollhättan had
already been locked successfully in 1800.



GOTARZES, or GOTERZES, king of Parthia (c. A.D. 42-51). In an
inscription at the foot of the rock of Behistun[1] he is called [Greek:
Gôtarzês Geopothros], i.e. "son of Gew," and seems to be designated as
"satrap of satrap." This inscription therefore probably dates from the
reign of Artabanus II. (A.D. 10-40), to whose family Gotarzes must have
belonged. From a very barbarous coin of Gotarzes with the inscription
[Greek: Basileôs basileôn Arsanoz uos kekaloumenos Artabavou Gôtepzês]
(Wroth, _Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia_, p. 165; _Numism_. _Chron._,
1900, p. 95; the earlier readings of this inscription are wrong), which
must be translated "king of kings Arsakes, named son of Artabanos,
Gotarzes," it appears that he was adopted by Artabanus. When the
troublesome reign of Artabanus II. ended in A.D. 39 or 40, he was
succeeded by Vardanes, probably his son; but against him in 41 rose
Gotarzes (the dates are fixed by the coins). He soon made himself
detested by his cruelty--among many other murders he even slew his
brother Artabanus and his whole family (Tac. _Ann._ xi. 8)--and Vardanes
regained the throne in 42; Gotarzes fled to Hyrcania and gathered an
army from the Dahan nomads. The war between the two kings was at last
ended by a treaty, as both were afraid of the conspiracies of their
nobles. Gotarzes returned to Hyrcania. But when Vardanes was
assassinated in 45, Gotarzes was acknowledged in the whole empire (Tac.
_Ann._ xi. 9 ff.; Joseph. _Antiq._ xx. 3, 4, where Gotarzes is called
Kotardes). He now takes on his coins the usual Parthian titles, "king of
kings Arsaces the benefactor, the just, the illustrious (_Epiphanes_),
the friend of the Greeks (_Philhellen_)," without mentioning his proper
name. The discontent excited by his cruelty and luxury induced the
hostile party to apply to the emperor Claudius and fetch from Rome an
Arsacid prince Meherdates (i.e. Mithradates), who lived there as
hostage. He crossed the Euphrates in 49, but was beaten and taken
prisoner by Gotarzes, who cut off his ears (Tac. _Ann._ xii. 10 ff.).
Soon after Gotarzes died, according to Tacitus, of an illness; Josephus
says that he was murdered. His last coin is dated from June 51.

  An earlier "Arsakes with the name Gotarzes," mentioned on some
  astronomical tablets from Babylon (Strassmaier in _Zeitschr. für
  Assyriologie_, vi. 216; Mahler in _Wiener Zeitschr. für Kunde des
  Morgenlands_, xv. 63 ff.), appears to have reigned for some time in
  Babylonia about 87 B.C.     (Ed. M.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Rawlinson, _Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc._ ix. 114; Flandin and Coste,
    _La Perse ancienne_, i. tab. 19; Dittenberger, _Orientis Graeci
    inscr._ 431.



GOTHA, a town of Germany, alternately with Coburg the residence of the
dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, in a pleasant situation on the Leine canal,
6 m. N. of the slope of the Thuringian forest, 17 m. W. from Erfurt, on
the railway to Bebra-Cassel. Pop. (1905) 36,906. It consists of an old
inner town and encircling suburbs, and is dominated by the castle of
Friedenstein, lying on the Schlossberg at an elevation of 1100 ft. With
the exception of those in the older portion of the town, the streets are
handsome and spacious, and the beautiful gardens and promenades between
the suburbs and the castle add greatly to the town's attractiveness. To
the south of the castle there is an extensive and finely adorned park.
To the north-west of the town the Galberg--on which there is a public
pleasure garden--and to the south-west the Seeberg rise to a height of
over 1300 ft. and afford extensive views. The castle of Friedenstein,
begun by Ernest the Pious, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, in 1643 and
completed in 1654, occupies the site of the old fortress of
Grimmenstein. It is a huge square building flanked with two wings,
having towers rising to the height of about 140 ft. It contains the
ducal cabinet of coins and the ducal library of nearly 200,000 volumes,
among which are several rare editions and about 6900 manuscripts. The
picture gallery, the cabinet of engravings, the natural history museum,
the Chinese museum, and the cabinet of art, which includes a collection
of Egyptian, Etruscan, Roman and German antiquities, are now included in
the new museum, completed in 1878, which stands on a terrace to the
south of the castle. The principal other public buildings are the church
of St Margaret with a beautiful portal and a lofty tower, founded in the
12th century, twice burnt down, and rebuilt in its present form in 1652;
the church of the Augustinian convent, with an altar-piece by the
painter Simon Jacobs; the theatre; the fire insurance bank and the life
insurance bank; the ducal palace, in the Italian villa style, with a
winter garden and picture gallery; the buildings of the ducal
legislature; the hospital; the old town-hall, dating from the 11th
century; the old residence of the painter Lucas Cranach, now used as a
girls' school; the ducal stable; and the Friedrichsthal palace, now used
as public offices. The educational establishments include a gymnasium
(founded in 1524, one of the most famous in Germany), two training
schools for teachers, conservatoires of music and several scientific
institutions. Gotha is remarkable for its insurance societies and for
the support it has given to cremation. The crematorium was long regarded
as a model for such establishments.

Gotha is one of the most active commercial towns of Thuringia, its
manufactures including sausages, for which it has a great reputation,
porcelain, tobacco, sugar, machinery, mechanical and surgical
instruments, musical instruments, shoes, lamps and toys. There are also
a number of nurseries and market gardens. The book trade is represented
by about a dozen firms, including that of the great geographical house
of Justus Perthes, founded in 1785.

Gotha (in old chronicles called _Gotegewe_ and later _Gotaha_) existed
as a village in the time of Charlemagne. In 930 its lord Gothard abbot
of Hersfeld surrounded it with walls. It was known as a town as early as
1200, about which time it came into the possession of the landgraves of
Thuringia. On the extinction of that line Gotha came into the possession
of the electors of Saxony, and it fell later to the Ernestine line of
dukes. After the battle of Mühlberg in 1547 the castle of Grimmenstein
was partly destroyed, but it was again restored in 1554. In 1567 the
town was taken from Duke John Frederick by the elector Augustus of
Saxony. After the death of John Frederick's sons, it came into the
possession of Duke Ernest the Pious, the founder of the line of the
dukes of Gotha; and on the extinction of this family it was united in
1825 along with the dukedom to Coburg.

  See _Gotha und seine Umgebung_ (Gotha, 1851); Kühne, _Beiträge zur
  Geschichte der Entwicklung der socialen Zustände der Stadt und des
  Herzogtums Gotha_ (Gotha, 1862); Humbert, _Les Villes de la Thuringe_
  (Paris, 1869), and Beck, _Geschichte der Stadt Gotha_ (Gotha, 1870).



GOTHAM, WISE MEN OF, the early name given to the people of the village
of Gotham, Nottingham, in allusion to their reputed simplicity. But if
tradition is to be believed the Gothamites were not so very simple. The
story is that King John intended to live in the neighbourhood, but that
the villagers, foreseeing ruin as the cost of supporting the court,
feigned imbecility when the royal messengers arrived. Wherever the
latter went they saw the rustics engaged in some absurd task. John, on
this report, determined to have his hunting lodge elsewhere, and the
"wise men" boasted, "we ween there are more fools pass through Gotham
than remain in it." The "foles of Gotham" are mentioned as early as the
15th century in the _Towneley Mysteries_; and a collection of their
"jests" was published in the 16th century under the title _Merrie Tales
of the Mad Men of Gotham, gathered together by A.B., of Phisicke
Doctour_. The "A.B." was supposed to represent Andrew Borde or Boorde
(1490?-1549), famous among other things for his wit, but he probably had
nothing to do with the compilation. As typical of the Gothamite folly is
usually quoted the story of the villagers joining hands round a
thornbush to shut in a cuckoo so that it would sing all the year. The
localizing of fools is common to most countries, and there are many
other reputed "imbecile" centres in England besides Gotham. Thus there
are the people of Coggeshall, Essex, the "carles of Austwick,"
Yorkshire, "the gowks of Gordon," Berwickshire, and for many centuries
the charge of folly has been made against "silly" Suffolk and Norfolk
(_Descriptio Norfolciensium_ about 12th century, printed in Wright's
_Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems_). In Germany there are the
_Schildburgers_, in Holland the people of Kampen. Among the ancient
Greeks Boeotia was the home of fools; among the Thracians, Abdera; among
the ancient Jews, Nazareth.

  See W. A. Clouston, _Book of Noodles_ (London, 1888); R. H.
  Cunningham, _Amusing Prose Chap-books_ (1889).



GOTHENBURG (Swed. _Göteborg_), a city and seaport of Sweden, on the
river Göta, 5 m. above its mouth in the Cattegat, 285 m. S.W. of
Stockholm by rail, and 360 by the Göta canal-route. Pop. (1900) 130,619.
It is the chief town of the district (_län_) of Göteborg och Bohus, and
the seat of a bishop. It lies on the east or left bank of the river,
which is here lined with quays on both sides, those on the west
belonging to the large island of Hisingen, contained between arms of the
Göta. On this island are situated the considerable suburbs of Lindholmen
and Lundby.

The city itself stretches east and south from the river, with extensive
and pleasant residential suburbs, over a wooded plain enclosed by low
hills. The inner city, including the business quarter, is contained
almost entirely between the river and the Rosenlunds canal, continued in
the Vallgraf, the moat of the old fortifications; and is crossed by the
Storahamn, Östrahamn and Vestrahamn canals. The Storahamn is flanked by
the handsome tree-planted quays, Norra and Södra Hamngatan. The first of
these, starting from the Stora Bommenshamn, where the sea-going
passenger-steamers lie, leads past the museum to the Gustaf-Adolfs-Torg.
The museum, in the old East India Company's house, has fine collections
in natural history, entomology, botany, anatomy, archaeology and
ethnography, a picture and sculpture gallery, and exhibits of coins and
industrial art. Gustaf-Adolfs-Torg is the business centre, and contains
the town-hail (1670) and exchange (1849). Here are statues by B. E.
Fogelberg of Gustavus Adolphus and of Odin, and of Oscar I. by J. P.
Molin. Among several churches in this quarter of the city is the
cathedral (_Gustavii Domkyrka_), a cruciform church founded in 1633 and
rebuilt after fires in 1742 and 1815. Here are also the customs-house
and residence of the governor of the _län_. On the north side, closely
adjacent, are the Lilla Bommenshamn, where the Göta canal steamers lie,
and the two principal railway stations, Statens and Bergslafs Bangård.
Above the Rosenlunds canal rises a low, rocky eminence, Lilla
Otterhälleberg. The inner city is girdled on the south and east by the
Kungspark, which contains Molin's famous group of statuary, the
Belt-bucklers (_Bältespännare_), and by the beautiful gardens of the
Horticultural Society (_Trädgårdsforeningen_). These grounds are
traversed by the broad Nya Allé, a favourite promenade, and beyond them
lies the best residential quarter, the first houses facing Vasa Street,
Vasa Park and Kungsport Avenue. At the north end of the last are the
university and the New theatre. At the west end of Vasa Street is the
city library, the most important in the country except the royal library
at Stockholm and the university libraries at Upsala and Lund. The
suburbs are extensive. To the south-west are Majorna and Masthugget,
with numerous factories. Beyond these lie the fine Slottskog Park,
planted with oaks, and picturesquely broken by rocky hills commanding
views of the busy river and the city. The suburb of Annedal is the
workmen's quarter; others are Landala, Garda and Stampen. All are
connected with the city by electric tramways. Six railways leave the
city from four stations. The principal lines, from the Statens and
Bergslafs stations, run N. to Trollhättan, and into Norway
(Christiania); N.E. between Lakes Vener and Vetter to Stockholm, Falun
and the north; E. to Borås and beyond, and S. by the coast to
Helsingborg, &c. From the Vestgöta station a narrow-gauge line runs N.E.
to Skara and the southern shores of Vener, and from Sarö station near
Slottskog Park a line serves Sarö, a seaside watering-place on an island
20 m. S. of Gothenburg.

The city has numerous important educational establishments. The
university (_Högskola_) was a private foundation (1891), but is governed
by a board, the members of which are nominated by the state, the town
council, Royal Society of Science and Literature, directors of the
museum, and the staffs of the various local colleges. There are several
boys' schools, a college for girls, a scientific college, a commercial
college (1826), a school of navigation, and Chalmers' Polytechnical
College, founded by William Chalmers (1748-1811), a native of Gothenburg
of English parentage. He bequeathed half his fortune to this
institution, and the remainder to the Sahlgrenska hospital. A people's
library was founded by members of the family of Dickson, several of whom
have taken a prominent part in philanthropical works in the city. The
connexion of the family with Gothenburg dates from 1802, when Robert
Dickson, a native of Montrose in Scotland, founded the business in which
he was joined in 1807 by his brother James.

In respect of industry and commerce as a whole Gothenburg ranks as
second to Stockholm in the kingdom; but it is actually the principal
centre of export trade and port of register; and as a manufacturing town
it is slightly inferior to Malmö. Its principal industrial
establishments are mechanical works (both in the city and at Lundby),
saw-mills, dealing with the timber which is brought down the Göta,
flour-mills, margarine factories, breweries and distilleries, tobacco
works, cotton mills, dyeing and bleaching works (at Levanten in the
vicinity), furniture factories, paper and leather works, and
shipbuilding yards. The vessels registered at the port in 1901 were 247
of 120,488 tons. There are about 3 m. of quays approachable by vessels
drawing 20 ft., and slips for the accommodation of large vessels.
Gothenburg is the principal port of embarkation of Swedish emigrants for
America.

The city is governed by a council including two mayors, and returns nine
members to the second chamber of the Riksdag (parliament).

Founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1619, Gothenburg was from the first
designed to be fortified, a town of the same name founded on Hisingen in
1603 having been destroyed by the Danes during the Calmar war. From
1621, when it was first chartered, it steadily increased, though it
suffered greatly in the Danish wars of the last half of the 17th and the
beginning of the 18th centuries, and from several extensive
conflagrations (the last in 1813), which have destroyed important
records of its history. The great development of its herring fishery in
the latter part of the 18th century gave a new impulse to the city's
trade, which was kept up by the influence of the "Continental System,"
under which Gothenburg became a depot for the colonial merchandise of
England. After the fall of Napoleon it began to decline, but after its
closer connexion with the interior of the country by the Göta canal
(opened 1832) and Western railway it rapidly advanced both in population
and trade. Since the demolition of its fortifications in 1807, it has
been defended only by some small forts. Gothenburg was the birthplace of
the poet Bengt Lidner (1757-1793) and two of Sweden's greatest
sculptors, Bengt Erland Fogelberg (1786-1854) and Johann Peter Molin
(1814-1873). After the French Revolution Gothenburg was for a time the
residence of the Bourbon family. The name of this city is associated
with the municipal licensing system known as the Gothenburg System (see
LIQUOR LAWS).

  See W. Berg, _Samlingar till Göteborgs historia_ (Gothenburg, 1893);
  Lagerberg, _Göteborg i äldre och nyare tid_ (Gothenburg, 1902);
  Fröding, _Det forna Göteborg_ (Stockholm, 1903).



GOTHIC, the term generally applied to medieval architecture, and more
especially to that in which the pointed arch appears. The style was at
one time supposed to have originated with the warlike people known as
the Goths, some of whom (the East Goths, or Ostrogoths) settled in the
eastern portion of Europe, and others (the West Goths, or Visigoths) in
the Asturias of Spain; but as no buildings or remains of any description
have ever been found, in which there are any traces of an independent
construction in either brick or stone, the title is misleading; since,
however, it is now so generally accepted it would be difficult to change
it. The term when first employed was one of reproach, as Evelyn (1702)
when speaking of the faultless building (i.e. classic) says, "they were
demolished by the Goths or Vandals, who introduced their own licentious
style now called modern or Gothic." The employment of the pointed arch
in Syria, Egypt and Sicily from the 8th century onwards by the
Mahommedans for their mosques and gateways, some four centuries before
it made its appearance in Europe, also makes it advisable to adhere to
the old term Gothic in preference to Pointed Architecture. (See
ARCHITECTURE)



GÖTHITE, or GOETHITE, a mineral composed of an iron hydrate, Fe2O3·H2O,
crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with diaspore
and manganite (q.v.). It was first noticed in 1789, and in 1806 was
named after the poet Goethe. Crystals are prismatic, acicular or scaly
in habit; they have a perfect cleavage parallel to the brachypinacoid (M
in the figure). Reniform and stalactitic masses with a radiated fibrous
structure also occur. The colour varies from yellowish or reddish to
blackish-brown, and by transmitted light it is often blood-red; the
streak is brownish-yellow; hardness, 5; specific gravity, 4.3. The best
crystals are the brilliant, blackish-brown prisms with terminal
pyramidal planes (fig.) from the Restormel iron mines at Lostwithiel,
and the Botallack mine at St Just in Cornwall. A variety occurring as
thin red scales at Siegen in Westphalia is known as Rubinglimmer or
pyrrhosiderite (from Gr. [Greek: pyrros], flame-coloured, and [Greek:
sidêros], iron): a scaly-fibrous variety from the same locality is
called lepidocrocite (from [Greek: lepis], scale, and [Greek: krokis],
fibre). Sammetblende or przibramite is a variety, from Przibram in
Bohemia, consisting of delicate acicular or capillary crystals arranged
in radiating groups with a velvety surface and yellow colour.

[Illustration]

Göthite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite,
and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of
iron. It often occurs also as an enclosure in other minerals. Acicular
crystals, resembling rutile in appearance, sometimes penetrate crystals
of pale-coloured amethyst, for instance, at Wolf's Island in Lake Onega
in Russia: this form of the mineral has long been known as onegite, and
the crystals enclosing it are cut for ornamental purposes under the name
of "Cupid's darts" (_flèches d'amour_). The metallic glitter of
avanturine or sun-stone (q.v.) is due to the enclosed scales of göthite
and certain other minerals.     (L. J. S.)



GOTHS

  Early history.

(_Gotones_, later _Gothis_), a Teutonic people who in the 1st century of
the Christian era appear to have inhabited the middle part of the basin
of the Vistula. They were probably the easternmost of the Teutonic
peoples. According to their own traditions as recorded by Jordanes, they
had come originally from the island Scandza, i.e. Skåne or Sweden, under
the leadership of a king named Berig, and landed first in a region
called Gothiscandza. Thence they invaded the territories of the Ulmerugi
(the Holmryge of Anglo-Saxon tradition), probably in the neighbourhood
of Rügenwalde in eastern Pomerania, and conquered both them and the
neighbouring Vandals. Under their sixth king Filimer they migrated into
Scythia and settled in a district which they called Oium. The rest of
their early history, as it is given by Jordanes following Cassiodorus,
is due to an erroneous identification of the Goths with the Getae, and
ancient Thracian people.

The credibility of the story of the migration from Sweden has been much
discussed by modern authors. The legend was not peculiar to the Goths,
similar traditions being current among the Langobardi, the Burgundians,
and apparently several other Teutonic nations. It has been observed with
truth that so many populous nations can hardly have sprung from the
Scandinavian peninsula; on the other hand, the existence of these
traditions certainly requires some explanation. Possibly, however, many
of the royal families may have contained an element of Scandinavian
blood, a hypothesis which would well accord with the social conditions
of the migration period, as illustrated, e.g., in _Völsunga Saga_ and in
_Hervarar Saga ok Heiðreks Konungs_. In the case of the Goths a
connexion with Gotland is not unlikely, since it is clear from
archaeological evidence that this island had an extensive trade with the
coasts about the mouth of the Vistula in early times. If, however, there
was any migration at all, one would rather have expected it to have
taken place in the reverse direction. For the origin of the Goths can
hardly be separated from that of the Vandals, whom according to
Procopius they resembled in language and in all other respects. Moreover
the Gepidae, another Teutonic people, who are said to have formerly
inhabited the delta of the Vistula, also appear to have been closely
connected with the Goths. According to Jordanes they participated in the
migration from Scandza.

Apart from a doubtful reference by Pliny to a statement of the early
traveller Pytheas, the first notices we have of the Goths go back to the
first years of the Christian era, at which time they seem to have been
subject to the Marcomannic king Maroboduus. They do not enter into Roman
history, however, until after the beginning of the 3rd century, at which
time they appear to have come in conflict with the emperor Caracalla.
During this century their frontier seems to have been advanced
considerably farther south, and the whole country as far as the lower
Danube was frequently ravaged by them. The emperor Gordianus is called
"victor Gothorum" by Capitolinus, though we have no record of the ground
for the claim, and further conflicts are recorded with his successors,
one of whom, Decius, was slain by the Goths in Moesia. According to
Jordanes the kings of the Goths during these campaigns were Ostrogotha
and afterwards Cniva, the former of whom is praised also in the
Anglo-Saxon poem _Widsith_. The emperor Gallus was forced to pay tribute
to the Goths. By this time they had reached the coasts of the Black Sea,
and during the next twenty years they frequently ravaged the maritime
regions of Asia Minor and Greece. Aurelian is said to have won a victory
over them, but the province of Dacia had to be given up. In the time of
Constantine the Great Thrace and Moesia were again plundered by the
Goths, A.D. 321. Constantine drove them back and concluded peace with
their king Ariaric in 336. From the end of the 3rd century we hear of
subdivisions of the nation called Greutungi, Teruingi, Austrogothi
(Ostrogothi), Visigothi, Taifali, though it is not clear whether these
were all distinct.

Though by this time the Goths had extended their territories far to the
south and east, it must not be assumed that they had evacuated their old
lands on the Vistula. Jordanes records several traditions of their
conflicts with other Teutonic tribes, in particular a victory won by
Ostrogotha over Fastida, king of the Gepidae, and another by Geberic
over Visimar, king of the Vandals, about the end of Constantine's reign,
in consequence of which the Vandals sought and obtained permission to
settle in Pannonia. Geberic was succeeded by the most famous of the
Gothic kings, Hermanaric (Eormenric, Iörmunrekr), whose deeds are
recorded in the traditions of all Teutonic nations. According to
Jordanes he conquered the Heruli, the Aestii, the Venedi, and a number
of other tribes who seem to have been settled in the southern part of
Russia. From Anglo-Saxon sources it seems probable that his supremacy
reached westwards as far as Holstein. He was of a cruel disposition, and
is said to have killed his nephews Embrica (Emerca) and Fritla (Fridla)
in order to obtain the great treasure which they possessed. Still more
famous is the story of Suanihilda (Svanhildr), who according to Northern
tradition was his wife and was cruelly put to death on a false charge of
unfaithfulness. An attempt to avenge her death was made by her brothers
Ammius (Hamðir) and Sarus (Sörli) by whom Hermanaric was severely
wounded. To his time belong a number of other heroes whose exploits are
recorded in English and Northern tradition, amongst whom we may mention
Wudga (Vidigoia), Hama and several others, who in _Widsith_ are
represented as defending their country against the Huns in the forest of
the Vistula. Hermanaric committed suicide in his distress at an invasion
of the Huns about A.D. 370, and the portion of the nation called
Ostrogoths then came under Hunnish supremacy. The Visigoths obtained
permission to cross the Danube and settle in Moesia. A large part of the
nation became Christian about this time (see BELOW). The exactions of
the Roman governors, however, soon led to a quarrel, which ended in the
total defeat and death of Valens at Adrianople in the year 378.
     (F. G. M. B.)


  Later history.

From about 370 the history of the East and West Goths parts asunder, to
be joined together again only incidentally and for a season. The great
mass of the East Goths stayed north of the Danube, and passed under the
overlordship of the Hun. They do not for the present play any important
part in the affairs of the Empire. The great mass of the West Goths
crossed the Danube into the Roman provinces, and there played a most
important part in various characters of alliance and enmity. The great
migration was in 376, when they were allowed to pass as peaceful
settlers under their chief Frithigern. His rival Athanaric seems to have
tried to maintain his party for a while north of the Danube in defiance
of the Huns; but he had presently to follow the example of the great
mass of the nation. The peaceful designs of Frithigern were meanwhile
thwarted by the ill-treatment which the Goths suffered from the Roman
officials, which led first to disputes and then to open war. In 378 the
Goths won the great battle of Adrianople, and after this Theodosius the
Great, the successor of Valens, made terms with them in 381, and the
mass of the Gothic warriors entered the Roman service as _foederati_.
Many of their chiefs were in high favour; but it seems that the orthodox
Theodosius showed more favour to the still remaining heathen party among
the Goths than to the larger part of them who had embraced Arian
Christianity. Athanaric himself came to Constantinople in 381; he was
received with high honours, and had a solemn funeral when he died. His
saying is worth recording, as an example of the effect which Roman
civilization had on the Teutonic mind. "The emperor," he said, "was a
god upon earth, and he who resisted him would have his blood on his own
head."

The death of Theodosius in 395 broke up the union between the West Goths
and the Empire. Dissensions arose between them and the ministers of
Arcadius; the Goths threw off their allegiance, and chose Alaric as
their king. This was a restoration alike of national unity and of
national independence. The royal title had not been borne by their
leaders in the Roman service. Alaric's position is quite different from
that of several Goths in the Roman service, who appear as simple
rebels. He was of the great West Gothic house of the Balthi, or
Bold-men, a house second in nobility only to that of the Amali. His
whole career was taken up with marchings to and fro within the lands,
first of the Eastern, then of the Western empire. The Goths are under
him an independent people under a national king; their independence is
in no way interfered with if the Gothic king, in a moment of peace,
accepts the office and titles of a Roman general. But under Alaric the
Goths make no lasting settlement. In the long tale of intrigue and
warfare between the Goths and the two imperial courts which fills up
this whole time, cessions of territory are offered to the Goths,
provinces are occupied by them, but as yet they do not take root
anywhere; no Western land as yet becomes _Gothia_. Alaric's designs of
settlement seem in his first stage to have still kept east of the
Adriatic, in Illyricum, possibly in Greece. Towards the end of his
career his eyes seem fixed on Africa.

Greece was the scene of his great campaign in 395-96, the second Gothic
invasion of that country. In this campaign the religious position of the
Goths is strongly marked. The Arian appeared as an enemy alike to the
pagan majority and the Catholic minority; but he came surrounded by
monks, and his chief wrath was directed against the heathen temples
(_vide_ G. F. Hertzberg, _Geschichte Griechenlands_, iii. 391). His
Italian campaigns fall into two great divisions, that of 402-3, when he
was driven back by Stilicho, and that of 408-10, after Stilicho's death.
In this second war he thrice besieged Rome (408, 409, 410). The second
time it suited a momentary policy to set up a puppet emperor of his own,
and even to accept a military commission from him. The third time he
sacked the city, the first time since Brennus that Rome had been taken
by an army of utter foreigners. The intricate political and military
details of these campaigns are of less importance in the history of the
Gothic nation than the stage which Alaric's reign marks in the history
of that nation. It stands between two periods of settlement within the
Empire and of service under the Empire. Under Alaric there is no
settlement, and service is quite secondary and precarious; after his
death in 410 the two begin again in new shapes.

Contemporary with the campaigns of Alaric was a barbarian invasion of
Italy, which, according to one view, again brings the East and West
Goths together. The great mass of the East Goths, as has been already
said, became one of the many nations which were under vassalage to the
Huns; but their relation was one merely of vassalage. They remained a
distinct people under kings of their own, kings of the house of the
Amali and of the kindred of Ermanaric (Jordanes, 48). They had to follow
the lead of the Huns in war, but they were also able to carry on wars of
their own; and it has been held that among these separate East Gothic
enterprises we are to place the invasion of Italy in 405 by Radagaisus
(whom R. Pallmann[1] writes Ratiger, and takes him for the chief of the
heathen part of the East Goths). One chronicler, Prosper, makes this
invasion preceded by another in 400, in which Alaric and Radagaisus
appear as partners. The paganism of Radagaisus is certain. The presence
of Goths in his army is certain, but it seems dangerous to infer that
his invasion was a national Gothic enterprise.

Under Ataulphus, the brother-in-law and successor of Alaric, another era
opens, the beginning of enterprises which did in the end lead to the
establishment of a settled Gothic monarchy in the West. The position of
Ataulphus is well marked by the speech put into his mouth by Orosius. He
had at one time dreamed of destroying the Roman power, of turning
_Romania_ into _Gothia_, and putting Ataulphus in the stead of Augustus;
but he had learned that the world could be governed only by the laws of
Rome and he had determined to use the Gothic arms for the support of the
Roman power. And in the confused and contradictory accounts of his
actions (for the story in Jordanes cannot be reconciled with the
accounts in Olympiodorus and the chroniclers), we can see something of
this principle at work throughout. Gaul and Spain were overrun both by
barbarian invaders and by rival emperors. The sword of the Goth was to
win back the last lands for Rome. And, amid many shiftings of
allegiance, Ataulphus seems never to have wholly given up the position
of an ally of the Empire. His marriage with Placidia, the daughter of
the great Theodosius, was taken as the seal of the union between Goth
and Roman, and, had their son Theodosius lived, a dynasty might have
arisen uniting both claims. But the career of Ataulphus was cut short at
Barcelona in 415, by his murder at the hands of another faction of the
Goths. The reign of Sigeric was momentary. Under Wallia in 418 a more
settled state of things was established. The Empire received again, as
the prize of Gothic victories, the Tarraconensis in Spain, and
Novempopulana and the Narbonensis in Gaul. The "second Aquitaine," with
the sea-coast from the mouth of the Garonne to the mouth of the Loire,
became the West Gothic kingdom of Toulouse. The dominion of the Goths
was now strictly Gaulish; their lasting Spanish dominion does not yet
begin.

The reign of the first West Gothic Theodoric (419-451) shows a shifting
state of relations between the Roman and Gothic powers; but, after
defeats and successes both ways, the older relation of alliance against
common enemies was again established. At last Goth and Roman had to join
together against the common enemy of Europe and Christendom, Attila the
Hun. But they met Gothic warriors in his army. By the terms of their
subjection to the Huns, the East Goths came to fight for Attila against
Christendom at Châlons, just as the Servians came to fight for Bajazet
against Christendom at Nicopolis. Theodoric fell in the battle (451).
After this momentary meeting, the history of the East and West Goths
again separates for a while. The kingdom of Toulouse grew within Gaul at
the expense of the Empire, and in Spain at the expense of the Suevi.
Under Euric (466-485) the West Gothic power again became largely a
Spanish power. The kingdom of Toulouse took in nearly all Gaul south of
the Loire and west of the Rhône, with all Spain, except the north-west
corner, which was still held by the Suevi. Provence alone remained to
the Empire. The West Gothic kings largely adopted Roman manners and
culture; but, as they still kept to their original Arian creed, their
rule never became thoroughly acceptable to their Catholic subjects. They
stood, therefore, at a great disadvantage when a new and aggressive
Catholic power appeared in Gaul through the conversion of the Frank
Clovis or Chlodwig. Toulouse was, as in days long after, the seat of an
heretical power, against which the forces of northern Gaul marched as on
a crusade. In 507 the West Gothic king Alaric II. fell before the
Frankish arms at Campus Vogladensis, near Poitiers, and his kingdom, as
a great power north of the Alps, fell with him. That Spain and a
fragment of Gaul still remained to form a West Gothic kingdom was owing
to the intervention of the East Goths under the rule of the greatest man
in Gothic history.

When the Hunnish power broke in pieces on the death of Attila, the East
Goths recovered their full independence. They now entered into relations
with the Empire, and were settled on lands in Pannonia. During the
greater part of the latter half of the 5th century, the East Goths play
in south-eastern Europe nearly the same part which the West Goths played
in the century before. They are seen going to and fro, in every
conceivable relation of friendship and enmity with the Eastern Roman
power, till, just as the West Goths had done before them, they pass from
the East to the West. They are still ruled by kings of the house of the
Amali, and from that house there now steps forward a great figure,
famous alike in history and in romance, in the person of Theodoric, son
of Theodemir. Born about 454, his childhood was spent at Constantinople
as a hostage, where he was carefully educated. The early part of his
life is taken up with various disputes, intrigues and wars within the
Eastern empire, in which he has as his rival another Theodoric, son of
Triarius, and surnamed Strabo. This older but lesser Theodoric seems to
have been the chief, not the king, of that branch of the East Goths
which had settled within the Empire at an earlier time. Theodoric the
Great, as he is sometimes distinguished, is sometimes the friend,
sometimes the enemy, of the Empire. In the former case he is clothed
with various Roman titles and offices, as patrician and consul; but in
all cases alike he remains the national East Gothic king. It was in both
characters together that he set out in 488, by commission from the
emperor Zeno, to recover Italy from Odoacer. By 493 Ravenna was taken;
Odoacer was killed by Theodoric's own hand; and the East Gothic power
was fully established over Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia and the lands to the
north of Italy. In this war the history of the East and West Goths
begins again to unite, if we may accept the witness of one writer that
Theodoric was helped by West Gothic auxiliaries. The two branches of the
nation were soon brought much more closely together, when, through the
overthrow of the West Gothic kingdom of Toulouse, the power of Theodoric
was practically extended over a large part of Gaul and over nearly the
whole of Spain. A time of confusion followed the fall of Alaric II.,
and, as that prince was the son-in-law of Theodoric, the East Gothic
king stepped in as the guardian of his grandson Amalaric, and preserved
for him all his Spanish and a fragment of his Gaulish dominion. Toulouse
passed away to the Frank; but the Goth kept Narbonne and its district,
the land of Septimania--the land which, as the last part of Gaul held by
the Goths, kept the name of _Gothia_ for many ages. While Theodoric
lived, the West Gothic kingdom was practically united to his own
dominion. He seems also to have claimed a kind of protectorate over the
Teutonic powers generally, and indeed to have practically exercised it,
except in the case of the Franks.

The East Gothic dominion was now again as great in extent and far more
splendid than it could have been in the time of Ermanaric. But it was
now of a wholly different character. The dominion of Theodoric was not a
barbarian but a civilized power. His twofold position ran through
everything. He was at once national king of the Goths, and successor,
though without any imperial titles, of the Roman emperors of the West.
The two nations, differing in manners, language and religion, lived side
by side on the soil of Italy; each was ruled according to its own law,
by the prince who was, in his two separate characters, the common
sovereign of both. The picture of Theodoric's rule is drawn for us in
the state papers drawn up in his name and in the names of his successors
by his Roman minister Cassiodorus. The Goths seem to have been thick on
the ground in northern Italy; in the south they formed little more than
garrisons. In Theodoric's theory the Goth was the armed protector of the
peaceful Roman; the Gothic king had the toil of government, while the
Roman consul had the honour. All the forms of the Roman administration
went on, and the Roman polity and Roman culture had great influence on
the Goths themselves. The rule of the prince over two distinct nations
in the same land was necessarily despotic; the old Teutonic freedom was
necessarily lost. Such a system as that which Theodoric established
needed a Theodoric to carry it on. It broke in pieces after his death.

On the death of Theodoric (526) the East and West Goths were again
separated. The few instances in which they are found acting together
after this time are as scattered and incidental as they were before.
Amalaric succeeded to the West Gothic kingdom in Spain and Septimania.
Provence was added to the dominion of the new East Gothic king
Athalaric, the grandson of Theodoric through his daughter Amalasuntha.
The weakness of the East Gothic position in Italy now showed itself. The
long wars of Justinian's reign (535-555) recovered Italy for the Empire,
and the Gothic name died out on Italian soil. The chance of forming a
national state in Italy by the union of Roman and Teutonic elements,
such as those which arose in Gaul, in Spain, and in parts of Italy under
Lombard rule, was thus lost. The East Gothic kingdom was destroyed
before Goths and Italians had at all mingled together. The war of course
made the distinction stronger; under the kings who were chosen for the
purposes of the war national Gothic feeling had revived. The Goths were
now again, if not a wandering people, yet an armed host, no longer the
protectors but the enemies of the Roman people of Italy. The East
Gothic dominion and the East Gothic name wholly passed away. The nation
had followed Theodoric. It is only once or twice after his expedition
that we hear of Goths, or even of Gothic leaders, m the eastern
provinces. From the soil of Italy the nation passed away almost without
a trace, while the next Teutonic conquerors stamped their name on the
two ends of the land, one of which keeps it to this day.

The West Gothic kingdom lasted much longer, and came much nearer to
establishing itself as a national power in the lands which it took in.
But the difference of race and faith between the Arian Goths and the
Catholic Romans of Gaul and Spain influenced the history of the West
Gothic kingdom for a long time. The Arian Goths ruled over Catholic
subjects, and were surrounded by Catholic neighbours. The Franks were
Catholics from their first conversion; the Suevi became Catholics much
earlier than the Goths. The African conquests of Belisarius gave the
Goths of Spain, instead of the Arian Vandals, another Catholic neighbour
in the form of the restored Roman power. The Catholics everywhere
preferred either Roman, Suevian or Frankish rule to that of the
heretical Goths; even the unconquerable mountaineers of Cantabria seem
for a while to have received a Frankish governor. In some other mountain
districts the Roman inhabitants long maintained their independence, and
in 534 a large part of the south of Spain, including the great cities of
Cadiz, Cordova, Seville and New Carthage, was, with the good will of its
Roman inhabitants, reunited to the Empire, which kept some points on the
coast as late as 624. That is to say, the same work which the Empire was
carrying on in Italy against the East Goths was at the same moment
carried on in Spain against the West Goths. But in Italy the whole land
was for a while won back, and the Gothic power passed away for ever. In
Spain the Gothic power outlived the Roman power, but it outlived it only
by itself becoming in some measure Roman. The greatest period of the
Gothic power as such was in the reign of Leovigild (568-586). He
reunited the Gaulish and Spanish parts of the kingdom which had been
parted for a moment; he united the Suevian dominion to his own; he
overcame some of the independent districts, and won back part of the
recovered Roman province in southern Spain. He further established the
power of the crown over the Gothic nobles, who were beginning to grow
into territorial lords. The next reign, that of his son Recared
(586-601), was marked by a change which took away the great hindrance
which had thus far stood in the way of any national union between Goths
and Romans. The king and the greater part of the Gothic people embraced
the Catholic faith. A vast degree of influence now fell into the hands
of the Catholic bishops; the two nations began to unite; the Goths were
gradually romanized and the Gothic language began to go out of use. In
short, the Romance nation and the Romance speech of Spain began to be
formed. The Goths supplied the Teutonic infusion into the Roman mass.
The kingdom, however, still remained a Gothic kingdom. "Gothic," not
"Roman" or "Spanish," is its formal title; only a single late instance
of the use of the formula "regnum Hispaniae" is known. In the first half
of the 7th century that name became for the first time geographically
applicable by the conquest of the still Roman coast of southern Spain.
The Empire was then engaged in the great struggle with the Avars and
Persians, and, now that the Gothic kings were Catholic, the great
objection to their rule on the part of the Roman inhabitants was taken
away. The Gothic nobility still remained a distinct class, and held,
along with the Catholic prelacy, the right of choosing the king. Union
with the Catholic Church was accompanied by the introduction of the
ecclesiastical ceremony of anointing, a change decidedly favourable to
elective rule. The growth of those later ideas which tended again to
favour the hereditary doctrine had not time to grow up in Spain before
the Mahommedan conquest (711). The West Gothic crown therefore remained
elective till the end. The modern Spanish nation is the growth of the
long struggle with the Mussulmans; but it has a direct connexion with
the West Gothic kingdom. We see at once that the Goths hold altogether
a different place in Spanish memory from that which they hold in Italian
memory. In Italy the Goth was but a momentary invader and ruler; the
Teutonic element in Italy comes from other sources. In Spain the Goth
supplies an important element in the modern nation. And that element has
been neither forgotten nor despised. Part of the unconquered region of
northern Spain, the land of Asturia, kept for a while the name of
Gothia, as did the Gothic possessions in Gaul and in Crim. The name of
the people who played so great a part in all southern Europe, and who
actually ruled over so large a part of it has now wholly passed away;
but it is in Spain that its historical impress is to be looked for.

Of Gothic literature in the Gothic language we have the Bible of
Ulfilas, and some other religious writings and fragments (see GOTHIC
LANGUAGE below). Of Gothic legislation in Latin we have the edict of
Theodoric of the year 500, edited by F. Bluhme in the _Monumenta
Germaniae historica_; and the books of _Variae_ of Cassiodorus may pass
as a collection of the state papers of Theodoric and his immediate
successors. Among the West Goths written laws had already been put forth
by Euric. The second Alaric (484-507) put forth a _Breviarium_ of Roman
law for his Roman subjects; but the great collection of West Gothic laws
dates from the later days of the monarchy, being put forth by King
Recceswinth about 654. This code gave occasion to some well-known
comments by Montesquieu and Gibbon, and has been discussed by Savigny
(_Geschichte des römischen Rechts_, ii. 65) and various other writers.
They are printed in the _Monumenta Germaniae, leges_, tome i. (1902). Of
special Gothic histories, besides that of Jordanes, already so often
quoted, there is the Gothic history of Isidore, archbishop of Seville, a
special source of the history of the West Gothic kings down to Svinthala
(621-631). But all the Latin and Greek writers contemporary with the
days of Gothic predominance make their constant contributions. Not for
special facts, but for a general estimate, no writer is more instructive
than Salvian of Marseilles in the 5th century, whose work _De
Gubernatione Dei_ is full of passages contrasting the vices of the
Romans with the virtues of the barbarians, especially of the Goths. In
all such pictures we must allow a good deal for exaggeration both ways,
but there must be a ground-work of truth. The chief virtues which the
Catholic presbyter praises in the Arian Goths are their chastity, their
piety according to their own creed, their tolerance towards the
Catholics under their rule, and their general good treatment of their
Roman subjects. He even ventures to hope that such good people may be
saved, notwithstanding their heresy. All this must have had some
groundwork of truth in the 5th century, but it is not very wonderful if
the later West Goths of Spain had a good deal fallen away from the
doubtless somewhat ideal picture of Salvian.     (E. A. F.)

  There is now an extensive literature on the Goths, and among the
  principal works may be mentioned: T. Hodgkin, _Italy and her Invaders_
  (Oxford, 1880-1899); J. Aschbach, _Geschichte der Westgoten_
  (Frankfort, 1827); F. Dahn, _Die Könige der Germanen_ (1861-1899); E.
  von Wietersheim, _Geschichte der Völkerwanderung_ (1880-1881); R.
  Pallmann, _Die Geschichte der Völkerwanderung_ (Gotha, 1863-1864); B.
  Rappaport, _Die Einfälle der Goten in das römische Reich_ (Leipzig,
  1899), and K. Zeuss, _Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme_ (Munich,
  1837). Other works which may be consulted are: E. Gibbon, _Decline and
  Fall of the Roman Empire_, edited by J. B. Bury (1896-1900); H. H.
  Milman, _History of Latin Christianity_ (1867); J. B. Bury, _History
  of the Later Roman Empire_ (1889); P. Villari, _Le Invasioni
  barbariche in Italia_ (Milan, 1901); and F. Martroye, _L'Occident à
  l'époque byzantine: Goths et Vandales_ (Paris, 1903). There is a
  popular history of the Goths by H. Bradley in the "Story of the
  Nations" series (London, 1888). For the laws see the _Leges_ in Band
  I. of the _Monumenta Germaniae historica, leges_ (1902). A.
  Helfferich, _Entstehung und Geschichte des Westgotenrechts_ (Berlin,
  1858); F. Bluhme, _Zur Textkritik des Westgotenrechts_ (1872); F.
  Dahn, _Lex Visigothorum_. _Westgotische Studien_ (Würzburg, 1874); C.
  Rinaudo, _Leggi dei Visigote, studio_ (Turin, 1878); and K. Zeumer,
  "Geschichte der westgotischen Gesetzgebung" in the _Neues Archiv der
  Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde_. See also the
  article on THEODORIC.

_Gothic Language._--Our knowledge of the Gothic language is derived
almost entirely from the fragments of a translation of the Bible which
is believed to have been made by the Arian bishop Wulfila or Ulfilas (d.
383) for the Goths who dwelt on the lower Danube. The MSS. which have
come down to us and which date from the period of Ostrogothic rule in
Italy (489-555) contain the Second Epistle to the Corinthians complete,
together with more or less considerable fragments of the four Gospels
and of all the other Pauline Epistles. The only remains of the Old
Testament are three short fragments of Ezra and Nehemiah. There is also
an incomplete commentary (_skeireins_) on St John's Gospel, a fragment
of a calendar, and two charters (from Naples and Arezzo, the latter now
lost) which contain some Gothic sentences. All these texts are written
in a special character, which is said to have been invented by Wulfila.
It is based chiefly on the uncial Greek alphabet, from which indeed most
of the letters are obviously derived, and several orthographical
peculiarities, e.g. the use of _ai_ for _e_ and _ei_ for _i_ reflect the
Greek pronunciation of the period. Other letters, however, have been
taken over from the Runic and Latin alphabets. Apart from the texts
mentioned above, the only remains of the Gothic language are the proper
names and occasional words which occur in Greek and Latin writings,
together with some notes, including the Gothic alphabet, in a Salzburg
MS. of the 10th century, and two short inscriptions on a torque and a
spear-head, discovered at Buzeo (Walachia) and Kovel (Volhynia)
respectively. The language itself, as might be expected from the date of
Wulfila's translation, is of a much more archaic type than that of any
other Teutonic writings which we possess, except a few of the earliest
Northern inscriptions. This may be seen, e.g. in the better preservation
of final and unaccented syllables and in the retention of the dual and
the middle (passive) voice in verbs. It would be quite erroneous,
however, to regard the Gothic fragments as representing a type of
language common to all Teutonic nations in the 4th century. Indeed the
distinctive characteristics of the language are very marked, and there
is good reason for believing that it differed considerably from the
various northern and western languages, whereas the differences among
the latter at this time were probably comparatively slight (see TEUTONIC
LANGUAGES). On the other hand, it must not be supposed that the language
of the Goths stood quite isolated. Procopius (_Vand._ i. 2) states
distinctly that the Gothic language was spoken not only by the
Ostrogoths and Visigoths but also by the Vandals and the Gepidae; and in
the former case there is sufficient evidence, chiefly from proper names,
to prove that his statement is not far from the truth. With regard to
the Gepidae we have less information; but since the Goths, according to
Jordanes (cap. 17), believed them to have been originally a branch of
their own nation, it is highly probable that the two languages were at
least closely related. Procopius elsewhere (_Vand._ i. 3; _Goth._ i. 1,
iii. 2) speaks of the Rugii, Sciri and Alani as Gothic nations. The fact
that the two former were sprung from the north-east of Germany renders
it probable that they had Gothic affinities, while the Alani, though
non-Teutonic in origin, may have become gothicized in the course of the
migration period. Some modern writers have included in the same class
the Burgundians, a nation which had apparently come from the basin of
the Oder, but the evidence at our disposal on the whole hardly justifies
the supposition that their language retained a close affinity with
Gothic.

In the 4th and 5th centuries the Gothic language--using the term in its
widest sense--must have spread over the greater part of Europe together
with the north coast of Africa. It disappeared, however, with surprising
rapidity. There is no evidence for its survival in Italy or Africa after
the fall of the Ostrogothic and Vandal kingdoms, while in Spain it is
doubtful whether the Visigoths retained their language until the Arabic
conquest. In central Europe it may have lingered somewhat longer in view
of the evidence of the Salzburg MS. mentioned above. Possibly the
information there given was derived from southern Hungary or
Transylvania where remains of the Gepidae were to be found shortly
before the Magyar invasion (889). According to Walafridus Strabo (_de
Reb. Eccles._ cap. 7) also Gothic was still used in his time (the 9th
century) in some churches in the region of the lower Danube. Thenceforth
the language seems to have survived only among the Goths (_Goti
Tetraxitae_) of the Crimea, who are mentioned for the last time by Ogier
Ghislain de Busbecq, an imperial envoy at Constantinople about the
middle of the 16th century. He collected a number of words and phrases
in use among them which show clearly that their language, though not
unaffected by Iranian influence, was still essentially a form of Gothic.

  See H. C. von der Gabelentz and J. Loebe, _Ulfilas_ (Altenburg and
  Leipzig, 1836-1846); E. Bernhardt, _Vulfila oder die gotische Bibel_
  (Halle, 1875). For other works on the Gothic language see J. Wright,
  _A Primer of the Gothic Language_ (Oxford, 1892), p. 143 f. To the
  references there given should be added: C. C. Uhlenbeck,
  _Etymologisches Wörterbuch d. got. Sprache_ (Amsterdam, 2nd ed. 1901);
  F. Kluge, "Geschichte d. got. Sprache" in H. Paul's _Grundriss d.
  germ. Philologie_ (2nd ed., vol. i., Strassburg, 1897); W. Streitberg,
  _Gotisches Elementarbuch_ (Heidelberg, 1897); Th. von Grienberger,
  _Beiträge zur Geschichte d. deutschen Sprache u. Literatur_, xxi. 185
  ff.; L. F. A. Wimmer, _Die Runenschrift_ (Berlin, 1887), p. 61 ff.; G.
  Stephens, _Handbook to the Runic Monuments_ (London, 1884), p. 203; F.
  Wrede, _Über die Sprache der Wandalen_ (Strassburg, 1886). For further
  references see K. Zeuss, _Die Deutschen_, p. 432 f. (where earlier
  references to the Crimean Goths are also given); F. Kluge, _op. cit._,
  p. 515 ff.; and O. Bremer, _ib._ vol. iii., p. 822.     (H. M. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _Geschichte der Völkerwanderung_ (Gotha, 1863-1864).



GOTLAND, an island in the Baltic Sea belonging to Sweden, lying between
57° and 58° N., and having a length from S.S.W. to N.N.E. of 75 m., a
breadth not exceeding 30 m., and an area of 1142 sq. m. The nearest
point on the mainland is 50 m. from the westernmost point of the island.
With the island Fårö, off the northern extremity, the Karlsöe, off the
west coast, and Götska Sandö, 25 m. N. by E., Gotland forms the
administrative district (_län_) of Gotland. The island is a level
plateau of Silurian limestone, rising gently eastward, of an average
height of 80 to 100 ft., with steep coasts fringed with tapering,
free-standing columns of limestone (_raukar_). A few low isolated hills
rise inland. The climate is temperate, and the soil, although in parts
dry and sterile, is mostly fertile. Former marshy moors have been
largely drained and cultivated. There are extensive sand-dunes in the
north. As usual in a limestone formation, some of the streams have their
courses partly below the surface, and caverns are not infrequent. Less
than half the total area is under forest, the extent of which was
formerly much greater. Barley, rye, wheat and oats are grown, especially
the first, which is exported to the breweries on the mainland. The
sugar-beet is also produced and exported, and there are beet-sugar works
on the island. Sheep and cattle are kept; there is a government sheep
farm at Roma, and the cattle may be noted as belonging principally to an
old native breed, yellow and horned. Some lime-burning, cement-making
and sea-fishing are carried on. The capital of the island is Visby, on
the west coast. There are over 80 m. of railways. Lines run from Visby
N.E. to Tingstäde and S. to Hofdhem, with branches from Roma to
Klintehamn, a small watering-place on the west coast, and to Slitehamn
on the east. Excepting along the coast the island has no scenic
attraction, but it is of the highest archaeological interest. Nearly
every village has its ruined church, and others occur where no villages
remain. The shrunken walled town of Visby was one of the richest
commercial centres of the Baltic from the 11th to the 14th century, and
its prosperity was shared by the whole island. It retains ten churches
besides the cathedral. The massive towers of the village churches are
often detached, and doubtless served purposes of defence. The churches
of Roma, Hemse, with remarkable mural paintings, Othen and Lärbo may be
specially noted. Some contain fine stained glass, as at Dalhem near
Visby. The natives of Gotland speak a dialect distinguished from that of
any part of the Swedish mainland. Pop. of _län_ (1900) 52,781.

Gotland was subject to Sweden before 890, and in 1030 was christianized
by St Olaf, king of Norway, when returning from his exile at Kiev. He
dedicated the first church in the island to St Peter at Visby. At that
time Visby had long been one of the most important trading towns in the
Baltic, and the chief distributing centre of the oriental commerce which
came to Europe along the rivers of Russia. In the early years of the
Hanseatic League, or about the middle of the 13th century, it became
the chief depôt for the produce of the eastern Baltic countries,
including, in a commercial sense, its daughter colony (11th century or
earlier) of Novgorod the Great. Although Visby was an independent member
of the Hanseatic League, the influence of Lübeck was paramount in the
city, and half its governing body were men of German descent. Indeed,
Björkander endeavours to prove that the city was a German (Hanseatic)
foundation, dating principally from the middle of the 12th century.
However that may be, the importance of Visby in the sea trade of the
North is conclusively attested by the famous code of maritime law which
bears its name. This _Waterrecht dat de Kooplüde en de Schippers gemakt
hebben to Visby_ ("sea-law which the merchants and seamen have made at
Visby") was a compilation based upon the Lübeck code, the Oléron code
and the Amsterdam code, and was first printed in Low German in 1505, but
in all probability had its origin about 1240, or not much later (see SEA
LAWS). By the middle of the the city was so great that, according to an
old ballad, "the Gotlanders weighed out gold with stone weights and
played with the choicest jewels. The swine ate out of silver troughs,
and the women spun with distaffs of gold." This fabled wealth was too
strong a temptation for the energetic Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark. In
1361 he invaded the island, routed the defenders of Visby under the city
walls (a monolithic cross marks the burial-place of the islanders who
fell) and plundered the city. From this blow it never recovered, its
decay being, however, materially helped by the fact that for the greater
part of the next 150 years it was the stronghold of successive
freebooters or sea-rovers--first, of the Hanseatic privateers called
Vitalienbrödre or Viktualienbrüder, who made it their stronghold during
the last eight years of the 14th century; then of the Teutonic Knights,
whose Grand Master drove out the "Victuals Brothers," and kept the
island until it was redeemed by Queen Margaret. There too Erik XIII.
(the Pomeranian), after being driven out of Denmark by his own subjects,
established himself in 1437, and for a dozen years waged piracy upon
Danes and Swedes alike. After him came Olaf and Ivar Thott, two Danish
lords, who down to the year 1487 terrorized the seas from their pirates'
stronghold of Visby. Lastly, the Danish admiral Sören Norrby, the last
supporter of Christian I. of Denmark, when his master's cause was lost,
waged a guerrilla war upon the Danish merchant ships and others from the
same convenient base. But this led to an expedition by the men of
Lübeck, who partly destroyed Visby in 1525. By the peace of Stettin
(1570) Gotland was confirmed to the Danish crown, to which it had been
given by Queen Margaret. But at the peace of Brömsebro in 1645 it was at
length restored to Sweden, to which it has since belonged, except for
the three years 1676-1679, when it was forcibly occupied by the Danes,
and a few weeks in 1808, when the Russians landed a force.

The extreme wealth of the Gotlanders naturally fostered a spirit of
independence, and their relations with Sweden were curious. The island
at one period paid an annual tribute of 60 marks of silver to Sweden,
but it was clearly recognized that it was paid by the desire of the
Gotlanders, and not enforced by Sweden. The pope recognized their
independence, and it was by their own free will that they came under the
spiritual charge of the bishop of Linköping. Their local government was
republican in form, and a popular assembly is indicated in the written
_Gotland Law_, which dates not later than the middle of the 13th
century. Sweden had no rights of objection to the measures adopted by
this body, and there was no Swedish judge or other official in the
island. Visby had a system of government and rights independent of, and
in some measure opposed to, that of the rest of the island. It seems
clear that there were at one time two separate corporations, for the
native Gotlanders and the foreign traders respectively, and that these
were subsequently fused. The rights and status of native Gotlanders were
not enjoyed by foreigners as a whole--even intermarriage was
illegal--but Germans, on account of their commercial pre-eminence in the
island, were excepted.

  See C. H. Bergman, _Gotland's geografi och historia_ (Stockholm, 1898)
  and _Gotländska skildringar och minnen_ (Visby, 1902); A. T. Snöbohm,
  _Gotlands land och folk_ (Visby, 1897 et seq.); W. Moler, _Bidrag till
  en Gotländsk bibliografi_ (Stockholm, 1890); Hans Hildebrand, _Visby
  och dess Minnesmärken_ (Stockholm, 1892 et seq.); A. Björkander, _Till
  Visby Stads Aeldsta Historia_ (1898), where most of the literature
  dealing with the subject is mentioned; but some of the author's
  arguments require criticism. For local government and rights see K.
  Hegel, _Städter und Gilden im Mittelalter_ (book iii. ch. iii.,
  Leipzig, 1891).



GOTO ISLANDS [GOTO RETTO, GOTTO], a group of islands belonging to Japan,
lying west of Kiushiu, in 33° N., 129° E. The southern of the two
principal islands, Fukae-shima, measures 17 m. by 13½; the northern,
Nakaori-shima, measures 23 m. by 7½. These islands lie almost in the
direct route of steamers plying between Nagasaki and Shanghai, and are
distant some 50 m. from Nagasaki. Some dome-shaped hills command the old
castle-town of Fukae. The islands are highly cultivated; deer and other
game abound, and trout are plentiful in the mountain streams. A majority
of the inhabitants are Christians.



GOTTER, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1746-1797), German poet and dramatist, was
born on the 3rd of September 1746, at Gotha. After the completion of his
university career at Göttingen, he was appointed second director of the
Archive of his native town, and subsequently went to Wetzlar, the seat
of the imperial law courts, as secretary to the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
legation. In 1768 he returned to Gotha as tutor to two young noblemen,
and here, together with H. C. Boie, he founded the famous _Göttinger
Musenalmanach_. In 1770 he was once more in Wetzlar, where he belonged
to Goethe's circle of acquaintances. Four years later he took up his
permanent abode in Gotha, where he died on the 18th of March 1797.
Gotter was the chief representative of French taste in the German
literary life of his time. His own poetry is elegant and polished, and
in great measure free from the trivialities of the Anacreontic lyric of
the earlier generation of imitators of French literature; but he was
lacking in the imaginative depth that characterizes the German poetic
temperament. His plays, of which _Merope_ (1774), an adaptation in
admirable blank verse of the tragedies of Maffei and Voltaire, and
_Medea_ (1775), a _melodrame_, are best known, were mostly based on
French originals and had considerable influence in counteracting the
formlessness and irregularity of the _Sturm und Drang_ drama.

  Gutter's collected _Gedichte_ appeared in 2 vols. in 1787 and 1788; a
  third volume (1802) contains his _Literarischer Nachlass_. See B.
  Litzmann, _Schröder und Gotter_ (1887), and R. Schlösser, _F. W.
  Gotter, sein Leben und seine Werke_ (1894).



GOTTFRIED VON STRASSBURG, one of the chief German poets of the middle
ages. The dates of his birth and death are alike unknown, but he was the
contemporary of Hartmann von Aue, Wolfram von Eschenbach and Walther von
der Vogelweide, and his epic _Tristan_ was written about the year 1210.
In all probability he did not belong to the nobility, as he is entitled
_Meister_, never _Herr_, by his contemporaries; his poem--the only work
that can with any certainty be attributed to him--bears witness to a
learned education. The story of _Tristan_ had been evolved from its
shadowy Celtic origins by the French _trouvères_ of the early 12th
century, and had already found its way into Germany before the close of
that century, in the crude, unpolished version of Eilhart von Oberge. It
was Gottfried, however, who gave it its final form. His version is based
not on that of Chrétien de Troyes, but on that of a _trouvère_ Thomas,
who seems to have been more popular with contemporaries. A comparison of
the German epic with the French original is, however, impossible, as
Chrétien's _Tristan_ is entirely lost, and of Thomas's only a few
fragments have come down to us. The story centres in the fatal voyage
which Tristan, a vassal to the court of his uncle King Marke of Kurnewal
(Cornwall), makes to Ireland to bring back Isolde as the king's bride.
On the return voyage Tristan and Isolde drink by mistake a love potion,
which binds them irrevocably to each other. The epic resolves itself
into a series of love intrigues in which the two lovers ingeniously
outwit the trusting king. They are ultimately discovered, and Tristan
flees to Normandy where he marries another Isolde--"Isolde with the
white hands"--without being able to forget the blond Isolde of Ireland.
At this point Gottfried's narrative breaks off and to learn the close of
the story we have to turn to two minor poets of the time, Ulrich von
Türheim and Heinrich von Freiberg--the latter much the superior--who
have supplied the conclusion. After further love adventures Tristan is
fatally wounded by a poisoned spear in Normandy; the "blond Isolde," as
the only person who has power to cure him, is summoned from Cornwall.
The ship that brings her is to bear a white sail if she is on board, a
black one if not. Tristan's wife, however, deceives him, announcing that
the sail is black, and when Isolde arrives, she finds her lover dead.
Marke at last learns the truth concerning the love potion, and has the
two lovers buried side by side in Kurnewal.

It is difficult to form an estimate of Gottfried's independence of his
French source; but it seems clear that he followed closely the narrative
of events he found in Thomas. He has, however, introduced into the story
an astounding fineness of psychological motive, which, to judge from a
general comparison of the Arthurian epic in both lands, is German rather
than French; he has spiritualized and deepened the narrative; he has,
above all, depicted with a variety and insight, unusual in medieval
literature, the effects of an overpowering passion. Yet, glowing and
seductive as Gottfried's love-scenes are, they are never for a moment
disfigured by frivolous hints or innuendo; the tragedy is unrolled with
an earnestness that admits of no touch of humour, and also, it may be
added, with a freedom from moralizing which was easier to attain in the
13th than in later centuries. The mastery of style is no less
conspicuous. Gottfried had learned his best lessons from Hartmann von
Aue, but he was a more original and daring artificer of rhymes and
rhythms than that master; he delighted in the sheer music of words, and
indulged in antitheses and allegorical conceits to an extent that proved
fatal to his imitators. As far as beauty of expression is concerned,
Gottfried's _Tristan_ is the masterpiece of the German court epic.

  Gottfried's _Tristan_ has been frequently edited: by H. F. Massman
  (Leipzig, 1843); by R. Bechstein (2 vols., 3rd ed.,
  Leipzig,1890-1891); by W. Golther (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1889); by K.
  Marold (1906). Translations into modern German have been made by H.
  Kurz (Stuttgart, 1844); by K. Simrock (Leipzig, 1855); and, best of
  all, by W. Hertz (Stuttgart, 1877). There is also an abbreviated
  English translation by Jessie L. Weston (London, 1899). The
  continuation of Ulrich von Türheim will be found in Massman's edition;
  that by Heinrich von Freiberg has been separately edited by R.
  Bechstein (Leipzig, 1877). See also R. Heinzel, "Gottfrieds von
  Strassburg Tristan und seine Quelle" in the _Zeit. für deut. Alt._
  xiv. (1869), pp. 272 ff.; W. Golther, _Die Sage von Tristan und
  Isolde_ (Munich, 1887); F. Piquet, _L'Originalité de Gottfried de
  Strasbourg dans son poème de Tristan et Isolde_ (Lille, 1905). K.
  Immermann (q.v.) has written an epic of _Tristan und Isolde_ (1840),
  R. Wagner (q.v.) a musical drama (1865). Cp. R. Bechstein, _Tristan
  und Isolde in der deutschen Dichtung der Neuzeit_ (Leipzig, 1877).



GÖTTINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover,
pleasantly situated at the west foot of the Hainberg (1200 ft.), in the
broad and fertile valley of the Leine, 67 m. S. from Hanover, on the
railway to Cassel. Pop. (1875) 17,057, (1905) 34,030. It is traversed by
the Leine canal, which separates the Altstadt from the Neustadt and from
Masch, and is surrounded by ramparts, which are planted with lime-trees
and form an agreeable promenade. The streets in the older part of the
town are for the most part crooked and narrow, but the newer portions
are spaciously and regularly built. Apart from the Protestant churches
of St John, with twin towers, and of St James, with a high tower (290
ft.), the medieval town hall, built in the 14th century and restored in
1880, and the numerous university buildings, Göttingen possesses few
structures of any public importance. There are several thriving
industries, including, besides the various branches of the publishing
trade, the manufacture of cloth and woollens and of mathematical and
other scientific instruments.

The university, the famous Georgia Augusta, founded by George II. in
1734 and opened in 1737, rapidly attained a leading position, and in
1823 its students numbered 1547. Political disturbances, in which both
professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860
in 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the famous seven professors--_Die
Göttinger Sieben_--viz. the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht
(1800-1876); the historian, Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785-1860);
the orientalist, Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803-1875); the historian,
Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805-1875); the physicist, Wilhelm Eduard
Weber (1804-1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jacob Ludwig Karl
Grimm (1785-1863), and Wilhelm Karl Grimm (1786-1859),--for protesting
against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus of Hanover of the liberal
constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university.
The events of 1848, on the other hand, told somewhat in its favour; and,
since the annexation of Hanover in 1866, it has been carefully fostered
by the Prussian government. In 1903 its teaching staff numbered 121 and
its students 1529. The main university building lies on the
Wilhelmsplatz, and, adjoining, is the famous library of 500,000 vols,
and 5300 MSS., the richest collection of modern literature in Germany.
There is a good chemical laboratory as well as adequate zoological,
ethnographical and mineralogical collections, the most remarkable being
Blumenbach's famous collection of skulls in the anatomical institute.
There are also a celebrated observatory, long under the direction of
Wilhelm Klinkerfues (1827-1884), a botanical garden, an agricultural
institute and various hospitals, all connected with the university. Of
the scientific societies the most noted is the Royal Society of Sciences
(_Königliche Sozietät der Wissenschaften_) founded by Albrecht von
Haller, which is divided into three classes, the physical, the
mathematical and the historical-philological. It numbers about 80
members and publishes the well-known _Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen_.
There are monuments in the town to the mathematicians K. F. Gauss and W.
E. Weber, and also to the poet G. A. Bürger.

The earliest mention of a village of Goding or Gutingi occurs in
documents of about 950 A.D. The place received municipal rights from the
German king Otto IV. about 1210, and from 1286 to 1463 it was the seat
of the princely house of Brunswick-Göttingen. During the 14th century it
held a high place among the towns of the Hanseatic League. In 1531 it
joined the Reformation movement, and in the following century it
suffered considerably in the Thirty Years' War, being taken by Tilly in
1626, after a siege of 25 days, and recaptured by the Saxons in 1632.
After a century of decay, it was anew brought into importance by the
establishment of its university; and a marked increase in its industrial
and commercial prosperity has again taken place in recent years. Towards
the end of the 18th century Göttingen was the centre of a society of
young poets of the _Sturm und Drang_ period of German literature, known
as the _Göttingen Dichterbund_ or _Hainbund_ (see GERMANY:
_Literature_).

  See Freusdorff, _Göttingen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart_ (Göttingen,
  1887); the _Urkundenbuch der Stadt Göttingen_, edited by G. Schmidt,
  A. Hasselblatt and G. Kästner; Unger, _Göttingen und die Georgia
  Augusta_ (1861); and _Göttinger Professoren_ (Gotha, 1872); and O.
  Mejer, _Kulturgeschichtliche Bilder aus Göttingen_ (1889).



GÖTTLING, CARL WILHELM (1793-1869), German classical scholar, was born
at Jena on the 19th of January 1793. He studied at the universities of
Jena and Berlin, took part in the war against France in 1814, and
finally settled down in 1822 as professor at the university of his
native town, where he continued to reside till his death on the 20th of
January 1869. In his early years Göttling devoted himself to German
literature, and published two works on the Nibelungen: _Über das
Geschichtliche im Nibelungenliede_ (1814) and _Nibelungen und Gibelinen_
(1817). The greater part of his life, however, was devoted to the study
of classical literature, especially the elucidation of Greek authors.
The contents of his _Gesammelte Abhandlungen aus dem klassischen
Altertum_ (1851-1863) and _Opuscula Academica_ (published in 1869 after
his death) sufficiently indicate the varied nature of his studies. He
edited the [Greek: Technê] (grammatical manual) of Theodosius of
Alexandria (1822), Aristotle's _Politics_ (1824), and _Economics_ (1830)
and Hesiod (1831; 3rd ed. by J. Flach, 1878). Mention may also be made
of his _Allgemeine Lehre vom Accent der griechischen Sprache_ (1835),
enlarged from a smaller work, which was translated into English (1831)
as the _Elements of Greek Accentuation_; and of his _Correspondence with
Goethe_ (published 1880).

  See memoirs by C. Nipperdey, his colleague at Jena (1869), G. Lothholz
  (Stargard, 1876), K. Fischer (preface to the _Opuscula Academica_),
  and C. Bursian in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_, ix.



GOTTSCHALK [GODESCALUS, GOTTESCALE], (c. 808-867?), German theologian,
was born near Mainz, and was devoted (_oblatus_) from infancy by his
parents,--his father was a Saxon, Count Bern,--to the monastic life. He
was trained at the monastery of Fulda, then under the abbot Hrabanus
Maurus, and became the friend of Walafrid Strabo and Loup of Ferrières.
In June 829, at the synod of Mainz, on the pretext that he had been
unduly constrained by his abbot, he sought and obtained his liberty,
withdrew first to Corbie, where he met Ratramnus, and then to the
monastery of Orbais in the diocese of Soissons. There he studied St
Augustine, with the result that he became an enthusiastic believer in
the doctrine of absolute predestination, in one point going beyond his
master--Gottschalk believing in a predestination to condemnation as well
as in a predestination to salvation, while Augustine had contented
himself with the doctrine of preterition as complementary to the
doctrine of election. Between 835 and 840 Gottschalk was ordained
priest, without the knowledge of his bishop, by Rigbold, _chorepiscopus_
of Reims. Before 840, deserting his monastery, he went to Italy,
preached there his doctrine of double predestination, and entered into
relations with Notting, bishop of Verona, and Eberhard, count of Friuli.
Driven from Italy through the influence of Hrabanus Maurus, now
archbishop of Mainz, who wrote two violent letters to Notting and
Eberhard, he travelled through Dalmatia, Pannonia and Norica, but
continued preaching and writing. In October 848 he presented to the
synod at Mainz a profession of faith and a refutation of the ideas
expressed by Hrabanus Maurus in his letter to Notting. He was convicted,
however, of heresy, beaten, obliged to swear that he would never again
enter the territory of Louis the German, and handed over to Hincmar,
archbishop of Reims, who sent him back to his monastery at Orbais. The
next year at a provincial council at Quierzy, presided over by Charles
the Bald, he attempted to justify his ideas, but was again condemned as
a heretic and disturber of the public peace, was degraded from the
priesthood, whipped, obliged to burn his declaration of faith, and shut
up in the monastery of Hautvilliers. There Hincmar tried again to induce
him to retract. Gottschalk however continued to defend his doctrine,
writing to his friends and to the most eminent theologians of France and
Germany. A great controversy resulted. Prudentius, bishop of Troyes,
Wenilo of Sens, Ratramnus of Corbie, Loup of Ferrières and Florus of
Lyons wrote in his favour. Hincmar wrote _De praedestinatione_ and _De
una non trina deitate_ against his views, but gained little aid from
Johannes Scotus Erigena, whom he had called in as an authority. The
question was discussed at the councils of Kiersy (853), of Valence (855)
and of Savonnières (859). Finally the pope Nicolas I. took up the case,
and summoned Hincmar to the council of Metz (863). Hincmar either could
not or would not appear, but declared that Gottschalk might go to defend
himself before the pope. Nothing came of this, however, and when Hincmar
learned that Gottschalk had fallen ill, he forbade him the sacraments or
burial in consecrated ground unless he would recant. This Gottschalk
refused to do. He died on the 30th of October between 866 and 870.

Gottschalk was a vigorous and original thinker, but also of a violent
temperament, incapable of discipline or moderation in his ideas as in
his conduct. He was less an innovator than a reactionary. Of his many
works we have only the two professions of faith (cf. Migne, _Patrologia
Latina_, cxxi. c. 347 et seq.), and some poems, edited by L. Traube in
_Monumenta Germaniae historica: Poëtae Latini aevi Carolini_ (t. iii.
707-738). Some fragments of his theological treatises have been
preserved in the writings of Hincmar, Erigena, Ratramnus and Loup of
Ferrières.

  From the 17th century, when the Jansenists exalted Gottschalk, much
  has been written on him. Mention may be made of two recent studies, F.
  Picavet, "Les Discussions sur la liberté au temps de Gottschalk, de
  Raban Maur, d'Hincmar, et de Jean Scot," in _Comptes rendus de l'acad.
  des sciences morales et politiques_ (Paris, 1896); and A. Freystedt,
  "Studien zu Gottschalks Leben und Lehre," in _Zeitschrift für
  Kirchengeschichte_ (1897), vol. xviii.



GOTTSCHALL, RUDOLF VON (1823-1909), German man of letters, was born at
Breslau on the 30th of September 1823, the son of a Prussian artillery
officer. He received his early education at the gymnasia in Mainz and
Coburg, and subsequently at Rastenburg in East Prussia. In 1841 he
entered the university of Königsberg as a student of law, but, in
consequence of his pronounced liberal opinions, was expelled. The
academic authorities at Breslau and Leipzig were not more tolerant
towards the young fire-eater, and it was only in Berlin that he
eventually found himself free to prosecute his studies. During this
period of unrest he issued _Lieder der Gegenwart_ (1842) and
_Zensurflüchtlinge_ (1843)--the poetical fruits of his political
enthusiasm. He completed his studies in Berlin, took the degree of
_doctor juris_ in Königsberg, and endeavoured to obtain there the _venia
legendi_. His political views again stood in the way, and forsaking the
legal career, Gottschall now devoted himself entirely to literature. He
met with immediate success, and beginning as dramaturge in Königsberg
with _Der Blinde von Alcala_ (1846) and _Lord Byron in Italien_ (1847)
proceeded to Hamburg where he occupied a similar position. In 1852 he
married Marie, baroness von Seherr-Thoss, and for the next few years
lived in Silesia. In 1862 he took over the editorship of a Posen
newspaper, but in 1864 removed to Leipzig. Gottschall was raised, in
1877, by the king of Prussia to the hereditary nobility with the prefix
"von," having been previously made a _Geheimer Hofrat_ by the grand duke
of Weimar. Down to 1887 Gottschall edited the _Brockhaus'sche Blätter
für litterarische Unterhaltung_ and the monthly periodical _Unsere
Zeit_. He died at Leipzig on the 21st of March 1909.

Gottschall's prolific literary productions cover the fields of poetry,
novel-writing and literary criticism. Among his volumes of lyric poetry
are _Sebastopol_ (1856), _Janus_ (1873), _Bunte Blüten_ (1891). Among
his epics, _Carlo Zeno_ (1854), _Maja_ (1864), dealing with an episode
in the Indian Mutiny, and _Merlins Wanderungen_ (1887). The comedy _Pitt
und Fox_ (1854), first produced on the stage in Breslau, was never
surpassed by the other lighter pieces of the author, among which may be
mentioned _Die Welt des Schwindels_ and _Der Spion von Rheinsberg_. The
tragedies, _Mazeppa_, _Catharine Howard_, _Amy Robsart_ and _Der Götze
von Venedig_, were very successful; and the historical novels, _Im Banne
des schwarzen Adlers_ (1875; 4th ed., 1884), _Die Erbschaft des Blutes_
(1881), _Die Tochter Rübezahls_ (1889), and _Verkümmerte Existenzen_
(1892), enjoyed a high degree of popularity. As a critic and historian
of literature Gottschall has also done excellent work. His _Die deutsche
Nationalliteratur des 19. Jahrhunderts_ (1855; 7th ed., 1901-1902), and
_Poetik_ (1858; 6th ed., 1903) command the respect of all students of
literature.

  Gottschall's collected _Dramatische Werke_ appeared in 12 vols. in
  1880 (2nd ed., 1884); he has also, in recent years, published many
  volumes of collected essays and criticisms. See his autobiography,
  _Aus meiner Jugend_ (1898).



GOTTSCHED, JOHANN CHRISTOPH (1700-1766), German author and critic, was
born on the 2nd of February 1700, at Judithenkirch near Königsberg, the
son of a Lutheran clergyman. He studied philosophy and history at the
university of his native town, but immediately on taking the degree of
_Magister_ in 1723, fled to Leipzig in order to evade impressment in the
Prussian military service. Here he enjoyed the protection of J. B.
Mencke (1674-1732), who, under the name of "Philander von der Linde,"
was a well-known poet and also president of the _Deutschübende poetische
Gesellschaft_ in Leipzig. Of this society Gottsched was elected "Senior"
in 1726, and in the next year reorganized it under the title of the
_Deutsche Gesellschaft_. In 1730 he was appointed extraordinary
professor of poetry, and, in 1734, ordinary professor of logic and
metaphysics in the university. He died at Leipzig on the 12th of
December 1766.

Gottsched's chief work was his _Versuch einer kritischen Dichtkunst für
die Deutschen_ (1730), the first systematic treatise in German on the
art of poetry from the standpoint of Boileau. His _Ausführliche
Redekunst_ (1728) and his _Grundlegung einer_ _deutschen Sprachkunst_
(1748) were of importance for the development of German style and the
purification of the language. He wrote several plays, of which _Der
sterbende Cato_ (1732), an adaptation of Addison's tragedy and a French
play on the same theme, was long popular on the stage. In his _Deutsche
Schaubühne_ (6 vols., 1740-1745), which contained mainly translations
from the French, he provided the German stage with a classical
repertory, and his bibliography of the German drama, _Nötiger Vorrat zur
Geschichte der deutschen dramatischen Dichtkunst_ (1757-1765), is still
valuable. He was also the editor of several journals devoted to literary
criticism. As a critic, Gottsched insisted on German literature being
subordinated to the laws of French classicism; he enunciated rules by
which the playwright must be bound, and abolished bombast and buffoonery
from the serious stage. While such reforms obviously afforded a healthy
corrective to the extravagance and want of taste which were rampant in
the German literature of the time, Gottsched went too far. In 1740 he
came into conflict with the Swiss writers Johann Jakob Bodmer (q.v.) and
Johann Jakob Breitinger (1701-1776), who, under the influence of Addison
and contemporary Italian critics, demanded that the poetic imagination
should not be hampered by artificial rules; they pointed to the great
English poets, and especially to Milton. Gottsched, although not blind
to the beauties of the English writers, clung the more tenaciously to
his principle that poetry must be the product of rules, and, in the
fierce controversy which for a time raged between Leipzig and Zürich, he
was inevitably defeated. His influence speedily declined, and before his
death his name became proverbial for pedantic folly.

His wife, Luise Adelgunde Victorie, née Kulmus (1713-1762), in some
respects her husband's intellectual superior, was an author of some
reputation. She wrote several popular comedies, of which _Das Testament_
is the best, and translated the _Spectator_ (9 vols., 1730-1743), Pope's
_Rape of the Lock_ (1744) and other English and French works. After her
death her husband edited her _Sämtliche kleinere Gedichte_ with a memoir
(1763).

  See T. W. Danzel, _Gottsched und seine Zeit_ (Leipzig, 1848); J.
  Crüger, Gottsched, _Bodmer, und Breitinger_ (with selections from
  their writings) (Stuttgart, 1884); F. Servaes, _Die Poetik Gottscheds
  und der Schweizer_ (Strassburg, 1887); E. Wolff, _Gottscheds Stellung
  im deutschen Bildungsleben_ (2 vols., Kiel, 1895-1897), and G. Waniek,
  _Gottsched und die deutsche Literatur seiner Zeit_ (Leipzig, 1897). On
  Frau Gottsched, see P. Schlenther, _Frau Gottsched und die bürgerliche
  Komödie_ (Berlin, 1886).



GÖTZ, JOHANN NIKOLAUS (1721-1781), German poet, was born at Worms on the
9th of July 1721. He studied theology at Halle (1739-1742), where he
became intimate with the poets Johann W. L. Gleim and Johann Peter Uz,
acted for some years as military chaplain, and afterwards filled various
other ecclesiastical offices. He died at Winterburg on the 4th of
November 1781. The writings of Götz consist of a number of short lyrics
and several translations, of which the best is a rendering of Anacreon.
His original compositions are light, lively and sparkling, and are
animated rather by French wit than by German depth of sentiment. The
best known of his poems is _Die Mädcheninsel_, an elegy which met with
the warm approval of Frederick the Great.

  Götz's _Vermischte Gedichte_ were published with biography by K. W.
  Ramler (Mannheim, 1785; new ed., 1807), and a collection of his poems,
  dating from the years 1745-1765, has been edited by C. Schüddekopf in
  the _Deutsche Literaturdenkmale des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts_ (1893).
  See also _Briefe von und an J. N. Götz_, edited by C. Schüddekopf
  (1893).



GOUACHE, a French word adapted from the Ital. _guazzo_ (probably in
origin connected with "wash"), meaning literally a "ford," but used also
for a method of painting in opaque water-colour. The colours are mixed
with or painted in a vehicle of gum or honey, and whereas in true
water-colours the high lights are obtained by leaving blank the surface
of the paper or other material used, or by allowing it to show through a
translucent wash in "gouache," these are obtained by white or other
light colour. "Gouache" is frequently used in miniature painting.



GOUDA (or TER GOUWE), a town of Holland, in the province of South
Holland, on the north side of the Gouwe at its confluence with the Ysel,
and a junction station 12½ m. by rail N.E. of Rotterdam. Pop. (1900)
22,303. Tramways connect it with Bodegraven (5½m. N.) on the old Rhine
and with Oudewater (8 m. E.) on the Ysel; and there is a regular
steamboat service in various directions, Amsterdam being reached by the
canalized Gouwe; Aar, Drecht and Amstel. The town of Gouda is laid out
in a fine open manner and, like other Dutch towns, is intersected by
numerous canals. On its outskirts pleasant walks and fine trees have
replaced the old fortifications. The Groote Markt is the largest
market-square in Holland. Among the numerous churches belonging to
various denominations, the first place must be given to the Groote Kerk
of St John. It was founded in 1485, but rebuilt after a fire in 1552,
and is remarkable for its dimensions (345 ft. long and 150 ft. broad),
for a large and celebrated organ, and a splendid series of over forty
stained-glass windows presented by cities and princes and executed by
various well-known artists, including the brothers Dirk (d. c. 1577) and
Wouter (d. c. 1590) Crabeth, between the years 1555 and 1603 (see
_Explanation of the Famous and Renowned Glass Works, &c._, Gouda, 1876,
reprinted from an older volume, 1718). Other noteworthy buildings are
the Gothic town hall, founded in 1449 and rebuilt in 1690, and the
weigh-house, built by Pieter Post of Haarlem (1608-1669) and adorned
with a fine relief by Barth. Eggers (d. c. 1690). The museum of
antiquities (1874) contains an exquisite chalice of the year 1425 and
some pictures and portraits by Wouter Crabeth the younger, Corn. Ketel
(a native of Gouda, 1548-1616) and Ferdinand Bol (1616-1680). Other
buildings are the orphanage, the hospital, a house of correction for
women and a music hall.

In the time of the counts the wealth of Gouda was mainly derived from
brewing and cloth-weaving; but at a later date the making of clay
tobacco pipes became the staple trade, and, although this industry has
somewhat declined, the churchwarden pipes of Gouda are still well known
and largely manufactured. In winter-time it is considered a feat to
skate hither from Rotterdam and elsewhere to buy such a pipe and return
with it in one's mouth without its being broken. The mud from the Ysel
furnishes the material for large brick-works and potteries; there are
also a celebrated manufactory of stearine candles, a yarn factory, an
oil refinery and cigar factories. The transit and shipping trade is
considerable, and as one of the principal markets of South Holland, the
round, white Gouda cheeses are known throughout Europe. Boskoop, 5 m. N.
by W. of Gouda on the Gouwe, is famous for its nursery gardens; and the
little old-world town of Oudewater as the birthplace of the famous
theologian Arminius in 1560. The town hall (1588) of Oudewater contains
a picture by Dirk Stoop (d. 1686), commemorating the capture of the town
by the Spaniards in 1575 and the subsequent sack and massacre.



GOUDIMEL, CLAUDE, musical composer of the 16th century, was born about
1510. The French and the Belgians claim him as their countryman. In all
probability he was born at Besançon, for in his edition of the songs of
Arcadelt, as well as in the mass of 1554, he calls himself "natif de
Besançon" and "Claudius Godimellus Vescontinus." This discountenances
the theory of Ambros that he was born at Vaison near Avignon. As to his
early education we know little or nothing, but the excellent Latin in
which some of his letters were written proves that, in addition to his
musical knowledge, he also acquired a good classical training. It is
supposed that he was in Rome in 1540 at the head of a music-school, and
that besides many other celebrated musicians, Palestrina was amongst his
pupils. About the middle of the century he seems to have left Rome for
Paris, where, in conjunction with Jean Duchemin, he published, in 1555,
a musical setting of Horace's Odes. Infinitely more important is another
collection of vocal pieces, a setting of the celebrated French version
of the Psalms by Marot and Beza published in 1565. It is written in four
parts, the melody being assigned to the tenor. The invention of the
melodies was long ascribed to Goudimel, but they have now definitely
been proved to have originated in popular tunes found in the
collections of this period. Some of these tunes are still used by the
French Protestant Church. Others were adopted by the German Lutherans, a
German imitation of the French versions of the Psalms in the same metres
having been published at an early date. Although the French version of
the Psalms was at first used by Catholics as well as Protestants, there
is little doubt that Goudimel had embraced the new faith. In Michel
Brenet's Biographie (_Annales franc-cuntoises_, Besançon, 1898, P.
Jacquin) it is established that in Metz, where he was living in 1565,
Goudimel moved in Huguenot circles, and even figured as godfather to the
daughter of the president of Senneton. Seven years later he fell a
victim to religious fanaticism during the St Bartholomew massacres at
Lyons from the 27th to the 28th of August 1572, his death, it is stated,
being due to "les ennemis de la gloire de Dieu et quelques méchants
envieux de l'honneur qu'il avait acquis." Masses and motets belonging to
his Roman period are found in the Vatican library, and in the archives
of various churches in Rome; others were published. Thus the work
entitled _Missae tres a Claudio Goudimel praestantissimo musico auctore,
nunc primum in lucem editae_, contains one mass by the learned editor
himself, the other two being by Claudius Sermisy and Jean Maillard
respectively. Another collection, _La Fleur des chansons des deux plus
excellens musiciens de nostre temps_, consists of part songs by Goudimel
and Orlando di Lasso. Burney gives in his history a motet of Goudimel's
_Domine quid multiplicati sunt_.



GOUFFIER, the name of a great French family, which owned the estate of
Bonnivet in Poitou from the 14th century. _Guillaume Gouffier_,
chamberlain to Charles VII., was an inveterate enemy of Jacques Coeur,
obtaining his condemnation and afterwards receiving his property (1491).
He had a great number of children, several of whom played a part in
history. Artus, seigneur de Boisy (c. 1475-1520) was entrusted with the
education of the young count of Angoulême (Francis I.), and on the
accession of this prince to the throne as Francis I. became grand master
of the royal household, playing an important part in the government; to
him was given the task of negotiating the treaty of Noyon in 1516; and
shortly before his death the king raised the estates of Roanne and Boisy
to the rank of a duchy, that of Roannais, in his favour. ADRIEN GOUFFIER
(d. 1523) was bishop of Coutances and Albi, and grand almoner of France.
GUILLAUME GOUFFIER, seigneur de Bonnivet, became admiral. of France (see
BONNIVET). CLAUDE GOUFFIER, son of Artus, was created comte de
Maulevrier (1542) and marquis de Boisy (1564).

There were many branches of this family, the chief of them being the
dukes of Roannais, the counts of Caravas, the lords of Crèvecoeur and of
Bonnivet, the marquises of Thois, of Brazeux, and of Espagny. The name
of Gouffier was adopted in the 18th century by a branch of the house of
Choiseul.     (M. P.*)



GOUGE, MARTIN (c. 1360-1444), surnamed DE CHARPAIGNE, French chancellor,
was born at Bourges about 1360. A canon of Bourges, in 1402 he became
treasurer to John, duke of Berri, and in 1406 bishop of Chartres. He was
arrested by John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, with the hapless Jean
de Montaigu (1349-1409) in 1409, but was soon released and then
banished. Attaching himself to the dauphin Louis, duke of Guienne, he
became his chancellor, the king's ambassador in Brittany, and a member
of the grand council; and on the 13th of May 1415, he was transferred
from the see of Chartres to that of Clermont-Ferrand. In May 1418, when
the Burgundians re-entered Paris, he only escaped death at their hands
by taking refuge in the Bastille. He then left Paris, but only to fall
into the hands of his enemy, the duke de la Trémoille, who imprisoned
him in the castle of Sully. Rescued by the dauphin Charles, he was
appointed chancellor of France on the 3rd of February 1422. He
endeavoured to reconcile Burgundy and France, was a party to the
selection of Arthur, earl of Richmond, as constable, but had to resign
his chancellorship in favour of Regnault of Chartres; first from March
25th to August 6th 1425, and again when La Trémoille had supplanted
Richmond. After the fall of La Trémoille in 1433 he returned to court,
and exercised a powerful influence over affairs of state almost till his
death, which took place at the castle of Beaulieu (Puy-de-Dôme) on the
25th or 26th of November 1444.

  See Hiver's account in the _Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires du
  Centre_, p. 267 (1869); and the _Nouvelle Biographie générale_, vol.
  xxi.



GOUGE (adopted from the Fr. _gouge_, derived from the Late Lat. _gubia_
or _gulbia_, in Ducange _gulbium_, an implement _ad hortum excolendum_,
and also _instrumentum ferreum in usu fabrorum_; according to the _New
English Dictionary_ the word is probably of Celtic origin, _gylf_, a
beak, appearing in Welsh, and _gilb_, a boring tool, in Cornish), a tool
of the chisel type with a curved blade, used for scooping a groove or
channel in wood, stone, &c. (see Tool). A similar instrument is used in
surgery for operations involving the excision of portions of bone.
"Gouge" is also used as the name of a bookbinder's tool, for impressing
a curved line on the leather, and for the line so impressed. In mining,
a "gouge" is the layer of soft rock or earth sometimes found in each
side of a vein of coal or ore, which the miner can scoop out with his
pick, and thus attack the vein more easily from the side. The verb "to
gouge" is used in the sense of scooping or forcing out.



GOUGH, HUGH GOUGH, VISCOUNT (1779-1869), British field-marshal, a
descendant of Francis Gough who was made bishop of Limerick in 1626, was
born at Woodstown, Limerick, on the 3rd of November 1779. Having obtained
a commission in the army in August 1794, he served with the 78th
Highlanders at the Cape of Good Hope, taking part in the capture of Cape
Town and of the Dutch fleet in Saldanha Bay in 1796. His next service was
in the West Indies, where, with the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), he
shared in the attack on Porto Rico, the capture of Surinam, and the
brigand war in St Lucia. In 1809 he was called to take part in the
Peninsular War, and, joining the army under Wellington, commanded his
regiment as major in the operations before Oporto, by which the town was
taken from the French. At Talavera he was severely wounded, and had his
horse shot under him. For his conduct on this occasion he was afterwards
promoted lieutenant-colonel, his commission, on the recommendation of
Wellington, being antedated from the day of the duke's despatch. He was
thus the first officer who ever received brevet rank for services
performed in the field at the head of a regiment. He was next engaged at
the battle of Barrosa, at which his regiment captured a French eagle. At
the defence of Tarifa the post of danger was assigned to him, and he
compelled the enemy to raise the siege. At Vitoria, where Gough again
distinguished himself, his regiment captured the baton of Marshal
Jourdan. He was again severely wounded at Nivelle, and was soon after
created a knight of St Charles by the king of Spain. At the close of the
war he returned home and enjoyed a respite of some years from active
service. He next took command of a regiment stationed in the south of
Ireland, discharging at the same time the duties of a magistrate during a
period of agitation. Gough was promoted major-general in 1830. Seven
years later he was sent to India to take command of the Mysore division
of the army. But not long after his arrival in India the difficulties
which led to the first Chinese war made the presence of an energetic
general on the scene indispensable, and Gough was appointed
commander-in-chief of the British forces in China. This post he held
during all the operations of the war; and by his great achievements and
numerous victories in the face of immense difficulties, he at length
enabled the English plenipotentiary, Sir H. Pottinger, to dictate peace
on his own terms. After the conclusion of the treaty of Nanking in August
1842 the British forces were withdrawn; and before the close of the year
Gough, who had been made a G.C.B, in the previous year for his services
in the capture of the Canton forts, was created a baronet. In August 1843
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in India, and
in December he took the command in person against the Mahrattas, and
defeated them at Maharajpur, capturing more than fifty guns. In 1845
occurred the rupture with the Sikhs, who crossed the Sutlej in large
numbers, and Sir Hugh Gough conducted the operations against them, being
well supported by Lord Hardinge, the governor-general, who volunteered to
serve under him. Successes in the hard-fought battles of Mudki and
Ferozeshah were succeeded by the victory of Sobraon, and shortly
afterwards the Sikhs sued for peace at Lahore. The services of Sir Hugh
Gough were rewarded by his elevation to the peerage of the United Kingdom
as Baron Gough (April 1846). The war broke out again in 1848, and again
Lord Gough took the field; but the result of the battle of Chillianwalla
being equivocal, he was superseded by the home authorities in favour of
Sir Charles Napier; before the news of the supersession arrived Lord
Gough had finally crushed the Sikhs in the battle of Gujarat (February
1849). His tactics during the Sikh wars were the subject of an embittered
controversy (see SIKH WARS). Lord Gough now returned to England, was
raised to a viscountcy, and for the third time received the thanks of
both Houses of Parliament. A pension of £2000 per annum was granted to
him by parliament, and an equal pension by the East India Company. He did
not again see active service. In 1854 he was appointed colonel of the
Royal Horse Guards, and two years later he was sent to the Crimea to
invest Marshal Pélissier and other officers with the insignia of the
Bath. Honours were multiplied upon him during his latter years. He was
made a knight of St Patrick, being the first knight of the order who did
not hold an Irish peerage, was sworn a privy councillor, was named a
G.C.S.I., and in November 1862 was made field-marshal. He was twice
married, and left children by both his wives. He died on the 2nd of March
1869.

  See R. S. Rait, _Lord Gough_ (1903); and Sir W. Lee Warner, _Lord
  Dalhousie_ (1904).



GOUGH, JOHN BARTHOLOMEW (1817-1886), American temperance orator, was
born at Sandgate, Kent, England, on the 22nd of August 1817. He was
educated by his mother, a schoolmistress, and at the age of twelve was
sent to the United States to seek his fortune. He lived for two years
with family friends on a farm in western New York, and then entered a
book-bindery in New York City to learn the trade. There in 1833 his
mother joined him, but after her death in 1835 he fell in with dissolute
companions, and became a confirmed drunkard. He lost his position, and
for several years supported himself as a ballad singer and story-teller
in the cheap theatres and concert-halls of New York and other eastern
cities. Even this means of livelihood was being closed to him, when in
Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1842 he was induced to sign a temperance
pledge. After several lapses and a terrific struggle, he determined to
devote his life to lecturing in behalf of temperance reform. Gifted with
remarkable powers of pathos and of description, he was successful from
the start, and was soon known and sought after throughout the entire
country, his appeals, which were directly personal and emotional, being
attended with extraordinary responses. He continued his work until the
end of his life, made several tours of England, where his American
success was repeated, and died at his work, being stricken with apoplexy
on the lecture platform at Frankford, Pennsylvania, where he passed away
two days later, on the 18th of February 1886. He published an
_Autobiography_ (1846); _Orations_ (1854); _Temperance Addresses_
(1870); _Temperance Lectures_ (1879); and _Sunlight and Shadow, or
Gleanings from My Life Work_ (1880).



GOUGH, RICHARD (1735-1809), English antiquary, was born in London on the
21st of October 1735. His father was a wealthy M.P. and director of the
East India Company. Gough was a precocious child, and at twelve had
translated from the French a history of the Bible, which his mother
printed for private circulation. When fifteen he translated Abbé
Fleury's work on the Israelites; and at sixteen he published an
elaborate work entitled _Atlas Renovatus, or Geography modernized_. In
1752 he entered Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he began his
work on British topography, published in 1768. Leaving Cambridge in
1756, he began a series of antiquarian excursions in various parts of
Great Britain. In 1773 he began an edition in English of Camden's
_Britannia_, which appeared in 1789. Meantime he published, in 1786,
the first volume of his splendid work, the _Sepulchral Monuments of
Great Britain, applied to illustrate the history of families, manners,
habits, and arts at the different periods from the Norman Conquest to
the Seventeenth Century_. This volume, which contained the first four
centuries, was followed in 1796 by a second volume containing the 15th
century, and an introduction to the second volume appeared in 1799.
Gough was chosen a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London in
1767, and from 1771 to 1791 he was its director. He was elected F.R.S.
in 1775. He died at Enfield on the 20th of February 1809. His books and
manuscripts relating to Anglo-Saxon and northern literature, all his
collections in the department of British topography, and a large number
of his drawings and engravings of other archaeological remains, were
bequeathed to the university of Oxford.

  Among the minor works of Gough are _An Account of the Bedford Missal_
  (in MS.); _A Catalogue of the Coins of Canute, King of Denmark_
  (1777); _History of Pleshy in Essex_ (1803); _An Account of the Coins
  of the Seleucidae, Kings of Syria_ (1804); and "History of the Society
  of Antiquaries of London," prefixed to their _Archaeologia_.



GOUJET, CLAUDE PIERRE (1697-1767), French abbé and littérateur, was born
in Paris on the 19th of October 1697. He studied at the College of the
Jesuits, and at the Collège Mazarin, but he nevertheless became a strong
Jansenist. In 1705 he assumed the ecclesiastical habit, in 1719 entered
the order of Oratorians, and soon afterwards was named canon of St
Jacques l'Hôpital. On account of his extreme Jansenist opinions he
suffered considerable persecution from the Jesuits, and several of his
works were suppressed at their instigation. In his latter years his
health began to fail, and he lost his eyesight. Poverty compelled him to
sell his library, a sacrifice which hastened his death, which took place
at Paris on the 1st of February 1767.

  He is the author of _Supplément au dictionnaire de Moréri_ (1735), and
  a _Nouveau Supplément_ to a subsequent edition of the work; he
  collaborated in _Bibliothèque française, ou histoire littéraire de la
  France_ (18 vols., Paris, 1740-1759); and in the _Vies des saints_ (7
  vols., 1730); he also wrote _Mémoires historiques et littéraires sur
  le collège royal de France_ (1758); _Histoire des Inquisitions_
  (Paris, 1752); and supervised an edition of Richelet's _Dictionnaire_,
  of which he has also given an abridgment. He helped the abbé Fabre in
  his continuation of Fleury's _Histoire ecclésiastique_.

  See _Mémoires hist. et litt. de l'abbé Goujet_ (1767).



GOUJON, JEAN (c. 1520-c. 1566), French sculptor of the 16th century.
Although some evidence has been offered in favour of the date 1520
(_Archives de l'art français_, iii. 350), the time and place of his
birth are still uncertain. The first mention of his name occurs in the
accounts of the church of St Maclou at Rouen in the year 1540, and in
the following year he was employed at the cathedral of the same town,
where he added to the tomb of Cardinal d'Amboise a statue of his nephew
Georges, afterwards removed, and possibly carved portions of the tomb of
Louis de Brezé, executed some time after 1545. On leaving Rouen, Goujon
was employed by Pierre Lescot, the celebrated architect of the Louvre,
on the restorations of St-Germain l'Auxerrois; the building
accounts--some of which for the years 1542-1544 were discovered by M. de
Laborde on a piece of parchment binding--specify as his work, not only
the carvings of the pulpit (Louvre), but also a Notre Dame de Piété, now
lost. In 1547 appeared Martin's French translation of Vitruvius, the
illustrations of which were due, the translator tells us in his
"Dedication to the King," to Goujon, "naguères architecte de Monseigneur
le Connétable, et maintenant un des vôtres." We learn from this
statement not only that Goujon had been taken into the royal service on
the accession of Henry II., but also that he had been previously
employed under Bullant on the château of Écouen. Between 1547 and 1549
he was employed in the decoration of the Loggia ordered from Lescot for
the entry of Henry II. into Paris, which took place on the 16th of June
1549. Lescot's edifice was reconstructed at the end of the 18th century
by Bernard Poyet into the Fontaine des Innocents, this being a
considerable variation of the original design. At the Louvre, Goujon,
under the direction of Lescot, executed the carvings of the south-west
angle of the court, the reliefs of the Escalier Henri II., and the
Tribune des Cariatides, for which he received 737 livres on the 5th of
September 1550. Between 1548 and 1554 rose the château d'Anet, in the
embellishment of which Goujon was associated with Philibert Delorme in
the service of Diana of Poitiers. Unfortunately the building accounts of
Anet have disappeared, but Goujon executed a vast number of other works
of equal importance, destroyed or lost in the great Revolution. In 1555
his name appears again in the Louvre accounts, and continues to do so
every succeeding year up to 1562, when all trace of him is lost. In the
course of this year an attempt was made to turn out of the royal
employment all those who were suspected of Huguenot tendencies. Goujon
has always been claimed as a Reformer; it is consequently possible that
he was one of the victims of this attack. We should therefore probably
ascribe the work attributed to him in the Hôtel Carnavalet (_in situ_),
together with much else executed in various parts of Paris--but now
dispersed or destroyed--to a period intervening between the date of his
dismissal from the Louvre and his death, which is computed to have taken
place between 1564 and 1568, probably at Bologna. The researches of M.
Tomaso Sandonnini (see _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 2^e période, vol.
xxxi.) have finally disposed of the supposition, long entertained, that
Goujon died during the St Bartholomew massacre in 1572.

_List of authentic works of Jean Goujon_: Two marble columns supporting
the organ of the church of St Maclou (Rouen) on right and left of porch
on entering; left-hand gate of the church of St Maclou; bas-reliefs for
decoration of screen of St Germain l'Auxerrois (now in Louvre);
"Victory" over chimney-piece of Salle des Gardes at Écouen; altar at
Chantilly; illustrations for Jean Martin's translation of Vitruvius;
bas-reliefs and sculptural decoration of Fontaine des Innocents;
bas-reliefs adorning entrance of Hôtel Carnavalet, also series of
satyrs' heads on keystones of arcade of courtyard; fountain of Diana
from Anet (now in Louvre); internal decoration of chapel at Anet;
portico of Anet (now in courtyard of École des Beaux Arts); bust of
Diane de Poiçtiers (now at Versailles); Tribune of Caryatides in the
Louvre; decoration of "Escalier Henri II.," Louvre; oeils de boeuf and
decoration of Henri II. façade, Louvre; groups for pediments of façade
now placed over entrance to Egyptian and Assyrian collections, Louvre.

  See A. A. Pottier, _Oeuvres de Goujon_ (1844); Reginald Lister, _Jean
  Goujon_ (London, 1903).



GOUJON, JEAN MARIE CLAUDE ALEXANDRE (1766-1795), French publicist and
statesman, was born at Bourg on the 13th of April 1766, the son of a
postmaster. The boy went early to sea, and saw fighting when he was
twelve years old; in 1790 he settled at Meudon, and began to make good
his lack of education. As procureur-général-syndic of the department of
Seine-et-Oise, in August, 1792, he had to supply the inhabitants with
food, and fulfilled his difficult functions with energy and tact. In the
Convention, which he entered on the death of Hérault de Séchelles, he
took his seat on the benches of the Mountain. He conducted a mission to
the armies of the Rhine and the Moselle with creditable moderation, and
was a consistent advocate of peace within the republic. Nevertheless, he
was a determined opponent of the counter-revolution, which he denounced
in the Jacobin Club and from the Mountain after his recall to Paris,
following on the revolution of the 9th Thermidor (July 27, 1794). He was
one of those who protested against the readmission of Louvet and other
survivors of the Girondin party to the Convention in March 1795; and,
when the populace invaded the legislature on the 1st Prairial (May 20,
1795) and compelled the deputies to legislate in accordance with their
desires, he proposed the immediate establishment of a special commission
which should assure the execution of the proposed changes and assume the
functions of the various committees. The failure of the insurrection
involved the fall of those deputies who had supported the demands of the
populace. Before the close of the sitting, Goujon, with Romme, Duroi,
Duquesnoy, Bourbotte, Soubrany and others were put under arrest by their
colleagues, and on their way to the château of Taureau in Brittany had
a narrow escape from a mob at Avranches. They were brought back to Paris
for trial before a military commission on the 17th of June, and, though
no proof of their complicity in organizing the insurrection could be
found--they were, in fact, with the exception of Goujon and Bourbotte,
strangers to one another--they were condemned. In accordance with a
pre-arranged plan, they attempted suicide on the staircase leading from
the court-room with a knife which Goujon had successfully concealed.
Romme, Goujon and Duquesnoy succeeded, but the other three merely
inflicted wounds which did not prevent their being taken immediately to
the guillotine. With their deaths the Mountain ceased to exist as a
party.

  See J. Claretie, _Les Derniers Montagnards, histoire de l'insurrection
  de Prairial an III d'après les documents_ (1867); _Défense du
  représentant du peuple Goujon_ (Paris, no date), with the letters and
  a hymn written by Goujon during his imprisonment. For other documents
  see Maurice Tourneux (Paris, 1890, vol. i., pp. 422-425).



GOULBURN, EDWARD MEYRICK (1818-1897), English churchman, son of Mr
Serjeant Goulburn, M.P., recorder of Leicester, and nephew of the Right
Hon. Henry Goulburn, chancellor of the exchequer in the ministries of
Sir Robert Peel and the duke of Wellington, was born in London on the
11th of February 1818, and was educated at Eton and at Balliol College,
Oxford. In 1839 he became fellow and tutor of Merton, and in 1841 and
1843 was ordained deacon and priest respectively. For some years he held
the living of Holywell, Oxford, and was chaplain to Samuel Wilberforce,
bishop of the diocese. In 1849 he succeeded Tait as headmaster of Rugby,
but in 1857 he resigned, and accepted the charge of Quebec Chapel,
Marylebone. In 1858 he became a prebendary of St Paul's, and in 1859
vicar of St John's, Paddington. In 1866 he was made dean of Norwich, and
in that office exercised a long and marked influence on church life. A
strong Conservative and a churchman of traditional orthodoxy, he was a
keen antagonist of "higher criticism" and of all forms of rationalism.
His _Thoughts on Personal Religion_ (1862) and _The Pursuit of Holiness_
were well received; and he wrote the _Life_ (1892) of his friend Dean
Burgon, with whose doctrinal views he was substantially in agreement. He
resigned the deanery in 1889, and died at Tunbridge Wells on the 3rd of
May 1897.

  See _Life_ by B. Compton (1899).



GOULBURN, HENRY (1784-1856), English statesman, was born in London on
the 19th of March 1784 and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.
In 1808 he became member of parliament for Horsham; in 1810 he was
appointed under-secretary for home affairs and two and a half years
later he was made under-secretary for war and the colonies. Still
retaining office in the Tory government he became a privy councillor in
1821, and just afterwards was appointed chief secretary to the
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, a position which he held until April 1827.
Here although frequently denounced as an Orangeman, his period of office
was on the whole a successful one, and in 1823 he managed to pass the
Irish Tithe Composition Bill. In January 1828 he was made chancellor of
the exchequer under the duke of Wellington; like his leader he disliked
Roman Catholic emancipation, which he voted against in 1828. In the
domain of finance Goulburn's chief achievements were to reduce the rate
of interest on part of the national debt, and to allow any one to sell
beer upon payment of a small annual fee, a complete change of policy
with regard to the drink traffic. Leaving office with Wellington in
November 1830, Goulburn was home secretary under Sir Robert Peel for
four months in 1835, and when this statesman returned to office in
September 1841 he became chancellor of the exchequer for the second
time. Although Peel himself did some of the chancellor's work, Goulburn
was responsible for a further reduction in the rate of interest on the
national debt, and he aided his chief in the struggle which ended in the
repeal of the corn laws. With his colleagues he left office in June
1846. After representing Horsham in the House of Commons for over four
years Goulburn was successively member for St Germans, for West Looe,
and for the city of Armagh. In May 1831 he was elected for Cambridge
University, and he retained this seat until his death on the 12th of
January 1856 at Betchworth House, Dorking. Goulburn was one of Peel's
firmest supporters and most intimate friends. His eldest son, Henry
(1813-1843), was senior classic and second wrangler at Cambridge in
1835.

  See S. Walpole, _History of England_ (1878-1886).



GOULBURN, a city of Argyle county, New South Wales, Australia, 134 m.
S.W. of Sydney by the Great Southern railway. Pop. (1901) 10,618. It
lies in a productive agricultural district, at an altitude of 2129 ft.,
and is a place of great importance, being the chief depot of the inland
trade of the southern part of the state. There are Anglican and Roman
Catholic cathedrals. Manufactures of boots and shoes, flour and beer,
and tanning are important. The municipality was created in 1859; and
Goulburn became a city in 1864.



GOULD, AUGUSTUS ADDISON (1805-1866), American conchologist, was born at
New Ipswich, New Hampshire, on the 23rd of April 1805, graduated at
Harvard College in 1825, and took his degree of doctor of medicine in
1830. Thrown from boyhood on his own exertions, it was only by industry,
perseverance and self-denial that he obtained the means to pursue his
studies. Establishing himself in Boston, he devoted himself to the
practice of medicine, and finally rose to high professional rank and
social position. He became president of the Massachusetts Medical
Society, and was employed in editing the vital statistics of the state.
As a conchologist his reputation is world-wide, and he was one of the
pioneers of the science in America. His writings fill many pages of the
publications of the Boston Society of Natural History (see vol. xi. p.
197 for a list) and other periodicals. He published with L. Agassiz the
_Principles of Zoology_ (2nd ed. 1851); he edited the _Terrestrial and
Air-breathing Mollusks_ (1851-1855) of Amos Binney (1803-1847); he
translated Lamarck's _Genera of Shells_. The two most important
monuments to his scientific work, however, are _Mollusca and Shells_
(vol. xii., 1852) of the United States exploring expedition (1838-1842)
under Lieutenant Charles Wilkes (1833), published by the government, and
the _Report on the Invertebrata_ published by order of the legislature
of Massachusetts in 1841. A second edition of the latter work was
authorized in 1865, and published in 1870 after the author's death,
which took place at Boston on the 15th of September 1866. Gould was a
corresponding member of all the prominent American scientific societies,
and of many of those of Europe, including the London Royal Society.



GOULD, BENJAMIN APTHORP (1824-1896), American astronomer, a son of
Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1787-1859), principal of the Boston Latin
school, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the 27th of September
1824. Having graduated at Harvard College in 1844, he studied
mathematics and astronomy under C. F. Gauss at Göttingen, and returned
to America in 1848. From 1852 to 1867 he was in charge of the longitude
department of the United States coast survey; he developed and organized
the service, was one of the first to determine longitudes by telegraphic
means, and employed the Atlantic cable in 1866 to establish
longitude-relations between Europe and America. The _Astronomical
Journal_ was founded by Gould in 1849; and its publication, suspended in
1861, was resumed by him in 1885. From 1855 to 1859 he acted as director
of the Dudley observatory at Albany, New York; and published in 1859 a
discussion of the places and proper motions of circumpolar stars to be
used as standards by the United States coast survey. Appointed in 1862
actuary to the United States sanitary commission, he issued in 1869 an
important volume of _Military and Anthropological Statistics_. He fitted
up in 1864 a private observatory at Cambridge, Mass.; but undertook in
1868, on behalf of the Argentine republic, to organize a national
observatory at Cordoba; began to observe there with four assistants in
1870, and completed in 1874 his _Uranometria Argentina_ (published 1879)
for which he received in 1883 the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical
Society. This was followed by a zone-catalogue of 73,160 stars (1884),
and a general catalogue (1885) compiled from meridian observations of
32,448 stars. Gould's measurements of L. M. Rutherfurd's photographs of
the Pleiades in 1866 entitle him to rank as a pioneer in the use of the
camera as an instrument of precision; and he secured at Cordoba 1400
negatives of southern star-clusters, the reduction of which occupied the
closing years of his life. He returned in 1885 to his home at Cambridge,
where he died on the 26th of November 1896.

  See _Astronomical Journal_, No. 389; _Observatory_, xx. 70 (same
  notice abridged); _Science_ (Dec. 18, 1896, S. C. Chandler);
  _Astrophysical Journal_, v. 50; _Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Society_,
  lvii. 218.



GOULD, SIR FRANCIS CARRUTHERS (1844-   ), English caricaturist and
politician, was born in Barnstaple on the 2nd of December 1844. Although
in early youth he showed great love of drawing, he began life in a bank
and then joined the London Stock Exchange, where he constantly sketched
the members and illustrated important events in the financial world;
many of these drawings were reproduced by lithography and published for
private circulation. In 1879 he began the regular illustration of the
Christmas numbers of _Truth_, and in 1887 he became a contributor to the
_Pall Mall Gazette_, transferring his allegiance to the _Westminster
Gazette_ on its foundation and subsequently acting as assistant editor.
Among his independent publications are _Who killed Cock Robin?_ (1897),
_Tales told in the Zoo_ (1900), two volumes of _Froissart's Modern
Chronicles, told and pictured by F. C. Gould_ (1902 and 1903), and
_Picture Politics_--a periodical reprint of his _Westminster Gazette_
cartoons, one of the most noteworthy implements of political warfare in
the armoury of the Liberal party. Frequently grafting his ideas on to
subjects taken freely from _Uncle Remus_, _Alice in Wonderland_, and the
works of Dickens and Shakespeare, Sir F. C. Gould used these literary
vehicles with extraordinary dexterity and point, but with a satire that
was not unkind and with a vigour from which bitterness, virulence and
cynicism were notably absent. He was knighted in 1906.



GOULD, JAY (1836-1892), American financier, was born in Roxbury,
Delaware county, New York, on the 27th of May 1836. He was brought up on
his father's farm, studied at Hobart Academy, and though he left school
in his sixteenth year, devoted himself assiduously thereafter to private
study, chiefly of mathematics and surveying, at the same time keeping
books for a blacksmith for his board. For a short time he worked for his
father in the hardware business; in 1852-1856 he worked as a surveyor in
preparing maps of Ulster, Albany and Delaware counties in New York, of
Lake and Geauga counties in Ohio, and of Oakland county in Michigan, and
of a projected railway line between Newburgh and Syracuse, N.Y. An
ardent anti-renter in his boyhood and youth, he wrote _A History of
Delaware County and the Border Wars of New York, containing a Sketch of
the Early Settlements in the County, and A History of the Late Anti-Rent
Difficulties in Delaware_ (Roxbury, 1856). He then engaged in the lumber
and tanning business in western New York, and in banking at Stroudsburg,
Pennsylvania. In 1863 he married Miss Helen Day Miller, and through her
father, Daniel S. Miller, he was appointed manager of the Rensselaer &
Saratoga railway, which he bought up when it was in a very bad
condition, and skilfully reorganized; in the same way he bought and
reorganized the Rutland & Washington railway, from which he ultimately
realized a large profit. In 1859 he removed to New York City, where he
became a broker in railway stocks, and in 1868 he was elected president
of the Erie railway, of which by shrewd strategy he and James Fisk, Jr.
(q.v.), had gained control in July of that year. The management of the
road under his control, and especially the sale of $5,000,000 of
fraudulent stock in 1868-1870, led to litigation begun by English
bondholders, and Gould was forced out of the company in March 1872 and
compelled to restore securities valued at about $7,500,000. It was
during his control of the Erie that he and Fisk entered into a league
with the Tweed Ring, they admitted Tweed to the directorate of the Erie,
and Tweed in turn arranged favourable legislation for them at Albany.
With Tweed, Gould was cartooned by Nast in 1869. In October 1871 Gould
was the chief bondsman of Tweed when the latter was held in $1,000,000
bail. With Fisk in August 1869 he began to buy gold in a daring attempt
to "corner" the market, his hope being that, with the advance in price
of gold, wheat would advance to such a price that western farmers would
sell, and there would be a consequent great movement of breadstuffs from
West to East, which would result in increased freight business for the
Erie road. His speculations in gold, during which he attempted through
President Grant's brother-in-law, A. H. Corbin, to influence the
president and his secretary General Horace Porter, culminated in the
panic of "Black Friday," on the 24th of September 1869, when the price
of gold fell from 162 to 135.

Gould gained control of the Union Pacific, from which in 1883 he
withdrew after realizing a large profit. Buying up the stock of the
Missouri Pacific he built up, by means of consolidations,
reorganizations, and the construction of branch lines, the "Gould
System" of railways in the south-western states. In 1880 he was in
virtual control of 10,000 miles of railway, about one-ninth of the
railway mileage of the United States at that time. Besides, he obtained
a controlling interest in the Western Union Telegraph Company, and after
1881 in the elevated railways in New York City, and was intimately
connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the
United States for the twenty years following 1868. He died of
consumption and of mental strain on the 2nd of December 1892, his
fortune at that time being estimated at $72,000,000; all of this he left
to his own family.

His eldest son, GEORGE JAY GOULD (b. 1864), was prominent also as an
owner and manager of railways, and became president of the Little Rock &
Fort Smith railway (1888), the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern
railway (1893), the International & Great Northern railway (1893), the
Missouri Pacific railway (1893), the Texas & Pacific railway (1893), and
the Manhattan Railway Company (1892); he was also vice-president and
director of the Western Union Telegraph Company. It was under his
control that the Wabash system became transcontinental and secured an
Atlantic port at Baltimore; and it was he who brought about a friendly
alliance between the Gould and the Rockefeller interests.

The eldest daughter, HELEN MILLER GOULD (b. 1868), became widely known
as a philanthropist, and particularly for her generous gifts to American
army hospitals in the war with Spain in 1898 and for her many
contributions to New York University, to which she gave $250,000 for a
library in 1895 and $100,000 for a Hall of Fame in 1900.



GOUNOD, CHARLES FRANÇOIS (1818-1893), French composer, was born in Paris
on the 17th of June 1818, the son of F. L. Gounod, a talented painter.
He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1836, studied under Reicha, Halévy
and Lesueur, and won the "Grand Prix de Rome" in 1839. While residing in
the Eternal City he devoted much of his time to the study of sacred
music, notably to the works of Palestrina and Bach. In 1843 he went to
Vienna, where a "requiem" of his composition was performed. On his
return to Paris he tried in vain to find a publisher for some songs he
had written in Rome. Having become organist to the chapel of the
"Missions Étrangères," he turned his thoughts and mind to religious
music. At that time he even contemplated the idea of entering into holy
orders. His thoughts were, however, turned to more mundane matters when,
through the intervention of Madame Viardot, the celebrated singer, he
received a commission to compose an opera on a text by Émile Augier for
the Académie Nationale de Musique. _Sapho_, the work in question, was
produced in 1851, and if its success was not very great, it at least
sufficed to bring the composer's name to the fore. Some critics appeared
to consider this work as evidence of a fresh departure in the style of
dramatic music, and Adolphe Adam, the composer, who was also a musical
critic, attributed to Gounod the wish to revive the system of musical
declamation invented by Gluck. The fact was that _Sapho_ differed in
some respects from the operatic works of the period, and was to a
certain extent in advance of the times. When it was revived at the Paris
Opéra in 1884, several additions were made by the composer to the
original score, not altogether to its advantage, and _Sapho_ once more
failed to attract the public. Gounod's second dramatic attempt was again
in connexion with a classical subject, and consisted in some choruses
written for _Ulysse_, a tragedy by Ponsard, played at the Théâtre
Français in 1852, when the orchestra was conducted by Offenbach. The
composer's next opera, _La Nonne sanglante_, given at the Paris Opéra in
1854, was a failure.

Goethe's _Faust_ had for years exercised a strong fascination over
Gounod, and he at last determined to turn it to operatic account. The
performance at a Paris theatre of a drama on the same subject delayed
the production of his opera for a time. In the meanwhile he wrote in a
few months the music for an operatic version of Molière's comedy, _Le
Médecin malgré lui_, which was produced at the Théâtre Lyrique in 1858.
Berlioz well described this charming little work when he wrote of it,
"Everything is pretty, piquant, fluent, in this 'opéra comique'; there
is nothing superfluous and nothing wanting." The first performance of
_Faust_ took place at the Théâtre Lyrique on the 19th of March 1859.
Goethe's masterpiece had already been utilized for operatic purposes by
various composers, the most celebrated of whom was Spohr. The subject
had also inspired Schumann, Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner, to mention only a
few, and the enormous success of Gounod's opera did not deter Boito from
writing his _Mefistofele_. _Faust_ is without doubt the most popular
French opera of the second half of the 19th century. Its success has
been universal, and nowhere has it achieved greater vogue than in the
land of Goethe. For years it remained the recognized type of modern
French opera. At the time of its production in Paris it was scarcely
appreciated according to its merits. Its style was too novel, and its
luscious harmonies did not altogether suit the palates of those
dilettanti who still looked upon Rossini as the incarnation of music.
Times have indeed changed, and French composers have followed the road
opened by Gounod, and have further developed the form of the lyrical
drama, adopting the theories of Wagner in a manner suitable to their
national temperament. Although in its original version _Faust_ contained
spoken dialogue, and was divided into set pieces according to custom,
yet it differed greatly from the operas of the past. Gounod had not
studied the works of German masters such as Mendelssohn and Schumann in
vain, and although his own style is eminently Gallic, yet it cannot be
denied that much of its charm emanates from a certain poetic
sentimentality which seems to have a Teutonic origin. Certainly no music
such as his had previously been produced by any French composer. Auber
was a gay trifler, scattering his bright effusions with absolute
_insouciance_, teeming with melodious ideas, but lacking depth. Berlioz,
a musical Titan, wrestled against fate with a superhuman energy, and,
Jove-like, subjugated his hearers with his thunderbolts. It was,
however, reserved for Gounod to introduce _la note tendre_, to sing the
tender passion in accents soft and languorous. The musical language
employed in _Faust_ was new and fascinating, and it was soon to be
adopted by many other French composers, certain of its idioms thereby
becoming hackneyed. Gounod's opera was given in London in 1863, when its
success, at first doubtful, became enormous, and it was heard
concurrently at Covent Garden and Her Majesty's theatres. Since then it
has never lost its popularity.

Although the success of _Faust_ in Paris was at first not so great as
might have been expected, yet it gradually increased and set the seal on
Gounod's fame. The fortunate composer now experienced no difficulty in
finding an outlet for his works, and the succeeding decade is a
specially important one in his career. The opera from his pen which came
after Faust was _Philémon et Baucis_, a setting of the mythological tale
in which the composer followed the traditions of the Opéra Comique,
employing spoken dialogue, while not abdicating the individuality of his
own style. This work was produced at the Théâtre Lyrique in 1860. It has
repeatedly been heard in London. _La Reine de Saba_, a four-act opera,
produced at the Grand Opéra on the 28th of February 1862, was altogether
a far more ambitious work. For some reason it did not meet with
success, although the score contains some of Gounod's choicest
inspirations, notably the well-known air, "Lend me your aid." _La Reine
de Saba_ was adapted for the English stage under the name of _Irene_.
The non-success of this work proved a great disappointment to Gounod,
who, however, set to work again, and this time with better results,
_Mireille_, the fruit of his labours, being given for the first time at
the Théâtre Lyrique on the 19th of March 1864. Founded upon the _Mireio_
of the Provençal poet Mistral, _Mireille_ contains much charming and
characteristic music. The libretto seems to have militated against its
success, and although several revivals have taken place and various
modifications and alterations have been made in the score, yet
_Mireille_ has never enjoyed a very great vogue. Certain portions of
this opera have, however, been popularized in the concert-room. _La
Colombe_, a little opera in two acts without pretension, deserves
mention here. It was originally heard at Baden in 1860, and subsequently
at the Opéra Comique. A suavely melodious _entr'acte_ from this little
work has survived and been repeatedly performed.

Animated with the desire to give a pendant to his _Faust_, Gounod now
sought for inspiration from Shakespeare, and turned his attention to
_Romeo and Juliet_. Here, indeed, was a subject particularly well
calculated to appeal to a composer who had so eminently qualified
himself to be considered the musician of the tender passion. The
operatic version of the Shakespearean tragedy was produced at the
Théâtre Lyrique on the 27th of April 1867. It is generally considered as
being the composer's second best opera. Some people have even placed it
on the same level as _Faust_, but this verdict has not found general
acceptance. Gounod himself is stated to have expressed his opinion of
the relative value of the two operas enigmatically by saying, "_Faust_
is the oldest, but I was younger; _Roméo_ is the youngest, but I was
older." The luscious strains wedded to the love scenes, if at times
somewhat cloying, are generally in accord with the situations, often
irresistibly fascinating, while always absolutely individual. The
success of _Roméo_ in Paris was great from the outset, and eventually
this work was transferred to the Grand Opéra, after having for some time
formed part of the répertoire of the Opéra Comique. In London it was not
until the part of Romeo was sung by Jean de Reszke that this opera
obtained any real hold upon the English public.

After having so successfully sought for inspiration from Molière, Goethe
and Shakespeare, Gounod now turned to another famous dramatist, and
selected Pierre Corneille's _Polyeucte_ as the subject of his next
opera. Some years were, however, to elapse before this work was given to
the public. The Franco-German War had broken out, and Gounod was
compelled to take refuge in London, where he composed the "biblical
elegy" _Gallia_ for the inauguration of the Royal Albert Hall. During
his stay in London Gounod composed a great deal and wrote a number of
songs to English words, many of which have attained an enduring
popularity, such as "Maid of Athens," "There is a green hill far away,"
"Oh that we two were maying," "The fountain mingles with the river." His
sojourn in London was not altogether pleasant, as he was embroiled in
lawsuits with publishers. On Gounod's return to Paris he hurriedly set
to music an operatic version of Alfred de Vigny's _Cinq-Mars_, which was
given at the Opéra Comique on the 5th of April 1877 (and in London in
1900), without obtaining much success. _Polyeucte_, his much-cherished
work, appeared at the Grand Opéra the following year on the 7th of
October, and did not meet with a better fate. Neither was Gounod more
fortunate with _Le Tribut de Zamora_, his last opera, which, given on
the same stage in 1881, speedily vanished, never to reappear. In his
later dramatic works he had, unfortunately, made no attempt to keep up
with the times, preferring to revert to old-fashioned methods.

The genius of the great composer was, however, destined to assert itself
in another field--that of sacred music. His friend Camille Saint-Saëns,
in a volume entitled _Portraits et Souvenirs_, writes:

  Gounod did not cease all his life to write for the church, to
  accumulate masses and motetts; but it was at the commencement of his
  career, in the _Messe de Sainte Cécile_, and at the end, in the
  oratorios _The Redemption and Mors et vita_, that he rose highest.

Saint-Saëns, indeed, has formulated the opinion that the three
above-mentioned works will survive all the master's operas. Among the
many masses composed by Gounod at the outset of his career, the best is
the _Messe de Sainte Cécile_, written in 1855. He also wrote the _Messe
du Sacré Coeur_ (1876) and the _Messe à la mémoire de Jeanne d'Arc_
(1887). This last work offers certain peculiarities, being written for
solos, chorus, organ, eight trumpets, three trombones, and harps. In
style it has a certain affinity with Palestrina. _The Redemption_, which
seems to have acquired a permanent footing in Great Britain, was
produced at the Birmingham Festival of 1882. It was styled a sacred
trilogy, and was dedicated to Queen Victoria. The score is prefixed by a
commentary written by the composer, in which the scope of the oratorio
is explained. It cannot be said that Gounod has altogether risen to the
magnitude of his task. The music of _The Redemption_ bears the
unmistakable imprint of the composer's hand, and contains many beautiful
thoughts, but the work in its entirety is not exempt from monotony.
_Mors et vita_, a sacred trilogy dedicated to Pope Leo XIII., was also
produced for the first time in Birmingham at the Festival of 1885. This
work is divided into three parts, "Mors," "Judicium," "Vita." The first
consists of a Requiem, the second depicts the Judgment, the third
Eternal Life. Although quite equal, if not superior to _The Redemption_,
_Mors et vita_ has not obtained similar success.

Gounod was a great worker, an indefatigable writer, and it would occupy
too much space to attempt even an incomplete catalogue of his
compositions. Besides the works already mentioned may be named two
symphonies which were played during the 'fifties, but have long since
fallen into neglect. Symphonic music was not Gounod's forte, and the
French master evidently recognized the fact, for he made no further
attempts in this style. The incidental music he wrote to the dramas _Les
Deux Reines_ and _Jeanne d'Arc_ must not be forgotten. He also attempted
to set Molière's comedy, _Georges Dandin_, to music, keeping to the
original prose. This work has never been brought out. Gounod composed a
large number of songs, many of which are very beautiful. One of the
vocal pieces that have contributed most to his popularity is the
celebrated _Meditation on the First Prelude of Bach_, more widely known
as the _Ave Maria_. The idea of fitting a melody to the Prelude of Bach
was original, and it must be admitted that in this case the experiment
was successful.

Gounod died at St Cloud on the 18th of October 1893. His influence on
French music was immense, though during the last years of the 19th
century it was rather counterbalanced by that of Wagner. Whatever may be
the verdict of posterity, it is unlikely that the quality of
individuality will be denied to Gounod. To be the composer of _Faust_ is
alone a sufficient title to lasting fame.     (A. He.)



GOURD, a name given to various plants of the order _Cucurbitaceae_,
especially those belonging to the genus _Cucurbita_, monoecious trailing
herbs of annual duration, with long succulent stems furnished with
tendrils, and large, rough, palmately-lobed leaves; the flowers are
generally large and of a bright yellow or orange colour, the barren ones
with the stamens united; the fertile are followed by the large succulent
fruit that gives the gourds their chief economic value. Many varieties
of _Cucurbita_ are under cultivation in tropical and temperate climates,
especially in southern Asia; but it is extremely difficult to refer them
to definite specific groups, on account of the facility with which they
hybridize; while it is very doubtful whether any of the original forms
now exist in the wild state. Charles Naudin, who made a careful and
interesting series of observations upon this genus, came to the
conclusion that all varieties known in European gardens might be
referred to six original species; probably three, or at most four, have
furnished the edible kinds in ordinary cultivation. Adopting the
specific names usually given to the more familiar forms, the most
important of the gourds, from an economic point of view, is perhaps _C.
maxima_, the _Potiron Jaune_ of the French, the red and yellow gourd of
British gardeners (fig. 6), the spheroidal fruit of which is remarkable
for its enormous size: the colour of the somewhat rough rind varies from
white to bright yellow, while in some kinds it remains green; the fleshy
interior is of a deep yellow or orange tint. This valuable gourd is
grown extensively in southern Asia and Europe. In Turkey and Asia Minor
it yields, at some periods of the year, an important article of diet to
the people; immense quantities are sold in the markets of
Constantinople, where in the winter the heaps of one variety with a
white rind are described as resembling mounds of snowballs. The yellow
kind attains occasionally a weight of upwards of 240 lb. It grows well
in Central Europe and the United States, while in the south of England
it will produce its gigantic fruit in perfection in hot summers. The
yellow flesh of this gourd and its numerous varieties yields a
considerable amount of nutriment, and is the more valuable as the fruit
can be kept, even in warm climates, for a long time. In France and in
the East it is much used in soups and ragouts, while simply boiled it
forms a substitute for other table vegetables; the taste has been
compared to that of a young carrot. In some countries the larger kinds
are employed as cattle food. The seeds yield by expression a large
quantity of a bland oil, which is used for the same purposes as that of
the poppy and olive. The "mammoth" gourds of English and American
gardeners (known in America as squashes) belong to this species. The
pumpkin (summer squash of America) is _Cucurbita Pepo_. Some of the
varieties of _C. maxima_ and Pepo contain a considerable quantity of
sugar, amounting in the sweetest kinds to 4 or 5%, and in the hot plains
of Hungary efforts have been made to make use of them as a commercial
source of sugar. The young shoots of both these large gourds may be
given to cattle, and admit of being eaten as a green vegetable when
boiled. The vegetable marrow is a variety (_ovifera_) of _C. Pepo_. Many
smaller gourds are cultivated in India and other hot climates, and some
have been introduced into English gardens, rather for the beauty of
their fruit and foliage than for their esculent qualities. Among these
is _C. Pepo_ var. _aurantia_, the orange gourd, bearing a spheroidal
fruit, like a large orange in form and colour; in Britain it is
generally too bitter to be palatable, though applied to culinary
purposes in Turkey and the Levant. _C. Pepo_ var. _pyriformis_ and var.
_verrucosa_, the warted gourds, are likewise occasionally eaten,
especially in the immature state; and _C. moschata_ (musk melon) is very
extensively cultivated throughout India by the natives, the yellow flesh
being cooked and eaten.

[Illustration: Photographed from specimens in the British Museum.

Group of Gourds.

  1-5. Various forms of bottle gourd, _Lagenaria vulgaris_.
    6. Giant gourd, _Cucurbita maxima_.]

The bottle-gourds are placed in a separate genus, _Lagenaria_, chiefly
differing from _Cucurbita_ in the anthers being free instead of
adherent. The bottle-gourd properly so-called, _L. vulgaris_, is a
climbing plant with downy, heart-shaped leaves and beautiful white
flowers: the remarkable fruit (figs. 1-5) first begins to grow in the
form of an elongated cylinder, but gradually widens towards the
extremity, until, when ripe, it resembles a flask with a narrow neck and
large rounded bulb; it sometimes attains a length of 7 ft. When ripe,
the pulp is removed from the neck, and the interior cleared by leaving
water standing in it; the woody rind that remains is used as a bottle:
or the lower part is cut off and cleared out, forming a basin-like
vessel applied to the same domestic purposes as the calabash
(_Crescentia_) of the West Indies: the smaller varieties, divided
lengthwise, form spoons. The ripe fruit is apt to be bitter and
cathartic, but while immature it is eaten by the Arabs and Turks. When
about the size of a small cucumber, it is stuffed with rice and minced
meat, flavoured with pepper, onions, &c., and then boiled, forming a
favourite dish with Eastern epicures. The elongated snake-gourds of
India and China (_Trichosanthes_) are used in curries and stews.

All the true gourds have a tendency to secrete the cathartic principle
_colocynthin_, and in many varieties of _Cucurbita_ and the allied
genera it is often elaborated to such an extent as to render them
unwholesome, or even poisonous. The seeds of several species therefore
possess some anthelmintic properties; those of the common pumpkin are
frequently administered in America as a vermifuge.

The cultivation of gourds began far beyond the dawn of history, and the
esculent species have become so modified by culture that the original
plants from which they have descended can no longer be traced. The
abundance of varieties in India would seem to indicate that part of Asia
as the birthplace of the present edible forms; but some appear to have
been cultivated in all the hotter regions of that continent, and in
North Africa, from the earliest ages, while the Romans were familiar
with at least certain kinds of _Cucurbita_, and with the bottle-gourd.
_Cucurbita Pepo_, the source of many of the American forms, is probably
a native of that continent.

  Most of the annual gourds may be grown successfully in Britain. They
  are usually raised in hotbeds or under frames, and planted out in rich
  soil in the early summer as soon as the nights become warm. The more
  ornamental kinds may be trained over trellis-work, a favourite mode of
  displaying them in the East; but the situation must be sheltered and
  sunny. Even _Lagenaria_ will sometimes produce fine fruit when so
  treated in the southern counties.

  For an account of these cultivations in England see paper by Mr J. W.
  Odell, "Gourds and Cucurbits," in _Journ. Royal Hort. Soc._ xxix. 450
  (1904).



GOURGAUD, GASPAR, BARON (1783-1852), French soldier, was born at
Versailles on the 14th of September 1783; his father was a musician of
the royal chapel. At school he showed talent in mathematical studies and
accordingly entered the artillery. In 1802 he became junior lieutenant,
and thereafter served with credit in the campaigns of 1803-1805, being
wounded at Austerlitz. He was present at the siege of Saragossa in 1808,
but returned to service in Central Europe and took part in nearly all
the battles of the Danubian campaign of 1809. In 1811 he was chosen to
inspect and report on the fortifications of Danzig. Thereafter he became
one of the ordnance officers attached to the emperor, whom he followed
closely through the Russian campaign of 1812; he was one of the first to
enter the Kremlin and discovered there a quantity of gunpowder which
might have been used for the destruction of Napoleon. For his services
in this campaign he received the title of baron, and became first
ordnance officer. In the campaign of 1813 in Saxony he further evinced
his courage and prowess, especially at Leipzig and Hanau; but it was in
the first battle of 1814, near to Brienne, that he rendered the most
signal service by killing the leader of a small band of Cossacks who
were riding furiously towards Napoleon's tent. Wounded at the battle of
Montmirail, he yet recovered in time to share in several of the
conflicts which followed, distinguishing himself especially at Laon and
Reims. Though enrolled among the royal guards of Louis XVIII. in the
summer of 1814, he yet embraced the cause of Napoleon during the Hundred
Days (1815), was named general and aide-de-camp by the emperor, and
fought at Waterloo.

After the second abdication of the emperor (June 22nd, 1815) Gourgaud
retired with him and a few other companions to Rochefort. It was to him
that Napoleon entrusted the letter of appeal to the prince regent for an
asylum in England. Gourgaud set off in H.M.S. "Slaney," but was not
allowed to land in England. He determined to share Napoleon's exile and
sailed with him on H.M.S. "Northumberland" to St Helena. The ship's
secretary, John R. Glover, has left an entertaining account of some of
Gourgaud's gasconnades at table. His extreme sensitiveness and vanity
soon brought him into collision with Las Cases and Montholon at
Longwood. The former he styles in his journal a "Jesuit" and a scribbler
who went thither in order to become famous. With Montholon, his senior
in rank, the friction became so acute that he challenged him to a duel,
for which he suffered a sharp rebuke from Napoleon. Tiring of the life
at Longwood and the many slights which he suffered from Napoleon, he
desired to depart, but before he could sail he spent two months with
Colonel Basil Jackson, whose account of him throws much light on his
character, as also on the "policy" adopted by the exiles at Longwood. In
England he was gained over by members of the Opposition and thereafter
made common cause with O'Meara and other detractors of Sir Hudson Lowe,
for whose character he had expressed high esteem to Basil Jackson. He
soon published his _Campagne de 1815_, in the preparation of which he
had had some help from Napoleon; but Gourgaud's _Journal de Ste-Hélène_
was not destined to be published till the year 1899. Entering the arena
of letters, he wrote, or collaborated in, two well-known critiques. The
first was a censure of Count P. de Ségur's work on the campaign of 1812,
with the result that he fought a duel with that officer and wounded him.
He also sharply criticized Sir Walter Scott's _Life of Napoleon_. He
returned to active service in the army in 1830; and in 1840 proceeded
with others to St Helena to bring back the remains of Napoleon to
France. He became a deputy to the Legislative Assembly in 1849; he died
in 1852.

  Gourgaud's works are _La Campagne de 1815_ (London and Paris, 1818);
  _Napoléon et la Grande Armée en Russie; examen critique de l'ouvrage
  de M. le comte P. de Ségur_ (Paris, 1824); _Réfutation de la vie de
  Napoléon par Sir Walter Scott_ (Paris, 1827). He collaborated with
  Montholon in the work entitled _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de
  France sous Napoléon_ (Paris, 1822-1823), and with Belliard and others
  in the work entitled _Bourrienne et ses erreurs_ (2 vols., Paris,
  1830); but his most important work is the _Journal inédit de
  Ste-Hélène_ (2 vols., Paris, 1899), which is a remarkably naïf and
  life-like record of the life at Longwood. See, too, _Notes and
  Reminiscences of a Staff Officer_, by Basil Jackson (London, 1904),
  and the bibliography to the article LOWE, SIR HUDSON.     (J. Hl. R.)



GOURKO, JOSEPH VLADIMIROVICH, COUNT (1828-1901), Russian general, was
born, of Lithuanian extraction, on the 15th of November 1828. He was
educated in the imperial corps of pages, entered the hussars of the
imperial bodyguard as sub-lieutenant in 1846, became captain in 1857,
adjutant to the emperor in 1860, colonel in 1861, commander of the 4th
Hussar regiment of Mariupol in 1866, and major-general of the emperor's
suite in 1867. He subsequently commanded the grenadier regiment, and in
1873 the 1st brigade, 2nd division, of the cavalry of the guard.
Although he took part in the Crimean War, being stationed at Belbek, his
claim to distinction is due to his services in the Turkish war of 1877.
He led the van of the Russian invasion, took Trnovo on the 7th July,
crossed the Balkans by the Hain Bogaz pass, debouching near Hainkioi,
and, notwithstanding considerable resistance, captured Uflani, Maglish
and Kazanlyk; on the 18th of July he attacked Shipka, which was
evacuated by the Turks on the following day. Thus within sixteen days of
crossing the Danube Gourko had secured three Balkan passes and created a
panic at Constantinople. He then made a series of successful
reconnaissances of the Tunja valley, cut the railway in two places,
occupied Stara Zagora (Turkish, Eski Zagra) and Nova Zagora (Yeni
Zagra), checked the advance of Suleiman's army, and returned again over
the Balkans. In October he was appointed commander of the allied
cavalry, and attacked the Plevna line of communication to Orkhanie with
a large mixed force, captured Gorni-Dubnik, Telische and Vratza, and, in
the middle of November, Orkhanie itself. Plevna was isolated, and after
its fall in December Gourko led the way amidst snow and ice over the
Balkans to the fertile valley beyond, totally defeated Suleiman, and
occupied Sophia, Philippopolis and Adrianople, the armistice at the end
of January 1878 stopping further operations (see RUSSO-TURKISH WARS).
Gourko was made a count, and decorated with the 2nd class of St George
and other orders. In 1879-1880 he was governor of St Petersburg, and
from 1883 to 1894 governor-general of Poland. He died on the 29th of
January 1901.



GOURMET, a French term for one who takes a refined and critical, or even
merely theoretical pleasure in good cooking and the delights of the
table. The word has not the disparaging sense attached to the Fr.
_gourmand_, to whom the practical pleasure of good eating is the chief
end. The O. Fr. _groumet_ or _gromet_ meant a servant, or shop-boy,
especially one employed in a wine-seller's shop, hence an expert taster
of wines, from which the modern usage has developed. The etymology of
gourmet is obscure; it may be ultimately connected with the English
"groom" (q.v.). The origin of _gourmand_ is unknown. In English, in the
form "grummet," the word was early applied to a cabin or ship's boy.
Ships of the Cinque Ports were obliged to carry one "grummet"; thus in a
charter of 1229 (quoted in the _New English Dictionary_) it is laid down
_servitia inde debita Domino Regi, xxi. naves, et in qualibet nave xxi.
homines, cum uno gartione qui dicitur gromet_.



GOUROCK, a police burgh and watering-place of Renfrewshire, Scotland, on
the southern shore of the Firth of Clyde, 3¼ m. W. by N. of Greenock by
the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1901) 5261. It is partly situated on a
fine bay affording good anchorage, for which it is largely resorted to
by the numerous yacht clubs of the Clyde. The extension of the railway
from Greenock (in 1889) to the commodious pier, with a tunnel 1-1/3 m.
long, the longest in Scotland, affords great facilities for travel to
the ports of the Firth, the sea lochs on the southern Highland coast and
the Crinan Canal. The eminence called Barrhill (480 ft. high) divides
the town into two parts, the eastern known as Kempoch, the western as
Ashton. Near Kempoch point is a monolith of mica-schist, 6 ft. high,
called "Granny Kempoch," which the superstitious of other days regarded
as possessing influence over the winds, and which was the scene, in
1662, of certain rites that led to the celebrants being burned as
witches. Gamble Institute (named after the founder) contains halls,
recreation rooms, a public library and baths. It is said that Gourock
was the first place on the Clyde where herrings were cured. There is
tramway communication with Greenock and Ashton. About 3 m. S.W. there
stands on the shore the familiar beacon of the Cloch. Gourock became a
burgh of barony in 1694.



GOURVILLE, JEAN HERAULD (1625-1703), French adventurer, was born at La
Rochefoucauld. At the age of eighteen he entered the house of La
Rochefoucauld as a servant, and in 1646 became secretary to François de
la Rochefoucauld, author of the _Maximes_. Resourceful and quick-witted,
he rendered services to his master during the Fronde, in his intrigues
with the parliament, the court or the princes. In these negotiations he
made the acquaintance of Condé, whom he wished to help to escape from
the château of Vincennes; of Mazarin, for whom he negotiated the
reconciliation with the princes; and of Nicolas Fouquet. After the
Fronde he engaged in financial affairs, thanks to Fouquet. In 1658 he
farmed the _taille_ in Guienne. He bought depreciated _rentes_ and had
them raised to their nominal value by the treasury; he extorted gifts
from the financiers for his protection, being Fouquet's confidant in
many operations of which he shared the profits. In three years he
accumulated an enormous fortune, still further increased by his
unfailing good fortune at cards, playing even with the king. He was
involved in the trial of Fouquet, and in April 1663 was condemned to
death for peculation and embezzlement of public funds; but escaping, was
executed in effigy. He sent a valet one night to take the effigy down
from the gallows in the court of the Palais de Justice, and then fled
the country. He remained five years abroad, being excepted in 1665 from
the amnesty accorded by Louis XIV. to the condemned financiers. Having
returned secretly to France, he entered the service of Condé, who,
unable to meet his creditors, had need of a clever manager to put his
affairs in order. In this way he was able to reappear at court, to
assist at the campaigns of the war with Holland, and to offer himself
for all the delicate negotiations for his master or the king. He
received diplomatic missions in Germany, in Holland, and especially in
Spain, though it was only in 1694, that he was freed from the
condemnation pronounced against him by the chamber of justice. From 1696
he fell ill and withdrew to his estate, where he dictated to his
secretary, in four months and a half, his _Mémoires_, an important
source for the history of his time. In spite of several errors,
introduced purposely, they give a clear idea of the life and morals of a
financier of the age of Fouquet, and throw light on certain points of
the diplomatic history. They were first published in 1724.

  There is a modern edition, with notes, an introduction and appendix,
  by Lecestre (Paris, 1894-1895, 2 vols.).



GOUT, the name rather vaguely given, in medicine, to a constitutional
disorder which manifests itself by inflammation of the joints, with
sometimes deposition of urates of soda, and also by morbid changes in
various important organs. The term gout, which was first used about the
end of the 13th century, is derived through the Fr. _goutte_ from the
Lat. _gutta_, a drop, in allusion to the old pathological doctrine of
the dropping of a morbid material from the blood within the joints. The
disease was known and described by the ancient Greek physicians under
various terms, which, however, appear to have been applied by them alike
to rheumatism and gout. The general term _arthritis_ ([Greek: arthron],
a joint) was employed when many joints were the seat of inflammation;
while in those instances where the disease was limited to one part the
terms used bore reference to such locality; hence _podagra_ ([Greek:
podagra], from [Greek: pous], the foot, and [Greek: hagra], a seizure),
_chiragra_ ([Greek: cheir], the hand), _gonagra_ ([Greek: gonu], the
knee), &c.

Hippocrates in his _Aphorisms_ speaks of gout as occurring most commonly
in spring and autumn, and mentions the fact that women are less liable
to it than men. He also gives directions as to treatment. Celsus gives a
similar account of the disease. Galen regarded gout as an unnatural
accumulation of humours in a part, and the chalk-stones as the
concretions of these, and he attributed the disease to over-indulgence
and luxury. Gout is alluded to in the works of Ovid and Pliny, and
Seneca, in his 95th epistle, mentions the prevalence of gout among the
Roman ladies of his day as one of the results of their high living and
debauchery. Lucian, in his _Tragopodagra_, gives an amusing account of
the remedies employed for the cure of gout.

In all times this disease has engaged a large share of the attention of
physicians, from its wide prevalence and from the amount of suffering
which it entails. Sydenham, the famous English physician of the 17th
century, wrote an important treatise on the subject, and his description
of the gouty paroxysm, all the more vivid from his having himself been
afflicted with the disease for thirty-four years, is still quoted by
writers as the most graphic and exhaustive account of the symptomatology
of gout. Subsequently Cullen, recognizing gout as capable of manifesting
itself in various ways, divided the disease into _regular gout_, which
affects the joints only, and _irregular gout_, where the gouty
disposition exhibits itself in other forms; and the latter variety he
subdivided into _atonic gout_, where the most prominent symptoms are
throughout referable to the stomach and alimentary canal; _retrocedent
gout_, where the inflammatory attack suddenly disappears from an
affected joint and serious disturbance takes place in some internal
organ, generally the stomach or heart; and _misplaced gout_, where from
the first the disease does not appear externally, but reveals itself by
an inflammatory attack of some internal part. Dr Garrod, one of the most
eminent authorities on gout, adopted a division somewhat similar to,
though simpler than that of Cullen, namely, _regular gout_, which
affects the joints alone, and is either acute or chronic, and _irregular
gout_, affecting non-articular tissues, or disturbing the functions of
various organs.

It is often stated that the attack of gout comes on without any previous
warning; but, while this is true in many instances, the reverse is
probably as frequently the case, and the premonitory symptoms,
especially in those who have previously suffered from the disease, may
be sufficiently precise to indicate the impending seizure. Among the
more common of these may be mentioned marked disorders of the digestive
organs, with a feeble and capricious appetite, flatulence and pain after
eating, and uneasiness in the right side in the region of the liver. A
remarkable tendency to gnashing of the teeth is sometimes observed. This
symptom was first noticed by Dr Graves, who connected it with irritation
in the urinary organs, which also is present as one of the premonitory
indications of the gouty attack. Various forms of nervous disturbance
also present themselves in the form of general discomfort, extreme
irritability of temper, and various perverted sensations, such as that
of numbness and coldness in the limbs. These symptoms may persist for
many days and then undergo amelioration immediately before the impending
paroxysm. On the night of the attack the patient retires to rest
apparently well, but about two or three o'clock in the morning awakes
with a painful feeling in the foot, most commonly in the ball of the
great toe, but it may be in the instep or heel, or in the thumb. With
the pain there often occurs a distinct shivering followed by
feverishness. The pain soon becomes of the most agonizing character: in
the words of Sydenham, "now it is a violent stretching and tearing of
the ligaments, now it is a gnawing pain, and now a pressure and
tightening; so exquisite and lively meanwhile is the part affected that
it cannot bear the weight of the bedclothes, nor the jar of a person
walking in the room."

When the affected part is examined it is found to be swollen and of a
deep red hue. The superjacent skin is tense and glistening, and the
surrounding veins are more or less distended. After a few hours there is
a remission of the pain, slight perspiration takes place, and the
patient may fall asleep. The pain may continue moderate during the day
but returns as night advances, and the patient goes through a similar
experience of suffering to that of the previous night, followed with a
like abatement towards morning. These nocturnal exacerbations occur with
greater or less severity during the continuance of the attack, which
generally lasts for a week or ten days. As the symptoms decline the
swelling and tenderness of the affected joint abate, but the skin over
it pits on pressure for a time, and with this there is often associated
slight desquamation of the cuticle. During the attacks there is much
constitutional disturbance. The patient is restless and extremely
irritable, and suffers from cramp in the limbs and from dyspepsia,
thirst and constipation. The urine is scanty and high-coloured, with a
copious deposit, consisting chiefly of urates. During the continuance of
the symptoms the inflammation may leave the one foot and affect the
other, or both may suffer at the same time. After the attack is over the
patient feels quite well and fancies himself better than he had been for
a long time before; hence the once popular notion that a fit of the gout
was capable of removing all other ailments. Any such idea, however, is
sadly belied in the experience of most sufferers from this disease. It
is rare that the first is the only attack of gout, and another is apt to
occur within a year, although by care and treatment it may be warded
off. The disease, however, undoubtedly tends to take a firmer hold on
the constitution and to return. In the earlier recurrences the same
joints as were formerly the seat of the gouty inflammation suffer again,
but in course of time others become implicated, until in advanced cases
scarcely any articulation escapes, and the disease thus becomes chronic.
It is to be noticed that when gout assumes this form the frequently
recurring attacks are usually attended with less pain than the earlier
ones, but their disastrous effects are evidenced alike by the
disturbance of various important organs, especially the stomach, liver,
kidneys and heart, and by the remarkable changes which take place in the
joints from the formation of the so-called chalk-stones or tophi. These
deposits, which are highly characteristic of gout, appear at first to
take place in the form of a semifluid material, consisting for the most
part of urate of soda, which gradually becomes more dense, and
ultimately quite hard. When any quantity of this is deposited in the
structures of a joint the effect is to produce stiffening, and, as
deposits appear to take place to a greater or less amount in connexion
with every attack, permanent thickening and deformity of the parts is
apt to be the consequence. The extent of this depends, of course, on the
amount of the deposits, which, however, would seem to be in no necessary
relation to the severity of the attack, being in some cases even of
chronic gout so slight as to be barely appreciable externally, but on
the other hand occasionally causing great enlargement of the joints, and
fixing them in a flexed or extended position which renders them entirely
useless. Dr Garrod describes the appearance of a hand in an extreme case
of this kind, and likens its shape to a bundle of French carrots with
their heads forward, the nails corresponding to the stalks. Any of the
joints may be thus affected, but most commonly those of the hands and
feet. The deposits take place in other structures besides those of
joints, such as along the course of tendons, underneath the skin and
periosteum, in the sclerotic coat of the eye, and especially on the
cartilages of the external ear. When largely deposited in joints an
abscess sometimes forms, the skin gives way, and the concretion is
exposed. Sir Thomas Watson quotes a case of this kind where the patient
when playing at cards was accustomed to chalk the score of the game upon
the table with his gouty knuckles.

The recognition of what is termed irregular gout is less easy than that
form above described, where the disease gives abundant external evidence
of its presence; but that other parts than joints suffer from gouty
attacks is beyond question. The diagnosis may often be made in cases
where in an attack of ordinary gout the disease suddenly leaves the
affected joints and some new series of symptoms arises. It has been
often observed when cold has been applied to an inflamed joint that the
pain and inflammation in the part ceased, but that some sudden and
alarming seizure referable to the stomach, brain, heart or lungs
supervened. Such attacks, which correspond to what is termed by Cullen
retrocedent gout, often terminate favourably, more especially if the
disease again returns to the joints. Further, the gouty nature of some
long-continued internal or cutaneous disorder may be rendered apparent
by its disappearance on the outbreak of the paroxysm in the joints.
Gout, when of long standing, is often found associated with degenerative
changes in the heart and large arteries, the liver, and especially the
kidneys, which are apt to assume the contracted granular condition
characteristic of one of the forms of Bright's disease. A variety of
urinary calculus--the uric acid--formed by concretions of this substance
in the kidneys is a not unfrequent occurrence in connexion with gout;
hence the well-known association of this disease and gravel.

The pathology of gout is discussed in the article on METABOLIC DISEASES.
Many points, however, still remain unexplained. As remarked by
Trousseau, "the production in excess of uric acid and urates is a
pathological phenomenon inherent like all others in the disease; and
like all the others it is dominated by a specific cause, which we know
only by its effects, and which we term the gouty diathesis." This
subject of diathesis (habit, or organic predisposition of individuals),
which is regarded as an essential element in the pathology of gout,
naturally suggests the question as to whether, besides being inherited,
such a peculiarity may also be acquired, and this leads to a
consideration of the causes which are recognized as influential in
favouring the occurrence of this disease.

It is beyond dispute that gout is in a marked degree hereditary, fully
more than half the number of cases being, according to Sir C. Scudamore
and Dr Garrod, of this character. But it is no less certain that there
are habits and modes of life the observance of which may induce the
disease even where no hereditary tendencies can be traced, and the
avoidance of which may, on the other hand, go far towards weakening or
neutralizing the influence of inherited liability. Gout is said to
affect the sedentary more readily than the active. If, however,
inadequate exercise be combined with a luxurious manner of living, with
habitual over-indulgence in animal food and rich dishes, and especially
in alcoholic beverages, then undoubtedly the chief factors in the
production of the disease are present.

Much has been written upon the relative influence of various forms of
alcoholic drinks in promoting the development of gout. It is generally
stated that fermented are more injurious than distilled liquors, and
that, in particular, the stronger wines, such as port, sherry and
madeira, are much more potent in their gout-producing action than the
lighter class of wines, such as hock, moselle, &c., while malt liquors
are fully as hurtful as strong wines. It seems quite as probable,
however, that over-indulgence in any form of alcohol, when associated
with the other conditions already adverted to, will have very much the
same effect in developing gout. The comparative absence of gout in
countries where spirituous liquors are chiefly used, such as Scotland,
is cited as showing their relatively slight effect in encouraging that
disease; but it is to be noticed that in such countries there is on the
whole a less marked tendency to excess in the other pleasures of the
table, which in no degree less than alcohol are chargeable with inducing
the gouty habit. Gout is not a common disease among the poor and
labouring classes, and when it does occur may often be connected even in
them with errors in living. It is not very rare to meet gout in butlers,
coachmen, &c., who are apt to live luxuriously while leading
comparatively easy lives.

Gout, it must ever be borne in mind, may also affect persons who observe
the strictest temperance in living, and whose only excesses are in the
direction of over-work, either physical or intellectual. Many of the
great names in history in all times have had their existence embittered
by this malady, and have died from its effects. The influence of
hereditary tendency may often be traced in such instances, and is
doubtless called into activity by the depressing consequences of
over-work. It may, notwithstanding, be affirmed as generally true that
those who lead regular lives, and are moderate in the use of animal food
and alcoholic drinks, or still better abstain from the latter
altogether, are less likely to be the victims of gout even where an
undoubted inherited tendency exists.

Gout is more common in mature age than in the earlier years of life, the
greatest number of cases in one decennial period being between the ages
of thirty and forty, next between twenty and thirty, and thirdly between
forty and fifty. It may occasionally affect very young persons; such
cases are generally regarded as hereditary, but, so far as diet is
concerned, it has to be remembered that their home life has probably
been a predisposing cause. After middle life gout rarely appears for the
first time. Women are much less the subjects of gout than men,
apparently from their less exposure to the influences (excepting, of
course, that of heredity) which tend to develop the disease, and
doubtless also from the differing circumstances of their physical
constitution. It most frequently appears in females after the cessation
of the menses. Persons exposed to the influence of lead poisoning, such
as plumbers, painters, &c., are apt to suffer from gout; and it would
seem that impregnation of the system with this metal markedly interferes
with the uric acid excreting function of the kidneys.

Attacks of gout are readily excited in those predisposed to the disease.
Exposure to cold, disorders of digestion, fatigue, and irritation or
injuries of particular joints will often precipitate the gouty paroxysm.

With respect to the treatment of gout the greatest variety of opinion
has prevailed and practice been pursued, from the numerous quaint
nostrums detailed by Lucian to the "expectant" or do-nothing system
recommended by Sydenham. But gout, although, as has been shown, a malady
of a most severe and intractable character, may nevertheless be
successfully dealt with by appropriate medicinal and hygienic measures.
The general plan of treatment can be here only briefly indicated. During
the acute attack the affected part should be kept at perfect rest, and
have applied to it warm opiate fomentations or poultices, or, what
answers quite as well, be enveloped in cotton wool covered in with oil
silk. The diet of the patient should be light, without animal food or
stimulants. The administration of some simple laxative will be of
service, as well as the free use of alkaline diuretics, such as the
bicarbonate or acetate of potash. The medicinal agent most relied on for
the relief of pain is colchicum, which manifestly exercises a powerful
action on the disease. This drug (_Colchicum autumnale_), which is
believed to correspond to the hermodactyl of the ancients, has proved of
such efficacy in modifying the attacks that, as observed by Dr Garrod,
"we may safely assert that colchicum possesses as specific a control
over the gouty inflammation as cinchona barks or their alkaloids over
intermittent fever." It is usually administered in the form of the wine
in doses of 10 to 30 drops every four or six hours, or in pill as the
acetous extract (gr. ½-gr. i.). The effect of colchicum in subduing the
pain of gout is generally so prompt and marked that it is unnecessary to
have recourse to opiates; but its action requires to be carefully
watched by the physician from its well-known nauseating and depressing
consequences, which, should they appear, render the suspension of the
drug necessary. Otherwise the remedy may be continued in gradually
diminishing doses for some days after the disappearance of the gouty
inflammation. Should gout give evidence of its presence in an irregular
form by attacking internal organs, besides the medicinal treatment above
mentioned, the use of frictions and mustard applications to the joints
is indicated with the view of exciting its appearance there. When gout
has become chronic, colchicum, although of less service than in acute
gout, is yet valuable, particularly when the inflammatory attacks recur.
More benefit, however, appears to be derived from potassium iodide,
guaiacum, the alkalis potash and lithia, and from the administration of
aspirin and sodium salicylate. Salicylate of menthol is an effective
local application, painted on and covered with a gutta-percha bandage.
Lithia was strongly recommended by Dr Garrod from its solvent action
upon the urates. It is usually administered in the form of the carbonate
(gr. v., freely diluted).

The treatment and regimen to be employed in the intervals of the gouty
attacks are of the highest importance. These bear reference for the most
part to the habits and mode of life of the patient. Restriction must be
laid upon the amount and quality of the food, and equally, or still
more, upon the alcoholic stimulants. "The instances," says Sir Thomas
Watson, "are not few of men of good sense, and masters of themselves,
who, being warned by one visitation of the gout, have thenceforward
resolutely abstained from rich living and from wine and strong drinks of
all kinds, and who have been rewarded for their prudence and self-denial
by complete immunity from any return of the disease, or upon whom, at
any rate, its future assaults have been few and feeble." The same
eminent authority adds: "I am sure it is worth any _young_ man's while,
who has had the gout, to become a teetotaller." By those more advanced
in life who, from long continued habit, are unable entirely to
relinquish the use of stimulants, the strictest possible temperance must
be observed. Regular but moderate exercise in the form of walking or
riding, in the case of those who lead sedentary lives, is of great
advantage, and all over-work, either physical or mental, should be
avoided. _Fatiguez la bête, et reposez la tête_ is the maxim of an
experienced French doctor (Dr Debout d'Estrées of Contrexéville).
Unfortunately the complete carrying out of such directions, even by
those who feel their importance, is too often rendered difficult or
impossible by circumstances of occupation and otherwise, and at most
only an approximation can be made. Certain mineral waters and baths
(such as those of Vichy, Royat, Contrexéville, &c.) are of undoubted
value in cases of gout and arthritis. The particular place must in each
case be determined by the physician, and special caution must be
observed in recommending this plan of treatment in persons whose gout is
complicated by organic disease of any kind.

  Dr Alexander Haig's "uric acid free diet" has found many adherents.
  His view as regards the pathology is that in gouty persons the blood
  is less alkaline than in normal, and therefore less able to hold in
  solution uric acid or its salts, which are retained in the joints.
  Assuming gout to be a poisoning by animal food (meat, fish, eggs), and
  by tea, coffee, cocoa and other vegetable alkaloid-containing
  substances, he recommends an average daily diet excluding these, and
  containing 24 oz. of breadstuffs (toast, bread, biscuits and puddings)
  together with 24 oz. of fruit and vegetables (excluding peas, beans,
  lentils, mushrooms and asparagus); 8 oz. of the breadstuffs may be
  replaced by 21 oz. of milk or 2 oz. of cheese, butter and oil being
  taken as required, so that it is not strictly a vegetarian diet.

  Precisely the opposite view as to diet has recently been put forward
  by Professor A. Robin of the Hôpital Beaujon, who says serious
  mistakes are made in ordering patients to abstain from red meats and
  take light food, fish, eggs, &c. The common object in view is the
  diminished output of uric acid. This output is chiefly obtained from
  food rich in nucleins and in collagenous matters, i.e. young white
  meats, eggs, &c. Consequently the gouty subject ought to restrict
  himself to the consumption of red meat, beef and mutton, and leave out
  of his dietary all white meat and internal organs. He should take
  little hydrocarbons and sugars, and be moderate in fats. Vegetarian
  diet he regards as a mistake, likewise milk diet, as they tend to
  weaken the patient. To prevent the formation of uric acid Robin
  prescribes quinic acid combined with formine or urotropine.



GOUTHIÈRE, PIERRE (1740-1806), French metal worker, was born at Troyes
and went to Paris at an early age as the pupil of Martin Cour. During
his brilliant career he executed a vast quantity of metal work of the
utmost variety, the best of which was unsurpassed by any of his rivals
in that great art period. It was long believed that he received many
commissions for furniture from the court of Louis XVI., and especially
from Marie Antoinette, but recent searches suggest that his work for the
queen was confined to bronzes. Gouthière can, however, well bear this
loss, nor will his reputation suffer should those critics ultimately be
justified who believe that many of the furniture mounts attributed to
him were from the hand of Thomire. But if he did not work for the court
he unquestionably produced many of the most splendid belongings of the
duc d'Aumont, the duchesse de Mazarin and Mme du Barry. Indeed the
custom of the beautiful mistress of Louis XV. brought about the
financial ruin of the great artist, who accomplished more than any other
man for the fame of her château of Louveciennes. When the collection of
the duc d'Aumont was sold by auction in Paris in 1782 so many objects
mounted by Gouthière were bought for Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette
that it is not difficult to perceive the basis of the belief that they
were actually made for the court. The duc's sale catalogue is, however,
in existence, with the names of the purchasers and the prices realized.
The auction was almost an apotheosis of Gouthière. The precious lacquer
cabinets, the chandeliers and candelabra, the tables and cabinets in
marquetry, the columns and vases in porphyry, jasper and choice marbles,
the porcelains of China and Japan were nearly all mounted in bronze by
him. More than fifty of these pieces bore Gouthière's signature. The duc
d'Aumont's cabinet represented the high-water mark of the chaser's art,
and the great prices which were paid for Gouthière's work at this sale
are the most conclusive criterion of the value set upon his achievement
in his own day. Thus Marie Antoinette paid 12,000 livres for a red
jasper bowl or _brûle-parfums_ mounted by him, which was then already
famous. Curiously enough it commanded only one-tenth of that price at
the Fournier sale in 1831; but in 1865, when the marquis of Hertford
bought it at the prince de Beauvais's sale, it fetched 31,900 francs. It
is now in the Wallace Collection, which contains the finest and most
representative gathering of Gouthière's undoubted work. The mounts of
gilt bronze, cast and elaborately chased, show satyrs' heads, from which
hang festoons of vine leaves, while within the feet a serpent is coiled
to spring. A smaller cup is one of the treasures of the Louvre. There
too is a bronze clock, signed by "Gouthière, _cizileur et doreur du Roy
à Paris_," dated 1771, with a river god, a water nymph symbolizing the
Rhône and its tributary the Durance, and a female figure typifying the
city of Avignon. Not all of Gouthière's work is of the highest quality,
and much of what he executed was from the designs of others. At his best
his delicacy, refinement and finish are exceedingly delightful--in his
great moments he ranks with the highest alike as artist and as
craftsman. The tone of soft dead gold which is found on some of his
mounts he is believed to have invented, but indeed the gilding of all
his superlative work possesses a remarkable quality. This charm of tone
is admirably seen in the bronzes and candelabra which he executed for
the chimney-piece of Marie Antoinette's boudoir at Fontainebleau. He
continued to embellish Louveciennes for Madame du Barry until the
Revolution, and then the guillotine came for her and absolute ruin for
him. When her property was seized she owed him 756,000 livres, of which
he never received a sol, despite repeated applications to the
administrators. "_Réduit à solliciter une place à l'hospice, il mourut
dans la misère._" So it was stated in a lawsuit brought by his sons
against du Barry's heirs.



GOUVION SAINT-CYR, LAURENT, MARQUIS DE (1764-1830), French marshal, was
born at Toul on the 13th of April 1764. At the age of eighteen he went
to Rome with the view of prosecuting the study of painting, but although
he continued his artistic studies after his return to Paris in 1784 he
never definitely adopted the profession of a painter. In 1792 he was
chosen a captain in a volunteer battalion, and served on the staff of
General Custine. Promotion rapidly followed, and in the course of two
years he had become a general of division. In 1796 he commanded the
centre division of Moreau's army in the campaign of the Rhine, and by
coolness and sagacity greatly aided him in the celebrated retreat from
Bavaria to the Rhine. In 1798 he succeeded Masséna in the command of the
army of Italy. In the following year he commanded the left wing of
Jourdan's army in Germany; but when Jourdan was succeeded by Masséna, he
joined the army of Moreau in Italy, where he distinguished himself in
face of the great difficulties that followed the defeat of Novi. When
Moreau, in 1800, was appointed to the command of the army of the Rhine,
Gouvion St-Cyr was named his principal lieutenant, and on the 9th of May
gained a victory over General Kray at Biberach. He was not, however, on
good terms with his commander and retired to France after the first
operations of the campaign. In 1801 he was sent to Spain to command the
army intended for the invasion of Portugal, and was named grand officer
of the Legion of Honour. When a treaty of peace was shortly afterwards
concluded with Portugal, he succeeded Lucien Bonaparte as ambassador at
Madrid. In 1803 he was appointed to the command of an army corps in
Italy, in 1805 he served with distinction under Masséna, and in 1806 was
engaged in the campaign in southern Italy. He took part in the Prussian
and Polish campaigns of 1807, and in 1808, in which year he was made a
count, he commanded an army corps in Catalonia; but, not wishing to
comply with certain orders he received from Paris (for which see Oman,
_Peninsular War_, vol. iii.), he resigned his command and remained in
disgrace till 1811. He was still a general of division, having been
excluded from the first list of marshals owing to his action in refusing
to influence the troops in favour of the establishment of the Empire. On
the opening of the Russian campaign he received command of an army
corps, and on the 18th of August 1812 obtained a victory over the
Russians at Polotsk, in recognition of which he was created a marshal of
France. He received a severe wound in one of the actions during the
general retreat. St-Cyr distinguished himself at the battle of Dresden
(August 26-27, 1813), and in the defence of that place against the
Allies after the battle of Leipzig, capitulating only on the 11th of
November, when Napoleon had retreated to the Rhine. On the restoration
of the Bourbons he was created a peer of France, and in July 1815 was
appointed war minister, but resigned his office in the November
following. In June 1817 he was appointed minister of marine, and in
September following again resumed the duties of war minister, which he
continued to discharge till November 1819. During this time he effected
many reforms, particularly in respect of measures tending to make the
army a national rather than a dynastic force. He exerted himself also to
safeguard the rights of the old soldiers of the Empire, organized the
general staff and revised the code of military law and the pension
regulations. He was made a marquess in 1817. He died at Hyères (Var) on
the 17th of March 1830. Gouvion St-Cyr would doubtless have obtained
better opportunities of acquiring distinction had he shown himself more
blindly devoted to the interests of Napoleon, but Napoleon paid him the
high compliment of referring to his "military genius," and entrusted him
with independent commands in secondary theatres of war. It is doubtful,
however, if he possessed energy commensurate with his skill, and in
Napoleon's modern conception of war, as three parts moral to one
technical, there was more need for the services of a bold leader of
troops whose "doctrine"--to use the modern phrase--predisposed him to
self-sacrificing and vigorous action, than for a _savant_ in the art of
war of the type of St-Cyr. Contemporary opinion, as reflected by Marbot,
did justice to his "commanding talents," but remarked the indolence
which was the outward sign of the vague complexity of a mind that had
passed beyond the simplicity of mediocrity without attaining the
simplicity of genius.

  He was the author of the following works, all of the highest value:
  _Journal des opérations de l'armée de Catalogne en 1808 et 1809_
  (Paris, 1821); _Mémoires sur les campagnes des armées de Rhin et de
  Rhin-et-Moselle de 1794 à 1797_ (Paris, 1829); and _Mémoires pour
  servir à l'histoire militaire sous le Directoire, le Consulat, et
  l'Empire_ (1831).

  See Gay de Vernon's _Vie de Gouvion Saint-Cyr_ (1857).



GOVAN, a municipal and police burgh of Lanarkshire, Scotland. It lies on
the south bank of the Clyde in actual contact with Glasgow, and in a
parish of the same name which includes a large part of the city on both
sides of the river. Pop. (1891) 61,589; (1901) 76,532. Govan remained
little more than a village till 1860, when the growth of shipbuilding
and allied trades gave its development an enormous impetus. Among its
public buildings are the municipal chambers, combination fever hospital,
Samaritan hospital and reception houses for the poor. Elder Park (40
acres) presented to the burgh in 1885 contains a statue of John Elder
(1824-1869), the pioneer shipbuilder, the husband of the donor. A statue
of Sir William Pearce (1833-1888), another well-known Govan shipbuilder,
once M.P. for the burgh, stands at Govan Cross. The Govan lunacy board
opened in 1896 an asylum near Paisley. Govan is supplied with Glasgow
gas and water, and its tramways are leased by the Glasgow corporation;
but it has an electric light installation of its own, and performs all
other municipal functions quite independently of the city, annexation to
which it has always strenuously resisted. Prince's Dock lies within its
bounds and the shipbuilding yards have turned out many famous ironclads
and liners. Besides shipbuilding its other industries are match-making,
silk-weaving, hair-working, copper-working, tube-making, weaving, and
the manufacture of locomotives and electrical apparatus. The town forms
the greater part of the Govan division of Lanarkshire, which returns one
member to parliament.



GOVERNMENT (O. Fr. _governement_, mod. _gouvernement_, O. Fr.
_governer_, mod. _gouverner_, from Lat. _gubernare_, to steer a ship,
guide, rule; cf. Gr. [Greek: kubernan]), in its widest sense, the ruling
power in a political society. In every society of men there is a
determinate body (whether consisting of one individual or a few or many
individuals) whose commands the rest of the community are bound to obey.
This sovereign body is what in more popular phrase is termed the
government of the country, and the varieties which may exist in its
constitution are known as forms of government. For the opposite theory
of a community with "no government," see ANARCHISM.

How did government come into existence? Various answers to this question
have at times been given, which may be distinguished broadly into three
classes. The first class would comprehend the legendary accounts which
nations have given in primitive times of their own forms of government.
These are always attributed to the mind of a single lawgiver. The
government of Sparta was the invention of Lycurgus. Solon, Moses, Numa
and Alfred in like manner shaped the government of their respective
nations. There was no curiosity about the institutions of other
nations--about the origin of governments in general; and each nation was
perfectly ready to accept the traditional [Greek: nomothetai] of any
other.

The second may be called the logical or metaphysical account of the
origin of government. It contained no overt reference to any particular
form of government, whatever its covert references may have been. It
answered the question, how government in general came into existence;
and it answered it by a logical analysis of the elements of society. The
phenomenon to be accounted for being government and laws, it abstracted
government and laws, and contemplated mankind as existing without them.
The characteristic feature of this kind of speculation is that it
reflects how contemporary men would behave if all government were
removed, and infers that men must have behaved so before government came
into existence. Society without government resolves itself into a number
of individuals each following his own aims, and therefore, in the days
before government, each man followed his own aims. It is easy to see how
this kind of reasoning should lead to very different views of the nature
of the supposed original state. With Hobbes, it is a state of war, and
government is the result of an agreement among men to keep the peace.
With Locke, it is a state of liberty and equality,--it is not a state of
war; it is governed by its own law,--the law of nature, which is the
same thing as the law of reason. The state of nature is brought to an
end by the voluntary agreement of individuals to surrender their natural
liberty and submit themselves to one supreme government. In the words of
Locke, "Men being by nature all free, equal and independent, no one can
be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of
another without his own consent. The only way whereby any one divests
himself of his natural liberty, and puts on the _bonds of civil
society_, is by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a
community" (_On Civil Government_, c. viii.). Locke boldly defends his
theory as founded on historical fact, and it is amusing to compare his
demonstration of the baselessness of Sir R. Filmer's speculations with
the scanty and doubtful examples which he accepts as the foundation of
his own. But in general the various forms of the hypothesis eliminate
the question of time altogether. The original contract from which
government sprang is likewise the subsisting contract on which civil
society continues to be based. The historical weakness of the theory was
probably always recognized. Its logical inadequacy was conclusively
demonstrated by John Austin. But it still clings to speculations on the
principles of government.

The "social compact" (see ROUSSEAU) is the most famous of the
metaphysical explanations of government. It has had the largest history,
the widest influence and the most complete development. To the same
class belong the various forms of the theory that governments exist by
divine appointment. Of all that has been written about the divine right
of kings, a great deal must be set down to the mere flatteries of
courtiers and ecclesiastics. But there remains a genuine belief that men
are bound to obey their rulers because their rulers have been appointed
by God. Like the social compact, the theory of divine appointment
avoided the question of historical fact.

The application of the historical method to the phenomena of society has
changed the aspect of the question and robbed it of its political
interest. The student of the history of society has no formula to
express the law by which government is born. All that he can do is to
trace governmental forms through various stages of social development.
The more complex and the larger the society, the more distinct is the
separation between the governing part and the rest, and the more
elaborate is the subdivision of functions in the government. The
primitive type of ruler is king, judge, priest and general. At the same
time, his way of life differs little from that of his followers and
subjects. The metaphysical theories were so far right in imputing
greater equality of social conditions to more primitive times. Increase
of bulk brings with it a more complex social organization. War tends to
develop the strength of the governmental organization; peace relaxes it.
All societies of men exhibit the germs of government; but there would
appear to be races of men so low that they cannot be said to live
together in society at all. Modern investigations have illustrated very
fully the importance of the family (q.v.) in primitive societies, and
the belief in a common descent has much to do with the social cohesion
of a tribe. The government of a tribe resembles the government of a
household; the head of the family is the ruler. But we cannot affirm
that political government has its origin in family government, or that
there may not have been states of society in which government of some
sort existed while the family did not.


I. FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

_Three Standard Forms._--Political writers from the time of Aristotle
have been singularly unanimous in their classification of the forms of
government. There are three ways in which states may be governed. They
may be governed by one man, or by a number of men, small in proportion
to the whole number of men in the state, or by a number large in
proportion to the whole number of men in the state. The government may
be a monarchy, an aristocracy or a democracy. The same terms are used by
John Austin as were used by Aristotle, and in very nearly the same
sense. The determining quality in governments in both writers, and it
may safely be said in all intermediate writers, is the numerical
relation between the constituent members of the government and the
population of the state. There were, of course, enormous differences
between the state-systems present to the mind of the Greek philosopher
and the English jurist. Aristotle was thinking of the small independent
states of Greece, Austin of the great peoples of modern Europe. The unit
of government in the one case was a city, in the other a nation. This
difference is of itself enough to invalidate all generalization founded
on the common terminology. But on one point there is a complete parallel
between the politics of Aristotle and the politics of Austin. The Greek
cities were to the rest of the world very much what European nations and
European colonies are to the rest of the world now. They were the only
communities in which the governed visibly took some share in the work of
government. Outside the European system, as outside the Greek system, we
have only the stereotyped uniformity of despotism, whether savage or
civilized. The question of forms of government, therefore, belongs
characteristically to the European races. The virtues and defects of
monarchy, aristocracy and democracy are the virtues and defects
manifested by the historical governments of Europe. The generality of
the language used by political writers must not blind us to the fact
that they are thinking only of a comparatively small portion of mankind.

_Greek Politics._--Aristotle divides governments according to two
principles. In all states the governing power seeks either its own
advantage or the advantage of the whole state, and the government is bad
or good accordingly. In all states the governing power is one man, or a
few men or many men. Hence six varieties of government, three of which
are bad and three good. Each excellent form has a corresponding depraved
form, thus:--

  The good government of one (Monarchy) corresponds to the depraved form
  (Tyranny).

  The good government of few (Aristocracy) corresponds to the depraved
  form (Oligarchy).

  The good government of many (Commonwealth) corresponds to the depraved
  form (Democracy).

The fault of the depraved forms is that the governors act unjustly where
their own interests are concerned. The worst of the depraved forms is
tyranny, the next oligarchy and the least bad democracy.[1] Each of the
three leading types exhibits a number of varieties. Thus in monarchy we
have the heroic, the barbaric, the elective dictatorship, the
Lacedemonian (hereditary generalship, [Greek: stratêgia]), and absolute
monarchy. So democracy and oligarchy exhibit four corresponding
varieties. The best type of democracy is that of a community mainly
agricultural, whose citizens, therefore, have not leisure for political
affairs, and allow the law to rule. The best oligarchy is that in which
a considerable number of small proprietors have the power; here, too,
the laws prevail. The worst democracy consists of a larger citizen class
having leisure for politics; and the worst oligarchy is that of a small
number of very rich and influential men. In both the sphere of law is
reduced to a minimum. A good government is one in which as much as
possible is left to the laws, and as little as possible to the will of
the governor.

The _Politics_ of Aristotle, from which these principles are taken,
presents a striking picture of the variety and activity of political
life in the free communities of Greece. The king and council of heroic
times had disappeared, and self-government in some form or other was the
general rule. It is to be noticed, however, that the governments of
Greece were essentially unstable. The political philosophers could lay
down the law of development by which one form of government gives birth
to another. Aristotle devotes a large portion of his work to the
consideration of the causes of revolutions. The dread of tyranny was
kept alive by the facility with which an over-powerful and unscrupulous
citizen could seize the whole machinery of government. Communities
oscillated between some form of oligarchy and some form of democracy.
The security of each was constantly imperilled by the conspiracies of
the opposing factions. Hence, although political life exhibits that
exuberant variety of form and expression which characterizes all the
intellectual products of Greece, it lacks the quality of persistent
progress. Then there was no approximation to a national government, even
of the federal type. The varying confederacies and hegemonies are the
nearest approach to anything of the kind. What kind of national
government would ultimately have arisen if Greece had not been crushed
it is needless to conjecture; the true interest of Greek politics lies
in the fact that the free citizens were, in the strictest sense of the
word, self-governed. Each citizen took his turn at the common business
of the state. He spoke his own views in the agora, and from time to time
in his own person acted as magistrate or judge. Citizenship in Athens
was a liberal education, such as it never can be made under any
representative system.

_The Government of Rome._--During the whole period of freedom the
government of Rome was, in theory at least, municipal self-government.
Each citizen had a right to vote laws in his own person in the comitia
of the centuries or the tribes. The administrative powers of government
were, however, in the hands of a bureaucratic assembly, recruited from
the holders of high public office. The senate represented capacity and
experience rather than rank and wealth. Without some such instrument the
city government of Rome could never have made the conquest of the world.
The gradual extension of the citizenship to other Italians changed the
character of Roman government. The distant citizens could not come to
the voting booths; the device of representation was not discovered; and
the comitia fell into the power of the town voters. In the last stage of
the Roman republic, the inhabitants of one town wielded the resources of
a world-wide empire. We can imagine what would be the effect of leaving
to the people of London or Paris the supreme control of the British
empire or of France,--irresistible temptation, inevitable corruption.
The rabble of the capital learn to live on the rest of the empire.[2]
The favour of the effeminate masters of the world is purchased by _panem
et circenses_. That capable officers and victorious armies should long
be content to serve such masters was impossible. A conspiracy of
generals placed itself at the head of affairs, and the most capable of
them made himself sole master. Under Caesar, Augustus and Tiberius, the
Roman people became habituated to a new form of government, which is
best described by the name of Caesarism. The outward forms of republican
government remained, but one man united in his own person all the
leading offices, and used them to give a seemingly legal title to what
was essentially military despotism. There is no more interesting
constitutional study than the chapters in which Tacitus traces the
growth of the new system under the subtle and dissimulating intellect of
Tiberius. The new Roman empire was as full of fictions as the English
constitution of the present day. The master of the world posed as the
humble servant of a menial senate. Deprecating the outward symbols of
sovereignty, he was satisfied with the modest powers of a consul or a
tribunus plebis. The reign of Tiberius, little capable as he was by
personal character of captivating the favour of the multitude, did more
for imperialism than was done by his more famous predecessors.
Henceforward free government all over the world lay crushed beneath the
military despotism of Rome. Caesarism remained true to the character
imposed upon it by its origin. The Caesar was an elective not an
hereditary king. The real foundation of his power was the army, and the
army in course of time openly assumed the right of nominating the
sovereign. The characteristic weakness of the Roman empire was the
uncertainty of the succession. The nomination of a Caesar in the
lifetime of the emperor was an ineffective remedy. Rival emperors were
elected by different armies; and nothing less than the force of arms
could decide the question between them.

_Modern Governments._--_Feudalism._--The Roman empire bequeathed to
modern Europe the theory of universal dominion. The nationalities which
grew up after its fall arranged themselves on the basis of territorial
sovereignty. Leaving out of account the free municipalities of the
middle ages, the problem of government had now to be solved, not for
small urban communities, but for large territorial nations. The medieval
form of government was feudal. One common type pervaded all the
relations of life. The relation of king and lord was like the relation
between lord and vassal (see FEUDALISM). The bond between them was the
tenure of land. In England there had been, before the Norman Conquest,
an approximation to a feudal system. In the earlier English
constitution, the most striking features were the power of the witan,
and the common property of the nation in a large portion of the soil.
The steady development of the power of the king kept pace with the
aggregation of the English tribes under one king. The conception that
the land belonged primarily to the people gave way to the conception
that everything belonged primarily to the king.[3] The Norman Conquest
imposed on England the already highly developed feudalism of France, and
out of this feudalism the free governments of modern Europe have grown.
One or two of the leading steps in this process may be indicated here.
The first, and perhaps the most important, was the device of
representation. For an account of its origin, and for instances of its
use in England before its application to politics, we must be content to
refer to Stubbs's _Constitutional History_, vol. ii. The problem of
combining a large area of sovereignty with some degree of
self-government, which had proved fatal to ancient commonwealths, was
henceforward solved. From that time some form of representation has been
deemed essential to every constitution professing, however remotely, to
be free.

The connexion between representation and the feudal system of estates
must be shortly noticed. The feudal theory gave the king a limited right
to military service and to certain aids, both of which were utterly
inadequate to meet the expenses of the government, especially in time of
war. The king therefore had to get contributions from his people, and he
consulted them in their respective orders. The three estates were simply
the three natural divisions of the people, and Stubbs has pointed out
that, in the occasional treaties between a necessitous king and the
order of merchants or lawyers, we have examples of inchoate estates or
sub-estates of the realm. The right of representation was thus in its
origin a right to consent to taxation. The pure theory of feudalism had
from the beginning been broken by William the Conqueror causing all
free-holders to take an oath of direct allegiance to himself. The
institution of parliaments, and the association of the king's smaller
tenants _in capite_ with other commoners, still further removed the
government from the purely feudal type in which the mesne lord stands
between the inferior vassal and the king.

_Parliamentary Government._--_The English System._--The right of the
commons to share the power of the king and lords in legislation, the
exclusive right of the commons to impose taxes, the disappearance of the
clergy as a separate order, were all important steps in the movement
towards popular government. The extinction of the old feudal nobility in
the dynastic wars of the 15th century simplified the question by leaving
the crown face to face with parliament. The immediate result was no
doubt an increase in the power of the crown, which probably never stood
higher than it did in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth; but even
these powerful monarchs were studious in their regard for parliamentary
conventionalities. After a long period of speculative controversy and
civil war, the settlement of 1688 established limited monarchy as the
government of England. Since that time the external form of government
has remained unchanged, and, so far as legal description goes, the
constitution of William III. might be taken for the same system as that
which still exists. The silent changes have, however, been enormous. The
most striking of these, and that which has produced the most salient
features of the English system, is the growth of cabinet government.
Intimately connected with this is the rise of the two great historical
parties of English politics. The normal state of government in England
is that the cabinet of the day shall represent that which is, for the
time, the stronger of the two. Before the Revolution the king's
ministers had begun to act as a united body; but even after the
Revolution the union was still feeble and fluctuating, and each
individual minister was bound to the others only by the tie of common
service to the king. Under the Hanoverian sovereigns the ministry became
consolidated, the position of the cabinet became definite, and its
dependence on parliament, and more particularly on the House of Commons,
was established. Ministers were chosen exclusively from one house or the
other, and they assumed complete responsibility for every act done in
the name of the crown. The simplicity of English politics has divided
parliament into the representatives of two parties, and the party in
opposition has been steadied by the consciousness that it, too, has
constitutional functions of high importance, because at any moment it
may be called to provide a ministry. Criticism is sobered by being made
responsible. Along with this movement went the withdrawal of the
personal action of the sovereign in politics. No king has attempted to
veto a bill since the Scottish Militia Bill was vetoed by Queen Anne. No
ministry has been dismissed by the sovereign since 1834. Whatever the
power of the sovereign may be, it is unquestionably limited to his
personal influence over his ministers. And it must be remembered that
since the Reform Act of 1832 ministers have become, in practice,
responsible ultimately, not to parliament, but to the House of Commons.
Apart, therefore, from democratic changes due to a wider suffrage, we
find that the House of Commons, as a body, gradually made itself the
centre of the government. Since the area of the constitution has been
enlarged, it may be doubted whether the orthodox descriptions of the
government any longer apply. The earlier constitutional writers, such as
Blackstone and J. L. Delolme, regard it as a wonderful compound of the
three standard forms,--monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. Each has its
place, and each acts as a check upon the others. Hume, discussing the
question "Whether the British government inclines more to absolute
monarchy or to a republic," decides in favour of the former alternative.
"The tide has run long and with some rapidity to the side of popular
government, and is just beginning to turn toward monarchy." And he gives
it as his own opinion that absolute monarchy would be the easiest death,
the true euthanasia of the British constitution. These views of the
English government in the 18th century may be contrasted with Bagehot's
sketch of the modern government as a working instrument.[4]

_Leading Features of Parliamentary Government._--The parliamentary
government developed by England out of feudal materials has been
deliberately accepted as the type of constitutional government all over
the world. Its leading features are popular representation more or less
extensive, a bicameral legislature, and a cabinet or consolidated
ministry. In connexion with all of these, numberless questions of the
highest practical importance have arisen, the bare enumeration of which
would surpass the limits of our space. We shall confine ourselves to a
few very general considerations.

_The Two Chambers._--First, as to the double chamber. This, which is
perhaps more accidental than any other portion of the British system,
has been the most widely imitated. In most European countries, in the
British colonies, in the United States Congress, and in the separate
states of the Union,[5] there are two houses of legislature. This result
has been brought about partly by natural imitation of the accepted type
of free government, partly from a conviction that the second chamber
will moderate the democratic tendencies of the first. But the elements
of the British original cannot be reproduced to order under different
conditions. There have, indeed, been a few attempts to imitate the
special character of hereditary nobility attaching to the British House
of Lords. In some countries, where the feudal tradition is still strong
(e.g. Prussia, Austria, Hungary), the hereditary element in the upper
chambers has survived as truly representative of actual social and
economic relations. But where these social conditions do not obtain
(e.g. in France after the Revolution) the attempt to establish an
hereditary peerage on the British model has always failed. For the
peculiar solidarity between the British nobility and the general mass of
the people, the outcome of special conditions and tendencies, is a
result beyond the power of constitution-makers to attain. The British
system too, after its own way, has for a long period worked without any
serious collision between the Houses,--the standing and obvious danger
of the bicameral system. The actual ministers of the day must possess
the confidence of the House of Commons; they need not--in fact they
often do not--possess the confidence of the House of Lords. It is only
in legislation that the Lower House really shares its powers with the
Upper; and (apart from any such change in the constitution as was
suggested in 1907 by Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman) the constitution
possesses, in the unlimited power of nominating peers, a well-understood
last resource should the House of Lords persist in refusing important
measures demanded by the representatives of the people. In the United
Kingdom it is well understood that the real sovereignty lies with the
people (the electorate), and the House of Lords recognizes the principle
that it must accept a measure when the popular will has been clearly
expressed. In all but measures of first-class importance, however, the
House of Lords is a real second chamber, and in these there is little
danger of a collision between the Houses. There is the widest possible
difference between the British and any other second chamber. In the
United States the Senate (constituted on the system of equal
representation of states) is the more important of the two Houses, and
the only one whose control of the executive can be compared to that
exercised by the British House of Commons.

The real strength of popular government in England lies in the ultimate
supremacy of the House of Commons. That supremacy had been acquired,
perhaps to its full extent, before the extension of the suffrage made
the constituencies democratic. Foreign imitators, it may be observed,
have been more ready to accept a wide basis of representation than to
confer real power on the representative body. In all the monarchical
countries of Europe, however unrestricted the right of suffrage may be,
the real victory of constitutional government has yet to be won. Where
the suffrage means little or nothing, there is little or no reason for
guarding it against abuse. The independence of the executive in the
United States brings that country, from one point of view, more near to
the state system of the continent of Europe than to that of the United
Kingdom. The people make a more complete surrender of power to the
government (State or Federal) than is done in England.

_Cabinet Government._--The peculiar functions of the English cabinet are
not easily matched in any foreign system. They are a mystery even to
most educated Englishmen. The cabinet (q.v.) is much more than a body
consisting of chiefs of departments. It is the inner council of the
empire, the arbiter of national policy, foreign or domestic, the
sovereign in commission. The whole power of the House of Commons is
concentrated in its hands. At the same time, it has no place whatever in
the legal constitution. Its numbers and its constitution are not fixed
even by any rule of practice. It keeps no record of its proceedings. The
relations of an individual minister to the cabinet, and of the cabinet
to its head and creator, the premier, are things known only to the
initiated. With the doubtful exception of France, no other system of
government presents us with anything like its equivalent. In the United
States, as in the European monarchies, we have a council of ministers
surrounding the chief of the state.

_Change of Power in the English System._--One of the most difficult
problems of government is how to provide for the devolution of political
power, and perhaps no other question is so generally and justly applied
as the test of a working constitution. If the transmission works
smoothly, the constitution, whatever may be its other defects, may at
least be pronounced stable. It would be tedious to enumerate all the
contrivances which this problem has suggested to political societies.
Here, as usual, oriental despotism stands at the bottom of the scale.
When sovereign power is imputed to one family, and the law of succession
fails to designate exclusively the individual entitled to succeed,
assassination becomes almost a necessary measure of precaution. The
prince whom chance or intrigue has promoted to the throne of a father or
an uncle must make himself safe from his relatives and competitors.
Hence the scenes which shock the European conscience when "Amurath an
Amurath succeeds." The strong monarchical governments of Europe have
been saved from this evil by an indisputable law of succession, which
marks out from his infancy the next successor to the throne. The king
names his ministers, and the law names the king. In popular or
constitutional governments far more elaborate precautions are required.
It is one of the real merits of the English constitution that it has
solved this problem--in a roundabout way perhaps, after its fashion--but
with perfect success. The ostensible seat of power is the throne, and
down to a time not long distant the demise of the crown suspended all
the other powers of the state. In point of fact, however, the real
change of power occurs on a change of ministry. The constitutional
practice of the 19th century settled, beyond the reach of controversy,
the occasions on which a ministry is bound to retire. It must resign or
dissolve when it is defeated[6] in the House of Commons, and if after a
dissolution it is beaten again, it must resign without alternative. It
may resign if it thinks its majority in the House of Commons not
sufficiently large. The dormant functions of the crown now come into
existence. It receives back political power from the old ministry in
order to transmit it to the new. When the new ministry is to be formed,
and how it is to be formed, is also clearly settled by established
practice. The outgoing premier names his successor by recommending the
king to consult him; and that successor must be the recognized leader of
his successful rivals. All this is a matter of custom, not of law; and
it is doubtful if any two authorities could agree in describing the
custom in language of precision. In theory the monarch may send for any
one he pleases, and charge him with the formation of a government; but
the ability to form a government restricts this liberty to the
recognized head of a party, subject to there being such an individual.
It is certain that the intervention of the crown facilitates the
transfer of power from one party to another, by giving it the appearance
of a mere change of servants. The real disturbance is that caused by the
appeal to the electors. A general election is always a struggle between
the great political parties for the possession of the powers of
government. It may be noted that modern practice goes far to establish
the rule that a ministry beaten at the hustings should resign at once
without waiting for a formal defeat in the House of Commons.

The English custom makes the ministry dependent on the will of the House
of Commons; and, on the other hand, the House of Commons itself is
dependent on the will of the ministry. In the last result both depend on
the will of the constituencies, as expressed at the general election.
There is no fixity in either direction in the tenure of a ministry. It
may be challenged at any moment, and it lasts until it is challenged and
beaten. And that there should be a ministry and a House of Commons in
harmony with each other but out of harmony with the people is rendered
all but impossible by the law and the practice as to the duration of
parliaments.

_Change of Power in the United States._--The United States offers a very
different solution of the problem. The American president is at once
king and prime minister; and there is no titular superior to act as a
conduit-pipe between him and his successor. His crown is rigidly fixed;
he can be removed only by the difficult method of impeachment. No
hostile vote on matters of legislation can affect his position. But the
end of his term is known from the first day of his government; and
almost before he begins to reign the political forces of the country are
shaping out a new struggle for the succession. Further, a change of
government in America means a considerable change in the administrative
staff (see CIVIL SERVICE). The commotion caused by a presidential
election in the United States is thus infinitely greater and more
prolonged than that caused by a general election in England. A change of
power in England affects comparatively few personal interests, and
absorbs the attention of the country for a comparatively short space of
time. In the United States it is long foreseen and elaborately prepared
for, and when it comes it involves the personal fortunes of large
numbers of citizens. And yet the British constitution is more democratic
than the American, in the sense that the popular will can more speedily
be brought to bear upon the government.

_Change of Power in France._--The established practice of England and
America may be compared with the constitutionalism of France. Here the
problem presents different conditions. The head of the state is neither
a premier of the English, nor a president of the American type. He is
served by a prime minister and a cabinet, who, like an English ministry,
hold office on the condition of parliamentary confidence; but he holds
office himself on the same terms, and is, in fact, a minister like the
others. So far as the transmission of power from cabinet to cabinet is
concerned, he discharges the functions of an English king. But the
transmission of power between himself and his successor is protected by
no constitutional devices whatever, and experience would seem to show
that no such devices are really necessary. Other European countries
professing constitutional government appear to follow the English
practice. The Swiss republic is so peculiarly situated that it is hardly
fair to compare it with any other. But it is interesting to note that,
while the rulers of the states are elected annually, the same persons
are generally re-elected.

_The Relation between Government and Laws._--It might be supposed that,
if any general proposition could be established about government, it
would be one establishing some constant relation between the form of a
government and the character of the laws which it enforces. The
technical language of the English school of jurists is certainly of a
kind to encourage such a supposition. The entire body of law in force in
a country at any moment is regarded as existing solely by the fiat of
the governing power. There is no maxim more entirely in the spirit of
this jurisprudence than the following:--"The real legislator is not he
by whom the law was first ordained, but he by whose will it continues to
be law." The whole of the vast repertory of rules which make up the law
of England--the rules of practice in the courts, the local customs of a
county or a manor, the principles formulated by the sagacity of
generations of judges, equally with the statutes for the year, are
conceived of by the school of Austin as created by the will of the
sovereign and the two Houses of Parliament, or so much of them as would
now satisfy the definition of sovereignty. It would be out of place to
examine here the difficulties which embarrass this definition, but the
statement we have made carries on its face a demonstration of its own
falsity in fact. There is probably no government in the world of which
it could be said that it might change at will the substantive laws of
the country and still remain a government. However well it may suit the
purposes of analytical jurisprudence to define a law as a command set by
sovereign to subject, we must not forget that this is only a definition,
and that the assumption it rests upon is, to the student of society,
anything but a universal fact. From his point of view the cause of a
particular law is not one but many, and of the many the deliberate will
of a legislator may not be one. Sir Henry Maine has illustrated this
point by the case of the great tax-gathering empires of the east, in
which the absolute master of millions of men never dreams of making
anything in the nature of a law at all. This view is no doubt as strange
to the English statesman as to the English jurist. The most conspicuous
work of government in his view is that of parliamentary legislation. For
a large portion of the year the attention of the whole people is bent on
the operations of a body of men who are constantly engaged in making new
laws. It is natural, therefore, to think of law as a factitious thing,
made and unmade by the people who happen for the time being to
constitute parliament. It is forgotten how small a proportion the laws
actually devised by parliament are of the law actually prevailing in the
land. No European country has undergone so many changes in the form of
government as France. It is surprising how little effect these political
revolutions have had on the body of French law. The change from empire
to republic is not marked by greater legislative effects than the change
from a Conservative to a Liberal ministry in England would be.

These reflections should make us cautious in accepting any general
proposition about forms of government and the spirit of their laws. We
must remember, also, that the classification of governments according to
the numerical proportion between governors and governed supplies but a
small basis for generalization. What parallel can be drawn between a
small town, in which half the population are slaves, and every freeman
has a direct voice in the government, and a great modern state, in which
there is not a single slave, while freemen exercise their sovereign
powers at long intervals, and through the action of delegates and
representatives? Propositions as vague as those of Montesquieu may
indeed be asserted with more or less plausibility. But to take any
leading head of positive law, and to say that monarchies treat it in one
way, aristocracies and democracies in another, is a different matter.


II. SPHERE OF GOVERNMENT

The action of the state, or sovereign power, or government in a
civilized community shapes itself into the threefold functions of
legislation, judicature and administration. The two first are perfectly
well-defined, and the last includes all the kinds of state action not
included in the other two. It is with reference to legislation and
administration that the line of permissible state-action requires to be
drawn. There is no doubt about the province of the judicature, and that
function of government may therefore be dismissed with a very few
observations.

The complete separation of the three functions marks a high point of
social organization. In simple societies the same officers discharge all
the duties which we divide between the legislator, the administrator and
the judge. The acts themselves are not consciously recognized as being
of different kinds. The evolution of all the parts of a highly complex
government from one original is illustrated in a striking way by the
history of English institutions. All the conspicuous parts of the modern
government, however little they may resemble each other now, can be
followed back without a break to their common origin. Parliament, the
cabinet, the privy council, the courts of law, all carry us back to the
same _nidus_ in the council of the feudal king.

_Judicature._--The business of judicature, requiring as it does the
possession of a high degree of technical skill and knowledge, is
generally entrusted by the sovereign body or people to a separate and
independent class of functionaries. In England the appellate
jurisdiction of the House of Lords still maintains in theory the
connexion between the supreme legislative and the supreme judicial
functions. In some states of the American Union certain judicial
functions of the upper house were for a time maintained after the
example of the English constitution as it existed when the states were
founded. In England there is also still a considerable amount of
judicial work in which the people takes its share. The inferior
magistracies, except in populous places, are in the hands of private
persons. And by the jury system the ascertainment of fact has been
committed in very large measure to persons selected indiscriminately
from the mass of the people, subject to a small property qualification.
But the higher functions of the judicature are exercised by persons whom
the law has jealously fenced off from external interference and control.
The independence of the bench distinguishes the English system from
every other. It was established in principle as a barrier against
monarchical power, and hence has become one of the traditional ensigns
of popular government. In many of the American states the spirit of
democracy has demanded the subjection of the judiciary to popular
control. The judges are elected directly by the people, and hold office
for a short term, instead of being appointed, as in England, by the
responsible executive, and removable only by a vote of the two Houses.
At the same time the constitution of the United States has assigned to
the supreme court of the Union a perfectly unique position. The supreme
court is the guardian of the constitution (as are the state courts of
the constitution of the states: see UNITED STATES). It has to judge
whether a measure passed by the legislative powers is not void by reason
of being unconstitutional, and it may therefore have to veto the
deliberate resolutions of both Houses of Congress and the president. It
is admitted that this singular experiment in government has been
completely justified by its success.

_Limits of State Interference in Legislation and Administration._--The
question of the limits of state action does not arise with reference to
the judiciary. The enforcement of the laws is a duty which the sovereign
power must of absolute necessity take upon itself. But to what conduct
of the citizens the laws shall extend is the most perplexing of all
political questions. The correlative question with regard to the
executive would be what works of public convenience should the state
undertake through its own servants. The whole question of the sphere of
government may be stated in these two questions: What should the state
do for its citizens? and How far should the state interfere with the
action of its citizens? These questions are the direct outcome of modern
popular government; they are equally unknown to the small democracies of
ancient times and to despotic governments at all times. Accordingly
ancient political philosophy, rich as it is in all kinds of suggestions,
has very little to say that has any bearing on the sphere of government.
The conception that the power of the state can be and ought to be
limited belongs to the times of "government by discussion," to use
Bagehot's expression,--to the time when the sovereign number is divided
by class interests, and when the action of the majority has to be
carried out in the face of strong minorities, capable of making
themselves heard. Aristotle does indeed dwell on one aspect of the
question. He would limit the action of the government in the sense of
leaving as little as possible to the personal will of the governors,
whether one or many. His maxim is that the law should reign. But that
the sphere of law itself should be restricted, otherwise than by general
principles of morality, is a consideration wholly foreign to ancient
philosophy. The state is conceived as acting like a just man, and
justice in the state is the same thing as justice in the individual. The
Greek institutions which the philosophers are unanimous in commending
are precisely those which the most state-ridden nations of modern times
would agree in repudiating. The exhaustive discussion of all political
measures, which for over two centuries has been a fixed habit of English
public life, has of itself established the principle that there are
assignable limits to the action of the state. Not that the limits ever
have been assigned in terms, but popular sentiment has more or less
vaguely fenced off departments of conduct as sacred from the
interference of the law. Phrases like "the liberty of the subject," the
"sanctity of private property," "an Englishman's house is his castle,"
"the rights of conscience," are the commonplaces of political
discussion, and tell the state, "Thus far shalt thou go and no further."

The two contrasting policies are those of _laissez-faire_ (let alone)
and Protection, or individualism and state-socialism, the one a policy
of non-interference with the free play of social forces, the other of
their regulation for the benefit of the community. The _laissez-faire_
theory was prominently upheld by John Stuart Mill, whose essay on
_Liberty_, together with the concluding chapters of his treatise on
_Political Economy_, gives a tolerably complete view of the principles
of government. There is a general presumption against the interference
of government, which is only to be overcome by very strong evidence of
necessity. Governmental action is generally less effective than
voluntary action. The necessary duties of government are so burdensome,
that to increase them destroys its efficiency. Its powers are already so
great that individual freedom is constantly in danger. As a general
rule, nothing which can be done by the voluntary agency of individuals
should be left to the state. Each man is the best judge of his own
interests. But, on the other hand, when the thing itself is admitted to
be useful or necessary, and it cannot be effected by voluntary agency,
or when it is of such a nature that the consumer cannot be considered
capable of judging of the quality supplied, then Mill would allow the
state to interpose. Thus the education of children, and even of adults,
would fairly come within the province of the state. Mill even goes so
far as to admit that, where a restriction of the hours of labour, or the
establishment of a periodical holiday, is proved to be beneficial to
labourers as a class, but cannot be carried out voluntarily on account
of the refusal of individuals to co-operate, government may justifiably
compel them to co-operate. Still further, Mill would desire to see some
control exercised by the government over the operations of those
voluntary associations which, consisting of large numbers of
shareholders, necessarily leave their affairs in the hands of one or a
few persons. In short, Mill's general rule against state action admits
of many important exceptions, founded on no principle less vague than
that of public expediency. The essay on _Liberty_ is mainly concerned
with freedom of individual character, and its arguments apply to control
exercised, not only by the state, but by society in the form of public
opinion. The leading principle is that of Humboldt, "the absolute and
essential importance of human development in its richest diversity."
Humboldt broadly excluded education, religion and morals from the
action, direct and indirect, of the state. Mill, as we have seen,
conceives education to be within the province of the state, but he would
confine its action to compelling parents to educate their children.

The most thoroughgoing opponent of state action, however, is Herbert
Spencer. In his _Social Statics_, published in 1850, he holds it to be
the essential duty of government to _protect_--to maintain men's rights
to life, to personal liberty and to property; and the theory that the
government ought to undertake other offices besides that of protector he
regards as an untenable theory. Each man has a right to the fullest
exercise of all his faculties, compatible with the same right in others.
This is the fundamental law of equal freedom, which it is the duty and
the only duty of the state to enforce. If the state goes beyond this
duty, it becomes, not a protector, but an aggressor. Thus all state
regulations of commerce, all religious establishments, all government
relief of the poor, all state systems of education and of sanitary
superintendence, even the state currency and the post-office, stand
condemned, not only as ineffective for their respective purposes, but as
involving violations of man's natural liberty.

The tendency of modern legislation is more a question of political
practice than of political theory. In some cases state interference has
been abolished or greatly limited. These cases are mainly two--in
matters of opinion (especially religious opinion), and in matters of
contract.

  The mere enumeration of the individual instances would occupy a
  formidable amount of space. The reader is referred to such articles as
  ENGLAND, CHURCH OF; ESTABLISHMENT; MARRIAGE; OATH; ROMAN CATHOLIC
  CHURCH, &c., and COMPANY; CONTRACT; PARTNERSHIP, &c. In other cases
  the state has interfered for the protection and assistance of definite
  classes of persons. For example, the education and protection of
  children (see CHILDREN, LAW RELATING TO; EDUCATION; TECHNICAL
  EDUCATION); the regulation of factory labour and dangerous employment
  (see LABOUR LEGISLATION); improved conditions of health (see
  ADULTERATION; HOUSING; PUBLIC HEALTH, LAW OF, &c.); coercion for moral
  purposes (see BET AND BETTING; CRIMINAL LAW; GAMING AND WAGERING;
  LIQUOR LAWS; LOTTERIES, &c.). Under numerous other headings in this
  work the evolution of existing forms of government is discussed; see
  also the bibliographical note to the article CONSTITUTION AND
  CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Aristotle elsewhere speaks of the error of those who think that
    any one of the depraved forms is better than any other.

  [2] None of the free states of Greece ever made extensive or
    permanent conquests; but the tribute sometimes paid by one state to
    another (as by the Aeginetans to the Athenians) was a manifest source
    of corruption. Compare the remarks of Hume (_Essays_, part i. 3,
    _That Politics may be reduced to a Science_), "free governments are
    the most ruinous and oppressive for their provinces."

  [3] Ultimately, in the theory of English law, the king may be said to
    have become the universal successor of the people. Some of the
    peculiarities of the prerogative rights seem to be explainable only
    on this view, e.g. the curious distinction between wrecks come to
    land and wrecks still on water. The common right to wreckage was no
    doubt the origin of the prerogative right to the former. Every
    ancient common right has come to be a right of the crown or a right
    held of the crown by a vassal.

  [4] See Bagehot's _English Constitution_; or, for a more recent
    analysis, Sidney Low's _Governance of England_.

  [5] For an account of the double chamber system in the state
    legislatures see UNITED STATES: _Constitution and Government_, and
    also S. G. Fisher, _The Evolution of the Constitution_ (Philadelphia,
    1897).

  [6] A government "defeat" may, of course, not really represent a
    hostile vote in exceptional cases, and in some instances a government
    has obtained a reversal of the vote and has _not_ resigned.



GOVERNOR (from the Fr. _gouverneur_, from _gouverner_, O. Fr.
_governer_, Lat. _gubernare_, to steer a ship, to direct, guide), in
general, one who governs or exercises authority; specifically, an
official appointed to govern a district, province, town, &c. In British
colonies or dependencies the representative of the crown is termed a
governor. Colonial governors are classed as governors-general, governors
and lieutenant-governors, according to the status of the colony or group
of colonies over which they preside. Their powers vary according to the
position which they occupy. In all cases they represent the authority of
the crown. In the United States (q.v.) the official at the head of every
state government is called a governor.



GOW, NIEL (1727-1807), Scottish musician of humble parentage, famous as
a violinist and player of reels, but more so for the part he played in
preserving the old melodies of Scotland. His compositions, and those of
his four sons, Nathaniel, the most famous (1763-1831), William
(1751-1791), Andrew (1760-1803), and John (1764-1826), formed the "Gow
Collection," comprising various volumes edited by Niel and his sons, a
valuable repository of Scottish traditional airs. The most important of
Niel's sons was Nathaniel, who is remembered as the author of the
well-known "Caller Herrin," taken from the fishwives' cry, a tune to
which words were afterwards written by Lady Nairne. Nathaniel's son,
NIEL GOW junior (1795-1823), was the author of the famous songs "Flora
Macdonald's Lament" and "Cam' ye by Athol."



GOWER, JOHN (d. 1408), English poet, died at an advanced age in 1408, so
that he may be presumed to have been born about 1330. He belonged to a
good Kentish family, but the suggestion of Sir Harris Nicolas that the
poet is to be identified with a John Gower who was at one time possessed
of the manor of Kentwell is open to serious objections. There is no
evidence that he ever lived as a country gentleman, but he was
undoubtedly possessed of some wealth, and we know that he was the owner
of the manors of Feltwell in Suffolk and Moulton in Norfolk. In a
document of 1382 he is called an "Esquier de Kent," and he was certainly
not in holy orders. That he was acquainted with Chaucer we know, first
because Chaucer in leaving England for Italy in 1378 appointed Gower and
another to represent him in his absence, secondly because Chaucer
addressed his _Troilus and Criseide_ to Gower and Strode (whom he
addresses as "moral Gower" and "philosophical Strode") for criticism and
correction, and thirdly because of the lines in the first edition of
Gower's _Confessio amantis_, "And gret wel Chaucer whan ye mete," &c.
There is no sufficient ground for the suggestion, based partly on the
subsequent omission of these lines and partly on the humorous reference
of Chaucer to Gower's _Confessio amantis_ in the introduction to the
_Man of Law's Tale_, that the friendship was broken by a quarrel. From
his Latin poem _Vox clamantis_ we know that he was deeply and painfully
interested in the peasants' rising of 1381; and by the alterations which
the author made in successive revisions of this work we can trace a
gradually increasing sense of disappointment in the youthful king, whom
he at first acquits of all responsibility for the state of the kingdom
on account of his tender age. That he became personally known to the
king we learn from his own statement in the first edition of the
_Confessio amantis_, where he says that he met the king upon the river,
was invited to enter the royal barge, and in the conversation which
followed received the suggestion which led him to write his principal
English poem. At the same time we know, especially from the later
revisions of the _Confessio amantis_, that he was a great admirer of the
king's brilliant cousin, Henry of Lancaster, afterwards Henry IV., whom
he came eventually to regard as a possible saviour of society from the
misgovernment of Richard II. We have a record that in 1393 he received a
collar from his favourite political hero, and it is to be observed that
the effigy upon Gower's tomb is wearing a collar of SS. with the swan
badge which was used by Henry.

The first edition of the _Confessio amantis_ is dated 1390, and this
contains, at least in some copies, a secondary dedication to the then
earl of Derby. The later form, in which Henry became the sole object of
the dedication, is of the year 1393. Gower's political opinions are
still more strongly expressed in the _Cronica tripartita_.

In 1398 he was married to Agnes Groundolf, and from the special licence
granted by the bishop of Winchester for the celebration of this marriage
in John Gower's private oratory we gather that he was then living in
lodgings assigned to him within the priory of St Mary Overy, and perhaps
also that he was too infirm to be married in the parish church. It is
probable that this was not his first marriage, for there are indications
in his early French poem that he had a wife at the time when that was
written. His will is dated the 15th of August 1408, and his death took
place very soon after this. He had been blind for some years before his
death. A magnificent tomb with a recumbent effigy was erected over his
grave in the chapel of St John the Baptist within the church of the
priory, now St Saviour's, Southwark, and this is still to be seen,
though not quite in its original state or place. From the inscription on
the tomb, as well as from other indications, it appears that he was a
considerable benefactor of the priory and contributed largely to the
rebuilding of the church.

The effigy on Gower's tomb rests its head upon a pile of three folio
volumes entitled _Speculum meditantis_, _Vox clamantis_ and _Confessio
amantis_. These are his three principal works. The first of these was
long supposed to have perished, but a copy of it was discovered in the
year 1895 under the title _Mirour de l'omme_. It is a French poem of
about 30,000 lines in twelve-line stanzas, and under the form of an
allegory of the human soul describes the seven deadly sins and their
opposing virtues, and then the various estates of man and the vices
incident to each, concluding with a narrative of the life of the Virgin
Mary, and with praise of her as the means of reconciliation between God
and man. The work is extremely tedious for the most part, but shows
considerable command over the language and a great facility in metrical
expression.

Gower's next work was the _Vox clamantis_ in Latin elegiac verse, in
which the author takes occasion from the peasants' insurrection of 1381
to deal again with the faults of the various classes of society. In the
earlier portion the insurrection itself is described in a rather vivid
manner, though under the form of an allegory: the remainder contains
much the same material as we have already seen in that part of the
French poem where the classes of society are described. Gower's Latin
verse is very fair, as judged by the medieval standard, but in this book
he has borrowed very freely from Ovid, Alexander Neckam, Peter de Riga
and others.

Gower's chief claim, however, to reputation as a poet rests upon his
English work, the _Confessio amantis_, in which he displays in his
native language a real gift as a story-teller. He is himself the lover
of his poem, in spite of his advancing years, and he makes his
confession to Genius, the priest of Venus, under the usual headings
supplied by the seven deadly sins. These with their several branches are
successively described, and the nature of them illustrated by tales,
which are directed to the illustration both of the general nature of the
sin, and of the particular form which it may take in a lover. Finally he
receives at once his absolution, and his dismissal from the service of
Venus, for which his age renders him unfit. The idea is ingenious, and
there is often much quaintness of fancy in the application of moral
ideas to the relations of the lover and his mistress. The tales are
drawn from very various sources and are often extremely well told. The
metre is the short couplet, and it is extremely smooth and regular. The
great fault of the _Confessio amantis_ is the extent of its digressions,
especially in the fifth and seventh books.

Gower also wrote in 1397 a short series of French ballades on the virtue
of the married state (_Traitié pour essampler les amantz mariés_), and
after the accession of Henry IV. he produced the _Cronica tripartita_, a
partisan account in Latin leonine hexameters of the events of the last
twelve years of the reign of Richard II. About the same time he
addressed an English poem in seven-line stanzas to Henry IV. (_In Praise
of Peace_), and dedicated to the king a series of French ballades
(_Cinkante Balades_), which deal with the conventional topics of love,
but are often graceful and even poetical in expression. Several
occasional Latin pieces also belong to the later years of his life.

On the whole Gower must be admitted to have had considerable literary
powers; and though not a man of genius, and by no means to be compared
with Chaucer, yet he did good service in helping to establish the
standard literary language, which at the end of the 14th century took
the place of the Middle English dialects. The _Confessio amantis_ was
long regarded as a classic of the language, and Gower and Chaucer were
often mentioned side by side as the fathers of English poetry.

  A complete edition of Gower's works in four volumes, edited by G. C.
  Macaulay, was published in 1899-1902, the first volume containing the
  French works, the second and third the English, and the fourth the
  Latin, with a biography. Before this the _Confessio amantis_ had been
  published in the following editions: Caxton (1483); Berthelette (1532
  and 1554); Chalmers, _British Poets_ (1810); Reinhold Pauli (1857); H.
  Morley (1889, incomplete). The two series of French ballades and the
  _Praise of Peace_ were printed for the Roxburghe Club in 1818, and the
  _Vox clamantis_ and _Cronica tripartita_ were edited by H. O. Coxe for
  the Roxburghe Club in 1850. The _Cronica tripartita_, the _Praise of
  Peace_ and some of the minor Latin poems were printed in Wright's
  _Political Poems_ (Rolls series, 14). The _Praise of Peace_ appeared
  in the early folio editions of Chaucer, and has been edited also by Dr
  Skeat in his _Chaucerian and other Pieces_. Reference may be made to
  Todd's _Illustrations of the Lives and Writings of Gower and Chaucer_;
  the article (by Sir H. Nicolas) in the _Retrospective Review_ for
  1828; _Observations on the Language of Chaucer and Gower_, by F. J.
  Child; H. Morley's English Writers, iv.; Ten Brink's _History of Early
  English Literature_, ii.; and Courthope's _History of English Poetry_,
  i.     (G. C. M.)



GOWER, a seigniory and district in the county of Glamorgan, lying
between the rivers Tawe and Loughor and between Breconshire and the sea,
its length from the Breconshire border to Worm's Head being 28 m., and
its breadth about 8 m. It corresponds to the ancient commote of Gower
(in Welsh _Gwyr_) which in early Welsh times was grouped with two other
commotes stretching westwards to the Towy and so formed part of the
principality of Ystrad Tywi. Its early association with the country to
the west instead of with Glamorgan is perpetuated by its continued
inclusion in the diocese of St Davids, its two rural deaneries, West and
East Gower, being in the archdeaconry of Carmarthen. What is meant by
Gower in modern popular usage, however, is only the peninsular part or
"English Gower" (that is the Welsh _Bro-wyr_, as distinct from _Gwyr_
proper), roughly corresponding to the hundred of Swansea and lying
mainly to the south of a line drawn from Swansea to Loughor.

The numerous limestone caves of the coast are noted for their immense
deposits of animal remains, but their traces of man are far scantier,
those found in Bacon Hole and in Paviland cave being the most
important. In the Roman period the river Tawe, or the great morass
between it and the Neath, probably formed the boundary between the
Silures and the Goidelic population to the west. The latter, reinforced
perhaps from Ireland, continued to be the dominant race in Gower till
their conquest or partial expulsion in the 4th century by the sons of
Cunedda who introduced a Brythonic element into the district. Centuries
later Scandinavian rovers raided the coasts, leaving traces of their
more or less temporary occupation in such place-names as Burry Holms,
Worms Head and Swansea, and probably also in some cliff earthworks.
About the year 1100 the conquest of Gower was undertaken by Henry de
Newburgh, first earl of Warwick, with the assistance of Maurice de
Londres and others. His followers, who were mostly Englishmen from the
marches and Somersetshire with perhaps a sprinkling of Flemings, settled
for the most part on the southern side of the peninsula, leaving the
Welsh inhabitants of the northern half of Gower practically undisturbed.
These invaders were probably reinforced a little later by a small
detachment of the larger colony of Flemings which settled in south
Pembrokeshire. Moated mounds, which in some cases developed into
castles, were built for the protection of the various manors into which
the district was parcelled out, the castles of Swansea and Loughor being
ascribed to the earl of Warwick and that of Oystermouth to Maurice de
Londres. These were repeatedly attacked and burnt by the Welsh during
the 12th and 13th centuries, notably by Griffith ap Rhys in 1113, by his
son the Lord Rhys in 1189, by his grandsons acting in concert with
Llewelyn the Great in 1215, and by the last Prince Llewelyn in 1257.
With the Norman conquest the feudal system was introduced, and the
manors were held _in capite_ of the lord by the tenure of castle-guard
of the castle of Swansea, the _caput baroniae_.

About 1189 the lordship passed from the Warwick family to the crown and
was granted in 1203 by King John to William de Braose, in whose family
it remained for over 120 years except for three short intervals when it
was held for a second time by King John (1211-1215), by Llewelyn the
Great (1216-1223), and the Despensers (c. 1323-1326). In 1208 the Welsh
and English inhabitants who had frequent cause to complain of their
treatment, received each a charter, in similar terms, from King John,
who also visited the town of Swansea in 1210 and in 1215 granted its
merchants liberal privileges. In 1283 a number of de Braose's
tenants--unquestionably Welshmen--left Gower for the royal lordship of
Carmarthen, declaring that they would live under the king rather than
under a lord marcher. In the following year the king visited de Braose
at Oystermouth Castle, which seems to have been made the lord's chief
residence, after the destruction of Swansea Castle by Llewelyn. Later on
the king's officers of the newly organized county of Carmarthen
repeatedly claimed jurisdiction over Gower, thereby endeavouring to
reduce its status from that of a lordship marcher with semi-regal
jurisdiction, into that of an ordinary constituent of the new county. De
Braose resisted the claim and organized the English part of his lordship
on the lines of a county palatine, with its own _comitatus_ and chancery
held in Swansea Castle, the sheriff and chancellor being appointed by
himself. The inhabitants, who had no right of appeal to the crown
against their lord or the decisions of his court, petitioned the king,
who in 1305 appointed a special commission to enquire into their alleged
grievances, but in the following year the de Braose of the time,
probably in alarm, conceded liberal privileges both to the burgesses of
Swansea and to the English and Welsh inhabitants of his "county" of
English Gower. He was the last lord seignior to live within the
seigniory, which passed from him to his son-in-law John de Mowbray.
Other troubles befell the de Braose barons and their successors in
title, for their right to the lordship was contested by the Beauchamps,
representatives of the earlier earls of Warwick, in prolonged litigation
carried on intermittently from 1278 to 1396, the Beauchamps being
actually in possession from 1354, when a decision was given in their
favour, till its reversal in 1396. It then reverted to the Mowbrays and
was held by them until the 4th duke of Norfolk exchanged it in 1489,
for lands in England, with William Herbert, earl of Pembroke. The
latter's granddaughter brought it to her husband Charles Somerset, who
in 1506 was granted her father's subtitle of Baron Herbert of Chepstow,
Raglan and Gower, and from him the lordship has descended to the present
lord, the duke of Beaufort.

Gower was made subject to the ordinary law of England by its inclusion
in 1535 in the county of Glamorgan as then reorganized; its chancery,
which from about the beginning of the 14th century had been located at
Oystermouth Castle, came to an end, but though the Welsh acts of 1535
and 1542 purported to abolish the rights and privileges of the lords
marchers as conquerors, yet some of these, possibly from being regarded
as private rights, have survived into modern times. For instance, the
seignior maintained a franchise gaol in Swansea Castle till 1858, when
it was abolished by act of parliament, the appointment of coroner for
Gower is still vested in him, all writs are executed by the lord's
officers instead of by the officers of the sheriff for the county, and
the lord's rights to the foreshore, treasure trove, felon's goods and
wrecks are undiminished.

The characteristically English part of Gower lies to the south and
south-west of its central ridge of Cefn y Bryn. It was this part that
was declared by Professor Freeman to be "more Teutonic than Kent
itself." The seaside fringe lying between this area and the town of
Swansea, as well as the extreme north-west of the peninsula, also became
anglicized at a comparatively early date, though the place-names and the
names of the inhabitants are still mainly Welsh. The present line of
demarcation between the two languages is one drawn from Swansea in a
W.N.W. direction to Llanrhidian on the north coast. It has remained
practically the same for several centuries, and is likely to continue
so, as it very nearly coincides with the southern outcrop of the coal
measures, the industrial population to the north being Welsh-speaking,
the agriculturists to the south being English. In 1901 the Gower rural
district (which includes the Welsh-speaking industrial parish of
Llanrhidian, with about three-sevenths of the total population) had
64.5% of the population above three years of age that spoke English
only, 5.2% that spoke Welsh only, the remainder being bilinguals, as
compared with 17% speaking English only, 17.7% speaking Welsh only and
the rest bilinguals in the Swansea rural district, and 7% speaking
English only, 55.2% speaking Welsh only and the rest bilinguals in the
Pontardawe rural district, the last two districts constituting Welsh
Gower.

More than one-fourth of the whole area of Gower is unenclosed common
land, of which in English Gower fully one-half is apparently capable of
cultivation. Besides the demesne manors of the lord seignior, six in
number, there are some twelve mesne manors and fees belonging to the
Penrice estate, and nearly twenty more belonging to various other
owners. The tenure is customary freehold, though in some cases described
as copyhold, and in the ecclesiastical manor of Bishopston, descent is
by borough English. The holdings are on the whole probably smaller in
size than in any other area of corresponding extent in Wales, and
agriculture is still in a backward state.

In the Arthurian romances Gower appears in the form of Goire as the
island home of the dead, a view which probably sprang up among the Celts
of Cornwall, to whom the peninsula would appear as an island. It is also
surmised by Sir John Rhys that Malory's Brandegore (i.e. Brân of Gower)
represents the Celtic god of the other world (Rhys, _Arthurian Legend_,
160, 329 et seq.). On Cefn Bryn, almost in the centre of the peninsula,
is a cromlech with a large capstone known as Arthur's Stone. The
unusually large number of cairns on this hill, given as eighty by Sir
Gardner Wilkinson, suggests that this part of Gower was a favourite
burial-place in early British times.

  See Rev. J. D. Davies, _A History of West Gower_ (4 vols., 1877-1894);
  Col. W. Ll-Morgan, _An Antiquarian Survey of East Gower_ (1899); an
  article (probably by Professor Freeman) entitled "Anglia
  Trans-Walliana" in the _Saturday Review_ for May 20, 1876; "The
  Signory of Gower" by G. T. Clark in _Archaeologia Cambrensis_ for
  1893-1894; _The Surveys of Gower and Kilvey_, ed. by Baker and
  Grant-Francis (1861-1870).     (D. Ll. T.)



GOWN, properly the term for a loose outer garment formerly worn by
either sex but now generally for that worn by women. While "dress" is
the usual English word, except in such combinations as "tea-gown,"
"dressing-gown" and the like, where the original loose flowing nature of
the "gown" is referred to, "gown" is the common American word. "Gown"
comes from the O. Fr. _goune_ or _gonne_. The word appears in various
Romanic languages, cf. Ital. _gonna_. The medieval Lat. _gunna_ is used
of a garment of skin or fur. A Celtic origin has been usually adopted,
but the Irish, Gaelic and Manx words are taken from the English. Outside
the ordinary use of the word, "gown" is the name for the distinctive
robes worn by holders of particular offices or by members of particular
professions or of universities, &c. (see ROBES).



GOWRIE, JOHN RUTHVEN, 3RD EARL OF (c. 1577-1600), Scottish conspirator,
was the second son of William, 4th Lord Ruthven and 1st earl of Gowrie
(cr. 1581), by his wife Dorothea, daughter of Henry Stewart, 2nd Lord
Methven. The Ruthven family was of ancient Scottish descent, and had
owned extensive estates in the time of William the Lion; the Ruthven
peerage dated from the year 1488. The 1st earl of Gowrie (? 1541-1584),
and his father, Patrick, 3rd Lord Ruthven (c. 1520-1566), had both been
concerned in the murder of Rizzio in 1566; and both took an active part
on the side of the Kirk in the constant intrigues and factions among the
Scottish nobility of the period. The former had been the custodian of
Mary, queen of Scots, during her imprisonment in Loch Leven, where,
according to the queen, he had pestered her with amorous attentions; he
had also been the chief actor in the plot known as the "raid of Ruthven"
when King James VI. was treacherously seized while a guest at the castle
of Ruthven in 1582, and kept under restraint for several months while
the earl remained at the head of the government. Though pardoned for
this conspiracy he continued to plot against the king in conjunction
with the earls of Mar and Angus; and he was executed for high treason on
the 2nd of May 1584; his friends complaining that the confession on
which he was convicted of treason was obtained by a promise of pardon
from the king. His eldest son, William, 2nd earl of Gowrie, only
survived till 1588, the family dignities and estates, which had been
forfeited, having been restored to him in 1586.

When, therefore, John Ruthven succeeded to the earldom while still a
child, he inherited along with his vast estates family traditions of
treason and intrigue. There was also a popular belief, though without
foundation, that there was Tudor blood in his veins; and Burnet
afterwards asserted that Gowrie stood next in succession to the crown of
England after King James VI. Like his father and grandfather before him,
the young earl attached himself to the party of the reforming preachers,
who procured his election in 1592 as provost of Perth, a post that was
almost hereditary in the Ruthven family. He received an excellent
education at the grammar school of Perth and the university of
Edinburgh, where he was in the summer of 1593, about the time when his
mother, and his sister the countess of Atholl, aided Bothwell in forcing
himself sword in hand into the king's bedchamber in Holyrood Palace. A
few months later Gowrie joined with Atholl and Montrose in offering to
serve Queen Elizabeth, then almost openly hostile to the Scottish king;
and it is probable that he had also relations with the rebellious
Bothwell. Gowrie had thus been already deeply engaged in treasonable
conspiracy when, in August 1594, he proceeded to Italy with his tutor,
William Rhynd, to study at the university of Padua. On his way home in
1599 he remained for some months at Geneva with the reformer Theodore
Beza; and at Paris he made acquaintance with the English ambassador, who
reported him to Cecil as devoted to Elizabeth's service, and a nobleman
"of whom there may be exceeding use made." In Paris he may also at this
time have had further communication with the exiled Bothwell; in London
he was received with marked favour by Queen Elizabeth and her ministers.


  The Gowrie conspiracy.

These circumstances owe their importance to the light they throw on the
obscurity of the celebrated "Gowrie conspiracy," which resulted in the
slaughter of the earl and his brother by attendants of King James at
Gowrie House, Perth, a few weeks after Gowrie's return to Scotland in
May 1600. This event ranks among the unsolved enigmas of history. The
mystery is caused by the improbabilities inherent in any of the
alternative hypotheses suggested to account for the unquestionable facts
of the occurrence; the discrepancies in the evidence produced at the
time; the apparent lack of forethought or plan on the part of the chief
actors, whichever hypothesis be adopted, as well as the thoughtless
folly of their actual procedure; and the insufficiency of motive,
whoever the guilty parties may have been. The solutions of the mystery
that have been suggested are three in number: first, that Gowrie and his
brother had concocted a plot to murder, or more probably to kidnap King
James, and that they lured him to Gowrie House for this purpose;
secondly, that James paid a surprise visit to Gowrie House with the
intention, which he carried out, of slaughtering the two Ruthvens; and
thirdly, that the tragedy was the outcome of an unpremeditated brawl
following high words between the king and the earl, or his brother. To
understand the relative probabilities of these hypotheses regard must be
had to the condition of Scotland in the year 1600 (see SCOTLAND:
_History_). Here it can only be recalled that plots to capture the
person of the sovereign for the purpose of coercing his actions were of
frequent occurrence, more than one of which had been successful, and in
several of which the Ruthven family had themselves taken an active part;
that the relations between England and Scotland were at this time more
than usually strained, and that the young earl of Gowrie was reckoned in
London among the adherents of Elizabeth; that the Kirk party, being at
variance with James, looked upon Gowrie as an hereditary partisan of
their cause, and had recently sent an agent to Paris to recall him to
Scotland as their leader; that Gowrie was believed to be James's rival
for the succession to the English crown. Moreover, as regards the
question of motive it is to be observed, on the one hand, that the
Ruthvens believed Gowrie's father to have been treacherously done to
death, and his widow insulted by the king's favourite minister; while,
on the other, James was indebted in a large sum of money to the earl of
Gowrie's estate, and popular gossip credited either Gowrie or his
brother, Alexander Ruthven, with being the lover of the queen. Although
the evidence on these points, and on every minute circumstance connected
with the tragedy itself, has been exhaustively examined by historians of
the Gowrie conspiracy, it cannot be asserted that the mystery has been
entirely dispelled; but, while it is improbable that complete certainty
will ever be arrived at as to whether the guilt lay with James or with
the Ruthven brothers, the most modern research in the light of materials
inaccessible or overlooked till the 20th century, points pretty clearly
to the conclusion that there was a genuine conspiracy by Gowrie and his
brother to kidnap the king. If this be the true solution, it follows
that King James was innocent of the blood of the Ruthvens; and it raises
the presumption that his own account of the occurrence was, in spite of
the glaring improbabilities which it involved, substantially true.


  The slaughter of the Ruthvens.

The facts as related by James and other witnesses were, in outline, as
follows. On the 5th of August 1600 the king rose early to hunt in the
neighbourhood of Falkland Palace, about 14 m. from Perth. Just as he was
setting forth in company with the duke of Lennox, the earl of Mar, Sir
Thomas Erskine and others, he was accosted by Alexander Ruthven (known
as the master of Ruthven), a younger brother of the earl of Gowrie, who
had ridden from Perth that morning to inform the king that he had met on
the previous day a man in possession of a pitcher full of foreign gold
coins, whom he had secretly locked up in a room at Gowrie House. Ruthven
urged the king to ride to Perth to examine this man for himself and to
take possession of the treasure. After some hesitation James gave credit
to the story, suspecting that the possessor of the coins was one of the
numerous Catholic agents at that time moving about Scotland in disguise.
Without giving a positive reply to Alexander Ruthven, James started to
hunt; but later in the morning he called Ruthven to him and said he
would ride to Perth when the hunting was over. Ruthven then despatched a
servant, Henderson, by whom he had been accompanied from Perth in the
early morning, to tell Gowrie that the king was coming to Gowrie House.
This messenger gave the information to Gowrie about ten o'clock in the
morning. Meanwhile Alexander Ruthven was urging the king to lose no
time, requesting him to keep the matter secret from his courtiers, and
to bring to Gowrie House as small a retinue as possible. James, with a
train of some fifteen persons, arrived at Gowrie House about one
o'clock, Alexander Ruthven having spurred forward for a mile or so to
announce the king's approach. But notwithstanding Henderson's warning
some three hours earlier, Gowrie had made no preparations for the king's
entertainment, thus giving the impression of having been taken by
surprise. After a meagre repast, for which he was kept waiting an hour,
James, forbidding his retainers to follow him, went with Alexander
Ruthven up the main staircase and passed through two chambers and two
doors, both of which Ruthven locked behind them, into a turret-room at
the angle of the house, with windows looking on the courtyard and the
street. Here James expected to find the mysterious prisoner with the
foreign gold. He found instead an armed man, who, as appeared later, was
none other than Gowrie's servant, Henderson. Alexander Ruthven
immediately put on his hat, and drawing Henderson's dagger, presented it
to the king's breast with threats of instant death if James opened a
window or called for help. An allusion by Ruthven to the execution of
his father, the 1st earl of Gowrie, drew from James a reproof of
Ruthven's ingratitude for various benefits conferred on his family.
Ruthven then uncovered his head, declaring that James's life should be
safe if he remained quiet; then, committing the king to the custody of
Henderson, he left the turret--ostensibly to consult Gowrie--and locked
the door behind him. While Ruthven was absent the king questioned
Henderson, who professed ignorance of any plot and of the purpose for
which he had been placed in the turret; he also at James's request
opened one of the windows, and was about to open the other when Ruthven
returned. Whether or not Alexander had seen his brother is uncertain.
But Gowrie had meantime spread the report below that the king had taken
horse and had ridden away; and the royal retinue were seeking their
horses to follow him. Alexander, on re-entering the turret, attempted to
bind James's hands; a struggle ensued, in the course of which the king
was seen at the window by some of his followers below in the street, who
also heard him cry "treason" and call for help to the earl of Mar.
Gowrie affected not to hear these cries, but kept asking what was the
matter. Lennox, Mar and most of the other lords and gentlemen ran up the
main staircase to the king's help, but were stopped by the locked door,
which they spent some time in trying to batter down. John Ramsay
(afterwards earl of Holdernesse), noticing a small dark stairway leading
directly to the inner chamber adjoining the turret, ran up it and found
the king struggling at grips with Ruthven. Drawing his dagger, Ramsay
wounded Ruthven, who was then pushed down the stairway by the king. Sir
Thomas Erskine, summoned by Ramsay, now followed up the small stairs
with Dr Hugh Herries, and these two coming upon the wounded Ruthven
despatched him with their swords. Gowrie, entering the courtyard with
his stabler Thomas Cranstoun and seeing his brother's body, rushed up
the staircase after Erskine and Herries, followed by Cranstoun and
others of his retainers; and in the melée Gowrie was killed. Some
commotion was caused in the town by the noise of these proceedings; but
it quickly subsided, though the king did not deem it safe to return to
Falkland for some hours.


  The Sprot forgeries.

The tragedy caused intense excitement throughout Scotland, and the
investigation of the circumstances was followed with much interest in
England also, where all the details were reported to Elizabeth's
ministers. The preachers of the Kirk, whose influence in Scotland was
too extensive for the king to neglect, were only with the greatest
difficulty persuaded to accept James's account of the occurrence,
although he voluntarily submitted himself to cross-examination by one of
their number. Their belief, and that of their partisans, influenced no
doubt by political hostility to James, was that the king had invented
the story of a conspiracy by Gowrie to cover his own design to extirpate
the Ruthven family. James gave some colour to this belief, which has not
been entirely abandoned, by the relentless severity with which he
pursued the two younger, and unquestionably innocent, brothers of the
earl. Great efforts were made by the government to prove the complicity
of others in the plot. One noted and dissolute conspirator, Sir Robert
Logan of Restalrig, was posthumously convicted of having been privy to
the Gowrie conspiracy on the evidence of certain letters produced by a
notary, George Sprot, who swore they had been written by Logan to Gowrie
and others. These letters, which are still in existence, were in fact
forged by Sprot in imitation of Logan's handwriting; but the researches
of Andrew Lang have shown cause for suspecting that the most important
of them was either copied by Sprot from a genuine original by Logan, or
that it embodied the substance of such a letter. If this be correct, it
would appear that the conveyance of the king to Fast Castle, Logan's
impregnable fortress on the coast of Berwickshire, was part of the plot;
and it supplies, at all events, an additional piece of evidence to prove
the genuineness of the Gowrie conspiracy.

Gowrie's two younger brothers, William and Patrick Ruthven, fled to
England; and after the accession of James to the English throne William
escaped abroad, but Patrick was taken and imprisoned for nineteen years
in the Tower of London. Released in 1622, Patrick Ruthven resided first
at Cambridge and afterwards in Somersetshire, being granted a small
pension by the crown. He married Elizabeth Woodford, widow of the 1st
Lord Gerrard, by whom he had two sons and a daughter, Mary; the latter
entered the service of Queen Henrietta Maria, and married the famous
painter van Dyck, who painted several portraits of her. Patrick died in
poverty in a cell in the King's Bench in 1652, being buried as "Lord
Ruthven." His son, Patrick, presented a petition to Oliver Cromwell in
1656, in which, after reciting that the parliament of Scotland in 1641
had restored his father to the barony of Ruthven, he prayed that his
"extreme poverty" might be relieved by the bounty of the Protector.

  See Andrew Lang, _James VI. and the Gowrie Mystery_ (London, 1902),
  and the authorities there cited; Robert Pitcairn, _Criminal Trials in
  Scotland_ (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1833); David Moysie, _Memoirs of the
  Affairs of Scotland, 1577-1603_ (Edinburgh, 1830); Louis A. Barbé,
  _The Tragedy of Gowrie House_ (London, 1887); Andrew Bisset, _Essays
  on Historical Truth_ (London, 1871); David Calderwood, _History of the
  Kirk of Scotland_ (8 vols., Edinburgh, 1842-1849); P. F. Tytler,
  _History of Scotland_ (9 vols., Edinburgh, 1828-1843); John Hill
  Burton, _History of Scotland_ (7 vols., Edinburgh, 1867-1870). W. A.
  Craigie has edited as _Skotlands Rimur_ some Icelandic ballads
  relating to the Gowrie conspiracy. He has also printed the Danish
  translation of the official account of the conspiracy, which was
  published at Copenhagen in 1601.     (R. J. M.)



GOWRIE, a belt of fertile alluvial land (_Scotice_, "carse") of
Perthshire, Scotland. Occupying the northern shore of the Firth of Tay,
it has a generally north-easterly trend and extends from the eastern
boundaries of Perth city to the confines of Dundee. It measures 15 m. in
length, its breadth from the river towards the base of the Sidlaw Hills
varying from 2 to 4 m. Probably it is a raised beach, submerged until a
comparatively recent period. Although it contained much bog land and
stagnant water as late as the 18th century, it has since been drained
and cultivated, and is now one of the most productive tracts in
Perthshire. The district is noteworthy for the number of its castles and
mansions, almost wholly residential, among which may be mentioned
Kinfauns Castle, Inchyra House, Pitfour Castle, Errol Park, Megginch
Castle, dating from 1575; Fingask Castle, Kinnaird Castle, erected in
the 15th century and occupied by James VI. in 1617; Rossie Priory, the
seat of Lord Kinnaird; and Huntly Castle, built by the 3rd earl of
Kinghorne.



GOYA, a river town and port of Corrientes, Argentine Republic, the
commercial centre of the south-western departments of the province and
chief town of a department of the same name, on a _riacho_ or side
channel of the Paraná about 5 m. from the main channel and about 120 m.
S. of the city of Corrientes. Pop. (1905, est.) 7000. The town is built
on low ground which is subject to inundations in very wet weather, but
its streets are broad and the general appearance of its edifices is
good. Among its public buildings is a handsome parish church and a
national normal school. The productions of the neighbourhood are chiefly
pastoral, and its exports include cattle, hides, wool and oranges. Goya
had an export of crudely-made cheese long before the modern cheese
factories of the Argentine Republic came into existence. The place dates
from 1807, and had its origin, it is said, in the trade established
there by a ship captain and his wife Gregoria or Goya, who supplied
passing vessels with beef.



GOYANNA, or GOIANA, a city of Brazil in the N.E. angle of the state of
Pernambuco, about 65 m. N. of the city of Pernambuco. Pop.(1890) 15,436.
It is built on a fertile plain between the rivers Tracunhaem and
Capibaribe-mirim near their junction to form the Goyanna river, and is
15 m. from the coast. It is surrounded by, and is the commercial centre
for, one of the richest agricultural districts of the state, which
produces sugar, rum, coffee, tobacco, cotton, cattle, hides and castor
oil. The Goyanna river is navigable for small vessels nearly up to the
city, but its entrance is partly obstructed and difficult. Goyanna is
one of the oldest towns of the state, and was occupied by the Dutch from
1636 to 1654. It has several old-style churches, an orphans' asylum,
hospital and some small industries.



GOYA Y LUCIENTES, FRANCISCO (1746-1828), Spanish painter, was born in
1746 at Fuendetodos, a small Aragonese village near Saragossa. At an
early age he commenced his artistic career under the direction of José
Luzan Martinez, who had studied painting at Naples under Mastroleo. It
is clear that the accuracy in drawing Luzan is said to have acquired by
diligent study of the best Italian masters did not much influence his
erratic pupil. Goya, a true son of his province, was bold, capricious,
headstrong and obstinate. He took a prominent part on more than one
occasion in those rival religious processions at Saragossa which often
ended in unseemly frays; and his friends were led in consequence to
despatch him in his nineteenth year to Madrid, where, prior to his
departure for Rome, his mode of life appears to have been anything but
that of a quiet orderly citizen. Being a good musician, and gifted with
a voice, he sallied forth nightly, serenading the caged beauties of the
capital, with whom he seems to have been a very general favourite.

Lacking the necessary royal patronage, and probably scandalizing by his
mode of life the sedate court officials, he did not receive--perhaps did
not seek--the usual honorarium accorded to those students who visited
Rome for the purpose of study. Finding it convenient to retire for a
time from Madrid, he decided to visit Rome at his own cost; and being
without resources he joined a "quadrilla" of bull-fighters, passing from
town to town until he reached the shores of the Mediterranean. We next
hear of him reaching Rome, broken in health and financially bankrupt. In
1772 he was awarded the second prize in a competition initiated by the
academy of Parma, styling himself "pupil to Bayeu, painter to the king
of Spain." Compelled to quit Rome somewhat suddenly, he appears again in
Madrid in 1775, the husband of Bayeu's daughter, and father of a son.
About this time he appears to have visited his parents at Fuendetodos,
no doubt noting much which later on he utilized in his genre works. On
returning to Madrid he commenced painting canvases for the tapestry
factory of Santa Barbara, in which the king took much interest. Between
1776 and 1780 he appears to have supplied thirty examples, receiving
about £1200 for them. Soon after the revolution of 1868, an official was
appointed to take an inventory of all works of art belonging to the
nation, and in one of the cellars of the Madrid palace were discovered
forty-three of these works of Goya on rolls forgotten and neglected (see
_Los Tapices de Goya; por Cruzado Villaamil, Madrid_, 1870).

His originality and talent were soon recognized by Mengs, the king's
painter, and royal favour naturally followed. His career now becomes
intimately connected with the court life of his time. He was
commissioned by the king to design a series of frescoes for the church
of St Anthony of Florida, Madrid, and he also produced works for
Saragossa, Valencia and Toledo. Ecclesiastical art was not his forte,
and although he cannot be said to have failed in any of his work, his
fame was not enhanced by his religious subjects.

In portraiture, without doubt, Goya excelled: his portraits are
evidently life-like and unexaggerated, and he disdained flattery. He
worked rapidly, and during his long stay at Madrid painted, amongst many
others, the portraits of four sovereigns of Spain--Charles III. and IV.,
Ferdinand VII. and "King Joseph." The duke of Wellington also sat to
him; but on his making some remark which raised the artist's choler,
Goya seized a plaster cast and hurled it at the head of the duke. There
are extant two pencil sketches of Wellington, one in the British Museum,
the other in a private collection. One of his best portraits is that of
the lovely Andalusian duchess of Alva. He now became the spoiled child
of fortune, and acquired, at any rate externally, much of the polish of
court manners. He still worked industriously upon his own lines, and,
while there is a stiffness almost ungainly in the pose of some of his
portraits, the stern individuality is always preserved.

Including the designs for tapestry, Goya's genre works are numerous and
varied, both in style and feeling, from his Watteau-like "Al Fresco
Breakfast," "Romeria de San Isidro," to the "Curate feeding the Devil's
Lamp," the "Meson del Gallo," and the painfully realistic massacre of
the "Dos de Mayo" (1808). Goya's versatility is proverbial; in his hands
the pencil, brush and graver are equally powerful. Some of his crayon
sketches of scenes in the bull ring are full of force and character,
slight but full of meaning. He was in his thirty-second year when he
commenced his etchings from Velasquez, whose influence may, however, be
traced in his work at an earlier date. A careful examination of some of
the drawings made for these etchings indicates a steadiness of purpose
not usually discovered in Goya's craft as draughtsman. He is much more
widely known by his etchings than his oils; the latter necessarily must
be sought in public and private collections, principally in Spain, while
the former are known and prized in every capital of Europe. The etched
collections by which Goya is best known include "Los Caprichos," which
have a satirical meaning known only to the few; they are bold, weird and
full of force. "Los Proverbios" are also supposed to have some hidden
intention. "Los Desastres de la Guerra" may fairly claim to depict Spain
during the French invasion. In the bull-fight series Goya is evidently
at home; he was a skilled master of the barbarous art, and no doubt
every sketch is true to nature, and from life.

Goya retired from Madrid, desiring probably during his latter years to
escape the trying climate of that capital. He died at Bordeaux on the
16th of April 1828, and a monument has been erected there over his
remains. From the deaths of Velasquez and Murillo to the advent of
Fortuny, Goya's name is the only important one found in the history of
Spanish art.

  See also the lives by Paul Lefort (1877), and Yriarte (1867).



GOYÁZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Pará on
the W., Maranhão, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and
Matto Grosso on the S. Pop. (1890) 227,572; (1900) 255,284, including
many half-civilized Indians and many half-breeds. Area, 288,549 sq. m.
The outline of the state is that of a roughly-shaped wedge with the thin
edge extending northward between and up to the junction of the rivers
Araguaya and Upper Tocantins, and its length is nearly 15° of latitude.
The state lies wholly within the great Brazilian plateau region, but its
surface is much broken towards the N. by the deeply eroded valleys of
the Araguaya and Upper Tocantins rivers and their tributaries. The
general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the
state is chiefly through the above-named rivers--the principal
tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the
Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhão.
A considerable part of southern Goyáz, however, slopes southward and the
drainage is through numerous small streams flowing into the Paranahyba,
a large tributary of the Paraná. The general elevation of the plateau is
estimated to be about 2700 ft., and the highest elevation was reported
in 1892 to be the Serra dos Pyreneos (5250 ft.). Crossing the state
N.N.E. to S.S.W. there is a well-defined chain of mountains, of which
the Pyreneos, Santa Rita and Santa Martha ranges form parts, but their
elevation above the plateau is not great. The surface of the plateau is
generally open campo and scrubby arboreal growth called _caatingas_, but
the streams are generally bordered with forest, especially in the deeper
valleys. Towards the N. the forest becomes denser and of the character
of the Amazon Valley. The climate of the plateau is usually described as
temperate, but it is essentially sub-tropical. The valley regions are
tropical, and malarial fevers are common. The cultivation of the soil is
limited to local needs, except in the production of tobacco, which is
exported to neighbouring states. The open campos afford good pasturage,
and live stock is largely exported. Gold-mining has been carried on in a
primitive manner for more than two centuries, but the output has never
been large and no very rich mines have been discovered. Diamonds have
been found, but only to a very limited extent. There is a considerable
export of quartz crystal, commercially known as "Brazilian pebbles,"
used in optical work. Although the northern and southern extremities of
Goyáz lie within two great river systems--the Tocantins and Paraná--the
upper courses of which are navigable, both of them are obstructed by
falls. The only outlet for the state has been by means of mule trains to
the railway termini of São Paulo and Minas Geraes, pending the extension
of railways from both of those states, one entering Goyáz by way of
Catalão, near the southern boundary, and the other at some point further
N.

The capital of the state is GOYÁZ, or Villa-Boa de Goyáz, a mining town
on the Rio Vermelho, a tributary of the Araguaya rising on the northern
slopes of the Serra de Santa Rita. Pop. (1890) 6807. Gold was discovered
here in 1682 by Bartholomeu Bueno, the first European explorer of this
region, and the settlement founded by him was called Santa Anna, which
is still the name of the parish. The site of the town is a barren, rocky
mountain valley, 1900 ft. above sea-level, in which the heat is most
oppressive at times and the nights are unpleasantly cold. Goyáz is the
see of a bishopric founded in 1826, and possesses a small cathedral and
some churches.



GOYEN, JAN JOSEPHSZOON VAN (1596-1656), Dutch painter, was born at
Leiden on the 13th of January 1596, learned painting under several
masters at Leiden and Haarlem, married in 1618 and settled at the Hague
about 1631. He was one of the first to emancipate himself from the
traditions of minute imitation embodied in the works of Breughel and
Savery. Though he preserved the dun scale of tone peculiar to those
painters, he studied atmospheric effects in black and white with
considerable skill. He had much influence on Dutch art. He formed
Solomon Ruysdael and Pieter Potter, forced attention from Rembrandt, and
bequeathed some of his precepts to Pieter de Molyn, Coelenbier,
Saftleven, van der Kabel and even Berghem. His life at the Hague for
twenty-five years was very prosperous, and he rose in 1640 to be
president of his gild. A friend of van Dyck and Bartholomew van der
Helst, he sat to both these artists for his likeness. His daughter
Margaret married Jan Steen, and he had steady patrons in the stadtholder
Frederick Henry, and the chiefs of the municipality of the Hague. He
died at the Hague in 1656, possessed of land and houses to the amount of
15,000 florins.

Between 1610 and 1616 van Goyen wandered from one school to the other.
He was first apprenticed to Isaak Swanenburgh; he then passed through
the workshops of de Man, Klok and de Hoorn. In 1616 he took a decisive
step and joined Esaias van der Velde at Haarlem; amongst his earlier
pictures, some of 1621 (Berlin Museum) and 1623 (Brunswick Gallery) show
the influence of Esaias very perceptibly. The landscape is minute.
Details of branching and foliage are given, and the figures are
important in relation to the distances. After 1625 these peculiarities
gradually disappear. Atmospheric effect in landscapes of cool tints
varying from grey green to pearl or brown and yellow dun is the
principal object which van Goyen holds in view, and he succeeds
admirably in light skies with drifting misty cloud, and downs with
cottages and scanty shrubbery or stunted trees. Neglecting all detail of
foliage he now works in a thin diluted medium, laying on rubbings as of
sepia or Indian ink, and finishing without loss of transparence or
lucidity. Throwing his foreground into darkness, he casts alternate
light and shade upon the more distant planes, and realizes most pleasing
views of large expanse. In buildings and water, with shipping near the
banks, he sometimes has the strength if not the colour of Albert Cuyp.
The defect of his work is chiefly want of solidity. But even this had
its charm for van Goyen's contemporaries, and some time elapsed before
Cuyp, who imitated him, restricted his method of transparent tinting to
the foliage of foreground trees.

Van Goyen's pictures are comparatively rare in English collections, but
his work is seen to advantage abroad, and chiefly at the Louvre, and in
Berlin, Gotha, Vienna, Munich and Augsburg. Twenty-eight of his works
were exhibited together at Vienna in 1873. Though he visited France once
or twice, van Goyen chiefly confined himself to the scenery of Holland
and the Rhine. Nine times from 1633 to 1655 he painted views of
Dordrecht. Nimeguen was one of his favourite resorts. But he was also
fond of Haarlem and Amsterdam, and he did not neglect Arnheim or
Utrecht. One of his largest pieces is a view of the Hague, executed in
1651 for the municipality, and now in the town collection of that city.
Most of his panels represent reaches of the Rhine, the Waal and the
Maese. But he sometimes sketched the downs of Scheveningen, or the sea
at the mouth of the Rhine and Scheldt; and he liked to depict the calm
inshore, and rarely ventured upon seas stirred by more than a curling
breeze or the swell of a coming squall. He often painted winter scenes,
with ice and skaters and sledges, in the style familiar to Isaac van
Ostade. There are numerous varieties of these subjects in the master's
works from 1621 to 1653. One historical picture has been assigned to van
Goyen--the "Embarkation of Charles II." in the Bute collection. But this
canvas was executed after van Goyen's death. When he tried this form of
art he properly mistrusted his own powers. But he produced little in
partnership with his contemporaries, and we can only except the
"Watering-place" in the gallery of Vienna, where the landscape is
enlivened with horses and cattle by Philip Wouvermans. Even Jan Steen,
who was his son-in-law, only painted figures for one of his pictures,
and it is probable that this piece was completed after van Goyen's
death. More than 250 of van Goyen's pictures are known and accessible.
Of this number little more than 70 are undated. None exist without the
full name or monogram, and yet there is no painter whose hand it is
easier to trace without the help of these adjuncts. An etcher, but a
poor one, van Goyen has only bequeathed to us two very rare plates.



GOZLAN, LÉON (1806-1866), French novelist and play-writer, was born on
the 1st of September 1806, at Marseilles. When he was still a boy, his
father, who had made a large fortune as a ship-broker, met with a series
of misfortunes, and Léon, before completing his education, had to go to
sea in order to earn a living. In 1828 we find him in Paris, determined
to run the risks of literary life. His townsman, Joseph Méry, who was
then making himself famous by his political satires, introduced him to
several newspapers, and Gozlan's brilliant articles in the _Figaro_ did
much harm to the already tottering government of Charles X. His first
novel was _Les Mémoires d'un apothicaire_ (1828), and this was followed
by numberless others, among which may be mentioned _Washington Levert et
Socrate Leblanc_ (1838), _Le Notaire de Chantilly_ (1836), _Aristide
Froissart_ (1843) (one of the most curious and celebrated of his
productions), _Les Nuits du Père Lachaise_ (1846), _Le Tapis vert_
(1855), _La Folle du logis_ (1857), _Les Émotions de Polydore Marasquin_
(1857), &c. His best-known works for the theatre are--_La Pluie et le
beau temps_ (1861), and _Une Tempête dans un verre d'eau_ (1850), two
curtain-raisers which have kept the stage; _Le Lion empaillé_ (1848),
_La Queue du chien d'Alcibiade_ (1849), _Louise de Nanteuil_ (1854), _Le
Gâteau des reines_ (1855), _Les Paniers de la comtesse_ (1852); and he
adapted several of his own novels to the stage. Gozlan also wrote a
romantic and picturesque description of the old manors and mansions of
his country entitled _Les Châteaux de France_ (2 vols., 1844),
originally published (1836) as _Les Tourelles_, which has some
archaeological value, and a biographical essay on Balzac (_Balzac chez
lui_, 1862). He was made a member of the Legion of Honour in 1846, and
in 1859 an officer of that order. Gozlan died on the 14th of September
1866, in Paris.

  See also P. Audebrand, _Léon Gozlan_ (1887).



GOZO (GOZZO), an island of the Maltese group in the Mediterranean Sea,
second in size to Malta. It lies N.W. and 3¼ m. from the nearest point
of Malta, is of oval form, 8¾ m. in length and 4½ m. in extreme breadth,
and has an area of nearly 25 m. Its chief town, Victoria, formerly
called Rabato (pop. in 1901, 5057) stands near the middle of the island
on one of a cluster of steep conical hills, 3½ m. from the port of
Migiarro Bay, on the south-east shore, below Fort Chambray. The
character of the island is similar to that of Malta. The estimated
population in 1907 was 21,911.



GOZZI, CARLO, COUNT (1722-1806), Italian dramatist, was descended from
an old Venetian family, and was born at Venice in March 1722. Compelled
by the embarrassed condition of his father's affairs to procure the
means of self-support, he, at the age of sixteen, joined the army in
Dalmatia; but three years afterwards he returned to Venice, where he
soon made a reputation for himself as the wittiest member of the
Granelleschi society, to which the publication of several satirical
pieces had gained him admission. This society, nominally devoted to
conviviality and wit, had also serious literary aims, and was especially
zealous to preserve the Tuscan literature pure and untainted by foreign
influences. The displacement of the old Italian comedy by the dramas of
Pietro Chiari (1700-1788) and Goldoni, founded on French models,
threatened defeat to all their efforts; and in 1757 Gozzi came to the
rescue by publishing a satirical poem, _Tartana degli influssi per l'
anno bisestile_, and in 1761 by his comedy, _Fiaba dell' amore delle tre
melarancie_, a parody of the manner of the two obnoxious poets, founded
on a fairy tale. For its representation he obtained the services of the
Sacchi company of players, who, on account of the popularity of the
comedies of Chiari and Goldoni--which afforded no scope for the display
of their peculiar talents--had been left without employment; and as
their satirical powers were thus sharpened by personal enmity, the play
met with extraordinary success. Struck by the effect produced on the
audience by the introduction of the supernatural or mythical element,
which he had merely used as a convenient medium for his satirical
purposes, Gozzi now produced a series of dramatic pieces based on fairy
tales, which for a period obtained great popularity, but after the
breaking up of the Sacchi company were completely disregarded. They
have, however, obtained high praise from Goethe, Schlegel, Madame de
Staël and Sismondi; and one of them, _Re Turandote_, was translated by
Schiller. In his later years Gozzi set himself to the production of
tragedies in which the comic element was largely introduced; but as this
innovation proved unacceptable to the critics he had recourse to the
Spanish drama, from which he obtained models for various pieces, which,
however, met with only equivocal success. He died on the 4th of April
1806.

  His collected works were published under his own superintendence, at
  Venice, in 1792, in 10 volumes; and his dramatic works, translated
  into German by Werthes, were published at Bern in 1795. See Gozzi's
  work, _Memorie inutili della vita di Carlo Gozzi_ (3 vols., Venice,
  1797), translated into French by Paul de Musset (1848), and into
  English by J. A. Symonds (1889); F. Horn, _Über Gozzis dramatische
  Poesie_ (Venice, 1803); Gherardini, _Vita di Gasp. Gozzi_ (1821);
  "Charles Gozzi," by Paul de Musset, in the _Revue des deux mondes_ for
  15th November 1844; Magrini, _Carlo Gozzi e la fiabe: saggi storici,
  biografici, e critici_ (Cremona, 1876), and the same author's book on
  Gozzi's life and times (Benevento, 1883).



GOZZI, GASPARO, COUNT (1713-1786), eldest brother of Carlo Gozzi, was
born on the 4th of December 1713. In 1739 he married the poetess Luise
Bergalli, and she undertook the management of the theatre of Sant'
Angelo, Venice, he supplying the performers with dramas chiefly
translated from the French. The speculation proved unfortunate, but
meantime he had attained a high reputation for his contributions to the
_Gazzetta Veneta_, and he soon came to be known as one of the ablest
critics and purest and most elegant stylists in Italy. For a
considerable period he was censor of the press in Venice, and in 1774 he
was appointed to reorganize the university system at Padua. He died at
Padua on the 26th of December 1786.

  His principal writings are _Osservatore Veneto periodico_ (1761), on
  the model of the English _Spectator_, and distinguished by its high
  moral tone and its light and pleasant satire; _Lettere famigliari_
  (1755), a collection of short racy pieces in prose and verse, on
  subjects of general interest; _Sermoni_, poems in blank verse after
  the manner of Horace; _Il Mondo morale_ (1760), a personification of
  human passions with inwoven dialogues in the style of Lucian; and
  _Giudizio degli antichi poeti sopra la moderna censura di Dante_
  (1755), a defence of the great poet against the attacks of Bettinelli.
  He also translated various works from the French and English,
  including Marmontel's _Tales_ and Pope's _Essay on Criticism_. His
  collected works were published at Venice, 1794-1798, in 12 volumes,
  and several editions have appeared since.



GOZZOLI, BENOZZO, Italian painter, was born in Florence in 1424, or
perhaps 1420, and in the early part of his career assisted Fra Angelico,
whom he followed to Rome and worked with at Orvieto. In Rome he executed
in Santa Maria in Aracoeli a fresco of "St Anthony and Two Angels." In
1449 he left Angelico, and went to Montefalco, near Foligno in Umbria.
In S. Fortunate, near Montefalco, he painted a "Madonna and Child with
Saints and Angels," and three other works. One of these, the altar-piece
representing "St Thomas receiving the Girdle of the Virgin," is now in
the Lateran Museum, and shows the affinity of Gozzoli's early style to
Angelico's. He next painted in the monastery of S. Francesco,
Montefalco, filling the choir with a triple course of subjects from the
life of the saint, with various accessories, including heads of Dante,
Petrarch and Giotto. This work was completed in 1452, and is still
marked by the style of Angelico, crossed here and there with a more
distinctly Giottesque influence. In the same church, in the chapel of St
Jerome, is a fresco by Gozzoli of the Virgin and Saints, the Crucifixion
and other subjects. He remained at Montefalco (with an interval at
Viterbo) probably till 1456, employing Mesastris as assistant. Thence he
went to Perugia, and painted in a church a "Virgin and Saints," now in
the local academy, and soon afterwards to his native Florence, the
headquarters of art. By the end of 1459 he had nearly finished his
important labour in the chapel of the Palazzo Riccardi, the "Journey of
the Magi to Bethlehem," and, in the tribune of this chapel, a
composition of "Angels in a Paradise." His picture in the National
Gallery, London, a "Virgin and Child with Saints," 1461, belongs also to
the period of his Florentine sojourn. Another small picture in the same
gallery, the "Rape of Helen," is of dubious authenticity. In 1464
Gozzoli left Florence for S. Gimignano, where he executed some extensive
works; in the church of S. Agostino, a composition of St Sebastian
protecting the City from the Plague of this same year, 1464; over the
entire choir of the church, a triple course of scenes from the legends
of St Augustine, from the time of his entering the school of Tegaste on
to his burial, seventeen chief subjects, with some accessories; in the
Pieve di S. Gimignano, the "Martyrdom of Sebastian," and other subjects,
and some further works in the city and its vicinity. Here his style
combined something of Lippo Lippi with its original elements, and he
received co-operation from Giusto d'Andrea. He stayed in this city till
1467, and then began, in the Campo Santo of Pisa, from 1469, the vast
series of mural paintings with which his name is specially identified.
There are twenty-four subjects from the Old Testament, from the
"Invention of Wine by Noah" to the "Visit of the Queen of Sheba to
Solomon." He contracted to paint three subjects per year for about ten
ducats each--a sum which may be regarded as equivalent to £100 at the
present day. It appears, however, that this contract was not strictly
adhered to, for the actual rate of painting was only three pictures in
two years. Perhaps the great multitude of figures and accessories was
accepted as a set-off against the slower rate of production. By January
1470 he had executed the fresco of "Noah and his Family,"--followed by
the "Curse of Ham," the "Building of the Tower of Babel" (which contains
portraits of Cosmo de' Medici, the young Lorenzo Politian and others),
the "Destruction of Sodom," the "Victory of Abraham," the "Marriages of
Rebecca and of Rachel," the "Life of Moses," &c. In the Cappella
Ammannati, facing a gate of the Campo Santo, he painted also an
"Adoration of the Magi," wherein appears a portrait of himself. All this
enormous mass of work, in which Gozzoli was probably assisted by Zanobi
Macchiavelli, was performed, in addition to several other pictures
during his stay in Pisa (we need only specify the "Glory of St Thomas
Aquinas," now in the Louvre), in sixteen years, lasting up to 1485. This
is the latest date which can with certainty be assigned to any work from
his hand, although he is known to have been alive up to 1498. In 1478
the Pisan authorities had given him, as a token of their regard, a tomb
in the Campo Santo. He had likewise a house of his own in Pisa, and
houses and land in Florence. In rectitude of life he is said to have
been worthy of his first master, Fra Angelico.

The art of Gozzoli does not rival that of his greatest contemporaries
either in elevation or in strength, but is pre-eminently attractive by
its sense of what is rich, winning, lively and abundant in the aspects
of men and things. His landscapes, thronged with birds and quadrupeds,
especially dogs, are more varied, circumstantial and alluring than those
of any predecessor; his compositions are crowded with figures, more
characteristically true when happily and gracefully occupied than when
the demands of the subject require tragic or dramatic intensity, or
turmoil of action; his colour is bright, vivacious and festive.
Gozzoli's genius was, on the whole, more versatile and assimilative than
vigorously original; his drawing not free from considerable
imperfections, especially in the extremities and articulations, and in
the perspective of his gorgeously-schemed buildings. In fresco-painting
he used the methods of tempera, and the decay of his works has been
severe in proportion. Of his untiring industry the recital of his
labours and the number of works produced are the most forcible
attestation.

  Vasari, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and the other ordinary authorities,
  can be consulted as to the career of Gozzoli. A separate _Life_ of
  him, by H. Stokes, was published in 1903 in Newnes's Art library.
       (W. M. R.)



GRAAFF REINET, a town of South Africa, 185 m. by rail N.W. by N. of Port
Elizabeth. Pop. (1904) 10,083, of whom 4055 were whites. The town lies
2463 ft. above the sea and is built on the banks of the Sunday river,
which rises a little farther north on the southern slopes of the
Sneeuwberg, and here ramifies into several channels. The Dutch church is
a handsome stone building with seating accommodation for 1500 people.
The college is an educational centre of some importance; it was rebuilt
in 1906. Graaff Reinet is a flourishing market for agricultural produce,
the district being noted for its mohair industry, its orchards and
vineyards.

The town was founded by the Cape Dutch in 1786, being named after the
then governor of Cape Colony, C. J. van de Graaff, and his wife. In 1795
the burghers, smarting under the exactions of the Dutch East India
Company proclaimed a republic. Similar action was taken by the burghers
of Swellendam. Before the authorities at Cape Town could take decisive
measures against the rebels, they were themselves compelled to
capitulate to the British. The burghers having endeavoured,
unsuccessfully, to get aid from a French warship at Algoa Bay
surrendered to Colonel (afterwards General Sir) J. O. Vandeleur. In
January 1799 Marthinus Prinsloo, the leader of the republicans in 1795,
again rebelled, but surrendered in April following. Prinsloo and
nineteen others were imprisoned in Cape Town castle. After trial,
Prinsloo and another commandant were sentenced to death and others to
banishment. The sentences were not carried out and the prisoners were
released, March 1803, on the retrocession of the Cape to Holland. In
1801 there had been another revolt in Graaff Reinet, but owing to the
conciliatory measures of General F. Dundas (acting governor of the Cape)
peace was soon restored. It was this district, where a republican
government in South Africa was first proclaimed, which furnished large
numbers of the voortrekkers in 1835-1842. It remains a strong Dutch
centre.

  See J. C. Voight, _Fifty Years of the History of the Republic in South
  Africa 1795-1845_, vol. i. (London, 1899).



GRABBE, CHRISTIAN DIETRICH (1801-1836), German dramatist, was born at
Detmold on the 11th of December 1801. Entering the university of Leipzig
in 1819 as a student of law, he continued the reckless habits which he
had begun at Detmold, and neglected his studies. Being introduced into
literary circles, he conceived the idea of becoming an actor and wrote
the drama _Herzog Theodor von Gothland_ (1822). This, though showing
considerable literary talent, lacks artistic form, and is morally
repulsive. Ludwig Tieck, while encouraging the young author, pointed out
its faults, and tried to reform Grabbe himself. In 1822 Grabbe removed
to Berlin University, and in 1824 passed his advocate's examination. He
now settled in his native town as a lawyer and in 1827 was appointed a
_Militärauditeur_. In 1833 he married, but in consequence of his drunken
habits was dismissed from his office, and, separating from his wife,
visited Düsseldorf, where he was kindly received by Karl Immermann.
After a serious quarrel with the latter, he returned to Detmold, where,
as a result of his excesses, he died on the 12th of September 1836.

Grabbe had real poetical gifts, and many of his dramas contain fine
passages and a wealth of original ideas. They largely reflect his own
life and character, and are characterized by cynicism and indelicacy.
Their construction also is defective and little suited to the
requirements of the stage. The boldly conceived _Don Juan und Faust_
(1829) and the historical dramas _Friedrich Barbarossa_ (1829),
_Heinrich VI._ (1830), and _Napoleon oder die Hundert Tage_ (1831), the
last of which places the battle of Waterloo upon the stage, are his best
works. Among others are the unfinished tragedies _Marius and Sulla_
(continued by Erich Korn, Berlin, 1890); and _Hannibal_ (1835,
supplemented and edited by C. Spielmann, Halle, 1901); and the patriotic
_Hermannsschlacht_ or the battle between Arminius and Varus
(posthumously published with a biographical notice, by E. Duller, 1838).

  Grabbe's works have been edited by O. Blumenthal (4 vols., 1875), and
  E. Grisebach (4 vols., 1902). For further notices of his life, see K.
  Ziegler, _Grabbes Leben und Charakter_ (1855); O. Blumenthal,
  _Beiträge zur Kenntnis Grabbes_ (1875); C. A. Piper, _Grabbe_ (1898),
  and A. Ploch, _Grabbes Stellung in der deutschen Literatur_ (1905).



GRABE, JOHN ERNEST (1666-1711), Anglican divine, was born on the 10th of
July 1666, at Königsberg, where his father, Martin Sylvester Grabe, was
professor of theology and history. In his theological studies Grabe
succeeded in persuading himself of the schismatical character of the
Reformation, and accordingly he presented to the consistory of Samland
in Prussia a memorial in which he compared the position of the
evangelical Protestant churches with that of the Novatians and other
ancient schismatics. He had resolved to join the Church of Rome when a
commission of Lutheran divines pointed out flaws in his written argument
and called his attention to the English Church as apparently possessing
that apostolic succession and manifesting that fidelity to ancient
institutions which he desired. He came to England, settled in Oxford,
was ordained in 1700, and became chaplain of Christ Church. His
inclination was towards the party of the nonjurors. The learned labours
to which the remainder of his life was devoted were rewarded with an
Oxford degree and a royal pension. He died on the 3rd of November 1711,
and in 1726 a monument was erected to him by Edward Harley, earl of
Oxford, in Westminster Abbey. He was buried in St Pancras Church,
London.

  Some account of Grabe's life is given in R. Nelson's _Life of George
  Bull_, and by George Hickes in a discourse prefixed to the pamphlet
  against W. Whiston's _Collection of Testimonies against the True_
  _Deity of the Son and of the Holy Ghost_. His works, which show him
  to have been learned and laborious but somewhat deficient in critical
  acumen, include a _Spicilegium SS. Patrum et haereticorum_
  (1698-1699), which was designed to cover the first three centuries of
  the Christian church, but was not continued beyond the close of the
  second. A second edition of this work was published in 1714. He
  brought out an edition of Justin Martyr's _Apologia prima_ (1700), of
  Irenaeus, _Adversus omnes haereses_ (1702), of the Septuagint, and of
  Bishop Bull's Latin works (1703). His edition of the Septuagint was
  based on the _Codex Alexandrinus_; it appeared in 4 volumes
  (1707-1720), and was completed by Francis Lee and by George Wigan.



GRACCHUS, in ancient Rome, the name of a plebeian family of the
Sempronian gens. Its most distinguished representatives were the famous
tribunes of the people, Tiberius and Gaius Sempronius Gracchus, (4) and
(5) below, usually called simply "the Gracchi."

1. TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS, consul in 238 B.C., carried on
successful operations against the Ligurian mountaineers, and, at the
conclusion of the Carthaginian mercenary war, was in command of the
fleet which at the invitation of the insurgents took possession of the
island of Sardinia.

2. TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS, probably the son of (1), distinguished
himself during the second Punic war. Consul in 215, he defeated the
Capuans who had entered into an alliance with Hannibal, and in 214
gained a signal success over Hanno near Beneventum, chiefly owing to the
_volones_ (slave-volunteers), to whom he had promised freedom in the
event of victory. In 213 Gracchus was consul a second time and carried
on the war in Lucania; in the following year, while advancing northward
to reinforce the consuls in their attack on Capua, he was betrayed into
the hands of the Carthaginian Mago by a Lucanian of rank, who had
formerly supported the Roman cause and was connected with Gracchus
himself by ties of hospitality. Gracchus fell fighting bravely; his body
was sent to Hannibal, who accorded him a splendid burial.

3. TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS (c. 210-151 B.C.), father of the
tribunes, and husband of Cornelia, the daughter of the elder Scipio
Africanus, was possibly the son of a Publius Sempronius Gracchus who was
tribune in 189. Although a determined political opponent of the two
Scipios (Asiaticus and Africanus), as tribune in 187 he interfered on
their behalf when they were accused of having accepted bribes from the
king of Syria after the war. In 185 he was a member of the commission
sent to Macedonia to investigate the complaints made by Eumenes II. of
Pergamum against Philip V. of Macedon. In his curule aedileship (182) he
celebrated the games on so magnificent a scale that the burdens imposed
upon the Italian and extra-Italian communities led to the official
interference of the senate. In 181 he went as praetor to Hither Spain,
and, after gaining signal successes in the field, applied himself to the
pacification of the country. His strict sense of justice and sympathetic
attitude won the respect and affection of the inhabitants; the land had
rest for a quarter of a century. When consul in 177, he was occupied in
putting down a revolt in Sardinia, and brought back so many prisoners
that _Sardi venales_ (Sardinians for sale) became a proverbial
expression for a drug in the market. In 169 Gracchus was censor, and
both he and his colleague (C. Claudius Pulcher) showed themselves
determined opponents of the capitalists. They deeply offended the
equestrian order by forbidding any contractor who had obtained contracts
under the previous censors to make fresh offers. Gracchus stringently
enforced the limitation of the freedmen to the four city tribes, which
completely destroyed their influence in the comitia. In 165 and 161 he
went as ambassador to several Asiatic princes, with whom he established
friendly relations. Amongst the places visited by him was Rhodes, where
he delivered a speech in Greek, which he afterwards published. In 163 he
was again consul.

4. TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS (163-133 B.C.), son of (3), was the
elder of the two great reformers. He and his brother were brought up by
their mother Cornelia, assisted by the rhetorician Diophanes of Mytilene
and the Stoic Blossius of Cumae. In 147 he served under his
brother-in-law the younger Scipio in Africa during the last Punic war,
and was the first to mount the walls in the attack on Carthage. When
quaestor in 137, he accompanied the consul C. Hostilius Mancinus to
Spain. During the Numantine war the Roman army was saved from
annihilation only by the efforts of Tiberius, with whom alone the
Numantines consented to treat, out of respect for the memory of his
father. The senate refused to ratify the agreement; Mancinus was handed
over to the enemy as a sign that it was annulled, and only personal
popularity saved Tiberius himself from punishment. In 133 he was
tribune, and championed the impoverished farmer class and the lower
orders. His proposals (see AGRARIAN LAWS) met with violent opposition,
and were not carried until he had, illegally and unconstitutionally,
secured the deposition of his fellow-tribune, M. Octavius, who had been
persuaded by the optimates to veto them. The senate put every obstacle
in the way of the three commissioners appointed to carry out the
provisions of the law, and Tiberius, in view of the bitter enmity he had
aroused, saw that it was necessary to strengthen his hold on the popular
favour. The legacy to the Roman people of the kingdom and treasures of
Attalus III. of Pergamum gave him an opportunity. He proposed that the
money realized by the sale of the treasures should be divided, for the
purchase of implements and stock, amongst those to whom assignments of
land had been made under the new law. He is also said to have brought
forward measures for shortening the period of military service, for
extending the right of appeal from the _judices_ to the people, for
abolishing the exclusive privilege of the senators to act as jurymen,
and even for admitting the Italian allies to citizenship. To strengthen
his position further, Tiberius offered himself for re-election as
tribune for the following year. The senate declared that it was illegal
to hold this office for two consecutive years; but Tiberius treated this
objection with contempt. To win the sympathy of the people, he appeared
in mourning, and appealed for protection for his wife and children, and
whenever he left his house he was accompanied by a bodyguard of 3000
men, chiefly consisting of the city rabble. The meeting of the tribes
for the election of tribunes broke up in disorder on two successive
days, without any result being attained, although on both occasions the
first divisions voted in favour of Tiberius. A rumour reached the senate
that he was aiming at supreme power, that he had touched his head with
his hand, a sign that he was asking for a crown. An appeal to the consul
P. Mucius Scaevola to order him to be put to death at once having
failed, P. Scipio Nasica exclaimed that Scaevola was acting
treacherously towards the state, and called upon those who agreed with
him to take up arms and follow him. During the riot that followed,
Tiberius attempted to escape, but stumbled on the slope of the Capitol
and was beaten to death with the end of a bench. At night his body, with
those of 300 others, was thrown into the Tiber. The aristocracy boldly
assumed the responsibility for what had occurred, and set up a
commission to inquire into the case of the partisans of Tiberius, many
of whom were banished and others put to death. Even the moderate
Scaevola subsequently maintained that Nasica was justified in his
action; and it was reported that Scipio, when he heard at Numantia of
his brother-in-law's death, repeated the line of Homer--"So perish all
who do the like again."

  See Livy, _Epit._ 58; Appian, _Bell. civ._ i. 9-17; Plutarch,
  _Tiberius Gracchus_; Vell. Pat. ii. 2, 3.

5. GAIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS (153-121 B.C.), younger brother of (4), was
a man of greater abilities, bolder and more passionate, although
possessed of considerable powers of self-control, and a vigorous and
impressive orator. When twenty years of age he was appointed one of the
commissioners to carry out the distribution of land under the provisions
of his brother's agrarian law. At the time of Tiberius's death, Gaius
was serving under his brother-in-law Scipio in Spain, but probably
returned to Rome in the following year (132). In 131 he supported the
bill of C. Papirius Carbo, the object of which was to make it legal for
a tribune to offer himself as candidate for the office in two
consecutive years, and thus to remove one of the chief obstacles that
had hampered Tiberius. The bill was then rejected, but appears to have
subsequently passed in a modified form, as Gaius himself was re-elected
without any disturbance. Possibly, however, his re-election was illegal,
and he had only succeeded where his brother had failed. For the next few
years nothing is heard of Gaius. Public opinion pointed him out as the
man to avenge his brother's death and carry out his plans, and the
aristocratic party, warned by the example of Tiberius, were anxious to
keep him away from Rome. In 126 Gaius accompanied the consul L. Aurelius
Orestes as quaestor to Sardinia, then in a state of revolt. Here he made
himself so popular that the senate in alarm prolonged the command of
Orestes, in order that Gaius might be obliged to remain there in his
capacity of quaestor. But he returned to Rome without the permission of
the senate, and, when called to account by the censors, defended himself
so successfully that he was acquitted of having acted illegally. The
disappointed aristocrats then brought him to trial on the charge of
being implicated in the revolt of Fregellae, and in other ways
unsuccessfully endeavoured to undermine his influence. Gaius then
decided to act; against the wishes of his mother he became a candidate
for the tribuneship, and, in spite of the determined opposition of the
aristocracy, he was elected for the year 123, although only fourth on
the list. The legislative proposals[1] brought forward by him had for
their object:--the punishment of his brother's enemies; the relief of
distress and the attachment to himself of the city populace; the
diminution of the power of the senate and the increase of that of the
_equites_; the amelioration of the political status of the Italians and
provincials.

  A law was passed that no Roman citizen should be tried in a matter
  affecting his life or political status unless the people had
  previously given its assent. This was specially aimed at Popilius
  Laenas, who had taken an active part in the prosecution of the
  adherents of Tiberius. Another law enacted that any magistrate who had
  been deprived of office by decree of the people should be
  incapacitated from holding office again. This was directed against M.
  Octavius, who had been illegally deprived of his tribunate through
  Tiberius. This unfair and vindictive measure was withdrawn at the
  earnest request of Cornelia.

  He revived his brother's agrarian law, which, although it had not been
  repealed, had fallen into abeyance. By his _Lex Frumentaria_ every
  citizen resident in Rome was entitled to a certain amount of corn at
  about half the usual price; as the distribution only applied to those
  living in the capital, the natural result was that the poorer country
  citizens flocked into Rome and swelled the number of Gaius's
  supporters. No citizen was to be obliged to serve in the army before
  the commencement of his eighteenth year, and his military outfit was
  to be supplied by the state, instead of being deducted from his pay.
  Gaius also proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy (at
  Tarentum and Capua), and sent out to the site of Carthage 6000
  colonists to found the new city of Junonia, the inhabitants of which
  were to possess the rights of Roman citizens; this was the first
  attempt at over-sea colonization. A new system of roads was
  constructed which afforded easier access to Rome. Having thus gained
  over the city proletariat, in order to secure a majority in the
  comitia by its aid, Gaius did away with the system of voting in the
  comitia centuriata, whereby the five property classes in each tribe
  gave their votes one after another, and introduced promiscuous voting
  in an order fixed by lot.

  The judices in the standing commissions for the trial of particular
  offences (the most important of which was that dealing with the trial
  of provincial magistrates for extortion, _de repetundis_) were in
  future to be chosen from the equites (q.v.), not as hitherto from the
  senate. The taxes of the new province of Asia were to be let out by
  the censors to Roman _publicani_ (who belonged to the equestrian
  order), who paid down a lump sum for the right of collecting them. It
  is obvious that this afforded the equites extensive opportunities for
  money-making and extortion, while the alteration in the appointment of
  the judices gave them the same practical immunity and perpetuated the
  old abuses, with the difference that it was no longer senators, but
  equites, who could look forward with confidence to being leniently
  dealt with by men belonging to their own order; Gaius also expected
  that this moneyed aristocracy, which had taken the part of the senate
  against Tiberius, would now support him against it. It was enacted
  that the provinces to be assigned to the consuls, should be determined
  before, instead of after their election; and the consuls themselves
  had to settle, by lot or other arrangement, which province each of
  them would take.[2]

These measures raised Gaius to the height of his popularity, and during
the year of his first tribuneship he may be considered the absolute
ruler of Rome. He was chosen tribune for the second time for the year
122. To this period is probably to be assigned his proposal that the
franchise should be given to all the Latin communities and that the
status of the Latins should be conferred upon the Italian allies. In 125
M. Fulvius Flaccus had brought forward a similar measure, but he was got
out of the way by the senate, who sent him to fight in Gaul. This
proposal, more statesmanlike than any of the others, was naturally
opposed by the aristocratic party, and lessened Gaius's popularity
amongst his own supporters, who viewed with disfavour the prospect of an
increase in the number of Roman citizens. The senate put up M. Livius
Drusus to outbid him, and his absence from Rome while superintending the
organization of the newly-founded colony, Junonia-Carthago, was taken
advantage of by his enemies to weaken his influence. On his return he
found his popularity diminished. He failed to secure the tribuneship for
the third time, and his bitter enemy L. Opimius was elected consul. The
latter at once decided to propose the abandonment of the new colony,
which was to occupy the site cursed by Scipio, while its foundation had
been attended by unmistakable manifestations of the wrath of the gods.
On the day when the matter was to be put to the vote, a lictor named
Antyllius, who had insulted the supporters of Gaius, was stabbed to
death. This gave his opponents the desired opportunity. Gaius was
declared a public enemy, and the consuls were invested with dictatorial
powers. The Gracchans, who had taken up their position in the temple of
Diana on the Aventine, offered little resistance to the attack ordered
by Opimius. Gaius managed to escape across the Tiber, where his dead
body was found on the following day in the grove of Furrina by the side
of that of a slave, who had probably slain his master and then himself.
The property of the Gracchans was confiscated, and a temple of Concord
erected in the Forum from the proceeds. Beneath the inscription
recording the occasion on which the temple had been built some one
during the night wrote the words: "The work of Discord makes the temple
of Concord."

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See Livy, _Epit._ 60; Appian, _Bell. Civ._ i. 21;
  Plutarch, _Gaius Gracchus_; Orosius v. 12; Aulus Gellius x. 3, xi. 10.
  For an account of the two tribunes see Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_ (Eng.
  trans.), bk. iv., chs. 2 and 3; C. Neumann, _Geschichte Roms während
  des Verfalles der Republik_ (1881); A. H. J. Greenidge, _History of
  Rome_ (1904); E. Meyer, _Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Gracchen_
  (1894); G. E. Underhill, Plutarch's _Lives of the Gracchi_ (1892); W.
  Warde Fowler in _English Historical Review_ (1905), pp. 209 and 417;
  Long, _Decline of the Roman Republic_, chs. 10-13, 17-19, containing a
  careful examination of the ancient authorities; G. F. Hertzberg in
  Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyclopädie_; C. W. Oman, _Seven Roman
  Statesmen of the later Republic_ (1902); T. Lau, _Die Gracchen und
  ihre Zeit_ (1854). The exhaustive monograph by C. W. Nitzsch, _Die
  Gracchen und ihre nächsten Vorgänger_ (1847), also contains an account
  of the other members of the family, with full references to ancient
  authorities in the notes.     (J. H. F.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] These measures cannot be arranged in any definite chronological
    order, nor can it be decided which belong to his first, which to his
    second tribuneship. See W. Warde Fowler in _Eng. Hist. Review_, 1905.
    pp. 209 sqq., 417 sqq.

  [2] It is suggested by W. Warde Fowler that Gracchus proposed to add
    a certain number of _equites_ to the senate, thereby increasing it to
    900, but the plan was never carried out.



GRACE, WILLIAM GILBERT (1848-   ), English cricketer, was born at
Downend, Gloucestershire, on the 18th of July 1848. He found himself in
an atmosphere charged with cricket, his father (Henry Mills Grace) and
his uncle (Alfred Pocock) being as enthusiastic over the game as his
elder brothers, Henry, Alfred and Edward Mills; indeed, in E. M. Grace
the family name first became famous. A younger brother, George
Frederick, also added to the cricket reputation of the family. "W. G."
witnessed his first great match when he was hardly six years old, the
occasion being a game between W. Clarke's All-England Eleven and
twenty-two of West Gloucestershire. He was endowed by nature with a
splendid physique as well as with powers of self-restraint and
determination. At the acme of his career he stood full 6 ft. 2 in.,
being powerfully proportioned, loose yet strong of limb. A non-smoker,
and very moderate in all matters, he kept himself in condition all the
year round, shooting, hunting or running with the beagles as soon as the
cricket season was over. He was also a fine runner, 440 yds. over 20
hurdles being his best distance; and it may be quoted as proof of his
stamina that on the 30th of July 1866 he scored 224 not out for England
_v._ Surrey, and two days later won a race in the National and Olympian
Association meeting at the Crystal Palace. The title of "champion" was
well earned by one who for thirty-six years (1865-1900 inclusive) was
actively engaged in first-class cricket. In each of these years he was
invited to represent the Gentlemen in their matches against the Players,
and, when an Australian eleven visited England, to play for the mother
country. As late as 1899 he played in the first of the five
international contests; in 1900 he played against the players at the
Oval, scoring 58 and 3. At fifty-three he scored nearly 1300 runs in
first-class cricket, made 100 runs and over on three different occasions
and could claim an average of 42 runs. Moreover, his greatest triumphs
were achieved when only the very best cricket grounds received serious
attention; when, as some consider, bowling was maintained at a higher
standard and when all hits had to be run out. He, with his two brothers,
E. M. and G. F., assisted by some fine amateurs, made Gloucestershire in
one season a first-class county; and it was he who first enabled the
amateurs of England to meet the paid players on equal terms and to beat
them. There was hardly a "record" connected with the game which did not
stand to his credit. Grace was one of the finest fieldsmen in England,
in his earlier days generally taking long-leg and cover-point, in later
times generally standing point. He was, at his best, a fine thrower,
fast runner and safe "catch." As a bowler he was long in the first
flight, originally bowling fast, but in later times adopting a slower
and more tricky style, frequently very effective. By profession he was a
medical man. In later years he became secretary and manager of the
London County Cricket Club. He was married in 1873 to Miss Agnes Day,
and one of his sons played for two years in the Cambridge eleven. He was
the recipient of two national testimonials: the first, amounting to
£1500, being presented to him in the form of a clock and a cheque at
Lord's ground by Lord Charles Russell on the 22nd of July 1879; the
second, collected by the M.C.C., the county of Gloucestershire, the
_Daily Telegraph_ and the _Sportsman_, amounted to about £10,000, and
was presented to him in 1896. He visited Australia in 1873-1874
(captain), and in 1891-1892 with Lord Sheffield's Eleven (captain); the
United States and Canada in 1872, with R. A. Fitzgerald's team.

  Dr Grace played his first great match in 1863, when, being only
  fifteen years of age, he scored 32 against the All-England Eleven and
  the bowling of Jackson, Tarrant and Tinley; but the scores which first
  made his name prominent were made in 1864, viz. 170 and 56 not out for
  the South Wales Club against the Gentlemen of Sussex. It was in 1865
  that he first took an active part in first-class cricket, being then 6
  ft. in height, and 11 stone in weight, and playing twice for the
  Gentlemen _v._ the Players, but his selection was mainly due to his
  bowling powers, the best exposition of which was his aggregate of 13
  wickets for 84 runs for the Gentlemen of the South _v._ the Players of
  the South. His highest score was 400 not out, made in July 1876
  against twenty-two of Grimsby; but on three occasions he was twice
  dismissed without scoring in matches against odds, a fate that never
  befell him in important cricket. In first-class matches his highest
  score was 344, made for the M.C.C. v. Kent at Canterbury, in August
  1876; two days later he made 177 for Gloucestershire _v._ Notts, and
  two days after this 318 not out for Gloucestershire _v._ Yorkshire,
  the two last-named opposing counties being possessed of exceptionally
  strong bowling; thus in three consecutive innings Grace scored 839
  runs, and was only got out twice. His 344 was the third highest
  individual score made in a big match in England up to the end of 1901.
  He also scored 301 for Gloucestershire _v._ Sussex at Bristol, in
  August 1896. He made over 200 runs on ten occasions, the most notable
  perhaps being in 1871, when he performed the feat twice, each time in
  benefit matches, and each time in the second innings, having been each
  time got out in the first over of the first innings. He scored over
  100 runs on 121 occasions, the hundredth score being 288, made at
  Bristol for Gloucestershire _v._ Somersetshire in 1895. He made every
  figure from 0 to 100, on one occasion "closing" the innings when he
  had made 93, the only total he had never made between these limits. In
  1871 he made ten "centuries," ranging from 268 to 116. In the matches
  between the Gentlemen and Players he scored "three figures" fifteen
  times, and at every place where these matches have been played. He
  made over 100 in each of his "first appearances" at Oxford and
  Cambridge. Three times he made over 100 in each innings of the same
  match, viz. at Canterbury, in 1868, for South v. North of the Thames,
  130 and 102 not out; at Clifton, in 1887, for Gloucestershire _v._
  Kent, 101 and 103 not out; and at Clifton, in 1888, for
  Gloucestershire _v._ Yorkshire, 148 and 153. In 1869, playing at the
  Oval for the Gentlemen of the South _v._ the Players of the South,
  Grace and B. B. Cooper put on 283 runs for the first wicket, Grace
  scoring 180 and Cooper 101. In 1886 Grace and Scotton put on 170 runs
  for the first wicket of England _v._ Australia; this occurred at the
  Oval in August, and Grace's total score was 170. In consecutive
  innings against the Players from 1871 to 1873 he scored 217, 77 and
  112, 117, 163, 158 and 70. He only twice scored over 100 in a big
  match in Australia, nor did he ever make 200 at Lord's, his highest
  being 196 for the M.C.C. _v._ Cambridge University in 1894. His
  highest aggregates were 2739 (1871), 2622 (1876), 2346 (1895), 2139
  (1873), 2135 (1896) and 2062 (1887). He scored three successive
  centuries in first-class cricket in 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1876.
  Playing against Kent at Gravesend in 1895, he was batting, bowling or
  fielding during the whole time the game was in progress, his scores
  being 257 and 73 not out. He scored over 1000 runs and took over 100
  wickets in seven different seasons, viz. in 1874, 1665 runs and 129
  wickets; in 1875, 1498 runs, 192 wickets; in 1876, 2622 runs, 124
  wickets; in 1877, 1474 runs, 179 wickets; in 1878, 1151 runs, 153
  wickets; in 1885, 1688 runs, 118 wickets; in 1886, 1846 runs, 122
  wickets. He never captured 200 wickets in a season, his highest record
  being 192 in 1875. Playing against Oxford University in 1886, he took
  all the wickets in the first innings, at a cost of 49 runs. In 1895 he
  not only made his hundredth century, but actually scored 1000 runs in
  the month of May alone, his chief scores in that month being 103, 288,
  256, 73 and 169, he being then forty-seven years old. He also made
  during that year scores of 125, 119, 118, 104 and 103 not out, his
  aggregate for the year being 2346 and his average 51; his innings of
  118 was made against the Players (at Lord's), the chief bowlers being
  Richardson, Mold, Peel and Attewell; he scored level with his partner,
  A. E. Stoddart (his junior by fifteen years), the pair making 151
  before a wicket fell, Grace making in all 118 out of 241. This may
  fairly be considered one of his most wonderful years. In 1898 the
  match between Gentlemen _v._ Players was, as a special compliment,
  arranged by the M.C.C. committee to take place on his birthday, and he
  celebrated the event by scoring 43 and 31 not out, though handicapped
  by lameness and an injured hand. In twenty-six different seasons he
  scored over 1000 runs, in three of these years being the only man to
  do so and five times being one out of two.

  During the thirty-six years up to and including 1900 he scored nearly
  51,000 runs, with an average of 43; and in bowling he took more than
  2800 wickets, at an average cost of about 20 runs per wicket. He made
  his highest aggregate (2739 runs) and had his highest average (78) in
  1871; his average for the decade 1868-1877 was 57 runs. His style as a
  batsman was more commanding than graceful, but as to its soundness and
  efficacy there were never two opinions; the severest criticism ever
  passed upon his powers was to the effect that he did not play slow
  bowling quite as well as fast.     (W. J. F.)



GRACE (Fr. _grâce_, Lat. _gratia_, from _gratus_, beloved, pleasing;
formed from the root _cra-_, Gr. [Greek: chas-] cf. [Greek: chairô,
charma, charis]), a word of many shades of meaning, but always connoting
the idea of favour, whether that in which one stands to others or that
which one shows to others. The _New English Dictionary_ groups the
meanings of the word under three main heads: (1) Pleasing quality,
gracefulness, (2) favour, goodwill, (3) gratitude, thanks.

It is in the second general sense of "favour bestowed" that the word has
its most important connotations. In this sense it means something given
by superior authority as a concession made of favour and goodwill, not
as an obligation or of right. Thus, a concession may be made by a
sovereign or other public authority "by way of grace." Previous to the
Revolution of 1688 such concessions on the part of the crown were known
in constitutional law as "Graces." "Letters of Grace" (_gratiae,
gratiosa rescripta_) is the name given to papal rescripts granting
special privileges, indulgences, exemptions and the like. In the
language of the universities the word still survives in a shadow of this
sense. The word "grace" was originally a dispensation granted by the
congregation of the university, or by one of the faculties, from some
statutable conditions required for a degree. In the English universities
these conditions ceased to be enforced, and the "grace" thus became an
essential preliminary to any degree; so that the word has acquired the
meaning of (_a_) the licence granted by congregation to take a degree,
(_b_) other decrees of the governing body (originally dispensations from
statutes), all such degrees being called "graces" at Cambridge, (_c_)
the permission which a candidate for a degree must obtain from his
college or hall.

To this general sense of exceptional favour belong the uses of the word
in such phrases as "do me this grace," "to be in some one's good graces"
and certain meanings of "the grace of God." The style "by the grace of
God," borne by the king of Great Britain and Ireland among other
sovereigns, though, as implying the principle of "legitimacy," it has
been since the Revolution sometimes qualified on the continent by the
addition of "and the will of the people," means in effect no more than
the "by Divine Providence," which is the style borne by archbishops. To
the same general sense of exceptional favour belong the phrases implying
the concession of a right to delay in fulfilling certain obligations,
e.g. "a fortnight's grace." In law the "days of grace" are the period
allowed for the payment of a bill of exchange, after the term for which
it has been drawn (in England three days), or for the payment of an
insurance premium, &c. In religious language the "Day of Grace" is the
period still open to the sinner in which to repent. In the sense of
clemency or mercy, too, "grace" is still, though rarely used: "an Act of
Grace" is a formal pardon or a free and general pardon granted by act of
parliament. Since to grant favours is the prerogative of the great,
"Your Grace," "His Grace," &c., became dutiful paraphrases for the
simple "you" and "he." Formerly used in the royal address ("the King's
Grace," &c.), the style is in England now confined to dukes and
archbishops, though the style of "his most gracious majesty" is still
used. In Germany the equivalent, _Euer Gnaden_, is the style of princes
who are not _Durchlaucht_ (i.e. Serene Highness), and is often used as a
polite address to any superior.

In the language of theology, though in the English Bible the word is
used in several of the above senses, "grace" (Gr. [Greek: charis]) has
special meanings. Above all, it signifies the spontaneous, unmerited
activity of the Divine Love in the salvation of sinners, and the Divine
influence operating in man for his regeneration and sanctification.
Those thus regenerated and sanctified are said to be in a "state of
grace." In the New Testament grace is the forgiving mercy of God, as
opposed to any human merit (Rom. xi. 6; Eph. ii. 5; Col. i. 6, &c.); it
is applied also to certain gifts of God freely bestowed, e.g. miracles,
tongues, &c. (Rom. xv. 15; 1 Cor. xv. 10; Eph. iii. 8, &c.), to the
Christian virtues, gifts of God also, e.g. charity, holiness, &c. (2
Cor. viii. 7; 2 Pet. iii. 18). It is also used of the Gospel generally,
as opposed to the Law (John i. 17; Rom. vi. 14; 1 Pet. v. 12, &c.);
connected with this is the use of the term "year of grace" for a year of
the Christian era.

The word "grace" is the central subject of three great theological
controversies: (1) that of the nature of human depravity and
regeneration (see PELAGIUS), (2) that of the relation between grace and
free-will (see CALVIN, JOHN, and ARMINIUS, JACOBUS), (3) that of the
"means of grace" between Catholics and Protestants, i.e. whether the
efficacy of the sacraments as channels of the Divine grace is _ex opere
operato_ or dependent on the faith of the recipient.

In the third general sense, of thanks for favours bestowed, "grace"
survives as the name for the thanksgiving before or after meals. The
word was originally used in the plural, and "to do, give, render, yield
graces" was said, in the general sense of the French _rendre grâces_ or
Latin _gratias agere_, of any giving thanks. The close, and finally
exclusive, association of the phrase "to say grace" with thanksgiving at
meals was possibly due to the formula "Gratias Deo agamus" ("let us give
thanks to God") with which the ceremony began in monastic refectories.
The custom of saying grace, which obtained in pre-Christian times among
the Jews, Greeks and Romans, and was adopted universally by Christian
peoples, is probably less widespread in private houses than it used to
be. It is, however, still maintained at public dinners and also in
schools, colleges and institutions generally. Such graces are generally
in Latin and of great antiquity: they are sometimes short, e.g. "Laus
Deo," "Benedictus benedicat," and sometimes, as at the Oxford and
Cambridge colleges, of considerable length. In some countries grace has
sunk to a polite formula; in Germany, e.g. it is usual before and after
meals to bow to one's neighbours and say "Gesegnete Malzeit!" (May your
meal be blessed), a phrase often reduced in practice to "Malzeit"
simply.



GRACES, THE, (Gr. [Greek: Charites], Lat. _Gratiae_), in Greek
mythology, the personification of grace and charm, both in nature and in
moral action. The transition from a single goddess, Charis, to a number
or group of Charites, is marked in Homer. In the _Iliad_ one Charis is
the wife of Hephaestus, another the promised wife of Sleep, while the
plural Charites often occurs. The Charites are usually described as
three in number--Aglaia (brightness), Euphrosyne (joyfulness), Thalia
(bloom)--daughters of Zeus and Hera (or Eurynome, daughter of Oceanus),
or of Helios and Aegle; in Sparta, however, only two were known, Cleta
(noise) and Phaënna (light), as at Athens Auxo (increase) and Hegemone
(queen). They are the friends of the Muses, with whom they live on Mount
Olympus, and the companions of Aphrodite, of Peitho, the goddess of
persuasion, and of Hermes, the god of eloquence, to each of whom charm
is an indispensable adjunct. The need of their assistance to the artist
is indicated by the union of Hephaestus and Charis. The most ancient
seat of their cult was Orchomenus in Boeotia, where their oldest images,
in the form of stones fallen from heaven, were set up in their temple.
Their worship was said to have been instituted by Eteocles, whose three
daughters fell into a well while dancing in their honour. At Orchomenus
nightly dances took place, and the festival Charitesia, accompanied by
musical contests, was celebrated; in Paros their worship was celebrated
without music or garlands, since it was there that Minos, while
sacrificing to the Charites, received the news of the death of his son
Androgeus; at Messene they were revered together with the Eumenides; at
Athens, their rites, kept secret from the profane, were held at the
entrance to the Acropolis. It was by Auxo, Hegemone and Agraulos, the
daughter of Cecrops, that young Athenians, on first receiving their
spear and shield, took the oath to defend their country. In works of art
the Charites were represented in early times as beautiful maidens of
slender form, hand in hand or embracing one another and wearing drapery;
later, the conception predominated of three naked figures gracefully
intertwined. Their attributes were the myrtle, the rose and musical
instruments. In Rome the Graces were never the objects of special
religious reverence, but were described and represented by poets and
artists in accordance with Greek models.

  See F. H. Krause, _Musen, Gratien, Horen, und Nymphen_ (1871), and the
  articles by Stoll and Furtwängler in Roscher's _Lexikon der
  Mythologie_, and by S. Gsell in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire
  des antiquités_, with the bibliography.



GRACIÁN Y MORALES, BALTASAR (1601-1658), Spanish prose writer, was born
at Calatayud (Aragon) on the 8th of January 1601. Little is known of his
personal history except that on May 14, 1619, he entered the Society of
Jesus, and that ultimately he became rector of the Jesuit college at
Tarazona, where he died on the 6th of December, 1658. His principal
works are _El Héroe_ (1630), which describes in apophthegmatic phrases
the qualities of the ideal man; the _Arte de ingenio, tratado de la
Agudeza_ (1642), republished six years afterwards under the title of
_Agudeza, y arte de ingenio_ (1648), a system of rhetoric in which the
principles of _conceptismo_ as opposed to culteranismo are inculcated;
_El Discreto_ (1645), a delineation of the typical courtier; _El Oráculo
manual y arte de prudencia_ (1647), a system of rules for the conduct of
life; and _El Criticón_ (1651-1653-1657), an ingenious philosophical
allegory of human existence. The only publication which bears Gracián's
name is _El Comulgatorio_ (1655); his more important books were issued
under the pseudonym of Lorenzo Gracián (possibly a brother of the
writer) or under the anagram of Gracian de Marlones. Gracián was
punished for publishing without his superior's permission _El Criticón_
(in which Defoe is alleged to have found the germ of _Robinson Crusoe_);
but no objection was taken to its substance. He has been excessively
praised by Schopenhauer, whose appreciation of the author induced him to
translate the _Oráculo manual_, and he has been unduly depreciated by
Ticknor and others. He is an acute thinker and observer, misled by his
systematic misanthropy and by his fantastic literary theories.

  See Karl Borinski, _Baltasar Gracián und die Hoflitteratur in
  Deutschland_ (Halle, 1894); Benedetto Croce, _I Trattatisti italiani
  del "concettismo" e Baltasar Gracián_ (Napoli, 1899); Narciso José
  Liñán y Heredia, _Baltasar Gracián_ (Madrid, 1902). Schopenhauer and
  Joseph Jacobs have respectively translated the _Oráculo manual_ into
  German and English.



GRACKLE (Lat. _Gracculus_ or _Graculus_), a word much used in
ornithology, generally in a vague sense, though restricted to members of
the families _Sturnidae_ belonging to the Old World and _Icteridae_
belonging to the New. Of the former those to which it has been most
commonly applied are the species known as mynas, mainas, and minors of
India and the adjacent countries, and especially the _Gracula religiosa_
of Linnaeus, who, according to Jerdon and others, was probably led to
confer this epithet upon it by confounding it with the _Sturnus_ or
_Acridotheres tristis_,[1] which is regarded by the Hindus as sacred to
Ram Deo, one of their deities, while the true _Gracula religiosa_ does
not seem to be anywhere held in veneration. This last is about 10 in. in
length, clothed in a plumage of glossy black, with purple and green
reflections, and a conspicuous patch of white on the quill-feathers of
the wings. The bill is orange and the legs yellow, but the bird's most
characteristic feature is afforded by the curious wattles of bright
yellow, which, beginning behind the eyes, run backwards in form of a
lappet on each side, and then return in a narrow stripe to the top of
the head. Beneath each eye also is a bare patch of the same colour. This
species is common in southern India, and is represented farther to the
north, in Ceylon, Burma, and some of the Malay Islands by cognate forms.
They are all frugivorous, and, being easily tamed and learning to
pronounce words very distinctly, are favourite cage-birds.[2]

[Illustration: _Gracula religiosa._]

In America the name Grackle has been applied to several species of the
genera _Scolecophagus_ and _Quiscalus_, though these are more commonly
called in the United States and Canada "blackbirds," and some of them
"boat-tails." They all belong to the family _Icteridae_. The best known
of these are the rusty grackle, _S. ferrugineus_, which is found in
almost the whole of North America, and _Q. purpureus_, the purple
grackle or crow-blackbird, of more limited range, for though abundant
in most parts to the east of the Rocky Mountains, it seems not to appear
on the Pacific side. There is also Brewer's or the blue-headed grackle,
_S. cyanocephalus_, which has a more western range, not occurring to the
eastward of Kansas and Minnesota. A fourth species, _Q. major_, inhabits
the Atlantic States as far north as North Carolina. All these birds are
of exceedingly omnivorous habit, and though destroying large numbers of
pernicious insects are in many places held in bad repute from the
mischief they do to the corn-crops.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] By some writers the birds of the genera _Acridotheres_ and
    _Temenuchus_ are considered to be the true mynas, and the species of
    _Gracula_ are called "hill mynas" by way of distinction.

  [2] For a valuable monograph on the various species of _Gracula_ and
    its allies see Professor Schlegel's "Bijdrage tot de Kennis von het
    Geschlacht Beo'" (_Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde_ i.
    1-9).



GRADISCA, a town of Austria, in the province of Görz and Gradisca, 10 m.
S.W. of Görz by rail. Pop. (1900) 3843, mostly Italians. It is situated
on the right bank of the Isonzo and was formerly a strongly fortified
place. Its principal industry is silk spinning. Gradisca originally
formed part of the margraviate of Friuli, came under the patriarchate of
Aquileia in 1028, and in 1420 to Venice. Between 1471 and 1481 Gradisca
was fortified by the Venetians, but in 1511 they surrendered it to the
emperor Maximilian I. In 1647 Gradisca and its territory, including
Aquileia and forty-three smaller places, were erected into a separate
countship in favour of Johann Anton von Eggenberg, duke of Krumau. On
the extinction of his line in 1717, it reverted to Austria, and was
completely incorporated with Görz in 1754. The name was revived by the
constitution of 1861, which established the crownland of Görz and
Gradisca.



GRADO, a town of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; 11 m. W. by
N. of the city of Oviedo, on the river Cubia, a left-hand tributary of
the Nalon. Pop. (1900) 17,125. Grado is built in the midst of a
mountainous, well-wooded and fertile region. It has some trade in
timber, live stock, cider and agricultural produce. The nearest railway
station is that of the Fabrica de Trubia, a royal cannon-foundry and
small-arms factory, 5 m. S.E.



GRADUAL (Med. Lat. _gradualis_, of or belonging to steps or degrees;
_gradus_, step), advancing or taking place by degrees or step by step;
hence used of a slow progress or a gentle declivity or slope, opposed to
steep or precipitous. As a substantive, "gradual" (Med. Lat. _graduale_
or _gradale_) is used of a service book or antiphonal of the Roman
Catholic Church containing certain antiphons, called "graduals," sung at
the service of the Mass after the reading or singing of the Epistle.
This antiphon received the name either because it was sung on the steps
of the altar or while the deacon was mounting the steps of the ambo for
the reading or singing of the Gospel. For the so-called Gradual Psalms,
cxx.-cxxxiv., the "songs of degrees," LXX. [Greek: ôdê ana bathmôn], see
PSALMS, BOOK OF.



GRADUATE (Med. Lat. _graduare_, to admit to an academical degree,
_gradus_), in Great Britain a verb now only used in the academical sense
intransitively, i.e. "to take or proceed to a university degree," and
figuratively of acquiring knowledge of, or proficiency in, anything. The
original transitive sense of "to confer or admit to a degree" is,
however, still preserved in America, where the word is, moreover, not
strictly confined to university degrees, but is used also of those
successfully completing a course of study at any educational
establishment. As a substantive, a "graduate" (Med. Lat. _graduatus_) is
one who has taken a degree in a university. Those who have matriculated
at a university, but not yet taken a degree, are known as
"undergraduates." The word "student," used of undergraduates e.g. in
Scottish universities, is never applied generally to those of the
English and Irish universities. At Oxford the only "students" are the
"senior students" (i.e. fellows) and "junior students" (i.e.
undergraduates on the foundation, or "scholars") of Christ Church. The
verb "to graduate" is also used of dividing anything into degrees or
parts in accordance with a given scale. For the scientific application
see GRADUATION below. It may also mean "to arrange in gradations" or "to
adjust or apportion according to a given scale." Thus by "a graduated
income-tax" is meant the system by which the percentage paid differs
according to the amount of income on a pre-arranged scale.



GRADUATION (see also GRADUATE), the art of dividing straight scales,
circular arcs or whole circumferences into any required number of equal
parts. It is the most important and difficult part of the work of the
mathematical instrument maker, and is required in the construction of
most physical, astronomical, nautical and surveying instruments.

The art was first practised by clockmakers for cutting the teeth of
their wheels at regular intervals; but so long as it was confined to
them no particular delicacy or accurate nicety in its performance was
required. This only arose when astronomy began to be seriously studied,
and the exact position of the heavenly bodies to be determined, which
created the necessity for strictly accurate means of measuring linear
and angular magnitudes. Then it was seen that graduation was an art
which required special talents and training, and the best artists gave
great attention to the perfecting of astronomical instruments. Of these
may be named Abraham Sharp (1651-1742), John Bird (1709-1776), John
Smeaton (1724-1792), Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800), John Troughton, Edward
Troughton (1753-1835), William Simms (1793-1860) and Andrew Ross.

The first graduated instrument must have been done by the hand and eye
alone, whether it was in the form of a straight-edge with equal
divisions, or a screw or a divided plate; but, once in the possession of
one such divided instrument, it was a comparatively easy matter to
employ it as a standard. Hence graduation divides itself into two
distinct branches, _original graduation_ and _copying_, which latter may
be done either by the hand or by a machine called a dividing engine.
Graduation may therefore be treated under the three heads of _original
graduation_, _copying_ and _machine graduation_.

_Original Graduation._--In regard to the graduation of straight scales
elementary geometry provides the means of dividing a straight line into
any number of equal parts by the method of continual bisection; but the
practical realization of the geometrical construction is so difficult as
to render the method untrustworthy. This method, which employs the
common diagonal scale, was used in dividing a quadrant of 3 ft. radius,
which belonged to Napier of Merchiston, and which only read to
minutes--a result, according to Thomson and Tait (_Nat. Phil._), "giving
no greater accuracy than is now attainable by the pocket sextants of
Troughton and Simms, the radius of whose arc is little more than an
inch."

  The original graduation of a straight line is done either by the
  method of continual bisection or by stepping. In continual bisection
  the entire length of the line is first laid down. Then, as nearly as
  possible, half that distance is taken in the beam-compass and marked
  off by faint arcs from each end of the line. Should these marks
  coincide the exact middle point of the line is obtained. If not, as
  will almost always be the case, the distance between the marks is
  carefully bisected by hand with the aid of a magnifying glass. The
  same process is again applied to the halves thus obtained, and so on
  in succession, dividing the line into parts represented by 2, 4, 8,
  16, &c. till the desired divisions are reached. In the method of
  stepping the smallest division required is first taken, as accurately
  as possible, by spring dividers, and that distance is then laid off,
  by successive steps, from one end of the line. In this method, any
  error at starting will be multiplied at each division by the number of
  that division. Errors so made are usually adjusted by the dots being
  put either back or forward a little by means of the dividing punch
  guided by a magnifying glass. This is an extremely tedious process, as
  the dots, when so altered several times, are apt to get insufferably
  large and shapeless.

The division of circular arcs is essentially the same in principle as
the graduation of straight lines.

  The first example of note is the 8-ft. mural circle which was
  graduated by George Graham (1673-1751) for Greenwich Observatory in
  1725. In this two concentric arcs of radii 96.85 and 95.8 in.
  respectively were first described by the beam-compass. On the inner of
  these the arc of 90° was to be divided into degrees and 12th parts of
  a degree, while the same on the outer was to be divided into 96 equal
  parts and these again into 16th parts. The reason for adopting the
  latter was that, 96 and 16 being both powers of 2, the divisions could
  be got at by continual bisection alone, which, in Graham's opinion,
  who first employed it, is the only accurate method, and would thus
  serve as a check upon the accuracy of the divisions of the outer arc.
  With the same distance on the beam-compass as was used to describe the
  inner arc, laid off from 0°, the point 60° was at once determined.
  With the points 0° and 60° as centres successively, and a distance on
  the beam-compass very nearly bisecting the arc of 60°, two slight
  marks were made on the arc; the distance between these marks was
  divided by the hand aided by a lens, and this gave the point 30°. The
  chord of 60° laid off from the point 30° gave the point 90°, and the
  quadrant was now divided into three equal parts. Each of these parts
  was similarly bisected, and the resulting divisions again trisected,
  giving 18 parts of 5° each. Each of these quinquesected gave degrees,
  the 12th parts of which were arrived at by bisecting and trisecting as
  before. The outer arc was divided by continual bisection alone, and a
  table was constructed by which the readings of the one arc could be
  converted into those of the other. After the dots indicating the
  required divisions were obtained, either straight strokes all directed
  towards the centre were drawn through them by the dividing knife, or
  sometimes small arcs were drawn through them by the beam-compass
  having its fixed point somewhere on the line which was a tangent to
  the quadrantal arc at the point where a division was to be marked.

  The next important example of graduation was done by Bird in 1767. His
  quadrant, which was also 8-ft. radius, was divided into degrees and
  12th parts of a degree. He employed the method of continual bisection
  aided by chords taken from an exact scale of equal parts, which could
  read to .001 of an inch, and which he had previously graduated by
  continual bisections. With the beam-compass an arc of radius 95.938
  in. was first drawn. From this radius the chords of 30°, 15°, 10° 20',
  4° 40[min] and 42° 40' were computed, and each of them by means of the
  scale of equal parts laid off on a separate beam-compass to be ready.
  The radius laid off from 0° gave the point 60°; by the chord of 30°
  the arc of 60° was bisected; from the point 30° the radius laid off
  gave the point 90°; the chord of 15° laid off backwards from 90° gave
  the point 75°; from 75° was laid off forwards the chord of 10° 20';
  and from 90° was laid off backwards the chord of 4° 40'; and these
  were found to coincide in the point 85° 20'. Now 85° 20' being = 5' ×
  1024 = 5' × 2^10, the final divisions of 85° 20' were found by
  continual bisections. For the remainder of the quadrant beyond 85°
  20', containing 56 divisions of 5' each, the chord of 64 such
  divisions was laid off from the point 85° 40', and the corresponding
  arc divided by continual bisections as before. There was thus a severe
  check upon the accuracy of the points already found, viz. 15°, 30°,
  60°, 75°, 90°, which, however, were found to coincide with the
  corresponding points obtained by continual bisections. The short lines
  through the dots were drawn in the way already mentioned.

  The next eminent artists in original graduation are the brothers John
  and Edward Troughton. The former was the first to devise a means of
  graduating the quadrant by continual bisection without the aid of such
  a scale of equal parts as was used by Bird. His method was as follows:
  The radius of the quadrant laid off from 0° gave the point 60°. This
  arc bisected and the half laid off from 60° gave the point 90°. The
  arc between 60° and 90° bisected gave 75°; the arc between 75° and 90°
  bisected gave the point 82° 30', and the arc between 82° 30' and 90°
  bisected gave the point 86° 15'. Further, the arc between 82° 30' and
  86° 15' trisected, and two-thirds of it taken beyond 82° 30', gave the
  point 85°, while the arc between 85° and 86° 15' also trisected, and
  one-third part laid off beyond 85°, gave the point 85° 25'. Lastly,
  the arc between 85° and 85° 25' being quinquesected, and four-fifths
  taken beyond 85°, gave 85° 20', which as before is = 5' × 2^10, and so
  can be finally divided by continual bisection.

  The method of original graduation discovered by Edward Troughton is
  fully described in the _Philosophical Transactions_ for 1809, as
  employed by himself to divide a meridian circle of 4 ft. radius. The
  circle was first accurately turned both on its face and its inner and
  outer edges. A roller was next provided, of such diameter that it
  revolved 16 times on its own axis while made to roll once round the
  outer edge of the circle. This roller, made movable on pivots, was
  attached to a frame-work, which could be slid freely, yet tightly,
  along the circle, the roller meanwhile revolving, by means of
  frictional contact, on the outer edge. The roller was also, after
  having been properly adjusted as to size, divided as accurately as
  possible into 16 equal parts by lines parallel to its axis. While the
  frame carrying the roller was moved once round along the circle, the
  points of contact of the roller-divisions with the circle were
  accurately observed by two microscopes attached to the frame, one of
  which (which we shall call H) commanded the ring on the circle near
  its edge, which was to receive the divisions and the other viewed the
  roller-divisions. The points of contact thus ascertained were marked
  with faint dots, and the meridian circle thereby divided into 256 very
  nearly equal parts.

  The next part of the operation was to find out and tabulate the errors
  of these dots, which are called _apparent_ errors, in consequence of
  the error of each dot being ascertained on the supposition that its
  neighbours are all correct. For this purpose two microscopes (which we
  shall call A and B) were taken, with cross wires and micrometer
  adjustments, consisting of a screw and head divided into 100
  divisions, 50 of which read in the one and 50 in the opposite
  direction. These microscopes were fixed so that their cross-wires
  respectively bisected the dots 0 and 128, which were supposed to be
  diametrically opposite. The circle was now turned half-way round on
  its axis, so that dot 128 coincided with the wire of A, and, should
  dot 0 be found to coincide with B, then the two dots were 180° apart.
  If not, the cross wire of B was moved till it coincided with dot 0,
  and the number of divisions of the micrometer head noted. Half this
  number gave clearly the error of dot 128, and it was tabulated + or -
  according as the arcual distance between 0 and 128 was found to exceed
  or fall short of the remaining part of the circumference. The
  microscope B was now shifted, A remaining opposite dot 0 as before,
  till its wire bisected dot 64, and, by giving the circle one quarter
  of a turn on its axis, the difference of the arcs between dots 0 and
  64 and between 64 and 128 was obtained. The half of this difference
  gave the apparent error of dot 64, which was tabulated with its proper
  sign. With the microscope A still in the same position the error of
  dot 192 was obtained, and in the same way by shifting B to dot 32 the
  errors of dots 32, 96, 160 and 224 were successively ascertained. In
  this way the apparent errors of all the 256 dots were tabulated.

  From this table of apparent errors a table of _real_ errors was drawn
  up by employing the following formula:--

    ½(x(a) + x(c)) + z = the real error of dot b,

  where x(a) is the real error of dot a, x(c) the real error of dot c,
  and z the apparent error of dot b midway between a and c. Having got
  the real errors of any two dots, the table of apparent errors gives
  the means of finding the real errors of all the other dots.

  The last part of Troughton's process was to employ them to cut the
  final divisions of the circle, which were to be spaces of 5' each. Now
  the mean interval between any two dots is 360°/256 = 5' × 16-7/8, and
  hence, in the final division, this interval must be divided into
  16-7/8 equal parts. To accomplish this a small instrument, called a
  subdividing sector, was provided. It was formed of thin brass and had
  a radius about four times that of the roller, but made adjustable as
  to length. The sector was placed concentrically on the axis, and
  rested on the upper end of the roller. It turned by frictional
  adhesion along with the roller, but was sufficiently loose to allow of
  its being moved back by hand to any position without affecting the
  roller. While the roller passes over an angular space equal to the
  mean interval between two dots, any point of the sector must pass over
  16 times that interval, that is to say, over an angle represented by
  360° × 16/256 = 22° 30'. This interval was therefore divided by
  16-7/8, and a space equal to 16 of the parts taken. This was laid off
  on the arc of the sector and divided into 16 equal parts, each equal
  to 1° 20'; and, to provide for the necessary 7/8ths of a division,
  there was laid off at each end of the sector, and beyond the 16 equal
  parts, two of these parts each subdivided into 8 equal parts. A
  microscope with cross wires, which we shall call I, was placed on the
  main frame, so as to command a view of the sector divisions, just as
  the microscope H viewed the final divisions of the circle. Before the
  first or zero mark was cut, the zero of the sector was brought under I
  and then the division cut at the point on the circle indicated by H,
  which also coincided with the dot 0. The frame was then slipped along
  the circle by the slow screw motion provided for the purpose, till the
  first sector-division, by the action of the roller, was brought under
  I. The second mark was then cut on the circle at the point indicated
  by H. That the marks thus obtained are 5' apart is evident when we
  reflect that the distance between them must be 1/16th of a division on
  the section which by construction is 1° 20'. In this way the first 16
  divisions were cut; but before cutting the 17th it was necessary to
  adjust the micrometer wires of H to the real error of dot 1, as
  indicated by the table, and bring back the sector, not to zero, but to
  1/8th short of zero. Starting from this position the divisions between
  dots 1 and 2 were filled in, and then H was adjusted to the real error
  of dot 2, and the sector brought back to its proper division before
  commencing the third course. Proceeding in this manner through the
  whole circle, the microscope H was finally found with its wire at
  zero, and the sector with its 16th division under its microscope
  indicating that the circle had been accurately divided.

_Copying._--In graduation by copying the pattern must be either an
accurately divided straight scale, or an accurately divided circle,
commonly called a _dividing plate_.

In copying a straight scale the pattern and scale to be divided, usually
called the work, are first fixed side by side, with their upper faces in
the same plane. The dividing square, which closely resembles an ordinary
joiner's square, is then laid across both, and the point of the dividing
knife dropped into the zero division of the pattern. The square is now
moved up close to the point of the knife; and, while it is held firmly
in this position by the left hand, the first division on the work is
made by drawing the knife along the edge of the square with the right
hand.

It frequently happens that the divisions required on a scale are either
greater or less than those on the pattern. To meet this case, and still
use the same pattern, the work must be fixed at a certain angle of
inclination with the pattern. This angle is found in the following way.
Take the exact ratio of a division on the pattern to the required
division on the scale. Call this ratio [alpha]. Then, if the required
divisions are longer than those of the pattern, the angle is cos^-1
[alpha], but, if shorter, the angle is sec^-1 [alpha]. In the former
case two operations are required before the divisions are cut: first,
the square is laid on the pattern, and the corresponding divisions
merely notched very faintly on the edge of the work; and, secondly, the
square is applied to the work and the final divisions drawn opposite
each faint notch. In the second case, that is, when the angle is sec^-1
[alpha], the dividing square is applied to the work, and the divisions
cut when the edge of the square coincides with the end of each division
on the pattern.

In copying circles use is made of the dividing plate. This is a circular
plate of brass, of 36 in. or more in diameter, carefully graduated near
its outer edge. It is turned quite flat, and has a steel pin fixed in
its centre, and at right angles to its plane. For guiding the dividing
knife an instrument called an index is employed. This is a straight bar
of thin steel of length equal to the radius of the plate. A piece of
metal, having a V notch with its angle a right angle, is riveted to one
end of the bar in such a position that the vertex of the notch is
exactly in a line with the edge of the steel bar. In this way, when the
index is laid on the plate, with the notch grasping the central pin, the
straight edge of the steel bar lies exactly along a radius. The work to
be graduated is laid flat on the dividing plate, and fixed by two clamps
in a position exactly concentric with it. The index is now laid on, with
its edge coinciding with any required division on the dividing plate,
and the corresponding division on the work is cut by drawing the
dividing knife along the straight edge of the index.

_Machine Graduation._--The first dividing engine was probably that of
Henry Hindley of York, constructed in 1740, and chiefly used by him for
cutting the teeth of clock wheels. This was followed shortly after by an
engine devised by the duc de Chaulnes; but the first notable engine was
that made by Ramsden, of which an account was published by the Board of
Longitude in 1777. He was rewarded by that board with a sum of £300, and
a further sum of £315 was given to him on condition that he would
divide, at a certain fixed rate, the instruments of other makers. The
essential principles of Ramsden's machine have been repeated in almost
all succeeding engines for dividing circles.

  Ramsden's machine consisted of a large brass prate 45 in. in diameter,
  carefully turned and movable on a vertical axis. The edge of the plate
  was ratched with 2160 teeth, into which a tangent screw worked, by
  means of which the plate could be made to turn through any required
  angle. Thus six turns of the screw moved the plate through 1°, and
  1/60th of a turn through 1/360th of a degree. On the axis of the
  tangent screw was placed a cylinder having a spiral groove cut on its
  surface. A ratchet-wheel containing 60 teeth was attached to this
  cylinder, and was so arranged that, when the cylinder moved in one
  direction, it carried the tangent screw with it, and so turned the
  plate, but when it moved in the opposite direction, it left the
  tangent screw, and with it the plate, stationary. Round the spiral
  groove of the cylinder a catgut band was wound, one end of which was
  attached to a treadle and the other to a counterpoise weight. When the
  treadle was depressed the tangent screw turned round, and when the
  pressure was removed it returned, in obedience to the weight, to its
  former position without affecting the screw. Provision was also made
  whereby certain stops could be placed in the way of the screw, which
  only allowed it the requisite amount of turning. The work to be
  divided was firmly fixed on the plate, and made concentric with it.
  The divisions were cut, while the screw was stationary, by means of a
  dividing knife attached to a swing frame, which allowed it to have
  only a radial motion. In this way the artist could divide very rapidly
  by alternately depressing the treadle and working the dividing knife.

Ramsden also constructed a linear dividing engine on essentially the
same principle. If we imagine the rim of the circular plate with its
notches stretched out into a straight line and made movable in a
straight slot, the screw, treadle, &c., remaining as before, we get a
very good idea of the linear engine.

In 1793 Edward Troughton finished a circular dividing engine, of which
the plate was smaller than in Ramsden's, and which differed considerably
in simplifying matters of detail. The plate was originally divided by
Troughton's own method, already described, and the divisions so obtained
were employed to ratch the edge of the plate for receiving the tangent
screw with great accuracy. Andrew Ross (_Trans. Soc. Arts_, 1830-1831)
constructed a dividing machine which differs considerably from those of
Ramsden and Troughton.

  The essential point of difference is that, in Ross's engine, the
  tangent screw does not turn the engine plate; that is done by an
  independent apparatus, and the function of the tangent screw is only
  to stop the plate after it has passed through the required angular
  interval between two divisions on the work to be graduated. Round the
  circumference of the plate are fixed 48 projections which just look as
  if the circumference had been divided into as many deep and somewhat
  peculiarly shaped notches or teeth. Through each of these teeth a hole
  is bored parallel to the plane of the plate and also to a tangent to
  its circumference. Into these holes are screwed steel screws with
  capstan heads and flat ends. The tangent screw consists only of a
  single turn of a large square thread which works in the teeth or
  notches of the plate. This thread is pierced by 90 equally distant
  holes, all parallel to the axis of the screw, and at the same distance
  from it. Into each of these holes is inserted a steel screw exactly
  similar to those in the teeth, but with its end rounded. It is the
  rounded and flat ends of these sets of screws coming together that
  stop the engine plate at the desired position, and the exact point can
  be nicely adjusted by suitably turning the screws.

[Illustration: Dividing Engine.]

A description is given of a dividing engine made by William Simms in the
_Memoirs of the Astronomical Society_, 1843. Simms became convinced that
to copy upon smaller circles the divisions which had been put upon a
large plate with very great accuracy was not only more expeditious but
more exact than original graduation. His machine involved essentially
the same principle as Troughton's. The accompanying figure is taken by
permission.

  The plate A is 46 in. in diameter, and is composed of gun-metal cast
  in one solid piece. It has two sets of 5' divisions--one very faint on
  an inlaid ring of silver, and the other stronger on the gun-metal.
  These were put on by original graduation, mainly on the plan of Edward
  Troughton. One very great improvement in this engine is that the axis
  B is tubular, as seen at C. The object of this hollow is to receive
  the axis of the circle to be divided, so that it can be fixed flat to
  the plate by the clamps E, without having first to be detached from
  the axis and other parts to which it has already been carefully
  fitted. This obviates the necessity for resetting, which can hardly be
  done without some error. D is the tangent screw, and F the frame
  carrying it, which turns on carefully polished steel pivots. The screw
  is pressed against the edge of the plate by a spiral spring acting
  under the end of the lever G, and by screwing the lever down the screw
  can be altogether removed from contact with the plate. The edge of the
  plate is ratched by 4320 teeth which were cut opposite the original
  division by a circular cutter attached to the screw frame. H is the
  spiral barrel round which the catgut band is wound, one end of which
  is attached to the crank L on the end of the axis J and the other to a
  counterpoise weight not seen. On the other end of J is another crank
  inclined to L and carrying a band and counterpoise weight seen at K.
  The object of this weight is to balance the former and give steadiness
  to the motion. On the axis J is seen a pair of bevelled wheels which
  move the rod I, which, by another pair of bevelled wheels attached to
  the box N, gives motion to the axis M, on the end of which is an
  eccentric for moving the bent lever O, which actuates the bar carrying
  the cutter. Between the eccentric and the point of the screw P is an
  undulating plate by which long divisions can be cut. The cutting
  apparatus is supported upon the two parallel rails which can be
  elevated or depressed at pleasure by the nuts Q. Also the cutting
  apparatus can be moved forward or backward upon these rails to suit
  circles of different diameters. The box N is movable upon the bar R,
  and the rod I is adjustable as to length by having a kind of telescope
  joint. The engine is self-acting, and can be driven either by hand or
  by a steam-engine or other motive power. It can be thrown in or out of
  gear at once by a handle seen at S.

Mention may be made of Donkin's linear dividing engine, in which a
compensating arrangement is employed whereby great accuracy is obtained
notwithstanding the inequalities of the screw used to advance the
cutting tool. Dividing engines have also been made by Reichenbach,
Repsold and others in Germany, Gambey in Paris and by several other
astronomical instrument-makers. A machine constructed by E. R. Watts &
Son is described by G. T. McCaw, in the _Monthly Not. R. A. S._, January
1909.

  REFERENCES.--Bird, _Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments_
  (London, 1767); Duc de Chaulnes, _Nouvelle Méthode pour diviser les
  instruments de mathématique et d'astronomie_ (1768); Ramsden,
  _Description of an Engine for dividing Mathematical Instruments_
  (London, 1777); Troughton's memoir, _Phil. Trans._ (1809); _Memoirs of
  the Royal Astronomical Society_, v. 325, viii. 141, ix. 17, 35. See
  also J. E. Watkins, "On the Ramsden Machine," _Smithsonian Rep._
  (1890), p. 721; and L. Ambronn, _Astronomische Instrumentenkunde_
  (1899).     (J. Bl.)



GRADUS, or GRADUS AD PARNASSUM (a step to Parnassus), a Latin (or Greek)
dictionary, in which the quantities of the vowels of the words are
marked. Synonyms, epithets and poetical expressions and extracts are
also included under the more important headings, the whole being
intended as an aid for students in Greek and Latin verse composition.
The first Latin gradus was compiled in 1702 by the Jesuit Paul Aler
(1656-1727), a famous schoolmaster. There is a Latin gradus by C. D.
Yonge (1850); English-Latin by A. C. Ainger and H. G. Wintle (1890);
Greek by J. Brasse (1828) and E. Maltby (1815), bishop of Durham.



GRAETZ, HEINRICH (1817-1891), the foremost Jewish historian of modern
times, was born in Posen in 1817 and died at Munich in 1891. He received
a desultory education, and was largely self-taught. An important stage
in his development was the period of three years that he spent at
Oldenburg as assistant and pupil of S. R. Hirsch, whose enlightened
orthodoxy was for a time very attractive to Graetz. Later on Graetz
proceeded to Breslau, where he matriculated in 1842. Breslau was then
becoming the headquarters of Abraham Geiger, the leader of Jewish
reform. Graetz was repelled by Geiger's attitude, and though he
subsequently took radical views of the Bible and tradition (which made
him an opponent of Hirsch), Graetz remained a life-long foe to reform.
He contended for freedom of thought; he had no desire to fight for
freedom of ritual practice. He momentarily thought of entering the
rabbinate, but he was unsuited to that career. For some years he
supported himself as a tutor. He had previously won repute by his
published essays, but in 1853 the publication of the fourth volume of
his history of the Jews made him famous. This fourth volume (the first
to be published) dealt with the Talmud. It was a brilliant resuscitation
of the past. Graetz's skill in piecing together detached fragments of
information, his vast learning and extraordinary critical acumen, were
equalled by his vivid power of presenting personalities. No Jewish book
of the 19th century produced such a sensation as this, and Graetz won at
a bound the position he still occupies as recognized master of Jewish
history. His _Geschichte der Juden_, begun in 1853, was completed in
1875; new editions of the several volumes were frequent. The work has
been translated into many languages; it appeared in English in five
volumes in 1891-1895. The _History_ is defective in its lack of
objectivity; Graetz's judgments are sometimes biassed, and in particular
he lacks sympathy with mysticism. But the history is a work of genius.
Simultaneously with the publication of vol. iv. Graetz was appointed on
the staff of the new Breslau Seminary, of which the first director was
Z. Frankel. Graetz passed the remainder of his life in this office; in
1869 he was created professor by the government, and also lectured at
the Breslau University. Graetz attained considerable repute as a
biblical critic. He was the author of many bold conjectures as to the
date of Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther and other biblical books. His
critical edition of the Psalms (1882-1883) was his chief contribution to
biblical exegesis, but after his death Professor Bacher edited Graetz's
_Emendationes_ to many parts of the Hebrew scriptures.

  A full bibliography of Graetz's works is given in the _Jewish
  Quarterly Review_, iv. 194; a memoir of Graetz is also to be found
  there. Another full memoir was prefixed to the "index" volume of the
  _History_ in the American re-issue of the English translation in six
  volumes (Philadelphia, 1898).     (I. A.)



GRAEVIUS (properly GRÄVE or GREFFE), JOHANN GEORG (1632-1703). German
classical scholar and critic, was born at Naumburg, Saxony, on the 29th
of January 1632. He was originally intended for the law, but having made
the acquaintance of J. F. Gronovius during a casual visit to Deventer,
under his influence he abandoned jurisprudence for philology. He
completed his studies under D. Heinsius at Leiden, and under the
Protestant theologians A. Morus and D. Blondel at Amsterdam. During his
residence in Amsterdam, under Blondel's influence he abandoned
Lutheranism and joined the Reformed Church; and in 1656 he was called by
the elector of Brandenburg to the chair of rhetoric in the university of
Duisburg. Two years afterwards, on the recommendation of Gronovius, he
was chosen to succeed that scholar at Deventer; in 1662 he was
translated to the university of Utrecht, where he occupied first the
chair of rhetoric, and from 1667 until his death (January 11th, 1703)
that of history and politics. Graevius enjoyed a very high reputation as
a teacher, and his lecture-room was crowded by pupils, many of them of
distinguished rank, from all parts of the civilized world. He was
honoured with special recognition by Louis XIV., and was a particular
favourite of William III. of England, who made him historiographer
royal.

  His two most important works are the _Thesaurus antiquitatum
  Romanarum_ (1694-1699, in 12 volumes), and the _Thesaurus antiquitatum
  et historiarum Italiae_ published after his death, and continued by
  the elder Burmann (1704-1725). His editions of the classics, although
  they marked a distinct advance in scholarship, arc now for the most
  part superseded. They include Hesiod (1667), Lucian, _Pseudosophista_
  (1668), Justin, _Historiae Philippicae_ (1669), Suetonius (1672),
  Catullus, Tibullus et Propertius (1680), and several of the works of
  Cicero (his best production). He also edited many of the writings of
  contemporary scholars. The _Oratio funebris_ by P. Burmann (1703)
  contains an exhaustive list of the works of this scholar; see also P.
  H. Külb in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_, and J. E.
  Sandys, _History of Classical Scholarship_, ii. (1908).



GRAF, ARTURO (1848-   ), Italian poet, of German extraction, was born at
Athens. He was educated at Naples University and became a lecturer on
Italian literature in Rome, till in 1882 he was appointed professor at
Turin. He was one of the founders of the _Giornale della letteratura
italiana_, and his publications include valuable prose criticism; but he
is best known as a poet. His various volumes of verse--_Poesie e
novelle_ (1874), _Dopo il tramonto versi_ (1893), &c.--give him a high
place among the recent lyrical writers of his country.



GRAF, KARL HEINRICH (1815-1869), German Old Testament scholar and
orientalist, was born at Mülhausen in Alsace on the 28th of February
1815. He studied Biblical exegesis and oriental languages at the
university of Strassburg under E. Reuss, and, after holding various
teaching posts, was made instructor in French and Hebrew at the
Landesschule of Meissen, receiving in 1852 the title of professor. He
died on the 16th of July 1869. Graf was one of the chief founders of Old
Testament criticism. In his principal work, _Die geschichtlichen Bücher
des Alten Testaments_ (1866), he sought to show that the priestly
legislation of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers is of later origin than the
book of Deuteronomy. He still, however, held the accepted view, that the
Elohistic narratives formed part of the _Grundschrift_ and therefore
belonged to the oldest portions of the Pentateuch. The reasons urged
against the contention that the priestly legislation and the Elohistic
narratives were separated by a space of 500 years were so strong as to
induce Graf, in an essay, "Die sogenannte Grundschrift des Pentateuchs,"
published shortly before his death, to regard the whole _Grundschrift_
as post-exilic and as the latest portion of the Pentateuch. The idea had
already been expressed by E. Reuss, but since Graf was the first to
introduce it into Germany, the theory, as developed by Julius
Wellhausen, has been called the Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis.

  Graf also wrote, _Der Segen Moses Deut. 33_ (1857) and _Der Prophet
  Jeremia erklärt_ (1862). See T. K. Cheyne, _Founders of Old Testament
  Criticism_ (1893); and Otto Pfleiderer's book translated into English
  by J. F. Smith as _Development of Theology_ (1890).



GRÄFE, ALBRECHT VON (1828-1870), German oculist, son of Karl Ferdinand
von Gräfe, was born at Berlin on the 22nd of May 1828. At an early age
he manifested a preference for the study of mathematics, but this was
gradually superseded by an interest in natural science, which led him
ultimately to the study of medicine. After prosecuting his studies at
Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Paris, London, Dublin and Edinburgh, and
devoting special attention to ophthalmology he, in 1850, began practice
as an oculist in Berlin, where he founded a private institution for the
treatment of the eyes, which became the model of many similar ones in
Germany and Switzerland. In 1853 he was appointed teacher of
ophthalmology in Berlin university; in 1858 he became extraordinary
professor, and in 1866 ordinary professor. Gräfe contributed largely to
the progress of the science of ophthalmology, especially by the
establishment in 1855 of his _Archiv für Ophthalmologie_, in which he
had Ferdinand Arlt (1812-1887) and F. C. Donders (1818-1889) as
collaborators. Perhaps his two most important discoveries were his
method of treating glaucoma and his new operation for cataract. He was
also regarded as an authority in diseases of the nerves and brain. He
died at Berlin on the 20th of July 1870.

  See _Ein Wort der Erinnerung an Albrecht von Gräfe_ (Halle, 1870) by
  his cousin, Alfred Gräfe (1830-1899), also a distinguished
  ophthalmologist, and the author of _Das Sehen der Schielenden_
  (Wiesbaden, 1897); and E. Michaelis, _Albrecht von Gräfe. Sein Leben
  und Wirken_ (Berlin, 1877).



GRAFE, HEINRICH (1802-1868), German educationist, was born at Buttstädt
in Saxe-Weimar on the 3rd of May 1802. He studied mathematics and
theology at Jena, and in 1823 obtained a curacy in the town church of
Weimar. He was transferred to Jena as rector of the town school in 1825;
in 1840 he was also appointed extraordinary professor of the science of
education (Pädagogik) in that university; and in 1842 he became head of
the _Bürgerschule_ (middle class school) in Cassel. After reorganizing
the schools of the town, he became director of the new _Realschule_ in
1843; and, devoting himself to the interests of educational reform in
electoral Hesse, he became in 1849 a member of the school commission,
and also entered the house of representatives, where he made himself
somewhat formidable as an agitator. In 1852 for having been implicated
in the September riots and in the movement against the unpopular
minister Hassenpflug, who had dissolved the school commission, he was
condemned to three years' imprisonment, a sentence afterwards reduced to
one of twelve months. On his release he withdrew to Geneva, where he
engaged in educational work till 1855, when he was appointed director of
the school of industry at Bremen. He died in that city on the 21st of
July 1868.

  Besides being the author of many text-books and occasional papers on
  educational subjects, he wrote _Das Rechisverhältnis der Volksschule
  von innen und aussen_ (1829); _Die Schulreform_ (1834); _Schule und
  Unterricht_ (1839); _Allgemeine Pädagogik_ (1845); _Die deutsche
  Volksschule_ (1847). Together with Naumann, he also edited the _Archiv
  für das praktische Volksschulwesen_ (1828-1835).



GRÄFE, KARL FERDINAND VON (1787-1840), German surgeon, was born at
Warsaw on the 8th of March 1787. He studied medicine at Halle and
Leipzig, and after obtaining licence from the Leipzig university, he was
in 1807 appointed private physician to Duke Alexius of Anhalt-Bernburg.
In 1811 he became professor of surgery and director of the surgical
clinic at Berlin, and during the war with Napoleon he was
superintendent of the military hospitals. When peace was concluded in
1815, he resumed his professorial duties. He was also appointed
physician to the general staff of the army, and he became a director of
the Friedrich Wilhelm Institute and of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy.
He died suddenly on the 4th of July 1840 at Hanover, whither he had been
called to operate on the eyes of the crown prince. Gräfe did much to
advance the practice of surgery in Germany, especially in the treatment
of wounds. He improved the rhinoplastic process, and its revival was
chiefly due to him. His lectures at the university of Berlin attracted
students from all parts of Europe.

  The following are his principal works: _Normen für die Ablösung
  grosser Gliedmassen_ (Berlin, 1812); _Rhinoplastik_ (1818); _Neue
  Beiträge zur Kunst Theile des Angesichts organisch zu ersetzen_
  (1821); _Die epidemisch-kontagiöse Augenblennorrhoë Ägyptens in den
  europäischen Befreiungsheeren_ (1824); and _Jahresberichte über das
  klinisch-chirurgisch-augenärztliche Institut der Universität zu
  Berlin_ (1817-1834). He also edited, with Ph. von Walther, the
  _Journal für Chirurgie und Augenheilkunde_. See E. Michaelis, _Karl
  Ferdinand von Gräfe in seiner 30 jährigen Wirken für Staat und
  Wissenschaft_ (Berlin, 1840).



GRAFFITO, plural _graffiti_, the Italian word meaning "scribbling" or
"scratchings" (_graffiare_, to scribble, Gr. [Greek: graphein]), adopted
by archaeologists as a general term for the casual writings, rude
drawings and markings on ancient buildings, in distinction from the more
formal or deliberate writings known as "inscriptions." These "graffiti,"
either scratched on stone or plaster by a sharp instrument such as a
nail, or, more rarely, written in red chalk or black charcoal, are found
in great abundance, e.g. on the monuments of ancient Egypt. The
best-known "graffiti" are those in Pompeii and in the catacombs and
elsewhere in Rome. They have been collected by R. Garrucci (_Graffiti di
Pompei_, Paris, 1856), and L. Correra ("Graffiti di Roma" in _Bolletino
della commissione municipale archaeologica_, Rome, 1893; see also _Corp.
Ins. Lat._ iv., Berlin, 1871). The subject matter of these scribblings
is much the same as that of the similar scrawls made to-day by boys,
street idlers and the casual "tripper." The schoolboy of Pompeii wrote
out lists of nouns and verbs, alphabets and lines from Virgil for
memorizing, lovers wrote the names of their beloved, "sportsmen"
scribbled the names of horses they had been "tipped," and wrote those of
their favourite gladiators. Personal abuse is frequent, and rude
caricatures are found, such as that of one Peregrinus with an enormous
nose, or of Naso or Nasso with hardly any. Aulus Vettius Firmus writes
up his election address and appeals to the _pilicrepi_ or ball-players
for their votes for him as aedile. Lines of poetry, chiefly suited for
lovers in dejection or triumph, are popular, and Ovid and Propertius
appear to be favourites. Apparently private owners of property felt the
nuisance of the defacement of their walls, and at Rome near the _Porta
Portuensis_ has been found an inscription begging people not to scribble
(_scariphare_) on the walls.

Graffiti are of some importance to the palaeographer and to the
philologist as illustrating the forms and corruptions of the various
alphabets and languages used by the people, and occasionally guide the
archaeologist to the date of the building on which they appear, but they
are chiefly valuable for the light they throw on the everyday life of
the "man in the street" of the period, and for the intimate details of
customs and institutions which no literature or formal inscriptions can
give. The graffiti dealing with the gladiatorial shows at Pompeii are in
this respect particularly noteworthy; the rude drawings such as that of
the _secutor_ caught in the net of the _retiarius_ and lying entirely at
his mercy, give a more vivid picture of what the incidents of these
shows were like than any account in words (see Garrucci, _op. cit._,
Pls. x.-xiv.; A. Mau, _Pompeii in Leben und Kunst_, 2nd ed., 1908, ch.
xxx.). In 1866 in the Trastevere quarter of Rome, near the church of S.
Crisogono, was discovered the guardhouse (_excubitorium_) of the seventh
cohort of the city police (_vigiles_), the walls being covered by the
scribblings of the guards, illustrating in detail the daily routine, the
hardships and dangers, and the feelings of the men towards their
officers (W. Henzen, "L' Escubitorio della Settima coorte dei Vigili"
in _Bull. Inst._ 1867, and _Annali Inst._, 1874; see also R. Lanciani,
_Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries_, 230, and _Ruins and
Excavations of Ancient Rome_, 1897, 548). The most famous graffito yet
discovered is that generally accepted as representing a caricature of
Christ upon the cross, found on the walls of the Domus Gelotiana on the
Palatine in 1857, and now preserved in the Kircherian Museum of the
Collegio Romano. Deeply scratched in the wall is a figure of a man clad
in the short _tunica_ with one hand upraised in salutation to another
figure, with the head of an ass, or possibly a horse, hanging on a
cross; beneath is written in rude Greek letters "Anaxamenos worships
(his) god." It has been suggested that this represents an adherent of
some Gnostic sect worshipping one of the animal-headed deities of Egypt
(see Ferd. Becker, _Das Spottcrucifix der römischen Kaiserpaläste_,
Breslau, 1866; F. X. Kraus, _Das Spottcrucifix vom Palatin_, Freiburg in
Breisgau, 1872; and Visconti and Lanciani, _Guida del Palatino_).

  There is an interesting article, with many quotations of graffiti, in
  the _Edinburgh Review_, October 1859, vol. cx.     (C. We.)



GRAFLY, CHARLES (1862-   ), American sculptor, was born at Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, on the 3rd of December 1862. He was a pupil of the schools
of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and of Henri
M. Chapu and Jean Dampt, and the École des Beaux Arts, Paris. He
received an Honorable Mention in the Paris Salon of 1891 for his
"Mauvais Présage," now at the Detroit Museum of Fine Arts, a gold medal
at the Paris Exposition, in 1900, and medals at Chicago, 1893, Atlanta,
1895, and Philadelphia (the gold Medal of Honor, Pennsylvania Academy of
the Fine Arts), 1899. In 1892 he became instructor in sculpture at the
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, also filling the same chair at
the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. He was elected a full member of the
National Academy of Design in 1905. His better-known works include:
"General Reynolds," Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; "Fountain of Man"
(made for the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo); "From Generation to
Generation"; "Symbol of Life"; "Vulture of War," and many portrait
busts.



GRÄFRATH, a town in Rhenish Prussia, on the Itterbach, 14 m. E. of
Düsseldorf on the railway Hilden-Vohwinkel. Pop. (1905) 9030. It has a
Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, and there was an abbey here
from 1185 to 1803. The principal industries are iron and steel, while
weaving is carried on in the town.



GRAFT (a modified form of the earlier "graff," through the French from
the Late Lat. _graphium_, a stylus or pencil), a small branch, shoot or
"scion," transferred from one plant or tree to another, the "stock," and
inserted in it so that the two unite (see HORTICULTURE). The name was
adopted from the resemblance in shape of the "graft" to a pencil. The
transfer of living tissue from one portion of an organism to another
part of the same or different organism where it adheres and grows is
also known as "grafting," and is frequently practised in modern surgery.
The word is applied, in carpentry, to an attachment of the ends of
timbers, and, as a nautical term, to the "whipping" or "pointing" of a
rope's end with fine twine to prevent unravelling. "Graft" is used as a
slang term, in England, for a "piece of hard work." In American usage
Webster's _Dictionary_ (ed. 1904) defines the word as "the act of any
one, especially an official or public employé, by which he procures
money surreptitiously by virtue of his office or position; also the
surreptitious gain thus procured." It is thus a word embracing blackmail
and illicit commission. The origin of the English use of the word is
probably an obsolete word "graft," a portion of earth thrown up by a
spade, from the Teutonic root meaning "to dig," seen in German _graben_,
and English "grave."



GRAFTON, DUKES OF. The English dukes of Grafton are descended from HENRY
FITZROY (1663-1690), the natural son of Charles II. by Barbara Villiers
(countess of Castlemaine and duchess of Cleveland). In 1672 he was
married to the daughter and heiress of the earl of Arlington and created
earl of Euston; in 1675 he was created duke of Grafton. He was brought
up as a sailor, and saw military service at the siege of Luxemburg in
1684. At James II.'s coronation he was lord high constable. In the
rebellion of the duke of Monmouth he commanded the royal troops in
Somersetshire; but later he acted with Churchill (duke of Marlborough),
and joined William of Orange against the king. He died of a wound
received at the storming of Cork, while leading William's forces, being
succeeded as 2nd duke by his son Charles (1682-1757).

AUGUSTUS HENRY FITZROY, 3rd duke of Grafton (1735-1811), one of the
leading politicians of his time, was the grandson of the 2nd duke, and
was educated at Westminster and Cambridge. He first became known in
politics as an opponent of Lord Bute; in 1765 he was secretary of state
under the marquis of Rockingham; but he retired next year, and Pitt
(becoming earl of Chatham) formed a ministry in which Grafton was first
lord of the treasury (1766) but only nominally prime minister. Chatham's
illness at the end of 1767 resulted in Grafton becoming the effective
leader, but political differences and the attacks of "Junius" led to his
resignation in January 1770. He became lord privy seal in Lord North's
ministry (1771) but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory
action towards the American colonists. In the Rockingham ministry of
1782 he was again lord privy seal. In later years he was a prominent
Unitarian.

Besides his successor, the 4th duke (1760-1844), and numerous other
children, he was the father of General Lord Charles Fitzroy (1764-1829),
whose sons Sir Charles Fitzroy (1798-1858), governor of New South Wales,
and Robert Fitzroy (q.v.), the hydrographer, were notable men. The 4th
duke's son, who succeeded as 5th duke, was father of the 6th and 7th
dukes.

  The 3rd duke left in manuscript a _Memoir_ of his public career, of
  which extracts have been printed in Stanhope's _History_, Walpole's
  _Memories of George III._ (Appendix, vol. iv.), and Campbell's _Lives
  of the Chancellors_.



GRAFTON, RICHARD (d. 1572). English printer and chronicler, was probably
born about 1513. He received the freedom of the Grocers' Company in
1534. Miles Coverdale's version of the Bible had first been printed in
1535. Grafton was early brought into touch with the leaders of religious
reform, and in 1537 he undertook, in conjunction with Edward Whitchurch,
to produce a modified version of Coverdale's text, generally known as
Matthew's Bible (Antwerp, 1537). He went to Paris to reprint Coverdale's
revised edition (1538). There Whitchurch and he began to print the folio
known as the Great Bible by special licence obtained by Henry VIII. from
the French government. Suddenly, however, the work was officially
stopped and the presses seized. Grafton fled, but Thomas Cromwell
eventually bought the presses and type, and the printing was completed
in England. The Great Bible was reprinted several times under his
direction, the last occasion being 1553. In 1544 Grafton and Whitchurch
secured the exclusive right of printing church service books, and on the
accession of Edward VI. he was appointed king's printer, an office which
he retained throughout the reign. In this capacity he produced _The
Booke of the Common Praier and Administracion of the Sacramentes, and
other Rites and Ceremonies of the Churche: after the Use of the Churche
of Englande_ (1549 fol.), and _Actes of Parliament_ (1552 and 1553). In
1553 he printed Lady Jane Grey's proclamation and signed himself the
queen's printer. For this he was imprisoned for a short time, and he
seems thereafter to have retired from active business. His historical
works include a continuation (1543) of Hardyng's Chronicle from the
beginning of the reign of Edward IV. down to Grafton's own times. He is
said to have taken considerable liberties with the original, and may
practically be regarded as responsible for the whole work. He printed in
1548 Edward Hall's _Union of the ... Families of Lancastre and Yorke_,
adding the history of the years from 1532 to 1547. After he retired from
the printing business he published _An Abridgement of the Chronicles of
England_ (1562), _Manuell of the Chronicles of England_ (1565),
_Chronicle at large and meere Historye of the Affayres of England_
(1568). In these books he chiefly adapted the work of his predecessors,
but in some cases he gives detailed accounts of contemporary events. His
name frequently appears in the records of St Bartholomew's and Christ's
hospitals, and in 1553 he was treasurer-general of the hospitals of King
Edward's foundation. In 1553-1554 and 1556-1557 he represented the City
in Parliament, and in 1562-1563 he sat for Coventry.

  An elaborate account of Grafton was written in 1901 by Mr J. A.
  Kingdon under the auspices of the Grocers' Company, with the title
  _Richard Grafton, Citizen and Grocer of London, &c._, in continuation
  of _Incidents in the Lives of T. Poyntz and R. Grafton_ (1895). His
  _Chronicle at large_ was reprinted by Sir Henry Ellis in 1809.



GRAFTON, a city of Clarence county, New South Wales, lying on both sides
of the Clarence river, at a distance of 45 m. from its mouth, 342 m.
N.E. of Sydney by sea. Pop. (1901) 4174, South Grafton, 976. The two
sections, North Grafton and South Grafton, form separate municipalities.
The river is navigable from the sea to the town for ships of moderate
burden, and for small vessels to a point 35 m. beyond it. The entrance
to the river has been artificially improved. Grafton is the seat of the
Anglican joint-bishopric of Grafton and Armidale, and of a Roman
Catholic bishopric created in 1888, both of which have fine cathedrals.
Dairy-farming and sugar-growing are important industries, and there are
several sugar-mills in the neighbourhood; great numbers of horses, also,
are bred for the Indian and colonial markets. Tobacco, cereals and
fruits are also grown. Grafton has a large shipping trade with Sydney.
There is rail-connexion with Brisbane, &c. The city became a
municipality in 1859.



GRAFTON, a township in the S.E. part of Worcester county, Massachusetts,
U.S.A. Pop. (1905) 5052; (1910) 5705. It is served by the New York, New
Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Albany railways, and by interurban
electric lines. The township contains several villages (including
Grafton, North Grafton, Saundersville, Fisherville and Farnumsville);
the principal village, Grafton, is about 7 m. S.E. of Worcester. The
villages are residential suburbs of Worcester, and attract many summer
residents. In the village of Grafton there is a public library. There is
ample water power from the Blackstone river and its tributaries, and
among the manufactures of Grafton are cotton-goods, boots and shoes, &c.
Within what is now Grafton stood the Nipmuck Indian village of
Hassanamesit. John Eliot, the "apostle to the Indians," visited it soon
after 1651, and organized the third of his bands of "praying Indians"
there; in 1671 he established a church for them, the second of the kind
in New England, and also a school. In 1654 the Massachusetts General
Court granted to the Indians, for their exclusive use, a tract of about
4 sq. m., of which they remained the sole proprietors until 1718, when
they sold a small farm to Elisha Johnson, the first permanent white
settler in the neighbourhood. In 1728 a group of residents of Marlboro,
Sudbury, Concord and Stowe, with the permission of the General Court,
bought from the Indians 7500 acres of their lands, and agreed to
establish forty English families on the tract within three years, and to
maintain a church and school of which the Indians should have free use.
The township was incorporated in 1735, and was named in honour of the
2nd duke of Grafton. The last of the pure-blooded Indians died about
1825.



GRAFTON, a city and the county-seat of Taylor county, West Virginia,
U.S.A., on Tygart river, about 100 m. by rail S.E. of Wheeling. Pop.
(1890) 3159; (1900) 5650, including 226 foreign-born and 162 negroes;
(1910) 7563. It is served by four divisions of the Baltimore & Ohio
railway, which maintains extensive car shops here. The city is about
1000 ft. above sea-level. It has a small national cemetery, and about 4
m. W., at Pruntytown, is the West Virginia Reform School. Grafton is
situated near large coal-fields, and is supplied with natural gas. Among
its manufactures are machine-shop and foundry products, window glass and
pressed glass ware, and grist mill and planing-mill products. The first
settlement was made about 1852, and Grafton was incorporated in 1856 and
chartered as a city in 1899. In 1903 the population and area of the city
were increased by the annexation of the town of Fetterman (pop. in 1900,
796), of Beaumont (unincorporated), and of other territory.



GRAHAM, SIR GERALD (1831-1899), British general, was born on the 27th of
June 1831 at Acton, Middlesex. He was educated at Dresden and Woolwich
Academy, and entered the Royal Engineers in 1850. He served with
distinction through the Russian War of 1854 to 1856, was present at the
battles of the Alma and Inkerman, was twice wounded in the trenches
before Sevastopol, and was awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry at
the attack on the Redan and for devoted heroism on numerous occasions.
He also received the Legion of Honour, and was promoted to a brevet
majority. In the China War of 1860 he took part in the actions of Sin-ho
and Tang-ku, the storming of the Taku Forts, where he was severely
wounded, and the entry into Peking (brevet lieutenant-colonelcy and
C.B.). Promoted colonel in 1869, he was employed in routine duties until
1877, when he was appointed assistant-director of works for barracks at
the war office, a position he held until his promotion to major-general
in 1881. In command of the advanced force in Egypt in 1882, he bore the
brunt of the fighting, was present at the action of Magfar, commanded at
the first battle of Kassassin, took part in the second, and led his
brigade at Tell-el-Kebir. For his services in the campaign he received
the K.C.B. and thanks of parliament. In 1884 he commanded the expedition
to the eastern Sudan, and fought the successful battles of El Teb and
Tamai. On his return home he received the thanks of parliament and was
made a lieutenant-general for distinguished service in the field. In
1885 he commanded the Suakin expedition, defeated the Arabs at Hashin
and Tamai, and advanced the railway from Suakin to Otao, when the
expedition was withdrawn (thanks of parliament and G.C.M.G.). In 1896 he
was made G.C.B., and in 1899 colonel-commandant Royal Engineers. He died
on the 17th of December 1899. He published in 1875 a translation of
Goetze's _Operations of the German Engineers in 1870-1871_, and in 1887
_Last Words with Gordon_.



GRAHAM, SIR JAMES ROBERT GEORGE, Bart. (1792-1861), British statesman,
son of a baronet, was born at Naworth, Cumberland, on the 1st of June
1792, and was educated at Westminster and Oxford. Shortly after quitting
the university, while making the "grand tour" abroad, he became private
secretary to the British minister in Sicily. Returning to England in
1818 he was elected to parliament as member for Hull in the Whig
interest; but he was unseated at the election of 1820. In 1824 he
succeeded to the baronetcy; and in 1826 he re-entered parliament as
representative for Carlisle, a seat which he soon exchanged for the
county of Cumberland. In the same year he published a pamphlet entitled
"Corn and Currency," which brought him into prominence as a man of
advanced Liberal opinions; and he became one of the most energetic
advocates in parliament of the Reform Bill. On the formation of Earl
Grey's administration he received the post of first lord of the
admiralty, with a seat in the cabinet. From 1832 to 1837 he sat for the
eastern division of the county of Cumberland. Dissensions on the Irish
Church question led to his withdrawal from the ministry in 1834, and
ultimately to his joining the Conservative party. Rejected by his former
constituents in 1837, he was in 1838 elected for Pembroke, and in 1841
for Dorchester. In the latter year he took office under Sir Robert Peel
as secretary of state for the home department, a post he retained until
1846. As home secretary he incurred considerable odium in Scotland, by
his unconciliating policy on the church question prior to the
"disruption" of 1843; and in 1844 the detention and opening of letters
at the post-office by his warrant raised a storm of public indignation,
which was hardly allayed by the favourable report of a parliamentary
committee of investigation. From 1846 to 1852 he was out of office; but
in the latter year he joined Lord Aberdeen's cabinet as first lord of
the admiralty, in which capacity he acted also for a short time in the
Palmerston ministry of 1855. The appointment of a select committee of
inquiry into the conduct of the Russian war ultimately led to his
withdrawal from official life. He continued as a private member to
exercise a considerable influence on parliamentary opinion. He died at
Netherby, Cumberland, on the 25th of October 1861.

  His _Life_, by C. S. Parker, was published in 1907.



GRAHAM, SYLVESTER (1794-1851), American dietarian, was born in Suffield,
Connecticut, in 1794. He studied at Amherst College, and was ordained to
the Presbyterian ministry in 1826, but he seems to have preached but
little. He became an ardent advocate of temperance reform and of
vegetarianism, having persuaded himself that a flesh diet was the cause
of abnormal cravings. His last years were spent in retirement and he
died at Northampton, Massachusetts, on the 11th of September 1851. His
name is now remembered because of his advocacy of unbolted (Graham)
flour, and as the originator of "Graham bread." But his reform was much
broader than this. He urged, primarily, physiological education, and in
his _Science of Human Life_ (1836; republished, with biographical
memoir, 1858) furnished an exhaustive text-book on the subject. He had
carefully planned a complete regimen including many details besides a
strict diet. A Temperance (or Graham) Boarding House was opened in New
York City about 1832 by Mrs Asenath Nicholson, who published _Nature's
Own Book_ (2nd ed., 1835) giving Graham's rules for boarders; and in
Boston a Graham House was opened in 1837 at 23 Brattle Street.

  There were many Grahamites at Brook Farm, and the American
  Physiological Society published in Boston in 1837 and 1838 a weekly
  called _The Graham Journal of Health and Longevity, designed to
  illustrate by facts and sustain by reason and principles the science
  of human life as taught by Sylvester Graham_, edited by David
  Campbell. Graham wrote _Essay on Cholera_ (1832); _The Esculapian
  Tablets of the Nineteenth Century_ (1834); _Lectures to Young Men on
  Chastity_ (2nd ed., 1837); and _Bread and Bread Making_; and projected
  a work designed to show that his system was not counter to the Holy
  Scriptures.



GRAHAM, THOMAS (1805-1869), British chemist, born at Glasgow on the 20th
of December 1805, was the son of a merchant of that city. In 1819 he
entered the university of Glasgow with the intention of becoming a
minister of the Established Church. But under the influence of Thomas
Thomson (1773-1852), the professor of chemistry, he developed a taste
for experimental science and especially for molecular physics, a subject
which formed his main preoccupation throughout his life. After
graduating in 1824, he spent two years in the laboratory of Professor T.
C. Hope at Edinburgh, and on returning to Glasgow gave lessons in
mathematics, and subsequently chemistry, until the year 1829, when he
was appointed lecturer in the Mechanics' Institute. In 1830 he succeeded
Dr Andrew Ure (1778-1857) as professor of chemistry in the Andersonian
Institution, and in 1837, on the death of Dr Edward Turner, he was
transferred to the chair of chemistry in University College, London.
There he remained till 1855, when he succeeded Sir John Herschel as
Master of the Mint, a post he held until his death on the 16th of
September 1869. The onerous duties his work at the Mint entailed
severely tried his energies, and in quitting a purely scientific career
he was subjected to the cares of official life, for which he was not
fitted by temperament. The researches, however, which he conducted
between 1861 and 1869 were as brilliant as any of those in which he
engaged. Graham was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1836, and a
corresponding member of the Institute of France in 1847, while Oxford
made him a D. C. L. in 1855. He took a leading part in the foundation of
the London Chemical and the Cavendish societies, and served as first
president of both, in 1841 and 1846. Towards the close of his life the
presidency of the Royal Society was offered him, but his failing health
caused him to decline the honour.

Graham's work is remarkable at once for its originality and for the
simplicity of the methods employed obtaining most important results. He
communicated papers to the Philosophical Society of Glasgow before the
work of that society was recorded in _Transactions_, but his first
published paper, "On the Absorption of Gases by Liquids," appeared in
the _Annals of Philosophy_ for 1826. The subject with which his name is
most prominently associated is the diffusion of gases. In his first
paper on this subject (1829) he thus summarizes the knowledge experiment
had afforded as to the laws which regulate the movement of gases.
"Fruitful as the miscibility of gases has been in interesting
speculations, the experimental information we possess on the subject
amounts to little more than the well-established fact that gases of a
different nature when brought into contact do not arrange themselves
according to their density, but they spontaneously diffuse through each
other so as to remain in an intimate state of mixture for any length of
time." For the fissured jar of J. W. Döbereiner he substituted a glass
tube closed by a plug of plaster of Paris, and with this simple
appliance he developed the law now known by his name "that the diffusion
rate of gases is inversely as the square root of their density." (See
DIFFUSION.) He further studied the passage of gases by transpiration
through fine tubes, and by effusion through a minute hole in a platinum
disk, and was enabled to show that gas may enter a vacuum in three
different ways: (1) by the molecular movement of diffusion, in virtue of
which a gas penetrates through the pores of a disk of compressed
graphite; (2) by effusion through an orifice of sensible dimensions in a
platinum disk the relative times of the effusion of gases in mass being
similar to those of the molecular diffusion, although a gas is usually
carried by the former kind of impulse with a velocity many thousand
times as great as is demonstrable by the latter; and (3) by the peculiar
rate of passage due to transpiration through fine tubes, in which the
ratios appear to be in direct relation with no other known property of
the same gases--thus hydrogen has exactly double the transpiration rate
of nitrogen, the relation of those gases as to density being as 1:14. He
subsequently examined the passage of gases through septa or partitions
of india-rubber, unglazed earthenware and plates of metals such as
palladium, and proved that gases pass through these septa neither by
diffusion nor effusion nor by transpiration, but in virtue of a
selective absorption which the septa appear to exert on the gases in
contact with them. By this means ("atmolysis") he was enabled partially
to separate oxygen from air.

His early work on the movements of gases led him to examine the
spontaneous movements of liquids, and as a result of the experiments he
divided bodies into two classes--crystalloids, such as common salt, and
colloids, of which gum-arabic is a type--the former having high and the
latter low diffusibility. He also proved that the process of liquid
diffusion causes partial decomposition of certain chemical compounds,
the potassium sulphate, for instance, being separated from the aluminium
sulphate in alum by the higher diffusibility of the former salt. He also
extended his work on the transpiration of gases to liquids, adopting the
method of manipulation devised by J. L. M. Poiseuille. He found that
dilution with water does not effect proportionate alteration in the
transpiration velocities of different liquids, and a certain
determinable degree of dilution retards the transpiration velocity.

With regard to Graham's more purely chemical work, in 1833 he showed
that phosphoric anhydride and water form three distinct acids, and he
thus established the existence of polybasic acids, in each of which one
or more equivalents of hydrogen are replaceable by certain metals (see
ACID). In 1835 he published the results of an examination of the
properties of water of crystallization as a constituent of salts. Not
the least interesting part of this inquiry was the discovery of certain
definite salts with alcohol analogous to hydrates, to which the name of
alcoholates was given. A brief paper entitled "Speculative Ideas on the
Constitution of Matter" (1863) possesses special interest in connexion
with work done since his death, because in it he expressed the view that
the various kinds of matter now recognized as different elementary
substances may possess one and the same ultimate or atomic molecule in
different conditions of movement.

  Graham's _Elements of Chemistry_, first published in 1833, went
  through several editions, and appeared also in German, remodelled
  under J. Otto's direction. His _Chemical and Physical Researches_ were
  collected by Dr James Young and Dr Angus Smith, and printed "for
  presentation only" at Edinburgh in 1876, Dr Smith contributing to the
  volume a valuable preface and analysis of its contents. See also T. E.
  Thorpe, _Essays in Historical Chemistry_ (1902).



GRAHAME, JAMES (1765-1811), Scottish poet, was born in Glasgow on the
22nd of April 1765, the son of a successful lawyer. After completing his
literary course at Glasgow university, Grahame went in 1784 to
Edinburgh, where he qualified as writer to the signet, and subsequently
for the Scottish bar, of which he was elected a member in 1795. But his
preferences had always been for the Church, and when he was forty-four
he took Anglican orders, and became a curate first at Shipton,
Gloucestershire, and then at Sedgefield, Durham. His works include a
dramatic poem, _Mary Queen of Scots_ (1801), _The Sabbath_ (1804),
_British Georgics_ (1804), _The Birds of Scotland_ (1806), and _Poems on
the Abolition of the Slave Trade_ (1810). His principal work, _The
Sabbath_, a sacred and descriptive poem in blank verse, is characterized
by devotional feeling and by happy delineation of Scottish scenery. In
the notes to his poems he expresses enlightened views on popular
education, the criminal law and other public questions. He was
emphatically a friend of humanity--a philanthropist as well as a poet.
He died in Glasgow on the 14th of September 1811.



GRAHAM'S DYKE (or SHEUGH = trench), a local name for the Roman fortified
frontier, consisting of rampart, forts and road, which ran across the
narrow isthmus of Scotland from the Forth to the Clyde (about 36 m.),
and formed from A.D. 140 till about 185 the northern frontier of Roman
Britain. The name is locally explained as recording a victorious assault
on the defences by one Robert Graham and his men; it has also been
connected with the Grampian Hills and the Latin surveying term _groma_.
But, as is shown by its earliest recorded spelling, Grymisdyke (Fordun,
A.D. 1385), it is the same as the term Grim's Ditch which occurs several
times in England in connexion with early ramparts--for example, near
Wallingford in south Oxfordshire or between Berkhampstead (Herts) and
Bradenham (Bucks). Grim seems to be a Teutonic god or devil, who might
be credited with the wish to build earthworks in unreasonably short
periods of time. By antiquaries the Graham's Dyke is usually styled the
Wall of Pius or the Antonine Vallum, after the emperor Antoninus Pius,
in whose reign it was constructed. See further BRITAIN: _Roman_.
     (F. J. H.)



GRAHAM'S TOWN, a city of South Africa, the administrative centre for the
eastern part of the Cape province, 106 m. by rail N.E. of Port Elizabeth
and 43 m. by rail N.N.W. of Port Alfred. Pop. (1904) 13,887, of whom
7283 were whites and 1837 were electors. The town is built in a basin of
the grassy hills forming the spurs of the Zuurberg, 1760 ft. above
sea-level. It is a pleasant place of residence, has a remarkably healthy
climate, and is regarded as the most English-like town in the Cape. The
streets are broad, and most of them lined with trees. In the High Street
are the law courts, the Anglican cathedral of St George, built from
designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, and Commemoration Chapel, the chief place
of worship of the Wesleyans, erected by the British emigrants of 1820.
The Roman Catholic cathedral of St Patrick, a Gothic building, is to the
left of the High Street. The town hall, also in the Gothic style, has a
square clock tower built on arches over the pavement. Graham's Town is
one of the chief educational centres in the Cape province. Besides the
public schools and the Rhodes University College (which in 1904 took
over part of the work carried on since 1855 by St Andrew's College),
scholastic institutions are maintained by religious bodies. The town
possesses two large hospitals, which receive patients from all parts of
South Africa, and the government bacteriological institute. It is the
centre of trade for an extensive pastoral and agricultural district.
Owing to the sour quality of the herbage in the surrounding _zuurveld_,
stock-breeding and wool-growing have been, however, to some extent
replaced by ostrich-farming, for which industry Graham's Town is the
most important entrepôt. Dairy farming is much practised in the
neighbourhood.

In 1812 the site of the town was chosen as the headquarters of the
British troops engaged in protecting the frontier of Cape Colony from
the inroads of the Kaffirs, and it was named after Colonel John Graham
(1778-1821), then commanding the forces. (Graham had commanded the light
infantry battalion at the taking of the Cape by the British in the
action of the 6th of January 1806. He also took part in campaigns in
Italy and Holland during the Napoleonic wars.) In 1819 an attempt was
made by the Kaffirs to surprise Graham's Town, and 10,000 men attacked
it, but they were repulsed by the garrison, which numbered not more than
320 men, infantry and artillery, under Lieut.-Colonel (afterwards
General Sir) Thomas Willshire. In 1822 the town was chosen as the
headquarters of the 4000 British immigrants who had reached Cape Colony
in 1820. It has maintained its position as the most important inland
town of the eastern part of the Cape province. In 1864 the Cape
parliament met in Graham's Town, the only instance of the legislature
sitting elsewhere than in Cape Town. It is governed by a municipality.
The rateable value in 1906 was £891,536 and the rate levied 2½d. in the
pound.

  See T. Sheffield, _The Story of the Settlement ..._ (2nd ed., Graham's
  Town, 1884); C. T. Campbell, _British South Africa ... with notices of
  some of the British Settlers of 1820_ (London, 1897).



GRAIL, THE HOLY, the famous talisman of Arthurian romance, the object of
quest on the part of the knights of the Round Table. It is mainly, if
not wholly, known to English readers through the medium of Malory's
translation of the French _Quête du Saint Graal_, where it is the cup or
chalice of the Last Supper, in which the blood which flowed from the
wounds of the crucified Saviour has been miraculously preserved.
Students of the original romances are aware that there is in these texts
an extraordinary diversity of statement as to the nature and origin of
the Grail, and that it is extremely difficult to determine the precise
value of these differing versions.[1] Broadly speaking the Grail
romances have been divided into two main classes: (1) those dealing with
the search for the Grail, the _Quest_, and (2) those relating to its
early history. These latter appear to be dependent on the former, for
whereas we may have a _Quest_ romance without any insistence on the
previous history of the Grail, that history is never found without some
allusion to the hero who is destined to bring the quest to its
successful termination. The _Quest_ versions again fall into three
distinct classes, differentiated by the personality of the hero who is
respectively Gawain, Perceval or Galahad. The most important and
interesting group is that connected with Perceval, and he was regarded
as the original Grail hero, Gawain being, as it were, his understudy.
Recent discoveries, however, point to a different conclusion, and
indicate that the _Gawain_ stories represent an early tradition, and
that we must seek in them rather than in the _Perceval_ versions for
indications as to the ultimate origin of the Grail.

The character of this talisman or relic varies greatly, as will be seen
from the following summary.

1. GAWAIN, included in the continuation to Chrétien's _Perceval_ by
Wauchier de Denain, and attributed to Bleheris the Welshman, who is
probably identical with the Bledhericus of Giraldus Cambrensis, and
considerably earlier than Chrétien de Troyes. Here the Grail is a
food-providing, self-acting talisman, the precise nature of which is not
specified; it is designated as the "rich" Grail, and serves the king and
his court _sans serjant et sans seneschal_, the butlers providing the
guests with wine. In another version, given at an earlier point of the
same continuation, but apparently deriving from a later source, the
Grail is borne in procession by a weeping maiden, and is called the
"holy" Grail, but no details as to its history or character are given.
In a third version, that of _Diu Crône_, a long and confused romance,
the origin of which has not been determined, the Grail appears as a
reliquary, in which the Host is presented to the king, who once a year
partakes alike of it and of the blood which flows from the lance.
Another account is given in the prose _Lancelot_, but here Gawain has
been deposed from his post as first hero of the court, and, as is to be
expected from the treatment meted out to him in this romance, the visit
ends in his complete discomfiture. The Grail is here surrounded with the
atmosphere of awe and reverence familiar to us through the _Quête_, and
is regarded as the chalice of the Last Supper. These are the _Gawain_
versions.

2. PERCEVAL.--The most important _Perceval_ text is the _Conte del
Grael_, or _Perceval le Galois_ of Chrétien de Troyes. Here the Grail is
wrought of gold richly set with precious stones; it is carried in solemn
procession, and the light issuing from it extinguishes that of the
candles. What it is is not explained, but inasmuch as it is the vehicle
in which is conveyed the Host on which the father of the Fisher king
depends for nutriment, it seems not improbable that here, as in _Diu
Crône_, it is to be understood as a reliquary. In the _Parzival_ of
Wolfram von Eschenbach, the ultimate source of which is identical with
that of Chrétien, on the contrary, the Grail is represented as a
precious stone, brought to earth by angels, and committed to the
guardianship of the Grail king and his descendants. It is guarded by a
body of chosen knights, or templars, and acts alike as a life and youth
preserving talisman--no man may die within eight days of beholding it,
and the maiden who bears it retains perennial youth--and an oracle
choosing its own servants, and indicating whom the Grail king shall wed.
The sole link with the Christian tradition is the statement that its
virtue is renewed every Good Friday by the agency of a dove from heaven.
The discrepancy between this and the other Grail romances is most
startling.

In the short prose romance known as the "Didot" _Perceval_ we have, for
the first time, the whole history of the relic logically set forth. The
_Perceval_ forms the third and concluding section of a group of short
romances, the two preceding being the _Joseph of Arimathea_ and the
_Merlin_. In the first we have the precise history of the Grail, how it
was the dish of the Last Supper, confided by our Lord to the care of
Joseph, whom he miraculously visited in the prison to which he had been
committed by the Jews. It was subsequently given by Joseph to his
brother-in-law Brons, whose grandson Perceval is destined to be the
final winner and guardian of the relic. The _Merlin_ forms the
connecting thread between this definitely ecclesiastical romance and the
chivalric atmosphere of Arthur's court; and finally, in the _Perceval_,
the hero, son of Alain and grandson to Brons, is warned by Merlin of the
quest which awaits him and which he achieves after various adventures.

In the _Perlesvaus_ the Grail is the same, but the working out of the
scheme is much more complex; a son of Joseph of Arimathea, Josephe, is
introduced, and we find a spiritual knighthood similar to that used so
effectively in the _Parzival_.

3. GALAHAD.--The _Quête du Saint Graal_, the only romance of which
Galahad is the hero, is dependent on and a completion of the _Lancelot_
development of the Arthurian cycle. Lancelot, as lover of Guinevere,
could not be permitted to achieve so spiritual an emprise, yet as
leading knight of Arthur's court it was impossible to allow him to be
surpassed by another. Hence the invention of Galahad, son to Lancelot by
the Grail king's daughter; predestined by his lineage to achieve the
quest, foredoomed, the quest achieved, to vanish, a sacrifice to his
father's fame, which, enhanced by connexion with the Grail-winner, could
not risk eclipse by his presence. Here the Grail, the chalice of the
Last Supper, is at the same time, as in the _Gawain_ stories,
self-acting and food-supplying.

The last three romances unite, it will be seen, the quest and the early
history. Introductory to the Galahad quest, and dealing only with the
early history, is the _Grand Saint Graal_, a work of interminable
length, based upon the _Joseph of Arimathea_, which has undergone
numerous revisions and amplifications: its precise relation to the
_Lancelot_, with which it has now much matter in common, is not easy to
determine.

To be classed also under the head of early history are certain
interpolations in the MSS. of the _Perceval_, where we find the _Joseph_
tradition, but in a somewhat different form, e.g. he is said to have
caused the Grail to be made for the purpose of receiving the holy blood.
With this account is also connected the legend of the _Volto Santo_ of
Lucca, a crucifix said to have been carved by Nicodemus. In the
conclusion to Chrétien's poem, composed by Manessier some fifty years
later, the Grail is said to have _followed_ Joseph to Britain, how, is
not explained. Another continuation by Gerbert, interpolated between
those of Wauchier and Manessier, relates how the Grail was brought to
Britain by Perceval's mother in the companionship of Joseph.

It will be seen that with the exception of the _Grand Saint Graal_,
which has now been practically converted into an introduction to the
_Quête_, no two versions agree with each other; indeed, with the
exception of the oldest _Gawain-Grail_ visit, that due to Bleheris, they
do not agree with themselves, but all show, more or less, the influence
of different and discordant versions. Why should the vessel of the Last
Supper, jealously guarded at Castle Corbenic, visit Arthur's court
independently? Why does a sacred relic provide purely material food?
What connexion can there be between a precious stone, a _baetylus_, as
Dr Hagen has convincingly shown, and Good Friday? These, and such
questions as these, suggest themselves at every turn.

Numerous attempts have been made to solve these problems, and to
construct a theory of the origin of the Grail story, but so far the
difficulty has been to find an hypothesis which would admit of the
practically simultaneous existence of apparently contradictory features.
At one time considered as an introduction from the East, the theory of
the Grail as an Oriental talisman has now been discarded, and the expert
opinion of the day may be said to fall into two groups: (1) those who
hold the Grail to have been from the first a purely Christian vessel
which has accidentally, and in a manner never clearly explained,
acquired certain folk-lore characteristics; and (2) those who hold, on
the contrary, that the Grail is _aborigine_ folk-lore and Celtic, and
that the Christian development is a later and accidental rather than an
essential feature of the story. The first view is set forth in the work
of Professor Birch-Hirschfeld, the second in that of Mr Alfred Nutt, the
two constituting the only _travaux d'ensemble_ which have yet appeared
on the subject. It now seems probable that both are in a measure
correct, and that the ultimate solution will be recognized to lie in a
blending of two originally independent streams of tradition. The
researches of Professor Mannhardt in Germany and of J. G. Frazer in
England have amply demonstrated the enduring influence exercised on
popular thought and custom by certain primitive forms of vegetation
worship, of which the most noteworthy example is the so-called mysteries
of Adonis. Here the ordinary processes of nature and progression of the
seasons were symbolized under the figure of the death and resuscitation
of the god. These rites are found all over the world, and in his
monumental work, _The Golden Bough_, Dr Frazer has traced a host of
extant beliefs and practices to this source. The earliest form of the
Grail story, the _Gawain_-Bleheris version, exhibits a marked affinity
with the characteristic features of the Adonis or Tammuz worship; we
have a castle on the sea-shore, a dead body on a bier, the identity of
which is never revealed, mourned over with solemn rites; a wasted
country, whose desolation is mysteriously connected with the dead man,
and which is restored to fruitfulness when the quester asks the meaning
of the marvels he beholds (the two features of the weeping women and the
wasted land being retained in versions where they have no significance);
finally the mysterious food-providing, self-acting talisman of a common
feast--one and all of these features may be explained as survivals of
the Adonis ritual. Professor Martin long since suggested that a key to
the problems of the Arthurian cycle was to be found in a nature myth:
Professor Rhys regards Arthur as an agricultural hero; Dr Lewis Mott has
pointed out the correspondence between the so-called Round Table sites
and the ritual of nature worship; but it is only with the discovery of
the existence of Bleheris as reputed authority for Arthurian tradition,
and the consequent recognition that the Grail story connected with his
name is the earliest form of the legend, that we have secured a solid
basis for such theories.

With regard to the religious form of the story, recent research has
again aided us--we know now that a legend similar in all respects to the
Joseph of Arimathea Grail story was widely current at least a century
before our earliest Grail texts. The story with Nicodemus as protagonist
is told of the _Saint-Sang_ relic at Fécamp; and, as stated already, a
similar origin is ascribed to the _Volto Santo_ at Lucca. In this
latter case the legend professes to date from the 8th century, and
scholars who have examined the texts in their present form consider that
there may be solid ground for this attribution. It is thus demonstrable
that the material for our Grail legend, in its present form, existed
long anterior to any extant text, and there is no improbability in
holding that a confused tradition of pagan mysteries which had assumed
the form of a popular folk-tale, became finally Christianized by
combination with an equally popular ecclesiastical legend, the point of
contact being the vessel of the common ritual feast. Nor can there be
much doubt that in this process of combination the Fécamp legend played
an important rôle. The best and fullest of the _Perceval_ MSS. refer to
a book written at Fécamp as source for certain _Perceval_ adventures.
What this book was we do not know, but in face of the fact that certain
special Fécamp relics, silver knives, appear in the Grail procession of
the _Parzival_, it seems most probable that it was a _Perceval_-Grail
story. The relations between the famous Benedictine abbey and the
English court both before and after the Conquest were of an intimate
character. Legends of the part played by Joseph of Arimathea in the
conversion of Britain are closely connected with Glastonbury, the monks
of which foundation showed, in the 12th century, considerable literary
activity, and it seems a by no means improbable hypothesis that the
present form of the Grail legend may be due to a monk of Glastonbury
elaborating ideas borrowed from Fécamp. This much is certain, that
between the _Saint-Sang_ of Fécamp, the _Volto Santo_ of Lucca, and the
Grail tradition, there exists a connecting link, the precise nature of
which has yet to be determined. The two former were popular objects of
pilgrimage; was the third originally intended to serve the same purpose
by attracting attention to the reputed burial-place of the apostle of
the Grail, Joseph of Arimathea?

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For the Gawain Grail visits see the Potvin edition of
  the _Perceval_, which, however, only gives the Bleheris version; the
  second visit is found in the best and most complete MSS., such as
  12,576 and 12,577 (_Fonds français_) of the Paris library. _Diu
  Crône_, edited by Scholl (Stuttgart, 1852). vol. vi. of _Arthurian
  Romances_ (Nutt), gives a translation of the Bleheris, _Diu Crône_ and
  _Prose Lancelot_ visits.

  The _Conte del Graal_, or _Perceval_, is only accessible in the
  edition of M. Potvin (6 vols., 1866-1871). The Mons MS., from which
  this has been printed, has proved to be an exceedingly poor and
  untrustworthy text. _Parzival_, by Wolfram von Eschenbach, has been
  frequently and well edited; the edition by Bartsch (1875-1877), in
  _Deutsche Classiker des Mittelalters_, contains full notes and a
  glossary. Suitable for the more advanced student are those by K.
  Lachmann (1891), Leitzmann (1902-1903) and E. Martin (1903). There are
  modern German translations by Simrock (very close to the original) and
  Hertz (excellent notes). English translation with notes and appendices
  by J. L. Weston. "Didot" _Perceval_, ed. Hucher, _Le Saint Graal_
  (1875-1878), vol. i. _Perlesvaus_ was printed by Potvin, under the
  title of _Perceval le Gallois_, in vol. i. of the edition above
  referred to; a Welsh version from the Hengwert MS. was published with
  translation by Canon R. Williams (2 vols., 1876-1892). Under the title
  of _The High History of the Holy Grail_ a fine version was published
  by Dr Sebastian Evans in the Temple Classics (2 vols., 1898). The
  _Grand Saint Graal_ was published by Hucher as given above; this
  edition includes the _Joseph of Arimathea_. A 15th century metrical
  English adaptation by one Henry Lovelich, was printed by Dr Furnivall
  for the Roxburghe Club 1861-1863; a new edition was undertaken for the
  Early English Text Society. _Quête du Saint Graal_ can best be studied
  in Malory's somewhat abridged translation, books xiii.-xviii. of the
  _Morte Arthur_. It has also been printed by Dr Furnivall for the
  Roxburghe Club, from a MS. in the British Museum. Neither of these
  texts is, however, very good, and the student who can decipher old
  Dutch would do well to read it in the metrical translation published
  by Joenckbloet, _Roman van Lanceloet_, as the original here was
  considerably fuller.

  For general treatment of the subject see _Legend of Sir Perceval_, by
  J. L. Weston, Grimm Library, vol. xvii. (1906); _Studies on the Legend
  of the Holy Grail_, by A. Nutt (1888), and a more concise treatment of
  the subject by the same writer in No. 14 of _Popular Studies_ (1902);
  Professor Birch-Hirschfeld's _Die Sage vom Gral_ (1877). The late
  Professor Heinzel's _Die alt-französischen Gral-Romane_ contains a
  mass of valuable matter, but is very confused and ill-arranged. For
  the Fécamp legend see Leroux de Lincey's _Essai sur l'abbaye de
  Fescamp_ (1840); for the _Volto Santo_ and kindred legends, Ernest von
  Dobschütz, _Christus-Bilder_ (Leipzig, 1899).     (J. L. W.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The etymology of the O. Fr. _graal_ or _greal_, of which "grail"
    is an adaptation, has been much discussed. The Low Lat. original,
    _gradale_ or _grasale_, a flat dish or platter, has generally been
    taken to represent a diminutive _cratella_ of _crater_, bowl, or a
    lost _cratale_, formed from the same word (see W. W. Skeat, Preface
    to _Joseph of Arimathie_, Early Eng. Text Soc).--ED.



GRAIN (derived through the French from Lat. _granum_, seed, from an
Aryan root meaning "to wear down," which also appears in the common
Teutonic word "corn"), a word particularly applied to the seed, in
botanical language the "fruit," of cereals, and hence applied, as a
collective term to cereal plants generally, to which, in English, the
term "corn" is also applied (see GRAIN TRADE). Apart from this, the
chief meaning, the word is used of the malt refuse of brewing and
distilling, and of many hard rounded small particles, resembling the
seeds of plants, such as "grains" of sand, salt, gold, gunpowder, &c.
"Grain" is also the name of the smallest unit of weight, both in the
United Kingdom and the United States of America. Its origin is supposed
to be the weight of a grain of wheat, dried and gathered from the middle
of the ear. The troy grain = 1/5760 of a lb., the avoirdupois grain =
1/7000 of a lb. In diamond weighing the grain = ¼ of the carat, = .7925
of the troy grain. The word "grains" was early used, as also in French,
of the small seed-like insects supposed formerly to be the berries of
trees, from which a scarlet dye was extracted (see COCHINEAL and
KERMES). From the Fr. _en graine_, literally in dye, comes the French
verb _engrainer_, Eng. "engrain" or "ingrain," meaning to dye in any
fast colour. From the further use of "grain" for the texture of
substances, such as wood, meat, &c., "engrained" or "ingrained" means
ineradicable, impregnated, dyed through and through. The "grain" of
leather is the side of a skin showing the fibre after the hair has been
removed. The imitating in paint of the grain of different kinds of woods
is known as "graining" (see PAINTER-WORK). "Grain," or more commonly in
the plural "grains," construed as a singular, is the name of an
instrument with two or more barbed prongs, used for spearing fish. This
word is Scandinavian in origin, and is connected with Dan. _green_,
Swed. _gren_, branch, and means the fork of a tree, of the body, or the
prongs of a fork, &c. It is not connected with "groin," the inguinal
parts of the body, which in its earliest forms appears as _grynde_.



GRAINS OF PARADISE, GUINEA GRAINS, or MELEGUETA PEPPER (Ger.
_Paradieskörner_, Fr. _graines de Paradis_, _maniguette_), the seeds of
_Amomum Melegueta_, a reed-like plant of the natural order
_Zingiberaceae_. It is a native of tropical western Africa, and of
Prince's and St Thomas's islands in the Gulf of Guinea, is cultivated in
other tropical countries, and may with ease be grown in hothouses in
temperate climates. The plant has a branched horizontal rhizome; smooth,
nearly sessile, narrowly lanceolate-oblong alternate leaves; large,
white, pale pink or purplish flowers; and an ovate-oblong fruit,
ensheathed in bracts, which is of a scarlet colour when fresh, and
reaches under cultivation a length of 5 in. The seeds are contained in
the acid pulp of the fruit, are commonly wedge-shaped and bluntly
angular, are about 1¼ lines in diameter and have a glossy dark-brown
husk, with a conical light-coloured membranous caruncle at the base and
a white kernel. They contain, according to Flückiger and Hanbury, 0.3%
of a faintly yellowish neutral essential oil, having an aromatic, not
acrid taste, and a specific gravity at 15.5° C of 0.825, and giving on
analysis the formula C20H32O, or C10H16 + C10H16O; also 5.83% of an
intensely pungent, viscid, brown resin.

Grains of paradise were formerly officinal in British pharmacopoeias,
and in the 13th and succeeding centuries were used as a drug and a
spice, the wine known as hippocras being flavoured with them and with
ginger and cinnamon. In 1629 they were employed among the ingredients of
the twenty-four herring pies which were the ancient fee-favour of the
city of Norwich, ordained to be carried to court by the lord of the
manor of Carleton (Johnston and Church, _Chem. of Common Life_, p. 355,
1879). Grains of paradise were anciently brought overland from West
Africa to the Mediterranean ports of the Barbary states, to be shipped
for Italy. They are now exported almost exclusively from the Gold Coast.
Grains of paradise are to some extent used illegally to give a
fictitious strength to malt liquors, gin and cordials. By 56 Geo. III.
c. 58, no brewer or dealer in beer shall have in his possession or use
grains of paradise, under a penalty of £200 for each offence; and no
druggist shall sell the same to a brewer under a penalty of £500. They
are, however, devoid of any injurious physiological action, and are much
esteemed as a spice by the natives of Guinea.

  See Bentley and Trimen, _Medicinal Plants_, tab. 268; Lanessan, _Hist.
  des Drogues_, pp. 456-460 (1878).



GRAIN TRADE. The complexity of the conditions of life in the 20th
century may be well illustrated from the grain trade of the world. The
ordinary bread sold in Great Britain represents, for example, produce of
nearly every country in the world outside the tropics.


  General considerations.

Wheat has been cultivated from remote antiquity. In a wild state it is
practically unknown. It is alleged to have been found growing wild
between the Euphrates and the Tigris; but the discovery has never been
authenticated, and, unless the plant be sedulously cared for, the
species dies out in a surprisingly short space of time. Modern
experiments in cross-fertilization in Lancashire by the Garton Brothers
have evolved the most extraordinary "sports," showing, it is claimed,
that the plant has probably passed through stages of which until the
present day there had been no conception. The tales that grains of wheat
found in the cerements of Egyptian mummies have been planted and come to
maturity are no longer credited, for the vital principle in the wheat
berry is extremely evanescent; indeed, it is doubtful whether wheat
twenty years old is capable of reproduction. The Garton artificial
fertilization experiments have shown endless deviations from the
ordinary type, ranging from minute seeds with a closely adhering husk to
big berries almost as large as sloes and about as worthless. It is
conjectured that the wheat plant, as now known, is a degenerate form of
something much finer which flourished thousands of years ago, and that
possibly it may be restored to its pristine excellence, yielding an
increase twice or thrice as large as it now does, thus postponing to a
distant period the famine doom prophesied by Sir W. Crookes in his
presidential address to the British Association in 1898. Wheat well
repays careful attention; contrast the produce of a carelessly tilled
Russian or Indian field and the bountiful yield on a good Lincolnshire
farm, the former with its average yield of 8 bushels, the latter with
its 50 bushels per acre; or compare the quality, as regards the quantity
and flavour of the flour from a fine sample of British wheat, such as is
on sale at almost every agricultural show in Great Britain, with the
produce of an Egyptian or Syrian field; the difference is so great as to
cause one to doubt whether the berries are of the same species.

It may be stated roundly that an average quartern loaf in Great Britain
is made from wheat grown in the following countries in the proportions
named:--

  +------+-----+-------+------+-------+-------+---------+------+----------+
  |U.S.A.| U.K.|Russia.|Argen-|British|Canada.|Rumania- |Austr-|  Other   |
  |      |     |       | tina.|India. |       |Bulgaria.| alia.|Countries.|
  +------+-----+-------+------+-------+-------+---------+------+----------+
  |  Oz. | Oz. |  Oz.  | Oz.  |  Oz.  |  Oz.  |   Oz.   | Oz.  |   Oz.    |
  |  26  | 13      9   |  5   |   4   |   3   |    2    |  1   |    1     |
  |                Or expressed in percentages as follows:--              |
  |  40  | 20  |  14   |  8   |   6   |   5   |    3    |  2   |    2     |
  +------+-----+-------+------+-------+-------+---------+------+----------+

For details connected with grain and its handling see AGRICULTURE, CORN
LAWS, GRANARIES, FLOUR, BAKING, WHEAT, &c.

Wheat occupies of all cereals the widest region of any food-stuff. Rice,
which shares with millet the distinction of being the principal
food-stuff of the greatest number of human beings, is not grown nearly
as widely as is wheat, the staple food of the white races. Wheat grows
as far south as Patagonia, and as far north as the edge of the Arctic
Circle; it flourishes throughout Europe, and across the whole of
northern Asia and in Japan; it is cultivated in Persia, and raised
largely in India, as far south as the Nizam's dominions. It is grown
over nearly the whole of North America. In Canada a very fine wheat crop
was raised in the autumn of 1898 as far north as the mission at Fort
Providence, on the Mackenzie river, in a latitude above 62°--or less
than 200 m. south of the latitude of Dawson City--the period between
seed-time and harvest having been ninety-one days. In Africa it was an
article of commerce in the days of Jacob, whose son Joseph may be said
to have run the first and only successful "corner" in wheat. For many
centuries Egypt was famous as a wheat raiser; it was a cargo of wheat
from Alexandria which St Paul helped to jettison on one of his
shipwrecks, as was also, in all probability, that of the "ship of
Alexandria whose sign was Castor and Pollux," named in the same
narrative. General Gordon is quoted as having stated that the Sudan if
properly settled would be capable of feeding the whole of Europe. Along
the north coast of Africa are areas which, if properly irrigated, as was
done in the days of Carthage, could produce enough wheat to feed half of
the Caucasian race. For instance, the vilayet of Tripoli, with an area
of 400,000 sq. m., or three times the extent of Great Britain and
Ireland, according to the opinion of a British consul, could raise
millions of acres of wheat. The cereal flourishes on all the high
plateaus of South Africa, from Cape Town to the Zambezi. Land is being
extensively put under wheat in the pampas of South America and in the
prairies of Siberia.

In the raising of the standard of farming to an English level the volume
of the world's crop would be trebled, another fact which Sir William
Crookes seems to have overlooked. The experiments of the late Sir J. B.
Lawes in Hertfordshire have proved that the natural fruitfulness of the
wheat plant can be increased threefold by the application of the proper
fertilizer. The results of these experiments will be found in a
compendium issued from the Rothamsted Agricultural Experimental Station.

It is by no means, however, the wheat which yields the greatest number
of bushels per acre which is the most valuable from a miller's
standpoint, for the thinness of the bran and the fineness and strength
of the flour are with him important considerations, too often overlooked
by the farmer when buying his seed. Nevertheless it is the deficient
quantity of the wheat raised in the British Islands, and not the quality
of the grain, which has been the cause of so much anxiety to economists
and statesmen.


  Freight rates.

Sir J. Caird, writing in the year 1880, expressed the opinion that
arable land in Great Britain would always command a substantial rent of
at least 30s. per acre. His figures were based on the assumption that
wheat was imported duty free. He calculated that the cost of carriage
from abroad of wheat, or the equivalent of the product of an acre of
good wheat land in Great Britain, would not be less than 30s. per ton.
But freights had come down by 1900 to half the rates predicated by
Caird; indeed, during a portion of the interval they ruled very close to
zero, as far as steamer freights from America were concerned. In 1900 an
all-round freight rate for wheat might be taken at 15s. _per ton_ (a ton
representing approximately the produce of an acre of good wheat land in
England), say from 10s. for Atlantic American and Russian, to 30s. for
Pacific American and Australian; about midway between these two extremes
we find Indian and Argentine, the greatest bulk coming at about the 15s.
rate. Inferior land bearing less than 4½ quarters per acre would not be
protected to the same extent, and moreover, seeing that a portion of the
British wheat crop has to stand a charge as heavy for land carriage
across a county as that borne by foreign wheat across a continent or an
ocean, the protection is not nearly so substantial as Caird would make
out. The compilation showing the changes in the rates of charges for the
railway and other transportation services issued by the Division of
Statistics, Department of Agriculture, U.S.A. (Miscellaneous series,
Bulletin No. 15, 1898), is a valuable reference book. From its pages are
culled the following facts relating to the changes in the rates of
freight up to the year 1897.[1] In Table 3 the average rates per ton per
mile in cents are shown since 1846. For the Fitchburg Railroad the rate
for that year was 4.523 cents per ton per mile, since when a great and
almost continuous fall has been taking place, until in 1897, the latest
year given, the rate had declined to .870 of a cent per ton per mile.
The railway which shows the greatest fall is the Chesapeake & Ohio, for
the charge has fallen from over 7 cents in 1862 and 1863 to .419 of a
cent in 1897, whereas the Erie rates have fallen only from 1.948 in 1852
to .609 in 1897. Putting the rates of the twelve returning railways
together, we find the average freight in the two years 1859-1860 was
3.006 cents per ton per mile, and that in 1896-1897 the average rate had
fallen to .797 of a cent per ton per mile. This difference is very large
compared with the smallness of the unit. Coming to the rates on grain,
we find (in Table 23) a record for the forty years 1858-1897 of the
charge on wheat from Chicago to New York, via all rail from 1858, and
via lake and rail since 1868, the authority being the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade. From 1858 to 1862 the rate varied between 42.37
and 34.80 cents per bushel for the whole trip of roundly 1000 m., the
average rate in the quinquennium being 38.43. In the five years
immediately prior to the time at which Sir J. Caird expressed the
opinion that the cost of carriage from abroad would always protect the
British grower, the average all-rail freight from Chicago to New York
was 17.76 cents, while the summer rate (partly by water) was 13.17
cents. These rates in 1897, the last year shown on the table, had fallen
to 12.50 and 7.42 respectively. The rates have been as follows in
quinquennial periods, via all rail:--

_Chicago to New York in Cents per Bushel._

  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  | 1858- | 1863- | 1868- | 1873- | 1878- | 1883- | 1888- | 1893- |
  | 1862. | 1867. | 1872. | 1877. | 1882. | 1887. | 1892. | 1897. |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  | 38.43 | 31.42 | 27.91 | 21.29 | 16.77 | 14.67 | 14.52 | 12.88 |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

Calculating roundly a cent as equal to a halfpenny, and eight bushels to
the quarter, the above would appear in English currency as follows:--

_Chicago to New York in Shillings and Pence per Quarter._

  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  | 1858- | 1863- | 1868- | 1873- | 1878- | 1883- | 1888- | 1893- |
  | 1862. | 1867. | 1872. | 1877. | 1882. | 1887. | 1892. | 1897. |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  | s. d. | s. d. | s. d. | s. d. | s. d. | s. d. | s. d. | s. d. |
  | 12 8  | 10 6  | 9  3  | 7  1  | 5  7  | 4 10½ | 4  10 | 4  3  |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

Another table (No. 38) shows the average rates from Chicago to New York
by lakes, canal and river. These in their quinquennial periods are given
for the season as follows:--

_In Cents per Bushel of_ 60 lb.

  +----------+----------+----------+
  |1857-1861.|1876-1880.|1893-1897.|
  +----------+----------+----------+
  |   22.15  |   10.47  |   4.92   |
  +----------+----------+----------+

_In Shillings and Pence per Quarter of_ 480 lb.

  +----------+----------+----------+
  |1857-1861.|1876-1880.|1893-1897.|
  +----------+----------+----------+
  |  s.  d.  |  s.  d.  |  s.  d.  |
  |  7   4   |  3   6   |  1   7   |
  +----------+----------+----------+

_In Shillings and Pence per Ton of_ 2240 lb.

  +----------+----------+----------+
  |1857-1861.|1876-1880.|1893-1897.|
  +----------+----------+----------+
  |  s.   d. | s.   d.  |  s.  d.  |
  |  34   6  | 16   6   |  7   6   |
  +----------+----------+----------+

This latter mode is the cheapest by which grain can be carried to the
eastern seaboard from the American prairies, and it can now be done at a
cost of 7s. 6d. per ton. The ocean freight has to be added before the
grain can be delivered free on the quay at Liverpool. A rate from New
York to Liverpool of 2½d. per bushel, or 7s. 10d. per ton, a low rate,
reached in Dec. 1900, is yet sufficiently high, it is claimed, to leave
a profit; indeed, there have frequently been times when the rate was as
low as 1d. per bushel, or 3s. 1d. per ton; and in periods of great trade
depression wheat is carried from New York to Liverpool as ballast, being
paid for by the ship-owner. Another route worked more cheaply than
formerly is that by river, from the centre of the winter wheat belt, say
at St Louis, to New Orleans, and thence by steamer to Liverpool. The
river rate has fallen below five cents per bushel, or 7s. per ton, 2240
lb. In Table No. 71 the cost of transportation is compared year by year
with the export price of the two leading cereals in the States as
follows:--

_Wheat and Corn--Export Prices and Transportation Rates compared._

  +------+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
  |      |              Wheat.              |              Corn.               |
  |      +---------+-------------+----------+---------+-------------+----------+
  |      |         |             |  Number  |         |             |  Number  |
  |      |         |Rate, Chicago|of Bushels|         |Rate, Chicago|of Bushels|
  | Year.| Export  | to New York |  carried | Export  | to New York | carried  |
  |      |Price per|   by Lake   | for Price|Price per|   by Lake   | for Price|
  |      | Bushel. | and Canal,  |  of One  | Bushel. |  and Canal, |  of One  |
  |      |         | per Bushel. |  Bushel. |         | per Bushel. |  Bushel. |
  +------+---------+-------------+----------+---------+-------------+----------+
  |      |         |    Cents.   |          |         |    Cents.   |          |
  | 1867 |  $0.92  |    15.95    |   5.77   |$0.72    |    14.58    |   4.94   |
  | 1868 |   1.36  |    16.23    |   8.38   |  .84.1  |    13.57    |   6.20   |
  | 1869 |   1.05  |    17.20    |   6.10   |  .72.8  |    14.98    |   4.86   |
  | 1870 |   1.12  |    14.85    |   7.54   |  .80.5  |    13.78    |   5.84   |
  | 1871 |   1.18  |    17.75    |   6.65   |  .67.9  |    16.53    |   4.11   |
  | 1872 |   1.31  |    21.55    |   6.08   |  .61.8  |    19.62    |   3.15   |
  | 1873 |   1.15  |    16.89    |   6.81   |  .54.3  |    15.39    |   3.53   |
  | 1874 |   1.29  |    12.75    |  10.12   |  .64.7  |    11.29    |   5.73   |
  | 1875 |    .97  |     9.90    |   9.80   |  .73.8  |     8.93    |   8.26   |
  | 1876 |   1.11  |     8.63    |  12.86   |  .60.3  |     7.93    |   7.60   |
  | 1877 |   1.12  |    10.76    |  10.41   |  .56.0  |     9.41    |   5.95   |
  | 1878 |   1.33  |     9.10    |  14.62   |  .55.8  |     8.27    |   6.75   |
  | 1879 |   1.07  |    11.60    |   9.22   |  .47.1  |    10.43    |   4.52   |
  | 1880 |   1.25  |    12.27    |  10.19   |  .54.3  |    11.14    |   4.87   |
  | 1881 |   1.11  |     8.19    |  13.55   |  .55.2  |     7.26    |   7.60   |
  | 1882 |   1.19  |     7.89    |  15.08   |  .66.8  |     7.23    |   9.24   |
  | 1883 |   1.13  |     8.37    |  13.50   |  .68.4  |     7.66    |   8.93   |
  | 1884 |   1.07  |     6.31    |  16.96   |  .61.1  |     5.64    |  10.83   |
  | 1885 |    .86  |     5.87    |  14.65   |  .54.0  |     5.38    |  10.04   |
  | 1886 |    .87  |     8.71    |   9.99   |  .49.8  |     7.98    |   6.24   |
  | 1887 |    .89  |     8.51    |  10.46   |  .47.9  |     7.88    |   6.08   |
  | 1888 |    .85  |     5.93    |  14.33   |  .55.0  |     5.41    |  10.17   |
  | 1889 |    .90  |     6.89    |  13.06   |  .47.4  |     6.19    |   7.66   |
  | 1890 |    .83  |     5.86    |  14.16   |  .41.8  |     5.10    |   8.20   |
  | 1891 |    .93  |     5.96    |  15.60   |  .57.4  |     5.36    |  10.71   |
  | 1892 |   1.03  |     5.61    |  18.36   |  .55    |     5.03    |  10.93   |
  | 1893 |    .80  |     6.31    |  12.68   |  .53    |     5.71    |   9.28   |
  | 1894 |    .67  |     4.44    |  15.09   |  .46    |     3.99    |  11.53   |
  | 1895 |    .58  |     4.11    |  14.11   |  .53    |     3.71    |  14.29   |
  | 1896 |    .65  |     5.38    |  12.08   |  .38    |     4.94    |   7.69   |
  | 1897 |    .75  |     4.35    |  17.24   |  .31    |     3.79    |   8.18   |
  +------+---------+-------------+----------+---------+-------------+----------+

The farmers of the United States have now to meet a greatly increased
output from Canada--the cost of transport from that country to England
being much the same as from the United States. So much improved is the
position of the farmer in North America compared with what it was about
1870, that the transport companies in 1901 carried 17¼ bushels of his
grain to the seaboard in exchange for the value of one bushel, whereas
in 1867 he had to give up one bushel in every six in return for the
service. As regards the British farmer, it does not appear as if he had
improved his position; for he has to send his wheat to greater
distances, owing to the collapse of many country millers or their
removal to the seaboard, while railway rates have fallen only to a very
small extent; again the farmer's wheat is worth only half of what it was
formerly; it may be said that the British farmer has to give up one
bushel in nine to the railway company for the purpose of transportation,
whereas in the 'seventies he gave up one in eighteen only. Enough has
been said to prove that the advantage of position claimed for the
British farmer by Caird was somewhat illusory. Speaking broadly, the
Kansas or Minnesota farmer's wheat does not have to pay for carriage to
Liverpool more than 2s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. per ton in excess of the rate
paid by a Yorkshire farmer; this, it will be admitted, does not go very
far towards enabling the latter to pay rent, tithes and rates and taxes.

The subject of the rates of ocean carriage at different periods requires
consideration if a proper understanding of the working of the foreign
grain trade is to be obtained. Only a very small proportion of the
decline in the price of wheat since 1880 is due to cheapened transport
rates; for while the mileage rate has been falling, the length of
haulage has been extending, until in 1900 the principal wheat fields of
America were 2000 m. farther from the eastern seaboard than was the case
in 1870, and consequently, notwithstanding the fall in the mileage rate
of 50 to 75%, it still costs the United Kingdom nearly as much to have
its quota of foreign wheat fetched from abroad as it did then. The
difference in the cost of the operation is shown in the following
tabular statement, both the cost in the aggregate on a year's imports
and the cost per quarter:--

_Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United
Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1900, together
with the average rate of freight._

    1900.

  +----------------------+-------------+---------------+------------+
  |                      |             | Ocean Freight | Total Cost |
  | Countries of Origin. | Quantities. |   to United   |  of Ocean  |
  |                      | Qrs. 480 lb.|    Kingdom.   |  Carriage. |
  |                      |             |   Per 480 lb. |            |
  +----------------------+-------------+---------------+------------+
  |                      |             |      s. d.    |     £      |
  | Atlantic America     | 11,171,100  |      2  3     |  1,257,100 |
  | South Russia         |    569,000  |      2  2     |     62,000 |
  | Pacific America      |  2,389,900  |      8  1     |    966,000 |
  | Canada               |  1,877,100  |      2  8     |    250,000 |
  | Rumania              |    176,400  |      2  6     |     22,000 |
  | Argentina and Uruguay|  4,322,300  |      4 10     |  1,045,000 |
  | France               |    251,900  |      1  3     |     16,000 |
  | Bulgaria and Rumelia |     30,600  |      2  6     |      4,000 |
  | India                |      2,200  |      4  0     |        400 |
  | Austria-Hungary      |    389,300  |      1  9     |     34,000 |
  | Chile                |        600  |       ..      |     ..     |
  | North Russia         |    462,700  |      1  6     |     35,000 |
  | Germany              |    438,700  |      1  6     |     33,000 |
  | Australasia          |    883,900  |      6  5     |    284,000 |
  | Minor Countries      |    225,100  |      2  6     |     28,000 |
  |                      +-------------+---------------+------------+
  |     Total            | 23,190,800  |Average 3s. 6d.| £4,036,500 |
  +----------------------+-------------+---------------+------------+

Comparing these figures with a similar statement for the year 1872, the
most remote year for which similar facts are available, it will be found
that the actual total cost per quarter for ocean carriage has not much
decreased.

_Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United
Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1872, together
with the average rate of freight._

    1872.

  +-----------------------+-----------+---------------+------------+
  |                       |           | Ocean Freight |            |
  |  Countries of Origin. |Quantities.|   to United   | Total Cost |
  |                       |    Qrs.   |    Kingdom.   |of Carriage.|
  |                       |           |     Per qr.   |            |
  +-----------------------+-----------+---------------+------------+
  |                       |           |      s. d.    |      £     |
  | South Russia          | 3,678,000 |      8  6     |  1,563,000 |
  | United States         | 2,030,000 |      6  6     |    659,000 |
  | Germany               |   910,000 |      2  0     |     91,000 |
  | France                |   660,000 |      3  0     |     99,000 |
  | Egypt                 |   536,000 |      4  6     |    120,000 |
  | North Russia          |   490,000 |      2  0     |     49,000 |
  | Canada                |   400,000 |      7  6     |    150,000 |
  | Chile                 |   330,000 |     12  0     |    198,000 |
  | Turkey                |   195,000 |      7  6     |     72,000 |
  | Spain                 |   130,000 |      3  6     |     23,000 |
  | Scandinavia           |   160,000 |      2  0     |     16,000 |
  |                       +-----------+---------------+------------+
  | Total, Chief Countries| 9,519,000 |Average 6s. 5d.| £3,040,000 |
  +-----------------------+-----------+---------------+------------+

_N.B._--A trifling quantity of Californian and Australian wheat was
imported in the period in question, but the Board of Trade records do
not distinguish the quantities, therefore they cannot be given. The
freight in that year from those countries averaged about 13s. per
quarter.

The exact difference between the average freight for the years 1872 and
1900 amounts to about 2s. 11d. per quarter (480 lb.), a trifle in
comparison with the actual fall in the price of wheat during the same
years.

The following data bearing upon the subject, for selected periods, are
partly taken from the _Corn Trade Year-Book_:--

  +------+----------------+-------------+--------------+
  |      | United Kingdom |Ocean Freight|              |
  | Year.| Annual Imports.|  to United  |Aggregate Cost|
  |      |Wheat and Flour.|   Kingdom.  | of Carriage. |
  |      |      Qrs.      |   Per qr.   |              |
  +------+----------------+-------------+--------------+
  |      |                |     s. d.   |       £      |
  | 1872 |    9,469,000   |     6  5    |   3,040,000  |
  | 1882 |   14,850,000   |     7  4    |   5,420,000  |
  | 1894 |   16,229,000   |     3  9    |   3,041,000  |
  | 1895 |   25,197,000   |     3  0    |   3,825,000  |
  | 1896 |   23,431,000   |     2  9    |   3,258,000  |
  | 1900 |   23,196,000   |     3  6    |   4,036,000  |
  +------+----------------+-------------+--------------+

In passing, it may be pointed out that for a period of four years, from
1871 to 1874, the price of wheat averaged 56s. per quarter (or 7s. per
bushel), with the charge for ocean carriage at 6s. 5d. per quarter,
whereas in 1901 wheat was sold in England at 28s. (or 3s. 6d. per
bushel), and the charge for ocean carriage was 3s. 6d. per quarter; the
ocean transport companies carried eight bushels of wheat across the seas
in 1901 for the value of one bushel, or exactly at the same ratio as in
1872.

The contrast between the case of railway freight and ocean freight is to
be explained by the greater length of the present ocean voyage, which
now extends to 10,000 miles in the case of Europe's importation of white
wheat from the Pacific Coast of the United States and Australia, in
contrast with the short voyage from the Black Sea or across the English
Channel or German Ocean. It is largely due to the overlooking of this
phase of the question that an American statistician has fallen into the
error of stating that about 16s. per quarter of the fall in the price of
wheat, which happened between 1880 and 1894, is attributable to the
lessened cost of transport.


  WHEAT PRICES

  The following figures show the fluctuations from year to year of
  English wheat, chiefly according to a record published by Mr T. Smith,
  Melford, the period covered being from 1656 to 1905:

  _Price per Quarter_

    +------+-------++------+-------++------+-------++------+-------++------+-------+
    |      | s.  d.||      | s.  d.||      | s.  d.||      | s.  d.||      | s.  d.|
    | 1656 | 38  2 || 1706 | 23  1 || 1756 | 40  1 || 1806 | 79  1 || 1856 | 69  2 |
    | 1657 | 41  5 || 1707 | 25  4 || 1757 | 53  4 || 1807 | 75  4 || 1857 | 56  4 |
    | 1658 | 57  9 || 1708 | 36 10 || 1758 | 44  5 || 1808 | 84  4 || 1858 | 44  2 |
    | 1659 | 58  8 || 1709 | 69  9 || 1759 | 35  3 || 1809 | 97  4 || 1859 | 43  9 |
    | 1660 | 50  2 || 1710 | 69  4 || 1760 | 32  5 || 1810 |106  5 || 1860 | 53  3 |
    | 1661 | 62  2 || 1711 | 48  0 || 1761 | 26  9 || 1811 | 95  3 || 1861 | 55  4 |
    | 1662 | 65  9 || 1712 | 41  2 || 1762 | 34  8 || 1812 |126  6 || 1862 | 55  5 |
    | 1663 | 50  8 || 1713 | 45  4 || 1763 | 36  1 || 1813 |109  9 || 1863 | 44  9 |
    | 1664 | 36  0 || 1714 | 44  9 || 1764 | 41  5 || 1814 | 74  4 || 1864 | 40  2 |
    | 1665 | 43 10 || 1715 | 38  2 || 1765 | 48  0 || 1815 | 65  7 || 1865 | 41 10 |
    | 1666 | 32  0 || 1716 | 42  8 || 1766 | 43  1 || 1816 | 78  6 || 1866 | 49 11 |
    | 1667 | 32  0 || 1717 | 40  7 || 1767 | 57  4 || 1817 | 96 11 || 1867 | 64  5 |
    | 1668 | 35  6 || 1718 | 34  6 || 1768 | 53  9 || 1818 | 86  3 || 1868 | 63  9 |
    | 1669 | 39  5 || 1719 | 31  1 || 1769 | 40  7 || 1819 | 74  6 || 1869 | 48  2 |
    | 1670 | 37  0 || 1720 | 32 10 || 1770 | 43  6 || 1820 | 67 10 || 1870 | 46 11 |
    | 1671 | 37  4 || 1721 | 33  4 || 1771 | 47  2 || 1821 | 56  1 || 1871 | 56  8 |
    | 1672 | 36  5 || 1722 | 32  0 || 1772 | 50  8 || 1822 | 44  7 || 1872 | 57  0 |
    | 1673 | 41  5 || 1723 | 30 10 || 1773 | 51  0 || 1823 | 53  4 || 1873 | 58  8 |
    | 1674 | 61  0 || 1724 | 32 10 || 1774 | 52  8 || 1824 | 63 11 || 1874 | 55  9 |
    | 1675 | 57  5 || 1725 | 43  1 || 1775 | 48  4 || 1825 | 68  6 || 1875 | 45  2 |
    | 1676 | 33  9 || 1726 | 40 10 || 1776 | 38  2 || 1826 | 58  8 || 1876 | 46  2 |
    | 1677 | 37  4 || 1727 | 37  4 || 1777 | 45  6 || 1827 | 60  6 || 1877 | 56  9 |
    | 1678 | 52  5 || 1728 | 48  5 || 1778 | 42  0 || 1828 | 60  5 || 1878 | 46  5 |
    | 1679 | 53  4 || 1729 | 41  7 || 1779 | 33  8 || 1829 | 66  3 || 1879 | 43 10 |
    | 1680 | 40  0 || 1730 | 32  5 || 1780 | 35  8 || 1830 | 64  3 || 1880 | 44  4 |
    | 1681 | 41  5 || 1731 | 29  2 || 1781 | 44  8 || 1831 | 66  4 || 1881 | 45  4 |
    | 1682 | 39  1 || 1732 | 23  8 || 1782 | 47 10 || 1832 | 58  8 || 1882 | 45  1 |
    | 1683 | 35  6 || 1733 | 25  2 || 1783 | 52  8 || 1833 | 52 11 || 1883 | 41  7 |
    | 1684 | 39  1 || 1734 | 34  6 || 1784 | 48 10 || 1834 | 46  2 || 1884 | 35  8 |
    | 1685 | 41  5 || 1735 | 38  2 || 1785 | 51 10 || 1835 | 49  4 || 1885 | 32 10 |
    | 1686 | 30  2 || 1736 | 35 10 || 1786 | 38 10 || 1836 | 48  6 || 1886 | 31  0 |
    | 1687 | 22  4 || 1737 | 33  9 || 1787 | 41  2 || 1837 | 55  0 || 1887 | 32  6 |
    | 1688 | 40 10 || 1738 | 31  6 || 1788 | 45  0 || 1838 | 64  7 || 1888 | 31 10 |
    | 1689 | 26  8 || 1739 | 34  2 || 1789 | 51  2 || 1839 | 70  8 || 1889 | 29  9 |
    | 1690 | 30  9 || 1740 | 45  1 || 1790 | 54  9 || 1840 | 66  4 || 1890 | 31 11 |
    | 1691 | 30  2 || 1741 | 41  5 || 1791 | 48  7 || 1841 | 64  4 || 1891 | 37  0 |
    | 1692 | 41  5 || 1742 | 30  2 || 1792 | 43  0 || 1842 | 57  3 || 1892 | 30  3 |
    | 1693 | 60  1 || 1743 | 22  1 || 1793 | 49  3 || 1843 | 50  1 || 1893 | 26  4 |
    | 1694 | 56 10 || 1744 | 22  1 || 1794 | 52  3 || 1844 | 51  3 || 1894 | 22 10 |
    | 1695 | 47  1 || 1745 | 24  5 || 1795 | 75  2 || 1845 | 50 10 || 1895 | 23  1 |
    | 1696 | 63  1 || 1746 | 34  8 || 1796 | 78  7 || 1846 | 54  8 || 1896 | 26  2 |
    | 1697 | 53  4 || 1747 | 30 11 || 1797 | 53  9 || 1847 | 69  9 || 1897 | 30  2 |
    | 1698 | 60  9 || 1748 | 32 10 || 1798 | 51 10 || 1848 | 50  6 || 1898 | 34  0 |
    | 1699 | 56 10 || 1749 | 32 10 || 1799 | 69  0 || 1849 | 44  3 || 1899 | 25  8 |
    | 1700 | 35  6 || 1750 | 28 10 || 1800 |113 10 || 1850 | 40  3 || 1900 | 26 11 |
    | 1701 | 33  5 || 1751 | 34  2 || 1801 |119  6 || 1851 | 38  6 || 1901 | 26  9 |
    | 1702 | 26  2 || 1752 | 37  2 || 1802 | 69 10 || 1852 | 40  9 || 1902 | 28  1 |
    | 1703 | 32  0 || 1753 | 39  8 || 1803 | 58 10 || 1853 | 53  3 || 1903 | 26  9 |
    | 1704 | 41  4 || 1754 | 30  9 || 1804 | 62  3 || 1854 | 72  5 || 1904 | 28  4 |
    | 1705 | 26  8 || 1755 | 30  1 || 1805 | 89  9 || 1855 | 74  8 || 1905 | 29  8 |
    +------+-------++------+-------++------+-------++------+-------++------+-------+
    |Average       ||              ||              ||              ||              |
    |  50    42 10 ||        36  0 ||        51  9 ||        65 10 ||       *42  7 |
    | years        ||              ||              ||              ||              |
    +--------------++--------------++--------------++--------------++--------------+
      * Average for 46 years only.

Thus, whatever the cause of the decline in the price of wheat may be,
it cannot be attributed solely to the fall in the rate of rail or ocean
freights. Incidental charges are lower than they were in 1870; handling
charges, brokers' commissions and insurance premiums have been in many
instances reduced, but all these economies when combined only amount to
about 2s. per quarter. Now if we add together all these savings in the
rate of rail and ocean freights and incidental expenses, we arrive at an
aggregate economy of 8s. per quarter, or not one-third of the actual
difference between the average price of wheat in 1872 and 1900. To what
the remaining difference was due it is difficult to say with certitude;
there are some who argue that the tendency of prices to fall is
inherent, and that the constant whittling away of intermediaries'
profits is sufficient explanation, while bi-metallists have maintained
that the phenomenon is clearly to be traced to the action of the German
government in demonetizing silver in 1872.


  FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Valuable information will also be found in Bulletin No. 38
    (1905), "Crop Export Movement and Port Facilities on the Atlantic and
    Gulf Coasts"; in Bulletin No. 49 (1907), "Cost of Hauling Crops from
    Farms to Shipping Points"; and in Bulletin No. 69 (1908), "European
    Grain Trade."



GRAM, or CHICK-PEA, called also Egyptian pea, or Bengal gram (from Port.
_grão_, formerly _gram_, Lat. _granum_, Hindi _Chana_, Bengali _Chhola_,
Ital. _cece_, Span. _garbanzo_), the _Cicer arietinum_ of Linnaeus, so
named from the resemblance of its seed to a ram's head. It is a member
of the natural order Leguminosae, largely cultivated as a pulse-food in
the south of Europe, Egypt and western Asia as far as India, but is not
known undoubtedly wild. The plant is an annual herb with flexuose
branches, and alternately arranged pinnately compound leaves, with
small, oval, serrated leaflets and small eared stipules. The flowers are
borne singly in the leaf-axils on a stalk about half the length of the
leaf and jointed and bent in the middle; the corolla is blue-purple. The
inflated pod, 1 to 1½ in. long, contains two roundish seeds. It was
cultivated by the Greeks in Homer's time under the name _erebinthos_,
and is also referred to by Dioscorides as _krios_ from the resemblance
of the pea to the head of a ram. The Romans called it _cicer_, from
which is derived the modern names given to it in the south of Europe.
Names, more or less allied to one another, are in vogue among the
peoples of the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, Armenia and Persia, and there
is a Sanskrit name and several others analogous or different in modern
Indian languages. The plant has been cultivated in Egypt from the
beginning of the Christian era, but there is no proof that it was known
to the ancient Egyptians. Alphonse de Candolle (_Origin of Cultivated
Plants_, p. 325) suggests that the plant originally grew wild in the
countries to the south of the Caucasus and to the north of Persia. "The
western Aryans (Pelasgians, Hellenes) perhaps introduced the plant into
southern Europe, where, however, there is some probability that it was
also indigenous. The western Aryans carried it to India." Gram is
largely cultivated in the East, where the seeds are eaten raw or cooked
in various ways, both in their ripe and unripe condition, and when
roasted and ground subserve the same purposes as ordinary flour. In
Europe the seeds are used as an ingredient in soups. They contain, in
100 parts without husks, nitrogenous substances 22.7, fat 3.76, starch
63.18, mineral matters 2.6 parts, with water (Forbes Watson, quoted in
Parkes's _Hygiene_). The liquid which exudes from the glandular hairs
clothing the leaves and stems of the plant, more especially during the
cold season when the seeds ripen, contains a notable proportion of
oxalic acid. In Mysore the dew containing it is collected by means of
cloths spread on the plant over night, and is used in domestic medicine.
The steam of water in which the fresh plant is immersed is in the Deccan
resorted to by the Portuguese for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. The
seed of _Phaseolus Mungo_, or green gram (Hind. and Beng. _moong_), a
form of which plant with black seeds (_P. Max_ of Roxburgh) is termed
black gram, is an important article of diet among the labouring classes
in India. The meal is an excellent substitute for soap, and is stated by
Elliot to be an invariable concomitant of the Hindu bath. A variety,
var. _radiatus_ (_P. Roxburghii_, W. and Arn., or _P. radiatus_, Roxb.)
(vern. _urid_, _mashkalai_), also known as green gram, is perhaps the
most esteemed of the leguminous plants of India, where the meal of its
seed enters into the composition of the more delicate cakes and dishes.
Horse gram, _Dolichos biflorus_ (vern. _kulthi_), which supplies in
Madras the place of the chick-pea, affords seed which, when boiled, is
extensively employed as a food for horses and cattle in South India,
where also it is eaten in curries.

  See W. Elliot, "On the Farinaceous Grains and the various kinds of
  Pulses used in Southern India," _Edin. New Phil. Journ._ xvi. (1862)
  16 sq.; H. Drury, _The Useful Plants of India_ (1873); U. C. Dutt,
  _Materia Medica of the Hindus_ (Calcutta, 1877); G. Watt, _Dictionary
  of the Economic Products of India_ (1890).



GRAMMAR (from Lat. _grammatica_, sc. _ars_; Gr. [Greek: gramma], letter,
from [Greek: graphein], to write). By the grammar of a language is meant
either the relations borne by the words of a sentence and by sentences
themselves one to another, or the systematized exposition of these. The
exposition may be, and frequently is, incorrect; but it always
presupposes the existence of certain customary uses of words when in
combination. In what follows, therefore, grammar will be generally
employed in its primary sense, as denoting the mode in which words are
connected in order to express a complete thought, or, as it is termed in
logic, a proposition.


  Scope of grammar.

The object of language is to convey thought, and so long as this object
is attained the machinery for attaining it is of comparatively slight
importance. The way in which we combine our words and sentences matters
little, provided that our meaning is clear to others. The expressions
"horseflesh" and "flesh of a horse" are equally intelligible to an
Englishman and therefore are equally recognized by English grammar. The
Chinese manner of denoting a genitive is by placing the defining word
before that which it defines, as in _koue jin_, "man of the kingdom,"
literally "kingdom man," and the only reason why it would be incorrect
in French or Italian is that such a combination would be unintelligible
to a Frenchman or an Italian. Hence it is evident that the grammatical
correctness or incorrectness of an expression depends upon its
intelligibility, that is to say, upon the ordinary use and custom of a
particular language. Whatever is so unfamiliar as not to be generally
understood is also ungrammatical. In other words, it is contrary to the
habit of a language, as determined by common usage and consent.

In this way we can explain how it happens that the grammar of a
cultivated dialect and that of a local dialect in the same country so
frequently disagree. Thus, in the dialect of West Somerset, _thee_ is
the nominative of the second personal pronoun, while in cultivated
English the plural accusative _you_ (A.-S. _eow_) has come to represent
a nominative singular. Both are grammatically correct within the sphere
of their respective dialects, but no further. _You_ would be as
ungrammatical in West Somerset as _thee_ is in classical English; and
both _you_ and _thee_, as nominatives singular, would have been equally
ungrammatical in Early English. Grammatical propriety is nothing more
than the established usage of a particular body of speakers at a
particular time in their history.

It follows from this that the grammar of a people changes, like its
pronunciation, from age to age. Anglo-Saxon or Early English grammar is
not the grammar of Modern English, any more than Latin grammar is the
grammar of modern Italian; and to defend an unusual construction or
inflexion on the ground that it once existed in literary Anglo-Saxon is
as wrong as to import a peculiarity of some local dialect into the
grammar of the cultivated speech. It further follows that different
languages will have different grammars, and that the differences will be
more or less according to the nearer or remoter relationship of the
languages themselves and the modes of thought of those who speak them.
Consequently, to force the grammatical framework of one language upon
another is to misconceive the whole nature of the latter and seriously
to mislead the learner. Chinese grammar, for instance, can never be
understood until we discard, not only the terminology of European
grammar, but the very conceptions which underlie it, while the
polysynthetic idioms of America defy all attempts to discover in them
"the parts of speech" and the various grammatical ideas which occupy so
large a place in our school-grammars. The endeavour to find the
distinctions of Latin grammar in that of English has only resulted in
grotesque errors, and a total misapprehension of the usage of the
English language.


  Subdivision of grammar.

It is to the Latin grammarians--or, more correctly, to the Greek
grammarians, upon whose labours those of the Latin writers were
based--that we owe the classification of the subjects with which grammar
is commonly supposed to deal. The grammar of Dionysius Thrax, which he
wrote for Roman schoolboys in the time of Pompey, has formed the
starting-point for the innumerable school-grammars which have since seen
the light, and suggested that division of the matter treated of which
they have followed. He defines grammar as a practical acquaintance with
the language of literary men, and as divided into six parts--accentuation
and phonology, explanation of figurative expressions, definition,
etymology, general rules of flexion and critical canons. Of these,
phonology and accentuation, or prosody, can properly be included in
grammar only in so far as the construction of a sentence and the
grammatical meaning of a word are determined by accent or letter-change;
the accentual difference in English, for example, between _íncense_ and
_incénse_ belongs to the province of grammar, since it indicates a
difference between noun and verb; and the changes of vowel in the Semitic
languages, by which various nominal and verbal forms are distinguished
from one another, constitute a very important part of their grammatical
machinery. But where accent and pronunciation do not serve to express the
relations of words in a sentence, they fall into the domain of phonology,
not of grammar. The explanation of figurative expressions, again, must be
left to the rhetorician, and definition to the lexicographer; the
grammarian has no more to do with them than he has with the canons of
criticism.

In fact, the old subdivision of grammar, inherited from the grammarians
of Rome and Alexandria, must be given up and a new one put in its place.
What grammar really deals with are all those contrivances whereby the
relations of words and sentences are pointed out. Sometimes it is
position, sometimes phonetic symbolization, sometimes composition,
sometimes flexion, sometimes the use of auxiliaries, which enables the
speaker to combine his words in such a way that they shall be
intelligible to another. Grammar may accordingly be divided into the
three departments of composition or "word-building," syntax and
accidence, by which is meant an exposition of the means adopted by
language for expressing the relations of grammar when recourse is not
had to composition or simple position.


  Modes of treatment.

A systematized exposition of grammar may be intended for the purely
practical purpose of teaching the mechanism of a foreign language. In
this case all that is necessary is a correct and complete statement of
the facts. But a correct and complete statement of the facts is by no
means so easy a matter as might appear at first sight. The facts will be
distorted by a false theory in regard to them, while they will certainly
not be presented in a complete form if the grammarian is ignorant of the
true theory they presuppose. The Semitic verb, for example, remains
unintelligible so long as the explanation of its forms is sought in the
conjugation of the Aryan verb, since it has no tenses in the Aryan sense
of the word, but denotes relation and not time.

A good practical grammar of a language, therefore, should be based on a
correct appreciation of the facts which it expounds, and a correct
appreciation of the facts is only possible where they are examined and
co-ordinated in accordance with the scientific method. A practical
grammar ought, wherever it is possible, to be preceded by a scientific
grammar.

Comparison is the instrument with which science works, and a scientific
grammar, accordingly, is one in which the comparative method has been
applied to the relations of speech. If we would understand the origin
and real nature of grammatical forms, and of the relations which they
represent, we must compare them with similar forms in kindred dialects
and languages, as well as with the forms under which they appeared
themselves at an earlier period of their history. We shall thus have a
comparative grammar and an historical grammar, the latter being devoted
to tracing the history of grammatical forms and usages in the same
language. Of course, an historical grammar is only possible where a
succession of written records exists; where a language possesses no
older literature we must be content with a comparative grammar only, and
look to cognate idioms to throw light upon its grammatical
peculiarities. In this case we have frequently to leave whole forms
unexplained, or at most conjecturally interpreted, since the machinery
by means of which the relations of grammar are symbolized is often
changed so completely during the growth of a language as to cause its
earlier shape and character to be unrecognizable. Moreover, our area of
comparison must be as wide as possible; where we have but two or three
languages to compare, we are in danger of building up conclusions on
insufficient evidence. The grammatical errors of the classical
philologists of the 18th century were in great measure due to the fact
that their area of comparison was confined to Latin and Greek.

The historical grammar of a single language or dialect, which traces the
grammatical forms and usages of the language as far back as documentary
evidence allows, affords material to the comparative grammarian, whose
task it is to compare the grammatical forms and usages of an allied
group of tongues and thereby reduce them to their earliest forms and
senses. The work thus carried out by the comparative grammarian within a
particular family of languages is made use of by universal grammar, the
object of which is to determine the ideas that underlie all grammar
whatsoever, as distinct from those that are peculiar to special families
of speech. Universal grammar is sometimes known as "the metaphysics of
language," and it has to decide such questions as the nature of gender
or of the verb, the true purport of the genitive relation, or the origin
of grammar itself. Such questions, it is clear, can only be answered by
comparing the results gained by the comparative treatment of the
grammars of various groups of language. What historical grammar is to
comparative grammar, comparative grammar is to universal grammar.


  Universal grammar.

Universal grammar, as founded on the results of the scientific study of
speech, is thus essentially different from that "universal grammar" so
much in vogue at the beginning of the 19th century, which consisted of a
series of a priori assumptions based on the peculiarities of European
grammar and illustrated from the same source. But universal grammar, as
conceived by modern science, is as yet in its infancy; its materials are
still in the process of being collected. The comparative grammar of the
Indo-European languages is alone in an advanced state, those of the
Semitic idioms, of the Finno-Ugrian tongues and of the Bantu dialects of
southern Africa are still in a backward condition; and the other
families of speech existing in the world, with the exception of the
Malayo-Polynesian and the Sonorian of North America, have not as yet
been treated scientifically. Chinese, it is true, possesses an
historical grammar, and Van Eys, in his comparative grammar of Basque,
endeavoured to solve the problems of that interesting language by a
comparison of its various dialects; but in both cases the area of
comparison is too small for more than a limited success to be
attainable. Instead of attempting the questions of universal grammar,
therefore, it will be better to confine our attention to three
points--the fundamental differences in the grammatical conceptions of
different groups of languages, the main results of a scientific
investigation of Indo-European grammar, and the light thrown by
comparative philology upon the grammar of our own tongue.


  Differences in grammar of unallied languages.

The proposition or sentence is the unit and starting-point of speech,
and grammar, as we have seen, consists in the relations of its several
parts one to another, together with the expression of them. These
relations may be regarded from various points of view. In the
polysynthetic languages of America the sentence is conceived as a whole,
not composed of independent words, but, like the thought which it
expresses, one and indivisible. What we should denote by a series of
words is consequently denoted by a single long compound--_kuligatchis_
in Delaware, for instance, signifying "give me your pretty little paw,"
and _aglekkigiartorasuarnipok_ in Eskimo, "he goes away hastily and
exerts himself to write." Individual words can be, and often are,
extracted from the sentence; but in this case they stand, as it were,
outside it, being represented by a pronoun within the sentence itself.
Thus, in Mexican, we can say not only _ni-sotsi-temoa_, "I look for
flowers," but also _ni-k-temoa sotsitl_, where the interpolated guttural
is the objective pronoun. As a necessary result of this conception of
the sentence the American languages possess no true verb, each act being
expressed as a whole by a single word. In Cherokee, for example, while
there is no verb signifying "to wash" in the abstract, no less than
thirteen words are used to signify every conceivable mode and object of
washing. In the incorporating languages, again, of which Basque may be
taken as a type, the object cannot be conceived except as contained in
the verbal action. Hence every verbal form embodies an objective
pronoun, even though the object may be separately expressed. If we pass
to an isolating language like Chinese, we find the exact converse of
that which meets us in the polysynthetic tongues. Here each proposition
or thought is analysed into its several elements, and these are set over
against one another as so many independent words. The relations of
grammar are consequently denoted by position, the particular position of
two or more words determining the relation they bear to each other. The
analysis of the sentence has not been carried so far in agglutinative
languages like Turkish. In these the relations of grammar are
represented by individual words, which, however, are subordinated to the
words expressing the main ideas intended to be in relation to one
another. The defining words, or indices of grammatical relations, are,
in a large number of instances, placed after the words which they
define; in some cases, however, as, for example, in the Bantu languages
of southern Africa, the relation is conceived from the opposite point of
view, the defining words being prefixed. The inflexional languages call
in the aid of a new principle. The relations of grammar are denoted
symbolically either by a change of vowel or by a change of termination,
more rarely by a change at the beginning of a word. Each idea, together
with the relation which it bears to the other ideas of a proposition, is
thus represented by a single word; that is to say, the ideas which make
up the elements of a sentence are not conceived severally and
independently, as in Chinese, but as always having a certain connexion
with one another. Inflexional languages, however, tend to become
analytical by the logical separation of the flexion from the idea to
which it is attached, though the primitive point of view is never
altogether discarded, and traces of flexion remain even in English and
Persian. In fact, there is no example of a language which has wholly
forsaken the conception of the sentence and the relation of its elements
with which it started, although each class of languages occasionally
trespasses on the grammatical usages of the others. In language, as
elsewhere in nature, there are no sharp lines of division, no sudden
leaps; species passes insensibly into species, class into class. At the
same time the several types of speech--polysynthetic, isolating,
agglutinative and inflexional--remain clear and fixed; and even where
two languages belong to the same general type, as, for instance, an
Indo-European and a Semitic language in the inflexional group, or a
Bantu and a Turkish language in the agglutinative group, we find no
certain example of grammatical interchange. A mixed grammar, in which
the grammatical procedure of two distinct families of speech is
intermingled, is almost, if not altogether, unknown.

It is obvious, therefore, that grammar constitutes the surest and most
important basis for a classification of languages. Words may be borrowed
freely by one dialect from another, or, though originally unrelated,
may, by the action of phonetic decay, come to assume the same forms,
while the limited number of articulate sounds and conceptions out of
which language was first developed, and the similarity of the
circumstances by which the first speakers were everywhere surrounded,
naturally produce a resemblance between the roots of many unconnected
tongues. Where, however, the fundamental conceptions of grammar and the
machinery by which they are expressed are the same, we may have no
hesitation in inferring a common origin.


  Forms of Indo-European grammar.

The main results of scientific inquiry into the origin and primitive
meaning of the forms of Indo-European grammar may be summed up as
follows. We start with stems or themes, by which are meant words of two
or more syllables which terminate in a limited number of sounds. These
stems can be classed in groups of two kinds, one in which the groups
consist of stems of similar meanings and similar initial syllables, and
another in which the final syllables alone coincide. In the first case
we have what are termed roots, the simplest elements into which words
can be decomposed; in the second case stems proper, which may be
described as consisting of suffixes attached to roots. Roots, therefore,
are merely the materials out of which speech can be made, the
embodiments of isolated conceptions with which the lexicographer alone
has to deal, whereas stems present us with words already combined in a
sentence and embodying the relations of grammar. If we would rightly
understand primitive Indo-European grammar, we must conceive it as
having been expressed or implied in the suffixes of the stems, and in
the order according to which the stems were arranged in a sentence. In
other words, the relations of grammar were denoted partly by
juxtaposition or syntax, partly by the suffixes of stems.

These suffixes were probably at first unmeaning, or rather clothed with
vague significations, which changed according to the place occupied in
the sentence by the stem to which they were joined. Gradually this
vagueness of signification disappeared, and particular suffixes came to
be set apart to represent particular relations of grammar. What had
hitherto been expressed by mere position now attached itself to the
terminations or suffixes of stems, which accordingly became full-grown
words. Some of the suffixes denoted purely grammatical ideas, that is to
say, were flexions; others were classificatory, serving to distinguish
nouns from verbs, presents from aorists, objects from agents and the
like; while others, again, remained unmeaning adjuncts of the root. This
origin of the flexions explains the otherwise strange fact that the same
suffix may symbolize wholly different grammatical relations. In Latin,
for instance, the context and dictionary will alone tell us that
_mus-as_ is the accusative plural of a noun, and _am-as_ the second
person singular of a verb, or that _mus-a_ is the nominative singular of
a feminine substantive, _bon-a_ the accusative plural of a neuter
adjective. In short, the flexions were originally merely the
terminations of stems which were adapted to express the various
relations of words to each other in a sentence, as these gradually
presented themselves to the consciousness and were extracted from what
had been previously implied by position. Necessarily, the same suffix
might be used sometimes in a classificatory, sometimes in a flexional
sense, and sometimes without any definite sense at all. In the Greek
dative-locative [Greek: pod-es-si], for example, the suffix [Greek: -es]
is classificatory; in the nominative [Greek: pod-es] it is flexional.

When a particular termination or suffix once acquired a special sense,
it would be separated in thought from the stem to which it belonged, and
attached in the same sense to other stems and other terminations. Thus
in modern English we can attach the suffix -ize to almost any word
whatsoever, in order to give the latter a transitive meaning, and the
Gr. [Greek: podessi], quoted above, really contains no less than three
suffixes, [Greek: -es], [Greek: -su] and [Greek: -i], the last two both
denoting the locative, and coalescing, through [Greek: swi], into a
single syllable [Greek: -si]. The latter instance shows us how two or
more suffixes denoting exactly the same idea may be tacked on one to
another, if the original force and signification of the first of them
comes to be forgotten. Thus, in O. Eng. _sang-estre_ was the feminine of
_sang-ere_, "singer," but the meaning of the termination has so entirely
died out of the memory that we have to add the Romanic _-ess_ to it if
we would still distinguish it from the masculine _singer_. A familiar
example of the way in which the full sense of the exponent of a
grammatical idea fades from the mind and has to be supplied by a new
exponent is afforded by the use of expletives in conversational English
to denote the superlative. "Very warm" expresses little more than the
positive, and to represent the intensity of his feelings the Englishman
has recourse to such expressions as "awfully warm" like the Ger.
"schrecklich warm."

Such words as "very," "awfully," "schrecklich," illustrate a second mode
in which Indo-European grammar has found means of expression. Words may
lose their true signification and become the mere exponents of
grammatical ideas. Professor Earle divides all words into _presentive_
and _symbolic_, the former denoting objects and conceptions, the latter
the relations which exist between these. Symbolic words, therefore, are
what the Chinese grammarians call "empty words"--words, that is, which
have been divested of their proper signification and serve a grammatical
purpose only. Many of the classificatory and some of the flexional
suffixes of Indo-European speech can be shown to have had this origin.
Thus the suffix _tar_, which denotes names of kinship and agency, seems
to come from the same root as the Lat. _terminus_ and _trans_, our
_through_, the Sans. _tar-ami_, "I pass over," and to have primarily
signified "one that goes through" a thing. Thus, too, the Eng. _head_ or
_hood_, in words like _godhead_ and _brotherhood_, is the A.-S. _hâd_,
"character" or "rank"; _dom_, in kingdom, the A.-S. _dôm_, "judgment";
and _lock_ or _ledge_, in _wedlock_ and _knowledge_, the A.-S. _lâc_,
"sport" or "gift." In all these cases the "empty words," after first
losing every trace of their original significance, have followed the
general analogy of the language and assumed the form and functions of
the suffixes with which they had been confused.

A third mode of representing the relations of grammar is by the symbolic
use of vowels and diphthongs. In Greek, for instance, the distinction
between the reduplicated present [Greek: didômi] and the reduplicated
perfect [Greek: dedôka] is indicated by a distinction of vowel, and in
primitive Aryan grammar the vowel _â_ seems to have been set apart to
denote the subjunctive mood just as _ya_ or _i_ was set apart to denote
the potential. So, too, according to M. Hovelacque, the change of _a_
into _i_ or _u_ in the parent Indo-European symbolized a change of
meaning from passive to active. This symbolic use of the vowels, which
is the purest application of the principle of flexion, is far less
extensively carried out in the Indo-European than in the Semitic
languages. The Semitic family of speech is therefore a much more
characteristic type of the inflexional languages than is the
Indo-European.

The primitive Indo-European noun possessed at least eight
cases--nominative, accusative, vocative, instrumental, dative, genitive,
ablative and locative. M. Bergaigne has attempted to show that the first
three of these, the "strong cases" as they are termed, are really
abstracts formed by the suffixes _-as_ (_-s_), _-an, -m, -t, -i, -â_ and
_-ya_ (_-i_), the plural being nothing more than an abstract singular,
as may be readily seen by comparing words like the Gr. [Greek: epo-s],
and [Greek: ope-s], which mean precisely the same. The remaining "weak"
cases, formed by the suffixes _-sma, -sya, -syâ, -yâ, -i, -an, -t, -bhi,
-su, -i, -a_ and _-â_, are really adjectives and adverbs. No
distinction, for example, can be drawn between "a cup of gold" and "a
golden cup," and the instrumental, the dative, the ablative and the
locative are, when closely examined, merely adverbs attached to a verb.
The terminations of the strong cases do not displace the accent of the
stem to which they are suffixed; the suffixes of the weak cases, on the
other hand, generally draw the accent upon themselves.

According to Hübschmann, the nominative, accusative and genitive cases
are purely grammatical, distinguished from one another through the
exigencies of the sentence only, whereas the locative, ablative and
instrumental have a logical origin and determine the logical relation
which the three other cases bear to each other and the verb. The nature
of the dative is left undecided. The locative primarily denotes rest in
a place, the ablative motion from a place, and the instrumental the
means or concomitance of an action. The dative Hübschmann regards as
"the case of the participant object." Like Hübschmann, Holzweissig
divides the cases into two classes--the one grammatical and the other
logical; and his analysis of their primitive meaning is the same as that
of Hübschmann, except as regards the dative, the primary sense of which
he thinks to have been motion towards a place. This is also the view of
Delbrück, who makes it denote tendency towards an object. Delbrück,
however, holds that the primary sense of the ablative was that of
separation, the instrumental originally indicating concomitance, while
there was a double locative, one used like the ablative absolute in
Latin, the other being a locative of the object.

The dual was older than the plural, and after the development of the
latter survived as a merely useless encumbrance, of which most of the
Indo-European languages contrived in time to get rid. There are still
many savage idioms in which the conception of plurality has not advanced
beyond that of duality. In the Bushman dialects, for instance, the
plural, or rather that which is more than one, is expressed by repeating
the word; thus _tu_ is "mouth," _tutu_ "mouths." It may be shown that
most of the suffixes of the Indo-European dual are the longer and more
primitive forms of those of the plural which have grown out of them by
the help of phonetic decay. The plural of the weak cases, on the other
hand (the accusative alone excepted), was identical with the singular of
abstract nouns; so far as both form and meaning are concerned, no
distinction can be drawn between [Greek: opes] and [Greek: epos].
Similarly, _humanity_ and _men_ signify one and the same thing, and the
use of English words like _sheep_ or _fish_ for both singular and plural
shows to what an extent our appreciation of number is determined by the
context rather than by the form of the noun. The so-called "broken
plurals" of Arabic and Ethiopic are really singular collectives employed
to denote the plural.

Gender is the product partly of analogy, partly of phonetic decay. In
many languages, such as Eskimo and Choctaw, its place is taken by a
division of objects into animate and inanimate, while in other languages
they are separated into rational and irrational. There are many
indications that the parent Indo-European in an early stage of its
existence had no signs of gender at all. The terminations of the names
of _father_ and _mother_, _pater_ and _mater_, for example, are exactly
the same, and in Latin and Greek many diphthongal stems, as well as
stems in _i_ or _ya_ and u (like [Greek: naus] and [Greek: nekus],
[Greek: polis] and [Greek: lis]), may be indifferently masculine and
feminine. Even stems in _o_ and _a_ (of the second and first
declensions), though the first are generally masculine and the second
generally feminine, by no means invariably maintain the rule; and
feminines like _humus_ and [Greek: hodos], or masculines like _advena_
and [Greek: politês], show that there was a time when these stems also
indicated no particular gender, but owed their subsequent adaptation,
the one to mark the masculine and the other to mark the feminine, to the
influence of analogy. The idea of gender was first suggested by the
difference between man and woman, male and female, and, as in so many
languages at the present day, was represented not by any outward sign
but by the meaning of the words themselves. When once arrived at, the
conception of gender was extended to other objects besides those to
which it properly belonged. The primitive Indo-European did not
distinguish between subject and object, but personified objects by
ascribing to them the motives and powers of living beings. Accordingly
they were referred to by different pronouns, one class denoting the
masculine and another class the feminine, and the distinction that
existed between these two classes of pronouns was after a time
transferred to the nouns. As soon as the preponderant number of stems in
_o_ in daily use had come to be regarded as masculine on account of
their meaning, other stems in _o_, whatever might be their
signification, were made to follow the general analogy and were
similarly classed as masculines. In the same way, the suffix _i_ or _ya_
acquired a feminine sense, and was set apart to represent the feminine
gender. Unlike the Semites, the Indo-Europeans were not satisfied with
these two genders, masculine and feminine. As soon as object and
subject, patient and agent, were clearly distinguished from each other,
there arose a need for a third gender, which should be neither masculine
nor feminine, but denote things without life. This third gender was
fittingly expressed either by the objective case used as a nominative
(e.g. _regnum_), or by a stem without any case ending at all (e.g.
_virus_).

The adverbial meaning of so many of the cases explains the readiness
with which they became crystallized into adverbs and prepositions. An
adverb is the attribute of an attribute--"the rose smells sweetly," for
example, being resolvable into "the rose has the attribute of scent with
the further attribute of sweetness." In our own language _once_,
_twice_, _needs_, are all genitives; _seldom_ is a dative. The Latin and
Greek _humi_ and [Greek: chamai] are locatives, _facillime_
(_facillumed_) and [Greek: eutychôs] ablatives, [Greek: pantê] and
[Greek: hama] instrumentals, [Greek: paros], [Greek: hexês] and [Greek:
têlou] genitives. The frequency with which particular cases of
particular nouns were used in a specifically attributive sense caused
them to become, as it were, petrified, the other cases of the nouns in
question passing out of use, and the original force of those that were
retained being gradually forgotten. Prepositions are adverbs employed to
define nouns instead of verbs and adjectives. Their appearance in the
Indo-European languages is comparatively late, and the Homeric poems
allow us to trace their growth in Greek. The adverb, originally intended
to define the verb, came to be construed with the noun, and the
government of the case with which it was construed was accordingly
transferred from the verb to the noun. Thus when we read in the
_Odyssey_(iv. 43), [Greek: autous d eisêgon theion domon], we see that
[Greek: eis] is still an adverb, and that the accusative is governed by
the verb; it is quite otherwise, however, with a line like [Greek:
Atreidês de gerontas aolleas êgen Achaiôn es klisiên] (Il. i. 89) where
the adverb has passed into a preposition. The same process of
transformation is still going on in English, where we can say
indifferently, "What are you looking at?" using "at" as an adverb, and
governing the pronoun by the verb, and "At what are you looking?" where
"at" has become a preposition. With the growth and increase of
prepositions the need of the case-endings diminished, and in some
languages the latter disappeared altogether.

Like prepositions, conjunctions also are primarily adverbs used in a
demonstrative and relative sense. Hence most of the conjunctions are
petrified cases of pronouns. The relation between two sentences was
originally expressed by simply setting them side by side, afterwards by
employing a demonstrative at the beginning of the second clause to refer
to the whole preceding one. The relative pronoun can be shown to have
been in the first instance a demonstrative; indeed, we can still use
_that_ in English in a relative sense. Since the demonstrative at the
beginning of the second clause represented the first clause, and was
consequently an attribute of the second, it had to stand in some case,
and this case became a conjunction. How closely allied the adverb and
the conjunction are may be seen from Greek and Latin, where [Greek: hôs]
or _quum_ can be used as either the one or the other. Our own _and_, it
may be observed, has probably the same root as the Greek locative adverb
[Greek: eti], and originally signified "going further."

Another form of adverb is the infinitive, the adverbial force of which
appears clearly in such a phrase as "A wonderful thing to see." Various
cases, such as the locative, the dative or the instrumental, are
employed in Vedic Sanskrit in the sense of the infinitive, besides the
bare stem or neuter formed by the suffixes _man_ and _van_. In Greek the
neuter stem and the dative case were alone retained for the purpose. The
first is found in infinitives like [Greek: domen] and [Greek: ferein]
(for an earlier [Greek: fere-wen]), the second in the infinitives in
[Greek: -ai]. Thus the Gr. [Greek: dounai] answers letter for letter to
the Vedic dative _davane_, "to give," and the form [Greek: pseudesthai]
is explained by the Vedic _vayodhai_, for _vayas-dhai_, literally "to do
living," _dhai_ being the dative of a noun from the root _dha_, "to
place" or "do." When the form [Greek: pseudesthai] had once come into
existence, analogy was ready to create such false imitations as [Greek:
grapsasthai] or [Greek: graphthêsesthai]. The Latin infinitive in _-re_
for _-se_ has the same origin, _amare_, for instance, being the dative
of an old stem _amas_. In _fieri_ for _fierei_ or _fiesei_, from the
same root as our English _be_, the original length of the final syllable
is preserved. The suffix in _-um_ is an accusative, like the
corresponding infinitive of classical Sanskrit. This origin of the
infinitive explains the Latin construction of the accusative and
infinitive. When the Roman said, "Miror te ad me nihil scribere," all
that he meant at first was, "I wonder at you for writing nothing to me,"
where the infinitive was merely a dative case used adverbially.

The history of the infinitive makes it clear how little distinction must
have been felt at the outset between the noun and the verb. Indeed, the
growth of the verb was a slow process. There was a time in the history
of Indo-European speech when it had not as yet risen to the
consciousness of the speaker, and in the period when the noun did not
possess a plural there was as yet also no verb. The attachment of the
first and second personal pronouns, or of suffixes resembling them, to
certain stems, was the first stage in the development of the latter.
Like the Semitic verb, the Indo-European verb seems primarily to have
denoted relation only, and to have been attached as an attribute to the
subject. The idea of time, however, was soon put into it, and two tenses
were created, the one expressing a present or continuous action, the
other an aoristic or momentary one. The distinction of sense was
symbolized by a distinction of pronunciation, the root-syllable of the
aorist being an abbreviated form of that of the present. This
abbreviation was due to a change in the position of the accent (which
was shifted from the stem-syllable to the termination), and this change
again was probably occasioned by the prefixing of the so-called augment
to the aorist, which survived into historical times only in Sanskrit,
Zend and Greek, and the origin of which is still a mystery. The weight
of the first syllable in the aorist further caused the person-endings to
be shortened, and so two sets of person-endings, usually termed primary
and secondary, sprang into existence. By reduplicating the root-syllable
of the present tense a perfect was formed; but originally no distinction
was made between present and perfect, and Greek verbs like [Greek:
didômi] and [Greek: hêkô] are memorials of a time when the difference
between "I am come" and "I have come" was not yet felt. Reduplication
was further adapted to the expression of intensity and desire (in the
so-called intensive and desiderative forms). By the side of the aorist
stood the imperfect, which differed from the aorist, so far as outward
form was concerned, only in possessing the longer and more original stem
of the present. Indeed, as Benfey first saw, the aorist itself was
primitively an imperfect, and the distinction between aorist and
imperfect is not older than the period when the stem-syllables of
certain imperfects were shortened through the influence of the accent,
and this differentiation of forms appropriated to denote a difference
between the sense of the aorist and the imperfect which was beginning to
be felt. After the analogy of the imperfect, a pluperfect was created
out of the perfect by prefixing the augment (of which the Greek [Greek:
ememêkon] is an illustration); though the pluperfect, too, was
originally an imperfect formed from the reduplicated present.

Besides time, mood was also expressed by the primitive Indo-European
verb, recourse being had to symbolization for the purpose. The
imperative was represented by the bare stem, like the vocative, the
accent being drawn back to the first syllable, though other modes of
denoting it soon came into vogue. Possibility was symbolized by the
attachment of the suffix _-ya_ to the stem, probability by the
attachment of _-a_ and _-a_, and in this way the optative and
conjunctive moods first arose. The creation of a future by the help of
the suffix _-sya_ seems to belong to the same period in the history of
the verb. This suffix is probably identical with that used to form a
large class of adjectives and genitives (like the Greek [Greek: hippoio]
for [Greek: hipposio]); in this case future time will have been regarded
as an attribute of the subject, no distinction being drawn, for
instance, between "rising sun" and "the sun will rise." It is possible,
however, that the auxiliary verb _as_, "to be," enters into the
composition of the future; if so, the future will be the product of the
second stage in the development of the Indo-European verb when new forms
were created by means of composition. The sigmatic or first aorist is in
favour of this view, as it certainly belongs to the age of Indo-European
unity, and may be a compound of the verbal stem with the auxiliary _as_.

After the separation of the Indo-European languages, composition was
largely employed in the formation of new tenses. Thus in Latin we have
perfects like _scrip-si_ and _ama-vi_, formed by the help of the
auxiliaries _as (sum)_ and _fuo_, while such forms as _amaveram
(amavi-eram)_ or _amarem (ama-sem)_ bear their origin on their face. So,
too, the future in Latin and Old Celtic (_amabo_, Irish _carub_) is
based upon the substantive verb _fuo_, "to be," and the English
preterite in _-ed_ goes back to a suffixed _did_, the reduplicated
perfect of _do_. New tenses and moods, however, were created by the aid
of suffixes as well as by the aid of composition, or rather were formed
from nouns whose stems terminated in the suffixes in question. Thus in
Greek we have aorists and perfects in [Greek: -ka], and the
characteristics of the two passive aorists, _ye_ and _the_, are more
probably the suffixes of nominal stems than the roots of the two verbs
_ya_, "to go," and _dhâ_, "to place," as Bopp supposed. How late some of
these new formations were may be seen in Greek, where the Homeric poems
are still ignorant of the weak future passive, the optative future, and
the aspirated perfect, and where the strong future passive occurs but
once and the desiderative but twice. On the other hand, many of the
older tenses were disused and lost. In classical Sanskrit, for instance,
of the modal aorist forms the precative and benedictive almost alone
remain, while the pluperfect, of which Delbrück has found traces in the
Veda, has wholly disappeared.

The passive voice did not exist in the parent Indo-European speech. No
need for it had arisen, since such a sentence as "I am pleased" could be
as well represented by "This pleases me," or "I please myself." It was
long before the speaker was able to imagine an action without an object,
and when he did so, it was a neuter or substantival rather than a
passive verb that he formed. The passive, in fact, grew out of the
middle or reflexive, and, except in the two aorists, continued to be
represented by the middle in Greek. So, too, in Latin the second person
plural is really the middle participle with _estis_ understood, and the
whole class of deponent or reflexive verbs proves that the
characteristic _r_ which Latin shares with Celtic could have had at the
outset no passive force.

Much light has been thrown on the character and construction of the
primitive Indo-European sentence by comparative syntax. In
contradistinction to Semitic, where the defining word follows that which
is defined, the Indo-European languages place that which is defined
after that which defines it; and Bergaigne has made it clear that the
original order of the sentence was (1) object, (2) verb, and (3)
subject. Greater complication of thought and its expression, the
connexion of sentences by the aid of conjunctions, and rhetorical
inversion caused that dislocation of the original order of the sentence
which reaches its culminating point in the involved periods of Latin
literature. Our own language still remains true, however, to the syntax
of the parent Indo-European when it sets both adjective and genitive
before the nouns which they define. In course of time a distinction came
to be made between an attribute used as a mere qualificative and an
attribute used predicatively, and this distinction was expressed by
placing the predicate in opposition to the subject and accordingly after
it. The opposition was of itself sufficient to indicate the logical
copula or substantive verb; indeed, the word which afterwards commonly
stood for the latter at first signified "existence," and it was only
through the wear and tear of time that a phrase like _Deus bonus est_,
"God exists as good," came to mean simply "God is good." It is needless
to observe that neither of the two articles was known to the parent
Indo-European; indeed, the definite article, which is merely a decayed
demonstrative pronoun, has not yet been developed in several of the
languages of the Indo-European family.


  Investigation of English grammar.

We must now glance briefly at the results of a scientific investigation
of English grammar and the modifications they necessitate in our
conception of it. The idea that the free use of speech is tied down by
the rules of the grammarian must first be given up; all that the
grammarian can do is to formulate the current uses of his time, which
are determined by habit and custom, and are accordingly in a perpetual
state of flux. We must next get rid of the notion that English grammar
should be modelled after that of ancient Rome; until we do so we shall
never understand even the elementary principles upon which it is based.
We cannot speak of declensions, since English has no genders except in
the pronouns of the third person, and no cases except the genitive and a
few faint traces of an old dative. Its verbal conjugation is essentially
different from that of an inflexional language like Latin, and cannot be
compressed into the same categories. In English the syntax has been
enlarged at the expense of the accidence; position has taken the place
of forms. To speak of an adjective "agreeing" with its substantive is as
misleading as to speak of a verb "governing" a case. In fact, the
distinction between noun and adjective is inapplicable to English
grammar, and should be replaced by a distinction between objective and
attributive words. In a phrase like "this is a cannon," _cannon_ is
objective; in a phrase like "a cannon-ball," it is attributive; and to
call it a substantive in the one case and an adjective in the other is
only to introduce confusion. With the exception of the nominative, the
various forms of the noun are all attributive; there is no difference,
for example, between "doing a thing" and "doing badly." Apart from the
personal pronouns, the accusative of the classical languages can be
represented only by position; but if we were to say that a noun which
follows a verb is in the accusative case we should have to define "king"
as an accusative in such sentences as "he became king" or "he is king."
In conversational English "it is me" is as correct as "c'est moi" in
French, or "det er mig" in Danish; the literary "it is I" is due to the
influence of classical grammar. The combination of noun or pronoun and
preposition results in a compound attribute. As for the verb, Sweet has
well said that "the really characteristic feature of the English finite
verb is its inability to stand alone without a pronominal prefix." Thus
"dream" by itself is a noun; "I dream" is a verb. The place of the
pronominal prefix may be taken by a noun, though both poetry and vulgar
English frequently insert the pronoun even when the noun precedes. The
number of inflected verbal forms is but small, being confined to the
third person singular and the special forms of the preterite and past
participle, though the latter may with more justice be regarded as
belonging to the province of the lexicographer rather than to that of
the grammarian. The inflected subjunctive (_be, were, save_ in "God save
the King," &c.) is rapidly disappearing. New inflected forms, however,
are coming into existence; at all events, we have as good a right to
consider _wont, shant, cant_ new inflected forms as the French _aimerai
(amare habeo), aimerais (amare habebam)_. If the ordinary grammars are
correct in treating forms like "I am loving," "I was loving," "I did
love," as separate tenses, they are strangely inconsistent in omitting
to notice the equally important emphatic form "I do love" or the
negative form "I do not love" ("I don't love"), as well as the
semi-inflexional "I'll love," "he's loving." It is true that these
latter contracted forms are heard only in conversation and not seen in
books; but the grammar of a language, it must be remembered, is made by
those who speak it and not by the printers.


  History of formal grammar.

Our school grammars are the inheritance we have received from Greece and
Rome. The necessities of rhetoric obliged the Sophists to investigate
the structure of the Greek language, and to them was accordingly due the
first analysis of Greek grammar. Protagoras distinguished the three
genders and the verbal moods, while Prodicus busied himself with the
definition of synonyms. Aristotle, taking the side of Democritus, who
had held that the meaning of words is put into them by the speaker, and
that there is no necessary connexion between sound and sense, laid down
that words "symbolize" objects according to the will of those who use
them, and added to the [Greek: onoma] or "noun," and the [Greek: rhêma]
or "verb," the [Greek: sundesmos] or "particle." He also introduced the
term [Greek: ptôsis], "case," to denote any flexion whatsoever. He
further divided nouns into simple and compound, invented for the neuter
another name than that given by Protagoras, and starting from the
termination of the nominative singular, endeavoured to ascertain the
rules for indicating a difference of gender. Aristotle was followed by
the Stoics, who separated the [Greek: arthron] or "article" from the
particles, determined a fifth part of speech, [Greek: pandektês] or
"adverb," confined the term "case" to the flexions of the nouns,
distinguishing the four principal cases by names, and divided the verb
into its tenses, moods and classes. Meanwhile the Alexandrian critics
were studying the language of Homer and the Attic writers, and comparing
it with the language of their own day, the result being a minute
examination of the facts and rules of grammar. Two schools of
grammarians sprang up--the Analogists, headed by Aristarchus, who held
that a strict law of analogy existed between idea and word, and refused
to admit exceptions to the grammatical rules they laid down, and the
Anomalists, who denied general rules of any kind, except in so far as
they were consecrated by custom. Foremost among the Anomalists was
Crates of Mallos, the leader of the Pergamenian school, to whom we owe
the first formal Greek grammar and collection of the grammatical facts
obtained by the labours of the Alexandrian critics, as well as an
attempt to reform Greek orthography. The immediate cause of this grammar
seems to have been a comparison of Latin with Greek, Crates having
lectured on the subject while ambassador of Attalus at Rome in 159 B.C.
The zeal with which the Romans threw themselves into the study of Greek
resulted in the school grammar of Dionysius Thrax, a pupil of
Aristarchus, which he published at Rome in the time of Pompey and which
is still in existence. Latin grammars were soon modelled upon it, and
the attempt to translate the technical terms of the Greek grammarians
into Latin was productive of numerous blunders which have been
perpetuated to our own day. Thus _tenues_ is a mistranslation of the
[Greek: psila], "unaspirated"; _genetivus_ of [Greek: genikê], the case
"of the genus"; _accusativus_ of [Greek: aitiatikê], the case "of the
object"; _infinitivus_ of [Greek: aparemphatos], "without a secondary
meaning" of tense or person. New names were coined to denote forms
possessed by Latin and not by Greek; _ablative_, for instance, was
invented by Julius Caesar, who also wrote a treatise _De analogia_. By
the 2nd century of the Christian era the dispute between the Anomalists
and the Analogists was finally settled, analogy being recognized as the
principle that underlies language, though every rule admits of
exceptions. Two eminent grammarians of Alexandria, Apollonius Dyscolus
and his son Herodian, summed up the labours and controversies of their
predecessors, and upon their works were based the Latin grammar composed
by Aelius Donatus in the 4th century, and the eighteen books on grammar
compiled by Priscian in the age of Justinian. The grammar of Donatus
dominated the schools of the middle ages, and, along with the
productions of Priscian, formed the type and source of the Latin and
Greek school-grammars of modern Europe.


  Learning of grammar of foreign languages.

A few words remain to be said, in conclusion, on the bearing of a
scientific study of grammar upon the practical task of teaching and
learning foreign languages. The grammar of a language is not to be
confined within the rules laid down by grammarians, much less is it the
creation of grammarians, and consequently the usual mode of making the
pupil learn by heart certain fixed rules and paradigms not only gives a
false idea of what grammar really is, but also throws obstacles in the
way of acquiring it. The unit of speech is the sentence; and it is with
the sentence therefore, and not with lists of words and forms, that the
pupil should begin. When once a sufficient number of sentences has been,
so to speak, assimilated, it will be easy to analyse them into their
component parts, to show the relations that these bear to one another,
and to indicate the nature and varieties of the latter. In this way the
learner will be prevented from regarding grammar as a piece of dead
mechanism or a Chinese puzzle, of which the parts must be fitted
together in accordance with certain artificial rules, and will realize
that it is a living organism which has a history and a reason of its
own. The method of nature and science alike is analytic; and if we would
learn a foreign language properly we must learn it as we did our
mother-tongue, by first mastering the expression of a complete thought
and then breaking up this expression into its several elements.
     (A. H. S.)

  See PHILOLOGY, and articles on the various languages. Also Steinthal,
  _Charakteristik der hauptsächlichsten Typen des Sprachbaues_ (Berlin,
  1860); Schleicher, _Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the
  Indo-European Languages_, translated by H. Bendall (London, 1874);
  Pezzi, _Aryan Philology according to the most recent Researches_,
  translated by E. S. Roberts (London, 1879); Sayce, _Introduction to
  the Science of Language_ (London, 1879); Lersch, _Die
  Sprachphilosophie der Alten_ (Bonn, 1838-1841); Steinthal, _Geschichte
  der Sprachwissenschaft bei den Griechen und Römern mit besonderer
  Rücksicht auf die Logik_ (Berlin, 1863, 2nd ed. 1890); Delbrück,
  _Ablativ localis instrumentalis im Altindischen, Lateinischen,
  Griechischen, und Deutschen_ (Berlin, 1864); Jolly, _Ein Kapitel
  vergleichender Syntax_ (Munich, 1873); Hübschmann, _Zur Casuslehre_
  (Munich, 1875); Holzweissig, _Wahrheit und Irrthum der localistischen
  Casustheorie_ (Leipzig, 1877); Draeger, _Historische Syntax der
  lateinischen Sprache_ (Leipzig, 1874-1876); Sweet, _Words, Logic, and
  Grammar_ (London, 1876); P. Giles, _Manual of Comp. Philology_ (1901);
  C. Abel, _Ägypt.-indo-eur. Sprachverwandschaft_ (1903); Brugmann and
  Delbrück, _Grundriss d. vergl. Gram. d. indogerm. Spr._ (1886-1900);
  Fritz Mauthner, _Beiträge zu einer Kritik der Sprache_ vol. iii.
  (1902); T. G. Tucker, _Introd. to a Nat. Hist. of Language_ (1908).



GRAMMICHELE, a town of Sicily, in the province of Catania, 55 m. S.W. of
it by rail and 31 m. direct. Pop. (1901) 15,075. It was built in 1693,
after the destruction by an earthquake of the old town of Occhialà to
the north; the latter, on account of the similarity of name, is
generally identified with Echetla, a frontier city between Syracusan and
Carthaginian territory in the time of Hiero II., which appears to have
been originally a Sicel city in which Greek civilization prevailed from
the 5th century onwards. To the east of Grammichele a cave shrine of
Demeter, with fine votive terra-cottas, has been discovered.

  See _Mon. Lincei_, vii. (1897), 201; _Not. degli scavi_ (1902), 223.



GRAMMONT (the Flemish name _Gheeraardsbergen_ more clearly reveals its
etymology _Gerardi-mons_), a town in East Flanders, Belgium, near the
meeting point with the provinces of Brabant and Hainaut. It is on the
Dender almost due south of Alost, and is chiefly famous because the
charter of Grammont given by Baldwin VI., count of Flanders, in A.D.
1068 was the first of its kind. This charter has been styled "the most
ancient written monument of civil and criminal laws in Flanders." The
modern town is a busy industrial centre. Pop. (1904) 12,835.



GRAMONT, ANTOINE AGÉNOR ALFRED, DUC DE, DUC DE GUICHE, PRINCE DE BIDACHE
(1819-1880), French diplomatist and statesman, was born at Paris on the
14th of August 1819, of one of the most illustrious families of the old
_noblesse_, a cadet branch of the viscounts of Aure, which took its name
from the seigniory of Gramont in Navarre. His grandfather, Antoine Louis
Marie, duc de Gramont (1755-1836), had emigrated during the Revolution,
and his father, Antoine Héraclius Geneviève Agénor (1789-1855), duc de
Gramont and de Guiche, fought under the British flag in the Peninsular
War, became a lieutenant-general in the French army in 1823, and in 1830
accompanied Charles X. to Scotland. The younger generation, however,
were Bonapartist in sympathy; Gramont's cousin Antoine Louis Raymond,
comte de Gramont (1787-1825), though also the son of an _émigré_, served
with distinction in Napoleon's armies, while Antoine Agénor, duc de
Gramont, owed his career to his early friendship for Louis Napoleon.

Educated at the École Polytechnique, Gramont early gave up the army for
diplomacy. It was not, however, till after the _coup d'état_ of the 2nd
of December 1851, which made Louis Napoleon supreme in France, that he
became conspicuous as a diplomat. He was successively minister
plenipotentiary at Cassel and Stuttgart (1852), at Turin (1853),
ambassador at Rome (1857) and at Vienna (1861). On the 15th of May 1870
he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in the Ollivier cabinet,
and was thus largely, though not entirely, responsible for the bungling
of the negotiations between France and Prussia arising out of the
candidature of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern for the throne of Spain,
which led to the disastrous war of 1870-71. The exact share of Gramont
in this responsibility has been the subject of much controversy. The
last word may be said to have been uttered by M. Émile Ollivier himself
in his _L'Empire libéral_ (tome xii., 1909, _passim_). The famous
declaration read by Gramont in the Chamber on the 6th of July, the
"threat with the hand on the sword-hilt," as Bismarck called it, was the
joint work of the whole cabinet; the original draft presented by Gramont
was judged to be too "elliptical" in its conclusion and not sufficiently
vigorous; the reference to a revival of the empire of Charles V. was
suggested by Ollivier; the paragraph asserting that France would not
allow a foreign power to disturb to her own detriment the actual
equilibrium of Europe was inserted by the emperor. So far, then, as this
declaration is concerned, it is clear that Gramont's responsibility must
be shared with his sovereign and his colleagues (Ollivier _op. cit._
xii. 107; see also the two _projets de déclaration_ given on p. 570). It
is clear, however that he did not share the "passion" of his colleagues
for "peace with honour," clear also that he wholly misread the
intentions of the European powers in the event of war. That he reckoned
upon the active alliance of Austria was due, according to M. Ollivier,
to the fact that for nine years he had been a _persona grata_ in the
aristocratic society of Vienna, where the necessity for revenging the
humiliation of 1866 was an article of faith. This confidence made him
less disposed than many of his colleagues to make the best of the
renunciation of the candidature made, on behalf of his son, by the
prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. It was Gramont who pointed out to
the emperor, on the evening of the 12th, the dubious circumstances of
the act of renunciation, and on the same night, without informing M.
Ollivier, despatched to Benedetti at Ems the fatal telegram demanding
the king of Prussia's guarantee that the candidature would not be
revived. The supreme responsibility for this act must rest with the
emperor, "who imposed it by an exercise of personal power on the only
one of his ministers who could have lent himself to such a forgetfulness
of the safeguards of a parliamentary régime." As for Gramont, he had "no
conception of the exigencies of this régime; he remained an ambassador
accustomed to obey the orders of his sovereign; in all good faith he had
no idea that this was not correct, and that, himself a parliamentary
minister, he had associated himself with an act destructive of the
authority of parliament."[1] "On his part," adds M. Ollivier, "it was
the result only of obedience, not of warlike premeditation" (_op. cit._
p. 262). The apology may be taken for what it is worth. To France and to
the world Gramont was responsible for the policy which put his country
definitely into the wrong in the eyes of Europe, and enabled Bismarck to
administer to her the "slap in the face" (_soufflet_)--as Gramont called
it in the Chamber--by means of the mutilated "Ems telegram," which was
the immediate cause of the French declaration of war on the 15th.

After the defeat of Weissenburg (August 4) Gramont resigned office with
the rest of the Ollivier ministry (August 9), and after the revolution
of September he went to England, returning after the war to Paris, where
he died on the 18th of January 1880. His marriage in 1848 with Miss
Mackinnon, a Scottish lady, remained without issue. During his
retirement he published various apologies for his policy in 1870,
notably _La France et la Prusse avant la guerre_ (Paris, 1872).

  Besides M. Ollivier's work quoted in the text, see L. Thouvenel, _Le
  Secret de l'empereur, correspondance ... échangée entre M. Thouvenel,
  le duc de Gramont, et le général comte de Flahaut 1860-1863_ (2nd ed.,
  2 vols., 1889). A small pamphlet containing his _Souvenirs 1848-1850_
  was published in 1901 by his brother Antoine Léon Philibert Auguste de
  Gramont, duc de Lesparre.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Compare with this Bismarck's remarks to Hohenlohe (Hohenlohe,
    _Denkwürdigkeiten_, ii. 71): "When Gramont was made minister,
    Bismarck said to Benedetti that this indicated that the emperor was
    meditating something evil, otherwise he would not have made so stupid
    a person minister. Benedetti replied that the emperor knew too little
    of him, whereupon Bismarck said that the emperor had once described
    Gramont to him as 'un ancien bellâtre.'"



GRAMONT, PHILIBERT, COMTE DE (1621-1707), the subject of the famous
_Memoirs_, came of a noble Gascón family, said to have been of Basque
origin. His grandmother, Diane d'Andouins, comtesse de Gramont, was "la
belle Corisande," one of the mistresses of Henry IV. The grandson
assumed that his father Antoine II. de Gramont, viceroy of Navarre, was
the son of Henry IV., and regretted that he had not claimed the
privileges of royal birth. Philibert de Gramont was the son of Antoine
II. by his second marriage with Claude de Montmorency, and was born in
1621, probably at the family seat of Bidache. He was destined for the
church, and was educated at the _collège_ of Pau, in Béarn. He refused
the ecclesiastical life, however, and joined the army of Prince Thomas
of Savoy, then besieging Trino in Piedmont. He afterwards served under
his elder half-brother, Antoine, marshal de Gramont, and the prince of
Condé. He was present at Fribourg and Nordlingen, and also served with
distinction in Spain and Flanders in 1647 and 1648. He favoured Condé's
party at the beginning of the Fronde, but changed sides before he was
too severely compromised. In spite of his record in the army he never
received any important commission either military or diplomatic, perhaps
because of an incurable levity in his outlook, He was, however, made a
governor of the Pays d'Aunis and lieutenant of Béarn. During the
Commonwealth he visited England, and in 1662 he was exiled from Paris
for paying court to Mademoiselle de la Motte Houdancourt, one of the
king's mistresses. He went to London, where he found at the court of
Charles II. an atmosphere congenial to his talents for intrigue,
gallantry and pleasure. He married in London, under pressure from her
two brothers, Elizabeth Hamilton, the sister of his future biographer.
She was one of the great beauties of the English court, and was,
according to her brother's optimistic account, able to fix the count's
affections. She was a woman of considerable wit, and held her own at the
court of Louis XIV., but her husband pursued his gallant exploits to the
close of a long life, being, said Ninon de l'Enclos, the only old man
who could affect the follies of youth without being ridiculous. In 1664
he was allowed to return to France. He revisited England in 1670 in
connexion with the sale of Dunkirk, and again in 1671 and 1676. In 1688
he was sent by Louis XIV. to congratulate James II. on the birth of an
heir. From all these small diplomatic missions he succeeded in obtaining
considerable profits, being destitute of scruples whenever money was in
question. At the age of seventy-five he had a dangerous illness, during
which he became reconciled to the church. His penitence does not seem to
have survived his recovery. He was eighty years old when he supplied his
brother-in-law, Anthony Hamilton (q.v.), with the materials for his
_Mémoires_. Hamilton said that they had been dictated to him, but there
is no doubt that he was the real author. The account of Gramont's early
career was doubtless provided by himself, but Hamilton was probably more
familiar with the history of the court of Charles II., which forms the
most interesting section of the book. Moreover Gramont, though he had a
reputation for wit, was no writer, and there is no reason to suppose
that he was capable of producing a work which remains a masterpiece of
style and of witty portraiture. When the _Mémoires_ were finished it is
said that Gramont sold the MS. for 1500 francs, and kept most of the
money himself. Fontenelle, then censor of the press, refused to license
the book from considerations of respect to the strange old man, whose
gambling, cheating and meannesses were so ruthlessly exposed. But
Gramont himself appealed to the chancellor and the prohibition was
removed. He died on the 10th of January 1707, and the _Mémoires_
appeared six years later.

Hamilton was far superior to the comte de Gramont, but he relates the
story of his hero without comment, and no condemnation of the prevalent
code of morals is allowed to appear, unless in an occasional touch of
irony. The portrait is drawn with such skill that the count, in spite of
his biographer's candour, imposes by his grand air on the reader much as
he appears to have done on his contemporaries. The book is the most
entertaining of contemporary memoirs, and in no other book is there a
description so vivid, truthful, and graceful of the licentious court of
Charles II. There are other and less flattering accounts of the count.
His scandalous tongue knew no restraint, and he was a privileged person
who was allowed to state even the most unpleasing truths to Louis XIV.
Saint-Simon in his memoirs describes the relief that was felt at court
when the old man's death was announced.

  _Mémoires de la vie du comte de Grammont contenant particulièrement
  l'histoire amoureuse de la cour d'Angleterre sous le règne de Charles
  II_ was printed in Holland with the inscription Cologne, 1713. Other
  editions followed in 1715 and 1716. _Memoirs of the Life of Count de
  Grammont ... translated out of the French by Mr [Abel] Boyer_ (1714),
  was supplemented by a "compleat key" in 1719. The _Mémoires_
  "augmentées de notes et d'éclaircissemens" was edited by Horace
  Walpole in 1772. In 1793 appeared in London an edition adorned with
  portraits engraved after originals in the royal collection. An English
  edition by Sir Walter Scott was published by H. G. Bohn (1846), and
  this with additions was reprinted in 1889, 1890, 1896, &c. Among other
  modern editions are an excellent one in the _Bibliothèque Charpentier_
  edited by M. Gustave Brunet (1859); _Mémoires ..._ (Paris, 1888) with
  etchings by L. Boisson after C. Delort and an introduction by H.
  Gausseron; _Memoirs ..._ (1889), edited by Mr H. Vizetelly; and
  _Memoirs ..._ (1903), edited by Mr Gordon Goodwin.



GRAMOPHONE (an invented word, formed on an inversion of "phonogram";
[Greek: phônê], sound, [Greek: gramma], letter), an instrument for
recording and reproducing sounds. It depends on the same general
principles as the phonograph (q.v.), but it differs in certain details
of construction, especially in having the sound-record cut spirally on a
flat disk instead of round a cylinder.



GRAMPIANS, THE, a mass of mountains in central Scotland. Owing to the
number of ramifications and ridges it is difficult to assign their
precise limits, but they may be described as occupying the area between
a line drawn from Dumbartonshire to the North Sea at Stonehaven, and the
valley of the Spey or even Glenmore (the Caledonian Canal). Their trend
is from south-west to north-east, the southern face forming the natural
division between the Lowlands and Highlands. They lie in the shires of
Argyll, Dumbarton, Stirling, Perth, Forfar, Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff
and Inverness. Among the highest summits are Ben Nevis, Ben Macdhui, and
Cairngorms, Ben Lawers, Ben More, Ben Alder, Ben Cruachan and Ben
Lomond. The principal rivers flowing from the watershed northward are
the Findhorn, Spey, Don, Dee and their tributaries, and southward the
South Esk, Tay and Forth with their affluents. On the north the mass is
wild and rugged; on the south the slope is often gentle, affording
excellent pasture in many places, but both sections contain some of the
finest deer-forests in Scotland. They are crossed by the Highland, West
Highland and Callander to Oban railways, and present some of the finest
scenery in the kingdom. The rocks consist chiefly of granite, gneiss,
schists, quartzite, porphyry and diorite. Their fastnesses were
originally inhabited by the northern Picts, the Caledonians who, under
Galgacus, were defeated by Agricola in A.D. 84 at Mons Graupius--the
false reading of which, Grampius, has been perpetuated in the name of
the mountains--the site of which has not been ascertained. Some
authorities place it at Ardoch; others near the junction of the Tay and
Isla, or at Dalginross near Comrie; while some, contending for a
position nearer the east coast, refer it to a site in west Forfarshire
or to Raedykes near Stonehaven.



GRAMPOUND, a small market town in the mid-parliamentary division of
Cornwall, England, 9 m. E.N.E. of Truro, and 2 m. from its station
(Grampound Road) on the Great Western railway. It is situated on the
river Fal, and has some industry in tanning. It retains an ancient town
hall; there is a good market cross; and in the neighbourhood, along the
Fal, are several early earthworks.

Grampound (Ponsmure, Graundpont, Grauntpount, Graundpond) and the
hundred, manor and vill of Tibeste were formerly so closely associated
that in 1400 the former is found styled the vill of Grauntpond called
Tibeste. At the time of the Domesday Survey Tibeste was amongst the most
valuable of the manors granted to the count of Mortain. The burgensic
character of Ponsmure first appears in 1299. Thirty-five years later
John of Eltham granted to the burgesses the whole town of Grauntpount.
This grant was confirmed in 1378 when its extent and jurisdiction were
defined. It was provided that the hundred court of Powdershire should
always be held there and two fairs at the feasts of St Peter in Cathedra
and St Barnabas, both of which are still held, and a Tuesday market (now
held on Friday) and that it should be a free borough rendering a yearly
rent to the earl of Cornwall. Two members were summoned to parliament by
Edward VI. in 1553. The electors consisted of an indefinite number of
freemen, about 50 in all, indirectly nominated by the mayor and
corporation, which existed by prescription. The venality of the electors
became notorious. In 1780 £3000 was paid for a seat: in 1812 each
supporter of one of the candidates received £100. The defeat of this
candidate in 1818 led to a parliamentary inquiry which disclosed a
system of wholesale corruption, and in 1821 the borough was
disfranchised. A former woollen trade is extinct.



GRAMPUS (_Orca gladiator_, or _Orca orca_), a cetacean belonging to the
_Delphinidae_ or dolphin family, characterized by its rounded head
without distinct beak, high dorsal fin and large conical teeth. The
upper parts are nearly uniform glossy black, and the under parts white,
with a strip of the same colour over each eye. The O. Fr. word was
_grapois_, _graspeis_ or _craspeis_, from Med. Lat. _crassus piscis_,
fat fish. This was adapted into English as _grapeys_, _graspeys_, &c.,
and in the 16th century becomes _grannie pose_ as if from _grand
poisson_. The final corruption to "grampus" appears in the 18th century
and was probably nautical in origin. The animal is also known as the
"killer," in allusion to its ferocity in attacking its prey, which
consists largely of seals, porpoises and the smaller dolphins. Its
fierceness is only equalled by its voracity, which is such that in a
specimen measuring 21 ft. in length, the remains of thirteen seals and
thirteen porpoises were found, in a more or less digested state, while
the animal appeared to have been choked in the endeavour to swallow
another seal, the skin of which was found entangled in its teeth. These
cetaceans sometimes hunt in packs or schools, and commit great havoc
among the belugas or white whales, which occasionally throw themselves
ashore to escape their persecutors. The grampus is an inhabitant of
northern seas, occurring on the shores of Greenland, and having been
caught, although rarely, as far south as the Mediterranean. There are
numerous instances of its capture on the British coasts. (See CETACEA.)



GRANADA, LUIS DE (1504-1588), Spanish preacher and ascetic writer, born
of poor parents named Sarriá at Granada. He lost his father at an early
age and his widowed mother was supported by the charity of the
Dominicans. A child of the Alhambra, he entered the service of the
alcalde as page, and, his ability being discovered, received his
education with the sons of the house. When nineteen he entered the
Dominican convent and in 1525 took the vows; and, with the leave of his
prior, shared his daily allowance of food with his mother. He was sent
to Valladolid to continue his studies and then was appointed procurator
at Granada. Seven years after he was elected prior of the convent of
Scala Caeli in the mountains of Cordova, which after eight years he
succeeded in restoring from its ruinous state, and there he began his
work as a zealous reformer. His preaching gifts were developed by the
orator Juan de Avila, and he became one of the most famous of Spanish
preachers. He was invited to Portugal in 1555 and became provincial of
his order, declining the offer of the archbishopric of Braga but
accepting the position of confessor and counsellor to Catherine, the
queen regent. At the expiration of his tenure of the provincialship, he
retired to the Dominican convent at Lisbon, where he lived till his
death on the last day of 1588. Aiming, both in his sermons and ascetical
writings, at development of the religious view, the danger of the times
as he saw it was not so much in the Protestant reformation, which was an
outside influence, but in the direction that religion had taken among
the masses. He held that in Spain the Catholic faith was not understood
by the people, and that their ignorance was the pressing danger. He fell
under the suspicion of the Inquisition; his mystical teaching was said
to be heretical, and his most famous book, the _Guia de Peccadores_,
still a favourite treatise and one that has been translated into nearly
every European tongue, was put on the Index of the Spanish Inquisition,
together with his book on prayer, in 1559. His great opponent was the
restless and ambitious Melchior Cano, who stigmatized the second book
as containing grave errors smacking of the heresy of the Alumbrados and
manifestly contradicting Catholic faith and teaching. But in 1576 the
prohibition was removed and the works of Luis de Granada, so prized by
St Francis de Sales, have never lost their value. The friend of St
Teresa, St Peter of Alcantara, and of all the noble minds of Spain of
his day, no one among the three hundred Spanish mystics excels Luis de
Granada in the beauty of a didactic style, variety of illustration and
soberness of statement.

  The last collected edition of his works is that published in 9 vols.
  at Antwerp in 1578. A biography by L. Monoz, _La Vida y virtudes de
  Luis de Granada_ (Madrid, 1639); a study of his system by P. Rousselot
  in _Mystiques espagnoles_ (Paris, 1867); Ticknor, _History of Spanish
  Literature_ (vol. iii.), and Fitzmaurice Kelly, _History of Spanish
  Literature_, pp. 200-202 (London, 1898), may also be consulted.



GRANADA, the capital of the department of Granada, Nicaragua; 32 m. by
rail S.E. of Managua, the capital of the republic. Pop. (1900) about
25,000. Granada is built on the north-western shore of Lake Nicaragua,
of which it is the principal port. Its houses are of the usual central
American type, constructed of adobe, rarely more than one storey high,
and surrounded by courtyards with ornamental gateways. The suburbs,
scattered over a large area, consist chiefly of cane huts occupied by
Indians and half-castes. There are several ancient churches and
convents, in one of which the interior of the chancel roof is inlaid
with mother-of-pearl. An electric tramway connects the railway station
and the adjacent wharves with the market, about 1 m. distant. Ice,
cigars, hats, boots and shoes are manufactured, but the characteristic
local industry is the production of "Panama chains," ornaments made of
thin gold wire. In the neighbourhood there are large cocoa plantations;
and the city has a thriving trade in cocoa, coffee, hides, cotton,
native tobacco and indigo.

Granada was founded in 1523 by Francisco Fernandez de Córdoba. It became
one of the wealthiest of central American cities, although it had always
a keen commercial rival in Leon, which now surpasses it in size and
importance. In the 17th century it was often raided by buccaneers,
notably in 1606, when it was completely sacked. In 1855 it was captured
and partly burned by the adventurer William Walker (see CENTRAL AMERICA:
_History_).



GRANADA, a maritime province of southern Spain, formed in 1833 of
districts belonging to Andalusia, and coinciding with the central parts
of the ancient kingdom of Granada. Pop. (1900) 492,460; area, 4928 sq.
m. Granada is bounded on the N. by Cordova, Jaen and Albacete, E. by
Murcia and Almería, S. by the Mediterranean Sea, and W. by Malaga. It
includes the western and loftier portion of the Sierra Nevada (q.v.), a
vast ridge rising parallel to the sea and attaining its greatest
altitudes in the Cerro de Mulhacen (11,421 ft.) and Picacho de la Veleta
(11,148), which overlook the city of Granada. Lesser ranges, such as the
Sierras of Parapanda, Alhama, Almijara or Harana, adjoin the main ridge.
From this central watershed the three principal rivers of the province
take their rise, viz.: the Guadiana Menor, which, flowing past Guadix in
a northerly direction, falls into the Guadalquivir in the neighbourhood
of Ubeda; the Genil which, after traversing the Vega, or Plain of
Granada, leaves the province a little to the westward of Loja and joins
the Guadalquivir between Cordova and Seville; and the Rio Grande or
Guadalféo, which falls into the Mediterranean at Motril. The coast is
little indented and none of its three harbours, Almuñécar, Albuñol and
Motril, ranks high in commercial importance. The climate in the lower
valleys and the narrow fringe along the coast is warm, but on the higher
grounds of the interior is somewhat severe; and the vegetation varies
accordingly from the subtropical to the alpine. The soil of the plains
is very productive, and that of the Vega of Granada is considered the
richest in the whole peninsula; from the days of the Moors it has been
systematically irrigated, and it continues to yield in great abundance
and in good quality wheat, barley, maize, wine, oil, sugar, flax,
cotton, silk and almost every variety of fruit. In the mountains
immediately surrounding the city of Granada occur many kinds of
alabaster, some very fine; there are also quantities of jasper and other
precious stones. Mineral waters chiefly chalybeate and sulphurous, are
abundant, the most important springs being those of Alhama, which have a
temperature of 112° F. There are valuable iron mines, and small
quantities of zinc, lead and mercury are obtained. The cane and beet
sugar industries, for which there are factories at Loja, at Motril, and
in the Vega, developed rapidly after the loss of the Spanish West Indies
and the Philippine Islands in 1898, with the consequent decrease in
competition. There are also tanneries, foundries and manufactories of
woollen, linen, cotton, and rough frieze stuffs, cards, soap, spirits,
gunpowder and machinery. Apart from the great highways traversing the
province, which are excellent, the roads are few and ill-kept. The
railway from Madrid enters the province on the north and bifurcates
north-west of Guadix; one branch going eastward to Almería, the other
westward to Loja, Malaga and Algeciras. Baza is the terminus of a
railway from Lorca. The chief towns include Granada, the capital (pop.
1900, 75,900) with Alhama de Granada (7697), Baza (12,770), Guadix
(12,652), Loja (19,143), Montefrío (10,725), and Motril (18,528). These
are described in separate articles. Other towns with upwards of 7000
inhabitants are Albuñol (8646), Almuñécar (8022), Cúllar de Baza (8007),
Huéscar (7763), Illora (9496) and Puebla de Don Fadrique (7420). The
history of the ancient kingdom is inseparable from that of the city of
Granada (q.v.).



GRANADA, the capital of the province, and formerly of the kingdom of
Granada, in southern Spain; on the Madrid-Granada-Algeciras railway.
Pop. (1900) 75,900. Granada is magnificently situated, 2195 ft. above
the sea, on the north-western slope of the Sierra Nevada, overlooking
the fertile lowlands known as the Vega de Granada on the west and
overshadowed by the peaks of Veleta (11,148 ft.) and Mulhacen (11,421
ft.) on the south-east. The southern limit of the city is the river
Genil, the Roman _Singilis_ and Moorish _Shenil_, a swift stream flowing
westward from the Sierra Nevada, with a considerable volume of water in
summer, when the snows have thawed. Its tributary the Darro, the Roman
_Salon_ and Moorish _Hadarro_, enters Granada on the east, flows for
upwards of a mile from east to west, and then turns sharply southward to
join the main river, which is spanned by a bridge just above the point
of confluence. The waters of the Darro are much reduced by irrigation
works along its lower course, and within the city it has been canalized
and partly covered with a roof.

Granada comprises three main divisions, the Antequeruela, the Albaicin
(or Albaycin), and Granada properly so-called. The first division,
founded by refugees from Antequera in 1410, consists of the districts
enclosed by the Darro, besides a small area on its right, or western
bank. It is bounded on the east by the gardens and hill of the Alhambra
(q.v.), the most celebrated of all the monuments left by the Moors. The
Albaicin (Moorish _Rabad al Bayazin_, "Falconers' Quarter") lies
north-west of the Antequeruela. Its name is sometimes associated with
that of Baeza, since, according to one tradition, it was colonized by
citizens of Baeza, who fled hither in 1246, after the capture of their
town by the Christians. It was long the favourite abode of the Moorish
nobles, but is now mainly inhabited by gipsies and artisans. Granada,
properly so-called, is north of the Antequeruela, and west of the
Albaicin. The origin of its name is obscure; it has been sometimes,
though with little probability, derived from _granada_, a pomegranate,
in allusion to the abundance of pomegranate trees in the neighbourhood.
A pomegranate appears on the city arms. The Moors, however, called
Granada _Karnattah_ or _Karnattah-al-Yahud_, and possibly the name is
composed of the Arabic words _kurn_, "a hill," and _nattah_,
"stranger,"--the "city" or "hill of strangers."

Although the city has been to some extent modernized, the architecture
of its more ancient quarters has many Moorish characteristics. The
streets are, as a rule, ill-lighted, ill-paved and irregular; but there
are several fine squares and avenues, such as the Bibarrambla, where
tournaments were held by the Moors; the spacious Plaza del Trionfo,
adjoining the bull-ring, on the north; the Alameda, planted with plane
trees, and the Paseo del Salon. The business centre of the city is the
Puerta Real, a square named after a gate now demolished.

Granada is the see of an archbishop. Its cathedral, which commemorates
the reconquest of southern Spain from the Moors, is a somewhat heavy
classical building, begun in 1529 by Diego de Siloe, and only finished
in 1703. It is profusely ornamented with jasper and coloured marbles,
and surmounted by a dome. The interior contains many paintings and
sculptures by Alonso Cano (1601-1667), the architect of the fine west
façade, and other artists. In one of the numerous chapels, known as the
Chapel Royal (_Capilla Real_), is the monument of Philip I. of Castile
(1478-1506), and his queen Joanna; with the tomb of Ferdinand and
Isabella, the first rulers of united Spain (1452-1516). The church of
Santa Maria (1705-1759), which may be regarded as an annexe of the
cathedral, occupies the site of the chief mosque of Granada. This was
used as a church until 1661. Santa Ana (1541) also replaced a mosque;
Nuestra Señora de las Angustias (1664-1671) is noteworthy for its fine
towers, and the rich decoration of its high altar. The convent of San
Geronimo (or Jeronimo), founded in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella, was
converted into barracks in 1810; its church contains the tomb of the
famous captain Gonsalvo or Gonzalo de Cordova (1453-1515). The Cartuja,
or Carthusian monastery north of the city, was built in 1516 on
Gonzalo's estate, and in his memory. It contains several fine paintings,
and an interesting church of the 17th and 18th centuries.

After the Alhambra, and such adjacent buildings as the Generalife and
Torres Bermejas, which are more fitly described in connexion with it,
the principal Moorish antiquities of Granada are the 13th-century villa
known as the Cuarto Real de San Domingo, admirably preserved, and
surrounded by beautiful gardens; the Alcázar de Genil, built in the
middle of the 14th century as a palace for the Moorish queens; and the
Casa del Cabildo, a university of the same period, converted into a
warehouse in the 19th century. Few Spanish cities possess a greater
number of educational and charitable establishments. The university was
founded by Charles V. in 1531, and transferred to its present buildings
in 1769. It is attended by about 600 students. In 1900, the primary
schools of Granada numbered 22, in addition to an ecclesiastical
seminary, a training-school for teachers, schools of art and
jurisprudence, and museums of art and archaeology. There were twelve
hospitals and orphanages for both sexes, including a leper hospital in
one of the convents. Granada has an active trade in the agricultural
produce of the Vega, and manufactures liqueurs, soap, paper and coarse
linen and woollen fabrics. Silk-weaving was once extensively carried on,
and large quantities of silk were exported to Italy, France, Germany and
even America, but this industry died during the 19th century.

_History._--The identity of Granada with the Iberian city of _Iliberris_
or _Iliberri_, which afterwards became a flourishing Roman colony, has
never been fully established; but Roman tombs, coins, inscriptions, &c.,
have been discovered in the neighbourhood. With the rest of Andalusia,
as a result of the great invasion from the north in the 5th century,
Granada fell to the lot of the Vandals. Under the caliphs of Cordova,
onwards from the 8th century, it rapidly gained in importance, and
ultimately became the seat of a provincial government, which, after the
fall of the Omayyad dynasty in 1031, or, according to some authorities,
1038, ranked with Seville, Jaen and others as an independent
principality. The family of the Zeri, Ziri or Zeiri maintained itself as
the ruling dynasty until 1090; it was then displaced by the Almohades,
who were in turn overthrown by the Almoravides, in 1154. The dominion of
the Almoravides continued unbroken, save for an interval of one year
(1160-1161), until 1229. From 1229 to 1238 Granada formed part of the
kingdom of Murcia; but in the last-named year it passed into the hands
of Abu Abdullah Mahommed Ibn Al Ahmar, prince of Jaen and founder of the
dynasty of the Nasrides. Al Ahmar was deprived of Jaen in 1246, but
united Granada, Almería and Malaga under his sceptre, and, as the
fervour of the Christian crusade against the Moors had temporarily
abated, he made peace with Castile, and even aided the Christians to
vanquish the Moslem princes of Seville. At the same time he offered
asylum to refugees from Valencia, Murcia and other territories in which
the Moors had been overcome. Al Ahmar and his successors ruled over
Granada until 1492, in an unbroken line of twenty-five sovereigns who
maintained their independence partly by force, and partly by payment of
tribute to their stronger neighbours. Their encouragement of
commerce--notably the silk trade with Italy--rendered Granada the
wealthiest of Spanish cities; their patronage of art, literature and
science attracted many learned Moslems, such as the historian Ibn
Khaldun and the geographer Ibn Batuta, to their court, and resulted in a
brilliant civilization, of which the Alhambra is the supreme monument.

The kingdom of Granada, which outlasted all the other Moorish states in
Spain, fell at last through dynastic rivalries and a harem intrigue. The
two noble families of the Zegri and the Beni Serraj (better known in
history and legend as the _Abencerrages_) encroached greatly upon the
royal prerogatives during the middle years of the 15th century. A crisis
arose in 1462, when an endeavour to control the Abencerrages resulted in
the dethronement of Abu Nasr Saad, and the accession of his son, Muley
Abu'l Hassan, whose name is preserved in that of Mulhacen, the loftiest
peak of the Sierra Nevada, and in a score of legends. Muley Hassan
weakened his position by resigning Malaga to his brother Ez Zagal, and
incurred the enmity of his first wife Aisha by marrying a beautiful
Spanish slave, Isabella de Solis, who had adopted the creed of Islam and
taken the name of Zorayah, "morning star." Aisha or Ayesha, who thus saw
her sons Abu Abdullah Mahommed (Boabdil) and Yusuf in danger of being
supplanted, appealed to the Abencerrages, whose leaders, according to
tradition, paid for their sympathy with their lives (see ALHAMBRA). In
1482 Boabdil succeeded in deposing his father, who fled to Malaga, but
the gradual advance of the Christians under Ferdinand and Isabella
forced him to resign the task of defence into the more warlike hands of
Muley Hassan and Ez Zagal (1483-1486). In 1491 after the loss of these
leaders, the Moors were decisively beaten; Boabdil, who had already been
twice captured and liberated by the Spaniards, was compelled to sign
away his kingdom; and on the 2nd of January 1492 the Spanish army
entered Granada, and the Moorish power in Spain was ended. The campaign
had aroused intense interest throughout Christendom; when the news
reached London a special thanksgiving service was held in St Paul's
Cathedral by order of Henry VII.



GRANADILLA, the name applied to _Passiflora quadrangularis_, Linn., a
plant of the natural order _Passifloreae_, a native of tropical America,
having smooth, cordate, ovate or acuminate leaves; petioles bearing from
4 to 6 glands; an emetic and narcotic root; scented flowers; and a
large, oblong fruit, containing numerous seeds, imbedded in a subacid
edible pulp. The granadilla is sometimes grown in British hothouses. The
fruits of several other species of _Passiflora_ are eaten. _P.
laurifolia_ is the "water lemon," and _P. maliformis_ the "sweet
calabash" of the West Indies.



GRANARIES. From ancient times grain has been stored in greater or lesser
bulk. The ancient Egyptians made a practice of preserving grain in years
of plenty against years of scarcity, and probably Joseph only carried
out on a large scale an habitual practice. The climate of Egypt being
very dry, grain could be stored in pits for a long time without sensible
loss of quality. The silo pit, as it has been termed, has been a
favourite way of storing grain from time immemorial in all oriental
lands. In Turkey and Persia usurers used to buy up wheat or barley when
comparatively cheap, and store it in hidden pits against seasons of
dearth. Probably that custom is not yet dead. In Malta a relatively
large stock of wheat is always preserved in some hundreds of pits
(silos) cut in the rock. A single silo will store from 60 to 80 tons of
wheat, which, with proper precautions, will keep in good condition for
four years or more. The silos are shaped like a cylinder resting on a
truncated cone, and surmounted by the same figure. The mouth of the pit
is round and small and covered by a stone slab, and the inside is lined
with barley straw and kept very dry. Samples are occasionally taken from
the wheat as from the hold of a ship, and at any signs of fermentation
the granary is cleared and the wheat turned over, but such is the
dryness of these silos that little trouble of this kind is experienced.

Towards the close of the 19th century warehouses specially intended for
holding grain began to multiply in Great Britain, but America is the
home of great granaries, known there as elevators. There are climatic
difficulties in the way of storing grain in Great Britain on a large
scale, but these difficulties have been largely overcome. To preserve
grain in good condition it must be kept as much as possible from
moisture and heat. New grain when brought into a warehouse has a
tendency to sweat, and in this condition will easily heat. If the
heating is allowed to continue the quality of the grain suffers. An
effectual remedy is to turn out the grain in layers, not too thick, on a
floor, and to keep turning it over so as to aerate it thoroughly. Grain
can thus be conditioned for storage in silos. There is reason to think
that grain in a sound and dry condition can be better stored in bins or
dry pits than in the open air; from a series of experiments carried out
on behalf of the French government it would seem that grain exposed to
the air is decomposed at 3½ times the rate of grain stored in silo or
other bins.

In comparing the grain-storage system of Great Britain with that of
North America it must be borne in mind that whereas Great Britain raises
a comparatively small amount of grain, which is more or less rapidly
consumed, grain-growing is one of the greatest industries of the United
States and of Canada. The enormous surplus of wheat and maize produced
in America can only be profitably dealt with by such a system of storage
as has grown up there since the middle of the 19th century. The American
farmer can store his wheat or maize at a moderate rate, and can get an
advance on his warrant if he is in need of money. A holder of wheat in
Chicago can withdraw a similar grade of wheat from a New York elevator.

Modern granaries are all built on much the same plan. The mechanical
equipment for receiving and discharging grain is very similar in all
modern warehouses. A granary is usually erected on a quay at which large
vessels can lie and discharge. On the land side railway sidings connect
the warehouse with the chief lines in its district; accessibility to a
canal is an advantage. Ships are usually cleared by bucket elevators
which are dipped into the cargo, though in some cases pneumatic
elevators are substituted (see CONVEYORS). A travelling band with
throw-off carriage will speedily distribute a heavy load of grain. Band
conveyors serve equally well for charging or discharging the bins. Bins
are invariably provided with hopper bottoms, and any bin can be
effectively cleared by the band, which runs underneath, either in a
cellar or in a specially constructed tunnel. All granaries should be
provided with a sufficient plant of cleaning machinery to take from the
grain impurities as would be likely to be detrimental to its storing
qualities. Chief among such machines are the warehouse separators which
work by sieves and air currents (see FLOUR AND FLOUR MANUFACTURE).

The typical grain warehouse is furnished with a number of chambers for
grain storage which are known as silos, and may be built of wood, brick,
iron or ferro-concrete. Wood silos are usually square, made of flat
strips of wood nailed one on top of the other, and so overlapping each
other at the corners that alternately a longitudinal and a transverse
batten extends past the corner. The gaps are filled by short pieces of
timber securely nailed, and the whole silo wall is thus solid. This type
of bin was formerly in great favour, but it has certain drawbacks, such
as the possibility of dry rot, while weevils are apt to harbour in the
interstices unless lime washing is practised. Bricks and cement are good
materials for constructing silos of hexagonal form, but necessitate deep
foundations and substantial walls. Iron silos of circular form are used
to some extent in Great Britain, but are more common in North and South
America. In their case the walls are much thinner than with any other
material, but the condensation against the inner wall in wet weather is
a drawback in damp climates. Cylindrical tank silos have also been made
of fire-proof tiles. Ferro-concrete silos have been built on both the
Monier and the Hennebique systems. In the earlier type the bin was made
of an iron or steel framework filled in with concrete, but more recent
structures are composed entirely of steel rods embedded in cement.
Granaries built of this material have the great advantage, if properly
constructed, of being free from any risk of failure even in case of
uneven expansion of the material. With brick silos collapses through
pressure of the stored material are not unknown.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]


    Port Arthur, Canada.

  One of the largest and most complete grain elevators or warehouses in
  the world belongs to the Canadian Northern Railway Company, and was
  erected at Port Arthur, Canada, in 1901-1904. It has a total storage
  capacity of 7,000,000 bushels, or 875,000 qrs. of 480 lb. The range of
  buildings and bins forms an oblong, and consists of two storage
  houses, B and C, placed between two working or receiving houses A and
  D (fig. 1). The receiving houses are fed by railway sidings. House A,
  for example, has two sidings, one running through it and the other
  beside it. Each siding serves five receiving pits, and a receiving
  elevator of 10,000 lb. capacity per minute, or 60,000 bushels per
  hour, can draw grain from either of two pits. Five elevators of 12,000
  bushels per hour on the other side of the house serve five warehouse
  separators, and all the grain received or discharged is weighed, there
  being ten sets of automatic scales in the upper part of the house,
  known as the cupola. The hopper of each weigher can take a charge of
  1400 bushels (84,000 lb.). Grain can be conveyed either vertically or
  horizontally to any part of the house, into any of the bins in the
  annex B, or into any truck or lake steamer. This house is constructed
  of timber and roofed with corrugated iron. The conveyor belts are 36
  in. wide; those at the top of the house are provided with throw-off
  carriages. The dust from the cleaning machinery is carefully collected
  and spouted to the furnace under the boiler house, where it is
  consumed. The cylindrical silo bins in the storage houses consist of
  hollow tiles of burned clay which, it is claimed, are fire-proof. The
  tiles are laid on end and are about 12 in. by 12 in. and from 4 in. to
  6 in. in thickness according to the size of the bin. Each alternate
  course consists of grooved blocks of channel tile forming a continuous
  groove or belt round the bin. This groove receives a steel band acting
  as a tension member and resisting the lateral pressure of the grain.
  The steel bands once in position, the groove is completely filled with
  cement grout by which the steel is encased and protected. Usually the
  bottoms of the bins are furnished with self-discharging hoppers of
  weak cinder or gravel concrete finished with cement mortar. For the
  foundation or supporting floor reinforced concrete is frequently used.
  The tiles already described are faced with tiles ½ to 1 in. thick,
  which are laid solid in cement mortar covering the whole exterior of
  the bin. Any damage to the facing tiles can easily be repaired since
  they can be removed and replaced without affecting the main bin walls.
  It is claimed that these facers constitute the best possible
  protection against fire. A steel framework, covered with tiles, crowns
  these circular bins and contains the conveyors and spouts which are
  used to fill the bins. Five tunnels in the concrete bedding that
  supports the bins carry the belt conveyors which bring back the grain
  to the working house for cleaning or shipment. There are altogether in
  each of the storage houses 80 circular bins, each 21 ft. in diameter,
  and so grouped as to form 63 smaller interspace bins, or 143 bins in
  all. Each bin will store grain in a column 85 ft. deep, and the whole
  group has a capacity of 2,500,000 bushels. These bins were all
  constructed by the Barnett & Record Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota,
  U.S.A., in accordance with the Johnson & Record patent system of
  fire-proof tile grain storage construction. In case one of the working
  houses is attacked by fire the fire-proof storage houses protect not
  only their own contents but also the other working house, and in the
  event of its disablement or destruction the remaining one can be
  easily connected with both the storage houses and handle their
  contents.


    Barrow-in-Furness.

  Circular tank silos have not been extensively adopted in Great
  Britain, but a typical silo tank installation exists at the Walmsley &
  Smith flour mills which stand beside the Devonshire dock at
  Barrow-in-Furness. There four circular bins, built of riveted steel
  plates, stand in a group on a quadrangle close to the mill warehouse.
  A covered gantry, through which passes a band conveyor, runs from the
  mill warehouse to the working silo house which stands in the central
  space amid the four steel tanks. The tanks are 70 ft. high, with a
  diameter of 45 ft., and rest on foundations of concrete and steel.
  Each has a separate conical roof and they are flat-bottomed, the grain
  resting directly on the steel and concrete foundation bed. As the load
  of the full tank is very heavy its even distribution on the bed is
  considered a point of importance. Each tank can hold about 2500 tons
  of wheat, which gives a total storage capacity for the four bins of
  over 45,000 qrs. of 480 lb. Attached to the mill warehouse is a skip
  elevator with a discharging capacity of 75 tons an hour. The grain is
  cleared by this elevator from the hold or holds of the vessel to be
  unloaded, and is delivered to the basement of the warehouse. Thence it
  is elevated to an upper storey and passed through an automatic weigher
  capable of taking a charge of 1 ton. From the weighing machine it can
  be taken, with or without a preliminary cleaning, to any floor of the
  warehouse, which has a total storing capacity of 8000 tons, or it can
  be carried by the band conveyor through the gantry to the working
  house of the silo installation and distributed to any one of the four
  tank silos. There is also a connexion by a band conveyor running
  through a covered gantry into the mill, which stands immediately in
  the rear. It is perfectly easy to turn over the contents of any tank
  into any other tank. The whole intake and wheat handling plant is
  moved by two electro-motors of 35 H.P. each, one installed in the
  warehouse and the other in the silo working house. Steel silo tanks
  have the advantage of storing a heavy stock of wheat at comparatively
  small capital outlay. On an average an ordinary silo bin will not hold
  more than 500 to 1000 qrs., but each of the bins at Barrow will
  contain 2500 tons or over 1100 qrs. The steel construction also
  reduces the risk of fire and consequently lessens the fire premium.


    Liverpool.

  The important granaries at the Liverpool docks date from 1868, but
  have since been brought up to modern requirements. The warehouses on
  the Waterloo docks have an aggregate storage area of 11¾ acres, while
  the sister warehouses on the Birkenhead side, which stand on the
  margin of the great float, have an area of 11 acres. The total
  capacity of these warehouses is about 200,000 qrs.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]


    Manchester.

  The grain warehouse of the Manchester docks at Trafford wharf is
  locally known as the grain elevator, because it was built to a great
  extent on the model of an American elevator. Some of the mechanical
  equipment was supplied by a Chicago firm. The total capacity is
  1,500,000 bushels or 40,000 tons of grain, which is stored in 226
  separate bins. The granary proper stands about 340 ft. from the side
  of the dock, but is directly connected with the receiving tower, which
  rises at the water's edge, by a band conveyor protected by a gantry.
  The main building is 448 ft. long by 80 ft. wide; the whole of the
  superstructure was constructed of wood with an external casing of
  brickwork and tiles. The receiving tower is fitted with a bucket
  elevator capable, within fairly wide limits, of adjustment to the
  level of the hold to be unloaded. The elevator has the large unloading
  capacity of 350 tons per hour, assuming it to be working in a full
  hold. It is supplemented by a pneumatic elevator (Duckham system)
  which can raise 200 tons per hour and is used chiefly in dealing with
  parcels of grain or in clearing grain out of holds which the ordinary
  elevator cannot reach. The power required to work the large elevator
  as well as the various band conveyors is supplied by two sets of
  horizontal Corliss compound engines of 500 H.P. jointly, which are fed
  by two Galloway boilers working at 100 lb. pressure. The pneumatic
  elevator is driven by two sets of triple expansion vertical engines of
  600 H.P. fed by three boilers working at a pressure of 160 lb. The
  grain received in the tower is automatically weighed. From the
  receiving tower the grain is conveyed into the warehouse where it is
  at once elevated to the top of a central tower, and is thence
  distributed to any of the bins by band conveyors in the usual way. The
  mechanical equipment of this warehouse is very complete, and the
  following several operations can be simultaneously effected:
  discharging grain from vessels in the dock at the rate of 350 tons
  per hour; weighing in the tower; conveying grain into the warehouse
  and distributing it into any of the 226 bins; moving grain from bin to
  bin either for aerating or delivery, and simultaneously weighing in
  bulk at the rate of 500 tons per hour; sacking grain, weighing and
  loading the sacks into 40 railway trucks and 10 carts simultaneously;
  loading grain from the warehouse into barges or coasting craft at the
  rate of 150 tons per hour in bulk or of 250 sacks per hour. This
  warehouse is equipped with a dryer of American construction, which can
  deal with 50 tons of damp grain at one time, and is connected with the
  whole bin system so that grain can be readily moved from any bin to
  the dryer or conversely.


    London.

  A grain warehouse at the Victoria docks, London, belonging to the
  London and India Docks Company (fig. 2) has a storing capacity of
  about 25,000 qrs. or 200,000 bushels. It is over 100 ft. high, and is
  built on the American plan of interlaced timbers resting on iron
  columns. The walls are externally cased with steel plates. The grain
  is stored in 56 silos, most of which are about 10 ft. square by 50 ft.
  deep. The intake plant has a capacity of 100 tons of wheat an hour,
  and includes six automatic grain scales, each of which can weigh off
  one sack at a time. The main delivery floor of the warehouse is at a
  convenient height above the ground level. Portable automatic weighing
  machines can be placed under any bin. The whole of the plant is driven
  by electric motors, one being allotted to each machine.

  The transit silos of the London Grain Elevator Company, also at the
  Victoria docks, consist of four complete and independent installations
  standing on three tongues of land which project into the water (figs.
  2 and 3). Each silo house is furnished with eight bins, each of which,
  12 ft. square by 80 ft. deep, has a capacity of 1000 qrs. of grain. A
  kind of well in the middle of each silo house contains the necessary
  elevators, staircases, &c. The silo bins in each granary are erected
  on a massive cast iron tank forming a sort of cellar, which rests on a
  concrete foundation 6 ft. thick. The base of the tank is 30 ft. below
  the water level. The silos are formed of wooden battens nailed one on
  top of the other, the pieces interlacing. Rolled steel girders resting
  on cast iron columns support the silos. To ensure a clean discharge
  the hopper bottoms were designed so as to avoid joints and thus to be
  free from rivets or similar protuberances. The exterior of each silo
  house is covered with corrugated iron, and the same material is used
  for the roofing. No conveyors serve the silo bins, as the elevators
  which rise above the tops of the silos can feed any one of them by
  gravity. There are three delivery elevators to each granary, one with
  a capacity of 120 tons and the other two of 100 tons each an hour.
  Each silo house is served by a large elevator with a capacity of 120
  tons per hour, which discharges into the elevator well inside the
  house. The delivery elevators discharge into a receiving shed in which
  there is a large hopper feeding six automatic weighing machines. Each
  charge as it is weighed empties itself automatically into sacks, which
  are then ready for loading. Each pair of warehouses is provided with a
  conveyor band 308 ft. long, used either for carrying sacks from the
  weighing sheds to railway trucks or for carrying grain in bulk to
  barges or trucks. Each silo house has an identical mechanical
  equipment apart from the delivery band it shares with its fellow
  warehouse. All operations in connexion with the silo houses are
  effected under cover. The silos are normally fed by a fleet of
  twenty-six of Philip's patent self-discharging lighters. These craft
  are hopper-bottomed and fitted with band conveyors of the ordinary
  type, running between the double keelson of the lighter and delivering
  into an elevator erected at the stern of the lighter. By this means
  little trimming is required after the barge, which holds about 200
  tons of grain, has been cleared. Ocean steamers of such draft as to
  preclude their entry into any of the up river docks are cleared at
  Tilbury by these lighters. It is said that grain loaded at Tilbury
  into these lighters can be delivered from the transit silos to railway
  trucks or barges in about six hours. The total storage capacity of the
  silos amounts to 32,000 qrs. The motive power is furnished by 14 gas
  engines of a total capacity of 366 H.P.


    Rumania.

  Two of the largest granaries on the continent of Europe are situated
  at the mouth of the Danube, at Braila and Galatz, in Rumania, and
  serve for both the reception and discharge of grain. At the edge of
  the quay on which these warehouses are built there are rails with a
  gauge of 11½ ft., upon which run two mechanical loading and unloading
  appliances. The first consists of a telescopic elevator which raises
  the grain and delivers it to one of the two band conveyors at the head
  of the apparatus. Each of these bands feeds automatic weighing
  machines with an hourly capacity of 75 tons. From these weighers the
  grain is either discharged through a manhole in the ground to a band
  conveyor running in a tunnel parallel to the quay wall, or it is
  raised by a second elevator (part of the same unloading apparatus),
  set at an inclined angle, which delivers at a sufficient height to
  load railway trucks on the siding running parallel to the quay. A
  turning gear is provided so as to reverse, if required, the operation
  of the whole apparatus, that the portion overhanging the water can be
  turned to the land side. The unloading capacity is 150 tons of grain
  per hour. If it be desired to load a ship the telescopic elevator has
  only to be turned round and dipped into any one of 15 wells, which can
  be filled up with grain from the land side. The capacity of each
  granary is 233,333 qrs.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.

  Transit Silos of the London Grain Elevator Co. Ltd., Victoria Docks,
  London.

    A. Barge Elevators
    B. Receiving Elevators
    C. Silo Bins
    D. Delivery Elevators
    E. Weigh Houses
    F. Automatic Scales
    G. Sack, Band Gantry

  Longitudinal Elevation looking towards Barge Elevators.

  Cross Section through Transit Silos.]


    Stuttgart.

  Many large granaries have been built, in which grain is stored on open
  floors, in bulk or in sacks. A notable instance is the warehouse of
  the city of Stuttgart. This is a structure of seven floors, including
  a basement and entresol. An engine house accommodates two gas engines
  as well as an hydraulic installation for the lifts. The grain is
  received by an elevator from the railway trucks, and is delivered to a
  weighing machine from which it is carried by a second elevator to the
  top storey, where it is fed to a band running the length of the
  building. A system of pipes runs from floor to floor, and by means of
  the band conveyor with its movable throw-off carriage grain can be
  shot to any floor. A second band conveyor is installed in the entresol
  floor, and serves to convey grain either to the elevator, if it is
  desired to elevate it to the top floor, or to the loading shed. A
  second elevator runs through the centre of the building, and is
  provided with a spout by means of which grain can be delivered into
  the hopper feeding the cleaning machine, whence the grain passes into
  a second hopper under which is an automatic weigher; directly under
  this weigher the grain is sacked.


    Mannheim.

  A good example of a grain warehouse on the combined silo bin and floor
  storage system is afforded by the granary at Mannheim on the Rhine,
  which has the storage capacity of 2100 tons. The building is 370 ft.
  in length, 78 ft. wide and 78 ft. high, and by means of transverse
  walls it is divided into three sections; of these one contains silos,
  in another section grain is stored on open floors, while the third,
  which is situated between the other two, is the grain-cleaning
  department. This granary stands by the quay side, and a ship elevator
  of great capacity, which serves the cleaning department, can rapidly
  clear any ship or barge beneath. The central or screening house
  section contains machinery specially designed for cleaning barley as
  well as wheat. The barley plant has a capacity of 5 tons per hour.
  There are four main elevators in this warehouse, while two more serve
  the screen house. The usual band conveyors fitted with throw-off
  carriages are provided, and are supplemented by an elaborate system of
  pipes which receive grain from the elevators and bands and distribute
  it at any required point. The plant is operated by electric motors. If
  desired the floors of the non-silo section can be utilized for storing
  other goods than grain, and to this end a lift with a capacity of 1
  ton runs from the basement to the top storey. The combined capacity
  of the elevators and conveyors is 100 tons of grain per hour. The
  mechanical equipment is so complete that four distinct operations are
  claimed as possible. A ship may be unloaded into silos or into the
  granary floors, and may simultaneously be loaded either from silos or
  floors with different kinds of grain. Again, a cargo may be discharged
  either into silos or upon the floors, and simultaneously the grain may
  be cleaned. Grain may also be cleared from a vessel, mixed with other
  grain already received, and then distributed to any desired point.
  With equal facility grain may be cleaned, blended with other
  varieties, re-stored in any section of the granary, and transferred
  from one ship to another.


    Dortmund.

  A granary with special features of interest, erected on the quay at
  Dortmund, Germany, by a co-operative society, is built of brick on a
  base of hewn stone, with beams and supports of timber. It is 78 ft.
  high and consists of seven floors, including basement and attic. Here
  again there are two sections, the larger being devoted to the storage
  of grain in low bins, while the smaller section consists of an
  ordinary silo house. Grain in sacks may be stored in the basement of
  the larger section which has a capacity of 1675 tons as compared with
  825 tons in the silo department. Thus the total storage capacity is
  2500 tons. In the silo house the bins, constructed of planks nailed
  one over the other, are of varying size and are capable of storing
  grain to a depth of 42 to 47 ft. Some of the bins have been specially
  adapted for receiving damp grain by being provided internally with
  transverse wooden arms which form square or lozenge-shaped sections.
  The object of this arrangement is to break up and aerate the stored
  grain. The arms are of triangular section and are slightly hollowed at
  the base so as to bring a current of air into direct contact with the
  grain. The air can be warmed if necessary. The other and larger
  section of the granary is provided with 105 bins of moderate height
  arranged in groups of 21 on the five floors between the basement and
  attic. On the intermediate floors and the bottom floor each bin lies
  exactly under the bin above. Grain is not stored in these bins to a
  greater depth than 5 ft. The bins are fitted with removable side
  walls, and damp grain is only stored in certain bins aerated for half
  the area of their side walls through a wire mesh. The arrangements for
  distributing grain in this warehouse are very complete. The uncleaned
  grain is taken by the receiving elevator, with a lifting capacity of
  20 tons per hour, to a warehouse separator, whence it is passed
  through an automatic weigher and is then either sacked or spouted to
  the main elevator (capacity 25 tons per hour) and elevated to the
  attic. From the head of this main elevator the grain can either be fed
  to a bin in one or other of the main granary floors, or shot to one of
  the bins in the silo house. In the attic the grain is carried by a
  spout and belt conveyor to one or other of the turntables, as the
  appliances may be termed, which serve to distribute through spouts the
  grain to any one of the floor or silo bins. Alternatively, the grain
  may be shot into the basement and there fed back into the main
  elevator by a band conveyor. In this way the grain may be turned over
  as often as it is deemed necessary. At the bottom of each bin are four
  apertures connected by spouts, both with the bin below and with the
  central vertical pipe which passes down through the centre of each
  group of bins. To regulate the course of the grain from bin to bin or
  from bin to central pipe, the connecting spouts are fitted with valves
  of ingenious yet simple construction which deflect the grain in any
  desired direction, so that the contents of two or more bins may be
  blended, or grain may be transferred from a bin on one floor to a bin
  on a lower floor, missing the bin on the floor between. The valves are
  controlled by chains from the basement.

  With reference to the floor bins used at Dortmund, it may be observed
  that there are granaries built on a similar principle in the United
  Kingdom. It is probable that bins of moderate height are more suitable
  for storing grain containing a considerable amount of moisture than
  deep silos, whether made of wood, ferro-concrete or other material.
  For one thing floor bins of the Dortmund pattern can be more
  effectually aerated than deep silos. German wheat has many
  characteristics in common with British, and, especially in north
  Germany, is not infrequently harvested in a more or less damp
  condition. In the United Kingdom, Messrs Spencer & Co., of Melksham,
  have erected several granaries on the floor-bin principle, and have
  adopted an ingenious system of "telescopic" spouting, by means of
  which grain may be discharged from one bin to another or at any
  desired point. This spouting can be applied to bins either with level
  floors or with hoppered bottoms, if they are arranged one above the
  other on the different floors, and is so constructed that an opening
  can be effected at certain points by simply sliding upwards a section
  of the spout.

_National Granaries._--Wheat forms the staple food of a large proportion
of the population of the British Isles, and of the total amount consumed
about four-fifths is sea-borne. The stocks normally held in the country
being limited, serious consequences might result from any interruption
of the supply, such as might occur were Great Britain involved in war
with a power or powers commanding a strong fleet. To meet this
contingency it has been suggested that the State should establish
granaries containing a national reserve of wheat for use in emergency,
or should adopt measures calculated to induce merchants, millers, &c.,
to hold larger stocks than at present and to stimulate the production of
home-grown wheat.


  Amount of stocks.

Stocks of wheat (and of flour expressed in its equivalent weight of
wheat) are held by merchants, millers and farmers. Merchants' stocks are
kept in granaries at ports of importation and are known as first-hand
stocks. Stocks of wheat and flour in the hands of millers and of flour
held by bakers are termed second-hand stocks, while farmers' stocks only
consist of native wheat. Periodical returns are generally made of
first-hand or port stocks, nor should a wide margin of error be possible
in the case of farmers' stocks, but second-hand stocks are more
difficult to gauge. Since the last decade of the 19th century the
storage capacity of British mills has considerably increased. As the
number of small mills has diminished the capacity of the bigger ones has
increased, and proportionately their warehousing accommodation has been
enlarged. At the present time first-hand stocks tend to diminish because
a larger proportion of millers' holdings are in mill granaries and silo
houses. The immense preponderance of steamers over sailing vessels in
the grain trade has also had the effect of greatly diminishing stocks.
With his cargo or parcel on a steamer a corn merchant can tell almost to
a day when it will be due. In fact foreign wheat owned by British
merchants is to a great extent stored in foreign granaries in preference
to British warehouses. The merchant's risk is thereby lessened to a
certain extent. When his wheat has been brought into a British port, to
send it farther afield means extra expense. But wheat in an American or
Argentine elevator may be ordered wherever the best price can be
obtained for it. Options or "futures," too, have helped to restrict the
size of wheat stocks in the United Kingdom. A merchant buys a cargo of
wheat on passage for arrival at a definite time, and, lest the market
value of grain should have depreciated by the time it arrives, he sells
an option against it. In this way he hedges his deal, the option serving
as insurance against loss. This is why the British corn trade finds it
less risky to limit purchases to bare needs, protecting itself by option
deals, than to store large quantities which may depreciate and involve
their owners in loss.

Varying estimates have been made of the number of weeks' supply of
breadstuffs (wheat and flour) held by millers at various seasons of the
year. A table compiled by the secretary of the National Association of
British and Irish Millers from returns for 1902 made by 170 milling
firms showed 4.7, 4.9, 4.9 and 5 weeks' supply at the end of March,
June, September and December respectively. These 170 mills were said to
represent 46% of the milling capacity of the United Kingdom, and claimed
to have ground 12,000,000 qrs. out of 25,349,000 qrs. milled in 1902.
These were obviously large mills; it is probable that the other mills
would not have shown anything like such a proportion of stock of either
raw or finished material. A fair estimate of the stocks normally held by
millers and bakers throughout the United Kingdom would be about four
weeks' supply. First-hand stocks vary considerably, but the limits are
definite, ranging from 1,000,000 to 3,500,000 qrs., the latter being a
high figure. The tendency is for first-hand stocks to decline, but two
weeks' supply must be a minimum. Farmers' stocks necessarily vary with
the size of the crop and the period of the year; they will range from 9
or 10 weeks on the 1st of September to a half week on the 1st of August.
Taking all the stocks together, it is very exceptional for the stock of
breadstuffs to fall below 7 weeks' supply. Between the cereal years
1893-1894 and 1903-1904, a period of 570 weeks, the stocks of all kinds
fell below 7 weeks' supply in only 9 weeks; of these 9 weeks 7 were
between the beginning of June and the end of August 1898. This was
immediately after the Leiter collapse. In seven of these eleven years
there is no instance of stocks falling below 8 weeks' supply. In 21 out
of these 570 weeks and in 39 weeks during the same period stocks dropped
below 7½ and 8 weeks' supply respectively. Roughly speaking the stock of
wheat available for bread-making varies from a two to four months'
supply and is at times well above the latter figure.


  National reserve.

The formation of a national reserve of wheat, to be held at the disposal
of the state in case of urgent need during war, is beset by many
practical difficulties. The father of the scheme was probably _The
Miller_, a well-known trade journal. In March and April 1886 two
articles appeared in that paper under the heading "Years of Plenty and
State Granaries," in which it was urged that to meet the risk of hostile
cruisers interrupting the supplies it would be desirable to lay up in
granaries on British soil and under government control a stock of wheat
sufficient for 12 or alternatively 6 months' consumption. This was to be
national property, not to be touched except when the fortune of war sent
up the price of wheat to a famine level or caused severe distress. The
State holding this large stock--a year's supply of foreign grain would
have meant at least 15,000,000 qrs., and have cost about £25,000,000
exclusive of warehousing--was in peace time to sell no wheat except when
it became necessary to part with stock as a precautionary measure. In
that case the wheat sold was to be replaced by the same amount of new
grain. The idea was to provide the country with a supply of wheat until
sufficient wheat-growing soil could be broken up to make it practically
self-sufficing in respect of wheat. The original suggestion fell quite
flat. Two years later Captain Warren, R.N., read a paper on "Great
Britain's Corn Supplies in War," before the London Chamber of Commerce,
and accepted national granaries as the only practicable safeguard
against what appeared to him a great peril. The representatives of the
shipping interest opposed the scheme, probably because it appeared to
them likely to divert the public from insisting on an all-powerful navy.
The corn trade opposed the project on account of its great practical
difficulties. But constant contraction of the British wheat acreage kept
the question alive, and during the earlier half of the 'nineties it was
a favourite theme with agriculturists. Some influential members of
parliament pressed the matter on the government, who, acting, no doubt,
on the advice of their military and naval experts, refused either a
royal commission or a departmental committee. While the then technical
advisers of the government were divided on the advisability of
establishing national granaries as a defensive measure, the balance of
expert opinion was adverse to the scheme. Lord Wolseley, then
commander-in-chief, publicly stigmatized the theory that Great Britain
might in war be starved into submission as "unmitigated humbug."


  Yerburgh committee.

In spite of official discouragement the agitation continued, and early
in 1897 the council of the Central and Associated Chambers of
Agriculture, at the suggestion to a great extent of Mr R. A. Yerburgh,
M.P., nominated a committee to examine the question of national wheat
stores. This committee held thirteen sittings and examined fifty-four
witnesses. Its report, which was published (L. G. Newman & Co., 12
Finsbury Square, London, E.C.) with minutes of the evidence taken,
practically recommended that a national reserve of wheat on the lines
already sketched should be formed and administered by the State, and
that the government should be strongly urged to obtain the appointment
of a royal commission, comprising representatives of agriculture, the
corn trade, shipping, and the army and navy, to conduct an exhaustive
inquiry into the whole subject of the national food-supply in case of
war. This recommendation was ultimately carried into effect, but not
till nearly five years had elapsed. Of two schemes for national
granaries put before the Yerburgh committee, one was formulated by Mr
Seth Taylor, a London miller and corn merchant, who reckoned that a
store of 10,000,000 qrs. of wheat might be accumulated at an average
cost of 40s. per qr.--this was in the Leiter year of high prices--and
distributed in six specially constructed granaries to be erected at
London, Liverpool, Hull, Bristol, Glasgow and Dublin. The cost of the
granaries was put at £7,500,000. Mr Taylor's scheme, all charges
included, such as 2½% interest on capital, cost of storage (at 6d. per
qr.), and 2s. per qr. for cost of replacing wheat, involved an annual
expenditure of £1,250,000. The Yerburgh committee also considered a
proposal to stimulate the home supply of wheat by offering a bounty to
farmers for every quarter of wheat grown. This proposal has taken
different shapes; some have suggested that a bounty should be given on
every acre of land covered with wheat, while others would only allow the
bounty on wheat raised and kept in good condition up to a certain date,
say the beginning of the following harvest. It is obvious that a bounty
on the area of land covered by wheat, irrespective of yield, would be a
premium on poor farming, and might divert to wheat-growing land
unsuitable for that purpose. The suggestion to pay a bounty of say 3s.
to 5s. per qr. for all wheat grown and stacked for a certain time stands
on a different basis; it is conceivable that a bounty of 5s. might
expand the British production of wheat from say 7,000,000 to 9,000,000
qrs., which would mean that a bounty of £2,250,000 per annum, plus costs
of administration, had secured an extra home production of 2,000,000
qrs. Whether such a price would be worth paying is another matter; the
Yerburgh committee's conclusion was decidedly in the negative. It has
also been suggested that the State might subsidize millers to the extent
of 2s. 6d. per sack of 280 lb. per annum on condition that each
maintained a minimum supply of two months' flour. This may be taken to
mean that for keeping a special stock of flour over and above his usual
output a miller would be entitled to an annual subsidy of 2s. 6d. per
sack. An extra stock of 10,000,000 sacks might be thus kept up at an
annual cost of £1,250,000, plus the expenditure of administration, which
would probably be heavy. With regard to this suggestion, it is very
probable that a few large mills which have plenty of warehouse
accommodation and depots all over the country would be ready to keep up
a permanent extra stock of 100,000 sacks. Thus a mill of 10,000 sacks'
capacity per week, which habitually maintains a total stock of 50,000
sacks, might bring up its stock to 150,000 sacks. Such a mill, being a
good customer to railways, could get from them the storage it required
for little or nothing. But the bulk of the mills have no such
advantages. They have little or no spare warehousing room, and are not
accustomed to keep any stock, sending their flour out almost as fast as
it is milled. It is doubtful therefore if a bounty of 2s. 6d. per sack
would have the desired effect of keeping up a stock of 10,000,000 sacks,
sufficient for two to three months' bread consumption.


  Royal commission, 1903-1905.

The controversy reached a climax in the royal commission appointed in
1903, to which was also referred the importation of raw material in war
time. Its report appeared in 1905. To the question whether the
unquestioned dependence of the United Kingdom on an uninterrupted supply
of sea-borne breadstuffs renders it advisable or not to maintain at all
times a six months' stock of wheat and flour, it returned no decided
answer, or perhaps it would be more correct to say that the commission
was hopelessly divided. The main report was distinctly optimistic so far
as the liability of the country to harass and distress at the hands of a
hostile naval power or combination of powers was concerned. But there
were several dissentients, and there was hardly any portion of the
report in chief which did not provoke some reservation or another. That
a maritime war would cause freights and insurance to rise in a high
degree was freely admitted, and it was also admitted that the price of
bread must also rise very appreciably. But, provided the navy did not
break down, the risk of starvation was dismissed. Therefore all the
proposals for providing national granaries or inducing merchants and
millers to carry bigger stocks were put aside as unpractical and
unnecessary. The commission was, however, inclined to consider more
favourably a suggestion for providing free storage for wheat at the
expense of the State. The idea was that if the State would subsidize any
large granary company to the extent of 6d. or 5d. per qr., grain now
warehoused in foreign lands would be attracted to the British Isles. But
on the whole the commission held that the main effect of the scheme
would be to saddle the government with the rent of all grain stored in
public warehouses in the United Kingdom without materially increasing
stocks. The proposal to offer bounties to farmers to hold stocks for a
longer period and to grow more wheat met with equally little favour.

To sum up the advantages of national granaries, assuming any sort of
disaster to the navy, the possession of a reserve of even six months'
wheat-supply in addition to ordinary stocks would prevent panic prices.
On the other hand, the difficulties in the way of forming and
administering such a reserve are very great. The world grows no great
surplus of wheat, and to form a six months', much more a twelve months',
stock would be the work of years. The government in buying up the wheat
would have to go carefully if they would avoid sending up prices with a
rush. They would have to buy dearly, and when they let go a certain
amount of stock they would be bound to sell cheaply. A stock once formed
might be held by the State with little or no disturbance of the corn
market, although the existence of such an emergency stock would hardly
encourage British farmers to grow more wheat. The cost of erecting,
equipping and keeping in good order the necessary warehouses would be,
probably, much heavier than the most liberal estimate hitherto made by
advocates of national granaries.     (G. F. Z.)



GRANBY, JOHN MANNERS, MARQUESS OF (1721-1770), British soldier, was the
eldest son of the third duke of Rutland. He was born in 1721 and
educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and was returned as
member of parliament for Grantham in 1741. Four years later he received
a commission as colonel of a regiment raised by the Rutland interest in
and about Leicester to assist in quelling the Highland revolt of 1745.
This corps never got beyond Newcastle, but young Granby went to the
front as a volunteer on the duke of Cumberland's staff, and saw active
service in the last stages of the insurrection. Very soon his regiment
was disbanded. He continued in parliament, combining with it military
duties, making the campaign of Flanders (1747). Promoted major-general
in 1755, three years later he was appointed colonel of the Royal Horse
Guards (Blues). Meanwhile he had married the daughter of the duke of
Somerset, and in 1754 had begun his parliamentary connexion with
Cambridgeshire, for which county he sat until his death. The same year
that saw Granby made colonel of the Blues, saw also the despatch of a
considerable British contingent to Germany. Minden was Granby's first
great battle. At the head of the Blues he was one of the cavalry leaders
halted at the critical moment by Sackville, and when in consequence that
officer was sent home in disgrace, Lieut.-General Lord Granby succeeded
to the command of the British contingent in Ferdinand's army, having
32,000 men under his orders at the beginning of 1760. In the remaining
campaigns of the Seven Years' War the English contingent was more
conspicuous by its conduct than the Prussians themselves. On the 31st of
July 1760 Granby brilliantly stormed Warburg at the head of the British
cavalry, capturing 1500 men and ten pieces of artillery. A year later
(15th of July 1761) the British defended the heights of Vellinghausen
with what Ferdinand himself styled "indescribable bravery." In the last
campaign, at Gravenstein und Wilhelmsthal, Homburg and Cassel, Granby's
men bore the brunt of the fighting and earned the greatest share of the
glory.

Returning to England in 1763 the marquess found himself the popular
hero of the war. It is said that couriers awaited his arrival at all the
home ports to offer him the choice of the Ordnance or the Horse Guards.
His appointment to the Ordnance bore the date of the 1st of July 1763,
and three years later he became commander-in-chief. In this position he
was attacked by "Junius," and a heated discussion arose, as the writer
had taken the greatest pains in assailing the most popular member of the
Grafton ministry. In 1770 Granby, worn out by political and financial
trouble, resigned all his offices, except the colonelcy of the Blues. He
died at Scarborough on the 18th of October 1770. He had been made a
privy councillor in 1760, lord lieutenant of Derbyshire in 1762, and
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1769.

  Two portraits of Granby were painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, one of
  which is now in the National Gallery. His contemporary popularity is
  indicated by the number of inns and public-houses which took his name
  and had his portrait as sign-board.



GRAN CHACO, an extensive region in the heart of South America belonging
to the La Plata basin, stretching from 20° to 29° S. lat., and divided
between the republics of Argentine, Bolivia and Paraguay, with a small
district of south-western Matto Grosso (Brazil). Its area is estimated
at from 250,000 to 425,000 sq. m., but the true Chaco region probably
does not exceed 300,000 sq. m. The greater part is covered with marshes,
lagoons and dense tropical jungle and forest, and is still unexplored.
On its southern and western borders there are extensive tracts of open
woodland, intermingled with grassy plains, while on the northern side in
Bolivia are large areas of open country subject to inundations in the
rainy season. In general terms the Gran Chaco may be described as a
great plain sloping gently to the S.E., traversed in the same direction
by two great rivers, the Pilcomayo and Bermejo, whose sluggish courses
are not navigable because of sand-banks, barriers of overturned trees
and floating vegetation, and confusing channels. This excludes that part
of eastern Bolivia belonging to the Amazon basin, which is sometimes
described as part of the Chaco. The greater part of its territory is
occupied by nomadic tribes of Indians, some of whom are still unsubdued,
while others, like the Matacos, are sometimes to be found on
neighbouring sugar estates and estancias as labourers during the busy
season. The forest wealth of the Chaco region is incalculable and
apparently inexhaustible, consisting of a great variety of palms and
valuable cabinet woods, building timber, &c. Its extensive tracts of
"quebracho Colorado" (_Loxopterygium Lorentzii_) are of very great value
because of its use in tanning leather. Both the wood and its extract are
largely exported. Civilization is slowly gaining footholds in this
region along the southern and eastern borders.



GRAND ALLIANCE, WAR OF THE (alternatively called the War of the League
of Augsburg), the third[1] of the great aggressive wars waged by Louis
XIV. of France against Spain, the Empire, Great Britain, Holland and
other states. The two earlier wars, which are redeemed from oblivion by
the fact that in them three great captains, Turenne, Condé and
Montecucculi, played leading parts, are described in the article DUTCH
WARS. In the third war the leading figures are: Henri de
Montmorency-Boutteville, duke of Luxemburg, the former aide-de-camp of
Condé and heir to his daring method of warfare; William of Orange, who
had fought against both Condé and Luxemburg in the earlier wars, and was
now king of England; Vauban, the founder of the sciences of
fortification and siegecraft, and Catinat, the follower of Turenne's
cautious and systematic strategy, who was the first commoner to receive
high command in the army of Louis XIV. But as soldiers, these
men--except Vauban--are overshadowed by the great figures of the
preceding generation, and except for a half-dozen outstanding episodes,
the war of 1689-97 was an affair of positions and manoeuvres.

It was within these years that the art and practice of war began to
crystallize into the form called "linear" in its strategic and tactical
aspect, and "cabinet-war" in its political and moral aspect. In the
Dutch wars, and in the minor wars that preceded the formation of the
League of Augsburg, there were still survivals of the loose
organization, violence and wasteful barbarity typical of the Thirty
Years' War; and even in the War of the Grand Alliance (in its earlier
years) occasional brutalities and devastations showed that the old
spirit died hard. But outrages that would have been borne in dumb misery
in the old days now provoked loud indignation, and when the fierce
Louvois disappeared from the scene it became generally understood that
barbarity was impolitic, not only as alienating popular sympathies, but
also as rendering operations a physical impossibility for want of
supplies.


  Character of the war.

Thus in 1700, so far from terrorizing the country people into
submission, armies systematically conciliated them by paying cash and
bringing trade into the country. Formerly, wars had been fought to
compel a people to abjure their faith or to change sides in some
personal or dynastic quarrel. But since 1648 this had no longer been the
case. The Peace of Westphalia established the general relationship of
kings, priests and peoples on a basis that was not really shaken until
the French Revolution, and in the intervening hundred and forty years
the peoples at large, except at the highest and gravest moments (as in
Germany in 1689, France In 1709 and Prussia in 1757) held aloof from
active participation in politics and war. This was the beginning of the
theory that war was an affair of the regular forces only, and that
intervention in it by the civil population was a punishable offence.
Thus wars became the business of the professional soldiers in the king's
own service, and the scarcity and costliness of these soldiers combined
with the purely political character of the quarrels that arose to reduce
a campaign from an "intense and passionate drama" to a humdrum affair,
to which only rarely a few men of genius imparted some degree of vigour,
and which in the main was an attempt to gain small ends by a small
expenditure of force and with the minimum of risk. As between a prince
and his subjects there were still quarrels that stirred the average
man--the Dragonnades, for instance, or the English Revolution--but
foreign wars were "a stronger form of diplomatic notes," as Clausewitz
called them, and were waged with the object of adding a codicil to the
treaty of peace that had closed the last incident.

Other causes contributed to stifle the former ardour of war. Campaigns
were no longer conducted by armies of ten to thirty thousand men. Large
regular armies had come into fashion, and, as Guibert points out,
instead of small armies charged with grand operations we find grand
armies charged with small operations. The average general, under the
prevailing conditions of supply and armament, was not equal to the task
of commanding such armies. Any real concentration of the great forces
that Louis XIV. had created was therefore out of the question, and the
field armies split into six or eight independent fractions, each charged
with operations on a particular theatre of war. From such a policy
nothing remotely resembling the crushing of a great power could be
expected to be gained. The one tangible asset, in view of future peace
negotiations, was therefore a fortress, and it was on the preservation
or capture of fortresses that operations in all these wars chiefly
turned. The idea of the decisive battle for its own sake, as a
settlement of the quarrel, was far distant; for, strictly speaking,
there was no quarrel, and to use up highly trained and exceedingly
expensive soldiers in gaining by brute force an advantage that might
equally well be obtained by chicanery was regarded as foolish.

The fortress was, moreover, of immediate as well as contingent value to
a state at war. A century of constant warfare had impoverished middle
Europe, and armies had to spread over a large area if they desired to
"live on the country." This was dangerous in the face of the enemy (cf.
the Peninsular War), and it was also uneconomical. The only way to
prevent the country people from sending their produce into the
fortresses for safety was to announce beforehand that cash would be
paid, at a high rate, for whatever the army needed. But even promises
rarely brought this about, and to live at all, whether on supplies
brought up from the home country and stored in magazines (which had to
be guarded) or on local resources, an army had as a rule to maintain or
to capture a large fortress. Sieges, therefore, and manoeuvres are the
features of this form of war, wherein armies progressed not with the
giant strides of modern war, but in a succession of short hops from one
foothold to the next. This was the procedure of the average commander,
and even when a more intense spirit of conflict was evoked by the
Luxemburgs and Marlboroughs it was but momentary and spasmodic.

The general character of the war being borne in mind, nine-tenths of its
marches and manoeuvres can be almost "taken as read"; the remaining
tenth, the exceptional and abnormal part of it, alone possesses an
interest for modern readers.

In pursuance of a new aggressive policy in Germany Louis XIV. sent his
troops, as a diplomatic menace rather than for conquest, into that
country in the autumn of 1688. Some of their raiding parties plundered
the country as far south as Augsburg, for the political intent of their
advance suggested terrorism rather than conciliation as the best method.
The league of Augsburg at once took up the challenge, and the addition
of new members (Treaty of Vienna, May 1689) converted it into the "Grand
Alliance" of Spain, Holland, Sweden, Savoy and certain Italian states,
Great Britain, the emperor, the elector of Brandenburg, &c.

"Those who condemned the king for raising up so many enemies, admired
him for having so fully prepared to defend himself and even to forestall
them," says Voltaire. Louvois had in fact completed the work of
organizing the French army on a regular and permanent basis, and had
made it not merely the best, but also by far the most numerous in
Europe, for Louis disposed in 1688 of no fewer than 375,000 soldiers and
60,000 sailors. The infantry was uniformed and drilled, and the socket
bayonet and the flint-lock musket had been introduced. The only relic of
the old armament was the pike, which was retained for one-quarter of the
foot, though it had been discarded by the Imperialists in the course of
the Turkish wars described below. The first artillery regiment was
created in 1684, to replace the former semi-civilian organization by a
body of artillerymen susceptible of uniform training and amenable to
discipline and orders.


  Devastation of the Palatinate, 1689.

In 1689 Louis had six armies on foot. That in Germany, which had
executed the raid of the previous autumn, was not in a position to
resist the principal army of the coalition so far from support. Louvois
therefore ordered it to lay waste the Palatinate, and the devastation of
the country around Heidelberg, Mannheim, Spires, Oppenheim and Worms was
pitilessly and methodically carried into effect in January and February.
There had been devastations in previous wars, even the high-minded
Turenne had used the argument of fire and sword to terrify a population
or a prince, while the whole story of the last ten years of the great
war had been one of incendiary armies leaving traces of their passage
that it took a century to remove. But here the devastation was a purely
military measure, executed systematically over a given strategic front
for no other purpose than to delay the advance of the enemy's army. It
differed from the method of Turenne or Cromwell in that the sufferers
were not those people whom it was the purpose of the war to reduce to
submission, but others who had no interest in the quarrel. It differed
from Wellington's laying waste of Portugal in 1810 in that it was not
done for the defence of the Palatinate against a national enemy, but
because the Palatinate was where it was. The feudal theory that every
subject of a prince at war was an armed vassal, and therefore an enemy
of the prince's enemy, had in practice been obsolete for two centuries
past; by 1690 the organization of war, its causes, its methods and its
instruments had passed out of touch with the people at large, and it had
become thoroughly understood that the army alone was concerned with the
army's business. Thus it was that this devastation excited universal
reprobation; and that, in the words of a modern French writer, the
"idea of Germany came to birth in the flames of the Palatinate."

As a military measure this crime was, moreover, quite unprofitable; for
it became impossible for Marshal Duras, the French commander, to hold
out on the east side of the middle Rhine, and he could think of nothing
better to do than to go farther south and to ravage Baden and the
Breisgau, which was not even a military necessity. The grand army of the
Allies, coming farther north, was practically unopposed. Charles of
Lorraine and the elector of Bavaria--lately comrades in the Turkish war
(see below)--invested Mainz, the elector of Brandenburg Bonn. The
latter, following the evil precedent of his enemies, shelled the town
uselessly instead of making a breach in its walls and overpowering its
French garrison, an incident not calculated to advance the nascent idea
of German unity. Mainz, valiantly defended by Nicolas du Blé, marquis
d'Uxelles, had to surrender on the 8th of September. The governor of
Bonn, baron d'Asfeld, not in the least intimidated by the bombardment,
held out till the army that had taken Mainz reinforced the elector of
Brandenburg, and then, rejecting the hard terms of surrender offered him
by the latter, he fell in resisting a last assault on the 12th of
October. Only 850 men out of his 6000 were left to surrender on the
16th, and the duke of Lorraine, less truculent than the elector,
escorted them safely to Thionville. Boufflers, with another of Louis's
armies, operated from Luxemburg (captured by the French in 1684 and
since held) and Trarbach towards the Rhine, but in spite of a minor
victory at Kochheim on the 21st of August, he was unable to relieve
either Mainz or Bonn.

In the Low Countries the French marshal d'Humières, being in superior
force, had obtained _special permission_ to offer battle to the Allies.
Leaving the garrison of Lille and Tournay to amuse the Spaniards, he
hurried from Maubeuge to oppose the Dutch, who from Namur had advanced
slowly on Philippeville. Coming upon their army (which was commanded by
the prince of Waldeck) in position behind the river Heure, with an
advanced post in the little walled town of Walcourt, he flung his
advanced guard against the bridge and fortifications of this place to
clear the way for his deployment beyond the river Heure (27th August).
After wasting a thousand brave men in this attempt, he drew back. For a
few days the two armies remained face to face, cannonading one another
at intervals, but no further fighting occurred. Humières returned to the
region of the Scheldt fortresses, and Waldeck to Brussels. For the
others of Louis' six armies the year's campaign passed off quite
uneventfully.


    The war in Ireland, 1689-1691.

  Simultaneously with these operations, the Jacobite cause was being
  fought to an issue in Ireland. War began early in 1689 with desultory
  engagements between the Orangemen of the north and the Irish regular
  army, most of which the earl of Tyrconnel had induced to declare for
  King James. The northern struggle after a time condensed itself into
  the defence of Derry and Enniskillen. The siege of the former place,
  begun by James himself and carried on by the French general Rosen,
  lasted 105 days. In marked contrast to the sieges of the continent,
  this was resisted by the townsmen themselves, under the leadership of
  the clergyman George Walker. But the relieving force (consisting of
  two frigates, a supply ship and a force under Major-general Percy
  Kirke) was dilatory, and it was not until the defenders were in the
  last extremity that Kirke actually broke through the blockade (July
  31st). Enniskillen was less closely invested, and its inhabitants,
  organized by Colonel Wolseley and other officers sent by Kirke,
  actually kept the open field and defeated the Jacobites at Newtown
  Butler (July 31st). A few days later the Jacobite army withdrew from
  the north. But it was long before an adequate army could be sent over
  from England to deal with it. Marshal Schomberg (q.v.), one of the
  most distinguished soldiers of the time, who had been expelled from
  the French service as a Huguenot, was indeed sent over in August, but
  the army he brought, some 10,000 strong, was composed of raw recruits,
  and when it was assembled in camp at Dundalk to be trained for its
  work, it was quickly ruined by an epidemic of fever. But James failed
  to take advantage of his opportunity to renew the war in the north,
  and the relics of Schomberg's army wintered in security, covered by
  the Enniskillen troops. In the spring of 1690, however, more troops,
  this time experienced regiments from Holland, Denmark and Brandenburg,
  were sent, and in June, Schomberg in Ireland and Major-general
  Scravemore in Chester having thoroughly organized and equipped the
  field army, King William assumed the command himself. Five days after
  his arrival he began his advance from Loughbrickland near Newry, and
  on the 1st of July he engaged James's main army on the river Boyne,
  close to Drogheda. Schomberg was killed and William himself wounded,
  but the Irish army was routed.

  No stand was made by the defeated party either in the Dublin or in the
  Waterford district. Lauzun, the commander of the French auxiliary
  corps in James's army, and Tyrconnel both discountenanced any attempt
  to defend Limerick, where the Jacobite forces had reassembled; but
  Patrick Sarsfield (earl of Lucan), as the spokesman of the younger and
  more ardent of the Irish officers, pleaded for its retention. He was
  left, therefore, to hold Limerick, while Tyrconnel and Lauzun moved
  northward into Galway. Here, as in the north, the quarrel enlisted the
  active sympathies of the people against the invader, and Sarsfield not
  only surprised and destroyed the artillery train of William's army,
  but repulsed every assault made on the walls that Lauzun had said
  "could be battered down by rotten apples." William gave up the siege
  on the 30th of August. The failure was, however, compensated in a
  measure by the arrival in Ireland of an expedition under Lord
  Marlborough, which captured Cork and Kinsale, and next year (1691) the
  Jacobite cause was finally crushed by William's general Ginckell
  (afterwards earl of Athlone) in the battle of Aughrim in Galway (July
  12th), in which St Ruth, the French commander, was killed and the
  Jacobite army dissipated. Ginckell, following up his victory, besieged
  Limerick afresh. Tyrconnel died of apoplexy while organizing the
  defence, and this time the town was invested by sea as well as by
  land. After six weeks' resistance the defenders offered to capitulate,
  and with the signing of the treaty of Limerick on the 1st of October
  the Irish war came to an end. Sarsfield and the most energetic of King
  James's supporters retired to France and were there formed into the
  famous "Irish brigade." Sarsfield was killed at the battle of
  Neerwinden two years later.

The campaign of 1690 on the continent of Europe is marked by two
battles, one of which, Luxemburg's victory of Fleurus, belongs to the
category of the world's great battles. It is described under FLEURUS,
and the present article only deals summarily with the conditions in
which it was fought. These, though they in fact led to an encounter that
could, in itself, fairly be called decisive, were in closer accord with
the general spirit of the war than was the decision that arose out of
them.

Luxemburg had a powerful enemy in Louvois, and he had consequently been
allotted only an insignificant part in the first campaign. But after the
disasters of 1689 Louis re-arranged the commands on the north-east
frontier so as to allow Humières, Luxemburg and Boufflers to combine for
united action. "I will take care that Louvois plays fair," Louis said to
the duke when he gave him his letters of service. Though apparently
Luxemburg was not authorized to order such a combination himself, as
senior officer he would automatically take command if it came about. The
whole force available was probably close on 100,000, but not half of
these were present at the decisive battle, though Luxemburg certainly
practised the utmost "economy of force" as this was understood in those
days (see also NEERWINDEN). On the remaining theatres of war, the
dauphin, assisted by the duc de Lorge, held the middle Rhine, and
Catinat the Alps, while other forces were in Roussillon, &c., as before.
Catinat's operations are briefly described below. Those of the others
need no description, for though the Allies formed a plan for a grand
concentric advance on Paris, the preliminaries to this advance were so
numerous and so closely interdependent that on the most favourable
estimate the winter would necessarily find the Allied armies many
leagues short of Paris. In fact, the Rhine offensive collapsed when
Charles of Lorraine died (17th April), and the reconquest of his lost
duchy ceased to be a direct object of the war.


  Fleurus, 1690.

Luxemburg began operations by drawing in from the Sambre country, where
he had hitherto been stationed, to the Scheldt and "eating up" the
country between Oudenarde and Ghent in the face of a Spanish army
concentrated at the latter place (15th May-12th June). He then left
Humières with a containing force in the Scheldt region and hurried back
to the Sambre to interpose between the Allied army under Waldeck and the
fortress of Dinant which Waldeck was credited with the intention of
besieging. His march from Tournay to Gerpinnes was counted a model of
skill--the _locus classicus_ for the maxim that ruled till the advent of
Napoleon--"march always in the order in which you encamp, or purpose to
encamp, or fight." For four days the army marched across country in
close order, covered in all directions by reconnoitring cavalry and
advanced, flank and rear guards. Under these conditions eleven miles a
day was practically forced marching, and on arriving at
Jeumont-sur-Sambre the army was given three days' rest. Then followed a
few leisurely marches in the direction of Charleroi, during which a
detachment of Boufflers's army came in, and the cavalry explored the
country to the north. On news of the enemy's army being at Trazegnies,
Luxemburg hurried across a ford of the Sambre above Charleroi, but this
proved to be a detachment only, and soon information came in that
Waldeck was encamped near Fleurus. Thereupon Luxemburg, without
consulting his subordinate generals, took his army to Velaine. He knew
that the enemy was marking time till the troops of Liége and the
Brandenburgers from the Rhine were near enough to co-operate in the
Dinant enterprise, and he was determined to fight a battle at once. From
Velaine, therefore, on the morning of the 1st of July, the army moved
forward to Fleurus and there won one of the most brilliant victories in
the history of the Royal army. But Luxemburg was not allowed to pursue
his advantage. He was ordered to hold his army in readiness to besiege
either Namur, Mons, Charleroi or Ath, according as later orders
dictated; and to send back the borrowed regiments to Boufflers, who was
being pressed back by the Brandenburg and Liége troops. Thus Waldeck
reformed his army in peace at Brussels, where William III. of England
soon afterwards assumed command of the Allied forces in the Netherlands,
and Luxemburg and the other marshals stood fast for the rest of the
campaign, being forbidden to advance until Catinat--in Italy--should
have won a battle.


  Staffarda.

In this quarter the armed neutrality of the duke of Savoy had long
disquieted the French court. His personal connexions with the imperial
family and his resentment against Louvois, who had on some occasion
treated him with his usual patronizing arrogance, inclined him to join
the Allies, while on the other hand he could hope for extensions of his
scanty territory only by siding with Louis. In view of this doubtful
condition of affairs the French army under Catinat had for some time
been maintained on the Alpine frontier, and in the summer of 1690 Louis
XIV. sent an ultimatum to Victor Amadeus to compel him to take one side
or the other actively and openly. The result was that Victor Emmanuel
threw in his lot with the Allies and obtained help from the Spaniards
and Austrians in the Milanese. Catinat thereupon advanced into Piedmont,
and won, principally by virtue of his own watchfulness and the high
efficiency of his troops, the important victory of Staffarda (August
18th, 1690). This did not, however, enable him to overrun Piedmont, and
as the duke was soon reinforced, he had to be content with the
methodical conquest of a few frontier districts. On the side of Spain, a
small French army under the duc de Noailles passed into Catalonia and
there lived at the enemy's expense for the duration of the campaign.

In these theatres of war, and on the Rhine, where the disunion of the
German princes prevented vigorous action, the following year, 1691, was
uneventful. But in the Netherlands there were a siege, a war of
manoeuvres and a cavalry combat, each in its way somewhat remarkable.
The siege was that of Mons, which was, like many sieges in the former
wars, conducted with much pomp by Louis XIV. himself, with Boufflers and
Vauban under him. On the surrender of the place, which was hastened by
red-hot shot (April 8th), Louis returned to Versailles and divided his
army between Boufflers and Luxemburg, the former of whom departed to the
Meuse. There he attempted by bombardment to enforce the surrender of
Liége, but had to desist when the elector of Brandenburg threatened
Dinant. The principal armies on either side faced one another under the
command respectively of William III. and of Luxemburg. The Allies were
first concentrated to the south of Namur, and Luxemburg hurried thither,
but neither party found any tempting opportunity for battle, and when
the cavalry had consumed all the forage available in the district, the
two armies edged away gradually towards Flanders. The war of manoeuvre
continued, with a slight balance of advantage on Luxemburg's side,
until September, when William returned to England, leaving Waldeck in
command of the Allied army, with orders to distribute it in winter
quarters amongst the garrison towns. This gave the momentary opportunity
for which Luxemburg had been watching, and at Leuze (20th Sept.) he fell
upon the cavalry of Waldeck's rearguard and drove it back in disorder
with heavy losses until the pursuit was checked by the Allied infantry.

In 1692[2] the Rhine campaign was no more decisive than before, although
Lorge made a successful raid into Württemberg in September and foraged
his cavalry in German territory till the approach of winter. The Spanish
campaign was unimportant, but on the Alpine side the Allies under the
duke of Savoy drove back Catinat into Dauphiné, which they ravaged with
fire and sword. But the French peasantry were quicker to take arms than
the Germans, and, inspired by the local gentry--amongst whom figured the
heroine, Philis de la Tour du Pin (1645-1708), daughter of the marquis
de la Charce--they beset every road with such success that the small
regular army of the invaders was powerless. Brought practically to a
standstill, the Allies soon consumed the provisions that could be
gathered in, and then, fearing lest the snow should close the passes
behind them, they retreated.


  Siege of Namur, 1692.

  Steenkirk.

In the Low Countries the campaign as before began with a great siege.
Louis and Vauban invested Namur on the 26th of May. The place was
defended by the prince de Barbançon (who had been governor of Luxemburg
when that place was besieged in 1684) and Coehoorn (q.v.), Vauban's
rival in the science of fortification. Luxemburg, with a small army,
manoeuvred to cover the siege against William III.'s army at Louvain.
The place fell on the 5th of June,[3] after a very few days of Vauban's
"regular" attack, but the citadel held out until the 23rd. Then, as
before, Louis returned to Versailles, giving injunctions to Luxemburg to
"preserve the strong places and the country, while opposing the enemy's
enterprises and subsisting the army at his expense." This negative
policy, contrary to expectation, led to a hard-fought battle. William,
employing a common device, announced his intention of retaking Namur,
but set his army in motion for Flanders and the sea-coast fortresses
held by the French. Luxemburg, warned in time, hurried towards the
Scheldt, and the two armies were soon face to face again, Luxemburg
about Steenkirk, William in front of Hal. William then formed the plan
of surprising Luxemburg's right wing before it could be supported by the
rest of his army, relying chiefly on false information that a detected
spy at his headquarters was forced to send, to mislead the duke. But
Luxemburg had the material protection of a widespread net of outposts as
well as a secret service, and although ill in bed when William's advance
was reported, he shook off his apathy, mounted his horse and, enabled by
his outpost reports to divine his opponent's plan, he met it (3rd
August) by a swift concentration of his army, against which the Allies,
whose advance and deployment had been mismanaged, were powerless (see
STEENKIRK). In this almost accidental battle both sides suffered
enormous losses, and neither attempted to bring about, or even to risk,
a second resultless trial of strength. Boufflers's army returned to the
Sambre and Luxemburg and William established themselves for the rest of
the season at Lessines and Ninove respectively, 13 m. apart. After both
armies had broken up into their winter quarters, Louis ordered Boufflers
to attempt the capture of Charleroi. But a bombardment failed to
intimidate the garrison, and when the Allies began to re-assemble, the
attempt was given up (19th-21st Oct.). This failure was, however,
compensated by the siege and capture of Furnes (28th Dec. 1692-7th Jan.
1693).

In 1693, the culminating point of the war was reached. It began, as
mentioned above, with a winter enterprise that at least indicated the
aggressive spirit of the French generals. The king promoted his admiral,
Tourville, and Catinat, the _roturier_, to the marshalship, and founded
the military order of St Louis on the 10th of April. The grand army in
the Netherlands this year numbered 120,000, to oppose whom William III.
had only some 40,000 at hand. But at the very beginning of operations
Louis, after reviewing this large force at Gembloux, broke it up, in
order to send 30,000 under the dauphin to Germany, where Lorge had
captured Heidelberg and seemed able, if reinforced, to overrun south
Germany. But the imperial general Prince Louis of Baden took up a
position near Heilbronn so strong that the dauphin and Lorge did not
venture to attack him. Thus King Louis sacrificed a reality to a dream,
and for the third time lost the opportunity, for which he always longed,
of commanding in chief in a great battle. He himself, to judge by his
letter to Monsieur on the 8th of June, regarded his action as a
sacrifice of personal dreams to tangible realities. And, before the
event falsified predictions, there was much to be said for the course he
took, which accorded better with the prevailing system of war than a
Fleurus or a Neerwinden. In this system of war the rival armies, as
armies, were almost in a state of equilibrium, and more was to be
expected from an army dealing with something dissimilar to itself--a
fortress or a patch of land or a convoy--than from its collision with
another army of equal force.


  Neerwinden.

Thus Luxemburg obtained his last and greatest opportunity. He was still
superior in numbers, but William at Louvain had the advantage of
position. The former, authorized by his master this year "_non seulement
d'empêcher les ennemis de rien entreprendre, mais d'emporter quelques
avantages sur eux_," threatened Liége, drew William over to its defence
and then advanced to attack him. The Allies, however, retired to another
position, between the Great and Little Geete rivers, and there, in a
strongly entrenched position around Neerwinden, they were attacked by
Luxemburg on the 29th of July. The long and doubtful battle, one of the
greatest victories ever won by the French army, is briefly described
under NEERWINDEN. It ended in a brilliant victory for the assailant, but
Luxemburg's exhausted army did not pursue; William was as unshaken and
determined as ever; and the campaign closed, not with a treaty of peace,
but with a few manoeuvres which, by inducing William to believe in an
attack on Ath, enabled Luxemburg to besiege and capture Charleroi
(October).


  Marsaglia.

Neerwinden was not the only French victory of the year. Catinat,
advancing from Fenestrelle and Susa to the relief of Pinerolo
(Pignerol), which the duke of Savoy was besieging, took up a position in
formal order of battle north of the village of Marsaglia. Here on the
4th of October the duke of Savoy attacked him with his whole army, front
to front. But the greatly superior regimental efficiency of the French,
and Catinat's minute attention to details[4] in arraying them, gave the
new marshal a victory that was a not unworthy pendant to Neerwinden. The
Piedmontese and their allies lost, it is said, 10,000 killed, wounded
and prisoners, as against Catinat's 1800. But here, too, the results
were trifling, and this year of victory is remembered chiefly as the
year in which "people perished of want to the accompaniment of _Te
Deums_."

  In 1694 (late in the season owing to the prevailing distress and
  famine) Louis opened a fresh campaign in the Netherlands. The armies
  were larger and more ineffective than ever, and William offered no
  further opportunities to his formidable opponent. In September, after
  inducing William to desist from his intention of besieging Dunkirk by
  appearing on his flank with a mass of cavalry,[5] which had ridden
  from the Meuse, 100 m., in 4 days, Luxemburg gave up his command. He
  died on the 4th of January following, and with him the tradition of
  the Condé school of warfare disappeared from Europe. In Catalonia the
  marshal de Noailles won a victory (27th May) over the Spaniards at the
  ford of the Ter (Torroella, 5 m. above the mouth of the river), and
  in consequence captured a number of walled towns.


    Later campaigns of the war.

  In 1695 William found Marshal Villeroi a far less formidable opponent
  than Luxemburg had been, and easily succeeded in keeping him in
  Flanders while a corps of the Allies invested Namur. Coehoorn directed
  the siege-works, and Boufflers the defence. Gradually, as in 1692, the
  defenders were dislodged from the town, the citadel outworks and the
  citadel itself, the last being assaulted with success by the "British
  grenadiers," as the song commemorates, on the 30th of August.
  Boufflers was rewarded for his sixty-seven days' defence by the grade
  of marshal.

  By 1696 necessity had compelled Louis to renounce his vague and
  indefinite offensive policy, and he now frankly restricted his efforts
  to the maintenance of what he had won in the preceding campaigns. In
  this new policy he met with much success. Boufflers, Lorge, Noailles
  and even the incompetent Villeroi held the field in their various
  spheres of operations without allowing the Allies to inflict any
  material injury, and also (by having recourse again to the policy of
  living by plunder) preserving French soil from the burden of their own
  maintenance. In this, as before, they were powerfully assisted by the
  disunion and divided counsels of their heterogeneous enemies. In
  Piedmont, Catinat crowned his work by making peace and alliance with
  the duke of Savoy, and the two late enemies having joined forces
  captured one of the fortresses of the Milanese. The last campaign was
  in 1697. Catinat and Vauban besieged Ath. This siege was perhaps the
  most regular and methodical of the great engineer's career. It lasted
  23 days and cost the assailants only 50 men. King William did not stir
  from his entrenched position at Brussels, nor did Villeroi dare to
  attack him there. Lastly, in August 1697 Vendôme, Noailles' successor,
  captured Barcelona. The peace of Ryswijk, signed on the 30th of
  October, closed this war by practically restoring the _status quo
  ante_; but neither the ambitions of Louis nor the Grand Alliance that
  opposed them ceased to have force, and three years later the struggle
  began anew (see SPANISH SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE).


    Austro-Turkish wars, 1682-1699.

  Concurrently with these campaigns, the emperor had been engaged in a
  much more serious war on his eastern marches against the old enemy,
  the Turks. This war arose in 1682 out of internal disturbances in
  Hungary. The campaign of the following year is memorable for all time
  as the last great wave of Turkish invasion. Mahommed IV. advanced from
  Belgrade in May, with 200,000 men, drove back the small imperial army
  of Prince Charles of Lorraine, and early in July invested Vienna
  itself. The two months' defence of Vienna by Count Rüdiger Starhemberg
  (1635-1701) and the brilliant victory of the relieving army led by
  John Sobieski, king of Poland, and Prince Charles on the 12th of
  September 1683, were events which, besides their intrinsic importance,
  possess the romantic interest of an old knightly crusade against the
  heathen.

  But the course of the war, after the tide of invasion had ebbed,
  differed little from the wars of contemporary western Europe. Turkey
  figured rather as a factor in the balance of power than as the
  "infidel," and although the battles and sieges in Hungary were
  characterized by the bitter personal hostility of Christian to Turk
  which had no counterpart in the West, the war as a whole was as
  methodical and tedious as any Rhine or Low Countries campaign. In 1684
  Charles of Lorraine gained a victory at Waitzen on the 27th of June
  and another at Eperies on the 18th of September, and unsuccessfully
  besieged Budapest.

  In 1685 the Germans were uniformly successful, though a victory at
  Gran (August 16th) and the storming of Neuhaüsel (August 19th) were
  the only outstanding incidents. In 1686 Charles, assisted by the
  elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria, besieged and stormed Budapest (Sept.
  2nd). In 1687 they followed up their success by a great victory at
  Mohacz (Aug. 12th). In 1688 the Austrians advanced still further, took
  Belgrade, threatened Widin and entered Bosnia. The margrave Louis of
  Baden, who afterward became one of the most celebrated of the
  methodical generals of the day, won a victory at Derbent on the 5th of
  September 1688, and next year, in spite of the outbreak of a general
  European war, he managed to win another battle at Nisch (Sept. 24th),
  to capture Widin (Oct. 14th) and to advance to the Balkans, but in
  1690, more troops having to be withdrawn for the European war, the
  imperialist generals lost Nisch, Widin and Belgrade one after the
  other. There was, however, no repetition of the scenes of 1683, for in
  1691 Louis won the battle of Szlankamen (Aug. 19th). After two more
  desultory if successful campaigns he was called to serve in western
  Europe, and for three years more the war dragged on without result,
  until in 1697 the young Prince Eugene was appointed to command the
  imperialists and won a great and decisive victory at Zenta on the
  Theiss (Sept. 11th). This induced a last general advance of the
  Germans eastward, which was definitively successful and brought about
  the peace of Carlowitz (January 1699).     (C. F. A.)


NAVAL OPERATIONS

The naval side of the war waged by the powers of western Europe from
1689 to 1697, to reduce the predominance of King Louis XIV., was not
marked by any very conspicuous exhibition of energy or capacity, but it
was singularly decisive in its results. At the beginning of the struggle
the French fleet kept the sea in face of the united fleets of Great
Britain and Holland. It displayed even in 1690 a marked superiority over
them. Before the struggle ended it had been fairly driven into port, and
though its failure was to a great extent due to the exhaustion of the
French finances, yet the inability of the French admirals to make a
proper use of their fleets, and the incapacity of the king's ministers
to direct the efforts of his naval officers to the most effective aims,
were largely responsible for the result.

When the war began in 1689, the British Admiralty was still suffering
from the disorders of the reign of King Charles II., which had been only
in part corrected during the short reign of James II. The first
squadrons were sent out late and in insufficient strength. The Dutch,
crushed by the obligation to maintain a great army, found an increasing
difficulty in preparing their fleet for action early. Louis XIV., a
despotic monarch, with as yet unexhausted resources, had it within his
power to strike first. The opportunity offered him was a very tempting
one. Ireland was still loyal to King James II., and would therefore have
afforded an admirable basis of operations to a French fleet. No serious
attempt was made to profit by the advantage thus presented. In March
1689 King James was landed and reinforcements were prepared for him at
Brest. A British squadron under the command of Arthur Herbert
(afterwards Lord Torrington), sent to intercept them, reached the French
port too late, and on returning to the coast of Ireland sighted the
convoy off the Old Head of Kinsale on the 10th of May. The French
admiral Chateaurenault held on to Bantry Bay, and an indecisive
encounter took place on the 11th of May. The troops and stores for King
James were successfully landed. Then both admirals, the British and the
French, returned home, and neither in that nor in the following year was
any serious effort made by the French to gain command of the sea between
Ireland and England. On the contrary, a great French fleet entered the
Channel, and gained a success over the combined British and Dutch fleets
on the 10th of July 1690 (see BEACHY HEAD, BATTLE OF), which was not
followed up by vigorous action. In the meantime King William III. passed
over to Ireland and won the battle of the Boyne. During the following
year, while the cause of King James was being finally ruined in Ireland,
the main French fleet was cruising in the Bay of Biscay, principally for
the purpose of avoiding battle. During the whole of 1689, 1690 and 1691,
British squadrons were active on the Irish coast. One raised the siege
of Londonderry in July 1689, and another convoyed the first British
forces sent over under the duke of Schomberg. Immediately after Beachy
Head in 1690, a part of the Channel fleet carried out an expedition
under the earl (afterwards duke) of Marlborough, which took Cork and
reduced a large part of the south of the island. In 1691 the French did
little more than help to carry away the wreckage of their allies and
their own detachments. In 1692 a vigorous but tardy attempt was made to
employ their fleet to cover an invasion of England (see LA HOGUE, BATTLE
OF). It ended in defeat, and the allies remained masters of the Channel.
The defeat of La Hogue did not do so much harm to the naval power of
King Louis as has sometimes been supposed. In the next year, 1693, he
was able to strike a severe blow at the Allies. The important
Mediterranean trade of Great Britain and Holland, called for convenience
the Smyrna convoy, having been delayed during the previous year, anxious
measures were taken to see it safe on its road in 1693. But the
arrangements of the allied governments and admirals were not good. They
made no effort to blockade Brest, nor did they take effective steps to
discover whether or not the French fleet had left the port. The convoy
was seen beyond the Scilly Isles by the main fleet. But as the French
admiral Tourville had left Brest for the Straits of Gibraltar with a
powerful force and had been joined by a squadron from Toulon, the whole
convoy was scattered or taken by him, in the latter days of June, near
Lagos. But though this success was a very fair equivalent for the defeat
at La Hogue, it was the last serious effort made by the navy of Louis
XIV. in this war. Want of money compelled him to lay his fleet up. The
allies were now free to make full use of their own, to harass the French
coast, to intercept French commerce, and to co-operate with the armies
acting against France. Some of the operations undertaken by them were
more remarkable for the violence of the effort than for the magnitude of
the results. The numerous bombardments of French Channel ports, and the
attempts to destroy St Malo, the great nursery of the active French
privateers, by infernal machines, did little harm. A British attack on
Brest in June 1694 was beaten off with heavy loss. The scheme had been
betrayed by Jacobite correspondents. Yet the inability of the French
king to avert these enterprises showed the weakness of his navy and the
limitations of his power. The protection of British and Dutch commerce
was never complete, for the French privateers were active to the end.
But French commerce was wholly ruined.

It was the misfortune of the allies that their co-operation with armies
was largely with the forces of a power so languid and so bankrupt as
Spain. Yet the series of operations directed by Russel in the
Mediterranean throughout 1694 and 1695 demonstrated the superiority of
the allied fleet, and checked the advance of the French in Catalonia.
Contemporary with the campaigns in Europe was a long series of cruises
against the French in the West Indies, undertaken by the British navy,
with more or less help from the Dutch and a little feeble assistance
from the Spaniards. They began with the cruise of Captain Lawrence
Wright in 1690-1691, and ended with that of Admiral Nevil in 1696-1697.
It cannot be said that they attained to any very honourable achievement,
or even did much to weaken the French hold on their possessions in the
West Indies and North America. Some, and notably the attack made on
Quebec by Sir William Phips in 1690, with a force raised in the British
colonies, ended in defeat. None of them was so triumphant as the plunder
of Cartagena in South America by the Frenchman Pointis, in 1697, at the
head of a semi-piratical force. Too often there was absolute misconduct.
In the buccaneering and piratical atmosphere of the West Indies, the
naval officers of the day, who were still infected with the corruption
of the reign of Charles II., and who calculated on distance from home to
secure them immunity, sank nearly to the level of pirates and
buccaneers. The indifference of the age to the laws of health, and its
ignorance of them, caused the ravages of disease to be frightful. In the
case of Admiral Nevil's squadron, the admiral himself and all his
captains except one, died during the cruise, and the ships were
unmanned. Yet it was their own vices which caused these expeditions to
fail, and not the strength of the French defence. When the war ended,
the navy of King Louis XIV. had disappeared from the sea.

  See Burchett, _Memoirs of Transactions at Sea during the War with
  France, 1688-1697_ (London, 1703); Lediard, _Naval History_ (London,
  1735), particularly valuable for the quotations in his notes. For the
  West Indian voyages, Tronde, _Batailles navales de la France_ (Paris,
  1867); De Yonghe, _Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen_
  (Haarlem, 1860).     (D. H.)


  FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The name "Grand Alliance" is applied to the coalition against
    Louis XIV. begun by the League of Augsburg. This coalition not only
    waged the war dealt with in the present article, but (with only
    slight modifications and with practically unbroken continuity) the
    war of the Spanish Succession (q.v.) that followed.

  [2] Louvois died in July 1691.

  [3] A few days before this the great naval reverse of La Hogue put an
    end to the projects of invading England hitherto entertained at
    Versailles.

  [4] Marsaglia is, if not the first, at any rate, one of the first,
    instances of a bayonet charge by a long deployed line of infantry.

  [5] Hussars figured here for the first time in western Europe. A
    regiment of them had been raised in 1692 from deserters from the
    Austrian service.



GRAND CANARY (Gran Canaria), an island in the Atlantic Ocean, forming
part of the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands (q.v.). Pop.
(1900) 127,471; area 523 sq. m. Grand Canary, the most fertile island of
the group, is nearly circular in shape, with a diameter of 24 m. and a
circumference of 75 m. The interior is a mass of mountain with ravines
radiating to the shore. Its highest peak, Los Pexos, is 6400 ft. Large
tracts are covered with native pine (_P. canariensis_). There are
several mineral springs on the island. Las Palmas (pop. 44,517), the
capital, is described in a separate article. Telde (8978), the second
place in the island, stands on a plain, surrounded by palm trees. At
Atalaya, a short distance from Las Palmas, the making of earthenware
vessels employs some hundreds of people, who inhabit holes made in the
tufa.



GRAND CANYON, a profound gorge in the north-west corner of Arizona, in
the south-western part of the United States of America, carved in the
plateau region by the Colorado river. Of it Captain Dutton says: "Those
who have long and carefully studied the Grand Canyon of the Colorado do
not hesitate for a moment to pronounce it by far the most sublime of all
earthly spectacles"; and this is also the verdict of many who have only
viewed it in one or two of its parts.

The Colorado river is made by the junction of two large streams, the
Green and Grand, fed by the rains and snows of the Rocky Mountains. It
has a length of about 2000 m. and a drainage area of 255,000 sq. m.,
emptying into the head of the Gulf of California. In its course the
Colorado passes through a mountain section; then a plateau section; and
finally a desert lowland section which extends to its mouth. It is in
the plateau section that the Grand Canyon is situated. Here the surface
of the country lies from 5000 to 9000 ft. above sea-level, being a
tableland region of buttes and mesas diversified by lava intrusions,
flows and cinder cones. The region consists in the main of stratified
rocks bodily uplifted in a nearly horizontal position, though profoundly
faulted here and there, and with some moderate folding. For a thousand
miles the river has cut a series of canyons, bearing different names,
which reach their culmination in the Marble Canyon, 66 m. long, and the
contiguous Grand Canyon which extends for a distance of 217 m. farther
down stream, making a total length of continuous canyon from 2000 to
6000 ft. in depth, for a distance of 283 m., the longest and deepest
canyon in the world. This huge gash in the earth is the work of the
Colorado river, with accompanying weathering, through long ages; and the
river is still engaged in deepening it as it rushes along the canyon
bottom.

The higher parts of the enclosing plateau have sufficient rainfall for
forests, whose growth is also made possible in part by the cool climate
and consequently retarded evaporation; but the less elevated portions
have an arid climate, while the climate in the canyon bottom is that of
the true desert. Thus the canyon is really in a desert region, as is
shown by the fact that only two living streams enter the river for a
distance of 500 m. from the Green river to the lower end of the Grand
Canyon; and only one, the Kanab Creek, enters the Grand Canyon itself.
This, moreover, is dry during most of the year. In spite of this lack of
tributaries, a large volume of water flows through the canyon at all
seasons of the year, some coming from the scattered tributaries, some
from springs, but most from the rains and snows of the distant mountains
about the headwaters. Owing to enclosure between steeply rising canyon
walls, evaporation is retarded, thus increasing the possibility of the
long journey of the water from the mountains to the sea across a vast
stretch of arid land.

The river in the canyon varies from a few feet to an unknown depth, and
at times of flood has a greatly increased volume. The river varies in
width from 50 ft. in some of the narrow Granite Gorges, where it bathes
both rock walls, to 500 or 600 ft. in more open places. In the 283 m. of
the Marble and Grand Canyons, the river falls 2330 ft., and at one point
has a fall of 210 ft. in 10 m. The current velocity varies from 3 to 20
or more miles per hour, being increased in places by low falls and
rapids; but there are no high falls below the junction of the Green and
Grand.

Besides the canyons of the main river, there are a multitude of lateral
canyons occupied by streams at intervals of heavy rain. As Powell says,
the region "is a composite of thousands, and tens of thousands of
gorges." There are "thousands of gorges like that below Niagara Falls,
and there are a thousand Yosemites." The largest of all, the Grand
Canyon, has an average depth of 4000 ft. and a width of 4½ to 12 m. For
a long distance, where crossing the Kaibab plateau, the depth is 6000
ft. For much of the distance there is an inner narrower gorge sunk in
the bottom of a broad outer canyon. The narrow gorge is in some places
no more than 3500 ft. wide at the top. To illustrate the depth of the
Grand Canyon, Powell writes: "Pluck up Mount Washington (6293 ft. high)
by the roots to the level of the sea, and drop it head first into the
Grand Canyon, and the dam will not force its waters over the wall."

While there are notable differences in the Grand Canyon from point to
point, the main elements are much alike throughout its length and are
due to the succession of rock strata revealed in the canyon walls. At
the base, for some 800 ft., there is a complex of crystalline rocks of
early geological age, consisting of gneiss, schist, slate and other
rocks, greatly plicated and traversed by dikes and granite intrusions.
This is an ancient mountain mass, which has been greatly denuded. On it
rest a series of durable quartzite beds inclined to the horizontal,
forming about 800 ft. more of the lower canyon wall. On this come first
500 ft. of greenish sandstones and then 700 ft. of bedded sandstone and
limestone strata, some massive and some thin, which on weathering form a
series of alcoves. These beds, like those above, are in nearly
horizontal position. Above this comes 1600 ft. of limestone--often a
beautiful marble, as in the Marble Canyon, but in the Grand Canyon
stained a brilliant red by iron oxide washed from overlying beds. Above
this "red wall" are 800 ft. of grey and bright red sandstone beds
looking "like vast ribbons of landscape." At the top of the canyon is
1000 ft. of limestone with gypsum and chert, noted for the pinnacles and
towers which denudation has developed. It is these different rock beds,
with their various colours, and the differences in the effect of
weathering upon them, that give the great variety and grandeur to the
canyon scenery. There are towers and turrets, pinnacles and alcoves,
cliffs, ledges, crags and moderate talus slopes, each with its
characteristic colour and form according to the set of strata in which
it lies. The main river has cleft the plateau in a huge gash;
innumerable side gorges have cut it to right and left; and weathering
has etched out the cliffs and crags and helped to paint it in the gaudy
colour bands that stretch before the eye. There is grandeur here and
weirdness in abundance, but beauty is lacking. Powell puts the case
graphically when he writes: "A wall of homogeneous granite like that in
the Yosemite is but a naked wall, whether it be 1000 or 5000 ft. high.
Hundreds and thousands of feet mean nothing to the eye when they stand
in a meaningless front. A mountain covered by pure snow 10,000 ft. high
has but little more effect on the imagination than a mountain of snow
1000 ft. high--it is but more of the same thing; but a façade of seven
systems of rock has its sublimity multiplied sevenfold."

To the ordinary person most of the Grand Canyon is at present
inaccessible, for, as Powell states, "a year scarcely suffices to see it
all"; and "it is a region more difficult to traverse than the Alps or
the Himalayas." But a part of the canyon is now easily accessible to
tourists. A trail leads from the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé railway at
Flagstaff, Arizona; and a branch line of the railway extends from
Williams, Arizona, to a hotel on the very brink of the canyon. The
plateau, which in places bears an open forest, mainly of pine, varies in
elevation, but is for the most part a series of fairly level terrace
tops with steep faces, with mesas and buttes here and there, and,
especially near the huge extinct volcano of San Francisco mountain, with
much evidence of former volcanic activity, including numerous cinder
cones. The traveller comes abruptly to the edge of the canyon, at whose
bottom, over a mile below, is seen the silvery thread of water where the
muddy torrent rushes along on its never-ceasing task of sawing its way
into the depths of the earth. Opposite rise the highly coloured and
terraced slopes of the other canyon wall, whose crest is fully 12 m.
distant.

Down by the river are the folded rocks of an ancient mountain system,
formed before vertebrate life appeared on the earth, then worn to an
almost level condition through untold ages of slow denudation. Slowly,
then, the mountains sank beneath the level of the sea, and in the
Carboniferous Period--about the time of the formation of the
coal-beds--sediments began to bury the ancient mountains. This lasted
through other untold ages until the Tertiary Period--through much of the
Palaeozoic and all of the Mesozoic time--and a total of from 12,000 to
16,000 ft. of sediments were deposited. Since then erosion has been
dominant, and the river has eaten its way down to, and into, the deeply
buried mountains, opening the strata for us to read, like the pages of a
book. In some parts of the plateau region as much as 30,000 ft. of rock
have been stripped away, and over an area of 200,000 sq. m. an average
of over 6000 ft. has been removed.

The Grand Canyon was probably discovered by G. L. de Cardenas in 1540,
but for 329 years the inaccessibility of the region prevented its
exploration. Various people visited parts of it or made reports
regarding it; and the Ives Expedition of 1858 contains a report upon the
canyon written by Prof. J. S. Newberry. But it was not until 1869 that
the first real exploration of the Grand Canyon was made. In that year
Major J. W. Powell, with five associates (three left the party in the
Grand Canyon), made the complete journey by boat from the junction of
the Green and Grand rivers to the lower end of the Grand Canyon. This
hazardous journey ranks as one of the most daring and remarkable
explorations ever undertaken in North America; and Powell's descriptions
of the expedition are among the most fascinating accounts of travel
relating to the continent. Powell made another expedition in 1871, but
did not go the whole length of the canyon. The government survey
conducted by Lieut. George M. Wheeler also explored parts of the canyon,
and C. E. Dutton carried on extensive studies of the canyon and the
contiguous plateau region. In 1890 Robert B. Stanton, with six
associates, went through the canyon in boats, making a survey to
determine the feasibility of building a railway along its base. Two
other parties, one in 1896 (Nat. Galloway and William Richmond) the
other in 1897 (George F. Flavell and companion), have made the journey
through the canyon. So far as there is record these are the only four
parties that have ever made the complete journey through the Grand
Canyon. It has sometimes been said that James White made the passage of
the canyon before Powell did; but this story rests upon no real basis.

  For accounts of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado see J. W. Powell,
  _Explorations of the Colorado River of the West and its Tributaries_
  (Washington, 1875); J. W. Powell, _Canyons of the Colorado_
  (Meadville, Pa., 1895); F. S. Dellenbaugh, _The Romance of the
  Colorado River_ (New York, 1902); Capt. C. E. Dutton, _Tertiary
  History of the Grand Canyon District, with Atlas_ (Washington, 1882),
  being Monograph No. 2, U.S. Geological Survey. See also the excellent
  topographic map of the Grand Canyon prepared by F. E. Matthes and
  published by the U.S. Geological Survey.     (R. S. T.)



GRAND-DUKE (Fr. _grand-duc_, Ital. _granduca_, Ger. _Grossherzog_), a
title borne by princes ranking between king and duke. The dignity was
first bestowed in 1567 by Pope Pius V. on Duke Cosimo I. of Florence,
his son Francis obtaining the emperor's confirmation in 1576; and the
predicate "Royal Highness" was added in 1699. In 1806 Napoleon created
his brother-in-law Joachim Murat, grand-duke of Berg, and in the same
year the title was assumed by the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, the
elector of Baden, and the new ruler of the secularized bishopric of
Würzburg (formerly Ferdinand III., grand-duke of Tuscany) on joining the
Confederation of the Rhine. At the present time, according to the
decision of the Congress of Vienna, the title is borne by the sovereigns
of Luxemburg, Saxe-Weimar (grand-duke of Saxony), Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Oldenburg (since 1829), as well as by those of
Hesse-Darmstadt and Baden. The emperor of Austria includes among his
titles those of grand-duke of Cracow and Tuscany, and the king of
Prussia those of grand-duke of the Lower Rhine and Posen. The title is
also retained by the dispossessed Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty of Tuscany.

Grand-duke is also the conventional English equivalent of the Russian
_velíkiy knyaz_, more properly "grand-prince" (Ger. Grossfürst), at one
time the title of the rulers of Russia, who, as the eldest born of the
house of Rurik, exercised overlordship over the _udyelniye knyazi_ or
local princes. On the partition of the inheritance of Rurik, the eldest
of each branch assumed the title of grand-prince. Under the domination
of the Golden Horde the right to bestow the title _velíkiy knyaz_ was
reserved by the Tatar Khan, who gave it to the prince of Moskow. In
Lithuania this title also symbolized a similar overlordship, and it
passed to the kings of Poland on the union of Lithuania with the Polish
republic. The style of the emperor of Russia now includes the titles of
grand-duke (_velíkiy knyaz_) of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia
and Finland. Until 1886 this title grand-duke or grand-duchess, with the
style "Imperial Highness," was borne by all descendants of the imperial
house. It is now confined to the sons and daughters, brothers and
sisters, and male grandchildren of the emperor. The other members of the
imperial house bear the title of prince (_knyaz_) and princess
(_knyaginya_, if married, _knyazhna_, if unmarried) with the style of
"Highness." The emperor of Austria, as king of Hungary, also bears this
title as "grand-duke" of Transylvania, which was erected into a
"grand-princedom" (Grossfürstentum) in 1765 by Maria Theresa.



GRANDEE (Span. _Grande_), a title of honour borne by the highest class
of the Spanish nobility. It would appear to have been originally assumed
by the most important nobles to distinguish them from the mass of the
_ricos hombres_, or great barons of the realm. It was thus, as Selden
points out, not a general term denoting a class, but "an additional
dignity not only to all dukes, but to some marquesses and condes also"
(_Titles of Honor_, ed. 1672, p. 478). It formerly implied certain
privileges; notably that of sitting covered in the royal presence. Until
the time of Ferdinand and Isabella, when the power of the territorial
nobles was broken, the grandees had also certain more important rights,
e.g. freedom from taxation, immunity from arrest save at the king's
express command, and even--in certain cases--the right to renounce their
allegiance and make war on the king. Their number and privileges were
further restricted by Charles I. (the emperor Charles V.), who reserved
to the crown the right to bestow the title. The grandees of Spain were
further divided into three classes: (1) those who spoke to the king and
received his reply with their heads covered; (2) those who addressed him
uncovered, but put on their hats to hear his answer; (3) those who
awaited the permission of the king before covering themselves. All
grandees were addressed by the king as "my cousin" (_mi primo_), whereas
ordinary nobles were only qualified as "my kinsman" (_mi pariente_). The
title of "grandee," abolished under King Joseph Bonaparte, was revived
in 1834, when by the _Estatudo real_ grandees were given precedence in
the Chamber of Peers. The designation is now, however, purely titular,
and implies neither privilege nor power.



GRAND FORKS, a city in the Boundary district of British Columbia;
situated at the junction of the north and south forks of the Kettle
river, 2 m. N. of the international boundary. Pop. (1908) about 2500. It
is in a good agricultural district, but owes its importance largely to
the erection here of the extensive smelting plant of the Granby
Consolidated Company, which smelts the ores obtained from the various
parts of the Boundary country, but chiefly those from the Knob Hill and
Old Ironsides mines. The Canadian Pacific railway, as well as the Great
Northern railway, runs to Grand Forks, which thus has excellent railway
communication with the south and east.



GRAND FORKS, a city and the county-seat of Grand Forks county, North
Dakota, U.S.A., at the junction of the Red river (of the North) and Red
Lake river (whence its name), about 80 m. N. of Fargo. Pop. (1900) 7652,
of whom 2781 were foreign-born; (1905) 10,127; (1910) 27,888. It is
served by the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern railways, and has
a considerable river traffic, the Red river (when dredged) having a
channel 60 ft. wide and 4 ft. deep at low water below Grand Forks. At
University, a small suburb, is the University of North Dakota
(co-educational; opened 1884). Affiliated with it is Wesley College
(Methodist Episcopal), now at Grand Forks (with a campus adjoining that
of the University), but formerly the Red River Valley University at
Wahpeton, North Dakota. In 1907-1908 the University had 57 instructors
and 861 students; its library had 25,000 bound volumes and 5000
pamphlets. At Grand Forks, also, are St Bernard's Ursuline Academy
(Roman Catholic) and Grand Forks College (Lutheran). Among the city's
principal buildings are the public library, the Federal building and a
Y.M.C.A. building. As the centre of the great wheat valley of the Red
river, it has a busy trade in wheat, flour and agricultural machinery
and implements, as well as large jobbing interests. There are railway
car-shops here, and among the manufactures are crackers, brooms, bricks
and tiles and cement. The municipality owns its water-works and an
electric lighting plant for street lighting. In 1801 John Cameron (d.
1804) erected a temporary trading post for the North-West Fur Company on
the site of the present city; it afterwards became a trading post of the
Hudson's Bay Company. The first permanent settlement was made in 1871,
and Grand Forks was reached by the Northern Pacific and chartered as a
city in 1881.



GRAND HAVEN, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Ottawa
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Grand river,
30 m. W. by N. of Grand Rapids and 78 m. E. of Milwaukee. Pop. (1900)
4743, of whom 1277 were foreign-born; (1904) 5239; (1910) 5856. It is
served by the Grand Trunk and the Père Marquette railways, and by
steamboat lines to Chicago, Milwaukee and other lake ports, and is
connected with Grand Rapids and Muskegon by an electric line. The city
manufactures pianos, refrigerators, printing presses and leather; is a
centre for the shipment of fruit and celery; and has valuable fisheries
near--fresh, salt and smoked fish, especially whitefish, are shipped in
considerable quantities. Grand Haven is the port of entry for the
Customs District of Michigan, and has a small export and import trade.
The municipality owns and operates its water-works and electric-lighting
plant. A trading post was established here about 1821 by an agent of the
American Fur Company, but the permanent settlement of the city did not
begin until 1834. Grand Haven was laid out as a town in 1836, and was
chartered as a city in 1867.



GRANDIER, URBAN (1590-1634), priest of the church of Sainte Croix at
Loudun in the department of Vienne, France, was accused of witchcraft in
1632 by some hysterical novices of the Carmelite Convent, where the
trial, protracted for two years, was held. Grandier was found guilty and
burnt alive at Loudun on the 18th of August 1634.



GRAND ISLAND, a city and the county-seat of Hall county, Nebraska,
U.S.A., on the Platte river, about 154 m. W. by S. of Omaha. Pop. (1900)
7554 (1339 foreign-born); (1910) 10,326. It is served by the Union
Pacific, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the St Joseph & Grand
Island railways, being the western terminus of the last-named line and a
southern terminus of a branch of the Union Pacific. The city is situated
on a slope skirting the broad, level bottom-lands of the Platte river,
in the midst of a fertile farming region. Grand Island College (Baptist;
co-educational) was established in 1892 and the Grand Island Business
and Normal College in 1890; and the city is the seat of a state Sailors'
and Soldiers' Home, established in 1888. Grand Island has a large
wholesale trade in groceries, fruits, &c.; is an important horse-market,
and has large stock-yards. There are shops of the Union Pacific in the
city, and among its manufactures are beet-sugar--Grand Island is in one
of the principal beet-sugar-growing districts of the state--brooms, wire
fences, confectionery and canned corn. The most important industry of
the county is the raising and feeding of sheep and meat cattle. A "Grand
Island" was founded in 1857, and was named from a large island (nearly
50 m. long) in the Platte opposite its site; but the present city was
laid out by the Union Pacific in 1866. It was chartered as a city in
1873.



GRANDMONTINES, a religious order founded by St Stephen of Thiers in
Auvergne towards the end of the 11th century. St Stephen was so
impressed by the lives of the hermits whom he saw in Calabria that he
desired to introduce the same manner of life into his native country. He
was ordained, and in 1073 obtained the pope's permission to establish an
order. He betook himself to Auvergne, and in the desert of Muret, near
Limoges, he made himself a hut of branches of trees and lived there for
some time in complete solitude. A few disciples gathered round him, and
a community was formed. The rule was not reduced to writing until after
Stephen's death, 1124. The life was eremitical and very severe in regard
to silence, diet and bodily austerities; it was modelled after the rule
of the Camaldolese, but various regulations were adopted from the
Augustinian canons. The superior was called the "Corrector." About 1150
the hermits, being compelled to leave Muret, settled in the neighbouring
desert of Grandmont, whence the order derived its name. Louis VII.
founded a house at Vincennes near Paris, and the order had a great vogue
in France, as many as sixty houses being established by 1170, but it
seems never to have found favour out of France; it had, however, a
couple of cells in England up to the middle of the 15th century. The
system of lay brothers was introduced on a large scale, and the
management of the temporals was in great measure left in their hands;
the arrangement did not work well, and the quarrels between the lay
brothers and the choir monks were a constant source of weakness. Later
centuries witnessed mitigations and reforms in the life, and at last the
order came to an end just before the French Revolution. There were two
or three convents of Grandmontine nuns. The order played no great part
in history.

  See Helyot, _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1714), vii. cc. 54, 55; Max
  Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_ (1896). i. § 31; and the art.
  in Wetzer and Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (ed. 2), and in Herzog,
  _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3).     (E. C. B.)



GRAND RAPIDS, a city and the county-seat of Kent county, Michigan,
U.S.A., at the head of navigation on the Grand river, about 30 m. from
Lake Michigan and 145 m. W.N.W. of Detroit. Pop. (1890) 60,278; (1900)
87,565, of whom 23,896 were foreign-born and 604 were negroes; (1910
census) 112,571. Of the foreign-born population in 1900, 11,137 were
Hollanders; 3318 English-Canadians; 3253 Germans; 1137 Irish; 1060 from
German Poland; and 1026 from England. Grand Rapids is served by the
Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Trunk,
the Père Marquette and the Grand Rapids & Indiana railways, and by
electric interurban railways. The valley here is about 2 m. wide, with a
range of hills on either side, and about midway between these hills the
river flows over a limestone bed, falling about 18 ft. in 1 m. Factories
and mills line both banks, but the business blocks are nearly all along
the foot of the E. range of hills; the finest residences command
picturesque views from the hills farther back, the residences on the W.
side being less pretentious and standing on bottom-lands. The principal
business thoroughfares are Canal, Monroe and Division streets. Among the
important buildings are the United States Government building (Grand
Rapids is the seat of the southern division of the Federal judicial
district of western Michigan), the County Court house, the city hall,
the public library (presented by Martin A. Ryerson of Chicago), the
Manufacturer's building, the _Evening Press_ building, the Michigan
Trust building and several handsome churches. The principal charitable
institutions are the municipal Tuberculosis Sanatorium; the city
hospital; the Union Benevolent Association, which maintains a home and
hospital for the indigent, together with a training school for nurses;
Saint John's orphan asylum (under the superintendence of the Dominican
Sisters); Saint Mary's hospital (in charge of the Sisters of Mercy);
Butterworth hospital (with a training school for nurses); the Woman's
Home and Hospital, maintained largely by the Woman's Christian
Temperance Union; the Aldrich Memorial Deaconess' Home; the D. A.
Blodgett Memorial Children's Home, and the Michigan Masonic Home. About
1 m. N. of the city, overlooking the river, is the Michigan Soldiers'
Home, with accommodation for 500. On the E. limits of the city is Reed's
Lake, a popular resort during the summer season. The city is the see of
Roman Catholic and Protestant Episcopal bishops. In 1907-1908, through
the efforts of a committee of the Board of Trade, interest was aroused
in the improvement of the city, appropriations were made for a "city
plan," and flood walls were completed for the protection of the lower
parts of the city from inundation. The large quantities of fruit,
cereals and vegetables from the surrounding country, and ample
facilities for transportation by rail and by the river, which is
navigable from below the rapids to its mouth, make the commerce and
trade of Grand Rapids very important. The manufacturing interests are
greatly promoted by the fine water-power, and as a furniture centre the
city has a world-wide reputation--the value of the furniture
manufactured within its limits in 1904 amounted to $9,409,097, about
5.5% of the value of all furniture manufactured in the United States.
Grand Rapids manufactures carpet sweepers--a large proportion of the
whole world's product,--flour and grist mill products, foundry and
machine-shop products, planing-mill products, school seats, wood-working
tools, fly paper, calcined plaster, barrels, kegs, carriages, wagons,
agricultural implements and bricks and tile. The total factory product
in 1904 was valued at $31,032,589, an increase of 39.6% in four years.

On the site of Grand Rapids there was for a long time a large Ottawa
Indian village, and for the conversion of the Indians a Baptist mission
was established in 1824. Two years later a trading post joined the
mission, in 1833 a saw mill was built, and for the next few years the
growth was rapid. The settlement was organized as a town in 1834, was
incorporated as a village in 1838, and was chartered as a city in 1850,
the city charter being revised in 1857, 1871, 1877 and 1905.



GRAND RAPIDS, a city and the county-seat of Wood county, Wisconsin,
U.S.A., on both sides of the Wisconsin river, about 137 m. N.W. of
Milwaukee. Pop. (1900) 4493, of whom 1073 were foreign-born; (1905)
6157; (1910) 6521. It is served by the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste
Marie, the Green Bay & Western, the Chicago & North-Western, and the
Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways. It is a railway and distributing
centre, and has manufactories of lumber, sash, doors and blinds, hubs
and spokes, woodenware, paper, wood-pulp, furniture and flour. The
public buildings include a post office, court house, city hall, city
hospital and the T. B. Scott Free Public Library (1892). The city owns
and operates its water-works; the electric-lighting and telephone
companies are co-operative. Grand Rapids was first chartered as a city
in 1869. That part of Grand Rapids on the west bank of the Wisconsin
river was formerly the city of Centralia (pop. in 1890, 1435); it was
annexed in 1900.



GRANDSON (Ger. _Grandsee_), a town in the Swiss canton of Vaud, near the
south-western end of the Lake of Neuchâtel, and by rail 20 m. S.W. of
Neuchâtel and 3 m. N. of Yverdon. Its population in 1900 was 1771,
mainly French-speaking and Protestant. Its ancient castle was long the
home of a noted race of barons, while in the very old church (once
belonging to a Benedictine monastery) there are a number of Roman
columns, &c., from Avenches and Yverdon. It has now a tobacco factory.
Its lords were vassals of the house of Savoy, till in 1475 the castle
was taken by the Swiss at the beginning of their war with Charles the
Bold, duke of Burgundy, whose ally was the duchess of Savoy. It was
retaken by Charles in February 1476, and the garrison put to death. The
Swiss hastened to revenge this deed, and in a famous battle (2nd March
1476) defeated Charles with great loss, capturing much booty. The scene
of the battle was between Concise and Corcelles, north-east of the town,
and is marked by several columns, perhaps ancient menhirs. Grandson was
thenceforward till 1798 ruled in common by Berne and Fribourg, and then
was given to the canton du Léman, which in 1803 became that of Vaud.

  See F. Chabloz, _La Bataille de Grandson_ (Lausanne, 1897).



GRANET, FRANÇOIS MARIUS (1777-1849), French painter, was born at Aix in
Provence, on the 17th of December 1777; his father was a small builder.
The boy's strong desires led his parents to place him--after some
preliminary teaching from a passing Italian artist--in a free school of
art directed by M. Constantin, a landscape painter of some reputation.
In 1793 Granet followed the volunteers of Aix to the siege of Toulon, at
the close of which he obtained employment as a decorator in the arsenal.
Whilst a lad he had, at Aix, made the acquaintance of the young comte de
Forbin, and upon his invitation Granet, in the year 1797, went to Paris.
De Forbin was one of the pupils of David, and Granet entered the same
studio. Later he got possession of a cell in the convent of Capuchins,
which, having served for a manufactory of assignats during the
Revolution, was afterwards inhabited almost exclusively by artists. In
the changing lights and shadows of the corridors of the Capuchins,
Granet found the materials for that one picture to the painting of
which, with varying success, he devoted his life. In 1802 he left Paris
for Rome, where he remained until 1819, when he returned to Paris,
bringing with him besides various other works one of fourteen
repetitions of his celebrated Choeur des Capucins, executed in 1811. The
figures of the monks celebrating mass are taken in this subject as a
substantive part of the architectural effect, and this is the case with
all Granet's works, even with those in which the figure subject would
seem to assert its importance, and its historical or romantic interest.
"Stella painting a Madonna on his Prison Wall," 1810 (Leuchtenberg
collection); "Sodoma à l'hôpital," 1815 (Louvre); "Basilique basse de St
François d'Assise," 1823 (Louvre); "Rachat de prisonniers," 1831
(Louvre); "Mort de Poussin," 1834 (Villa Demidoff, Florence), are among
his principal works; all are marked by the same peculiarities,
everything is sacrificed to tone. In 1819 Louis Philippe decorated
Granet, and afterwards named him Chevalier de l'Ordre St Michel, and
Conservateur des tableaux de Versailles (1826). He became member of the
institute in 1830; but in spite of these honours, and the ties which
bound him to M. de Forbin, then director of the Louvre, Granet
constantly returned to Rome. After 1848 he retired to Aix, immediately
lost his wife, and died himself on the 21st of November 1849. He
bequeathed to his native town the greater part of his fortune and all
his collections, now exhibited in the Musée, together with a very fine
portrait of the donor painted by Ingres in 1811.



GRANGE (through the A.-Fr. _graunge_, from the Med. Lat. _granea_, a
place for storing grain, _granum_), properly a granary or barn. In the
middle ages a "grange" was a detached portion of a manor with
farm-houses and barns belonging to a lord or to a religious house; in it
the crops could be conveniently stored for the purpose of collecting
rent or tithe. Thus, such barns are often known as "tithe-barns." In
many cases a chapel was included among the buildings or stood apart as a
separate edifice. The word is still used as a name for a superior kind
of farm-house, or for a country-house which has farm-buildings and
agricultural land attached to it.

Architecturally considered, the "grange" was usually a long building
with high wooden roof, sometimes divided by posts or columns into a sort
of nave and aisles, and with walls strongly buttressed. Sometimes these
granges were of very great extent; one at St Leonards, Hampshire, was
originally 225 ft. long by 75 ft. wide, and a still larger one (303 ft.
long) existed at Chertsey. Ancient granges, or tithe-barns, still exist
at Glastonbury, Bradford-on-Avon, St Mary's Abbey, York, and at Coxwold.
A fine example at Peterborough was pulled down at the end of the 19th
century. In France there are many examples in stone of the 12th, 13th
and 14th centuries; some divided into a central and two side aisles by
arcades in stone. Externally granges are noticeable on account of their
great roofs and the slight elevation of the eaves, from 8 to 10 ft. only
in height. In the 15th century they were sometimes protected by moats
and towers. At Ardennes in Normandy, where the grange was 154 ft. long;
Vauclerc near Laon, Picardy, 246 ft. long and in two storeys; at
Perrières, St Vigor, near Bayeux, and Ouilly near Falaise, all in
Normandy; and at St Martin-au-Bois (Oise) are a series of fine examples.
Attached to the abbey of Longchamps, near Paris, is one of the
best-preserved granges in France, with walls in stone and internally
divided into three aisles in oak timber of extremely fine construction.

In the social economic movement in the United States of America, which
began in 1867 and was known as the "Farmers' Movement," "grange" was
adopted as the name for a local chapter of the Order of the Patrons of
Husbandry, and the movement is thus often known as the "Grangers'
Movement" (see FARMERS' MOVEMENT). There are a National Grange at
Washington, supervising the local divisions, and state granges in most
states.



GRANGEMOUTH, a police burgh and seaport of Stirlingshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1901) 8386. It is situated on the south shore of the estuary of the
Forth, at the mouth of the Carron and also of Grange Burn, a right-hand
tributary of the Carron, 3 m. N.E. of Falkirk by the North British and
Caledonian railways. It is the terminus of the Forth and Clyde Canal,
from the opening of which (1789) its history may be dated. The principal
buildings are the town hall (in the Greek style), public hall, public
institute and free library, and there is a public park presented by the
marquess of Zetland. Since 1810, when it became a head port, it has
gradually attained the position of the chief port of the Forth west of
Leith. The first dock (opened in 1846), the second (1859) and the third
(1882) cover an area of 28 acres, with timber ponds of 44 acres and a
total quayage of 2500 yards. New docks, 93 acres in extent, with an
entrance from the firth, were opened in 1905 at a cost of more than
£1,000,000. The works rendered it necessary to divert the influx of the
Grange from the Carron to the Forth. Timber, pig-iron and iron ore are
the leading imports, and coal, produce and iron the chief exports. The
industries include shipbuilding, rope and sail making and iron founding.
There is regular steamer communication with London, Christiania,
Hamburg, Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Experiments in steam navigation were
carried out in 1802 with the "Charlotte Dundas" on the Forth and Clyde
Canal at Grangemouth. Kersa House adjoining the town on the S.W. is a
seat of the marquess of Zetland.



GRANGER, JAMES (1723-1776), English clergyman and print-collector, was
born in Dorset in 1723. He went to Oxford, and then entered holy orders,
becoming vicar of Shiplake; but apart from his hobby of
portrait-collecting, which resulted in the principal work associated
with his name, and the publication of some sermons, his life was
uneventful. Yet a new word was added to the language--"to
grangerize"--on account of him. In 1769 he published in two quarto
volumes a _Biographical History of England_ "consisting of characters
dispersed in different classes, and adapted to a methodical catalogue of
engraved British heads"; this was "intended as an essay towards reducing
our biography to a system, and a help to the knowledge of portraits."
The work was supplemented in later editions by Granger, and still
further editions were brought out by the Rev. Mark Noble, with additions
from Granger's materials. Blank leaves were left for the filling in of
engraved portraits for extra illustration of the text, and it became a
favourite pursuit to discover such illustrations and insert them in a
_Granger_, so that "grangerizing" became a term for such an
extra-illustration of any work, especially with cuts taken from other
books. The immediate result of the appearance of Granger's own work was
the rise in value of books containing portraits, which were cut out and
inserted in collector's copies.



GRANITE (adapted from the Ital. _granito_, grained; Lat. _granum_,
grain), the group designation for a family of igneous rocks whose
essential characteristics are that they are of acid composition
(containing high percentages of silica), consist principally of quartz
and felspar, with some mica, hornblende or augite, and are of
holocrystalline or "granitoid" structure. In popular usage the term is
given to almost any crystalline rock which resembles granite in
appearance or properties. Thus syenites, diorites, gabbros, diabases,
porphyries, gneiss, and even limestones and dolomites, are bought and
sold daily as "granites." True granites are common rocks, especially
among the older strata of the earth's crust. They have great variety in
colour and general appearance, some being white or grey, while others
are pink, greenish or yellow: this depends mainly on the state of
preservation of their felspars, which are their most abundant minerals,
and partly also on the relative proportion in which they contain biotite
and other dark coloured silicates. Many granites have large rounded or
angular crystals of felspar (Shap granite, many Cornish granites), well
seen on polished faces. Others show an elementary foliation or banding
(e.g. Aberdeen granite). Rounded or oval dark patches frequently appear
in the granitic matrix of many Cornish rocks of this group.

In the field granite usually occurs in great masses, covering wide
areas. These are generally elliptical or nearly circular and may be 20
m. in diameter or more. In the same district separate areas or "bosses"
of granite may be found, all having much in common in their
mineralogical and structural features, and such groups have probably all
proceeded from the same focus or deep-seated source. Towards their
margins these granite outcrops often show modifications by which they
pass into diorite or syenite, &c.; they may also be finer grained (like
porphyries) or rich in tourmaline, or intersected by many veins of
pegmatite. From the main granite dikes or veins often run out into the
surrounding rocks, thus proving that the granite is intrusive and has
forced its way upwards by splitting apart the strata among which it
lies. Further evidence of this is afforded by the alteration which the
granite has produced through a zone which varies from a few yards to a
mile or more in breadth around it. In the vicinity of intrusive granites
slates become converted into hornfelses containing biotite, chiastolite
or andalusite, sillimanite and a variety of other minerals; limestones
recrystallize as marbles, and all rocks, according to their composition,
are more or less profoundly modified in such a way as to prove that they
have been raised to a high temperature by proximity to the molten
intrusive mass. Where exposed in cliffs and other natural sections many
granites have a rudely columnar appearance. Others weather into large
cuboidal blocks which may produce structures resembling cyclopean
masonry. The tors of the west of England are of this nature. These
differences depend on the disposition of the joint cracks which traverse
the rock and are opened up by the action of frost and weathering.

The majority of granites are so coarse in grain that their principal
component minerals may be identified in the hand specimens by the
unaided eye. The felspar is pearly, white or pink, with smooth cleaved
surfaces; the quartz is usually transparent, glassy with rough irregular
fractures; the micas appear as shining black or white flakes. Very
coarse granites are called pegmatite or giant granite, while very fine
granites are known as microgranites (though the latter term has also
been applied to certain porphyries). Many granites show pearly scales of
white mica; others contain dark green or black hornblende in small
prisms. Reddish grains of sphene or of garnet are occasionally visible.
In the tourmaline granites prisms of black schorl occur either singly or
in stellate groups. The parallel banded structures of many granites,
which may be original or due to crushing, connect these rocks with the
granite gneisses or orthogneisses.

Under the microscope the felspar is mainly orthoclase with perthite or
microcline, while a small amount of plagioclase (ranging from oligoclase
to albite) is practically never absent. These minerals are often clouded
by a deposit of fine mica and kaolin, due to weathering. The quartz is
transparent, irregular in form, destitute of cleavage, and is filled
with very small cavities which contain a fluid, a mobile bubble and
sometimes a minute crystal. The micas, brown and white, are often in
parallel growth. The hornblende of granites is usually pale green in
section, the augite and enstatite nearly colourless. Tourmaline may be
brown, yellow or blue, and often the same crystal shows zones of
different colours. Apatite, zircon and iron oxides, in small crystals,
are always present. Among the less common accessories may be mentioned
pinkish garnets; andalusite in small pleochroic crystals; colourless
grains of topaz; six-sided compound crystals of cordierite, which
weather to dark green pinite; blue-black hornblende (riebeckite), beryl,
tinstone, orthite and pyrites.

The sequence of crystallization in the granites is of a normal type, and
may be ascertained by observing the perfection with which the different
minerals have crystallized and the order in which they enclose one
another. Zircon, apatite and iron oxides are the first; their crystals
are small, very perfect and nearly free from enclosures; they are
followed by hornblende and biotite; if muscovite is present it succeeds
the brown mica. Of the felspars the plagioclase separates first and
forms well-shaped crystals of which the central parts may be more basic
than the outer zones. Last come orthoclase, quartz, microcline and
micropegmatite, which fill up the irregular spaces left between the
earlier minerals. Exceptions to this sequence are unusual; sometimes the
first of the felspars have preceded the hornblende or biotite which may
envelop them in ophitic manner. An earlier generation of felspar, and
occasionally also of quartz, may be represented by large and perfect
crystals of these minerals giving the rock a porphyritic character.

Many granites have suffered modification by the action of vapours
emitted during cooling. Hydrofluoric and boric emanations exert a
profound influence on granitic rocks; their felspar is resolved into
aggregates of kaolin, muscovite and quartz; tourmaline appears, largely
replacing the brown mica; topaz also is not uncommon. In this way the
rotten granite or china stone, used in pottery, originates; and over
considerable areas kaolin replaces the felspar and forms valuable
sources of china clay. Veins of quartz, tourmaline and chlorite may
traverse the granite, containing tinstone often in workable quantities.
These veins are the principal sources of tin in Cornwall, but the same
changes may appear in the body of the granite without being restricted
to veins, and tinstone occurs also as an original constituent of some
granite pegmatites.

Granites may also be modified by crushing. Their crystals tend to lose
their original forms and to break into mosaics of interlocking grains.
The latter structure is very well seen in the quartz, which is a brittle
mineral under stress. White mica develops in the felspars. The larger
crystals are converted into lenticular or elliptical "augen," which may
be shattered throughout or may have a peripheral seam of small detached
granules surrounding a still undisintegrated core. Streaks of
"granulitic" or pulverized material wind irregularly through the rock,
giving it a roughly foliated character.

The interesting structural variation of granite in which there are
spheroidal masses surrounded by a granitic matrix is known as "orbicular
granite." The spheroids range from a fraction of an inch to a foot in
diameter, and may have a felspar crystal at the centre. Around this
there may be several zones, alternately lighter and darker in colour,
consisting of the essential minerals of the rock in different
proportions. Radiate arrangement is sometimes visible in the crystals of
the whole or part of the spheroid. Spheroidal granites of this sort are
found in Sweden, Finland, Ireland, &c. In other cases the spheroids are
simply dark rounded lumps of biotite, in fine scales. These are probably
due to the adhesion of the biotite crystals to one another as they
separated from the rock magma at an early stage in its crystallization.
The Rapakiwi granites of Finland have many round or ovoidal felspar
crystals scattered through a granitic matrix. These larger felspars have
no crystalline outlines and consist of orthoclase or microcline
surrounded by borders of white oligoclase. Often they enclose dark
crystals of biotite and hornblende, arranged zonally. Many of these
granites contain tourmaline, fluorite and monazite. In most granite
masses, especially near their contacts with the surrounding rocks, it is
common to find enclosures of altered sedimentary or igneous materials
which are more or less dissolved and permeated by the granitic magma.

  The chemical composition of a few granites from different parts of the
  world is given below:--

    +-----+-------+-------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |     | SiO2. | Al2O3.| Fe2O3.| FeO. | MgO. | CaO. | Na2O.| K2O. |
    +-----+-------+-------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |  I. | 74.69 | 16.21 |  ..   | 1.16 | 0.48 | 0.28 | 1.18 | 3.64 |
    | II. | 71.33 | 11.18 | 3.96  | 1.45 | 0.88 | 2.10 | 3.51 | 3.49 |
    |III. | 72.93 | 13.87 | 1.94  | 0.79 | 0.51 | 0.74 | 3.68 | 3.74 |
    | IV. | 76.12 | 12.18 | 1.21  | 0.72 | 1.12 | 1.54 | 2.55 | 3.21 |
    |  V. | 73.90 | 13.65 | 0.28  | 0.42 | 0.14 | 0.23 | 2.53 | 7.99 |
    | VI. | 68.87 | 16.62 | 0.43  | 2.72 | 1.60 | 0.71 | 1.80 | 6.48 |
    +-----+-------+-------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+

  I. Carn Brea, Cornwall (Phillips); II. Mazaruni, Brit. Guiana
  (Harrison); III. Rödö, near Alnö, Vesternorrland, Sweden (Holmquist);
  IV. Abruzzen, a group of hills in the Riesengebirge (Milch); V. Pikes
  Peak, Colorado (Matthews); VI. Wilson's Creek, near Omeo, Victoria
  (Howitt).

  Only the most important components are shown in the table, but all
  granites contain also small amounts of zirconia, titanium oxide,
  phosphoric acid, sulphur, oxides of barium, strontium, manganese and
  water. These are in all cases less than 1%, and usually much less than
  this, except the water, which may be 2 or 3% in weathered rocks. From
  the chemical composition it may be computed that granites contain, on
  an average, 35 to 55% of quartz, 20 to 30% of orthoclase, 20 to 30% of
  plagioclase felspar (including the albite of microperthite) and 5 to
  10% of ferromagnesian silicates and minor accessories such as
  apatite, zircon, sphene and iron oxides. The aplites, pegmatites,
  graphic granites and muscovite granites are usually richest in silica,
  while with increase of biotite and hornblende, augite and enstatite
  the analyses show the presence of more magnesia, iron and lime.

  In the weathering of granite the quartz suffers little change; the
  felspar passes into dull cloudy, soft aggregates of kaolin, muscovite
  and secondary quartz, while chlorite, quartz and calcite replace the
  biotite, hornblende and augite. The rock often assumes a rusty brown
  colour from the liberation of the oxides of iron, and the decomposed
  mass is friable and can easily be dug with a spade; where the granite
  has been cut by joint planes not too close together weathering
  proceeds from their surfaces and large rounded blocks may be left
  embedded in rotted materials. The amount of water in the rock
  increases and part of the alkalis is carried away in solution; they
  form valuable sources of mineral food to plants. The chemical changes
  are shown by the following analyses:

    +-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-------+
    |     | H2O. | SiO2. | TiO2.| Al2O3.| FeO. |Fe2O3.| CaO. | MgO. | Na2O.| K2O. | P2O5. |
    +-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-------+
    |  I. | 1.22 | 69.33 | n.d. | 14.33 | 3.60 |  ..  | 3.21 | 2.44 | 2.70 | 2.67 | 0.10  |
    | II. | 3.27 | 66.82 | n.d. | 15.62 | 1.69 | 1.88 | 3.13 | 2.76 | 2.58 | 2.44 |  n.d. |
    |III. | 4.70 | 65.69 | 0.31 | 15.23 |  ..  | 4.39 | 2.63 | 2.64 | 2.12 | 2.00 | 0.06  |
    +-----+------+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-------+

  Analyses of I., fresh grey granite; II. brown moderately firm granite;
  III. residual sand, produced by the weathering of the same mass (anal.
  G. P. Merrill).

The differences are surprisingly small and are principally an increase
in the water and a diminution in the amount of alkalis and lime together
with the oxidation of the ferrous oxide.     (J. S. F.)



GRAN SASSO D'ITALIA ("Great Rock of Italy"), a mountain of the Abruzzi,
Italy, the culminating point of the Apennines, 9560 ft. in height. In
formation it resembles the limestone Alps of Tirol and there are on its
elevated plateaus a number of _doline_ or funnel-shaped depressions into
which the melted snow and the rain sink. The summit is covered with snow
for the greater part of the year. Seen from the Adriatic, Monte Corno,
as it is sometimes called, from its resemblance to a horn, affords a
magnificent spectacle; the Alpine region beneath its summit is still the
home of the wild boar, and here and there are dense woods of beech and
pine. The group has numerous other lofty peaks, of which the chief are
the Pizzo d'Intermesole (8680 ft.), the Corno Piccolo (8650 ft.), the
Pizzo Cefalone (8307 ft.) and the Monte della Portella (7835 ft.). The
most convenient starting-point for the ascent is Assergi, 10 m. N.E. of
Aquila, at the S. foot of the Gran Sasso. The Italian Alpine Club has
erected a hut S.W. of the principal summit, and has published a special
guidebook (E. Abbate, _Guida al Gran Sasso d' Italia_, Rome, 1888). The
view from the summit extends to the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west and the
mountains of Dalmatia on the east in clear weather. The ascent was first
made in 1794 by Orazio Delfico from the Teramo side. In Assergi is the
interesting church of Sta. Maria Assunta, dating from 1150, with later
alterations (see Gavini, in _L' Arte_, 1901, 316, 391).



GRANT, SIR ALEXANDER, 8th Bart. (1826-1884), British scholar and
educationalist, was born in New York on the 13th of September 1826.
After a childhood spent in the West Indies, he was educated at Harrow
and Oxford. He entered Oxford as scholar of Balliol, and subsequently
held a fellowship at Oriel from 1849 to 1860. He made a special study of
the Aristotelian philosophy, and in 1857 published an edition of the
_Ethics_ (4th ed. 1885) which became a standard text-book at Oxford. In
1855 he was one of the examiners for the Indian Civil Service, and in
1856 a public examiner in classics at Oxford. In the latter year he
succeeded to the baronetcy. In 1859 he went to Madras with Sir Charles
Trevelyan, and was appointed inspector of schools; the next year he
removed to Bombay, to fill the post of Professor of History and
Political Economy in the Elphinstone College. Of this he became
Principal in 1862; and, a year later, vice-chancellor of Bombay
University, a post he held from 1863 to 1865 and again from 1865 to
1868. In 1865 he took upon himself also the duties of Director of Public
Instruction for Bombay Presidency. In 1868 he was appointed a member of
the Legislative Council. In the same year, upon the death of Sir David
Brewster, he was appointed Principal of Edinburgh University, which had
conferred an honorary LL.D. degree upon him in 1865. From that time till
his death (which occurred in Edinburgh on the 30th of November 1884) his
energies were entirely devoted to the well-being of the University. The
institution of the medical school in the University was almost solely
due to his initiative; and the Tercentenary Festival, celebrated in
1884, was the result of his wisely directed enthusiasm. In that year he
published _The Story of the University of Edinburgh during its First
Three Hundred Years_. He was created Hon. D.C.L. of Oxford in 1880, and
an honorary fellow of Oriel College in 1882.



GRANT, ANNE (1755-1838), Scottish writer, generally known as Mrs Grant
of Laggan, was born in Glasgow, on the 21st of February 1755. Her
childhood was spent in America, her father, Duncan MacVicar, being an
army officer on service there. In 1768 the family returned to Scotland,
and in 1779 Anne married James Grant, an army chaplain, who was also
minister of the parish of Laggan, near Fort Augustus, Inverness, where
her father was barrack-master. On her husband's death in 1801 she was
left with a large family and a small income. In 1802 she published by
subscription a volume of _Original Poems, with some Translations from
the Gaelic_, which was favourably received. In 1806 her _Letters from
the Mountains_, with their spirited description of Highland scenery and
legends, awakened much interest. Her other works are _Memoirs of an
American Lady, with Sketches of Manners and Scenery in America as they
existed previous to the Revolution_ (1808), containing reminiscences of
her childhood; _Essays on the Superstitions of the Highlanders of
Scotland_ (1811); and _Eighteen Hundred and Thirteen, a Poem_ (1814). In
1810 she went to live in Edinburgh. For the last twelve years of her
life she received a pension from government. She died on the 7th of
November 1838.

  See _Memoir and Correspondence of Mrs Grant of Laggan, edited by her
  son J. P. Grant_ (3 vols., 1844).



GRANT, CHARLES (1746-1823), British politician, was born at Aldourie,
Inverness-shire, on the 16th of April 1746, the day on which his father,
Alexander Grant, was killed whilst fighting for the Jacobites at
Culloden. When a young man Charles went to India, where he became
secretary, and later a member of the board of trade. He returned to
Scotland in 1790, and in 1802 was elected to parliament as member for
the county of Inverness. In the House of Commons his chief interests
were in Indian affairs, and he was especially vigorous in his hostility
to the policy of the Marquess Wellesley. In 1805 he was chosen chairman
of the directors of the East India Company and he retired from
parliament in 1818. A friend of William Wilberforce, Grant was a
prominent member of the evangelical party in the Church of England; he
was a generous supporter of the church's missionary undertakings. He was
largely responsible for the establishment of the East India college,
which was afterwards erected at Haileybury. He died in London on the
31st of October 1823. His eldest son, Charles, was created a peer in
1835 as Baron Glenelg.

  See Henry Morris, _Life of Charles Grant_ (1904).



GRANT, SIR FRANCIS (1803-1878), English portrait-painter, fourth son of
Francis Grant of Kilgraston, Perthshire, was born at Edinburgh in 1803.
He was educated for the bar, but at the age of twenty-four he began at
Edinburgh systematically to study the practice of art. On completing a
course of instruction he removed to London, and as early as 1843
exhibited at the Royal Academy. At the beginning of his career he
utilized his sporting experiences by painting groups of huntsmen, horses
and hounds, such as the "Meet of H.M. Staghounds" and the "Melton Hunt";
but his position in society gradually made him a fashionable
portrait-painter. In drapery he had the taste of a connoisseur, and
rendered the minutest details of costume with felicitous accuracy. In
female portraiture he achieved considerable success, although rather in
depicting the high-born graces and external characteristics than the
true personality. Among his portraits of this class may be mentioned
Lady Glenlyon, the marchioness of Waterford, Lady Rodney and Mrs
Beauclerk. In his portraits of generals and sportsmen he proved himself
more equal to his subjects than in those of statesmen and men of
letters. He painted many of the principal celebrities of the time,
including Scott, Macaulay, Lockhart, Disraeli, Hardinge, Gough, Derby,
Palmerston and Russell, his brother Sir J. Hope Grant and his friend Sir
Edwin Landseer. From the first his career was rapidly prosperous. In
1842 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1851 an
Academician; and in 1866 he was chosen to succeed Sir C. Eastlake in the
post of president, for which his chief recommendations were his social
distinction, tact, urbanity and friendly and liberal consideration of
his brother artists. Shortly after his election as president he was
knighted, and in 1870 the degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon him by the
university of Oxford. He died on the 5th of October 1878.



GRANT, GEORGE MONRO (1835-1902), principal of Queen's University,
Kingston, Ontario, was born in Nova Scotia in 1835. He was educated at
Glasgow university, where he had a brilliant academic career; and having
entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, he returned to Canada
and obtained a pastoral charge in Halifax, Nova Scotia, which he held
from 1863 to 1877. He quickly gained a high reputation as a preacher and
as an eloquent speaker on political subjects. When Canada was
confederated in 1867 Nova Scotia was the province most strongly opposed
to federal union. Grant threw the whole weight of his great influence in
favour of confederation, and his oratory played an important part in
securing the success of the movement. When the consolidation of the
Dominion by means of railway construction was under discussion in 1872,
Grant travelled from the Atlantic to the Pacific with the engineers who
surveyed the route of the Canadian Pacific railway, and his book _Ocean
to Ocean_ (1873) was one of the first things that opened the eyes of
Canadians to the value of the immense heritage they enjoyed. He never
lost an opportunity, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, of
pressing on his hearers that the greatest future for Canada lay in unity
with the rest of the British Empire; and his broad statesman-like
judgment made him an authority which politicians of all parties were
glad to consult. In 1877 Grant was appointed principal of Queen's
University, Kingston, Ontario, which through his exertions and influence
expanded from a small denominational college into a large and
influential educational centre; and he attracted to it an exceptionally
able body of professors whose influence in speculation and research was
widely felt during the quarter of a century that he remained at its
head. In 1888 he visited Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the
effect of this experience being to strengthen still further the
Imperialism which was the guiding principle of his political opinions.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first
disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr
Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of
President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and
supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions
of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
Grant did not live to see the conclusion of peace, his death occurring
at Kingston on the 10th of May 1902. At the time of his death _The
Times_ observed that "it is acknowledged on all hands that in him the
Dominion has lost one of the ablest men that it has yet produced." He
was the author of a number of works, of which the most notable besides
_Ocean to Ocean_ are, _Advantages of Imperial Federation_ (1889), _Our
National Objects and Aims_ (1890), _Religions of the World in Relation
to Christianity_ (1894) and volumes of sermons and lectures. Grant
married in 1872 Jessie, daughter of William Lawson of Halifax.



GRANT, JAMES (1822-1887), British novelist, was born in Edinburgh on the
1st of August 1822. His father, John Grant, was a captain in the 92nd
Gordon Highlanders and had served through the Peninsular War. For
several years James Grant was in Newfoundland with his father, but in
1839 he returned to England, and entered the 62nd Foot as an ensign. In
1843 he resigned his commission and devoted himself to writing, first
magazine articles, but soon a profusion of novels, full of vivacity and
incident, and dealing mainly with military scenes and characters. His
best stories, perhaps, were _The Romance of War_ (his first, 1845),
_Bothwell_ (1851), _Frank Hilton; or, The Queen's Own_ (1855), _The
Phantom Regiment_ and _Harry Ogilvie_ (1856), _Lucy Arden_ (1858), _The
White Cockade_ (1867), _Only an Ensign_ (1871), _Shall I Win Her?_
(1874), _Playing with Fire_ (1887). Grant also wrote _British Battles on
Land and Sea_ (1873-1875) and valuable books on Scottish history.
Permanent value attaches to his great work, in three volumes, on _Old
and New Edinburgh_ (1880). He was the founder and energetic promoter of
the National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights. In 1875
he became a Roman Catholic. He died on the 5th of May 1887.



GRANT, JAMES AUGUSTUS (1827-1892), Scottish explorer of eastern
equatorial Africa, was born at Nairn, where his father was the parish
minister, on the 11th of April 1827. He was educated at the grammar
school and Marischal College, Aberdeen, and in 1846 joined the Indian
army. He saw active service in the Sikh War (1848-49), served throughout
the mutiny of 1857, and was wounded in the operations for the relief of
Lucknow. He returned to England in 1858, and in 1860 joined J. H. Speke
(q.v.) in the memorable expedition which solved the problem of the Nile
sources. The expedition left Zanzibar in October 1860 and reached
Gondokoro, where the travellers were again in touch with civilization,
in February 1863. Speke was the leader, but Grant carried out several
investigations independently and made valuable botanical collections. He
acted throughout in absolute loyalty to his comrade. In 1864 he
published, as supplementary to Speke's account of their journey, _A Walk
across Africa_, in which he dealt particularly with "the ordinary life
and pursuits, the habits and feelings of the natives" and the economic
value of the countries traversed. In 1864 he was awarded the patron's
medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and in 1866 given the
Companionship of the Bath in recognition of his services in the
expedition. He served in the intelligence department of the Abyssinian
expedition of 1868; for this he was made C.S.I. and received the
Abyssinian medal. At the close of the war he retired from the army with
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He had married in 1865, and he now
settled down at Nairn, where he died on the 11th of February 1892. He
made contributions to the journals of various learned societies, the
most notable being the "Botany of the Speke and Grant Expedition" in
vol. xxix. of the _Transactions of the Linnaean Society_.



GRANT, SIR JAMES HOPE (1808-1875), English general, fifth and youngest
son of Francis Grant of Kilgraston, Perthshire, and brother of Sir
Francis Grant, P.R.A., was born on the 22nd of July 1808. He entered the
army in 1826 as cornet in the 9th Lancers, and became lieutenant in 1828
and captain in 1835. In 1842 he was brigade-major to Lord Saltoun in the
Chinese War, and specially distinguished himself at the capture of
Chin-Kiang, after which he received the rank of major and the C.B. In
the first Sikh War of 1845-46 he took part in the battle of Sobraon; and
in the Punjab campaign of 1848-49 he commanded the 9th Lancers, and won
high reputation in the battles of Chillianwalla and Guzerat (Gujarat).
He was promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel and shortly afterwards to the
same substantive rank. In 1854 he became brevet-colonel, and in 1856
brigadier of cavalry. He took a leading part in the suppression of the
Indian mutiny of 1857, holding for some time the command of the cavalry
division, and afterwards of a movable column of horse and foot. After
rendering valuable service in the operations before Delhi and in the
final assault on the city, he directed the victorious march of the
cavalry and horse artillery despatched in the direction of Cawnpore to
open up communication with the commander-in-chief Sir Colin Campbell,
whom he met near the Alambagh, and who raised him to the rank of
brigadier-general, and placed the whole force under his command during
what remained of the perilous march to Lucknow for the relief of the
residency. After the retirement towards Cawnpore he greatly aided in
effecting there the total rout of the rebel troops, by making a detour
which threatened their rear; and following in pursuit with a flying
column, he defeated them with the loss of nearly all their guns at
Serai Ghat. He also took part in the operations connected with the
recapture of Lucknow, shortly after which he was promoted to the rank of
major-general, and appointed to the command of the force employed for
the final pacification of India, a position in which his unwearied
energy, and his vigilance and caution united to high personal daring,
rendered very valuable service. Before the work of pacification was
quite completed he was created K.C.B. In 1859 he was appointed, with the
local rank of lieutenant-general, to the command of the British land
forces in the united French and British expedition against China. The
object of the campaign was accomplished within three months of the
landing of the forces at Pei-tang (1st of August 1860). The Taku Forts
had been carried by assault, the Chinese defeated three times in the
open and Peking occupied. For his conduct in this, which has been called
the "most successful and the best carried out of England's little wars,"
he received the thanks of parliament and was gazetted G.C.B. In 1861 he
was made lieutenant-general and appointed commander-in-chief of the army
of Madras; on his return to England in 1865 he was made
quartermaster-general at headquarters; and in 1870 he was transferred to
the command of the camp at Aldershot, where he took a leading part in
the reform of the educational and training systems of the forces, which
followed the Franco-German War. The introduction of annual army
manoeuvres was largely due to Sir Hope Grant. In 1872 he was gazetted
general. He died in London on the 7th of March 1875.

  _Incidents in the Sepoy War of 1857-58, compiled from the Private
  Journal of General Sir Hope Grant, K.C.B., together with some
  explanatory chapters by Capt. H. Knollys, Royal Artillery_, was
  published in 1873, and _Incidents in the China War of 1860_ appeared
  posthumously under the same editorship in 1875.



GRANT, SIR PATRICK (1804-1895), British field marshal, was the second
son of Major John Grant, 97th Foot, of Auchterblair, Inverness-shire,
where he was born on the 11th of September 1804. He entered the Bengal
native infantry as ensign in 1820, and became captain in 1832. He served
in Oudh from 1834 to 1838, and raised the Hariana Light Infantry.
Employed in the adjutant-general's department of the Bengal army from
1838 until 1854, he became adjutant-general in 1846. He served under Sir
Hugh Gough at the battle of Maharajpur in 1843, winning a brevet
majority, was adjutant-general of the army at the battles of Moodkee in
1845 (twice severely wounded), and of Ferozshah and Sobraon in 1846,
receiving the C.B. and the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He took
part in the battles of Chillianwalla and Gujarat in 1849, gaining
further promotion, and was appointed aide-de-camp to the queen. He
served also in Kohat in 1851 under Sir Charles Napier. Promoted
major-general in 1854, he was commander-in-chief of the Madras army from
1856 to 1861. He was made K.C.B. in 1857, and on General Anson's death
was summoned to Calcutta to take supreme command of the army in India.
From Calcutta he directed the operations against the mutineers, sending
forces under Havelock and Outram for the relief of Cawnpore and Lucknow,
until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell from England as
commander-in-chief, when he returned to Madras. On leaving India in 1861
he was decorated with the G.C.B. He was promoted lieutenant-general in
1862, was governor of Malta from 1867 to 1872, was made G.C.M.G. in
1868, promoted general in 1870, field marshal in 1883 and colonel of the
Royal Horse Guards and gold-stick-in-waiting to the queen in 1885. He
married as his second wife, in 1844, Frances Maria, daughter of Sir Hugh
(afterwards Lord) Gough. He was governor of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea,
from 1874 until his death there on the 28th of March 1895.



GRANT, ROBERT (1814-1892), British astronomer, was born at Grantown,
Scotland, on the 17th of June 1814. At the age of thirteen the promise
of a brilliant career was clouded by a prolonged illness of such a
serious character as to incapacitate him from all school-work for six
years. At twenty, however, his health greatly improved, and he set
himself resolutely, without assistance, to repair his earlier
disadvantages by the diligent study of Greek, Latin, Italian and
mathematics. Astronomy also occupied his attention, and it was
stimulated by the return of Halley's comet in 1835, as well as by his
success in observing the annular eclipse of the sun of the 15th of May
1836. After a short course at King's College, Aberdeen, he obtained in
1841 employment in his brother's counting-house in London. During this
period the idea occurred to him of writing a history of physical
astronomy. Before definitely beginning the work he had to search,
amongst other records, those of the French Academy, and for that purpose
took up his residence in Paris in 1845, supporting himself by giving
lessons in English. He returned to London in 1847. _The History of
Physical Astronomy from the Earliest Ages to the Middle of the
Nineteenth Century_ was first published in parts in _The Library of
Useful Knowledge_, but after the issue of the ninth part this mode of
publication was discontinued, and the work appeared as a whole in 1852.
The main object of the work is, in the author's words, "to exhibit a
view of the labours of successive inquirers in establishing a knowledge
of the mechanical principles which regulate the movements of the
celestial bodies, and in explaining the various phenomena relative to
their physical constitution which observation with the telescope has
disclosed." The lucidity and completeness with which a great variety of
abstruse subjects were treated, the extent of research and the maturity
of judgment it displayed, were the more remarkable, when it is
remembered that this was the first published work of one who enjoyed no
special opportunities, either for acquiring materials, or for discussing
with others engaged in similar pursuits the subjects it treats of. The
book at once took a leading place in astronomical literature, and earned
for its author in 1856 the award of the Royal Astronomical Society's
gold medal. In 1859 he succeeded John Pringle Nichol as professor of
astronomy in the University of Glasgow. From time to time he contributed
astronomical papers to the _Monthly Notices, Astronomische Nachrichten,
Comptes rendus_ and other scientific serials; but his principal work at
Glasgow consisted in determining the places of a large number of stars
with the Ertel transit-circle of the Observatory. The results of these
labours, extending over twenty-one years, are contained in the _Glasgow
Catalogue of 6415 Stars_, published in 1883. This was followed in 1892
by the _Second Glasgow Catalogue of 2156 Stars_, published a few weeks
after his death, which took place on the 24th of October 1892.

  See _Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Society_, liii., 210 (E. Dunkin);
  _Nature_, Nov. 10, 1892; _The Times_, Nov. 2, 1892; _Roy. Society's
  Catalogue of Scient. Papers_.     (A. A. R.*)



GRANT, ULYSSES SIMPSON (1822-1885), American soldier, and eighteenth
president of the United States, was born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, on the
27th of April 1822. He was a descendant of Matthew Grant, a Scotchman,
who settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1630. His earlier years
were spent in helping his father, Jesse R. Grant, upon his farm in Ohio.
In 1839 he was appointed to a place in the military academy at West
Point, and it was then that his name assumed the form by which it is
generally known. He was christened Hiram, after an ancestor, with
Ulysses for a middle name. As he was usually called by his middle name,
the congressman who recommended him for West Point supposed it to be his
first name, and added thereto the name of his mother's family, Simpson.
Grant was the best horseman of his class, and took a respectable place
in mathematics, but at his graduation in 1843 he only ranked
twenty-first in a class of thirty-nine. In September 1845 he went with
his regiment to join the forces of General Taylor in Mexico; there he
took part in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma and Monterey,
and, after his transfer to General Scott's army, which he joined in
March 1847, served at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Churubusco, Molino del Rey
and at the storming of Chapultepec. He was breveted first lieutenant for
gallantry at Molino del Rey and captain for gallantry at Chapultepec. In
August 1848, after the close of the war, he married Julia T. Dent
(1826-1902), and was for a while stationed in California and Oregon, but
in 1854 he resigned his commission. His reputation in the service had
suffered from allegations of intemperate drinking, which, whether well
founded or not, certainly impaired his usefulness as a soldier. For the
next six years he lived in St Louis, Missouri, earning a scanty
subsistence by farming and dealings in real estate. In 1860 he removed
to Galena, Illinois, and became a clerk in a leather store kept by his
father. At that time his earning capacity seems not to have exceeded
$800 a year, and he was regarded by his friends as a broken and
disappointed man. He was living at Galena at the outbreak of hostilities
between the North and South.


  Grant's Civil War career.

[For the history of the Civil War, and of Grant's battles and campaigns,
the reader is referred to the article AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. To the "call
to arms" of 1861 Grant promptly responded. After some delay he was
commissioned colonel of the 21st Illinois regiment and soon afterwards
brigadier-general. He was shortly assigned to a territorial command on
the Mississippi, and first won distinction by his energy in seizing, on
his own responsibility, the important point of Paducah, Kentucky,
situated at the confluence of the two great waterways of the Tennessee
and the Ohio (6th Sept. 1861). On the 7th of November he fought his
first battle as a commander, that of Belmont (Missouri), which, if it
failed to achieve any material result, certainly showed him to be a
capable and skilful leader. Early in 1862 he was entrusted by General H.
W. Halleck with the command of a large force to clear the lower reaches
of the Cumberland and the Tennessee, and, whatever criticism may be
passed on the general strategy of the campaign, Grant himself, by his
able and energetic work, thoroughly deserved the credit of his brilliant
success of Fort Donelson, where 15,000 Confederates were forced to
capitulate. Grant and his division commanders were promoted to the rank
of major-general U.S.V. soon afterwards, but Grant's own fortunes
suffered a temporary eclipse owing to a disagreement with Halleck. When,
after being virtually under arrest, he rejoined his army, it was
concentrated about Savannah on the Tennessee, preparing for a campaign
towards Corinth, Miss. On the 6th of April 1862 a furious assault on
Grant's camps brought on the battle of Shiloh (q.v.). After two days'
desperate fighting the Confederates withdrew before the combined attack
of the Army of the Tennessee under Grant and the Army of the Ohio under
Buell. But the Army of the Tennessee had been on the verge of
annihilation on the evening of the first day, and Grant's leadership
throughout was by no means equal to the emergency, though he displayed
his usual personal bravery and resolution. In the grand advance of
Halleck's armies which followed Shiloh, Grant was relieved of all
important duties by his assignment as second in command of the whole
force, and was thought by the army at large to be in disgrace. But
Halleck soon went to Washington as general-in-chief, and Grant took
command of his old army and of Rosecrans' Army of the Mississippi. Two
victories (Iuka and Corinth) were won in the autumn of 1862, but the
credit of both fell to Rosecrans, who commanded in the field, and the
nadir of Grant's military fortunes was reached when the first advance on
Vicksburg (q.v.), planned on an unsound basis, and complicated by a
series of political intrigues (which had also caused the adoption of the
original scheme), collapsed after the minor reverses of Holly Springs
and Chickasaw Bayou (December 1862).

It is fair to assume that Grant would have followed other unsuccessful
generals into retirement, had he not shown that, whatever his mistakes
or failures, and whether he was or was not sober and temperate in his
habits, he possessed the iron determination and energy which in the eyes
of Lincoln and Stanton,[1] and of the whole Northern people, was the
first requisite of their generals. He remained then with his army near
Vicksburg, trying one plan after another without result, until at last
after months of almost hopeless work his perseverance was crowned with
success--a success directly consequent upon a strange and bizarre
campaign of ten weeks, in which his daring and vigour were more
conspicuous than ever before. On the 4th of July 1863 the great fortress
surrendered with 29,491 men, this being one of the most important
victories won by the Union arms in the whole war. Grant was at once made
a major-general in the regular army. A few months later the great
reverse of Chickamauga created an alarm in the North commensurate with
the elation that had been felt at the double victory of Vicksburg and
Gettysburg, and Grant was at once ordered to Chattanooga, to decide the
fate of the Army of the Cumberland in a second battle. Four armies were
placed under his command, and three of these concentrated at
Chattanooga. On the 25th of November 1863 a great three-days' battle
ended with the crushing defeat of the Confederates, who from this day
had no foothold in the centre and west.

After this, in preparation for a grand combined effort of all the Union
forces, Grant was placed in supreme command, and the rank of
lieutenant-general revived for him (March 1864). Grant's headquarters
henceforth accompanied the Army of the Potomac, and the
lieutenant-general directed the campaign in Virginia. This, with Grant's
driving energy infused into the best army that the Union possessed,
resolved itself into a series, almost uninterrupted, of terrible
battles. Tactically the Confederates were almost always victorious,
strategically, Grant, disposing of greatly superior forces, pressed back
Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia to the lines of Richmond and
Petersburg, while above all, in pursuance of his explicit policy of
"attrition," the Federal leader used his men with a merciless energy
that has few, if any, parallels in modern history. At Cold Harbor six
thousand men fell in one useless assault lasting an hour, and after two
months the Union armies lay before Richmond and Petersburg indeed, but
had lost no fewer than 72,000 men. But Grant was unshaken in his
determination. "I purpose to fight it out on this line, if it takes all
summer," was his message from the battlefield of Spottsylvania to the
chief of staff at Washington. Through many weary months he never relaxed
his hold on Lee's army, and, in spite of repeated partial reverses, that
would have been defeats for his predecessors, he gradually wore down his
gallant adversary. The terrible cost of these operations did not check
him: only on one occasion of grave peril were any troops sent from his
lines to serve elsewhere, and he drew to himself the bulk of the men
whom the Union government was recruiting by thousands for the final
effort. Meanwhile all the other campaigns had been closely supervised by
Grant, preoccupied though he was with the operations against his own
adversary. At a critical moment he actually left the Virginian armies to
their own commanders, and started to take personal command in a
threatened quarter, and throughout he was in close touch with Sherman
and Thomas, who conducted the campaigns on the south-east and the
centre. That he succeeded in the efficient exercise of the chief command
of armies of a total strength of over one million men, operating many
hundreds of miles apart from each other, while at the same time he
watched and manoeuvred against a great captain and a veteran army in one
field of the war, must be the greatest proof of Grant's powers as a
general. In the end complete success rewarded the sacrifices and efforts
of the Federals on every theatre of war; in Virginia, where Grant was in
personal control, the merciless policy of attrition wore down Lee's army
until a mere remnant was left for the final surrender.

Grant had thus brought the great struggle to an end, and was universally
regarded as the saviour of the Union. A careful study of the history of
the war thoroughly bears out the popular view. There were soldiers more
accomplished, as was McClellan, more brilliant, as was Rosecrans, and
more exact, as was Buell, but it would be difficult to prove that these
generals, or indeed any others in the service, could have accomplished
the task which Grant brought to complete success. Nor must it be
supposed that Grant learned little from three years' campaigning in
high command. There is less in common than is often supposed between the
buoyant energy that led Grant to Shiloh and the grim plodding
determination that led him to Vicksburg and to Appomattox. Shiloh
revealed to Grant the intensity of the struggle, and after that battle,
appreciating to the full the material and moral factors with which he
had to deal, he gradually trained his military character on those lines
which alone could conduce to ultimate success. Singleness of purpose,
and relentless vigour in the execution of the purpose, were the
qualities necessary to the conduct of the vast enterprise of subduing
the Confederacy. Grant possessed or acquired both to such a degree that
he proved fully equal to the emergency. If in technical finesse he was
surpassed by many of his predecessors and his subordinates, he had the
most important qualities of a great captain, courage that rose higher
with each obstacle, and the clear judgment to distinguish the essential
from the minor issues in war.--(C. F. A.)]


  Presidency, 1868.

After the assassination of President Lincoln a disposition was shown by
his successor, Andrew Johnson, to deal severely with the Confederate
leaders, and it was understood that indictments for treason were to be
brought against General Lee and others. Grant, however, insisted that
the United States government was bound by the terms accorded to Lee and
his army at Appomattox. He went so far as to threaten to resign his
commission if the president disregarded his protest. This energetic
action on Grant's part saved the United States from a foul stain upon
its escutcheon. In July 1866 the grade of general was created, for the
first time since the organization of the government, and Grant was
promoted to that position. In the following year he became involved in
the deadly quarrel between President Johnson and Congress. To tie the
president's hands Congress had passed the Tenure of Office Act,
forbidding the president to remove any cabinet officer without the
consent of the Senate; but in August 1867 President Johnson suspended
Secretary Stanton and appointed Grant secretary of war _ad interim_
until the pleasure of the Senate should be ascertained. Grant accepted
the appointment under protest, and held it until the following January,
when the Senate refused to confirm the president's action, and Secretary
Stanton resumed his office. President Johnson was much disgusted at the
readiness with which Grant turned over the office to Stanton, and a
bitter controversy ensued between Johnson and Grant. Hitherto Grant had
taken little part in politics. The only vote which he had ever cast for
a presidential candidate was in 1856 for James Buchanan; and leading
Democrats, so late as the beginning of 1868, hoped to make him their
candidate in the election of that year; but the effect of the
controversy with President Johnson was to bring Grant forward as the
candidate of the Republican party. At the convention in Chicago on the
20th of May 1868 he was unanimously nominated on the first ballot. The
Democratic party nominated the one available Democrat who had the
smallest chance of beating him--Horatio Seymour, lately governor of New
York, an excellent statesman, but at that time hopeless as a candidate
because of his attitude during the war. The result of the contest was at
no time in doubt; Grant received 214 electoral votes and Seymour 80.

The most important domestic event of Grant's first term as president was
the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution on the 30th
of March 1870, providing that suffrage throughout the United States
should not be restricted on account of race, colour or previous
condition of servitude. The most important event in foreign policy was
the treaty with Great Britain of the 8th of May 1871, commonly known as
the Treaty of Washington, whereby several controversies between the
United States and Great Britain, including the bitter questions as to
damage inflicted upon the United States by the "Alabama" and other
Confederate cruisers built and equipped in England, were referred to
arbitration. In 1869 the government of Santo Domingo (or the Dominican
Republic) expressed a wish for annexation by the United States, and such
a step was favoured by Grant, but a treaty negotiated with this end in
view failed to obtain the requisite two-thirds vote in the Senate. In
May 1872 something was done towards alleviating the odious
Reconstruction laws for dragooning the South, which had been passed by
Congress in spite of the vetoes of President Johnson. The Amnesty Bill
restored civil rights to all persons in the South, save from 300 to 500
who had held high positions under the Confederacy. As early as 1870
President Grant recommended measures of civil service reform, and
succeeded in obtaining an act authorizing him to appoint a Civil Service
commission. A commission was created, but owing to the hostility of the
politicians in Congress it accomplished little. During the fifty years
since Crawford's Tenure of Office Act was passed in 1820, the country
had been growing more and more familiar with the spectacle of corruption
in high places. The evil rose to alarming proportions during Grant's
presidency, partly because of the immense extension of the civil
service, partly because of the growing tendency to alliance between
spoilsmen and the persons benefited by protective tariffs, and partly
because the public attention was still so much absorbed in Southern
affairs that little energy was left for curbing rascality in the North.
The scandals, indeed, were rife in Washington, and affected persons in
close relations with the president. Grant was ill-fitted for coping with
the difficulties of such a situation. Along with high intellectual
powers in certain directions, he had a simplicity of nature charming in
itself, but often calculated to render him the easy prey of sharpers. He
found it almost impossible to believe that anything could be wrong in
persons to whom he had given his friendship, and on several occasions
such friends proved themselves unworthy of him. The feeling was widely
prevalent in the spring of 1872 that the interests of pure government in
the United States demanded that President Grant should not be elected to
a second term. This feeling led a number of high-minded gentlemen to
form themselves into an organization under the name of Liberal
Republicans. They held a convention at Cincinnati in May with the
intention of nominating for the presidency Charles Francis Adams, who
had ably represented the United States at the court of St James's during
the Civil War. The convention, was, however, captured by politicians who
converted the whole affair into a farce by nominating Horace Greeley,
editor of the _New York Tribune_, who represented almost anything rather
than the object for which the convention had been called together. The
Democrats had despaired of electing a candidate of their own, and hoped
to achieve success by adopting the Cincinnati nominee, should he prove
to be an eligible person. The event showed that while their defeat in
1868 had taught them despondency, it had not taught them wisdom; it was
still in their power to make a gallant fight by nominating a person for
whom Republican reformers could vote. But with almost incredible
fatuity, they adopted Greeley as their candidate. As a natural result
Grant was re-elected by an overwhelming majority.


  Second presidency.

The most important event of his second term was his veto of the
Inflation Bill in 1874 followed by the passage of the Resumption Act in
the following year. The country was still labouring under the curse of
an inconvertible paper currency originating with the Legal Tender Act of
1862. There was a considerable party in favour of debasing the currency
indefinitely by inflation, and a bill with that object was passed by
Congress in April 1874. It was promptly vetoed by President Grant, and
two months later he wrote a very sensible letter to Senator J. P. Jones
of Nevada advocating a speedy return to specie payments. The passage of
the Resumption Act in January 1875 was largely due to his consistent
advocacy, and for these measures he deserves as high credit as for his
victories in the field. In spite of these great services, popular
dissatisfaction with the Republican party rapidly increased during the
years 1874-1876. The causes were twofold: firstly, there was great
dissatisfaction with the troubles in the Southern states, owing to the
harsh Reconstruction laws and the robberies committed by the carpet-bag
governments which those laws kept in power; secondly, the scandals at
Washington, comprising wholesale frauds on the public revenue, awakened
lively disgust. In some cases the culprits were so near to President
Grant that many persons found it difficult to avoid the suspicion that
he was himself implicated, and never perhaps was his hold upon popular
favour so slight as in the summer and autumn of 1876.


  Later life.

After the close of his presidency in the spring of 1877 Grant started on
a journey round the world, accompanied by his wife and one son. He was
received with distinguished honours in England and on the continent of
Europe, whence he made his way to India, China and Japan. After his
return to America in September 1880 he went back to his old home in
Galena, Illinois. A faction among the managers of the Republican party
attempted to secure his nomination for a third term as president, and in
the convention at Chicago in June 1880 he received a vote exceeding 300
during 36 consecutive ballots. Nevertheless, his opponents made such
effective use of the popular prejudice against third terms that the
scheme was defeated, and Garfield was named in his stead. In August 1881
General Grant bought a house in the city of New York. His income was
insufficient for the proper support of his family, and accordingly he
had become partner in a banking house in which one of his sons was
interested along with other persons. The name of the firm was Grant and
Ward. The ex-president invested in it all his available property, but
paid no attention to the management of the business. His facility in
giving his confidence to unworthy people was now to be visited with dire
calamity. In 1884 the firm became bankrupt, and it was discovered that
two of the partners had been perpetrating systematic and gigantic
frauds. This severe blow left General Grant penniless, just at the time
when he was beginning to suffer acutely from the disease which finally
caused his death. Down to this time he had never made any pretensions to
literary skill or talent, but on being approached by the _Century
Magazine_ with a request for some articles he undertook the work in
order to keep the wolf from the door. It proved a congenial task, and
led to the writing of his _Personal Memoirs_, a frank, modest and
charming book, which ranks among the best standard military biographies.
The sales earned for the general and his family something like half a
million dollars. The circumstances in which it was written made it an
act of heroism comparable with any that Grant ever showed as a soldier.
During most of the time he was suffering tortures from cancer in the
throat, and it was only four days before his death that he finished the
manuscript. In the spring of 1885 Congress passed a bill creating him a
general on the retired list; and in the summer he was removed to a
cottage at Mount M'Gregor, near Saratoga, where he passed the last five
weeks of his life, and where he died on the 23rd of July 1885. His body
was placed in a temporary tomb in Riverside Drive, in New York City,
overlooking the Hudson river.[2]

Grant showed many admirable and lovable traits. There was a charming
side to his trustful simplicity, which was at times almost like that of
a sailor set ashore. He abounded in kindliness and generosity, and if
there was anything especially difficult for him to endure, it was the
sight of human suffering, as was shown on the night at Shiloh, where he
lay out of doors in the icy rain rather than stay in a comfortable room
where the surgeons were at work. His good sense was strong, as well as
his sense of justice, and these qualities stood him in good service as
president, especially in his triumphant fight against the greenback
monster. Altogether, in spite of some shortcomings, Grant was a massive,
noble and lovable personality, well fit to be remembered as one of the
heroes of a great nation. (J. Fi.)

General Grant's son, FREDERICK DENT GRANT (b. 1850), graduated at the
U.S. Military Academy in 1871, was aide-de-camp to General Philip
Sheridan in 1873-1881, and resigned from the army in 1881, after having
attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was U.S. minister to Austria
in 1889-1893, and police commissioner of New York city in 1894-1898. He
served as a brigadier-general of volunteers in the Spanish-American War
of 1898, and then in the Philippines, becoming brigadier-general in the
regular army in February 1901 and major-general in February 1906.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Adam Badeau's _Military History of U. S. Grant_ (3
  vols., New York, 1867-1881), and _Grant in Peace_ (Hartford, 1887),
  are appreciative but lacking in discrimination. William Conant
  Church's _Ulysses S. Grant and the Period of National Preservation and
  Reconstruction_ (New York, 1897) is a good succinct account. Hamlin
  Garland's _Ulysses S. Grant, His Life and Character_ (New York, 1898)
  gives especial attention to the personal traits of Grant and abounds
  in anecdote. See also Grant's _Personal Memoirs_ (2 vols., New York,
  1885-1886); J. G. Wilson's _Life and Public Services of U. S. Grant_
  (New York, 1886); J. R. Young's _Around the World with General Grant_
  (New York, 1880); Horace Porter's _Campaigning with Grant_ (New York,
  1897); James Ford Rhodes's _History of the United States_ (vols.
  iii.-vii., New York, 1896-1906); James K. Hosmer's _Appeal to Arms and
  Outcome of the Civil War_ (New York, 1907); John Eaton's _Grant,
  Lincoln, and the Freedmen_ (New York, 1907), and various works
  mentioned in the articles AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, WILDERNESS CAMPAIGN, &c.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] President Lincoln was Grant's most unwavering supporter. Many
    amusing stories are told of his replies to various deputations which
    waited upon him to ask for Grant's removal. On one occasion he asked
    the critics to ascertain the brand of whisky favoured by Grant, so
    that he could send kegs of it to the other generals. The question of
    Grant's abstemiousness was and is of little importance. The cause at
    stake over-rode every prejudice and the people of the United States,
    since the war, have been in general content to leave the question
    alone, as was evidenced by the outcry raised in 1908, when President
    Taft reopened it in a speech at Grant's tomb.

  [2] The permanent tomb is of white granite and white marble and is
    150 ft. high with a circular cupola topping a square building 90 ft.
    on the side and 72 ft. high; the sarcophagus, in the centre of the
    building, is of red Wisconsin porphyry. The cornerstone was laid by
    President Harrison in 1892, and the tomb was dedicated on the 27th of
    April 1897 with a splendid parade and addresses by President McKinley
    and General Horace Porter, president of the Grant Monument
    Association, which from 90,000 contributions raised the funds for the
    tomb.



GRANT (from A.-Fr. _graunter_, O. Fr. _greanter_ for _creanter_, popular
Lat. _creantare_, for _credentare_, to entrust, Lat. _credere_, to
believe, trust), originally permission, acknowledgment, hence the gift
of privileges, rights, &c., specifically in law, the transfer of
property by an instrument in writing, termed a deed of grant. According
to the old rule of common law, the immediate freehold in corporeal
hereditaments lay in livery (see FEOFFMENT), whereas incorporeal
hereditaments, such as a reversion, remainder, advowson, &c., lay in
grant, that is, passed by the delivery of the deed of conveyance or
grant without further ceremony. The distinction between property lying
in livery and in grant is now abolished, the Real Property Act 1845
providing that all corporeal tenements and hereditaments shall be
transferable as well by grant as by livery (see CONVEYANCING). A grant
of personal property is properly termed an assignment or bill of sale.



GRANTH, the holy scriptures of the Sikhs, containing the spiritual and
moral teaching of Sikhism (q.v.). The book is called the _Adi Granth
Sahib_ by the Sikhs as a title of respect, because it is believed by
them to be an embodiment of the gurus. The title is generally applied to
the volume compiled by the fifth guru Arjan, which contains the
compositions of Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion; of his
successors, Guru Angad, Amar Das, Ram Das and Arjan; hymns of the Hindu
bhagats or saints, Jaidev, Namdev, Trilochan, Sain, Ramanand, Kabir, Rai
Das, Pipa, Bhikhan, Beni, Parmanand Das, Sur Das, Sadhna and Dhanna Jat;
verses of the Mahommedan saint called Farid; and panegyrics of the gurus
by bards who either attended them or admired their characters. The
compositions of the ninth guru, Teg Bahadur, were subsequently added to
the _Adi Granth_ by Guru Govind Singh. One recension of the sacred
volume preserved at Mangat in the Gujrat district contains a hymn
composed by Mira Bai, queen of Chitor. The _Adi Granth_ contains
passages of great picturesqueness and beauty. The original copy is said
to be in Kartarpur in the Jullundur district, but the chief copy in use
is now in the Har Mandar or Golden Temple at Amritsar, where it is daily
read aloud by the attendant Granthis or scripture readers.

There is also a second _Granth_ which was compiled by the Sikhs in 1734,
and popularly known as the _Granth of the tenth Guru_, but it has not
the same authority as the _Adi Granth_. It contains Guru Govind Singh's
_Japji_, the _Akal Ustit_ or Praise of the Creator, thirty-three
_sawaias_ (quatrains containing some of the main tenets of the guru and
strong reprobation of idolatry and hypocrisy), and the _Vachitar Natak_
or wonderful drama, in which the guru gives an account of his parentage,
divine mission and the battles in which he was engaged. Then come three
abridged translations by different hands of the _Devi Mahatamya_, an
episode in the _Markandeya Puran_, in praise of Durga, the goddess of
war. Then follow the _Gyan Parbodh_ or awakening of knowledge, accounts
of twenty-four incarnations of the deity, selected because of their
warlike character; the _Hazare de Shabd_; the _Shastar Nam Mala_, which
is a list of offensive and defensive weapons used in the guru's time,
with special reference to the attributes of the Creator; the _Tria
Charitar_ or tales illustrating the qualities, but principally the
deceit of women; the _Kabit_, compositions of a miscellaneous character;
the _Zafarnama_ containing the tenth guru's epistle to the emperor
Aurangzeb, and several metrical tales in the Persian language. This
_Granth_ is only partially the composition of the tenth guru. The
greater portion of it was written by bards in his employ.


  Form of the Granth.

The two volumes are written in several different languages and dialects.
The _Adi Granth_ is largely in old Punjabi and Hindi, but Prakrit,
Persian, Mahratti and Gujrati are also represented. The _Granth of the
Tenth Guru_ is written in the old and very difficult Hindi affected by
literary men in the Patna district in the 16th century. In neither of
these sacred volumes is there any separation of words. As there is no
separation of words in Sanskrit, the _gyanis_ or interpreters of the
guru's hymns prefer to follow the ancient practice of junction of words.
This makes the reading of the Sikh scriptures very difficult, and is one
of the causes of the decline of the Sikh religion.

The hymns in the _Adi Granth_ are arranged not according to the gurus or
bhagats who compose them, but according to rags or musical measures.
There are thirty-one such measures in the _Adi Granth_, and the hymns
are arranged according to the measures to which they are composed. The
gurus who composed hymns, namely the first, second, third, fourth, fifth
and ninth gurus, all used the name Nanak as their nom-de-plume. Their
compositions are distinguished by mahallas or wards. Thus the
compositions of Guru Nanak are styled mahalla one, the compositions of
Guru Angad are styled mahalla two, and so on. After the hymns of the
gurus are found the hymns of the bhagats under their several musical
measures. The Sikhs generally dislike any arrangement of the _Adi
Granth_ by which the compositions of each guru or bhagat should be
separately shown.


  The Sikh doctrines.

All the doctrines of the Sikhs are found set forth in the two _Granths_
and in compositions called _Rahit Namas_ and _Tanakhwah Namas_, which
are believed to have been the utterances of the tenth guru. The cardinal
principle of the sacred books is the unity of God, and starting from
this premiss the rejection of idolatry and superstition. Thus Guru
Govind Singh writes:

  "Some worshipping stones, put them on their heads;
     Some suspend lingams from their necks;
   Some see the God in the South; some bow their heads to the West.
     Some fools worship idols, others busy themselves with worshipping
        the dead.
   The whole world entangled in false ceremonies hath not found God's
        secret."

Next to the unity of God comes the equality of all men in His sight, and
so the abolition of caste distinctions. Guru Nanak says:

  "Caste hath no power in the next world; there is a new order of beings,
   Those whose accounts are honoured are the good."

The concremation of widows, though practised in later times by Hinduized
Sikhs, is forbidden in the _Granth_. Guru Arjan writes:

  "She who considereth her beloved as her God,
   Is the blessed _sati_ who shall be acceptable in God's Court."

It is a common belief that the Sikhs are allowed to drink wine and other
intoxicants. This is not the case. Guru Nanak wrote:

  "By drinking wine man committeth many sins."

Guru Arjan wrote:

  "The fool who drinketh evil wine is involved in sin."

And in the Rahit Nama of Bhai Desu Singh there is the following:

  "Let a Sikh take no intoxicant; it maketh the body lazy; it diverteth
  men from their temporal and spiritual duties, and inciteth them to
  evil deeds."

It is also generally believed that the Sikhs are bound to abstain from
the flesh of kine. This, too, is a mistake, arising from the Sikh
adoption of Hindu usages. The two _Granths_ of the Sikhs and all their
canonical works are absolutely silent on the subject. The Sikhs are not
bound to abstain from any flesh, except that which is obviously unfit
for human food, or what is killed in the Mahommedan fashion by jagging
an animal's throat with a knife. This flesh-eating practice is one of
the main sources of their physical strength. Smoking is strictly
prohibited by the Sikh religion. Guru Teg Bahadur preached to his host
as follows:

  "Save the people from the vile drug, and employ thyself in the service
  of Sikhs and holy men. When the people abandon the degrading smoke and
  cultivate their lands, their wealth and prosperity shall increase, and
  they shall want for nothing ... but when they smoke the vile
  vegetable, they shall grow poor and lose their wealth."

Guru Govind Singh also said:

  "Wine is bad, bhang destroyeth one generation, but tobacco destroyeth
  all generations."

In addition to these prohibitions Sikhism inculcates most of the
positive virtues of Christianity, and specially loyalty to rulers, a
quality which has made the Sikhs valuable servants of the British crown.

  The _Granth_ was translated by Dr Trumpp, a German missionary, on
  behalf of the Punjab government in 1877, but his rendering is in many
  respects incorrect, owing to insufficient knowledge of the Punjabi
  dialects. _The Sikh Religion_, &c., in 6 vols. (London, 1909) is an
  authoritative version prepared by M. Macauliffe, in concert with the
  modern leaders of the Sikh sect.     (M. M.)



GRANTHAM, THOMAS ROBINSON, 1st BARON (c. 1695-1770), English diplomatist
and politician, was a younger son of Sir William Robinson, Bart.
(1655-1736) of Newby, Yorkshire, who was member of parliament for York
from 1697 to 1722. Having been a scholar and minor fellow of Trinity
College, Cambridge, Thomas Robinson gained his earliest diplomatic
experience in Paris and then went to Vienna, where he was English
ambassador from 1730 to 1748. During 1741 he sought to make peace
between the empress Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great, but in vain,
and in 1748 he represented his country at the congress of
Aix-la-Chapelle. Returning to England he sat in parliament for
Christchurch from 1749 to 1761. In 1754 Robinson was appointed a
secretary of state and leader of the House of Commons by the prime
minister, the duke of Newcastle, and it was on this occasion that Pitt
made the famous remark to Fox, "the duke might as well have sent us his
jackboot to lead us." In November 1755 he resigned, and in April 1761 he
was created Baron Grantham. He was master of the wardrobe from 1749 to
1754 and again from 1755 to 1760, and was joint postmaster-general in
1765 and 1766. He died in London on the 30th of September 1770.

Grantham's elder son, THOMAS ROBINSON (1738-1786), who became the 2nd
baron, was born at Vienna on the 30th of November 1738. Educated at
Westminster School and at Christ's College, Cambridge, he entered
parliament as member for Christchurch in 1761, and succeeded to the
peerage in 1770. In 1771 he was sent as ambassador to Madrid and
retained this post until war broke out between England and Spain in
1779. From 1780 to 1782 Grantham was first commissioner of the board of
trade and foreign plantations, and from July 1782 to April 1783
secretary for the foreign department under Lord Shelburne. He died on
the 20th of July 1786, leaving two sons, Thomas Philip, who became the
3rd baron, and Frederick John afterwards 1st earl of Ripon.

THOMAS PHILIP ROBINSON, 3rd Baron Grantham (1781-1859). in 1803 took the
name of Weddell instead of that of Robinson. In May 1833 he became Earl
de Grey of Wrest on the death of his maternal aunt, Amabell
Hume-Campbell, Countess de Grey (1751-1833), and he now took the name of
de Grey. He was first lord of the admiralty under Sir Robert Peel in
1834-1835 and from 1841 to 1844 lord-lieutenant of Ireland. On his
death without male issue his nephew, George Frederick Samuel Robinson,
afterwards marquess of Ripon (q.v.), succeeded as Earl de Grey.



GRANTHAM, a municipal and parliamentary borough of Lincolnshire,
England; situated in a pleasant undulating country on the river Witham.
Pop. (1901) 17,593. It is an important junction of the Great Northern
railway, 105 m. N. by W. from London, with branch lines to Nottingham,
Lincoln and Boston; while there is communication with Nottingham and the
Trent by the Grantham canal. The parish church of St Wulfram is a
splendid building, exhibiting all the Gothic styles, but mainly Early
English and Decorated. The massive and ornate western tower and spire,
about 280 ft. in height, are of early Decorated workmanship. There is a
double Decorated crypt beneath the lady chapel. The north and south
porches are fine examples of a later period of the same style. The
delicately carved font is noteworthy. Two libraries, respectively of the
16th and 17th centuries, are preserved in the church. At the King Edward
VI. grammar school Sir Isaac Newton received part of his education. A
bronze statue commemorates him. The late Perpendicular building is
picturesque, and the school was greatly enlarged in 1904. The Angel
Hotel is a hostelry of the 15th century, with a gateway of earlier date.
A conduit dating from 1597 stands in the wide market-place. Modern
public buildings are a gild hall, exchange hall, and several churches
and chapels. The Queen Victoria Memorial home for nurses was erected in
1902-1903. The chief industries are malting and the manufacture of
agricultural implements. Grantham returns one member to parliament. The
borough falls within the S. Kesteven or Stamford division of the county.
Grantham was created a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Lincoln in
1905. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 1726 acres.

Although there is no authentic evidence of Roman occupation, Grantham
(Graham, Granham in Domesday Book) from its situation on the Ermine
Street, is supposed to have been a Roman station. It was possibly a
borough in the Saxon period, and by the time of the Domesday Survey it
was a royal borough with 111 burgesses. Charters of liberties existing
now only in the confirmation charter of 1377 were granted by various
kings. From the first the town was governed by a bailiff appointed by
the lord of the manor, but by the end of the 14th century the office of
alderman had come into existence. Finally government under a mayor and
alderman was granted by Edward IV. in 1463, and Grantham became a
corporate town. Among later charters, that of James II., given in 1685,
changed the title to that of government by a mayor and 6 aldermen, but
this was afterwards reversed and the old order resumed. Grantham was
first represented in parliament in 1467, and returned two members; but
by the Redistribution Act of 1885 the number was reduced to one. Richard
III. in 1483 granted a Wednesday market and two fairs yearly, namely on
the feast of St Nicholas the Bishop, and the two following days, and on
Passion Sunday and the day following. At the present day the market is
held on Saturday, and fairs are held on the Monday, Tuesday and
Wednesday following the fifth Sunday in Lent; a cherry fair on the 11th
of July and two stock fairs on the 26th of October and the 17th of
December.



GRANTLEY, FLETCHER NORTON, 1st Baron (1716-1789), English politician,
was the eldest son of Thomas Norton of Grantley, Yorkshire, where he was
born on the 23rd of June 1716. He became a barrister in 1739, and, after
a period of inactivity, obtained a large and profitable practice,
becoming a K.C. in 1754, and afterwards attorney-general for the county
palatine of Lancaster. In 1756 he was elected member of parliament for
Appleby; he represented Wigan from 1761 to 1768, and was appointed
solicitor-general for England and knighted in 1762. He took part in the
proceedings against John Wilkes, and, having become attorney-general in
1763, prosecuted the 5th Lord Byron for the murder of William Chaworth,
losing his office when the marquess of Rockingham came into power in
July 1765. In 1769, being now member of parliament for Guildford,
Norton became a privy councillor and chief justice in eyre of the
forests south of the Trent, and in 1770 was chosen Speaker of the House
of Commons. In 1777, when presenting the bill for the increase of the
civil list to the king, he told George III. that parliament has "not
only granted to your majesty a large present supply, but also a very
great additional revenue; great beyond example; great beyond your
majesty's highest expense." This speech aroused general attention and
caused some irritation; but the Speaker was supported by Fox and by the
city of London, and received the thanks of the House of Commons. George,
however, did not forget these plain words, and after the general
election of 1780, the prime minister, Lord North, and his followers
declined to support the re-election of the retiring Speaker, alleging
that his health was not equal to the duties of the office, and he was
defeated when the voting took place. In 1782 he was made a peer as Baron
Grantley of Markenfield. He died in London on the 1st of January 1789.
He was succeeded as Baron Grantley by his eldest son William
(1742-1822). Wraxall describes Norton as "a bold, able and eloquent, but
not a popular pleader," and as Speaker he was aggressive and indiscreet.
Derided by satirists as "Sir Bullface Doublefee," and described by
Horace Walpole as one who "rose from obscure infamy to that infamous
fame which will long stick to him," his character was also assailed by
Junius, and the general impression is that he was a hot-tempered,
avaricious and unprincipled man.

  See H. Walpole, _Memoirs of the Reign of George III._, edited by G. F.
  R. Barker (1894); Sir N. W. Wraxall, _Historical and Posthumous
  Memoirs_, edited by H. B. Wheatley (1884); and J. A. Manning, _Lives
  of the Speakers_ (1850).



GRANTOWN, the capital of Speyside, Elginshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901)
1568. It lies on the left bank of the Spey, 23¼ m. S. of Forres by the
Highland railway, with a station on the Great North of Scotland's
Speyside line connecting Craigellachie with Boat of Garten. It was
founded in 1776 by Sir James Grant of Grant, and became the chief seat
of that ancient family, who had lived on their adjoining estate of
Freuchie (Gaelic, _fraochach_, "heathery") since the beginning of the
15th century, and hence were usually described as the lairds of
Freuchie. The public buildings include the town hall, court house and
orphan hospital; and the industries are mainly connected with the cattle
trade and the distilling of whisky. The town, built of grey granite,
presents a handsome appearance, and being delightfully situated in the
midst of the most beautiful pine and birch woods in Scotland, with pure
air and a bracing climate, is an attractive resort. Castle Grant,
immediately to the north, is the principal mansion of the earl of
Seafield, the head of the Clan Grant. In a cave, still called "Lord
Huntly's Cave," in a rocky glen in the vicinity, George, marquess of
Huntly, lay hid during Montrose's campaign in 1644-45.



GRANULITE (Lat. _granulum_, a little grain), a name used by
petrographers to designate two distinct classes of rocks. According to
the terminology of the French school it signifies a granite in which
both kinds of mica (muscovite and biotite) occur, and corresponds to the
German _Granit_, or to the English "muscovite biotite granite." This
application has not been accepted generally. To the German petrologists
"granulite" means a more or less banded fine-grained metamorphic rock,
consisting mainly of quartz and felspar in very small irregular
crystals, and containing usually also a fair number of minute rounded
pale-red garnets. Among English and American geologists the term is
generally employed in this sense. The granulites are very closely allied
to the gneisses, as they consist of nearly the same minerals, but they
are finer grained, have usually less perfect foliation, are more
frequently garnetiferous, and have some special features of microscopic
structure. In the rocks of this group the minerals, as seen in a
microscopic slide, occur as small rounded grains forming a mosaic
closely fitted together. The individual crystals have never perfect
form, and indeed rarely any traces of it. In some granulites they
interlock, with irregular borders; in others they have been drawn out
and flattened into tapering lenticles by crushing. In most cases they
are somewhat rounded with smaller grains between the larger. This is
especially true of the quartz and felspar which are the predominant
minerals; mica always appears as flat scales (irregular or rounded but
not hexagonal). Both muscovite and biotite may be present and vary
considerably in abundance; very commonly they have their flat sides
parallel and give the rock a rudimentary schistosity, and they may be
aggregated into bands--in which case the granulites are
indistinguishable from certain varieties of gneiss. The garnets are very
generally larger than the above-mentioned ingredients, and easily
visible with the eye as pink spots on the broken surfaces of the rock.
They usually are filled with enclosed grains of the other minerals.

The felspar of the granulites is mostly orthoclase or cryptoperthite;
microcline, oligoclase and albite are also common. Basic felspars occur
only rarely. Among accessory minerals, in addition to apatite, zircon,
and iron oxides, the following may be mentioned: hornblende (not
common), riebeckite (rare), epidote and zoisite, calcite, sphene,
andalusite, sillimanite, kyanite, hercynite (a green spinel), rutile,
orthite and tourmaline. Though occasionally we may find larger grains of
felspar, quartz or epidote, it is more characteristic of these rocks
that all the minerals are in small, nearly uniform, imperfectly shaped
individuals.

On account of the minuteness with which it has been described and the
important controversies on points of theoretical geology which have
arisen regarding it, the granulite district of Saxony (around Rosswein,
Penig, &c.) may be considered the typical region for rocks of this
group. It should be remembered that though granulites are probably the
commonest rocks of this country, they are mingled with granites,
gneisses, gabbros, amphibolites, mica schists and many other
petrographical types. All of these rocks show more or less metamorphism
either of a thermal character or due to pressure and crushing. The
granites pass into gneiss and granulite; the gabbros into flaser gabbro
and amphibolite; the slates often contain andalusite or chiastolite, and
show transitions to mica schists. At one time these rocks were regarded
as Archean gneisses of a special type. Johannes Georg Lehmann propounded
the hypothesis that their present state was due principally to crushing
acting on them in a solid condition, grinding them down and breaking up
their minerals, while the pressure to which they were subjected welded
them together into coherent rock. It is now believed, however, that they
are comparatively recent and include sedimentary rocks, partly of
Palaeozoic age, and intrusive masses which may be nearly massive or may
have gneissose, flaser or granulitic structures. These have been
developed largely by the injection of semi-consolidated highly viscous
intrusions, and the varieties of texture are original or were produced
very shortly after the crystallization of the rocks. Meanwhile, however,
Lehmann's advocacy of post-consolidation crushing as a factor in the
development of granulites has been so successful that the terms
granulitization and granulitic structures are widely employed to
indicate the results of dynamometamorphism acting on rocks at a period
long after their solidification.

The Saxon granulites are apparently for the most part igneous and
correspond in composition to granites and porphyries. There are,
however, many granulites which undoubtedly were originally sediments
(arkoses, grits and sandstones). A large part of the highlands of
Scotland consists of paragranulites of this kind, which have received
the group name of "Moine gneisses."

Along with the typical acid granulites above described, in Saxony,
India, Scotland and other countries there occur dark-coloured basic
granulites ("trap granulites"). These are fine-grained rocks, not
usually banded, nearly black in colour with small red spots of garnet.
Their essential minerals are pyroxene, plagioclase and garnet:
chemically they resemble the gabbros. Green augite and hypersthene form
a considerable part of these rocks, they may contain also biotite,
hornblende and quartz. Around the garnets there is often a radial
grouping of small grains of pyroxene and hornblende in a clear matrix of
felspar: these "centric" structures are frequent in granulites. The
rocks of this group accompany gabbro and serpentine, but the exact
conditions under which they are formed and the significance of their
structures is not very clearly understood.     (J. S. F.)



GRANVELLA, ANTOINE PERRENOT, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest
and most influential of the princes of the church during the great
political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the
appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August
1517 at Besançon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella
(1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under
Charles V., was practising as a lawyer. Later Nicolas held an
influential position in the Netherlands, and from 1530 until his death
he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany. On the
completion of his studies in law at Padua and in divinity at Louvain,
Antoine held a canonry at Besançon, but he was promoted to the bishopric
of Arras when barely twenty-three (1540). In his episcopal capacity he
attended several diets of the empire, as well as the opening meetings of
the council of Trent; and the influence of his father, now chancellor,
led to his being entrusted with many difficult and delicate pieces of
public business, in the execution of which he developed a rare talent
for diplomacy, and at the same time acquired an intimate acquaintance
with most of the currents of European politics. One of his specially
noteworthy performances was the settlement of the terms of peace after
the defeat of the league of Schmalkalden at Mühlberg in 1547, a
settlement in which, to say the least, some particularly sharp practice
was exhibited. In 1550 he succeeded his father in the office of
secretary of state; in this capacity he attended Charles in the war with
Maurice, elector of Saxony, accompanied him in the flight from
Innsbruck, and afterwards drew up the treaty of Passau (August 1552). In
the following year he conducted the negotiations for the marriage of
Mary of England and Philip II. of Spain, to whom, in 1555, on the
abdication of the emperor, he transferred his services, and by whom he
was employed in the Netherlands. In April 1559 Granvella was one of the
Spanish commissioners who arranged the peace of Cateau Cambrésis, and on
Philip's withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same year he
was appointed prime minister to the regent, Margaret of Parma. The
policy of repression which in this capacity he pursued during the next
five years secured for him many tangible rewards, in 1560 he was
elevated to the archiepiscopal see of Malines, and in 1561 he received
the cardinal's hat; but the growing hostility of a people whose
religious convictions he had set himself to trample under foot
ultimately made it impossible for him to continue in the Low Countries,
and by the advice of his royal master he, in March 1564, retired to
Franche Comté. Nominally this withdrawal was only of a temporary
character, but it proved to be final. The following six years were spent
in comparative quiet, broken, however, by a visit to Rome in 1565; but
in 1570 Granvella, at the call of Philip, resumed public life by
accepting another mission to Rome. Here he helped to arrange the
alliance between the Papacy, Venice and Spain against the Turks, an
alliance which was responsible for the victory of Lepanto. In the same
year he became viceroy of Naples, a post of some difficulty and danger,
which for five years he occupied with ability and success. He was
summoned to Madrid in 1575 by Philip II. to be president of the council
for Italian affairs. Among the more delicate negotiations of his later
years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union
of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted
in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to
Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy. In the same year he was made archbishop
of Besançon, but meanwhile he had been stricken with a lingering
disease; he was never enthroned, but died at Madrid on the 21st of
September 1586. His body was removed to Besançon, where his father had
been buried. Granvella was a man of great learning, which was equalled
by his industry, and these qualities made him almost indispensable both
to Charles V. and to Philip II.

  Numerous letters and memoirs of Granvella are preserved in the
  archives of Besançon. These were to some extent made use of by Prosper
  Levêque in his _Mémoires pour servir_ (1753), as well as by the Abbé
  Boisot in the _Trésor de Granvella_. A commission for publishing the
  whole of the letters and memoirs was appointed by Guizot in 1834, and
  the result has been the issue of nine volumes of the _Papiers d'État
  du cardinal de Granvelle_, edited by C. Weiss (Paris, 1841-1852). They
  form a part of the _Collection de documents inédits sur l'histoire de
  France_, and were supplemented by the _Correspondance du cardinal
  Granvelle, 1565-1586_, edited by M. E. Poullet and G. J. C. Piot (12
  vols., Brussels, 1878-1896). See also the anonymous _Histoire du
  cardinal de Granville_, attributed to Courchetet D'Esnans (Paris,
  1761); J. L. Motley, _Rise of the Dutch Republic_; M. Philippson, _Ein
  Ministerium unter Philipp II._ (Berlin, 1895); and the _Cambridge
  Modern History_ (vol. iii. 1904).



GRANVILLE, GRANVILLE GEORGE LEVESON-GOWER, 2ND EARL (1815-1891), English
statesman, eldest son of the 1st Earl Granville (1773-1846), by his
marriage with Lady Harriet, daughter of the duke of Devonshire, was born
in London on the 11th of May 1815. His father, Granville Leveson-Gower,
was a younger son of Granville, 2nd Lord Gower and 1st marquess of
Stafford (1720-1803), by his third wife; an elder son by the second wife
(a daughter of the 1st duke of Bridgwater) became the 2nd marquess of
Stafford, and his marriage with the daughter and heiress of the 17th
earl of Sutherland (countess of Sutherland in her own right) led to the
merging of the Gower and Stafford titles in that of the dukes of
Sutherland (created 1833), who represent the elder branch of the family.
As Lord Granville Leveson-Gower, the 1st Earl Granville (created
viscount in 1815 and earl in 1833) entered the diplomatic service and
was ambassador at St Petersburg (1804-1807) and at Paris (1824-1841). He
was a Liberal in politics and an intimate friend of Canning. The title
of Earl Granville had been previously held in the Carteret family.

After being at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, young Lord Leveson went
to Paris for a short time under his father, and in 1836 was returned to
parliament in the Whig interest for Morpeth. For a short time he was
under-secretary for foreign affairs in Lord Melbourne's ministry. In
1840 he married Lady Acton (Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg, widow of
Sir Richard Acton; see ACTON and DALBERG). From 1841 till his father's
death in 1846, when he succeeded to the title, he sat for Lichfield. In
the House of Lords he signalized himself as a Free Trader, and Lord John
Russell made him master of the buckhounds (1846). He proved a useful
member of the party, and his influence and amiable character were
valuable in all matters needing diplomacy and good breeding. He became
vice-president of the Board of Trade in 1848, and took a prominent part
in promoting the great exhibition of 1851. In the latter year, having
already been admitted to the cabinet, he succeeded Palmerston at the
foreign office until Lord John Russell's defeat in 1852; and when Lord
Aberdeen formed his government at the end of the year, he became first
president of the council, and then chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster
(1854). Under Lord Palmerston (1855) he was president of the council.
His interest in education (a subject associated with this office) led to
his election (1856) as chancellor of the London University, a post he
held for thirty-five years; and he was a prominent champion of the
movement for the admission of women, and also of the teaching of modern
languages. From 1855 Lord Granville led the Liberals in the Upper House,
both in office, and, after Palmerston's resignation in 1858, in
opposition. He went in 1856 as head of the British mission to the tsar's
coronation in Moscow. In June 1859 the queen, embarrassed by the rival
ambitions of Palmerston and Russell, sent for him to form a ministry,
but he was unable to do so, and Palmerston again became prime minister,
with Lord John as foreign secretary and Granville as president of the
council. In 1860 his wife died, and to this heavy loss was shortly added
that of his great friends Lord and Lady Canning and of his mother
(1862); but he devoted himself to his political work, and retained his
office when, on Palmerston's death in 1865, Lord Russell (now a peer)
became prime minister and took over the leadership in the House of
Lords. He was made Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, and in the same
year married again, his second wife being Miss Castalia Campbell. From
1866 to 1868 he was in opposition, but in December 1868 he became
colonial secretary in Gladstone's first ministry. His tact was
invaluable to the government in carrying the Irish Church and Land Bills
through the House of Lords. On the 27th of June 1870, on Lord
Clarendon's death, he was transferred to the foreign office. Lord
Granville's name is mainly associated with his career as foreign
secretary (1870-1874 and 1880-1885); but the Liberal foreign policy of
that period was not distinguished by enterprise or "backbone." Lord
Granville personally was patient and polite, but his courteous and
pacific methods were somewhat inadequate in dealing with the new
situation then arising in Europe and outside it; and foreign governments
had little scruple in creating embarrassments for Great Britain, and
relying on the disinclination of the Liberal leaders to take strong
measures. The Franco-German War of 1870 broke out within a few days of
Lord Granville's quoting in the House of Lords (11th of July) the
curiously unprophetic opinion of the permanent under-secretary (Mr
Hammond) that "he had never known so great a lull in foreign affairs."
Russia took advantage of the situation to denounce the Black Sea clauses
of the treaty of Paris, and Lord Granville's protest was ineffectual. In
1871 an intermediate zone between Asiatic Russia and Afghanistan was
agreed on between him and Shuválov; but in 1873 Russia took possession
of Khiva, within the neutral zone, and Lord Granville had to accept the
aggression. When the Conservatives came into power in 1874, his part for
the next six years was to criticize Disraeli's "spirited" foreign
policy, and to defend his own more pliant methods. He returned to the
foreign office in 1880, only to find an anti-British spirit developing
in German policy which the temporizing methods of the Liberal leaders
were generally powerless to deal with. Lord Granville failed to realize
in time the importance of the Angra Pequeña question in 1883-1884, and
he was forced, somewhat ignominiously, to yield to Bismarck over it.
Whether in Egypt, Afghanistan or equatorial and south-west Africa,
British foreign policy was dominated by suavity rather than by the
strength which commands respect. Finally, when Gladstone took up Home
Rule for Ireland, Lord Granville, whose mind was similarly receptive to
new ideas, adhered to his chief (1886), and gracefully gave way to Lord
Rosebery when the latter was preferred to the foreign office; the
Liberals had now realized that they had lost ground in the country by
Lord Granville's occupancy of the post. He went to the Colonial Office
for six months, and in July 1886 retired from public life. He died in
London on the 31st of March 1891, being succeeded in the title by his
son, born in 1872. Lord Granville was a man of much charm and many
friendships, and an admirable after-dinner speaker. He spoke French like
a Parisian, and was essentially a diplomatist; but he has no place in
history as a constructive statesman.

  The life of Lord Granville (1905), by Lord Fitzmaurice, is full of
  interesting material for the history of the period, but being written
  by a Liberal, himself an under-secretary for foreign affairs, it
  explains rather than criticizes Lord Granville's work in that
  department.     (H. Ch.)



GRANVILLE, JOHN CARTERET, EARL (1690-1763), English statesman, commonly
known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, born on the 22nd of April
1690, was the son of George, 1st Lord Carteret, by his marriage with
Grace Granville, daughter of Sir John Granville, 1st earl of Bath, and
great grandson of the Elizabethan admiral, Sir Richard Grenville, famous
for his death in the "Revenge." The family of Carteret was settled in
the Channel Islands, and was of Norman descent. John Carteret was
educated at Westminster, and at Christ Church, Oxford. Swift says that
"with a singularity scarce to be justified he carried away more Greek,
Latin and philosophy than properly became a person of his rank."
Throughout life Carteret not only showed a keen love of the classics,
but a taste for, and a knowledge of, modern languages and literatures.
He was almost the only Englishman of his time who knew German. Harte,
the author of the _Life of Gustavus Adolphus_, acknowledged the aid
which Carteret had given him. On the 17th of October 1710 he married at
Longleat Lady Frances Worsley, grand-daughter of the first Viscount
Weymouth. He took his seat in the Lords on the 25th of May 1711. Though
his family, on both sides, had been devoted to the house of Stuart,
Carteret was a steady adherent of the Hanoverian dynasty. He was a
friend of the Whig leaders Stanhope and Sunderland, took a share in
defeating the Jacobite conspiracy of Bolingbroke on the death of Queen
Anne, and supported the passing of the Septennial Act. Carteret's
interests were however in foreign, and not in domestic policy. His
serious work in public life began with his appointment, early in 1719,
as ambassador to Sweden. During this and the following year he was
employed in saving Sweden from the attacks of Peter the Great, and in
arranging the pacification of the north. His efforts were finally
successful. During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an
exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of
Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish
senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick
William I. of Prussia. But he was not qualified to hold his own in the
intrigues of court and parliament in London. Named secretary of state
for the southern department on his return home, he soon became
helplessly in conflict with the intrigues of Townshend and Sir Robert
Walpole. To Walpole, who looked upon every able colleague, or
subordinate, as an enemy to be removed, Carteret was exceptionally
odious. His capacity to speak German with the king would alone have made
Sir Robert detest him. When, therefore, the violent agitation in Ireland
against Wood's halfpence (see SWIFT, JONATHAN) made it necessary to
replace the duke of Grafton as lord lieutenant, Carteret was sent to
Dublin. He landed in Dublin on the 23rd of October 1724, and remained
there till 1730. In the first months of his tenure of office he had to
deal with the furious opposition to Wood's halfpence, and to counteract
the effect of Swift's _Draper's Letters_. The lord lieutenant had a
strong personal liking for Swift, who was also a friend of Lady
Carteret's family. It is highly doubtful whether Carteret could have
reconciled his duty to the crown with his private friendships, if
government had persisted in endeavouring to force the detested coinage
on the Irish people. Wood's patent was however withdrawn, and Ireland
settled down. Carteret was a profuse and popular lord lieutenant who
pleased both the "English interest" and the native Irish. He was at all
times addicted to lavish hospitality, and according to the testimony of
contemporaries was too fond of burgundy. When he returned to London in
1730, Walpole was firmly established as master of the House of Commons,
and as the trusted minister of King George II. He had the full
confidence of Queen Caroline, whom he prejudiced against Carteret. Till
the fall of Walpole in 1742, Carteret could take no share in public
affairs except as a leader of opposition of the Lords. His brilliant
parts were somewhat obscured by his rather erratic conduct, and a
certain contempt, partly aristocratic and partly intellectual, for
commonplace men and ways. He endeavoured to please Queen Caroline, who
loved literature, and he has the credit, on good grounds, of having paid
the expenses of the first handsome edition of _Don Quixote_ to please
her. But he reluctantly, and most unwisely, allowed himself to be
entangled in the scandalous family quarrel between Frederick, prince of
Wales, and his parents. Queen Caroline was provoked into classing him
and Bolingbroke, as "the two most worthless men of parts in the
country." Carteret took the popular side in the outcry against Walpole
for not making war on Spain. When the War of the Austrian Succession
approached, his sympathies were entirely with Maria Theresa--mainly on
the ground that the fall of the house of Austria would dangerously
increase the power of France, even if she gained no accession of
territory. These views made him welcome to George II., who gladly
accepted him as secretary of state in 1742. In 1743 he accompanied the
king of Germany, and was present at the battle of Dettingen on the 27th
of June. He held the secretaryship till November 1744. He succeeded in
promoting an agreement between Maria Theresa and Frederick. He
understood the relations of the European states, and the interests of
Great Britain among them. But the defects which had rendered him unable
to baffle the intrigues of Walpole made him equally unable to contend
with the Pelhams. His support of the king's policy was denounced as
subservience to Hanover. Pitt called him "an execrable, a sole minister
who had renounced the British nation." A few years later Pitt adopted an
identical policy, and professed that whatever he knew he had learnt from
Carteret. On the 18th of October 1744 Carteret became Earl Granville on
the death of his mother. His first wife died in June 1743 at
Aschaffenburg, and in April 1744 he married Lady Sophia Fermor, daughter
of Lord Pomfret--a fashionable beauty and "reigning toast" of London
society, who was younger than his daughters. "The nuptials of our great
Quixote and the fair Sophia," and Granville's ostentatious performance
of the part of lover, were ridiculed by Horace Walpole. The countess
Granville died on the 7th of October 1745, leaving one daughter Sophia,
who married Lord Shelburne, 1st marquis of Lansdowne. This marriage may
have done something to increase Granville's reputation for eccentricity.
In February 1746 he allowed himself to be entrapped by the intrigues of
the Pelhams into accepting the secretaryship, but resigned in
forty-eight hours. In June 1751 he became president of the council, and
was still liked and trusted by the king, but his share in government did
not go beyond giving advice, and endeavouring to forward ministerial
arrangements. In 1756 he was asked by Newcastle to become prime minister
as the alternative to Pitt, but Granville, who perfectly understood why
the offer was made, declined and supported Pitt. When in October 1761
Pitt, who had information of the signing of the "Family Compact" wished
to declare war on Spain, and declared his intention to resign unless his
advice was accepted, Granville replied that "the opinion of the majority
(of the Cabinet) must decide." He spoke in complimentary terms of Pitt,
but resisted his claim to be considered as a "sole minister" or, in the
modern phrase, "a prime minister." Whether he used the words attributed
to him in the Annual Register for 1761 is more than doubtful, but the
minutes of council show that they express his meaning. Granville
remained in office as president till his death. His last act was to
listen while on his death-bed to the reading of the preliminaries of the
treaty of Paris. He was so weak that the under-secretary, Robert Wood,
author of an essay on _The Original Genius of Homer_, would have
postponed the business, but Granville said that it "could not prolong
his life to neglect his duty," and quoted the speech of Sarpedon from
_Iliad_ xii. 322-328, repeating the last word ([Greek: iomen]) "with a
calm and determined resignation." He died in his house in Arlington
Street, London, on the 22nd of January 1763. The title of Granville
descended to his son Robert, who died without issue in 1776, when the
earldom of this creation became extinct.

  A somewhat partisan life of Granville was published in 1887, by
  Archibald Ballantyne, under the title of _Lord Carteret, a Political
  Biography_.



GRANVILLE, a town of Cumberland county, New South Wales, 13 m. by rail
W. of Sydney. Pop. (1901) 5094. It is an important railway junction and
manufacturing town, producing agricultural implements, tweed, pipes,
tiles and bricks; there are also tanneries, flour-mills, and kerosene
and meat export works. It became a municipality in 1885.



GRANVILLE, a fortified sea-port and bathing-resort of north-western
France, in the department of Manche, at the mouth of the Bosq, 85 m. S.
by W. of Cherbourg by rail. Pop. (1906) 10,530. Granville consists of
two quarters, the upper town built on a promontory jutting into the sea
and surrounded by ramparts, and the lower town and harbour lying below
it. The barracks and the church of Notre-Dame, a low building of
granite, partly Romanesque, partly late Gothic in style, are in the
upper town. The port consists of a tidal harbour, two floating basins
and a dry dock. Its fleets take an active part in deep sea fishing,
including the cod-fishing off Newfoundland, and oyster-fishing is
carried on. It has regular communication with Guernsey and Jersey, and
with the islands of St Pierre and Miquelon. The principal exports are
eggs, vegetables and fish; coal, timber and chemical manures are
imported. The industries include ship-building, fish-salting, the
manufacture of cod-liver oil, the preserving of vegetables, dyeing,
metal-founding, rope-making and the manufacture of chemical manures.
Among the public institutions are a tribunal and a chamber of commerce.
In the commune are included the Iles Chausey about 7½ m. N.W. of
Granville (see Channel Islands). Granville, before an insignificant
village, was fortified by the English in 1437, taken by the French in
1441, bombarded and burned by the English in 1695, and unsuccessfully
besieged by the Vendean troops in 1793. It was again bombarded by the
English in 1803.



GRANVILLE, a village in Licking county, Ohio, U.S.A., in the township of
Granville, about 6 m. W. of Newark and 27 m. E. by N. of Columbus. Pop.
of the village (1910) 1394; of the township (1910) 2442. Granville is
served by the Toledo & Ohio Central and the Ohio Electric railways, the
latter reaching Newark (where it connects with the Pittsburg,
Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis and the Baltimore & Ohio railways),
Columbus, Dayton, Zanesville and Springfield. Granville is the seat of
Denison University, founded in 1831 by the Ohio Baptist Education
Society and opened as a manual labour school, called the Granville
Literary and Theological Institution. It was renamed Granville College
in 1845, and took its present name in 1854 in honour of William S.
Denison of Adamsville, Ohio, who had given $10,000 to the college. The
university comprised in 1907-1908 five departments: Granville College
(229 students), the collegiate department for men; Shepardson College
(246 students, including 82 in the preparatory department), the
collegiate department for women, founded as the Young Ladies' Institute
of Granville in 1859, given to the Baptist denomination in 1887 by Dr
Daniel Shepardson, its principal and owner, and closely affiliated for
scholastic purposes, since 1900, with the university, though legally it
is still a distinct institution; Doane Academy (137 students), the
preparatory department for boys, established in 1831, named Granville
Academy in 1887, and renamed in 1895 in honour of William H. Doane of
Cincinnati, who gave to it its building; a conservatory of music (137
students); and a school of art (38 students).

In 1805 the Licking Land Company, organized in the preceding year in
Granville, Massachusetts, bought 29,040 acres of land in Ohio, including
the site of Granville; the town was laid out, and in the last months of
that year settlers from Granville, Mass., began to arrive. By January
1806 the colony numbered 234 persons; the township was incorporated in
1806 and the village was incorporated in 1831. There are several
remarkable Indian mounds near Granville, notably one shaped like an
alligator.

  See Henry Bushnell, _History of Granville, Ohio_ (Columbus, O., 1889).



GRAPE, the fruit of the vine (q.v.). The word is adopted from the O. Fr.
_grape_, mod. _grappe_, bunch or cluster of flowers or fruit, _grappes
de raisin_, bunch of grapes. The French word meant properly a hook; cf.
M.H.G. _krapfe_, Eng. "grapnel," and "cramp." The development of meaning
seems to be vine-hook, cluster of grapes cut with a hook, and thence in
English a single grape of a cluster. The projectile called "grape" or
"grape-shot," formerly used with smooth-bore ordnance, took its name
from its general resemblance to a bunch of grapes. It consisted of a
number of spherical bullets (heavier than those of the contemporary
musket) arranged in layers separated by thin iron plates, a bolt passing
through the centre of the plates binding the whole together. On being
discharged the projectile delivered the bullets in a shower somewhat
after the fashion of case-shot.



GRAPHICAL METHODS, devices for representing by geometrical figures the
numerical data which result from the quantitative investigation of
phenomena. The simplest application is met with in the representation of
tabular data such as occur in statistics. Such tables are usually of
single entry, i.e. to a certain value of one variable there corresponds
one, and only one, value of the other variable. To construct the graph,
as it is called, of such a table, Cartesian co-ordinates are usually
employed. Two lines or axes at right angles to each other are chosen,
intersecting at a point called the origin; the horizontal axis is the
axis of abscissae, the vertical one the axis of ordinates. Along one,
say the axis of abscissae, distances are taken from the origin
corresponding to the values of one of the variables; at these points
perpendiculars are erected, and along these ordinates distances are
taken corresponding to the related values of the other variable. The
curve drawn through these points is the graph. A general inspection of
the graph shows in bold relief the essential characters of the table.
For example, if the world's production of corn over a number of years be
plotted, a poor yield is represented by a depression, a rich one by a
peak, a uniform one over several years by a horizontal line and so on.
Moreover, such graphs permit a convenient comparison of two or more
different phenomena, and the curves render apparent at first sight
similarities or differences which can be made out from the tables only
after close examination. In making graphs for comparison, the scales
chosen must give a similar range of variation, otherwise the
correspondence may not be discerned. For example, the scales adopted for
the average consumption of tea and sugar must be ounces for the former
and pounds for the latter. Cartesian graphs are almost always yielded by
automatic recording instruments, such as the barograph, meteorograph,
seismometer, &c. The method of polar co-ordinates is more rarely used,
being only specially applicable when one of the variables is a direction
or recorded as an angle. A simple case is the representation of
photometric data, i.e. the value of the intensity of the light emitted
in different directions from a luminous source (see LIGHTING).

  The geometrical solution of arithmetical and algebraical problems is
  usually termed graphical analysis; the application to problems in
  mechanics is treated in MECHANICS, § 5, _Graphic Statics_, and
  DIAGRAM. A special phase is presented in VECTOR ANALYSIS.



GRAPHITE, a mineral species consisting of the element carbon
crystallized in the rhombohedral system. Chemically, it is thus
indentical with the cubic mineral diamond, but between the two there are
very wide differences in physical characters. Graphite is black and
opaque, whilst diamond is colourless and transparent; it is one of the
softest (H = 1) of minerals, and diamond the hardest of all; it is a
good conductor of electricity, whilst diamond is a bad conductor. The
specific gravity is 2.2, that of diamond is 3.5. Further, unlike
diamond, it never occurs as distinctly developed crystals, but only as
imperfect six-sided plates and scales. There is a perfect cleavage
parallel to the surface of the scales, and the cleavage flakes are
flexible but not elastic. The material is greasy to the touch, and soils
everything with which it comes into contact. The lustre is bright and
metallic. In its external characters graphite is thus strikingly similar
to molybdenite (q.v.).

The name graphite, given by A. G. Werner in 1789, is from the Greek
[Greek: gráphein], "to write," because the mineral is used for making
pencils. Earlier names, still in common use, are plumbago and
black-lead, but since the mineral contains no lead these names are
singularly inappropriate. Plumbago (Lat. _plumbum_, lead) was originally
used for an artificial product obtained from lead ore, and afterwards
for the ore (galena) itself; it was confused both with graphite and with
molybdenite. The true chemical nature of graphite was determined by K.
W. Scheele in 1779.

Graphite occurs mainly in the older crystalline rocks--gneiss,
granulite, schist and crystalline limestone--and also sometimes in
granite: it is found as isolated scales embedded in these rocks, or as
large irregular masses or filling veins. It has also been observed as a
product of contact-metamorphism in carbonaceous clay-slates near their
contact with granite, and where igneous rocks have been intruded into
beds of coal; in these cases the mineral has clearly been derived from
organic matter. The graphite found in granite and in veins in gneiss, as
well as that contained in meteoric irons, cannot have had such an
origin. As an artificial product, graphite is well known as dark
lustrous scales in grey pig-iron, and in the "kish" of iron furnaces: it
is also produced artificially on a large scale, together with
carborundum, in the electric furnace (see below). The graphite veins in
the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and
the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of
metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have
been suggested as possible modes of origin. Such veins often attain a
thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure
perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the
crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and
Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of
Ceylon. Other localities which have yielded the mineral in large amount
are the Alibert mine in Irkutsk, Siberia and the Borrowdale mine in
Cumberland. The Santa Maria mines of Sonora, Mexico, probably the
richest deposits in the world, supply the American lead pencil
manufacturers. The graphite of New York, Pennsylvania and Alabama is
"flake" and unsuitable for this purpose.

Graphite is used for the manufacture of pencils, dry lubricants, grate
polish, paints, crucibles and for foundry facings. The material as mined
usually does not contain more than 20 to 50% of graphite: the ore has
therefore to be crushed and the graphite floated off in water from the
heavier impurities. Even the purest forms contain a small percentage of
volatile matter and ash. The Cumberland graphite, which is especially
suitable for pencils, contains about 12% of impurities. (L. J. S.)

_Artificial Manufacture._--The alteration of carbon at high temperatures
into a material resembling graphite has long been known. In 1893 Girard
and Street patented a furnace and a process by which this transformation
could be effected. Carbon powder compressed into a rod was slowly passed
through a tube in which it was subjected to the action of one or more
electric arcs. E. G. Acheson, in 1896, patented an application of his
carborundum process to graphite manufacture, and in 1899 the
International Acheson Graphite Co. was formed, employing electric
current from the Niagara Falls. Two procedures are adopted: (1)
graphitization of moulded carbons; (2) graphitization of anthracite _en
masse_. The former includes electrodes, lamp carbons, &c. Coke, or some
other form of amorphous carbon, is mixed with a little tar, and the
required article moulded in a press or by a die. The articles are
stacked transversely in a furnace, each being packed in granular coke
and covered with carborundum. At first the current is 3000 amperes at
220 volts, increasing to 9000 amperes at 20 volts after 20 hours. In
graphitizing _en masse_ large lumps of anthracite are treated in the
electric furnace. A soft, unctuous form results on treating carbon with
ash or silica in special furnaces, and this gives the so-called
"deflocculated" variety when treated with gallotannic acid. These two
modifications are valuable lubricants. The massive graphite is very
easily machined and is widely used for electrodes, dynamo brushes, lead
pencils and the like.

  See "Graphite and its Uses," _Bull. Imperial Institute_, (1906) P.
  353. (1907) p. 70; F. Cirkel, _Graphite_ (Ottawa, 1907).     (W. G. M.)



GRAPTOLITES, an assemblage of extinct zoophytes whose skeletal remains
are found in the Palaeozoic rocks, occasionally in great abundance. They
are usually preserved as branching or unbranching carbonized bodies,
tree-like, leaf-like or rod-like in shape, their edges regularly toothed
or denticulated. Most frequently they occur lying on the bedding planes
of black shales; less commonly they are met with in many other kinds of
sediment, and when in limestone they may retain much of their original
relief and admit of a detailed microscopic study.

Each Graptolite represents the common horny or chitinous investment or
supporting structure of a colony of zooids, each tooth-like projection
marking the position of the sheath or _theca_ of an individual zooid.
Some of the branching forms have a distinct outward resemblance to the
polyparies of _Sertularia_ and _Plumularia_ among the recent Hydroida
(_Calyptoblastea_); in none of the unbranching forms, however, is the
similarity by any means close.

The Graptolite polyparies vary considerably in size: the majority range
from 1 in. to about 6 in. in length; few examples have been met with
having a length or more than 30 in.

Very different views have been held as to the systematic place and rank
of the Graptolites. Linnaeus included them in his group of false fossils
(_Graptolithus_ = written stone). At one time they were referred by some
to the Polyzoa (Bryozoa), and later, by almost general consent, to the
Hydroida (Calyptoblastea) among the Hydrozoa (Hydromedusae). Of late
years an opinion is gaining ground that they may be regarded as
constituting collectively an independent phylum of their own
(_Graptolithina_).

There are two main groups, or sub-phyla: the _Graptoloidea_ or
Graptolites proper, and the _Dendroidea_ or tree-like Graptolites; the
former is typified by the unbranched genus _Monograptus_ and the latter
by the many-branched genus _Dendrograptus_.

  A _Monograptus_ makes its first appearance as a minute dagger-like
  body (the _sicula_), which represents the flattened covering of the
  primary or embryonic zooid of the colony. This sicula, which had
  originally the shape of a hollow cone, is formed of two portions or
  regions--an upper and smaller (_apical_ or embryonic) portion, marked
  by delicate longitudinal lines, and having a fine tabular thread (the
  _nema_) proceeding from its apex; and a lower (thecal or _apertural_)
  portion, marked by transverse lines of growth and widening in the
  direction of the mouth, the lip or apertural margin of which forms the
  broad end of the sicula. This margin is normally furnished with a
  perpendicular spine (_virgella_) and occasionally with two shorter
  lateral spines or lobes.

  A bud is given off from the sicula at a variable distance along its
  length. From this bud is developed the first zooid and first serial
  theca of the colony. This theca grows in the direction of the apex of
  the sicula, to which it adheres by its dorsal wall. Thus while the
  mouth of the sicula is directed downwards, that of the first serial
  theca is pointed upwards, making a theoretical angle of about 180°
  with the direction of that of the sicula.

  From this first theca originates a second, opening in the same
  direction, and from the second a third, and soon, in a continuous
  linear series until the polypary is complete. Each zooid buds from the
  one immediately preceding it in the series, and intercommunication is
  effected by all the budding orifices (including that in the wall of
  the sicula) remaining permanently open. The sicula itself ceases to
  grow soon after the earliest theca have been developed; it remains
  permanently attached to the dorsal wall of the polypary, of which it
  forms the proximal end, its apex rarely reaching beyond the third or
  fourth theca.

A fine cylindrical rod or fibre (the so-called solid axis or _virgula_)
becomes developed in a median groove in the dorsal wall of the polypary,
and is sometimes continued distally as a naked rod. It was formerly
supposed that a virgula was present in all the Graptoloidea; hence the
term _Rhabdophora_ sometimes employed for the Graptoloidea in general,
and _rhabdosome_ for the individual polypary; but while the virgula is
present in many (Axonophora) it is absent as such in others (Axonolipa).

The GRAPTOLOIDEA are arranged in eight families, each named after a
characteristic genus: (1) Dichograptidae; (2) Leptograptidae; (3)
Dicranograptidae; (4) Diplograptidae; (5) Glossograptidae (sub-family,
Lasiograptidae); (6) Retiolitidae; (7) Dimorphograptidae; (8)
Monograptidae.

In all these families the polypary originates as in _Monograptus_ from a
nema-bearing sicula, which invariably opens downwards and gives off only
a single bud, such branching as may take place occurring at subsequent
stages in the growth of the polypary. In some species young examples
have been met with in which the nema ends above in a small membranous
disk, which has been interpreted as an organ of attachment to the
underside of floating bodies, probably sea weeds, from which the young
polypary hung suspended.

Broadly speaking, these families make their first appearance in time in
the order given above, and show a progressive morphological evolution
along certain special lines. There is a tendency for the branches to
become reduced in number, and for the serial thecae to become directed
more and more upwards towards the line of the nema. In the oldest
family--Dichograptidae--in which the branching polypary is bilaterally
symmetrical and the thecae uniserial (_monoprionidian_)--there is a
gradation from earlier groups with many branches to later groups with
only two; and from species in which all the branches and their thecae
are directed downwards, through species in which the branches become
bent back more and more outwards and upwards, until in some the terminal
thecae open almost vertically. In the genus _Phyllograptus_ the branches
have become reduced to four and these coalesce by their dorsal walls
along the line of the nema, and the sicula becomes embedded in the base
of the polypary. In the family of the Diplograptidae the branches are
reduced to two; these also coalesce similarly by their dorsal walls, and
the polypary thus becomes biserial (_diprionidian_), and the line of the
nema is taken by a long axial tube-like structure, the _nemacaulus_ or
virgular tube. Finally, in the latest family, the Monograptidae, the
branches are theoretically reduced to one, the polypary is uniserial
throughout, and all the thecae are directed outwards and upwards.

[Illustration:

   1, _Diptograptus_, young sicula.
   2, _Monograptus dubius_, sicula and first serial theca (partly
        restored).
   3, Young form (all above after Wiman).
  4a, Older form.
  4b, Showing virgula (after Holm).
   5, _Rastrites distans._
   6, Base of Diptograptus (after Wiman).
   7, D. calcaratus.
   8, Dimorphograptus.
   9, Base of _Didymograptus minulus_ (after Holm).
  10, Young _Dictyograptus_, with primary disk.
  11, Ibid. _Diptograptus_ (after Ruedemann).
  12 a-b, Base and transverse section, _Retiolites Geinitzianus_ (after
        Holm).
  13, _Bryograptus Kjerulfi_.
  14, _Dichograptus octobrachiatus_, with central disk.
  15, _Didymograptus Murchisoni_.
  16, _D. gibberulus_.
  17 a-b, _Phyllograptus_ and transverse section.
  18, _Nemagraptus gracilis_.
  19, _Dicranograptus ramosus_.
  20, _Climacograptus Scharenbergi_.
  21, _Glossograptus Hincksii_.
  22, _Lasiograptus costatus_ (after Elles and Wood).
  23, _Dictyonema (-graptus) flabelliforme (-is)_.
  24, _Dictyonema (-dendron) peltatum_ with base of attachment.
  25, _D. cervicorne_, branches (after Holm).
  26, _D. rarum_ (section after Wiman).
  27, _Dendrograptus Hallianus_.
  28, Synrhabdosome of _Diptograptus_ (after Ruedemann).
  S,  Sicula.
  u,  Upper or apical portion.
  l,  Lower or apertural.
  m,  Mouth.
  N,  Nema.
  nn, Nemacaulus or virgular tube.
  V,  Virgula.
  vv,  Virgella.
  zz, Septal strands.
  T,  Theca.
  C,  Common canal (in Retiolites).
  G,  Gonangium.
  g,  Gonotheca.
  b,  Budding theca.]

  The thecae in the earliest family--Dichograptidae--are so similar in
  form to the sicula itself that the polypary has been compared to a
  colony of siculae; there is the greatest variation in shape in those
  of the latest family--Monograptidae--in some species of which the
  terminal portion of each theca becomes isolated (_Rastrites_) and in
  some coiled into a rounded lobe. The thecae in several of the families
  are occasionally provided with spines or lateral processes: the spines
  are especially conspicuous at the base in some biserial forms: in the
  Lasiograptidae the lateral processes originate a marginal meshwork
  surrounding the polypary.

  _Histologically_, the perisarc or _test_ in the Graptoloidea appears
  to be composed of three layers, a middle layer of variable structure,
  and an overlying and an underlying layer of remarkable tenuity. The
  central layer is usually thick and marked by lines of growth; but in
  _Glossograptus_ and _Lasiograptus_ it is thinned down to a fine
  membrane stretched upon a skeleton framework of lists and fibres, and
  in _Retiolites_ this membrane is reduced to a delicate network. The
  groups typified by these three genera are sometimes referred to,
  collectively, as the _Retioloidea_, and the structure as _retioloid_.

It is the general practice of palaeontologists to regard each graptolite
polypary (_rhabdosome_) developed from a single sicula as an individual
of the highest order. Certain American forms, however, which are
preserved as stellate groups, have been interpreted as complex
umbrella-shaped colonial stocks, individuals of a still higher order
(_synrhabdosomes_), composed of a number of biserial polyparies (each
having a sicula at its outer extremity) attached by their nemacauli to a
common centre of origin, which is provided with two disks, a swimming
bladder and a ring of capsules.

In the DENDROIDEA, as a rule, the polypary is non-symmetrical in shape
and tree-like or shrub-like in habit, with numerous branches irregularly
disposed, and with a distinct stem-like or short basal portion ending
below in root-like fibres or in a membranous disk or sheet of
attachment. An exception, however, is constituted by the comprehensive
genus _Dictyonema_, which embraces species composed of a large number of
divergent and sub-parallel branches, united by transverse dissepiments
into a symmetrical cone-like or funnel-shaped polypary, and includes
some forms (_Dictyograptus_) which originate from a nema-bearing sicula
and have been claimed as belonging to the Graptoloidea.

Of the early development of the polypary in the Dendroidea little is
known, but the more mature stages have been fully worked out. In
_Dictyonema_ the branches show thecae of two kinds: (1) the ordinary
tubular thecae answering to those of the Graptoloidea and occupied by
the nourishing zooids; and (2) the so-called _bithecae_, birdnest-like
cups (regarded by their discoverers as gonothecae) opening alternately
right and left of the ordinary thecae. Internally, there existed a third
set of thecae, held to have been inhabited by the budding individuals.
In the genus _Dendrograptus_ the gonothecae open within the walls of the
ordinary thecae, and the branches present an outward resemblance to
those of the uniserial Graptoloidea. But in striking contrast to what
obtains among the Graptoloidea in general, the budding orifices in the
Dendroidea become closed, and all the various cells shut off from each
other.

The classification of the Dendroidea is as yet unsatisfactory: the
families most conspicuous are those typified by the genera
_Dendrograptus_, _Dictyonema_, _Inocaulis_ and _Thamnograptus_.

  As regards the _modes of reproduction among the Graptolites_ little is
  known. In the Dendroidea, as already pointed out, the bithecae were
  possibly gonothecae, but they have been interpreted by some as
  nematophores. In the Graptoloidea certain lateral and vesicular
  appendages of the polypary in the Lasiograptidae have been looked upon
  as connected with the reproductive system; and in the umbrella-shaped
  _synrhabdosomes_ already referred to, the common centre is surrounded
  by a ring of what have been regarded as ovarian capsules. The theory
  of the gonangial nature of the vesicular bodies in the Graptoloidea
  is, however, disputed by some authorities, and it has been suggested
  that the zooid of the sicula itself is not the product of the normal
  or sexual mode of propagation in the group, but owes its origin to a
  peculiar type of budding or non-sexual reproduction, in which, as
  temporary resting or protecting structures, the vesicular bodies may
  have had a share.