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Title: Color Key to North American Birds - with bibiographical appendix
Author: Chapman, Frank M.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                              COLOR KEY TO

                          NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS

  |                        By FRANK M. CHAPMAN                       |
  |           Curator of Ornithology in the American Museum          |
  |                        of Natural History                        |
  |    Third edition. With introductory chapters on the study of     |
  |    Ornithology; how to identify birds and how to collect and     |
  |    preserve birds, their nests and eggs. 20 full-page plates     |
  |    and 150 cuts in the text. 12mo. Library edition.              |
  |    Pocket edition.                                               |
  | BIRD-LIFE                                                        |
  |    A guide to the study of our common birds. With 75 full-page   |
  |    colored plates and numerous text drawings by Ernest Thompson  |
  |    Seton. Containing an Appendix, especially designed for        |
  |    teachers. 12mo. Cloth.                                        |
  | BIRD STUDIES WITH A CAMERA                                       |
  |    A fascinating account of the habits of common birds, with     |
  |    descriptions of the largest bird colonies existing in eastern |
  |    North America. The author's phenomenal success in             |
  |    photographing birds in Nature not only lends to the           |
  |    illustrations the charm of realism, but makes the book a      |
  |    record of surprising achievements with the camera. 12mo.      |
  |    Cloth.                                                        |
  | WARBLERS OF NORTH AMERICA                                        |
  |    A full description of our "most beautiful, most abundant,     |
  |    and least known birds." Illustrated with colored plates       |
  |    of every species and photographs of nests and eggs. Imp. 8vo. |
  |    Illustrated.                                                  |
  | CAMPS AND CRUISES OF AN ORNITHOLOGIST                            |
  |    The story of eight years' experience in travel, in which      |
  |    the author covered over 60,000 miles in his search for        |
  |    material with which to prepare a series of groups of          |
  |    American birds, to exceed in beauty and scientific value      |
  |    anything which had heretofore been attempted in this line.    |
  |    The illustrations, over 250 in number, are from Dr. Chapman's |
  |    photographs, and beyond question form a remarkable series of  |
  |    pictures of bird-life. 8vo.                                   |
  | COLOR KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS                                |
  |    This work may be described as an illustrated dictionary of    |
  |    North American birds. It is the most complete publication of  |
  |    its kind, and makes an admirable introduction to the study of |
  |    birds and the literature of Ornithology and at the same time  |
  |    is an authoritative work of reference. Over 800 pictures.     |
  | OUR WINTER BIRDS                                                 |
  |    An introduction to the study of birds. The author believes    |
  |    that the study of Ornithology should begin with the winter    |
  |    birds as they are fewer in number and easier to approach.     |
  |    Divided into convenient groups such as field birds, forest    |
  |    birds, home birds, etc. Illustrated. 12mo.                    |
  | THE TRAVELS OF BIRDS                                             |
  |    A series of chapters on bird migration, describing birds as   |
  |    travelers, why they travel, dangers by the way, night flyers  |
  |    and day flyers, etc. Many illustrations from drawings.        |
  |    Illustrated.                                                  |
  | WHAT BIRD IS THAT?                                               |
  |    A bird book for beginners with 301 birds in color.            |
  |                     -----------------                            |
  |                 D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK                |

   [Illustration: TOPOGRAPHY OF A BIRD Bluebird (natural size)]


  With Bibliographical Appendix




  Author of "Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America,"
  "Bird-Life," Etc.

  _With Upward of 800 Drawings_



  _Revised Edition_

   [Illustration: Publisher's Logo]




  _Published November 1912_

  Printed in the United States


To learn to call a bird by its right name is the first step in the
study of ornithology. We may propose to investigate the structure,
food, and habits of the birds of the world, or desire merely a
superficial knowledge of the species found in our garden, but in
either case we are at once confronted by this question of

From the scientific point of view there is but one satisfactory way to
identify a bird. A specimen of it should be in hand in order that its
form, color, and size may be accurately determined, when, with the aid
of analytical keys, with which most text-books are provided, it is a
simple matter to ascertain the bird's name.

Wide experience has shown the writer, however, that where one dead
bird is identified, hundreds of attempts are made to name the living
bird in nature. This is to be expected. It is the natural outcome of
the recent remarkable interest in the study of birds which, fostered
by Audubon Societies and nature study teachers, has assumed an
ethical and educational importance of the first magnitude.

We cannot place a gun in the hands of these thousands of bird-lovers
whom we are yearly developing; indeed most of them would refuse to use
it. Specimens, therefore, are rarely available to them and we should
make some special effort to meet their peculiar wants. The present
volume has been prepared with this end in view. Identification of the
bird in the bush is its sole end; an end, however, which we trust will
prove but the beginning of a new and potent interest in nature.

                                                      FRANK M. CHAPMAN

  _American Museum of Natural History,
  New York City, 1903._


In the present edition of the Color Key the body of the book, aside
from the correction of typographical errors, remains as it was in the
preceding edition. The Systematic Table has been reset and brought up
to July, 1912, the date of the publication of the latest supplement to
the third edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's 'Check-List
of North American Birds.' Two Appendixes are added. The first includes
all the changes in nomenclature and descriptions of new birds which
have been accepted by the A.O.U. Committee on Classification and
Nomenclature since the publication of the Color Key in 1903; the
second contains a list of faunal ornithological papers which it is
hoped will add greatly to the reference value of the book.

                                                             F. M. C.

  _American Museum of Natural History,
  New York City, October, 1912._


  INTRODUCTION                                                       1
    How to Learn a Bird's Name                                       1
    How Birds Are Named                                              4


  COLOR KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS                                 41

  SYSTEMATIC TABLE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS                         257


  APPENDIX II.  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                       305

  INDEX                                                            333


The illustrations in this volume are designed to aid the student in
identifying birds in their haunts by giving, in color, those markings
which most quickly catch the eye. They do not pretend to be perfect
reproductions of every shade and tint of the plumage of the species
they figure, but aim to present a bird's characteristic colors as they
appear when seen at a distance. It was impracticable to draw all the
birds to the same scale but all those on the same page are so figured.
Reference should always be made, however, to the measurements given at
the beginning at each description. The figures are based on the male


  [Male].   The sign of Mars, signifying male.

  [Female]. The sign of Venus, signifying female.

  Ad. Adult, a bird in fully mature plumage.

  Yng. Young, a fully grown bird which has not yet acquired the
       plumage of the adult.

  L. Length, the distance from the tip of the bill to the end of the
     tail. This measurement is made from dead birds, birds in life
     appear somewhat shorter.

  W. Wing, the distance from the 'bend' of the wing to the end of the
     longest feather.

  T. Tail, the distance from the insertion of the tail-feathers to the
     end of the longest one.

  Tar. Tarsus, the distance from the heel to the insertion of the toes,
       or of the so-called 'leg.'

  B. Bill, the distance from the feathers at the base of the bill
     above to its tip.

   NOTE. All measurements are in inches and tenths, and a
      variation of about ten per cent. from the figures given may be
      expected. The number before the name of each species is that of
      the American Ornithologists' Union's 'Check-List of North
      American Birds.'



"How can I learn to know the birds?" is the first question of the
seeker after bird-lore. The scientist's reply, "By shooting them and
studying their structure and markings in detail," may do for the few
who, like himself, desire to know the birds scientifically; but it is
emphatically not the answer to give the ninety and nine who, while
they desire to secure an intimate, accurate knowledge of birds, will
not gain it at the sacrifice of bird-life.

In the present volume, therefore, an attempt has been made so to
group, figure, and describe our birds that any species may be named
which has been _definitely seen_. The birds are kept in their
systematic Orders, a natural arrangement, readily comprehended, but,
further than this, accepted classifications have been abandoned and
the birds have been grouped according to color and markings.

A key to the Orders gives the more prominent characters on which they
are based; telling for example, the external differences between a
Duck and a Grebe. In comparatively few instances, however, will the
beginner have much difficulty in deciding to what Order a bird
belongs. Probably eight times, out of ten the unknown bird will belong
to the Order Passeres, or Perching Birds, when one has only to select
the color section in which it should be placed, choose from among the
colored figures the bird whose identity is sought, and verify one's
selection by reading the description of the bird's characteristics and
the outline of its range.

In the case of closely related species, and particularly subspecies,
the subjects of range and season are of the utmost importance. Most
subspecies resemble their nearest allies too closely to be identified
in life by color alone, and in such cases a bird's name is to be
learned by its color in connection with its distribution and the
season in which it is seen.

During the breeding period, unless one chance to be in a region where
two races intergrade, subspecific names may be applied to the bird in
nature with some certainty, for it is a law that only one subspecies
of a species can nest in the same area; but during migrations and in
the winter, when several subspecies of one species may be found
associated, it is frequently impossible to name them with accuracy.

For example, during the summer one need have no hesitancy in calling
the Robins of the lowlands of South Carolina the Southern Robin
(_Planesticus migratorius achrusterus_) but later, when the Northern
Robins (_Planesticus migratorius migratorius_) begin to appear, it
would be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish them in life
from the resident birds.

If it were possible to impress the student, who proposes to name the
bird in the bush, with the _absolute necessity_ for careful, definite
observation he would be saved many disappointing and discouraging

It is not possible to examine your bird too thoroughly. Never be
satisfied with a superficial view and a general impression. Look at
your bird, if you can, from several points of view; study its
appearance in detail, its size, bill, crown, back, tail, wings,
throat, breast, etc., and AT ONCE enter what you see in a note-book
kept for that purpose. In this way, and this way alone, can you expect
to compete with those who use the gun.

It does not follow, however, that because one does not collect
specimens of birds one cannot study them scientifically. While the
student may not be interested in the classification of birds purely
from the standpoint of the systematist, he is strongly urged to
acquaint himself with at least the arrangement of the Orders and
Families of our birds and their leading structural characters.

To the student who desires to prepare himself for his work afield such
a study may well come before he attempts to name the birds. But where
the chief end in view is to learn a bird's name, the more technical
side of the subject may be deferred. In any event, it should not be
neglected. This orderly arrangement of knowledge will not only be
practical benefit in one's future labors but it will bring with it
that sense of satisfaction which accompanies the assurance that we
know what we know.

As one learns to recognize bird after bird it is an admirable plan to
classify systematically one's list of bird acquaintances under their
proper Orders and Families. These may be learned at once from the
systematic table at the end of the book, where the numbers which
precede each species are arranged serially, and hence systematically.

In some instances, as an aid to identification in the field,
descriptions of birds' notes have been included. It is not supposed
that these descriptions will convey an adequate idea of a bird's song
to a person who has never heard it, but it is hoped that they may
occasionally lead to the recognition of calls or songs when they are

An adequate method of transcribing bird's notes has as yet to be
devised and the author realizes only too well how unsatisfactory the
data here presented will appear to the student. It is hoped, however,
that they may sometimes prove of assistance in naming birds in life.

As has been said before, the aim of this volume is to help students to
learn the names of our birds in their haunts. But we should be doing
scant justice to the possibilities of bird study if, even by silence,
we should imply that they ended with the learning to know the bird.
This is only the beginning of the quest which may bring us into close
intimacy with the secrets of nature. The birds' haunts and food, their
seasons and times of coming and going; their songs and habits during
courtship, their nest-building, egg-laying, incubating and care of
their young, these and a hundred other subjects connected with their
lives may claim our attention and by increasing our knowledge of
bird-life, add to our love of birds.


Birds have two kinds of names. One is a common, vernacular, or popular
name; the other is a technical or scientific name. The first is
usually given to the living bird by the people of the country it
inhabits. The second is applied to specimens of birds by
ornithologists who classify them.

Common names in their origin and use know no law. Technical names are
bestowed under the system of nomenclature established by Linnæus and
their formation and application are governed by certain definite,
generally accepted rules. The Linnæan system, as it is now employed by
most American ornithologists, provides that a bird, in addition to
being grouped in a certain Class, Order, Family, etc., shall have a
generic and specific name which, together, shall not be applied to
any other animal.

Our Robin, therefore, is classified and named as follows:


  ORDER PASSERES, Perching Birds.

  Suborder _Oscines_, Singing Perching Birds.

  Family _Turdidæ_ Thrushes.

  Subfamily _Turdinæ_ Thrushes.

  Genus, _Planesticus_, Thrushes.

  Species, _migratorius_ American Robin.

The Robin's distinctive scientific name, therefore, which it alone
possesses, is _Planesticus migratorius_. There are numerous other
members of the genus _Planesticus_, but not one of them is called
_migratorius_ and this combination of names, therefore, applied to
only one bird.

The questions Why use all these Latin terms? Why not call the bird
"Robin" and be done with it? are easily answered. Widely distributed
birds frequently have different names in different parts of their
range. The Flicker (_Colaptes auratus_), for instance, has over one
hundred common or vernacular names. Again, the same name is often
applied to wholly different birds. Our Robin (_Planesticus
migratorius_) is not even a member of the same family as the European
Robin (_Erithacus rubecola_.) If, therefore, we should write of birds
or attempt to classify them only by their common names, we should be
dealing with such unfixed quantities that the result would be
inaccurate and misleading. But by using one name in a language known
to educated people of all countries, a writer may indicate, without
danger of being misunderstood, the particular animal to which he
refers. Among people speaking the same tongue, where a definite list
of vernacular names of animals has been established, they can of
course be used instead of the scientific names.

Such a list of North American birds has been prepared by the American
Ornithologists' Union. It furnishes a common as well as scientific
name for each of our birds, and is the recognized standard of
nomenclature among American ornithologists. The names and numbers of
birds employed in this Color Key are those of the American
Ornithologists' Union's 'Check-List of North American Birds.'

It will be observed that in this 'Check-List,' and consequently in the
following pages, many birds have three scientific names, a generic,
specific, and subspecific. The Western Robin, for example, appears as
_Planesticus migratorius propinquus_. What is the significance of this
third name?

In the days of Linnæus, and for many years after, it was supposed that
a species was a distinct creation whose characters never varied. But
in comparatively recent years, as specimens have been gathered from
throughout the country inhabited by a species, comparison frequently
shows that specimens from one part of its range differ from those
taken in another part of its range. At intervening localities,
however, intermediate specimens will be found connecting the extremes.

Generally, these geographical variations, as they are called, are the
result of climatic conditions. For instance, in regions of heavy
rainfall a bird's colors are usually much darker than they are where
the rainfall is light. Song Sparrows, for example, are palest in the
desert region of Arizona, where the annual rainfall may not reach
eight inches, and darkest on the coast of British Columbia and Alaska,
where the annual rainfall may be over one hundred inches. In going
from one region, however, to the other the gradual changes in climate
are accompanied by gradual changes in the colors of the Song Sparrows,
and the wide differences between Arizona and Alaska Song Sparrows are
therefore bridged by a series of intermediates.

Variations of this kind are spoken of as geographic, racial, or
subspecific and the birds exhibiting them are termed subspecies. In
naming them a third name, or trinomial is employed, and the
possession of such a name indicates at once that a bird is a
geographic or racial representative of a species, with one or more
representatives of which it intergrades.

Returning now to the Robin. Our eastern Robins always have the outer
pair of tail-feathers tipped with white and, in adults, the back is
blotched with black; while Robins from the Rocky Mountains and
westward have little or no white on the outer tail-feathers, and the
back is dark gray, without black blotches. These extremes are
connected by intermediate specimens sharing the characters; of both
eastern and western birds. We do not, therefore, treat the latter as a
species, but as a subspecies, and consequently, apply to it a
subspecific name or trinomial, _Planesticus migratorius propinquus_,
(_propinquus_, meaning nearly related.)

A further study of our eastern Robin shows that in the southern parts
of its breeding range (the Carolinas and Georgia), it varies from the
northern type in being smaller in size and much paler and duller in
color; and to this second geographical variety is applied the name
_Planesticus migratorius achrusterus_, (_achrusterus_, meaning less
highly colored).

After the recognition of western and southern races of the Robin under
three names (trinomial) it would obviously be inconsistent to apply
only two names (binomial) to our eastern bird, the former being no
more subspecies of the latter than the latter is of the former. In
other words, to continue to apply only generic and specific names to
the Eastern Robin would imply that it was a full species, while the
use of a trinomial for the Western or the Southern Robin shows them to
be subspecies. As a matter of fact we know that there is but one
species of true Robin in the United States, consequently in accordance
with the logical and now generally accepted method, we apply to that
species the name _Planesticus migratorius_, and this is equally
applicable to Robins from east, south or west. When, however, we learn
that the Eastern Robin is not a species but a subspecies, we repeat
the specific name by which it was made known and call it _Planesticus
migratorius migratorius_.

It may be asked, Why give names to these geographical races? Why not
call Eastern, Western and Southern Robins by one name, _Planesticus
migratorius_, without regard to their climatic variations?

In reply, two excellent reasons may be given for the recognition of
subspecies by name; first, because in some cases they differ from one
another far more than do many species, when it would clearly be
inadvisable to apply the same name to what are obviously different
creatures. For example, it has lately been discovered by Mr. E. W.
Nelson that the small, black-throated, brown-breasted, Quails or
Bob-whites of southern Mexico, through a long series of intermediates
inhabiting the intervening region, intergrade with the large,
white-throated, black-and-white breasted, Bob-white of our northern
states. It would be absurd to call such wholly unlike birds by the
same name, nor could we give a full specific name to the Mexican
Bob-white since at no place can we draw a line definitely separating
it from the northern Bob-white. Furthermore, the use of only two names
would conceal the remarkable fact of the intergradation of two such
strikingly different birds; a fact of the first importance to students
of the evolution of species.

For much the same reason we should name those birds which show less
pronounced variations, such as are exhibited by the Robin. Here we
have a species in the making, and in tracing the relation between
cause and effect, we learn something of the influences which create
species. Thus, climate has been definitely proven so to alter a
species, both in size and color that, as we have seen in the case of
the Song Sparrows, marked climate changes are accompanied by
correspondingly marked changes in the appearance of certain animals.
In naming these animals we are, in effect, giving a 'handle to the
fact' of their evolution by environment.

Since it is evident that a bird may vary much or little, according to
the governing conditions and its tendency to respond to them, no fixed
rule can be laid down which shall decide just what degree of
difference are deserving a name. It follows, therefore, that in some
cases ornithologists do not agree upon a bird's claim to subspecific

In North America, however, questions of this kind are referred to a
committee of seven experts of the American Ornithologists' Union, and
their decision establishes a nomenclature, which is accepted as the
standard by other American ornithologists and which has been adopted
in this volume.

Foreign birds of wholly accidental occurrence, most of which have been
found in North America but once or twice, are included in the
systematic list of North American birds, but are not described or
figured in the body of the book, where their presence would tend to
convey an erroneous impression of their North American status.
Furthermore, records of the presence of birds so rare as these can be
properly based on only the capture of specimens.

In the preparation of the following pages both author and artist have
had full access to the collections of the American Museum of Natural
History, and they are also glad to acknowledge their indebtedness to
William Brewster of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Robert Ridgway,
Curator of Birds in the United States National Museum, and to C. Hart
Merriam, Chief of the Biologic Survey, for the loan of specimens for
description and illustration.


The figures are all life-size, except as stated.


Order I. Grebes, Loons, and Auks. PYGOPODES.

(3 families, 32 species, 3 subspecies.)

Duck-like birds with the bill usually pointed, never wider than high,
and without flutings, 'gutters,' or serrations on its side; wings
short, never with a bright colored patch or 'speculum'; tail
rudimentary, not noticeable; toes webbed or lobed. Color usually
blackish above, white below; the throat often dark. The Grebes and
Loons, when pursued, dive rather than fly; the Auks usually take wing.

  [Illustration: PIED-BILLED GREBE.]


Toes four with lobate webs; tipped with a broad nail; tail wanting.

  [Illustration: FOOT OF RAZOR-BILLED AUK.]

  [Illustration: LOON.]


Toes four, webbed; toe-nails not broad and flat; tail present.


Toes three, webbed; toe-nails sharp; tail present.

Order II. Gulls, Terns, Jaegers, Etc. LONGIPENNES.

(3 families, 42 species, 1 subspecies.)

Birds generally seen on the wing, as a rule, over water. Bill strong,
thick; hooked in the Gulls and Jaegers; sharply pointed in the Terns;
often colored in part yellow or red; wings very long, the outer
feathers much the longest; tail usually short and square in the Gulls,
long and forked in the Terns; toes webbed. Color usually pearly gray
above, white below in adult Gull and Terns; Jaegers and many young
Gulls are dark.

  [Illustration: PARASITIC JAEGER.]

Family 4. SKUAS AND JAEGERS. Stercorariidæ.

Toes four; three front ones webbed; bill with swollen, hooked tip, its
base with a scaly shield.

  [Illustration: HERRING GULL.]

  [Illustration: COMMON TERN.]

Family 5. GULLS AND TERNS. Laridæ.

Toes usually four, three front ones webbed; upper mandible curved and
hooked; tail usually square (Gulls, subfamily _Larinæ_). Bill straight
and pointed; tail often forked (Terns, subfamily _Sterninæ_).

  [Illustration: BLACK SKIMMER.]

Family 6. SKIMMERS. Rynchopidæ.

Toes four, three front ones webbed; bill thin and blade like, the
maxilla longer than the mandible; tail slightly forked.

Order III. Albatrosses, Shearwaters, Petrels, Etc. TUBINARES.

(2 families, 30 species, 1 subspecies.)

Sea-birds keeping, as a rule, well off shore, and flying low, near the
water, often skimming over the waves. Bill, with upper mandible
hooked; nostrils opening through tubes; wings long and pointed; tail
short; feet webbed; hind-toe rudimentary or absent. Color usually gray
or black and white; no bright markings.



Nostrils opening through tubes, separated and on either side of the bill.

  [Illustration: FULMAR.]

  [Illustration: LEACH PETREL.]


Nostrils joined and situated on top of the bill.

Order IV. Cormorants, Pelicans, Gannets, Man-o'war Birds,
   and Tropic-Birds. STEGANOPODES.

(6 families, 19 species, 5 subspecies.)

Large birds, two feet or more in length, varying widely in appearance
and habits; in external structure agreeing only in having all four
toes joined by webs.


Family 9. TROPIC BIRDS. Phaëthontidæ.

Bill pointed, somewhat tern-like; central tail feathers much
elongated; chin feathered.

  [Illustration: GANNET.]

Family 10. GANNETS. Sulidæ.

Bill stout, its tip not hooked; chin and eye space bare; tail pointed,
its feathers not 'fluted.'

  [Illustration: ANHINGA.]

Family 11. ANHINGAS; SNAKE-BIRDS. Anhingidæ.

Bill straight and slender; chin and eye space bare; tail rounded; its
middle feathers fluted.


Family 12. CORMORANTS. Phalacrocoracidæ.

Bill with a hooked tip; a small pouch at its base; plumage usually
black or blackish.

  [Illustration: BROWN PELICAN.]

Family 13. PELICANS. Pelecanidæ.

Bill hooked at tip, with a large pouch; tail short, square; eye space

  [Illustration: MAN-O' WAR BIRD.]

Family 14. MAN-O' WAR BIRDS. Fregatidæ.

Bill hooked; pouch small; tail long and forked; eye space feathered.

Order V. Ducks, Geese, and Swans. ANSERES.

(1 family, 49 species, 6 subspecies.)

Birds of familiar form; bill, except in Mergansers or Saw-billed
Ducks, broad and with rows of 'strainers' or 'gutters' on either side;
wings short, in the Ducks usually with a bright colored patch or
speculum; tail generally short; legs short; feet webbed. Most species,
unlike the Grebes, take wing rather than dive when pursued.


  [Illustration: MALLARD.]

Family 15. DUCKS, GEESE, AND SWANS. Anatidæ.

Bill long, narrow, and rounded with tooth-like projections along its
sides. (Mergansers. Subfamily _Merginæ_.)

Bill broad, flattened, typically duck-like; tarsus or leg with
transverse scales; hind toe without a lobe. (River Ducks. Subfamily

Bill and tarsus as in preceding, but hind toe with a broad lobe or
flap. (Sea and Bay Ducks. Subfamily _Fuligulinæ_.)

Bill proportionately narrower than in the River or Bay Ducks; gutters
on its sides less developed; scales on front of tarsus rounded.
(Geese. Subfamily _Anserinæ_.)

Large, usually white birds, with bare eye space. (Swans. Subfamily

Order VI. Flamingoes. ODONTOGLOSSÆ.

(1 family, 1 species.)

Bright red or pink and white birds, standing four feet or more in
height; side of the bill with gutters, its end bent downward; wings
rather short; legs long; feet webbed.

  [Illustration: AMERICAN FLAMINGO.]

Family 16. FLAMINGOES. Phœnicopteridæ.

Characters of the Family similar to those of the Order.

Order VII. Herons, Bitterns, Ibises, and Spoonbills. HERODIONES.

(4 families, 19 species, 3 subspecies.)

Long-legged wading birds, generally found along shores or on muddy
flats; bill variable; in the Herons straight and sharply pointed; in
the Ibises, slender, rounded, and curved downward; in the Spoonbill,
flattened: wings rounded; tail short; legs long; toes all on same
level, long, slender, without webs. Herons and Bitterns fly with a
fold in the neck, the head being drawn in; Ibises and Spoonbills fly
with the neck straight, the head being extended.

  [Illustration: ROSEATE SPOONBILL.]

Family 17. SPOONBILLS. Plataleidæ.

Bill flattened and much broadened at the end; crown and face bare in
adults; toes partly webbed.

  [Illustration: WHITE-FACED GLOSSY IBIS.]

Family 18. IBISES. Ibididæ.

Bill long and curved down; its side with grooves; toes partly webbed.

  [Illustration: WOOD IBIS.]


Bill stout, without grooves; tarsus reticulate.

  [Illustration: GREEN HERON.]


Bill usually straight and sharply pointed; lores naked; head
feathered; tarsus with transverse scales; middle toe-nail pectinate or
with a comblike edge.

Order VIII. Cranes, Rails, Coots, Gallinules, Etc. PALUDICOLÆ.

(3 families, 16 species, 3 subspecies.)

Birds varying greatly in size and appearance, but all agreeing (and
differing from _Herodiones_) in having the hind-toe elevated, that is,
leaving the foot at a higher level than the front toes; tail short;
legs usually long. All fly with the neck extended, a fact by which
Cranes in flight may be known from Herons. Rails are short-winged
skulkers in grassy marshes; Gallinules frequent reedy shores; Coots,
which alone of the Order have webbed (lobate) toes, are as aquatic as
Ducks, from which they may be known by their pointed, white bill,
nodding motion of the head when swimming, and habit of pattering over
the water when alarmed.

  [Illustration: SANDHILL CRANE.]

Family 21. CRANES. Gruidæ.

Large birds over three feet in length; head partly bare in adults.

  [Illustration: LIMPKIN.]

Family 22. COURLANS. Aramidæ.

Bill long and slender; head wholly feathered; toes not webbed.

  [Illustration: SORA.]

  [Illustration: CLAPPER RAIL.]

  [Illustration: AMERICAN COOT.]


Bill variable; toes always long, webbed (lobed) in only one species;
wings short and rounded; tail short.

Order IX. Snipes, Sandpipers, Curlews, Plovers, Etc. LIMICOLÆ.

(7 families, 55 species, 4 subspecies.)

Generally long-legged, slender-billed birds of shores and mud flats,
and sometimes fields. Most of them are under a foot in length; none
are so large as the Ibises; wings long and pointed; tail short; toes
long and slender, usually without webs; color generally brown or
blackish above, mottled and streaked with whitish and buff. Many
species utter characteristic piping whistles as they fly or when they
take wing.

  [Illustration: NORTHERN PHALAROPE.]

Family 24. PHALAROPES. Phalaropodidæ.

Front toes with lobes or webs; tarsus flattened; plumage thick;
swimming Snipe.

  [Illustration: AMERICAN AVOCET.]

  [Illustration: BLACK-NECKED STILT.]

Family 25. AVOCETS AND STILTS. Recurvirostridæ.

Long legged, wading Snipe; in Avocets toes four, front three webbed;
bill recurved; in Stilts toes three, almost unwebbed; bill straight.


  [Illustration: WOODCOCK.]

  [Illustration: HUDSONIAN CURLEW.]

Family 26. SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, CURLEWS, ETC. Scolopacidæ.

Toes usually four; tarsus with transverse scales; bill generally long,
slender, and soft, used as a probe.

  [Illustration: KILLDEER.]

  [Illustration: BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER.]

Family 27. PLOVERS. Charadriidæ.

Toes usually three, or when four, the fourth rudimentary; tarsus with
rounded scales, bill, as compared with that of Snipe, short and stout.

  [Illustration: TURNSTONE.]

Family 28. SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. Aphrizidæ.

Toes four, tarsus with transverse scales; bill short, rather hard.


Family 29. OYSTER-CATCHERS. Hæmatopodidæ.

Toes three, webbed at base; tarsus stout, with rounded scales; bill
heavy, compressed, and said to be used for opening shells.

  [Illustration: MEXICAN JACANA.]

Family 30. JACANAS. Jacanidæ.

Toes four, with their nails greatly elongated to support the bird
while walking on aquatic vegetation; wing, with a sharp spur; bill
with fleshy lobes at base and, in some species, on its sides.


Order X. Grouse, Partridges, Bob-Whites, Etc. GALLINÆ.

(3 families, 24 species, 25 subspecies.)

Ground-inhabiting birds of chicken-like form; bill stout, hen-like;
wings short and rounded; tail variable; feet strong; hind-toe
elevated. Color usually mixed brown, black, and buff, or bluish gray.

  [Illustration: BOB-WHITE.]

  [Illustration: RUFFED GROUSE.]

Family 31. GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, ETC. Tetraonidæ.

Characters the same as those of the Order; tarsus naked in Partridges
and Quails; more or less feathered in Grouse and Ptarmigan.

  [Illustration: TURKEY.]


Tarsus naked, often spurred, tail remarkably variable (for example,
Turkey, Peacock); head often with a comb, wattles, or other

  [Illustration: CHACHALACA.]

Family 33. CURASSOWS AND GUANS. Cracidæ.

Large tree-haunting, pheasant-like birds; toes four, all on same

Order XI. Pigeons and Doves. COLUMBÆ.

(1 family, 13 species, 3 subspecies.)

Walking birds, feeding both on the ground and in trees; bill slender,
grooved, nostrils opening in a fleshy membrane; tail variable, short
and square, or long and pointed; feet stout, often reddish. Color
usually grayish brown. Call-notes a characteristic cooing.

  [Illustration: MOURNING DOVE.]

Family 34. PIGEONS AND DOVES. Columbidæ.

Characters those of the Order.

Order XII. Vultures, Hawks, and Owls. RAPTORES.

(4 families, 56 species, 33 subspecies.)

Generally large birds with hooked bill; strong, heavy feet, and long,
curved nails; wings large; tail rather long, usually square.

  [Illustration: TURKEY VULTURE.]

Family 35. AMERICAN VULTURES. Cathartidæ.

Bill not strongly hooked; toe-nails comparatively weak; nostrils
large, piercing the bill; head and more or less of neck, bare.

  [Illustration: RED-TAILED HAWK.]

  [Illustration: FOOT OF RED-TAILED HAWK.]


Nostrils opening in a cere at the base of the bill; hook of bill and
claws well developed; plumage firm and close; tarsus usually largely

  [Illustration: BARN OWL.]

Family 37. BARN OWLS. Strigidæ.

Eyes black, set in a somewhat triangular facial disc; bill more or
less concealed by feathers; nostril opening at the edge of a fleshy
cere; inner edge of middle toe-nail serrate; no 'ears'; tarsus

  [Illustration: SCREECH OWL.]

Family 38. HORNED OWLS, ETC. Bubonidæ.

Eyes yellow or black, set in a circular facial disc; bill more or less
concealed by feathers; nostrils opening at the edge of a fleshy cere;
tarsus feathered.

Order XIII. Paroquets and Parrots. PSITTACI.

(1 family, 2 species.)

Usually bright green birds with, a heavy hooked bill, broad
scoop-shaped lower mandible; long, pointed wings; tail, in Parrots,
generally square; in Paroquets, pointed; feet heavy, two toes in front
and two behind.

  [Illustration: CAROLINA PAROQUET.]

Family 39. PARROTS AND PAROQUETS. Psittacidæ.

Characters the same as those of Order.

Order XIV. Cuckoos, Trogons, Kingfishers, Etc. COCCYGES.

(3 families, 8 species, 2 subspecies.)

A composite Order of several groups of birds bearing no close relation
to each other. Cuckoos have slightly curved bills, long tails, and two
toes in front and two behind. Trogons have short, rather broad, stout
bills, and soft, loose plumage, often green above, red below;
moderately long tails; small feet with two toes in front, two behind.
Kingfishers have long, rather stout, pointed bills; wings, long; tail,
medium; three toes in front and one behind; middle and outer toes
joined for half their length.

  [Illustration: YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO.]

Family 40. CUCKOOS, ANIS. ETC. Cuculidæ.

Toes two in front, two behind; bill, usually, more or less decurved;
tail, long and rounded, the outer feathers being, generally, much
shorter than the middle pair.

  [Illustration: COPPERY-TAILED TROGON.]

Family 41. TROGONS. Trogonidæ.

Toes two in front, two behind; bill, short; upper mandible decurved
and dentate; tail square; plumage, soft, loose, and generally shining
green above.

  [Illustration: BELTED KINGFISHER.]

Family 42. KINGFISHERS. Alcedinidæ.

Legs short; feet small; toes, three in front, one behind; third and
fourth toes joined; bill, stout and long.

Order XV. Woodpeckers. PICI.

(1 family, 24 species, 22 subspecies.)

Climbing birds with stout, pointed bills, bristly nostrils, pointed,
stiffened tail feathers, strong feet and nails; two toes in front and
two behind, except in _Picoides_, which has two in front and one
behind. Prevailing colors, black and white, the males usually with red
on the crown.


  [Illustration: PILEATED WOODPECKER.]

Family 43. WOODPECKERS. Picidæ.

Characters the same as those of the Order.

Order XVI. Goatsuckers, Swifts, and Hummingbirds. MACROCHIRES.

(3 families, 27 species, 6 subspecies.)

Bill, in the Goatsuckers and Swifts, small; mouth large; in the
Hummingbirds, bill long, slender, needle-like; wings and tail
variable; feet, in all three groups, small and weak. Color, in
Goatsuckers, mixed brown, buff and black; in Swifts, black and white;
in Hummingbirds, usually shining green above with resplendent
throat-patches of varied hues.

  [Illustration: WHIP-POOR-WILL.]

Family 44. GOATSUCKERS, ETC. Caprimulgidæ.

Feet usually small and weak; toes, three in front, one behind; middle
toe-nail pectinate or combed; bill small; mouth very large and usually
beset by long bristles.

  [Illustration: CHIMNEY SWIFT.]

Family 45. SWIFTS. Micropodidæ.

Bill small, triangular when seen from above; mouth large, no bristles;
tail variable, in _Chætura_ with projecting spines; wings long and
narrow; feet small and toes short; plumage usually dark.


Family 46. HUMMINGBIRDS. Trochilidæ.

Bill long and slender; feet slender; wings large and pointed; tail
exceedingly variable, often assuming the most striking shapes.

Order XVII. Flycatchers, Jays, Blackbirds, Finches, Swallows,
   Warblers, Thrushes, and Other Perching Birds. PASSERES.

(18 families, about 325 species and 226 subspecies.)

Bill, wings, and tail variable; feet with four toes not connected, the
hind-toe as long as the middle one; its nail generally longer than
that of the middle toe. This Order contains more species than the
remaining sixteen Orders put together. In it will be found over 80 per
cent. of the birds commonly seen by field students. It is difficult of
definition, but almost any small perching bird may, with more or less
certainty, be referred to the _Passeres_.

  [Illustration: FOOT OF ROBIN.--(a typical Passerine foot.)]

  [Illustration: PHOEBE.]

Family 48. FLYCATCHERS. Tyrannidæ.

Bill broad, flat, hooked at tip, its base with bristles; wings rather
pointed, the second to fourth primaries longest; tarsus rounded behind
as well as in front; feathers of crown generally somewhat lengthened,
forming when erected, a small crest; pose, when perching, erect; food
of insects usually captured on the wing; voice generally unmusical.

  [Illustration: HORNED LARK.]

Family 49. LARKS. Alaudidæ.

Hind toe-nail much lengthened; bill rounded, straight; tarsus rounded
behind as well as in front; our species with a tuft of feathers on
either side of the head; outer primary short or rudimentary; walking
birds, singing while on the wing.

  [Illustration: BLUE JAY.]

Family 50. CROWS AND JAYS. Corvidæ.

Large perching birds, usually twelve inches or more in length; bill
stout; nostrils covered by projecting bristles; feet heavy; outer
tail-feathers usually shortest; fourth to fifth primary longest, first
about half as long.

  [Illustration: PURPLE GRACKLE.]

  [Illustration: BALTIMORE ORIOLE.]

Family 52. BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. Icteridæ.

Base of bill, between nostrils, extending back and dividing feathers
on forehead; nostrils not concealed by bristles; first three primaries
of equal length.

  [Illustration: REDPOLL.]

  [Illustration: SONG SPARROW.]

  [Illustration: EVENING GROSBEAK.]

  [Illustration: CARDINAL.]

Family 53. FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. Fringillidæ.

Bill short, stout, conical; third or fourth primaries longest; first
about half an inch shorter; the majority are small birds and but few
are over eight inches in length.

  [Illustration: SUMMER TANAGER.]

Family 54. TANAGERS. Tanagridæ.

Bill somewhat finch-like but more swollen in outline; the upper
mandible, in typical forms, toothed or dentate.

  [Illustration: TREE SWALLOW.]

Family 55. SWALLOWS. Hirundinidæ.

Bill short, broad and flat; feet small and weak; wings long and
narrow; tail notched and sometimes forked; birds of the air, feeding
while on the wing.

  [Illustration: CEDAR WAXWING.]

Family 56. WAXWINGS. Ampelidæ.

Bill short, stout, and rounded, its tip notched; wings rather long;
head crested.

  [Illustration: NORTHERN SHRIKE.]

Family 57. SHRIKES. Laniidæ.

Bill stout, its mandible hooked and hawk-like; feet truly Passerine;
pose, in perching, erect; solitary grayish birds.

  [Illustration: RED-EYED VIREO.]

Family 58. VIREOS. Vireonidæ.

Bill small, but distinctly hooked; outer primary usually very small
and sometimes apparently wanting; olive-green gleaners among the

  [Illustration: NASHVILLE WARBLER.]

  [Illustration: YELLOW WARBLER.]

  [Illustration: AMERICAN REDSTART.]

  [Illustration: CHAT.]

Family 60. WARBLERS. Mniotiltidæ.

Bill, in most of the species, slender, sharply pointed, and without a
notch or hook at the tip; in the genera _Wilsonia_ and _Setophaga_,
flat and flycatcher-like; in _Icteria_ stout; back of tarsus
compressed into a thin ridge; three outer primaries of nearly equal

  [Illustration: AMERICAN PIPIT.]

Family 61. WAGTAILS. Motacillidæ.

Hind toe-nail much lengthened; bill slender, nostril not covered with
bristles, as in true Larks; back of tarsus thin, not rounded;
terrestrial, walking with a wagging motion of the tail.

  [Illustration: AMERICAN DIPPER.]

Family 62. DIPPERS. Cinclidæ.

Thick-set birds with short wings and tail; plumage thick and
water-proof; tarsus scaled; semi-aquatic in habit, haunting mountain

  [Illustration: BROWN THRASHER.]

  [Illustration: HOUSE WREN.]

Family 63. WRENS, THRASHERS, ETC. Troglodytidæ.

Tarsus scaled; tail rounded, the outer feathers being shortest; third
to fourth primary longest, the outer half as long; bill in Thrashers
often decurved, its base with bristles; In Wrens, bill without
bristles; brown or grayish inhabitants of lower growth.

  [Illustration: BROWN CREEPER.]

Family 64. CREEPERS. Certhiidæ.

Bill slender and much decurved; tail usually pointed and stiffened.

  [Illustration: CHICKADEE.]

  [Illustration: RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH.]

Family 65. NUTHATCHES AND TITS. Paridæ.

Fourth or fifth primary longest; first an inch or less in length.
Chickadees (subfamily _Parinæ_) have a short, stout bill, the nostrils
covered with bristles; the tail is rather long and rounded. Nuthatches
(subfamily _Sittinæ_) have a long, slender bill, short, square tail,
and large feet.



Bill slender and Warbler-like, but first primary only one-third as
long as the fourth.

  [Illustration: WOOD THRUSH.]

Family 67. THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. Turdidæ.

Tarsus 'booted', without scales, (see foot of Robin under Synopsis of
Order _Passeres_); tail square; mandible notched and slightly hooked;
outer primary an inch or less in length; second to fourth of about
equal length.





   Family 1. GREBES. Podicipidæ. 6 species.

   Family 2. LOONS. Gaviidæ. 5 species.

   Family 3. AUKS, MURRES, and PUFFINS. Alcidæ. 21 species, 3

Grebes are at home in reed-grown ponds or sloughs where their nests
are made on rafts or islets of water-soaked vegetation. Their eggs
number from four to eight, are dull white in color, and are usually
covered by the bird with a portion of the nesting material when it
leaves its home. Grebes occasionally rest on the shore, but are rarely
found far from the water. When on land they may lie flat on their
breasts or sit erect on their tails and entire foot, or tarsus. Their
progress on land, as a rule, is awkward and they may use their wings
as fore feet to assist them. In diving, Grebes sometimes spring partly
from the water and then plunge downward head first, or they may
quietly sink with scarce a ripple to mark the place of their

Loons generally pass the summer on some large lake, and in the winter
many of them live at sea. They nest, as a rule, on the shore, but so
near the water that the parent bird may slide off its two dark brown,
mottled eggs into its favorite element. Like the Grebes, Loons are
expert divers, and birds of both families so often seek safety under
the water rather than in the air that it is frequently difficult to
make them fly. The young of both Grebes and Loons are born covered
with feathers and take to the water shortly after birth, often using
the back of the parent bird as an ever present island on which they
may rest at will.

The Auks, Murres, and Puffins are sea birds which nest usually in
large colonies on isolated islets or rocky, inaccessible shores of the
northern part of the northern hemisphere. They lay one or two eggs,
sometimes in an exposed position among the rocks with no attempt at
nest-building, sometimes at the end of a burrow excavated by the
birds. In the latter case, the young are reared in the nest; in the
former, they sometimes enter the water at an early age.

The one egg laid by Murres is remarkable both in color and in shape.
In color it varies from bluish green to buff, and is usually heavily
scrawled with black. In outline it is pyriform or pear-shaped. When
moved it does not roll away as would a hen's egg but revolves about
its own tip. In this manner it retains its place on the narrow ledges
often chosen by Murres for nesting-sites.

Grebes and Loons

  [Illustration: 2]

=2. Holbœll Grebe= (_Colymbus holbœlli_). L. 19. _Ads._ Crown and
hindneck glossy black; back blackish; throat, cheeks, and underparts
white; foreneck and sides rufous. _Winter._ Above blackish brown;
throat and underparts white; foreneck pale rufous. _Yng._ Similar but
no rufous. _Notes._ "An explosive _kup_" and "An exceedingly loud
harsh voice not unlike that of an angry Crow, but of much greater
volume. The calls were also given more slowly and indeed with singular
deliberation, _car_, _car_, three or four times, sometimes lengthened
to _caar_, and again, broken and quavering like _ca-a-a-r_ or
_ca-a-a-a-r_." (Brewster.)

Range.--North America, eastern Siberia, and Japan; breeds locally in
the interior from about Lat. 50° northward; winters from Maine and
British Columbia southward to South Carolina, Nebraska and Southern
California, chiefly on the coasts.

  [Illustration: 3]

=3. Horned Grebe= (_Colymbus auritus_). L. 13.5. _Ads., summer._
Crown, hindneck, and throat glossy black; plumes behind eye deep buff;
back and wings blackish; foreneck, breast, sides, and lores chestnut;
abdomen white. _Winter._ Above grayish black; below white.

Range.--Northern Hemisphere; breeds largely in the interior from
eastern Quebec, northern Illinois, St. Clair Flats, North Dakota, and
British Columbia northward; winters from Maine and British Columbia
south to Gulf States and southern California.

  [Illustration: 4]

=4. American Eared Grebe= (_Colymbus nigricollis californicus_). L.
13. _Ads._ Above, neck all around, and _upper breast_ brownish black;
cheek tufts yellowish brown; flanks chestnut; belly white. _Winter._
Grayish brown above; white below.

Range.--Western North America east to Kansas; breeds locally from
Texas and middle California north to Manitoba and British Columbia;
winters from British Columbia, on the Pacific coast, and Texas

  [Illustration: 5]

=5. Least Grebe= (_Colymbus dominicus brachypterus_). L. 10. _Ads._
Throat black; _cheeks slaty_, above blackish; below grayish. _Winter._
Similar but no black or slate on throat or cheeks. Smallest of our

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southern Lower California
south to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 6]

=6. Pied-billed Grebe= (_Podilymbus podiceps_). L. 13.5. _Ads.,
summer._ Above brownish black; throat and band on bill black;
foreneck, breast, and sides brownish; belly white. _Winter._ The same,
but throat white, breast more rusty, bill without black band. _Notes._
A loud, sonorous, "_cow-cow-cow-cow-cow-cow-cow-cow-cow-uh_, _cow-uh_,
_cow-uh_, _cow-uh_."

Range.--Argentine Republic; north through Mexico and West Indies to
Lat. of Hudson Bay; breeds locally throughout its range, but chiefly
northward; winters from New Jersey, Illinois, and southern California

  [Illustration: No label. Assumed 1.]

=1. Western Grebe; Swan Grebe= (_Æchmophorus occidentalis_). L. 26.
_Ads., summer._ Crown and hindneck black; back grayish brown; sides of
head and under parts white. _Winter._ Crown and hindneck like back.
_Notes._ A loud, rattling, grating whistle.

Range.--Western North America; In summer eastward to Shoal Lake,
Manitoba; northward to southern Alaska; breeds locally from northern
California and North Dakota northward; winters from British Columbia
to central Mexico.

  [Illustration: 7.]

=7. Loon= (_Gavia imber_). L. 32. _Ads., summer._ Above, including
whole neck, glossy black; throat and neck with white streaks; back and
wings with white spots or bars; belly white. _Winter._ Above blackish
_margined with grayish_; no white spots; below white. _Notes._ A loud,
maniacal laugh.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; in North America, breeds from Maine,
northern Illinois, Minnesota, and northern California north to
Greenland and Alaska; winters from about southern limit of breeding
range south to Gulf of Mexico, chiefly on coasts.

=8. Yellow-billed Loon= (_Gavia adamsii_). L. 36. Similar to No. 7,
but larger and bill yellowish or whitish. _Notes._ Similar to those of
No. 7, but harsher. (Murdoch.)

Range.--"Arctic America west of Hudson Bay, and northern Asia; casual
in northern Europe." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 9.]

=9. Black-throated Loon= (_Gavia arctica_). L. 27; W. 12. _Ads.,
summer._ Foreneck and back bluish black; throat, neck, and back
streaked or barred with white; crown and nape _gray_; belly white.
_Winter._ Similar to No. 7, but smaller. _Notes._ A dismal
"_too-too-e-e._" (Turner.)

Range--Northern part of northern hemisphere; in America breeds from
Hudson Bay north to Arctic coast; winters south to British Columbia,
the Great Lakes and, casually, to Long Island.

=10. Pacific Loon= (_Gavia pacifica_). Similar to No. 9, but foreneck
in summer reflecting deep blue or green; hindneck paler; smaller, W.
11. _Notes._ A harsh "_kok, kok, kok._" (Murdoch.)

Range.--Western North America; breeds at Point Barrow, Alaska, and
eastward; winters south along Pacific Coast to Mexico.

  [Illustration: 11.]

=11. Red-throated Loon= (_Gavia lumme_). L. 25. _Ads., summer._
Foreneck chestnut, head and neck ashy. _Winter._ Similar to No. 7, in
winter, but back spotted with white. _Notes._ A harsh "_gr-r ga, gr-r,
gr-r-ga, gr-r._" (Nelson.)

Range.--Northern part of northern hemisphere; in North America
breeds from New Brunswick to Greenland and Hudson Bay, and
northwest to Alaska; winters south to South Carolina and southern

Auks, Murres and Puffins

  [Illustration: 12.]

=12. Tufted Puffin= (_Lunda cirrhata_). L. 15. _Ads., summer._ Cheeks
white; a pair of long straw color plumes from behind eyes; rest of
plumage sooty. _Winter._ Cheeks sooty, plumes usually absent. _Yng._
Similar to winter adult, but breast and belly whitish.

Range.--Northern Pacific; resident locally from Santa Barbara Islands
north to Alaska. Accidental in Maine.

  [Illustration: 13.]

=13. Puffin= (_Fratercula arctica_). L. 13; W. 6; B. 1.8. _Ads._
Above, and foreneck blackish; cheeks and under parts white; bill in
summer touched with bright red. _Notes._ A hoarse croak.

Range.--North Atlantic; breeds from Bay of Fundy north to Greenland;
winters south to Long Island.

=13a. Large-billed Puffin= (_F. a. glacialis_). W. 7; B. 2.1. Similar
to No. 13, but larger.

Range.--Arctic Ocean from Spitzenbergen to northern Greenland.

  [Illustration: 14.]

=14. Horned Puffin= (_Fratercula corniculata_). Similar to No. 13, but
in summer with the throat blackish. _Notes._ "A hoarse snuffling,
rattling note" (Nelson.)

Range.--"Northern Pacific from Kuril Islands to British Columbia."

  [Illustration: 15.]

=15. Rhinoceros Auklet= (_Cerorhinca monocerata_). L. 15.5. _Ads.,
summer._ A horn on base of bill; _two_ pairs of white tufts; above
blackish; throat and breast grayish; belly white. _Winter._ Similar,
but no horn. _Yng._ Similar to winter ad. but no tufts.

Range.--"North Pacific: breeding south (formerly) to the Farallones;
in winter south to Lower California and Japan." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 16.]

=16. Cassin Auklet.= (_Ptycoramphus aleuticus_). L. 9. _Ads._ A white
spot above eye; above blackish; throat and breast grayish; belly
white. Notes. A shrill, squealing "_Come bear-r-r, come bear-r-r._"

Range.--"Pacific Coast of North America from Aleutian Islands to Lower
California; breeding south to San Geronimo Island (Lat. 30°)." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 23.]

=23. Marbled Murrelet= (_Brachyramphus marmoratus_). L. 9.7. _Ads.,
summer._ No crest; above dark brown, finely mixed with rusty; below
white, all feathers edged with brown. _Winter._ Wholly different;
above gray; head dark; below white; a nearly complete white nuchal
collar. _Yng._ Similar to winter ad. but blacker above; sprinkled with
blackish below.

Range.--North Pacific; breeds from Vancouver north to Aleutian
Islands; winters south to southern California.

=24. Kittlitz Murrelet= (_Brachyramphus brevirostris_). L. 9.5; B.,
from feathers on top, .4. _Ads., summer._ Above gray, mottled with
buff; breast and sides mottled with buff and black; belly white.
_Winter._ Sides of head, to _above_ eye, and lower parts white; above
gray; outer tail-feathers white.

Range.--Northern Japan, Kamchatka and Aleutian Islands, east to
Unalaska. (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 25.]

=25. Xantus Murrelet= (_Brachyramphus hypoleucus_). L. 10. Bill
slender. _Ads._ Above slaty black; under surface of wing _white_;
inner webs of outer primaries _white_.

Range.--Pacific Coast from Monterey south to Cape St. Lucas; breeding
as far north as Santa Barbara Island.

=26. Craveri Murrelet= (_Brachyramphus craveri_). L. 10. Bill slender.
_Ads._ Above slaty or brownish black; sides slaty; under surface of
wings _dusky_, sometimes mixed with white.

Range,--Coasts of Lower California, from Cape St. Lucas north to
Espiritu Santo Island in the Gulf of California, and to Natividad
Island (lat. 28°) on the Pacific side. (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 34.]

=34. Dovekie= (_Alle alle_). L. 8. _Ads., summer._ Above blackish;
inner wing feathers tipped with white; throat and breast blackish
brown. _Winter._ Similar, but throat and breast white or mixed

Range--North Atlantic and East Arctic; in America breeds from Lat. 68°
northward; winters south to Long Island, rarely to Virginia.
Accidental in Michigan.

  [Illustration: 17.]

=17. Paroquet Auklet= (_Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus_). L. 10. _Ads.,
summer._ _No_ crest; a white plume from behind eye; above blackish;
throat grayer, rest of under parts white. _Winter._ Throat white.
_Notes._ "A low, sonorous, vibrating whistle." (Nelson.)

Range.--"North Pacific, from Sitka and the Kuril Islands northward."
(A.O.U.) Five records for coast off San Francisco in winter.

  [Illustration: 18.]

=18. Crested Auklet= (_Simorhynchus cristatellus_). L. 10. _Ads.,
summer._ Bill red; a crest of slender recurved feathers; a pair of
white tufts from behind eye; above sooty black; below grayer. _Yng._
Similar but bill brown; no crest or tufts. _Notes._ "A chirping note,"

Range.--"North Pacific from Kadiak and Japan northward." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 19.]

=19. Whiskered Auklet= (_Simorhynchus pygmæus_). L. 7.5. _Ads.,
summer._ White feathers at base of sides of bill and, much lengthened,
from above and below eye; a crest of slender recurved feathers; above,
and throat dark slate fading into white belly. _Yng._ Similar but no
crest; little or no white on head. _Notes._ "A low chattering note."

Range--"North Pacific, from Unalaska through the Aleutian chain to
Kamchatka." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 20.]

=20. Least Auklet= (_Simorhynchus pusillus_). L. 6.5. _Ads., summer._
No crest; sides of head with white feathers; above blackish; chin
sooty; throat white; under parts white, marked irregularly with sooty.
_Winter._ Little or no sooty on breast. _Yng._ Similar to winter ad.,
but no white plumes.

Range.--"North Pacific, from Sitka and Japan north to Bering Strait."

  [Illustration: 21.]

=21. Ancient Murrelet= (_Synthliboramphus antiquus_). L. 10.5. _Ads.,
summer._ No crest; head and _throat_ black; broad white stripes behind
eye; back gray; breast and belly white. _Winter._ Similar but throat
white; no white head stripes. _Notes._ "A low plaintive whistle."

Range.--North Pacific, from southern Vancouver Island and Japan
northward; south in winter to Monterey, California; accidental in

  [Illustration: 27.]

=27. Black Guillemot= (_Cepphus grylle_). L. 13. _Ads., summer._
Black; greater wing-coverts white, black at base; under surface of
wings _white_. _Winter._ Above gray or black tipped with white; below

Range.--Coasts of northern Europe and North Atlantic; in America
breeds from Knox Co., Maine north to southern Greenland; winters south
to Quebec and Massachusetts; rarely to Toronto, Connecticut, and Long

=28. Mandt Guillemot= (_Cepphus mandtii_). Similar to No. 27, but
bases of greater wing-coverts _white_.

Range.--Arctic regions; breeds from Labrador and Hudson Bay north to
northern Greenland and northern Alaska; in winter migrates but little
southward; no satisfactory United States record.

=29. Pigeon Guillemot= (_Cepphus columba_). Similar to No. 27, but
inner surface of wings _sooty gray_. _Notes._ A squealing, vibrant

Range.--North Pacific; breeds from Santa Catalina Island north to
Bering Strait, west through Aleutian Islands to Kamchatka and northern
Japan; winters in same region.

  [Illustration: 30.]

=30. Murre= (_Uria troile_). L. 16; B. 1.7. _Ads., summer._ Above and
neck sooty brown; under parts and tips of secondaries white; sides
with blackish streaks. _Winter._ Similar, but throat white washed with
sooty. _Notes._ A hoarse _murre_ and squawking _a-r-r-r-r-r-rh_.

Range.--North Atlantic; breeds in North America from Bird Rock,
Magdalen Islands, north to southern Greenland; winters south to Maine
and, rarely, Ontario.

=30a. California Murre= (_U. t. californica_). Similar to No. 30 but
larger, W. 8.2; B. 1.9.

Range.--North Pacific; breeds from Pribilof Islands south to
Farallones; winters south to southern California.

  [Illustration: 31.]

=31. Brunnich Murre= (_Uria lomvia_). Similar to No. 30, but bill
shorter, 1.2. In summer, head and throat browner, lower mandible
swollen at sides and grayish at base.

Range.--North Atlantic and eastern Arctic; breeds in North America
from Bird Rock, Magdalen Islands, north to Greenland; winters south to
New Jersey and along St. Lawrence to Lakes Champlain and Ontario,
rarely to Lake Michigan.

=31a. Pallas Murre= (_U. l. arra_). Similar to No. 31, but larger; W.
8.6; B. 1.5. _Notes._ "A peculiar growling or hoarse chattering note."

Range.--North Pacific; south to Kadiak and Kamchatka.

  [Illustration: 32.]

=32. Razor-billed Auk= (_Alca torda_). L. 16.5. _Ads., summer._ Above
sooty black, foreneck browner; tips of secondaries, line from bill to
eye, and under parts, white. _Winter._ Similar, but foreneck white.
_Yng._ Similar to winter ad. but without eye line. _Notes._ A hoarse
grunt or groan.

Range.--North Atlantic; breeds from Bird Rock, Magdalen Islands, north
to Greenland; winters south to Long Island and, rarely, to Ontario and
North Carolina.

=33. Great Auk= (_Plautus impennis_). L. 29; W. 5.7. _Ads._ Above
blackish; a large white spot before the eye; secondaries tipped with
white; sides of neck and the throat seal brown; belly, white.
Resembling No. 32 in general appearance but body much larger; wing,
however, _shorter_.

Range.--Formerly, the coasts and islands of North Atlantic, south on
American side to Florida (in winter?); now extinct.



   Family 1. SKUAS and JAEGERS. Stercorariidæ. 4 species.

   Family 2. GULLS and TERNS. Laridæ. 37 species, 1 subspecies.

   Family 3. SKIMMERS. Rynchopidæ. 1 species.

Skuas and Jaegers are pirates among the birds of the high seas. Bold
and dashing, they pursue the swift flying Terns or much larger Gulls
with equal success, forcing them to drop the fish they have captured
and catching it ere it reaches the water.

Gulls (Subfamily _Larinæ_) are usually considered so characteristic of
the sea that 'Sea Gull' is the name popularly applied to all members
of the subfamily to which they belong. Several species, however, are
equally at home, both in the winter and when nesting, on the larger
bodies of water in the interior, and one species is rarely or never
found on our sea coasts.

Gulls nest on the ground, on drifts of marsh-grass, on cliffs, and one
species, at least, among American Gulls (the Herring Gull) has as a
result of persecution, acquired the habit of nesting in trees.

Gulls feed from the surface of the water, picking up their food with
their strongly curved bills in passing or while hovering, not by
plunging into the water, as do the Terns. They are, in fact, the
scavengers of the water, and perform a service of great value to
mankind by devouring the bodies of various forms of aquatic animals
which, in dying, come to the surface and, if cast ashore, might, in
decaying, prove a source of disease.

For this reason it was especially unfortunate that the plumage of
these birds became fashionable for millinery purposes, with the result
that thousands of them were destroyed for their wings and breasts. In
this country, however, through the efforts of the American
Ornithologists' Union and the Audubon Societies, laws have been passed
prohibiting the killing of these beautiful and useful birds, and
wardens have been placed on their nesting grounds to protect them.

Gulls often rest in great flocks on the water, sitting high up and
riding the waves buoyantly, but the Terns (Subfamily _Sterninæ_),
after they have acquired the power of flight, are rarely seen on the
water. They are lighter, more active birds than the Gulls, with longer
wings and tails, and sharper, more pointed bills. They feed largely on
small fish (the species called silversides being a favorite) of no
value to man, which they secure by darting from the air with great
speed and directness. When looking for food, Terns usually fly with
the bill downward, a habit which will aid in distinguishing them from
the Gulls, whose bill is carried in a line with the body.

Terns usually nest in large colonies on the beach of some isolated
islet either on our sea coasts or in the interior. The nest is
generally composed of a few wisps of sea-weed or grass, or the two or
three eggs are not infrequently laid in a slight hollow in the sand or
among the shells and pebbles.

Like the Gulls, Terns have been slaughtered in enormous numbers for
millinery purposes; but in this country, at least, effective efforts
are now being made to preserve them.

Skimmers nest in numbers on our Atlantic Coast from Virginia
southward, laying their four eggs in a slight depression in the sand.
In feeding, their mouth is held open and the longer, thin, lower
mandible is dropped beneath the surface of the water, when, flying
rapidly, they readily pick up food.

In young Skimmers, however, the two mandibles are of equal length and
the lower mandible does not become appreciably longer than the upper
one until the birds begin to fly. During the flightless period of the
bird's life, the bill may be used to pick up food along the shore, but
when the power of flight is acquired and with it ability to feed in
the characteristic Skimmer manner, then the peculiar bill of these
birds becomes fully developed.

The young of all the Gulls and Terns are born covered with down and
can leave the nest a few hours after birth. The Noddy, however, is
said to be several weeks in its stick nest, which, unlike other
members of its group, it often builds in bushes.

The young are colored to harmonize with their usual surroundings.
Young Skimmers are pale, sandy brown, of the same color as the sand in
which they are hatched. Young Terns are darker, and young Laughing
Gulls born in nests of reeds or meadow grasses, are the darkest of the

All young Gulls and Terns have the habit of squatting low near the
ground in the presence of danger and remaining motionless until
actually touched when they seem to realize that they have been seen
and trust to their legs for safety.

Skua and Jaegers

  [Illustration: 35.]

=35. Skua= (_Megalestris skua_). L. 22. _Ads._ Above dark, dirty
brown; below paler. _Yng._ Similar, but more distinctly streaked with
yellowish, especially on head and neck.

Range.--North Atlantic, chiefly eastern; breeds from Shetland Islands
northward; winters south to Gibraltar, and rarely Long Island. One
specimen from California coast.

  [Illustration: 36.]

=36. Pomarine Jaeger= (_Stercorarius pomarinus_). L. 20; B. 1.5.
Middle tail feathers rounded. _Ads. light phase._ Cap black; throat,
breast, and neck, all around, white tinged with straw; back, lower
belly, upper and under tail coverts brownish slate. _Ads. dark phase._
Dark brown, paler below. _Yng._ Above blackish brown margined with
rusty; below white margined with dusky and buffy. _Notes._ "A low,
hoarse, chattering cry." (Nelson.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds north of Lat. 70°; winters, mainly
at sea, south to South America, southern Africa and Australia.

  [Illustration: 37.]

=37. Parasitic Jaeger= (_Stercorarius parasiticus_). L. 17; B. 1.1;
its scaly shield _longer_ than distance from end of shield to tip of
bill. _Ads._ Both phases similar in color to No. 36, but central tail
feathers _pointed_, 8.6 long. _Yng._ Similar in color to No. 36 but
smaller, bill shorter, middle tail feathers more pointed. _Notes._
"Loud wailing cries, interspersed with harsh shrieks." (Nelson.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds in Arctic regions; winters mainly
at sea, from California, Great Lakes, and Massachusetts south to South

  [Illustration: 38.]

=38. Long-tailed Jaeger= (_Stercorarius longicaudus_). L. 21; B. 1,
its scaly shield _shorter_ than the distance from its end to the tip
of bill. _Ads._ In both phases resembling No. 36 but central tail
feathers pointed and 12 in. long. _Yng._ Like No. 36 and No. 37, but
to be distinguished by differences in bill measurements. _Notes._
"A hoarse _qua_, a shrill _phĕū-phĕū-phĕū-pheo_, when flying; or a
rattling _kr-r-r-r-_, _kr-r-r-r_, _kr-r-r_, _krē-krē-_, _krē-krē_,
the latter syllables shrill and querulous." (Nelson.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds in Arctic regions; winters mainly
at sea, south to Gibraltar and Gulf of Mexico; one California record.

  [Illustration: Bills of 38 and 37 Nat. Size]


  [Illustration: 39.]

=39. Ivory Gull= (_Pagophila alba_). L. 17. _Ads._ Pure white; bill
yellow; feet black. _Yng._ Similar, but wings and tail tipped with
blackish; throat dusky.

Range.--Breeds in Arctic regions; winters south to Great Lakes and
British Columbia; rarely to Massachusetts.

  [Illustration: 40.]

=40. Kittiwake= (_Rissa tridactyla_). L. 16. Hind toe a knob. _Ads._
Head, neck all around, underparts, and tail white; 3 in. or less, of
tips of primaries black. _Yng._ Tip of tail, ear-coverts, nape, and
wing-coverts with black; bill black; inner web of primaries with
white. _Notes._ A rapidly uttered _'kit-a-wake_, _'kit-a-wake_.

Range.--North Atlantic and eastern Arctic regions; breeds in America,
from Gulf of St. Lawrence to Greenland; winters south to Great Lakes,
Long Island and, rarely, Virginia.

=40a. Pacific Kittiwake= (_Rissa tridactyla pollicaris_). Similar to
No. 40, but hind toe more developed; black tips to 3 outer primaries,
3 in. or more in length. _Notes._ "A shrill, harsh cry when disturbed
and a low whistle when communicating with each other." (Nelson.)

Range.--"North Pacific and Bering Sea; south in winter, casually to
southern California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 41.]

=41. Red-legged Kittiwake= (Rissa brevirostris). _Ads._ Similar to Ad.
of No. 40, but legs red, back and inner web of primaries darker; bill
shorter, 1.2. _Yng._ Similar to No. 40, but no black on tail or wings.

Range.--"Coasts and Islands of Bering Sea." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 54.]

=54. Ring-billed Gull= (_Larus delawarensis_). L. 18. _Ads., summer._
Rill greenish yellow, a black band across tip; ends of primaries
black, a white spot near tip of outer one. _Ads. Winter._ Similar, but
head and neck streaked with grayish. _Yng._ Tail grayish with a broad
black band; primaries black; back brownish gray and whitish; belly
white; end half of bill black.

Range.--North America, coast and interior; breeds from Newfoundland,
southern Minnesota, and British Columbia northward; winters from Nova
Scotia and British Columbia south to Cuba and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 55.]

=55. Short-billed Gull= (_Larus brachyrhynchus_). L. 17; B. 1.50
_Ads., summer._ Head, neck, tail, and underparts white. Two outer
primaries tipped with black, their white spaces followed by black;
remaining primaries tipped with white. _Yng._ Grayish brown; basal
half of tail pearl. _Notes._ "A sharp querulous _kwew-kwew_,"

Range.--North Pacific; breeds in Alaska and interior of northern
British Columbia; winters on coast from British Columbia to southern

  [Illustration: 42.]

=42. Glaucous Gull= (_Larus glaucus_). L. 28; W. 17.1; B. 2.35.  No
black in plumage. _Ads._ Primaries white tinted with pearl; bill with
red spot at end of lower mandible. _Yng._ Dirty white or gray, mottled
with dusky and buffy, chiefly above; primaries white; outer webs

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds in America, from Labrador
northward; winters south to middle California, Great Lakes and Long

=42.1. Point Barrow Gull= (_Larus barrovianus_). Similar to No. 42,
but bill through angle not so deep, (.8 as compared with .9 in
_glaucus_); primaries more distinctly tipped with white. _Notes._
"_kû-kû-kû_, _kû-kû-kû_, _kû-lēē-ōō_, _kû-lēē-ōō_, _kû-lēē-ōō_,
_kû-kû-kû_, _kû-kû-kû_, the _kû-kû_ hoarse, the rest a shrill
screaming." (Nelson.)

Range.--"Bering Sea and contiguous waters; northeast to Point Barrow,
southwest to Japan." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 43.]

=43. Iceland Gull= (_Larus leucopterus_). L. 25; W. 16; B. 1.75.
Similar in color to Nos. 42 and 42.1, but smaller.

Range.--Atlantic; breeds in Greenland; winters south in America to
Great Lakes, and rarely, Long Island.

  [Illustration: 44.]

=44. Glaucous-winged Gull= (_Larus glaucescens_). L. 27. _Ads.,
summer._ Head, tail, and underparts white; back pearl; primaries
_pearl_, tipped with _white_. _Ads., winter._ Head and neck streaked
with brownish. _Yng._ Brownish gray, more or less mixed with white,
including wings and tail.

Range.--North Pacific; breeds from British Columbia to Bering
Straits; winters south to southern California.

  [Illustration: 45.]

=45. Kumlien Gull= (_Larus kumlieni_). W. 16.2; B. 1.75. Similar to
No. 43, but primaries with well defined ashy gray spaces; outer
primary tipped with white, with ashy gray on outer web and shaft part
of inner web; second primary ashy gray on only shaft part of outer

Range.--"North Atlantic coast of North America, breeding in Cumberland
Gulf; south in winter to the coast of the Middle States." (A.O.U.)

=46. Nelson Gull= (_Larus nelsoni_). "Wing 18.25, culmen 2.35. _Ads._
In plumage exactly like _L. kumlieni_; depth of bill through
angle .80; tarsus 3.05; middle toe (without claw) 2.40." (Ridgway.)

Range.--"Coast of Norton Sound, Alaska." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 47.]

=47. Great Black-backed Gull= (_Larus marinus_). L. 29. _Ads.,
summer._ Back and wings slaty black; wing feathers tipped with white.
_Ads., winter._ Similar, but head and neck streaked with dusky. _Yng._
Back grayish brown margined with buffy white; rump whiter; primaries
black; below white more or less marked with dusky. _Notes._ "A braying
_ha-ha-ha_, a deep _keow_, _keow_, a short barking note, and a
long-drawn groan, very loud and decidedly impressive." (Brewster.)

Range.--North Atlantic and northern Europe; breeds in North America
from Nova Scotia to Greenland; winters south to Great Lakes and South

  [Illustration: 48.]

=48. Slaty-backed Gull= (_Larus schistisagus_). L. 26. _Ads., summer._
General appearance of No. 47; back lighter; primaries as figured.
_Ads., winter._ Head and neck streaked. _Yng._ Above brown margined
with buff and white; primaries brown; tail brown with little or no
mottling; below brown.

Range.--"North Pacific, chiefly on the Asiatic side; Herald Island,
Arctic Ocean, and Alaskan coast of Bering Sea." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 49.]

=49. Western Gull= (_Larus occidentalis_). L. 24. _Ads., summer._
Head, neck, tail, and underparts white; back slaty gray; outer
primaries black, a large white spot near tip of first one. _Ads.,
winter._ Crown and hind neck streaked with brownish. _Yng._ Grayish
brown mixed with white; wings and tail fuscous. _Notes._
_Ooēēk_, _ooēēk_, _ooēēk_; _ca-ca-ca_, and other calls.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds and winters from Lower California to
British Columbia.

  [Illustration: 57.]

=57. Heermann Gull= (_Larus heermanni_). L. 17. _Ads., summer._ Bill
red; head and throat white, shading into slate above and below; tail
blackish, tipped with white; primaries black. _Ads., winter._ Head and
neck streaked with grayish brown. _Yng._ Uniform grayish brown.

Range.--Pacific coast of North America; breeds from Mazatlan, Mexico,
north to Lower California; occurs regularly north to Vancouver Island;
winters south to Panama.

  [Illustration: 51.]

  [Illustration: 51.]

  [Illustration: 51. Immature]

=51. Herring Gull= (_Larus argentatus_). L. 24. _Ads., summer._ White
spaces at end of outer primaries sometimes joined. _Ads., winter._
Similar, but head and neck, streaked with grayish. _Yng._ Above ashy
brown, margined and marked with buffy; wings brownish black; tail the
same; sometimes margined with buffy; below ashy brown, sometimes
lightly barred or streaked with dusky. _Notes._ _Cack-cack-cack_;
_hah_, _hah_, _hah_, and other notes.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds in America from Maine, Great
Lakes, Minnesota, and British Columbia northward; winters south to
Cuba and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 52.]

=52. Vega Gull= (_Larus vegæ_). Similar to No. 51, but back said to be
darker; feet yellow.

Range.--"Bering Sea and adjacent waters; south in winter to California
and Japan." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 53.]

=53. California Gull= (_Larus californicus_). L. 20. _Ads._ Similar to
No. 54 but larger; a red spot near tip of lower mandible; white spot
on outer primary, larger and nearer end. _Yng._ Similar to No. 54 but
darker; tail nearly uniform fuscous.

Range.--Western North America; breeds chiefly in interior, from Utah
to Lat. 68°, 30'; winters from British Columbia to Mexico.

  [Illustration: 58.]

=58. Laughing Gull= (_Larus atricilla_). L. 16. _Ads., summer._ Head
dark slate; tail white; bill with reddish. _Ads., winter._ Similar,
but head and throat white with grayish on nape and behind eyes. _Yng._
Tail grayish with a broad black band; nape and back ashy brown;
forehead and under parts white. _Notes._ A nasal _cow-ow_, also
_cuk-cuk-cuk_, and a high, long-drawn laugh.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Texas and Florida to Maine
and Nova Scotia; rare in interior; winters from South Carolina to
northern South America.

  [Illustration: 59.]

=59. Franklin Gull= (_Larus franklini_). L. 15. _Ads., summer._ Breast
with a rosy tinge; outer primaries with wide black spaces near ends,
bordered at base and tip with white. _Ads., winter._ "Head mainly
white, with [its] sides and back grayish dusky." _Yng._ "Top and sides
of head and back grayish brown; quills dusky, tipped with white; tail
with subterminal band of dusky; rest of tail, under parts, forehead,
and eyelids white." (Bailey.)

Range.--Interior of North America; breeds from Iowa and Minnesota
northward to Great Bear Lake; winters from west Gulf States to South

  [Illustration: 60.]

=60. Bonaparte Gull= (_Larus philadelphia_). L. 14. _Ads., summer._
Outer web of outer primaries and tip black; inner web and shaft white;
bill black. _Ads., winter._ Similar, but throat and head white, its
back grayish. _Yng._ Tail white, tipped with black; outer primary
black, inner two-thirds of inner web and space near tip white; rest of
plumage much as in young of No. 58.

Range.--North America; breeds in interior from Hudson Bay and Manitoba
west to the Yukon; winters from British Columbia and Maine to Lower
California and Gulf of Mexico.

  [Illustration: 61.]

=61. Ross Gull= (_Rhodostethia rosea_) L. 13.5. Bill small, .7; middle
tail feathers longest. _Ads., summer._ White areas tinged with pink; a
black collar. _Ads., winter._ No collar; a black spot before eye.
_Yng._ Lesser coverts black, margined with whitish; tail white,
central feathers tipped with black; back pearl; ear spot and space
about eye dusky; crown white, washed with pearl.

Range.--"Arctic regions; south in autumn and winter to Kamchatka,
Point Barrow, Alaska and Disco Bay, Greenland." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 62.]

=62. Sabine Gull= (_Xema sabinii_). L. 14. Tail slightly forked.
_Ads., summer._ Head and throat slaty black, margined behind with
black; bill black, tipped with yellow; outer primaries black, small
tip and inner half of inner web white. _Ads., winter._ Similar, but
head and throat white; nape region dusky. _Yng._ Tail white, tipped
with black; crown and back ashy brown; forehead and underparts white.
_Notes._ "A single harsh grating note." (Nelson.)

Range.--Arctic regions: breeds in America from St. Michaels, Alaska
and Melville Bay, Greenland, northward; winters south on Atlantic
coast, rarely to New York; casually to Texas, and on Pacific coast to


  [Illustration: 64.]

=64. Caspian Tern= (_Sterna caspia_). L. 21. T. 6., forked 1.5.
Largest of our Terns. _Ads., breeding._ Bill red; cap black; above
pearl; below-white; _primaries frosty black_. After breeding, crown
streaked black and white; bill more orange. _Yng._ Similar to last but
wings and tail with blackish. _Notes._ A loud, harsh "_kay-awk_" or

Range.--Cosmopolitan; breeds in North America, locally from Texas to
Newfoundland and Great Slave Lake; winters mostly south of United
States; three California winter records.

  [Illustration: 65.]

=65. Royal Tern= (_Sterna maxima_). L. 19; T. 7, forked 3.5; B. 2.5.
_Ads., summer._ _Primaries frosty black_, _white on inner two-thirds
of inner web except at tip_, _where frosty_; bill orange red; crown
black; above pearl; below white. _Ads., winter._ The same, but head
white with black streaks. _Yng._ Similar to winter ad. but wings and
tail with grayish.

Range.--Middle America; breeds from southern Brazil and Peru to Gulf
States, Virginia, and California; wanders north to Great Lakes and
Massachusetts; winters from Gulf States and California southward.

  [Illustration: 66.]

=66. Elegant Tern= (_Sterna elegans_). L. 16.5; B. 2.7. Similar to
No. 65, but smaller; bill longer and more slender. _Ads._ Tinged
with shell pink below.

Range.--"Pacific coast of America from California to Chili." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 67.]

=67. Cabot Tern= (_Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida_). L. 16; T. 5.5,
forked 2.7. _Ads., breeding._ Bill black, _the tip yellow_; crown
black; above pearl; below white; primaries much as in No. 65. After
breeding, head white; nape with black streaks. _Yng._ Similar to last
but with back and tail with blackish; tip of bill less yellow.

Range.--Tropical America; breeds on east side of Mexico north along
Gulf Coast to Florida, and Atlantic coast to South Carolina; wanders
to Massachusetts; winters south of United States to West Indies and
Central America.

  [Illustration: 63.]

=63. Gull-billed Tern= (_Gelochelidon nilotica_). L. 14.5; T. 5.5.
_Ads., summer._ _Bill thick, short, black; tail short, forked only
1.5_; crown black; above pearl; below white. _Ads., winter._ Head
white, with black patch before and behind eye. _Yng._ Similar, but
above edged with buffy; head and neck streaked with grayish. _Notes._
A high, thin, somewhat reedy _tee-tee-tee_, sometimes suggesting a
weak-voiced katydid.

Range.--Cosmopolitan; breeds in North America from Mexico to Florida
and north to Virginia; wanders north rarely to New Brunswick; winters
from southern Texas southward.

  [Illustration: 73.]

=73. Aleutian Tern= (_Sterna aleutica_). L. 14. T. 6.7, forked 3.
_Ads., summer._ Above _and below_ pearl gray, browner below; throat
white; crown black; _forehead white; line from bill to eye black_.
_Ads., winter._ "With rather more white on forehead." (Cat. B. M.)
_Notes._ "A thin, clear, trilling whistle." (Nelson.)

Range.--Alaska from Kadiak to Bering Strait, southwest to Japan.

  [Illustration: 74.]

=74. Least Tern= (_Sterna antillarum_). L. 9; T. 3.5, forked 1.7.
_Ads., summer._ Bill _yellow_, _black_ at tip; forehead _white_;
_a black line_ from bill to eye; crown black; above pearl; below
white. _Ads., winter._ Crown white; nape black; bill dark; tail
shorter. _Yng._ Similar to last, but above with buffy or brownish.
_Notes._ "A sharp squeak much like the cry of a very young pig
following its mother."

Range.--Western hemisphere; breeds locally from northern South America
northward to Massachusetts, Dakota, and southern California; winters
south of United States.

  [Illustration: 76.]

=76. Bridled Tern= (_Sterna anæthetus_). L. 15. _Ads._ Forehead and
line _over_ eye white; _lores_ and crown black; nape whitish; back
sooty gray or sooty brown; _outer_ tail feathers white, except at tip;
inner ones grayish brown. _Notes._ A soft _qua_.

Range.--Tropical regions; north in Atlantic to the Bahamas; casual in

  [Illustration: 69.]

=69. Forster Tern= (_Sterna forsteri_). L. 15; T. 7, forked. 4. _Ads.,
summer._ _Inner_ web of outer tail feather dusky; below _pure white_;
bill _orange_, blackish at end; crown black; back pearl. _Ads.,
winter._ Crown white or grayish; _a large black spot about eyes_; bill
black. _Yng._ Similar to winter ad. but above with brownish. _Notes._
A long drawn, deep, reedy _cack_ and _tweet-tweet-tweet-tweet_.

Range.--North America; breeds locally north to California, and from
Texas along coast to Virginia and in interior to Manitoba; wanders to
Massachusetts; winters from southern California and Texas south to

  [Illustration: 70.]

=70. Common Tern= (_Sterna hirundo_). L. 15; T. 5.5, forked, 3.2
_Ads., summer._ Outer web of outer tail feather dusky; below white,
_washed with dusky_; bill _red_, blackish at end; crown black; back
pearl. _Ads., winter._ Forehead and underparts white; bill black.
_Yng._ Similar to last, but above with brownish; tail shorter.
_Notes._ A vibrant, purring, _tearrr_, and other calls.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; in America, chiefly east of Plains;
breeds locally on coast and in interior from Gulf States to Barren
Grounds and Greenland; winters south of United States to Brazil.

  [Illustration: 71.]

=71. Arctic Tern= (_Sterna paradisæa_). L. 15.5; T. 7.2 forked 4.5.
Similar to No. 70, but _summer ad._ with bill _wholly bright red_;
tail longer; tarsus shorter, .6 instead of .7. _Notes._ Like _tearr_
of No. 70, but shriller, ending in rising inflection, like squeal of a
pig. (Brewster.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds from Massachusetts north to
Greenland and northwest to Aleutian Islands and Alaska; winters south
to California and Virginia.

  [Illustration: 72.]

=72. Roseate Tern= (_Sterna dougalli_). L. 15.5; T. 7.5, forked, 5.2.
_Ads., summer._ _Bill black, reddish only at the base; below white
tinged with shell pink_; tail wholly white; crown black; back pearl.
_Ads., winter._ Forehead with white; no pink below. Notes. A reedy

Range.--Temperate and tropical regions; breeds in North America on
east coast only, from Florida north to Nova Scotia; rare north of
Virginia; winters south of United States to Venezuela.

  [Illustration: Foot of No. 70 Nat size]

  [Illustration: Foot of No. 71 Natural size]

Terns and Skimmer

  [Illustration: 75.]

=75. Sooty Tern= (_Sterna fuliginosa_). L. 17. _Ads., summer._
_Above blackish_, forehead and underparts white; tail black, except
outer feathers which are mostly white. _Yng._ Sooty slate; linings
of wings white; scapulars, upper tail coverts, and tail feathers
tipped with white. _Notes._ A squeaky _quack_, a nasal _ker-wacky-wak_,
and other calls.

Range.--"Tropical and subtropical coasts of the globe. In America from
Chili to western Mexico and the Carolinas, and casually to New
England." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 77.]

=77. Black Tern= (_Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis_). L. 10. _Ads.,
summer._ Head and underparts black; back, wings, and tail slate.
_Ads., winter._ Forehead, nape, and underparts _white_; head gray.
_Yng._ Similar to last, but above with brownish margins.
_Notes._ A sharp _peek_.

Range.--Temperate and tropical America; breeds in interior from
California, Kansas, and Illinois to Alaska; irregular migrant on
Atlantic coast from New Brunswick southward; winters south of
United States to Chili.

  [Illustration: 79.]

=79. Noddy= (_Anous stolidus_). L. 15. _Ads._ Crown silvery white;
rest of plumage _sooty brown_. _Yng._ Similar, but all sooty brown
except white line from bill to eye. _Notes._ A low reedy _cack_
increasing to a hoarse, guttural _k-r-r-r-r-r-r-r_.

Range.--"Tropical and subtropical regions; in America from Brazil and
Chili north to the Gulf and South Atlantic States." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 80.]

=80. Black Skimmer= (_Rynchops nigra_). L. 18. _Ads. Lower mandible
longer than upper_; forehead, underparts, part of secondaries, and
tail white; rest of plumage black. _Yng._ Plumage widely margined with
buffy. _Notes._ Varied, nasal, penny-trumpet-like; also _ca-you_,
_ca-you_, like a hound's voice.

Range.--North America, chiefly eastern; breeds from southern New
Jersey southward; wanders rarely to Nova Scotia; winters from Gulf
States to northern South America.



   Family 1. ALBATROSSES. Diomedeidæ. 4 species.

   Family 2. FULMARS, SHEARWATERS, and PETRELS. Procellariidæ.
     26 species, 1 subspecies.

The Albatrosses, of which about ten species are known, are birds of
far southern seas, where they nest on isolated islands. After the
young are reared, several species migrate northward and are found off
our Pacific coast. The largest known species, the Wandering Albatross,
which has been made famous by Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient
Mariner," measures from twelve to fourteen feet in expanse of wing,
and, like other members of this family, is a tireless ocean wanderer.

In the museum of Brown University, there is a mounted Wandering
Albatross, killed off the coast of Chili by Capt. Hiram Luther,
December 20, 1847. When captured, a small bottle was found tied around
the bird's neck, containing a slip of paper from which it was learned
that the bottle had been attached to the bird December 12, 1847, by
Capt. Edwards of the New Bedford Whaler, "Euphrates," when about 800
miles off the coast of New Zealand, or about 3,400 miles from the
point at which, eight days later, the bird was secured.

The Fulmars, (genus _Fulmarus_), are northern birds and nest in
immense numbers on isolated islets, somewhat like certain Gulls.

Comparatively little is known of the nesting places of our
Shearwaters, but it is believed that most of them breed on the islands
of the South Atlantic and South Pacific, and pass their winter, (our
summer) off our coasts.

One of the Petrels, (Wilson Petrel), is known to have this habit. It
has been found nesting on Kerguelen Island, in S. Lat. 49° 54', in
February, and in May it appears off our coasts for the summer.

Petrels nest in holes in the ground, laying one white egg. They are
never seen near their homes during the day, the bird then on the nest
waiting until night to feed, when the one which has been at sea
returns to assume its share of the task of incubation. Those birds are
therefore both diurnal and nocturnal.


  [Illustration: 81.]

=81. Black-footed Albatross= (_Diomedea nigripes_). L. 32. _Ads._
Sooty brown, lighter below; region about base of bill whitish; upper
mandible _broad and rounded at its base_. _Notes._ A whining groan,
uttered when contesting for food. (Turner).

Range.--North Pacific; north to Lat. 52°; south at least to Lower

  [Illustration: 82.]

=82. Short-tailed Albatross= (_Diomedea albatrus_). L. 36. _Ads._
White; the head straw; tail and primaries gray brown; upper mandible
broad and rounded at base.

Range.--North Pacific, north to Bering Strait; south, at least, to
Lower California.

  [Illustration: 82.1.]

=82.1. Laysan Albatross= (_Diomedea immutabilis_). L. 32. _Ads._ Head,
neck, rump, upper tail coverts, and whole under surface white; lores
next to the eye sooty black; back, wings, and end of the tail dark
sooty brown; interscapular region paler; base of the tail whitish.
(Cat. B. M.)

Range.--Laysan Island, Pacific Ocean; casual off the coast of Lower

=83. Yellow-nosed Albatross= (_Thalassogeron culminatus_). L. 36.
_Ads._ Above slate brown, grayer on head; rump white; below white;
neck sometimes grayish; tail gray.

Range.--"Indian and southern Pacific Oceans; casual off the coast of
Oregon; accidental in the Gulf of St. Lawrence." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 84.]

=84. Sooty Albatross= (_Phœbetria fuliginosa_). L. 35. _Ads._ _Sides
of lower mandible conspicuously grooved_; entire plumage sooty brown,
except a white eye-ring.

Range.--"Oceans of southern hemisphere, north to the coast of Oregon."

  [Illustration: BILLS VIEWED FROM ABOVE (84 and 81)]

Fulmars and Shearwaters

  [Illustration: 86.]

  [Illustration: Bill of 86 1/2 Size.]

  [Illustration: 86. Gray Phase]

=86. Fulmar= (_Fulmarus glacialis_). L. 19; W. 13; B. 1.5. _Ads. Light
phase._ Head, neck, and under parts white; back, wings, and tail slaty
gray. _Dark phase._ Uniform dark slaty gray. _Notes._ Silent.

Range.--North Atlantic, breeds from Lat. 69° northward; winters south
to Lat. of Massachusetts, and rarely to Virginia.

=86b. Pacific Fulmar= (_F. g. glupischa_). Similar to No. 86, but
nasal tubes light.

Range.--North Pacific; breeds from Bering Sea north; winters south to

=86.1. Rodger Fulmar= (_Fulmarus rodgersii_). Similar to light phase
of No. 86, but back with white feathers; no dark phase.

Range.--"Bering Sea and adjacent parts of North Pacific." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 87.]

  [Illustration: Bill of 87 1/2ze.]

=87. Slender-billed Fulmar= (_Priocella glacialoides_). L. 18.5.
_Ads._ Head and underparts white; back and tail pearl; primaries
black, _white on inner web_.

Range.--Southern Seas; north on Pacific coast to Washington.

  [Illustration: 94.]

  [Illustration: Bill of 94 1/2 Size.]

=94. Sooty Shearwater= (_Puffinus fuliginosus_). L. 17. _Ads._ Sooty
gray, lighter below.

Range.--"Atlantic Ocean, breeding in the southern hemisphere; a summer
visitor off our coast, from South Carolina northward." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 95.]

=95. Dark-bodied Shearwater= (_Puffinus griseus_). L. 17. _Ads._ Above
dusky black or brownish, paler below; under wing coverts _white_ and
dusky; bill black.

Range.--South Pacific; north in summer on the American coast to

=96.1. Wedge-tailed Shearwater= (_Puffinus cuneatus_). L. 17. T. 5.4,
pointed. _Ads._ Above brown; below white; sides of neck mottled with
gray; middle tail feathers nearly 2. longer than lateral ones. (Cat.
B. M.)

Range.--"North Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian Islands north to the
Bonin Group and Lower California." (A.O.U.)


  [Illustration: 88.]

=88. Cory Shearwater= (_Puffinus borealis_). L. 21. _Ads._ Above
grayish brown; below, including under wing coverts and _under tail
coverts, white_.

Range.--North Atlantic; recorded only off the coast from Massachusetts
to Long Island.

  [Illustration: 89.]

=89. Greater Shearwater= (_Puffinus gravis_). L. 20. _Ads._ Above
grayish brown or blackish; tips of longer upper tail coverts white;
below white; _middle of belly and under tail coverts ashy gray_.

Range.--"Atlantic Ocean, from Cape Horn and Cape of Good Hope north to
Arctic Circle." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 91.]

=91. Pink-footed Shearwater= (_Puffinus creatopus_). L. 19.5. _Ads._
Above dusky gray or brown; below white; sides and lower belly with
grayish; longer under tail coverts dusky brown; feet, flesh-color;
bill yellowish.

Range.--Pacific Ocean north on the American coast in summer and fall
to middle California.

  [Illustration: 92.]

=92. Audubon Shearwater= (_Puffinus lherminieri_). L. 12. _Ads._ Above
black or brownish black; below white; _under tail coverts sooty_.

Range.--Middle Atlantic; breeds in West Indies and Bahamas; wanders
north to Long Island.

  [Illustration: 93.]

=93. Black-vented Shearwater= (_Puffinus opisthomelas_). L. 15.
_Ads._ Above dusky _black_; below white; sides of breast grayish;
under tail coverts dusky brown; bill black.

Range.--"Pacific Ocean, chiefly southward; coast of Lower California
north to Santa Cruz, Cal." (A.O.U.)

=93.1. Townsend Shearwater= (_Puffinus auricularis_). Similar to No.
93, but bill and feet smaller, B. 1.2; above darker, nearly black;
black of head extending below eye. (Townsend.)

Range.--Pacific Ocean (Clarion Island, Lower California).

  [Illustration: 96.]

=96. Slender-billed Shearwater= (_Puffinus tenuirostris_). L. 13.,
bill slender 1.2 _Ads._ "Above dark sooty slate; beneath deep sooty
gray, paler on throat where sometimes inclining to whitish." (Ridgw.)

Range.--North Pacific, from Japan and Kotzebue Sound south on the
American coast to middle California.


  [Illustration: 98.]

=98. Black-capped Petrel= (_Æstrelata hasitata_). L. 15. _Ads._ Above
sooty brown; back of neck and upper tail coverts _white_; base of tail

Range.--Tropical Atlantic; irregular in United States (Florida,
Virginia, New York, Kentucky, Vermont, and Ontario.)

  [Illustration: 103.]

=103. Least Petrel= (_Halocyptena microsoma_). L. 5.7. _Ads._ Sooty
blackish brown, lighter below.

Range.--"Coast of Lower California south to Panama." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 105.]

=105. Forked-tailed Petrel= (_Oceanodroma furcata_). L. 8. 7.
_Ads._ Tail forked; bluish gray, wings darker; a blackish space
about eye.

Range.--North Pacific; breeds in Aleutian Islands; recorded north to
Bering Strait; winters south to California.

=105.1. Kaeding Petrel= (_Oceanodroma kaedingi_). W. 6. _Ads._ Similar
to _O. leucorrhoa_, but much smaller with much less deeply forked
tail. (Anthony.)

Range.--Pacific Ocean; (Socorro Islands, Lower California.)

  [Illustration: 108.]

=108. Ashy Petrel= (_Oceanodroma homochroa_). L. 8.5. _Ads._ No white
on rump; tail forked; sooty black above, browner below; wing coverts

Range.--"Coast of California; breeds on the Santa Barbara and
Farallone Islands." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 104.]

=104. Stormy Petrel; Mother Carey's Chicken= (_Procellaria pelagica_).
L. 5.5. _Ads._ Sooty black, browner below; upper tail coverts white,
_tipped with black_.

Range.--North Atlantic; winters south to western Africa and New

  [Illustration: 106.]

=106. Leach Petrel; Stormy Petrel= (_Oceanodroma leucorhoa_). L. 8.,
W. 6.2. _Ads._ Tail forked; above sooty brownish black; below browner;
_lesser wing coverts grayish brown_; longer upper tail coverts _not_
tipped with black. _Notes._ An elfin-like crow of eight notes.

Range.--North Atlantic and North Pacific; breeds from Maine to
Greenland and from Farallone to Aleutian Islands; winters south to
Virginia and California.

=106.1. Guadalupe Petrel= (_Oceanodroma macrodactyla_). L. 8.4; W.
6.4; T. 3.9, fork 1 in. deep. _Ads._ Similar to _O. leucorhoa_, but
with much longer and more deeply forked tail, larger feet, shorter
bill, and very broad dusky tips to the upper tail coverts. (Ridgw. in
Cat. B. M.)

Range.--Pacific Ocean; (Guadalupe Island, Lower California.)

  [Illustration: 107.]

=107. Black Petrel= (_Oceanodroma melania_.) L. 9. _Ads._ Sooty black,
paler below; wing-coverts grayish, tail forked.

Range.--South Pacific, north to Santa Barbara Islands; breeds on
Coronados Islands, southern California.

=108.1 Socorro Petrel= (_Oceanodroma socorroensis_). W. 5.5. _Ads._
Similar to No. 108, but wings longer; tail shorter and less deeply
forked; sides of rump _whitish_; no white on under surface of wing.

Range.--Pacific Ocean; (Socorro Island, southern California.)

  [Illustration: 109.]

=109. Wilson Petrel; Stormy Petrel= (_Oceanites oceanicus_). L. 7.
_Ads._ Webs of feet with yellow patch: tail not forked; longer upper
tail coverts not tipped with black. _Notes._ A weak _weet_, _weet_,
and a hoarse chattering _patret-tu-cuk-cuk-tu-tu_. (Wilson.)

Range.--Atlantic Ocean; breeds in Southern seas, (Kerguelen Island in
February), and migrates north to Newfoundland, spending summer off
coast of eastern United States.



   Family 1. TROPIC BIRDS. Phaëthontidæ. 2 species.

   Family 2. GANNETS. Sulidæ. 6 species.

   Family 3. DARTERS. Anhingidæ. 1 species.

   Family 4. CORMORANTS. Phalacrocoracidæ. 6 species, 5 subspecies.

   Family 5. PELICANS. Pelecanidæ. 3 species.

   Family 6. MAN-O'-WAR-BIRDS. Fregatidæ. 1 Species.

The members of this Order agree in having all four toes connected by
webs, but in other respects they differ widely in structure and,
consequently, in habit. The young of all the Steganopodes are born
naked, unlike the young of most of the other water birds, which, as a
rule, are hatched covered with feathers and can swim or run about soon
after birth. The nests of the Steganopodes are, of necessity,
therefore, more complex structures than those of birds whose nests are
merely incubators and not cradles as well.

Tropic Birds resemble the larger Terns, when in the air, but their
wing strokes are more rapid. They usually nest in holes in the face of
cliffs, and lay one whitish egg, marked with chocolate.

Gannets are true sea birds, but, as a rule, do not live very far from
the land. When breeding, Gannets are usually associated in great
numbers. Their nests, as a rule, are placed on the ground or on
cliffs, and one or two chalky white eggs are laid. At this season the
birds are exceedingly tame and in localities where they have not been
much molested, one may walk about among the sitting birds without
their taking flight. Gannets are powerful birds on the wing. Their
vigorous wing strokes are interrupted at intervals by short sails.
They feed on fish which they capture by diving from the air.

The Darters or Anhingas number four species, distributed throughout
the tropical parts of the globe, only one species inhabiting America.
This is generally called the Snakebird or Water Turkey in Florida,
where it is a common species on the more isolated rivers and lakes.
The name Snakebird is derived from the bird's habit of swimming with
the body submerged, when the long, sinuous neck, appearing above the
water, readily suggests a snake. At other times Snakebirds mount high
in the air and sail about, like Hawks, in wide circles. They build a
large, well-made nest in a bush or tree, generally over the water, and
lay four bluish white, chalky eggs.

Cormorants nest in large colonies, generally on isolated islets, but
sometimes in remote swamps. The nests are placed closely together on
the ground, in bushes, and less frequently in trees, according to the
nature of the bird's haunts.

Cormorants feed on fish which they catch by pursuing them under the
water. They dive from the surface of the water like Ducks, or from a
low perch, but not from the air, as do the Gannets.

Pelicans nest in colonies, generally on some small island, building
their nests on the ground or in bushes, and laying two or three large,
white, chalky eggs.

Brown Pelicans secure their food by plunging on it from the air,
generally from about twenty feet above the water. The sides of the
bill are then bowed outward, the opening widened, forming, with the
pouch, an effective net in which fish, twelve and fourteen inches
long, are captured.

White Pelicans, on the contrary, feed from the water, scooping up
fishes as they swim. At times a flock of these birds may surround a
school of small fish in shallow water and drive them shoreward, at the
same time actively filling their pouches.

Young Pelicans are fed on fish which they take from the pouch of the
parent bird by thrusting their bills and heads well into it and
prodding actively about for the food to be found there. Young
Cormorants secure their food in a similar manner.

Frigate Birds, of which only two species are known, have a greater
expanse of wing in proportion to the weight of their body than any
other bird. Their power of flight is consequently unexcelled and they
may spend days in the air without tiring. Their feet are as weak as
their wings are strong, and are of use only in perching.

The food of Frigate Birds consists chiefly of fish, which they catch
from near the surface of the water, or rob from Gulls and Terns by
pursuing them, forcing them to disgorge their prey, and catching it
ere it reaches the water.

Tropic Birds and Gannet

  [Illustration: 112.]

=112. Yellow-billed Tropic Bird= (_Phaëthon americanus_). L. 30;
T. 19. _Ads._ Bill yellow; no bars above; middle tail feathers
lengthened. _Yng._ Above barred with black; middle tail feathers not

Range.--Tropical coasts; breeds in West Indies, Bahamas and Bermudas;
casual in Florida; accidental in western New York and Nova Scotia.

  [Illustration: 113.]

=113. Red-billed Tropic Bird= (_Phaëthon æthereus_). L. 30; T. 20.
_Ads._ Bill red; above barred with black; long middle tail feathers
pure white.

Range.--"Coasts of tropical America, north on the Pacific coast to
Cape Colnett, Lower California; accidental on the Newfoundland Banks.
Breeds on San Pedro Martir and other Islands in the Gulf of
California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 117.]

  [Illustration: 117. Immature.]

=117. Gannet= (_Sula bassana_). L. 35. _Ads._ White; head and neck
tinged with straw; primaries blackish. _Yng._ Grayish brown with white
spots. _Notes._ A harsh _gor-r-r-rok_.

Range.--North Atlantic; breeds, in America, only on Bird Rock and
Bonaventure Islands, Gulf of St. Lawrence; winters off the coast,
south to Florida.


  [Illustration: 114.]

=114. Blue-faced Booby= (_Sula cyanops_). L. 28. _Ads._ Body and
lesser wing coverts white; central tail feathers whitish, others dark
brown. _Yng._ Above plain dark grayish brown with some grayish
streaks; below white; flanks streaked with grayish.

Range.--Tropical seas; north in America to Lower California and
Bahamas; casual in southern Florida.

  [Illustration: 114.1.]

=114.1. Blue-footed Booby= (_Sula nebouxii_). L. 33. _Ads._ Head,
neck, and underparts white, the first two streaked with grayish; back
dusky brownish, tipped with whitish; legs and feet bright blue.

Range:--Pacific coast of America, from Gulf of California to Galapagos
and Chili. (Cat. B. M.)

  [Illustration: 115.]

  [Illustration: 115. Immature.]

=115. Booby= (_Sula sula_). L. 30. _Ads._ Breast and belly white; bill
and feet yellow. _Yng._ Entirely brownish, lighter below; bill
blackish; feet yellow. _Notes._ A harsh, guttural _bork_, _hork_.

Range.--"Atlantic coasts of tropical and subtropical America, north to
Georgia. Also, West Pacific and Indian Oceans." (A.O.U.) Accidental
on Long Island. No United States breeding record.

=115.1. Brewster Booby= (_Sula brewsteri_). L. 30. _Ads._ Similar to
No. 115, but head and neck paler, bill blue, feet greenish.

Range,--"Coasts and Islands of the eastern south Pacific Ocean, north
to Lower California; breeding as far north as Georges Island at the
head of the Gulf of California." (A.O.U.)

=116. Red-footed Booby= (_Sula piscator_). L. 28. Feet _reddish_.
_Ads._ White; head and nape straw color; primaries _hoary grayish
brown_; tail _white_. _Yng._ Above sooty brown; head, neck, and lower
parts light smoky gray. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Tropical seas, except Pacific coast of America (Cat. B. M.);
north in Atlantic to Bahamas and, rarely, southern Florida.


  [Illustration: 119. Breeding Plumage]

=119. Cormorant= (_Phalacrocorax carbo_). L. 36; T. 7.5, of 14
feathers. _Ads._ Chin and sides of throat whitish; back glossy
brownish, _distinctly_ margined with black; below uniform shining
black. _Breeding plumage._ Head and throat with white plumes; a white
patch on flanks. _Yng._ _Belly white_; above olive grayish brown,
margined with black; throat _whitish_; neck brownish.

Range.--North Atlantic; breeds from Nova Scotia to Greenland; winters
south to Carolinas.

  [Illustration: 120. Breeding Plumage]

=120. Double-crested Cormorant= (_Phalacrocorax dilophus_). L. 30; W.
12.5; T. 6.2, of 12 feathers. _Ads._ Back brownish with distinct black
margins; below shining black. _Breeding plumage._ With tufts on either
side of head black, sometimes mixed with white; throat pouch orange.
_Yng._ Back browner; head, neck, and lower belly brown; breast

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds locally from Bay of Fundy,
Minnesota, North Dakota, northward; west to Assiniboia; winters from
southern Illinois and Virginia southward.

  [Illustration: 120a.]

=120a. Florida Cormorant= (_P. d. floridanus_). Similar to No. 120,
but blacker and smaller. L. 25.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States; breeds north to North Carolina
and southern Illinois.

=120b. White-crested Cormorant= (_P. d. cincinatus_). Similar to No.
120, but larger, L. 36; nuptial crests _white_.

Range.--Pacific coasts; breeds in Alaska; winters south to California.

=120c. Farallone Cormorant= (_P. d. albociliatus_). Similar to 120b.,
but smaller, L. 28.

Range.--Breeds on California coast and in interior, south to Socorro
Island. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 121 Breeding Plumage]

=121. Mexican Cormorant= (_Phalacrocorax mexicanus_). L. 25. W. 10.
_Ads._ Narrow border at base of pouch white. _Breeding plumage._ Neck
with white plumes. _Yng._ Head and hindneck brownish; back grayish,
margined with black; throat, foreneck and breast brownish white; belly

Range.--Breeds In West Indies and Central America to west Gulf
States; north in summer rarely to Kansas and southern Illinois.

  [Illustration: Hind Toe. Outer Toe. Foot of Cormorant.]

  [Illustration: 122. Breeding Plumage.]

=122. Brandt Cormorant= (_Phalacrocorax penicillatus_). L. 35; T. 6.
Chin and sides of throat _buffy white or brownish_. _Ads._ Above blue
black, _faintly_ margined with black; below green black. _Breeding
plumage._ With white, hair-like plumes from back and neck; no white on
flanks; throat pouch blue. _Yng._ Above dark brown; throat and belly
whitish; breast and sides brown.

Range.--Pacific coast from Cape St. Lucas to Washington; resident.

=123. Pelagic Cormorant= (_Phalacrocorax pelagicus_). L. 28; W. 10;
T. 6.2. Forehead _feathered_; back feathers _not_ margined. _Ads._
Above glossy green and purplish black; below bottle green. _Breeding
plumage._ With white plumes on neck and rump and white patches on
flanks; nape and forehead, crested. _Yng._ Above greenish dusky brown,
less green below.

Range.--"Aleutian and Kuril Islands, and Kamchatka, south to Japan."

  [Illustration: 123a. Breeding Plumage]

=123a. Violet-green Cormorant= (_P. p. robustus_). Similar to No. 123,
but larger; bill stouter, W. 10.8.

Range.--"Coast of Alaska, from Norton Sound south to Washington."

  [Illustration: 123b.]

=123b. Baird Cormorant= (_P. p. resplendens_). Similar to No. 123, but
smaller; bill slenderer; W. 9.5. _Notes._ A croaking, guttural note.

Range.--Pacific coast from Washington south to Mazatlan, Mexico.

  [Illustration: 124. Breeding Plumage]

=124. Red-faced Cormorant= (_Phalacrocorax urile_). L. 34. _Forehead_
as well as lores bare. _Ads._ Above green and purple; head and neck
blue black; belly green. _Breeding plumage._ With forehead and nape
crests and white patches on flanks. _Notes._ "A low, droning croak."

Range.--"Pribilof, Aleutian, and Kuril Islands, and coast of
Kamchatka. South in winter to northern Japan." (A.O.U.)

Anhinga, Pelicans, and Man-o'-War bird

  [Illustration: 118.]

=118. Anhinga; Snakebird; Water Turkey= (_Anhinga anhinga_). L. 36.
_Ad._ [Male]. Black; grayish head and neck plumes which, in winter,
are absent. _Ad._ [Female]. Resembles male but whole head, neck, and
breast brownish. _Yng._ Similar to [Female] but black parts duller.
_Notes._ A rasping, clattering croak, uttered when fighting or in
coming to the nest.

Range.--Tropical and subtropical America; breeds north to southern
Illinois and South Carolina; winters from Gulf States southward.

  [Illustration: 125.]

=125. American White Pelican= (_Pelecanus erythrorhynchos_). L. 60.
_Ads._ White; primaries black; bill in breeding season with a knob.
_Yng._ With crown brownish.

Range:--North America; breeds in interior from eastern California,
Utah, Yellowstone Park, Minnesota (?) northward to Lat. 61°; winters
from Gulf States and southern California, south to Central America.

  [Illustration: 126.]

=126. Brown Pelican= (_Pelecanus occidentalis_). L. 50; W. 19.5.
_Ads._ Pouch greenish; head white, rarely yellowish; neck brown. In
fall, no brown on neck. _Yng._ Brownish gray, white below. _Notes._
Adults as a rule silent; young before flying, very noisy.

Range:--Atlantic and Gulf coast of tropical and subtropical America;
breeds from northern South America to South Carolina; has strayed to
Illinois and Nova Scotia; winters from Gulf States southward.

=127. California Brown Pelican= (_Pelecanus californicus_). Similar to
No. 126, but larger. L. 54; W. 21; pouch in breeding season, red.

Range.--Pacific coast from Galapagos north to British Columbia; breeds
north only to Los Coronados Islands.

  [Illustration: 128.]

=128. Man-o'-War Bird; Frigate Bird= (_Fregata aquila_). L. 40. _Ad._
[Male]. Black, glossy above; pouch "scarlet or orange." _Ad._
[Female]. Browner; breast and belly white. _Yng._ Similar to [Female],
but head and neck white. _Notes._ Usually silent; rarely a croaking

Range:--Tropical and subtropical coasts; in America north to Florida,
Texas, and southern California; casually to Kansas, Ohio and Nova
Scotia; winters from southern Florida and Lower California southward.



  Family 1. DUCKS, GEESE, and SWANS. Anatidæ. 49 species, 6 subspecies.

The Anatidæ of North America are placed in five well-marked
subfamilies, the Mergansers (_Merginæ_), River Ducks (_Anatinæ_), Sea
Ducks (_Fuligulinæ_), Geese (_Anserinæ_), and Swans (_Cygninæ_).

The Mergansers, Saw-bills, or Shelldrakes are fish-eating Ducks and
their rounded bills, set with tooth-like projections along the sides,
are of evident use to them in holding their prey.

The River Ducks include such well-known species as the Mallard, Black
Duck, and Widgeon. They differ from the Bay or Sea Ducks in not having
a well-developed web or flap on the hind-toe. As a rule they feed in
shallow water by tipping, standing on their heads, as it were, while
reaching the bottom for food.

The Bay or Sea Ducks have the hind-toe webbed. They feed, as a rule,
in deeper water than the River Ducks, sometimes descending to the
bottom in water over one hundred feet deep. During the winter they
gather in flocks often of several thousand individuals, and frequent
the larger bodies of water.

With both the River and Bay Ducks the sides of the broad, flat bill
are set with gutters which serve as strainers, retaining the mollusks,
seeds and roots of aquatic plants on which these Ducks feed, while the
mud or water taken in with the food is forced out the sides of the
bill as it closes.

Geese are more terrestrial than Ducks and often visit the land to nip
the grass. This is particularly true in the west where large flocks
of, Geese, especially Snow Geese, may be seen feeding on the prairies.
On the water they feed over shallows by tipping and probing the

Swans also feed from the surface of the water either by simply
immersing the head and neck or by half submerging the body, when, with
the tail pointed to the zenith, the length of their reach is greatly

In spite of their comparatively short wings the large muscles attached
to them give to the Anatidæ great power of flight. Not only do they
make extended journeys, when migrating, without a rest, but they
attain a speed which is surpassed by but few birds. Some of the
smaller species, when alarmed, doubtless flying at the rate of one
hundred miles an hour.

In common with other diving water birds the Ducks, when molting, lose
most of their wing feathers all at once, and for a time are therefore
unable to fly. During this comparatively helpless period the brightly
colored males assume in part the plumage of the females and are
thereby rendered less conspicuous. With the return of the power of
flight, however, they regain their distinctive, male plumage, which is
usually brighter than that of the female. With our Geese and Swans
there is no sexual difference in color.

Most of our Ducks and Geese breed in the north, some within the Arctic
Circle, and winter from the southern limit of frozen water southward.
The American Merganser, Hooded Merganser, Wood Duck, Buffle-head,
Golden-Eyes, Tree Ducks, and possibly Harlequin Duck nest in hollow
trees, at times some distance from the water. The young of the
American Golden-eye and of the Wood Duck have been seen to reach the
water by jumping from the nest-hole and fluttering down in response to
the calls of the parent below. It is said that they are also brought
down in the bill of the old bird, but this statement apparently lacks

The remaining species of our Ducks, Geese, and Swans, nest as a rule,
on the ground generally near water. From five to fifteen and, in the
case of the Fulvous Tree Duck, possibly as many as thirty eggs are
laid. In color they vary from white to buffy and pale olive and are
always uniformly colored. Incubation is performed by the female alone.
The males at this period among most Ducks deserting their mate to
undergo the partial molt before mentioned. While incubating the
females surround their nest with soft down plucked from their bodies
and when leaving the nest to feed, this down is drawn over the eggs
with the double object, doubtless, of concealing them and of keeping
them warm.

With Eider Ducks this down constitutes the larger part of, if not the
entire nest. Saunders states that in Iceland the down in each nest
weighs about one-sixth of a pound. This is gathered by the natives,
who, however, are careful to afford the sitting bird an opportunity to
raise her brood without further molestation.

The collection of Eider down thus furnishes an admirable illustration
of proper economic relations between man and birds. The down is an
important source of income to the natives of the comparatively barren,
northern countries in which the Eiders nest. So long as man can
remember it has been gathered annually. Still the Ducks continue to
return in numbers year after year to the same region, perhaps the
exact spot in which they nested the year before.

Less intelligent methods would perhaps rob the bird of its second, as
well as of its first nest and, unable to reproduce its kind, the
species would become extinct within a comparatively short period.

The evils which would follow such a course are, however, thoroughly
understood. The Ducks, in the first place, are encouraged in every
way. It is said that should one walk into a peasant's cabin and
preempt his cot as a nesting-site, the peasant would gladly give up
his bed to so valuable a visitor.


  [Illustration: 129.]

=129. American Merganser= (_Merganser americanus_). L. 25; B. from
nostril, 1.5; nostril midway between eye and tip of bill. _Ad._
[Male]. No band of streaks on breast; no crest. _Ad._ [Female]. and
_Yng._ _Chin white_; crown and throat reddish brown; rest of
underparts and speculum white; above and tail ashy.

Range.--North America; breeds from New Brunswick, rarely mountains of
Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and mountains of Colorado and California
northward; winters from Maine and British Columbia south to South
Carolina and southern California.

  [Illustration: 130.]

=130. Red-breasted Merganser= (_Merganser serrator_). L. 22; B. from
nostril, 1.8; nostril nearer to eye than to tip of bill. _Ad._ [Male].
Breast with a broad cinnamon band streaked with black; head feathers
lengthened. _Ad._ [Female] _and Yng_. Crown grayish brown, washed with
rusty. Chin and throat paler; rest of underparts and speculum white:
back and tail ashy. _Notes._ When alarmed, several low, guttural
croaks. (Elliot.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds, in America, from New Brunswick
and northern Illinois north to Greenland and Alaska; winters from
southern breeding limits, south to Cuba and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 131.]

=131. Hooded Merganser= (_Lophodytes cucullatus_). L. 17.5. _Ad._
[Male]. A large, circular black and white crest. _Ad._ [Female] _Yng._
A small cinnamon crest, head, neck and breast grayish brown; back,
blackish; belly white. _Notes._ "A hoarse croak, like a small edition
of that of the Red-breasted Merganser." (Elliot.)

Range.--North America from Cuba and Lower California north to Labrador
and Alaska; breeds locally throughout its range, chiefly in interior
of British America; winters from British Columbia, Illinois, and
Massachusetts southward.

  [Illustration: 132.]

=132. Mallard= (_Anas boschas_). L. 23. Speculum (patch in wing)
purple bordered by black and _white_; under surface of wing pure
white. _Ad._ [Male]. Head green; breast chestnut, a white neck-ring.
_Ad._ [Female]. Above blackish and buffy, below rusty buff mottled
with dusky grayish brown. _Notes._ The familiar _quack_ of the
barn-yard Duck.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds, in America, from Labrador,
Indiana, Iowa, and California north to Greenland and Alaska; winters
from British Columbia, Kansas, and New Jersey to Central America and
West Indies.

  [Illustration: 143.]

=143. Pintail= (_Dafila acuta_). L. [Male], 28; [Female], 22. _Ad._
[Male]. Central tail feathers black, 7.5 long, pointed. _Ad._
[Female]. Tail 3.5,; feathers _sharply pointed_; brownish black, with
buff bars; under wing-coverts _dusky_ and _buff_; back blackish with
_internal_ buff loops. _Notes._ A loud _quack_, less sonorous than
that of the Mallard; a low mellow whistle, and a harsh rolling note.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds, in America, from New Brunswick,
Iowa, Illinois, and British Columbia northward; winters from British
Columbia, Illinois, and Virginia, south to Central America and West

  [Illustration: 133.]

=133. Black Duck= (_Anas obscura_). L. 22. _Ads._ Speculum bluish
purple tipped with _black_; no white in wing; lining of wing white and
_dusky_; crown _without_ paler margins; throat, usually, without
markings; legs "olivaceous brown," bill "greenish black, dusky olive,
or olive-green." _Notes._ A _quack_ resembling that of the Mallard.

Range.--Eastern North America; chiefly east of Mississippi; breeds
locally from New Jersey and Illinois north to Labrador and Hudson Bay;
winters from Maine to West Indies.

=133a. Red-legged Black Duck= (_A. o. rubripes_). Similar to No. 133
but larger; crown edged with buff or gray; throat spotted; legs red;
bill yellow.

Range.--Summer range not definitely known, but breeding specimens have
been taken in northern Labrador, James Bay, and west shore of Hudson
Bay; in winter south to Virginia and Arkansas.

  [Illustration: 134.]

_134. Florida Duck_ (_Anas fulvigula_). L. 20. _Ads._ Throat and front
of neck plain buff, usually unmarked; speculum sometimes tipped with
white; belly rusty buff; broadly _streaked_ with black. _Notes._ A
_quack_ similar to that of No. 133.

Range.--Florida to coast of Louisiana; resident.

=134a. Mottled Duck= (_A. f. maculosa_). Similar to No. 134, but
underparts _mottled_ with black, the markings being _rounder_.

Range.--Eastern Texas; breeds (at least) from Corpus Christi north to
Kansas; winters on west Gulf Coast.

  [Illustration: 135.]

=135. Gadwall= (_Chaulelasmus streperus_), L. 19.5. Under wing coverts
and axillars _pure white_. _Ad._ [Male]. Wing-coverts chestnut; breast
_ringed_ with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Head and throat as in [Male],
back fuscous and buffy; breast and _sides_ ochraceous thickly spotted
with blackish; speculum ashy gray and white. _Notes._ A _quack_ like
that of the Mallard but shriller and more often repeated.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; in America, breeds in the interior from
Kansas and California north to Manitoba and Assiniboia; winters from
Maryland to Florida, rare in northeastern Atlantic States.

  [Illustration: 136.]

=136. Widgeon= (_Mareca penelope_). L. 18.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Head and
neck reddish brown; crown buff; sides with wavy black and white lines.
_Ad._ [Female]. Head and throat _rusty_, finely streaked and barred
with black; breast and sides rusty; speculum blackish. _Notes._ Of
male, a shrill, whistling _whee-you_; of female, a low, purring growl.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds in America, only in the Aleutian
Islands; casual in migrations and in winter in California and on
Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Greenland.

  [Illustration: 137.]

=137. Baldpate= (_Mareca americana_). L. 19. No rusty on head. _Ad._
[Male]. Under tail-coverts black; streak from eye to nape glossy
green. _Ad._ [Female]. Head and throat _whitish_ finely marked with
black; breast and sides rusty washed with grayish. _Notes._ "A low,
soft whistle." (Elliot.)

Range.--North America; breeds in the interior from Minnesota and
British Columbia north to Alaska; winters from British Columbia and
Virginia south to South America; only a migrant on northeast Atlantic
coast to Labrador.

  [Illustration: 139.]

=139. Green-winged Teal= (_Nettion carolinensis_). L. 14.5.
Wing-coverts gray, tipped with buff or white. _Ad._ [Male]. A white
crescent in front of wing; speculum (wing-patch) green bordered by
black tipped with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Wings as in [Male]; throat
and sides of neck white, finely spotted with black; breast and sides
washed with rusty, marked with black. _Notes._ A "peculiar chirping
almost a twittering" as they fly. (Seton.)

Range.--North America; breeds from New Brunswick, Minnesota, and
British Columbia north to Greenland and Alaska; winters from Virginia,
Kansas, and British Columbia south to Central America and West Indies.

  [Illustration: 140.]

=140. Blue-winged Teal= (_Querquedula discors_). Wing-coverts blue.
_Ad._ [Male]. Cheek patch white. _Ad._ [Female]. Resembles [Female] of
No. 139, but wing-coverts blue; speculum greenish brown not distinctly
tipped with white. L. 16.

Range.--North America; chiefly east of Rockies; breeds from New
Brunswick, Kansas, southern Illinois and northern Ohio, north to
Alaska, mainly in interior; winters from Virginia and Lower
Mississippi Valley to northern South America, California, and Lower

  [Illustration: 141.]

=141. Cinnamon Teal= (_Querquedula cyanoptera_). _Ad._ [Male]. Head
and neck, breast and sides reddish brown. _Ad._ [Female]. Resembles
[Female] of No. 140, but the underparts, _including throat_, are
usually suffused with rusty; the throat often being blackish or
speckled with dusky. _Notes._ A rather thin, nasal _quack_. L. 16.

Range.--Western North America from British Columbia south to South
America, east to Rockies and south Texas; rarely to Florida.

  [Illustration: 142.]

=142. Shoveller= (_Spatula clypeata_). L. 20. Bill much broader at tip
than at base. _Ad._ [Male]. Belly chestnut; breast around to back
white. _Ad._ [Female]. Wing-coverts blue; back conspicuously margined
with buff. _Notes._ "Occasionally a few feeble quacks." (Elliot.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; in America chiefly in interior; breeds
locally from Texas, and regularly from Minnesota and British Columbia
north to Alaska and Barren Grounds; winters from British Columbia,
Illinois, and Maryland south to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 144.]

=144. Wood Duck= (_Aix sponsa_). L. 18.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Head crested;
green, blue, and purple with white stripes. _Ad._ [Female]. A white
streak through and behind eye; crown glossy purplish brown; back
olive-brown glossed with greenish. _Notes._ A frightened, plaintive,

Range.--North America; breeds locally from Florida to Labrador and
British Columbia, winters from British Columbia, southern Illinois,
and southern New Jersey, south to southern California and Cuba.

  [Illustration: 146.]

=146. Redhead= (_Aythya americana_). L. 19. _Ad._ [Male]. Head and
_upper_ neck entirely bright reddish brown. _Ad._ [Female]. Throat
white; back grayish brown without fine bars; speculum gray.
_Notes._ "A hoarse guttural rolling sound." (Elliot.)

Range.--North America; breeds chiefly in interior from Maine,
Minnesota, and California north to Labrador and British Columbia;
winters from British Columbia and Maryland south to Lower California
and West Indies.

  [Illustration: 147.]

=147. Canvas-back= (_Aythya vallisneria_). L. 21. _Ad._ [Male]. Head
and _whole_ neck _dull_ reddish brown. _Ad._ [Female]. Head and neck
_rusty_ grayish brown; back grayish brown, _finely barred with black
and white_. _Notes._ "A harsh guttural croak." (Elliot.)

Range.--North America; breeds only in interior from Minnesota and
Oregon north to Alaska and the Barren Grounds; winters from British
Columbia and Maryland south to southern California, Mexico and West

  [Illustration: 148.]

=148. American Scaup Duck= (_Aythya marila_). L. [Male], 18.5;
[Female], 17.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Head glossed with greenish; sides
without distinct black bars. Ad. [Female]. Feathers about base of bill
white; breast and back rusty grayish brown; speculum white. _Notes._
"Similar to the guttural sound made by the Canvas-back, Redhead and
other diving Ducks." (Elliot.)

Range.--Northern parts of northern hemisphere; in America, breeds in
the interior rarely from Minnesota, and regularly from North Dakota
northward; winters from Long Island to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 149.]

=149. Lesser Scaup Duck= (_Aythya affinis_). L. [Male] 17; [Female],
16.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Head glossed with purplish; sides with distinct
black bars. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to [Female] of No. 148, but

Range.--North America; breeds only in interior from Iowa rarely, North
Dakota commonly, and British Columbia, north to Barren Grounds;
winters from British Columbia and Virginia south to Guatemala and West

  [Illustration: 150.]

=150. Ring-necked Duck= (_Aythya collaris_). L. 16.5. _Ad._ [Male]. A
chestnut neck-ring; chin _white_; back _black_; speculum _gray_. _Ad._
[Female]. Feathers about sides of base of bill and throat white, back
and breast _rusty_ grayish brown; speculum gray. Resembles [Female] of
No. 146, but is smaller and rustier.

Range.--North America: breeding only in the interior from Minnesota
northward; winters from Maryland and British Columbia south to
Guatemala and West Indies; rare on Atlantic coast north of Maryland.

  [Illustration: 151.]

=151. American Golden-eye= (_Clangula clangula americana_). L. 20.
_Ad._ [Male]. Head _greenish_; white patch at base of bill _circular_.
_Ad._ [Female]. Head and throat brown; breast and back gray, a white
throat-ring; belly and speculum white. _Notes._ Rarely a low croak; a
high whistling sound produced by wings in flight.

Range.--North America; breeds from Maine, northern Minnesota, and
Alberta, north to Arctic Regions; winters from southern Alaska, the
Great Lakes and Maine, south to Mexico and Cuba.

  [Illustration: 152.]

=152. Barrow Golden-eye= (_Clangula islandica_). L. 20. _Ad._ [Male].
Head _purplish blue_; white patch at base of bill _twice as high as
wide_. _Ad._ [Female]. Resembles [Female] of No. 151. _Notes._ A high
whistling made by wings in flight, probably also a low croaking as in
No. 151.

Range.--Northern North America; breeds from Gulf of St. Lawrence, and
mountains of Colorado north to southern Greenland; winters south to
Virginia, Illinois, and California.

  [Illustration: 153.]

=153. Buffle-head= (_Charitonetta albeola_). L. 14.7. _Ad._ [Male].
Head blue, purple, and green; a white band from eye to eye across
nape. _Ad._ [Female]. A whitish patch on either side of head; throat
and upper parts grayish brown; belly and speculum white. _Notes._ A
single guttural note like a small edition of the Canvas-back's roll.

Range.--North America; breeds from Maine, Iowa, and British Columbia
northward; winters from southern limit of breeding range to West
Indies and Mexico.

  [Illustration: 167.]

=167. Ruddy Duck= (_Erismatura jamaicensis_). L. 15. Tail-feathers
narrow and stiff; bill short (1.5) and broad. _Ad._ [Male]. Cheeks
white, cap black, back reddish brown. _Ad._ [Female]. A whitish streak
through dusky cheeks; back grayish brown with fine buffy bars; belly
silvery whitish. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar, but cheeks all white or

Range.--Western hemisphere from northern South America to Hudson Bay;
breeds locally throughout its range, but chiefly northward; winters
from New Jersey, southern Illinois and California southward.

  [Illustration: 168.]

=168. Masked Duck= (_Nomonyx dominicus_). L. 14. Tail-feathers long,
(4.5) narrow, stiff and pointed. _Ad._ [Male]. Front of head black;
behind it reddish brown all around; white in wing. _Ad._ [Female]. A
brownish streak through eye: buffy streaks above and below it; back
blackish regularly _barred_ with buff; below washed with rusty.

Range--Tropical America north to Lower Rio Grande; accidental in
Wisconsin, Lake Champlain, and Massachusetts.

  [Illustration: 154. Winter]

  [Illustration: 154. Summer]

=154. Old-squaw= (_Harelda hyemalis_). L. [Male], 21; [Female], 16;
T. [Male], 8; [Female], 2.5. No colored speculum. _Ad._ [Male].
Central tail-feathers much lengthened; in winter, crown, nape, throat,
and neck all around white. In summer, black, with rusty markings on
back. _Ad._ [Female]. winter. Cheeks, neck all around, and underparts
white; breast and sides of neck dusky. In summer, crown, cheeks and
nape blackish, throat and breast dusky; a whitish patch back of eye.
_Notes._ In spring, a rich, musical _a-leedle-a_, frequently repeated in
deep, reed-like tones. (Nelson.) Also "_o-onc-o-onc-ough-egh-ough-egh_."

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds from northern Labrador and
Aleutian Islands north to Arctic Ocean; winters south to Virginia,
Upper Mississippi Valley, and California, "rarely to Florida and

  [Illustration: 155.]

=155. Harlequin Duck= (_Histrionicus histrionicus_). L. 17. _Ad._
[Male]. Back and breast slaty blue; head darker. _Ad._ [Female]. Front
half of cheeks and spot over ears whitish, above blackish brown; below
dusky and whitish. _Notes._ "A confusion of low gabbling and
chattering notes." (Nelson.)

Range.--"Northern North America, breeding from Newfoundland, the
northern Rocky Mountains, and the Sierra Nevadas (latitude 38°),
northward; south in winter to the Middle States and California;
eastern Asia, Iceland." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 156.]

=156. Labrador Duck= (_Camptolaimus labradorius_). L. 20. _Ad._
[Male]. Primaries blackish; rest of wing white. _Ad._ [Female]. Ashy
gray: speculum white. _Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female] but throat and ends
of greater wing-coverts white.

Range.--Formerly North Atlantic coast; bred from Labrador northward;
wintered south to New Jersey; believed to be extinct; last records,
Grand Menan, New Brunswick, 1871; Long Island, 1875.

  [Illustration: 157.]

=157. Steller Eider= (_Eniconetta stelleri_). L. 18. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat and neck black nearly divided by a white ring; top and sides
of head white, forehead and nape greenish; breast chestnut. _Ad._
[Female]. Above and below black and rusty, speculum purple bordered
with white; tail feathers pointed.

Range.--"Arctic and subarctic coasts of the northern hemisphere,
Aleutian Islands, east to Unalaska and Kadiak; Kenai Peninsula."

  [Illustration: 158.]

=158. Spectacled Eider= (_Arctonetta fischeri_). L. 21. _Ad._ [Male].
Front of head plush-like; cushiony pads around eyes; above largely
white; breast slaty black; belly black.

Range.--"Alaskan coast of Bering Sea and north to Point Barrow."

  [Illustration: 159.]

=159. Greenland Eider= (_Somateria mollissima borealis_). L. 23.
Feathers on sides of bill reaching to nostrils, bare spaces on either
side of feathers on culmen _pointed_ at base (posteriorly.) _Ad._
[Male]. Crown black with a white wedge. _Ad._ [Female]. Brownish black
above margined with rusty and buff; below dusky finely margined with
buff. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to [Female] but more buffy. _Notes._
"A sort of cooing sound" in the breeding season. (Elliot.) A raucous,
moaning, _'ha ho, 'ha ho_; female's like that of Mallard. (Brunnich.)

Range.--Northeastern North America; breeds from Labrador to Greenland;
winters south to Massachusetts.

  [Illustration: 160.]

=160. American Eider= (_Somateria dresseri_). L. 23. Similar in color
to No. 159, but bare spaces on either side of feathers of culmen
_rounded_ at the base (posteriorly).

Range.--Northeastern North America; breeds from Isle au Haut, Maine,
to Labrador; winters south to New Jersey and Great Lakes.

  [Illustration: 161.]

=161. Pacific Eider= (_Somateria v-nigra_). Similar to No. 159, but
_Ad._ [Male] with a black =V= on throat; sides of bill more broadly
feathered, distance from end of feathers to base of bare space on
culmen less than distance from same place to end of bill.
_Notes._ "A low guttural note." (Nelson.)

Range.--North Pacific from Aleutian Islands north to Arctic Ocean east
to Great Slave Lake.

  [Illustration: 162.]

=162. King Eider= (_Somateria spectabilis_). L. 23. Feathers at side
of bill _not_ reaching nostril. _Ad._ [Male]. White patch on either
side of rump, crown ashy blue. _Ad._ [Female] in 1 _Yng._ Resembling
same plumages of No. 159 and No. 160.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds from Labrador and St. Michaels,
Alaska north to Greenland and Arctic Ocean; winters south to New
Jersey (rarely Ga.), and Great Lakes; one California record.

  [Illustration: 163.]

=163. American Scoter= (_Oidemia americana_). L. 19. Feathers at base
of bill not extending forward on sides or top. _Ad._ [Male]. Wholly
black; bill black, yellow at base. _Ad._ [Female]. Brownish above,
lighter below; no white on wing or on sides of head. _Notes._ A long
musical whistle. (Elliot.)

Range.--Northern North America; breeds from Labrador and Alaskan
shores of Bering Sea northward; winters south to Virginia, Great
Lakes, Colorado, and California.

  [Illustration: 166.]

=166. Surf Scoter= (_Oidemia perspicillata_). L. 20. Feathers
extending forward on top of bill. _Ad._ [Male]. Black, nape and crown
white; bill orange, yellow, and white, a round black patch on its
sides. _Ad._ [Female]. Above black, throat and breast paler; belly
whitish; a whitish patch at base of bill. _Yng._ Similar but with
white patches on ears.

Range.--Northern North America; breeds from Newfoundland northward;
winters south to Virginia, Florida, Illinois, and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 165.]

=165. White-winged Scoter= (_Oidemia deglandi_). L. 22. A white patch
on wing; feathers extending forward along _sides and top_ of bill
nearly to nostrils. _Ad._ [Male]. Black, a white spot about eye; bill
orange, black at base. _Ad._ [Female]. Dusky brown above; lighter
below. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar but sides and front of head whitish.

Range.--Northern North America; breeds from Labrador and North Dakota
northward; winters south to Virginia, southern Illinois, and Lower

  [Illustration: 177.]

=177. Black-bellied Tree Duck= (_Dendrocygna autumnalis_). L. 22.
_Ads._ belly and tail coverts _black_: foreback and breast gray;
greater wing-coverts whitish. _Notes._ A shrill whistle. (Elliot.)

Range.--Tropical America north to southern Texas.

  [Illustration: 178.]

=178. Fulvous Tree Duck= (_Dendrocygna fulva_). L. 22. _Ads._ Belly
uniform rusty brown; upper tail coverts white; a black streak on
hindneck; no white in wing. _Notes._ A squealing whistle.

Range.--Tropical America, north in summer to Texas, Louisiana, Nevada
and central California. "Casual in North Carolina and Missouri." (A.
O. U.)

Geese and Swans

=169. Lesser Snow Goose= (_Chen hyperborea_). L. 23-28, _Ads._ White,
head sometimes rusty; primaries black. _Yng._ Head, neck, and above

Range.--"Pacific coast to the Mississippi Valley, breeding in Alaska;
south in winter to southern Illinois and southern California; casually
to New England." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 169a.]

=169a. Greater Snow Goose= (_C. h. nivalis_). Similar to No. 169, but
larger, L. 30-38.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds in Arctic regions; winters from
Chesapeake, New Jersey (rarely) south to Cuba; rare on Atlantic coast
north of Maryland.

  [Illustration: 170.]

=170. Ross Snow Goose= (_Chen rossii_). L. 21; B. 1.6. Similar in
color to No. 169, but much smaller; bill particularly smaller.

Range.--Arctic America in summer; Pacific coast to southern California
and east to Montana in winter.

  [Illustration: 180.]

=180. Whistling Swan= (_Olor columbianus_). L. 55. Nostril nearer to
tip of bill than to eye. _Ads._ White, bill and feet black; a small
yellow spot before the eye. _Yng._ Head and neck brownish, rest of
plumage washed with grayish. _Notes._ _'whoogh_, _'whoogh_, very loud
and shrill. (Nuttall.)

Range.--North America; breeds within Arctic Circle; winters from
British Columbia (?) Lower Mississippi Valley, Chesapeake Bay, south
to Gulf of Mexico; rare on Atlantic Coast north of Virginia.

  [Illustration: 180. Bill of.]

  [Illustration: 181. Bill of.]

=181. Trumpeter Swan= (_Clor buccinator_). L. 65. Nostril about in
middle of bill. _Ads._ White, bill and feet black; _no_ yellow on
lores. _Yng._ Head and neck brownish; rest of plumage washed with
grayish. _Notes._ Loud and sonorous in tone like those of a French
horn. (Elliot.)

Range.--"Chiefly the Interior of North America, from the Gulf Coast to
the Fur Countries, breeding from Iowa and the Dakotas northward; west
to the Pacific Coast; rare or casual on the Atlantic." (A.O.U.)


  [Illustration: 169.1]

=169.1. Blue Goose= (_Chen cærulescens_). L. 28. _Ads._ Head and neck
white; below brownish gray; foreback like breast; rump gray. _Yng._
Similar but head and neck grayish brown.

Range.--North America; breeds in Hudson Bay region; winters on west
coast of the Gulf of Mexico; two California records; said to have
occurred in New Jersey.

  [Illustration: 171a.]

=171a. American White-fronted Goose= (_Anser albifrons gambeli_). L.
28. _Ads._ Forehead and rump white; below spotted with black. _Yng._
Similar but no white on head no black below.

Range.--North America; breeds in Arctic region; winters on Gulf Coast,
California and Mexico; rare on Atlantic coast.

  [Illustration: 176.]

=176. Emperor Goose= (_Philacte canagica_). L. 26. _Ads._ Foreneck
blackish; rest of head and neck white sometimes tinged with rusty;
tail mostly white. _Yng._ Body less distinctly scaled; head and
hindneck spotted with grayish. _Notes._ When flying, a deep, hoarse,
strident _clâ-hâ, clâ-hâ, clâ-hâ_; when alarmed and about to fly, a
ringing _û-lûgh_,_-ûlûgh_. (Nelson.)

Range.--"Coast and islands of Alaska north of the Peninsula; chiefly
about Norton Sound and Valley of the Lower Yukon; Commander Islands,
Kamchatka; casually south to Humboldt Bay, California." (A.O.U.)

Geese and Brant

  [Illustration: 172.]

=172. Canada Goose= (_Branta canadensis_). L. 38. _Ads._ A white patch
on cheeks and throat; rest of head and neck black; no whitish ring at
base of black neck. _Yng._ Similar but with blackish on white of
throat. _Notes._ A sonorous _honk_.

Range.--North America; breeds from Labrador, Minnesota and British
Columbia, north chiefly in the interior, to Alaska; winters from Long
Island, Illinois and British Columbia south to Mexico and southern

=172a. Hutchins Goose= (_B. c. hutchinsii_). Similar to No. 172, but
smaller; L. 30; tail feathers, 14-16.

Range.--Western North America; breeds in Arctic regions; winters from
British Columbia and Kansas south to Lower California and Mexico.

=172b. White-cheeked Goose= (_B. c. occidentalis_). Size of No. 172,
but throat blackish, lower neck with white collar.

Range.--"Pacific coast region, from Sitka, south in winter to
California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 172c.]

=172c. Cackling Goose= (_B. c. minima_). Similar to No. 172b, but
smaller, L. 24; tail feathers 14-16.

Range.--Western North America; breeds in Alaska; winters from British
Columbia southward; east rarely to Wisconsin.

  [Illustration: 173.]

=173. Brant= (_Branta bernicla glaucogastra_). L. 26.
_Ads._ Sides of neck with white markings; belly _whitish_.
_Notes._ A guttural _car-r-rup_, or _r-r-r-rouk_. (Elliot.)

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds in Arctic regions; winters in
America, from Mississippi Valley east, and from Illinois and Massachusetts
southward; rare in interior.

  [Illustration: 174.]

=174. Black Brant= (_Branta nigricans_). L. 26. _Ads._ _Sides_ and
_front_ of neck with white markings; belly nearly as dark as back.
_Notes._ A low guttural _gr-r-r-r-r_; on alarm repeated often with
emphasis. (Nelson.)

Range.--Western North America; breeds in northern Alaska and eastward;
winters from British Columbia to Lower California; occasional on
Atlantic Coast.



   Family 1. FLAMINGOES. Phœnicopteridæ. 1 species.

Flamingoes might be called long-legged Ducks. Their feet are webbed,
and their bill is set with ridges, which serve as sieves or strainers,
as do the 'gutters' on a Duck's bill. They are, however, wading birds
and their webbed feet are of use in supporting them on the soft mud of
shallow lagoons or bays where they search for the favorite food of
small mollusks. In feeding the flat top of the bill is pressed into
the mud when its tip points upward toward the bird's body. Flamingoes
fly with the neck and legs stretched to the utmost presenting on the
wing a picturesque, but by no means so graceful an appearance as do
the Herons. Their voice is a vibrant _honking_ like that of a Goose.



   Family 1. SPOONBILLS. Plataleidæ. 1 species.

   Family 2. IBISES. Ibididæ. 3 species.

   Family 3. STORKS and WOOD IBISES. Ciconiidæ. 1 species.

   Family 4. BITTERNS, HERONS, ETC. Ardhidæ. 14 species, 3 subspecies.

The Roseate Spoonbill was formerly a common bird in Florida and along
the Gulf coast, but so many have been killed for their plumage that in
the United States the species is now exceedingly rare except in the
most remote parts of southern Florida.

Spoonbills build a rude nest of sticks in mangrove bushes or small
trees and lay three to five whitish eggs speckled with shades of

Ibises are usually found in flocks along the shore of lagoons, lakes,
etc., or in marshy places. They fly with the neck outstretched and are
generally silent. Their nests of reeds, weed stalks, etc., are
sometimes placed in low bushes, at others in grassy marshes. The eggs
number from three to five. They are plain blue in the Glossy Ibis,
greenish white with chocolate markings, in the White Ibis.

The Storks are largely Old World birds, only three of the some twenty
known species inhabiting the Western Hemisphere. But one of these is
found regularly north of the Rio Grande, the so-called Wood Ibis which
is abundant in southern Florida. It lives in flocks and builds a nest
of sticks usually in cypress trees, often forty feet from the ground,
laying two or three white eggs. When flying the neck is extended. It
progresses by alternate flapping and sailing and occasionally soars
high overhead in circles, like a Vulture.

The Bitterns and Herons unlike our other long-legged wading birds, fly
with a fold in the neck. They belong in two subfamilies, the
_Botaurinæ_ and _Ardeinæ_, respectively. The Bitterns are usually
solitary birds inhabiting grassy or reedy marshes where their colors
harmonize with their surroundings and render them difficult to see.
The American Bittern nests on the ground and lays three to five pale
brownish eggs. The Least Bittern usually weaves a platform nest of
reeds among rushes growing in the water and lays four or five bluish
white eggs.

Herons feed along the shore and are consequently more often seen than
Bitterns. With the exception of the Green Heron and the Yellow-crowned
Night Heron, which usually nest in isolated pairs, our species gather
in colonies to nest. Several hundred pairs occupying a limited area
in some wooded or bushy swamp to which, when undisturbed, they return
year after year.

Herons build a rude platform nest of sticks, sometimes placing it in
bushes, sometimes in the tallest trees, and at others on the ground or
beds of reeds in marshes. The eggs are greenish blue in color and
usually four in number. It is among those Herons, which in nesting
time are adorned with delicate plumes or aigrettes, that the greatest
ravages of the millinery hunter have been made. Attacking these birds
when they have gathered on the nesting ground, they are not permitted
to rear their young and the species is thus exterminated branch and

The voice of Herons is a harsh squawk varying in depth of tone with
the size of the bird.

Flamingo, Spoonbill and Ibis

  [Illustration: 182.]

=182. Flamingo= (_Phoenicopterus ruber_). L. 45; from toe to bill, 60.
_Ads._ Rosy red, lighter on back; primaries and secondaries black.
_Yng._ Smaller, grayish brown; lighter below. _Notes._ A _honk_
resembling that of a Canada Goose.

Range.--Atlantic coasts of tropical and subtropical America; resident
(breeding?) in southwestern Florida (Monroe county); casual
west to Texas, north to South Carolina.

  [Illustration: 183.]

=183. Roseate Spoonbill= (_Ajaia ajaja_). L. 32. _Ads._ Head and
throat bare; sides of breast and end of tail rusty buff; lesser
wing-coverts, upper and under tail-coverts carmine. _Yng._ Head
feathered, buff and carmine replaced by pink.

Range.--Tropical and subtropical America; north to Gulf States.

  [Illustration: 185.]

=185. Scarlet Ibis= (_Guara rubra_). L. 24. _Ads._ Scarlet: tips of
primaries black. _Yng._ Grayish brown, lower back, rump, and upper
tail-coverts white; underparts dull white.

Range.--"Florida, Louisiana and Texas, southward to the West Indies
and northern South America. No record of its recent occurrence in the
United States." (A.O.U.)


  [Illustration: 184.]

=184. White Ibis= (_Guara alba_). L. 25. _Ads._ White, tips of outer
primaries black, face orange red. _Yng._ Grayish brown, rump, breast
and belly white. _Notes._ When near nest, _crook_, _croc_, _croo_;
when disturbed, a loud, hoarse, _bunk_, _bunk_, _hunk_. (Audubon).

Range.--Tropical America; breeds north to Lower California, southern
Indiana, southern Illinois and South Carolina; winters from Gulf
southward; accidental in South Dakota, Connecticut and Long Island.

  [Illustration: 186.]

=186. Glossy Ibis= (_Plegadis autumnalis_). L. 24. _Ads._ Front of
head black with greenish reflections. _Yng._ Head and neck fuscous
brown margined with white, rest of underparts fuscous brown; back with
greenish reflections.

Range.--Tropical and subtropical regions in America; rare or local in
southeastern United States; casual north to Massachusetts and

  [Illustration: 187.]

=187. White-faced Glossy Ibis= (_Plegadis guarauna_). L. 24. _Ads._
Front of head _white_. _Yng._ Resembles young of No. 186.

Range.--Tropical and subtropical America; north to California, (rarely
British Columbia), Texas, Kansas, east rarely to Florida; winters
south of United States.

  [Illustration: 188.]

=188. Wood Ibis= (_Tantalus loculator_). L. 40. _Ads._ Head and
neck bare; white, primaries, secondaries and tail blackish.
_Yng._ Resembles ad. but head and neck feathered, grayish brown.
_Note._ When alarmed, a rough, guttural croak. (Audubon.)

Range.--Tropical and subtropical America; breeds In Gulf States,
(Lower California?), and later may stray as far north as New York,
Wisconsin, and California.


  [Illustration: 190.]

=190. American Bittern= (_Botaurus lentiginosus_). L. 28. _Ads._
A glossy black streak on either side of the neck. _Yng._ Similar
to ad. but colors much deeper, more rusty. _Notes._ Call, _quawk_;
song, _pump-er-lunk_.

Range.--North America north to Labrador and British Columbia, breeding
chiefly north of latitude 35°; winters from about latitude 35°

  [Illustration: 191.]

=191. Least Bittern= (_Ardetta exilis_). L. 13. _Ad._ [Male]. Hindneck
rufous, foreneck, underparts, and under tail-coverts white and buff.
_Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but crown and back brown, below streaked with
brownish. _Notes._ Call, an explosive _quab_; song, a soft _coo_
repeated four or five times.

Range.--North America; breeds from Gulf States to New Brunswick and
Manitoba; winters from Gulf States southward. "Less common west of
Rocky Mountains; on the Pacific coast north to northern California."

  [Illustration: 191.1]

=191.1. Cory Bittern= (_Ardetta neoxena_). L. 13. _Ad._ [Male].
Hindneck black, foreneck chestnut, belly mixed black and chestnut,
under tail-coverts black. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but crown and back

Range.--Eastern North America; recorded from Florida, Ontario,
(breeding), Massachusetts, and Michigan; about 20 specimens known.


  [Illustration: 192.]

=192. Great White Heron= (_Ardea occidentalis_). _Ads._ White, no
"aigrette" plumes. A white Heron about the size of a Great Blue Heron.
What is supposed to be a gray-blue phase of this bird has been called
_Ardea wuerdmanni_, a bird which resembles No. 194, but has the head
and neck whitish.

Range.--Southern Florida, Cuba and Jamaica.

  [Illustration: 196.]

=196. American Egret= (_Herodias egretta_). L. 41. _Ads._ White, about
50 _straight_ "aigrette" plumes grow from the back between the wings;
legs and feet _black_. Ads. when not breeding and Yng., the same, but
no plumes.

Range.--Tropical and temperate America; breeds north to Virginia,
southern Illinois, and California; later strays to New Brunswick,
Minnesota, and Oregon; winters from southern California and Gulf
States southward.

  [Illustration: 197.]

=197. Snowy Heron= (_Egretta candidissima_). L. 24. _Ads._ White,
about 50 _recurved_ "aigrette" plumes grow from back between the
wings; legs black, feet _yellow_. Ads. when not breeding and Yng.
The same, but no plumes.

Range.--Tropical and temperate America; bred formerly north to Long
Island, southern Illinois and California; now very rare in eastern
North America; winters from Gulf States and southern California

  [Illustration: 194.]

=194. Great Blue Heron= (_Ardea herodias_). L. 45; W. 18.5; B. 5.5;
Tar. 7. _Ads._ Center of crown white, head crested; legs blackish.
_Yng._ Similar, but no crest, crown wholly black, plumage more

Range--Northern South America north to Arctic regions; breeds locally
throughout most of North America range; winters from about latitude
42° southward.

=194a. Northwest Coast Heron= (_A. h. fannini_). Similar to No. 194
but much darker; upperparts bluish slate black; tarsus shorter, 5.3.

Range.--Pacific coast from Vancouver to Sitka.

=194b. Ward Heron= (_A. h. wardi_). Similar to No. 194 but whiter
below, neck darker; legs olive; larger, L. 52; W. 20; B. 6.5; Tar. 8.

Range.--Florida; coast of Texas.

  [Illustration: 202.]

=202. Black-crowned Night Heron= (_Nycticorax nycticorax nævius_).
L. 24. _Ads._ Crown and back greenish black lower back, wings and
tail ashy; head with two or three rounded white plumes, except just
after breeding season. _Yng._ Grayish brown streaked with white; below
white streaked with blackish; outer webs of primaries, _pale rufous_.
_Notes._ An explosive _qûawk_.

Range.--Western hemisphere; breeds in North America north to New
Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba, and Oregon; winters from California and
Gulf States southward.

  [Illustration: 203.]

=203. Yellow-crowned Night Heron= (_Nyctanassa violaceus_). L. 23.
_Ads._ Blue-gray; crown and ear-coverts whitish, rest of head black;
scapulars streaked with black; head with two or three rounded, white
plumes, except just after nesting season. _Yng._ Crown _black_,
streaked with whitish; primaries _bluish slate, no rufous_; back
brownish streaked with white; below whitish streaked with blackish.

Range.--Tropical and subtropical America; breeds north to South
Carolina, southern Illinois, and Lower California; strays to
Massachusetts and Colorado; winters from Gulf States southward.

  [Illustration: 2198.]

=198. Reddish Egret= (_Dichromanassa rufescens_). L. 29. Two color
phases independent of age. _Ads._ _Dark phase_, Head and neck rufous;
back slate; about 30 "aigrette" plumes. _White phase._ White,
including plumes; tips of primaries sometimes speckled with gray.
_Yng._ Rufous and gray, or white, without plumes.

Range.--West Indies and Central America north to coasts of Gulf
States, Illinois (rarely), and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 199.]

=199. Louisiana Heron= (_Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis_). L. 26.
_Ads._ "Aigrette" plumes, short, dirty gray; rump and belly white;
legs blackish. _Yng._ Head and neck brownish; throat and line down
foreneck white; above slaty washed with brownish, rump, and belly

Range.--West Indies and Central America north to Gulf States, casually
to Long Island and Indiana.

  [Illustration: 200.]

=200. Little Blue Heron= (_Florida cœrulea_). L. 22. _Ads._ Head and
neck maroon; rest of plumage slaty blue. _Yng._ White, tips of
primaries bluish, legs _greenish yellow_.

Range.--Tropical America and eastern United States; breeds north to
Virginia and Illinois, later may stray north as far as Nova Scotia;
winters from South Atlantic and Gulf States southward.

  [Illustration: 201.]

=201. Little Green Heron= (_Butorides virescens_). L. 17. Smallest of
our Herons. _Ads._ Crown, glossy green-black; throat and line down
foreneck buffy; rest of head and neck purplish chestnut; back green
washed with bluish gray. _Yng._ Neck and below streaked with blackish;
back-feathers not lengthened; duller. _Notes._ A rattling
_oc-oc-oc-oc-oc_, a startling _scow_, and, more rarely, a deep, hollow
groan. (Brewster.)

Range.--Tropical and temperate North America; breeds from Gulf States
north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters from Gulf States southward
to northern South America.

=201a. Frazar Green Heron= (_B. v. frazari_). Similar to No. 201, but
rather larger and darker, neck more purplish, light stripings on
throat and foreneck more restricted. (Brewster.)

Range.--Lower Califorinia.

=201b. Anthony Green Heron= (_B. v. anthonyi_). Similar to No. 201,
but slightly larger, and paler, light markings of wings, neck, and
throat less restricted and whiter. (Mearns.)

Range.--Arid portions of southwestern United States, south into



   Family 1. CRANES. Gruidæ. 3 species.

   Family 2. COURLANS. Aramidæ. 1 species.

   Family 3. RAILS, GALLINULES, and COOTS. Rallidæ. 12 species,
        3 subspecies.

Cranes bear a general resemblance to Herons in that they are
long-legged, long-necked birds, but when on the wing, they carry the
neck fully extended, a habit which will readily distinguish them from
the curved neck Herons. Cranes are less aquatic than Herons and are
often found feeding on the prairies or pine-barrens where worms,
grasshoppers, lizards, roots, etc., form their fare. They nest on the
ground laying two buffy eggs thickly marked with brown. The young,
unlike the nearly naked, helpless young of Herons, are born covered
with down and can soon follow their parents. The Cranes have loud
sonorous voices; the Herons raucous croaks.

The Limpkin is a singular inhabitant of the more retired Florida
swamps. It feeds upon the ground largely upon a kind of land shell,
but also perches in trees. Its nest of twigs is placed in a small tree
or bush, and it lays from four to seven pale buffy eggs stained and
speckled with cinnamon brown.

The Rails (Subfamily Rallinæ) are inhabitants of grassy marshes where,
trusting to their long legs, they more often escape observation by
running than by flying. One may hear their characteristic notes coming
from the dense growth only a few yards distant and still be unable to
catch a glimpse of their maker.

Rails nest on the ground laying six to twelve or fifteen buffy eggs
spotted with reddish brown. The young of all our species are born
covered with a shining black down.

The Gallinules (Subfamily Gallinulinæ) are more aquatic than the Rails
and are consequently less difficult to observe.

The Coots (Subfamily Fulicinæ) are still more aquatic than the
Gallinules, as might be supposed from their lobed toes, in fact are as
much at home in the water as though they were Ducks. Both Gallinules
and Coots lay eight to sixteen buffy, thickly speckled eggs in a nest
of reeds often built on a pile of rushes in the reeds.

Cranes and Limpkin

  [Illustration: 204.]

=204. Whooping Crane= (_Grus americana_). L. 50. _Ads._ White; skin of
top of head dull red; primaries black. _Yng._ Head feathered, plumage
more or less washed with rusty.

Range.--Interior of North America: breeds from northern Mississippi
Valley north to Arctic regions; winters from Gulf States southward.

=205. Little Brown Crane= (_Grus canadensis_). L. 35. W. 18; B. 4.
_Ads._ Skin of top of head dull red; plumage brownish gray. _Yng._
Head feathered, plumage with more or less rusty.

Range.--"Northern North America from Hudson Bay to Alaska, migrating
south through western United States east of Rocky Mountains to
Mexico." (Ridgway.)

  [Illustration: 206.]

=206. Sandhill Crane= (_Grus mexicana_). Similar to No. 205, but
larger. L. 44: W. 20; B. 5. _Notes._ A loud, sonorous, grating,
_krrrow_, repeated five or more times.

Range.--North America; breeds locally from Texas, Cuba, Florida north
through Mississippi Valley to Manitoba, British Columbia, and Oregon;
winters from northern California and Gulf States southward.

  [Illustration: 207.]

=207. Limpkin= (_Aramus giganteus_). L. 28. _Ads._ Glossy olive-brown,
striped with white; wings and tail more bronzy. _Notes._ A loud
_wah-ree-ow_, repeated and the last note prolonged into a wail.

Range.--Central America and West Indies north to southern Texas and


  [Illustration: 208.]

=208. King Rail= (_Rallus elegans_). L. 15. _Ads._ Above olive-brown,
black, and olive-gray; wing-coverts reddish brown; neck and breast
cinnamon; belly and sides _blackish_, _sharply_ and broadly barred
with white. _Notes._ A loud _bup_, _bup_, _bup_, repeated and ending
in a roll.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Florida north to
Connecticut and South Dakota; strays to Maine; winters from Virginia
and Lower Mississippi Valley south to Gulf States.

=209. Belding Rail= (_Rallus beldingi_). Similar to No. 208, but
paler; flank-bars narrower.

Range.--Lower California.

=210. California Clapper Rail= (_Rallus obsoletus_). L. 17. Above
grayish olive-brown streaked with blackish brown; breast cinnamon;
flanks dusky brown narrowly banded with white. Margins to back
feathers much broader than in forms of _crepitans_.

Range.--Salt Marshes of Pacific coast north to Washington.

  [Illustration: 212.]

=212. Virginia Rail= (_Rallus virginianus_). L. 9.5; B. 1.5. _Ads._
Above blackish and grayish brown; wing-coverts reddish brown; below
cinnamon, flanks black and white. Resembling a King Rail in color, but
much smaller. _Notes._ Calls, _kep_ or _kik_; song, a grunting sound
and _cut_, _cûtta-cûtta-cûtta_. (Brewster.)

Range.--North America; breeds from Pennsylvania, Long Island, northern
Illinois, and middle California north to Labrador, Manitoba, and
British Columbia; winters from about its southern breeding limits
south to Cuba and Guatemala.

  [Illustration: 215.]

=215. Yellow Rail.= (_Porzana noveboracensis_). L. 7; B. .5. _Ads._
Above black and buffy barred with white; breast buffy; sides brownish
barred with white. Notes. An abrupt cackling, _'krék_, _'krek_,
_'krek_, _'krek_, _kûk_, _'k'k'k_. (Nuttall.)

Range.--Eastern North America north to New Brunswick, Quebec, and
Hudson Bay, west to Manitoba and rarely California; probably breeds
chiefly north; winters in southern States.

  [Illustration: 211.]

=211. Clapper Rail, Marsh Hen= (_Rallus crepitans_). L. 14.5; W. 5;
B. 2.5. _Ads._ Above _pale_ olive bordered by _gray_; wing-coverts
_pale_ grayish brown; breast _pale_ cinnamon; flanks barred _gray_
and white. _Notes._ _Gkak_, _gkak_, _gkak_, at first loud and rapid,
ending lower and slower.

Range.--Salt marshes of the Atlantic coast; breeds from North Carolina
to Connecticut; winters from Long Island (rarely) southward, north
casually to Massachusetts; south casually to Louisiana.

=211a. Louisiana Clapper Rail= (_R. c. saturatus_). Similar to
No. 211, but above rich brown edged with olive; breast darker
cinnamon; bill more slender, 2.3.

Range.--Coast of Louisiana.

  [Illustration: 211b.]

=211b. Scott Clapper Rail= (_R. c. scotti_). Similar to No. 211, but
much darker; sooty brown or black above edged with olive-brown or
olive-gray; breast and neck cinnamon, washed with brownish; flanks
brown and white. Darkest bird of group.

Range.--Gulf coast of Florida.

=211c. Wayne Clapper Rail= (_R. c. waynei_). Similar to No. 211, but
darker, back rich olive-brown edged with gray; breast more ashy.

Range.--Atlantic coast, North Carolina to eastern Florida.

=211.2. Caribbean Clapper Rail= (_Rallus longirostris caribæus_).
L. 14; W. 5.7; B. 2.4. _Ads._ Above olive-brown edged with
olive-ashy, breast cinnamon; flanks _brown_ and white.

Range.--West Indies; coast of southeastern Texas (and northeastern

  [Illustration: 214.]

=214. Carolina Rail= (_Porzana carolina_). L. 8.5; B. 8. _Ads._ Region
about base of bill black. _Yng._ Similar, but no black about base of
bill; breast more cinnamon. _Notes._ Calls, _kuk_ or _peep_, song,
_ker-wee_; and a high, rolling _whinny_.

Range.--North America; breeds from Long Island, Illinois, Kansas, and
southern California, north to Newfoundland, Hudson Bay region, and
British Columbia; winters from South Carolina, southern Illinois, and
northern California south to South America.

  [Illustration: 216.]

=216. Little Black Rail= (_Porzana jamaicensis_): L. 5; B. 6. _Ads._
Head, breast, and belly slate; back blackish brown barred with white;
nape reddish brown. _Notes._ Probably, _kik-kik-kik_, _quee'ah_, or
_kik-ki-ki-ki_, _ki_, _quee'ah_, or variants. (Brewster.)

Range.--"Temperate North America north to Massachusetts, northern
Illinois, and Oregon: south to West Indies and Guatemala." (A.O.U.)
Probably breeds throughout its North American range (Connecticut,
Illinois, Kansas).

Gallinules and Coot

  [Illustration: 218.]

=218. Purple Gallinule= (_Ionornis martinica_). L. 13. _Ads._
Crown-plate bluish, bill carmine tipped with greenish; back shining
green; below purplish blue; under tail-coverts white. _Yng._ Above
browner; below with white; no red on bill.

Range.--Tropical and subtropical America; breeds only in eastern North
America north to southern Illinois and South Carolina, strays to Maine
and Wisconsin; winters from southern Florida south to South America.

  [Illustration: 219.]

=219. Florida Gallinule= (_Gallinula galeata_). L. 13.5. _Ad._
Crown-plate red, bill red tipped with greenish; legs green with a red
ring; back olive-brown; flanks slate _streaked with white_. _Yng._
Crown-plate smaller with bill brownish; no red on legs; below grayish.
_Notes._ An explosive _chuck_ and many loud and varied calls
suggesting a disturbed brooding hen, the squawking of a struggling
hen, etc.

Range.--Temperate and tropical America; breeds locally north to Maine,
Montreal, Minnesota, and northern California; winters from Gulf States
and California southward.

  [Illustration: 221.]

=221. American Coot= (_Fulica americana_). L. 15. Toes with scallops.
_Ads._ Bill whitish; crown-plate and two spots on bill brownish; head
and neck black; rest of plumage slate. _Yng._ Whiter below, browner
above, crown-plate smaller. _Notes._ An explosive _cuck_ and noisy
cackling notes.

Range.--North America; breeds in the interior (chiefly northward)
north to the Mackenzie and on Pacific coast to British Columbia;
winters from British Columbia and Gulf States south to Central America
and West Indies.



   Family 1. PHALAROPES. Phalaropodidæ. 3 species.

   Family 2. AVOCETS AND STILTS. Recurvirostridæ. 2 species.

   Family 3. SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, ETC. Scolopacidæ. 33 species,
        2 subspecies.

   Family 4. PLOVERS. Charadriidæ. 9 species, 2 subspecies.

   Family 5. SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. Aphrizidæ. 4 species.

   Family 6. OYSTER-CATCHERS. Hæmatopodidæ. 3 species.

   Family 7. JACANAS. Jacanidæ. 1 species.

The Phalaropes are swimming Snipes. The Northern and Red Phalaropes,
both of which have well-developed lobes or scalloped webs on their
toes, except when nesting, live at sea a hundred miles or more off
shore, where they find an abundance of food in small forms of marine
life. The Wilson Phalarope is a bird of the interior and consequently,
is far less aquatic than the remaining species of the family;
nevertheless it readily takes to water, swimming buoyantly and

Contrary to the general rule, the female Phalarope is larger and more
brightly colored than the male and this difference in size and plumage
is accompanied by similarly unusual habits; the female taking the
place of the male in the Phalarope household. The female of necessity
lays the eggs, but they are hatched by the male alone, who it is said,
cares for the young, also without the assistance of his mate.

The Avocets and Stilts are wading Snipes. The Stilts secure their food
by quick thrusts of the bill, but the Avocets use their singular,
upturned member in a more interesting manner. When in water two or
three inches deep, the bill is dropped below the surface, until the
curved lower mandible evidently touches the bottom; then walking
rapidly, or even running, the bill is swung from side to side and the
bird thus explores the mud in its search for food, which, when it is
felt, is picked up in the usual way.

Many of the members of the family Scolopacidæ are probing Snipe. The
Woodcock, Wilson Snipe, and Dowitcher are good examples. Their bill is
long and sensitive and they can curve or move its tip without opening
it at the base. When the bill is thrust into the mud the tip may
therefore grasp a worm and it thus becomes a finger as well as a

Though not ranked as song birds, many of the Snipes and Plovers have
pleasing calls and whistles and in the breeding season they become
highly musical or indulge in singular vocal performances.

The song of the Bartramian Sandpiper would attract the attention of
the least observant and the singular aërial evolutions of the Snipe
and Woodcock lend an unusual interest to the study of these birds in
the spring. The Pectoral Sandpiper was observed by Nelson in Alaska,
in May, to fill its œsophagus with air dilating the skin of the neck
and breast and forming a sack as large as the body. Then in the air or
on the ground the bird produced a series of hollow booming notes,
constituting its love song.

The Plovers have shorter, harder bills than the true Snipe and several
of our species frequent the uplands rather than muddy shore or tidal

The Turnstones are true shore birds. Their home with us is on the
seacoast where they feed along the beach turning over shells and
pebbles in their search for food.

The Oyster-catchers are also strictly maritime. They frequent bars
left bare by the tide and, it is said, use their stout bills to force
open mussels; oysters, or other bivalves left exposed by the water.
This belief, however, does not appear to rest on careful, definite

The Jacana belongs to a small family of birds with representatives
throughout the tropics. All its members are remarkable for the length
of their toes, the wide extent of which enable these birds to walk
over aquatic vegetation. So, for instance, I have seen them running
over small lily leaves which, sinking slightly beneath the surface,
made the birds appear to be walking on the water.

The Limicolæ, as a rule, nest on the ground. The Phalaropes, Snipes,
and Plovers lay four eggs, the Oyster-catcher three, the Jacanas, it
is said, four in some species to ten in others. The eggs of all are
proportionately large and pointed or pear-shaped and are usually
thickly marked with dark spots. The young are born covered with down
and leave the nest just after hatching.

Shore Birds

  [Illustration: _Foot of Phalarope 1/2 Size_]

  [Illustration: 222.]

=222. Red Phalarope= (_Crymophilus fulicarius_). L. 8.10; B. 9. Bill
heavy, wider than deep. _Ad._ [Female]. Below entirely reddish brown;
cap black, back black and buff. _Ad._ [Male]. Similar, but smaller;
crown and back streaked with brown, black, and buff. _Yng._ Resemble
[Male], but upper tail-coverts plumbeous, underparts _white_.
_Winter._ _Crown_ and underparts white, hindneck black, back gray.
_Notes._ A musical _clink_, _clink_. (Nelson.)

Range.--"Northern parts of northern hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic
regions and migrating south in winter; in the United States south to
the Middle States. Ohio Valley, and Cape St. Lucas; chiefly maritime."

  [Illustration: 223.]

=223. Northern Phalarope= (_Phalaropus lobatus_). L. 7.7; B. .8. Bill
short, slender, sharply pointed. _Ad._ [Female]. Breast rufous; above
slaty gray mixed with ochraceous on back. _Ad._ [Male]. Smaller, less
rufous; on throat; above blackish streaked with rusty. _Yng._
Underparts and _forehead_ white; crown sooty; back blackish streaked
with straw-color. _Winter._ Upperparts gray mixed with white;
underparts white. _Notes._ A low chippering, clicking note.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds from Labrador and northern British
America north to Greenland and Alaska; winters apparently south of
United States where it is known as a migrant chiefly off the coasts.

  [Illustration: 224.]

=224. Wilson Phalarope= (_Steganopus tricolor_). L. 9.5; B. 1.3. Bill
long. _Ad._ [Female]. Sides of neck black and chestnut; crown and back
gray. _Ad._ [Male]. Smaller; chestnut and black much less and duller;
crown and back blackish, latter sometimes with rufous. _Yng._ Below
white; crown and back black margined with ochraceous; nape brownish
gray. _Winter._ Above gray, upper tail-coverts white; below white.
_Notes._ A soft, trumpet _yna_, _yna_.

Range.--North America, chiefly in the interior; breeds from northern
Illinois (rarely), Minnesota and Central California, north to latitude
55°; winters south of United States to southern South America.

  [Illustration: 283.]

=283. Turnstone= (_Arenaria interpres_). Similar to 283.1 but larger,
W. 6., and upperparts in _ad._ with black prevailing. _Yng._ Blacker
than young of 283.1.

Range.--Eastern hemisphere, in America, only in Greenland and Alaska.

=283.1. Ruddy Turnstone= (_Arenaria morinella_). L. 9.5; W. 5.7.
_Ads._ Reddish brown prevailing in upper surface. _Yng._ Above and
breast grayish brown margined with buffy, throat, abdomen, rump and
long upper tail-coverts _white_ as in ad.; shorter upper tail-coverts
black. _Notes._ When flying, a loud twittering note. (Nuttall.)

Range.--Nearly cosmopolitan; breeds in Arctic regions; winters in
America south of United States to Patagonia.

  [Illustration: 288.]

=288. Mexican Jacana= (_Jacana spinosa_). L. 8. Toes over 1.5. _Ads._
Chestnut and black; wings mostly greenish. _Yng._ Forehead, line over
eye, and below white. Above grayish brown, sometimes with rump
chestnut, nape black. _Notes._ A harsh, rapidly repeated _eep_, _eep_,

Range.--Central America and Mexico north to Lower Rio Grande Valley,
Cuba and Haiti.

  [Illustration: 225.]

=225. American Avocet= (_Recurvirostra americana_). L. 16.5; B. 3.7.
_Ads._ Head and neck rufous; belly white; wings black and white. _Yng.
and Ads. in winter._ Similar, but head and neck grayish or whitish.
_Notes._ A rather musical, loud _plēē-ēēk_ hurriedly

Range.--North America west of Mississippi; breeds from northern
States, central California and rarely Texas, north in the interior to
latitude 54°: winters from southern California and western Gulf States
to Central America and West Indies; casual on Atlantic coast.

  [Illustration: 264.]

=264. Long-billed Curlew= (_Numenius longirostris_). L. 24; B. 6.,
longest among our Snipe. _Ads._ Above black and buffy; tail barred
buffy and black; below buffy, neck and breast finely streaked with
dusky. _Yng._ Similar, but buff deeper.

Range.--North America; breeds on Atlantic coast from Florida to North
Carolina; in interior north to Manitoba and British Columbia; later
strays casually to Newfoundland and Ontario; winters from Gulf States
and southern California southward.

  [Illustration: 265.]

=265. Hudsonian Curlew= (_Numenius hudsonicus_). L. 17; B. 3.7. _Ads._
Less buff than No. 264; above dark grayish brown and brownish gray;
tail barred with same; below white, breast streaked; sides barred with

Range.--North America; breeds in Arctic region; winters south of
United States to South America.

  [Illustration: 266.]

=266. Eskimo Curlew= (_Numenius borealis_). L. 13.5; B. 2. _Ads._ Tail
barred with grayish brown and black; above blackish and buffy; below
buffy, the breast thickly streaked; sides barred with blackish.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds In Arctic regions; winters south
of United States to South America; migrates chiefly through interior.

  [Illustration: 226.]

=226. Black-necked Stilt= (_Himantopus mexicanus_). L. 15; Tar 4.10.
_Ad._ [Male]. Forehead, lower back, and underparts white; crown,
hindneck, upper back, and wings black. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but
upper back and scapulars grayish brown. _Yng._ Similar to [Female],
but brown and black feathers lightly margined with buffy.
_Notes._ A sharp, rapidly uttered _ip-ip-ip_ when flying; a hoarse
_k-r-r-r-r-ing_ note when on the ground.

Range.--Temperate and tropical America; breeds north to Gulf States,
(locally and rarely in Mississippi Valley to Minnesota) and
California; winters from southern California and West Indies to
northern South America; rare east of Mississippi except in Gulf

  [Illustration: 286.]

=286. American Oyster-catcher= (_Hæmatopus palliatus_). L. 19. _Ads._
Base of tail and longer upper tail-coverts white, shorter coverts and
_all_ back blackish brown; white in wings conspicuous in flight.
_Yng._ Similar but feathers above with buffy margins. _Notes._ A sharp
_eep_, _eep_.

Range.--Temperate and tropical America; breeds on sea coasts only,
north to Virginia and western Mexico; winters south of United States
to South America; casual north to Nova Scotia.

=286.1. Frazar Oyster-catcher= (_Hæmatopus frazari_). Similar to No.
286, but darker above, black breast passing into white belly through a
mottled black and white band; upper tail coverts with brown markings.

Range.--"Lower California (both coasts), north to Los Coronados
Islands." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 287.]

=287. Black Oyster-catcher= (_Hæmatopus bachmani_). L. 17. _Ads._
Black. _Yng._ Somewhat browner. _Notes._ A musical, piping whistle.

Range.--"Pacific coast of North America from Aleutian Islands to La
Paz, Lower California."

  [Illustration: 228.]

=228. American Woodcock= (_Philohela minor_). L. 11. _Ads._ Below
ochraceous-rufous; _no bars_; forehead slaty crown black with rusty
bars; back mixed black, rusty and slaty. _Notes._ A nasal _peent_ or
_paip_; a whistling of wings and a twittering whistle.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds locally from Florida to Labrador
and Manitoba, but chiefly northward; winters from southern New Jersey
and southern Illinois to Gulf States.

  [Illustration: 230.]

=230. Wilson Snipe= (_Gallinago delicata_). L. 11.2. _Ads._ Throat and
belly white or whitish; breast rusty buff indistinctly streaked; sides
_barred_; above streaked black and cream-buff; tail black and rusty;
outer feathers barred black and white. _Notes._ When taking flight
several sudden, hoarse _scaipes_; a tremulous, penetrating bleating,
thought to be produced by air rushing through the birds wings; a
_kûk-kûk-kûk_. (Brewster.)

Range.--North America; breeds from northern New England (rarely
Connecticut), northern Illinois and northern California north to
Labrador, Hudson Bay, and Alaska; winters from California, southern
Illinois, and South Carolina to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 261.]

=261. Bartramian Sandpiper= (_Bartramia longicauda_). L. 11.5. Outer
primary barred black and white. _Ads._ Above black, ochraceous, and
brownish gray; breast and sides with dusky arrowheads; throat and
belly whitish. _Yng._ Similar, but more buffy. _Notes._ Call, a soft,
bubbling whistle; song, a prolonged, mournful, mellow whistle,

Range.--North America chiefly interior; breeds locally from Kansas and
Virginia to Alaska and Nova Scotia; winters south of United States to
South America.

  [Illustration: 262.]

=262. Buff-breasted Sandpiper= (_Tryngites subruficollis_). L. 8.5.
Inner border of inner web of primaries beautifully speckled with black
and white. _Ads._ Above black widely margined with grayish brown;
below ochraceous-buff; a few black spots. _Yng._ Above blackish brown,
finely and evenly margined with whitish; below much as in adult.

Range.-"North America especially in the interior; breeds in the Yukon
district and the interior of British America north to the Arctic
coast; south in winter as far as Uruguay and Peru." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 281.]

=281. Mountain Plover= (_Podasocys montana_). L. 9. No black on
breast. _Ads._ Lores and crown-band black; above grayish brown washed
with pale rusty. _Yng._ Similar, but no black, rusty wash deeper.
_Winter._ Same as last but rusty paler.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from Kansas to North Dakota;
winters westward to California, south to Lower California and Mexico;
accidental in Florida.

  [Illustration: 231.]

=231. Dowitcher= (_Macrorhamphus griseus_) L. 10.5; B. 2.1, pitted at
tip. _Ads._ _Rump_, _tail_, under wing-coverts, and axillars _barred_
black and white; above black margined with rusty; rump, white; below
reddish brown, spotted and barred with black. _Yng._ Similar, but
breast gray tinged with rusty; belly white. _Winter._ Above gray,
breast gray mixed with dusky, belly white.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds chiefly north and northwest of
Hudson Bay; winters from Florida to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 232.]

=232. Long-billed Dowitcher= (_Macrorhamphus scolopaceus_). B. 2.1 to
2.9. Similar to preceding but larger, bill longer; in adult spring
plumage more barred below. _Notes._ A lisping, energetic musical,
_peet-peet_; _pĕe-ter-wĕe-too_; _wĕe-too_ repeated. (Nelson.)

Range.--"Western North America, breeding in Alaska to the Arctic
coast, migrating south in winter through western United States
(including Mississippi Valley) to Mexico, and less commonly along
Atlantic coast." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 233.]

=233. Stilt Sandpiper= (_Micropalama himantopus_). L. 8.2; tarsus
long, 1.6. _Ads._ Entire underparts and upper tail-coverts white
barred with black; tail not barred. _Yng._ Resembles ad. but below
white, breast lightly streaked: rump white no bars. _Winter._ Similar
to yng. but back gray.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds within Arctic Circle; winters
from Florida to South America.

  [Illustration: 234.]

=234. Knot= (_Tringa canutus_). L. 10.5; B. 1.3. Upper tail-coverts
with black bars and loops; tail feathers without bars narrowly
margined with white. _Ads._ Mixed black, gray and reddish brown above,
reddish brown below. _Yng._ Above gray, margined with cream-white and
black; below white; breast lightly streaked. _Winter._ Similar, but
above gray.

Range.--Northern hemisphere; breeds within Arctic circle; winters from
Florida to South America: migrates chiefly along the coasts, rare on
Pacific coast of United States.

  [Illustration: 244.]

=244. Curlew Sandpiper= (_Erolia ferruginea_). L. 8; B. 1.5, slightly
curved. _Ads._ Below chestnut-rufous, above rusty and black. _Yng._
Above brownish gray margined with whitish; back blacker; below white.
_Winter._ Above plain brownish gray; below white.

Range.--"Old World in general; occasional in Eastern North America and
Alaska." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 235.]

=235. Purple Sandpiper= (_Arquatella maritima_). L. 9. _Ads._ Above
black, margined with rusty and cream-buff; below white, breast and
sides heavily marked with black. _Winter._ Head, neck, and breast,
slaty; back blacker, margined with slaty; central secondaries largely

Range.--"Northern portions of the northern hemisphere; in North
America chiefly the northeastern portions, breeding in the high north,
migrating in winter to the Eastern and Middle States (casually to
Florida), the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi Valley." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 236.]

=236. Aleutian Sandpiper= (_Arquatella couesi_). L. 8.5. Similar to
No. 235, but ad. and yng. with more ochraceous; in winter grayish
margins to back lighter and wider. _Notes._ When flying, a low, clear,
musical _tweo-tweo-tweo_; when feeding, _clū-clū-clū_. (Nelson.)

Range.--"Aleutian Islands and coast of Alaska, north to Kowak River,
west to Commander Islands, Kamchatka." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 256.]

=256. Solitary Sandpiper= (_Helodromas solitarius_). L. 8.4. Under
wing-coverts, axillars, and all but middle tail-feathers barred black
and white. _Ads._ Above fuscous with a faint greenish tinge; head and
neck streaked, back spotted with whitish; below white; throat and
breast distinctly streaked with dusky. _Yng._ Fewer spots and streaks
above; breast markings fused. _Winter._ Practically no white markings

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Northern States (rarely and
sporadically) northward; little known of breeding habits; winters
south of United States to South America.

=256a. Western Solitary Sandpiper= (_H. s. cinnamomeus_). Similar to
No. 256, but spots above buffy, especially in fall; inner margin of
outer primary speckled black and white.

Range.--Western North America; breeds in British Columbia (exact
breeding range unknown); winters south of United States.

  [Illustration: 263.]

=263. Spotted Sandpiper= (_Actitis macularia_). L. 7.5. _Ads._ Below
white _thickly_ spotted with black; above brownish gray with a faint
greenish lustre, lightly marked with black. _Yng._ Similar above but
faintly margined with dusky and buff; below white, breast grayer; _no
black marks_. _Winter._ Same but no margins above. _Notes._
_Peet-weet_, repeated.

Range.--North America, north to Hudson Bay; breeds throughout its
North American range; winters from southern California and West Indies
to South America.

  [Illustration: 284.]

=284. Black Turnstone= (_Arenaria melanocephala_). L. 9. No rusty;
lower back, longer upper tail-coverts and base of tail white; shorter
upper tail-coverts black. _Ads._ Above and breast brownish black;
belly white. _Yng._ Browner margined with whitish. _Winter._ Same as
Yng, but no margins. _Notes._ A sharp, _weet_, _weet_, _too-weet_.

Range.--"Pacific coast of North America from Point Barrow, Alaska to
Santa Margarita Island, Lower California; breeding from Alaska to
British Columbia." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 237.]

=237. Pribilof Sandpiper= (_Arquatella ptilocnemis_). L. 10. _Ads._
Similar to No. 236 above but crown much lighter; _breast_ with a
_black patch_. _Yng._ Resemble adult above but breast grayish
indistinctly streaked and with a pale buff band; belly white.
_Winter._ Similar to yng. but slaty gray above.

Range.--"Breeding in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, and migrating to
coast of adjacent mainland south of Norton Sound." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 243a.]

=243a. Red-backed Sandpiper= (_Pelidna alpina pacifica_). L. 8;
B. 1.5; slightly curved. _Ads._ Belly black; back chiefly rusty.
_Yng._ Breast buffy, lightly streaked with dusky; belly white
_spotted_ with black; back black, rusty, and buff. _Winter._ Above
brownish gray; below white; breast grayish, indistinctly streaked.

Range.--North America; breeds in Arctic regions and winters from Gulf
States and California to South America.

  [Illustration: 246.]

=246. Semipalmated Sandpiper= (_Ereunetes pusillus_). L. 6.3; B. .6
to .8. Toes webbed at base. _Ads._ Above brownish gray and black;
_little or no rusty_; below white, breast _indistinctly_ streaked.
_Yng._ Above with rusty and whitish margins; below white, breast grayish
no streaks. _Winter._ Above brownish gray with black shaft streaks;
below white. _Notes._ _weet-weet_.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds in Arctic regions; winters from
Gulf States to South America.

  [Illustration: 247.]

=247. Western Sandpiper= (_Ereunetes occidentalis_). Similar to
preceding but bill longer .8 to 1.2; ads. more rusty above, breast
streaks more distinct, and more numerous. _Notes._ Call, a soft
_weet-weet_; song, uttered on the wing, "a rapid, uniform series of
rather musical trills." (Nelson.)

Range.--North America, chiefly west of Mississippi Valley; breeds in
Arctic regions; winters from Gulf States to South America.

  [Illustration: 248.]

=248. Sanderling= (_Calidris arenaria_). L. 8. Three toes, tarsus
scaled. _Ads._ Above rusty, black and grayish; below white, breast
spotted with black and _washed with rusty_. _Yng._ Nape grayish, back
_black_, feathers with _two_ white or yellowish white terminal spots;
below silky white. _Winter._ Above brownish gray with dusky shaft
streaks; below silky white.

Range.--"Nearly cosmopolitan, breeding in Arctic and Sub-Arctic
regions, migrating, in America, south to Chili and Patagonia."

  [Illustration: 238.]

=238. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper= (_Actodromas acuminata_). L. 8.7. _Tail
feathers pointed._ _Ads._ A white line over eye; breast buff streaked
with blackish. _Yng._ Crown as in ad., back black and rusty; below
white, breast buffy, no streaks. _Winter._ Back grayish brown streaked
with blackish; below as in yng., but breast grayer and with indistinct
streaks. _Notes._ A soft metallic _pleep-pleep_. (Nelson.)

Range.--"Eastern Asia, and coast of Alaska, migrating south to Java
and Australia." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 239.]

=239. Pectoral Sandpiper= (_Actodromas maculata_). L. 9. _Ads._ Middle
tail-feathers longest, pointed, blackish margined with rusty; above
black and rusty; below white, breast thickly streaked; upper
tail-coverts _black_. _Yng. and in winter_ much the same. _Notes._
Call, a grating whistle; song, a hollow, resonant, musical
_tōō-ū_, repeated eight times, made after filling æsophagus
with air until it is puffed out to size of the body. (Nelson.)

Range.--North America; breeds in Arctic regions; winters south of
United States to South America; rare on Pacific coast.

  [Illustration: 240.]

=240. White-rumped Sandpiper= (_Actodromas fuscicollis_). L. 7.5.
Longer upper tail-coverts _white_. _Ads._ Breast white, _distinctly
spotted_ or streaked. _Yng._ More rufous above; breast less distinctly
streaked. _Winter._ Brownish gray above; similar to yng. below.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds in the interior north of Hudson
Bay; winters south of United States to southern South America; rare on
Pacific coast.

  [Illustration: 241.]

=241. Baird Sandpiper= (_Actodromas bairdii_). L. 7.5. No rusty in
plumage. _Ads._ Longest upper tail-coverts _blackish_; breast buffy,
_faintly_ streaked. _Yng._ Similar, but back _conspicuously_ margined
with whitish. _Winter._ Above "buffy grayish brown," no white margins.

Range.--Interior of North America; breeds in the Arctic regions and
winters south of United States to southern South America.

  [Illustration: 242.]

=242. Least Sandpiper= (_Actodromas minutilla_). L. 6. Smartest of our
Sandpipers. _Ads._ Above black, buff and rufous; below white breast
lightly streaked. _Yng._ Similar, but breast less distinctly streaked.
_Winter._ Above brownish gray, often streaked with black, below white.
_Notes._ _Peep-peep._

Range.--North America; breeds from Sable Island and Magdalens
northward; winters from Gulf States and California south to South

  [Illustration: 249.]

=249. Marbled Godwit= (_Limosa fedoa_). L. 18; B. 4; slightly
recurved. Tail barred, cinnamon and black; under wing-coverts cinnamon
with more or less fine black markings. _Ads._ Above black and
ochraceous; below buffy white finely and uniformly barred with black.
_Yng._ Similar, but with no or with but few bars below.

Range.--North America; breeds in the interior from western Minnesota,
rarely Iowa and Nebraska northward; winters south of United States to
Central America and West Indies.

  [Illustration: 250.]

=250. Pacific Godwit= (_Limosa lapponica baueri_). L. 16. B. 3.7,
slightly recurved, tail barred black and white; under wing-coverts
black and white. _Ads._ "Head, neck and lower parts, plain cinnamon
color." (Ridgw.) _Winter._ Above black, grayish and rusty, former
prevailing; below white; throat streaked, elsewhere with irregular,
black bars. _Notes._ "A loud ringing _kû-we'w_, repeated."

Range.--"Shores and Islands of the Pacific Ocean, from New Zealand and
Australia to Kamchatka and Alaska. On the American coast recorded
south of Alaska only from La Paz, Lower California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 251.]

=251. Hudsonian Godwit= (_Limosa hæmastica_). L. 15; B. 3.2, slightly
recurved. Under wing-coverts dusky; upper tail-coverts black and
white; tail black at end, white at base. _Ads._ Above black, rusty and
grayish, below chestnut-red barred with blackish and faintly tipped
with white. _Yng._ Similar, but below buffy whitish, breast grayer.
_Winter._ Similar below but above brownish gray.

Range.--Eastern North America chiefly interior; breeds in Arctic
Regions; winters south of United States to South America.

  [Illustration: 270.]

=270. Black-bellied Plover= (_Squatarola squatarola_). L. 11. Hind-toe
present, small. _Ads._ Above black and white, no yellowish; below
black. _Yng._ Above grayish brown spotted with white and some
yellowish; below white. _Winter._ Similar to preceding but nearly
uniform brownish above.

Range.--Northern Hemisphere; breeds in Arctic Regions, winters in
America from Florida to Brazil.

  [Illustration: 272.]

=272. American Golden Plover= (_Charadrius dominicus_). L. 10.5; W. 7.
No hind-toe; axillars dusky. _Ads._ Above conspicuously spotted with
yellow; below black, sides of breast white. _Yng._ Duller above, below
grayish white with dusky marks and yellowish wash. _Winter._ Similar
but no yellow below. _Notes._ Call, a plaintive _too-lee-e_; song, a
marvelously harmonious succession of notes. (Nelson.)

Range.--Western Hemisphere; breeds in Arctic Regions; winters from
Florida to Patagonia, rare on Pacific coast.

=272a. Pacific Golden Plover= (_C. d. fulvus_). Similar to No. 272 but
wing shorter, 6.5; yellow richer.

Range.--"Breeding from northern Asia to the Pribilof Islands and coast
of Alaska, south in winter through China and India to Australia and
Polynesia." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 254.]

=254. Greater Yellow-legs= (_Totanus melanoleucus_). L. 14; B. 2.2.
No rusty; upper tail-coverts mostly white; tail barred with black and
white or gray. _Ads._ Above black margined with whitish; below white
and black. _Yng._ Above grayish margined with whitish; below white,
breast lightly streaked. _Winter._ Similar but white margins less
conspicuous. _Notes._ A whistled _wheu_, _wheu-wheu-wheu-wheu-wheu-wheu_,

Range.--North America; breeds from Minnesota, rarely northern
Illinois, and Anticosti northward; winters from Gulf States and
California to southern South America.

  [Illustration: 255.]

=255. Yellow-legs= (_Totanus flavipes_). L. 10.7; B. 1.4. Similar in
color to preceding but smaller in size.

Range.--North America; breeds rarely in upper Mississippi Valley but
chiefly north of latitude 55°; winters from Gulf States to southern
South America; rare on Pacific coast.

  [Illustration: 258.]

=258. Willet= (_Symphemia semipalmata_). L. 15; W. 8; B. 2.1.
Primaries black with a broad white band; upper tail-coverts mostly
white. _Ads._ Above brownish gray, black, and a little buff; below
white heavily marked with black and slightly washed with buff. _Yng._
Above brownish gray margined with buffy; below white, breast lightly
streaked with dusky. _Winter._ Similar, but above plain brownish gray.
_Notes._ Song, _pilly-will-willet_, repeated.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Florida to southern New
Jersey, later strays casually to Maine; winters from Gulf States to
South America.

=258a. Western Willet= (_S. s. inornata_). Similar to No. 258 but
slightly larger. W. 8.5; B. 2.4. In summer above paler, less heavily
marked with black both above and below. _Yng. and Winter._
Indistinguishable in color from No. 258.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from Texas to Manitoba; winters
from southern California and Gulf States southward. A rare migrant on
Atlantic coast from South Carolina to Florida.

  [Illustration: 259.]

=259. Wandering Tatler= (_Heteractitis incanus_). L. 11. Tail-coverts
plain slaty gray. _Ads._ Above plain slaty gray; below white barred
with slaty gray. _Yng._ Above slaty gray more or less margined with
whitish; breast and sides slaty gray; throat and belly white.
_Winter._ Similar, but no white margins above.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from British Columbia northward; winters
south to Hawaiian Islands and Galapagos.

  [Illustration: 282.]

=282. Surf Bird= (_Aphriza virgata_). L. 10; B. 1. Upper tail-coverts
and base of tail-feathers white. _Ads._ Above black, slaty, and rusty.
_Yng._ Above slaty margined with whitish; breast barred slaty and
whitish; belly white spotted with slaty. _Winter._ The same, but no
whitish margins.

Range.--"Pacific coast of America, from Alaska to Chili." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 273.]

=273. Killdeer= (_Oxyechus vociferus_). L. 10.5. Rump and upper
tail-coverts rusty. _Ads._ Above grayish brown and rusty; below white
with _two_ black rings. _Notes._ A noisy _kildeē_, _kildeē_.

Range.--North America, north to Newfoundland, Manitoba and British
Columbia; (rare on North Atlantic coast); breeds locally throughout
its range; winters from Virginia, Lower Mississippi Valley and
California south to South America.

  [Illustration: 274. Foot detail 1/2 Size.]

  [Illustration: 274.]

=274. Semipalmated Plover= (_Ægialitis semipalmata_). L. 6.7. Web
between bases of inner and middle toes. _Ads._ _One_ black ring around
neck; a white ring in front of it. _Yng._ Similar, but black parts
brownish; back margined with whitish. _Winter._ Same as last but no
whitish margins.

Range.--Breeds from Labrador northward; winters from Gulf States to

=275. Ring Plover= (_Ægialitis hiaticula_). L. 7.5. No webs between
toes. Similar to 274 but larger, bill yellow at base, black or brown
bands wider.

Range.--"Northern parts of Old World and portions of Arctic America,
breeding on the west shore of Cumberland Gulf." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 277.]

=277. Piping Plover= (_Ægialitis meloda_). L. 7; B. short, .5. Very
pale above. _Ads._ Above ashy, crown and _sides_ of breast black; no
rusty. _Yng._ Similar, but black replaced by ashy gray. _Notes._ A
short plaintive, _piping_ whistle, repeated.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Virginia to Newfoundland;
winters from Florida southward.

=277a. Belted Piping Plover= (_Æ. m. circumcincta_). Similar to No.
277 but black on sides of breast meeting to form a breast band.

Range.--Mississippi Valley; breeds from northern Illinois and Nebraska
north to Lake Winnipeg, east to Magdalen and Sable Islands; winters
from Gulf southward; casual migrant on Atlantic coast.

  [Illustration: 278.]

=278. Snowy Plover= (_Ægialitis nivosa_). L. 6.5. No complete ring.
_Ads._ Black on crown; ear-coverts and sides of breast black. _Yng._
The same, but no black; above margined with whitish. _Winter._ Same as
last but no whitish margins.

Range.--Western United States east to Texas and Kansas; breeds from
Indian Territory and southern California northward; winters from Texas
and southern California southward.

  [Illustration: 280.]

=280. Wilson Plover= (_Ochthodromus wilsonius_). L. 7.5; B. .8. No
black on hindneck. _Ad._ [Male]. One black breast-and crown-band;
some rusty about head. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar but black areas
brownish gray. _Yng._ Same as last, but above margined with whitish.
_Winter._ No whitish margins.

Range.--Tropical and temperate America; breeds north to Virginia, Gulf
States, and Lower California; winters southward to Brazil; casual
north to Nova Scotia.



   Family 1. GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, etc. Tetraonidæ. 21 species,
        22 subspecies.

   Family 2. TURKEYS, PHEASANTS, etc. Phasianidæ. 1 species.
        3 subspecies.

   Family 3. CURASSOWS and GUANS. Cracidæ. 1 species.

The members of the family Tetraonidæ are usually placed in three
subfamilies as follows: (1.) Perdicinæ, containing the true Quails and
Partridges of the Old World and with no species in America.
(2.) Odontophorinæ, including the Bob-whites and so-called 'Quails'
and 'Partridges' of the New World, and with no species in the eastern
hemisphere. (3.) Tetraoninæ, the Grouse, with representatives in the
northern parts of both hemispheres. All the members of the first two
families have the legs bare, while the Grouse have the legs, and
often even the toes, more or less feathered.

The application of different names to the members of this family, in
various parts of the country, often make it uncertain just what
species is referred to under a given title. Our Bob-white, for
example, is a 'Quail' at the north and a 'Partridge' at the south. As
a matter of fact it is, strictly speaking, neither a true Quail nor
Partridge but a member of a family restricted to America.

Again, the Ruffed Grouse is a 'Partridge' at the north and a
'Pheasant' at the south, whereas in truth it is neither one nor the
other. So far as the application of these local names goes, it is to
be noted that where the Bob-white is called 'Quail' the Grouse is
called 'Partridge' and that where it is called 'Partridge' the Grouse
is known as 'Pheasant'.

All the Tetraonidæ are ground-inhabiting birds, and their plumage of
blended browns, buffs and grays brings them into such close harmony
with their surroundings that, as a rule, we are unaware of the
presence of one of these birds until, with a whirring of short, stiff,
rounded wings it springs from the ground at our feet. It is this habit
of 'lying close,' as sportsmen term it, in connection with their
excellent flesh, which makes the members of this family the favorites
of the hunter and epicure and only the most stringent protective
measures will prevent their extinction as their haunts become settled.

With the Ptarmigan this harmony in color is carried to a remarkable
extreme, the birds being white in winter and brown, buff and black in
summer; while during the early fall they assume a grayish, neutral
tinted plumage to bridge over the period from the end of the nesting
season, in July, to the coming of the snow in September.

The Tetraonidæ all nest on the ground, laying usually from ten to
twenty eggs. The young, like those of their relative, the domestic
fowl, are born covered with downy feathers and can run about shortly
after birth.

The Turkey is the only wild member of the Phasianidæ in this country,
but the family is well-represented in the domesticated Chickens,
Peacocks, and Pheasants, all of which have descended from Old World
ancestors. Our domesticated Turkey is derived from the Wild Turkey of
Mexico, which was introduced into Europe shortly after the Conquest
and was thence brought to eastern North America. It differs from the
Wild Turkey of the eastern United States chiefly in the color of the
tips of the upper tail-coverts. These are whitish in the domesticated
Turkey, as they are in the Mexican race from which, it has descended,
and rusty brown in the Eastern Wild Turkey.

Besides the five races of Wild Turkey described beyond, another
species of Turkey is found in America. This is the Honduras or Yucatan
Turkey, now largely confined to the peninsula of Yucatan. It is not so
large as our bird, but is even more beautifully colored, its plumage
being a harmonious combination of blue, gray and copper.

Ring-necked and 'English' Pheasants have been introduced into various
parts of the United States, and in Oregon and Washington and in the
east, on various private game preserves, they have become naturalized.
The true English Pheasant (_Phasianus colchicus_) is believed to have
been introduced into England from Asia Minor probably by the Romans.
Unlike the Ring-necked Pheasant (_Phasianus torquatus_) it has no
white collar. The last named species, however, has also been
introduced into England where it freely interbreeds with the earlier
established English Pheasant and individuals without at least a trace
of white on the neck are now comparatively rare.

The Curassows and Guans are tropical American birds, only one species
reaching the southern border of the United States. They are arboreal
in habit and form an interesting link between the Partridges, etc. and
the Pigeons.

Bob-white and Partridge

  [Illustration: 289.]

=289. Bob-white; 'Quail;' 'Partridge'= (_Colinus virginianus_). L. 10.
_Ad._ [Male]. Throat, forehead and line over eye white. _Ad._
[Female]. Throat, forehead and line over eye buff. _Notes._ Song, a
ringing, whistled _Bob-white_ or _buck-wheat-ripe_; calls, a
conversational _quit-quit_ and a whistled _where-are-you_ and _I'm
here_, repeatedly uttered when the individuals of a flock are

Range.--Eastern North America, resident from southern Dakota, southern
Minnesota, southern Ontario, southern Vermont, New Hampshire and
Maine, south to Georgia and western Florida; west to South Dakota,
Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas. "Introduced at various
points in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Idaho, California and
Washington." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 289a.]

=289a. Florida Bob-white= (_C. v. floridanus_). Similar to No. 289,
but smaller, L. 8.5, and much darker; black bars below more numerous.

_Range.--Florida; typical only in southern half of peninsula, grading
into No. 289 in northern and western parts of the state._

=289b. Texan Bob-white= (_C. v. texanus_). Similar to No. 289, but
brown and buff areas paler; black bars below wider.

Range.--Texas, except western part, rarely to western Kansas, south to
Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico.

  [Illustration: 291.]

=291. Masked Bob-white= (_Colinus ridgwayi_). L. 9. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat black; breast and belly reddish brown. _Ad._ [Female].
Resembles [Female] of No. 289b. _Notes._ Song, _Bob-white_; call, when
the birds are scattered, _hoo-we_. (H. Brown.)

Range.--Northern Sonora, Mexico, north to Pima County, Arizona.

  [Illustration: 296.]

=296. Mearns Partridge= (_Cyrtonyx montezumæ mearnsi_). L. 9. _Ad._
[Male]. Sides with numerous, large, crowded white spots. _Ad._
[Female]. _Pinkish brown_, above _streaked_ with buffy and marked with
chestnut and black, below with a few broken black bars.
_Notes._ A low, murmuring whine; a clear _dsiup-chiur_, when alarmed,
_chuk-chuk-chuk_. (Bendire.)

Range.--Northern Mexico, western Texas, southern New Mexico and
southern Arizona.


  [Illustration: 292.]

=292. Mountain Partridge= (_Oreortyx pictus_). L. 11. _Ads._
_Hindhead_ and _nape_ same color as back; inner margins of tertials
buff. _Notes._ Song, an explosive whistle ending in a throaty tone;
call, a rapidly repeated _cuh-cuh-cuh-cuh_, and a sharp _pit-pit_.

Range.--Pacific coast from Santa Barbara, California, north to
southern Washington.

=292a. Plumed Partridge= (_O. p. plumiferus_). Hindhead, nape, and
foreback same _color as breast_; inner margins of tertials _white_.

Range.--Sierra Nevada (both slopes), east to Panamint Mountains; and
to Mount Magruder, Nevada; south in the coast ranges from San
Francisco Bay to Lower California (Campos). (A.O.U.)

=292b. San Pedro Partridge= (_O. p. confinis_). Similar to No. 292a,
but upperparts much grayer, the back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
being gray very slightly tinged with olive; bill stouter. (Ridgway.)

Range.--San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 293.]

=293. Scaled Partridge= (_Callipepla squamata_). L. 10. _Ads._ Belly
_without_ chestnut patch; breast and foreback grayish blue edged with
black; back brownish gray. _Notes._ A nasal _pe-cos' pe-cos'_

Range.--"Tableland of Mexico, from the Valley of Mexico, north to
central and western Texas, Santa Fe, New Mexico and southern
Arizona." (A.O.U.)

=293a. Chestnut-bellied Scaled Partridge= (_C. s. castanogastris_).
Similar to No. 293, but [Male] with chestnut patch on belly; [Female]
with belly much rustier than in [Female] of No. 293.

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley, northwest to Eagle Pass, Texas; south
into northeastern Mexico.

  [Illustration: 294.]

=294. California Partridge= (_Lophortyx californica_). L. 10.
_Ad._ [Male]. Above _olive-brown_; belly patch chestnut. _Ad._
[Female]. Plumes shorter; throat whitish streaked with dusky; no
distinct chestnut patch on belly. _Notes._ Song, a pheasant like crow
and a crowing, emphatic _sit-right-down'_, _sit-right-down'_; calls,
a sharp _pit-pit pit_, and a note like that of a young Robin.

Range.--"Coast region of California south to Monterey, introduced in
Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia." (A.O.U.)

=294a. Valley Partridge= (_L. c. vallicola_). Similar to No. 294, but
much grayer above; sometimes plain bluish gray without brown tinge.

Range.--"From western and southern Oregon, except near the coast,
south through western Nevada and the interior of California to Cape
St. Lucas." (Bendire.)

  [Illustration: 295.]

=295. Gambel Partridge= (_Lophortyx gambelii_). L. 10. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat, forehead and belly patch _black_; hindhead chestnut. _Ad._
[Female]. Similar, but throat grayish buff; forehead gray; no black on
belly; hind head brownish; crest smaller. _Notes._ Song, _yuk-käe-ja._

Range.--"Western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, southern Utah, southern
Nevada, southern California in the Colorado Valley and south into
northwestern Mexico." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 297.]

297. Dusky Grouse (_Dendragapus obscurus_). L. [Male], 20. [Female],
18. _Ad._ [Male]. Gray tail-band _over_ one inch wide on middle
feather; below grayish slate; above blackish with fine rusty and
grayish markings. _Ad._ [Female]. With more white below; foreback
regularly _barred_ with buffy; middle tail-feathers irregularly barred
with buff or grayish; terminal gray band finely marked with black.
_Notes._ A loud, ventriloquial, hooting or booming.

Range.--"Rocky Mountains, from central Montana and southeastern Idaho
to New Mexico and Arizona; east to the Black Hills, South Dakota and
west to East Humboldt Mountains, Nevada." (A.O.U.)

=297a. Sooty Grouse= (_D. o. fuliginosus_). Similar to No. 297, but
slightly darker, gray band on central tail feather _less_ than one
inch wide.

Range.--"Northwest Coast Mountains, from California to Sitka, east to
Nevada, western Idaho and portions of British Columbia." (A.O.U.)

=297b. Richardson Grouse= (_D. o. richardsonii_). Similar to No. 297a,
but _no_ tail band, or, if showing indistinctly from above, not
visible from below.

Range.--"Rocky Mountains, especially on the eastern slopes, from
central Montana, northern Wyoming and southeastern Idaho, into British
America to Liard River." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 298.]

=298. Hudsonian Spruce Grouse= (_Canachites canadensis_). L. 15.
_Ad._ [Male]. Tail-feathers tipped with brown; foreback margined with
_bluish gray_. _Ad._ [Female]. Above, bases of feathers more or less
barred with rusty especially on foreback; throat and breast barred
with rusty and black; belly as in male. _Notes._ A drumming sound
produced by the beating of the wings. (Bendire.)

Range.--Labrador and Hudson Bay region.

=298b. Alaska Spruce Grouse= (_C. c. osgoodi_). _Ad._ [Male]. Similar
to _Ad._ [Male]. of No. 298c, but margins to feathers of foreback
_brownish ashy_. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to _Ad._ [Female] of No.
298c, but paler, barred with buff instead of rusty.


=298c. Canada Grouse= (_C. c. canace_). _Ad._ [Male]. Similar to
_Ad._ [Male]. of No. 298. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to _Ad._ [Female] of
No. 298, but above more rusty, rusty bars deeper and more conspicuous,
showing throughout upper surface and on flanks.

Range.--Northern New England, northern New York, New Brunswick, Nova
Scotia and Quebec west to northern Minnesota.

  [Illustration: 299.]

=299. Franklin Grouse= (_Canachites franklinii_). Resembles No. 298,
but tail without brown tips, sometimes tipped with white.

Range.--"Northern Rocky Mountains, from northwestern Montana to the
coast ranges of Oregon and Washington, and northward in British
America, reaching the Pacific coast of southern Alaska (latitude
60°)." (A.O.U.)

Grouse and Ptarmigan

  [Illustration: 300.]

=300. Ruffed Grouse; 'Partridge;' 'Pheasant'= (_Bonasa umbellus_).
L. 17. _Ad._ [Male]. Prevailing color above rusty brown; tail rusty
or gray. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar but neck-tufts smaller. _Notes._
The male produces a drumming sound by rapidly beating its wings; the
female utters a _cluck_ and when defending her brood, a singular low
whining sound.

Range.--Eastern United States from Minnesota, southern Ontario,
southern New Hampshire and southern Vermont, south to Virginia and
along the Alleghanies to Georgia; west to northwestern Arkansas.

=300a. Canadian Ruffed Grouse= (_B. u. togata_). Similar to No. 300,
but slightly grayer above; tail generally gray; bars on breast and
belly darker and better defined.

Range.--Spruce forests of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Maine northern
New Hampshire, northern Vermont and south to higher mountains of
Massachusetts and northern New York; west to eastern slope of coast
ranges of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia; north to James Bay.

=300b. Gray Ruffed Grouse= (_B. u. umbelloides_). Similar to No. 300a,
but grayer; prevailing color of upperparts, including crown, gray;
tail always gray.

Range.--Rocky Mountains, from Colorado north to latitude 65° in
Alaska, east to Mackenzie and poplar woods of western Manitoba.

  [Illustration: 300c.]

=300c. Oregon Ruffed Grouse= (_B. u. sabini_). Similar to No. 300, but
much darker, prevailing color of upper parts rusty brown; tail always
rusty brown.

Range.--Pacific coast ranges from Cape Mendocino, California, north to
British Columbia.


  [Illustration: 301. Winter]

  [Illustration: 301. Summer]

=301. Willow Ptarmigan= (_Lagopus lagopus_). L. 15. Bill large, more
than .4 deep at base; tail _black_, narrowly tipped with white. _Ad._
[Male] _Summer._ Throat and upper breast rusty brown. _Ad._ [Male]
_Fall._ Rustier and more finely marked above. _Ad._ [Female].
_Summer._ Above black barred with buff and tipped with white; below
buff barred with black; middle of belly whitish. _Ad._ [Female].
_Fall._ Much like fall male. _Ads._, _Winter_. White, tail black
tipped with white; _no_ black before eye. _Notes._ Song, _kû-kû-kû-kû_
while ascending five or ten yards in the air; a hard rolling
_kr-r-r-r_ when descending. (Nelson.)

Range.--Arctic Regions; in America breeding south to Lat. 55° in
winter migrating south to Lat. 50°; recorded once from Penobscot Co.,
Maine, and once from Manchester, Mass.

=301a. Allen Ptarmigan= (_L. l. alleni_). Similar to No. 301, but
[Female] more finely marked; shafts of primaries, at all seasons,
strongly black spreading to the web of the feather.


  [Illustration: 302.]

  [Illustration: 302. Autumn.]

=302. Rock Ptarmigan= (_Lagopus rupestris_). L. 14. Bill _less_
than .4 deep at base; tail black. Always to be known from No. 301 by
its smaller bill. _Ad._ [Male] _Summer._ Above irregularly barred and
mottled with gray and rusty buff; below barred black and white and
rusty buff. _Ad._ [Male] _Fall._ Above minutely speckled black, gray
and buff, the prevailing color being grayish brown. _Ad._ [Male]
_Winter._ White, lores and tail black. _Ad._ [Female] _Summer._ Above
black barred with rusty and margined with whitish; below rusty barred
with black and tipped with whitish. _Ad._ [Female] =Fall.= Like fall
[Male]. _Ad._ [Female] _Winter._ Like winter [Male] but no black
before eye.

Range.--North America from Gulf of St. Lawrence and higher mountains
of British Columbia north to Arctic Regions (except northern Labrador)
west through Alaska to Aleutian Islands.

=302a. Reinhardt Ptarmigan= (_L. r. reinhardti_). _Ad._ [Male]
_Summer._ Similar to No. 302, but "less regularly and coarsely barred
above" (Ridgw.) _Ad._ [Female] _Summer._ Resembles [Female] of No.
302. _Ads. Fall._ Much grayer than No. 302 in fall. _Ads. Winter._
Like No. 302 in winter. _Notes._ When courting the male utters a
growling _kurr-kurr_. (Turner.)

Range.--Northern Labrador north to Greenland.

=302b. Nelson Ptarmigan= (_L. r. nelsoni_). _Ad._ [Male], _Summer._
Ground color of upperparts deep umber-brown, very finely and densely
vermiculated; chest barred with bright tawny brown and black. _Ad._
[Female], _Summer._ Similar to [Male] of No. 302. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Unalaska, Aleutian Islands.

  [Illustration: Beaks - 301. 302. Nat. Size]

=302c. Turner Ptarmigan= (_L. r. atkhensis_). Lighter in general hue
than 302d and without black blotches on upperparts. (Elliot.) _Ad._
[Male], _Summer._ "Ground color of upperparts pale raw-umber brown,
mixed with pale grayish; chest and neck barred with pale brownish
ochre and black." _Ad._ [Female], _Summer._ Ground color of upperparts
rusty, mixed with pale grayish buff, narrowly and irregularly barred
with black; chest and neck coarsely barred with rusty and black.

Range.--Atka, Aleutian Islands.

=302d. Townsend Ptarmigan= (_L. r. townsendi_). _Ad._ [Male],
_Summer._ Above, breast and flanks raw umber finely vermiculated with
black on back; with black blotches on head, neck and upperpart of back
and wings. _Ad._ [Female], _Summer._ Above ochraceous, blotched and
barred with black; lighter below. (Elliot.)

Range.--Kyska and Adak, Aleutian Islands.

  [Illustration: 302.1]

=302.1. Evermann Ptarmigan= (_Lagopus evermanni_). L. 13.9. _Ad._
[Male], _Summer._ Above and breast black slightly marked with rusty.
_Ad._ [Female], _Summer._ Entire body plumage, ochraceous, blotched
and barred with black and above tipped with white or ochraceous: below
black bars wider and no white tips. (Elliot.)

Range.--Attu, Aleutian Islands.

=303. Welch Ptarmigan= (_Lagopus welchi_). L. about 14. Bill and tail
as in No. 302; plumage grayer than in No. 302. _Ad._ [Male], _Summer._
Above black _finely_ and irregularly marked with wavy lines of buff
and white. _Ad._ [Female], _Summer._ Above black _finely_ and
irregularly barred with buffy, grayish and white.


  [Illustration: 304.]

=304.? White-tailed Ptarmigan= (_Lagopus leucurus_). L. 13. Tail
_white_. _Ad._ [Male], _Summer._ Breast barred, black and white. _Ad._
[Female], _Summer._ Above black barred with rich buff; below rich buff
barred with black. _Ads., Fall._ Above and breast rich buff finely
vermiculated with black. _Ads., Winter._ Entirely white. _Notes._ When
about to fly and at the beginning of flight a sharp cackle like that
of a frightened hen. (Grinnell.)

Range.--"Alpine summits of Rocky Mountains; south to New Mexico; north
into British America (as far as Fort Halkett, Liard River); west to
higher ranges of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia." (Bendire.)

=304a.? Kenai White-tailed Ptarmigan= (_L. l. peninsularis_). Similar
to No. 304, but in summer buff markings much paler; in fall, colors
much grayer.

Range.--Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

Prairie Hens and Grouse

  [Illustration: 305.]

=305. Prairie Hen= (_Tympanuchus americanus_). L. 18. Underparts with
distinct brown and white bars of about equal width. _Ad._ [Male]. A
neck-tuft of ten or more _rounded_ feathers. _Ad._ [Female].
Neck-tufts much smaller; whole tail barred. _Notes._ Song, a loud

Range.--"Prairies of Mississippi Valley; south to Louisiana and Texas;
east to Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and Ontario; west through
eastern portions of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and
Indian Territory; north to Manitoba; general tendency to extension of
range westward and contraction eastward; migration north and south in
Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 305a.]

=305a. Attwater Prairie Hen= (_T. a. attwateri_). Similar to No. 305,
but smaller and darker; neck-tufts proportionately wide; tarsus not
fully feathered.

Range.--Southwestern Louisiana and eastern Texas.

=306. Heath Hen= (_Tympanuchus cupido_). Similar to No. 305, but
smaller; scapulars more broadly tipped with buff; neck-tuft of _less_
than ten feathers; obtusely _pointed_; axillars _barred_ with dusky.

Range.--Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.

=307. Lesser Prairie Hen= (_Tympanuchus pallidicinctus_). Similar to
No. 305, but smaller, more buffy above; brown bars below narrower than
whitish spaces between them. _Notes._ Doubtless the same as those of
No. 305.

Range.--Southwestern parts of Kansas and western Indian Territory,
western (and southern?) Texas. (Bendire.)

=308. Sharp-tailed Grouse= (_Pediœcetes phasianellus_). L. 17. Breast
feathers with internal =V= shaped _loops_; no neck-tufts. _Ads._
Prevailing color above _black_; narrowly barred with rusty and
margined with paler.

Range--Interior of British America, east to Rocky Mountains, about
James Bay (Moose Factory) and the west shore of Hudson Bay, northern
Manitoba, north at least to Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River, northwest
territory. (Bendire.)

=308a. Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse= (_P. p. columbianus_). Similar
to No. 308, but prevailing color above buffy.

Range.--"Northwest United States; south to northeastern California,
northern Nevada and Utah; east to Montana and Wyoming, west to Oregon
and Washington; north, chiefly west of Rocky Mountains, through
British Columbia to central Alaska (Fort Yukon)" (Bendire.)

  [Illustration: 308b.]

=308b. Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse= (_P. p. campestris_). Similar to
No. 308a, but more rusty. _Notes._ Song, a bubbling crow, a rattling
of tail-feathers, and stamping of feet. Calls, when disturbed, _cack_,
_cack_, _cack_; a soft clear whistle and a grunt of alarm. (Seton.)
Call of mother to young and of young in reply a guttural, raucous
croak. (Grinnell.)

Range--"Plains and prairies of United States, north to Manitoba; east
to Wisconsin and northern Illinois; west to eastern Colorado; south to
eastern New Mexico." (Bendire.)

Grouse, Turkeys and Chachalaca

  [Illustration: 309.]

=309. Sage Grouse= (_Centrocercus urophasianus_). _Ad._ [Male], L. 29;
_Ad._ [Female], L. 22. Similar to [Male], but smaller, throat whiter;
breast barred black and whitish. _Notes._ When courting, low,
grunting, guttural sounds; when alarmed, a sort of cackle, _käk_,
_käk_. (Bendire.)

Range.--"Sage regions of the Rocky Mountain Plateau, and west chiefly
within the United States, but north to Assiniboia and the dry interior
of British Columbia; east to North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and
Colorado; south to northern New Mexico, Utah and Nevada; west in
California, Oregon and Washington, to the Sierra Nevada and Cascade
Range." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 1/10 Nat. Size.]

=Pheasant= (_Phasianus torquatus × P. colchicus_). An introduced
species, see remarks on page 114.

  [Illustration: 310. 1/16 Nat. Size.]

=310. Wild Turkey= (_Meleagris gallopavo silvestris_). [Male] _Ad._
L. about 48; upper tail-coverts and tail tipped with rusty chestnut:
white bars in primaries entire, crossing the webs of the feathers.
_Notes._ Similar to those of the domesticated Turkey.

Range.--Eastern United States from Pennsylvania south to central
Florida; west to Nebraska and northeastern Texas.

=310a. Merriam Turkey= (_M. g. merriami_). Similar to No. 310, but
tail and upper tail-coverts tipped with whitish.

Range.--"Mountains of southern Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and
western Texas; and northern Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico." (Bailey.)

=310b. Florida Wild Turkey= (_M. g. osceola_). Similar to No. 310, but
smaller; primaries with narrow _broken_ bars _not_ reaching across

Range.--Southern Florida.

=310c. Rio Grande Turkey= (_M. g. intermedia_). Tips of upper
tail-coverts and of tail rusty buff intermediate in color between
those of Nos. 310 and 310a.

Range.--"Lowlands of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico."

  [Illustration: 311.]

=311. Chachalaca= (_Ortalis vetula maccalli_). L. 21. _Ads._ Above
olive-brown; tail blacker, all but middle-feathers bordered with
whitish; belly brownish. _Notes._ A loud, trumpeting _cha-cha-laca_,
repeated a number of times.

Range.--Tropical portions of eastern Mexico, from Vera Cruz north to
Lower Rio Grande Valley.



   Family 1. PIGEONS and DOVES. Columbidæ. 13 species, 3 subspecies.

Pigeons are distributed throughout the greater part of the globe, but
their center of abundance appears to be in the Malay Archipelago,
where about one hundred and twenty of the some three hundred known
species are found. One hundred or more species have been described
from the New World but only twelve of these inhabit North America.

The various races of domestic Pigeons, 'Pouters,' 'Fantails,' etc. are
descendants of the Rock Dove of Europe, modified in form and habit
through the selection by the breeder or 'fancier.'

Pigeons build a flimsy, platform nest of twigs and lay two white eggs.
Both sexes incubate, one relieving the other at certain hours each
day. The young are born naked and are fed by regurgitation, on
'Pigeons' milk,' the parent thrusting its bill into the mouth of its
young and discharging therein food which has been softened in its own

Some species of Pigeons nest in isolated pairs, others in large
colonies, but it is the habit of many species to gather in large
flocks after the nesting season.

The Wild or Passenger Pigeon, once so abundant in this county, was
found in flocks throughout the year. Alexander Wilson, the 'father of
American Ornithology' writing about 1808, estimated that a flock of
Wild Pigeons seen by him near Frankfort, Kentucky, contained at least
2,230,272,000 individuals. Audubon writes that in 1805 he saw
schooners at the wharves in New York city loaded in bulk with Wild
Pigeons caught up the Hudson River, which were sold at one cent each.

As late as 1876 or 1877 there was a colony of nesting Wild Pigeons in
Michigan, which was twenty-eight miles long and averaged three or four
miles in width, and in 1881 the birds were still so abundant in parts
of the Mississippi Valley that the writer saw thousands of birds,
trapped in that region, used in a Pigeon match near New York City.

Today, however, as a result of constant persecution, the Wild Pigeon
is so rare that the observation of a single individual is noteworthy.

Pigeons and Doves

  [Illustration: 312.]

=312. Band-tailed Pigeon= (_Columba fasciata_). L. 15. _Ad._ [Male].
Tail-band ashy above, whiter below; a white nape-band; tail square.
_Ad._ [Female]. Similar, or in some specimens, nape band absent;
pinkish of crown and breast dingy. _Notes._ An owl-like hooting,
sometimes a calm _whoó-hoo-hoo_, _whoó-koo-hoo_, at others a spirited
_hoóp-ah-whóo_, and again _wh'oo-ugh_. (Bailey.)

Range.--"Western United States from Rocky Mountains to the Pacific:
north to Washington and British Columbia; south to Mexico and the
highlands of Guatemala; distribution irregular, chiefly in wooded
mountain regions." (A.O.U.)

=312a. Viosca Pigeon= (_C. f. vioscæ_). Similar to No. 312, but paler,
more clearly bluish slate above; pink of crown and breast with a
grayish _bloom_.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 313.]

=313. Red-billed Pigeon= (_Columba flavirostris_). L. 15. _Ads._ No
tail-band; wings, tail, and belly slate; head and neck purplish pink;
no iridescent markings. _Notes._ A fine, loud, _coo-whoo-er-whoo_.

Range.--Costa Rica migrating north to southern Texas, New Mexico and

  [Illustration: 314.]

=314. White-crowned Pigeon= (_Columba leucocephala_). L. 13.5 _Ad._
[Male]. Crown white; body slate; lower hindneck iridescent; nape
maroon. _Ad._ [Female]. Much paler; crown ashy.

Range.--Greater Antilles and Islands about Anegada Channel, coast of
Honduras, Bahamas and certain Florida Keys.

  [Illustration: 315.]

=315. Passenger Pigeon, Wild Pigeon= (_Ectopistes migratorius_).
L. 16. Outer tail-feathers chestnut at base of inner web. _Ad._
[Male]. Chin, whole head., and lower back bluish slate. _Ad._
[Female]. Browner above, breast brownish ashy; neck feathers less
iridescent. _Notes._ An explosive, squeaky, squawk.

Range.--Formerly eastern North America north to Hudson Bay; now
exceedingly rare, less so in the upper Mississippi valley than

  [Illustration: 316.]

=316. Mourning Dove, Carolina Dove= (_Zenaidura macroura_). L. 11.8.
Outer tail-feathers slate color at base of inner web. _Ad._ [Male].
Chin whitish; sides of head buffy; _a black ear mark_. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar but paler, breast more ashy brown, neck-feathers less
iridescent. _Notes._ _Coo-o-o-ah, coo-o-o-coo-o-o-coo-o-o._

Range.--North America, breeding from West Indies and Mexico north to
southern Maine, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia;
winters from southern New York, southern Illinois, Kansas and southern
California southward.

  [Illustration: 317.]

=317. Zenaida Dove= (_Zenaida zenaida_). L. 10. _Ad._ [Male]. Tail
short, _without_ white markings; all but central pair of feathers
tipped with ashy blue; secondaries tipped with white. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar but pinkish of crown and underparts brownish; neck feathers
less iridescent. _Notes._ Resemble those of No. 316, but are louder
and deeper.

Range.--Greater Antilles, coast of Yucatan and Bahamas, north in April
to Florida Keys.

  [Illustration: 318.]

=318. White-fronted Dove= (_Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera_).
L. 12. No black ear-mark; under wing-coverts rusty chestnut. _Ad._
[Male]. Forehead whitish; all but central pair of tail-feathers tipped
with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Forehead dingier; breast brownish ashy;
neck feathers less iridescent. _Notes._ A short, soft _coo_.

Range.--Central America and Mexico, north in February to valley of
Lower Rio Grande.

  [Illustration: 319.]

=319. White-winged Dove= (_Melopelia leucoptera_). L. 12.
Wing-coverts, externally, widely margined with white; large black ear
marks. _Ads._ All but central pair of tail-feathers bluish slate
with a black band and whitish tip. _Notes._ A loud, crowing
_cookeree-cookeree-coo-ree-coo_, _crow-co-er-coo_, _crow-co-er-coo_.

Range.--Southern border of United States from Texas to Arizona south
to Lower California and Central America, Cuba and Jamaica, casual at
Key West, Florida.

  [Illustration: 320.]

=320. Ground Dove; Mourning Dove= (_Columbigallina passerina
terrestris_). L. 6.7. Smallest of our Doves. _Ad._ [Male]. Forehead
and underparts deep vinaceous pink; hindhead and nape ashy blue
margined with dusky; base of bill _coral_, tip black. _Ad._ [Female].
Forehead and breast brownish gray; breast feathers with dusky centers
and margins. _Notes._ A soft, crooning _coo_.

Range.--Atlantic and Gulf States north to northern North Carolina,
west to eastern Texas; more common near coast.

=320a. Mexican Ground Dove= (_C. p. pallescens_). Similar to No. 320,
but forehead and underparts much paler; back grayer.

Range.--Texas to southern California and south to Central America.

=320b. Bermuda Ground Dove= (_C. p. bermudiana_). Similar to 320a, but
smaller and paler; bill wholly black. (Bangs and Bradlee.)


  [Illustration: 321.]

=321. Inca Dove= (_Scardafella inca_). L. 8. _Ads._ Tail long, outer
feathers tipped with white; plumage above and below margined with
dusky, giving a scaled appearance.

Range.--Southern Texas (San Antonio), southern Mexico and southern
Arizona south to Lower California and Central America.

  [Illustration: 322.]

=322. Key West Quail-Dove= (_Geotrygon chrysia_). L. 12. _Ads._ A
white line below eye; belly white; back rich rusty with beautiful,
metallic, purplish, _green_ and _blue_ reflections; tail rusty with no

Range.--Cuba, Hayti, Bahamas and, rarely, Florida Keys.

=322.1. Ruddy Quail-Dove= (_Geotrygon montana_). L. 11. _Ad._ [Male].
No white line below eye; breast dull pinkish; belly deep buff; back
rich rusty with purplish reflections, tail rusty without white. _Ad._
[Female]. Above olive-brown with greenish reflections; below rusty

Range.--Mexico south to Brazil; West Indies; casual at Key West

  [Illustration: 323.]

=323. Blue-headed Quail Dove= (_Starnœnas cyanocephala_). L. 12.
_Ads._ Crown and sides of throat dull blue; middle of upper breast
black with white bars and pinkish tips; belly rusty brown, lower back
as in No. 316. _Notes._ A hollow sounding _hu-up_, the first syllable
long, the second short. (Gundlach.)

Range.--Cuba, and rarely Florida Keys.



   Family 1. AMERICAN VULTURES. Cathartidæ. 3 species.

   Family 2. FALCONS, HAWKS, EAGLES, etc. Falconidæ. 33 species,
        13 subspecies.

   Family 3. BARN OWLS. Strigidæ. 1 species.

   Family 4. HORNED OWLS. Bubonidæ. 19 species, 20 subspecies.

In the Raptores we have a group of birds of great value to man but
whose services for the most part, are so little appreciated that, far
from protecting these birds, we have actually persecuted them.

The Vultures, it is true, are given credit for their good work as
scavengers and they are protected both by law and by public sentiment.
Every one knows that a living Vulture is infinitely more useful than a
dead one. As a result throughout countries inhabited by these birds
they are usually both abundant and tame, entering the cities to feed
in the streets with an assurance born of years of immunity from harm.

But how differently their kin of the family Falconidæ act in their
relations to man! 'Wild as a Hawk' has become an adage. These birds
are universally condemned. To kill one is a commendable act. Every
ones hand is raised against them. In some localities a price has
actually been set upon their heads.

A fondness for chickens, it is alleged, is the chief crime of Hawks,
and in popular parlance all Hawks are 'Chicken Hawks' and as such are
to be killed on sight.

Naturalists have long been aware that only one of our common Hawks
habitually preys upon poultry while most of our species, by feeding
largely on meadow mice, are actually beneficial. It was not, however,
until this matter received the attention of the Biological Survey of
the United States Department of Agriculture, that the economic status
of Hawks, as well as of Owls, was placed on a sound scientific basis.
In Dr. A. K. Fisher's report on the food of Hawks and Owls, issued by
the Biologic Survey in 1893, the results of the examination of the
contents of several thousands stomachs of these birds is tabulated. It
is stated, for example, that only three out of two hundred and twenty
stomachs of the so-called 'Chicken' or Red-shouldered Hawk contained
the remains of poultry, while mice were found in no less than one
hundred and two, and insects in ninety-two.

That the Sparrow Hawk is also wrongly named is clear from a study of
its food, only fifty-four out of three hundred and twenty stomachs
examined containing remains of birds, while insects were found in two
hundred and fifteen.

As a matter of fact, among our commoner Hawks, the Cooper and
Sharp-shinned are the only ones feeding largely on birds and poultry,
and if the farmer will take the pains to ascertain what kind of Hawk
it is that pays unwelcome visits to his barn-yard, he will be spared
the injustice of condemning all Hawks for the sins of one or two.

Feeding after sunset, when the small mammals are most active, Owls are
even more beneficial than Hawks. The Great Horned Owl, it is true,
has an undue fondness for poultry, but the bird is generally so rare
near thickly populated regions that on the whole it does comparatively
little harm.

Fortunately, it is those Owls which are most common in settled regions
which are of most value to man. Thus, our little Screech Owl feeds
chiefly on mice and insects. Only one of the two hundred and
fifty-five stomachs examined by Dr. Fisher contained the remains of
poultry while mice were found in ninety-one and insects in one
hundred. Of the Short-eared or Marsh Owl, seventy-seven out of one
hundred and one stomachs contained mice remains, and the same
injurious little rodents were found in eighty-four out of one hundred
and seven stomachs of the Long-eared Owl.

The bones and hair of the small mammals eaten by Owls are rolled into
oblong pellets in the stomach and are ejected at the mouth. These
pellets may often be found in large numbers beneath the roosts in
which Owls pass the day. In 200 such castings of the Barn Owl Dr.
Fisher found the remains of 454 small mammals of which no less than
225 were meadow mice.

Hawks build large-bulky nests of sticks placing them usually well up
in large trees, and lay, as a rule, four eggs which are generally
whitish, blotched with brown. The Marsh Hawk is an exception. Its nest
built largely of grasses, is placed on the ground in marshes and the
eggs, often numbering six and rarely eight, are bluish white unmarked.

The Owls nest in holes in trees or banks, or, in some instances, an
old Hawk or Crow nest may be occupied. The eggs usually number three
to five and are always pure white.

Vultures and Osprey

  [Illustration: 324.]

=324. California Vulture= (_Gymnogyps californianus_). L. 44-55;
Ex. 8 1-2 to nearly 11 feet. (Ridgw.) _Ads._ Head and neck orange,
blue, and red, unfeathered; feathers around neck and on underparts
narrow and stiffened; greater wing-coverts tipped with white;
_under wing-coverts white_.

Range.--"Coast ranges of southern California from Monterey Bay, south
to Lower California and east to Arizona" (Bailey). Recorded from
Burrard Inlet, British Columbia (Fannin).

  [Illustration: 325.]

=325. Turkey Vulture; Turkey Buzzard= (_Cathartes aura_). L. 30;
T. 11. _Ads._ Head and neck _red_ unfeathered; brownish black; no white
in plumage; bill whitish. _Notes._ A low hissing sound when disturbed.

Range--Western Hemisphere from central and northeast New Jersey,
central Illinois, northern Minnesota, the Saskatchewan region and
British Columbia, south to Patagonia; winters from southern New
Jersey, southern Illinois and southern California southward.

  [Illustration: 326.]

=326. Black Vulture; Carrion Crow= (_Catharista urubu_). L. 24. T. 8.
_Ads._ Head and neck unfeathered, black, plumage black; _under surface
of wings silvery_. _Notes._ A low grunting sound when disturbed.

Range.--Tropical America, north, as a resident to North Carolina,
southern Illinois and southern Kansas; west to the Plains, south to
northern South America, strays as far north as Maine and South Dakota.

  [Illustration: 364.]

=364. American Osprey; Fish Hawk= (_Pandion haliaëtus carolinensis_).
L. 23. Nape white; feet large; no bars on primaries. _Ad._ [Male].
Below white with few or no spots on breast. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar,
but breast with numerous grayish brown spots and streaks. _Notes._
Loud, plaintive, whistles.

Range.--America; breeds from Florida, Texas and Lower California,
north to Labrador, Great Slave Lake and northern Alaska; winters from
South Carolina and Lower Mississippi Valley to northern South America.

Kites and Marsh Hawks

  [Illustration: 327.]

=327. Swallow-tailed Kite= (_Elanoides forficatus_). L. 24. _Ads._
Back purplish black, wings and tail blue-black. _Notes._ A shrill,
keen, _e-e-e_ or _we-we-we_. (Bendire.)

Range.--Middle America; summers north to Virginia, central Illinois,
northern Minnesota, Manitoba and Dakota; west to central Kansas,
rarely to Colorado; winters in Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 328.]

=328. White-tailed Kite= (_Elanus leucurus_). L. 15.5. _Ads._
Shoulders black; back and middle tail-feathers ashy gray; rest of
tail-feathers, forehead and underparts white. _Yng._ Upperparts with
rusty. _Notes._ A plaintive, musical whistle. (Barlow.)

Range.--Middle America north to South Carolina, southern Illinois,
Indian Territory, western Texas, Arizona and central California; south
to Argentine Republic; rare east of the the Mississippi.

  [Illustration: 329.]

=329. Mississippi Kite= (_Ictinia mississippiensis_). L. 14. _Ads._
Head, ends of secondaries, and underparts bluish gray; back bluish
slate; tail black without bars. _Yng._ Head streaked black and white;
back blackish, tipped with rusty; tail with three or four broken white
bars; underparts buffy, streaked with rusty and blackish.

Range.--Middle America; breeds north to South Carolina, southern
Illinois and Kansas; winters in tropics.

  [Illustration: 330.]

=330. Everglade Kite; Snail Hawk= (_Rostrhamus sociabilis_). L. 18.
Longer upper tail-coverts and base of tail white. _Ads._ Slaty black;
end of tail with brownish and whitish bands. _Yng._ Above blackish
brown tipped with rusty; below mottled rusty, blackish and buff.

Range.--Tropical America north to southern Florida and eastern Mexico;
south to Argentine Republic.

  [Illustration: 331.]

=331. Marsh Hawk; Harrier= (_Circus hudsonius_). L. [Male], 19;
[Female], 22. Upper tail-coverts and base of tail white. _Ad._ [Male].
Above gray or ashy; underparts with rusty spots. _Ad._ [Female], and
_Yng._ Above brownish black with more or less rusty, particularly on
the nape; below brownish rusty with black streaks on breast. _Notes._
A peevish scream and peculiar clucking or cackling. (Preston.)

Range.--North America; breeds locally north to about latitude 60°;
winters from southern New York, northern Illinois, northern Kansas,
Colorado and British Columbia south to Central America.


  [Illustration: 332.]

=332. Sharp-shinned Hawk= (_Accipiter velox_). L. [Male], 11.2;
[Female], 13.5; T. [Male], 5.5; [Female], 7. Tail _square_ at end.
_Ads._ Above slaty gray; crown darker; below barred white and rusty
brown. _Yng._ Above blackish brown lightly margined with rusty; below
white streaked with brown. Note the relatively long tail in this and
the two following species. _Notes._ _Cac-cac-cac._ (Ralph.)

Range.--North America; breeds throughout its range but chiefly
northward; winters from Massachusetts and Vancouver Island southward.

  [Illustration: 333.]

=333. Cooper Hawk= (_Accipiter cooperii_). L. [Male], 15.5; [Female],
19; T. [Male], 7.7; [Female], 9. Similar in color to No. 332, but tail
_rounded_; adult with crown blacker. _Notes._ A cackling or
chattering. (Bendire.)

Range.--North America; breeds from southern Mexico north to British
America; winters from Massachusetts, Lower Mississippi Valley and
Oregon southward.

  [Illustration: 334.]

=334. American Goshawk= (_Accipiter atricapillus_). L. [Male], 22;
[Female], 24; T. [Male], 10; [Female], 11.5. _Ads._ Above bluish
slate; crown darker; a whitish line over the eye to the nape; below
_finely_ marked with gray and white. _Yng._ Above blackish brown,
rusty and buff; below buffy white streaked with blackish.

Range.--North America; breeds chiefly north of United States; winters
south to New Jersey, rarely Virginia, Illinois, Missouri and Kansas;
west to Oregon.

=334a. Western Goshawk= (_A. a. striatulus_). Similar to No. 334, but
_Ad._ dark plumbeous above, markings on lower parts heavier and
darker. Stripes on lower parts of _Yng._ broader and blacker. (Ridgw.)
_Notes._ A shrill scream and a frequently repeated _keeah_ or
_kreeah_. (Bendire.)

Range.--"Western North America; north to Sitka, Alaska; south to
California; east to Idaho. Breeds in the Sierra Nevada south to
latitude 38°." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 346.]

=346. Mexican Goshawk= (_Asturina plagiata_). L. 17. _Ads._ Above
slaty gray; below barred slaty-gray and white. _Yng._ Above blackish
brown with rusty markings, particularly on wing-coverts; longer upper
tail-coverts white with black spots or bars; tail brownish with
numerous black bars; below whitish with large elongate spots. _Notes._
A peculiar piping note uttered while hovering in the air. (Bendire.)

Range.--Middle America, from Panama north, in March, to Mexican border
of United States.


  [Illustration: 335.]

=335. Harris Hawk= (_Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi_). L. [Male], 19;
[Female], 22. Longer upper tail-coverts, base and tip of tail white.
_Ads._ Shoulders, thighs and under wing-coverts, reddish brown; under
tail-coverts white. _Yng._ Similar but streaked below with rusty, buff
and black; legs barred with white. _Notes._ A long, harsh, Buteo-like
scream. (V. Bailey.)

Range.--Middle America from Panama north to southern Texas, rarely
Mississippi and southern California.

  [Illustration: 337.]

=337 Red-tailed Hawk= (_Buteo borealis_). L. [Male], 20; [Female], 23.
_Four_ outer primaries notched. _Ads._ Tail rusty brown with a black
band, sometimes broken, near its tip; below buffy white, a band of
spots across the belly; legs usually without bars. _Yng._ Tail grayish
brown with a rusty tinge and numerous blackish bars; upper
tail-coverts barred black and white; below less buffy than in adult;
legs more often barred. _Notes._ A shrill whistle, suggesting the
sound of escaping steam.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Great Plains, north to
about latitude 60°; breeds throughout its range; winters from
Massachusetts, Illinois and South Dakota southward.

=337a. Krider Hawk= (_B. b. kriderii_). Similar to No. 337, but nearly
or wholly white below. _Ads._ Usually without black tail band.

Range.--"Great Plains of United States from Minnesota to Texas;, east
irregularly or casually to Iowa and northern Illinois." (Bendire).

  [Illustration: 337b.]

=337b. Western Red-tail= (_B. b. calurus_). Very variable in color.
_Ads._ Sometimes sooty brown above and below with more or less rusty;
in light phase resembles No. 337, but tail _averages_ paler and
sometimes has more than one bar; the underparts are deeper and legs
are usually _barred with rusty_. _Yng._ Similar to _Yng._ of No. 337,
but markings below heavier; flanks more barred.

Range.--Western North America from Rocky Mountains to Pacific; north
to British Columbia, south to central America; generally resident.

=337d. Harlan Hawk= (_B. b. harlani_). _Ads._ Above sooty brown; tail
closely _mottled_ with blackish, rusty and whitish; below varying from
white, more or less-spotted on belly to sooty brown. _Yng._ Similar,
but tail barred with blackish, gray, rusty or whitish.

Range.--"Gulf States and Lower Mississippi Valley, north (casually) to
Kansas, Iowa, Illinois and Pennsylvania; east to Georgia, and
Florida." (Bendire).


  [Illustration: 339.]

=339. Red-shouldered Hawk= (_Buteo lineatus_). L. [Male], 18.3;
[Female], 20.3. _Four_ outer primaries notched. _Ads._ Lesser
wing-coverts bright reddish brown. _Yng._ Below whitish _streaked_
with brownish; lesser wing-coverts less reddish; primaries with _rusty
buff_. _Notes._ A loud screaming _keé-yer_, _keé-yer_.

Range.--Eastern United States to Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, eastern
Nebraska and Minnesota, north to Maine, south to northern Florida;
generally resident.

=339a. Florida Red-shouldered Hawk= (_B. l. alleni_). Smaller than
No. 339. (W. [Male], 11.) _Ad._ Much grayer above, no rusty on head,
much paler below.

Range.--Florida north along coast to South Carolina; west along coast
to eastern Texas.

=339b. Red-bellied Hawk= (_B. l. elegans_). Similar to No. 339, but
rusty of breast usually unbroken. Young with lower parts deep brownish
or dusky prevailing; less buff on primaries. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Pacific coast from Lower California north to British Columbia;
east rarely to Colorado and western Texas.

  [Illustration: 342.]

=342. Swainson Hawk= (_Buteo swainsoni_). L. [Male], 20. _Three_ outer
primaries notched. _Ad._ [Male]. Breast patch rusty brown. _Ad._
[Female]. Breast-patch grayish brown. Dark phase. Brownish black more
or less varied with rusty; tail obscurely barred. _Yng._ Below _rich_
rusty buff with elongate black spots. _Notes._ _Pi-tick_, _pi-tick_,
frequently repeated. (Bendire.)

Range.--"Western North America from Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas and
Texas to the Pacific coast; north to Arctic regions and south to
Argentine Republic, casual east to Maine and Massachusetts. Breeds
nearly throughout its North American range." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 343.]

=343. Broad-winged Hawk= (_Buteo platypterus_). L. [Male], 15.8;
[Female], 16.7. _Three_ outer primaries notched. _Ads._ Tail with two
whitish bands and a brownish tip; below _barred_ with rusty brown.
_Yng._ _No_ buff in primaries; tail brownish with several black bars;
below whitish, streaked with blackish. _Notes._ A high, sharp, keen,
penetrating whistle.

Range.--Eastern North America, breeds west to Plains, north to New
Brunswick and Saskatchewan; winters from southern New Jersey south to
northern South America.

Hawks and Caracara

  [Illustration: 340.]

=340. Zone-tailed Hawk= (_Buteo abbreviatus_). L. [Male], 19;
[Female], 21. _Ads._ Tail with little if any white tip; _inner_ webs
of all but middle feathers with black and white bars. _Yng._ Browner;
tail grayish brown; white on inner webs, with numerous blackish bars.
_Notes._ Not unlike those of _Buteo borealis_. (Belding.)

Range.--Tropical America north to southern Texas, southern Arizona and
southern California.

  [Illustration: 344. Dark Phase.]

=344. Short-tailed Hawk= (_Buteo brachyurus_). L. 17; T. 7. _Ads._
Above slaty gray, tail barred with black and tipped with white; sides
of breast rusty; rest of underparts _white_. Dark phase. Blackish,
forehead whitish; tail lighter than back, barred with black. _Yng._
Above blackish brown, below cream buff, _without_ black markings.
_Notes._ Somewhat resembling the scream of the Red-shouldered Hawk,
but more prolonged. (Pennock.)

Range.--Tropical America, north to eastern Mexico; rare in Florida.

  [Illustration: 345.]

=345. Mexican Black Hawk= (_Urubitinga anthracina_). L. [Male], 19;
[Female], 21. _Ads._ Tail with a white tip and broad white band across
_all_ the feathers. _Yng._ Above brownish black, buff and rusty; below
buffy striped with blackish; tail with several black and whitish bars.
_Notes._ Piping cries like the spring whistle of _Numenius
longirostris_. (Bendire.)

Range.--"Tropical America in general, north to central Arizona, and
the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas." (Bendire).

  [Illustration: 362.]

=362. Audubon Caracara= (_Polyborus cheriway_). L. 22. Tail white with
a black end and numerous black bars. _Ads._ Breast and hindneck
barred; belly black. _Yng._ Crown, back, and belly dark brown;
hindneck, breast and belly _streaked_ with buffy. _Notes._ Generally
silent, but sometimes utters a prolonged cackling note. (B. F. Goss.)

Range.--Northern South America, north to southern Texas, southern
Arizona and Lower California; interior of southern Florida; resident.

=363. Guadalupe Caracara= (_Polyborus lutosus_). Resembles No. 362,
but has rump and upper tail-coverts dull brownish buff broadly barred
with dull brown; tail brownish buff with broad bars of grayish brown
bordered by narrower zigzag bars or lines of dusky; terminal band less
than 2.00 wide. (Ridgway.)

Range.--Guadalupe Island, west of Lower California.


  [Illustration: 341.]

=341. Sennett White-tailed Hawk= (_Buteo albicaudatus sennetti_).
L. [Male], 21; [Female], 23. Three outer primaries cut. _Ads._ Grayish
slate above. _Yng._ Above brownish black; breast usually white, throat
blackish, belly heavily marked with rusty and blackish; sometimes
wholly black below; tail generally _silvery gray_., white on inner
webs with numerous indistinct blackish bars. _Notes._ A cry much like
the bleating of a goat (Merrill.)

Range.--"From southern Texas and Arizona south to Mexico." (Bailey.)

  [Illustration: 347a.]

=347a. American Rough-legged Hawk= (_Archibuteo lagopus
sancti-johannis_). B. .7 deep, _smaller_ than in No. 348. L. [Male],
21; [Female], 23. Legs feathered to the toes. _Ads._ Basal half of
tail white, end half barred with black; belly with more or less black.
_Yng._ No black bars on end half of tail; buffier below, more black on
belly. Black phase. Black more or less varied with brown and rusty as
it approaches light plumage of ad. or yng; but to be known by
feathered legs.

Range.--North America; breeds north of United States; winters south to
Virginia, Missouri and central California.

  [Illustration: 348.]

=348. Ferruginous Rough-Leg= (_Archibuteo ferrugineus_). B. 1. deep,
larger than in No. 347a; L. [Male], 22; [Female], 24. Legs feathered
to toes. _Ads._ Above rich rusty streaked with black; legs rusty
barred with black; tail grayish sometimes washed with rusty. _Yng._
Above blackish brown margined with rusty; below white; breast with a
few streaks; legs _spotted_; tail with inner webs and base white;
outer webs grayish. Dark phase. Sooty brown more or less varied with
rusty; _tail as in ad_.

Range.--"Western North America from the Plains (east North Dakota to
Texas), west to the Pacific and from the Saskatchewan region south
into Mexico; casually east to Illinois. Breeds from Utah, Colorado and
Kansas north to the Saskatchewan Plains." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 355.]

=355. Prairie Falcon= (_Falco mexicanus_). L. [Male], 17; [Female],
20. A blackish patch on the sides. _Ad._ [Male]. Above including
middle tail feathers, grayish brown; back with more or less concealed
buffy bars. _Ad._ [Female]. No buffy bars on back. _Yng._ Above
margined with rusty and whitish; head much as in ad. _Notes._ _Kee_,
_kée_, _kee_ and a sort of cackle. (Bendire.)

Range.--"United States from the eastern border of the Plains to the
Pacific and from the Dakotas south into Mexico; casual east to
Illinois. Breeds throughout its United States range." (A.O.U.)

Eagles and Gyrfalcons

  [Illustration: 349.]

=349. Golden Eagle= (_Aquila chrysaëtos_). L. [Male], 30-35; [Female],
35-40; Ex. [Male], 78-84; [Female], 84-90. (Ridgw.) Legs feathered to
toes. _Ads._ Back of head and nape paler than body; basal two-thirds
of tail white. _Yng._ Base of tail with broken grayish bars. _Notes._
A shrill, _kee-kee-kee_, and, when alarmed, _kiah-kiah_ repeated a
number of times. (Bendire.)

Range--Northern parts of northern hemisphere; in America south into
Mexico; rare east of Mississippi, more common in Rocky Mountains and
mountains of Pacific coast.

  [Illustration: 352.]

=352. Bald Eagle= (_Haliæetus leucocephalus_). L. [Male], 33;
[Female] 35; Ex. [Male], 84; [Female], 89. Legs _not_ feathered to
toes. _Ads._ Head, neck and tail white. _Yng._ Head and body blackish,
more or less varied with white; tail blackish mottled with white.
_Notes._ Of the male, a loud, clear _cac cac-cac_; of the female harsh
and broken. (Ralph.)

Range.--North America breeding locally throughout its range, more
frequently near the Atlantic coast; resident in United States.

=352a. Alaska Bald Eagle= (_H. l. alascanus_). Similar to No. 352, but
larger. W. [Male], 23.8; [Female], 24.6; T. [Male], 11.5; [Female],
12; Tar. [Male], 4.1; [Female], 3.7. (Townsend.)


  [Illustration: 353.]

=353. White Gyrfalcon= (_Falco islandus_). L. [Male], 22; [Female],
24. Tarsus feathered in front nearly to toes; only outer primary
notched. Under tail coverts _pure_ white. _Ads._ Below white with few
or no black markings. _Yng._ Dark areas above larger, below with
elongate blackish spots.

Range.--Arctic regions, in America south in winter casually to Maine.

=354. Gray Gyrfalcon= (_Falco rusticolus_). L. [Male], 22; [Female],
24. Tarsus feathered in front nearly to toes; only outer primary
notched. Under tail coverts _with_ dusky margins. _Ads._ Crown usually
more white than dusky; above _barred_ with blackish and grayish; below
white, breast streaked; sides and legs barred with dusky. _Yng._ Above
dark brown with broken buffy bars and margins: tail with white and
brown bars of nearly equal width, below white everywhere streaked with

Range.--Arctic regions; south in winter to the northern border of the
United States; casually as far as Kansas and Maine.

=354a. Gyrfalcon= (_F. r. gyrfalco_). Similar to No. 354, but head
usually with more dusky than white; back in ad. indistinctly barred
with grayish. _Yng._ With dark stripes of lower parts usually about
equal in width to white interspaces.

Range.--"Northern Europe and Arctic America, from northern Labrador
and coasts of Hudson Bay to Alaska" (Ridgw.); south in winter
casually, to northern border of United States as far as Long Island.

  [Illustration: 354b.]

=354b. Black Gyrfalcon= (_F. r. obsoletus_). Similar to No. 354, but
much darker; above plain dusky with few or no buffy markings; below
dusky margined with buffy, the former prevailing. _Notes._ A
chattering _ke-a_, _ke-a_, _ke-a_, blending into a rattling scream.

Range.--Labrador: south in winter to northern New England; casually to
Long Island.


  [Illustration: 356.]

=356. Duck Hawk= (_Falco peregrinus anatum_). L. [Male], 16; [Female],
19. Sides of throat black. _Ads._ Above bluish slate; below buffy.
_Yng._ Above blackish margined with rusty; tail with broken rusty bars
and whitish tip; below _deep_ rusty buff streaked with blackish; under
surface of wing uniformly barred. _Notes._ Loud screams and noisy
cacklings. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western Hemisphere; breeds locally from Southern States to
Arctic regions; winters from Northern States southward; more common
west of Rocky Mountains.

=356a. Peale Falcon= (_F. p. pealei_). _Ads._ Crown uniform with back;
chest heavily spotted with blackish; bars of remaining underparts very
broad. (Ridgw.)

Range.--"Pacific coast region of North America from Oregon to the
Aleutian and Commander Islands, breeding throughout its range." (A. O.

  [Illustration: 357.]

=357. Pigeon Hawk= (_Falco columbarius_). L. [Male], 10.5; [Female],
13. Two outer primaries notched. _Ad._ [Male]. Above slaty blue;
middle tail feather with not more than _four_ black bands. _Ad._
[Female] and _Yng._ Above dark blackish brown; bars in middle tail
feather five or less; below more heavily barred than in [Male].

Range.--North America; breeds chiefly north of United States from
Rocky Mountains and westward; breeds from Colorado and California
north to Alaska; winters from Gulf States, Colorado and California,
south to northern South America.

=357a. Black Merlin= (_F. c. suckleyi_). Similar to No. 357, but much
darker above and more heavily, marked below; bars on tail and under
side of wing nearly obsolete.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to Sitka; east to
eastern Oregon and Washington.

  [Illustration: 358.]

=358. Richardson Merlin= (_Falco richardsonii_). Resembles No. 357,
but is paler and has the central tail feather crossed by six light
bars, counting the terminal one.

Range.--Interior of North America from eastern border of Great Plains
west; rare west of Rockies; north to, at least, latitude 53°; south to

  [Illustration: 359.]

=359. Aplomado Falcon= (_Falco fusco-cærulescens_). L. [Male], 16;
[Female], 17.5. Middle of belly black. _Ads._ Above slaty gray; breast
buff, lower belly rusty. _Yng._ Similar but grayish brown above, belly

Range.--South and Central America north to southern border of the
United States.

  [Illustration: 360. Male.]

  [Illustration: 360. Female.]

=360. Sparrow Hawk= (_Falco sparverius_). L. 10; [Female], 11. _Ad._
[Male]. Tail with one black bar; below _spotted_. _Ad._ [Female].
Whole back barred; tail with numerous black bars; below _streaked_.
_Notes._ A rapidly repeated _killy-killy-killy_, usually uttered while
on the wing.

Range.--Eastern North America west to Rocky Mountains; breeds from
Gulf States to Hudson Bay; winters from southern Illinois and New
Jersey southward.

Hawks and Owls

=360a. Desert Sparrow Hawk= (_F. s. phalæna_). Similar to No. 360, but
slightly larger and appreciably paler; [Female] with black bars above
narrower; streakings of underparts finer and more rusty. [Male], L.
10.6; W. 7.5; T. 5.3; [Female], L. 10.8; W. 7.7; T. 5.3. (Mearns.)

Range.--"Western United States, north to western British Columbia and
western Montana south, to Mazatlan in northwestern Mexico." (A.O.U.)

=360b. St. Lucas Sparrow Hawk= (_F. s. peninsularis_). Similar to No.
360a, but paler; smaller than No. 360. [Male], W. 6.4; T. 4.5;
[Female], W. 7; T. 4.7. (Mearns.)

Range--Lower California (Cape Region only?)

  [Illustration: 365.]

=365. Barn Owl; Monkey-faced Owl= (_Strix pratincola_). L. 18. No
ear-tufts; eyes black. _Ads._ Above gray and yellowish buff; below
white more or less washed with buff and spotted with black. _Yng._
More buffy below. _Notes._ A sudden, harsh scream and a screaming
_cr-r-r-r-e-e_, repeated several times generally when flying.

Range.--United States north to Long Island, (rarely Massachusetts),
southern Ontario, Minnesota and Oregon; migrates slightly south and
winters south to Mexico.

  [Illustration: 366.]

=366. American Long-eared Owl= (_Asio wilsonianus_). L. 14.8.
Ear-tufts long; eyes yellow. _Ads._ Above varied with _gray_; belly
_barred_. _Notes._ Usually silent except during the breeding season
when they utter a soft toned, slow _wu-hunk_, _wu-hunk_ and a low,
twittering, whistling _dicky_, _dicky_, _dicky_. (Bendire.)

Range.--North America; breeds from Nova Scotia, Manitoba, and British
Columbia south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 367.]

=367. Short-eared Owl= (_Asio accipitrinus_). L. 15.5. Ear tufts
short; eyes yellow. _Ads._ No gray above; belly _streaked_. _Notes._ A
shrill barking call like the _ki-yi_ of a small dog. (Lawrence.)

Range.--"Nearly cosmopolitan;" in America breeds locally from
Virginia, northern Mississippi Valley, and Dakotas northward; winters
from northern United States southward.

  [Illustration: 378.]

=378. Burrowing Owl= (_Speotyto cunicularia hypogæa_). L. 10. Tarsi
bare behind. _Ads._ Spotted above with buffy; belly barred; chin and
breast-patch white. _Yng._ Less distinctly spotted above; belly
without bars. _Notes._ A mellow, sonorous _coo-c-o-o_; a chattering
note uttered when flying, and a short, shrill alarm-note, _tzip-tzip_.

Range.--Western North America from humid coast region east to prairies
of Mississippi Valley (western Nebraska, central Kansas, western
Minnesota); north to about line of Canadian Pacific R. R.; south to
Central America.

=378a. Florida Burrowing Owl= (_S. c. floridana_). Similar to No. 378,
but slightly smaller and whiter throughout; spots above white with
little if any buff; tarsi nearly bare.

Range.--Interior of southern Florida.


  [Illustration: 368.]

=368. Barred Owl= (_Syrnium varium_). L. 80. No ear-tufts; eyes
black. _Ads._ Head, back and breast _barred_; _toes feathered
nearly if not quite to the nails_. _Notes._ A loud, sonorous
_whoo-whoo-whoo-too-whoo_, _to-whoo-ah_; a long-drawn, _whoo-ah_;
rarely a wild scream; and when two individuals meet, a remarkable
medley of hoots and _ha-has_.

Range.--Eastern North America except Gulf Coast; north to Nova Scotia
and Manitoba; west to Colorado; resident, except at northern limit of

=368a. Florida Barred Owl= (_S. v. alleni_). Similar to No. 368, but
smaller, darker; black bars especially on breast, wider; _toes nearly
if not quite bare_.

Range.--Florida; north along coast to South Carolina; west along coast
to Texas.

=368b. Texas Barred Owl= (_S. v. helveolum_). Similar to No. 368 in
color, but with the toes bare as in No. 368a.

Range.--Southern Texas.

  [Illustration: 369.]

=369. Spotted Owl= (_Syrnium occidentale_). Resembles No. 368, but has
the head and neck _spotted_ with white; primaries with broad, whitish
tips. _Notes._ Probably similar to those of No. 368. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western United States from southern Colorado and New Mexico,
west to California, south to Lower California and Guanajuato, Mexico.

=369a. Northern Spotted Owl= (_S. o. caurinum_). Similar to No. 369,
but darker; white markings smaller; white spots on head and neck
reduced to minimum; white tips to primaries nearly obsolete.

Range.--Western Washington and British Columbia.

  [Illustration: 370.]

=370. Great Gray Owl= (_Scotiaptex nebulosa_). L. 27. No ear-tufts;
eyes yellow. _Ads._ Above black finely and _irregularly_ marked with
white; breast _streaked_; feet feathered to toe-nails. _Notes._ Said
to be a tremulous, vibrating sound. (Fisher.)

Range.--North America; breeds north of Lat. 55°; winters south to
northern border of United States casually as far as New Jersey,
Illinois, Minnesota, Idaho, and northern California.

=371. Richardson Owl= (_Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni_). L. 10. _Ads._
Above _grayish_ brown with numerous white _spots_, particularly on
head; feet feathered to toes and usually with indistinct, dusky bars.
_Notes._ A musical, soft whistle. (Wheelright.) A peculiar grating
cry. (Nelson.) (See next page.)

Range.--Northern North America; breeds from Gulf of St. Lawrence and
Manitoba northward; winters south to northern border of United States,
casually to Massachusetts, Iowa, and Colorado; no Pacific coast record

  [Illustration: 371.]

  [Illustration: 372.]

=372. Saw-whet Owl; Acadian Owl= (_Nyctala acadica_). L. 8. _Ads._
Above _cinnamon_ brown; forehead with many, hindhead with few
_streaks_; back with white spots; feet and legs less heavily feathered
than in No. 371 and _without_ dusky bars. _Yng._ Breast and back
cinnamon brown with few white markings; belly _rusty buff,
unstreaked_. _Notes._ A frequently repeated whistle; sometimes high,
sometimes low; generally begins slow and ends rapidly; resembles noise
of saw-filing. (Ralph.)

Range.--North America; breeds from mountains of Pennsylvania,
Massachusetts (rarely), northern New York, northern Illinois; and, in
Rocky Mountains, from Mexico northward; winters south to Virginia,
Kansas and central California.

=372a. Northwest Saw-whet Owl= (_N. a. scotæa_). Similar to No. 372,
but darker both above and below, dark markings everywhere heavier;
flanks, legs and feet more rufescent. (Osgood.)

Range.--Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.

  [Illustration: 379.]

=379. Pygmy Owl= (_Glaucidium gnoma_). L. 7. Top of head _spotted_.
_Ads._ Above grayish brown; spots whitish. _Yng._ No spots on head.
_Notes._ A soft cooing _coohuh_, _coohuh_, repeated a number of times.

Range.--"Timbered regions of western North America, from southern
Rocky Mountains in Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona," west to
California, Oregon, and Washington, except coast belt, south into

=379a. California Pygmy Owl= (G. g. californicum). Similar to No. 379,
but darker; spots above buff or rusty.

Range.--Humid coast region from Monterey, California, north to British

=379.1. Hoskin Pygmy Owl= (_Glaucidium hoskinsii_). Similar to No.
379a, but smaller and grayer, the forehead and facial disc with more
white, the upperparts less distinctly spotted. (Brewst.)

Range.--Southern Lower California.

  [Illustration: 380.]

=380. Ferruginous Pygmy Owl= (_Glaucidium phalænoides_). L. 7. Top of
head _streaked_. _Ads._ Above varying from grayish brown marked with
whitish to plain reddish brown without marks; below white streaked
with grayish brown or reddish brown. _Yng._ No streaks on head.
_Notes._ A softly whistled _coo_ repeated many times at intervals of
about one second.

Range.--Tropical America; from Brazil north to Mexican border of
United States.

  [Illustration: 381.]

=381. Elf Owl= (_Micropallas whitneyi_). L. 6. Smallest of our Owls.
_Ads._ Above grayish brown, head spotted; back barred with rusty;
below mixed rusty, white and grayish. _Notes._ A tremulous _cha-cha_,
_cha-cha_, in different keys, sometimes low, sometimes distinct.

Range.--Tableland of Mexico from Puebla north to Mexican border of
United States; Lower California, and (rarely) California.

  [Illustration: 373.]

=373. Screech Owl= (_Megascops asio_). L. 9.4; W. 6.4; T. 3. Two color
phases; with ear-tufts; eyes yellow. _Ad._ Gray phase. Above buffy
gray irregularly marked with black; below gray, white, rusty and
black. _Ad._ Red phase. Above bright rusty brown with a few black
streaks; below white streaked with black and barred with rusty brown.
_Yng._ Above gray or rusty _barred_ with black and white; below white
thickly barred with blackish. _Notes._ A frequently repeated
tremulous, wailing whistle; often followed by a slower refrain-like
call; a castanet-like snapping of the mandibles.

Range.--Eastern North America from Florida north to New Brunswick,
Ontario and Minnesota, west to the Great Plains; resident.

=373a. Florida Screech Owl= (_M. a. floridanus_). Smaller than No.
373, W. 6.0; T. 2.8. Two color phases. Similar to those of No. 373,
but averaging darker and more heavily marked below; especially in red

Range.--Florida, north along coast to South Carolina; west along coast
to Louisiana.

=373b. Texas Screech Owl= (_M. a. mccalli_). Similar to No. 373, but
smaller, W. 6.1; underparts, especially sides of belly, with more
black bars; toes barer. I have seen only a gray phase.

Range.--"From western and southern Texas across east border of
tablelands of Mexico." (Bailey.)

=373c. California Screech Owl= (_M. a. bendirei_). W. 6.6. A gray
color phase only. Resembling No. 373, but somewhat darker above; less
buff about the nape; black streakings more regularly distributed;
underparts much as in No. 373b.

Range.--California and southern Oregon.

  [Illustration: 373d.]

=373d. Kennicott Screech Owl= (_M. a. kennicottii_). L. 10; W. 7.25.
_Ads._ Sooty brown prevailing above; blackish markings below nearly if
not fully as wide as white ones; darkest of our Screech Owls.

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon to Sitka.

  [Illustration: 373e.]

=373e. Rocky Mountain Screech Owl= (_M. a. maxwelliæ_). W. 7. Similar
to No. 373f above but paler; pale grayish buff predominating; black
markings throughout much narrower and less numerous than in No. 373g;
palest of our Screech Owls.

Range.--"Foothills and adjacent plains of the east Rocky Mountains
from Colorado north to Montana" (Bendire).

=373f. Mexican Screech Owl= (_M. a. cineraceus_). A gray color phase
only. Similar to No. 373b. but much grayer above; buff markings of No.
373b almost wholly absent; below black bars more numerous and narrower
than in No. 373b.

Range.--"New Mexico, Arizona, Lower California, and western Mexico."

=373g. Aiken Screech Owl= (_M. a. aikeni_). A gray color phase only.
W. 6.5. Similar to 373f, but still grayer; almost no buff above; black
markings wider on head, back, and underparts.

Range.--"Plains, El Paso County, Colorado, south probably to central
New Mexico and northeastern Arizona." (A.O.U.)

=373h. MacFarlane Screech Owl= (_M. a. macfarlanei_). A gray color
phase only. _Ads._ Of the size of _kennicottii_, but with color and
markings of _bendirei_. W. 7.2; T. 3.8. (Brewst.)

Range.--"Eastern Washington and Oregon to western Montana and probably
intermediate regions, and north to the interior of British Columbia."

=373.1. Spotted Screech Owl= (_Megascops trichopsis_). L. 7.7. _Ads._
Above mixed black, grayish brown and buff; black prevailing on head;
feathers of foreback with buffy white _spots_ on either side near the
end; below much as in No. 373f.

Range.--Southern Arizona and southward into northern Mexico.

=373.2. Xantus Screech Owl= (_Megascops xantusi_). W. 5.3. _Ad._
[Male]. Above drab, back tinged with pinkish rusty and faintly
vermiculated with reddish brown; breast paler ashy faintly suffused
with pinkish or rusty; belly whitish; underparts finely barred with
reddish brown and streaked with clove-brown. (Brewst.)

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 374.]

=374. Flammulated Screech Owl= (_Megascops flammeola_). L. 7. _Ads._
Ear-tufts small; eye surrounded by rusty, then by gray; crown, nape
and tips of scapulars largely rusty; neck band rusty.

Range.--Mountains of Guatemala north to Colorado (11 specimens, 7 from
Boulder County, Cook), west rarely to California (2 specimens).

=374a. Dwarf Screech Owl= (_M. f. idahoensis_). Similar to No. 374,
but slightly smaller and paler, especially on underparts where ground
color is white and black markings are restricted.

Range.--Idaho, eastern Oregon and California (San Bernardino
Mountains, 3 specimens, Grinnell).

  [Illustration: 375.]

=375. Great Horned Owl= (_Bubo virginianus_). [Male], L. 22; W. 15.
_Ads._ Ears conspicuous; the feathers nearly throughout the body rusty
basally; facial disc rich rusty. _Notes._ A loud, low, deep-toned
_whoo_, _hoo-hoo-hoo_, whooo-whooo, variable, but usually on the same
note; rarely a hair-raising scream.

Range.--Eastern North America; north to Labrador, south to Central
America; resident.

=375a. Western Horned Owl= (_B. v. pallescens_). Smaller and paler
than No. 375, W. 13.7; facial disc washed with rusty.

Range.--Western United States, except Pacific coast region, east to
Great Plains; casually Wisconsin and Illinois north to Manitoba and
British Columbia; south to Mexico.

  [Illustration: 375b.]

=375b. Arctic Horned Owl= (_B. v. arcticus_). Black and white
prevailing above; bases of feathers light yellowish buff; below black
and white with little or no buffy; facial disc gray.

Range.--Interior of Arctic America, from Rocky Mountains east to
Hudson Bay; breeds north of Lat. 51°; in winter straggles southward to
adjacent border of United States; rarely to Wyoming and Nebraska.

=375c. Dusky Horned Owl= (_B. v. saturatus_). Size of No. 375b, but
much darker; black bars below equalling white ones in width; darkest
bird of group.

Range.--"Pacific coast region from Monterey Bay, California, north to
Alaska; east to Hudson Bay and Labrador." (A.O.U.)

=375d. Pacific Horned Owl= (_B. v. pacificus_). Somewhat smaller than
No. 375b, W. 13.5; more like No. 375 in color but less rusty.

Range.--California, except humid coast region; east to Arizona.

=375e. Dwarf Horned Owl= (_B. v. elachistus_). Similar to No. 375c,
but very much smaller. W. [Male], 12.8; [Female], 13.4. (Brewster.)

Range.--Lower California.

  [Illustration: 376.]

=376. Snowy Owl= (_Nyctea nyctea_). L. 25. _Ad._ [Male]. White more or
less barred with blackish. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but more heavily

Range.--Northern parts of northern hemisphere; in America breeds from
Lat. 50° northward; winters south to northern United States; straggles
as far as Texas and California.

  [Illustration: 377a.]

=377a. American Hawk Owl= (_Surnia ulula caparoch_). L. 15; T. 7.2
long and _rounded_. _Ads._ Above brownish black, crown thickly
spotted, scapulars conspicuously margined with white; chin blackish;
belly barred. _Notes._ A shrill cry generally uttered while flying.

Range.--Northern North America: breeds from Newfoundland and northern
Montana northward; winters south to northern United States, rarely to
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Illinois; rare on Pacific coast.



  Family 1. PARROTS and PAROQUETS. Psittacidæ. 2 species.

Parrots are found throughout the warmer parts of the earth. About one
hundred and fifty of the some five hundred known species inhabit
America. The Carolina Paroquet, practically the only member of this
family found in the United States, since the Thick-billed Parrot
barely reaches our border in Arizona, was once an abundant bird in the
Southern States, but it is now restricted to a few localities in
Florida and possibly Indian Territory.



   Family 1. CUCKOOS, ANIS, etc. Cuculidæ. 5 species 2 subspecies.

   Family 2. TROGONS. Trogonidæ. 1 species.

   Family 3. KINGFISHERS. Alcedinidæ. 2 species.

The Cuckoos are a group of world-wide distribution, but are more
numerous in the eastern than in the western hemisphere where only
thirty-five of the some one hundred and seventy-five species are
found. The habit of the European Cuckoo in placing its eggs in the
nest of other birds is well known. The American species, however,
build nests of their own though it is true they are far from well made
structures. With the Anis one nest serves for several females who may
deposit as many as thirty eggs, incubation and the care of the young
being subsequently shared by the members of this singular family.

Trogons are found in the tropics of both the Old and New Worlds. They
are quiet, sedentary birds inhabiting forests and feeding largely on
fruit. So far as is known they nest in hollow trees.

Only eight of the one hundred and eighty or more known Kingfishers are
found in America, the remaining species being confined to the Old
World where they are most numerous in the Malay Archipelago.

Parrots and Paroquets

  [Illustration: 382.1]

=382.1. Thick-billed Parrot= (_Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha_). L. 16.5.
_Ads._ Forehead, loral region, stripe over eye, bend of wing and
thighs red; greater under wing-coverts yellow; rest of plumage green.

Range--Central Mexico north rarely to southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 382.]

=382. Carolina Paroquet= (_Conurus carolinensis_). L. 12.5 _Ads._
Forehead and cheeks deep orange, rest of head yellow. _Yng._ Forehead
and loral region orange; rest of head green like back; no yellow on
bend of wing. _Notes._ A sharp, rolling _kr-r-r-r-r-r_.

Range.--Formerly eastern United States, north to Maryland, Great
Lakes, and Iowa; west to Colorado, Oklahoma and eastern Texas; now
restricted to southern Florida and parts of Indian Territory.


=383. Ani= (_Crotophaga ani_). Resembling No. 384 but upper mandible
without grooves. _Notes._ A complaining whistled _oo-eeek_, _oo-eeek_.

Range eastern South America; north to West Indies and Bahamas, rarely
to southern Florida; accidental in Louisiana and Pennsylvania.

  [Illustration: 384.]

=384. Groove-billed Ani= (_Crotophaga sulcirostris_). L. 12.5 B. .7
_high_; the upper mandible with ridges and furrows. _Ads._ Blue-black,
many of the feathers with iridescent margins.

Range.--Northwestern South America, north through Mexico to Lower
California and southeastern Texas; casually Arizona, Louisiana and

  [Illustration: 385.]

=385. Road-runner= (_Geococcyx californianus_). L. 23. Toes two in
front, two behind. _Ads._ Above glossy olive-brown with whitish and
rusty margins, tail much rounded, outer tail-feathers tipped with
white. _Notes._ A soft cooing and a low _chittering_ note produced by
striking the mandibles together. Bendire mentions a note like that of
a hen calling her brood.

Range central Mexico north, rarely to southwestern Kansas, southern
Colorado, and Sacramento Valley, California, rarely to southern

  [Illustration: 386.]

=386. Mangrove Cuckoo= (_Coccyzus minor_). L. 13. _Ads._ Underparts
_uniformly_ rich buff; above grayish brown, crown grayer; ear-coverts
black; tail black, outer feathers broadly tipped with white.

Range.--Northern South America, north through Central America, Mexico
and Greater Antilles (except Porto Rico?) to Florida and Louisiana,
migrating south in fall.

=386a. Maynard Cuckoo= (_C. m. maynardi_). Similar to No. 386, but
underparts paler, the throat and forebreast more or less ashy white.

Range.--Bahamas and (eastern?) Florida Keys.

  [Illustration: 387.]

=387. Yellow-billed Cuckoo= (_Coccyzus americanus_). L. 12.2. _Ads._
Below white; lower mandible largely yellow, tail black, outer feathers
widely tipped with white. _Notes._ _Tut-tut_, _tut-tut_, _tut-tut_,
_tut-tut_, _cl-uck_, _cl-uck_, _cl-uck_, _cl-uck_, _cl-uck_, _cl-uck_,
_cow_, _cow_, _cow_, _cow_, _cow_, _cow_, usually given in part.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Florida to New Brunswick
and Minnesota; winters in Central and South America.

=387a. California Cuckoo= (_C. a. occidentalis_). Similar to No. 387
but somewhat grayer and larger; the bill slightly longer, 1.05.

Range.--Western North America; north to southern British Columbia;
east to Western Texas; winters south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 388.]

=388. Black-billed Cuckoo= (_Coccyzus erythrophthalmus_). L. 11.8.
_Ads._ White below; bill _black_; tail, seen from below, grayish
_narrowly_ tipped with white; above, especially on crown, browner than
No. 387. _Notes._ Similar to those of No. 387, but softer, the _cow_
notes connected.

Range.--Eastern North America; west to Rocky Mountains; breeds north
to Labrador and Manitoba; winters south of United States to Brazil.

  [Illustration: 389.]

=389. Coppery-tailed Trogon= (_Trogon ambiguus_). L. 12. _Ad._ [Male].
Wing-coverts finely vermiculated; tail coppery tipped with black;
outer web and end of outer feathers white, mottled with black. _Ad._
[Female]. Ear-coverts gray; back grayish brown; middle tail-feathers
rusty brown tipped with black; breast brownish; upper belly grayish;
ventral region pink. _Notes._ Resemble those of a hen Turkey.

Range.--Southern Mexico north to Lower Rio Grande and Arizona.

  [Illustration: 390.]

=390. Belted Kingfisher= (_Ceryle alcyon_). L. 13. _Ad._ [Male].
Breast-band and sides like back. _Ad._ [Female]. Breast-band and sides
rusty. _Notes._ A loud, harsh rattle.

Range.--North America; breeds from Florida, Texas, and California
north to Arctic regions; winters from Virginia, Kansas, and southern
California south to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 391.]

=391. Texas Kingfisher= (_Ceryle americana septentrionalis_). L. 8.7.
_Ad._ [Male]. Breast rusty brown; back greenish; a white collar. _Ad._
[Female]. Throat and breast white, sometimes tinged with buffy; a
breast and belly band of greenish spots. _Notes._ When flying, a
sharp, rattling twitter; when perching, a rapid, excited ticking.

Range.--Tropical America, from Panama north to southern Texas.



   Family 1. WOODPECKERS. Picidæ. 24 species, 22 subspecies.

The some three hundred and fifty known species of Woodpeckers are
distributed throughout the wooded parts of the world, except in
Australia and Madagascar, nearly one half of this number being found
in the New World. Feeding largely upon the eggs and larvæ of insects,
which they can obtain at all seasons, most of the North American
species are not highly migratory but are represented in the more
northern parts of their range at all times of the year.

Woodpeckers nest in holes in trees generally excavated by themselves.
The eggs, four to eight or nine in number, like those of most birds
that lay in covered situations, are pure white. The young are born
naked and are reared in the nest.

In few birds is the close relation between structure and habit more
strikingly illustrated than in the Woodpeckers. Their lengthened toes
placed two before and two behind (except in one genus) and armed with
strong nails enable them readily to grasp the bark of trees up which
they climb. Their stiffened, pointed tail-feathers are also of
assistance to them in retaining their position on tree trunks, serving
as a prop on which they may rest while chiseling out their homes or
laying bare the tunnels of the grubs of wood boring beetles. For this
purpose they use their bill, a marvellously effective tool with which
some of the large Woodpeckers perform astonishing feats. I have seen
an opening made by a Pileated Woodpecker in a white pine tree, twelve
inches long, four inches wide, and eight inches deep, through
perfectly sound wood to reach the larvæ at work in the heart of the
tree. The bill is also used as a musical instrument, the 'song' of
Woodpeckers being a rolling tattoo produced by rapid tappings on some
resonant limb.

As might be supposed the Woodpeckers are great of economic value.
Professor Beal states that at least two-thirds to three-fourths of the
food of our common Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers consists chiefly of
noxious insects.


  [Illustration: 392.]

=392. Ivory-billed Woodpecker= (_Campephilus principalis_). L. 20; B.
2.7, ivory white. _Ad._ [Male]. Crest scarlet. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar
to the [Male], but crest black. _Notes._ A sharp, penny trumpet-like

Range.--Florida west to eastern Texas; north to southern Missouri and
Oklahoma; formerly north to North Carolina, Illinois, and Indiana.

  [Illustration: 400.]

=400. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker= (_Picoides arcticus_). L. 9.5.
Back shining black _without_ white; toes two in front, one behind
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown yellow. _Ad._ [Female]. Crown black. _Notes._ A
sharp, shrill, _chirk_, _chirk_. (Hardy.)

Range.--"Northern North America, from the Arctic regions south to
northern United States, (New England, New York, Michigan, Minnesota
and Idaho), and in the Sierra Nevadas to Lake Tahoe." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 401.]

=401. American Three-toed Woodpecker= (_Picoides americanus_). L. 8.7.
Back _with_ white: toes two in front, one behind. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown
yellow; white bars on back broken, detached _not_ confluent. _Notes._
A prolonged squealing, rarely uttered. (Turner.)

Range.--Northern North America; west to Rocky Mountains; breeds from
Maine, mountains of New Hampshire, northern New York, and northern
Minnesota northward; south in winter, rarely to Massachusetts, central
New York, and northern Illinois.

=401a. Alaskan Three-toed Woodpecker= (_P. a. fasciatus_). Similar to
No. 401, but white bars on back confluent forming a more or less
continuous white patch.

Range.--"Alaska Territory; casually? south through western British
Columbia to northwestern Washington (vicinity of Mt. Baker); east
irregularly to Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie River Valley,
Northwest Territory." (Bendire.)

=401 b. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker= (_P. a. dorsalis_). Similar to
No. 401a, but larger. W. 5; bill narrower. _Notes._ A harsh, nasal
cry; a sudden, sharp _whip_, _whip_, _whip_, (Mearns.)

Range.--"Rocky Mountain region from British Columbia and Idaho south
into New Mexico." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 405.]

=405. Pileated Woodpecker= (_Ceophlœus pileatus_). L. 17. W. 8.9.
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown, crest, and streaks on sides of throat red; sides
of neck and patch on wing white. _Ad._ [Female]. Forehead brownish, no
red on sides of throat. _Notes._ A sonorous _cow-cow-cow_, repeated
slowly many times and a _wichew_ call when two birds meet; both
suggesting calls of the Flicker.

Range.--Southern United States, north to South Carolina.

=405a. Northern Pileated Woodpecker= (_C. p. abieticola_). Similar to
No. 405, but slightly larger, W. 9; T. 6.2.

Range.--Locally distributed throughout more heavily wooded regions of
North America, except in southern United States, north to Lat. 63°.

  [Illustration: 393.]

=393. Hairy Woodpecker= (_Dryobates villosus_). L. 9; W. 4.7 Outer
tail-feathers white _without_ terminal black marks. _Ad._ [Male].
Wing-coverts spotted, underparts white; nape with a red band. _Ad._
[Female]. Similar but nape band white. _Notes._ A sharp _peek_ and a
Kingfisher-like rattle.

Range.--Eastern United States from North Carolina to Canada.

=393a. Northern Hairy Woodpecker= (_D. v. leucomelas_). Similar to
No. 393, but larger; L. 10; W. 5.2.

Range.--British America north to Alaska.

=393b. Southern Hairy Woodpecker= (_D. v. audubonii_). Similar to
No. 393, but smaller; L. 8; W. 4.2.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to South Carolina.

  [Illustration: 393c.]

=393c. Harris Woodpecker= (_D. v. harrisi_). Similar to No. 393, but
wing-coverts usually _without_ white spots; underparts dirty, dusky,

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to British Columbia.

=393d. Cabanis Woodpecker= (_D. v. hyloscopus_). Similar to No. 393c,
but whiter below.

Range.--California, east to Arizona.

=393e. Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker= (_D. v. monticola_). Similar
to No. 393c, but pure white below; larger, size of No. 393a.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from northern New Mexico north to
British Columbia.

=393f. Queen Charlotte Woodpecker= (_D. v. picoideus_) Similar to
No. 393c, but middle of back barred and spotted with black; flanks
streaked with black. (Osgood.)

Range.--Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.

  [Illustration: 394.]

=394. Southern Downy Woodpecker= (_Dryobates pubescens_). L. 6; W.
3.5. Outer tail-feathers white _with_ terminal black marks. _Ad._
[Male]. Nape-band red; smallest of group, underparts dingier than in
No. 394c; white of less extent; wing-coverts spotted. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar but nape-band white. _Notes._ A sharp _peek_ and a rattle
similar to that of No. 393, but not so loud.

Range.--South Carolina, Georgia, and Gulf States to Texas.

  [Illustration: 394a.]

=394a. Gairdner Woodpecker= (_D. p. gairdnerii_). Similar to No. 394b,
but underparts sooty gray; the darkest below of any form in the group.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California north to British

=394b. Batchelder Woodpecker= (_D. p. homorus_). Similar to No. 394c,
but wing-coverts with few or no white spots, under tail-coverts
without dusky streaks.

Range.--"Rocky Mountain region of the United States." (A.O.U.)

=394c. Northern Downy Woodpecker= (_D. p. medianus_). L. 6.5; W. 3.7.
Similar to No. 394, but larger; whiter below; white markings of
greater extent.

Range.--Eastern North America south to South Carolina.

=394d. Alaskan Downy Woodpecker= (_D. p. nelsoni_). W. 4. Similar to
No. 394c, but still larger and whiter; largest of the group.


=394e. Willow Woodpecker= (_D. p. turati_). Similar to No. 394a, but
smaller, W. 3.8. superciliary patch and underparts whiter; tertials
always more or less spotted with white. (W. K. Fisher.)

Range.--"California, _except_: desert ranges and eastern slope of
Sierra Nevada, coast region north of Marin Co., and region north of
upper end of Sacramento Valley." (W. K. Fisher.)

  [Illustration: 395.]

=395. Red-cockaded Woodpecker= (_Dryobates borealis_). L. 8.4. Sides
of head and neck white bordered by black below. _Ad._ [Male]. A nearly
concealed red tuft on either side of the hindhead. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar, but no red on head. _Notes._ A loud, hoarse, _yank_, _yank_.

Range.--Southern United States; west to eastern Texas; north to
Virginia and Arkansas.

  [Illustration: 396.]

=396. Texan Woodpecker= (_Dryobates scalaris bairdi_). L. 7.5. Outer
tail-feathers barred to their base; nasal tufts brownish. _Ad._
[Male]. All crown feathers tipped with red; back barred: below
_brownish white_, spotted and streaked with black. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar but top of head wholly black.

Range.--Northern Mexico, north to Texas boundary, New Mexico, southern
Colorado, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and southeastern

=396a. Saint Lucas Woodpecker= (_D. s. lucasanus_). Similar to
No. 396, but outer tail-feather barred with black only on terminal half
or less, except sometimes on inner web. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Lower California, north, rarely to Colorado Desert,

  [Illustration: 397.]

=397. Nuttall Woodpecker= (_Dryobates nuttallii_). L. 7.5. Below white
only _slightly_ soiled; outer tail-feather barred only on end half.
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown _black_ streaked with white; nape red. _Ad._
[Female]. Similar but top of head entirely black, usually, with a few
white spots. _Yng._ Top of head dull red. _Notes._ A sharp
_quee-quee-quee-queep_; a diminutive _chittah_. (Bailey.) Loud
rattling notes. (Henshaw.)

Range.--Northern Lower California, north locally, to southern Oregon.

  [Illustration: 398.]

=398. Arizona Woodpecker= (_Dryobates arizonæ._). L. 8.2. Above _brown_,
below _spotted_. _Ad._ [Male]. A red nape band. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar but no red on nape, brown of crown continuous with that of
back. _Yng._ Whole crown red.

Range.--Northwestern Mexico north to southern Arizona and southwestern
New Mexico.

  [Illustration: 399.]

=399. White-headed Woodpecker= (_Xenopicus albolarvatus_). L. 9. Whole
head and part of wings white. _Ad._ [Male]. Nape red. _Ad._ [Female].
Nape white. _Notes._ A sharp, clear _witt-witt_; a rather silent bird.

Range.--Mountains of western United States from southern California
north to southern British Columbia; east to western Idaho and western

  [Illustration: 402.]

=402. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker= (_Sphyrapicus varius_). L. 8.5; W.
4.8. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown and throat red; a _whitish_ band from eye to
eye across nape; belly washed with yellow; breast patch black _Ad._
[Female]. Similar, but throat white; crown rarely black. _Yng._ Breast
grayish with internal dark rings or bars; crown dirty yellowish
margined with dusky; red feathers soon appear on throat and crown.
_Notes._ A clear ringing _cleur_ repeated; a low snarling cry
resembling _mew_ of Catbird. (Brewster.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Massachusetts and northern
Illinois north to about Lat. 63° 30'; south in Alleghanies to
northwest Georgia; winters from southern Illinois and southern
Virginia to Central America.

=402a. Red-naped Sapsucker= (_S. v. nuchalis_). Similar to No. 402,
but slightly larger. W. 5; the nape band red; _red_ of throat
encroaching on black bordering streaks; female the same but chin

Range.--Rocky Mountain region; breeds from Colorado and northeastern
California (?), north to British Columbia; winters from southern
California south to northwestern Mexico.

  [Illustration: 403.]

=403. Red-breasted Sapsucker= (_Sphyrapicus ruber_). L. 9. _Ads._
Crown, whole throat and _breast_ dull red; in other respects
resembling No. 402. _Notes._ _Jay_ or _chaē_, _peeye_, _pinck_, and
_peurr_: (Bendire.)

Range.--Breeds in mountains from northern Lower California north to
southern Oregon.

=403a. Northern Red-breasted Sapsucker= (_S. r. notkensis_). Similar
to No. 403, but colors deeper, red brighter; belly yellower.

Range.--Pacific coast region from Santa Cruz Mountains, California,
north to southern Alaska.

  [Illustration: 404.]

=404. Williamson Sapsucker= (_Sphyrapicus thyroideus_). L. 9. Belly
_bright_ yellow; rump white. _Ad._ [Male]. Above black;, a red stripe
on throat; lesser wing-coverts white. _Ad._ [Female]. Crown and throat
brownish; back and lesser wing-coverts barred black and whitish.
_Yng._ Similar to [Female], but breast barred like sides. _Notes._ A
shrill _huit-huit_ uttered when flying. (Bendire.) The roll of this
Woodpecker is not continuous, but is broken or interrupted.

Range.--Higher mountain ranges of western United States; breeds from
northern New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California north to
Wyoming and southern British Columbia; winters from southern
California and western Texas into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 408.]

=408. Lewis Woodpecker= (_Asyndesmus torquatus_). L. 11. _Ads._ Breast
and a collar around the neck gray; region about base of bill dark red;
belly pinkish red; above shining green black. _Yng._ No gray collar;
crown suffused with red. _Notes._ A weak, peeping twitter. (Lawrence).
Generally a silent bird.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from New Mexico, Arizona, and
southern California north to southern Alberta and British Columbia;
winters from southern Oregon and Colorado south to western Texas and
southern California.

  [Illustration: 406.]

=406. Red-headed Woodpecker= (_Melanerpes erythrocephalus_). L. 9.7.
_Ads._ Whole head and breast red; end half of secondaries white.
_Yng._ Whole head and breast grayish streaked with blackish; back
black margined with grayish; end half of secondaries white with black
bars. _Notes._ A tree-toad-like _ker-r-ruck, ker-r-ruck_.

Range.--Eastern United States west to Rocky Mountains: breeds from
Florida and Texas north to New York and Manitoba; local and irregular
in northern parts of range; winters from Virginia, and occasionally
from New York, southward.

  [Illustration: 407.]

=407. Striped-breasted Woodpecker= (_Melanerpes formicivorus_).
L. 9.5. Breast band _streaked with white_; rump white. _Ad._ [Male].
Forehead, white, _crown_, nape, and breast-spot red. _Ad._ [Female].
Center of crown with a black band of _same_ width as white band on
forehead. _Notes._ A loud _tchurr, tchurr_.

Range.--Mexico north to southwest Texas and Arizona.

=407a. Californian Woodpecker= (_M. f. bairdi_). Similar to No. 407,
but black breast-band with white only on its posterior margin.

Range.--Pacific coast region from northern California to southern

=407b. Narrow-fronted Woodpecker= (_M. f. angustifrons_). _Ad._
[Male]. Similar to No. 407, but smaller, W. 5.2; the throat brighter
yellow. _Ad._ [Female]. With black crown-band _wider_ than white
forehead band.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 409.]

=409. Red-bellied Woodpecker= (_Centurus carolinus_). L. 9.5. Center
of belly reddish. _Ad._ [Male]. Top of head and nape entirely red.
_Ad._ [Female]. Nape red, crown grayish, forehead tinged with red.
_Notes._ A hoarse, _chûh-chûh_.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from Florida
and Texas to Maryland, Ontario, and South Dakota; winters from
Virginia and southern Ohio southward; casually north as far as

  [Illustration: 410.]

=410. Golden-fronted Woodpecker= (_Centurus aurifrons_). L. 10.5;
center of belly yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. Forehead yellow, crown-patch
red, nape orange. _Ad._ [Female]. Forehead and nape yellow, crown
entirely gray. _Notes._ Loud and penetrating. (Bailey.)

Range.--Mexico, north to central Texas.

  [Illustration: 411.]

=411. Gila Woodpecker= (_Centurus uropygialis_). L. 10. Center of
belly yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. Top of head and nape _sooty_ gray; a
red-crown patch. _Ad._ [Female]. Top of head and nape entirely sooty
gray. _Notes._ _Dchūrr, dchūrr_; when flying, a shrill _huit_ like
call-note of Phainopepla. (Bendire.)

Range.--Northwestern Mexico, north to southwestern New Mexico, and
Lower California.

  [Illustration: 412.]

=412. Southern Flicker= (_Colaptes auratus_). Smaller than No. 412a,
W. 5.6.

Range.--Southeastern United States north to South Carolina.

=412a. Northern Flicker= (_C. a. luteus_). L. 13; W. 6.4. Crown bluish
gray; throat pinkish brown; a scarlet nape-band; lining of wings and
tail yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. With black patches on the sides of the
throat. _Ad._ [Female]. Without black throat patches. _Notes._ A loud,
emphatic _keé-yer_; a low chuckle when taking flight; a _weéchew_
repeated and used only when two or more birds are together; and a
mellow _cûh-cûh-cûh-cûh_, repeated, doubtless a song.

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains and Alaska;
rare on the Pacific coast; apparently hybridizing with No. 413 at the
western border of its range.

  [Illustration: 413.]

=413. Red-shafted Flicker= (_Colaptes cafer collaris_). L. 13. No red
nape band; crown brownish; throat bluish gray; lining of wings and
tail reddish. _Ad._ [Male]. Patches at side of throat red. _Ad._
[Female]. No red throat patches. _Notes._ Resemble those of No. 412.

Range.--Western United States, except northwest coast region; east to
the Rocky Mountain region; apparently hybridizing with No. 412 at the
eastern border of its range.

=413a. Northwestern Flicker= (_C. c. saturatior_). Similar to No. 413,
but much darker throughout, back vinous-brown.

Range.--Pacific coast region; breeds from Oregon north to southern
Alaska; winters south to northwest California.

  [Illustration: 414.]

=414. Gilded Flicker= (_Colaptes chrysoides_). L. 12; W. 5.7. Crown
cinnamon; under surface of wings and tail yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. No red
band on nape; throat bluish gray, its sides with a red patch. _Ad._
[Female]. No red on sides of throat. _Notes._ Resemble those of No.
412. (Bendire.)

Range.--"Central and southern Arizona from Lat. 34° to southern
Sonora, and Lower California south of Lat. 30°." (A.O.U.)

=414a. Brown Flicker= (_C. c. brunnescens_). Similar to No. 414, but
slightly smaller; upperparts darker. (Anthony).

Range.--Lower California north of Lat. 30°.

=415. Guadalupe Flicker= (_Colaptes rufipileus_). Similar to No. 413,
but bill 1.6 or more; more slender, wing averaging less than 6.2;
crown cinnamon-brown; rump vinaceous-white. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.



   Family 1. GOATSUCKERS. Caprimulgidæ. 6 species, 6 subspecies.

   Family 2. SWIFTS. Micropodidæ. 4 species.

   Family 3. HUMMINGBIRDS. Trochilidæ. 17 species.

The Goatsuckers are birds of the dusk and early morning. They live
chiefly on insects which they capture on the wing, their enormous
mouths being especially well adapted to this kind of hunting. Our
species build no nest but lay their two mottled eggs on the bare
ground or leaves. The young are hatched covered with down and can
follow their parents about long before they acquire the power of
flight. Goatsuckers are noted for their singular calls, most of the
species uttering loud, characteristic notes which, heard at night, are
especially effective.

Swifts are birds of world-wide distribution; about half the
seventy-five known species being found in America. They are
pre-eminently birds of the air with wings so well developed that few
birds can surpass them in power of flight, but with feet so weak and
small that many species cannot perch as do most birds, but, when
resting, cling to a vertical surface and use their tail to aid their
feet in supporting themselves. Their nests are often marvels of
architectural skill and constructive ability. The eggs, four to six in
number, are white.

Hummingbirds are found only in America where they range from Patagonia
to Alaska, but the larger part of the some five hundred known species
are found in the Andean region of Columbia and Ecuador. Only one
species is found east of the Mississippi, and nine of our sixteen
western species advance but little beyond our Mexican border.

Hummingbirds nests are the most exquisite of birds' homes. Their eggs,
so far as is known, number two, and are pure white. The young are born
naked and, in the case of our Ruby-throat, at least, spend about three
weeks in the nest.

The notes of some tropical Hummingbirds are sufficiently varied to be
classed as songs but our species utter only sharp squeaks and excited


  [Illustration: 416.]

=416. Chuck-will's-widow= (_Antrostomus carolinensis_). L. 12. Mouth
bristles with fine, hair-like branches near their base. _Ad._ [Male].
End half of outer tail-feathers white, _rusty, and black on outer
webs_; chin chiefly _rusty_; throat-patch buffy. _Ad._ [Female]. No
white in tail. _Notes._ A loudly whistled _chuck-will's-widow_,
repeated many times.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States; breeds north to Virginia and
Illinois; west to Kansas and central Texas; winters from southern
Florida southward.

  [Illustration: 417.]

=417. Whip-poor-will= (Antrostomus vociferus). L. 9.7. Mouth bristles
_without_ branches. _Ad._ [Male]. Three outer tail-feathers _broadly_
tipped with white; white on inner vane of outer feather 1.4 or more
wide; throat patch white; chin chiefly black. _Ad._ [Female]. Three
outer tail-feathers narrowly tipped with rusty buff; throat patch
rusty buff. _Notes._ A rapid, vigorous, whistled _whip-poor-will_,
repeated many times.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from Gulf
States north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from Gulf States

=417a. Stephens Whip-poor-will= (_A. v. macromystax_). Similar to
No. 417, but slightly larger, W. 6.5; mouth bristles much longer;
male with throat-patch rusty; white on inner web of outer feather
_less_ than 1.3 wide.

Range.--"Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Texas, south over
mountains bordering tablelands of Mexico to Guatemala." (Bailey.)

  [Illustration: 418.]

=418. Poor-will= (_Phalænoptilus nuttallii_). L. 7.7. Primaries
_rusty_ barred with black. _Ad._ [Male]. Three outer tail-feathers
_evenly_ tipped with white; a _large_ white throat patch; plumage
above suggesting in color the wings of certain moths. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar, but tail-tips buffy. _Notes._ Variously rendered _poor-will_,
_cow-day_, _pearl-rob-it_, _puir-whee-er_.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from Kansas, Nebraska, and
Dakota west to eastern slope of Sierra Nevadas: north to Montana and
British Columbia; winters from Mexican border southward.

=418a. Frosted Poor-will= (_P. n. nitidus_). Similar to No. 418, but
paler, the upperparts especially whiter, more _frosty_.

Range.--"Texas to Arizona and from western Kansas south to northern
Mexico." (Bailey.) Lower California.

=418b. California Poor-will= (_P. n. californicus_). Similar to No.
418, but darker.

Range.--Breeds on coast of California, north to Butte County; winters
from southern California southward.

  [Illustration: 419.]

=419. Merrill Parauque= (_Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli_). L. 12;
T. 6.2. Outer tail-feather without white. Two color phases, one gray,
one rusty. _Ad._ [Male]. Outer tail-feather black with sometimes a
little rusty, next feather white on inner web, third feather white
except at base. _Ad._ [Female]. Outer tail-feathers brownish with
broken rusty bars; next two with white at tip. _Notes._ A vigorous
_ker-whee-you_ repeated and sometimes running into a _whit-whit-whit_,

Range.--Mexico north to southern Texas; winters chiefly south of Rio

  [Illustration: 420.]

=420. Nighthawk= (_Chordeiles virginianus_). L. 10; W. 7.8. Primaries
blackish with a white bar and no rusty spots; darkest of our
Nighthawks. _Ad._ [Male]. Above black with white and buff markings;
throat and band near end of tail white. _Ad._ [Female]. Throat rusty,
no white band in tail. _Notes._ A nasal _peent_; and in the breeding
season, a booming sound produced by diving from a height earthward.

Range.--Eastern United States, chiefly, breeds from Florida to
Labrador, west and northwest to northern California, British Columbia,
and Alaska; winters south of United States.

=420a. Western Nighthawk= (_C. v. henryi_). Similar to No. 420, but
markings above rusty and more numerous; belly washed with rusty.

Range.--Western United States, east to the Plains, wintering south of
United States; exact distribution unknown.

=420b. Florida Nighthawk= (_C. v. chapmani_). Similar to No. 420, but
smaller (L. 8.6; W. 7.1;) and paler; white and buff markings above
larger and more numerous.

Range.--Florida, west along Gulf Coast to eastern Texas; south in
winter to South America.

=420c. Sennett Nighthawk= (_C. v. sennetti_). Similar to No. 420b, but
still paler, white and buff prevailing on back and scapulars; palest
of our Nighthawks.

Range.--Great Plains north to Saskatchewan; winters south of the
United States.

  [Illustration: 421.]

=421. Texan Nighthawk= (_Chordeiles acutipennis texensis_). Wing
quills _with_ rusty spots; outer primary shorter than one next to it;
belly conspicuously washed with rusty buff. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat-patch
and band near end of tail white. _Ad._ [Female]. No white band in
tail. _Notes._ A mewing call and a tapping accompanied by a humming
sound. (Merrill.)

Range.--Central America; breeding north to southern Texas, southern
New Mexico, southern Utah, southern Nevada, and Lat. 38° in
California; winters south of United States.


  [Illustration: 422.]

=422. Black Swift= (_Cypseloides niger borealis_). L. 7; W. 6.5. Tail
without spines, slightly forked. _Ads._ Sooty black, paler below; a
black spot before the eye; forehead whitish. _Notes._ Generally
silent. (Bendire.)

Range.--Breeds from Central America north, in mountains of western
United States, to British Columbia; east to Colorado; winters south of
United States; more common in Pacific coast states.

  [Illustration: 423.]

=423. Chimney Swift= (_Chætura pelagica_). L. 5.4; W. 4.9. Tail with
protruding spines. _Ads._ Above sooty, rump and underparts paler;
throat whitish. _Notes._ A rolling twitter.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from Florida
to Labrador and Manitoba; winters south of United States, to Central

  [Illustration: 424.]

=424. Vaux Swift= (_Chætura vauxii_). L. 4.5; W. 4.4. _Ads._ Similar
to No. 423, but smaller and somewhat browner. _Notes._ Resemble those
of No. 423, but are less frequently uttered. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western United States; breeds on Pacific coast, locally, north
to British Columbia; east casually to Montana and Arizona; winters
south of United States to Central America.

  [Illustration: 425.]

=425. White-throated Swift= (_Aëronautes melanoleucus_). L. 6.5. Tail
forked, without spines. _Ads._ Above sooty brownish black; breast,
middle of belly and flank patches white. _Notes._ A sharp, metallic

Range.--Western United States; east to western Nebraska and Black
Hills; breeds in Rocky Mountains north to Montana; on Pacific coast
north to Lat. 38°; winters south of United States to Central America.


  [Illustration: 426.]

=426. Rivoli Hummingbird= (_Eugenes fulgens_). L. 5.1. A small white
spot behind eye. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown purple, throat bright green, back
bronzy green; tail somewhat more bronzy. _Ad._ [Female]. Above bronzy
green, all but central tail-feathers with blackish ends and narrow
grayish tips; below grayish, all but throat feathers _green
centrally_. _Yng._ [Male]. Throat with more or less green, belly and
above more bronzy than in [Female].

Range.--Nicaragua, north in mountains to mountains of southeastern
Arizona, and southwest New Mexico; winters south of United States.

  [Illustration: 429.]

=429. Black-chinned Hummingbird= (_Trochilus alexandri_). L. 3.5; W.
1.7. _Ad._ [Male]. Chin and upper throat black, lower throat amethyst;
tail forked, feathers pointed. _Ad._ [Female]. Throat grayish white;
_chin buffy_; tail feathers more rounded, three outer ones tipped with
white. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar [Female], but throat with dusky spots.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from San Antonio, Texas, New
Mexico, Arizona, and California north to Montana and British Columbia;
rare on Pacific coast north of southern California; winters south of
United States.

  [Illustration: 430.]

=430. Costa Hummingbird= (_Calypte costæ_). L. 3.1. No rusty in
plumage. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown, throat and lengthened neck-feathers
amethyst, back dull green. _Ad._ [Female]. Below grayish white; above
grayish green; outer tail-feathers _gray_ at base, then black and at
tip white. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to [Female], but throat usually with
some amethyst spots; tip of outer tail-feather grayish.

Range.--Northwestern Mexico; breeds north throughout Lower California,
to southern California, northern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and
southwestern New Mexico; winters from Mexican border southward.

  [Illustration: 437.]

=437. Lucifer Hummingbird= (_Calothorax lucifer_). L. 3.6; B. .8. _Ad._
[Male]. Throat purplish pink, feathers at its side much lengthened;
tail feathers very narrow, the outer ones less than .05 in. wide on
end half. _Ad._ [Female]. Below nearly uniform _rusty buff_, above
bronzy green; tail-feathers white-tipped.

Range.--"From western Texas and southern Arizona south to the city of
Mexico and Puebla." (Bailey.)

  [Illustration: 440.]

=440. Xantus Hummingbird= (_Basilinna xantusi_). L. 3.6. A white
streak behind eye. _Ad._ [Male]. Chin, forehead and cheeks _black_;
throat green; tail rusty brown. _Ad._ [Female]. Below uniform rusty,
above green; outer tail-feathers rusty brown.

Range.--Lower California, north to Lat. 29°; most common in Cape

  [Illustration: 427.]

=427. Blue-throated Hummingbird= (_Cœligena clemenciæ_). L. 5.2. A
white _stripe_ behind, and a smaller one before eye. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat blue; belly grayish; back green; tail blue-black, outer
feathers broadly white tipped. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar but throat
dusky gray.

Range.--Southern Mexico north. In mountains to mountains of
southwestern New Mexico and southern Arizona; winters south of United

  [Illustration: 438.]

=438. Reiffer Hummingbird= (_Amazilis tzacatl_). L. 4.1. _Ads._ Above,
_throat_ and _breast_ shining green; belly _grayish_; tail square,
rusty brown, _narrowly_ margined with coppery. _Yng._ Similar but more
rusty above.

Range.--Northern South America; north, rarely, to Lower Rio Grande
Valley, Texas.

  [Illustration: 439.]

=439. Buff-bellied Hummingbird= (_Amazilis cerviniventris
chalconota_). Similar to No. 438, but belly _rusty gray_, tail forked
and _broadly_ margined with coppery green.

Range.--Central America, north, in spring, to Lower Rio Grande Valley,

  [Illustration: 440.1]

=440.1. White-eared Hummingbird= (_Basilinna leucotis_). L. 3.7. A
white line behind eye. _Ad._ [Male]. Chin, forehead and cheeks _blue_,
throat and breast green, tail blackish bronzy green. _Ad._ [Female].
Crown rusty, back bronzy green, below gray spotted with green; outer
tail-feathers tipped with gray. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar.

Range.--Nicaragua north, in spring, through mountains to southern

  [Illustration: 441.]

=441. Broad-billed Hummingbird= (_Iache latirostris_). L. 4. _Ad._
[Male]. Above green; below darker; throat purplish blue; tail darker.
_Ad._ [Female]. Below gray; outer tail-feathers green at base, then
bluish black tipped with gray. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to _Ad._
[Female], but tail blue black with faint gray tips; throat with
metallic green feathers.

Range.--Southern Mexico; breeds north through mountains to southern
Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.

  [Illustration: 428.]

=428. Ruby-throated Hummingbird= (_Trochilus colubris_). L. 3.5;
W. 1.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat ruby, chin blackish; tail forked,
the feathers pointed. _Ad._ [Female]. Throat grayish, tail-feathers
rounded, three outer ones tipped with white. _Yng._ [Male]. Like
[Female] but throat with dusky spots. (See next page)

Range.--Eastern North America, west to about Long. 100°; breeds from
Florida and eastern Mexico, north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region;
winters from southern Florida to Central America.

  [Illustration: 431.]

=431. Anna Hummingbird= (_Calypte annæ_). L. 3.6. _Ad._ [Male].
_Crown_ and throat glittering purplish pink; feathers at sides of
throat much lengthened. _Ad._ [Female]. Above green; below grayish
washed with green; throat usually with pink feathers; tail with a
narrow white tip. _Yng._ Similar but browner above.

Range.--Western United States, from northern Lower California north to
northern California; east to southern Arizona; south in winter to
Mexico; recorded from Guadalupe Island.

  [Illustration: 432.]

=432. Broad-tailed Hummingbird= (_Selasphorus platycercus_). L. 4.
_Ad._ [Male]. Outer primary very narrow, end sharp; crown green,
throat _pink_; tail green above, purplish below without white tips.
_Ad._ [Female]. Outer tail-feathers rusty at base, then black with a
broad white tip; middle feathers _entirely_ green; above bronzy green;
throat feathers with dusky centers; sides rusty.

Range.--Rocky Mountains: west, rarely to eastern California; north to
southern Wyoming and Idaho; winters south of United States.

  [Illustration: 433.]

=433. Rufous Hummingbird= (_Selasphorus rufus_), L. 3.6. _Ad._ [Male].
Next to middle pair of tail-feathers _notched_ near tip of inner web;
back _reddish brown_ sometimes washed with green. _Ad._ [Female].
Sides _rusty_, back green, throat spotted with green and sometimes
ruby, outer tail-feathers rusty at base, then black and a white tip,
the feather _more_ than .12 wide; middle tail-feathers green at base,
end black. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to [Female] but _all_ tail-feathers
rusty at base.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from the higher mountains of
southern California and Arizona, north to Lat. 61° in Alaska; during
migrations east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and western
Texas; winters in southern Mexico.

  [Illustration: 434.]

=434. Allen Hummingbird= (_Selasphorus alleni_). L. 3.6. _Ad._ [Male].
Crown and _back green_, and tail rusty tipped with dusky, no notch in
tail-feathers; in other respects like No. 433. _Ad._ [Female] _and
Yng._ [Male]. Like the same of No. 433, but outer tail-feather less
than .12 in. wide.

Range.--Pacific coast, from Monterey, California, north to British
Columbia; migrates south through Arizona, and southern California to

=435. Morcom Hummingbird= (_Atthis morcomi_). L. 2.9. _Ad._ [Female].
Above bronzy green; middle tail-feathers bronzy green tinged with
rusty on basal half; rest of tail-feathers rusty brown, then green,
then black and tipped with white; below white, sides rusty, throat
spotted with bronze-green. (Ridgw.) Male unknown.

Range.--Huachuca Mountains, southern Arizona, (known from one

  [Illustration: 436.]

=436. Calliope Hummingbird= (_Stellula calliope_). L. 3. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat purplish pink, white at base _showing through_; above green.
_Ad._ [Female]. Sides rusty, throat with green spots, above green,
outer tail-feathers gray at base, then black, then white _in nearly
equal amounts_. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to [Female].

Range.--Mountains of western United States; breeds north to Montana,
Idaho, and British Columbia; west to eastern Oregon and eastern
California; winters, south of United States; rare on Pacific coast of
United States.



   Family 1. FLYCATCHERS. Tyrannidæ. 32 species, 7 subspecies.

   Family 2. LARKS. Alaudidæ. 1 species, 13 subspecies.

   Family 3. CROWS AND JAYS. Corvidæ. 21 species, 14 subspecies.

   Family 4. BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. Icteridæ. 18 species,
        14 subspecies.

   Family 5. FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. Fringillidæ. 87 species,
        92 subspecies.

   Family 6. TANAGERS. Tanagridæ. 4 species, 1 subspecies.

   Family 7. SWALLOWS. Hirundinidæ. 9 species, 2 subspecies.

   Family 8. WAXWINGS. Ampelidæ. 3 species.

   Family 9. SHRIKES. Laniidæ. 2 species, 3 subspecies.

   Family 10. VIREOS. Vireonidæ. 13 species, 10 subspecies.

   Family 11. WARBLERS. Mniotiltidæ. 55 species, 18 subspecies.

   Family 12. WAGTAILS. Motacillidæ. 3 species.

   Family 13. DIPPERS. Cinclidæ. 1 species.

   Family 14. WRENS, THRASHERS, ETC. Troglodytidæ. 26 species,
        24 subspecies.

   Family 15. CREEPERS. Certhiidæ. 1 species, 4 subspecies.

   Family 16. NUTHATCHES AND TITS. Paridæ. 21 species, 20 subspecies.

   Family 17. KINGLETS, GNATCATCHERS, ETC. Sylviidæ. 7 species,
        3 subspecies.

   Family 18. THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. Turdidæ. 13 species,
        14 subspecies.

The North American members of the Order PASSERES are placed in two
Suborders, the _Clamatores_, or so-called Songless Perching Birds,
which includes all the Flycatchers, and the Suborder _Oscines_, or
Singing Perching Birds, which includes all our remaining Perching
Birds. While the Flycatchers are therefore technically classed as
songless birds, it does not follow that they have no songs. Sing they
do, but because of the less developed condition of their
voice-producing organ, they cannot give utterance to the longer and
more musical songs of the Oscines, which are supplied with a better
musical instrument.

The Flycatchers, (Family Tyrannidæ) number somewhat over three hundred
and fifty species, and are found only in America, where they are most
abundant in the tropics. Feeding almost exclusively on insects, those
species which visit the United States are of necessity migratory, not
more than half a dozen of the thirty species which nest with us,
remaining in the United States during the winter, and these are found
only on our southern borders.

Flycatchers as a rule, capture their prey on the wing. When perching,
their pose is usually erect and hawk-like. They often raise their
crown feathers, which in many species are somewhat lengthened, a habit
giving them a certain big-headed appearance.

Flycatchers are most useful birds. The food of the Kingbird, for
example, a species which is erroneously believed to destroy honey
bees, has been found to consist of 90 per cent. insects, mostly
injurious species, while only fourteen out of two hundred and
eighty-one stomachs contained the remains of honey bees; forty of the
fifty bees found being drones.

The true Larks, (Family _Alaudidæ_) are chiefly Old World birds, the
Skylark being the best known member of the Family. In America we have
only the Horned or Shore Larks, one species of which shows so much
climatic variation in color throughout its wide range, that no less
than thirteen subspecies or geographical races of it are recognized in
the United States.

The Horned Lark is a bird of the plains and prairies and is less
common in the Atlantic States than westward. Like the Skylark it sings
in the air, but its vocal powers are limited and not to be compared
with those of its famous relative.

The Crows and Jays, (Family _Corvidæ_) number about two hundred
species of which some twenty-five inhabit the western hemisphere. To
this family belong the Raven, Rook, Magpie and Jackdaw, all birds of
marked intelligence; and our Crows and Jays are fully worthy of being
classed with these widely known and distinguished members of their

The Crows and Jays, by varying their food with the season, are rarely
at loss for supplies of one kind or another and most species are
represented throughout their ranges at all times of the year. In the
more northern parts of their homes, however, some of these birds are
migratory, and Crows, as is well known, gather in great flocks during
the winter, returning each night to a roost frequented, in some
instances, by two or three hundred thousand Crows.

While the Crows and Jays are technically 'Song Birds' their voices are
far from musical. Nevertheless they possess much range of expression
and several species learn to enunciate words with more or less ease.

The Starlings, (Family _Sturnidæ_) are Old World birds represented in
America only by the European Starling which was introduced into
Central Park, New York City, in 1890 and is now common in the
surrounding country.

The Blackbirds, Orioles, and Meadowlarks, (Family _Icteridæ_) number
about one hundred and fifty species and are found only in the New
World. The Blackbirds are most numerous in North America, where,
migrating in vast armies and often living in large colonies, they
become among the most characteristic and conspicuous of our birds.

The Orioles are most numerous in the tropics, where some thirty
species are known. Apparently all of them are remarkable as nest
builders, the large Cassiques, nearly related, great yellow and black
birds, weaving pouches three and four feet long, several dozen of
which, all occupied, may be seen swinging from the branches of a
single tree.

The Finches, Sparrows, Grosbeaks, etc., (Family _Fringillidæ_) number
nearly six hundred species, a greater number than is contained in any
other family of birds. They are distributed throughout the world,
except in the Australian region, some ninety odd species inhabiting
North America.

Varying widely in color, the Fringillidæ all agree in possessing
stout, conical bills, which are of service to them in crushing the
seeds on which they feed so largely.

The streaked, brownish Sparrows, often so difficult of identification,
are usually inhabitants of plains, fields, or marshes, where they are
rendered inconspicuous by their dull colors. The more gayly attired
Grosbeaks, Buntings, Cardinals etc., frequent trees or bushy growths,
where their plumage either harmonizes with their surroundings or where
they have the protection afforded by the vegetation.

Most of the members of this family are good singers, some of them
indeed being noted for their powers of song. They are less migratory
than insect-eating birds and some species are with us at all seasons.
Their abundance, musical gifts, and constant presence render them,
from the field student's point of view, highly important members of
the great class Aves.

From an economic standpoint the Fringillidæ are no less deserving of
our esteem. Some species are of incalculable value as destroyers of
the seeds of noxious weeds. Fifteen hundred seeds have been found in
the stomach of one Snowflake or Snowbunting, and it has been estimated
by Professor Beal, of the Biological Survey of the United States
Department of Agriculture, that during the winter season, in the
single State of Iowa, where his studies were made, Tree Sparrows
devour no less than 875 _tons_ of weed seeds, chiefly of the ragweed.

The Tanagers, (Family _Tanagridæ_) are found only in the New World,
where they are most numerously represented in the tropics. As a family
they are remarkable for the brilliancy of their colors; the common,
but mistaken idea that most tropical birds are brightly clad being in
no small part due to the abundance of Tanagers and beauty of their

Only five of the some three hundred and fifty known species reach the
United States and these are migratory, coming to us in the spring and
returning to the tropics in the fall. Tanagers, as a rule, are not
possessed of much vocal ability, our species ranking high in their
family as songsters, the notes of many species being far less musical.

Like most gaily costumed birds the plumages of many Tanagers undergo
striking changes in color with age and season. The male of our Scarlet
Tanager, for example, is olive-green with black wing-coverts during
his first winter, the scarlet plumage not being acquired until the
following spring. It is worn, however, only during the nesting season
after which the less conspicuous olive-green dress is again acquired,
the wings and tail, however, remaining black.

Swallows, (Family _Hirundinidæ_) are of world-wide distribution, and
as might be expected in birds possessing such remarkable powers of
flight, many of the species have unusually extended ranges. Our Barn
Swallow, for example, is found throughout North America in summer, and
in the winter it migrates as far south as southern Brazil.

Birds of the air, the aërial habits of Swallows are reflected in their
long wings and small, weak feet; while their small bills and broad,
widely opening mouths indicate their manner of feeding.

In spite of their poor equipment of tools, Swallows take high rank as
nest builders, and it is interesting to observe that although the
birds are structurally much alike, their nests often differ widely in
character. Compare for instance, the mud-made dwellings of the Barn
and Cliff Swallows with the tunneled hole of the Bank Swallow and one
realizes how little the character of a bird's home may depend on the
structure of it's builder.

The food of Swallows, remarks Professor Beal, "consists of many small
species of beetles which are much on the wing, many species of diptera
(mosquitoes and their allies), with large quantities of flying ants
and a few insects of similar kinds. Most of them are either injurious
or annoying, and the numbers destroyed by Swallows are not only beyond
calculation, but almost beyond imagination."

The true Waxwings, (Family _Ampelidæ_) number only three species with
representatives in the northern parts of both hemispheres. Their
notes, as a rule are limited to a few unmusical calls, which, with our
Cedar Waxwing, are usually uttered when the bird is about to fly.

Waxwings are found in small flocks during the greater part of the year
and roam about the country as though they were quite as much at home
in one place as in another, provided food be plenty. Small fruits,
chiefly wild ones, constitute their usual fare, but they also feed on
insects, the injurious elm beetle being among their victims.

The Shrikes, (Family _Laniidæ_) are represented in America by only two
species, the remaining two hundred or more members of this family
being found in the Old World. Shrikes are noted for their singular
habit of impaling their prey on thorns or similarly sharp-pointed
growths, or occasionally they may hang it in the crotch of a limb.
This proceeding enables them to tear it to pieces more readily, for it
will be observed that while Shrikes have a hawk-like bill, their feet
are comparatively weak and sparrow-like and evidently of no assistance
to them in dissecting their food.

Our Northern Shrike, or Butcherbird, feeds chiefly on small birds and
mice, while the southern species, or Loggerhead, is a great destroyer
of grasshoppers and he also eats lizards and small snakes.

The Vireos, (Family _Vireonidæ_) number fifty species, all American.
They search the foliage carefully for leaf-eating insects and their
eggs, and examine the crevices in the bark for eggs of the injurious
wood-boring insects. They are therefore unusually beneficial birds.

Bearing a general resemblance in size and color to many of the
Warblers, Vireos are sometimes confused with members of that family.
They are, however, as a rule, more deliberate in their motions and not
such active flutterers as are many of the Warblers. They are also more
musical, all the Vireos having characteristic songs, which if not
always highly musical, are generally noticeable, pronounced and

The nests of all our Vireos are pendant, deeply cup-shaped structures
usually hung between the forks of a crotch, to the arms of which they
are most skilfully woven.

The Warblers, (Family _Mniotiltidæ_) like the Vireos are distinctly
American birds, indeed they may be called characteristic North
American birds since most of the one hundred odd species are found
north of Mexico. Between thirty and forty species of these active,
beautiful little creatures may be found in the course of a year at a
single locality in the Eastern States and they therefore constitute an
exceedingly important element in our bird-life. Most of them come in
May at the height of the spring migration; when the woods often swarm
with them as they flit from limb to limb in pursuit of their insect
food. The larger number of them pass onward to their northern homes
and in September they return to us in increased numbers.

The beauty of their plumage, the briefness but regularity of their
visits, the rarity of certain species, combine to make the Warblers
especially attractive to the field student and their charms are
heightened by the difficulty with which many of them are identified.
Study them as we may there are still species which have escaped us.

By far the larger number of Warblers may be described as flutterers
that feed agilely about the terminal branches, (genera _Dendroica_ and
_Helminthophila_); others are true flycatchers, so far as feeding
habit is concerned, (genera _Setophaga_ and _Wilsonia_,) while others
still feed in the undergrowth or on the ground, (genera _Geothlypis_
and _Seiurus_). Insects constitute almost their entire fare and they
are among our most beneficial birds.

Most of the Wagtails (Family _Motacillidæ_), are inhabitants of the
Old World, only three of the sixty odd species being found in this
country. Our Pipit or Titlark is our best known, most widely
distributed species.

Like other members of its family it has the habit of wagging or
tipping its tail both when walking (for it should be noted that these
birds are ground-inhabiting and walkers) and at rest.

The Dippers (Family _Cinclidæ_) though numbering only twelve species
are distributed throughout the larger part of the world from the Andes
of South America to the mountains of Alaska, Europe, Asia and Africa.

Everywhere they are haunters of streams, usually dashing mountain
torrents, over and _under_ which they seem equally at home. Darting
into the rushing waters they fly beneath the surface or feed on the
bottom with perfect ease, their thick, dense plumage evidently forming
a water-proof covering. Their nests are great balls of moss often
placed so near some boiling cascade as to receive frequent showers of
spray. The opening, however, is at the side, and the eggs and young
are well protected by an effective roof.

The Wrens, Thrashers, and Mockingbirds, (Family _Troglodytidæ_) form
two well defined subfamilies. The Wrens, (Subfamily _Troglodytinæ_)
number about one hundred and fifty species all but a dozen of which
are confined to America. The Thrashers and Mockingbirds, (Subfamily
_Miminæ_) number some fifty species, all of which are confined to

As their dull, neutral colors would lead us to suppose, both Wrens and
Thrashers are inhabitants of the lower growth rather than of the
tree-tops, and while they may seek an elevated perch whence to deliver
their song, their food is secured and their time consequently largely
passed near or on the ground.

Few families of birds contain so many noted musicians, nearly every
member of this family being a singer of more than usual ability.

The Creepers, (Family _Certhiidæ_) number twelve species, only one of
which is found in America. This, however has a wide range and,
presenting more or less climatic variation in color, is recognized
under several subspecific names. Its habits, nevertheless, are much
the same everywhere. It climbs the trees of the mountains of Mexico or
of California with the same ceaseless energy it shows in Maine.

The sharply-pointed, stiffened tail-feathers of the Creeper are of
evident use to it as it ascends trees and pauses here and there to
pick out an insect's egg from the bark. The same type of tail feather
is shown by Woodpeckers, an excellent illustration of similar
structure accompanying similar habits in birds not at all closely

The Nuthatches and Titmice, (Family _Paridæ_), like the Wrens and
Thrashers, belong in two well marked Subfamilies; The Nuthatches,
(Subfamily _Sittinæ_) number about twenty species, only four of which
inhabit America; the Titmice, (Subfamily _Parinæ_) number some
seventy-five species, of which thirteen are American.

Nuthatches are tree-creepers, but climbing up or down with equal ease,
their tail is not employed as a prop, and consequently shows no
special development of pointed or stiffened feathers. Their toes,
however, are long, and their nails large and strong, evidently giving
them a firm grip on the bark of trees.

The Chickadees are generally resident birds and, as a rule, whatever
species we find in a given locality are apt to be there throughout the
year. We therefore become better acquainted with some of these lairds
than with others which are with us only a short season. This is
especially true of our eastern Black-capped Chickadee, which comes
familiarly about our homes in winter to partake of the feast of nuts
and suet which we spread for him at that season.

Feeding largely on the eggs or larvæ of insects particularly injurious
to trees, the Nuthatches and Titmice are of great value to man.

The Kinglets, Gnatcatchers, and Old World Warblers, (Family
_Sylviidæ_) number about one hundred and twenty-five species, which
are divided among the following well-defined subfamilies: The
Kinglets, (Subfamily _Regulinæ_) seven species, three of which are
American; the Gnatcatchers, (Subfamily _Polioptilinæ_) some fifteen
species, all American; the Old World Warblers, (Subfamily _Sylviinæ_)
about one hundred species, all Old World except one which inhabits the
Bering Sea coast of Alaska.

The Kinglets are small, olive green birds which may be mistaken for
Warblers but, aside from structural differences not evident in the
field, they may be known by their smaller size, greater tameness, and
habit of nervously flitting their wings at frequent intervals. One of
our species, the Ruby-crown, possesses a remarkably loud, clear, and
musical song, a surprising performance for so tiny a songster.
Kinglets build large nests of moss and feathers and lay as many as ten

The Gnatcatchers are small, slender, grayish birds which once well
seen will not be confused with other species. The Gnatcatchers, like
the Kinglets, are architects of more than usual ability, building a
nest beautifully covered with lichens. The Thrushes, (Family
_Turdidæ_) are variously classified by different ornithologists, but
under the ruling of the American Ornithologists' Union they are
grouped in the same family with the Bluebird, Solitaires, and
Stonechats. This family numbers about three hundred species, of which
about one-half are true Thrushes (Subfamily _Turdinæ_). The members of
this subfamily are, as a rule, fine singers, many of them being among
the best known song birds, and from a musical point of view the group,
as a whole, is usually given the first place among birds. If, however,
all the fifteen known species of Solitaires sing as well as the four
species it has been my privilege to hear, I am assured that no one
would dispute their claim to the highest rank which can be awarded
singing birds.

In the succeeding pages, the five hundred and fifty odd species and
subspecies included in the preceding families of the Order Passeres
are grouped according to some obvious color character in order to
facilitate their identification in life. A satisfactory arrangement of
this kind is out of the question. Lines sharply separating the groups
proposed do not exist and some species appear to fit in one section as
well as in another. Nevertheless, it is hoped that in most instances,
the system will be found to serve the purpose intended. Under its
ruling our Perching Birds are grouped as follows:

  1. With red markings.

  2. With blue markings.

  3. With orange or yellow markings.

  4. With reddish brown or chestnut markings, chiefly in the form of
     patches or uniformly colored areas.

  5. Brownish, generally streaked birds.

  6. Dull, inconspicuously colored birds, without prominent markings.

  7. Gray, black, or black and white birds.

While the first object of the bird student is to learn to name birds I
would again urge him to acquaint himself with at least the arrangement
of the Orders and Families of our birds and their leading structural
characters. (see page 2.)

Having identified a bird, its family may always be determined by referring
to its number in the systematic list of birds at the end of the
book; and the more important characters of its Order and Family will
be found in the synopsis of Orders and Families beginning on page 9.

Perching Birds Marked With Red

  [Illustration: 607.]

=607. Louisiana Tanager= (_Piranga ludoviciana_). L. 7.5. _Ad._
[Male]. Yellow; back, wings, and tail black, head more or less red.
_Ad._ [Female]. Above olive-green, head rarely red-tinged; below dusky
greenish yellow; wings and tail brownish edged with greenish, two
yellowish white wing-bars. _Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female], but head and
rump greener, underparts yellower. _Notes._ Call, _clit-tuck_; song,
resembles that of No. 608.

Range.--Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific; breeds
from Arizona to British Columbia; winters in Mexico and Central

  [Illustration: 608.]

=608. Scarlet Tanager= (_Piranga erythromelas_). L. 7.4. _Ad._ [Male].
Scarlet; wings and tail black. _Ad._ [Female]. Olive-green, yellower
below, wings and tail blackish brown, no wing-bars. _Yng._ [Male].
Like [Female], but brighter, wing-coverts black. _Ad._ [Male],
_Winter_. Like Yng. [Female], but wings and tail black. _Notes._ Call,
_chip-churr_; song, a rather forced whistle, suggesting a Robin's
song, but less musical, _Look-up_, _way-up_, _look-at-me_, _tree-top_;
repeated with pauses.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains: breeds from
Virginia and southern Illinois north to New Brunswick and Manitoba;
winters in Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 609.]

=609. Hepatic Tanager= (_Piranga hepatica_). L. 7.8. Bill large. _Ad._
[Male]. Vermilion, back grayish; tail dull red. _Ad._ [Female]. _No
wing-bars_; above _grayish_ olive; crown and tail greener; below dusky
yellow. _Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female]. and variously intermediate
between it and ad. [Male]. _Notes._ Call, _clut-tuck_; song, like that
of No. 608, but somewhat more robin-like.

Range.--From Guatemala north in spring to New Mexico and Arizona;
winters in Mexico and Central America.

  [Illustration: 610.]

=610. Summer Tanager= (_Piranga rubra_). L. 7.5; W. 3.8. _Ad._ [Male].
Rosy red. _Ad._ [Female]. 9. Olive-yellow above, dusky saffron below.
_Yng._ [Male]. Variously intermediate between Ad. [Male] and [Female].
_Notes._ Call, _chicky-tucky-tuck_; song, resembles in form that of
No. 608 but is more musical and less forced.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from Florida
and western Texas north to southern New Jersey, southern Illinois, and
Kansas; winters in Central and South America.

=610a. Cooper Tanager= (_P. r. cooperi_). Similar to No. 610, but
larger; W. 4; bill more swollen, colors paler.

Range.--"Breeds from southwestern Texas to the Colorado Valley,
California, and from Arizona and New Mexico to northwestern Mexico;
south in winter to western Mexico; casually to Colorado."

  [Illustration: 593.]

=593. Cardinal= (_Cardinalis cardinalis_). L. 9; W. 3.7; T. 4.1. _Ad._
[Male]. Forehead with a well-defined black band; feathers of back
(except in worn plumage) tipped with _olive-brown_ or _olive-gray_.
_Ad._ [Female]. Above olive-brown; crest, wings and tail dull red
edged with olive-brown; throat and region at base of bill gray; breast
buffy, sometimes tinged with red; belly whiter. _Notes._ Call, a
sharp, insignificant _tsip_; song, a rich, sympathetic whistle,
_whe-e-e-you_, _whe-e-e_, _hurry-hurry-hurry_, _quick-quick-quick_,
and other notes.

Range.--Eastern United States; resident from northern Florida and
eastern Texas north to southern New York and Iowa.

=593a. Arizona Cardinal= (_C. c. superbus_). Largest of our Cardinals,
L. 9.5; W. 4; T. 4.9. _Ad._ [Male]. Paler, more rosy, than No. 593;
margins to back feathers usually gray; black on forehead usually
separated by base of culmen. _Ad._ [Female]. Gray above like No. 593c,
but breast richer, much as in No. 593d; gray of throat more restricted
and often confined to the chin.

Range.--Southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico.

=593b. Saint Lucas Cardinal= (_C. c. igneus_). Similar to No. 593a,
but smaller; W. 3.6; T. 4; [Male] with even less, sometimes almost no
black on forehead; [Female] paler; gray on chin and about base of bill
less defined.

Range.--Southern Lower California.

=593c. Gray-tailed Cardinal= (_C. c. canicaudus_). W. 3.7. _Ad._
[Male]. Red bright as in No. 593d, but black on forehead narrower,
usually separated by base of culmen. _Ad._ [Female]. Grayer than
[Female] of No. 593, the edgings of wings and tail usually gray
_without_ an olive tinge.

Range.--Texas, except western and northeastern parts, and northeastern

=593d. Florida Cardinal= (_C. c. floridanus_). Smaller than No. 593,
W. 3.4; [Male] averaging deeper red; [Female] darker and richer in
color, particularly on breast.

Range.--Southern half of Florida.

  [Illustration: 594.]

=594. Arizona Pyrrhuloxia= (_Pyrrhuloxia sinuata_). L. 9; W. 3.6;
T. 4.1. _Ad._ [Male]. Gray; in fresh plumage washed with brownish;
crest, wings and tail externally dull red; under wing-coverts, center
of breast and of belly, throat, and region about base of bill, rosy
red. _Ad._ [Female]. Usually little or no red about bill or on
underparts. _Notes._ Call, several flat, thin notes; song, a clear,
straight whistle. (Bailey.)

Range.--Northwestern Mexico, north to western Texas, southwestern
New Mexico, and Arizona.

=594a. Texas Pyrrhuloxia= (_P. s. texana_). Similar to No. 594, but
bill larger; underparts averaging slightly grayer; red before eyes
averaging duskier.

=594b. Saint Lucas Pyrrhuloxia= (_P. s. peninsulæ_). Similar in color
to No. 594, but decidedly smaller, with the bill larger; W. 3.4;
T. 3.7. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 515.]

=515. Pine Grosbeak= (_Pinicola enucleator leucura_). L. 8.5; W. 4.6.
_Ad._ [Male]. Rosy red in varying amounts; belly gray; wings, tail and
center of back feathers blackish brown; two white wing-bars. _Ad._
[Female]. Gray, head and rump greenish; breast tinged with greenish.
_Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female], but with head and rump reddish. _Notes._
Song, sweet; in winter strong and cheery; in spring tender and
plaintive. (Chamberlain.)

Range.--Northeastern North America; breeds from New Brunswick and
northern New England northward; winters south, irregularly, to
southern New England, Ohio, and Manitoba, and casually to District of
Columbia and Kansas.

=515a. Rocky Mountain Pine Grosbeak= (_P. e. montana_). Similar to
No. 515b, but decidedly larger, W. 4.8, and coloration slightly
darker; the adult male with the red of a darker, more carmine hue.

Range.--"Rocky Mountains of United States, from Montana and Idaho
to New Mexico." (Ridgway.)

=515b. California Pine Grosbeak= (_P. e. californica_). Similar to
No. 515, but [Male] with red much brighter; feathers of back plain
ashy gray without darker centers; [Female] with little if any greenish
on rump.

Range.--Higher parts of "Central Sierra Nevada, north to Placer County
and south to Fresno County, California." (Grinnell.)

=515c. Alaskan Pine Grosbeak= (_P. e. alascensis_). Similar to
No. 515, but decidedly larger with smaller or shorter bill and paler
coloration, both sexes having the gray parts of the plumage distinctly
lighter, more ashy. (Ridgw.)

Range.--"Northwestern North America except Pacific coast, breeding in
interior of Alaska; south, in winter, to eastern British Columbia,
Montana (Bitterroot Valley), etc." (Ridgway.)

=515d. Kadiak Pine Grosbeak= (_P. e. flammula_). Similar to No. 515,
but with much larger, relatively longer and more strongly hooked bill;
wings and tail grayish brown instead of dull blackish.

Range.--"Kadiak Island and south on the coast to Sitka, Alaska."

  [Illustration: 521.]

=521. American Crossbill= (_Loxia curvirostra minor_). L. 6.1; W. 3.4;
B. .66. Tips of mandibles crossed. _Ad._ [Male]. Red, more or less
suffused with greenish or yellow. _Ad._ [Female]. Olive-green, rump
and underparts yellower. _Yng._ Resemble Ad. [Female]. _Notes._ Calls,
when feeding, a conversational twittering; louder and more pronounced
when flying; song, sweet, varied and musical, but of small volume.

Range.--Northern North America, chiefly eastward; breeds from northern
New England (in Alleghanies from Georgia) north and west to Alaska;
winters south irregularly to Virginia and Nevada; casually to South
Carolina and Louisiana.

=521a. Mexican Crossbill= (_L. c. stricklandi_). Similar to No. 521,
but larger; W. 4; B. .78.

Range.--"Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado, west to the Sierra Nevada,
and south through New Mexico, Arizona and the tablelands of Mexico to
Guatemala." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 522.]

=522. White-winged Crossbill= (_Loxia leucoptera_). L. 6. Tips of
mandibles crossed. _Ad._ [Male]. Rose-pink; middle of back black;
wings with _two white bars_. _Ad._ [Female]. Olive-green and dusky;
rump and underparts yellower; _wings with two white bars_.
_Yng._ Like Ad. [Female]. _Notes._ Resemble those of No. 521.

Range.--Northern North America; breeds from northern New England,
northern New York and northern Michigan northward; winters south
irregularly to Virginia, Illinois, British Columbia, and Nevada.

  [Illustration: 595.]

=595. Rose-breasted Grosbeak= (_Zamelodia ludoviciana_). L. 8. _Ad._
[Male]. Black; rump, belly, tips of inner vanes of outer tail-feathers
and patch in wing white; under wing-coverts and breast rose. _Ad._
[Female]. Under wing-coverts saffron; above streaked brown and black;
below whitish streaked with blackish; a _white line over eye_; two
white wing-bars. _Yng._ [Male]. Resembles [Female], but under
wing-coverts _rose_; breast more or less rose-tinged. _Notes._ Call, a
sharp, steely _peek_; song, a rich, fluent, joyous carol.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from
northern New Jersey, northern Ohio, and northern Indiana (and south in
Alleghanies to North Carolina), north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba;
winters in Central and South America.

=517. Purple Finch= (_Carpodacus purpureus_). L. 6.2; W. 3.2. Bill
swollen and rounded; nostrils large, partially covered by projecting,
grayish, bristly feathers; tail slightly forked. _Ad._ [Male]. Dull
rose, head and rump brightest; back brownish; lower belly white. _Ad._
[Female]. Above grayish brown, slightly edged with whitish and
brownish ashy; below white streaked with dark brownish; a more or less
distinct whitish stripe over the eye. _Yng._ Resemble Ad. [Female].
_Notes._ Call, _creak, creak_, and a querulous whistle; song, a sweet,
rapidly flowing warble. (See page 175.)

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from
northern New Jersey, the mountains of Pennsylvania, and northern
Illinois northward; winters from the northern States to the Gulf of

=517a. California Purple Finch= (_C. p. californicus_). Similar to No.
517, but [Male] duller and darker; [Female] _decidedly_ olive greenish
above. (See page 175.)

Range.--Pacific coast region; breeds in the mountains of California;
west of the Sierra north to British Columbia; winters from central
Oregon to southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 517.]

  [Illustration: 518.]

=518. Cassin Purple Finch= (_Carpodacus cassini_). L. 6.5. _Ad._
[Male]. Similar to Ad. [Male] of No. 517 and No. 517a, but back much
blacker, streaks more sharply defined; crown as bright but appearing
_like a cap_; below much paler. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to Ad.
[Female] of No. 517a, but larger and more sharply streaked with black,
both above and below. _Notes._ Resemble those of No. 517.

Range.--Western United States, east to the eastern base of the
Rockies, west to the Pacific; breeds in the mountains from New Mexico
north to British Columbia.

  [Illustration: 519.]

=519. House Finch= (_Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis_). L. 6.1; W. 3.1.
_Ad._ [Male]. Throat, breast, _forehead_, _line over eye_, and rump,
bright rose-red; back grayish brown tinged with red; belly white,
streaked with brownish. _Ad._ [Female]. Above brownish gray obscurely
streaked with brownish, _no olive_ tint; below white streaked with
brownish. _Ad._ [Male] _in Winter_. Red areas dull purplish pink
tipped with grayish. _Yng._ Resemble Ad. [Female]. _Notes._ Call,
nasal, in chorus, chattering; song, a musical cheery, varied warble,
reminding one of that of No. 517, but recognizably different.

Range.--Western United States, east to the Plains, west to the
Pacific, and from northern Mexico north to southern Wyoming and

=519b. St. Lucas House Finch= (_C. m. ruberrimus_). Similar to No.
519, but smaller, W. 2.8; red more extended, always showing in males
on under tail-coverts.

Range.--Southern Lower California.

=519c. San Clemente House Finch= (_C. m. clementis_). Similar to
No. 519, but wing and tail averaging shorter, the bill decidedly,
and feet slightly larger; coloration somewhat darker. W. 3; B. .48.

Range.--Santa Barbara Island, California; Todos Santos Island,
Lower California.

=520. Guadalupe House Finch= (_Carpodacus amplus_). Similar to
No. 519, but red deeper; back dark brown without red suffusion.

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

=520.1 San Benito House Finch= (_Carpodacus mcgregori_). Similar to
No. 519, but much larger with relatively shorter wings and tail;
above much grayer and more distinctly streaked; red areas paler,
more flesh-colored, often dull yellow; W. 3.2; T. 2.5; B. .5. (Ridgw.)

Range.--San Benito Island, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 527.]

=527. Greenland Redpoll= (_Acanthis hornemannii_). L. 6.1; W. 3.3.
A red crown-patch. _Ad._ [Male]. Rump, lower breast, sides and belly
_white_, generally _unstreaked_; breast and rump sometimes faintly
tinged with pink. In winter. Throat, breast, and above washed with
buff. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to [Male], but no pink on breast or
rump, sides sometimes lightly streaked.

Range.--Breeds in Greenland; winters south to Labrador.

=527a. Hoary Redpoll= (_A. h. exilipes_). Similar to No. 527 but
smaller and darker; rump still _white_, but with sides more apt to
be streaked; L. 5; W. 3; T. 2.3; B. .3.

Range.--Breeds in Arctic regions; in America, winters south
irregularly to Massachusetts, Ontario, northern Illinois, and

  [Illustration: 528.]

=528. Redpoll= (_Acanthis linaria_). L. 5.3; W. 2.8; T. 2.3. B. .36.
Crown-cap red. _Ad._ [Male]. Above blackish brown edged with yellowish
brown and some whitish; rump _heavily_ streaked with blackish edged
with whitish and tinged with rose; breast rose; sides heavily
streaked. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but no pink on rump or breast.
_Yng._ [Male]. Like female. _Notes._ Call like that of Goldfinch or
Siskin and _chit_; song like that of American Goldfinch but distinct.

Range.--Breeds in northern parts of northern hemisphere; in America,
winters south to northern United States, irregularly to Virginia,
Alabama, Kansas, Colorado, and northern California.

=528a. Holbœll Redpoll= (_A. l. holbœllii_). Similar to No. 528,
but larger, the bill longer; W. 3.2; T. 2.3; B. .38.

Range.--Breeds in northern parts of northern hemisphere; in America,
winters south, casually to northern United States, (Quebec, Ontario,
and Massachusetts.)

=528b. Greater Redpoll= (_A. l. rostrata_). Similar to No. 528,
but larger, above darker; L. 5.5; W. 3.2; T. 2.5; B. .35; depth
at base, .28.

Range.--"Southern Greenland in summer, migrating south in winter,
through Labrador to (sparingly) the northern border of the United
States, (New England, lower Hudson Valley, northern Illinois, etc.),
and west to Manitoba." (Ridgway.)

  [Illustration: 749.]

=749. Ruby-crowned Kinglet= (_Regulus calendula_). L. 4.4.
A conspicuous whitish eye-ring. _Ad._ [Male]. A more or less
concealed vermilion crown-patch; back olive-green; underparts soiled
whitish more or less tinged with buffy; two white wing-bars.
_Ad._ [Female] _and Yng._ Similar, but no crown-patch. _Notes._ Call,
a wren-like _cack_; song, a surprisingly loud, rich, musical, varied,
flute-like whistle.

Range.--North America; breeds from the northern border of the United
States northward and south in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona and on
the Sierra Nevada of California; winters from South Carolina and
Oregon southward to Central America.

=749a. Sitkan Kinglet= (_R. c. grinnelli_). Similar to No. 749,
but more olive-green above, more buffy below.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds In southern Alaska; winters southward
to California.

=750. Dusky Kinglet= (_Regulus obscurus_). Similar to No. 749,
but above sooty olive. _Ad._ [Male]. With crown-patch pinkish or
purplish vermilion-red. (Ridgw.) (See page 176.)

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

--=European Goldfinch= (_Carduelis carduelis_). L. 5.50. Feathers at
base of bill red; crown and neck-stripe black; back brownish; wings
with a yellow band; inner webs of tail-feathers tipped with white;
below white tinged with brownish. _Notes._ Call, _twit_; song,
"sweet and varied." (See page 176.)

Range.--Introduced in this country near Hoboken, N. J., in 1878;
now not uncommon near New York City.

  [Illustration: 443.]

=443. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher= (_Muscivora forficata_). L. 14.5.
_Ad._ [Male]. Above gray, back washed with red or yellow; crown-patch
red. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but tail shorter, red less bright, back
grayer. _Notes._ Loud, harsh, chattering notes uttered on the wing.

Range.--Central America and Mexico; breeds through Texas north to
southern Kansas and western Louisiana, and winters south to Central
America: accidental in Florida and as far north as Connecticut and
Hudson Bay.

  [Illustration: 471.]

=471. Vermilion Flycatcher= (_Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus_).
L. 6. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown and underparts red; back grayish brown.
_Ad._ [Female]. Above brownish, below white, breast streaked with
dusky, belly red or yellow. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to [Female] but
spotted with red below and on crown. _Notes._ A shrill _zi-bréé_,
_zi-bréé_, uttered while the bird hovers twenty or thirty feet up
in the air. (Bendire.)

Range.--Central America and Mexico, breeding north to southern Texas,
New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Utah (rarely); "winter visitant to
southern California." (Grinnell.)

  [Illustration: 688.]

=688. Painted Redstart= (_Setophaga picta_). L. 5.4.
_Ads._ Black; center of breast and belly deep red, patch
in wings and outer tail-feathers white.

Range--Mexican Plateau north to southwest New Mexico and Arizona.

  [Illustration: 690.]

=690. Red-faced Warbler= (_Cardellina rubrifrons_).
L. 5.2. _Ads._ Forehead, face, throat and sides of neck
red, crown and ear-coverts black, nape band and rump
whitish; back gray; no white in wings or tail. _Notes._
A prolonged, very clear, whistled song. (Scott.)

Range.--From Guatemala north over the Mexican Plateau to southern
Arizona and western New Mexico.

  [Illustration: 498.]

=498. Red-winged Blackbird= (_Agelaius phœniceus_). L. [Male], 9.5;
W. 4.7; B. .88; depth at base, .5. _Ad._ [Male]. Black, in winter more
or less tipped with rusty; lesser wing-coverts scarlet; median
wing-coverts buff, tips in summer whitish. _Ad._ [Female]. Above
brownish black, widely margined with buffy and rusty; below whitish
heavily streaked with black; throat tinged with orange or yellow;
lesser wing-coverts tinged with red. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to _Ad._
[Male], but heavily margined with rusty above and less so below;
lesser wing-coverts duller and narrowly edged with black. _Notes._
Call, _chût_, _chûck_, a reedy _cack_; song, a chorus song, a liquid
_kong-quĕr-rēē_; alarm note a shrill _chee-e-e-e-e_. The notes of this
species are subject to much variation with locality, but I find it
impossible to express on paper differences perfectly apparent when

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Gulf of Mexico north to
New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from Virginia and southern
Illinois southward.

=498a. Sonoran Red-wing= (_A. p. sonoriensis_). Similar to No. 498,
but larger, bill more slender; [Female] paler, streaking below
browner. W. [Female], 4.8; B. .95; depth at base .5.

Range.--Lower Colorado Valley in California and Arizona, southern
Arizona and south over coast plain of Sonora; Cape St. Lucas.

=498b. Bahaman Red-wing= (_A. p. bryanti_). Similar to No. 498,
but bill slightly longer, the female streaked below with brownish
instead of black.

Range.--Bahamas and southern Florida.

=498c. Florida Red-wing= (_A. p. floridanus_). Similar to No. 498,
but smaller, the bill longer and more slender; [Male], W. 4.2;
B. .9; depth at base .4.

Range.--Florida, except extreme southern portion; west along Gulf
coast to Texas.

=498d. Thick-billed Red-wing= (_A. p. fortis_). Similar to No. 498,
but larger, bill shorter and proportionately thicker. W. 5; B. .8;
depth at base .5.

Range.--Breeds on Mackenzie River, Athabasca, and other interior
districts of British America; during migrations Great Plains, from
Rockies to Minnesota, Iowa, western Illinois, northern Kentucky, and
southwest to western Texas and Arizona. (Ridgway.)

=498e. San Diego Red-wing= (_A. p. neutralis_). Similar to No. 498a,
but slightly smaller, the [Female] with streaks below wider. W. 4.7;
B. .95; depth at base .5.

Range.--Great Basin region from southern British Columbia south to
Mexico, western Texas, to southern California and northern Lower
California; in winter as far east as Brownsville, Texas. (Ridgway.)

=498f. Northwestern Red-wing= (_A. p. caurinum_). Similar to No. 498,
but slightly larger, bill somewhat longer and more slender, the [Male]
with median wing-coverts deeper buff, the [Female] much darker,
streaks below wider, darkest [Female] of group. W. 4.8; B. .9;
depth at base .45.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to British Columbia;
south in winter to southern California.

  [Illustration: 500.]

  [Illustration: 499.]

=499. Bicolored Blackbird= (_Agelaius gubernator californicus_).
_Ad._ [Male]. Similar to No. 498, but median wing-coverts darker
and broadly tipped with black, concealing as a rule, their brownish
bases. _Ad._ [Female]. Very different from [Female] of No. 498; above
and below blackish slightly edged with rusty. _Notes._ Similar in
character to those of No. 498, but with easily recognizable differences.
(See page 178.)

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from northern Lower California
northward, west of Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges, to Washington;
migratory at north part of range.

=500. Tricolored Blackbird= (_Agelaius tricolor_). _Ad._ [Male].
Similar to No. 498, but glossier, lesser wing-coverts darker, median
wing-coverts _white_; in winter black more or less edged with grayish
brown; median wing-coverts dingy. _Ad._ [Female]. No rusty; above
blackish edged with grayish; below black bordered with whitish.
_Notes._ "Said to be quite different" from those of No. 498.
(Bendire.) (See page 178.)

Range.--Northern Lower California north to southern Oregon; local
in valleys of interior.

  [Illustration: 523.]

=523. Aleutian Leucosticte= (_Leucosticte griseonucha_). Like
No. 524a, but much darker, breast chestnut-chocolate; larger, W. 4.4.

Range.--Islands of Bering Sea (resident); in winter, Shumagin Islands,
lower portion of Alaska Peninsula and Kadiak Island.

  [Illustration: 524.]

=524. Gray-crowned Leucosticte= (_Leucosticte tephrocotis_). L. 6.7;
W. 4.1. _Ad._ [Male]. Reddish brown more or less tipped with grayish;
rump, upper tail-coverts, lesser wing-coverts, outer edges of
primaries, and lower belly tipped with _pink_; forecrown black;
hindhead gray; cheeks _down to blackish throat brown_. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar but duller. _Yng._ Nearly uniform brownish; margins of
primaries showing some pink. _Notes._ A quick alarm note, _qui_,
_qui_. (Silloway.)

Range.--Western United States; breeds in higher parts of Sierra Nevada
of California, from Mt. Shasta south to Mt. Whitney, and on White
Mountains (Grinnell); north in Rocky Mountains to British Columbia;
in winter east to Manitoba, Colorado, and Nebraska.

  [Illustration: 524a.]

=524a. Hepburn Leucosticte= (_L. t. littoralis_). Similar to No. 524,
but cheeks _gray_ like hindhead; throat often grayish.

Range.--Higher mountains of Washington and British Columbia; north to
Alaska; winters south to Colorado and, on Pacific Coast, as far north
as Kadiak Island.

  [Illustration: 525.]

=525. Black Leucosticte= (_Leucosticte atrata_). Similar to No. 524,
but brown replaced by brownish black in _Ad._ [Male], or dusky slate
brownish in _Ad._ [Female] and _Yng._

Range.--Breeds on higher mountains of Idaho and Wyoming; winters south
to Colorado and Utah.

  [Illustration: 526.]

=526. Brown-capped Leucosticte= (_Leucosticte australis_). Resembles
No. 524, but little or no gray on hindhead, the black of forehead
passing gradually into brown of nape and back.

Range.--Breeds in mountains of Colorado at about 12000 feet altitude,
winters at lower altitudes and south to New Mexico.

Perching Birds Marked With Blue

  [Illustration: 599.]

=599. Lazuli Bunting= (_Cyanospiza amœna_). L. 5.5. _Ad._ [Male].
Two white wing-bars; breast cinnamon, throat and upperparts light
blue; back blacker. In winter more or less tipped with rusty. _Ad._
[Female]. Middle wing-coverts _tipped_ with _whitish_; above grayish
brown with generally a blue tinge, strongest on rump and lesser
wing-coverts; below whitish, breast buff. _Yng._ Like [Female], but
browner, no blue. _Notes._ Suggest those of the Indigo Bunting.

Range.--Western United States, east to western Kansas; breeds north to
Montana and British Columbia; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 600.]

=600. Varied Bunting= (_Cyanospiza versicolor_). L. 5.5. _Ad._ [Male].
Reddish purple, crown and rump blue, nape red. _Ad._ [Female]. Above
brownish gray; below whitish washed with buff; a slight tinge of blue
on rump, wings and tail. Much like [Female] of No. 598, but less brown
above and no streaks below. _Yng._ Resemble [Female].

Range.--Mexico; breeding north to southern Texas and southern Arizona;
winters south of United States.

=600a. Beautiful Bunting= (_C. v. pulchra_). Similar to No. 600, but
slightly smaller, rump more purple, throat with less red.

Range.--Southern Lower California.

  [Illustration: 601.]

=601. Painted Bunting; Nonpareil= (_Cyanospiza ciris_). L. 5.4.
_Ad._ [Male]. Below red, rump duller, back green, head dark blue.
_Ad._ [Female]. _Bright_, shining olive-green above; greenish yellow
below. _Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female]; second year variously intermediate
between Ad. [Male] and [Female]. _Notes._ Resemble those of the Indigo
Bunting but possess less volume.

Range.--Southern United States; breeds north to North Carolina,
southern Illinois, and Kansas, and west to southern Arizona; winters
in Mexico and Central America.

  [Illustration: 654.]

=654. Black-throated Blue Warbler= (_Dendroica cærulescens_). L. 5.2.
A white patch or spot at base of primaries. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat and
sides black; belly white; above dark grayish blue; outer tail-feathers
with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Grayish olive-green; below yellowish
white; a narrow white line over eye; white wing-patch small, sometimes
barely showing above coverts; tail with a bluish tinge. _Yng._ [Male].
Like _Ad._ [Female], but greenish above; black areas smaller and
tipped with whitish. _Notes._ Call, a sharp, characteristic _chip_;
song, usually, _zwee-zwee-zwee_ in an ascending scale.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern Connecticut,
mountains of Pennsylvania, southern Michigan, and northern Minnesota,
north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; winters in Central and South

=654a. Cairns Warbler= (_D. c. cairnsi_). Similar to No. 654, but
[Male] darker, the back with more or less black; [Female] darker and

Range.--Breeds in higher portions of southern Alleghanies; winters
south of United States.

  [Illustration: 658.]

=658. Cerulean Warbler= (_Dendroica cerulea_). L. 5. _Ad._ [Male].
A gray-blue breast band; above bright gray-blue streaked with black;
wing-bars and spots in tail white. _Ad._ [Female] and _Yng._ [Male].
Above blue-gray washed with greenish, below yellowish white; a whitish
line over eye. _Notes._ Call, a warbler _lisp_ and _tchip_ of the
Myrtle Warbler; song resembling that of Parula Warbler. (Brewster.)
(See page 180.)

Range.--Mississippi Valley, breeding north to Minnesota and east to
Cayuga County, New York, Maryland, and West Virginia; generally rare
east of Alleghanies; migrates south through Texas and winters in
Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 597.]

=597. Blue Grosbeak= (_Guiraca cærulea_). L. 7; W. 3.4. _Ad._ [Male].
Deep, dark blue, back blacker and sometimes with brownish edgings;
lesser wing-coverts broadly, greater wing-coverts narrowly tipped with
chestnut. In winter more or less tipped with brownish above and below.
_Ad._ [Female]. Above grayish brown, deepest on head; below grayish
white washed with buffy; wing-bars buff. Some specimens show more or
less blue, particularly about head. _Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female], but
browner. _Notes._ Call, a strong, harsh, _ptchick_; song, a beautiful
but feeble warble, somewhat like that of Purple Finch and with a
slight resemblance to that of Rose-breasted Grosbeak. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from the Gulf north to Maryland
and southern Illinois; winters south of United States into Mexico and
Central America; casually north as far as Maine and Quebec.

=597a. Western Blue Grosbeak= (_G. c. lazula_). Similar to No. 597,
but larger, W. 3.6; male brighter blue; back blacker; tips of
wing-coverts paler, those of greater coverts usually decidedly paler
than those of lesser coverts and averaging wider than those of No.
597. Female averaging paler, less brown.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from Mexico north to Kansas,
southern Nebraska, Colorado, and northern California; winters in
Mexico and Central America.

  [Illustration: 598.]

=598. Indigo Bunting= (_Cyanospiza cyanea_). L. 5.4. No white
wing-bars. _Ad._ [Male]. Deep blue, darkest on head. In winter brown,
paler below, more or less mixed with blue. _Ad._ [Female]. Above
brown; below whitish washed with brown with a _suggestion of streaks_;
lesser wing-coverts and margins of tail-feathers usually tinged with
blue. _Yng._ Similar to [Female] but below more streaked; browner, and
generally without blue tinge. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _pit_; song, a
tinkling, unsympathetic, rapid warble, _July, July, summer-summer's
here_; _morning, noontide, evening, list to me_.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains, casually to
Colorado; breeds north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters in Central

  [Illustration: 766.]

=766. Bluebird= (_Sialia sialis_). L. 7. _Ad._ [Male]. Above,
including wings and tail, bright blue; throat and breast rusty brown,
belly whitish. _Ad._ [Female]. Above grayer, below paler. In winter
specimens of both sexes have upperparts tipped with rusty. _Notes._
Call, _tur-wee, tur-wee_; song, a rich and sweet but short warble.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from the Gulf States to Nova
Scotia and Manitoba; winters from southern New England and southern
Illinois southward.

=766a. Azure Bluebird= (_S. s. azurea_). Similar to No. 766, but
breast paler, upperparts less deep, more cerulean.

Range.--Mountains of eastern Mexico north to southern Arizona.

=767. Western Bluebird= (_Sialia mexicana occidentalis_). L. 7.
_Ad._ [Male]. Above bright blue, foreback with more or less rust-brown,
but rarely wholly chestnut; _throat blue_, breast rust-brown, belly
bluish gray. _Ad._ [Female]. Above grayish blue; rust on foreback
faintly indicated; throat bluish gray, breast paler than in [Male].
_Notes._ Call, suggests that of No. 766, but is louder and wilder.

Range.--Pacific coast region from northern Lower California north to
British Columbia, east to western Nevada and casually, during
migrations, to New Mexico. (Ridgway.)

  [Illustration: 767a.]

=767a. Chestnut-backed Bluebird= (_S. m. bairdi_). Similar to No. 767,
but foreback _wholly_ rust-brown.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming south into Mexico.

=767b. San Pedro Bluebird= (_S. m. anabelæ_). Rust-brown of back and
breast greatly reduced in extent, usually wholly wanting or barely
indicated on back, and divided into two patches on breast by backward
extension of blue of throat; W. 4.2. (Ridgw.)

Range.--San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 768.]

=768. Mountain Bluebird= (_Sialia arctica_). L. 7.5. _Ad._ [Male].
Above beautiful cerulean blue, throat and breast paler, belly whitish.
Winter specimens are more or less tipped with brownish. _Ad._
[Female]. Above brownish gray, rump blue, throat and breast grayish
buff; belly whitish. _Notes._ Call, suggests that of No. 766, but in
fall is merely a feeble chirp. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Western United States, except Pacific coast; breeds from the
Sierra Nevada east to the Plains and from New Mexico north to the
Great Slave Lake region; winters from the Mexico boundary states south
into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 477.]

=477. Blue Jay= (_Cyanocitta cristata_). L. 11.7. _Ads._ Above
gray-blue, breast and sides washed with _grayish_; white tip to outer
tail-feather rarely less than one inch long. _Notes._ Varied; commonly
a loud harsh _jay jay_; often whistling calls and imitations of the
notes of other birds, particularly of common Hawks.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from Georgia
and northern Texas north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; resident,
except at northern part of range.

=477a. Florida Blue Jay= (_C. c. florincola_). Similar to No. 477, but
smaller, L. 10; blue above with a purplish tinge; greater wing-coverts
more narrowly barred with black and tipped with white.

Range.--Florida and Gulf Coast to southeastern Texas.

  [Illustration: 482.]

=482. Arizona Jay= (_Aphelocoma sieberii arizonæ_). L. 13; W. 6.3;
T. 5.8. _Ads._ Above grayish blue, head, wings and tail brighter than
back; below unstreaked, gray breast tinged with bluish; belly whiter.
_Notes._ Noisy, harsh, and far-reaching. (Bendire.)

Range.--Northern Mexico, north to southern New Mexico and Arizona.

=482a. Couch Jay= (_A. s. couchi_). Similar to No. 482, but smaller;
W. 5.8; T. 5.3; bluer above, throat whiter.

Range.--"Eastern Mexico, extending to western Texas in the Chisos
Mountains." (Bailey.)

  [Illustration: 492.]

=492. Pinon Jay= (_Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus_). L. 11; T. 4.8.
_Ads._ Above nearly uniform grayish blue, head slightly darker; below
slightly paler, throat streaked with white. _Notes._ Variable, some as
harsh as those of No. 491, others like gabble of Magpie; others like
Jays' common call a shrill, querulous, _peeh, peeh_; when on ground
maintain a constant chatter. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western North America, from New Mexico and Lower California
north to southern British Columbia; east to Rockies, west to Sierra
Nevada and Cascade Ranges.

  [Illustration: 479.]

=479. Florida Jay= (_Aphelocoma cyanea_). L. 11.5. _Ads._ foreback
clay-color or pale brownish gray; head, nape, wings, tail, sides of
throat and faint breast-streaks blue; a grayish line over eye; throat
gray; belly dingier; forehead usually hoary. _Notes._ Harsh and
unmusical calls.

Range.--Florida; confined mostly to coast of the middle portions of
the peninsula.

  [Illustration: 480.]

=480. Woodhouse Jay= (_Aphelocoma woodhousei_). L. 12; W. 5. _Ads._
Back _grayish or brownish blue_, usually not sharply defined from
nape; crown, nape, wings and tail blue; throat _gray_; belly dingier;
breast streaked with blue; _under tail-coverts blue_; a _narrow white_
line over eye. Resembles No. 479, but is larger, back bluer, forehead
not hoary; line over eye sharper.

Range.--Western United States (chiefly Great Basin region), from
northern Mexico north to southeastern Oregon and southern Wyoming;
east to western Texas and Colorado; west to California, east of the

  [Illustration: 480.1.]

=480.1. Blue-eared Jay= (_Aphelocoma cyanotis_). Resembling No. 480,
but larger; W. 5. 5; under tail-coverts _white_; back slaty-gray
tinged with blue; white line over eye less evident.

Range.--"Mexican tableland north casually to Sutton County, Texas."

_480.2. Texan Jay_ (_Aphelocoma texana_). Similar to No. 480.1, but
white line over eye more distinct, below paler and browner gray, lower
throat and chest with obsolete grayish streaks instead of blue
streaks. Differs from No. 480 in having pure white under tail coverts
and in other respects. (Ridgw.)

Range.--"Southeastern Texas, from Concho and Kerr Counties west to the
Davis Mountains." (Bailey.)

  [Illustration: 481.]

=481. California Jay= (_Aphelocoma californica_). Similar to No. 480,
but back _brown_; usually sharply defined from nape; blue areas
brighter, throat and belly whiter; breast less streaked with blue.
_Notes._ Varied, usual call a harsh, metallic squawking.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern Lower California, north to
southern Washington, east, in California, to the Sierra Nevada.

=481a. Xantus Jay= (_A. c. hypoleuca_). Similar to No. 481, but blue
areas somewhat lighter, underparts decidedly whiter.

Range.--Lower California, north to Lat. 28°.

=481b. Belding Jay= (_A. c. obscura_). Similar to No. 481, but darker
and with smaller feet; W. 4.7. (Anthony.)

Range.--San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 481.1.]

=481.1. Santa Cruz Jay= (_Aphelocoma insularis_). Similar to No. 481,
but larger; W. 5.6; blue areas much deeper, back much darker, grayish
sooty tinged with blue.

Range.--Santa Cruz Island, California.

  [Illustration: 478.]

=478. Steller Jay= (_Cyanocitta stelleri_). L. 13. _Ads._ Crest, back
and upper breast sooty brown; rump and belly dark, (Antwerp) blue;
forehead more or less streaked with blue. _Notes._ Varied, usual call
a loud, harsh squawking; the bird is a mimic and also a whistler.

Range.--Pacific coast from Monterey, California, north to near Cook
Inlet, Alaska, including Vancouver Island.

=478a. Blue-fronted Jay= (_C. s. frontalis_). Similar to No. 478, but
back paler, grayer, rump and belly turquoise, forehead with more blue
which sometimes extends to the crest.

Range.--"Southern coast ranges and Sierra Nevada of California and
western Nevada, from Fort Crook south to northern Lower California."

=478b. Long-crested Jay= (_C. s. diademata_). Similar to No. 478, but
paler, grayer above, blue turquoise, as in No. 478a; crest longer, the
forehead with pale, _bluish white_ streaks; a white spot over the eye.

Range.--"Southern Rocky Mountains; north to southern Wyoming; west to
Uintah Mountains, in eastern Utah, and the higher ranges of
northwestern Arizona; south to New Mexico." (Bendire.)

=478c. Black-headed Jay= (_C. s. annectens_). Between No. 478 and
No. 478b. Forehead streaks, and spot over eye much as in latter;
color of body dark as in former.

Range.--Northern Rocky Mountain region from northern Utah and southern
Wyoming north to Alberta and British Columbia.

=478d. Queen Charlotte Jay= (_C. s. carlottæ_). Similar to No. 478,
but darker, sooty slate above, blue deeper.

Range.--Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.

  [Illustration: 483.]

=483. Green Jay= (_Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens_). L. 11. _Ads._
Crown and patches at side of throat blue; back, wings, and central
tail-feathers green; outer tail-feathers yellow; throat black, breast
and belly greenish yellow. _Notes._ Noisy and harsh often suggesting
certain of the Blue Jay's calls.

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, and south into northeastern

Perching Birds with Yellow or Orange

  [Illustration: 503.]

=503. Audubon Oriole= (_Icterus audubonii_). L. 9.5. _Ads._ Head,
breast, wings and tail black; belly yellow; back greenish yellow.
_Yng._ Greenish yellow below; olive-green above. _Notes._ See No. 507.

Range.--Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande; casually as far as San
Antonio, Texas; resident.

  [Illustration: 504.]

=504. Scott Oriole= (_Icterus parisorum_). L. 8; B. .95; _Ad._ [Male].
Lesser wing-coverts, base of tail, rump and belly yellow; rest of
plumage black. _Ad._ [Female]. Yellowish below, olive-green above, two
white wing-bars. _Yng._ [Male]. Like female, but throat black.
_Notes._ See No. 507.

Range.--Mexican tableland, migrating north to western Texas, northern
New Mexico, southern Nevada and southeastern California; winters in

  [Illustration: 505.]

=505. Hooded Oriole= (_Icterus cucullatus sennetti_). L. 8; B. .75.
_Ad._ [Male]. _Orange_; forehead, face, throat, foreback, wings and
tail black; lesser wing-coverts and tips to greater ones white. _Ad._
[Female]. Yellowish below, brownish olive-green above, two white
wing-bars. _Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female], but throat black. _Notes._
See No. 507.

Range.--Mexico; migrating north to the Lower Rio Grande; winters in

=505a. Arizona Hooded Oriole= (_I. c. nelsoni_). Similar to No. 505,
but head, rump, etc. yellow instead of orange.

Range.--Northwestern Mexico and Lower California, migrating north to
southwestern New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California, west of
Sierra Nevada; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 507.]

=507. Baltimore Oriole= (_Icterus galbula_). L. 7.5. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat, whole head, foreback, wings and middle tail-feathers black;
breast, belly, rump, lesser wing-coverts and ends of outer
tail-feathers orange; wing-coverts and tertials margined with white.
_Ad._ [Female]. Head and foreback olive-yellow spotted with black;
rump and tail brownish yellow; below dull yellow, throat generally
blackish. _Notes._ The notes of all the orange and black Orioles known
to me are mellow, musical, querulous whistles generally given in
detached fragments, all much alike in character but distinguishable
when one becomes familiar with them.

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains; breeds from
Florida and eastern Texas north to New Brunswick and the Saskatchewan;
winters in Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 508.]

=508. Bullock Oriole= (_Icterus bullocki_). L. 7.5. _Ad._ [Male].
_Cheeks_, most of underparts, forehead and line over eye orange; rump
and outer tail-feathers yellower; center of throat, crown, foreback
and middle tail-feathers black; a large white wing-patch. _Ad._
[Female]. Above olive grayish brown; below yellowish, belly whiter;
tail olive-yellow; wings blackish, median coverts tipped, greater
coverts externally margined with white; chin sometimes blackish.
_Yng._ [Male]. Like [Female], but center of throat and lores black.
_Notes._ See No. 507.

Range.--Western North America, from Mexico north to Assiniboia and
British Columbia; east to western Texas; west to the Pacific; winters
in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 637.]

=637. Prothonotary Warbler= (_Protonotaria citrea_). L. 5.5.
Tail-feathers with large white areas. _Ad._ [Male]. Whole head and
underparts orange-yellow; back greenish yellow; rump gray. _Ad._
[Female]. Crown greenish like back; yellow paler; belly whitish;
less white in tail. _Notes._ Call, a sharp, metallic _chink_; song,
a "high pitched, penetrating and startling" "_peet_, _tsweet_,
_tsweet_, _tsweet_, _tsweet_, _tsweet_." (Jones.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from the Gulf States north to
Virginia, Ohio, and southern Minnesota; winters in the tropics.

  [Illustration: 651.]

=651. Olive Warbler= (_Dendroica olivacea_). L. 5.2. _Ad._ [Male].
Head and breast orange brown, a black band through the eye; back
olive-gray; belly grayish; wing-bars white; outer tail-feathers
largely white. _Ad._ [Female]. Above olive-gray, head yellower;
eye-band dusky; breast yellow; belly white. _Notes._ Song, a liquid
_quirt quirt_, _quirt_, in a descending scale. (Price.)

Range.--Highlands of Guatemala and Mexico north to mountains of
Arizona and New Mexico.

  [Illustration: 662.]

=662. Blackburnian Warbler= (_Dendroica blackburniæ_). L. 5.2. _Ad._
[Male]. Throat, line over eye, center of crown, and sides of neck
bright orange; back black with a few whitish streaks; wing-bars
broadly white; tail-spots white. _Ad._ [Female]. Yellow areas paler;
above grayish streaked with blackish. _Yng. and Ad. in Winter._
Similar to Ad. [Male], but throat paler, back browner; wing with two
distinct bars. _Notes._ Song, _wee-see-wee-see, tsee-tsee_, _tsee_,
_tsee-tsee_, _tsee_, _tsee_, in an ascending scale, the last shrill
and fine.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New England (and
in Berkshire and Worcester counties, Massachusetts), and northern
Minnesota, north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region, (and south in
Alleghanies to South Carolina); winters in tropics.

  [Illustration: 687.]

=687. Redstart= (_Setophaga ruticilla_). L. 5.4. _Ad._ [Male]. Black;
sides of breast, band in wings and in tail rich salmon. _Ad._
[Female]. Sides of breast, band in wings and in tail dull yellow; back
olive-brown, crown gray; below whitish. _Yng._ [Male]. Intermediate
between adults. _Notes._ Song, _ching_, _ching_, _chee_; _ser-wee_,
_swee_, _swe-e-e_.

Range.--North America; rare on the Pacific coast; breeds from North
Carolina, and Kansas north to Labrador and Alaska; winters in the West
Indies, Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 748.]

=748. Golden-crowned Kinglet= (_Regulus satrapa_). L. 4.1. _Ad._
[Male]. Crown orange and yellow bordered by black; a whitish line over
eye; back grayish olive-green; below soiled whitish. A blackish band
in wing bordered basally by yellowish white. _Ad._ [Female]. No orange
in crown, its whole center yellow. _Notes._ Call, a fine, high
_ti-ti_; song, five or six fine, shrill high-pitched notes ending in a
short, rapid, rather explosive warble, "_tzee_, _tzee_, _tzee_,
_tzee_, _ti_, _ti_, _ter_, _ti-ti-ti_."

Range.--North America; breeds from northern United States northward,
and southward along the Rockies into Mexico and in the Alleghanies to
North Carolina; winters from about its southern breeding limit to the
Gulf States and Mexico.

=748a. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet= (_R. s. olivaceus_). Similar to
No. 748, but upperparts brighter olive-green; underparts with a
brownish tinge.

Range.--Pacific coast region; breeds from the higher Sierra Nevada of
California north to southern Alaska.

  [Illustration: 666.]

=666. Golden-cheeked Warbler= (_Dendroica chrysoparia_). L. 5. _Ad._
[Male]. Throat, crown and _back_ black; cheeks and spot in forehead
yellow; a narrow black line through eye; wing-bars and tail-patches
white. _Ad._ [Female]. Above olive green with _black streaks_; cheeks
duller than in [Male], eye-streak dusky; throat yellow, breast
blackish; belly _white_. _Notes._ Song, _tser_, _weasy-weasy_, _twea_,
resembling song of No. 667. (Nehrling.)

Range.--Western central and southern Texas and south through eastern
Mexico to highlands of Guatemala. (Ridgway.)

  [Illustration: 667.]

=667. Black-throated Green Warbler= (_Dendroica virens_). L. 5.
_Ad._ [Male]. Throat and breast black; cheeks greenish yellow; back
olive-green; wing-bars and tail patches white. _Ad._ [Female] and
_Yng._ [Male]. Similar, but throat yellowish; black breast tipped with
yellowish; _belly tinged with yellow_; back _without_ black _streaks_.
_Yng._ [Female]. Throat and breast yellowish white, little or no
black. _Notes._ Song, a droning _zēē_, _zēē_, _zĕ-ēē'_, _zēē_.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Connecticut and northern
Illinois north to Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay, and south in Alleghanies
to South Carolina; winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 668.]

=668. Townsend Warbler= (Dendroica townsendi). L. 5.1. _Ad._ [Male].
A black eye-patch bordered by yellow stripes; crown and throat black;
back olive-green spotted with black; wing-bars and tail-patches white.
_Ad._ [Female]. Eye-patch olive; throat yellow, indistinctly blackish;
crown and back olive-green, with few black streaks. _Yng._ Similar,
but yellower. _Notes._ Song, _de-de_, _de-de_, _de_, like that of
No. 667. (Merrill.)

Range.--Western North America; breeds from mountains of southern
California north to Alaska, east to western Colorado; in migrations to
western Texas; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 669.]

=669. Hermit Warbler= (_Dendroica occidentalis_). L. 5.1. Underparts
_without_ streaks. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown and cheeks yellow; throat
black; back gray spotted with black; wing-bars and tail-patches
white. _Ad._ [Female]. Crown less yellow; throat yellowish; back
olive-gray, usually without spots. _Yng._ [Female]. Similar, but
yellower. _Yng._ [Male]. Throat dusky; forehead and cheeks yellow;
back olive-green with concealed black spots. Much like Yng of
No. 667, but forehead yellower, no streaks below. _Notes._ Song,
_zeegle-zeegle-zeegle-zeek_. (Barlow.)

Range.--Western United States; breeds in high mountains from British
Columbia to California, and from Pacific Coast district of United
States to Rocky Mountains; migrates to Lower California, Mexico, and
Guatemala. (Bailey.)

  [Illustration: 684.]

=684. Hooded Warbler= (_Wilsonia mitrata_). L. 5.7. Outer tail-feather
with white patches. _Ad._ [Male]. Forehead and cheeks yellow; hindhead
extending to breast and throat black; belly yellow; back olive-green.
_Ad._ [Female]. Throat yellow, hindhead olive-green usually with
black. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _cheep_; song, a gracefully whistled
_you must come to the woods, or you wont see me_.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds north to southern Connecticut,
central western New York, and southern Michigan; winters in Central

  [Illustration: 531.]

=531. Lawrence Goldfinch= (_Astragalinus lawrencei_). L. 4.7. _Ad._
[Male]. Crown, throat and front of cheeks black; body _gray_, breast,
rump, wings and, to a less degree, back with yellow; outer tail
feathers with large white spots near the end. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar,
but no black, back browner and without yellow. _Notes._ Suggesting
those of the Goldfinch, but weaker.

Range--California, west of the Sierra; breeds from northern Lower
California north to Chico, California; winters to Arizona and New

  [Illustration: 642.]

=642. Golden-winged Warbler= (_Helminthophila chrysoptera_). L. 5.
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown yellow, wing-bars broadly yellow; above bluish
gray; below grayish white; throat-patch and eye-stripe black. _Ad._
[Female]. Crown duller; throat-patch and eye-stripe gray. _Notes._
Song, a lazy _zee-zee-zee-zee_ all on same note.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from northern New Jersey and
northern Indiana north to Vermont, southern Ontario, and Michigan, and
south along Alleghanies to South Carolina; winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 678.]

=678. Connecticut Warbler= (_Geothlypis agilis_). L. 5.5. Eye-ring
white; no white in wings or tail. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown and cheeks
bluish slate; throat and breast paler, the latter with no black; above
olive-green; below yellow, sides greenish. _Ad._ [Female] _and Yng._
Throat and breast olive _brown_; belly yellow; back brownish
olive-green; crown browner. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _peek_; song,
suggesting that of Maryland Yellow-throat and also that of Oven-bird,
_free-chapple_, _free-chapple_, _free-chapple_, _whoit_. (Seton.)

Range.--Eastern North America, north to Maine and Manitoba; known to
breed only in Manitoba; winters in northern South America.

  [Illustration: 679.]

=679. Mourning Warbler= (_Geothlypis philadelphia_). L. 5.4. No white
in wings or tail. _Ad._ [Male]. No white eye-ring; crown and cheeks
bluish slate; throat blackish; breast black more or less veiled by
slaty; belly yellow; back olive-green. _Ad._ [Female]. Head slaty;
throat and breast _grayish_; an inconspicuous white eye-ring. _Yng._
Similar, but browner above; throat more yellow. _Notes._ Song, clear
and whistled, _tee te-o te-o te-o we-se_, the last couplet accented
and much higher pitched. (Jones.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New England,
northern New York and eastern Nebraska north to Nova Scotia and
Manitoba, and south along the Alleghanies to West Virginia; winters in
Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 680.]

=680. Macgillivray Warbler= (_Geothlypis tolmiei_),
L. 5.4. _Ads._ Similar to No. 679, but with an incomplete
white eye-ring showing above and below eye.

Range.--Western North America from the Rocky Mountains to the
Pacific; breeds from western Texas and mountains of southern California
north to British Columbia; in migrations ranges east to Nebraska
and middle Texas; winters in Mexico and Central America.

  [Illustration: 656.]

=656. Audubon Warbler= (_Dendroica auduboni_). L. 5.6. Crown, sides of
breast, rump, and _throat_ usually with yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat
bright yellow; breast black; back blue-gray streaked with black;
wing-bars broadly white; outer tail-feathers with white. _Ad._
[Female]. Similar to male, but breast grayish; yellow less bright;
less white in wings. [Male], _Winter_. Like same plumage of No. 655,
but throat, yellowish; more white in tail. [Female], _Winter_.
Similar, but less yellow, throat sometimes without yellow, when like
No. 655, but white on four or five outer tail-feathers instead of on
two or three.

Range.--Western United States; breeding in higher mountains from
southern California and New Mexico north to British Columbia; winters
south into Mexico.

=656a. Black-fronted Warbler= (_D. a. nigrifrons_). Similar to No.
656, but _Ad._ [Male]. with forehead, sides of crown, and ears black;
back black, narrowly margined with bluish gray. _In winter._ Bluish
gray, not brownish above. Ad. [Female] darker, more heavily streaked
with black above. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Mountains of northern Mexico north to southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 657.]

=657. Magnolia Warbler= (_Dendroica maculosa_). L. 5.1. Rump yellow;
seen from below a white band across middle of tail. _Ad._ [Male].
Crown ashy, back black; wing-coverts broadly white; below yellow
streaked with black. _Ad._ [Female]. Duller; fewer black stripes
below; wing-bars separated, narrow. _Yng. and Ad in winter._ Crown and
sides of head brownish ashy, back olive-green; below yellow, sides
occasionally streaked. _Notes._ Song, a loud, clear whistle,
_chee-to_, _chee-to_, _chee-tee-ee_, uttered rapidly and with a
falling inflection, (Langille.)

Range.--Eastern North America, west in migrations, to the Rockies;
breeds from northern New England, northern Michigan (and south along
the Alleghanies to Pennsylvania), north to Quebec and Hudson Bay
region; winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 663.]

=663. Yellow-throated Warbler= (_Dendroica dominica_). L. 5.2. _Ads._
Throat and _line from bill to eye_ yellow; cheeks and forehead black;
back bluish gray; two broad white wing-bars; tail-patches white.
_Notes._ Song, loud, ringing and ventriloquial; suggesting that of
Indigo Bunting but shorter.

Range.--Southeastern United States; breeds from Florida north to
Virginia and winters from Florida south into West Indies.

=663a. Sycamore Warbler= (_D. d. albilora_). Similar to No. 663, but
bill smaller, line from eye to bill white or with but traces of

Range.--Mississippi Valley; breeds from Texas north to Kansas,
southern Indiana, southern Illinois, and West Virginia; winters in
Mexico and Central America.

  [Illustration: 664.]

=664. Grace Warbler= (_Dendroica graciæ_). L. 5. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat
and line over eye yellow; cheeks gray; above gray, crown and back with
black streaks; wing-bars and tail-patches white. _Ad._ [Female].
Similar, but duller, back sometimes brownish.

Range.--Northwestern Mexico, north to New Mexico, southwestern
Colorado, and Arizona.

=686. Canadian Warbler= (_Wilsonia canadensis_). L. 5.6. No white in
wings or tail. _Ad._ [Male]. A necklace of black spots on breast; back
gray; belly yellow; forehead black. _Ad._ [Female] _and Yng._ [Male].
Black areas smaller. _Yng._ [Female]. Slightly yellowish above;
necklace slightly indicated by dusky spots. _Notes._ Song, _tu-tu_,
_tswe_, _tu_, _tu_, longer or shorter and suggesting in style of
utterance both the Yellow Warbler and Goldfinch. (Jones.) (See page

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Massachusetts, central New
York, and northern Michigan north to Labrador and Manitoba, and south
along the Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters in Central and South

  [Illustration: 640.]

=640. Bachman Warbler= (_Helminthophila bachmanii_). L. 4.2. Outer
tail-feathers usually with a white patch more or less distinct. _Ad._
[Male]. Breast-patch and crown-band black; forehead, chin and belly
yellow; back olive-green, hindhead grayish. _Ad._ [Female]. Above
grayish olive-green, head grayer; below dingy grayish with a yellow
tinge. _Notes._ Song, when migrating, resembles that of Parula
Warbler, (Brewster); when breeding, that of Worm-eating Warbler, Junco
or Chippy. (Widmann).

Range.--Southeastern United States, west to Louisiana, north to
Virginia and southern Indiana; rare on Atlantic coast; known to breed
only in Missouri; winters south of United States.

  [Illustration: 641.]

=641. Blue-winged Warbler= (_Helminthophila pinus_). L. 4.8. _Ad._
[Male]. Crown and underparts yellow; back olive-green; a black stripe
through eye; two whitish wing-bars; outer tail-feathers with white
patches. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, less yellow on head, duller below.
_Notes._ Song, a wheezy, _swee-chee_, the first inhaled, the second
exhaled; also, later, _wēē_, _chi-chi-chi-chi_, _chūr_, _chēē-chūr_.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds north to southern Connecticut
and Minnesota, occasionally wanders to Massachusetts; winters south
of United States.

  [Illustration: 670.]

=670. Kirtland Warbler= (_Dendroica kirtlandi_). L. 5.7. _Ad._ [Male].
Above bluish gray streaked with black; below pale yellow, sides
streaked with black; wing-bars grayish; tail-patches white. _Ad._
[Female]. Similar, but browner. _Notes._ Song, said to resemble that
of Maryland Yellow-throat and also that of Yellow-throated Warbler.

Range.--Eastern United States; has been found from April to October
in United States as follows: in Florida, South Carolina, Virginia,
Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Michigan, and Ontario,
in all some twenty odd specimens; found breeding in summer of 1903 in
Oscoda County, Michigan; winters in Bahamas where some fifty specimens
have been taken.

  [Illustration: 671.]

=671. Pine Warbler= (_Dendroica vigorsii_). L. 5.5. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat and breast greenish yellow; above bright yellowish green;
wing-bars and tail-patches white. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but breast
duller, back browner. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to Ad. [Male], but
browner. _Yng._ [Female]. Below buffy white, breast slightly or not
all yellowish; back olive-brown. _Notes._ Song, suggesting a Chipping
Sparrow's but more musical.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Gulf States north to New
Brunswick, Minnesota, and Manitoba; winters from Virginia and southern
Illinois to Gulf States.

=696. Siberian Yellow Wagtail= (_Budytes flavus leucostriatus_).
L. 6.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown bluish slate, a white line over eye; back
olive-green; below yellow; wing-bars yellowish; outer tail-feathers
largely white. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but duller, head and wing-bars
browner. _Notes._ Call, a sharp, _plé-plé-ple_; song, a low, clear,
medley of jingling notes uttered on the wing. (Nelson.)
(See page 191.)

Range.--China, Eastern Siberia, and Bering Sea portion of eastern

  [Illustration: 529.]

=529. American Goldfinch= (_Astragalinus tristis_). L. 5.1; W. 2.8.
_Ad._ [Male]. Yellow, cap, wings and tail black; wing-coverts,
secondaries and inner margins of tail-feathers tipped with white.
_Ad._ [Female], Above grayish olive-brown; below buffy whitish; throat
yellowish; wings and tail duller than in male; white tips to tail not
distinct. _Yng._ [Male] _and Ad._ [Male] _in winter_. Similar to
[Female] but wings and tail black; white markings grayer than in
summer. _Notes._ Calls, when perching, _hear me_, _hear me_, _dearie_,
soft and sweet, when flying, _per-chic'-o-ree_; _per-chic'-o-ree_;
song, sweet, rapid, varied and canary-like.

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Rockies; breeds from
Virginia and Missouri north to Labrador and Manitoba; winters from
northern United States to the Gulf States.

=529a. Western Goldfinch= (_A. t. pallidus_). Similar to No. 529, but
larger, W. 3.05. _Ad._ [Male], _in summer_, similar in color to No.
529. [Female] and [Male], _in winter_. Much paler, the white areas
greater in extent.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from northern Mexico north to British

=529b. California Goldfinch= (_A. t. salicamans_). Similar to No. 529,
but wings and tail shorter and color darker. _Ad._ [Male] _in summer_.
With back always (?) tinged with pale olive-green; in winter darker
than No. 529, but with white areas as large as in 529a. (Ridgw.)

Range.--California, west of the Sierra, south to Lower California,
north to Washington.

  [Illustration: 530.]

=530. Arkansas Goldfinch= (_Astragalinus psaltria_). L. 4.1. _Ad._
[Male]. Cap, wings, and tail black, most of primaries and tail white
basally; back and cheeks olive-green, often marked with black; below
yellow _Ad._ [Female]. No black cap; above olive-green; below dull
yellowish; wings and tail brownish black, former with white much
reduced, latter with little or no white. _Yng._ Resemble female.
_Notes._ Call, _se-e-e-ep_; song, sweet, varied and musical.

Range.--Western United States, from the Plains to the Pacific; breeds
from northern Lower California and western Texas, north to Colorado,
southern Idaho, and Oregon; winters from the southern part of its
breeding range southward.

=530b. Mexican Goldfinch= (_A. p. mexicanus_). Resembles No. 530,
but _cheeks and entire upperparts black_; [Female] as in No. 530.

Range.--Mexico, north to southern Texas.

  [Illustration: 685.]

=685. Wilson Warbler= (_Wilsonia pusilla_). L. 5. No white in plumage.
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown shining black; forehead, cheeks and underparts
yellow; back olive-green. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but crown-patch
often smaller, sometimes absent. _Yng._ [Female]. Crown-patch absent.
_Notes._ Song, _'tsh-'tsk-'tsh-'tshea_. (Nuttall.) Suggests that of
Redstart or Yellow Warbler. (Minot.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Nova Scotia, northeastern
Maine, and Ontario north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; winters in
Mexico and Central America; "occasional during migration in Colorado...
and other parts of the Rocky Mountain district" (Ridgw.)
(See page 192.)

=685a. Pileolated Warbler= (_W. p. pileolata_). Similar to No. 685,
but yellow deeper, olive brighter.

Range.--Western North America; breeding throughout the Rocky Mountain
district from western Texas in higher mountains, northward to Alaska,
coast and interior; westward to eastern Oregon and Queen Charlotte
Islands; in migrations over all of western North America and east to
Minnesota; in winter south to Central America. (Ridgw.) (See page

=685b. Golden Pileolated Warbler= (_W. p. chryseola_). Similar to
No. 685a, but still brighter, richer yellow; forehead nearly orange;
back brighter green.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from southern California north to
British Columbia; in migration east to eastern Oregon; south to
Chihuahua and Lower California. (Ridgw.) (See page 192.)

  [Illustration: 677.]

=677. Kentucky Warbler= (_Geothlypis formosa_). L. 5.6. No white in
plumage. _Ad._ [Male]. Cheeks and crown black the latter tipped with
ashy; back olive-green; a yellow line over eye; below bright yellow.
_Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but less black in crown and on cheeks; yellow
duller. _Notes._ Song, a _loud musical_ whistle, _turdle_, _turdle_,
_turdle_, suggesting notes of Carolina Wren.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Gulf States north to lower
Hudson Valley, southern Michigan and eastern Nebraska; winters in
Central and northern South America.

  [Illustration: 681.]

=681. Maryland Yellow-throat= (_Geothlypis trichas_). L. 5.2; W. 2.1.
_Ad._ [Male]. Forehead and cheeks black, bordered behind by ashy; back
olive-green; throat and breast yellow, belly whitish washed with
yellow, sides brownish. _Ad._ [Female]. No black mask; above dull
olive-green, forehead brownish; throat and breast more or less washed
with yellow, belly whitish, sides brownish. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to
Ad. [Male], but browner; breast yellow; cheeks and forehead with more
or less half-concealed black. _Notes._ Calls, _pit_, _chit_, or
_chack_; song, variable, often _wichity_, _wichity_, _wichity_.

Range.--"Atlantic Coast district of United States; breeding in
Virginia, District of Columbia, Maryland and southern Pennsylvania
(Carlisle), probably also in Delaware and southern New Jersey and in
upland portions of Carolinas and Georgia; ... south in winter to
Bahamas ..." (Ridgw.)

=681a. Western Yellow-throat= (_G. t. occidentalis_). Similar to
No. 681d, but yellow below richer, border of mask whiter and broader.

Range.--Arid western United States; east to western portions of Great
Plains, north to Montana and eastern Washington (?); west to southern
California: breeding southward to northern Chihuahua and northern
Lower California; southward in winter to western Mexico and Cape St.
Lucas. (Ridgw.)

=681b. Florida Yellow-throat= (_G. t. ignota_). Similar to No. 681d,
but yellow below more extended and deeper, sides browner; black mask
wider; upperparts, especially hindhead, browner.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf Coast districts of United States from
southeastern Virginia to Florida and westward along Gulf lowlands to
eastern Texas; winters from at least coast of South Carolina
southward; also in Cuba. (Ridgw.)

=681c. Pacific Yellow-throat= (_G. t. arizela_). Similar to No. 681a,
but bill smaller, wings and tail shorter, color duller, whitish margin
of mask narrower, yellow usually less orange; W. 2.2; T. 2.1. (Ridgw.)

Range.--"Pacific Coast district, from British Columbia southward;
breeding southward to Los Angeles County, California, and eastward to
Fort Klamath, Oregon; during migration to Cape St. Lucas." (Ridgw.)

=681d. Northern Yellow-throat= (_G. t. brachidactyla_). Similar to
No. 681, but averaging larger; W. 2.2. _Ad._ [Male]. More yellow
below, more olive-green above. _Ad._ [Female]. Usually with yellow
below brighter and more extended. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Northeastern United States from northern New Jersey to
Newfoundland; west to northern Ontario and eastern Dakota, and south
through Mississippi Valley to upland districts of the Gulf States and
east central Texas; in winter Bahamas, Mexico, and Central America.

=681e. Salt Marsh Yellow-throat= (_G. t. sinuosa_). Similar to
No. 681c, but much smaller and slightly darker, especially on sides
and flanks; W. 2.1. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Salt Marshes of San Francisco Bay, California.

  [Illustration: 682.]

=682. Belding Yellow-throat= (_Geothlypis beldingi_). L. 5.7. _Ad._
[Male]. Black mask crossing head diagonally bordered behind by yellow;
rest of plumage much as in No. 681a. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to [Male]
of No. 681, but larger.

Range.--Lower California.

  [Illustration: 682.1.]

=682.1. Rio Grande Yellow-throat= (_Geothlypis poliocephala_). L. 5.7.
_Ads._ Lores and forehead black, crown gray, back olive-green;
underparts yellow.

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 645.]

=645. Nashville Warbler= (_Helminthophila rubricapilla_). L. 4.8.
No wing-bars; no white in tail. _Ad._ [Male]. A chocolate crown-patch;
rest of head and cheeks bluish gray; a white eye-ring; back
olive-green; below bright yellow. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but
little or no chocolate in crown; yellow duller. _Yng._ Head
brownish; underparts washed with brownish, particularly on throat
and flanks. _Notes._ Song, _ke-tsee-ke-tsee-ke-tsee-chip-ee_,
_chip-ee-chip-ee-chip_, first half like Black and White Warbler's,
second half like Chipping Sparrow's. (Langille.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from southern New York,
Connecticut, and northern Illinois, north to Labrador and Hudson Bay
region; winters south of United States.

=645a. Calaveras Warbler= (_H. r. gutturalis_). Similar to No. 645,
but rump brighter; underparts richer yellow.

Range.--Western United States; breeds on high mountains, from the
Sierra Nevada to British Columbia, east to eastern Oregon, northern
Idaho; south in migration to Lower California and Mexico; southeast to
Texas. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 648.]

=648. Parula Warbler= (_Compsothlypis americana_). L. 4.5; W. 2.3.
_Ad._ [Male]. Above grayish blue, a _yellowish patch in the back_;
breast yellow washed with chestnut and with an indistinct blackish
band; belly, wing-bars, spot near tip of outer tail-feathers white.
_Ad._ [Female]. Paler, breast without black, sometimes no chestnut.
_Notes._ A short, little, guttural, lisping trill.

Range.--Breeds in south Atlantic and Gulf states east of Texas north
near the Atlantic coast to the District of Columbia and Mount Carmel,
Illinois (Brewst.); winters from Gulf States southward.

=648a. Northern Parula Warbler= (_C. a. usneæ_). Similar to No. 648,
but bill averaging slightly smaller, the wing longer, 2.4; black
breast-band averaging wider; the chestnut wash stronger.

Range.--Breeds in New England, New York and west along the northern
tier of states, north into Maritime Provinces and Canada; winters from
Gulf states southward.

=649. Sennett Warbler= (_Compsothlypis nigrilora_). L. 4.5. Similar
to No. 648, but yellow below reaching to belly; breast without black
and with only a slight brownish wash; lores and ear-coverts black.
_Notes._ Song probably resembles that of No. 648.

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley south into eastern Mexico.

  [Illustration: 746.]

=746. Verdin= (_Auriparus flaviceps_). L. 4.2; W. 2.2; T. 1.9. _Ad._
[Male]. Head and throat yellow; forehead usually with some concealed
orange-brown; lesser wing-coverts reddish chestnut; back brownish
gray; belly whitish. _Ad._ [Male]. Similar, but less yellow.

Range.--Southern border of the United States and northern Mexico from
southern Texas to southern California; north to southwestern Utah and
southern Nevada.

=746a. Baird Verdin= (_A. f. lamprocephalus_). Similar to No. 746, but
tail shorter; wing somewhat shorter; yellow of head brighter; W. 2.0;
T. 1.6. (Oberholser.)

Range.--Lower California.

  [Illustration: 650.]

=650. Cape May Warbler= (_Dendroica tigrina_). L. 5.1. _Ad._ [Male].
Ear-coverts and wash on throat chestnut; crown blackish; back
olive-green with black spots; below yellow streaked with black;
wing-coverts broadly white; outer tail-feathers with white. _Ad._
[Female] _and Yng._ [Male]. Duller; crown like back; no chestnut.
_Yng._ [Female]. Above olive-gray; below whitish faintly tinged with
yellow; wing-bars, narrow. _Notes._ Song, a wiry "_a-wit_, _a wit_,
_a-wit_, _a-wit_", repeated. (Butler.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New England,
rarely, and Manitoba north to Hudson Bay region; winters south of
United States.

  [Illustration: 652.]

=652. Yellow Warbler= (_Dendroica æstiva_). L. 5.1. Inner vanes of
tail-feathers yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. Crown _yellow_, back bright
yellowish green; below yellow thickly streaked with reddish brown.
_Ad._ [Female]. _and Yng._ [Male]. Duller above, crown like back;
below much paler, few or no streaks. _Yng._ [Female]. Similar to last
but still duller. _Notes._ Song, a rather loud _wee-chee_, _chee_,
_chee_, _cher-wee_, variable in form but recognizable in tone.

Range.--North America, except Alaska, Pacific coast from Vancouver
north, and southwestern United States (western Texas to Arizona).
(Ridgw.); breeds throughout most of its range, and winters in Central
and South America.

=652a. Sonora Yellow Warbler= (_D. æ. sonorana_). Similar to No. 652,
but [Male] much yellower, less green above, the crown and rump bright
yellow; below brighter yellow, reddish brown streaks narrower, fewer
sometimes almost wanting. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar to Ad. [Male] of No.
652, but grayer above and whiter below.

Range--Northern Mexico; breeding north to western Texas and southern
Arizona; winters south of United States.

=652b. Alaskan Yellow Warbler= (_D. æ. rubiginosa_). Similar to
No. 652, but [Male] darker above, the crown of about the same color
as back; [Female] duller.

Range.--Breeds on Pacific coast from Vancouver northward and in
Alaska; winters south of United States.

  [Illustration: 653.]

=653. Mangrove Warbler= (_Dendroica bryanti castaneiceps_). L. 5.
Inner vanes of tail-feathers yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. Whole head reddish
chestnut; back olive-green; below yellow lightly streaked with reddish
brown. _Ad._ [Female]. Olive-green above; yellow below.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California and Pacific coast of Central
America and Mexico.

  [Illustration: 672.]

=672. Palm Warbler= (_Dendroica palmarum_). L. 5.2. No white
wing-bars; tail patches white. _Ads._ Crown dark chestnut; line over
eye, throat, and breast yellow; breast and sides with reddish brown
streaks; _belly_ much paler, often _grayish_ washed with yellow; back
olive-brown; rump brighter. _Ad. in Winter and Yng._ No crown-patch;
above grayish olive-brown indistinctly streaked; rump yellowish; below
grayish white washed with yellow and streaked with brownish; _under
tail coverts bright yellow_. _Notes._ Call, a recognizable _chip_;
song, a short, simple trill.

Range--Eastern North America; breeds in interior of British America
west of Hudson Bay; migrates south through Mississippi Valley and
rarely north Atlantic States; winters in Florida and West Indies.

  [Illustration: 673.]

=672a. Yellow Palm Warbler= (_D. p. hypochrysea_). Similar to No. 672,
but underparts _entirely_ bright yellow; upperparts yellower. Winter
specimens are whiter below but are still conspicuously yellow.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Nova Scotia northward, east
of Hudson Bay; migrates through Atlantic States and winters in Florida
and west to Louisiana.

=673. * Prairie Warbler= (_Dendroica discolor_). L. 4.7. Wing-bars
yellowish; tail-patches white. _Ad._ [Male]. Above bright olive-green
with reddish chestnut spots in the back; below yellow, sides with
black streaks. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but usually duller; chestnut
spots smaller, sometimes absent. _Yng._ Similar to [Female] Ad., but
browner. _Notes._ Song, a high, thin _zee_, _zee_, _zee_, _zee_,
_zee-e_, _zee_, the next to last highest. (See page 196.)

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Florida to Massachusetts,
southern Ontario, and southern Michigan; winters from southern Florida
into the West Indies.

  [Illustration: Lawrence Warbler.]

=Lawrence Warbler= (_Helminthophila lawrencei_). Resembles No. 641,
but has a black breast patch and a broad black stripe through the eye
as in No. 642. It is believed to be a hybrid between the two. Some
15 specimens are known. Its notes are said to resemble those of both
No. 642 and No. 641.

  [Illustration: Brewster Warbler.]

=Brewster Warbler= (_Helminthophila leucobronchialis_). Resembles
No. 642 above, but is white usually tinged with yellow below, this
type being connected with No. 641, by specimens showing more green
above and yellow below. Hybridism and dichromatism are believed to
account for these birds of which somewhat over a hundred specimens
are known, chiefly from the lower Hudson and Connecticut Valleys.
Some songs resemble those of No. 642, others those of 641.

  [Illustration: 644.]

=644. Virginia Warbler= (Helminthophila virginiæ). L. 4.5. No white in
wings or tail. _Ad._ [Male]. Above gray, crown-patch chocolate; upper
tail-coverts yellowish; below whitish, breast-patch and under
tail-coverts yellow. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but less (sometimes no)
chocolate in crown and yellow on tail-coverts; duller below. _Yng._ No
crown patch; below washed with buff, little or no yellow on breast.
_Notes._ Very musical, with a song of remarkable fullness for so small
a bird. (Aitken.)

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Nevada and Colorado (rarely
Wyoming) south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 655.]

=655. Myrtle Warbler= (_Dendroica coronata_). L. 5.6. Crown, sides of
breast and rump yellow. _Ad._ [Male]. Above blue-gray streaked with
black; throat white, breast largely black; two white wing-bars; outer
tail-feathers with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Browner above, less black on
breast. [Male] _in winter_. Above brown, back indistinctly streaked
with black; below whitish, breast and sides streaked with black.
_Yng._ [Female]. Similar, but less yellow on crown and sides.
_Notes._ Call, a characteristic _tchip_; song, a trill.

Range.--Eastern North America, west in migrations, to the Rockies;
breeds from northern New England and northern Minnesota north to
Labrador and Alaska; winters from Massachusetts and Kansas south into
West Indies and Central America.

  [Illustration: 659.]

=659. Chestnut-sided Warbler= (_Dendroica pensylvanica_). L. 5. _Ad._
[Male]. Sides chestnut, crown yellow; back streaked black and greenish
yellow; cheek-patch and sides of throat black. _Ad._ [Female]. Crown
duller; chestnut and black reduced. _Yng._ Above bright yellow-green,
back with or without black spots; below grayish white, sides sometimes
with traces of chestnut; wing-bars yellowish white. _Notes._ Song,
resembles that of Yellow Warbler. (See page 197.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Jersey and
Central Illinois north to Newfoundland and Manitoba (and south in the
Alleghanies to South Carolina); winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 604.]

=604. Dickcissel= (_Spiza americana_). L. 6.2. _Ad._ [Male]. Breast,
bend of wing, line over eye and at side of throat yellow; throat-patch
black; lesser wing-coverts reddish chestnut; no white in tail. _Ad._
[Female]. Less yellow and chestnut, no black on throat. _Notes._ Song,
an earnest, but unmusical _dick_, _dick_, _che-che-che_, _che_.

Range.--Middle United States east of the Rockies, west of Alleghanies,
breeds from Alabama and Texas to Minnesota; casual in Atlantic States;
winters in Central and northern South America.

  [Illustration: 618.]

=618. Bohemian Waxwing= (_Ampelis garrulus_). L. 8. Crested. _Ads._
Brownish gray; under tail-coverts, forecrown and sides of throat
chestnut-rufous; _throat_ and eye-stripe black; wing-quills and
primary coverts tipped with white or yellow; secondaries usually with
red tips; tail tipped with yellow.

Range.--Northern parts of northern hemisphere; breeds in far north;
winters south irregularly to northern United States, casually to
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kansas, and northern California.

  [Illustration: 619.]

=619. Cedar Waxwing= (_Ampelis cedrorum_). L. 7. Crested. _Ads._
Grayish brown; belly _yellowish_; under tail-coverts white; no white
tips on wing-quills; secondaries with red tips; tail tipped with
yellow and rarely with red tips. _Notes._ A fine, lisping note; a
string of notes usually uttered when taking flight.

Range.--North America: breeds from Virginia and the highlands of South
Carolina, Kansas, and Oregon, north to Labrador and southern Alaska
(?); winters from northern United States to Central America.

  [Illustration: 628.]

=628. Yellow-throated Vireo= (_Vireo flavifrons_). L. 5.5. _Ads._
Throat and breast _bright_ yellow, belly white; above _bright_
olive-green, rump gray; two white wing-bars. _Notes._ Call, a scolding
_cack_; song like Red-eye's but richer, more deliberate, _see me_;
_I'm here_; _where are you_? in varying forms; also a mellow trill.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Florida and Texas to
Newfoundland and Manitoba; winters in tropics.

  [Illustration: 683.]

=683. Yellow-breasted Chat= (_Icteria virens_). L. 7.5; T. 3.07.
_Ads._ Throat and breast bright yellow; lower belly white; above
olive-green; line over eye and at side of throat white. _Notes._ Call,
a gasping, mewing _keè-yuck_ and _chut_, _chut_; song, of whistles,
caws and chucks, sometimes uttered in flight.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from northeastern Mexico (but
not in Florida?) north to South Dakota, southern Minnesota, and
Massachusetts (locally); winters in Mexico and Central America.

=683a. Long-tailed Chat= (_I. v. longicauda_). Similar to No. 683,
but grayer above; tail slightly longer.

Range.--Western United States, east to Plains; breeds from Mexico
north to North Dakota and British Columbia; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 497.]

=497. Yellow-headed Blackbird= (_Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus_).
L. 10. _Ad._ [Male]. Black; head and breast orange yellow; outer
wing-coverts white, black tipped. _Ad._ [Female]. Brownish, line over
eye, throat and breast dull yellow, lower breast streaked with white;
ear-coverts rusty. _Notes._ Call, a hoarse _chuck_; song, a variety of
hoarse grunting, guttural whistles; usually uttered with apparent
great effort and bodily contortion. The young utter a rolling,
whistling call.

Range.--Western North America, east to Kansas, northern Illinois, and
northwestern Indiana; west to the Pacific coast ranges; breeds locally
from Texas (?), New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California north to
the Hudson Bay region, and southern British Columbia; winters from
southwestern Louisiana, and California southward.

  [Illustration: 501.]

=501. Meadowlark= (_Sturnella magna_). L. 10.7; W. 4.8. _Ads._ Above
black varied with chestnut and buff; below yellow, a black
breast-crescent; bars on middle tail-feathers _fused_ along shaft,
yellow of throat _not_ spreading on to its sides. _Notes._ Calls, a
nasal note and a rolling twitter; song, a high fife like whistle of
rarely more than eight or ten notes; without gurgles or grace notes.

Range.--Eastern North America west to about Long. 100°, north to New
Brunswick and Minnesota; winters from Massachusetts and Illinois

=501a. Texas Meadowlark= (_S. m. hoopesi_). Similar to No. 501b, but
yellow not spreading on to sides of the throat. _Notes._ Resemble in
character those of No. 501.

Range.--Not well determined; known from Corpus Christi, Texas, west
along Mexican boundary to southern Arizona and northern Sonora,

=501b. Western Meadowlark= (_S. m. neglecta_). Similar to No. 501,
but bars on middle tail-feathers usually distinct, _not_ confluent
along shaft; yellow of throat spreading on to its sides; general
color paler. _Notes._ Calls, a liquid _chûck_ and a wooden, rolling
_b-r-r-r-r-r-r-r_; song, rich, musical, flute-like with intricate
gurgles and grace notes; wholly unlike that of No. 501.

=501c. Florida Meadowlark= (_S. m. argutula_). Similar to No. 591,
but smaller and darker; W. 4.4.

Range.--Florida and Gulf coast to Louisiana.

  [Illustration: 514.]

=514. Evening Grosbeak= (_Hesperiphona vespertina_).
L. 8. _Ad._ [Male]. Brownish yellow; wings, tail, and crown black;
exposed part of tertials white. _Ad._ [Female]. Dingy brownish gray,
more or less tinged with yellowish; throat and belly whitish;
_tail-coverts_ and tail-feathers, on inner web, tipped with white.
_Notes._ Call, loud; song, short, but melodious, resembling that of
Robin or Black-headed Grosbeak. (Cooper.)

Range.--Rocky Mountain region of British America, south, in winter,
to the upper Mississippi Valley, rarely to Ohio and casually through
New York to New England.

=514a. Western Evening Grosbeak= (_H. v. montana_). [Male] not
distinguishable from [Female] of No. 514; [Female] more buffy,
especially below.

Range.--Mountains of western United States from New Mexico north
to British Columbia.


  [Illustration: 474.]

=474[A]. Horned Lark= (_Otocoris alpestris_). L. 7.7, W. [Male], 4.3;
[Female], 4.1. Hind toe-nail much the longest. _Ad._ [Male], _winter_.
Throat and line over eye distinctly _yellow_; black feathers over eye
lengthened, forming when raised little tufts; breast-patch, sides of
throat, line over eye and forecrown black, more or less tipped,
especially on head, with yellowish or brownish; back brownish
indistinctly streaked with blackish; nape, wing and tail-coverts
pinkish brown; belly white, lower breast dusky, sides pinkish brown;
tail mostly black, outer margin of outer feathers white. [Male],
_summer_. Yellow areas whiter; black areas more distinct; back pinker.
_Ad._ [Female], _winter_. Similar to [Male], but throat and line over
eye less yellow; black areas smaller; back more distinctly streaked.
[Female], _summer_. More distinctly streaked above. _Notes._ Call, a
_tseep_, _tseep_; song, an unmusical, twittering warble sung during
soaring flight.

   [A] Fourteen subspecies of this wide-ranging, variable
       form are now recognized in America, north of Mexico. Many of
       them are too closely related to be distinguished even by
       detailed descriptions. When breeding, they may be identified,
       in life, by a knowledge of the area which each form alone
       inhabits at this season. But during their migrations, and in
       winter, when several forms may be associated, it is usually not
       possible to identify them in the field. The reader is referred
       to admirable monographs of this group by J. Dwight, Jr. (The
       Auk, vii, 1890, pp. 138-150), and H. C. Oberholser (Proc. U. S.
       Nat. Mus., xxiv, 1902, pp. 801-884).

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds in Labrador and region east of
Hudson Bay; winters south to South Carolina (chiefly on coast) and in
the Mississippi Valley to Illinois.

  [Illustration: 474b.]

=474b. Prairie Horned Lark= (_O. a. praticola_). W. [Male] 4;
[Female], 3.8. Line over eye _white_. Similar to No. 474, but smaller,
line over eye and forehead generally white, the throat often white and
never so yellow as in winter specimens of No. 474.

Range.--Breeds in the Mississippi Valley, south to southern Illinois
and Missouri west to eastern Nebraska and Assiniboia; east through
northwestern Pennsylvania and central New York to western and northern
New England; north to Quebec and Ontario; winters south to South
Carolina, Kentucky, and Texas.

=474d. Texan Horned Lark= (_O. a. giraudi_). W. [Male] 3.9; [Female],
3.6. Similar to No. 474b, but somewhat smaller and paler; throat,
forehead and line over eye yellow; _breast, in males, generally tinged
with yellow_.

Range.--Coast of Texas from Galveston to the Rio Grande.


=474a. Pallid Horned Lark= (_O. a. arcticola_). W. [Male], 4.4;
[Female], 4.2. Largest of our Horned Larks; _no yellow_ in plumage;
throat, forehead and line over eye white; back brown with grayish

Range.--"In summer, Alaska (chiefly in the interior) with the Valley
of the Upper Yukon River; in winter south to Oregon, Utah, and
Montana." (Oberholser.)

=474k. Hoyt Horned Lark= (_O. a. hoyti_). W. [Male], 4.4; [Female],
4.2. Throat tinged with yellow; line over eye white; back darker, pink
areas richer than in 474a. An intermediate form between Nos. 474 and

Range.--"In summer, British America from the west shore of Hudson Bay
to the Valley of the Mackenzie River, north to the Arctic Coast, south
to Lake Athabasca; in winter, southward to Nevada, Utah, Kansas, and
Michigan, casually to Ohio and New York (Long Island)." (Oberholser.)


  [Illustration: 474c.]

=474c. Desert Horned Lark= (_O. a. leucolæma_). W. [Male], 4.1;
[Female], 3.8. Forehead and line over eye very slightly, often not at
all, tinged with yellow; throat yellow; back brown edged with pinkish
gray; resembles No. 474b, but is paler and less distinctly streaked

Range.--"In summer, western United States from central Dakota, western
Kansas and western Nebraska to Idaho and Nevada, north on the eastern
side of the Rocky Mountains to Alberta; in winter, south to Texas,
Chihuahua, Sonora, and southeastern California." (Oberholser.)

=474e. California Horned Lark= (_O. a. actia_). W. [Male], 3.9;
[Female], 3.6. [Male], _summer_. Back of head and nape, spreading on
to sides of breast, pinkish cinnamon; back distinctly streaked with
brownish black; throat always, forehead and line over eye usually
tinged with yellow. [Male], _winter_. Less distinctly streaked above;
cinnamon areas paler and with grayish tips; black areas more or less
tipped with yellowish. [Female], _summer_. Crown and back uniformly
streaked with blackish margined with pinkish gray. [Female], _winter_.
Less distinctly streaked; black areas tipped with whitish.

Range.--Northern Lower California north, west of the Sierra, to Marin
and San Joaquin Counties, California.

  [Illustration: 474f.]

=474f. Ruddy Horned Lark= (_O. a. rubea_). Similar to No. 472e, but
nape region, sides of breast, etc., much deeper in color, deeper than
in any other of our Horned Larks; back less distinctly streaked with
blackish and more ruddy in tone, _not_ sharply defined from nape;
yellow areas richer in color.

Range.--Sacramento County, California.

  [Illustration: 474g.]

=474g. Streaked Horned Lark= (_O. a. strigata_). Cinnamon areas less
extensive but nearly as deeply colored as in No. 474f; back
_distinctly and widely_ streaked with blackish; forehead, line over
eye, throat and _breast_ washed with yellow.

Range--"In summer, the states of Oregon and Washington west of the
Cascade Mountains; in winter, to eastern Oregon and Washington, south
to northern California." (Oberholser.)

=474h. Scorched Horned Lark= (_O. a. adusta_). W. [Male], 4; [Female],
3.8. Nearest to No. 474l, but the male differs in being nearly uniform
pinkish brown above, back with only a few indistinct brownish streaks;
color deeper, browner, more ruddy.

Range.--"In summer, the central part of extreme southern Arizona; in
winter, northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico." (Oberholser.)

=474i. Dusky Horned Lark= (_O. a. merrilli_). W. [Male], 4; [Female],
3.8. Similar to No. 474b, but somewhat darker above, the line over the
eye usually tinged with yellow.

Range.--"In summer, northwestern United States, and southern British
Columbia, from northeastern California and northwestern Nevada,
northward through Oregon and Washington east of the Cascade Mountains
to British Columbia and extreme northern Idaho; in winter, south to
central California." (Oberholser.)

=474j. Sonoran Horned Lark= (_O. a. pallida_). W. [Male], 3.8;
[Female], 3.6. Nape very pale pinkish; back pale grayish brown edged
with grayish; forehead, line over eye, and throat tinged with
yellowish. Resembles No. 474l, but is still paler.

Range,--"Region immediately adjacent to the head of the Gulf of
California, Mexico." (Oberholser.)

=474l. Montezuma Horned Lark= (_O. a. occidentalis_). W. [Male], 4;
[Female], 3.8. No distinct blackish streaks above; back pale brownish
edged with pinkish gray; throat yellow, forehead and line over eye
tinged with yellow. Similar to No. 474h, but paler, less ruddy above;
differs from No. 474c in being browner and less streaked above.

Range.--"In summer, central New Mexico, west to central Arizona; in
winter, south to northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico and southeast
Texas." (Oberholser.)

=474m. Island Horned Lark= (_O. a. insularis_). Similar to No. 474g,
but slightly darker above, breast usually _without_ a yellow tinge.

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, California.

  [Illustration: 446.]

=446. Couch Kingbird= (_Tyrannus melancholicus couchii_). L. 9.5.
_Ads._ Throat _white_, breast and belly yellow, tail _dark brown_;
crown gray with an orange patch, back grayish green; _Yng._ Similar,
but no crown-patch.

Range.--Guatemala, north in spring as far as Lower Rio Grande, Texas.

  [Illustration: 447.]

=447. Arkansas Kingbird= (_Tyrannus verticalis_). L. 9. _Ads._ Throat
_light gray_ spreading over breast to yellow belly; tail _black_,
outer margin of outer feather _wholly white_; above resembling No.
446. _Yng._ With no crown-patch. _Notes._ Squeaky, rattling, rolling
notes; a noisy bird.

Range.--Western United States; breeds east to about Long. 100°, north
to Assiniboia, southern Alberta, southern British Columbia, west to
the Pacific; winters south of United States; to Central America.

  [Illustration: 448.]

=448. Cassin Kingbird= (_Tyrannus vociferans_). L. 9. _Ads._ Throat
and breast _dark gray_, belly yellow; tail black, outer web of outer
feather not wholly white; above as in No. 447. _Yng._ With no
crown-patch. _Notes._ Less noisy than No. 447. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western United States, northwestern Mexico and north through
Rockies, from western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, to southern
Wyoming; in California north to San Benito County; winters south of
United States to Central America.

  [Illustration: 449.]

=449. Derby Flycatcher= (_Pitangus derbianus_). L. 11. _Ads._ Back
brown, wings and tail externally rusty; a yellow crown-patch;
forehead, line over eye and across nape white; throat white, below
yellow. _Notes._ _Kiskadee_, repeated. (Richmond.)

Range.--Northern South America; breeds north as far as
Lower Rio Grande, Texas.

  [Illustration: 451.]

=451. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher= (_Myiodynastes luteiventris_). L. 8.
Below sulphur streaked with black; tail largely rusty brown; a yellow
crown-patch; inner wing feathers widely margined with whitish; back
grayish brown streaked with dusky. _Yng._ With no crown-patch.
_Notes._ A screech, like squeaking of a wagon wheel, and a single
note. (Poling.)

Range.--Central America; breeds north as far as southern Arizona.

=452. Crested Flycatcher= (_Myiarchus crinitus_). L. 9. Inner webs of
all but middle tail-feathers rust-brown. _Ads._ Throat and breast
gray, belly _bright_ sulphur; back grayish _olive-green_; greenest
above and yellowest below of our larger _Myiarchi_. _Notes._ Loud,
chuckling, grating whistles.

Range.--Eastern North America; west to the Plains; breeds from Florida
and Texas north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from southern
Florida south to northern South America.

  [Illustration: 453.]

=453. Mexican Crested Flycatcher= (_Myiarchus mexicanus_). L. 9.2;
W. 4. Inner webs of all but middle tail-feathers rust brown. _Ads._
Throat and breast gray, belly sulphur, both paler than No. 452; back
grayish brown, with little or no green tinge. _Notes._ Resemble those
of No. 452. (Merrill.)

Range.--Central America; breeds north as far as Lower Rio Grande,

  [Illustration: 453a.]

=453a. Arizona Crested Flycatcher= (_M. m. magister_). Similar to
No. 453, but larger, L. 9.4, W. 4.2, and averaging slightly paler.

Range.--"Western Mexico; north to southern Arizona and southwest
New Mexico; south in winter to Tehuantepec, Mexico."

  [Illustration: 454.]

=454. Ash-throated Flycatcher= (_Myiarchus cinerascens_). L. 8.; W. 4.
Inner webs of all but middle tail-feathers rust-brown, outer pair
dusky at tip of inner web. _Ads._ Throat and breast pale grayish
white, belly white tinged with yellow, above grayish brown, outer web
of outer tail-feather whitish. Palest below of our _Myiarchi_.
_Notes._ A rather resonant but wooden _chūck-pr-r-r-r_.

Range.--Western United States: breeds from western Texas and Lower
California north to Colorado and Oregon; winters in southern Mexico
and Central America.

  [Illustration: 454a.]

=454a. Nutting Flycatcher= (_M. c. nuttingi_). Similar to No. 454,
but smaller, W. 3.6, outer margin of outer tail-feather not whitish,
tip of its inner web rusty, not dusky.

Range.--Breeds in southern Arizona and western Mexico; winters in
Central America.

=454b. Lower California Flycatcher= (_M. c. pertinax_). Similar to
No. 454a, but bill larger and stouter; above grayer; below less
yellow. (Brewster.)

Range.--Lower California.

=455a. Olivaceous Flycatcher= (Myiarchus lawrencei olivascens). L. 7.
_Ads._ Inner webs of tail-feathers like outer webs; tail-feathers
margined with rusty; breast and belly as in No. 452; crown brownish,
back grayish olive-green. _Notes._ A short mournful _peeur_.

Range.--Breeds from western Mexico north to southern Arizona;
winters south to southern Mexico; casual in Colorado.

Perching Birds Marked With Chestnut or Reddish Brown

  [Illustration: 587.]

=587. Towhee; Chewink= (_Pipilo erythrophthalmus_). L. 8. Three outer
tail-feathers with white; iris red. _Ad._ [Male]. Above and breast
black; sides reddish chestnut; belly white. _Ad._ [Female]. Above and
breast brown. Call, _chewink_ or _towheé_; song, a loud, not over
musical _sweet bird sin-n-ng_, and a tremulous refrain _I'll try_.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from Georgia
and Louisiana north to Maine, Ontario, and Manitoba; winters from
Virginia and southern Illinois to Florida and eastern Texas.

=587a. White-eyed Towhee= (_P. e. alleni_). Similar to No. 587, but
iris whitish; only two outer tail-feathers with white tips, or if on
third, a mere spot. _Notes._ Call, _towhee_, much sharper than that of
No. 587.

Range.--Florida, north along coast to South Carolina.

=588. Arctic Towhee= (_Pipilo maculatus arcticus_). L. 8.7. _Ad._
[Male]. White tip of outer tail-feather more than 1.3 long; scapulars
and back marked with white; back black more or less tipped with
brownish. _Ad._ [Female]. Breast and back grayish brown; fewer white
markings than in [Male]. _Notes._ Call, a Catbird-like _mew_; song,
suggesting that of No. 587, but shorter, more wooden, less musical.

Range.--Great Plains; breeding from southern Montana and western North
Dakota, north to Saskatchewan; winters south and west to Colorado,
Utah, New Mexico, and Texas; east to eastern Kansas.

  [Illustration: 588a.]

=588a. Spurred Towhee= (_P. m. megalonyx_). Similar to No. 588, but
blacker above, no brownish edgings on front of back; white markings on
back less numerous; white tip to outer tail-feather _less_ than 1.3

Range.--Rocky Mountain region and west to the Pacific; breeds from
Mexico to British Columbia; migratory in the northern part of range.

=588b. Oregon Towhee= (_P. m. oregonus_). Similar to No. 588a, but
darker; practically no brownish edgings on back of male; sides much
deeper; white markings much reduced, the white tip to outer
tail-feather less than 1. long; sides much deeper.

Range.--Pacific coast from San Francisco to British Columbia; winters
south to southern California.

=588c. San Clemente Towhee= (_P. m. clementæ_). Similar to No. 588a,
but adult male with black duller or grayer; female lighter brown.

Range.--"San Clemente, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and Santa Catalina
Islands," southern California. (Grinnell.)

=288d. San Diego Towhee= (_P. m. atratus_). Similar to No. 588a,
but decidedly darker, with white markings of wings, tail, etc.,
more restricted; rump deep black.

Range.--The southern coast district of southern California, south
into Lower California. (Ridgw.)

=588e. Mountain Towhee= (_P. m. magnirostris_). Similar to No. 588,
but bill much larger, rufous below paler, above browner and tinged
with olive. (Brewster.)

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

=589. Guadalupe Towhee= (_Pipilo consobrinus_). Similar to No. 588b
in restriction of white markings, but wings and tail much shorter,
W. 3.1; T. 3.2, hind claw much larger; _Ad._ [Male] sooty rather
than black. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 457.]

=457. Say Phœbe= (_Sayornis saya_). L. 7.5. _Ads._ Breast rusty gray
changing to rusty on belly; above gray with a brown tinge; tail
_black_. _Notes._ A plaintive _phee-eur_; a short, plaintive,
twittering warble. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western North America, east to about Long. 100°: breeds from
southwestern Texas, southern California, north to the Yukon, Alaska;
winters in Mexico; accidental in Wisconsin, Illinois, and

  [Illustration: 591.]

=591. Canon Towhee= (_Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus_). L. 9.; W. 3.7.
_Ads._ Crown cinnamon-brown; back brownish gray; throat buffy bordered
by blackish spots; lower belly and under tail-coverts cinnamon.
_Notes._ Calls, a loud, metallic _chip_ repeated four times; in flight
a robin-like _screep-eep-eep_.

Range.--Northern Mexico north to western Texas, Arkansas Valley,
Colorado, and Arizona; resident.

=591a. St. Lucas Towhee= (_P. f. albigula_). W. 3.3. Similar to
No. 591, but smaller; abdomen whiter, without cinnamon.

Range.--Southern Lower California.

=591b. California Towhee= (_P. f. crissalis_) W. 3.9. Similar to
No. 591, but much browner above; throat and under tail-coverts
rusty brown; breast brownish gray; scarcely lighter on the belly.

Range.--California, west of the Sierra.

=591c. Anthony Towhee= (_P. f. senicula_). W. 3.7. Similar to
No. 591b, but smaller and grayer, the abdomen whiter.

Range.--Northern Lower California north to southern California.

  [Illustration: 592.]

=592. Abert Towhee= (_Pipilo aberti_). L. 9. _Ads._ No crown-cap;
lores and chin blackish; below pinkish cinnamon; above grayish brown.
_Notes._ Call, a loud, clear, sharp _chirp_. Song, resembling that of
the Spurred Towhee group. (B. B. and R.)

Range.--Southern California, Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico,
north to southern Nevada and southwestern Utah.

  [Illustration: 506.]

=506. Orchard Oriole= (_Icterus spurius_) L. 7.3. _Ad._ [Male]. Black:
breast, belly, rump, and lesser wing-coverts chestnut. _Ad._ [Female].
Above olive-green, below greenish-yellow; two white wing-bars. _Yng.
Male._ First fall like [Female]; first spring like [Male], but throat
black. _Notes._ Song much richer and more finished than that of the
orange and black Orioles; the difference is indescribable but easily

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from Florida
and Texas north to Massachusetts, Ontario, Michigan, and North Dakota;
winters in Central America and northern South America.

  [Illustration: 592.1.]

=592.1. Green-tailed Townee= (_Oreospiza chlorura_). L. 7. _Ads._
Center and sides of breast grayish, middle of throat and abdomen
white; above olive-green more or less washed with grayish; crown
reddish chestnut. _Notes._ Call, a high, thin kitten-like mew; song,
musical, suggesting that of the Thick-billed Sparrow.

Range.--Mountains of western United States, from more eastern Rockies
to Coast Range in California; north to central Montana, Idaho, and
eastern Washington; south, at least in winter, into Mexico. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 643.]

=643. Lucy Warbler= (_Helminthophila luciæ_). L. 4.2. _Ad._ [Male].
Above gray; crown-patch and upper tail-coverts chocolate; below
whitish. _Ad._ [Female]. Chocolate areas smaller. _Yng._ No chocolate
in crown; upper tail-coverts cinnamon.

Range.--Northwestern Mexico; breeding north to Arizona and
southwestern Utah.

  [Illustration: 660.]

=660. Bay-breasted Warbler= (_Dendroica castanea_). L. 5.6. _Ad._
[Male]. Throat, sides and crown rich chestnut; cheeks black; sides of
neck buff; back black and gray; wing-bars and tail-spots white. _Ad._
[Female]. Less chestnut; cheeks grayish. _Yng. and Ad. in Winter._
Above olive-green streaked with black; below _buffy_ white, the flanks
usually with a trace of chestnut. _Notes._ Song, a very soft warble,
_tse-chee_, repeated five times, too liquid to admit of exact
spelling. (Langille.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New England and
northern Michigan north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; winters in
Central and northern South America.

  [Illustration: 596.]

=596. Black-headed Grosbeak= (_Zamelodia melanocephala_). L. 8.1.
_Ad._ [Male]. Black; neck-ring, rump, back-streaks and underparts
bright cinnamon; center of belly and under wing-coverts yellow; patch
in wing, wing-bars and tips of inner vanes of outer tail-feathers
white. In winter tipped with brown above and on breast below with
black spots. _Ad._ [Female]. Under wing-coverts yellow as in [Male];
above as in No. 595; below less streaked, breast buff. _Yng._ [Male].
Like [Female] but breast deeper buff; few streaks below; sides of
crown blacker. _Notes._ Call and song like those of the Rose-breasted
Grosbeak, but the latter more fluent.

Range.--Western United States, east to the Plains; breeds from Mexico
north to Dakota and British Columbia; winters south of United States
into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 761.]

_761. American Robin_ (_Merula migratoria_). L. 10; W. 4.9; T. 3.8.
Outer tail-feathers with white tips. _Ad._ [Male]. Breast and belly
rich rust-brown; above dark slaty, head and spots in back black. _Ad._
[Female]. Similar but paler below, little or no black above. _Winter._
Underparts margined with whitish; black above more or less concealed
by ashy. _Notes._ Calls, varied and characteristic; song, a loud,
hearty, _cheer-up cheerily_, _cheerily_, _cheerily_, repeated and

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Rockies, northwest to
Alaska; breeding south to Virginia and, in the mountains, Georgia;
winters from northern States southward.

=761a. Western Robin= (_M. m. propinqua_). Similar to No. 761, but
no white tips to tail-feathers. _Ad._ [Male]. Without black spots
in back.

Range.--Western United States, from the eastern base of the Rocky
Mountains west to the Pacific; breeds from the southern end of the
Mexican tableland north to British Columbia; winters from Oregon and
southern Colorado southward.

=761b. Southern Robin= (_M. m. achrustera_). Similar to No. 761, but
smaller and in general much lighter and duller; W. 4.7; T. 3.5.

Range.--Carolinas and Georgia, except mountainous districts, lowlands
of Virginia.

  [Illustration: 762.]

=762. St. Lucas Robin= (_Merula confinis_). Resembling No. 761 in plan
of coloration but everywhere much paler; breast and belly buff; no
black in head.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 763.]

=763. Varied Thrush= (_Ixoreus nævius_). L. 10; W. 4.7. _Ad._ [Male].
Below rust-brown, belly whiter, a broad black breast-band; above
slaty, line behind eye and bars in wing rusty; outer tail-feathers
with white tips. In winter washed with brownish above; breast band
with rusty. _Ad._ [Female]. Paler below, breast-band faintly
indicated; above washed with brownish. _Notes._ Song, a weird vibrant,
long-drawn whistle repeated on different notes.

Range.--Pacific coast from higher mountains of northern California
north to Alaska; south in winter along the coast.

=763a. Pale Varied Thrush= (_I. n. meruloides_). Similar to No. 763,
but wing longer, 5.1; [Female] paler and grayer. (Grinnell.)

Range.--- Interior of British Columbia north to north Alaska; south in
winter, through interior, to southern California.

Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored

  [Illustration: 456.]

=456. Phœbe= (_Sayornis phœbe_). L. 7. _Ads._ Above grayish olive,
crown _blackish_; outer web of outer tail-feather _whitish_; below
white tinged with yellow, sides of breast grayish; bill _black_.
_Yng._ Greener above, yellower below. _Notes._ _Pewit-phœbe_,
_pewit-phœbe_; call, _pee_, _pee_, rarely a flight song.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Rockies; breeds from South
Carolina and western Texas north to Newfoundland and Manitoba; winters
from North Carolina and northern Texas south to Cuba and Mexico.

  [Illustration: 459.]

=459. Olive-sided Flycatcher= (_Nuttalornis borealis_). L. 7.4. _Ads._
Throat and middle of belly white with a yellow tinge; sides and most
of breast grayish; above brownish gray with an olive-tinge, crown
darker, the feathers lengthened. _Notes._ _Hip-hip_ or _quilp-quilp_,
less often a loud, emphatic _whip-péw-hip_. (Head.)

Range.--North America; breeds from Massachusetts (rarely), northern
New York, and Minnesota, northward to Alaska, south through the
Rockies and Coast Range to Mexico; winters in Central and South

  [Illustration: 460.]

=460. Coues Flycatcher= (_Contopus pertinax pallidiventris_). L. 7.7.
_Ads._ Below nearly uniform gray, belly paler; above gray, crown
slightly darker, the feathers lengthened. _Notes._ A plaintive musical
four or five noted whistle with regular intervals and a singularly
human-like quality.

Range.--Western Mexico, north to central Arizona; winters south
of United States.

  [Illustration: 461.]

=461. Wood Pewee= (_Contopus virens_). L. 6.5; W. 3.3. _Ads._ Above
dark olive, crown blacker; below dusky grayish, throat whitish, belly
yellowish; lower mandible yellowish. _Yng._ Greener above, yellower
below. _Notes._ _Pee-a-wee_, _peer_ and _pee_; all plaintive and

Range.--Eastern North America, west to about Long. 100°; breeds from
Florida and Texas north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters in
Central America.

  [Illustration: 462.]

=462. Western Wood Pewee= (_Contopus richardsonii_). Similar to
No. 461, but above with usually no greenish tinge; below less
yellow; under mandible brownish. _Notes._ A nasal, rather
emphatic _pēē-a_.

Range.--Western United States, east to about Long. 100°; breeds from
western Texas and Lower California north to Manitoba, Alberta, and
British Columbia; winters in Mexico and Central America.

=462a. Large-billed Wood Pewee= (_C. r. peninsulæ_). Similar to
No. 462, but smaller, W. 3.3; the bill larger, length from
nostril .42, width at nostril, .31; upperparts grayer. (Brewster.)

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 466.]

=466. Traill Flycatcher= (_Empidonax traillii_). Similar to No. 466a,
but upperparts browner with little if any real greenish tinge; bill
averaging narrower.

Range.--Western United States; breeds from western Texas and southern
California north to Alaska and Great Slave Lake, east to Kansas,
Missouri and Illinois; winters in the tropics.

=466a. Alder Flycatcher= (_E. t. alnorum_). L. 6.1; W. 2.8. _Ads._
Lower mandible horn color; below white, breast grayish; breast and
sides faintly washed with yellow; above _brownish_ olive-green;
wing-bars usually buffy. Like No. 467, but larger. _Notes._ _Pĕp_ of
alarm, and an explosive _ēē-zēē-e-ûp_ with stress on the rasping
_zēē_. (Dwight.)

Range.--Eastern United States, west to Michigan; breeds from northern
New Jersey (locally) north to New Brunswick; winters in the tropics.

  [Illustration: 467.]

=467. Least Flycatcher= (_Empidonax minimus_). 5.4; W. 2.5. _Ads._
Similar in color to No. 466a, but smaller, tail slightly forked.
_Yng._ Wing-bars more buffy. _Notes._ a vigorous _chebec_, _chebec_;
rarely a flight song, "_chebec_, _tooral-ooral_."

Range.--Eastern North America, west to western Texas and eastern
Colorado; breeds from Pennsylvania (North Carolina, in the Alleghanies)
north to New Brunswick and Great Slave Lake; winters in Central

  [Illustration: 468.]

=468. Hammond Flycatcher= (_Empidonax hammondi_). L. 5.5. _Ads._ Bill
smallest of our _Empidonaces, lower_ mandible _brown_; _throat_ and
breast grayish, breast and belly slightly washed with sulphur; above
grayish with a slight olive tint. Like No. 467, but bill smaller,
lower mandible browner, throat grayer.

Range.--Western North America; breeds from the mountains of New Mexico,
Arizona, and southern Athabasca, east to Colorado, winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 469.]

=469. Wright Flycatcher= (_Empidonax wrightii_). Similar to No. 468,
but underparts whiter; bill much longer, longest and narrowest of our
_Empidonaces_; lower mandible whitish at base, brownish at tip; outer
web of outer tail-feather white.

Range.--Western United States, east to eastern slope of Rockies; breeds
from mountains of New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California north
to Montana and southern Oregon; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 469.1.]

=469.1. Gray Flycatcher= (_Empidonax griseus_). L. 6. _Ads._ Above
gray with a _slight_ brownish tinge; below grayish white with little
or no yellow. Grayest of our _Empidonaces_.

Range.--Western Mexico and Lower California north to southern
California and Arizona, (Fort Verde.)

  [Illustration: 463.]

=463. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher= (_Empidonax flaviventris_). L. 5.6.
_Ads._ Below distinctly greenish yellow, belly brighter; above
_bright_ olive-green. _Yng._ Brighter, wing-bars buffy. _Notes._
_Psĕ-ĕk'_ in one harsh explosive syllable; a plaintive
_chū-ē-é-p_. (Dwight.)

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from
northern New England (south in Alleghanies to Pennsylvania), northern
New York, and Minnesota, north to Labrador and Northwest Territories;
winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 464.]

=464. Western Flycatcher= (_Empidonax difficilis_). Similar to
No. 463, but brighter yellow below, breast washed with brownish
instead of greenish; above yellower. _Notes._ A soft low note, and
a wailing _pee-eu_. (C. A. Allen.)

Range.--Western North America; east to about Long. 100°; breeds from
Mexican border north to southern Alaska; winters in Mexico and Central

=464.1. St. Lucas Flycatcher= (_Empidonax cineritius_). Most like
No. 464, but much duller; scarcely a tinge of green above; no decided
yellow below except on throat and abdomen. (Brewster.)

Range.--Lower California, from Cape Region north, rarely, to southern

=464.2. Santa Barbara Flycatcher= (_Empidonax insulicola_). Similar to
No. 464, but above darker and browner; below paler. (Oberholser.)

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, California.

  [Illustration: 465.]

=465. Green-crested Flycatcher= (Empidonax virescens). L. 5.7. _Ads._
Throat and belly _white_, breast grayish; sides, breast and sometimes
belly, washed with sulphur; back olive-green, a tint lighter than in
No. 463; lower mandible _whitish_; wing-bars buffy. _Notes._ _Spee_ or
_peet_ and _pee-e-yuk'_.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from the
Gulf States to southern Connecticut and Manitoba; winters in Central

  [Illustration: 646.]

=646. Orange-crowned Warbler= (_Helminthophila celata_). L. 5.
No white in wings or tail. _Ad._ [Male]. Above olive-green more or
less washed with grayish; a concealed, reddish orange crown-patch;
below dusky yellowish green. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but grayer,
crown-patch smaller or wanting. _Yng._ Like [Female], but no
crown-patch. _Notes._ Song full and strong, not very high pitched and
ending abruptly on a rising scale, _chee_, _chee_, _chee_, _chw'_,
_chw'_. (Jones.)

Range.--Interior of North America, breeding from Manitoba and
mountains of New Mexico to Alaska; winters in Gulf States and
southward; rare in Atlantic states north of South Carolina.

=646a. Lutescent Warbler= (_H. c. lutescens_). Similar to No. 646,
but greener above, yellower below; underparts distinctly yellow with
a dusky wash.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeding in mountains from southern California
to Kenai Peninsula, Alaska; winters from California south into Mexico;
east to Colorado in migrations.

=646b. Dusky Warbler= (_H. c. sordida_). Similar to No. 646a, but
decidedly darker, bill and feet larger, wing shorter and tail longer.

Range.--Breeds in Santa Barbara Islands, California; later occurs
on adjoining mainland.

  [Illustration: 472.]

=472. Beardless Flycatcher= (_Ornithion imberbe_). L. 4.5; W. 2.10.
_Ads._ Bill small, narrow, upper mandible decidedly curved; above gray
tinged with olive, below grayish white with a yellow tinge.

Range.--Central America; north in spring to Lower Rio Grande Texas.

=472a. Ridgway Flycatcher= (_O. i. ridgwayi_). Similar to No. 472,
but larger, W. 2.2; grayer, little if any sulphur tinge on underparts.
(Ridgw.) _Notes._ Call, a shrill _piér_ repeated; song, from the
tree-tops, _yoop_, _yoop_, _yoopeédeedledee_. (Stephens.)

Range.--Southern border of Mexican tableland north in spring to
southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 616.]

=616. Bank Swallow= (_Riparia riparia_). L. 5.2. _Ads._ Below white,
a broad grayish brown band across the breast; above grayish brown.
_Yng._ Similar, but brown areas more or less tipped with rusty.

Range.--Northern hemisphere: in America, breeds from northern New
Jersey, Kansas, and southern California, north to Labrador, and
Alaska; winters south to Brazil.

  [Illustration: 617.]

=617. Rough-winged Swallow= (_Stelgidopteryx serripennis_). L. 5.5.
_Ads._ Above grayish brown; below grayish white, whiter on belly;
barbs on outer vane of outer primary recurved. _Yng._ Plumage more or
less tipped with rusty.

Range.--United States; breeds from Mexico north to Massachusetts,
Manitoba, and British Columbia; winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 623.]

=623. Black-whiskered Vireo= (_Vireo calidris barbatulus_). L. 6.
_Ads._ _A dusky streak on either side of the throat_, crown slate
_without_ a black border; back olive-green; below white, lower belly,
under tail-and under wing-coverts yellowish; no wing-bars. _Notes._
Resemble those of No. 624 but song more emphatic and hesitating.

Range.--Breeds in Cuba, Bahamas and southern Florida; winters in
Central America.

  [Illustration: 624.]

=624. Red-eyed Vireo= (_Vireo olivaceus_). L. 6.2. _Ads._ Crown slate,
on either side a narrow black border; a white line over eye; above
olive-green; below white; under wing-coverts sulphur; no wing-bars; no
dusky streaks on throat. _Notes._ Call, a petulant, complaining
_whang_; song, a broken, rambling recitative "you see it--you know
it--do you hear me?--do you believe it?"

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Rockies and British
Columbia, east of Cascades; breeds from the Gulf States to Labrador,
Manitoba, and British Columbia; winters in Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 632.]

=632. Hutton Vireo= (_Vireo huttoni_). L. 4.6. _Ads._ Underparts dusky
grayish white with a faint yellow tinge; above dusky olive-green;
lores and eye-ring grayish, not conspicuous; two white wing-bars.
_Notes._ A piping whistle like the call of a young bird, _peé-yer_,
_peé-yer_; and a hoarse whistle _oh-my'_, _oh-my'_, _oh-my'_.

Range.--California, west of Sierra; resident.

=632a. Stephen Vireo= (_V. h. stephensi_). Similar to No. 622, but
grayer above, whiter below, wing-bars broader.

Range.--Mexican boundary from western Texas to southeastern

=632c. Anthony Vireo= (_V. h. obscurus_). Similar to No. 632,
but darker, and averaging slightly smaller.

Range.--"Pacific coast, from Oregon to southern British Columbia;
south in winter to California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 647.]

=647. Tennessee Warbler= (_Helminthophila peregrina_). L. 5.
No wing-bars; little or no white in tail. _Ad._ [Male]. Head bluish
gray; a whitish line over eye; back olive-green; below grayish white.
_Ad._ [Female]. Gray of head with more or less olive-green; stripe
over eye and underparts yellower. _Yng._ Similar to [Female], but
entirely bright olive-green above; yellower below. _Notes._ Song
scarcely distinguishable from that of the Chipping Sparrow, but first
two syllables _twip_ instead of _chip_. (Jones.)

Range:--Eastern North America, west in migrations to the Rocky
Mountains; breeds from New Brunswick, northern New England, northern
New York, and Minnesota, north to Quebec and Alaska; winters in
Central and northern South America.

  [Illustration: 747.]

=747. Kennicott Willow Warbler= (_Phyllopseustes borealis_). L. 5.
_Ads._ Above olive-green; below white tinged with yellowish, sides
greenish; a whitish line over eye; a narrow whitish wing-bar; no white
in tail. _Notes._ Call, a monotonous _dzit_; song, resembles trill of
Redpoll. (Seebohm.)

Range.--Asia, east to western Alaska.

  [Illustration: 625.]

=625. Yellow-green Vireo= (_Vireo flavoviridis_). L. 6.4. Resembling
No. 624, but greener above, the sides heavily washed with greenish

Range.--Northern South America, north to the Lower Rio Grande.

  [Illustration: 626.]

_626. Philadelphia Vireo_ (_Vireo philadelphicus_). L. 4.8. _Ads._ No
distinct crown-cap; above olive-green; below yellowish; a whitish line
over eye; no wing-bars. _Notes._ Resemble those of the Red-eyed Vireo
but generally higher pitched; also a very abrupt, double-syllabled
utterance with a rising inflection which comes in with the song at
irregular intervals. (Brewster.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Maine, New Hampshire and
Manitoba northward; winters in the tropics.

  [Illustration: 627.]

=627. Warbling Vireo= (_Vireo gilvus_). L. 5.4; W. 2.8. _Ads._ Above
grayish olive-green, crown slightly grayer but without distinct cap as
in No. 624; a whitish line over eye but no black line above it; below
white, the sides washed with yellowish; no wing-bars. _Notes._ Call,
resembles that of the Red-eyed Vireo; song; a rich, firm, unbroken
warble with an alto undertone.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from Gulf
States north to Hudson Bay region; winters in Mexico.

=627a. Western Warbling Vireo= (_V. g. swainsoni_). Similar to
No. 627, but averaging smaller, W. 2.6, the bill more slender;
upperparts, particularly crown, grayer.

Range.--Western United States, east to the Rockies; breeds from
Mexico to British Columbia; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 631.]

=631. White-eyed Vireo= (_Vireo noveboracensis_). L. 5; W. 2.4.;
B. .4. _Ads._ Eye-ring and lores yellow; iris white; above
olive-green more or less washed with grayish; Below white, sides
yellowish; two whitish wing-bars. _Notes._ Calls, varied, often harsh
and scolding; song, an emphatic whistle _who are you, eh_? or _what's
that you say?_, and a low medley often including imitations of the notes
of other birds.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Florida and Texas north to
New Hampshire and Minnesota; winters from Florida to Central America.

=631a. Key West Vireo= (_V. n. maynardi_). Similar to No. 631, but
bill heavier, sides averaging less yellow.

Range.--Southern Florida; resident.

=621b. Bermuda White-eyed Vireo= (_V. n. bermudianus_). Similar to
No. 631, but wing shorter, 2.30; no yellow on sides. (Bangs and

Range.--Resident in Bermudas.

=631c. Small White-eyed Vireo= (_V. n. micrus_). Smaller than No. 631,
W. 2.2; averaging grayer above; sides with less yellow.

Range.--Northeastern Mexico, north to southeastern Texas.

  [Illustration: 629.]

=629. Blue-headed Vireo= (_Vireo solitarius_). L. 5.5; W. 2.9; B. .4.
_Ads._ Lores and eye-ring white; crown and cheeks bluish slate-color;
back olive-green; below white, sides washed with greenish yellow; two
whitish wing-bars. _Notes._ Resembling in form those of Red-eyed or
Yellow-throated Vireos but more varied, sometimes a continuous warble;
a musical chatter, like that of the Yellow-throated and a trilled
whistle. (Torrey.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Connecticut (and south
along Alleghanies) north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from
Florida to Central America.

=629a. Cassin Vireo= (_V. s. cassini_). Like No. 629, but back washed
with the color of the head; white on breast and throat less pure.

Range.--"Breeds from British Columbia and Idaho south along Pacific
coast region and Nevada to Lower California; migrates to Arizona, New
Mexico; and northern Mexico." (Bailey.)

=629b. Plumbeous Vireo= (_V. s. plumbeus_). Above wholly
plumbeous-gray with scarcely, if any, olive tinge, below white, the
sides gray _faintly_ tinged with greenish yellow; size of No. 629c.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region; breeds from northern Mexico north to
southwestern Dakota and Wyoming; winters south to southern Mexico.

=629c. Mountain Solitary Vireo= (_V. s. alticola_). Larger than
No. 629, W. 3.15, B. .46; head darker, its color extending over most
of the back.

Range.--Breeds in Alleghanies from North Carolina to Georgia; winters
in Florida.

=629d. St. Lucas Solitary Vireo= (_V. s. lucasanus_). Smaller than
No. 629a, but bill longer and stouter, sides and flanks much yellower;
young without brownish below, and resembling young of No. 629.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 633.]

=633. Bell Vireo= (_Vireo bellii_). L. 5. Above olive-green, crown
grayer; lores and eye-ring white; two inconspicuous whitish wing-bars;
below white, sides tinged with yellowish. Most like No. 627, but back
greener, no white line _back_ of eye. _Notes._ Resemble those of the
White-eyed Vireo, but less harsh, song less emphatic. (Goss.)

Range.--Interior states from Illinois west to Plains; breeds from
Texas to Minnesota; winters in Mexico.

=633.1. Least Vireo= (_Vireo pusillus_). L. 4.8. _Ads._ Above gray,
slightly tinged with greenish toward rump; below white, sides with
little if any greenish tinge; one inconspicuous whitish wing-bar;
lores and eye-ring inconspicuously grayish.

Range.--Northwestern Mexico and northern Lower California; breeds
north to Arizona and middle California.

  [Illustration: 634.]

=634. Gray Vireo= (_Vireo vicinior_). L. 5.5. Above slaty gray; below
white tinged with grayish; one inconspicuous wing-bar; lores and
eye-ring gray; bill short. _Notes._ Song may be compared with the
finest efforts of the Blue-headed Vireo with the added charm and
mellowness of the song of the Yellow-throated Vireo. (Henshaw.)

Range.--Northern Mexico, north to western Texas, southeastern
California, and southern Nevada; winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 749.]

=749. Ruby-crowned Kinglet= (_Regulus calendula_). L. 4.4. A
conspicuous whitish eye-ring. _Ad._ [Male]. A more or less concealed
crown-patch; back olive-green; underparts soiled whitish more or less
tinged with buffy; two white wing-bars. _Ad._ [Female] and _Yng._
(Here figured.) Similar, but no crown-patch.

Range.--North America; breeds from the northern border of the United
States northward, and south in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona, and in
the Sierra Nevada of California; winters from south Carolina and
Oregon southward to Central America.

=749a. Sitkan Kinglet= (_R. c. grinnelli_). Similar to No. 749,
but more olive-green above; more buffy below.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds in southern Alaska; winters southward
to California.

  [Illustration: 470a.]

=470a. Buff-breasted Flycatcher= (_Empidonax fulvifrons pygmæus_).
L. 4.7. _Ads._ Below rusty buff; above grayish brown.

Range.--Western Mexico; north in spring to southwestern New Mexico
and Arizona.

  [Illustration: 586.]

=586. Texas Sparrow= (_Arremonops rufivirgata_). L. 6.5. _Ads._ Above
olive-green, sides of crown brownish, its center grayish; below
whitish; bend of wing _yellow_. _Notes._ Song resembles that of the
Chipping Sparrow but with somewhat of the sweetness and modulation of
that of the Yellow Warbler.

Range.--Eastern Mexico, north to southeastern Texas; casually to

  [Illustration: 638.]

=638. Swainson Warbler= (_Helinaia swainsonii_). L. 5. Bill large;
no white in wings or tail. _Ads._ Crown brown, back, wings and tail
olive-brown; a whitish line over eye; below whitish tinged with
yellow. _Notes._ Song, "a series of clear, ringing whistles, the first
four uttered rather slowly and in the same key, the remaining five or
six given more rapidly and in an evenly descending scale." (Brewster.)

Range.--Southeastern United States; breeds from Gulf States north to
southeastern Virginia, southern Indiana and southern Missouri.

  [Illustration: 639.]

=639. Worm-eating Warbler= (_Helmitheros vermivorus_). L. 5.5. Bill
large; no white in wings or tail _Ads._ Crown black with three buff
stripes; back, wings and tail olive-green; below buffy white deeper on
breast. _Yng._ Buff everywhere richer. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _chip_;
song, resembles that of Chipping Sparrow but is somewhat weaker.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds north to southern Connecticut,
southern Illinois and southern Wisconsin; winters south of United

  [Illustration: 742.]

=742. Pallid Wren-tit= (_Chamæa fasciata_). L. 6.7; T. 5.4. Outer
tail-feathers shortest. _Ads._ Above brownish gray; below buffy
obscurely streaked with gray. _Notes._ Song wooden and unmusical,
beginning deliberately and ending in a roll, _chick_: _chick_;
_chick_, _chick-chick-chick-chick-chick-chick_.

Range.--"Interior of California, including the western slope of the
Sierra Nevada, from the head of the Sacramento Valley south to
northern Lower California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 742a.]

=742a. Coast Wren-tit= (_C. f. phæa_). Similar to No. 742, but much
browner above and deeper more pink below; sides as dark as back.

Range.--Pacific Coast from Monterey County, California, north to
southern Oregon.

=707. Curve-billed Thrasher= (_Toxostoma curvirostre_). L. 11.2.
_Ads._ Above brownish gray; below mottled with brownish gray; lower
belly buffy; four outer pairs of tail-feathers _tipped with white_;
two narrow white wing-bars. _Notes._ Call, a sharp, _whit-whit_; one
of the most silent of song Thrushes. (Merrill.) Song, remarkably
melodious and attractive. (Couch.)

Range.--Mexican boundary region of Texas and New Mexico south over
the Mexico tableland to Oaxaca.

  [Illustration: 707a.]

=707a. Palmer Thrasher= (_T. c. palmeri_). Similar to No. 707, but
wing-bars less evident; outer tail-feathers _without_ white tips.

Range.--"Southern Arizona, from about fifty miles northwest of
Phoenix, south to Guaymas, Sonora." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 708.]

=708. Bendire Thrasher= (_Toxostoma bendirei_). L. 10.2. _Ads._ Above
brownish ashy; below soiled whitish washed with buffy and lightly
spotted with dusky, chiefly on breast; outer tail-feathers narrowly
tipped with whitish. _Notes._ Call, _tirup_, _tirup_, _tirup_.

Range.--Desert regions of southern Arizona south into Sonora, Mexico;
west rarely to southeastern California; resident except at extreme
northern limit of its range.

  [Illustration: 709.]

=709. St. Lucas Thrasher= (_Toxostoma cinereum_). L. 10. _Ads._ Above
grayish brown; below white with numerous wedge-shaped spots; outer
tail-feathers tipped with white.

Range.--Southern Lower California.

=709a. Mearns Thrasher= (_T. c. mearnsi_). Differs from No. 709 in
much darker upperparts, more rusty flanks and crissum, much larger and
more intensely black spots on lower parts and less curved bill.

Range.--Northern Lower California, south to about Lat. 30° 30'.

  [Illustration: 710.]

=710. Californian Thrasher= (_Toxostoma redivivum_). L. 12. _Ads._
Above grayish brown; belly distinctly buff; breast grayish, throat
whitish, washed with buff; no white in wings or tail. _Notes._ Song
suggesting both that of the Brown Thrasher and the Mockingbird.

Range.--California west of the Sierra Nevada, north of about Lat. 35°;
south into Lower California.

=710a. Pasadena Thrasher= (_T. r. pasadenense_). Similar to No. 710,
but grayer above; belly paler, throat whiter.

Range.--Southern California.

  [Illustration: 711.]

=711. Leconte Thrasher= (_Toxostoma lecontei_). L. 10.5. _Ads._ Above
brownish ashy, below creamy white, under tail-coverts buff. _Notes._
Call, a sharply reiterated _whit_ or _quit_; song, remarkable for its
loud rich tone; can be heard distinctly for more than a mile.
(Mearns.) Call, low and musical, _hueé-e_, whistled through the teeth.

Range.--"Desert region of southern California, Nevada, and extreme
southwestern Utah, from Benton, Cal. (Lat. 38°), southeastward through
Arizona to Sonora (Lat. 30°). Local in San Joaquin Valley." (A.O.U.)

=711a. Desert Thrasher= (_T. l. arenicola_). Differing from No. 711 in
having upperparts darker and grayer, tail blacker, and breast gray.

Range.--Northern Lower California. (Rosalia Bay.)

  [Illustration: 712.]

=712. Crissal Thrasher= (_Toxostoma crissalis_). L. 12. _Ads._ Under
tail-coverts reddish _chestnut_; upperparts brownish gray; underparts
ashy, chin white. _Notes._ No loud call note; song of remarkable scope
and sweetness. (Mearns.)

Range.--"Southwestern United States, from western Texas to the
Colorado Desert, California, and northern Lower California; north to
Charleston Mountains, Nevada, and St. George, Utah." (A.O.U.)

Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked

  [Illustration: 538.]

  [Illustration: 538. Winter.]

=538. Chestnut-collared Longspur= (_Calcarius ornatus_). L. 6.2. Hind
toe-nail as long as toe; all but middle pair of tail-feathers (and
sometimes these) with white, _two_ outer pairs white _to the tip_.
_Ad._ [Male]. Throat and cheeks buff; breast and belly black; crown
black, nape chestnut; lesser wing-coverts black tipped with white.
_Ad._ [Female]. Above grayish brown streaked with black; below pale
buff. [Male] _in winter_. Like summer [Male] but black and chestnut
areas more or less tipped with grayish brown. _Notes._ Song, short,
shrill, but very sweet, often uttered on the wing. (Allen.)

Range.--Great Plains: breeds from central Kansas and eastern Colorado
north to the Saskatchewan; winters from eastern Colorado and Nebraska
south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 539.]

  [Illustration: 539. Winter.]

=539. McCown Longspur= (_Rhynchophanes mccownii_). L. 6. Hind toe-nail
as long as toe; all but middle pair of tail-feathers with white, the
outer _one_ white _to the tip_, the others tipped with black; lesser
wing-coverts _chestnut_. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat and belly white, breast
and crown black; back grayish brown streaked with black. _Ad._
[Female]. Below white washed with brownish; above grayish brown
streaked with black. [Male] _in winter_. Like [Female] but a partly
concealed black breast patch; tail with more white. _Notes._ Call, a
_chip_ at each stroke of the wing; song, of soft, twittering, pleasing
notes. (Goss.) "A twittering, hurried chant, suggestive of the Horned
Lark's performance, but terminating in decreasing power." (Silloway.)

Range.--Great Plains; breeds from northwestern Kansas to Montana and
the Saskatchewan; winters from eastern Colorado and Kansas south into

  [Illustration: 552.]

=552. Lark Sparrow= (_Chondestes grammacus_). L. 6.2; _Ads._ Sides of
the crown and ear-coverts chestnut; all but middle tail-feathers
tipped with white; back broadly streaked with black; sides of throat
and spot on breast black. _Notes._ Song, loud and musical suggesting
both a Song Sparrow's and a Canary's.

Range.--Interior of North America from the Plains east to Illinois;
casually east of the Alleghanies; breeds from Texas to Manitoba;
winters south into Mexico.

=552a. Western Lark Sparrow= (_C. g. strigatus_). Similar to No. 552,
but streaks on upperparts generally narrower.

Range.--Western United States from the Plains to Pacific; breeds from
Mexico to Manitoba and British Columbia; winters south to Central

  [Illustration: 536.]

  [Illustration: 536. Winter.]

=536. Lapland Longspur= (_Calcarius lapponicus_). L. 6.2 Hind toe-nail
as long as or longer than toe; two outer tail-feathers with white _at
the end_. _Ad._ [Male], _summer_. Nape chestnut; crown, cheeks, throat
and upper-breast black; back black margined with _rusty brown_. _Ad._
[Female], summer. Crown and back black margined with rusty; nape
brighter; below whitish; breast feathers dusky at base; sides streaked
with blackish. _Winter_, [Male]. Black areas and nape veiled with
whitish or buffy tips; [Female], like [Female] in summer.

Range.--Breeds in northern Europe and northeast North America south to
northern Labrador; in America, winters south, irregularly, to South
Carolina, Kentucky, Kansas, Texas; west to Manitoba. (Ridgw.)

=536a. Alaskan Longspur= (_C. l. alascensis_). Similar to No. 536, but
margins to back feathers much paler, brownish gray or buffy; nape in
winter more buffy. _Notes._ Song, uttered on wing as bird with
up-stretched wings floats downward, sweet, liquid, tinkling, of same
general character as that of Bobolink, but shorter, less powerful.

Range.--Breeds in Alaska, Aleutian and Pribilof Islands east to Fort
Simpson; winters south to eastern Oregon, Colorado, and western
Kansas. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 553.]

=553. Harris Sparrow= (_Zonotrichia querula_). L. 7.5. _Ads. summer._
Throat and crown black; nape chestnut, cheeks brownish; two white
wing-bars. _Ads. winter._ Throat mottled with white, crown tipped with
grayish. _Notes._ A queer, chuckling note; song of pleasing, plaintive
whistling notes in musical tone like those of No. 558, but delivered
in a different song. (Cooke.)

Range.--Interior of North America; from Illinois west to the Dakotas;
in summer, the region west of Hudson Bay (exact breeding range
unknown); south in winter to Texas (and Mexico?); accidental in
British Columbia, Oregon and California.

  [Illustration: 565.]

=565. Black-chinned Sparrow= (_Spizella atrogularis_). L. 5.7. Below
slaty gray. _Ad._ [Male]. Throat and front of face _black_; rest of
head and underparts slaty gray, the belly whitish; back reddish brown
narrowly streaked with black. _Ad._ [Female], Throat with little or no
black; crown washed with brownish. _Yng._ Similar to Ad. [Female], but
never with black on throat; crown more heavily washed with brownish.
_Notes._ Song said to resemble that of No. 563. (Bailey.)

Range.--Mexico and southwestern United States; breeds from southern
New Mexico and southern California southward; winters south into
Mexico and southern Lower California.

  [Illustration: English Sparrow.]

=--English Sparrow= (_Passer domesticus_). L. 6.3. _Ad._ [Male].
Throat and upper breast black; crown _slate_; band behind eye and on
nape chestnut. _Ad._ [Female]. Below dirty white; crown and rump dingy
grayish brown; back streaked with black and rusty brown; a buffy
stripe behind eye. _Yng._ [Male]. Similar to Ad. but throat and head
tipped with brownish gray. _Notes._ Harsh and discordant.

Range.--Introduced into America from Europe in 1851 and later dates;
now distributed throughout the greater part of the United States.

  [Illustration: 537.]

  [Illustration: 537 Winter.]

=537. Smith Longspur= (_Calcarius pictus_). L. 6.6. Hind toe-nail as
long as toe; _two_ outer tail-feathers mostly white. _Ad._ [Male].
_Throat_, _breast_ and belly buff; nape buff; crown and cheeks black;
ear-coverts and line over eye white; lesser wing-coverts black
margined with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Above brownish black margined
with buff and rusty brown; below pale buff, sides of breast and flanks
streaked with brown. [Male] _in winter_. Like [Female] but lesser
wing-coverts black and white. _Notes._ Call constantly _chirrup_ as
they fly. (Goss.)

Range.--Middle western United States; breeds in northern British.
America; winters south over the plains and prairies to Texas; east to

  [Illustration: 579.]

=579. Rufous-winged Sparrow= (_Aimophila carpalis_). L. 5.7. Outer
tail-feathers shortest. _Ads._ Lesser wing-coverts bright reddish
brown; crown reddish brown or chestnut margined with gray; back
streaked with black and margined with _grayish brown_; below whitish;
_two_ black streaks from either side of the base of the lower
mandible. _Notes._ Call, _zib_, _zib_, _zib_. (Bendire.)

Range.--Southern Arizona, north to Tucson and Camp Lowell and south
through Sonora to northern Sinaloa. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 580.]

=580. Rufous-crowned Sparrow= (_Aimophila ruficeps_). L. 4; T. 2.6. No
yellow at bend of wing; outer tail-feathers shortest. _Ads._ Above
reddish brown margined with buffy gray (no black streaks); below,
including middle of belly, brownish; sides of throat with black lines.
_Notes._ Song, very sweet, resembling that of Lazuli Bunting, but
distinguishable. (C. A. Allen.)

Range.--Northern Lower California north to Marin County and Sacramento
Valley, California; local.

  [Illustration: 580a.]

=580a. Scott Sparrow= (_A. r. scottii_). Similar to No. 580, but above
brighter reddish brown, the margins to the feathers grayer, the
underparts much paler, the breast grayish, the throat and middle of
the belly whitish.

Range.--Northwestern portion of Mexican plateau and adjacent portions
of Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas (El Paso Co.) (Ridgw.)

=580b. Rook Sparrow= (_A. r. eremœca_). L. 6. _Ads._ Crown reddish
chestnut, back olive-brown margined with gray. Similar to No. 580a,
but back of a different color from crown, the grayish margins wider.

Range.--Limestone Hill districts of middle Texas, from Kinney and
Maverick counties on the Rio Grande, northeastward to Cook County and
westward at least to Tom Green County; south in winter to Mexico.

=580c. Laguna Sparrow= (_A. r. sororia_). Similar to No. 580a, but
bill somewhat stouter, reddish brown above averaging brighter and

Range.--Southern Lower California.

  [Illustration: 540.]

=540. Vesper Sparrow= (_Poœcetes gramineus_). L. 6.1. Outer
tail-feather mostly white; hind toe-nail not longer than toe; _lesser_
wing-coverts reddish brown. _Ads._ Above grayish brown streaked with
black and chestnut; below whitish, breast and sides streaked with
black and chestnut. _Notes._ Call, _chip_. Song, loud and musical
_Look-look_, _see-see_, _me-me-me-me-me-me-sing_, followed by a
confusion of notes.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Virginia, Illinois and
Missouri north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from Virginia
and southern Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico.

=540a. Western Vesper Sparrow= (_P. g. confinis_). Similar to No. 540,
but paler, less black above; bill somewhat more slender.

Range.--Western United States from the Plains to the Sierra; breeds
from Arizona and New Mexico north to the Saskatchewan and British
Columbia; winters south into Mexico.

=540b. Oregon Vesper Sparrow= (_P. g. affinis_). Similar to No. 540a,
but smaller, W. 3; bill still more slender; plumage browner, more
buffy; browner even than No. 540, the underparts, including belly,
suffused with buff.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds in western Oregon (and north?); winters
southwest of the Sierra to San Diego, California.

  [Illustration: 575.]

=575. Pine-woods Sparrow= (_Peucæa æstivalis_). L. 5.8; T. 2.5. Bend
of the wing yellow; outer tail-feathers much shorter than the middle
pair. _Ads._ Above reddish chestnut, _head_ and back streaked with
black and margined with gray; below whitish, breast faintly tinged
with buff. _Notes._ Song, exceedingly sweet and plaintive.

Range.--Florida and southern Georgia; winters in southern Florida.

=575a. Bachman Sparrow= (_T. æ. bachmanii_). Similar to No. 575, but
above brighter reddish chestnut, black speaks fewer and usually
confined to back; breast and sides deeper buff.

Range.--Lower Mississippi Valley, west to southern Indiana and
southern Illinois, east to Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina,
and Virginia (rarely); west to Concho County, Texas; winters south in
Atlantic States, to southern Florida.

  [Illustration: 576.]

=576. Botteri Sparrow= (_Peucæa botteri_). L. 6; T. 2.8. Bend of wing
yellow; outer tail-feathers shortest. _Ads_. Above bright rusty brown
(about the color of a Field Sparrow), head and back streaked with
black and margined with gray; below buffy, the center of the belly
whitish. _Notes._ Song, begins with a faint trill followed by a
succession of disjointed syllables, _cha_, _cheewee_, _wee_, _wee_,
_wee_, _wir_. (Henshaw.)

Range.--Entire plateau of Mexico north to Lower Rio Grande Valley in
Texas and southern Arizona. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 578.]

=578. Cassin Sparrow= (_Peucæa cassini_). L. 6; T. 2.8. Bend of wing
yellow, outer tail-feathers shortest, their ends with distinct
_grayish_ patches. _Ads._ Above _gray_ streaked with _dull_ reddish
brown and _spotted_ or _barred_ with black; below grayish white.
_Notes._ Song, lengthened and pleasing, usually sung on wing.

Range.--Texas and southern Kansas west to southern Nevada and Arizona
south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 559.]

=559. Tree Sparrow= (_Spizella monticola_). L. 6.3. A black spot in
the center of the breast. _Ads._ Cap reddish brown, no black on head;
two white wing-bars, back streaked black, reddish brown and buff;
below whitish; upper mandible black, lower yellowish. _Notes._ Call,
a musical, tinkling, _too-lay-it_, song, "a loud, clear and powerful

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds in Labrador
and region west of Hudson Bay; winters south to South Carolina,
Tennessee and Indian Territory.

=559a. Western Tree Sparrow= (_S. m. ochracea_). Similar to No. 559,
but back with much less reddish brown, largely brownish buff streaked
with black.

Range.--Western North America east to the Plains; breeds in Alaska;
winters south to Mexican border.

  [Illustration: 560.]

=560. Chipping Sparrow= (_Spizella socialis_). L. 5.3. _Ads._ Crown
reddish chestnut, forehead _blackish_; a black line from eye to nape;
back streaked with black, _reddish brown_ and grayish brown; wing-bars
not conspicuous; below grayish white; bill largely black. _Yng._ Crown
like back; cheeks brownish. _Notes._ Call, _chip_; song, an unmusical
_chippy_, _chippy_, _chippy_, repeated.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from Gulf
States to Newfoundland and Great Slave Lake; winters in the Gulf
States and Mexico.

=560a. Western Chipping Sparrow= (_S. s. arizonæ_). Similar to
No. 560, but much grayer above; back with little or no reddish brown.

Range.--Western North America; breeds from Mexican border states to
Alaska; winters from California and Mexican border states to southern

  [Illustration: 563.]

=563. Field Sparrow= (_Spizella pusilla_). L. 5.6; T. 2.5. Bill
entirely pinkish brown. _Ads._ Crown _reddish_ brown, a gray line over
the eye, a reddish brown stripe from behind it to nape; back _reddish_
brown streaked with black; below whitish, _no_ streaks, breast washed
with buffy; two white wing-bars. _Notes._ Call, _chip_; song, a
musical whistle, _cher-weé_, _cher-weé-cher-weé_, _cheé-o_,
_dee-e-e-e-e_; with many variations but usually ending in a trill.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from South Carolina, Alabama and
central Texas north to Quebec and Manitoba; winters from Virginia and
Illinois to Gulf States.

=563a. Western Field Sparrow= (_S. p. arenacea_). Similar to No. 563,
but much paler above; crown largely grayish; back with but little
reddish brown, breast with little or no buff; tail longer, 2.7.

Range.--Great Plains of interior; breeds from Nebraska and South
Dakota to eastern Montana; winters south to northeastern Mexico;
casually to Louisiana. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 584.]

=584. Swamp Sparrow= (_Melospiza georgiana_). L. 5.8. _Ads._ Forehead
black with a gray median line; crown bright chestnut; below grayish
white; _sides brownish_, nape gray; back grayish, black, and buff.
Yng. Crown streaked chestnut and black; gray line over the eye
sometimes tinged with yellow; other parts deeper in color. _Notes._
Call, a sharp _cheep_; song, a simple _tweet-tweet-tweet_, etc., all
on one note.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, and northern Illinois, north to Labrador and
Manitoba; winters from Kansas, southern Illinois, and Massachusetts to
Gulf States.

=542. Sandwich Sparrow= (_Passerculus sandwichensis_). L. 5.7; W. 2.9
A yellow line from the bill passing _over_ the eye; bend of wing
usually tinged with yellow. _Ads._ Above streaked with black, chestnut
and brownish gray; below white, (buffy in fall and winter), breast and
sides streaked with black, the streaks narrowly margined with
chestnut. _Notes._ Doubtless resemble those of No. 542a.

Range.--Northwest coast; breeds in western Alaska; winters south
to northern California.

  [Illustration: 542a.]

=542a. Savannah Sparrow= (_P. s. savanna_). Similar to No. 542, but
smaller, W. 2.7; yellow line over eye shorter and less pronounced;
bill smaller. _Notes._ Call a sharp _tsip_, frequently uttered; song,
a weak, musical little trill following a grasshopperlike introduction,
_tsip_, _tsip_, _tsip_, _sē-e-e-s'r-r-r_. (Dwight.)

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from
northern New Jersey (rarely), eastern Long Island, and Missouri north
to Labrador and western Hudson Bay; winters from Virginia and southern
Illinois to Cuba and Mexico.

=542b. Western Savannah Sparrow= (_P. s. alaudinus_). Similar to No.
542a, but bill more slender, color averaging paler, the yellow line
not passing _over_ the eye, less evident before it and often wholly

Range.--Western North America from the Plains west to the Sierra;
breeds from Mexico City north to Alaska; winters from southern
California southward.

=542c. Bryant Marsh Sparrow= (_P. s. bryanti_). Similar to No. 542b,
but smaller, W. 2.6; colors much darker, streaks below heavier; yellow
over eye more pronounced. A darker bird even than No. 542a, but with
the bill slender as in No. 542b.

Range.--Resident in salt marshes about San Francisco and Monterey Bay;
winters south to San Pedro (Grinnell); casually to Mexico City.

  [Illustration: 543.]

=543. Belding Sparrow= (_Passerculus beldingi_). L. 5; W. 2.5.
_Ads._ Similar to No. 542c, but somewhat smaller, above darker and
with a slight olive caste; underparts more heavily streaked.

Range.--Pacific Coast; salt marshes from Todos Santos Island, Lower
California, north to Santa Barbara.

  [Illustration: 544.]

=544. Large-billed Sparrow= (_Passerculus rostratus_). L. 5.5; W. 2.6.
Bill stout, upper mandible _curved_; no yellow before eye or on bend
of wing. _Ads._ Above grayish brown marked with brown and blackish but
_without_ well-defined streaks; below white, breast and sides streaked
with grayish brown, the streaked feathers centrally blackish.

Range.--Coast of southern California north to Santa Barbara; winters
south to Cape St. Lucas and northwestern Mexico.

=544a. St. Lucas Sparrow= (_P. r. guttatus_). Similar to No. 544, but
smaller, W. 2.5; bill more slender; upperparts brownish gray with an
_olive tint_ and streaked with darker; similar to No. 544c, but
smaller, upperparts more olive and more widely, but less sharply

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California in winter; breeding range

=544b. Lagoon Sparrow= (_P. r. halophilus_). Similar to No. 544a, but
larger, W. 2.7, and darker; streaks on chest with little if any brown
edging; differing from No. 543, in more uniform coloration of
upperparts, in less narrow and decidedly blackish streaks on chest,

Range.--Salt marshes, Abreojos Point, Lower California.

=544c. San Benito Sparrow= (_P. r. sanctorum_). Similar to No. 544,
but bill more slender; above grayer (brownish _gray_) distinctly
streaked with blackish, the streaks margined with brown; below
streaked with _black_, the streaks narrowly margined with brownish.

Range.--Breeds on San Benito Island, Lower California; in winter to
Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 545.]

=545. Baird Sparrow= (_Coturniculus bairdii_). L. 5.7. Tail-feathers
pointed, middle ones shortest. _Ads._ Crown yellowish brown, streaked
with black; back black margined with chestnut and grayish; below
whitish, breast and sides streaked with black. In fall and winter,
colors richer. _Notes._ Song, "_trick-e-trik-eeeee-chiky-le-roit_,
with a peculiar tinkling utterance."

Range.--Great Plains; breeds from western Minnesota, North Dakota,
eastern Montana, north to Manitoba and Assiniboia; winters south to
Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 546.]

=546. Grasshopper Sparrow= (_Coturniculus savannarum passerinus_).
L. 5.3. Line before eye orange; bend of wing yellow; tail-feathers
pointed. _Ads._ Crown black with a buffy central stripe; nape
_chestnut and gray_; back black, chestnut buff and gray; below buffy,
unstreaked, belly whiter. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _chip_; song, a weak,
insect-like _pit-tuck_, _zee-e-e-e-e-e-e_.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from the
Gulf States to Massachusetts, Vermont, and Minnesota; winters from
North Carolina to Cuba and Mexico.

=546a. Western Grasshopper Sparrow= (_C. s. bimaculatus_). Similar to
No. 546, but paler below and with less black and more chestnut above.

Range.--Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific; breeds
from Mexican border states north to Montana and British Columbia;
winters south into Mexico.

=546b. Florida Grasshopper Sparrow= (_C. s. floridanus_). Similar to
No. 546, but smaller, W. 3; darker above, paler below; sides of crown
almost solid black; chestnut above largely replaced by black.

Range.--Kissimmee Prairies, Florida.

  [Illustration: 547.]

=547. Henslow Sparrow= (_Ammodramus henslowii_). L. 5. Bend of wing
yellow; tail-feathers pointed, the outer ones much the shortest.
_Ads._ Crown and nape pale _olive-green_ streaked with blackish; back
bright reddish brown streaked with black and gray; below white; breast
and sides washed with buff and streaked with black. _Notes._ Call,
_tee-wick_; song, _sis-r-r-rit-srit-srit_. (Jouy.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds locally, from Virginia and
Missouri, north to New Hampshire, southern Ontario and Minnesota;
winters from Virginia and Missouri south to the Gulf of Mexico.

=547a. Western Henslow Sparrow= (_A. h. occidentalis_). Similar to
No. 547, but paler, in summer little or no buff below.

Range.--Central western states; breeding, so far as known, in South
Dakota; in winter south to Texas.

  [Illustration: 548.]

=548. Leconte Sparrow= (_Ammodramus lecontei_), L. 5. No yellow on
wing; tail-feathers pointed, outer ones much the shortest. _Ads._
Broad line over eye, throat, breast and sides rich buff; nape chestnut
and gray; back black narrowly margined with chestnut and, at the
sides, broadly with buff; sides streaked; breast rarely with a few
streaks. _Notes._ Call, a thin, sharp, _tweet_, and a long-drawn
_bizz_; song, a tiny, husky, _reese_, _reese_. (Seton.)

Range.--"Great Plains and more western prairies; breeding from Dakota,
Minnesota, etc., to Manitoba, migrating south and east, in winter,
through Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, etc., to South Carolina and Gulf
States from Florida to Texas." (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 533.]

=533. Pine Finch= (_Spinus pinus_). L. 5. Bill sharply pointed; a tuft
of bristly feathers over the nostril; tail slightly forked. _Ads._
Base of tail, of inner wing-feathers and outer edges of primaries
yellow; above brownish; below whitish streaked with black. _Notes._
Call, a metallic note; song, tinkling and musical often sung on the
wing as with No. 529, the song of which it resembles.

Range.--North America; breeds from northern boundary states to Alaska;
in the Alleghanies south to North Carolina; and in the Rockies and
Sierra south to Mexico; winters from the northern states to Gulf
states and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 541.]

=541. Ipswich Sparrow= (_Passerculus princeps_). L. 6.2. _Ads._ Above
_pale_ brownish gray streaked with brown; below white, breast and
sides streaked with _brownish_; spot above eye and bend of wing often
pale sulphur yellow. _Notes._ Resemble those of No. 542a.

Range.--Breeds on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, winters south along
coast, regularly to Virginia, rarely to Georgia.

  [Illustration: 549.]

=549. Sharp-tailed Sparrow= (_Ammodramus caudacutus_). L. 5.8.
Tail-feathers sharply pointed, outer ones shortest. _Ads._ Below
white, breast and sides washed with buff and distinctly _streaked with
black_; nape olive-green; cheeks orange-buff; ear-coverts gray; crown
olive-chocolate with a blue-gray central line; back olive, buff, black
and gray. _Notes._ Call, _chip_; song, an unmusical, short, "husky,"
"gasping" effort, uttered from a perch or on fluttering wings above
the reeds.

Range.--Atlantic coast; breeds from South Carolina to New Hampshire;
winters from North Carolina to Florida.

  [Illustration: 549.1.]

=549.1. Nelson Sparrow= (_Ammodramus nelsoni_). L. 5.5. Tail-feathers
pointed, outer ones shortest. _Ads._ Similar to No. 549, but breast
and sides much deeper buff, the former with few or no streaks;
upperparts more richly colored. _Notes._ Resemble those of No. 549.

Range.--Breeds in interior from northern Illinois to Manitoba and
South Dakota; migrates east to New York and winters south to South
Carolina and Texas; accidental in California.

=549.1a. Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow= (_A. n. subvirgatus_). Similar
to No. 549.1, but breast and sides paler, the former lightly but
distinctly streaked with grayish; upperparts less richly colored.

Range.--Atlantic coast; breeds in marshes of eastern Maine, southern
New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island; winters south to South

  [Illustration: 550.]

=550. Seaside Sparrow= (_Ammodramus maritimus_). L. 6: W. 2.5.
Tail-feathers pointed, the outer ones shortest; spot before eye and
bend of wing yellow. _Ads._ Above olive-green and gray (no black);
below white, breast and sides grayish and, in first plumage, streaked
with buff. _Notes._ Similar in character to those of No. 549.

Range.--Atlantic coast; breeds in salt marshes from North Carolina to
southern Massachusetts; winters from Virginia to Georgia.

=550a. Scott Seaside Sparrow= (_A. m. peninsulæ_). Similar to No. 550,
but smaller, W. 2.3; above black margined by olive-brown and
olive-green; below whitish, breast and sides heavily streaked with

Range.--Atlantic coast from northeastern Florida to South Carolina;
Gulf Coast of Florida.

=550b. Texas Seaside Sparrow= (_A. m. sennetti_). Similar to No. 550,
but greener above; the feathers of head and back usually, those of
nape always, with black centres.

Range.--Coast of Texas.

  [Illustration: 550c.]

=550c. Fisher Seaside Sparrow= (_A. m. fisheri_). Similar to No. 550a,
but darker above, the breast and sides heavily washed with rusty buff
and streaked with black.

Range.--Coast of Louisiana, south in winter, at least as far as Corpus
Christi, Texas; casual on Gulf coast of Florida.

=550d. Macgillivray Seaside Sparrow= (_A. m. macgillivraii_). Similar
to No. 550c, but above grayer, less black, breast and flanks but
faintly washed with buff and streaked with dusky grayish. Grayer above
than No. 550a, and less heavily streaked below.

Range.--Local on coast of South Carolina.

  [Illustration: 551.]

=551. Dusky Seaside Sparrow= (_Ammodramus nigrescens_). L. 5.9. Above
_black_ lightly margined with gray; below white heavily streaked with
black; spot before eye and bend of wing yellow. _Notes._ Similar in
character to those of No. 550.

Range.--Marshes at head of Indian River, Florida, from Banana River
to Haulover Canal.

  [Illustration: 583.]

=583. Lincoln Sparrow= (_Melospiza lincolnii_). L. 5.7. _Ads._ _A
broad buff band across the breast_; center of crown with a _gray_
stripe, its sides striped chestnut and black; back grayish brown
streaked with black and chestnut, below streaked with black except on
middle of white belly. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _chirp_; song, suggests
bubbling, guttural notes of House Wren combined with rippling music of
the Purple Finch. (Dwight.) (See, also, Brewster, Bird-Lore II, P.

Range.--North America; breeds from northern New York, northern
Illinois and higher parts of Rockies and Sierra north to Alaska;
winters from southern Illinois and southern California into Mexico;
rare east of Alleghanies.

=583a. Forbush Sparrow= (_M. l. striata_). Similar to No. 583, but
browner above, crown-stripe and line over eye more brown than gray.

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia to California; breeding
range unknown.

  [Illustration: 554.]

=554. White-crowned Sparrow= (_Zonotrichia leucophrys_). L. 6.9. No
yellow before eye. _Ads._ White stripe over eye _not_ reaching to
bill; lores black; breast gray, throat but little paler; back _gray_
streaked with brown, rump browner, _Yng._ Black crown-stripes replaced
by chestnut, the white ones by buff; back much browner, no gray.
_Notes._ Call, a sharp _chip_; song, a plaintive, musical whistle
usually of five or six notes, the first two longest.

Range.--North America; breeds from northern New England and (in the
higher Rockies and Sierra) New Mexico, Arizona, and California north
to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; winters from southern United States
into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 554a.]

=554a. Intermediate Sparrow= (_Z. l. gambeli_). Similar to No. 544,
but the lores wholly gray or whitish, the white line over the eye
reaching the bill.

Range.--Western North America; breeds from Montana and eastern Oregon
northeast of Coast Mountains, to lower Mackenzie and northern Alaska:
winters from southern United States into Mexico; casual in migrations
east to Mississippi River States.

=554b. Nuttall Sparrow= (_Z. l. nuttalli_). Similar to No. 554a, but
smaller, L. 6.5, margins to feathers of back browner, underparts
browner, bend of wing yellow.

Range.--"Pacific coast district, breeding from Monterey, California,
to Mt. Simpson, British Columbia, south in winter to San Pedro Martir
Mountains, Lower California." (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 557.]

=557. Golden-crowned Sparrow= (_Zonotrichia coronata_). L. 7.2. _Ad._
[Male]. Center of crown yellow, its sides black; below grayish white,
sides brownish; back brown streaked with black; two white wing-bars;
bend of wing yellow. _Ad._ [Female]. Crown like back; its front tinged
with yellow; breast washed with brownish.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds in Alaska; winters from Oregon south to
northern Lower California.

  [Illustration: 558.]

=558. White-throated Sparrow= (_Zonotrichia albicollis_). L. 6.7.
A yellow mark before the eye and on bend of wing. _Ads._ Crown black,
a narrow white stripe through its center and bounded by white _behind_
the eye; throat white sharply defined from _gray_ breast; back
_reddish brown_ streaked with black. _Yng._ Less yellow before eye,
crown browner, its stripe gray; throat grayer, sometimes like breast.
_Notes._ Call, a low _tseep_, and sharp _chink_; song, a musical,
clearly whistled _sow-wheat peverly_, _peverly_, _peverly_; or
_peabody_, _peabody_, _peabody_.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Plains, casually to the
Pacific; breeds from Massachusetts (locally); northern New York,
northern Michigan, and eastern Montana, north to Labrador and West
Hudson Bay region; winters from Massachusetts (rarely) and Illinois
south to the Gulf.

  [Illustration: 561.]

=561. Clay-colored Sparrow= (_Spizella pallida_). L. 5.4. No reddish
brown. _Ads._ Above grayish _brown_ streaked with black; sides of
crown _largely-black_, a grayish line through its center; sides of
head _brownish_; below white. _Notes._ Song, three notes, and a slight
trill. (Coues.)

Range.--Interior of North America, from Illinois to the Rockies;
breeds from eastern Colorado, and northwestern Illinois north to
Saskatchewan; winters from southern Texas into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 562.]

=562. Brewer Sparrow= (_Spizella breweri_). L. 5.4. _No_ reddish
brown. _Ads._ Back and _crown_ brownish _gray_, uniformly and narrowly
streaked with black; sides of head _grayish_; below white. Grayer
than No. 561, the sides of the crown _not_ largely black. _Notes._
Call, _chip_; song, a reedy warble resembling in tone that of a
Long-billed Marsh Wren.

Range.--Western United States, from the Rockies to central California;
breeds from Mexican border States north to British Columbia; winters
from southern California south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 574.]

=574. Bell Sparrow= (_Amphispiza belli_). L. 6.1; W. 2.7. _Ads._ Sides
of throat with black streaks; center of breast with black spots; above
grayish _brown_, usually _without_ distinct streaks, no white in tail.

Range.--Pacific coast, from northern Lower California northwest of
Sierras, to Warren county, California; resident.

=574a. Sage Sparrow= (_A. b. nevadensis_). Similar to No. 574, but
larger, W. 3.1; back brownish gray, usually finely but distinctly
streaked with black; less black at sides of throat, usually a white
stripe _over_ the eye. _Notes._ Call, a chipping twitter; song,
feeble, but sweet and sad. (B. B. & R.)

Range.--Great Basin region; breeds from New Mexico, Arizona, and
southeastern California north to Idaho and eastern Oregon; winters
south to western Texas and southern California.

=574b. Gray Sage Sparrow= (_A. b. cinerea_). Similar to No. 574, but
paler above, throat-stripes narrower, more interrupted, breast-spot
smaller, both stripes and spot dull grayish instead of blackish.

Range.--Lower California.

  [Illustration: 564.]

=564. Worthen Sparrow= (_Spizella wortheni_). Resembles No. 563a,
but sides of head plain gray, no brownish streak behind eye; tail
shorter, 2.5.

Range.--Southern New Mexico (Silver City), southward over eastern
border of Mexican plateau to southern Puebla; breeding from Tamaulipas
northward. (Ridgw.)


  [Illustration: 581.]

=581. Song Sparrow= (_Melospiza cinerea melodia_). L. 6.2. _Ads._
Above reddish brown and gray with black streaks; tail with a decided
rufous tinge; black streaks below conspicuously margined with reddish
brown, those of center of breast forming a patch. _Notes._ Call, a
characteristic _chimp_ or _trink_; song, too variable in form to admit
of brief description but unmistakable in tone throughout the whole

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Plains; breeds from Virginia
and northern Illinois north to Quebec and Manitoba; winters from
southern Illinois and Massachusetts to Gulf States.

=581b. Mountain Song Sparrow= (_M. c. montana_). Similar to No. 581,
but grayer; reddish brown not so bright; bill smaller.

Range.--Rocky Mountain district of United States west to, and
including Sierra Nevada in California; north to eastern Oregon,
southern Idaho, and southern Montana; south in winter to western Texas
and northern Mexico. (Ridgw.)

=581k. Merrill Song Sparrow= (_M. c. merrilli_). Similar to No. 581b,
but slightly darker and more uniform above, with grayish edgings to
interscapulars and scapulars less strongly contrasted with the darker
mesial streaks, the latter usually with more brown than black.

Range.--Breeds from northern California (Shasta County) in mountains
and through Oregon and Washington east of Cascade Mountains, to
northwestern Idaho; winters south into Mexico. (Ridgw.)

=581j. Dakota Song Sparrow= (_M. c. juddi_). Similar to No. 581, but
above paler, especially line over eye and sides of neck; white below
clearer; interscapulars with black center broader, reddish brown
portions narrower; dark markings on breast restricted and more sharply
defined. (Bishop.)

Range.--"Turtle Mountains and vicinity, North Dakota." (A.O.U.)


  [Illustration: 581a.]

=581a. Desert Song Sparrow= (_Melospiza cinerea fallax_). W. 2.5.
Above reddish brown and gray; below white with _reddish brown_
streaks; usually _no black_ in plumage.

Range.--Lower Sonoran district of southwest Arizona, southern Nevada,
southeast California and northwest Lower California and Sonora.

=581g. Brown Song Sparrow= (_M. c. rivularis_). Similar to No. 581a,
but larger, W. 2.7, with longer, more slender and more compressed
bill; still less strongly contrasted markings, and duller, less
rufescent colors. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Mountain districts of southern Lower California. (Ridgw.)


  [Illustration: 581c.]

=581c. Heermann Song Sparrow= (_Melospiza cinerea heermanni_). L. 6.5;
W. 2.5. _Ads._ Above _chestnut_ olive-gray with usually distinct black
streaks; tail _without_ a decided rufous tinge; black streaks below
not conspicuously bordered by rufous.

Range.--Central valleys of California including lower levels of
Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 581f.]


=581m. San Diego Sparrow= (_M. c. cooperi_). Similar to No. 581c, but
slightly smaller, W. 2.4, much lighter and grayer.

Range.--Southern coast district of California north to Monterey Bay,
east to Ft. Tejon, San Bernardino, etc., and north Pacific coast
district of Lower California south to San Quentin Bay. (Ridgw.)

=581d. Samuels Song Sparrow= (_M. c. samuelis_). Similar to No. 581c,
but smaller, W. 2.4, bill more slender.

Range.--Coast slope of central California (except salt marshes of San
Francisco Bay), from Santa Cruz County to Humboldt County, north, at
least in winter, to Humboldt Bay. (Ridgw.)

=581l. Alameda Song Sparrow= (_M. c. pusillula_). Similar to No. 581a,
but smaller, W. 2.3, less rusty, underparts more heavily streaked,
usually more or less suffused with _yellowish_.

Range.--Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay, California. (Ridgw.)

=581i. San Clemente Song Sparrow= (_M. c. clementæ_). Similar to
No. 581m, but larger and grayer.

Range.--San Clemente, San Miguel, and Santa Rosa Islands, Santa
Barbara Group, California; Coronados Islands, Lower California.

=581h. Santa Barbara Song Sparrow= (_M. c. graminea_). Similar to No.
581i, but much smaller, W. 2.4.

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, California mainland in winter.


=581e. Rusty Song Sparrow= (_M. c. morphna_). W. 2.7. _Ads._ Above
without clear gray and _not_ distinctly streaked; prevailing color
dark reddish brown; below _heavily_ streaked with same.

Range.--Northwest coast region, Oregon to British Columbia; south in
winter to southern California.

=581f. Sooty Song Sparrow= (_M. c. rufina_). Similar to No. 581e,
but larger, W. 2.9, more sooty above and below, underparts more
heavily streaked.

Range.--Pacific coast region from British Columbia north to southern

=581n. Yukutat Song Sparrow= (_M. c. caurina_). Similar to No. 581f,
bill longer and more slender, color grayer.

Range.--Coast of Mt. St. Elias district of Alaska, from Yakutat Bay
to Lituya Bay.

=581o. Kenai Song Sparrow= (_M. c. kenaiensis_). Similar to No. 582,
but smaller, W. 3, plumage darker, more sooty, less rufous.

Range.--Coast of Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, from east side of Cook Inlet
to Prince William Sound. (Ridgw.)

=581.1. Kadiak Island Song Sparrow= (_M. c. insignis_). Similar to
No. 581o, but larger, W. 3.2, bill longer, color grayer.

Range.--Kadiak Island and opposite coast of Alaska. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 582.]

=582. Aleutian Song Sparrow= (_Melospiza cinerea_). Similar to No.
581.1, but larger and grayer; largest and grayest bird of group;
L. 8; W. 3.4.

Range.--"Western portion of Alaska Peninsula (Stepovak Bay, opposite
Shumagin Islands), Shumagin Islands, and Aleutian Islands, from
Unalaska to Atka, Adak, and Attu." (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 585.]

=585. Fox Sparrow= (_Passerella iliaca_). L. 7.2. Back _streaked_,
gray and reddish brown; tail and spots below bright reddish brown.
_Notes._ Call, a weak _tseep_; song, loud, sweet, varied, ringing and

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Magdalen Islands and
Manitoba, northwest to Alaska; winters from Virginia to the Gulf

  [Illustration: 585a.]

=585a. Shumagin Fox Sparrow= (_P. i. unalaschensis_). Back _not_
distinctly streaked, much paler than No. 585; spots below grayish
brown; palest of present group.

Range.--Alaska, Shumagin Islands, and Alaskan Peninsula to Cook Inlet.

=--Kadiak Fox Sparrow= (_P. i. insularis_). Similar to No. 585a, but
browner above and below; tail nearly same as back; breast spots

Range.--"Kadiak Island, Alaska, in summer; in winter south along the
coast slope to southern California." (Ridgw.)

=--Sooty Fox Sparrow= (_P. i. fuliginosa_). _Ads._ Above, including
wings and tail, uniform brownish umber, _unstreaked_; below heavily
spotted with same.

Range.--Coast of British Columbia and northwest Washington;
south in winter to San Francisco, California. (Ridgw.)

=--Townsend Fox Sparrow= (_P. i. townsendi_). Similar to _fuliginosa_
but more rufous.

Range.--Southern Alaska north to Cross Sound; south in winter to
northern California. (Ridgw.)

=--Yakutat Fox Sparrow= (_P. i. annectens_). Similar to _townsendi_
but less rufous; very near _fuliginosa_, but not quite so deeply

Range.--Coast of Alaska, from Cross Sound to Prince William Sound
(to Cook Inlet?); in winter, south to California. (Ridgw.)

=585b. Thick-billed Sparrow= (_P. i. megarhyncha_). L. 7.3; W. 3.3;
depth of B. at base, .4. _Ads._ Above and spots below _gray_; wings
and tail light brown; bill large. _Notes._ Song, resembles that of
No. 585, but is recognizably different.

Range.--Breeding in the Sierra Nevada (both slopes) from Mt. Shasta
southward; in winter beyond Sierras as far as Los Angeles County,
California. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 585c.]

=585c. Slate-colored Sparrow= (_P. i. schistacea_). Similar to No.
585b, but smaller, bill smaller; W. 3.2; depth of B. at base, .35.

Range.--Rocky Mountain district of United States and British Columbia;
breeds from more eastern ranges of Colorado west to White Mountains in
southeastern Colorado, mountains of northeastern California and
eastern Oregon; north to interior of British Columbia; in migrations,
New Mexico, Arizona, western slopes of Sierra Nevada, western Kansas.

=585d. Stephens Sparrow= (_P. i. stephensi_). Similar in coloration to
No. 585b, but larger, the bill conspicuously so; W. 3.4; depth of
B. at base .6. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Breeding on San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains; southern
California. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 674.]

=674. Oven-bird= (_Seiurus aurocapillus_). L. 6.1. _Ads._ No
wing-bars; no white in tail; above brownish olive-green; crown
orange-brown bordered by black; below white streaked with black.
_Notes._ Call, a weak _cheep_; song, a crescendo _teacher_ repeated
about five times; also a wild, ecstatic flight song.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Rockies; breeds from
Virginia and Kansas north to Labrador and northwest to Alaska;
winters from Florida south to West Indies and Central America. (Said
to breed in Bahamas.)

  [Illustration: 675.]

=675. Water-Thrush= (_Seiurus noveboracensis_). L. 6; W. 3. A whitish
line over eye; above olive; below pale _sulphur yellow_ heavily
streaked with blackish; _throat spotted_; no wing-bars or
tail-patches. _Notes._ Call, a sharp _chink_; song, a high-pitched,
liquid whistle, _sweet_, _sweet_, _sweet_, _chu-chu-wee chu_. (Jones.)
Also a flight song.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New England and
northern Illinois, north to Newfoundland and Hudson Bay, and south
along the Alleghanies to West Virginia; winters from Florida to
northern South America.

=675a. Grinnell Water-Thrush= (_S. n. notabilis_). Similar to No. 675,
but larger, W. 3.1; upperparts darker, less olive; underparts less

Range.--Western North America; breeds from Minnesota, western
Nebraska, and probably more northern Rocky Mountain district of United
States, north to Alaska; winters from southern United States
southward; in migration east to Mississippi valley, rarely to Atlantic
States from New Jersey southward.

  [Illustration: 676.]

=676. Louisiana Water-Thrush= (_Seiurus motacilla_). L. 6.2. _Ads._
A _white_ line over eye; above grayish olive; below _buffy_ white;
breast and sides streaked; _no_ spots on throat; no wing-bars or
tail-patches. _Notes._ Call, a sharp, metallic _chink_; song, a sudden
outburst of loud wild, ringing notes; also a flight song.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Gulf States to Connecticut,
lower Hudson Valley, and Minnesota; winters in tropics.

  [Illustration: 697.]

=697. American Pipit: Titlark= (_Anthus pensilvanicus_). L. 6.4. Hind
toe-nail much the longest. _Ads._ Outer tail-feather largely white;
next one only tipped with white; upperparts grayish brown indistinctly
streaked; underparts rich buff, breast and _sides_ streaked with
blackish. _Yng. and Ads. in Winter._ Less gray above, paler below.
_Notes._ Call, a soft _dee-dee_ usually uttered in flight; a flight

Range.--North America breeding in Arctic regions and in the higher
parts of the Rockies from Colorado northward (also on Mt. Shasta?);
winters from southern California, Nevada and Gulf States south through
Mexico to Central America.

  [Illustration: 700.]

=700. Sprague Pipit= (_Anthus spraguei_). L. 6.2. Hind toe-nail much
lengthened; two outer tail-feathers _largely_ white. _Ads._ Above
streaked with buff and blackish brown; below white tinged with buff;
breast streaked. In winter, similar, but less brown above, less buff
below. _Notes._ Song, uttered on the wing when several hundred feet
above the earth, sweet and far reaching, resembling at beginning song
of Skylark.

Range.--"Interior plains of North America, breeding from plains of the
Yellowstone northward to Saskatchewan district and from the Red River
westward (probably to the Rocky Mountains); south in winter on the
tablelands of Mexico to Puebla; accidental in South Carolina."

  [Illustration: 702.]

=702. Sage Thrasher= (_Oroscoptes montanus_). L. 8.7. _Ads._ Above
brownish gray; below whitish heavily streaked with blackish; outer
tail-feathers _tipped_ with white. _Notes._ Call, a low chuck; song,
deficient in power but possessing sweetness, vivacity and variety;
resembling song of Ruby-crowned Kinglet. (Ridgway.)

Range.--"Western United States from western South Dakota, western
Nebraska and eastern Colorado, north to Montana, west to the Cascades
and Sierra Nevada, south into northern Mexico and Lower California."

  [Illustration: 705.]

=705. Brown Thrasher= (_Toxostoma rufum_). L. 11.5; W. 4.1; B. .95.
_Ads._ Above, wings and tail rufous or rusty brown; below white
heavily streaked with blackish; two white wing-bars. _Notes._ Calls, a
sharp kissing note and a clearly whistled _wheéu_; song, loud,
musical, varied, finished and rich in tone.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from the Gulf States north to
Maine and Manitoba; winters from Virginia and the lower Mississippi
Valley southward.

=706. Sennett Thrasher= (_Toxostoma longirostre sennetti_). L. 11.5;
W. 4; B. 1.1. _Ads._ Similar to No. 705, but wing shorter, bill
longer, upperparts less bright, streaks below blacker. _Notes._
Resemble those of No. 705, but song even finer.

Range.--Southeastern Texas from Corpus Christi south into
northeastern Mexico.

  [Illustration: 713.]

=713? Texan Cactus Wren= (_Heleodytes brunneicapillus couesi_).
L. 8.5. Largest of our Wrens. _Ads._ Above brown, head darker,
back streaked with white; below, _including chin_, heavily marked
with black. _Notes._ A loud, harsh _cack-cack-cack-cack_.

Range.--"Rio Grande region of Texas and adjoining Mexican states,
west to the eastern Desert Tract, south over the Mexican tableland."

=713a. Bryant Cactus Wren= (_H. b. bryanti_). Differs from No. 713b,
in heavier spotting below, and in perfectly barred tail and slight
wash of rufous on belly and flanks. (Anthony.)

Range.--"Northern Lower California and southern California, west of
the Coast Range." (Mearns.)

=713b. St. Lucas Cactus Wren= (_H. b. affinis_). Resembling No. 713c,
but all the tail-feathers, except middle pair, barred with white for
their whole length; flanks white or very pale buff, with large rounded
or tear-shaped spots. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Southern Lower California.

=713c? Desert Cactus Wren= (_H. b. anthonyi_). Similar to No. 713, but
paler above; chin _without_ spots.

Range.--Interior deserts of the southwestern United States, south into
Mexico and northeastern Lower California. (Mearns.)

  [Illustration: 755.]

=755. Wood Thrush= (_Hylocichla mustelina_). L. 8.2. _Ads._ Above
bright cinnamon, _brightest on head_; below white with _large_,
_rounded_ black spots. _Notes._ Calls, a sharp _pit-pit_, a liquid
_quirt_, and a soft _tut-tut-tut_; song, both flute-like and
bell-like; sung with frequent pauses and low notes.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Virginia and Kansas to
Vermont, Quebec, and Minnesota; winters in Central America.

  [Illustration: 715.]

=715. Rock Wren= (_Salpinctes obsoletus_). L. 5.7. _Ads._ Rump rusty;
tail tipped and _outer_ feathers barred with pale rusty; above grayish
brown lightly speckled with blackish; below, including belly, whitish;
breast obscurely streaked with brownish. _Notes._ Calls, Wren-like;
song, sweet, varied and Mockingbird-like.

Range.--"Western United States, from the western border of the Plains
to the Pacific, north to Dakota, Montana, and British Columbia; south
on the tablelands of Mexico and Guatemala to Salvador; breeds
throughout its range, and is resident from about the southern, border
of the United States southward." (A.O.U.)

=716. Guadalupe Rock Wren= (_Salpinctes guadeloupensis_). Resembling
No. 715, but darker and browner, with chest, etc., more distinctly
speckled; wings and tail shorter; bill and tarsi longer; W. 2.6; T.
2.2. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 717.]

=717. White-throated Wren= (_Catherpes mexicanus albifrons_). L. 6;
W. 2.7. _Ads._ _Belly_, rump, and _all_ tail-feathers rusty; tail
barred with black; throat white; back rusty brown.

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward into
northeastern Mexico.

=717a. Canon Wren= (_C. m. conspersus_). Similar to No. 717, but
smaller, W. 2.3; tail-bars narrower. _Notes._ Call, a "ringing
_dink_;" song, a series of about seven, loud, ringing whistles uttered
in a regularly descending scale.

Range.--"Great Basin and Rocky Mountain region, from the Sierra Nevada
and Cascades eastward to southern Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado and western
Texas: south on the tableland of Mexico to Aguas Calientes; breeds
nearly throughout its range; resident in southern parts of its United
States distribution." (A.O.U.)

=717b. Dotted Canon Wren= (_C. m. punctulatus_). Similar to No. 717a,
but darker; more nearly resembling No. 717 in colors, but smaller in

Range.--Pacific coast from Lower California north to Oregon; resident.

  [Illustration: 718.]

=718. Carolina Wren= (_Thryothorus ludovicianus_). L. 5.5; W. 2.3;
B. .6. _Ads._ Above bright rust-brown; below washed with same, throat
and line over eye white. _Notes._ Calls, Wren-like; song, a great
variety of loud, musical whistles, _whee-udel_, _whee-udel_, _whee-udel_
or _tea-kettle_, _tea-kettle_, _tea-kettle_, etc.

Range--Eastern United States; breeds from the Gulf States north to the
lower Hudson Valley (and casually Massachusetts), northern Illinois,
and southern Iowa; resident.

=718a. Florida Wren= (_T. l. miamensis_). Similar to No. 718, but
darker above, more deeply colored below; larger, W. 2.4; B. .7.

Range.--Florida, from Pasco and Brevard counties southward.

=718b. Lomita Wren= (_T. l. lomitensis_). Similar to No. 718, but
browner, less rufous above, rump with more white spots; below paler,
the flanks usually barred.

Range.--Southeastern Texas.

  [Illustration: 719.]

=719. Bewick Wren= (_Thryomanes bewickii_). L. 5; W. 2.2; T. 2.1.
_Ads._ Above rich, dark cinnamon-brown, tail grayer; below grayish
white; all but middle pair of tail-feathers _black_, outer ones
barred, others tipped with grayish. _Notes._ Call, "a soft, low,
_plit_;" song, strongly suggesting that of Song Sparrow.

Range.--Mississippi Valley west to the Plains, north to Lat. 40°, east
to Alleghanies and locally to Atlantic States from southern New Jersey
to Georgia.

=719a. Vigors Wren= (_T. b. spilurus_). Similar to No. 719, but
smaller, W. 2; upperparts less cinnamon or reddish.

Range.--California, west of Sierra Nevada and south to Santa Cruz
Island. (Bailey.)

=719b. Baird Wren= (_T. b. leucogaster_). Similar to No. 719c,
but upperparts grayer.

Range.--"Western Texas to southeastern California, and from southern
Nevada Utah, and Colorado south over tablelands of Mexico to
Zacatecas." (Bailey.)

=719c. Texas Bewick Wren= (_T. b. cryptus_). Similar to No. 719, but
grayer, brown of upperparts not so rich; slightly larger, W. 2.3.

Range.--"Texas, except the extreme western corner, states of Nuevo
Leon and Tamaulipas, in Mexico, with probably Kansas, Indian Territory
and Oklahoma; migratory north of Texas." (Oberholser.)

=719d. Southwest Bewick Wren= (_T. b. charienturus_). Similar to
No. 719b but flanks and upper surface darker, eye-stripe rather
broader, under tail-coverts more heavily barred, wing shorter, 2.

Range.--Coast region of southern California, north to about Pasadena,
south to Lat. 28°, Lower California, Santa Catalina Island; resident.

=729e. Northwest Bewick Wren= (_T. b. calophonus_). Similar to
No. 719a, but bill larger, upper surface usually rather deeper and
richer brown, flanks somewhat more rufescent; W. 2.1; B. .6.

Range.--Pacific slope from Oregon north to southern Vancouver Island,
valley of the Fraser River, and slightly farther along the mainland
coast; probably resident. (Oberholser.)

=719.1. San Clemente Wren= (_Thryomanes leucophrys_) Similar to
No. 719d, but flanks and upperparts rather grayer and paler, bill
longer, under tail-coverts less heavily barred. (Oberholser.)

Range.--San Clemente Island, California.

=720. Guadalupe Wren= (_Thryomanes brevicauda_). L. 4.5; W. 1.9.
_Ads._ Resembling No. 719a, but rump with few or no concealed white
spots; tail dull grayish brown, narrowly and indistinctly barred with
dusky, two or three outer feathers with brownish gray tips. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 721.]

=721. House Wren= (_Troglodytes aëdon_). L. 4.7; T. 1.7. _Ads._ Above
cinnamon brown, sometimes obscurely barred; tail the same, _all_ the
feathers barred; below grayish with a brownish wash, lower belly and
flanks usually more or less barred. _Notes._ Call, a scolding
_krrring_; song, a bubbling, rippling, irrepressible little melody.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds north to Maine, Montreal, and
Manitoba; winters from South Carolina and the Lower Mississippi Valley
southward into Mexico.

=721a. Parkman Wren= (_T. a. parkmanii_). Similar to No. 721, but less
cinnamon above; intermediate in color between No. 721 and No. 721b.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from southern California north to
British Columbia; winters from southern California southward.

=721b. Western House Wren= (_T. a. aztecus_). Similar to No. 721, but
much grayer above and paler below; back more frequently barred.

Range.--Western United States from the Sierra Nevada east to the
Mississippi Valley; winters south into Lower California and Mexico.

  [Illustration: 722.]

=722. Winter Wren= (_Olbiorchilus hiemalis_). L. 4; T. 1.2. _Ads._
Above cinnamon, much brighter than in No. 721; below pale cinnamon,
sides and belly heavily barred with blackish. _Notes._ Call,
_chimp-chimp_, resembling call of Song Sparrow; song, tinkling,
rippling, full of trills, runs and grace notes. (Bailey.)

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New England and
northern New York northward, and southward along the Alleghanies to
North Carolina; winters from Massachusetts and Illinois to Florida.

=722a. Western Winter Wren= (_O. h. pacificus_). Similar to No. 722,
but much deeper colored both above and below, and more heavily barred.

Range.--Breeds on the Pacific coast from southern California north to
Alaska; east to Idaho; winters south into Mexico.

=722b. Kadiak Winter Wren= (_O. h. helleri_). Slightly larger and
paler than No. 722a. (Osgood.)

Range.--Kadiak Island, Alaska.

=723. Alaskan Wren= (_Olbiorchilus alascensis_). Resembling No. 722a,
but paler and larger, W. 2.1, B. .6.

Range--Breeds on Kadiak Island, Alaska; winter range unknown.

=723.1. Aleutian Wren= (_Olbiorchilus meligerus_). Similar to No. 723,
but darker, less reddish; rump and upper tail-coverts more evidently
barred; bars on belly heavier. (Oberholser.)

Range.--"Westernmost part of the Aleutian group, Alaska."

=724. Short-billed Marsh Wren= (_Cistothorus stellaris_). L. 4;
T. 1.4; B. .4. _Ads._ _Crown_ and back streaked with whitish;
breast-band, sides and under tail-coverts rusty; wing-coverts tipped
with whitish. _Notes._ Call, like sound produced by striking two
pebbles together; song, _chap--chap--chap-chap_, _chap-chap-chap
p-p-rrr_. (Seton.) (See next page.)

Range.--Eastern North America, ranging west to Utah; breeds from the
Gulf States north to Massachusetts and Manitoba; winters from the Gulf
States southward.

  [Illustration: 724.]

  [Illustration: 725.]

=725. Long-billed Marsh Wren= (_Telmatodytes palustris_). L. 5.2;
T. 1.6; B. .5. _Ads._ Crown and foreback largely black, the latter
with white streaks; a white stripe over eye; rump cinnamon; below
white, sides washed with cinnamon; outer tail-feathers _black_,
broadly barred with pale cinnamon. _Notes._ Call, scolding, a
characteristic Wren-like _cacking_; song, a reedy, guttural, bubbling
trill often sung in flight.

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains; breeds from
the Gulf States north to Massachusetts and Manitoba; winters locally
from Massachusetts, south into Mexico.

=725a. Tule Wren= (_T. p. paludicola_). Similar to No. 725, but upper
tail-coverts barred, middle tail-feathers more distinctly and broadly
barred; underparts usually browner.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from southern California to British
Columbia: winters from Washington to Guatemala.

=725b. Worthington Marsh Wren= (_T. p. griseus_). Similar to No. 725,
but with less black above; upperparts, sides and flanks pale grayish;
dark markings of under tail-coverts, flanks, sides and breast, faint,
confused and inconspicuous, sometimes practically wanting. (Brewster.)

Range.--Coast of South Carolina and Georgia.

=725c. Interior Tule Wren= (_T. p. plesius_). Similar to No. 725a,
but paler.

Range.--"Western United States, except the Pacific coast; north to
British Columbia and Alberta, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas,
south into Mexico." (Oberholser.)

  [Illustration: 725.1.]

=725.1. Marian Marsh Wren= (_Telmatodytes marianæ_). Similar to
No. 725, but upperparts darker; sides and flanks of about same color
as rump; under tail-coverts and sometimes breast barred or spotted
with black.

Range.--Gulf coast of Florida.

  [Illustration: 726.]

=726. Brown Creeper= (_Certhia familiaris americana_). L. 5.6; B. .63.
Tail-feathers stiffened and pointed. _Ads._ Rump _rusty_; a _buffy
white_ band in the wing; back and crown streaked with whitish, black
and rusty; below white. _Notes._ Call, a faint, high, thin _tseep_;
song, "an exquisitely pure, tender song of four notes." (Brewster.)

Range.--Eastern North America: breeds from Maine and Minnesota
(casually Missouri) northward; winters from about the southern
breeding limits to the Gulf States.

=726a. Mexican Creeper= (_C. f. albescens_). Similar to No. 726, but
rump rich rusty brown, back black, crown _black_ streaked with white,
band in wing white.

Range.--Mexican plateau region north to southern Arizona.

=726b. Rocky Mountain Creeper= (_C. f. montana_). Similar to No. 726,
but bill longer, .7; band in wing averaging whiter.

Range.--Rocky Mountains from New Mexico and Arizona northward
to Alaska.

=726c. Californian Creeper= (_C. f. occidentalis_). Similar to
No. 726, but much rustier; prevailing color of upperparts yellowish

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from Santa Cruz Mountains, California,
northward to Alaska.

=726d. Sierra Creeper= (_C. f. zelotes_). Similar to No. 726c, but
colors more dusky and less rufescent; similar to No. 726b, but much
darker; light centers of feathers on head and back much reduced.

Range.--"Southern Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Sierra Nevada of
California." (Osgood.)

  [Illustration: 756.]

=756. Wilson Thrush; Veery= (_Hylocichla fuscescens_). L. 7.5. _Ads._
Above, wings and tail, _uniform_ cinnamon brown; below white, sides
grayish, breast and throat buff rather faintly marked with triangular
spots the color of the back. _Notes._ Call, a clearly whistled
_wheé-you_ and a softer _too-whee_; song, a weird, _spiral_ of blended
alto and soprano tones largely on one note.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Jersey, the
mountains of Pennsylvania, and northern Illinois north to Newfoundland
and Manitoba; winters in Central America.

=756a. Willow Thrush= (_H. f. salicicola_). Similar to No. 756, but
more olive above.

Range.--Rocky Mountains north to British Columbia, east to Dakota;
in migration, casually to Illinois and South Carolina; winters as
far south as southern Brazil.

  [Illustration: 759.]

=759. Alaskan Hermit Thrush= (_Hylocichla guttata_), L. 6.5. W. 3.5;
tail _rufous_, _much_ brighter than back. _Ads._ Eye-ring whitish, not
deep buff; back olive-brown; breast tinged with buff and heavily
spotted with large, wedge-shaped marks.

Range.--Breeds in northwest coast region from British Columbia to
Alaska; in winter south to Mexico.

=759a. Audubon Hermit Thrush= (_H. g. auduboni_). Similar to No. 759,
but larger, W. 4; back grayer, tail paler, flanks less heavily washed
with gray.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region of United States south to Guatemala.

  [Illustration: 759b.]

=759b. Hermit Thrush= (_H. g. pallasii_). Similar to No. 759, but back
and sides browner. _Notes._ Call, a low _chuck_; song, highly musical
and probably exceeding in spiritual quality that of any of our birds.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Michigan, Alleghanies in
Pennsylvania, Catskills, higher mountains of Massachusetts (rarely at
sea level), north to Labrador; winters from New Jersey to Gulf States.

=759c. Dwarf Hermit Thrush= (_H. g. nana_). Similar to No. 759, but
smaller, W. 3.2, back slightly browner.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from Washington south through Sierra
Nevadas; east, in migrations, to Nevada and Arizona; south to Lower
California and western Mexico. (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 757.]

=757. Gray-cheeked Thrush= (_Hylocichla aliciæ_). L. 7.5; W. 4. _Ads._
Tail and back the _same_ color, olive without brownish tinge; eye-ring
and lores _whitish_, cheeks and breast only _slightly_ tinged with
buff, breast with wedge-shaped spots. _Notes._ Doubtless like those of
No. 757a.

Range.--Breeds in Labrador and west to Alaska: migrates through
eastern North America and winters in Central America.

=757a. Bicknell Thrush= (_H. a. bicknelli_). Similar to No. 757, but
smaller, L. 7; W. 3.5. _Notes._ Calls, _pheu_ like that of Veery; a
low _cluck_ like that of Hermit Thrush, and rarely, a pip or _peenk_
like that of Olive-backed Thrush; song, like that of Veery but more
interrupted. (Brewster.)

Range.--Breeds in the high parts of the Catskills and north to White
Mountains and Nova Scotia; winters in tropics.

  [Illustration: 758.]

=758. Russet-backed Thrush= (_Hylocichla ustulata_). L. 7.2; W. 4.
Tail _not_ decidedly more rufous than back. _Ads._ Eye-ring, cheeks,
sides of neck and breast _distinctly buffy_; breast with wedge-shaped
spots; back and _flanks_ olive-brown; tail slightly browner. The most
deeply colored bird of the _ustulata_ group.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from Oregon to Alaska; winters south
to Guatemala.

  [Illustration: 758a.]

=758a. Olive-backed Thrush= (_H. u. swainsonii_). Similar to No. 758,
but back, tail, and flanks without brownish or rufescent tinge.
_Notes._ Call, a liquid _puit_; song, suggesting both that of Hermit
Thrush and the Veery.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds in Alleghanies from Pennsylvania
and the Catskills, north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters in
Central and South America.

=758b. California Olive-backed Thrush= (_H. u. œdica_). Differs from
758 and 758a, in more rufescent coloration on the flanks; sides and
upper surface usually paler than No. 758. (Oberholser.)

Range.--California, except north coast; north in interior to southern
Oregon; south, in winter to Arizona and southern Mexico. (Oberholser.)

=758c. Alma Thrush= (_H. u. almæ_). Similar to No. 758a, but back and
flanks grayer. The palest bird of the _ustulata_ group.

Range.--Alaska, except Yukon Basin, south in Rocky Mountain region,
and west to Utah and eastern Nevada. (A.O.U.)

Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White


=566. White-winged Junco= (_Junco aikeni_). L. 6.5; W. 3.30. _Ads._
Resembling No. 567, but larger, paler, wings generally with two white
bars; _three_ outer tail-feathers mostly or entirely white; fourth
partly white.

Range.--Breeds in Wyoming and western North Dakota; winters in
Colorado, western Kansas, casually to Indiana and Wisconsin. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 567.]

=567. Slate-colored Junco= (_Junco hyemalis_). L. 6.2. W. 3. _Ad._
[Male], _summer_. Head and back gray, the crown sometimes slightly
darker, the feathers usually more or less tipped with brownish; breast
and sides _gray_; belly white; third outer tail-feather with white.
_Ad._ [Female], _summer_. Similar, but brown wash stronger. _Ads.,
winter._ Brown tips to feathers longer, sides sometimes brownish.
_Notes._ Calls, a sharp, kissing note and a rapid _chew-chew-chew_,
song, a simple, twittering trill.

Range.--Eastern North America, breeds from northern New England,
northern New York, and northern Minnesota north to Labrador and
northwest to Alaska; and southward along the Alleghanies to
Pennsylvania; winters south to the Gulf States.

=567e. Carolina Junco= (_J. h. carolinensis_). Similar to No. 567, but
slightly larger, W. 3.2, the upperparts and breast uniform slate-gray
_without_ a brownish wash the bill horn color.

Range.--Alleghanies from Virginia to Georgia.

  [Illustration: 568.]

=568. Pink-sided Junco= (_Junco mearnsi_). L. 6.2. _Ad._ [Male],
_summer_. Sides _broadly_ brownish pink, center of belly white; breast
pale slate-gray, crown darker, back washed with brownish. _Ad._
[Female] in _summer_. Similar to the [Male], but with less pink on
sides, the crown washed with gray. _Ads. winter._ Similar to summer
Ads., but with more brownish.

Range.--Breeds in southern Idaho and south-central Montana; winters
south through Wyoming and Colorado to northern Mexico.

=567.1 Montana Junco= (_Junco montanus_). Similar to No. 568, but with
less pink on the sides, the throat and breast darker slate.

Range.--Breeding from northwestern Montana and northern Idaho north to
northwest Territory and Alberta; in winter south to Mexico, east more
or less irregularly to the Mississippi, Massachusetts, and Maryland.

  [Illustration: 571.]

=571. Baird Junco= (_Junco bairdi_). Back and sides rusty cinnamon,
head gray, throat and breast grayish white, belly white.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 572.]

=572. Guadalupe Junco= (_Junco insularis_). Similar to mearnsi but
smaller, W. 2.7, bill longer, head and breast darker.

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

=571.1. Townsend Junco= (_Junco townsendi_). Similar to No. 567.1, but
with the back grayer, the brownish wash much reduced.

Range.--San Pedro Martir Mountains, northern Lower California.


  [Illustration: 569.]

=569. Gray-headed Junco= (_Junco caniceps_). L. 6.5; W. 3.2; T. 2.9.
_Ads._ Head, breast and _sides_ gray; back reddish brown; _no_ reddish
brown on wings; three outer tail-feathers with white; _upper_ and
lower mandibles pinkish.

Range.--Breeds in mountains of southern Wyoming, Colorado, Utah,
Nevada, and northern New Mexico. (Ridgw.)

=570. Arizona Junco= (_Junco phæonotus palliatus_). L. 6.5; W. 3.2;
T. 2.9. _Ads._ Head gray; underparts _grayish white_; back, and to a
greater or less extent, _wing-coverts_ and _tertials_, reddish brown;
three outer tail-feathers with white; iris _yellow_; upper mandible
blackish, lower _yellowish_. _Notes._ Calls, resemble those of No.
567; song suggests that of Song Sparrow.

Range.--Breeds in mountains of southern Arizona and southward.

  [Illustration: 570a.]

=570a. Red-backed Junco= (_Junco dorsalis_) L. 6.7; W. 3.3; T. 3.
_Ads._ Head gray; underparts _grayish white_; back reddish brown;
_no_ reddish brown on wings; three outer tail-feathers with white;
upper mandible blackish, lower _flesh-color_; iris "brown."

Range.--Breeds on high mountains of New Mexico and central Arizona;
winters south to northern Mexico and western Texas.


  [Illustration: 567a.]

=567a. Oregon Junco= (_Junco oreganus_). L. 6.2; W. 3. _Ad._ [Male],
_summer_. Head, neck, throat and breast black sharply defined from the
mahogany brown back, third outer tail-feather with little or no white;
sides washed with pinkish brown. _Ad._ [Female], _summer_. Head and
breast grayer, back paler. _Ads. winter._ Back deeper, the head and
neck more or less tipped with brown, the breast with gray, these areas
less sharply defined from the back and belly.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from northern British Columbia to
Alaska; winters south to California.

=--Shufeldt Junco= (_J. o. shufeldti_). Similar to No. 567a, but
larger, W. 3.1, brown of back less intense.

Range.--Pacific coast; breeds from Oregon north to British Columbia
(and eastward in humid regions to Montana?); winters south to northern

=567b. Coues Junco= (_J. o. connectens_). Similar to _shufeldti_, but
back paler, brownish gray, breast grayer, sides with less pinkish
brown, head and breast still sharply defined from adjacent areas.

Range.--Breeds in the interior of British Columbia and probably in
arid districts southward (breeding areas not definitely known);
winters southward doubtless to Mexican boundary.

  [Illustration: 567c.]

=567c. Thurber Junco= (_J. o. thurberi_). Similar to No. 567, but back
much paler, a bright pinkish brown; head and breast black as in
No. 567.

Range.--Breeds in mountains from southern Oregon south to southern
California; east to western Nevada.

=567d. Point Pinos Junco= (_J. o. pinosus_). Similar to No. 567c, but
throat and breast slate-color.

Range.--Santa Cruz district of California; breeds from King Mountain,
south at least to Point Sur, County; wanders eastward in winter into
Santa Clara and San Benito Valleys. (Grinnell.)

=733. Plain Titmouse= (_Bæolophus inornatus_). L. 5.5. _Ads._ Head
crested; above grayish _brown_; below grayish _white_, belly white,
sides often buffy. _Notes._ Similar to those of the Tufted Titmouse,
but weaker and less varied. (Ridgw.)

Range.--California, west of the Sierra; north to Oregon.

  [Illustration: 733a.]

=733a. Gray Titmouse= (_B. i. griseus_). Similar to No. 733, but above
_gray_, below whitish _gray_, no buff on sides.

Range.--Southwestern United States: from southeastern California and
Nevada to Colorado and New Mexico.

=733b. Ashy Titmouse= (_B. i. cineraceus_). Similar to No. 733a, but
underparts grayish _white_, not whitish _gray_.

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

=743. Bush-Tit= (_Psaltriparus minimus_). L, 4.2; T. 2.1. _Ads._ Crown
_sooty_ brown; back grayish brown; below brownish white, sides darker.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to Washington.

  [Illustration: 743a.]

=743a. California Bush-Tit= (_P. m. californicus_). Similar to No.
743, but crown much lighter, brighter brown, quite different from the
brownish gray back; underparts paler. _Notes._ When feeding, a faint
_tsit_, _tsit_, _tsit_, _tsit_, when moving about, _tsit_, _tsit_,
_tsit_, _sre-e-e-e_; _tsit_, sre-e-e-e; when a bird is separated from
its companions, same as last but uttered more hurriedly; alarm note, a
greatly intensified _tsit''_; _tsit'_; _tsit'_; _tsit'_: in
presence of Hawk or Owl a shrill, quavering trill, _sre-e-e-e-e-e_.

Range.--California, except the north coast region.

=743b. Grinda Bush-Tit= (_P. m. grindæ_). Similar to No. 743, but back
bluish ash-gray. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Cape Region of Lower California.

  [Illustration: 744.]

=744. Lead-colored Bush-Tit= (_Psaltriparus plumbeus_). L. 4.5. _Ads._
_Crown_ and back bluish gray, sides of head brownish; below dingy
white with a buffy tint on belly.

Range.--Western United States from eastern Oregon and eastern
California east to Wyoming, Colorado, and western Texas.

=744.1. Santa Rita Bush-Tit= (_Psaltriparus santaritæ_). Similar to
No. 744, but smaller, sides of head paler, male with a more or less
distinct blackish line along sides of head as in female of No. 745.
(Ridgw.) (Now considered the same as 745.)

Range.--Santa Rita Mountains, southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 745.]

=745. Lloyd Bush-Tit= (_Psaltriparus lloydi_). L. 4.2. _Ad._ [Male].
Sides of head shining black, crown blue-gray, back browner; chin
blackish, underparts whitish, the belly and sides buffy. _Ad._
[Female]. Sides of head brownish, ear-coverts bordered above by a
narrow black line; no black on chin. _Yng._ Similar to [Female], but
no black in head.

Range.--"Mountains of western Texas, between the Pecos and Rio Grande
Rivers" (Sennett), south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 731.]

=731. Tufted Titmouse= (_Bæolophus bicolor_). L. 6. _Ads._ Head
crested; forehead _black_; above gray; below whitish, sides rusty.
_Notes._ A clearly whistled _péto_, _péto_, and a hoarse _de-de-de_.

Range.--Eastern United States; resident from the Gulf States north to
northern New Jersey and southern Iowa; straying somewhat further north
in summer after breeding.

=731a. Texan Tufted Titmouse= (_B. b. texensis_). Similar to No. 731,
but forehead rusty, upperparts paler.

Range.--Southeastern Texas.

  [Illustration: 732.]

=732. Black-crested Titmouse= (_Bæolophus atricristatus_). L. 6.1.
_Ads._ Head with a _black_ crest; forehead white or tinged with rusty;
back gray; below whitish, sides rusty. _Notes._ An abbreviation of the
call of No. 731, _pete-pete-pete-pete_. (Bailey.)

Range.--"From southeastern Texas west to El Paso, south to eastern
Mexico." (Bailey.)

=751. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher= (_Polioptila cærulea_). L. 4.5; T. 2.
Outer tail-feathers with white, white tip of next to outer one at
least 1.00 long. _Ad._ [Male]. Above bluish gray, forehead narrowly
black; below grayish white. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but lighter gray;
no black on forehead. _Notes._ Call, a twanging _ting_; song, sweet
and varied but of small volume.

Range.--Eastern United States, west to Colorado; breeds from the Gulf
States north to southern New Jersey, and Ontario; wanders casually as
far north as Maine and Minnesota; winters from the Gulf States

=751a. Western Gnatcatcher= (_P. c. obscura_). Similar to No.. 751,
but slightly grayer above; white tip to next to outer tail-feather
_less_ than 1.00 long.

Range.--Western United States from western Texas west to California
and Lower California.

  [Illustration: 752.]

=752. Plumbeous Gnatcatcher= (_Polioptila plumbea_). L. 4.4. Outer web
of outer tail-feather _wholly_ white, inner web black except at tip.
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown shining black, back blue-gray; underparts grayish
white. _Ad._ [Female] _and Yng_. [Male]. Similar, but no black on
head. Yng. [Female]. Back and sides with a brownish wash. _Notes._
Call, a faint mew; song, "a harsh ditty of five notes, something like
a Wren's song with notes like those of a Swallow." (Cooper.)

Range.--Mexican boundary region, from western Texas to southeastern
California and Lower California.

=753. Black-tailed Gnatcatcher= (_Polioptila californica_). L. 4.5;
T. 2.1. Similar to No. 752, but outer vane of outer tail-feather
_black_ margined with white; back darker, underparts much grayer,
flanks brownish.

Range.--Pacific coast region of southern California and northern
Lower California.

  [Illustration: 734.]

=734. Bridled Titmouse= (_Bæolophus wollweberi_). L. 5.2. _Ads._ Head
crested, black and gray; throat black; hind neck with a white band
bounded by black; back olive-gray; below whitish. _Notes._
Chickadee-like but fainter. (Henshaw.)

Range.--Tableland of Mexico north to western Texas and southern

  [Illustration: 738.]

=738. Mountain Chickadee= (_Parus gambeli_). L. 5.5. _Ads._ A white
line over the eye and a black through it; back gray; belly whitish.
_Notes._ A hoarse, _dee-dee-dee_, a two or three-noted _phe-be_
whistle exactly like that of the Chickadee and an exceedingly sweet
three-noted whistle of regular intervals, _d_, _c_, _a_.

Range.--"Mountainous portions of the western United States from the
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, north to
British Columbia, Idaho, etc., and south to northern Lower
California." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 740.]

=740. Hudsonian Chickadee= (_Parus hudsonicus_). L. 5.2; W. 2.6.
_Ads._ Crown hair-brown, back a more yellow brown; sides of head and
neck grayish white; throat black, belly white, sides rusty. _Notes._
_Tscha-dee-dee-dee-dee_; the _dee-dee_ notes repeated with almost
incessant volubility. (Brewer.)

Range.--British America, from the west side of Hudson Bay
northwestward to the Lower Yukon.

=740a. Kowak Chickadee= (_P. h. stoneyi_). Similar to No. 740, but
larger, W. 2.7. above grayer, crown much paler.

Range.--Kowak River region, Alaska.

=740b. Columbian Chickadee= (_P. h. columbianus_). Similar to No. 740,
but grayer above, crown slaty-drab.

Range.--Rocky Mountains from Montana northward; Kenai Peninsula,

=--Canadian Chickadee= (_P. h. littoralis_). Similar to No. 740, but
smaller, W. 2.5, crown duller brown.

Range.--British America east and south of Hudson Bay; northern
New York, northern New England, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia.

=739. Alaskan Chickadee= (_Parus cinctus alascensis_). L. 5.2. _Ads._
Crown _brown_, back _brighter_; sides of head and neck _pure white_;
throat blackish; belly whitish, sides buffy.

Range.--"Northern Alaska and eastern Siberia." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 741.]

=741. Chestnut-backed Chickadee= (_Parus rufescens_). L. 4.6. _Ads._
Back and sides rusty chestnut, crown sooty brown, throat black.
_Notes._ A lisping _the-the-the-te-te_. (Kobbe.)

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon to southern Alaska.

=741a. California Chickadee= (_P. r. neglectus_). Similar to No. 741,
but with only a tinge of rusty on flanks.

Range.--"Coast of California from Monterey County northward."

=741b. Barlow Chickadee= (_P. r. barlowi_). Similar to No. 741a,
but with no rusty on flanks.

Range.--Vicinity of Monterey, California.

  [Illustration: 735.]

=735. Black-capped Chickadee= (_Parus atricapillus_). L. 5.2; T. 2.5.
_Ads._ Cap and throat black; back gray with a brownish tinge; outer
margins of wing-coverts _grayish white_; flanks, cream buff. _Notes._
_Chickadee-dee_, liquid gurgles and chuckling notes and a sweet,
clearly whistled, _phe-be_ or _phe-be-e_.

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from southern Illinois and
Pennsylvania north to Labrador, and south along Alleghanies to North
Carolina; migrates a short distance below its southern breeding

=735a. Long-tailed Chickadee= (_P. a. septentrionalis_). Similar to
No. 735, but tail longer, 2.7, flanks paler, white edgings broader.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region north to British Columbia; east
to Manitoba and the Plains.

=735b. Oregon Chickadee= (_P. a. occidentalis_). Similar to No. 735,
but much darker; flanks grayish.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to Sitka.

  [Illustration: 736.]

=736. Carolina Chickadee= (_Parus carolinensis_). Similar to No. 735,
but smaller, L. 4.6; T. 2., the greater wing-coverts _not_ margined
with whitish. _Notes._ Whistle "_tswee-dee_, _twsee-dee_."

Range.--Southeastern United States north to middle New Jersey, and
southern Illinois; resident from southern New Jersey southward.

=736.a Plumbeous Chickadee= (_P. c. agilis_). Similar to No. 736,
but paler above, whiter below.

Range.--"Eastern and central Texas (Bee, Victoria, Cook, and Concho
Counties, etc.") (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 737.]

=737. Mexican Chickadee= (_Parus sclateri_). Similar to No. 735, but
sides broadly gray like back, black more extended. _Notes._ A rapid,
vigorous double-noted whistle repeated three times, wholly unlike that
of the Chickadee.

Range.--Mountainous portions of the Mexican tableland north to
southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 630.]

=630. Black-capped Vireo= (_Vireo atricapillus_). L. 4.5. _Ad._
[Male]. Crown and cheeks shining black; lores and eye-ring white; back
olive-green; below white, sides tinged with greenish yellow; two
whitish wing-bars. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but black of head duller.
_Yng._ "Top and sides of head dull grayish brown; lores, orbital ring
and lower parts dull buffy white or pale buffy." (Ridgw.) _Notes._ "Of
the general character of the White-eye or _bellii_ type." (Bailey.)

Range.--Breeds in central and western Texas; north to southern Kansas;
winters in southern Mexico.

  [Illustration: 727.]

=727. White-breasted Nuthatch= (_Sitta carolinensis_). L. 6. _Ad._
[Male]. Crown and foreback _bluish_ black; sides of head and neck
grayish white; tertials with _distinct_ black marks rounded at end.
_Ad._ [Female]. Similar but black of head and shoulders washed with
gray. _Notes._ Call, a nasal _yank-yank_ and conversational notes;
song, a tenor, _ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha_, all on the same note.

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains, breeds from
the Gulf States to Minnesota and New Brunswick; resident.

=727a. Slender-billed Nuthatch= (_S. c. aculeata_). Similar to
No. 727, but head usually greenish black; black of tertials less deep
and one next to inner one usually pointed at end.

Range.--Western North America west of the Rockies: breeds from Lower
California north to British Columbia; resident.

=727b. Florida White-breasted Nuthatch= (_S. c. atkinsi_). Similar to
No. 727, but somewhat smaller, wing-coverts and tertials not tipped
with grayish; [Female] with head black as in [Male].

Range.--Florida and north along the coast to South Carolina.

=727c. Rocky Mountain Nuthatch= (_S. c. nelsoni_). Similar to
No. 727a, but larger, W. 3.7, with somewhat more white in tail and
more rusty on flanks and lower belly.

Range.--Wooded mountains of northern Chihuahua and Sonora, Arizona,
New Mexico, Colorado, and northward. (Mearns.)

=727d. St. Lucas Nuthatch= (_S. c. lagunæ_). Similar to No. 727a, but
with the wings and tail shorter, the black tips of the outer
tail-feathers more restricted; W. 3.2; T. 1.7. (Brewster.)

Range.--Higher mountains south of La Paz, Lower California.

  [Illustration: 728.]

=728. Red-breasted Nuthatch= (_Sitta canadensis_). L. 4.6. _Ad._
[Male]. A stripe through the eye and crown, black; line _over_ eye
white; underparts rusty. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but crown gray like
back, line through the eye blackish, paler below. _Notes._ A fine,
thin, nasal, penny-trumpet like, drawled _yna-yna_.

Range.--North America, breeding from the northern portions of the
northern tier of States northward, and southward in the Alleghanies to
Virginia, in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and in the Sierra Nevada
in California; winters irregularly southward to the Gulf States and

  [Illustration: 729.]

=729. Brown-headed Nuthatch= (_Sitta pusilla_). L. 4.3. _Ads._ Crown
brown; a white patch on nape; back bluish gray; below grayish white,
sometimes tinged with buff. _Yng._ Crown whitish. _Notes._ A
conversational, twittering _tnee-tnee_.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States north to Delaware, accidentally
to New York and casually to Missouri.

  [Illustration: 730.]

=730. Pygmy Nuthatch= (_Sitta pygmæa_). L. 4.3. _Ads._ Crown grayish
olive; a whitish patch on nape; a dark brown line through eye; below
white tinged with buff. _Yng._ Crown gray like back. _Notes._ A
metallic, clinking clittick, clittick.,

Range.--Western North America, east to the Rocky Mountains; breeds
from Mexico to British Columbia.

=730a. White-naped Nuthatch= (_S. p. leuconucha_). Similar to No. 730,
but bill larger, crown grayer, back less bluish gray, nape patch more
conspicuous, underparts white with scarcely more than a trace of
buffy. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Lower California.

  [Illustration: 444.]

=444. Kingbird= (_Tyrannus tyrannus_). L. 8.5. Tail tipped with white.
_Ads._ Above slaty, crown blacker with an orange patch. _Yng._
Similar, but no crown-patch. _Notes._ An unmusical, steely chatter.
"A soft and very pleasing song," heard only in the early morning.
(O. T. Miller.)

Range.--North America, breeds from Florida north to New Brunswick and
Manitoba, and from eastern Texas northwest to Utah, Nevada, northeast
California and western British Columbia; winters south of United
States, to Central and South America.

  [Illustration: 445.]

=445. Gray Kingbird= (_Tyrannus dominicensis_). L. 9. _Ads._ No white
tip on tail; an orange crown-patch; under wing-coverts sulphur;
ear-coverts black; above gray; below white. _Notes._ A loud,
chattering, _pitírri_, _pitírri_.

Range.--West Indies, breeding north through Florida along the coast to
South Carolina; winters in Lesser Antilles, Mexico, and Central

  [Illustration: 701.]

=701. American Dipper; Water Ouzel= (_Cinclus mexicanus_). L. 8.
_Ads._ Slaty gray, head and neck browner. In winter more or less
tipped with whitish. _Notes._ Song, remarkably sweet and lively, in
modulation resembling somewhat that of Brown Thrasher, but less
powerful though sweeter in effect. (Ridgway.) Call, a sharp, pebbly

Range.--"The mountainous parts of central and western North America,
from the Yukon Valley and Unalaska to Guatemala; east in the United
States, to the eastern base of the Rocky mountains. Apparently
resident throughout its range." (A.O.U.)

  [Illustration: 704.]

=704. Catbird= (_Galeoscoptes carolinensis_). L. 8.9. _Ads._ Slaty
gray, cap and tail black, under tail-coverts reddish chestnut.
_Notes._ Call, a whining, nasal _tchay_; song, rich, musical, and

Range.--North America; west to British Columbia and rarely Pacific
coast states; breeds from the Gulf States north to New Brunswick and
the Saskatchewan; winters from Gulf States southward.

  [Illustration: 754.]

=754. Townsend Solitaire= (_Myadestes townsendii_). L. 8.5. _Ads._
Brownish gray; eye-ring, tips of outer tail-feathers, a narrow
wing-bar white; wing with a buff band showing in flight. _Notes._
Song, a rich, flowing, Grosbeak-like warbling, sung with great vigor
and freedom and often for comparatively long periods.

Range.--"Western United States, from the Plains westward to the
Pacific coast, north to British Columbia and south in winter to the
southern border of Arizona and northern Lower California; breeds from
the mountains of New Mexico, southern Arizona, and central California

  [Illustration: 621.]

=621. Northern Shrike= (_Lanius borealis_). L. 10.2. Lores grayish.
_Ads._ Above bluish gray; tail black, outer feathers tipped with
white; below white, usually with wavy bars. _Yng._ Above washed with
brown; below more distinctly and more heavily barred _Notes._ Song,
not unlike that of the Brown Thrasher but more disconnected, less

Range.--North America; breeds from Labrador to Alaska; winters south,
irregularly, to Virginia, Kansas, Arizona, and California.

  [Illustration: 622.]

=622. Loggerhead Shrike= (_Lanius ludovicianus_). 9. Lores black.
_Ads._ Underparts white _without_ bars; above bluish gray; rump and
upper tail-coverts little if any paler; tail black, outer feathers
tipped with white. _Yng._ Underparts, head, and rump more or less
narrowly barred. _Notes._ Call, harsh and discordant; song, a series
of guttural gurgles, squeaky whistles.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds from Florida to Virginia; In
Mississippi Valley, northeast to western Pennsylvania, central and
northern New York, Massachusetts, western New Hampshire, Maine, and
British Columbia; migrates down Atlantic States, as well as
Mississippi Valley, and winters in southern States.

=622a. White-rumped Shrike= (_L. l. excubitorides_). Similar to No.
622, but paler above, rump and upper tail-coverts whiter; bill less

Range.--"Western North America, from eastern border of the Plains to
the Pacific, except coast of California, and from Manitoba and the
Plains of the Saskatchewan south over tablelands of Mexico."

=622b. California Shrike= (_L. l. gambeli_). Similar to No. 622, but
rump paler, breast usually with indistinct wavy bars and tinged with

Range.--Pacific coast, from Lower California to British Columbia.

=622c. Island Shrike= (_L. l. anthonyi_). Similar to No. 622b, but
darker and smaller, W. 3.7.

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, California.

  [Illustration: 703.]

=703. Mockingbird= (_Mimus polyglottos_). L. 10.5. _Ads._ Above ashy
gray; below soiled whitish; outer tail-feathers with white;
wing-coverts narrowly tipped with white; primaries white basally.
_Notes._ Call, a harsh, kissing note; song indescribable.

Range.--Southeastern United States and Bahamas, west to northeastern
Texas; breeds north to southern New Jersey (rarely Massachusetts), and
southern Illinois; winters from Virginia and lower Mississippi Valley

=703a. Western Mockingbird= (_M. p. leucopterus_). Similar to No. 703,
but with a very slight brownish tinge below and white areas in wing
averaging larger.

Range.--Southwestern United States and northern Mexico from Indian
Territory and eastern Texas west to California.

  [Illustration: 765.]

=765. Wheatear= (_Saxicola œnanthe_). L. 6; W. 3.7. _Ad._ [Male].
Back gray, upper tail-coverts and base of tail white; below white more
or less washed with buff. _Ad._ [Female]. Browner above and below, no
black through eye. _Ads. in winter and Yng._ Similar to [Female], but
cinnamon brown above, cinnamon below.

Range.--Asia; migrating in summer to Alaska.

=765a. Greenland Wheatear= (_S. œ. leucorhoa_). Similar to No. 765,
but larger, W. 4.

Range.--Western Europe; breeds in Greenland and on adjoining mainland;
rarely south to St. Lawrence; casually to Louisiana.

  [Illustration: 573.]

=573. Black-throated Sparrow= (_Amphispiza bilineata_). L. 5.3._ Ads._
Throat, upper breast, and front of face black; a white stripe over eye
and another at the side of the throat; above grayish brown unstreaked;
outer web of outer tail-feather white, except at tip; at least half
an inch of tip of inner web white. _Notes._ Song, simple but sweet,
three ascending and three descending notes.

Range.--Middle and eastern Texas (except along coast?), north to
Oklahoma and western Kansas; winters from central Texas south into
northeastern Mexico.

=573a. Desert Sparrow= (_A. b. deserticola_). Similar to No. 573, but
above grayer, the white tip to outer tail-feather _less_ than half an
inch long.

Range.--Western United States and northern Mexico, from western Texas
to southeastern California; breeds north to southern Colorado, and
western Nevada; winters south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 602.]

=602. Morellet Seed-eater= (_Sporophila morelleti_). L. 4.6. _Ad._
[Male]. Entire upperparts, cheeks, tail, wings and breast-band black;
bases of wing-feathers, tips to coverts and underparts, except
breast-band, whitish. _Ad._ [Female]. Above grayish brown, below
uniform buffy. _Yng._ [Male]. Variously intermediate between Ad.
[Male] and Ad. [Female]. At least two years evidently required to
reach mature plumage.

Range.--Eastern Mexico, north to southeastern Texas.

  [Illustration: 636.]

=636. Black and White Warbler= (_Mniotilta varia_). L. 5.3. _Ad._
[Male]. Above streaked black and white; throat black or white; belly
white; sides streaked black and white. _Ad._ [Female]. Less black;
whiter below; throat always white. _Notes._ Song, a thin, wiry,

Range.--Eastern North America; breeds from Virginia, Louisiana, and
northern Texas, north to Hudson Bay region; winters from Gulf States
south to northern South America; accidental in California.

  [Illustration: 661.]

=661. Black-poll Warbler= (_Dendroica striata_). L. 5.6. _Ad._ [Male].
Crown black, cheeks white; back streaked, gray and black; below white
streaked with black; wing-bars and tail-spots white. _Ad._ [Female].
No black cap; above olive-green streaked with black. _Yng. and Ad. in
winter._ Above olive-green lightly streaked with black; below
_yellowish_ white; breast obscurely streaked. _Notes._ Song, a
slender, wiry _tree-tree-tree-tree-tree-tree-tree-tree_, rapidly
uttered. (Langille.)

Range.--Eastern North America, west to the Rockies; breeds from
northern New England, northern New York, northern Michigan, and
Colorado, north to Labrador and Alaska; winters in West Indies and
northern South America.

  [Illustration: 665.]

=665. Black-throated Gray Warbler= (_Dendroica nigrescens_). L. 5.
_Ad._ [Male]. Crown, cheeks and throat black, a white stripe at sides
of throat, a yellow line before eye; back gray streaked with black;
wing-bars and tail-patches white. _Ad._ [Female]. Similar, but crown
not always wholly black. _Yng._ Above washed with brownish, black
areas tipped with white. _Notes._ Song, _zee-ee-zee-ee_, _ze_, _ze_,
_ze_, with the quality of the song of _Dendroica virens_ or
_D. cærulescens_.

Range.--Western United States; breeds in mountains from Arizona and
northern Lower California, north to Colorado and Vancouver Island;
winters in Mexico.

  [Illustration: 611.]

=611. Purple Martin= (_Progne subis_). L. 7.8. _Ad._ [Male]. Shining
blue-black, all feathers with dusky bases. _Ad._ [Female]. Above dull
blue-black; breast grayish edged with white; belly whitish. _Yng._
[Male]. Variously intermediate between [Female] and Ad. [Male].

Range.--North America, except Pacific coast; breeds north to
Newfoundland and the Saskatchewan; winters in tropics.

=611a. Western Martin= (_P. s. hesperia_). [Male] similar to [Male]
of No. 611; [Female] belly whiter; forehead grayish.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern Lower California to Washington
(and British Columbia?); winters in tropics.

=611.1. Cuban Martin= (_Progne cryptoleuca_). W. 5.50. _Ad._ [Male].
With feathers of ventral region basally marked with white. _Ad._
[Female] _and Yng_. [Male]. With breast and flanks sooty grayish
brown, belly _pure white_.

Range.--Cuba, north in spring to southern Florida.

  [Illustration: 612.]

=612. Cliff Swallow= (_Petrochelidon lunifrons_). L. 5.5. _Ads._
Throat chestnut, forehead and rump cinnamon-buff; nape gray; crown and
back glossy blue-black, the back streaked with white. _Yng._ Throat
dusky, often mixed with chestnut; back blackish brown; rump
cinnamon-buff, forehead usually with same.

Range.--"North America, north to the limit of trees, breeding south to
the valleys of the Potomac and Ohio, southern Texas, southern Arizona,
and California; Central and South America in winter; not recorded from
Florida or West Indies." (A.O.U.)

=612.2. Mexican Cliff Swallow= (_Petrochelidon melanogastra_). Similar
to No. 612, but smaller, W. 4.1, forehead deeper, usually chestnut,
like throat, rump darker, more rusty.

Range.--Mexico, north to southern Arizona.

  [Illustration: 613.]

=613. Barn Swallow= (_Hirundo erythrogastra_). L. [Male], 7.5;
[Female], 6.5. Tail deeply forked. _Ad._ [Male]. Above glossy
blue-black, forehead chestnut; throat and upper breast chestnut, belly
paler. _Ad._ [Female]. Forehead, and underparts paler; tail less
deeply forked. _Notes._ Song, a sweet, twittering, warbling song. (The
notes of all our Swallows, while simple, are diagnostic but difficult
of description.)

Range.--North America, north to Greenland and Alaska; breeds through
most of range; winters south to southern Brazil.

  [Illustration: 614.]

=614. Tree Swallow= (_Iridoprocne bicolor_). L. 6. _Ads._ Above
steel-blue or steel-green; below white. _Yng._ Sooty gray above; white

Range.--North America; breeds locally from Lat. 41° on Atlantic coast
and Lat. 38° on Pacific coast north to Labrador and Alaska; winters
from South Carolina and southern California to the tropics.

  [Illustration: 615.]

=615. Northern Violet-Green Swallow= (_Tachycineta thalassina
lepida_). L. 5.2; W. 4.5. _Ad._ [Male]. Above bronze-green; upper
tail-coverts greener; an indistinct nape-ring; mark above eye, cheeks
and underparts white; flank-patches white, often showing from above.
_Ad._ [Female]. Much duller, the head browner, _Yng._ Above brownish
sooty with a greenish tinge; a whitish mark above and behind eye;
below white.

Range.--Western United States, from eastern base of Rockies to
Pacific; breeds from Mexico north to British Columbia; winters in
Mexico and Central America.

=615a. St. Lucas Swallow= (_T. t. brachyptera_). Similar to No. 615,
but wing shorter, [Male], 4.1, [Female], 4. (Brewster.)

Range.--Lower California.

  [Illustration: 458.]

=458. Black Phœbe= (_Sayornis nigricans_). L. 7.2. _Ads._ Breast and
head black, back grayer; outer web of outer tail-feather white; belly
black, under tail-coverts white _streaked with dusky_. _Notes._ A
liquid _hip_, a rising _kee-ree_, and a falling _kee-wray_. (Bailey.)

Range.--Mexico, except Yucatan and Pacific coast from Colima
northward, north into Texas, New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona.

=458a. Western Black Phœbe= (_S. n. semiatra_). Similar to No. 458,
but under tail-coverts white without dusky streaks.

Range--Pacific coast of Mexico and United States, from Colima to
Oregon, including most of Arizona. (Nelson.)

  [Illustration: 494.]

=494. Bobolink; Reed bird= (_Dolichonyx oryzivorus_). _Ad._ [Male],
_summer_. Black; nape buffy, lower back, scapulars and upper
tail-coverts white. _Ad._ [Female]. Above yellowish brown streaked
with buff, and black. below yellowish white, sides streaked with
black. _Winter plumage, Ads and Yng._ Like [Female] but yellower.
_Notes._ Song, an irrepressible bubbling outburst of "mad music" often
given on the wing; calls, a blackbird-like _chuck_ and a metallic, far
carrying, _chink_.

Range.--Eastern North America, west to Utah; breeds from northern New
Jersey, Illinois and Kansas, north to Nova Scotia, Manitoba, and
Montana; migrates south through Florida and West Indies, and winters
south of Amazon.

  [Illustration: 534 Winter.]

  [Illustration: 534 Summer.]

=534. Snowflake= (_Passerina nivalis_). L. 6.9. Hind toe-nail twice
as long as shortest toe-nail. _Ad._ [Male], _summer_. Head, rump,
secondaries, outer tail-feathers and below white; rest of plumage
largely black. _Ad._ [Female], _summer_. Similar, but crown blackish,
back edged with rusty or grayish. _Winter._ Above rusty and black,
below white, breast tinged with rusty. _Notes._ Calls, a clearly piped
whistle, and a peculiar _chirr_, often uttered when taking wing; song,
short, simple, but rather sweet. (Minot.)

Range.--Breeds in northern parts of northern hemisphere; in winter
south to northern states; irregularly to Georgia, southern Indiana,
Kansas, Colorado, and eastern Oregon.

=534a. Pribilof Snowflake= (_P. n. townsendi_). Similar to No. 534,
but larger, with relatively longer bill; [Male], W. 4.7; B. .5.

Range.--Aleutian and Commander Islands, Pribilof Islands, Shumagin
Islands. (Ridgw.).

=535. McKay Snowflake= (_Passerina hyperborea_). L. 7.5; W. 4.6; B .4.
Similar to No. 534, but with more white. _Ad._ [Male], _summer_. Back
and scapulars entirely white. _Ad._ [Female], _summer_. Crown and
hindneck white. _Yng._ Not certainly distinguishable from Yng. of No.
534. (Ridgw.)

Range.--Breeds on Hall and St. Mathews Islands, Bering Sea; in winter
west coast of Alaska.

  [Illustration: 605.]

=605. Lark Bunting= (_Calamospiza melanocorys_). L. 7.2. _Ad._ [Male].
Black, patch in wing white, outer tail-feathers tipped, tertials
margined with white. _Ad._ [Female]. Above grayish brown streaked with
blackish; below white conspicuously streaked with black; all but
central tail-feathers with white tips; broad wing-bars buff. _Yng._
[Male]. Variously intermediate between Ad. [Male] and [Female]. (See
page 251).

Range.--Western United States, chiefly east of Rockies; breeds from
western Kansas and eastern Colorado, north to western Minnesota and
Assiniboia; winters in Mexico; irregular west in migrations to Idaho
and southern California.

  [Illustration: 484.]

=484. Canada Jay; Whiskey Jack= (_Perisoreus canadensis_). L. 11.5.
_Ads._ Black of hindhead reaching to back of eye; back, wings, and
tail gray, belly lighter, throat white; forehead buffy white.
_Notes._ _ca-ca-ca_ and a number of peculiar sounds impossible to
reproduce on paper. (Bendire.)

Range.--Eastern North America; Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, northern
New England, northern New York, northern Michigan; northern Minnesota,
north to Newfoundland and Hudson Bay region, west to the Rockies in

  [Illustration: 484a.]

=484a. Rocky Mountain Jay= (_P. c. capitalis_). Similar to No. 484,
but head white, black of hindhead grayer and _not_ reaching to eye.

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico and Arizona north to
Montana and Idaho.

=484b. Alaskan Jay= (_P. c. fumifrons_). Very near to No. 484, but
forehead averaging more yellowish.

Range.--Alaska; interior and west to Cook Inlet, north of southern
coast region.

=484c. Labrador Jay= (_P. c. nigricapillus_). Similar to No. 484, but
black of hindhead deeper and reaching forward as a well defined ring
around the eye; below browner.


  [Illustration: 485.]

=485. Oregon Jay= (_Perisoreus obscurus_). Similar to No. 484, but
back feathers with _light shaft streaks_, forehead less white,
underparts nearly uniform white.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to southern British

=485a. Gray Jay= (_P. o. griseus_). Similar to No. 485, but larger and
grayer; back, etc., deep mouse gray, instead of brown; below grayish
white instead of brownish white. (Ridgw.)

Range.--British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California,
east of Coast and Cascade Ranges. (Ridgw.)

  [Illustration: 491.]

=491. Clarke Nutcracker= (_Nucifraga columbiana_). L. 12. _Ads._ Gray;
wings and middle tail-feathers black, tips of secondaries and outer
tail-feathers white. _Notes._ A loud, harsh, _car-r-car-r_.

Range.--Mountains of western North America, from northern Lower
California, Arizona and New Mexico, north to northern Alaska: casually
east to Mississippi Valley.

  [Illustration: 475.]

=475. American Magpie= (_Pica pica hudsonia_). L. 20. _Ads._ Bill
_black_; scapulars, belly and most of inner margins of primaries
white; wings glossy blue black, tail externally greenish; back and
breast velvety black. _Notes._ _Cack_, _cack_, also garrulous gabble
intermixed with whistling notes. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western North America, east to the Plains, west to Cascade and
Sierra Ranges; breeds from northern New Mexico and northern Arizona
north to Alaska strays farther east in winter.

=476. Yellow-billed Magpie= (_Pica nuttalli_). Similar to No. 475,
but bill and eye-space _yellow_; smaller, L. 18. _Notes._ A harsh,
rasping, _cac-cac-cac_; and a low, rich whistle, audible only at a
short distance.

Range.--California, west of Sierra Nevada, "north to Red Bluff and
south to Santa Paula." (Grinnell.)

  [Illustration: 493.]

=493. Starling= (_Sturnus vulgaris_). L. 8.5; T. 2.5. _Ad. summer_,
Metallic green and purple spotted above with buffy; bill _yellow_.
_Ad. winter._ Similar, but above heavily spotted with brownish buff;
below heavily spotted with white; bill blackish. _Notes._ A
long-drawn, two-noted whistle, the second lower; and a chattering,
metallic call when in flocks.

Range.--Europe and northern Asia; accidental in Greenland; introduced
into New York City in 1890; now common, extending east to New Haven,
Connecticut, north to Ossining, New York, south to Staten Island and
Plainfield, New Jersey.

  [Illustration: 495.]

=495. Cowbird= (_Molothrus ater_). L. 7.9; W. 4.2. _Ad._ [Male]. Head
and neck coffee-brown, body greenish black. _Ad._ [Female]. Brownish
gray, throat lighter. _Yng._ Like [Female]. _Notes._ A metallic
twitter, and by the male, a long-drawn, glassy _kluck-tse-e-e_; and
watery gurgling notes uttered with spread wings and tail.

Range.--United States: rare west of Rockies; breeds from Florida and
Texas north to New Brunswick and Little Slave Lake; west to eastern
Oregon, Nevada, and southeastern California; winters from southern New
Jersey, southern Illinois, Indian Territory, northern Texas, and
southeastern California, southward.

=495a. Dwarf Cowbird= (_M. a. obscurus_). Similar to No. 495,
but smaller, L. 7.5; W. 4.

Range.--Southwestern United States; from Gulf Coast of Texas west
along Mexican boundary to Arizona and Lower California; winters south
of United States.

  [Illustration: 496.]

=496. Red-eyed Cowbird= (_Callothrus robustus_). L. 9. _Ad._ [Male].
Velvety bronze-black; wings and tail shining blue-black. _Ad._
[Female]. Dull black, wings and tail with slight greenish reflections.

Range.--Southern and eastern Mexico north, in spring, to Lower Rio
Grande, Texas.

  [Illustration: 620.]

=620. Phainopepla= (_Phainopepla nitens_). L. 7.5. Crested. _Ad._
[Male]. Shining black; inner vanes of primaries largely white, showing
in flight. _Ad._ [Female]. Dark gray, tail blacker, wing-coverts and
quills narrowly margined with whitish. _Yng._ Like [Female]. _Notes._
Calls, commonest, like call of young Robin; male has also a scold, a
Meadowlark-like note and a harsh _ca-rack_ or _ca-racack_; song, a
jumble of flute-like tones and weak, squeaky notes. (Bailey.)

Range.--Mexico north to western Texas, southern Utah and southern
California; winters from Mexican border southward.

  [Illustration: 509.]

=509. Rusty Blackbird= (_Scolecophagus carolinus_). L. 9.5. _Ad._
[Male]. Nearly uniform greenish black, sometimes with rusty edgings.
_Ad._ [Female]. Slaty gray, generally with some rusty edgings. Winter
plumage of both sexes similar to summer but widely tipped with rusty
above and yellowish rusty below. _Notes._ More musical than those of
other Blackbirds; calls, _tcback_ or _turalee_ repeated several times.

Range.--Eastern North America west to the Plains; breeds from New
Brunswick, northern New England, northern New York, and Manitoba,
north to Labrador and Alaska; winters from Virginia, southern
Illinois, and Kansas, southward.

  [Illustration: 510.]

=510. Brewer Blackbird= (_Scolecophagus cyanocephalus_). L. 10. _Ad._
[Male]. Whole head violet-purple, rest of plumage bright greenish
black. _Ad._ [Female]. Grayish brown, throat paler, wings and tail
greenish black, no rusty. Winter plumage with light grayish brown
edgings to the feathers of the anterior part of the body.
_Notes._ _Chack_ and a loud, shrill whistle. (Bailey.)

Range.--Western North America from the Plains to the Pacific; breeds
from Texas and northern Lower California north to the Saskatchewan and
British Columbia; winters in the southern parts of its range; casually
east to Mississippi River states.

  [Illustration: 511.]

=511. Purple Grackle= (_Quiscalus quiscula_). L. [Male], 12. _Ad._
[Male]. Head, purple, steel-green or steel-blue; back purple, brassy
green or greenish; the feathers _always_ with _iridescent_ bars.
_Notes._ _Tchak_ and a short unmusical call uttered with spread wings
and tail.

Range.--Eastern United States; breeds in lower Mississippi Valley and
east of Alleghanies, from Georgia to Massachusetts; winters from
Virginia southward through its breeding range.

=511a. Florida Grackle= (_Q. q. aglæus_). Similar to 511, but slightly
smaller, head always violet purple; back always bottle-green, with
iridescent bars.

Range.--Florida, north on the Atlantic coast to Virginia, west on the
Gulf Coast to Texas.

=511b. Bronzed Grackle = (_Q. q. æneus_). Head as in No. 511, back and
belly bronze, the feathers _wholly without_ iridescent bars.

Range.--Eastern United States west to the Rockies; breeds from
southern Texas to Great Slave Lake, east to Alleghanies, and, in New
York, east and northeast to Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Labrador;
winters chiefly in lower Mississippi valley; migrates in part east of
the Alleghanies.

  [Illustration: 513.]

=513. Boat-tailed Grackle= (_Megaquiscalus major_). L. [Male], 16;
W. 7.5; T. 7. _Ad._ [Male]. Head and neck glossy purple; back and
belly glossy greenish blue. _Ad._ [Female]. Much smaller, T. 5.2;
above blackish brown; below soiled rusty buff. _Notes._ _Tchack_,
a variety of hoarse, rather forced whistles and a gurgling roll as
of a Coot pattering over the water.

Range.--Florida, north along the coast to Virginia; west along coast
to Texas.

=513a. Great-tailed Grackle= (_M. m. macrourus_). Similar to No. 513,
but larger, [Male], L. 18; T. 9. Foreback and breast, as well as head
and neck, purple, only rump and lower belly greenish blue; [Female]
blacker both above and below than [Male] of 513. _Notes._ _Tchack_,
and a greater variety of squeaky calls and hoarse whistles than are
uttered by No. 513.

Range.--Eastern Texas and south into Mexico.

  [Illustration: 486.]

=486. American Raven= (_Corvus corax sinuatus_). L. 24; W. 16; B. 2.7.
_Ads._ Resembling No. 488, in color but glossier below and with the
feathers of throat narrow and lengthened; nape feathers gray at base.
_Notes._ A hoarse, croaking, _craack-craack_, sometimes a deep,
grunting _koeer-koeer_; a clucking, and a metallic _klunk_. (Bendire.)

Range.--Western North America, from Guatemala north to British
Columbia; east to the Rockies, west to Pacific.

=486a. Northern Raven= (_C. c. principalis_). Similar to No. 486, but
larger, L. 25; W. 17; B. 3.

Range.--Eastern North America, from mountains of northern Georgia and
coast of Maine, north to Greenland; west to the Rocky Mountains.

  [Illustration: 487.]

=487. White-necked Raven= (_Corvus cryptoleucus_). L. 18.5. _Ads._
Blue-black; feathers of throat narrow and lengthened and with feathers
of neck all around, _white at the base_. _Notes._ _Kwank-kwank_, less
loud and penetrating than those of No. 486. (Bendire.)

Range.--Northern Mexico, north to western Kansas, eastern Colorado
(rarely), and southern California; east to western Texas.

  [Illustration: 488.]

=488. American Crow= (_Corvus americanus_). L. 19.3; W. 12.1; B. 2.00.
Black with steel-blue or deep, purplish reflections; below duller,
neck feathers not lengthened. _Notes._ _Caw_, _caw_, with many
variations; song, _car-r-r-uck_, _oo-oo-oo-oo-ah_.

Range.--North America, north to Arctic Circle; winters from northern
United States southward; local in west.

=488a. Florida Crow= (_C. a. pascuus_). Similar to No. 488, but wings
and tail somewhat shorter, bill and feet slightly larger, W. 12;
T. 7.3; B. 2.1.


=489. Northwest Crow= (_Corvus caurinus_). Similar to No. 488 in color
but smaller; L. 16; W. 11; B. 1.7.

Range.--Northwest coast, from Oregon to Kadiak Island, Alaska.

  [Illustration: 490.]

=490. Fish Crow= (_Corvus ossifragus_). L. 16; W. 11; B. 1.5. _Ads._
Resemble No. 488, in color, but back feathers are uniform blue-black
_without_ dull margins; underparts are nearly as bright as upperparts.
_Notes._ A hoarse, nasal, reedy _car_ resembling the call of the young
of No. 488.

Range.--Atlantic coast north to Connecticut, (casually Massachusetts),
west along Gulf coast to Louisiana; resident, except at northern limit
of range.


Of the Birds of America north of Mexico, arranged according to the
American Ornithologists' Union's 'Check-List of North American Birds',
Third Edition 1910, and Supplement[B], July, 1912.

(_The presence of brackets, [ ], indicates that the species is an
accidental visitant_).

  [B] The Auk, xxix, 1912, pp. 380-387.

  [C] Note that trinomials are now employed for all the
      races of a species including the first one described. Hence in
      place of No. 13, Puffin, _Fratercula arctica_, we now have
      No. 13, Puffin, _Fratercula arctica arctica_. (See pages 6 and
      7 for an explanation of this method.)

  [E] Note also that in accordance with a ruling of the
      A.O.U., the apostrophe is used with the names of birds named
      after individuals. Thus in place of No. 16, Cassin Auklet, we
      have No. 16, Cassin's Auklet. These changes affect all similar
      cases throughout the Color Key. After identifying a species,
      therefore, the student should turn to its number in the
      Systematic Table to learn whether any change has been made in
      its name. All alterations other than those of mere nomenclature
      are given beyond in Appendix I.

Order PYGOPODES. Diving Birds

Family COLYMBIDÆ. Grebes.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

    1     Western Grebe             Æchmophorus occidentalis          44
    2     Holbœll's Grebe           Colymbus holbœlli                 43
    3     Horned Grebe                  "    auritus                  43
    4     Eared Grebe                   "    nigricollis californicus 43
    5     Mexican Grebe                 "    dominicus brachypterus   43
    6     Pied-bill Grebe           Podilymbus podiceps               43

Family GAVIIDÆ. Loons.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

   7     Loon                       Gavia immer                       44
   8     Yellow-billed Loon           "   adamsi                      44
   9     Black-throated Loon          "   arctica                     44
  10     Pacific Loon                 "   pacifica                    44
  11     Red-throated Loon            "   stellata                    44

Family ALCIDÆ. Auks, Murres, and Puffins.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  12     Tufted Puffin              Lunda cirrhata                    45
  13     Puffin                     Fratercula arctica arctica[C]     45
  13_a_  Large-billed Puffin            "         "    naumanni       45
  14     Horned Puffin                  "      corniculata            45
  15     Rhinoceros Auklet          Cerorhinca monocerata             45
  16     Cassin's Auklet[E]         Ptychoramphus aleuticus           46
  17     Paroquet Auklet            Phaleris psittacula               47
  18     Crested Auklet             Æthia cristatella                 47
  19     Whiskered Auklet             "   pygmæa                      47
  20     Least Auklet                 "   pusilla                     47
  21     Ancient Murrelet           Synthliboramphus antiquus         47
  23     Marbled Murrelet           Brachyramphus marmoratus          46
  24     Kittlitz's Murrelet              "       brevirostris        46
  25     Xantus's Murrelet                "       hypoleucus          46
  26     Craveri's Murrelet               "       craverii            46
  27     Black Guillemot            Cepphus grylle                    48
  28     Mandt's Guillemot             "    mandti                    48
  29     Pigeon Guillemot              "    columba                   48
  30     Murre                      Uria troile troile                48
  30_a_  California Murre             "    "    californica           48
  31     Brunnich's Murre             "   lomvia lomvia               48
  31_a_  Pallas's Murre               "     "    arra                 48
  32     Razor-billed Auk           Alca torda                        48
  33     Great Auk                  Plautus impennis                  48
  34     Dovekie                    Alle alle                         46

Order LONGIPENNES. Long Winged Swimmers

Family STERCORARIIDÆ. Skuas and Jaegers

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  35     Skua                       Megalestris skua                  51
  36     Pomarine Jaeger            Stercorarius pomarinus            51
  37     Parasitic Jaeger                "       parasiticus          51
  38     Long-tailed Jaeger              "       longicaudus          51

Family LARIDÆ. Gulls and Terns

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  39     Ivory Gull                Pagophila alba                     52
  40     Kittiwake                 Rissa tridactyla tridactyla        52
  40_a_  Pacific Kittiwake           "       "      pollicaris        52
  41     Red-legged Kittiwake      Rissa brevirostris                 52
  42     Glaucous Gull             Larus hyperboreus                  53
  43     Iceland Gull                "   leucopterus                  53
  44     Glaucous-winged Gull        "   glaucescens                  53
  45     Kumlien's Gull              "   kumlieni                     53
  46     Nelson's Gull               "   nelsoni                      53
  47     Great Black-backed Gull     "   marinus                      54
  48     Slaty-backed Gull           "   schistisagus                 54
  49     Western Gull                "   occidentalis                 54
 [50]    Siberian Gull               "   affinis                    A.V.
  51     Herring Gull                "   argentatus                   55
 [52]    Vega Gull                   "   vegæ                       A.V.
  53     California Gull             "   californicus                 55
  54     Ring-billed Gull            "   delawarensis                 52
  55     Short-billed Gull           "   brachyrhynchus               52
 [56]    Mew Gull                    "   canus                      A.V.
  57     Heermann's Gull             "   heermanni                    54
  58     Laughing Gull               "   atricilla                    56
  59     Franklin's Gull             "   franklini                    56
  60     Bonaparte's Gull            "   philadelphia                 56
 [60.1]  Little Gull                 "   minutus                    A.V.
  61     Ross's Gull               Rhodostethia rosea                 56
  62     Sabine's Gull             Xema sabini                        56
  63     Gull-billed Tern          Gelochelidon nilotica              58
  64     Caspian Tern              Sterna caspia                      57
  65     Royal Tern                  "    maxima                      57
  66     Elegant Tern                "    elegans                     57
  67     Cabot's Tern                "    sandvicensis acuflavida     57
 [68]    Trudeau's Tern              "    trudeaui                  A.V.
  69     Forster's Tern              "    forsteri                    59
  70     Common Tern                 "    hirundo                     59
  71     Arctic Tern                 "    paradisæa                   59
  72     Roseate Tern                "    dougalli                    59
  73     Aleutian Tern               "    aleutica                    58
  74     Least Tern                  "    antillarum                  58
  75     Sooty Tern                  "    fuscata                     60
 [76]    Bridled Tern                "    anætheta                    58
  77     Black Tern                Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis   60
 [78]    White-winged Black Tern        "        leucoptera         A.V.
  79     Noddy                     Anous stolidus                     60

Family RYNCHOPIDÆ. Skimmers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

   80     Black Skimmer             Rynchops nigra                    60

Order TUBINARES. Tube-nosed Swimmers

Family DIOMEDEIDÆ. Albatrosses.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

   81     Black-footed Albatross    Diomedea nigripes                 62
   82     Short-tailed Albatross       "    albatrus                  62
   82.1   Laysan Albatross             "    immutabilis               62
  [83]    Yellow-nosed Albatross    Thalassogeron culminatus          62
  [84]    Sooty Albatross           Phœbetria palpebrata              62

Family PROCELLARIIDÆ. Fulmars, Shearwaters, and Petrels.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  [85]   Giant Fulmar               Macronectes giganteus           A.V.
   86    Fulmar                     Fulmarus glacialis glacialis      63
   86_b_ Pacific Fulmar                "         "     glupischa      63
   86.1  Rodger's Fulmar               "     rodgersi                 63
   87    Slender-billed Fulmar      Priocella glacialoides            63
 [102]   Pintado Petrel             Daption capense                 A.V.
   88    Cory's Shearwater          Puffinus borealis                 64
   89    Greater Shearwater            "     gravis                   64
  [90]   Manx Shearwater               "     puffinus               A.V.
   91    Pink-footed Shearwater        "     creatopus                64
   92    Audubon's Shearwater       Puffinus lherminieri              64
  [92.1] Allied Shearwater             "     assimilis              A.V.
   93    Black-vented Shearwater       "     opisthomelas             64
   93.1  Townsend's Shearwater         "     auricularis              64
   95    Sooty Shearwater              "     griseus                  63
   96    Slender-billed Shearwater     "     tenuirostris             64
   96.1  Wedge-tailed Shearwater       "     cuneatus                 63
  [96.2] New Zealand Shearwater        "     bulleri                A.V.
  [97]   Black-tailed Shearwater    Priofinus cinereus              A.V.
  [98]   Black-capped Petrel        Æstrelata hasitata                65
  [99]   Scaled Petrel                 "      scalaris              A.V.
  100    Fisher's Petrel               "      fisheri               A.V.
 [101]   Bulwer's Petrel            Bulweria bulweri                A.V.
  103    Least Petrel               Halocyptena microsoma             65
  104    Stormy Petrel              Thalassidroma pelagica            66
  105    Forked-tailed Petrel       Oceanodroma furcata               65
  105.2  Kaeding's Petrel           Oceanodroma kaedingi              65
  106    Leach's Petrel                  "      leucorhoa             66
  106.1  Guadalupe Petrel                "      macrodactyla          66
 [106.2] Hawaiian Petrel                 "      castro              A.V.
  107    Black Petrel                    "      melania               66
  108    Ashy Petrel                     "      homochroa             65
  108.1  Socorro Petrel                  "      socorroensis          66
  109    Wilson's Petrel            Oceanites   oceanicus             66
 [110]   White-bellied Petrel       Fregetta grallaria              A.V.
 [111]   White-faced Petrel         Pelagodroma marina              A.V.

Order STEGANOPODES. Totipalmate Swimmers

Family PHAËTHONTIDÆ. Tropic Birds.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  112    Yellow-billed Tropic-bird  Phaëthon americanus               69
  113    Red-billed Tropic-bird        "     æthereus                 69
 [113.1] Red-tailed Tropic-bird        "     rubricaudus            A.V.

Family SULIDÆ. Gannets.

  No.       COMMON NAME               SCIENTIFIC NAME               Page

 [114]  Blue-faced Booby            Sula cyanops                      70
  114.1 Blue-footed Booby            "   nebouxi                      70
  115   Booby                        "   leucogastra                  70
  115.1 Brewster's Booby             "   brewsteri                    70
 [116]  Red-footed Booby             "   piscator                     70
  117   Gannet                       "   bassana                      69

Family ANHINGIDÆ. Darters.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  118  Water-Turkey                 Anhinga anhinga                   73

Family PHALACROCORACIDÆ. Cormorants.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  119     Cormorant                 Phalacrocorax carbo               70
  120     Double-crested Cormorant       "        auritus auritus     71
  120_a_  Florida Cormorant              "      "    floridanus       71
  120_b_  White-crested Cormorant        "      "    cincinatus       71
  120_c_  Farallon Cormorant             "      "    albociliatus     71
  121     Mexican Cormorant              "   vigua mexicanus          71
  122     Brandt's Cormorant             "   penicillatus             72
  123     Pelagic Cormorant              "   pelagicus pelagicus      72
  123_a_  Violet-green Cormorant         "      "      robustus       72
  123_b_  Baird's Cormorant              "      "   resplendens       72
  124     Red-faced Cormorant            "        urile               72

Family PELECANIDÆ. Pelicans.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  125     White Pelican             Pelecanus erythrorhynchos         73
  126     Brown Pelican                "      occidentalis            73
  127     California Brown Pelican     "      californicus            73

Family FREGATIDÆ. Man-o'-War Birds.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  128     Man-o'-war-bird           Fregata aquila                    73

Order ANSERES. Lamellirostral Swimmers

Family ANATIDÆ. Ducks, Geese, and Swans.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  129    American Merganser           Mergus americanus               76
  130    Red-breasted Merganser         "    serrator                 76
  131    Hooded Merganser             Lophodytes cucullatus           76
 [131.1] Smew                         Mergellus albellus            A.V.
  132    Mallard                      Anas platyrhynchos              76
  133    Black Duck                    "   rubripes                   77
  134    Florida Duck                  "   fulvigula fulvigula        77
  134_a_ Mottled Duck                    "       "     maculosa       77
  135    Gadwall                      Chaulelasmus streperus          77
  136    European Widgeon             Mareca penelope                 77
  137    Baldpate                       "    americana                77
 [138]   European Teal                Nettion crecca                A.V.
  139    Green-winged Teal              "     carolinense             78
  140    Blue-winged Teal             Querquedula discors             78
  141    Cinnamon Teal                   "        cyanoptera          78
 [141.1] Ruddy Sheldrake              Casarca ferruginea            A.V.
  142    Shoveller                    Spatula clypeata                78
  143    Pintail                      Dafila acuta                    76
  144    Wood Duck                    Aix sponsa                      78
 [145]   Rufous-crested Duck          Netta rufina                  A.V.
  146    Redhead                      Marila americana                79
  147    Canvas-back                    "    valisineria              79
  148    American Scaup Duck            "    marila                   79
  149    Lesser Scaup Duck              "    affinis                  79
  150    Ring-necked Duck               "    collaris                 79
  151    American Golden-eye          Clangula clangula americana     80
  152    Barrow's Golden-eye            "     islandica               80
  153    Buffle-head                  Charitonetta albeola            80
  154    Old-squaw                    Harelda hyemalis                81
  155    Harlequin Duck               Histrionicus histrionicus       81
  156    Labrador Duck                Camptorhynchus labradorius      81
  157    Steller's Eider              Polysticta stelleri             81
  158    Spectacled Eider             Arctonetta fischeri             82
  159    Northern Eider               Somateria mollissima borealis   82
  160    American Eider                  "      dresseri              82
  161    Pacific Eider                   "    v-nigra                 82
  162    King Eider                      "   spectabilis              82
  163    American Scoter              Oidemia americana               83
  [164]  Velvet Scoter                   "    fusca                 A.V.
  165    White-winged Scoter             "    deglandi                83
  166    Surf Scoter                     "    perspicillata           83
  167    Ruddy Duck                   Erismatura jamaicensis          80
  [168]  Masked Duck                  Nomonyx dominicus               80
  169    Lesser Snow Goose            Chen hyperboreus hyperboreus    84
  169_a_ Greater Snow Goose              "       "       nivalis      84
  169.1  Blue Goose                    "   cærulescens                85
  170    Ross's Goose                  "   rossi                      84
 [171]   European White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons albifrons     A.V.
  171_a_ White-fronted Goose           "       "      gambeli         85
 [171.1] Bean Goose                    "     fabalis                A.V.
 [171.2] Pink-footed Goose             "    brachyrhynchus          A.V.
  172 Canada Goose                  Branta canadensis canadensis      86
  172_a_ Hutchins's Goose               "       "      hutchinsi      86
  172_b_ White-cheeked Goose            "       "      occidentalis   86
  172_c_ Cackling Goose                 "       "      minima         86
  173_a_ Brant                          "    bernicla glaucogastra    86
  174    Black Brant                    "    nigricans                86
 [175]   Barnacle Goose                 "    leucopsis               A.V.
  176    Emperor Goose              Philacte canagica                 85
  177    Black-bellied Tree-duck    Dendrocygna autumnalis            83
  178    Fulvous Tree-duck            "      bicolor                  83
 [179]   Whooper Swan               Olor cygnus                     A.V.
  180    Whistling Swan               "  columbianus                  84
  181    Trumpeter Swan               "  buccinator                   84

Order ODONTOGLOSSÆ. Lamellirostral Grallatores

Family PHOENICOPTERIDÆ. Flamingoes.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  182    Flamingo                   Phoenicopterus ruber              89

Order HERODIONES. Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc.

Family PLATALEIDÆ. Spoonbills.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  183    Roseate Spoonbill          Ajaia ajaja                       89

Family IBIDIDÆ. Ibises.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  184    White Ibis                 Guara alba                        90
 [185]   Scarlet Ibis                 "   rubra                       89
  186    Glossy Ibis                Plegadis autumnalis               90
  187    White-faced Glossy Ibis      "   guarauna                    90

Family CICONDIIDÆ. Storks and Wood Ibises.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  188    Wood Ibis                  Mycteria americana                90
 [189]   Jabiru                     Jabiru mycteria                 A.V.

Family ARDEIDÆ. Herons, Bitterns, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  190    American Bittern           Botaurus lentiginosus             91
  191    Least Bittern              Ixobrychus exilis                 91
  191.1  Cory's Least Bittern           "      neoxenus               91
  192    Great White Heron          Ardea occidentalis                92
  194    Great Blue Heron             "   herodias herodias           93
  194_a_ Northwestern Coast Heron       "      "     fannini          93
  194_b_ Ward's Heron                   "      "     wardi            93
  [195]  European Heron               "   cinerea                   A.V.
  196    American Egret             Herodias egretta                  92
  197    Snowy Egret                Egretta candidissima candidissima 92
  197_a_ Brewster's Egret               "          "     brewsteri   294
  198    Reddish Egret              Dichromanassa rufescens           94
  199    Louisiana Heron            Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis    94
  200    Little Blue Heron          Florida cærulea                   94
  201    Green Heron                Butorides virescens virescens     94
  201_a_ Frazar's Green Heron            "          "     frazari     94
  201_b_ Anthony's Green Heron           "          "     anthonyi    94
  202    Black-crowned Night Heron  Nycticorax nycticorax nævius      93
  203    Yellow-crowned Night Heron Nyctanassa violacea               93

Order PALUDICOLÆ. Cranes, Rails, etc.

Family GRUIDÆ. Cranes.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  204    Whooping Crane             Grus americana                    96
  205    Little Brown Crane          "   canadensis                   96
  206    Sandhill Crane              "   mexicana                     96

Family ARAMIDÆ. Courlans.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  207   Limpkin                     Aramus vociferus                  96

Family RALLIDÆ. Rails, Gallinules, and Coots.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  208    King Rail                  Rallus elegans                    97
  209    Belding's Rail                "   beldingi                   97
  210    California Clapper Rail       "   obsoletus                  97
  210.1  Light-footed Rail             "   levipes                   294
  211    Clapper Rail                  "   crepitans crepitans        98
  211_a_ Louisiana Clapper Rail        "         "     saturatus      98
  211_b_ Florida Clapper Rail          "         "      scotti        98
  211_c_ Wayne's Clapper Rail          "         "      waynei        98
  211.2  Caribbean Clapper Rail        "    longirostris caribæus     98
  212    Virginia Rail                 "    virginianus               97
 [213]   Spotted Crake              Porzana porzana                 A.V.
  214    Sora                          "    carolina                  98
  215    Yellow Rail                Coturnicops noveboracensis        97
  216    Black Rail                 Creciscus jamaicensis             98
  216.1  Farallon Rail                   "    coturniculus           294
 [217]   Corn Crake                 Crex crex                       A.V.
  218    Purple Gallinule           Ionornis martinicus               99
  219    Florida Gallinule          Gallinula galeata                 99
 [220]   European Coot              Fulica atra                     A.V.
  221    Coot                          "   americana                  99

Order LIMICOLÆ. Shore Birds.

Family PHALAROPODIDÆ. Phalaropes.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  222    Red Phalarope              Phalaropus fulicarius            102
  223    Northern Phalarope         Lobipes lobatus                  102
  224    Wilson's Phalarope         Steganopus tricolor              102

Family RECURVIROSTRIDÆ. Avocets and Stilts.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  225    Avocet                     Recurvirostra americana          103
  226    Black-necked Stilt         Himantopus mexicanus             105

Family SCOLOPACIDÆ. Snipes, Sandpipers, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [227]   European Woodcock          Scolopax rusticola              A.V.
  228    Woodcock                   Philohela minor                  105
 [229]   European Snipe             Gallinago gallinago             A.V.
  230    Wilson's Snipe                "      delicata               105
 [230.1] Great Snipe                   "  media                     A.V.
  231    Dowitcher                  Macrorhamphus griseus griseus    106
  232    Long-billed Dowitcher         "           "   scolopaceus   106
  233    Stilt Sandpiper            Micropalama himantopus           106
  234    Knot                       Tringa canutus                   106
  235    Purple Sandpiper           Arquatella maritima maritima     107
  235_a_ Aleutian Sandpiper            "           "   couesi        107
  235_b_ Pribilof Sandpiper            "           "   ptilocnemis   108
  238    Sharp-tailed Sandpiper     Pisobia aurita                   109
  239    Pectoral Sandpiper            "    maculata                 109
  240    White-rumped Sandpiper        "    fuscicollis              109
  241    Baird's Sandpiper             "    bairdi                   109
  242    Least Sandpiper               "    minutilla                109
 [242.1] Long-toed Stint               "    damacensis              A.V.
 [243]   Dunlin                     Pelidna alpina alpina           A.V.
  243_a_ Red-backed Sandpiper          "       "   sakhalina         108
  244    Curlew Sandpiper           Erolia ferruginea                106
 [245]   Spoonbill Sandpiper        Eurynorhynchus pygmæus          A.V.
  246    Semipalmated Sandpiper     Ereunetes pusillus               108
  247    Western Sandpiper             "       mauri                 108
  248    Sanderling                 Calidris leucophæa               108
  249    Marbled Godwit             Limosa fedoa                     110
  250    Pacific Godwit                "   lapponica baueri          110
  251    Hudsonian Godwit              "   hæmastica                 110
 [252]   Black-tailed Godwit           "   limosa                   A.V.
 [253]   Green-shank                Glottis nebularia               A.V.
 [253.1] Red-shank                  Totanus totanus                 A.V.
  254    Greater Yellow-legs           "    melanoleucus             111
  255    Yellow-legs                   "    flavipes                 111
  256    Solitary Sandpiper         Helodromas solitarius solitarius 107
  256_a_ Western Solitary Sandpiper    "          "      cinnamomeus 107
 [257]   Green Sandpiper               "       ocrophus              A.V.
  258    Willet                     Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
                                                        semipalmatus 111
  258_a_ Western Willet             Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
                                                           inornatus 111
  259    Wandering Tatler           Heteractitis incanus             111
 [260]   Ruff                       Machetes pugnax                 A.V.
  261    Upland Plover              Bartramia longicauda             105
  262    Buff-breasted Sandpiper    Tryngites subruficollis          105
  263    Spotted Sandpiper          Actitis macularia                107
  264    Long-billed Curlew         Numenius americanus              103
  265    Hudsonian Curlew           Numenius hudsonicus              103
  266    Eskimo Curlew                   "     borealis              103
 [267]   Whimbrel                        "     phæopus              A.V.
  268    Bristle-thighed Curlew          "     tahitiensis           295

Family CHARADRIIDÆ. Plovers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [269] Lapwing                      Vanellus vanellus               A.V.
 [269.1] Dotterel                   Eudromias morinellus            A.V.
  270 Black-bellied Plover          Squatarola squatarola            110
 [271] European Golden Plover       Charadrius apricarius           A.V.
  272 Golden Plover                     "      dominicus dominicus   110
  272_a_ Pacific Golden Plover          "          "     fulvus      110
  273 Killdeer                      Oxyechus vociferus               112
  274 Semipalmated Plover           Ægialitis semipalmata            112
  275 Ringed Plover                     "     hiaticula              112
 [276] Little Ringed Plover             "     dubia                 A.V.
  277 Piping Plover                     "     meloda                 112
  278 Snowy Plover                      "     nivosa                 112
 [279] Mongolian Plover                 "     mongola               A.V.
  280 Wilson's Plover               Ochthodromus wilsonius           112
  281 Mountain Plover               Podasocys montanus               105

Family APHRIZIDÆ. Surf Birds and Turnstones.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  282    Surf-bird                  Aphriza virgata                 111
  283    Turnstone                  Arenaria interpres interpres    102
  283_a_ Ruddy Turnstone                "        "       morinella  102
  284    Black Turnstone                "    melanocephala          107

Family HÆMATOPODIDÆ. Oyster-Catchers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [285]   European Oyster-catcher    Hæmatopus ostralegus            A.V.
  286    Oyster-catcher                "      palliatus              104
  286.1  Frazar's Oyster-catcher       "      frazari                104
  287    Black Oyster-catcher          "      bachmani               104

Family JACANIDÆ. Jacanas.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [288]   Mexican Jacana             Jacana spinosa                   102

Order GALLINÆ. Gallinaceous Birds

Family ODONTOPHORIDÆ. Bob-whites, Quails, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

 289 Bob-white                       Colinus virginianus virginianus    115
 289_a_ Florida Bob-white               "         "      floridanus     115
 289_b_ Texas Bob-white                 "         "      texanus        115
 291 Masked Bob-white                   "    ridgwayi                   115
 292 Mountain Quail                  Oreortyx picta picta               116
 292_a_ Plumed Quail                    "       "   plumifera           116
 292_b_ San Pedro Quail                 "       "   confinis            116
 293 Scaled Quail                    Callipepla squamata squamata       116
 293_a_ Chestnut-bellied Scaled Quail   "          "     castanogastris 116
 294 California Quail                Lophortyx californica californica  116
 294_a_ Valley Quail                    "          "       vallicola    116
 295 Gambel's Quail                     "      gambeli                  116
 296 Mearns's Quail                  Cyrtonyx montezumæ mearnsi         115

Family TETRAONIDÆ. Grouse, Partridges, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

 297    Dusky Grouse                 Dendragapus obscurus obscurus      117
 297_a_ Sooty Grouse                    "           "    fuliginosus    117
 297_b_ Richardson's Grouse             "           "    richardsoni    117
 297_c_ Sierra Grouse                   "           "    sierræ         295
 298    Hudsonian Spruce Partridge   Canachites canadensis canadensis   117
 298_b_ Alaska Spruce Partridge          "           "     osgoodi      117
 298_c_ Canada Spruce Partridge          "           "     canace       117
 299    Franklin's Grouse                "      franklini               117
 300    Ruffed Grouse                Bonasa umbellus umbellus           118
 300_a_ Canada Ruffed Grouse            "     "     togata              118
 300_b_ Gray Ruffed Grouse              "     "     umbelloides         118
 300_c_ Oregon Ruffed Grouse            "     "     sabini              118
 301    Willow Ptarmigan             Lagopus lagopus lagopus            119
 301_a_ Allen's Ptarmigan               "       "    alleni             119
 301_b_ Alexander's Ptarmigan           "       "    alexandræ          295
 301_c_ Ungava Ptarmigan                "       "    ungavus            295
 302    Rock Ptarmigan                  "    rupestris rupestris        119
 302_a_ Reinhardt's Ptarmigan           "       "      reinhardi        119
 302_b_ Nelson's Ptarmigan              "       "      nelsoni          119
 302_c_ Turner's Ptarmigan              "       "      atkhensis        120
 302_d_ Townsend's Ptarmigan            "       "      townsendi        120
 302_e_ Adak Ptarmigan                  "       "      chamberlaini     296
 302_f_ Dixon's Ptarmigan               "       "      dixoni           296
 302.1   Evermann's Ptarmigan           "     evermanni                 120
 303    Welch's Ptarmigan               "     welchi                    120
 304    White-tailed Ptarmigan        Lagopus leucurus leucurus         118
 304_a_ Kenai White-tailed Ptarmigan     "       "     peninsularis     118
 305    Prairie Chicken               Tympanuchus americanus americanus 121
 305_a_ Attwater's Prairie Chicken       "            "      attwateri  121
 306    Heath Hen                        "        cupido                121
 307    Lesser Prairie Chicken           "        pallidicinctus        121
 308    Sharp-tailed Grouse           Pediœcetes phasianellus
                                                        phasianellus    121
 308_a_ Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse Pediœcetes phasianellus
                                                        columbianus     121
 308_b_ Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse      "           "      campestris  121
 309    Sage Hen                      Centrocercus urophasianus         122

Family MELEAGRIDÆ. Turkeys.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  310    Merriam's Turkey           Meleagris gallopavo merriami     122
  310_a_ Wild Turkey                   "          "     silvestris   122
  310_b_ Florida Turkey                "          "     osceola      122
  310_c_ Rio Grande Turkey             "          "     intermedia   122

Family CRACIDÆ. Curassows and Guans.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  311    Chachalaca                 Ortalis vetula mccalli           122

Order COLUMBÆ. Pigeons

Family COLUMBIDÆ. Pigeons.

  No.       COMMON NAME            SCIENTIFIC NAME                    Page

  312    Band-tailed Pigeon         Columba fasciata fasciata          124
  312_a_ Viosca's Pigeon              "       "     vioscæ             124
  313    Red-billed Pigeon            "    flavirostris                124
  314    White-crowned Pigeon         "    leucocephala                124
 [314.1] Scaled Pigeon                "    squamosa                    A.V.
  315    Passenger Pigeon           Ectopistes migratorius             125
  316    Mourning Dove              Zenaidura macroura carolinensis    125
  316_i_ Western Mourning Dove            "        "     marginella    296
  317    Zenaida Dove               Zenaida zenaida                    125
  318    White-fronted Dove         Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera 125
  319    West Indian
            White-winged Dove          Melopelia asiatica asiatica     126
  319_a_ White-winged Dove               "         "     trudeaui      296
  320    Ground Dove                Chæmepelia passerina terrestris    126
  320_a_ Mexican Ground Dove             "          "      pallescens  126
  320_b_ Bermuda Ground Dove             "          "      bermudiana  126
  321    Inca Dove                  Scardafella inca                   126
 [322]   Key West Quail-dove        Geotrygon chrysia                  126
 [322.1] Ruddy Quail-dove              "     montana                   126
 [323]   Blue-headed Quail-dove     Starnœnas cyanocephala             126

Order RAPTORES. Birds of Prey.

Family CATHARTIDÆ. American Vultures.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  324    California Vulture         Gymnogyps californianus          129
  325    Turkey Vulture             Cathartes aura septentrionalis   129
  326    Black Vulture              Catharista urubu                 129

Family BUTEONIDÆ. Hawks, Eagles, Kites, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME            SCIENTIFIC NAME                    Page

  327    Swallow-tailed Kite       Elanoides forficatus                130
  328    White-tailed Kite         Elanus leucurus                     130
  329    Mississippi Kite          Ictinia mississippiensis            130
  330    Everglade Kite            Rostrhamus sociabilis               130
  331    Marsh Hawk                Circus hudsonius                    130
  332    Sharp-shinned Hawk        Accipiter velox                     131
  333    Cooper's Hawk                "      cooperi                   131
  334    Goshawk                      "      atricapillus atricapillus 131
  334_a_ Western Goshawk              "            "      striatulus   131
  335    Harris's Hawk             Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi        132
  337    Red-tailed Hawk           Buteo borealis borealis             132
  337_a_ Krider's Hawk               "     "      krideri              132
  337_b_ Western Red-tail            "     "      calurus              132
  337_d_ Harlan's Hawk               "     "      harlani              132
  337_e_ Alaska Red-tail             "     "      alascensis           296
  339    Red-shouldered Hawk         "   lineatus lineatus             133
  339_a_ Florida
            Red-shouldered Hawk      "     "      alleni               133
  339_b_ Red-bellied Hawk            "     "      elegans              133
  340    Zone-tailed Hawk            "   abbreviatus                   134
  341    Sennett's
            White-tailed Hawk        "   albicaudatus sennetti         135
  342    Swainson's Hawk             "   swainsoni                     133
  343    Broad-winged Hawk           "    platypterus                  133
  344    Short-tailed Hawk           "   brachyurus                    135
  345    Mexican Black Hawk        Urubitinga anthracina               134
  346    Mexican Goshawk           Asturina plagiata                   131
  347_a_ Rough-legged Hawk         Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis  135
  348    Ferruginous Rough-leg         "      ferrugineus              135
  349    Golden Eagle              Aquila chrysaëtos                   136
 [351]   Gray Sea Eagle            Haliæetus albicilla                A.V.
  352    Bald Eagle                   "    leucocephalus leucocephalus 136
  352_a_ Northern Bald Eagle          "    "    alascanus              136

Family FALCONDIDÆ. Falcons, Caracaras, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  353    White Gyrfalcon            Falco islandus                   136
  354    Gray Gyrfalcon               "    rusticolus rusticolus     136
  354_a_ Gyrfalcon                    "        "      gyrfalco       136
  354_b_ Black Gyrfalcon              "        "      obsoletus      137
  355    Prairie Falcon               "     mexicanus                135
 [356]   Peregrine Falcon           Falco peregrinus peregrinus     A.V.
  356_a_ Duck Hawk                    "       "      anatum          137
  356_b_ Peale's Falcon               "       "      pealei          137
  357    Pigeon Hawk                Falco columbarius columbarius    137
  357_a_ Black Pigeon Hawk            "        "      suckleyi       137
  358    Richardson's Pigeon Hawk     "        "      richardsoni    137
 [358.1] Merlin                       "   æsalon                    A.V.
  359    Aplomado Falcon              "    fusco-cærulescens         137
 [359.1] Kestrel                      "    tinnunculus              A.V.
  360    Sparrow Hawk                 "    sparverius sparverius     137
  360_a_ Desert Sparrow Hawk          "          "    phalæna        138
  360_b_ San Lucas Sparrow Hawk       "          "    peninsularis   138
  360_c_ Little Sparrow Hawk          "          "    paulus         296
 [361]   Cuban Sparrow Hawk           "    sparveroides             A.V.
  362    Audubon's Caracara         Polyborus cheriway               134
  363    Guadalupe Caracara             "     lutosus                134

Family PANDIONIDÆ. Ospreys.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  364    Osprey                     Pandion haliaëtus carolinensis   129

Family ALUCONDIDÆ. Barn Owls.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  365    Barn Owl                   Aluco pratincola                 138

Family STRIGIDÆ. Horned Owls, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                 Page

  366     Long-eared Owl             Asio wilsonianus                 138
  367     Short-eared Owl             "   flammeus                    138
  368     Barred Owl                 Strix varia varia                139
  368_a_  Florida Barred Owl            "     "    alleni             139
  368_b_  Texas Barred Owl              "     "    albogilva          139
  369     Spotted Owl                Strix occidentalis occidentalis  139
  369_a_  Northern Spotted Owl           "        "       caurina     139
  370     Great Gray Owl             Scotiaptex nebulosa nebulosa     139
 [370_a_] Lapp Owl                         "        "     lapponica  A.V.
  371     Richardson's Owl           Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni  139
  372     Saw-whet Owl                  "          "  acadica acadica 140
  372_a_  Northwestern Saw-whet Owl     "          "  scotæa          140
  373     Screech Owl                Otus asio asio                   141
  373_a_  Florida Screech Owl           "    "   floridanus           141
  373_b_  Texas Screech Owl             "    "   mccalli              141
  373_c_  California Screech Owl        "    "   bendirei             141
  373_d_  Kennicott's Screech Owl       "    "   kennicotti           141
  373_e_  Rocky Mountain Screech Owl    "    "   maxwelliæ            141
  373_f_  Mexican Screech Owl           "    "   cineraceus           142
  373_g_  Aiken's Screech Owl           "    "   aikeni               142
  373_h_  MacFarlane's Screech Owl      "    "   macfarlanei          142
  373_i_  Sahuaro Screech Owl           "    "  gilmani               297
  373.1   Spotted Screech Owl           "    "  trichopsis            142
  373.2   Xantus's Screech Owl          "   xantusi                   142
  374     Flammulated Screech Owl       "   flammeolus flammeolus     142
  374_a_  Dwarf Screech Owl             "      "      idahoensis      142
  375     Great Horned Owl           Bubo virginianus virginianus     143
  375_a_  Western Horned Owl            "        "      pallescens    143
  375_b_  Arctic Horned Owl             "        "      subarcticus   143
  375_c_  Dusky Horned Owl              "        "      saturatus     143
  375_d_  Pacific Horned Owl            "        "      pacificus     143
  375_e_  Dwarf Horned Owl              "        "      elachistus    143
  375_f_  Labrador Horned Owl           "        "      heterocnemis  297
  375_g_  Saint Michael Horned Owl      "        "      algistus      297
  376     Snowy Owl                  Nyctea nyctea                    143
 [377]    European Hawk Owl          Surnia ulula ulula              A.V.
  377_a_  Hawk Owl                      "      "   caparoch           143
  378     Burrowing Owl               Speotyto cunicularia hypogæa    138
  378_a_  Florida Burrowing Owl         "          "       floridana  138
  379     Rocky Mountain Pygmy Owl    Glaucidium gnoma pinicola       140
  379_a_  California Pygmy Owl            "        "   californicum   140
  379.1   Hoskins's Pygmy Owl             "   hoskinsi                140
  380     Ferruginous Pygmy Owl           "   phalænoides             140
  381     Elf Owl                     Micropallas whitneyi            140

Order PSITTACI. Parrots, Macaws, Paroquets, etc.

Family PSITTACIDÆ. Parrots and Paroquets.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  382    Carolina Paroquet          Conuropsis carolinensis          145
  382.1  Thick-billed Parrot        Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha       145

Order COCCYGES. Cuckoos, etc.

Family CUCULIDÆ. Cuckoos, Anis, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [383]    Ani                       Crotophaga ani                   146
  384     Groove-billed Ani             "      sulcirostris          146
  385     Road-runner               Geococcyx californianus          146
  386     Mangrove Cuckoo           Coccyzus minor minor             146
 [386_a_] Maynard's Cuckoo             "      "    maynardi          146
  387     Yellow-billed Cuckoo         "     americanus americanus   146
  387_a_  California Cuckoo            "         "      occidentalis 146
  388     Black-billed Cuckoo          "     erythrophthalmus        146
 [388.1]  Kamchatka Cuckoo          Cuculus canorus telephonus      A.V.

Family TROGONIDÆ. Trogons.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

389 Coppery-tailed Trogon           Trogon ambiguus                  147

Family ALCEDINIDÆ. Kingfishers.

  No.       COMMON NAME            SCIENTIFIC NAME                     Page

  390    Belted Kingfisher            Ceryle alcyon alcyon              147
  390_a_ Northwestern Belted
            Kingfisher.                 "      "    caurina             297
 [390.1] Ringed Kingfisher              "    torquata                  A.V.
  391    Texas Kingfisher               "    americana septentrionalis  147

Order PICI. Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc.

Family PICIDÆ. Woodpeckers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

  392    Ivory-billed Woodpecker      Campephilus principalis           149
  393    Hairy Woodpecker             Dryobates villosus villosus       150
  393_a_ Northern Hairy Woodpecker         "         "     leucomelas   150
  393_b_ Southern Hairy Woodpecker         "         "     auduboni     150
  393_c_ Harris's Woodpecker               "         "     harrisi      150
  393_d_ Cabanis's Woodpecker              "         "     hyloscopus   150
  393_e_ Rocky Mt. Hairy Woodpecker        "         "     monticola    150
  393_f_ Queen Charlotte Woodpecker        "         "     picoideus    150
  393_g_ Newfoundland Woodpecker           "         "     terrænovæ    297
  393_h_ White-breasted Woodpecker    Dryobates villosus leucothorectis 297
  394    Southern Downy Woodpecker         "     pubescens pubescens    150
  394_a_ Gairdner's Woodpecker             "         "     gairdneri    150
  394_b_ Batchelder's Woodpecker           "         "     homorus      150
  394_c_ Downy Woodpecker                  "         "     medianus     150
  394_d_ Nelson's Downy Woodpecker         "         "     nelsoni      150
  394_e_ Willow Woodpecker                 "         "     turati       151
  395     Red-cockaded Woodpecker          "     borealis               151
  396     Cactus Woodpecker                "     scalaris cactophilus   151
  396_a_ San Lucas Woodpecker              "        "     lucasanus     151
  396_b_ San Fernando Woodpecker           "        "     eremicus      297
  397    Nuttall's Woodpecker              "     nuttalli               151
  398    Arizona Woodpecker                "     arizonæ                141
  399    White-headed Woodpecker      Xenopicus albolarvatus            151
  400    Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus                 149
  401    Amer. Three-toed Woodpecker       "    americanus americanus   149
  401_a_ Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker      "        "      fasciatus    149
  401_b_ Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker      "        "      dorsalis     149
  402    Yellow-bellied Sapsucker     Sphyrapicus varius varius         152
  402_a_ Red-naped Sapsucker               "         "    nuchalis      152
  403    Red-breasted Sapsucker            "       ruber ruber          152
  403_a_ Northern Red-breasted Sapsucker   "         "   notkensis      152
  404    Williamson's Sapsucker            "       thyroideus           152
  405    Pileated Woodpecker          Ceophlœus pileatus pileatus       149
  405_a_ Northern Pileated Woodpecker      "        "    abieticola     149
  406   Red-headed Woodpecker         Melanerpes erythrocephalus        153
  407   Ant-eating Woodpecker            "    formicivorus formicivorus 153
  407_a_ Californian Woodpecker          "        "      bairdi         153
  407_b_ Narrow-fronted Woodpecker       "        "      angustifrons   153
  408    Lewis's Woodpecker           Asyndesmus lewisi                 152
  409    Red-bellied Woodpecker       Centurus carolinus                153
  410    Golden-fronted Woodpecker       "     aurifrons                153
  411    Gila Woodpecker                 "     uropygialis              153
  412    Southern Flicker             Colaptes auratus auratus          154
  412_a_ Northern Flicker                "        "    luteus           154
  413    Red-shafted Flicker             "     cafer collaris           154
  413_a_ Northwestern Flicker            "       "   saturatior         154
  414    Gilded Flicker                  "     chrysoides chrysoides    154
  414_a_ San Fernando Flicker            "         "      brunnescens   154
  414_b_ Mearns's Gilded Flicker         "         "      mearnsi       298
  415    Guadalupe Flicker               "     rufipileus               154

Order MACROCHIRES. Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc.

Family CAPRIMULGIDÆ. Goatsuckers, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  416    Chuck-will's-widow         Antrostomus carolinensis           156
  417    Whip-poor-will                "      vociferus vociferus      156
  417_a_ Stephen's Whip-poor-will      "          "     macromystax    156
  418    Poor-will                  Phalænoptilus nuttalli nuttalli    156
  418_a_ Frosted Poor-will             "            "      nitidus     156
  418_b_ Dusky Poor-will               "            "     californicus 156
  419    Merrill's Parauque         Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli    157
  420    Nighthawk                  Chordeiles virginianus virginianus 157
  420_a_ Western Nighthawk             "          "      henryi        157
  420_b_ Florida Nighthawk             "          "      chapmani      157
  420_c_ Sennett's Nighthawk           "          "      sennetti      157
  421    Texas Nighthawk               "     acutipennis texensis      157

Family MICROPODIDÆ. Swifts.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  422   Black Swift                 Cypseloides niger borealis       158
  423   Chimney Swift               Chætura pelagica                 158
  424   Vaux's Swift                   "    vauxi                    158
  425   White-throated Swift        Aëronautes melanoleucus          158

Family TROCHILIDÆ. Hummingbirds.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  426   Rivoli's Hummingbird        Eugenes fulgens                  159
  427   Blue-throated Hummingbird   Cyanolæmus clemenciæ             160
  428   Ruby-throated Hummingbird   Archilochus colubris             160
  429   Black-chinned Hummingbird       "       alexandri            159
  430   Costa's Hummingbird         Calypte costæ                    159
  431   Anna's Hummingbird              "   anna                     161
  432   Broad-tailed Hummingbird    Selasphorus platycercus          161
  433   Rufous Hummingbird               "      rufus                161
  434   Allen's Hummingbird         Selasphorus alleni               161
  435   Morcom's Hummingbird        Atthis morcomi                   161
  436   Calliope Hummingbird        Stellula calliope                161
  437   Lucifer Hummingbird         Calothorax lucifer               159
  438   Rieffer's Hummingbird       Amizilis tzacatl                 169
  439   Buff-bellied Hummingbird      "   cerviniventris chalconota  160
  439.  1 Salvin's Hummingbird      Uranomitra salvini               298
  440   Xantus's Hummingbird        Basilinna xantusi                159
  440.  1 White-eared Hummingbird        "     leucotis              160
  441   Broad-billed Hummingbird    Cynanthus latirostris            160

Order PASSERES. Perching Birds

Family COTINGIDÆ. Cotingas.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [441.1] Xantus's Becard           Platypsaris aglaiæ albiventris   A.V.

Family TYRANNIDÆ. Tyrant Flycatchers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

 [442]   Fork-tailed Flycatcher      Muscivora tyrannus                A.V.
  443    Scissor-tailed Flycatcher       "     forficata                177
  444    Kingbird                    Tyrannus tyrannus                  247
  445    Gray Kingbird                  "     dominicensis              247
  446    Couch's Kingbird               "     melancholicus couchi      202
  447    Arkansas Kingbird              "     verticalis                202
  448    Cassin's Kingbird              "     vociferans                202
  449    Derby Flycatcher            Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus     202
  451    Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher  Myiodynastes luteiventris          203
  452    Crested Flycatcher          Myiarchus crinitus                 203
  453    Arizona Crested Flycatcher      "     magister magister        203
  453_a_ Mexican Crested Flycatcher      "        "     nelsoni         203
  454    Ash-throated Flycatcher         "     cinerascens cinerascens  203
  454_b_ Lower California Flycatcher     "         "       pertinax     203
  455_a_ Olivaceous Flycatcher           "     lawrencei olivascens     203
  456    Phœbe                       Sayornis phœbe                     208
  457    Say's Phœbe                   "    sayus                       205
  458    Black Phœbe                   "    nigricans                   251
  459    Olive-sided Flycatcher      Nuttallornis borealis              208
  460    Coues's Flycatcher          Myiochanes pertinax pallidiventris 208
  461    Wood Pewee                       "     virens                  208
  462    Western Wood Pewee               "     richardsoni richardsoni 208
  462_a_ Large-billed Wood Pewee            "     richardsoni peninsulæ 208
  463    Yellow-bellied Flycatcher   Empidonax flaviventris             211
  464    Western Flycatcher               "     difficilis difficilis   210
  464.1  San Lucas Flycatcher             "          "     cineritius   210
  465    Acadian Flycatcher               "     virescens               210
  466    Traill's Flycatcher              "     trailli trailli         209
  466_a_ Alder Flycatcher                 "        "    alnorum         209
  467    Least Flycatcher                 "     minimus                 209
  468    Hammond's Flycatcher             "     hammondi                209
  469    Wright's Flycatcher              "     wrighti                 209
  469.1  Gray Flycatcher                  "     griseus                 209
  470_a_ Buff-breasted Flycatcher         "     fulvifrons pygmæus      215
  471    Vermilion Flycatcher        Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus     177
  472    Beardless Flycatcher        Camptostoma imberbe                211

Family ALAUDIDÆ. Larks.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                  Page

 [473]   Skylark                    Alauda arvensis                   A.V.
  474    Horned Lark                Octocoris alpestris alpestris      200
  474_a_ Pallid Horned Lark              "         "      articola     200
  474_b_ Prairie Horned Lark             "         "      praticola    200
  474_c_ Desert Horned Lark              "         "      leucolæma    201
  474_d_ Texas Horned Lark               "         "      giraudi      200
  474_e_ California Horned Lark          "         "      actia        201
  474_f_ Ruddy Horned Lark               "         "      rubea        201
  474_g_ Streaked Horned Lark            "         "      strigata     201
  474_h_ Scorched Horned Lark            "         "      adusta       201
  474_i_ Dusky Horned Lark               "         "      merrilli     201
  474_j_ Sonora Horned Lark              "         "      pallida      201
  474_k_ Hoyt's Horned Lark              "         "      hoyti        200
  474_l_ Montezuma Horned Lark           "         "      occidentalis 201
  474_m_ Island Horned Lark              "         "      insularis    201

Family CORVIDÆ. Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME            SCIENTIFIC NAME                     Page

  475    Magpie                   Pica pica hudsonia                    253
  476    Yellow-billed Magpie         "   nuttalli                      253
  477    Blue Jay                 Cyanocitta cristata cristata          181
  477_a_ Florida Blue Jay             "         "     florincola        182
  478    Steller's Jay                "      stelleri stelleri          185
  478_a_ Blue-fronted Jay             "         "     frontalis         182
  478_b_ Long-crested Jay             "         "     diademata         185
  478_c_ Black-headed Jay             "         "     annectens         185
  478_d_ Queen Charlotte Jay          "         "     carlottæ          185
  478_e_ Coast Jay                    "         "     carbonacea        298
  479    Florida Jay              Aphelocoma cyanea                     184
  480    Woodhouse's Jay                 "      woodhousei              184
  480.1  Blue-eared Jay                  "      cyanotis                184
  480.2  Texas Jay                       "      texana                  184
  481    California Jay                  "      californica californica 184
  481_a_ Xantus's Jay                    "            "     hypoleuca   184
  481_b_ Belding's Jay                   "            "     obscura     184
  481.1  Santa Cruz Jay                  "      insularis               184
  482    Arizona Jay                     "      sieberi arizonæ         183
  482_a_ Couch's Jay                     "         "    couchi          183
  483    Green Jay                Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens         185
  484    Canada Jay               Perisoreus canadensis canadensis      252
  484_a_ Rocky Mountain Jay         "          "      capitalis         252
  484_b_ Alaska Jay                 "          "      fumifrons         252
  484_c_ Labrador Jay               "          "      nigricapillus     252
  485    Oregon Jay                 "          "    obscurus obscurus   252
  485_a_ Gray Jay                   "          "      griseus           252
  486    American Raven           Corvus corax sinuatus                 255
  486_a_ Northern Raven              "      "   principalis             255
  487    White-necked Raven          "    cryptoleucus                  255
  488    American Crow               "    brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos 255
  488_a_ Florida Crow                "    brachyrhnchos pascuus         255
  488_b_ Western Crow                "          "       hesperis        304
  489    Northwestern Crow           "    caurinus                      255
  490    Fish Crow                   "    ossifragus                    255
 [490.1] Rook                        "    frugilegus                   A.V.
 [490.2] Hooded Crow                 "     cornix                      A.V.
  491    Clarke's Crow            Nucifraga columbiana                  252
  492    Piñon Jay                Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus           183

Family STURNIDÆ. Starlings.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [493]   Starling                   Sturnus vulgaris                 253

Family ICTERIDÆ. Blackbirds, Orioles, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

  494    Bobolink                   Dolichonyx oryzivorus               251
  495    Cowbird                    Molothrus ater ater                 253
  495_a_ Dwarf Cowbird                  "      "   obscurus             253
  496    Red-eyed Cowbird           Tangavius æneus involucratus        253
  496_a_ Bronzed Cowbird                "       "   æneus               304
  497    Yellow-headed Blackbird    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus       199
  498    Red-winged Blackbird       Agelaius phœniceus phœniceus        178
  498_a_ Sonora Red-wing               "        "       sonoriensis     178
  498_b_ Bahama Red-wing               "        "       bryanti         178
  498_c_ Florida Red-wing              "        "       floridanus      178
  498_d_ Thick-billed Red-wing         "        "       fortis          178
  498_e_ San Diego Red-wing            "        "       neutralis       178
  498_f_ Northwestern Red-wing         "        "       caurinus        178
  498_g_ Vera Cruz Red-wing            "        "       richmondi       298
  499    Bicolored Blackbird           "  gubernator californicus       179
  500    Tricolored Blackbird          "  tricolor                      179
  501    Meadowlark                   Sturnella magna magna             199
  501_a_ Rio Grande Meadowlark           "       "   hoopesi            199
  501_c_ Southern Meadowlark             "       "   argutula           199
  501.1  Western Meadowlark              "     neglecta                 199
  503    Audubon's Oriole             Icterus melanocephalus auduboni   180
  504    Scott's Oriole                  "    parisorum                 186
  505    Sennett's Oriole                "    cucullatus sennetti       186
  505_a_ Arizona Hooded Oriole           "        "      nelsoni        186
  506    Orchard Oriole                  "    spurius                   206
  507    Baltimore Oriole                "    galbula                   186
  508    Bullock's Oriole                "    bullocki                  186
  509    Rusty Blackbird              Euphagus carolinus                254
  510    Brewer's Blackbird              "     cyanocephalus            254
  511    Purple Grackle               Quiscalus quiscula quiscula       254
  511_a_ Florida Grackle                 "         "     aglæus         254
  511_b_ Bronzed Grackle                 "         "     æneus          254
  513    Boat-tailed Grackle          Megaquiscalus major major         254
  513_a_ Great-tailed Grackle              "          "   macrourus     254

Family FRINGILLIDÆ. Finches, Sparrows, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME             SCIENTIFIC NAME                    Page

  514      Evening Grosbeak          Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina 199
  514_a_   Western Evening Grosbeak         "           "      montana  199
  515      Pine Grosbeak             Pinicola enucleator leucura        171
  515_a_   Rocky Mt. Pine Grosbeak        "         "      montana      171
  515_b_   California Pine Grosbeak       "         "      californica  171
  515_c_   Alaska Pine Grosbeak           "         "      alascensis   171
  515_d_   Kadiak Pine Grosbeak           "         "      flammula     171
 [516]     Cassin's Bullfinch        Pyrrhula cassini                  A.V.
  517      Purple Finch              Carpodacus purpureus purpureus     171
  517_a_   California Purple Finch       "          "     californicus  171
  518      Cassin's Purple Finch         "      cassini                 175
  519      House Finch                   "      mexicanus frontalis     175
  519_b_   San Lucas House Finch         "          "     ruberrimus    175
  519_c_   San Clemente House Finch      "          "     clementis     175
  520      Guadalupe House Finch         "      amplus                  175
  520.1    McGregor's House Finch        "      mcgregori               175
  521      American Crossbill       Loxia curvirostra minor             173
  521_a_   Mexican Crossbill            "        "      stricklandi     173
  522      White-winged Crossbill       "   leucoptera                  171
  523      Aleutian Rosy Finch      Leucosticte griseonucha             179
  524      Gray-crowned Rosy Finch      "      tephrocotis tephrocotis  179
  524_a_   Hepburn's Rosy Finch         "           "      littoralis   179
  525      Black Rosy Finch             "      atrata                   179
  526      Brown-capped Rosy Finch      "      australis                179
  527      Greenland Redpoll        Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni      176
  527_a_   Hoary Redpoll                "         "    exilipes         176
  528      Redpoll                      "     linaria  linaria          176
  528_a_   Holbœll's Redpoll            "        "     holbœlli         176
  528_b_   Greater Redpoll              "        "     rostrata         176
  529      Goldfinch                Astragalinus tristis tristis        192
  529_a_   Pale Goldfinch               "          "    pallidus        192
  529_b_   Willow Goldfinch             "          "    salicamans      192
  530      Arkansas Goldfinch           "       psaltria psaltria       192
  530_a_   Green-backed Goldfinch       "          "     hesperophilus  299
  531      Lawrence's Goldfinch         "       lawrencei               189
 [532]     Black-headed Goldfinch   Spinus notatus                     A.V.
  533      Pine Siskin                "    pinus pinus                  225
  534      Snow Bunting             Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis       211
  534_a_   Pribilof Snow Bunting        "           "    townsendi      211
  535      McKay's Snow Bunting         "        hyperboreus            211
  536      Lapland Longspur         Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus     219
  536_a_   Alaska Longspur              "        "      alascensis      219
  537      Smith's Longspur             "    pictus                     220
  538      Chestnut-collared
             Longspur                   "    ornatus                    218
  539      McCown's Longspur        Rhynchophanes mccowni               218
  540      Vesper Sparrow           Poœcetes gramineus gramineus        221
  540_a_   Western Vesper Sparrow        "        "    confinis         221
  540_b_   Oregon Vesper Sparrow         "        "    affinis          221
  541      Ipswich Sparrow          Passerculus princeps                225
  542      Aleutian Savannah
             Sparrow                     "  sandwichensis sandwichensis 223
  542_a_   Savannah Sparrow              "    sandwichensis savanna     223
  542_b_   Western Savannah Sparrow      "        "       alaudinus     223
  542_c_   Bryant's Sparrow              "        "       bryanti       223
  542_d_   Nevada Savannah Sparrow       "        "       nevadensis    300
  543      Belding's Sparrow             "      beldingi                223
  544      Large-billed Sparrow          "      rostratus rostratus     223
  544_a_   San Lucas Sparrow             "         "      guttatus      223
  544_c_   San Benito Sparrow            "         "      sanctorum     224
  545      Baird's Sparrow            Ammodramus bairdi                 224
  546      Grasshopper Sparrow             "    savannarum australis    224
  546_a_   Western Grasshopper
             Sparrow                  Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatus 224
  546_b_   Florida Grasshopper
             Sparrow                       "         "       floridanus 224
  547      Henslow's Sparrow          Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi  224
  547_a_   Western Henslow's
             Sparrow                       "          "    occidentalis 224
  548      Leconte's Sparrow               "    lecontei                225
  549      Sharp-tailed Sparrow            "    caudacutus              225
  549.1    Nelson's Sparrow                "    nelsoni  nelsoni        225
  549.1_a_ Acadian Sharp-tailed
             Sparrow                       "       "     subvirgatus    225
  550      Seaside Sparrow                 "    maritimus maritimus     226
  550_a_   Scott's Seaside Sparrow         "        "     peninsulæ     226
  550_b_   Texas Seaside Sparrow           "        "     sennetti      226
  550_c_   Fisher's Seaside Sparrow        "        "     fisheri       226
  550_d_   Macgillivray's Seaside
             Sparrow                       "        "     macgillivraii 226
  551      Dusky Seaside Sparrow           "    nigrescens              226
  552      Lark Sparrow               Chondestes grammacus grammacus    228
  552_a_   Western Lark Sparrow             "        "     strigatus    228
  553      Harris's Sparrow           Zonotrichia querula               229
  554      White-crowned Sparrow           "      leucophrys leucophrys 227
  554_a_   Gambel's Sparrow                "          "      gambeli    227
  554_b_   Nuttall's Sparrow               "          "      nuttalli   227
  557      Golden-crowned Sparrow          "      coronata              227
  558      White-throated Sparrow          "      albicollis            227
  559      Tree Sparrow               Spizella monticola monticola      222
  559_a_   Western Tree Sparrow            "      "      ochracea       222
  560      Chipping Sparrow                "   passerina passerina      222
  560_a_   Western Chipping Sparrow        "      "      arizonæ        222
  561      Clay-colored Sparrow            "   pallida                  228
  562      Brewer's Sparrow                "   breweri                  228
  563      Field Sparrow                   "   pusilla pusilla          222
  563_a_   Western Field Sparrow           "       "   arenacea         222
  564      Worthen's Sparrow               "   wortheni                 228
  565      Black-chinned Sparrow           "   atrogularis              219
  566      White-winged Junco         Junco aikeni                      240
  567      Slate-Colored Junco          "   hyemalis hyemalis           240
  567_a_   Oregon Junco                 "      "     oreganus           241
  567_b_   Shufeldt's Junco             "      "     connectens         241
  567_c_   Thurber's Junco              "      "     thurberi           241
  567_d_   Point Pinos Junco            "      "     pinosus            241
  567_e_   Carolina Junco               "      "     carolinensis       240
  567_f_   Montana Junco                "      "     montanus           240
  567_g_   Pink-sided Junco           Junco hyemalis mearnsi            240
  567_h_   Ridgway's Junco              "      "    annectens           303
  567_i_   Townsend's Junco             "      "    townsendi           240
  570      Arizona Junco                "   phæonotus palliatus         241
  570_a_   Red-backed Junco             "      "      dorsalis          241
  570_b_   Gray-headed Junco            "      "      caniceps          241
  571      Baird's Junco                "   bairdi                      240
  572      Guadalupe Junco              "   insularis                   240
  573      Black-throated Sparrow     Amphispiza bilineata bilineata    249
  573_a_   Desert Black-throated
             Sparrow                       "        "      deserticola  249
  574      Bell's Sparrow                  "     belli                  228
  574.1    Sage Sparrow                    "   nevadensis nevadensis    228
  574.1_a_ Gray Sage Sparrow               "       "      cinerea       228
  574.1_b_ California Sage Sparro          "       "      canescens     300
  575      Pine-woods Sparrow         Peucæa æstivalis                  221
  575_a_   Bachman's Sparrow             "      "      bachmani         221
  576      Botteri's Sparrow             "   botterii                   221
  578      Cassin's Sparrow              "   cassini                    221
  579      Rufous-winged Sparrow      Aimophila carpalis                220
  580      Rufous-crowned Sparrow        "      ruficeps ruficeps       220
  580_a_   Scott's Sparrow               "         "     scotti         220
  580_b_   Rock Sparrow                  "         "     eremœca        220
  580_c_   Laguna Sparrow                "         "     sororia        220
  581      Song Sparrow               Melospiza melodia melodia         229
  581_a_   Desert Song Sparrow            "        "    fallax          229
  581_b_   Mountain Song Sparrow          "        "    montana         229
  581_c_   Heermann's Song Sparrow        "        "    heermanni       229
  581_d_   Samuel's Song Sparrow          "        "    samuelis        230
  581_e_   Rusty Song Sparrow             "        "    morphna         230
  581_f_   Sooty Song Sparrow             "        "    rufina          230
  581_g_   Brown's Song Sparrow           "        "    rivularis       229
  581_h_   Santa Barbara Song Sparrow     "        "    graminea        230
  581_i_   San Clemente Song Sparrow      "        "    clementæ        230
  581_j_   Dakota Song Sparrow            "        "    juddi           229
  581_k_   Merrill's Song Sparrow         "        "    merrilli        229
  581_l_   Alameda Song Sparrow           "        "    pusillula       230
  581_m_   San Diego Song Sparrow         "        "    cooperi         230
  581_n_   Yakutat Song Sparrow           "        "    caurina         230
  581_o_   Kenai Song Sparrow             "        "    kenaiensis      230
  581_p_   Mendocino Song Sparrow         "        "    cleonensis      301
  581_q_   Kadiak Song Sparrow            "        "    insignis        230
  581_r_   Aleutian Song Sparrow      Melospiza melodia sanaka          230
  581_s_   Suisun Song Sparrow            "        "    maxillaris      300
  583      Lincoln's Sparrow              "     lincolni lincolni       226
  583_a_   Forbush's Sparrow              "        "     striata        226
  584      Swamp Sparrow                  "     georgiana               222
  585      Fox Sparrow                Passerella iliaca iliaca          231
  585_a_   Shumagin Sparrow               "        "    unalaschcensis  231
  585_b_   Thick-billed Sparrow           "        "    megarhyncha     231
  585_c_   Slate-colored Sparrow          "        "    schistacea      231
  585_d_   Stephen's Sparrow              "        "    stephensi       231
  585_e_   Sooty Fox Sparrow              "        "    fuliginosa      301
  585_f_   Kadiak Fox Sparrow             "        "    insularis       301
  586      Texas Sparrow              Arremonops rufivirgatus           215
  587      Towhee                     Pipilo erythrophthalmus
                                                       erythrophthalmus 204
  587_a_   White-eyed Towhee            "    erythrophthalmus alleni    204
  588      Arctic Towhee                "    maculatus arcticus         204
  588_a_   Spurred Towhee               "       "      montanus         204
  588_b_   Oregon Towhee                "       "      oregonus         204
  588_c_   San Clemente Towhee          "       "      clementæ         204
  588_d_   San Diego Towhee             "       "      megalonyx        204
  588_e_   Large-billed Towhee          "       "      magnirostris     204
  589      Guadalupe Towhee             "    consobrinus                204
  591      Cañon Towhee                 "    fuscus mesoleucus          205
  591_a_   San Lucas Towhee             "      "    albigula            205
  591.1    California Towhee            "    crissalis crissalis        205
  591.1_a_ Anthony's Towhee             "       "      senicula         205
  592      Abert's Towhee               "    aberti                     205
  592.1    Green-tailed Towhee        Oreospiza chlorura                206
  593      Cardinal                   Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis  177
  593_a_   Arizona Cardinal             "          "      superbus      172
  593_b_   San Lucas Cardinal           "          "      igneus        172
  593_c_   Gray-tailed Cardinal         "          "      canicaudus    172
  593_d_   Florida Cardinal             "          "      floridanus    172
  594      Arizona Pyrrhuloxia        Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata       172
  594_a_   Texas Pyrrhuloxia            "          "    texana          172
  594_b_   San Lucas Pyrrhuloxia        "          "    peninsulæ       172
  595      Rose-breasted Grosbeak     Zamelodia ludoviciana             174
  596      Black-headed Grosbeak        "     melanocephala             207
  597      Blue Grosbeak              Guiraca cærulea cærulea           181
  597_a_   Western Blue Grosbeak      Guiraca cærulea lazula            181
  598      Indigo Bunting             Passerina cyanea                  181
  599      Lazuli Bunting                "      amœna                   180
  600      Varied Bunting                "      versicolor versicolor   180
  600_a_   Beautiful Bunting             "          "      pulchra      180
  601      Painted Bunting               "      ciris                   180
  602      Sharpe's Seed-eater        Sporophila morelleti sharpei      249
 [603]     Grassquit                  Tiaris bicolor                   A.V.
 [603.1]   Melodious Grassquit         "    canora                     A.V.
  604      Dickcissel                 Spiza americana                   198
  605      Lark Bunting               Calamospiza melanocorys           252

Family TANGARIDÆ. Tanagers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  607    Western Tanager            Piranga ludoviciana              171
  608    Scarlet Tanager              "     erythromelas             171
  609    Hepatic Tanager              "     hepatica                 171
  610    Summer Tanager               "     rubra rubra              171
  610_a_ Cooper's Tanager             "       "   cooperi            171

Family HIRUNDINIDÆ. Swallows.

  No.       COMMON NAME           SCIENTIFIC NAME                      Page

  611    Purple Martin             Progne subis subis                   250
  611_a_ Western Martin              "      "   hesperia                250
  611.1  Cuban Martin                "    cryptoleuca                   250
  611.2  Gray-breasted Martin        "    chalybea                      304
  612    Cliff Swallow             Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons    250
  612_a_ Lesser Cliff Swallow         "            "      tachina       304
  612_b_ Mexican Cliff Swallow        "            "      melanogastra  250
 [612.1] Cuban Cliff Swallow          "        fulva                   A.V.
  613    Barn Swallow              Hirundo erythrogastra                250
 [613.1] European Swallow             "    rustica                     A.V.
  614    Tree Swallow              Iridoprocne bicolor                  250
  615    Northern Violet-green
           Swallow                 Tachycineta thalassina lepida        250
  615_a_ San Lucas Swallow               "          "      brachyptera  250
 [615.1] Bahama Swallow            Callichelidon cyaneoviridis         A.V.
 [615.2] European Martin           Chelidonaria urbica                 A.V.
  616    Bank Swallow              Riparia riparia                     A.V.
  617    Rough-winged Swallow      Stelgidopteryx serripennis           211

Family BOMBYCILLIDÆ Waxwings.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  618    Bohemian Waxwing           Bombycilla garrula               198
  619    Cedar Waxwing                  "      cedrorum              198

Family PTILOGONATIDÆ. Silky Flycatchers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  620    Phainopepla                Phainopepla nitens               253

Family LANIIDÆ. Shrikes.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  621    Northern Shrike            Lanius borealis                  248
  622    Loggerhead Shrike            "   ludovicianus ludovicianus  248
  622_a_ White-rumped Shrike          "       "       excubitorides  248
  622_b_ California Shrike            "       "       gambeli        248
  622_c_ Island Shrike                "       "       anthonyi       248
  622_e_ Migrant Shrike               "       "       migrans        304

Family VIREONIDÆ. Vireos.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  623    Black-whiskered Vireo      Vireosylva calidris barbatula    212
  624    Red-eyed Vireo                 "      olivacea              212
 [625]   Yellow-green Vireo             "      flavoviridis          233
  626    Philadelphia Vireo             "      philadelphica         213
  627    Warbling Vireo                 "      gilva gilva           213
  627_a_ Western Warbling Vireo           "       "    swainsoni     213
  628    Yellow-throated Vireo      Lanivireo flavifrons             198
  629    Blue-headed Vireo              "     solitarius solitarius  213
  629_a_ Cassin's Vireo                "         "      cassini      213
  629_b_ Plumbeous Vireo               "         "      plumbeus     213
  629_c_ Mountain Solitary Vireo       "         "      alticola     213
  629_d_ San Lucas Solitary Vireo      "         "      lucasanus    213
  630 Black-capped Vireo             Vireo atricapillus              245
  631 White-eyed Vireo                 "   griseus griseus           213
  631_a_ Key West Vireo                "      "    griseus maynardi  213
  631_b_ Bermuda Vireo                 "      "    bermudianus       213
  631_c_ Small White-eyed Vireo        "      "    micrus            213
  632 Hutton's Vireo                   "   huttoni huttoni           212
  632_a_ Stephens's Vireo              "      "    stephensi         212
  632_c_ Anthony's Vireo               "      "    obscurus          212
  632_d_ Frazar's Vireo                "      "    cognatus          299
  633 Bell's Vireo                     "      "    belli belli       214
  633_a_ Least Vireo                   "      "    pusillus          214
  633_b_ Texas Vireo                   "      "     medius           299
  634 Gray Vireo                       "   vicinior                  214

Family COEREBIDÆ. Honey Creepers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [635]   Bahama Honey Creeper       Cœreba bahamensis               A.V.

Family MNIOTILTIDÆ. Wood Warblers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

  636    Black and White Warbler     Mniotilta varia                    249
  637    Prothonotary Warbler        Protonotaria citrea                187
  638    Swainson's Warbler          Helinaia swainsoni                 215
  639    Worm-eating Warbler         Helmitheros vermivorus             215
  640    Bachman's Warbler           Vermivora bachmani                 191
  641    Blue-winged Warbler             "     pinus                    191
  642    Golden-winged Warbler           "     chrysoptera              189
  643    Lucy's Warbler                  "     luciæ                    206
  644    Virginia's Warbler              "     virginiæ                 197
  645    Nashville Warbler               "     rubricapilla
                                                           rubricapilla 195
  645_a_ Calaveras Warbler               "          "      gutturalis   195
  646    Orange-crowned Warbler          "     celata celata            219
  646_a_ Lutescent Warbler               "       "    lutescens         210
  646_b_ Dusky Warbler                   "       "    sordida           212
  647    Tennessee Warbler               "     peregrina                212
  648    Parula Warbler              Compsothlypis americana americana  195
  648_a_ Northern Parula Warbler         "        americana usneæ       195
  649    Sennett's Warbler               "        pitiayumi nigrilora   195
  651    Olive Warbler               Peucedramus olivaceus              187
  650    Cape May Warbler            Dendroica tigrina                  196
  652    Yellow Warbler                 "     æstiva æstiva             196
  652_a_ Sonora Yellow Warbler       Dendroica æstiva sonorana          196
  652_b_ Alaska Yellow Warbler          "       "    rubiginosa         196
  652_c_ California Yellow Warbler      "       "    brewsteri          299
  653    Mangrove Warbler               "     bryanti castaneiceps      196
  654    Black-throated Blue Warbler    "     cærulescens cærulescens   180
  654_a_ Cairns's Warbler               "          "      cairnsi       180
  655    Myrtle Warbler                 "     coronata                  197
  656    Audubon's Warbler              "     auduboni auduboni         190
  656_a_ Black-fronted Warbler          "        "      nigrifrons      190
  657    Magnolia Warbler               "     magnolia                  190
  658    Cerulean Warbler               "     cerulea                   181
  659    Chestnut-sided Warbler         "     pensylvania               198
  660    Bay-breasted Warbler           "     castanea                  206
  661    Black-poll Warbler             "     striata                   249
  662    Blackburnian Warbler           "     fusca                     187
  663    Yellow-throated Warbler        "     dominica dominica         190
  663_a_ Sycamore Warbler               "         "    albilora         190
  664    Grace's Warbler             Dendroica graciæ                   190
  665    Black-throated Gray Warbler    "     nigrescens                249
  666    Golden-cheeked Warbler         "     chrysoparia               188
  667    Black-throated Green Warbler   "     virens                    188
  668    Townsend's Warbler             "     townsendi                 188
  669    Hermit Warbler                 "     occidentalis              188
  670    Kirtland's Warbler             "     kirtlandi                 191
  671    Pine Warbler                   "     vigorsi vigorsi           191
  672    Palm Warbler                   "     palmarum palmarum         196
  672_a_ Yellow Palm Warbler            "        "     hypochrysea      197
  673    Prairie Warbler                "     discolor                  197
  674    Oven-bird                   Seiurus aurocapillus               232
  675    Water-Thrush                   "    noveboracensis
                                                         noveboracensis 232
  675_a_ Grinnell's Water-Thrush        "    noveboracensis notabilis   232
  676    Louisiana Water-Thrush         "    motacilla                  232
  677    Kentucky Warbler            Oporornis formosus                 193
  678    Connecticut Warbler            "      agilis                   189
  679    Mourning Warbler               "      philadelphia             189
  680    Macgillivray's Warbler         "    tolmiei                    189
  681    Maryland Yellow-throat      Geothlypis trichas trichas         193
  681_a_ Western Yellow-throat           "        "     occidentalis    193
  681_b_ Florida Yellow-throat           "        "     ignota          194
  681_c_ Pacific Yellow-throat           "        "     arizela         194
  681_e_ Salt Marsh Yellow-throat        "        "     sinuosa         194
  682    Belding's Yellow-throat         "      beldingi                194
  682.1  Rio Grande Yellow-throat    Chamæthlypis poliocephala          194
  683    Yellow-breasted Chat        Icteria virens virens              198
  683_a_ Long-tailed Chat                 "      "    longicauda        198
  684    Hooded Warbler              Wilsonia citrina                   188
  685    Wilson's Warbler               "     pusilla pusilla           193
  685_a_ Pileolated Warbler             "       "     pileolata         193
  685_b_ Golden Pileolated Warbler      "       "     chryseola         193
  686    Canadian Warbler               "     canadensis                191
  687    American Redstart           Setophaga ruticilla                187
  688    Painted Redstart                "     picta                    177
  690    Red-faced Warbler           Cardellina rubrifrons              177

Family MOTACILLIDÆ. Wagtails and Pipits.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

 [694]   White Wagtail              Motacilla alba                  A.V.
 [695]   Swinhoe Wagtail                 "     ocularis             A.V.
  696    Alaska Yellow Wagtail      Budytes flavus alascensis        192
  697    Pipit                      Anthus rubescens                 232
 [698]   Meadow Pipit                 "    pratensis                A.V.
 [699]   Red-throated Pipit           "    cervinus                 A.V.
  700    Sprague's Pipit                "    spraguei                232

Family CINCLIDÆ. Dippers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  701    Dipper                     Cinclus mexicanus unicolor       247

Family MIMIDÆ. Thrashers, Mockingbirds, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  702    Sage Thrasher             Oreoscoptes montanus              233
  703    Mockingbird               Mimus polyglottos polyglottos     248
  703_a_ Western Mockingbird         "     "      leucopterus        248
  704    Catbird                   Dumtella carolinensis             247
  705    Brown Thrasher            Toxostoma rufum                   233
  706    Sennett's Thrasher          "   longirostre sennetti        233
  707    Curve-billed Thrasher       "   curvirostre curvirostre     216
  707_a_ Palmer's Thrasher           "     "       palmeri           216
  708    Bendire's Thrasher          "   bendirei                    216
  709    San Lucas Thrasher          "   cinereum cinereum           216
  709_a_ Mearns's Thrasher           "     "     mearnsi             216
  710    California Thrasher         "     "     redivivum redivivum 217
  711    Leconte's Thrasher          "   lecontei lecontei           217
  711_a_ Desert Thrasher             "     "     arenicola           217
  712    Crissal Thrasher            "   crissale                    217


  No.       COMMON NAME            SCIENTIFIC NAME                     Page

  713    Cactus Wren              Heleodytes brunneicapillus couesi     233
  713_a_ Bryant's Cactus Wren         "           "          bryanti    233
  713_b_ San Lucas Cactus Wren        "           "          affinis    233
  715    Rock Wren                Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus        234
  715_a_ San Nicolas Rock Wren        "          "     pulverius        301
  716    Guadalupe Rock Wren          "          "     guadeloupensis   234
  717    White-throated Wren      Catherpes mexicanus albifrons         234
  717_a_ Cañon Wren                   "        "      conspersus        234
  717_b_ Dotted Cañon Wren            "        "      punctulatus       234
  718    Carolina Wren            Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus 234
  718_a_ Florida Wren                  "           "       miamensis    234
  718_b_ Lomita Wren                   "           "       lomitensis   234
  719    Bewick's Wren            Thryomanes bewicki bewicki            235
  719_a_ Vigor's Wren                  "     spilurus                   235
  719_b_ Baird's Wren                  "        "     bairdi            235
  719_c_ Texas Bewick's Wren           "        "     cryptus           235
  719_d_ San Diego Bewick's Wren       "        "     charienturus      235
  719_e_ Seattle Bewick's Wren         "     calophonus                 235
  719.1  San Clemente Wren             "     leucophrys                 235
  720    Guadalupe Wren                "     brevicauda                 235
  721    House Wren               Troglodytes aëdon aëdon               236
  721_a_ Western House Wren            "        "   parkmani            236
  722    Winter Wren              Nannus hiemalis hiemalis              236
  722_a_ Western Winter Wren        "    pacificus                      236
  722_b_ Kadiak Winter Wren         "        "     helleri              236
  723    Alaska Wren                "    alascensis                     236
  723.1  Aleutian Wren              "    meliger                        236
  724    Short-billed Marsh Wren  Cistothorus stellaris                 236
  725    Long-billed Marsh Wren   Telmatodytes palustris palustris      237
  725    Tulé Wren                     "       paludicola               237
  725_b_ Worthington's Marsh Wren      "           "     griseus        237
  725_c_ Western Tule Wren             "       plesius                  237
  725_d_ Prairie Marsh Wren            "       iliacus                  301
  725_e_ Marian's Marsh Wren           "          "      mariannæ       237

Family CERTHIIDÆ. Creepers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  726    Brown Creeper              Certhia familiaris americana     237
  726_a_ Mexican Creeper              "         "     albescens      237
  726_b_ Rocky Mountain Creeper       "         "     montana        237
  726_c_ California Creeper           "         "     occidentalis   237
  726_d_ Sierra Creeper               "         "     zelotes        237

Family SITTIDÆ. Nuthatches.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

  727    White-breasted Nuthatch        Sitta carolinensis carolinensis 246
  727_a_ Slender-billed Nuthatch          "        "       aculeata     246
  727_b_ Florida White-breasted
           Nuthatch                       "        "       atkinsi      246
  727_c_ Rocky Mountain Nuthatch          "        "       nelsoni      246
  727_d_ San Lucas Nuthatch               "        "       lagunæ       246
  728    Red-breasted Nuthatch          Sitta canadensis                246
  729    Brown-headed Nuthatch            "   pusilla                   246
  730    Pygmy Nuthatch                   "    pygmæa pygmæa            246
  730_a_ White-naped Nuthatch             "      "   leuconucha         247

Family PARIDÆ. Titmice.

  No.       COMMON NAME         SCIENTIFIC NAME                        Page

  731    Tufted Titmouse        Bæolophus bicolor                       243
  732    Black-crested Titmouse    "      atricristatus atricristatus   242
  732_a_ Sennett's Titmouse        "            "     sennetti          303
  733    Plain Titmouse         Bæolophus inornatus inornatus           242
  733_a_ Gray Titmouse             "         "      griseus             242
  733_b_ Ashy Titmouse             "         "      cineraceus          242
  734    Bridled Titmouse          "      wollweberi                    244
  735    Chickadee              Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus    245
  735_a_ Long-tailed Chickadee       "          "       septentrionalis 245
  735_b_ Oregon Chickadee            "          "       occidentalis    245
  735_c_ Yukon Chickadee             "          "       turneri         303
  736    Carolina Chickadee          "      carolinensis carolinensis   245
  736_a_ Plumbeous Chickadee         "            "      agilis         245
  736_b_ Florida Chickadee           "            "      impiger        303
  737    Mexican Chickadee           "      sclateri                    245
  738    Mountain Chickadee          "      gambeli gambeli             244
  738_a_ Bailey's Mountain
           Chickadee                 "          "   baileyæ             303
  739    Alaska Chickadee            "     cinctus alascensis           244
  740    Hudsonian Chickadee         "     hudsonicus hudsonicus        244
  740_a_ Acadian Chickadee           "          "     littoralis        244
  741    Chestnut-backed Chickadee   "    rufescens rufescens           244
  741_a_ California Chickadee        "        "     neglectus           244
  741_b_ Barlow's Chickadee          "        "     barlowi             244
  741_c_ Valdez Chestnut-sided
           Chickadee                 "        "     vivax               303
  743    Bush-Tit               Psaltriparus minimus minimus            242
  743_a_ California Bush-Tit         "         "     californicus       242
  743_b_ Grinda's Bush-Tit           "         "     grindæ             242
  744    Lead-colored Bush-Tit       "       plumbeus                   242
  745    Lloyd's Bush-Tit            "       melanotis lloydi           242
  746    Verdin                 Auriparus flaviceps flaviceps           195
  746_a_ Cape Verdin                 "        "    lamprocephalus       195

Family CHAMÆIDÆ. Wren-Tits.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                Page

  742    Wren-Tit                   Chamæa fasciata fasciata         215
  742_a_ Pallid Wren-Tit                 "      "  henshawi          215
  742_b_ Coast Wren-Tit                  "      "  phæa              300
  742_c_ Ruddy Wren-Tit                  "      "  rufula            300

Family SYLVIIDÆ. Warblers, Kinglets, Gnatcatchers.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                 Page

  747    Kennicott's Willow Warbler     Acanthopneuste borealis       212
  748    Golden-crowned Kinglet         Regulus satrapa satrapa       187
  748_a_ Western Golden-crowned Kinglet      "       "    olivaceus   187
  749    Ruby-crowned Kinglet              "    calendula calendula   176
  749_a_ Sitkan Kinglet                      "        "     grinnelli 176
  750    Dusky Kinglet                     "        "     obscurus    177
  751    Blue-gray Gnatcatcher          Polioptila cærulea cærulea    243
  751_a_ Western Gnatcatcher                  "         "    obscura  243
  752    Plumbeous Gnatcatcher              "      plumbea            243
  753    Black-tailed Gnatcatcher           "      californica        243

Family TURDIDÆ. Thrushes, Solitaires, Stonechats,
                     Bluebirds, etc.

  No.       COMMON NAME              SCIENTIFIC NAME                   Page

  754    Townsend's Solitaire       Myadestes townsendi                 247
  755    Wood Thrush                Hylocichla mustelina                233
  756    Veery                         "      fuscescens fuscescens     238
  756_a_ Willow Thrush                 "          "      salicicola     238
  757    Gray-cheeked Thrush           "      aliciæ aliciæ             239
  757_a_ Bicknell's Thrush             "         "   bicknelli          239
  758    Russet-backed Thrush          "      ustulata ustulata         239
  758_a_ Olive-backed Thrush           "         "     swainsoni        239
  759    Alaska Hermit Thrush          "      guttata guttata           238
  759_a_ Audubon's Hermit Thrush       "         "    auduboni          238
  759_b_ Hermit Thrush                 "         "    pallasi           238
  759_c_ Dwarf Hermit Thrush           "         "    nana              238
  759_d_ Monterey Hermit Thrush        "         "    slevini           302
  759_e_ Sierra Hermit Thrush          "         "    sequoiensis       302
 [760]   Red-winged Thrush          Turdus musicus                     A.V.
  761    Robin                      Planesticus migratorius migratorius 207
  761_a_ Western Robin                 "          "         propinquus  207
  761_b_ Southern Robin                "          "         achrusterus 207
  762    San Lucas Robin               "      confinis                  207
  763    Varied Thrush              Ixoreus nævius nævius               207
  763_a_ Northern Varied Thrush        "      "    meruloides           207
 [764]   Siberian Red-spotted Bluethroat Cyanosylvia suecica robusta   A.V.
 [764.1] Greater Kamchatkan Nightingale  Calliope calliope
                                                      camtschatkensis  A.V.
  765    Wheatear                   Saxicola œnanthe œnanthe            248
  765_a_ Greenland Wheatear             "          "     leucorhoa      248
  766    Bluebird                   Sialia sialis sialis                182
  766_a_ Azure Bluebird                "     "    fulva                 182
  767    Western Bluebird              "   mexicana occidentalis        182
  767_a_ Chestnut-backed Bluebird      "      "     bairdi              182
  767_b_ San Pedro Bluebird            "      "     annabelæ            182
  768    Mountain Bluebird             "   currucoides                  182



Since the publication of the first edition of the 'Color Key' in 1903,
the American Ornithologists' Union has issued the Third Edition (1910)
of its 'Check-List of North American Birds.' This includes all
approved additions to and changes in the preceding edition made since
1903 as well as rulings on a number of cases which were in abeyance at
the time the first edition of the 'Color Key' appeared.

Mere changes in nomenclature not affecting the status of a species are
given without comment in the preceding Systematic Table, which has
been fully revised and brought up to date. To ascertain the correct,
current name of any species or subspecies of North American bird the
student, after determining its identity in the 'Color Key,' has only
to refer to its number in the Systematic Table to learn whether any
change has been made in nomenclature. In addition to actual changes in
nomenclature due to the detection of errors in earlier names, it
should be noted that a third name or trinomial is now employed for
each race of a species, and also that an apostrophe is used in
connection with the names of birds named for individuals. Throughout
the 'Color Key,' therefore, alterations should be made when required
by these two changes in method.

All other changes than these simple ones of names are included, with
explanations, in this appendix, and the student is urged to make
manuscript cross-references on the pages where such changes occur to
avoid their being overlooked.

As far as possible the language of the original describer of the new
subspecies of birds is here quoted, while the Ranges are mainly from
the A.O.U. Check-List.

References to original sources of publication are given only with
cases included in the first supplement to the Third Edition (1910) of
the Check List. In all other instances reference to the original place
of description, etc., is contained in the 'Check-List.'

Pages 29, 127. The North American Kites, Hawks, Falcons, Eagles, etc.,
are now placed in three families instead of one, as follows:
BUTEONIDÆ, containing the Kites, Hawks and Eagles (Nos. 327-352a);
FALCONIDÆ containing the Falcons and Caracaras (Nos. 353-363), and
PANDIONIDÆ, containing the Osprey (No. 364).

Pages 39, 162, 168. The subfamilies Troglodytinæ and Miminæ are now
elevated to full family rank. The Mockingbirds and Thrashers (Nos.
702-712) are therefore the North American members of the Family
MIMIDÆ; and the Wrens (Nos. 713-725e) the North American members of

Pages 39, 162, 169. The subfamilies Sittinæ and Parinæ are now
elevated to full family rank. The Nuthatches (Nos. 727 to 730a) are
therefore the North American members of the Family SITTIDÆ; and the
Titmice (Nos. 732 to 746a, except Nos. 742 to 742c now placed in the
Family CHAMÆIDÆ, see beyond) the North American members of the Family

Page 63. Cancel No. 94, _Puffinus fuliginosus_, which proves to be the
same as No. 95, _Puffinus griseus_. The common name, however, is
retained and the species stands =95, Sooty Shearwater= (_Puffinus
griseus_). Characters as given.

Range--Oceans of Southern Hemisphere; occurs in summer on the Pacific
coast from southern Alaska to Lower California, and on the Atlantic
coast from Gulf of St. Lawrence to South Carolina.

Page 77. But one form of the Black Duck is recognized by the A.O.U.
It stands as No. 133. Black Duck (_Anas rubripes_), which name,
therefore, includes both Nos. 133 and 133a.

Page 92. After No. 197 add: =197a. Brewster's Egret= (_Egretta
candidissima brewsteri_). Similar to No. 197 "but larger, bill longer,
tarsus longer, and whole leg _very much_ heavier or thicker." [Male].
Tar. 4.36; B. 3.60. [Female]. Tar. 4.00; B. 3.42. (Thayer and Bangs).

Range--"Southern Lower California." (A.O.U.).

Page 97. After No. 210 add: =210.1. Light-footed rail.= (_Rallus
levipes_) "Much smaller than either _R. obsoletus_ or _R. beldingi_,
bill much more slender, tarsus and foot smaller than in either;
superciliary white instead of rusty...." W. 5.70; T. 2.24; Tar. 1.81;
B. 2.24. (Bangs).

Range--"Marshes of southern California, from Santa Barbara south to
San Quintin Bay, Lower California; accidental in Arizona." (A.O.U.)

Page 98. After No. 216 add: =216.1. Farallon Rail= (_Creciscus
coturniculus_). "Smaller [than No. 216] with much slenderer bill; the
plumbeous of the under parts deeper, the chestnut-brown of the upper
parts brighter and more extended, forming a broader patch on the nape
and tinging more or less strongly and generally much of the top of the
head where there is often no pure unmixed plumbeous or slaty save on
the forehead." (Brewster).

Range--"Pacific coast of United States. Breeds in coast marshes of
California; casual in Washington, Oregon and Lower California."

Page 103. After 266 add: =268. Bristle-thighed Curlew= (_Numenius
tahitiensis_). Somewhat like _N. hudsonicus_, but thighs with long
bristle-like feathers; tail pale rusty, barred with black; markings
of back and wings pale rusty.

Range--"Alaska and Pacific Islands. Breeding range unknown; has been
taken in summer in western Alaska from Kowak River to Kenai Peninsula;
also on Laysan and Phoenix Islands; winters in islands of the South
Pacific from Hawaii to New Caledonia" (A.O.U.). Classed with
Accidental Visitants in first edition of 'Color Key.'

Page 112. Cancel No. 277a, Belted Piping Plover, which proves to be
the same as No. 277, Piping Plover.

Page 117. After No. 297b add: =297c. Sierra Grouse= (_D. o. sierræ_).
Male resembles male of No. 297, but back less black and more heavily
vermiculated with brown and gray; terminal tail-band narrower and more
speckled with blackish; medium tail-feathers more heavily marked with
gray or brownish; white neck-tufts practically absent; feathers of
sides, flanks and under tail-coverts with less white. Much paler and
more heavily vermiculated above than No. 297b.

Range--Ft. Klamath, Oregon south through the Sierras to Mount Pinos in
South California.

Page 117. The ranges of the races of this bird (now known as Spruce
Partridge, rather than Spruce Grouse) are given in the A.O.U.
'Check-List' as follows:

=298. Hudsonian Spruce Partridge= (_Canachites canadensis

Range--"Boreal forest region from the eastern base of the Rocky
Mountains west of Edmonton, Alberta, east to Labrador Peninsula; also
a disconnected area in Alaska from Bristol Bay to Cook Inlet and
Prince William Sound."

=298b. Alaska Spruce Partridge= (_C. c. osgoodi_).

Range--"Mt. McKinley and the Yukon region east to Great Slave and
Athabasca lakes."

=298c. Canada Spruce Partridge= (_C. c. canace_).

Range--"Manitoba, southern Ontario, and New Brunswick south to
northern parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, and New

Page 119. After No. 301a add: =301b. Alexander's Ptarmigan= (_L. l.
alexandræ_). Similar to _L. l. lagopus_ in corresponding plumage, "but
coloration darker throughout, especially dorsally; bill smaller and
relatively much narrower." (Grinnell).

Range--Baranof and adjacent islands west to Shumagin Islands

Page 119. After No. 301b. add; =301c. Ungava Ptarmigan= (_L. l.
ungavus_). Like No. 301 but with a heavier bill. Culmen, .82; depth of
bill at base, .57 (Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIV, 1911, p. 233).

Range--Ungava and probably the eastern shore of Hudson Bay.

Page 120. Remove the interrogation points from before Nos. 304 and
304a, the distinctions between which there presented having been
accepted by the A.O.U., and amend Range of No. 304a. to read:
"Alpine summits from central Alaska, northern Yukon, and northwestern
Mackenzie south to Cook Inlet region, Kenai Peninsula and southern
Yukon." (A.O.U.).

Page 120. After No. 302e. add: =302f. Dixon's Ptarmigan= (_L. r.
dixoni_). Resembling _L. r. nelsoni_ in corresponding plumage, "but
much darker; in extreme blackness of coloration nearly like _Lagopus
evermanni_, but feathers of chest and back more or less finely
vermiculated with hazel." (Grinnell).

Range--Islands near Sitka.

Page 120. After No. 302d. add: =302e. Adak Ptarmigan= (_L. r.
chamberlaini_). Nearest _L. r. towsendi_ but with finer vermiculations
above, and with black bars on neck and upper back reduced to very
narrow bars or vermiculations. Grayest of the Aleutian Ptarmigan.

Range--Island of Adak, Aleutian Chain.

Page 122. A change here in enumeration makes Merriam's Turkey No. 310,
while the Wild Turkey (_M. g. silvestris_) becomes 310a.

Page 125. After No. 316 add: =316a. Western Mourning Dove= (_Z. m.
marginella_). Similar to _Z. m. carolinensis_ but paler. (Mearns, Auk,
1911, p. 490).

Range--"Pacific Coast and San Clemente Island east to Mississippi
Valley" (A.O.U.). The range of No. 316 should be correspondingly

Page 126. After No. 319 add: =319a. White-winged Dove= (_M. a.
trudeaui_). Similar to _M. a. asiatica_ but "slightly larger, with a
much longer bill and much paler coloration" (Mearns, Auk. 1911,
p. 489).

Range--"Lower California, southern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico
and southern Texas, south to Costa Rica. Casual in southeastern
California and Colorado; accidental in Washington" (A.O.U.).

Page 126. No. 319 becomes West Indian White-winged Dove (_Melopelia
asiatica asiatica_). Its Range includes Cuba and Jamaica, and it is
of casual occurrence in the Bahamas and Florida.

Page 132. After No. 337d. add =337e. Alaska Red-tail= (_B. b.
alascensis_). Resembling _B. b. calurus_ "but smaller throughout, and,
keeping in consideration the stage of plumage, dark areas blacker and
more extended." [Male] W. 13.5; T. 7.67; [Female] W. 14.44; T. 8.69

Range--"Southeastern Alaska from Yakutat Bay to Admiralty Island and
the Sitka Islands" (A.O.U.).

Page 138. After No. 360b. add: =360c. Little Sparrow Hawk=
(_F. S. paulus_). Similar to No. 360 but smaller. [Male] W. 6.80;
T. 4.12 [Female] W. 6.96; T. 4.00 (Howe).

Range--Southern half of Florida.

Page 140. No. 379 proves to be separable into southern and northern
races. The former retains the name _Glaucidium gnoma gnoma_, while the
race of northern Mexico and Western United States, heretofore known by
that name, becomes _G. g. pinicola_, the Rocky Mountain Pygmy Owl.
(Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIII, 1910, p. 103).

Page 142. After No. 373h. add: =373i. Sahauro Screech Owl=
(_O. a. gilmani_). Nearest No. 373f but smaller and paler and with
black markings more restricted (Swarth, Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool., VII,
1910, p. 1).

Range--"Lower Sonoran Life zone of southeastern California, Arizona,
and probably New Mexico; and northwestern Mexico" (A.O.U.).

Page 143. After No. 375f. add: =375g. Saint Michael Horned Owl=
(_B. v. algistus_). Similar to No. 375d. but larger; face less
ochraceous, upper surface paler ochraceous. W. 14.60 (Oberholser).

Range--"Coast Region of northern Alaska from Bristol Bay and the Yukon
northward" (A.O.U.).

Page 143. After No. 275e. add: =375f. Labrador Horned Owl=
(_B. v. heterocnemis_). Similar to No. 375c. "but bill larger;
posterior lower parts paler; feet lighter colored and less heavily
spotted; upper parts with usually less ochraceous." (Oberholser).

Range--"Northern Ungava and Labrador" (A.O.U.).

Page 147. After No. 390 add: =390a. Northwestern Belted Kingfisher=
(_C. a. caurina_). Similar to No. 370 "but size greater, especially
measurements of flight-feathers." W. 6.54 (Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub.
Zool., V. 1910, p. 388).

Range--Northwestern America, south along the Pacific coast in winter.
Status of California breeding birds still undetermined. (Grinnell,
Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool., V, 1910, p. 289).

Page 150. After No. 393f. add: =393g. Newfoundland Woodpecker=
(_D. v. terrænoræ_). Similar to _D. V. villosus_, "but slightly larger,
the black areas of the upperparts increased, the white areas reduced
both in number and in size, especially in the remiges and wing-coverts,"


Page 150. After No. 393e. add: =393h. White-breasted Woodpecker=
(_D. v. leucothorectis_). "Much like No. 393e. but decidedly smaller;
wing-coverts practically always without white spots." W. 4.83;
T. 3.07; B. 1.10 (Oberholser, Proc. U. S. N. M. 40, 1908, p. 608).

Range--"Canadian and Transition Zones, from southern Utah,
northwestern and central New Mexico and extreme southwestern Texas,
south to the mountains of western Zacatecas, Mexico." (A.O.U.).

Page 151. After No. 396a. add: =396b. San Fernando Woodpecker=
(_D. s. eremicus_). Similar to No. 396a, but larger; lower surface
darker; upperparts darker, the white bars on back averaging narrower
and less regular, the neck bars wider; black bars on posterior lower
parts averaging somewhat wider." [Male] W. 4.16; T. 2.67; B. 1.02.
(Oberholser, Proc. U. S. N. M. 41, 1911, P. 151).

Range--Lower California, north of Ukai and Plaia Maria Bay, except
extreme northeastern portion" (A.O.U.). The Range of No. 396a is
thus restricted to the southern half of Lower California.

Page 351. _Dryobates scalaris bairdi_ proves to be restricted to
Mexico; No. 396, its representative in the southwestern United States,
has been named Cactus Woodpecker (_D. s. cactophilus_). (Oberholser,
Proc. U. S. N. M., 41, 1911, p. 152).

Page 154. After No. 414a. add: =414b. Mearns's Gilded Flicker=
(_C. c. mearnsi_). Similar to _C. c. chrysoides_ but decidedly larger
and paler, with pileum more strongly cinnamomeus, black bars on back,
etc., narrower, spots on outer web of primaries more conspicuous
primary coverts also sometimes spotted, gray of throat, etc. lighter,
and spots on underparts usually smaller. W. 5.74; T. 3.77; B. 1.39

Range.--"Extreme southwestern California, northern Lower California,
and southern Arizona south to southern Sonora" (A.O.U.). The Range
of No. 414 is now restricted to "southern Lower California," that of
No. 414 to "middle Lower California."

Page 160. After No. 439 add: =391.1 Salvin's Hummingbird= (_Uranomitra
salvini_). Ad. [Male]. Head glittering blue; back dark shining green;
tail dark glossy green, outer pair of feathers broadly tipped with
drab; below soiled white; throat tinged with clayey white, sides of
throat spotted with blue; sides of breast greenish blue; sides of body
brilliant green. W. 2.07; T. 1.27; B. 1.02 (Brewster). Yng [Female].
Similar but duller, rump edged with rusty; sides of body brownish gray

Range.--"Huachuca Mountains, southern Arizona, and eastern Sonora
(only two specimens known)" (A.O.U.).

Pages 162 and 166. The Waxwings alone now compose the Family
BOMBYCILLIDÆ (formerly AMPELIDÆ) while the Phainopepla is placed in

Pages 162 and 169. The subfamily Chamæinæ is now elevated to full
family rank and stands as Family CHAMÆIDÆ, Wren-Tits. It contains
solely the Wren-Tits, (Nos. 742 to 742c) the only family of birds
restricted to North America.

Page 178. After No. 498f. add: =498g. Vera Cruz Red-wing=
(_A. p. richmondi_). Similar to _A. p. floridanus_ but slightly smaller;
adult female much lighter colored (resembling female of _A. p.
sonoriensis_), about intermediate in color between females of
_A. p. floridanus_ and _A. p. bryanti_. [Male] W. 4.40; T. 3.22; B. 90;
depth of B. at base, .44. [Female]. W. 3.61; T. 2.67; B. .77; depth of
B. at base, 39.

Range.--"Southern coast and Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas south
through eastern Mexico to Yucatan and eastern Guatemala; winters south
to eastern Nicaragua and Costa Rica." (A.O.U.).

Page 185. After No. 478d. add: =478e. Coast Jay= (_C. s. carbonacea_).
"Intermediate in size and coloration between _C. s. stelleri_ and
_C. stelleri frontalis_. Dorsal surface sooty black as in _stelleri_,
but with blue on forehead nearly as extended as in _frontalis_. Tint
of blue of posterior lower parts paler than in _=stelleri=_, and
extending further forward into pectoral region as in _frontalis_"

Range.--"Breeds in the humid Pacific coast strip from southern Oregon
to the Santa Lucia mountains, California and east to the mountains on
the west side of Napa Valley; in winter east to the Gabilan and Mt.
Diablo ranges" (A. O. U).

Page 192. Cancel No. 530b, United States specimens of which prove to
be merely adults of No. 530. Further west, however, black-backed birds
are not found, and this western bird has been described as new.
(Consequently after No. 530, add: =530a). Green-backed Goldfinch=
(_A. p. hesperophilus_). Similar to _A. p. psaltria_ "but ear-coverts,
sides of neck with back, nape, and rump, in fully adult plumage,
olive-green instead of black" (Oberholser). Fig. 530 represents this

Range.--"Southwestern United States. Breeds from southern Oregon and
Utah to southern Lower California, Sonora and extreme southwestern New
Mexico; winters from central California to Cape San Lucas" (A.O.U.).

The Range of _A. g. psaltria_ is therefore restricted to "northern
Colorado to central northern Texas and south throughout Mexico, except
in northwestern and extreme southern portions; casual in Wyoming."

Page 194. Cancel No. 618d, Northern Yellow-throat, which proves to be
the same as No. 681, Maryland Yellow-throat.

Page 196. After No. 652b. add: =652c. California Yellow Warbler=
(_D. æ. brewsteri_). Differs from _D. æ. æstiva_ in smaller size,
paler (or less brightly yellow) coloration and, in the male, narrower
streaking on under surface." Differs from _D. æ. rubiginosa_ "in much
smaller size and yellower coloration," and "from _D. æ. sonorana_ in
smaller size and darker coloration." [Male] W. 2.45; T. 1.96. [Female].
W. 2.33; T. 1.93 (Grinnell).

Range.--Pacific Coast, west of the Cascades, and the Sierra Nevada
from Washington to southern California. (The range of _D. æ. æstiva_
is correspondingly restricted).

Page 210. Cancel No. 464.2, Santa Barbara Flycatcher, which proves to
be the same as No. 464, Western Flycatcher.

Page 211. Cancel No. 472a, Ridgway's Flycatcher, which proves to be
the same as No. 472, Beardless Flycatcher.

Page 212. After No. 632c. add: =632a. Fraser's Vireo= (_V. h.
cognatus_). Similar to _V. h. stephensi_, but wing averaging decidedly
shorter, tarsus longer, and coloration paler. Wing, 2.48; Tar. .74

Range.--"Cape San Lucas district of Lower California (Sierra de la
Laguna; Victoria Mountains); resident" (Ridgway).

Page 214. After No. 633a. add: =633b. Texas Vireo= (_V. b. medius_).
"Similar to _V. b. belli_, but coloration paler and tail averaging
longer; pileum and hindneck brownish gray instead of grayish brown;
olive of back, etc. grayer; underparts whiter with olive-yellow of
sides and flanks much paler; under tail-coverts and axillars white,
yellowish white, or very pale sulphur yellow" (Ridgway).

Range.--"Southwestern Texas (Presidio, Brewster and Kinney Counties)
south to Coahuila and Guanajuato, central Mexico" (A.O.U.).

Pages 215, 216. The Wren-Tits have been revised and their ranges more
correctly defined, and to the two forms given two more have been
added. The four races now recognized stand as follows: =742. Wren-Tit=
(_Chamæa fasciata fasciata_). Characters as described and figured.

Range.--"Upper Sonoran zone on the eastern and southern shores of San
Francisco Bay and adjacent Santa Clara Valley" (A.O.U.).

=742a. Pallid Wren-Tit= (_C. f. henshawi_). Similar to _C. f.
fasciata_, "but decidedly paler, the back, scapulars, rump, etc.
grayish brown (deep hair-brown), the pileum and hindneck brownish
gray (nearly mouse-gray or deep smoke-gray), and general color of
underparts varying from very pale grayish buff to buffy ecru-drab, or
pale, vinaceous-buff, fading to nearly white on lower abdomen"

Range.--"Upper Sonoran Zone of foothills and valleys of interior and
southern California from Shasta County south to northern Lower
California, and along the coast from Monterey Bay southward"

=742b. Coast Wren-Tit= (_C. f. phæa_). Characters as stated on page

Range.--"Humid Transition Zone of Pacific Coast of Oregon and northern
California (from Columbia River to Humboldt Bay)" (A.O.U.).

=742c. Ruddy Wren-Tit= (_C. f. rufula_). Intermediate in color between
No. 742 and No. 742b. More richly colored than the former, but not so
dark as the latter.

Range.--"Humid Transition coast strip of California from southern
Humboldt County to Santa Cruz" (A.O.U.).

Page 217. Cancel No. 710a. Pasadena Thrasher, which proves to be the
same as No. 710 California Thrasher.

Page 223. After No. 542b, add: =542d. Nevada Savannah Sparrow= (_P. s.
nevadensis_). Resembles _P. s. alaudinus_ "but much paler throughout
in all plumages; white replacing buff, black streaks thus more
conspicuously contrasted, there being a minimum amount of hazel
marginings; size slightly less." Differs from _P. s. savanna_ "as
above, but in greater degree" (Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool.
V, 1910, p. 312).

Range.--"Humboldt and Washoe Counties, Nevada, and probably throughout
Great Basin, south in winter to the Colorado Desert and Los Angeles
Co., California" (A.O.U.).

Page 228, after No. 574b (which, as shown in the Systematic Table, now
becomes 574.1a) add: =574.1b. California Sage Sparrow= (_Amphispiza
nevadensis canescens_). Similar to _Amphispiza belli_ but size
somewhat greater, and coloration throughout very much paler; resembles
_Amphispiza nevadensis nevadensis_, but size very much less, and
coloration slightly darker. [Male] W. 2.79; T. 3.03. [Female]
W. 2.63; T. 2.87 (Grinnell).

Range.--"Upper Sonoran Zone in Owens Valley and adjacent areas in
eastern California and extreme western Nevada" (A.O.U.).

Page 229. After No. 581c. add =581s. Suisun Song Sparrow= (_M. m.
maxillaris_). Size of _M. m. heermanni_; but black streakings
everywhere broader, and the general tone of coloration darker; larger
than _M. m. samuelis_ and with brown more extended and deeper in tone
(bay rather than hazel); unique in having the base of the maxilla
inflated or swollen with "lateral bulbosities" (Grinnell).

Range.--Marshes bordering Suisun Bay, Solano Co., California.

Page 230. After No. 581d. add: =581p. Mendocino Song Sparrow= (_M. m.
cleonsis_). Size of _M. m. samuelis_ but lighter and more rusty; black
markings of back more restricted; spots of breast broadly edged with
rusty; black on side of head and neck almost entirely replaced by
rusty or reddish brown" (McGregor).

Range.--"Coast strip of southern Oregon and northern California from
Yaquina Bay, Oregon, to Tomales Bay, California" (A.O.U.).

Page 231. After No. 585d. add: =585e. Sooty Fox Sparrow= (_P. i.
fuliginosa_). "Similar to _P. i. townsendi_ but darker and less
rufescent, the upperparts, sides of head and neck and lateral
underparts sepia or sooty brown, the upper tail-coverts and tail
slightly more castaneous; spots on underparts dark sooty brown, larger
and more confluent than in other forms" (Ridgway).

Range.--"Northwest coast strip. Breeds on the coast of British
Columbia, Vancouver Island and northwestern Washington; winters south
along the coast to San Francisco, California" (A.O.U.).

=No. 585f. Kadiak Fox Sparrow= (_P. i. insularis_). "Similar to
_P. i. unalaschensis_ but much browner and more uniform above (back
warm sepia), spots on chest, etc., larger and much deeper brown and
under tail-coverts more strongly tinged with buff" (Ridgway).

Range.--"Alaska coast strip. Breeds on Kadiak Island and on the coast
from Prince William Sound south to Cross Sound; winters along the
coast to southern California" (A.O.U.).

Page 234. After No. 715 add: =715a. San Nicolas Rock Wren= (_S. o.
pulverius_). Similar to _S. o. obsoletus_ "but entire plumage,
especially the upperparts, suffused with ochraceous or dust color,
almost identical with the tint of the soil on San Nicholas Island"

Range.--San Nicholas Island, California.

Page 236. Cancel No. 821b, _Troglodytes aëdon aztecus_, which proves
to be the same as No. 721a, _T. a. parkmani_. The common name, Western
House Wren, however, is retained in place of the common name Parkman's

Page 237. After No. 725c add: =725d. Prairie Marsh Wren= (_T. p.
iliacus_). "Similar to _T. p. palustris_, but slightly larger and with
the coloration more rufescent, the brown of the upperparts
russet-brown to cinnamon-brown or russet, the flanks conspicuously
deep cinnamon-buff or cinnamon" (Ridgway).

Range.--Plains and prairies of central North America. Breeds from
central Alberta and southwestern Keewatin south to central Mississippi
Valley and east to Indiana; winters southward into Mexico and along
the Gulf coast to western Florida (A.O.U.).

Page 238. After No. 759c add: =759d. Monterey Hermit Thrush= (_H. g.
slevini_). General color extremely pale and ashy, nearly as much so as
in _H. g. sequoiensis_; above hair-brown, slightly browner on top of
head; upper tail-coverts and tail isabella color; spots on breast
sepia, small in size and few in numbers. (Grinnell).

Range.--"Breeds in Transition Zone of the coast belt in California
from northern Trinity County to southern Monterey County; south in
migration to Lower California and Sonora" (A.O.U.).

=759e. Sierra Hermit Thrush= (_H. g. sequoiensis_). Similar in
coloration to _H. g. slevini_, but decidedly larger and slightly
darker or browner; similar to _H. g. guttata_, but larger, paler, and
grayer; decidedly smaller." W. 3.65; T. 2.82. (Ridgway).

Range.--"Breeds in Boreal Zones from southern British Columbia to high
mountains in southern California; south in migration and in winter to
Lower California, western Texas, and northern Mexico" (A.O.U.).

Page 239. Cancel 758b, Monterey Thrush, and No. 758c, Alma Thrush,
which are now considered to be the same as No. 758, Russet-backed

Pages 240 and 241. The decisions of the A.O.U. Committee on numerous
proposed changes in the standing of our Juncos were not published
until after the first edition of the Color Key appeared. One new form
(No. 567h) has been added to those therein given one (_J. o.
shufeldti_) has been omitted and the following changes have been made
in nomenclature:

No. 568. _Junco mearnsi_, becomes No. 567g, Junco hyemalis mearnsi,
and the Range of this form is now given as "Rocky Mountain region.
Breeds from southwestern Saskatchewan to southern Idaho and northern
Wyoming and Colorado to southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and
northeastern Sonora" (A.O.U.).

No. 567.1 _Junco montanus_, becomes No. 567f. _Junco hyemalis

No. 571.1 _Junco townsendi_, becomes No. 567i, _Junco hyemalis

No. 569 _Junco caniceps_, becomes No. 570b. _Junco phæonotus

No. 570a. _Junco dorsalis_, becomes _Junco phæonotus dorsalis_.

No. 567a. _Junco oreganus_, becomes _Junco hyemalis oreganus_.

No. 567c. _Junco oreganus thurberi_, becomes _Junco hyemalis

No. 567d. _Junco oreganus pinosus_, becomes _Junco hyemalis pinosus_.

The common names of all the preceding species remain unchanged.

No. 567b. Coues' Junco (_Junco oreganus connectens_) becomes
Shufeldt's Junco (_Junco hyemalis connectens_), and this form also
includes _J. o. shufeldti_ of the 'Color Key,' which is therefore
cancelled. The Range of 567b, thus stands as follows:

Rocky Mountain region. Breeds from the coast of southern British
Columbia east to west, central Alberta and south to northern Oregon;
winters over entire Rocky Mountain tableland to eastern Colorado,
Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas, Chihuahua, and Sonora; casual
in northern Lower California" (A.O.U.).

The one new form added follows No. 568. after which insert =567h,
Ridgway's Junco= (_J. h. annectens_). Back with a reddish brown patch
as in _J. p. caniceps_, but sides washed with pinkish brown, as in
_J. h. mearnsi_.

Range.--"Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico" (A.O.U.).

Page 242. Cancel No. 744.1, Santa Rita Bush-Tit, which proves to be
the same as No. 745, Lloyd's Bush-Tit.

Page 243. Cancel No. 731a, Texan Tufted Titmouse, which proves to be
the same as No. 731, Tufted Titmouse.

Page 243. After No. 732 add: =732a. Sennett's Titmouse= (_B. a.
sennetti_). "Similar to _B. a. atricistatus_, but decidedly larger;
upper parts much clearer gray, with little, if any olive tinge; adult
female with crest feathers more often and more extensively tipped with
gray, and both sexes with the forehead more often tinged with brown or
rusty, sometimes deeply so" (Ridgway).

Range.--Central Texas, "from Tom Green and Concho Counties east to the
Brazos River, and from Young County south to Nueces and Bee Counties"

Page 244. After No. 741b. add: =741c. Valdez Chestnut-sided Chickadee=
(_P. r. vivax_). Like _P. r. rufescens_ in coloration but larger, tail
proportionately longer and bill bulkier. W. 2.48; T. 2.32 (Grinnell).

Range.--Prince William Sound Region, Alaska.

Page 244. Cancel 740a. Kowak Chickadee, and No. 740b, Columbian
Chickadee, which prove to be the same as No. 740, Hudsonian Chickadee.
_Parus h. littoralis_ becomes No. 740a, Acadian Chickadee.

Page 244. After No. 738 add: =738a. Bailey's Mountain Chickadee=
(_P. g. baileyæ_). Similar to _P. g. gambeli_, "but coloration dorsally
and laterally more plumbeous, less brownish, and bill larger." B. 41

Range.--"Mountains of Great Basin region and northern Lower
California. Breeds in Canadian and Transition Zones from the Maury
Mountains, Oregon, south over Nevada and eastern California to the San
Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California" (A.O.U.).

Page 245. After No. 736a add: =736b. Florida Chickadee= (_P. c.
impiger_). Similar to _P. c. carolinensis_ but darker and decidedly
smaller (except bill). W. 2.08; T. 1.81; B. .31 (Ridgway).

Range.--East central Florida.

Page 245. After No. 735b add: =735c. Yukon Chickadee= (_P. a.
turneri_). "Similar to _P. a. septentrionalis_ but slightly smaller,
coloration grayer above and more extensively or purely white beneath,
and white edgings of greater wing-coverts, secondaries, and outermost
rectrices broader, more purely white" (Ridgway).

Range.--Alaska, north and west of Cook Inlet.

Page 248. After No. 622c add the northeastern form of the Loggerhead
Shrike, which is intermediate between _L. l. ludovicianus_ and _L. l.
excubitorides_ and has been separated as =622e. Migrant Shrike= (_L.
l. migrans_). Similar to _L. l. ludovicianus_ but bill smaller and
colors averaging paler. Not so pale as, and lacking the whitish upper
tail-coverts of _L. l. excubitorides_.

Range.--"Eastern North America. Breeds chiefly in Transition and Upper
Austral Zones from northern Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern
Ontario, southern Quebec, Maine, and New Brunswick, south to eastern
Kansas, southern Illinois, Kentucky, western North Carolina and
interior of Virginia (locally in the east); winters from Middle States
and southern New England to Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi"

The Range of the Loggerhead Shrike (No. 622) is therefore restricted
to the South Atlantic and Gulf States from southern North Carolina
south through Florida and west to Louisiana.

Page 250. After No. 612 add: =612a. Lesser Cliff Swallow= (_P. l.
tachina_). Similar to _P. l. lunifrons_ but decidedly smaller, the
forehead ochraceous instead of cream color. W. 4.08; T. 1.77

Range.--"Texas and Mexico. Breeds in western Texas, the Rio Grande
Valley, and through eastern Mexico to Vera Cruz" (A.O.U.).

Page 250. No. 612.2. _Petrochelidon melanogastra_, becomes No. 612b,
_Petrochelidon lunifrons melanogastra_.

Page 250. After No. 611.1 (which is now believed to be of only
occasional occurrence in southern Florida) add: =611.2. Gray-breasted
Martin= (_Progne chalybea_). Male much like the female of _P. subis_
but brighter, more uniformly steel-blue above. Female like female of
_P. subis_ but brighter, more uniformly gray, the belly whiter,
without black shaft streaks; the nape without sign of a collar in
either sex. W. 5.2.

Range.--Breeds from Lower Rio Grande in Texas south to southern

Page 253. After No. 496 (which has become _Tangavius æneus
involucratus_) add: =496a. Bronzed Cowbird= (_T. w. æneus_). Similar
to _T. æ. involucratus_ but plumage of the male _smoother_ and more
glossy; the female much grayer, more like female of _M. ater_.

Range.--"San Antonio, Texas, south through eastern Mexico, Yucatan and
central America to Panama" (A.O.U.).

The Range of No. 496 is hence restricted to the region from
northwestern Mexico to southern Arizona.

Page 255. After No. 488a. add: =488b. Western Crow= (_C. b.
hesperis_). Similar to No. 488 "but decidedly smaller, with bill
relatively smaller and more slender." [Male] W. 11.88; T. 6.72;
B. 1.87; depth of B. at nostril .62 (Ridgway).

Range.--"Western North America, from east central British Columbia and
Montana south to southern California, Arizona, and western Texas" (A.
O. U.).



When one is engaged in a study of the birds of a certain region or
locality it is of the first importance to learn what has been
published about them by previous workers. Such information may appear
in general works on the bird-life of a large area, but more frequently
it is found in 'local lists' of the birds of a limited district. These
lists constitute one of the most characteristic and numerous types of
ornithological publication. They are of value to the student of
distribution and migration, in the broader phases of these subjects,
and they are of especial interest and assistance to students living in
the region to which they relate.

The appended titles of works of this nature have been selected from a
card catalogue of faunal publications which the author began to
prepare some twenty years ago, in part with regard to their historic
importance, but mainly on the basis of their present working value.

Unfortunately many of these papers are now out of print or are hidden
in scientific publications of but limited circulation and are
therefore correspondingly inaccessible. When, however, other means to
secure them fail, the Librarian of the American Museum of Natural
History, in New York City, may be consulted with a view to securing,
at cost, a type written copy of any list desired.


1875-1895. SHARPE, B., and others. Catalogue of Birds in the British
Museum. 27 vols. with descriptions of the birds of the world,
ills.--1885. STEJNEGER, L., and others. Riverside Natural History.
Vol. IV, Birds, 4to, 558 pp., ills. (Houghton, Mifflin).
Classification, structure, habits, distribution.--1893-1836. NEWTON,
A., and others. A Dictionary of Birds. Pop. Ed., 8vo, 1088 pp., ills.
(Macmillan).--1894-95. LYDEKKER, R., and others. Royal Nat. Hist.,
Birds, 4to, Vols. III, 584 pp., and IV, 576 pp., ills., General
account.--1899. EVANS, A. H., Birds. Vol. IX, Cambridge Natural
History (Macmillan). 8vo, 635 pp. ills. Classification, habits,
distribution.--1899-1909. SHARPE, B. A Hand-List of the Genera and
Species of Birds. 8vo, 5 vols. Published by British Museum. Names and
Ranges.--1909. KNOWLTON, F. H., and others. Birds of the World, sm.
4to, 873 pp., ills. (Holt). Habits, distribution.


1804-14, WILSON, A. American Ornithology. 9 vols., 4to Many subsequent
editions, the last, in one volume, by Porter & Coates, Philadelphia,
is crude, but at least places Wilson's text within reach of every
one.--1831-39. AUDUBON, J. J. Ornithological Biography. 5 vols., 8vo
of text to accompany the 4 elephant folios of plates (1827-38).
Republished in 8 vols., 8vo, 1840-44 and later editions. The elephant
folios with the 5 volumes of text sell for $2500-$3000; the text can
sometimes be purchased at $5 per volume; the first 8vo edition brings
about $350.--1832-34. NUTTALL, T. Manual of the Ornithology of the
United States and Canada. 2 vols. Several later editions, the last
revised by Montague Chamberlain (Little, Brown & Co.), 1903, 2 vols.
in one, 473 and 431 pp.--1858. BAIRD, S. F., CASSIN, J., and LAWRENCE,
G. N. Pacific R. R. Reports. Vol. IX. Birds (of North America). 4to.
pp. LVI+1005--1872. COUES, E. Key to North American Birds. 1903, 5th
and last ed., 2 vols., roy. 8vo. 1152 pp. The introduction, of 233
pages, treats of general ornithology and the anatomy of
birds.--1874-1884. BAIRD, S. F., BREWER, T. M., and RIDGWAY, R.
History of North American Birds. Land birds, 3 vols.: water birds,
2 vols., 4to. The volumes on land birds republished in 8vo size but
from same plates, 1905, 596, 590, 560 pp. (Little, Brown & Co).--1886.
American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds. New
York, Rev. Ed. 1910, 8vo, 430 pp.--1887. RIDGWAY, R. A Manual of North
American Birds. 2d Ed. 1896, 653 pp. (Lippincott).--1892-5. BENDIRE,
C. Life Histories of North American Birds. I, 414 pp., Gallinaceous
birds, Pigeons, Hawks, and Owls; II, 1895, 508 pp., Parrots, Cuckoos,
Trogons, Kingfishers, Woodpeckers, Goatsuckers, Swifts, Hummingbirds,
Cotingas, Flycatchers, Larks, Crows and Jays, Blackbirds and Orioles.
(Pub. by U. S. Nat. Mus.)--1893. NEHRLING, H. Our Native Birds
of Song and Beauty. Vol. I, 371 pp.; Vol. II, 1896, 452 pp.
Biographical.--1898. DAVIE, O. Nests and Eggs of North American
Birds. 5th Ed., 8vo, 509 pp. (Columbus, Ohio).--1901-1911. RIDGWAY, R.
The Birds of North and Middle America. Bull. 50, U. S. Nat. Mus. Part
I, 1901, Fringillidæ; Part II, 1902, Tanagridæ, Icteridæ, Cœrebidæ,
Mniotiltidæ; Part III, 1904, Motacillidæ, Hirundinidæ, Ampelidæ,
Ptilogonatidæ, Dulidæ, Vireonidæ, Laniidæ, Corvidæ, Paridæ, Sittidæ,
Certhiidæ, Troglodytidæ, Cinclidæ, Chameidæ, Sylviidæ; Part IV, 1907,
Turdidæ, Zeledoniidæe, Mimidæe, Sturnidæ, Ploceidæ, Alaudidaæ,
Oxyruncidæ, Tyrannidæ, Pipridæ, Cotingidæ. Part V, 1912,
Pteroptochidæ, Formicariidæ, Furnariidæ, Dendrocolaptidæ, Trochilidæ,
Micropodidæ, Trogonidæ. Other volumes to follow. The standard
work.--1903. CHAPMAN, F. M. Color Key to North American Birds. 312
pp., upward 800 col. ills.--1904. REED, C. S. North American Birds'
Eggs. 355 pp., many ills.--1910. American Ornithologists' Union
Abridged Check-List of North American Birds. Pocket Edition,
77 printed + 77 blank pp. (New York).


1872-1881. MAYNARD, C. J. Birds of Eastern North America; 1896, Rev.
Ed., 4to, 721 pp., ills. (West Newton, Mass.).--1884. LANGILLE, J.
H.... Our Birds in Their Haunts. 12mo, 624 pp. (Cassino).--1889.
MERRIAM, F. A. Birds Through an Opera-glass. 12mo, 223 pp.
(Houghton).--1895. WRIGHT, M. O. Birdcraft, 12mo, 317 pp., ills.
(Macmillan).--1895. CHAPMAN, F. M. Handbook of the Birds of Eastern
North America, 421 pp., ills.; 1912. Rev. Ed. (Appleton's).--1897.
CHAPMAN, F. M. Bird-Life. A Guide to the Study of our Common Birds.
12mo. 269 pp. 75 plls.; 1901, Rev. Ed., with col. plls.
(Appleton's).--1897. WRIGHT, M. O., and COUES, E. Citizen Bird, 12mo,
430 pp. ills. (Macmillan).--1898. BLANCHAN, N. Bird Neighbors, 234
pp., col. Plls. (Doubleday).--1898. MERRIAM, F. A. Birds of Village
and Field. 12mo. 406 pp., ills. (Houghton).--1898. SCOTT, W. E. D. Bird
Studies, an Account of the Land Birds of Eastern North America. 4to,
363 pp. Many half-tones (Putnam's).--1898. APGAR, A. C. Birds of the
United States East of the Rockies. 12mo, 415 pp. ills. (Am. Book
Co.).--1899. CORY, C. B. The Birds of Eastern North America. 8vo,
387 pp., ills. (Field Museum).--1905-6. REED, C. A. Bird-Guide.
Oblong, 32mo, Part I, 254 pp.; Part II, 197 pp.; many ills. (Doubleday).


1861. REINHARDT, J. List of Birds Hitherto Observed in Greenland;
Ibis, III, pp. 1-19, 118 species.--1875. NEWTON, A. Notes on Birds
Which Have Been Found in Greenland, ... London, 8vo pamphlet,
pp. 94-115 (Author's extra from Man. Nat. Hist. Greenland). 63+62
species; bibliography.--1889. HAGERUP, A. Some Account of the Birds
of Southern Greenland, from the MSS.. of A. Hagerup, edited by Montague
Chamberlain. Auk, VI, pp. 211-218, 219-297, 39 species.--1891.
HAGERUP, A. T. The Birds of Greenland, translated from the Danish by
Fremann B. Arngrimson, edited by Montague Chamberlain, Boston (Little,
Brown & Co.), 8vo, 62 pp.; 139 species.--1892. STONE, W. Birds
Collected by the West Greenland Expedition. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Phila., 1892, pp. 145-152; 147 species.--1895. STONE, W. List of Birds
Collected by the Peary Expd. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1895, pp.
502-505; 28 species.--1895. SCHALOW, H. VON. Ueber eine Voglesammlung
aus Westgrönland. Jour. für Orn., 1895, pp. 457-481; 35 species.--1899.
CHAPMAN, F. M. Report on Birds Received Through the Peary Expeditions
to Greenland. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XII, pp. 219-244; 48
pages.--1904. SCHALOW, H. Die Vögel der Arktis, Band IV, Leiferung, I,
pp. 81-288; Gustav Fischer, Jena. A detailed synopsis of Arctic


1869. DALL, W. H., and BANNISTER, H. M. List of the Birds of Alaska,
with Biographical Notes. Trans. Chic. Acad. Nat. Sci., I, pp. 267-310,
pll. XXVII-XXXIV; 212 species.--1873. DALL, W. H. Notes on the
Avifauna of the Aleutian Islands, from Unalashka, eastward. Proc. Cal.
Acad. Sci. V, pp. 25-35; 53 species.--1874. DALL, W. H. Notes on the
Avifauna of the Aleutian Islands, especially those west of Unalashka.
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. V, pp. 270-281; 45 species.--1875. COUES, E. A
Report upon the Condition of Affairs in the Territory of Alaska. By H.
W. Elliot. 8vo. pp. 277. Chapter IX. Ornithology of the Prybilov
Islands, pp. 166-212; 39 species.--1882. BEAN, T. H. Notes on Birds
Collected during the Summer of 1880 in Alaska and Siberia. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., V, pp. 144-173; 77 species.--1885. MURDOCH, J. Bird
Migration at Point Barrow, Arctic Alaska. Auk, II, p. 63; 50
species.--1883. HARTLAUB, G. Beitrag zur Ornithologie von Alaska, nach
dem Sammlungen und Noten von Dr. Arthur Krause und Dr. Aurel Krause.
Journ für Orn. pp. 257-286; 83 species.--1883. NELSON, E. W. Birds of
Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Cruise of the Revenue steamer Corwin
in Alaska and the N. W. Arctic Ocean in 1881. Washington.--1885.
MURDOCH, J. Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point
Barrow, Alaska. Washington. Birds, pp. 104-128; 54 species.--1885.
TURNER, L. M. Notes on the Birds of the Nearer Islands, Alaska. Auk,
II, pp. 154-159; 69 species.--1887. TOWNSEND, C. H. List of the
Midsummer Birds of the Kowak River, Northern Alaska. Auk, IV,
pp. 11-13; 52 species.--1888. NELSON, E. W. Report upon Natural History
Collections made in Alaska Between the Years 1877 and 1881. Edited by
Henry W. Henshaw. 4to. pp. 337. Birds, pp. 19-230, pll. I-XII,
colored; 260 species; important.--1888. TURNER, L. M. Contributions
to the Natural History of Alaska. Results of Investigations made
chiefly in the Yukon District and the Aleutian Islands. 4to, pp. 226;
birds, pp. 115-191, pll. I-X, colored; 168 species.--1898.
GRINNELL, J. Summer Birds of Sitka, Alaska. Auk, XV, pp. 122-131;
66 species.--1899. PALMER, W. The Avifauna of the Pribilov Islands.
The Fur Seals and Fur Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean,
Part III, pp., 355-431; 68 species; bibliography.--1900. GRINNELL, J.
Birds of the Kotzebue Sound Region, Alaska. Pacific Coast Avifauna
No. 1. Cooper Orn. Club, Los Angeles, Calif. 80 pp. 1 map; 113
species.--1900. STONE, W. Report on Birds and Mammals obtained by the
McIlhenny Expedition to Pt. Barrow, Alaska, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Phila., birds, pp. 4-33; 69 species.--1901. OSGOOD, W. H. Natural
History of the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska. North American Fauna, No. 21;
birds, pp. 72-81; 78 species.--1902. McGREGOR, R. C. A List of Birds
Collected in Norton Sound, Alaska. The Condor, IV, pp. 135-144; 63
species.--1904. OSGOOD, W. H. A Biological Reconnaissance of the Base
of the Alaska Peninsula. North American Fauna, No. 24; birds, pp.
51-81; 134 species.--1906. McGREGOR, R. C. Birds Observed in the
Krenitzin Islands, Alaska. The Condor, VIII, pp. 114-122; 44
species.--1909. GRINNELL, J. Birds and Mammals of the 1907 Alexander
Expedition to Southeastern Alaska. Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool. V, 2 pp.
171-264; 99 species.--1909. OSGOOD, W. H. Biological Investigations
in Alaska and Yukon Territory. North American Fauna, No. 30; 96 pp.
6 plls. I. East Central Alaska, 76 species; II. Ogilvie Range, Yukon,
43 species; III. The Macmillan River, Yukon, 55 species.--1909.
SHELDON, C. List of Birds Observed on the Upper Toklat River near
Mt. McKinley, Alaska, 1907-1908. The Auk, XXVI, pp. 66-70; 63
species.--1910. CLARK, A. H. The Birds Collected and Observed in the
North Pacific Ocean, and in Bering, Okhotsk, Japan, and Eastern Seas,
from April to December, 1906. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 1727, pp.
25-74; 175 species.--1910. GRINNELL, J. Birds of the 1908 Alexander
Alaska Expedition, with a note on the Avifaunal Relationships of the
Prince William Sound District, Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool. V, 12, pp.
361-428; 2 plls; 89 species.--1911. SWARTH, H. S. Birds and Mammals
of the 1909 Alexander Alaska Expedition. Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool. VII, 2,
pp. 9-172; 6 plls. Birds, pp. 23-112; 137 species.--1912. BENT, A. C.
Notes on Birds Observed during a Brief visit to the Aleutian Islands
and Bering Sea in 1911. Smiths. Miscell. Colls. Vol. 56 No. 32;
pp. 29; 60+22 species.


1859, BAIRD, S. F. Notes on a collection of Birds made by Mr. John
Xantus, at Cape San Lucas, Lower California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Phila., XI, pp. 299-306; 42 species.--1876. RIDGWAY, R. Ornithology of
Guadeloupe Island based on notes and collections made by Dr. Edward
Palmer. Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. Vol. II, pp. 183-195; 10
species.--1877. STREETS, T. H., M. D. Contributions to the Natural
History of the Hawaiian and Fanning Islands and Lower California.
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 7, p 172; birds, pp. 9-33.--1883. BELDING,
L. Catalogue of a Collection of Birds made near the Southern Extremity
of the Peninsula of Lower California. Edited by R. Ridgway. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. V. 1882, pp. 532-550; 154 species (See also _Ibid._, pp.
527-532; VI, pp. 344-352).--1888. BRYANT, W. E. Cerros Island. Forest
and Stream, XXVII, pp. 62-64; 27 species.--1887. BRYANT, W. E.
Additions to the Ornithology of Guadeloupe Island. Bull. Cal. Acad.
Sci. II, 6, pp. 269-318; 35 species.--1888. GOSS, N. S. New and Rare
Birds found Breeding on the San Pedro Martir Isle. Auk, V, pp. 240-224;
5 species.--1890. BRYANT, W. E. A catalogue of the Birds of Lower
California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser. II, pp. 237-320,
with map; 320 species; bibliography.--1890. TOWNSEND, C. H. Birds from
the Coasts of Western North America and adjacent Islands Collected in
1888-89, with Descriptions of New Species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII,
1890, pp. 131-142. Clarion Islands, 10 species; Socorro Island,
9 species; San Benedicte Island, 6 species; Lower California,
23 species; Mouth of Rio Colorado, Sonora, 3 species; Cerros Island,
2 species; Guadeloupe Island, Lower California, 3 species; Santa
Barbara Island, California, 4 species; San Clemente Island, California,
9 species; San Nicolas Island, California, 1 species; Santa Rosa Island,
California, 5 species; Santa Cruz Island, California, 10 species.--1895.
ANTHONY, A. W. Birds of San Fernando, Lower California. Auk, XII,
pp. 134-143; 65 species.--1898. ANTHONY, A. W. Avifauna of Revillagigedo
Islands. The Auk, XV, pp. 311-318. San Benedicte Island, 11 species;
Socorro Island, 24 species; Clarion Island, 17 species.--1902. BREWSTER,
W. Birds of the Cape Region of Lower California. Bull. Mus. Comp.
Zool., No. 1, XLI, 241 pp., 1 map; 255 species; bibliography.--1903.
GRINNELL, J. and DAGGETT, F. S. An Ornithological Visit to Los
Coronados Islands, Lower California. The Auk, XX, pp. 27-37; 22
species; bibliography.--1904. BRENINGER, G. F. San Clemente Island and
its Birds. The Auk, XXI, pp. 218-223.--1905. KAEDING, H. B. Birds from
the West Coast of Lower California and Adjacent Islands. The Condor,
VII, pp. 105-111; 168 species.--1905. STONE, W. and RHOADS, S. N.
On a Collection of Birds and Mammals from the Colorado Delta,
Lower California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Phila., pp. 676-690; 50
species.--1907. THAYER, J. E. and BANGS, O. Birds Collected by W. W.
Brown, Jr., on Cerros, San Benito and Natividad Islands in the spring
of 1906, with Notes on the Biota of the Islands. The Condor, IX, pp.
77-81. Cerros, 29; Natividad, 9; San Benito, 7 species.--1907. THAYER,
J. E., and BANGS, O. Catalogue of Birds Collected in Middle Lower
California. The Condor IX, pp. 135-140; 73 species.--1908. THAYER,
J. E. and BANGS, O. The Present State of the Ornis of Guadeloupe
Island. The Condor, X, pp. 101-106; 20 species.--1909. OSBORN, P. I.
Notes on the Birds of Los Coronados Islands, Lower California.
The Condor XI, pp. 134-138; 34 species.



1859. JONES, J. M., WEDDERBURN, J. W., and HURDIS, J. L.. The
Naturalist in Bermuda. Birds, pp. 23-97.--1884. REID, S. G. List of
the Birds of Bermuda. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 25., pp. 165-279;
186 species. (See also, MERRIAM, C. H., _Ibid._, 283, 284).--1901.
BANGS, O. and BRADLEE, T. S. The Resident Land Birds of Bermuda.
Auk, XVIII, pp. 249-257; 10 species.


1831. SWAINSON, W., and RICHARDSON, J. Fauna Boreali-Americana.
Part Second, 4to, pp. lxvi-524, pll. 24-73, woodct. 41; 238 species;
important.--1863. BLAKISTON, T. On the Birds of the Interior of
British America. Ibis., V, pp. 39-87, 121-155; 250 species.--1887.
CHAMBERLAIN, M. A Catalogue of Canadian Birds with Notes on the
Distribution of the Species. 8vo, pp. 143. St. John, N. B.--1898.
RUSSELL, F. Explorations in the Far North, (Lake Winnipeg, Crow Nest
Pass, Alberta, Fort Chippewayan, Fort Rae, Herschel Island.) Published
by University of Iowa. Birds, pp. 253-270; 122 species.--1909. MACOUN,
J. and J. M. Catalogue of Canadian Birds. 8vo, XVIII+761 pp.
Government Ptg. Bureau, Ottawa. Distribution and nesting; important.


1892. RAINE, W. (See Saskatchewan.)--1909. STANSELL, S. S. S., Birds
of Central Alberta. The Auk, XXVI, pp. 391-400; 157 species.


1868. BROWN, R. Synopsis of the Birds of Vancouver Island. Ibis,
2nd Ser., IV, pp. 414-428; 153 species.--1890. CHAPMAN, F. M. On a
Collection of Birds made by Mr. Clark P. Streator in British Columbia
with Field Notes by the Collector. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III,
pp. 123-158; 160 species, from Westminister, Mt. Lehman, Ducks, and
Ashcroft, B. C., Duncan's Station, Vancouver Island, and Kalama,
Washington.--1891. FANNIN, J. Check-List of British Columbia Birds.
8vo. pp. XIV+49. Victoria, B. C.; 307 species.--1893. RHOADS, S. N.
The Birds observed in British Columbia and Washington during spring
and summer of 1892. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, pp. 21-65;
260 species.--1901. OSGOOD, W. H. Natural History of the Queen
Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. North American Fauna, No. 21,
Birds, pp. 38-50; 98 species.--1903. BROOKS, A. Notes on the Birds
of the Cariboo District, British Columbia. The Auk, XX, pp. 277-284;
94 species.--1912. SWARTH, H. S. Report on a Collection of Birds and
Mammals from Vancouver Island, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool. X, 1, pp. 124;
111 species.


1879. KUMLIEN, L. Contributions to the Natural History of Arctic
America, made in Connection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 1877-78.
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 15. Birds, pp. 69-105; 84 species.--1886.
GREELEY, A. W. Three years of Arctic Service. Roy 8vo, 2 vols, Birds,
Vol. II, App. VIII, pp. 372-385; 35+5 species.


1902. PREBLE, E. A. Birds of Keewatin, N. A. Fauna, No. 22, pp. 75-131;
260 species.--1905. EIFRIG, C. W. G. Ornithological Results of the
Canadian Neptune Expedition to Hudson Bay and Northward, 1903-1904.
Auk, pp. 233-241; 51 species.


1861. COUES, E. Notes on the Ornithology of Labrador. Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Phila., XIII, pp. 215-257; 82 species.--1885. TURNER, L. M. List
of the Birds of Labrador, including Ungava, East Main, Moose, and Gulf
Districts of the Hudson Bay Company, together with the Island of
Anticosti. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, pp. 233-254; 207 species. (See
also PACKARD, A. S. The Labrador Coast, 1891).--1887. FRAZAR, M. A. An
Ornithologist's Summer in Labrador. Orn. and Oöl., XII, pp. 1-3, 17-20,
33-35; 62 species.--1902. BIGELOW, H. B. Birds of the Northwestern
Coast of Labrador. Auk, XIX, 1902, pp. 24-31; 85 species.--1907.
TOWNSEND, C. W., and ALLEN, G. M. Birds of Labrador. Proc. Bost. Soc.
Nat. Hist., XXXIII, pp. 277-428, map; 213 species. (See also TOWNSEND,
C. W., and BENT, A. C. The Auk, 1910, pp. 1-18; 93 species.)


1862. ROSS, B. R. List of Mammals, Birds, and Eggs, observed in the
Mackenzie's River District with notices. Canad. Nat. and Geol., VII,
pp. 137-155. Birds, pp. 142-155; 192 species. (See also Nat. Hist.
Rev. 2nd Ser. II, pp. 269-290).--1891. MACFARLANE, R. Notes on and
List of Birds and Eggs Collected in Arctic America, 1861-1866. Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus., XIV, pp. 413-446; 131 species. (See also Hist. & Sci.
Soc. of Man., Trans. 39).--1908. MACFARLANE, R. List of Birds and Eggs
Observed and Collected in the North-West Territories of Canada,
between 1880 and 1894. pp. 285-447 of Mair's "Through the Mackenzie
Basin," Toronto. William Briggs. 220 species.--1908. PREBLE, E. A. A
Biological Investigation of the Athabasca-Mackenzie Region, N. A.
Fauna, No. 27, 574 pp. Birds, pp. 251-500; 296 species; bibliography;
important.--1908. SETON, E. T. Bird Records from Great Slave Lake
Region. The Auk, XXV, pp. 68-74; 88 species.


1886. SETON, E. T. The Birds of Western Manitoba. Auk, III, pp. 145-156,
320-329, 453; 258 species.--1891. SETON, E. T. The Birds of Manitoba.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII, pp. 457-643, 1 pl.; 266 species. (See also
14 additions. Auk, 1893, p. 49.)--1909. SETON, E. T. Fauna of Manitoba.
British Assc. Handbook. Winnipeg, pp. 1-47; 273 species.


1857. BRYANT, H. A List of Birds Observed at Grand Menan and at
Yarmouth, N. S., from June 16 to July 8. Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist., VI,
pp. 114-123; 55 species.--1873. HERRICK, H. A Partial Catalogue of the
Birds of Grand Menan, N. B., Bull. Essex. Inst., V. pp. 28-41; 194
species.--1879. PEARSALL, R. F. Grand Menan Notes; Summers of 1877 and
1878. Forest and Stream, XIII, p. 524; 43 species.--1882. BATCHELDER,
C. F. Notes on the Summer Birds of the Upper St. John. Bull. N. O. C,
VII, pp. 106-111, 147-152; 105 species.--1882, CHAMBERLAIN, M. A
Catalogue of the Birds of New Brunswick. Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. New
Brunswick, No. I, pp. 23-68, 269 species.--1912. TOWNSEND, C. W. Notes
on the Summer Birds of the St. John Valley, New Brunswick. The Auk,
XXIX, pp. 16-23; 81 species.


1869. REEKS, H. Notes on the Zoölogy of Newfoundland. Zoölogist, 2nd
ser., IV, pp. 1609-1614, 1698-1695, 1741-1759, 1849-1858; 212 species.
See also Canad. Nat. and Quart. Journ. Sci., V. 1870-71, pp. 38-47,
151-159, 289-304, 406-416; and HARVEY M. Forest and Stream, III,
pp. 53, 196, 341.--1900. PORTER, L. H. Newfoundland Notes. Auk, XVII,
pp. 71-73; 50 species summer birds.--1912. ARNOLD, E. A Short Summer
Outing in Newfoundland. The Auk, XXIX, pp. 72-79; 68 species.


1857. BRYANT, H. (See New Brunswick.)--1858. BLAKISTON, R. A., BLAND,
R. E., and WILLIS, J. R. List of Birds of Nova Scotia. Thirteenth Ann.
Rep. Smiths. Inst., pp. 280-286; 206 species.--1879. JONES, J.
MATTHEW. List of the Birds of Nova Scotia--Land Birds. Forest and
Stream, XII, pp. 65, 66, 105, 106, 205, 245; 128 species.--1887.
DWIGHT, J., Jr. Summer Birds of the Bras d'Or Region of Cape Breton
Island, Nova Scotia. Auk, IV, 1887, pp. 13-16; 59 species. (See also
ALLEN, F. H., Ibid., 1891.)--1888. DOWNS, A. Birds of Nova Scotia,
edited by Harry Piers, Proc. and Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Nat. Sci.,
VII, ii, pp. 142-178; 240 species.


1860. McILWRAITH, T. List of Birds Observed in the Vicinity of
Hamilton. Canad. Journ., V. pp. 387-396. (See also Proc. Essex. Inst.,
V. 1866, pp. 79-96), 241 species.--1882. MORDEN, J. A., and SAUNDERS,
W. E. List of the Birds of Western Ontario. Canad. Sportsm, and
Nat. II, pp. 183-187, 192-194, also III, pp. 218, 219, 243; 236
species.--1891. FARLEY, W. L. A List of the Birds of Elgin County,
Ontario. The Oölogist, VIII, pp. 81-87; 190 species.--1891. Ottawa
Field Nat. Club. The Birds of Ottawa. Ottawa Nat. V. pp. 31-47; 224
species.--1894. McILWRAITH, T. The Birds of Ontario, 8vo. X+426 pp.
Wm. Briggs, Toronto; 317 species.--1897-8. NASH, C. W. Birds of
Ontario in Relation to Agriculture. Rep. Farmers' Inst. of Ont. 8vo,
32 pp.--1900. NASH, C. W. Check List of the Birds of Ontario. Warwick
Bros, and Rutter, Toronto. 8vo. 58 pp.; 302 species.--1901. FLEMING,
J. H. A list of the Birds of the Districts of Parry Sound and Muskoka,
Ont. Auk, XVIII, 1901, pp. 33-45; 196 species. (See also Ibid., XIX,
p. 403.)--1905. NASH, C. W. Check List of the Birds of Ontario. L. K.
Cameron, Printer, Toronto, Ont. 82 pp; 324 species.--1906. SWALES, B.
H., and TAVERNER, P. A. Remarks on the Summer Birds of Lake Muskoka,
Ont. Wilson Bull., XVIII, pp. 60-68; 59 species.--1906-7. FLEMING, J.
H. Birds of Toronto, Ont. Auk, XXIII, pp. 437-453; XXIV, pp. 71-89;
290 species.--1907. HUBEL, F. C. Preliminary List of the Summer Birds
of the Cobalt Mining Region, Nipissing District, Ont. Auk XXIV, pp.
48-52; 76 species.--1907-8. TAVERNER, P. A. and SWALES, B. H. The
Birds of Point Pelee, Wilson Bull. XIX, pp. 37-53; 82-99, 133-153;
XX, pp. 79-96, 107-129; 209 species. See also WOOD, N. A., _Ibid._,
1910, pp. 63-78.--1910. EIFRIG, G. A. Winter of Rare Birds at Ottawa.
Auk, XXVII, pp. 53-59.


1878. CORY, C. B. A Naturalist in the Magdalen Islands (Boston). Part
II, pp. 33-83, list of birds; 109 species.--1882. WINTLE, E. D.
Ornithology of the Island of Montreal. Canad. Sportsm. and Nat., II,
pp. 108-110, 116, 117; 168 species.--1882-5. MERRIAM, C. H. List of
Birds Ascertained to Occur within Ten Miles of Point des Monts,
Province of Quebec, Canada; based chiefly upon the notes of Napoleon
A. Comeau. Bull. N. O. C, VII, pp. 233-242, and Addenda, VIII,
pp. 244, 245; Auk, I, 1884, p. 295; II, 1885, pp. 113, 315; 180
species.--1884. BREWSTER, W. Notes on the Birds Observed During a
Summer Cruise on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.,
XXII, pp. 364-412; 92 species.--1889. BISHOP, L. B. Notes on the Birds
of the Magdalen Islands. Auk, VI, pp. 144-150; 66 species.--1889.
DIONNE, C. E. Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Province de Quebec avec des
Notes sur leur Distribution Geographique.... Quebec des Presses a
Vapeur de J. Dussault, Port Dauphin, 8vo, 119 pp.; 273 species.--1891.
PALMER, WILLIAM. Notes on the Birds Observed During the Cruise of the
United States Fish Commission Schooner Grampus in the Summer of 1887.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII, 1890, pp 249-265; 78 species.--1893.
DWIGHT, J., JR. Summer Birds of Prince Edward Island. Auk, X, 1893,
pp. 1-15; 81 species.--1896. WINTLE, E. D. The Birds of Montreal.
W. Drysdale & Co., Montreal. 8vo, xiv+181 pp.; 254 species.--1908.
MACSWAIN, J. A Catalogue of the Birds of Prince Edward Island. Proc.
and Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. of Science. XI, pp, 570-592; 220 species.


1892. RAINE, W. Bird-nesting in North-West Canada. 8vo. pp. 197; ills.
Toronto.--1907-8. BENT, A. C. Summer Birds of Southern Saskatchewan.
The Auk, XXIV, pp. 407-430; XXV, pp. 25-35; 153 species.--1910.
FERRY, J. F. Birds Observed in Saskatchewan During the Summer of 1909.
The Auk, XXVII, pp. 185-204; 118 species.



1856. CASSIN, J. Illustrations of the Birds of California, Texas,
Oregon, British, and Russian America. Intended to Contain descriptions
and figures of all North American Birds not given by former American
authors, and a General Synopsis of North American Ornithology. 1 Vol.
large 8vo. pp. viii+298; pll. 50.--1870. COOPER, J. G. Geological
Survey of California. Ornithology. Volume I. Land Birds. Edited by
S. F. Baird. Published by authority of the Legislature. Vol. I large
8vo, pp. xi+591; ills.--1872. ALLEN, J. A. Notes of an Ornithological
Reconnaissance of Portions of Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. III, pp. 113-183. Annotated lists of birds
observed at Leavenworth, Topeka, Fort Hays and in Northwestern Kansas;
between Colorado City and Denver, at South Park near Mount Lincoln,
Colorado; at Cheyenne, Wyoming, and near Ogden, Utah.--1874. COUES, E.
Birds of the Northwest: A Handbook of the Ornithology of the Region
drained by the Missouri River and its Tributaries. U. S. Geol. Survey
of the Territories. Miscellaneous Publications, No. 3. Washington, 1
Vol. 8vo, pp. xii+791; important.--1874. YARROW, H. C. and HENSHAW, H.
W. Geog. and Geol. Explorations and Surveys West of the one hundredth
Meridian. Reports upon Ornithological Specimens Collected in the years
1871, 1872, and 1873. 8vo, pp. 1-148. Observations made in Utah,
Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona.--1875. HENSHAW, H. W. Report
upon Geograph. and Geol. Explorations and Surveys West of the One
Hundredth Meridian. Vol. V, Zoology. Chap. III, Report upon the
Ornithological Collections made in Portions of Nevada, Utah,
California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, during the years 1871,
1872, 1873 and 1874. 4to, pp. 184-508; pll. xv; 296 species.--1878.
COUES, E. Birds of the Colorado Valley. A Repository of Scientific and
Popular Information Concerning North American Ornithology. Part
First. Passeres to Laniidæ. Bibliographical Appendix. Seventy
illustrations.--1890. BELDING, L. Land Birds of the Pacific District.
Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, II, 8vo, pp.
1-274; 295 species.--1902. BAILEY, F. M. Handbook of Birds of Western
United States. 12mo, pp. xc-512; many ills. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.


1888. COOKE, W. W. Reports on Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley
in the year 1884 and 1885. Edited and revised by C. Hart Herriam.
Bull. No. 2, Div. Economic Ornithology [= Biological Survey]. 313 pp.,
1 map.


1877. MINOT, H. D. The Land and Game Birds of New England. Second
Ed., edited by Wm. Brewster, 1895, 492 pp. (Houghton).--1881-3.
STEARNS, W. A., and COUES, E. New England Bird-Life, 2 vols., pp.
324-409.--1904. HOFFMANN, R. A Guide to the Birds of New England and
Eastern New York. 350 pp. (Houghton).--1909. ALLEN, G. M. Birds of New
England. Occ. Papers Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., VII, pp. 1-230; 402 species.


1878-9. BROWN, N. C. A List of Birds Observed at Coosada, Central
Alabama. Bull. N. O. C, III, pp. 168-174; IV, pp. 7-13; 119
species.--1890-1. AVERY, W. C. Birds Observed in Alabama. Am. Field,
XXXIV, pp. 584, 607, 608; XXXV, 1891, pp. 8, 32, 55; 184 species.--1908.
SAUNDERS, A. A. Some Birds of Central Alabama. Auk, XXV, pp. 413-424;
129 species.


1853. WOODHOUSE, S. W. Report of an Expedition down the Zuni and
Colorado Rivers, by Captain L. Sitgreaves.... 8vo, pp. 198. Birds,
pp. 58-105; pll. i-vi; 219 species.--1866. COUES, E. List of the Birds
of Fort Whipple. Arizona: with which are incorporated all the other
species ascertained to inhabit the Territory; with brief critical and
field notes, descriptions of new species, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Phila. XVIII, pp. 39-100; 245 species.--1874. YARROW, H. C., and
HENSHAW, H. W. (see Utah).--1875. HENSHAW, H. W. Annual Report of the
Chief of Engineers for 1875. App. I 2, pp. 153-166. Annotated list of
the Birds of Arizona; 291 species.--1882-3. BREWSTER, W. On a
Collection of Birds lately made by Mr. F. Stephens in Arizona.
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, VII, pp. 65-86; 135-147; 193-212; VIII, pp.
21-36; 165 species (see also The Auk, II, 1885, pp. 84, 85;
196-200).--1886-8. SCOTT, W. E. D. On the Avifauna of Pinal County
with Remarks on Some Birds of Pima and Gila Counties, Arizona. With
annotations by J. A. Allen. Auk, III, 249-258; 383-389; 421-432; IV,
pp. 16-24; 196-205; V, pp. 29-36; 159-168; 246 species.--1887.
MORCOM, G. (See California).--1890. MEARNS, E. A. Observations on the
Avifauna of Portions of Arizona. Auk, VII, pp. 45-55; 251-264; 100
species.--1890. MERRIAM, C. H. Results of a Biological Survey of the
San Francisco Mountain region and Desert of the Little Colorado in
Arizona. North American Fauna, No. 3. Part IV, Annotated List of Birds
of the San Francisco Mountain Plateau and Desert of the Little Colorado
River, Arizona, pp. 85-101; 151 species.--1892. RHOADS, S. N. (See
Texas).--1893. FISHER, A. K. (See California).--1903. OSGOOD, W. H.
A List of Birds observed in Cochise County, Arizona. The Condor, V,
pp. 128-131; 149-151; 123 species.--1904. SWARTH, H. S. Birds of the
Huachuca Mountains, Arizona. Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. 4. Cooper
Orn. Club, 8vo, pp. 70; 195 species.--1905. SWARTH, H. S. Summer Birds
of the Papago Indian Reservation and of the Santa Rita Mountains,
Arizona. The Condor, VI, pp. 22-28; 47-50; 77-81; 65+68; species.--1908.
SWARTH, H. S. Some Fall Migration Notes from Huachuca Mountains,
Arizona. The Condor, X, pp. 107-116; 109 species.--1910. VISHER, S. S.
Notes of the Birds of Pima County, Arizona. The Auk, XXVII, pp.
279-288; 127 species.


1911. HOWELL, A. H. Birds of Arkansas. Bull. No. 38, Biological Survey.
8vo, pp. 100, 1 map; 255 species.


   [E] See Grinnell, J. A Bibliography of California
       Ornithology. Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. 5.

1846-47. GAMBEL, W. Remarks on the Birds Observed in Upper California
with Descriptions of New Species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., III,
pp. 44-48; 110-114; 154-158; 200-204; 82 species (see also Journ.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1847, pp. 25-56; 1849, pp. 215-229; 176
species).--1853. HERRMANN, A. L. Notes on the Land Birds of California,
observed during a residence of three years in that country. Journ.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., II, pp. 259-272; 130 species.--1857. NEWBERRY,
J. S. Report on the Birds Observed in California and Oregon. Pac. R. R.
Rep. Vol. VI, Part VI, pp. 73-110; 174 species.--1859. HERRMANN, A. L.
Report on Birds Collected on the Survey. Pac. R. R. Rep. Vol. X, No. 2,
pp. 29-80; 180 species.--1859. XANTUS, J. Catalogue of Birds Collected
in the vicinity of Fort Tejon, California, with a description of a new
species of _Syrnium_. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XI, pp. 189-193;
144 species.--1866. COUES, E. (See Arizona).--1870. COOPER, J. G. The
Fauna of California and its geographical Distribution. Proc. Cal. Acad.
Sci., IV, pp. 61-81.--1875. COOPER, J. G. New Facts relating to
California Ornithology. Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., VI, 1875,
pp. 189-202; 45 species.--1875. NELSON, E. W. (See Utah).--1876.
HENSHAW, H. W. Report on the Ornithology of the Portions of California
visited during the Field Season of 1875; pp. 224-278. Annual Report
upon the Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian.
Notes from Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara, region about Mt. Whitney,
Kernville, and Walker's Basin; 204 species.--1877. HENSHAW, H. W.
(See Nevada).--1877. RIDGWAY, R. (See Nevada).--1879. BELDING, L.
Partial List of the Birds of Central California. Edited by R. Ridgway.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. I, pp. 388-449; 220 species.--1879. COOPER, J. G.
On Migration and Nesting Habits of West-Coast Birds. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. II, pp. 241-251.--1880. HENSHAW, H. W. (See Nevada).--1886.
EVERMANN, B. W. A List of the Birds observed in Ventura County,
California. Auk, III, pp. 86-94, 179-186; 200 species. (See also
Cooper, _Ibid._, IV, pp. 85-94).--1886. STREATOR, C. P. List of Birds
observed in the Vicinity of Santa Barbara, Cal., During the year 1885.
Orn. and Oöl., XI, pp. 51, 52, 66, 67, 89, 90, 107; 187 species.--1887.
BLAKE, E. W. JR. Summer Birds of Santa Cruz Island, California. Auk,
IV, pp. 328-330; 28 species.--1887. MORCOM, G. F. Notes on the birds
of Southern California and Southwestern Arizona. Bull. No. 2, Ridgw.
Orn. Club, pp. 36-57; 139 species.--1887. STREATOR, C. P. The Water
Birds of San Miguel Island. Proc. Santa Barbara Soc. Nat. Hist. Bull.
No. I, pp. 21-23; 10 species.--1887. TAYLOR, H. R. Trip to the
Farallone Islands. Orn. and Oöl. XII, pp. 41-43: 12 species.--1887.
TOWNSEND, C. H. Field-Notes on the Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles of
Northern California. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. X, pp. 159-241; Birds,
pp. 190-237; 261 species.--1888.... BRYANT, W. E. Birds and Eggs from
the Farallon Islands. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2nd Ser. I; 1887,
pp. 25-50; 81 species.--1888. STREATOR, C. P. Notes on the Birds of the
Santa Barbara Islands. Orn. and Oöl., XIII, pp. 52-54.--1890. TOWNSEND,
C. (See Lower California).--1890-91. KEELER, C. A. Geographical
Distribution of Land Birds in California. Zoe, I, 1890, pp. 225-230;
257-260; 295-299; 337-343; 1891, 369-373.--1893. FISHER, A. K. Report
on the Ornithology of the Death Valley Expedition N. A. Fauna, No. 7,
pp. 7-158; 290 species.--1895. LOOMIS, L. M. California Water Birds.
No. 1--Monterey and Vicinity from the Middle of June to the end of
August. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, V. pp. 177-224; map; 44
species.--1896. LOOMIS, L. M. California Water Birds, No. II. Vicinity
of Monterey in Midwinter. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, VI, pp. 1-30;
1 map; 43 species. III, South Farallon in July, Ibid., pp. 353-366;
2 maps; 10 species.--1896. MERRIAM, F. A. A-birding on a Bronco [in
San Diego Co.] 16mo, pp. x+226; ills. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.--1897.
BARLOW, C. The Story of the Farallones. Ob. 16mo, 32 pp. ills. H. R.
Taylor, Alameda.--1897. GRINNELL, J. Report on Birds Recorded during a
Visit to the Islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, and San Clemente
in the spring of 1897; pp. 26.--1898. GRINNELL, J. Birds of the Pacific
Slope of Los Angeles County. Pub. No. II, Pasadena Acad. Sci., pp. 52;
300 species.--1898. GRINNELL, J. Land Birds Observed in Midwinter
on Santa Catalina Island, California. Auk, XV, pp. 233-236;
29 species.--1899. KEELER, C. A. Bird Notes Afield. 12mo, pp. viii+353.
D. P. Elder & Morgan Sheppard, San Francisco.--1899. MERRIAM, C. H.
Results of a Biological Survey of Mount Shasta, California. North
American Fauna, No. 16, Birds, pp. 109-134; 136 species.--1900.
LOOMIS, L. M. California Water Birds. No. IV. Vicinity of Monterey in
Autumn. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3d Ser. II, pp. 277-322; 1 map;
42 species. V. Vicinity of Monterey in May and Early June, Ibid.,
pp. 349-363; 36 species.--1900. MAILLARD, J. Land Birds of Marin
County, Cal. The Condor, II, pp. 62-68; 137 species.--1900. SWARTH,
H. S. Avifauna of a 100-acre Ranch [at Los Angeles]. The Condor, II,
pp. 14-16; 37-41; 175 species.--1901. BARLOW, C. A List of the Land
Birds of the Placerville-Lake Tahoe Stage Road. The Condor, III,
pp. 151-184; 130 species.--1901. MAILLARD, J. and J W. Birds Recorded
at Paicines, San Benito Co., California. The Condor, III, pp. 120-127;
168 species.--1901. McGREGOR, R. C. A List of the Land Birds of Santa
Cruz County, California. Pacific Coast Avifauna No. 2. Cooper Orn.
Club, pp. 22; 139 species.--1902. FISHER, W. K. The Redwood Belt of
Northwestern California. The Condor, IV, Faunal Peculiarities,
pp. 111-114; Land-Birds, 131-135; 63 species.--1902. FISHER, W. K.
List of Birds of Santa Clara Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, exclusive
of Water-Birds. Bailey's Handbook of Birds of the Western United States,
pp. li-lvi; 147 species.--1902. GRINNELL, J. Check-List of California
Birds. Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. 3, Cooper Orn. Club, 92 pp.; 2 maps;
491 species.--1902. GRINNELL, J. List of Birds to be looked for in the
Vicinity of Pasadena. Bailey's Handbook of Birds of the Western United
States, pp. lvi-lxiv; 191 species.--1902. KOBBE, W. H. List of Water
Birds of San Francisco Bay. Bailey's Handbook of Birds of the Western
United States, pp. lviii-1; 91 species.--1903. ANDERSON, M. P., and
GRINNELL, J. Birds of the Siskiyou Mountains, California: A Problem
in Distribution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., pp. 4-15;
43 species.--1903. KAEDING, H. B. Bird-Life on the Farallones.
The Condor, V, pp. 121-127; 17 species.--1903. RAY, M. S. A List of
Land Birds of Lake Valley, Central Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.
The Auk, pp. 180-193; 109 species.--1903. STEPHENS, F. Bird Notes from
Eastern California and Western Arizona. The Condor, V, pp. 75-78;
100-105; 119 species.--1904. EMERSON, W. O. The Farallones Revisited,
1887-1903. The Condor, VI, pp. 61-67.--1904. RAY, M. S. A Fortnight on
the Farallones. The Auk, XXI, pp. 425-442; 14 species.--1904. WHEELOCK,
J. G. Birds of California: An Introduction to more than Three Hundred
Common Birds of the State and Adjacent Islands. 12mo. xxviii+578 pp.;
ills. A. C. McClurg & Co.--1905. GRINNELL, J. Summer Birds of Mount
Pinos, California. The Auk, XXII, pp. 378-391; 73 species.--1906.
DIXON, J. Land Birds of San Onofre, California. The Condor, VIII,
pp. 91-98; 63 species.--1906. RAY, M. S. Summer Birds of San Francisco
County, California. The Condor, VIII, pp. 42-44; 44 species.--1907.
BEAL, F. E. L. Birds of California in Relation to the Fruit Industry.
Bull. No. 30, Biological Survey, pp. 100.--1908. GOLDMAN, E. A. Summer
Birds of the Tulare Lake Region. The Condor, X, pp. 200-205; 83
species.--1908. GRINNELL, J. The Biota of the San Bernardino Mountains.
Univ. Cal. Publ. Zool. V, I, 170 pp. xxiv plls. Birds, pp. 50-54; 139
species.--1908. HOLLISTER, N. Birds of the Region about Needles,
California. The Auk, XXV, pp. 455-462; 66 species.--1910. BECK, R. H.
Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. Proc. Cal.
Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, III, pp. 57-72; 94 species.--1908. LINTON, C. B.
Notes from San Clemente Island. The Condor, X, pp. 82-86; 58
species.--1908. LINTON, C. B. Notes from Santa Cruz Island. The Condor,
X, pp. 124-129; 88 species (See also Ibid, XIII, pp. 208-210).--1911.
DAWSON, W. L. Another Fortnight on the Farallones. The Condor, XIII,
pp. 171-183; 43 species.--1911. VAN ROSSEM, A. Winter Birds of the
Salton Sea Region. The Condor, XIII, pp. 129-137; 72 species.--1912.
LAMB, C. Birds of Mohave Desert Oasis. The Condor, XIV, pp. 32-40;
133 species.--1912. WILLETT, G. Birds of the Pacific Slope of Southern
California, Pacific Coast Avifauna No. 7. Cooper Orn. Club, pp. 122;
377 species.--1912. GRINNELL, J. A Systematic List of the Birds of
California. Ibid., No. 8, pp. 23; 530 species.


1872. AIKEN, C. E., and HOLDEN, C. H. Jr. (See Wyoming).--1873.
RIDGWAY, R. The Birds of Colorado. Bull. Essex Inst. V, pp. 174-195.
Distribution tables and 243 species. Based on the Observations of C.
E. Aiken.--1874. YARROW, H. C., and HENSHAW, H. W. (See Utah).--1881.
DREW, F. M. Field Notes on the Birds of San Juan Co. Colorado. Bull.
Nutt. Orn. Club, VI, pp 85-91; 138-143; 104 species.--1883. ALLEN, J.
A., and BREWSTER, W. List of Birds Observed in the Vicinity of
Colorado Springs, Colorado, During March, April, and May, 1882. Bull.
N. O. C. VIII, pp. 151-161; 189-198; 134 species.--1885. DREW, F. On
the Vertical Range of Birds in Colorado. Auk, II, pp. 11-18; 277
species. (See also 10 additions by H. Smith, Jr., and A. W. Anthony,
Ibid., III, 1886, pp. 284-286, and also 20 species by P. M. Thorne,
Ibid., IV, 1887, pp. 264, 265).--1885. HOFFMAN, W. J. (See
Montana).--1888-90. MORRISON, C. F. A List of the Birds of Colorado.
Orn. and Oöl., XIII, pp. 145, 148, 165-168, 181-183; XIV, 1889, pp.
6-9 65-68, 145-150; XV, 1890, pp. 36-38. ("To be continued.")
233 species to _Junco_, inclusive.--1890. KELLOGG, V. L. Summer
Birds of Estes Park, Colorado, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. XII, pp.
80-90.--1897. COOKE, W. W. The Birds of Colorado. Bull. 37, State
Agricultural College, Ft. Collins, pp. 144; 360 species; bibliography
(See also 1898, Bull. 44, first appendix, 1900, Bull. No. 56, second
appendix; and 1909. The Auk, pp. 400-422, third supplement, increasing
total number of species to 397).--1902. KEYSER, L. S. Birds of the
Rockies. With a Complete Check-List of Colorado Birds. 8vo, xii+355 pp;
ills. McClurg, Chicago.--1908. ROCKWELL, R. B. An Annotated List of
the Birds of Mesa County, Colorado. The Condor, X, pp. 152-180;
203 species.--1908. WARREN, E. R. Northwestern Colorado Bird Notes.
The Condor, X, pp. 18-26; 93 species.--1909. FELGER, A. H. Annotated
List of the Water Birds of Weld, Morgan and Adams Counties, Colorado,
south to the first sectional line below the Fortieth Parallel. The
Auk, XXVI, pp. 272-291; 3 maps; 107 species, (see also Hersey, L. J.
and Rockwell, R. B. The Condor, XI, 1909, pp. 110-122, and Rockwell,
Ibid., XIV, pp. 117-131).--1909. HENDERSON, J. An Annotated List of
the Birds of Boulder Co., Colorado. Univ. Colo., Studies, VI,
pp. 219-242--1910.--FELGER, A. H. Birds and Mammals of Northwestern
Colorado, Univ. Studies Colo. Mus., VII, 2, pp. 132-146; 133
species.--1910. WARREN, E. R. Some Central Colorado Bird Notes. The
Condor, XII, pp. 23-39; 127 species.--1911. WIDMANN, O. List of Birds
Observed in Estes Park, Colorado, from June 10, to July 18, 1910. The
Auk, XXVIII, pp. 304-319; 90 species.--1912. COOKE, W. W. The Present
Status of the Colorado Check-List of Birds. The Condor, XIV, pp.
147-153. Admits 403 species.--1912. SCLATER, W. L. A History of
the Birds of Colorado. Witherby & Co., London, 8vo, pp. xxiv+576;
plls. xvii; 392 species; important.


1843. LINSLEY, J. H. A Catalogue of the Birds of Connecticut. Am.
Journ. Sci. and Arts, XLIV, pp. 249-274, 302 species. See also Ibid.,
XLVI, 1844, pp. 50, 51.--1877. MERRIAM, C. H. A Review of the Birds of
Connecticut, with Remarks on their Habits. Trans, of the Conn. Acad.,
IV, pp. 1-165; 292 species.--1887. PLATT, F. A List of the Birds of
Meriden, Conn. Trans. Meriden Scientific Assoc, II, 1885-86,
pp. 30-53; III, p. 41; 116 species.--1892. AVERILL, C. K., JR., List
of Birds Found in the Vicinity of Bridgeport, Connecticut. Bridgeport
Scientific Society, 8vo, pp. 1-19, 246 species.--1906. CHAPMAN, F. M.
(See New York).--1908. COMMITTEE. A List of the Birds of the New Haven
Region. Bull. No. 1, New Haven Bird Club, pp. 1-32; 217 species.


1875. GRINNELL, G. B. Report of a Reconnaissance of the Black Hills of
Dakota, made in the summer of 1874. By William Ludlow. Chapter II.
Birds, pp. 85-102; 110 species.--1875. HOFFMAN, W. J. List of Birds
Observed at Grand River Agency, Dakota Ter., from October 7th, 1872,
to June 7th, 1873. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVIII, pp. 169-175;
79 species.--1877. McCHESNEY, C. E., M. D. Birds of the Coteau des
Prairies of Eastern Dakota. Forest and Stream, VIII, pp. 176, 177,
192, 224, 225, 241, 242, 261; 102 species.--1901-2. BENT, A. C.
Nesting habits of the Anatidæ in North Dakota. Auk, XVIII, pp;
328-336; XIX, pp. 11-12; 165-174; 16 species.--1908. REAGAN, A. B.
The Birds of the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota. The Auk,
XXV, pp. 462-467; 108 species.--1909. VISHER, S. S. A List of the
Birds of western South Dakota. The Auk, XXVI, pp. 144-153; 194
species.--1911. VISHER, S. S. Annotated List of the Birds of Harding
County, Northwestern South Dakota. The Auk, XXVIII, pp. 5-16;
154 species.


1905. RHOADS, S. N., and PENNOCK, C. J. Birds of Delaware: A
Preliminary List. Auk, XXII, 1905, pp. 194-205; 211 species. (See also
Auk, XXV, 1908, pp. 282-288.)--1897-1908. STONE, W., Editor. Numerous
Notes on Delaware Birds. Proc. Del. Valley Orn. Club, Phila.


1883. COUES, E. and PRENTISS, D. W. Avifauna Columbiana, Second
Edition. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus. No. 26, 8vo, pp. 1-133, many woodcuts,
4 maps, 248 species.--1888. RICHMOND, C. W. An Annotated List of
Birds Breeding in the District of Columbia. Auk, V, pp. 18-25; 100
species.--1888. SMITH, HUGH M., and PALMER, WILLIAM. Additions to the
Avifauna of Washington, D. C., and Vicinity. Auk, V, pp. 147, 148. Adds
12 species to Coues' and Prentiss' list of 1883.--1898. MAYNARD, L. W.
Birds of Washington and Vicinity, with Introduction by Florence A.
Merriam. 12mo. 204 pp. Washington, D. C. 291 species.


1883. BAILEY, H. B. Memoranda of a Collection of Eggs from Georgia.
Bull. N. O. C., VIII, pp. 37-43; 104 species--1903. SMITH, R. S.
Birds of Kirkwood, De Kalb Co., Ga. Wilson Bull., XV, pp. 49-59;
125 species.--1909. HOWELL, A. H. Notes on the Summer Birds of
Northern Georgia. Auk, XXVI, pp. 129-137; 76 species.


1871. ALLEN, J. A. On the Mammals and Winter Birds of East Florida.
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoöl., II, pp. 161-450, pll. ix-xiii; 181
species.--1888. CHAPMAN, F. M. A List of Birds Observed at Gainesville,
Florida. Auk, V, pp. 267-277; 149 species.--1888-90. SCOTT, W. E. D.
A Summary of Observations on the Birds of the Gulf Coast of Florida.
Auk, V, pp. 373-379; VI, pp. 13-18, 152-160, 245-252, 318-326;
VII, pp. 14-22, 114-120; 262 species.--1890. SCOTT, W. E. D. On
Birds Observed at the Dry Tortugas, Florida, during parts of March
and April, 1890. Auk, VII, pp. 301-314; 80 species.--1891. BREWSTER,
W., and CHAPMAN, F. M. Notes on the Birds of the Lower Suwanee
River. Auk, VIII, pp. 125-138; 116 species. (See also Brewster,
Ibid., pp. 149-157.)--1892. SCOTT, W. E. D. Notes on the Birds
of the Caloosahatchie Region of Florida. Auk, IX, pp. 209-218, 259
species.--1895. WAYNE, A. T. Notes on the Birds of the Wacissa and
Aucilla River Regions of Florida. Auk, XII, 1895, pp. 362-367; 161
species.--1896. CORY, C. B. Hunting and Fishing in Florida with a Key
to the Water Birds of the State.--1904. WILLIAMS, R. W., JR. A
Preliminary List of the Birds of Leon County, Florida. Auk, XXI, 1904,
pp. 449-462; 156 species. (See also Ibid., XXIII, pp. 153-161; XXIV,
pp. 158, 159.)--1906. FOWLER, H. W. Birds Observed in June in the
Florida Keys. Auk, XXIII, pp. 396-400; 33 species.


1891. MERRIAM, C. H. Results of a Biological Reconnaissance of Idaho,
south of latitude 45° and east of the thirty-eighth Meridian made
during the summer of 1890. N. A. Fauna, No. 5. Annotated List of Birds
Observed in Idaho during the Summer and Fall of 1890, with Notes
on Species previously Recorded from the State, pp. 90-108; 157
species.--1897-8. MERRILL, J. C. Notes on the Birds of Fort Sherman,
Idaho. Auk, XIV, pp. 347-357, XV, pp. 14-22; 159 species.


1855. KENNICOTT, R. Catalogue of Animals Observed in Cook County.
Illinois. Trans. Ill., State Agric. Soc. for 1853-54, I, Birds,
pp. 580-589; 187 species.--1868. ALLEN, J. A. (See Iowa).--1874.
RIDGWAY, R. Catalogue of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois.
Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y., X, pp. 364-394; 311 species.--1876. NELSON,
E. W. Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull. Essex Inst., VIII,
pp. 90-155; 316 species.--1877. NELSON, E. W. Notes upon Birds Observed
in Southern Illinois, between July 17 and September 4, 1875. Bull.
Essex. Inst., IX, pp. 32-65; 133 species.--1881. RIDGWAY, R. A. Revised
Catalogue of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois. Ills. State
Lab. Nat. Hist., Bull. No. 4, pp. 161-208; 352 species.--1884. COOKE,
W. W. Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley, Southern Illinois.
Forest and Stream, XXIII, pp. 444, 445, 463, 464; 144 species based
on Ridgway's list of 1881, and observations of Cyrus W. Butler in
the vicinity of Anna, Ills., during December, 1882, and January
1883.--1887. RIDGWAY, R. List of the Birds Found Breeding Within the
Corporate Limits of Mt. Carmel, Illinois. Bull. No. 2, Ridgway Orn.
Club, pp. 26-35; 85 species.--1890-1895. RIDGWAY, R. The Ornithology
of Illinois. Roy. 8vo, Vol. I, 1890, 520 pp., 32 plls. Land-birds to
Gallinæ; Vol. II, 1895, 282 pp., 33 plls. Gallinæ and Water-birds;
363 species.--1891. LOUCKS, W. E. List of Birds Found Breeding in the
Vicinity of Peoria, Illinois. The Oölogist, VIII, pp. 224-226;
80 species.--1904. WALTER, H. E. and A. W. Wild Birds in City Parks.
Rev. Ed., Chicago. 16mo, 66 pp.; 145 species.--1907. WOODRUFF, F. M.
The Birds of the Chicago Area. Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. VI. Nat. Hist.
Surv., 221 pp., 12 plls.; 318 species.--1909. CORY, C. B. Birds of
Illinois and Wisconsin. Field Museum, Zoöl. Ser. IX, 8vo. 764 pp. many
ills.; 398 species.--1910. HESS, I. E. One Hundred Breeding Birds of
an Illinois Ten-Mile Radius. Auk, XXVII, pp. 19-32.


1869. HAYMOND, R. Birds of Franklin County, Indiana. Cox's Geol. Surv.
Indiana, Rep. for 1869, pp. 209-235; 163 species.--1886. BUTLER, A. W.
A List of the Birds Observed in Franklin Co., Ind. Bull. Brookville
Soc. Nat. Hist., No. 2, pp. 12-39. 253 species.--1888-89. EVERMANN, B.
W. Birds of Carroll County, Indiana. Auk, V. pp. 344-351; VI,
pp. 22-30; 203 species.--1891. BUTLER, A. W. The Birds of Indiana, with
Illustrations of Many of the Species. Prepared for the Indiana
Horticultural Society and Originally Published in its Transactions for
1890. 8vo, 135 pp.; 305 species.--1898. BUTLER, A. W. The Birds of
Indiana, a descriptive Catalogue of the Birds that have been observed
within the State with an account of their Habits. Rep. of the State
Geologist, pp. 515-1187; 321 species; bibliography. Important.--1906.
McATEE, W. L. Ecological Notes on the Birds Occurring within a Radius
of Five Miles of the Indiana University Campus. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci.,
pp. 65-202, 32 ills., 225 species.


1868. ALLEN, J. A. Notes on Birds Observed in Western Iowa, in the
Months of July, August and September; also on Birds Observed in
Northern Illinois, in May and June, and at Richmond, Wayne Co.,
Indiana, between June third and tenth. Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist,
I. pt. IV, pp. 488-526. Ogle County, Ills., 84 species; Cook County,
Ills., 94 species; Richmond, Ind., 72 species; Western Iowa, 108
species.--1873. TRIPPE, F. M. Notes on the Birds of Southern Iowa.
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XV, pp. 229-242; 162 species.--1888.
KEYES, CHARLES R. and WILLIAMS, H. S. A Preliminary Annotated
Catalogue of the Birds of Iowa. Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., V,
8vo, 49 pp.; 260 species.--1890. COONE, JOHN V. Summer Residents of
Buena Vista County, Iowa. The Oölogist, VII, pp. 45-47;
52 species.--1895. JONES, LYNDS. Bird Migration at Grinnell, Iowa.
Auk, XII, 1895, pp. 117-134, 231-237.--1897. ANDERSON, R. M. An
Annotated List of the Birds of Winnebago and Hancock Counties, Iowa.
Pub. by Author, Forest City, Iowa. 16mo, 19 pp.; 218 species.--1906.
WILSON, B. H. Birds of Scott Co., Iowa. Wilson Bull., XVIII, pp. 1-11;
166 species.--1907. ANDERSON, R. M. The Birds of Iowa. Proc. Davenport
Acad. Sci., XI, pp. 125-417; 355 species.


1875. SNOW, F. H. A Catalogue of the Birds of Kansas. Contributed to
the Kansas Academy of Science. 8vo, 14 pp. Third Edition. 295
species.--1886. GOSS, N. S. A Revised Catalogue of the Birds of
Kansas, with Descriptive Notes of the Nests and Eggs of the Birds
Known to Breed in the State. Topeka. 8vo, vi+76 pp.; 335 species. (See
also review in Auk, III, 1886, p. 399.)--1891. GOSS, N. S. History of
the Birds of Kansas. Illustrating 529 Birds. Topeka, Kansas. Geo. W.
Crane & Co., Royal 8vo, 692 pp., 35 photogravure plates; 343
species.--1899. LANTZ, D. E. A Review of Kansas Ornithology. Trans.
Kans. Acad. Sci., 1896-7, pp. 224-276; 351 species.--1903. SNOW, F. H.
A Catalogue of the Birds of Kansas. Fifth Edition. Trans. Kans. Acad.
Sciences, XVIII, 23 pp.; 342 species.--1909. WETMORE, A. Fall Notes
from Eastern Kansas. The Condor, XI, pp. 154-164; 74 species.--1912.
ISELEY, D. A List of the Birds of Sedgwick County, Kansas. The Auk,
XXIX, pp. 25-43; 208 species.


1882. BECKHAM, C. W. A List of the Birds of Bardstown, Nelson County,
Kentucky. Journ. Cinc. Soc. Nat. Hist., VI, pp. 136-147; 167
species.--1885. BECKHAM, C. W. List of the Birds of Nelson County.
Kentucky Geol. Surv., John R. Proctor, Director. Author's Edition,
4to, pp. 1-58; 171 species.--1887. PINDAR, L. O. List of the Birds of
Fulton County, Kentucky. Orn. and Oöl. XII, pp. 54, 55, 84, 85; 122
species.--1889. PINDAR, L. O. List of the Birds of Fulton County,
Kentucky. Auk, VI, pp. 310-316, 183 species.--1910. HOWELL, A. H.
Notes on the Summer Birds of Kentucky and Tennessee. Auk, XXVII pp.
295-304. Kentucky, 80 species.


1900. BEYER, G. E. The Avifauna of Louisiana. Proc. La. Soc. Nat. 45
pp.; 323 species.--1904. ALLISON, A. The Birds of West Baton Rouge
Parish, Louisiana. Auk, XXI, 1904, pp. 472-484; 130 species.--1906.
BEYER, G. E., ALLISON, A., KOPMAN, H. H. List of the Birds of
Louisiana. Auk, XXIII, 1906, pp. 1-15, 275-281, XXIV, 314-321; XXV,
173-180; 339-448. 128 species to Pici.--1908. HOWELL, A. H. Notes on
the Winter Birds of Northern Louisiana Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
XXI, 119-124 pp.; 70 species.


1862. BOARDMAN, G. A. Catalogue of the Birds Found in the Vicinity of
Calais, Maine, and about the Islands of the Mouth of the Bay of Fundy.
Edited by A. E. Verrill. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., IX, pp. 122-132;
236 + 4 species. (For 12 additions see Verrill, Ibid., pp. 233,
234.)--1862. VERRILL, A. E. Catalogue of the Birds Found at Norway,
Oxford Co., Maine. Proc. Essex. Inst., III, pp. 136-160; 159
species.--1872. MAYNARD, C. J. A Catalogue of the Birds of Coos Co.,
N. H., and Oxford Co., Maine. With notes by Wm. Brewster, Proc. Bost.
Soc. Nat. Hist., XIV, 1871, pp. 356-385; 164 species.--1882. BROWN,
N. C. A Catalogue of the Birds Known to Occur in Portland, Maine.
Proc. Portl. Soc. Nat. Hist., Dec. 14, 1882, pp, 1-37; 250 species.
(See also Proc. Portl. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1889, pp. 37-40).--1900. HOWE,
R. H., JR. Summer Birds near Isleboro and the Fox Islands. Journ.
Maine Orn. Soc. II, pp. 28-32, III, pp. 14, 15; IV, p. 18; 100
species.--1908. KNIGHT, O. W. The Birds of Maine, Pub. by Author,
Bangor 8vo, 693 pp., 30 ills.; 327 species.


1895. KIRKWOOD, F. C. A List of the Birds of Maryland. Trans. Md.
Acad. Sci., 1895, pp. 241-382; 290 species.--1900. MERRIAM, C. H., and
PREBLE, E. A. The Summer Birds of Western Maryland. Maryland Geol.
Surv., pp. 291-307; 100 species.--1904. EIFRIG, G. Birds of Allegany
and Garrett Counties, Western Maryland. Auk, XXI, 1904, pp. 234-250;
180 species.


1870. MAYNARD, C. J. Catalogue of the Birds of Eastern Massachusetts.
The Naturalist's Guide, Part II, pp. 81-170; 299 species.--1886.
ALLEN, J. A. A Revised List of the Birds of Massachusetts. Bull. Am.
Mus. Nat. Hist., I, pp. 221-271; 349 species.--1887. CLARK, H. L. The
Birds of Amherst and Vicinity, Including Nearly the Whole of Hampshire
County, Mass. 8vo. 55 pp.; 177 species--1888. BREWSTER, W. Notes
on the Birds of Winchendon, Worcester Co. Auk, V, pp. 386-393; 82
species.--1889. FAXON, W. On the Summer Birds of Berkshire County,
Mass. Auk, VI, pp. 39-46, 99-107. Southern Berkshire, 76 species;
Graylock Mountain, 80 species.--1889. INGALLS, C. E. Birds of
Templeton and the Adjoining Towns. Gardner News, XX, June; 155 species.
Not seen; title from Howe and Allen.--1891. COLBURN, W. W., and MORRIS,
R. O. The Birds of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts. 16mo, 24 pp.
Springfield. Published by the Authors. 212 species.--1891. WAKEFIELD,
J. R. A List of the Birds of Dedham. Dedham Hist. Reg., II, pp. 70-74;
181 species. Not seen; title from Howe and Allen.--1897. MORSE, A. P.
Birds of Wellesley. Published by Author. Wellesley. 16mo, 56 pp.;
224 species.--1900. FAXON, W., and HOFFMANN, R. The Birds of Berkshire
Co. Coll. Berkshire Hist. and Sci. Soc., III, pp. 109-166; 200
species.--1901. HOWE, R. H. JR., and ALLEN, G. M. The Birds
of Massachusetts. Published by the Authors. 8vo, 154 pp.; 362
species.--1901. MORRIS, R. O.--The Birds of Springfield, Mass., and
Vicinity. H. R. Johnson, Springfield. 8vo, 54 pp.; 255 species.--1905.
TOWNSEND, C. W. The Birds of Essex County, Massachusetts. Memoirs Nutt.
Orn. Club. 4to, 352 pp. Frontispiece and Map; 319 species.--1906.
BREWSTER, W. The Birds of the Cambridge Region of Massachusetts.
Memoirs Nutt. Orn. Club, IV. 426 pp., plls. 7; 249 species.--1909.
WRIGHT, H. W. Birds of the Boston Public Garden. (Houghton, Mifflin),
16mo, 238 pp.; 166 species.--1912. MORSE, A. P. A Pocket List of the
Birds of Eastern Massachusetts with especial reference to Essex County.
Pp. 92. Peabody Academy Science, Salem.


1857. KNEELAND, S. On the Birds of Keeweenan Point, Lake Superior,
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, VI, 231-241 pp.; 147 species.--1875.
BOIES, A. H. Catalogue of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Southern
Michigan. 8vo, 12 pp.; 211 species.--1876. COVERT, A. B. Birds of
Lower Michigan. Forest and Stream, VI, pp. 99, 132, 163, 214, 318,
354, 402; VII, pp. 147, 164, 276. (See also VI, p. 197.)
213 species.--1879. GIBBS, M. Annotated List of the Birds of Michigan.
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geograph. Survey of the Territories, V, 3 pp.
481-497; 310 species.--1880. STEERE, J. B. A List of the Mammals and
Birds of Ann Arbor and Vicinity. 8vo. 8pp.; 111 species of
birds.--1884. ATKINS, H. A. Summer Birds of Locke, Michigan. Orn and
Oöl., IX, pp. 43-45; 80 species.--1884. ATKINS, H. A. Winter Birds of
Locke, Michigan. Orn and Oöl., IX, pp. 31, 32; 31 species.--1885.
ATKINS, H. A. Summer Birds of Locke, Michigan. Orn and Oöl., X,
p. 3; 82 species.--1885. GIBBS, M. A Catalogue of the Birds of
Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Orn and Oöl., X, pp. 6, 7, 38, 39, 54,
55, 68-70, 86, 87, 118, 119, 133-135, 149-151, 166, 167, 189, 190;
230 species.--1885-7. GIBBS, M. The Birds of Michigan. Forest and
Stream, XXIII, pp. 483, 484; XXIV, pp. 5, 6, 26, 27, 44, 45, 65, 84,
104, 105, 124, 125, 144, 145, 184, 224, 267, 268, 288, 289, 307, 347,
387, 388, 427; XXV, pp. 4, 5. 304, 305, 365, 366; XXVI, pp. 305, 306;
XXVII, pp. 123, 124, 223, 224; 68 species--1890. WHITE, T. G. Birds
of Mackinac Island, Michigan. The Oölogist, VII, pp 48, 49; 101
species.--1893. COOK, A. J. Birds of Michigan. Bull. 94, State
Agricultural College. 8vo, 148 pp.; 332 species.--1893. WHITE, S. E.
Birds Observed on Mackinac Island, Michigan, During the Summers of
1889, 1890, and 1891. The Auk, X, pp. 221-230; 143 species.--1897.
BOIES, A. H. Birds of Neebish Island, St. Mary's River, Michigan.
Bull. Mich. Orn. Club, I. pp. 17-20, 27-29; 149 species.--1903. SWALES,
B. H. Notes on the Winter Birds of Wayne Co., Michigan. Wilson Bull.,
XIV, pp. 20-24; XV, 1904, p. 82; 71 species.--1903. SWALES, B. H.
A List of the Land Birds of Southeastern Michigan. Bull. Mich. Orn.
Club, IV, pp. 14-17, 35-40; V, pp. 37-43; 165 species. (See also
Wilson Bull. XVII, 1905, p. 108-114; Auk, XXV, pp. 230-232).--1905.
WOOD, N. A., and FROTHINGHAM, E. H. Notes on the Birds of Au Sable
Valley, Michigan. Auk, XXII, 1905, pp. 39-154; 103 species.--1906.
WOOD, N. A., PEET, M. M., McCREARY, O. Annotated List of the Birds of
Porcupine Mountains [89 species] and Isle Royale [81 species], Mich.
Rep. Geol. Surv. Mich., 1905, pp. 113-127. See also McCreary, Ibid.,
pp. 56-57.--1909. BLACKWELDER, E. Summer Birds of Iron County. Auk,
XXVI, pp. 363-370; 80 species.--1910. WOOD, J. CLAIRE. Some Winter
Birds of the Season 1908-9 in Wayne County. Auk, XXVII, pp.
36-41.--1910. WOOD, N. A., and TINKER, A. D. Notes on Some of the
Rarer Birds of Washtenaw County. Auk, XXVII, pp. 129-141; 34
species.--1910. CHANEY, R. W. Summer and Fall Birds of the Hamlin Lake
Region, Mason County. Auk, XXVII, pp. 271-279; 119 species.--1911.
WOOD, N. A. Expedition to Charity Islands, Lake Huron. Wilson Bull.,
XXIII, pp. 78-112; 162 species.--1912. BARROWS, W. B. Michigan Bird
Life. Special Bull. of Mich. Agric. College. 8vo, pp. xiv + 822;
many ills., bibliography; important.


1871. TRIPPE, T. M. Notes on the Birds of Minnesota. Proc. Essex
Inst., VI, pp. 113-119; 138 species.--1874. HATCH, P. L. Report on the
Birds of Minnesota. Bull. Minn. Acad. Nat. Sci., pp. 43-68;
230 species.--1876. ROBERTS, T. S. A List of Some Birds Observed in
the Vicinity of Minneapolis, Minn., not Enumerated in Dr. Hatch's List.
The Scientific Monthly (Toledo, Ohio), I, 5, p. 231.--1880. ROBERTS,
T. S., and BENNER, F. A Contribution to the Ornithology of Minnesota.
Bull. N. O. C., V, pp. 11-20; 86 species.--1881. HATCH, P. L. A List
of the Birds of Minnesota. Ninth Ann. Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv.
Minn., for 1880, 1881, pp. 361-372; 281 species.--1881. ROBERTS, T. S.
The Winter Birds of Minnesota. 9th Ann. Rep. Geol. and N. H. Surv.
Minn., for 1880-1881, pp 373-383; 52 species.--1883. BRACKETT, F. H.
Ornithological Notes from Minnesota. Quart. Journ. Bost. Zoöl.
Soc. II, pp. 47-49; III, pp. 7-16; 134 species.--1890. CANTWELL, G. C.
A List of the Birds of Minnesota. Orn. and Oöl., XV, p, 129-139. (See
also p. 156 and XVI, p. 157); 295 species.--1892. HATCH, P. L. Notes
on the Birds of Minnesota. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Minn. 8vo,
487 pp.; 302 species.--1904. CURRIER, E. S. Summer Birds of the Leech
Lake Region, Minn. Auk, XXI, pp. 29-44; 117 species.--1907. ROBERTS,
T. S. List of Birds of Becker Co., Minn., Pioneer Hist. of Becker Co.
(Pioneer Press, St. Paul), pp. 159-190; 262 species.--1911. HONYWILL,
A. W. JR.--Notes on some Summer and Fall Birds of the Crooked Lake
Region. Cass and Crow, Wing Counties, Minn. The Auk, XXVIII,
pp. 229-237; 86 species.


1905. STOCKARD, C. R. Nesting Habits of Birds in Mississippi. Auk,
XXII, 1905, pp. 146-158, 273-285; 83 species.--1906. ALLISON, A. Notes
on the Winter Birds of Hancock Co., Miss., Auk, XXIII, 1906,
pp. 44-47; 51 species. Also Ibid., p. 232.--1907. ALLISON, A. Notes on
the Spring Birds of Tishomingo County, Miss. Auk, XXIV, pp. 12-25.


1879. SCOTT, W. E. D. Notes on Birds Observed During the Spring
Migration in Western Missouri. Bull. N. O. C., IV, pp. 139-147;
148 species.--1884. HURTER J. List of Birds Collected in the
Neighborhood of St. Louis, Mo. Orn. and Oöl., IX, pp. 85-87,
95-97. (see also p. 128); 265 species.--1896. WIDMANN, O. The
Peninsula of Missouri as a Winter Home for Birds. Auk, XIII, 1896,
pp. 216-222.--1907. WIDMANN, O. A Preliminary Catalogue of the Birds
of Missouri. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, XVIII, pp. 1-288; 383
species--1908. WOODRUFF, E. S. Birds of Shannon and Carter Counties,
Missouri, Auk, XXV, pp. 191-213; 172 species.


1876. GRINNELL, G. B. Report of a Reconnaissance from Carroll Montana
Territory on the Upper Missouri, to the Yellowstone National Park, and
Return, made in the summer of 1875 by William Ludlow.... Birds,
pp. 72-92; 139 species.--1894. RICHMOND, C. W., and KNOWLTON, F. H.
Auk, XI, pp. 298-308; 111 species.--1895. THORNE, P. M. List of Birds
observed in the Vicinity of Fort Keogh, Montana, from July 1888,
to September 1892. The Auk, XII, pp. 211-219; 139 species.--1901.
CARY, M. Birds of the Black Hills. The Auk, XVIII, pp. 231-238; 91
species.--1901. SILLOWAY, P. M. Summer Birds of Flathead Lake. Bull,
No. 3 Univ. Mont. 8vo. 83 pp., 16 plls.; 123 species (see also, Ibid,
No. 6, pp. 289-308).--1903. SILLOWAY, P. M. The Birds of Fergus
County, Montana. Bull. No. 1, Fergus Co. Free High School, Lewiston,
Mont. 77 pp., 17 ppls.; 179 species.--1907-8. CAMERON, E. S. The Birds
of Custer and Dawson Counties, Montana. The Auk, XXIV, pp. 241-270;
389-406; XXV, pp. 34-56; 192 species.--1911. SAUNDERS, A. A.... A
Preliminary List of the Birds of Gallatin County, Montana. The Auk,
XXVIII, pp. 26-49; 198 species.--1912. SAUNDERS, A. A. Some Birds of
Southwestern Montana. The Condor, XIV, pp. 22-32; 152 species.


1878. AUGHEY, S. Notes on the Nature of the Food of the Birds of
Nebraska. First Ann. Rep. U. S. Ent. Com. for the year 1877.
Appendix II, pp. 13-62; 252 species.--1883. HALL, A. Spring
Birds of Nebraska. Forest and Stream, XX, pp. 265, 266, 284;
114 species.--1888. TAYLOR, W. EDGAR. A Catalogue of Nebraska
Birds ... Ann. Rep. Nebr. State Board of Agric., for the year 1887,
pp. 111-118; 314 species.--1888-89. TAYLOR, E. W., and VAN VLEET, A.
H. Notes on Nebraska Birds. Orn. and Oöl., XIII, pp. 49-51, 169-172;
XIV, pp. 163-165; 137 species.--1896. BRUNER., L. Notes on Nebraska
Birds. Rep. Neb. State Hort. Soc., 1896, pp. 48-178; 415
species.--1901. BRUNER, L. Birds that Nest in Nebraska. Proc. Nebr.
Orn. Union, 1901, pp. 48-61; 212 species.--1904. BRUNER, L., WALCOTT,
R. H., and SWENK, M. H. A Preliminary Review of the Birds of Nebraska,
1-116+5 p.; 406 species. Klopp and Bartlett, Omaha, Nebr.--1909.
WALCOTT, R. H. An Analysis of Nebraska's Bird Fauna. Proc. Neb. Orn.
Union, IV, pp. 25-55.


1877. HENSHAW, H. W. Annual Report upon the Survey West of the
One-Hundredth Meridian. Being Appendix N N of the Annual Report of
Engineers for 1877. Report on the Ornithology of Portions of Nevada
and California, pp. 1303-1322.--1877. RIDGWAY, R. Report of Geological
Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel. Clarence King, Geologist, in
charge. Vol. IV, Part III, Ornithology, 4to, pp. 303-670. Mainly
limited to that portion of the Great Basin included between the
thirty-ninth and forty-second parallels and extending from the Sierra
Nevada to the Wasatch Mountains; 262 species.--1880. HENSHAW, H. W.
Annual Report upon the Geog. Surv. of the Terr. west of the 100th
Meridian ... App. O. O. of the Ann. Rep. of the Chief of Engineers
for 1879. App. L. Ornithological Report from Observations and
Collections made in portions of California, Nevada, and Oregon; pp.
282-335; 184 species.--1881. HOFFMAN, W. J. Annotated List of the
Birds of Nevada. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geograph. Survey of the
Territories, VI, 2, pp. 203-256; 250 species.--1903. HANFORD, F. S.
The Summer Birds of Washoe Lake, Nevada. The Condor, V, pp. 49-52;
48 species.--1912. TAYLOR, W. P. Field Notes on Amphibians, Reptiles
and Birds of Northern Humboldt County, Nevada. Univ. Pub. Zool. VII,
10, pp. 319-436; 103 species.


1877. GOODHUE, C. F. The Birds of Webster and Adjoining Towns. Forest
and Stream, VIII, pp. 33, 49, 96, 113, 146; 151 species.--1872.
MAYNARD, C. J. See Maine.--1887. CHADBOURNE, A. P. A List of the Summer
Birds of the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, N. H. Auk, IV,
pp. 100-108; 47 species.--1888. FAXON, W., and ALLEN, J. A. Notes on
the Summer Birds of Holderness [65 species], Bethlehem [50 species],
and Franconia, N. H. [87 species]. Auk, V. pp. 149-155.--1889. ALLEN,
F. H. Summer Birds at Bridgewater, N. H. Auk, VI, pp. 76-79.--1882.
KNOWLTON, F. H. A Revised List of the Birds of Brandon, Vt. The
Brandon Union, February 10, 1882; 149 species.--1899. DEARBORN, N.
Preliminary List of the Birds of Belknap and Merrimac Counties, N. H.
New Hampshire College, Durham, 8vo, 34 pp.; 175 species.--1900.
BATCHELDER, F. W. and FOGG, E. H. Preliminary List of Birds... of
Manchester, N. H. Proc. Manchester Inst. Arts and Sci., I, pp.
123-138; 132 species. (See also Proc. for 1901, 1902.)--1900 DEARBORN,
N. The Birds of Durham and Vicinity. Cont. Zoöl. Lab. N. H. College
Agric. and Mech. Arts, VI, 121 pp., map.--1904. ALLEN, G. M. The Birds
of New Hampshire. Proc. Manchester Inst. Arts and Sciences, IV,
pp. 23-222; 283 species.--1904. COMEY, A. C. A Partial List of the
Summer Birds of Holderness, N. H. Wilson Bull., XVI, 5-9 pp.;
94 species.


1885. BARRELL, H. F. Birds of the Upper Passaic Valley, New Jersey.
Orn. and Oöl., X, pp. 21-23, 42, 43; 149 species.--1887. THURBER, E.
A List of Birds of Morris County, New Jersey. True Democratic Banner
(newspaper), Morristown, N. J., Nov. 10, 17, 24; 205 species.--1894.
STONE, W. The Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 8vo,
185 pp. Del. Valley Orn. Club, Phila.; 346 species.--1894. STONE, W.
Summer Birds of the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Auk, XI, 1894,
pp. 138-140; 90 species.--1897-1910. STONE, W., Editor. Numerous Notes
on Birds of Chiefly Southern New Jersey. Proc. Del. Valley Orn. Club,
Phila.--1901. BABSON, W. A. The Birds of Princeton, N. J. Bull. Bird
Club, Princeton Univ. I, pp. 7-28; 230 species.--1906. CHAPMAN, F. M.
(See New York.)--1907. HOLMES, L. K. Birds Found within a Radius of
12 Miles of Summit, N. J. Wilson Bull. XIX, pp. 21-27; 201 species.
See also list of Summer Birds, _Ibid._, XVII, pp. 8-12; and Hann, List
of Summer Birds, _Ibid._, pp. 117-122.--1909. STONE, W. The Birds of
New Jersey. Ann. Rep. N. J. State Museum for 1908, pp. 11-347, 409-419;
plls. 1-84.--1909. BAILY, W. L. Breeding Birds of Passaic and Sussex
Counties. Cassinia, pp. 29-36; 94 species.


1853. WOODHOUSE, S. W. (See Arizona)--1859. HENRY, T. C. Catalogue of
the Birds of New Mexico as compiled from Notes and Observations made
while in that Territory during a residence of Six Years. Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Phila., XI, pp. 104-109; 198 species.--1885-6. HENSHAW, H.
W. List of Birds Observed in Summer and Fall on the Upper Pecos River,
New Mexico. Auk, II, pp. 326-333; III, pp. 73-80; 80 species.--1892.
ANTHONY, A. W. Birds of Southwestern New Mexico. Auk, IX, pp. 357-369;
129 species.--1898. MITCHELL, W. I. The Summer Birds of San Miguel
County, New Mexico. The Auk, XV, pp. 306-311; 85 species. (See
also, Bailey, _Ibid._, XXI, 1904, pp. 443-449).--1904. BAILEY, F. M.
Additional Notes on the Birds of the Upper Pecos. The Auk, XXI,
pp. 349-363; 93 species.--1906. HUNN, J. T. S. Notes on Birds
of Silver City, New Mexico. The Auk, XXIII, pp. 418-425; 112
species.--1908. GILMAN, M. F. Birds on the Navajo Reservation in New
Mexico. The Condor, X, pp. 146-152; 108 species.--1912. BERGTOLD, W. H.
October Birds of the Headwaters of the Gila River, New Mexico.
The Auk, XXIX, pp. 327-336; 76 species.


1844. GIRAUD, J. P., JR. The Birds of Long Island ... New York,
vol. V, 8vo, 397 pp.; 286 species.--1844. DE KAY, JAMES E. Zoölogy
of New York. Part II, Birds. Albany. 1 vol., 4to, xii+380 pp.,
141 col. plls.--1876. FOWLER, H. G. Birds of Central New York.
Forest and Stream, VI, pp. 180, 233, 284, 337, 402; VII, pp. 36, 52,
84, 230. Also Additions _Ibid._, p. 180; 170 species.--1877. ROOSEVELT,
T., JR., and MINOT, H. D. The Summer Birds of the Adirondacks in
Franklin County, N. Y. 8vo, 4 pp.; 97 species.--1879. RATHBUN, FRANK
R. A Revised List of Birds of Central New York. (Cayuga, Onondaga,
Seneca, Wayne, and Yates Counties, Auburn, N. Y.) 44 pp. See also Orn.
and Oöl., VII, 1882, pp. 132, 133; 14 additions.--1879-80. MEARNS, E. A.
A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands. Bull. Essex. Inst.,
X, pp. 166-179; XI, pp. 43-52, 154-168, 189-204; XII, pp. 11-25,
109-128; XIII, pp. 75-93. (See also Auk, VII, 1890, pp. 55, 56); 214
species.--1880. GREGG, W. H. Revised Catalogue of the Birds of Chemung
County, New York, Elmira, N. Y., O. H. Wheeler; 217 species.--1881-84.
MERRIAM, C. H. Preliminary List of Birds Ascertained to Occur in the
Adirondack Region, Northeastern New York. Bull. N. O. C., VI, pp.
225-235; and Addenda VII, 1882, pp. 128, 256, 257. Auk, I, 1884, pp.
58, 59; 211 species.--1882. BICKNELL, E. P. A Review of the Summer
Birds of a part of the Catskill Mountains, with prefatory remarks on
the faunal and floral features of the region. Trans. of the Linn. Soc.
of New York, I, pp. 115-168; 90 species.--1885 ... HOLLICK, A.
Preliminary List of the Birds Known to Breed on Staten Island.
Proc. Nat. Sci. Assc. Staten Island. Extra No. 4, December. 67
species.--1886.... BARNUM, M. K. A Preliminary List of the Birds of
Onondaga County, N. Y. Bull. of the Biol. Lab. of Syracuse. 8vo, pp.
1-34; 204 species.--1886. RALPH, W. L., and BAGG, E. An Annotated List
of the Birds of Oneida County, N. Y., and Its Immediate Vicinity.
Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc., III, pp. 101-147; 224 species. (See also
_Ibid._, VII, 1890, pp. 2, 29-232.) Orn. and Col. XIII, 1888, pp. 58,
59. Auk, XI, 1894, pp. 162-164.--1886. WOODRUFF, L. B., and PAINE,
A. G., JR. Birds of Central Park, New York City. A Preliminary List.
Forest and Stream, XXVI, pp. 386, 387, 487; 121 species.--1889.
BERGTOLD, W. H. A List of the Birds of Buffalo and Vicinity. Bull.
Buffalo Nat. Field Club, 1, 7, pp. 1-21; 237 species.--1889. DAVISON,
J. L. Birds of Niagara County, New York, Forest and Stream, XXXIII,
pp. 164, 183, 303; 190 species.--1892. CLUTE, W. N. The Avifauna of
Broome Co., N. Y. Wilson Quart., pp. 59-64; 106 species.--1896. SHORT,
E. H. Birds of Western New York. F. H. Lattin, Albion,  N. Y. 20 pp.;
229 species.--1901. EATON, E. H. Birds of Western New York. Proc.
Roch. Acad. IV, 64 pp.; 299 species.--1901. EMBODY, G. O. Birds of
Madison County, N. Y. Bull. Dep't. Geol. and Nat. Hist., Colgate
University, Hamilton, N. Y. 8vo, 36 pp.; 191 species. (See also Maxon,
Auk, XX, p. 263.)--1904. CHAPMAN, F. M. An Annotated List of the
Birds Known to Breed within 50 Miles of New York City. Guide Leaflet,
No. 14, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 31 pp., 13 ills.--1906. CHAPMAN, F. M.
The Birds of the Vicinity of New York City. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Guide
Leaflet, No. 22, Rev. Ed., 96 pp. Numerous ills.; 353 species.--1907.
BRAISLIN, W. C. A List of the Birds of Long Island, N. Y. Abst. Proc.
Linnæan Society, N. Y., 1907, pp. 31-123; 364 species. (See also Auk,
1909, pp. 314-316.)--1910. REED, H. D., and WRIGHT, A. H. Vertebrates
of the Cayuga Lake Basin. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., XLVIII, pp. 370-459;
257 species.--1910. WRIGHT, A. H. and ALLEN, A. A. The Increase of
Austral Birds at Ithaca. Auk, XXVII, pp. 63-66.--1910. EATON, E. H.
Birds of New York. I, Water and Game Birds. 4to, pp. 1-501, col. plls.
[by Fuertes] 42. Important.--1912. BAGG, E. Annotated List of the
Birds of Oneida County, N. Y., and of the West Canada Creek Valley.
Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc. XII, pp. 16-85; 257 species.


1871. COUES, E. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon, N. C. and
Vicinity. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. XXIII, Birds, pp. 18-47. Also
_Ibid._, 1878, pp. 22-24; 133 species.--1885. BRIMLEY, H. H. and C. S.
Summer Birds of Raleigh, N. C. Orn. and Oöl., X. pp. 143, 144;
82 species.--1885.--BRIMLEY, H. H. and C. S. Winter Birds of
Raleigh, N. C. Orn. and Oöl., X, p. 128; 72 species.--1886. BREWSTER,
W. An Ornithological Reconnaissance in Western North Carolina. Auk,
III, pp. 94-112, 173-179; 102 species.--1886. BATCHELDER, C. F.
The North Carolina Mountains in Winter. Auk, III, pp. 307-314; 40
species.--1887. ATKINSON, G. F. Preliminary Catalogue of the Birds
of North Carolina. Journ. Elisha Mitchell Society, 1887, Part 2, pp.
44-87; 255 species. A compilation with some errors.--1887. CAIRNS,
J. S. A List of Birds of Buncombe Co., North Carolina. Orn. and Oöl.,
XII, pp. 3-6; 169 species.--1887. SENNETT, G. B. Observations in
Western North Carolina Mountains in 1886. Auk, IV, pp. 240-245;
29 species.--1888. BRIMLEY, C. S. A List of Birds Known to Breed at
Raleigh, N. C. Orn. and Oöl., XIII, pp. 42, 43; 54 species. (See also
_Ibid._, p. 187. Auk, XIV, p. 165.)--1889. CAIRNS, J. S. The Summer
Birds of Buncombe County, North Carolina. Orn. and Oöl., XIV,
pp. 17-22; 123 species.--1893. BRIMLEY, C. S. Some Additions to the
Avifauna of North Carolina, with Notes on Some Other Species. Auk, X,
1893, pp. 241-244; 48 species.--1897. SMITHWICK, J. W. P. Ornithology
of North Carolina. Bull. 144, N. C. Agric. Exp. Sta. 193-228;
303 species.--1899. PEARSON, T. G. Preliminary List of Birds of Chapel
Hill, N. C. Journ. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., XVI, pp. 33-51;
132 species.--1901. BISHOP, L. B. The Winter Birds of Pea Island, N. C.
Auk, XVIII, pp. 260-268; 42 species.--1905. OBERHOLSER, H. C. Notes on
the Mammals and Summer Birds of Western North Carolina. Published by
Biltmore Forest School. Birds pp. 11-24; 136 species.--1910. PHILIPP,
P. B. (see S. C.)


1877 ... LANGDON, F. W. A Catalogue of the Birds of the Vicinity of
Cincinnati. 8vo, 18 pp. Salem, Mass.; 279 species.--1879. LANGDON, F.
W. A Revised List of Cincinnati Birds. Journ. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., I,
4, pp. 167-193. (See also _Ibid._, III, pp. 121-127; V, 1882, p. 186;
VI, 1883, pp. 12-31; 256 species.)--1882. WHEATON, J. M. Report on the
Birds of Ohio, Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, IV, I,
pp. 188-628; 298 species.--1891. SMITH, R. W. 000 A List of the Birds
of Warren County, Ohio. Journ. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., XIV, pp. 105-133;
189 species.--1896. OBERHOLSER, H. C. A Primary List of the Birds
of Wayne Co. Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. I, 4, pp. 243-354; 183
species.--1902. HENINGER, W. F. A Preliminary List of the Birds of
Middle Southern Ohio. Wilson Bulletin, IX, pp. 77-93; 209 species.
(See also _Ibid._, pp. 130-132; XII, 1905, pp. 89-93).--1902. JONES,
L. Bird Studies in Lorain Co., Ohio. Wilson Bull., IX, pp. 37-58;
also pp. 94-100.--1908. DAWSON, W. L. The Birds of Ohio, 4 to
xiv+671 pp. Many illus. Columbus, Wheaton Pub. Co.--1903. FIELD, A.
I. Birds of Lecking Co., Ohio. Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., XV;
203 species.--1903. JONES, L. The Birds of Ohio. A revised Catalogue,
Ohio State Acad. of Sci., Special Papers No. 6, 141 pp. 1 map; 318
species.--1906. HENINGER, W. F. A Preliminary List of Birds of Seneca
Co., Ohio. Wilson Bull., XVIII. pp. 47-60; 205 species.--1909-10.
JONES, L. The Birds of Cedar Point and Vicinity. Wilson Bull., XXI,
pp. 55-76, 115-131, 187-202; XXII, pp 25-41, 97-115, 172-182.
_Note._--Every issue of the Wilson Bulletin (Oberlin, Ohio) contains
matter of special interest to bird students in Ohio and the adjoining


1839. TOWNSEND, J. K. Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky
Mountains to the Columbia River ... Philadelphia: Henry Perkins,
134 Chestnut Street. Boston: Perkins and Marvin. 8vo, pp. viii, 352.
Appendix: Catalogue of Birds found in the Territory of the Oregon,
pp. 331-352.--1860. COOPER, J. G. and SUCKLEY, G. Report upon the
Birds Collected on the Survey. Pac. R. R. Rep. Vol. XII, Book 11,
pp. 140-291; 216 species observed in Oregon and Washington.--1877.
BENDIRE, C. Notes on some of the Birds found in Southeastern Oregon,
particularly in the Vicinity of Camp Harney, from November, 1874 to
January 1877. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XIX, pp. 109-149;
191 species.--1879. MEARNS, E. A. Partial List of the Birds of Fort
Klamath, Oregon, Collected by Lieutenant Willis Wittich, U. S. A.,
with Annotations and Additions by the Collector. Bull. N. O. C.,
IV, pp. 161-166, 194-199; 111 species.--1880. HENSHAW, H. W.
(See Nevada.)--1880. JOHNSON, O. B. List of the Birds of the
Willamette Valley, Oregon. Am. Nat. XIV, pp. 485-491, 635-646; 140
species.--1886. ANTHONY, A. W. Field Notes on the Birds of Washington
County, Oregon. Auk, III, pp. 161-172; 120 species.--1888. MERRILL, J.
C. Notes on the Birds of Fort Klamath, Oregon. With remarks on certain
species by William Brewster. Auk, V, pp. 139-146, 251-262, 357-366;
168 species.--1902. ANTHONY, A. W. List of Birds in the Vicinity of
Portland, Oregon. Bailey's 'Handbook of Birds of the Western United
States,' pp. xliii-xlviii; 145 species.--1902. LORD, W. R. A First
Book upon the Birds of Oregon and Washington, 16mo, 304+iv pp. ills.
J. K. Gill Co., Portland.--1904. MILLER, L. H. The Birds of the John
Day Region, Oregon. The Condor, VI, pp. 100-106; 71 species.--1905.
FINLEY, W. L. Among the Sea Birds off the Oregon Coast. The Condor,
VII, pp. 110-127; 161-169.--1909. JEWETT, S. G. Some Birds of Baker
County, Oregon. The Auk, XXVI, pp. 5-9; 83 species.--1911. Peck, M. E.
Summer Birds of Willow Creek Valley, Malheur County, Oregon. The
Condor, XIII, pp. 63-69; 74 species.


1844. BAIRD, W. M. and S. F. List of Birds Found in the Vicinity of
Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pa. Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, XLVI,
pp. 261-273; 201 species.--1845. BAIRD, S. F. Catalogue of Birds Found
in the Neighborhood of Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pa. Lit. Rec.
and Journ. Linn. Assoc. of Penna. College, I, pp. 249-257; 203
species.--1861. BARNARD, V. A. A Catalogue of the Birds of Chester
County, Pa. Times of Arrival in Spring. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst., 1860,
pp. 434-438; 191 species--1869. TURNBULL, W. P. The Birds of East
Pennsylvania and New Jersey ... 1 vol. roy. 8vo, and also 4to,
xii+62 pp.; 342 species.--1880. WARREN, H. B. The Birds of Chester
County, Pa. Forest and Stream, XIII, pp. 1024, 1025; XIV, pp. 6, 25;
218 species.--1886. PARKER, H. G. List of Birds near Philadelphia with
the Dates That Sets of Eggs Were Taken. Orn. and Oöl. XI, pp. 70, 71;
76 species.--1887. PENNOCK, C. J. Birds of Chester County, Pa. The
Oölogist. IV, pp. 1-10; 234 species.--1889. RESSEL, C. B. Birds of
Chester County, Pa. Orn. and Oöl., XIV, 97-101, pp. 112-116, 129, 130;
199 species.--1890. WARREN, B. H. Report on the Birds of Pennsylvania.
With Special Reference to the Food Habits. Second Edition. Harrisburg,
8vo, xiv+434 pp.; 100 col. plls.--1891. STONE, W. The Summer Birds of
Harvey's Lake, Luzerne Co., Pennsylvania, with Remarks on the Faunal
Position of the Region. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1891,
pp. 431-438; 54 species.--1892. DWIGHT, J., JR. Summer Birds of the
Crest of the Pennsylvania Alleghanies. Auk, IX, pp. 129-141;
84 species.--1893. JACOBS, J. W. Summer Birds of Greene Co., Pa. 8vo,
15 pages; 90 species. Published by Author, Waynesburg, Pa.--1893.
TODD, W. E. C. Summer Birds of Indiana [65 species] and Clearfield
[55 species] Counties, Pa. Auk, X, 1893, pp. 35-46.--1894. STONE, W.
The Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 8vo, vii+185 pp. Del.
Valley Orn. Club, Phila. 346 species.--1895. ROTZELL, W. E. Birds of
Narbeth, Pa., and Vicinity. The Citizen, June 22 and 29, and reprinted
in pamphlet, 8 pp.; 108 species.--1896. BAILY, W. L. Summer Birds of
Northern Elk Co. Auk, XIII, pp. 289-197; 69 species.--1896. YOUNG, R.
T. Summer Birds of Anthracite Coal Regions of Pennsylvania. Auk, XIII,
1896, pp. 278-285; 59 species--1897. MONTGOMERY, T. H., JR. A List of
the Birds of the Vicinity of West Chester, Chester Co., Pa. Am. Nat.,
1897, pp. 622-628, 812-814, 907-911; 145 species--1897-1910. STONE, W.
Editor. Numerous Notes on and Short Lists of Eastern Pennsylvania
Birds. Proc. Del. Valley Orn. Club, Phila.--1899. RHOADES, S. N. Notes
on Some of the Rarer Birds of Western Pennsylvania. Auk, XVI,
pp. 308-313; 65 species.--1901. BURNS, F. L. A Sectional Bird Census,
at Berwyn, Pa. Wilson Bull. No. 36, pp. 84-103; 62 species.--1904.
TODD, W. E. C. The Birds of Erie and Presque Isle, Erie Co., Pa. Annals
Carnegie Museum, II. pp. 841-596, 4 plates; 237 species.--1904. TODD,
W. E. C. The Mammal and Bird Fauna of Beaver County, Pa. Bausman's
History of Beaver County, II, 1904, pp. 1195-1202; 178 species.


1899. HOWE, R. H., JR. and STURTEVANT, E. The Birds of Rhode Island.
Published by Authors. 8vo, 111 pp.; 291 species.--1908. Commissioners
of Birds. A Check-List of Rhode Island Nesting Birds, pp. 1-26;
104 species.


1868. COUES, E. Synopsis of the Birds of South Carolina. Proc. Bost.
Soc. Nat. Hist., XII, pp. 104-127; 294 species.--1879. LOOMIS, L. M. A
Partial List of the Birds of Chester County, S. C. Bull. N. O. C., IV,
pp. 209-218; 140 species. (See also additions and notes. Auk, II,
1885, pp. 188-193; VIII, 1891, pp. 49-59, 167-173; IX, 1892; pp. 28-39;
XI, 1894, pp. 26-39, 94-117.)--1885. HOXIE, W. Notes on the Birds of
the Sea Islands. Orn. and Oöl., X, pp. 13-27, 29, 44-46, 62, 63.
(Also Corrections and Additions. _Ibid._, XI, 1886, pp. 33, 34.)
238 species.--1890. LOOMIS, L. M. Observations on Some of the Summer
Birds of the Mountain Portions of Pickens County, Auk, VII, pp. 30-39,
124-130; 76 species.--1891. LOOMIS, L. M. June Birds of Cæsar's Head,
S. C. Auk, VIII, pp. 323-333; 52 species.--1910. PHILIPP, P. B. List
of Birds Observed [in the Carolinas]. Auk, XXVII, pp 312-322. (See
also Wayne, _Ibid._, p. 464.)--1910. WAYNE, A. T. Birds of South
Carolina. Cont. from Charleston Museum, I, 8vo, xxi+pp. 254;
337 species.


1886. FOX, W. H. List of Birds Found in Roane County, Tennessee,
During April, 1884, and March and April, 1885. Auk, III, pp. 315-320;
114 species.--1895. RHOADS, S. N. Cont. Zoöl. Tenn., Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci., Phila., 1895. pp. 463-501. Also Auk, XIII, 1896, p. 181;
223 species.--1910. HOWELL, A. H. Notes on the Birds of Kentucky and
Tennessee. Auk, XXVII, pp. 295-304. Tenn.; 161 species.


1865-6. DRESSER, H. E. Notes on the Birds of Southern Texas. Ibis.,
2nd Ser. I, pp. 312-330, 466-495, II, pp. 23-46; 272 species.--1878.
MERRILL, J. C. Notes on the Ornithology of Southern Texas. Being a
List of Birds Observed in the Vicinity of Fort Brown, Texas, from
February, 1876, to June, 1878. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. I, pp. 118-173;
252 species.--1878. SENNETT, G. B. Notes on the Ornithology of the
Lower Rio Grande, Texas, from Observations made during the Season of
1877. Edited, with Annotations, by Dr. Elliott Coues. Bull. U. S.
Geol. and Geograph. Survey, Vol. IV, pp. 1-66; 151 species.--1879.
SENNETT, G. B. Further Notes on the Ornithology of the Lower Rio
Grande of Texas, from observations made during the spring of 1878.
Edited, with Annotations by Dr. Elliott Coues. Bull. U. S. Geol.
and Geograph. Survey of the Territories, V, 3, pp. 371-440; 168
species.--1882. BROWN, N. C. A Reconnaissance in Southwestern Texas.
Bull. N. O. C., VII, pp. 33-42! 104+6? species observed near Boerne,
Kendall County.--1882. NEHRLING, H. List Of Birds Observed at Houston,
Harris, Texas and vicinity, and in the Counties Montgomery, Galveston,
and Ford Bend. Bull Nutt. Orn. Club, VII, pp. 6-13, 166-175, 222-225;
209 species.--1887. LLOYD, W. Birds of Tom Green and Concho Counties,
Texas. Auk, IV, pp. 181-193, 289-299; 253 species.--1888. BECKHAM, C.
W. Observations on the Birds of southwestern Texas. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., X, 1887, pp. 635-696; 283 species.--1891. CHAPMAN, F. M. On the
Birds Observed near Corpus Christi, Texas, during parts of March and
April, 1891. Bull Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III, pp. 315-328; 33+66
species.--1892. ATTWATER, H. P. List of Birds Observed in the vicinity
of San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. Auk, IX, pp. 229-238; 337-345;
242 species.--1892. RHOADS, S. N. The Birds of Southeastern Texas and
Southern Arizona, Observed during May, June, and July, 1891. Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., pp. 98-126. Annotated lists of 100+8 species
observed at Corpus Christi, and 124+2 species observed in Southern
Arizona.--1900. CARROLL, J. J. Notes on the Birds of Refugio County,
Texas. The Auk, pp. 337-348.--1905. MONTGOMERY, T. H. JR. Summer
Resident Birds of Brewster County, Texas. The Auk, XXII, pp. 12-15;
47 species.--1911. LACEY, H. The Birds of Kerrville, Texas, and
Vicinity. The Auk, XXVIII, pp. 200-219; 202 species.


1858. BAIRD, S. F. Birds found at Fort Bridger, Utah. Pac. R. R. Rep.
IX, pp. 926-927; 104 species.--1873. MERRIAM, C. H. Report on the
Mammals and Birds of the Expedition to Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and
Utah. Sixth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. for 1872, 1873. Birds,
pp. 670-715. A list of 176 Utah birds.--1873. RIDGWAY, R. Notes on the
Bird-fauna of the Salt Lake Valley and the adjacent portions of the
Wahsatch Mountains. Bull. Essex Inst., V, pp. 168-173. Remarks on
Allen's "List of Birds Collected in the Vicinity of Ogden" and list of
Birds found breeding near Salt Lake City.--1874. HENSHAW, H. W. An
annotated list of the Birds of Utah. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XI,
pp. 1-14; 214 species.--1877. RIDGWAY, R. (See Nevada.)


1901. HOWELL, A. H. Preliminary List of Summer Birds of Mount
Mansfield, Vt. Auk, XVIII, pp. 337-347; 86 species.--1902. PERKINS, G.
H. A Preliminary List of the Birds Found in Vermont. 21st Ann. Rep.
Vt. State Bd. Agric., pp. 85-118; 261 species. See also HOWE, R. H.,
JR., Cont. N. A. Orn. II, pp. 5-22.--1903. DAVENPORT, E. B. Birds
Observed on Mt. Mansfield and the West End of Stowe Valley at the Base
of the Mountain, in the Summer of 1902. Wilson Bull., XV, pp. 77-86;
74 species.--1907. DAVENPORT, E. B. Birds of Windham and Bennington
Counties. Bull. No. 2, Vermont Bird Club (Burlington, Vt.), pp. 5-14;
176 species.--1908. ALLEN, F. H. Summer Birds of Southern Vermont,
Auk, XXV, pp. 56-64; 86 species.


1890. RIVES, WM. C., M. D. A Catalogue of the Birds of the Virginias.
Proc. Newport Nat. Hist. Soc., Document VII, Newport R. I. 8vo.
100 pp.; 305 species.--1902. DANIELS, J. W. Summer Birds of the Great
Dismal Swamp. Auk, XIX, 15-18 pp.; 41 species.--1910. EMBODY, G. C. A
List of Birds Observed at Ashland, Va. Auk, XXVII, pp. 169-177; 114
species.--1912. BAILEY, H. B. Notes on Birds Breeding in the Mountains
of Virginia. The Auk, XXIX, pp. 79-84; 94 species.


1892. LAWRENCE, R. H. A Preliminary List of the Birds of the Gray's
Harbor Region, Washington. Auk, IX, pp. 39-47; 92 species. (See also
pp. 352-357; and Palmer, _Ibid._, pp. 308-310).--1893. RHOADS, S. N.
(See British Columbia.)--1897. DAWSON, W. L. A Preliminary List of the
Birds of Okanagan County, Washington. The Auk, XIV, pp. 168-182;
143 species.--1900. KOBBÉ, W. H. The Birds of Cape Disappointment,
Washington. The Auk, XVII, pp. 349-358; 63 species--1902. LORD, W. R.
(See Oregon.)--1902. RATHBUN, S. F. A List of the Land Birds of
Seattle, Washington and Vicinity The Auk, XIX, pp. 131-141;
112 species--1903. SNODGRASS, R. E. A List of Land Birds from Central
Washington. The Auk, XX, pp. 202-209; 53 species.--1904. SNODGRASS, R.
E. A List of Land Birds from Central and Southeastern Washington. The
Auk, XXI, pp. 223-233; 58 species.--1906. BOWLES, J. H. A List of
Birds of Tacoma, Washington, and Vicinity. The Auk, XXIII, pp. 138-148;
201 species.--1906. JOHNSON, R. H. The Birds of Cheney, Washington.
The Condor, VIII, pp. 25-28; 113 species.--1908. EDSON, J. M. Birds
of the Bellingham Bay Region. The Auk, XXV, pp. 425-439; 212
species.--1908. DAWSON, W. L. The Bird Colonies of the Olympiades.
The Auk, XXV, pp. 153-166.


1873. SCOTT, W. E. D. Partial List of the Summer Birds of Kanawha
County, West Virginia, with Annotations. Proc. Bost. Soc. Hist., XV,
pp. 219-227; 86 species.--1875. BREWSTER, W. Some Observations on the
Birds of Ritchie County, West Virginia. Annals of the Lyc. Nat. Hist.,
N. Y., XI, pp. 139-146; 100 species.--1888. DOAN, W. D. Birds of West
Virginia. Bull. 3, Agric. Exp. Sta., Morgantown; 200 species.--1889.
SURBER, T. Birds of Greenbriar County, West Va. The Hawkeye Orn. and
Oöl. (E. B. Webster, Cresco, Iowa), II, pp. 2-4, 13-15, 29-32;
121 species.--1890. RIVES, W. C. (See Virginia.)--1898. RIVES, W. C.
Summer Birds of the West Virginia Spruce Belt. Auk, XV, pp. 131-137;
46 species.--1909. BROOKS, E. A. West Virginia Birds in State Board of
Agriculture. Report W. Va. State Board Agric., for 1908, pp. 3-62;
193 species.


1853. HOY, P. R. Notes on the Ornithology of Wisconsin. Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci., Phila., VI, pp. 304-313, 318-385, 423-429; 283 species.
(Revised with additions in the Trans. Wisc. State Agric. Soc., 1852,
II, pp. 341-364.)--1854. BARRY, A. C. On the Ornithological Fauna of
Wisconsin. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., V, 1854, pp. 1-13;
218 species.--1882. KING, F. H. Economic Relations of Wisconsin Birds.
Wis. Geol. Survey, I, pp. 441-610; figs. 103-144; 295 species.--1883.
WILLARD, S. W. Migration and Distribution of North American Birds in
Brown and Outgamie Counties. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts, and
Letters, VI, pp. 177-196; 210 species.--1894. GRUNDTVIG, F. L. The
Birds of Shiocton in Bovine, Outgamie Co., Wisc. Trans. Wisc. Acad.
Sciences, X, pp. 73-158; 183 species.--1903. KUMLEIN, L., and
HOLLISTER, N. The Birds of Wisconsin. Bull. Wisc. Nat. Hist. Soc., III
(N. S.), pp. 1-143, 8 half-tones; 357 species.--1909. CORY, C. B.
(See Ills.)


1872. HOLDEN, C. H. JR. Notes on the Birds of Wyoming and Colorado
Territories, with additional memoranda by C. E. Aiken. Edited by
T. M. Brewer. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XV, pp. 193-210; 142
species.--1873. MERRIAM, C. H. (See Utah.)--1876. GRINNELL, G. B.
(See Montana).--1879. WILLISTON, S. W. A List of Birds taken in
Southern Wyoming, with supplementary notes by George B. Grinnell;
Forest and stream, XII, pp. 306-307, 325-326, 365; 109 species.--1902.
KNIGHT, W. C. The Birds of Wyoming. University of Wyoming. 8vo.
174 pp., 48 plls.; 288 species.--1902. BOND, F. List of Birds of
Cheyenne and Vicinity. Bailey's 'Handbook of Birds of the Western
United States,' pp. lxxiii; 184 species.--1907. PALMER, T. S. Birds
of Yellowstone Park. Ann. Rep. Supt. of Yellowstone Park for 1907.
pp. 15-23; 70 species.


  Acanthis hornemannii
              "      exilipes          176
       linaria                         176
          "   holbœllii                176
          "   rostrata                 176

  Accipiter atricapillus               131
                 " striatulus          131
       cooperii                        131
       velox                           131

  Actitis macularia                    107

  Actodromas acuminata                 109
       bairdii                         109
       fuscicollis                     109
       maculata                        109
       minutilla                       109

  Æchmophorus occidentalis              44

  Ægialitis hiaticula                  112
       meloda                          112
         "  circumcincta               112
       nivosa                          112
       semipalmata                     112

  Aëronautes melanoleucus              158

  Æstrelata fisheri                    260
       hasitata                         65
       scalaris                        260

  Agelaius gubernator californicus     179
       phœniceus                       178
           "        bryanti            178
           "        caurinus           178
           "        floridanus         178
           "        fortis             178
           "        neutralis          178
           "        richmondi          298
           "        sonoriensis        178
       tricolor                        179

  Aimophila carpalis                   220
       ruficeps                        220
          "     eremœca                220
          "     scottii                220
          "     sororia                220

  Aix sponsa                            78

  Ajaia ajaja                           89

  Alauda arvensis                      275

  Alaudidæ                         34, 163

  Albatross, Black-footed               62
       Laysan                           62
       Short-tailed                 12, 62
       Sooty                            62
       Yellow-nosed                     62

  Alca torda                            48

  Alcedinidæ                       32, 144

  Alcidæ                                10

  Alle alle                             46

  Amazilis cerviniventris chalconota   160
       tzacatl                         160

  Ammodramus caudacutus                225
       henslowi                        224
          "    occidentalis            224
       leconteii                       225
       maritimus                       226
         "      fisheri                226
         "      macgillivraii          226
         "      peninsulæ              226
         "      sennetti               226
       nelsoni                         225
         "    subvirgatus              225
       nigrescens                      226

  Ampelidæ                         37, 166

  Ampelis cedrorum                     198
       garrulus                        198

  Amphispiza belli                     228
          "    canescens               300
          "    cinerea                 228
          "    nevadensis              228
       bilineata                       249
           "     deserticola           249

  Anas boschas                          76
       fulvigula                        77
          "     maculosa                77
       obscura                          77
          "     rubripes                77

  Anatidæ                           16, 74

  Anhinga                           14, 73
       anhinga                          73
  Anhingidæ                         14, 67

  Ani                                  146
       Groove-billed                   146

  Anous stolidus                        60

  Anser albifrons                      262
           "     gambeli                85
       fabialis                        262

  Anseres                           15, 74

  Anthus pensilvanicus                 232
       spraguei                        232

  Antrostomus carolinensis             156
       vociferus                       156
       "     macromystax               156

  Aphelocoma californica               184

  Aphelocoma californica hypoleuca     184
                 "       obscura       184
       cyanea                          184
       cyanotis                        184
       insularis                       184
       sieberii arizonæ                183
          "     couchii                183
       texana                          184
       woodhouseii                     184

  Aphriza virgata                      111

  Aphrizidæ                        24, 100

  Aquila chrysaëtos                    136

  Aramidæ                           20, 95

  Aramus giganteus                      96

  Archibuteo ferrugineus               135
       lagopus sancti-johannis         135

  Arctonetta fischeri                   82

  Ardea herodias                        93
          "     fannini                 93
          "     wardi                   93
       occidentalis                     92

  Ardeidæ                           19, 87

  Ardetta exilis                        91
       neoxena                          91

  Arenaria interpres                   102
       melanocephala                   107
       morinella                       102

  Arquatella couesi                    107
       maritima                        107
       ptilocnemis                     108

  Arremonops rufivirgatus              215

  Asio accipitrinus                    138
       wilsonianus                     138

  Astragalinus lawrenci                189
       psaltria                        192
         "     hesperophilus           299
         "     mexicanus               299
       tristis                         192
         "     pallidus                192
         "     salicamans              192

  Asturina plagiata                    131

  Asyndesmus torquatus                 152

  Atthis morcomi                       161

  Auk, Great                            48
       Razor-billed                  9, 48

  Auklet, Cassin                        46
       Crested                          47
       Least                            47
       Paroquet                         47
       Rhinoceros                       45
       Whiskered                        47

  Auriparus flaviceps                  195
              "   lamprocephalus       195

  Avocet                           22, 103

  Aythya affinis                        79
       americana                        79
       collaris                         79

  Aythya marila                         78
       vallisneria                      79

  Bæolophus atricristatus              243
     "     sennetti                    303
       bicolor                         243
         "     texensis           243, 303
       inornatus                       242
          "      cineraceus            242
          "      griseus               242
       wollweberi                      244

  Baldpate                              77

  Bartramia longicauda                 105

  Basilinna leucotis                   160
       xantusi                         159

  Becard, Xantus's                     276

  Bittern, American                     91
       Cory                             91
       Least                            91

  Blackbird, Bicolored                 179
       Brewer                          254
       Red-winged                      178
       Rusty                           254
       Tricolored                      179
       Yellow-headed                   199

  Bluebird                             182
       Azure                           182
       Chestnut-backed                 182
       Mountain                        182
       San Pedro                       182
       Western                         182

  Bobolink                             251

  Bob-white                        26, 115
       Florida                         115
       Masked                          115
       Texan                           115

  Bombycillidæ                         298

  Bonasa umbellus                      118
            "    sabini                118
            "    togata                118

  Bonasa umbellus umbelloides          118

  Booby                                 70
       Blue-faced                       70
       Blue-footed                      70
       Brewster                         70
       Red-footed                       70

  Botaurus lentiginosus                 91

  Brachyramphus brevirostris            46
       craveri                          46
       hypoleucus                       46
       marmoratus                       46

  Brant                                 86
       Black                            86

  Branta bernicla glaucogastra          86
       canadensis                       86
          "     hutchinsii              86
          "     minima                  86
          "     occidentalis            86
       leucopsis                       262

  Branta nigricans                      86

  Bubo virginianus                     143
           "     algistus              297
           "     arcticus              143
           "     elachistus            143
           "     heterocnemis          297
           "     pacificus             143
           "     pallescens            143
           "     saturatus             143

  Bubonidæ                         30, 127

  Budytes flavus leucostriatus         192

  Buffle-head                           80

  Bullfinch, Cassin's                  279

  Bulweria bulweri                     260

  Bunting, Beautiful                   180
       Indigo                          181
       Lark                            252
       Lazuli                          180
       Painted                         180
       Varied                          180

  Bush-Tit                             242
       California                      242
       Grinda                          242
       Lead-colored                    242
       Lloyd                           242
       Santa Rita                 242, 303

  Buteo abbreviatus                    134
       albicaudatus sennetti           135
       borealis                        132
          "    alascensis              296
          "    calurus                 132
          "    harlani                 132
          "    kriderii                132
       brachyurus                      134
       lineatus                        133

  Buteo lineatus alleni                133
       elegans                         133
       platypterus                     133
       swainsoni                       133

  Buteonidæ                            294

  Butorides virescens                   94
               "     anthonyi           94
               "     frazari            94

  Buzzard, Turkey                      129

  Calamospiza melanocorys              252

  Calcarius lapponicus                 219
               "     alascensis        219
       ornatus                         218
       pictus                          220

  Calidris arenaria                    108

  Callipepla squamata                  116
                "    castanogastris    116

  Callothrus robustus                  253

  Calothorax lucifer                   159

  Calypte annæ                         161
       costæ                           159

  Campephilus principalis              149

  Camptolaimus labradorius              81

  Canachites canadensis           117, 298
                "     canace      117, 298
                "     osgoodi     117, 298
       franklinii                      117

  Canvas-back                           79

  Caprimulgidæ                     33, 155

  Caracara, Audubon                    134
       Guadalupe                       134

  Cardellina rubrifrons                177

  Cardinal                         36, 172
       Arizona                         172
       Florida                         172
       Gray-tailed                     172
       St  Lucas                       172
       Texas                           172

  Cardinalis cardinalis                172
       canicaudus                      172
       floridanus                      172
       igneus                          172
       superbus                        172

  Carduelis carduelis                  177

  Carpodacus amplus                    175
       cassini                         175
       mcgregori                       175
       mexicanus elementis             175
           "     frontalis             175
           "     ruberrimus            175
       purpureus                       174
           "    californicus           174

  Casarca casarca                      262

  Catbird                              247

  Catharista urubu                     129

  Cathartes aura                       129

  Cathartidæ                       28, 127

  Catherpes mexicanus albifrons        234
               "      conspersus       234
               "      punctulatus      234

  Centrocercus urophasianus            122

  Centurus aurifrons                   153
       carolinus                       153
       uropygialis                     153

  Ceophlœus pileatus                   149
                  "    abieticola      149

  Cepphus columba                       48
       grylle                           48
       mandtii                          48

  Cerorhinca monocerata                 45

  Certhia familiaris albescens         237
              "      americana         237
              "      montana           237
              "      occidentalis      237
              "      zelotes           238

  Certhiidæ                        39, 168

  Ceryle alcyon                        147
           "    caurina                297
       americana septentrionalis       147
       torquata                        273

  Chachalaca                       27, 122

  Chætura pelagica                     158
       vauxii                          158

  Chamæa fasciata                 215, 300
           "     phæa             216, 300
           "     rufula                300

  Chamæidæ                        294, 298

  Charadriidæ                      24, 100

  Charadrius dominicus                 110
                "      fulvus          110

  Charitonetta albeola                  80

  Chat, Long-tailed                    198
       Yellow-breasted             38, 198

  Chaulelasmus streperus                77

  Chen cærulescens                      85
       hyperborea                       84
          "     nivalis                 84
       rossii                           84

  Chewink                              204

  Chickadee                             39
       Alaskan                         244
       Bailey's Mountain               303
       Barlow                          244
       Black-capped                    245
       California                      244
       Canadian                        244
       Carolina                        245
       Chestnut-backed                 244
       Columbian                       244
       Florida                         303
       Hudsonian                       244
       Kowak                           244
       Long-tailed                     245
       Mexican                         245
       Mountain                        244
       Oregon                          245
       Plumbeous                       245
       Valdez Chestnut-sided           303
       Yukon                           303

  Chondestes grammacus                 218
                 "     strigatus       218

  Chordeiles acutipennis texensis      157
       virginianus                     157
            "      chapmani            157
            "       henryi             157
            "      sennetti            157

  Chuck-will's widow                   156

  Ciconiidæ                         18, 87

  Cinclidæ                         38, 168

  Cinclus mexicanus                    247

  Circus hudsonius                     130

  Cistothorus stellaris                236

  Clangula clangula americana           80
       islandica                        80

  Coccyges                         31, 144

  Coccyzus americanus                  146
       "      occidentalis             146
       minor                           146
        "     maynardi                 146
       erythrophthalmus                146

  Cœligena clemenciæ                   160

  Colaptes auratus                     154
              "   luteus               154
       cafer collaris                  154
         "   saturatior                154
       chrysoides                      154
          "      brunnescens           154
          "      mearnsi               298
       rufipileus                      154

  Colinus ridgwayi                     115
       virginianus                     115
           "     floridanus            115
           "      texanus              115

  Columba fasciata                     124
            "   vioscæ                 124
       flavirostris                    124
       leucocephala                    124

  Columbæ                          27, 123

  Columbidæ                        27, 123

  Columbigallina passerina bermudiana  126

  Columbigallina passerina pallescens  126
                    " terrestris       126

  Colymbus auritus                      43
       dominicus brachypterus      43, 257
       holbœllii                        43
       nigricollis californicus         43

  Compsothypsis americana              195
                   " usneæ             195
       nigrilora                       195

  Condor                               129

  Contopus borealis                    208
       pertinax pallidiventris         208
       richardsonii                    208
            "  peninsulæ               208
       virens                          208

  Conurus carolinensis                 145

  Coot, American                    21, 99
       European                        265

  Cormorant                             71
       Baird                            72
       Brandt                           72
       Double-crested                   71
       Farallon                         71
       Florida                          71
       Mexican                          71
       Pelagic                          72
       Red-faced                        72
       Violet-green                 14, 72
       White-crested                    71

  Corvidæ                          35, 163

  Corvus americanus                    255
             " pascuus                 255
       brachyrhynchos hesperis         304
       caurinus                        255
       corax principalis               255
         " sinuatus                    255
       cryptoleucus                    255
       ossifragus                      255

  Coturniculus bairdii                 224
       savannarum passerinus           224
           " bimaculatus               224
           " floridanus                224

  Cowbird                              253
       Bronzed                         304
       Dwarf                           253
       Red-eyed                        253

  Cracidæ                          27, 113

  Crake, Corn                          265
       Spotted                         265

  Crane, Little Brown                   96
       Sandhill                      9, 96
       Whooping                         96

  Creciscus coturniculus               294

  Creeper, Brown                   39, 237

  Creeper, California                  237
       Mexican                         237
       Rocky Mountain                  237
       Sierra                          238

  Crossbill, American                  173
       Mexican                         173
       White-winged                    174

  Crotophaga ani                       146
       sulcirostris                    146

  Crow, American                       255
       Carrion                         129
       Fish                            255
       Florida                         255
       Northwest                       255
       Western                         304

  Crymophilus fulicarius               102

  Cuckoo, Black-billed                 146
       California                      146
       Kamchatka                       273
       Mangrove                        146
       Maynard                         146
       Yellow-billed                   146

  Cuculidæ                         31, 144

  Curlew, Bristle-thighed              295
       Eskimo                          103
       Hudsonian                   23, 103
       Long-billed                     103

  Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus          183

  Cyanocitta cristata                  183
               " florincola            183
       stelleri                        185
          " annectens                  185
          " carbonacea                 298
          " carlottæ                   185
          " diademata                  185
          " frontalis                  185

  Cyanopiza amœna                      180
       ciris                           180
       cyanea                          181
       versicolor                      180
       versicolor pulchra              180

  Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus            47

  Cypseloides niger borealis           158

  Cyrtonyx montezumæ mearnsi           115

  Dafila acuta                          76

  Daption capensis                     260

  Darters                               67

  Dendragapus obscurus                 117
                " fuliginosus          117
                " richardsonii         117
                " sierræ               295

  Dendrocygna autummalis                83
       fulva                            83

  Dendroica æstiva                     196
       æstiva brewsteri                299
       æstiva rubiginosa               196
       æstiva æstiva sonorana          196
       auduboni                        190
       auduboni nigrifrons             199
       blackburniæ                     187
       bryanti castaneiceps            196
       cærulea                         181
       cærulescens                     180
       cærulescens cairnsii            180
       castanea                        206
       chrysoparia                     188
       coronata                        197
       discolor                        197
       dominica                        190
       dominica albilora               190
       graciæ                          190
       kirtlandii                      191
       maculosa                        190
       nigrescens                      249
       occidentalis                    188
       olivacea                        187
       palmarum                        196
       palmarum hypochrysea            197
       pensylvanica                    198
       striata                         249
       tigrina                         196
       townsendi                       188
       vigorsii                        191
       virens                          188

  Dichromanassa rufescens               94

  Dickcissel                           198

  Diomedea albatrus                     62
       immutabilis                      62
       nigripes                         62

  Diomedeidæ                        12, 61

  Dipper                           38, 247

  Dolichonyx oryzivorus                251

  Dotterel                             267

  Dove, Bermuda Ground                 126
       Blue-headed                     126
       Ground                          126
       Inca                            126
       Key West Quail                  126
       Mexican Ground                  126
       Mourning                    27, 125
       Ruddy Quail                     126
       Western Mourning                296
       West Indian White-winged        296
       White-fronted                   125
       White-winged                    126
       Zenaida                         125

  Dovekie                               46

  Dowitcher                            106
       Long-billed                     106

  Dryobates arizonæ                    151
       borealis                        151
       nuttallii                       151
       pubescens                       150
       pubescens gairdnerii            150
       pubescens homorus               150
       pubescens medianus              150
       pubescens nelsoni               150
       pubescens turati                151
       scalaris bairdii           151, 297
       scalaris cactophilus            297
       scalaris eremicus               297
       scalaris lucasanus              150
       villosus                        150
       villosus leucomelas             150
       villosus leucothorectis         297
        villosus auduboni              150
        villosus harrisii              150
        villosus hyloscopus            150
        villosus monticola             150
        villosus picoideus             150
        villosus terrænovæ             297

  Duck, Black                           77
       Black-bellied Tree               83
       Florida                          77
       Fulvous Tree                     83
       Harlequin                        81
       Labrador                         81
       Lesser Scaup                     79
       Masked                           80
       Mottled                          77
       Red-legged Black                 77
       Ring-necked                      79
       Ruddy                            80
       Rufous-crested                  262
       Scaup                            79
       Wood                             78

  Dunlin                               266

  Eagle, Alaska Bald                   136
       Bald                            136
       Golden                          136

  Ectopistes migratorius               125

  Egret American                        92
       Brewster's                      294
       Reddish                          94

  Egretta candidissima                  92
       candidissima brewsteri          294

  Eider, American                       82
       Greenland                        82
       King                             82
       Pacific                          82

  Eider, Spectacled                     82
       Steller                          81

  Elanoides forficatus                 130

  Elanus leucurus                      130

  Empidonax cineritius                 210
       difficilis                      210
       flaviventris                    210
       fulvifrons pygmæus              215
       griseus                         209
       hammondi                        209
       insulicola                      210
       minimus                         209
       traillii                        209
           " alnorum                   209
       virescens                       210
       wrightii                        209

  Eniconetta stelleri                   81

  Ereunetes occidentalis               108
       pusillus                        108

  Erismatura jamaicensis                80

  Erolia ferruginea                    106

  Eugenes fulgens                      159

  Falco columbarius                    137
            "    suckleyi              137
       fusco-cærulescens               137
       islandus                        136
       mexicanus                       135
       peregrinus anatum               137
          "     pealei                 137
       richardsonii                    137
       rusticolus                      136
           "    gyrfalco               136
           "    obsoletus              136
       sparverius                      137
          "    paulus                  296
          "    peninsularis            138
          "    phalœna                 138

  Falcon, Aplomado                     137
       Peale                           137
       Prairie                         135

  Falconidæ                   29, 127, 294

  Finch, California Purple             174
       Cassin                          175
       Guadalupe House                 175
       House                           175
       Pine                            225
       Purple                          174
       San Benito House                175
       San Clemente House              175
       St  Lucas House                 175

  Flamingo                          16, 89

  Flicker, Brown                       154
       Gilded                          154
       Guadalupe                       154
       Mearns's Gilded                 298
       Northern                        154
       Northwestern                    154
       Red-shafted                     154
       Southern                        154

  Florida cærulea                       94

  Flycatcher, Alder                    209
       Arizona Crested                 203
       Ash-throated                    203
       Beardless                       211
       Buff-breasted                   215
       Coues                           208
       Crested                         203
       Derby                           202
       Fork-tailed                     276
       Giraud                          274
       Gray                            209
       Green-crested                   210
       Hammond                         209
       Least                           209
       Lower California                203
       Mexican Crested                 203
       Nutting                         203
       Olivaceous                      203
       Olive-sided                     208
       Ridgway                    211, 299
       Santa Barbara              210, 299
       Scissor-tailed                  177
       St  Lucas                       210
       Sulphur-bellied                 203
       Traill                          209
       Vermillion                      177
       Western                         210
       Wright                          209
       Yellow-bellied                  210

  Fratercula arctica                    45
                " glacialis             45
                " naumanni             258
       corniculata                      45

  Fregata aquila                        73

  Fregatidæ                         15, 67

  Fregetta grallaria                   260

  Frigate Bird                          73

  Fringillidæ                      36, 164

  Fulica americana                      99

  Fulmar                            12, 63
       Giant                           260
       Pacific                          63
       Rodger's                         63
       Slender-billed                   63
       Fulmarus glacialis               63
                   " glupischa          63
       rodgersii                        63

  Gadwall                               77

  Galeoscoptes carolinensis            247

  Gallinæ                          25, 113

  Gallinago delicata                   105

  Gallinula galeata                     99

  Gallinule, Florida                    99
       Purple                           99

  Gannet                            13, 69

  Gavia adamsii                         44
       arctica                          44
       imber                            44
       lumme                            44
       pacifica                         44

  Gaviidæ                               10

  Gelochelidon nilotica                 58

  Geococcyx californianus              146

  Geothlypis agilis                    189
       beldingi                        194
       formosa                         193
       philadelphia                    189
       poliocephala                    194
       tolmiei                         189
       trichas                         193
         " arizela                     194
         " brachidactyla               194
         " ignota                      194
         " occidentalis                193
         " sinuosa                     194

  Geotrygon chrysia                   126
       montana                        126

  Glaucidium gnoma                    140
              " californicus          140
              " pinicola              296
       hoskinsii                      140
       phalænoides                    140

  Gnatcatcher, Black-tailed           243
       Blue-gray                      243
       Plumbeous                      243
       Western                        243

  Godwit, Black-tailed                266
       Hudsonian                      110
       Marbled                        110
       Pacific                        110

  Golden-eye, American                 80
       Barrow                          80

  Goldfinch, American                 192
       Arkansas                       192
       California                     192
       European                       177
       Green-backed                   299
       Lawrence                       189
       Mexican                        192
       Western                        192

  Goose, Barnacle                     262

  Goose, Bean                         262
       Blue                            85
       Cackling                        86
       Canada                          86
       Emperor                         85
       European White-fronted         263
       Greater Snow                    84
       Hutchins                        86
       Lesser Snow                     84
       Pink-footed                    263
       Ross Snow                       84
       White-cheeked                   86
       White-fronted              85, 262

  Goshawk, American                   131
       Mexican                        131
       Western                        131

  Grackle, Boat-tailed                254
       Bronzed                        254
       Florida                        254
       Great-tailed                   254
       Purple                     35, 254

  Grebe, Eared                         43
       Holbœll                         43
       Horned                          43
       Least                           43
       Mexican                        257
       Pied-billed                  9, 43
       Western                         44

  Green-shank                         266

  Grosbeak, Alaskan Pine              173
       Black-headed                   207
       Blue                           181
       Evening                    36, 199
       Kadiak Pine                    173
       Pine                           173
       Rocky Mountain Pine            173
       Rose-breasted                  174
       Western Blue                   181
       Western Evening                199

  Grouse, Alaska Spruce               117
       Canada                         117
       Canadian Ruffed                118
       Columbian Sharp-tailed         121
       Dusky                          117
       Franklin                       117
       Gray Ruffed                    118
       Hudsonian Spruce               117
       Oregon Ruffed                  118
       Prairie Sharp-tailed           121
       Richardson                     117
       Ruffed                     26, 118
       Sage                           122
       Sharp-tailed                   121
       Sierra                         295
       Sooty                          117

  Gruidæ                            20, 95

  Grus americana                        96
      canadensis                        96
      mexicana                          96

  Guara alba                            90
      rubra                             89

  Guillemot, Black                      48
      Mandt                             48
      Pigeon                            48

  Guiraca cærulea                      181
            " lazula                   181

  Gull, Bonaparte                       56
      Black-backed                      54
      California                        55
      Franklin                          56
      Glaucous                          53
      Glaucous-winged                   53
      Heermann                          54
      Herring                       11, 55
      Iceland                           53
      Ivory                             52
      Kittiwake                         52
      Kumlien                           53
      Laughing                          56
      Little                           259
      Mew                              258
      Nelson                            53
      Point Barrow                      53
      Ring-billed                       52
      Ross                              56
      Sabine                            56
      Siberian                         258
      Slaty-backed                      54
      Short-billed                      52
      Vega                              55
      Western                           54

  Gymnogyps californianus              129

  Gyrfalcon                            136
      Black                            136
      Gray                             136
      White                            136

  Hæmatopodidæ                     25, 100

  Hæmatopus bachmani                   104
      frazari                          104
      palliatus                        104

  Haliæetus leucocephalus              136

  Halocyptena microsoma                 65

  Harelda hyemalis                      81

  Harrier                              130

  Hawk, American Rough-legged          135
      Broad-winged                     133
      Cooper                           131
      Desert Sparrow                   133
      Duck                             137
      Ferruginous Rough-legged         135
      Fish                             129
      Florida Red-shouldered           133
      Harlan                           132
      Harris                           132
      Krider                           132
      Little Sparrow                   296
      Marsh                            130
      Mexican Black                    134
      Pigeon                           137
      Red-bellied                      133
      Red-shouldered                   133
      Red-tailed               29, 28, 132
      Sennett White-tailed             135
      Sharp-shinned                    131
      Short-tailed                     134
      Snail                            130
      Sparrow                          137
      St  Lucas Sparrow                138
      Swainson                         133
      Western Red-tail                 132
      Zone-tailed                      134

  Heath Hen                            121

  Heleodytes brunneicapillus           233
                   " affinis           233
                   " anthonyi          233
                   " bryanti           233
                   " couesi            288

  Helinaia swainsonii                  215

  Helminthophila bachmanii             191
      celata                           210
         "   lutescens                 210
         "   sordida                   210
      chrysoptera                      189
      lawrencei                        197
      leucobronchialis                 197
      luciæ                            206

  Helminthophila peregrina             212
      pinus                            191
      rubricapilla                     195
           " gutturalis                195
      virginiæ                         197

  Helmitheros vermivorus               215

  Helodromas solitarius                107
                 " cinnamomeus         107

  Herodias egretta                      92

  Herodiones                        17, 87

  Heron, Anthony Green                  94
      Black-crowned Night               93
      European                         264
      Frazar Green                      94
      Great Blue                        92

  Heron, Great White                    92
      Little Blue                       94
      Little Green                  19, 94
      Louisiana                         94
      Northwest Coast                   93
      Snowy                             92
      Ward                              93
      Yellow-crowned Night              93

  Hesperiphona vespertina              199
                   "   montana         199

  Heteractitis incanus                 111

  Himantopus mexicanus                 104

  Hirundinidæ                      36, 165

  Hirundo erythrogastra                250

  Histrionicus histrionicus             81

  Hummingbird, Allen                   161
      Anna                             161
      Black-chinned                    159
      Blue-throated                    160
      Blue-billed                      160
      Broad-tailed                     161
      Buff-bellied                     160
      Calliope                         161
      Costa                            159
      Lucifer                          159
      Morcom                           161
      Rieffer                          160
      Rivoli                           159
      Ruby-throated                33, 160
      Rufous                           161
      Salvin                           298
      White-eared                      160
      Xantus                           159

  Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis        94

  Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis      60

  Hylocichla aliciæ                    239
                "  bicknelli           239
      guttata                          238
         "   auduboni                  238
         "   nana                      238
         "   pallasii                  238
      fuscescens                       238
         "   salicicola                238
      mustelina                        233
      ustulata                         239
         "   almæ                      239
         "   œdica                     239
         "   swainsonii                239

  Iache latirostris                    160

  Ibididæ                           18, 87

  Ibis, Glossy                          90
      Scarlet                           89
      Wood                          18, 90
      White                             90
      White-faced Glossy            18, 90

  Icteria virens                       198
            "   longicauda             198

  Icteridæ                         35, 164

  Icterus audubonii                    186
      bullocki                         186
      cucullatus nelsoni               186
          "   sennetti                 186
      galbula                          186
      parisorum                        186
      spurius                          206

  Ictinia mississippiensis             130

  Ionornis martinica,                   99

  Iridoprocne bicolor                  250

  Ixoreus nævius                       207
             "   meruloides            207

  Jabiru                               264

  Jacana, Mexican                  25, 102
      spinosa                          102

  Jacanidæ                         25, 100

  Jaeger, Long-tailed                   51
      Parastic                      10, 51
      Pomarine                          51

  Jay, Alaskan                         252
      Belding                          184
      Black-headed                     185
      Blue                         35, 183
      Blue-eared                       184
      Blue-fronted                     185
      California                       184
      Canada                           252
      Coast                            298
      Couch                            183
      Florida                          184
      Florida Blue                     183
      Gray                             252
      Green                            185
      Labrador                         252
      Long-crested                     185
      Oregon                           252
      Pinon                            183
      Queen Charlotte                  185
      Rocky Mountain                   252
      Santa Cruz                       184
      Steller                          185
      Texan                            184
      Woodhouse                        184
      Xantus                           184

  Junco aikeni                         240
      Arizona                          241
      Baird                            240
      bairdi                           240
      caniceps                    241, 302
      Carolina                         240
      Coues                       241, 302
      dorsalis                    241, 302
      Gray-headed                      241
      Guadalupe                        240
      hyemalis                         240
         "   annectens                 302
         "   carolinensis              240
         "   connectens                302
      insularis                        240
      mearnsi                     240, 302
      Montana                          240
      montanus                    240, 302
      oreganus                    241, 302
         "   connectens           241, 302
         "   pinosus              241, 302
         "   shufeldti                 241
         "   thurberi             241, 302
      Oregon                           241
      phæonotus dorsalis               241
          "   palliatus                241
      Pink-sided                       240
      Point Pinos                      241
      Red-backed                       241
      Ridgway's                        303
      Shufeldt                    241, 302
      Slate-colored                    240
      Thurber                          241
      Townsend                         240
      townsendi                        240
      White-winged                     240

  Killdeer                         24, 112

  Kingbird                             247
      Arkansas                         202
      Cassin                           202
      Couch                            202
      Gray                             247

  Kingfisher, Belted               31, 147
      Northwestern Belted              297
      Ringed                           271
      Texas                            147

  Kinglet, Dusky                       177
      Golden-crowned               40, 187
      Ruby-crowned                176, 215
      Sitkan                      176, 215
      Western                          187

  Kite, Everglade                      130
      Mississippi                      130
      Swallow-tailed                   130
      White-tailed                     130

  Kittiwake                             52
      Pacific                           52
      Red-legged                        52

  Knot                                 106

  Lagopus evermanni                    120
      lagopus                          119
         "   alexandræ                 295
         "   alleni                    119
         "   ungavus                   295
      leucurus                         118
         "   peninsularis              118
      rupestris                        119
          "   atkhensis                120
          "   chamberlaini             296
          "   dixoni                   296
          "   nelsoni                  119
          "   reinhardi                119
          "   townsendi                120

  Laniidæ                          37, 166

  Lanius borealis                      248
      ludovicianus                     248
           "   migrans                 304
      anthonyi                         248
         "   excubitorides             248
         "   gambeli                   248

  Lapwing                              267

  Laridæ                            11, 50

  Lark Bunting                         252
      California Horned                201
      Desert Horned                    201
      Dusky Horned                     201
      Horned                       34, 200
      Hoyt Horned                      200
      Island Horned                    202
      Montezuma Horned                 202
      Pallid Horned                    200
      Prairie Horned                   200
      Ruddy Horned                     201
      Scorched Horned                  201
      Sonoran Horned                   202
      Streaked Horned                  200
      Texan Horned                     200

  Larus affinis                        258
      argentatus                        55
      atricilla                         56
      barrovianus                       53
      brachyrhynchus                    52
      californicus                      55
      canus                            258
      delawarensis                      52
      franklinii                        56
      glaucescens                       53
      glaucus                           53
      heermanni                         54
      kumlieni                          53
       leucopterus                      53
       marinus                          54
       minutus                         259
       nelsoni                          53
       occidentalis                     54
       philadelphia                     56
       schistisagus                     54
       vegae                            55

  Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera   125

  Leucosticte, Aleutian                179
       atrata                          179
       australis                       179
       Black                           179
       Brown-capped                    179
       Gray-crowned                    179
       griseonucha                     179
       Hepburn                         179
       tephrocotis                     179
           "   littoralis              179

  Limicolæ                         21, 100

  Limosa fedoa                         110
       hæmastica                       110
       lapponica baueri                110

  Limpkin                           20, 96

  Longipennes                           10

  Longspur, Alaskan                    219
       Chestnut-collared               218
       Lapland                         219
       McCown                          218
       Smith                           220

  Loon                              10, 44
       Black-throated                   44
       Pacific                          44
       Red-throated                     44
       Yellow-billed                    44

  Lophodytes cucullatus                 76

  Lophortyx californicus               116
                "   vallicola          116
       gambelii                        116

  Loxia curvirostra minor              173
           "   stricklandi             173
       leucoptera                      174

  Lunda cirrhata                        45

  Macrochires                      33, 154

  Macrorhamphus griseus                106
       scolopaceus                     106

  Magpie American                      253
       Yellow-billed                   253

  Mallard                            6, 76

  Man-o'-War Bird                       73

  Mareca americana                      77
       penelope                         77

  Marsh Hen                             98

  Martin Cuban                         250
       Gray-breasted                   304
       Purple                          250
       Western                         250

  Meadowlark                           199
       Florida                         199
       Texas                           199
       Western                         199

  Megalestris skua                      51

  Megaquiscalus major                  254
       major macrourus                 254

  Megascops asio                       141
             "   aikeni                142
             "   bendirei              141
             "   cineraceus            142
             "   flammeola             142
             "   floridanus            141
             "   idahœnsis             142
             "   kennicottii           141
             "   macfarlanei           142
             "   maxwelliæ             141
             "   mccalli               141
             "   trichopsis            142
             "   xantusi               142

  Melanerpes erythrocephalus           153
       formiciviorus                   153
            "   angustifrons           153
            "   bairdi                 153

  Meleagris gallopavo intermedia       122
               "   merriami            122
               "   osceola             122
               "   silvestris          122

  Melopelia asiatica asiatica          296
                "   trudeaui           296
       leucoptera                      126

  Melospiza cinerea                    230
               "   caurina             230
               "   clementæ            230
               "   cooperi             230
               "   fallax              229
               "   graminea            230
               "   heermanni           229
               "   insignis            230
               "   juddi               229
               "   kenaiensis          230
               "   melodia             229
               "   merrilli            229
               " montana               229
               " morphna               230
               " pusillula             230
               " rivularis             229
               " rufina                230
               " samuelis              230

  Melospiza georgiana                  222
      lincolnii                        226
          "   striata                  226
       melodia cleonensis              301
          "    maxillaris              300

  Merganser, American                   76
       americanus                       76
       Hooded                           76
       Red-breasted                 15, 76
       serrator                         76

  Mergus albellus                      261

  Merlin, Black                        137
       Richardson                      137

  Merula confinis                      207
       migratoria                      207
       migratoria achrustera           207
           "   propinqua               207

  Micropalama himantopus               106

  Micropallas whitneyi                 140

  Micropodidæ                      33, 155

  Mimidæ                               294

  Mimus polyglottos                    248
            "   leucopterus            248

  Mniotilta varia                      249

  Mniotiltidæ                      38, 167

  Mockingbird                          248
       Western                         248

  Molothrus ater                       253
             "   obscurus              253

  Motacillidæ                      38, 167

  Murre                                 48
       Brunnich                         48
       California                       48
       Pallas                           48

  Murrelet, Ancient                     47
       Craveri                          46
       Kittlitz                         46
       Marbled                          46
       Xantus                           46

  Muscivora forficata                  177
       tyrannus                        276

  Myadestes townsendii                 247

  Mycteria americana                   263

  Myiarchus cinerascens                203
                "    nuttingi          203
                "    pertinax          203
       crinitus                        203
       lawrencei olivascens            203
       mexicanus                       203
           "    magister               203

  Myiodynastes luteiventris            203

  Myiozetetes similis superciliosus    274

  Netta rufina                         262

  Nettion carolinensis                  78
       crecca                          261

  Nighthawk                            157
       Florida                         157
       Sennett                         157
       Texan                           157
       Western                         157

  Noddy                                 60

  Nomonyx dominicus                     80

  Nonpareil                            180

  Nucifraga columbiana                 252

  Numenius borealis                    103
       hudsonicus                      103
       longirostris                    103
       tahitiensis                     295

  Nutcracker, Clarke                   252

  Nuthatch Brown-headed                246
       Florida                         246
       Pygmy                           246
       Red-breasted                39, 246
       Rocky Mountain                  246
       Slender-billed                  246
       St  Lucas                       246
       White-breasted                  246
       White-naped                     247

  Nuttallornis borealis                208

  Nyctala acadica                      140
            "   scotæa                 140
       tengmalmi richardsoni           139

  Nyctanassa violacea                   93

  Nyctea nyctea                        143

  Nycticorax nycticorax nævius          93

  Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli      157

  Oceanites oceanicus                   66

  Oceanodroma cryptoleucura            260
       furcata                          65
       homochroa                        65
       kaedingi                         65
       leucorhoa                        66
       macrodactyla                     66
       melania                          66
       socorroensis                     66

  Ochthodromus wilsonius               112

  Odontoglossæ                      16, 87

  Oidemia americana                     83
       deglandi                         83
       fusca                           262
       perspicillata                    83

  Olbiorchilus alascensis              236
       hiemalis                        236
          "   helleri                  236
          "   pacificus                236
       meligerus                       236

  Old-squaw                           81

  Olor buccinator                     84
       columbianus                    84
       cygnus                        263

  Oreortyx pictus                    116
             "   confinis            116
             "    plumiferus         116

  Oreospiza chlorura                 206

  Oriole, Arizona Hooded             186
       Audubon                       186
       Baltimore                   35, 186
       Bullock                         186
       Hooded                          186
       Orchard                         206
       Scott                           186
       Sennett                         279

  Ornithion imberbe                    211
              "    ridgwayi            211

  Oroscoptes montanus                  233

  Ortalis vetula maccalli              122

  Osprey, American                     129

  Ossifraga gigantea                   259

  Otocoris alpestris                   200
              "    actia               201
              "    adusta              201
              "    arcticola           200
              "    giraudi             200
              "    hoyti               200
              "    insularis           202
              "    leucolæma           201
              "    merrilli            201
              "    occidentalis        202
              "    pallida             202
              "    praticola           200
              "    rubea               201
              "    strigata            201

  Otus asio gilmani                    297

  Ouzel, Water                         247

  Oven-bird                            232

  Owl, Acadian                         140
       Aiken Screech                   142
       American Hawk                   143
       American Long-eared             138
       Arctic Horned                   143
       Barn                        29, 138
       Barred                          139
       Burrowing                       138
       California Pygmy                140
       California Screech              141
       Dusky Horned                    143
       Dwarf Screech                   142
       Elf                             140
       Ferruginous Pygmy               140
       Flammulated Screech             142
       Florida Barred                  139
          "   Burrowing                138
          "   Screech                  141
       Great Gray                      139
       Great Horned                    143
       Hoskin                          140
       Kennicott Screech               141
       Labrador Horned                 297
       Long-eared                      138
       MacFarlane Screech              142
       Mexican Screech                 142
       Monkey-faced                    138
       Northern Saw-whet               140
       Northern Spotted                139
       Pacific Horned                  143
       Pygmy                           140
       Richardson                      139
       Rocky Mountain Screech          141
       Sahauro Screech                 297
       Saint Michael Horned            297
       Saw-whet                        140
       Screech                     30, 141
       Short-eared                     138
       Snowy                           143
       Spotted                         139
         "    Screech                  142
       Texas Barred                    139
       Texas Screech                   141
       Western Horned                  143
       Xantus Screech                  142

  Oxyechus vociferus                   112

  Oyster-catcher, American         25, 104
       Black                           104
       European                        267
       Frazar                          104

  Pagophila alba                        52

  Paludicolæ                        19, 95

  Pandion haliaëtus carolinensis        29

  Pandionidæ                           294

  Parabuteo unicintus harrisi          132

  Parauque, Merrill                    157

  Paridæ                           39, 169

  Paroquet, Carolina               30, 145

  Parrot, Thick-billed                 145

  Partridge                            118
       Alaska Spruce                   295
       California                      116
       Canada Spruce                   295
       Chestnut-bellied Scaled         116
       Gambel                          116
       Hudsonian Spruce                295
       Mearns                          115
       Mountain                        116

  Partridge, Plumed                    116
      San Pedro                        116
      Scaled                           116
      Valley                           116

  Parus atricapillus                   245
           "    occidentalis           245
           "    septentrionalis        245
      carolinensis                     245
           "   agilis                  245
      cinctus alascensis               244
      gambeli                          244
      hudsonicus                       244
          "   columbianus              244
          "   littoralis               244
          "   stoneyi                  244
      rufescens                        244
          "   barlowi                  244
          "   neglectus                244
      sclateri                         245
      wollweberi                       244

  Passer domesticus                    219

  Passerculus beldingi                 223
      princeps                         225
      sandwichensis                    223
         "    alaudinus                223
         "    bryanti                  223
         "    nevadensis               300
          "   savanna                  223
      rostratus                        223
         "   guttatus                  223
         "   halophilus                224
         "   sanctorum                 224

  Passerella iliaca                    231
               "    annectens          231
               "    fuliginosa    231, 301
               "    insularis     231, 301
               "    megarhyncha        231
               "    schistacea         231
               "    stephensi          231
               "    townsendi          231
               "    unalaschensis      231

  Passeres                         34, 162

  Passerina hyperboreus                251
      nivalis                          251
        "   townsendi                  251

  Pediœcetes phasianellus              121
                    "    campestris    121
                    "    columbianus   121

  Pelagodroma marina                   260

  Pelecanidæ                        15, 67

  Pelecanus californicus                73
      erythrorhynchus                   73
      occidentalis                      73

  Pelican, American White               73
      Brown                         15, 73
      California Brown                  73

  Pelidna alpina pacifica              108

  Penthestes carolinensis impiger      303
      gambeli baileyæ                  303
      rufescens vivax                  303

  Perisoreus canadensis                252
                "    capitalis         252
                "    fumifrons         252
                "    nigricapillus     252
      obscurus                         252
         "   griseus                   252

  Petrel, Ashy                          65
      Black                             66
      Black-capped                      65
      Bulwer's                         260
      Fisher's                         260
      Fork-tailed                       65
      Guadalupe                         66
      Hawaiian                         260
      Kaeding's                         65
      Leach's                       12, 66
      Least                             65
      Pintado                          260
      Scaled                           260
      Socorro                           66
      Stormy                            66
      White-bellied                    260
      White-faced                      260
      Wilson's                          66

  Petrochelidon lunifrons              250
      tachina                          304
      melanogastra                250, 304

  Peucæa æstivalis                     221
            "    bachmanii             221
      botterii                         221
      cassini                          221

  Pewee, Western Wood                  208
      Large-billed Wood                208
      Wood                             208

  Phaëthon americanus                   69
      æthereus                          69
      rubricaudus                      260

  Phaëthontidæ                      13, 67

  Phainopepla                          253
      nitens                           253

  Phalacrocoracidæ                  14, 67

  Phalacrocorax dilophus                 71
                  "    albociliatus      71
                  "    cincinatus        71
                  "   floridanus         71
      mexicanus                          72
      pelagicus                          72
         "   resplendens                 72

  Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus       72
      penicillatus                       72
      urile                              72

  Phalænoptilus nuttallii               156
                   "   californicus     156
                   "    nitidus         156

  Phalarope, Northern               21, 102
      Red                               102
      Wilson                            102

  Phalaropodidæ                     21, 100

  Phalaropus lobatus                    102

  Phasianidæ                        27, 113

  Phasianus colchicus              113, 122
      torquatus                    113, 121

  Pheasant, English                113, 122
      Ring-necked                  123, 122

  Philacte canagica                      85

  Philohela minor                       105

  Phœbe                             34, 208
      Black                             251
      Say                               205
      Western Black                     251

  Phœbetria fuliginosa                   62

  Phœnicopteridæ                     17, 87

  Phœnicopterus ruber                    89

  Phyllopseustes borealis               212

  Pica pica hudsonia                    253
      nuttalli                          253

  Pici                              32, 148

  Picidæ                            32, 148

  Picoides americanus                   149
               "    dorsalis            149
               "    fasciatus           149
      arcticus                          149

  Pigeon, Band-tailed                   124
      Passenger                         125
      Red-billed                        124
      Scaled                            269
      Viosca                            124
      White-crowned                     124
      Wild                              125

  Pincola enucleator alascensis         173
              "    californica          173
              "    flammula             173
              "    leucura              173
              "    montana              173

  Pintail                                76

  Pipilo aberti                         205
      consobrinus                       204
      erythrophthalmus                  204
            "    alleni                 204
      fuscus albigula                   205
        "    crissalis                  205
        "    mesoleucus                 205

  Pipilo fuscus senicula                205
      maculatus arcticus                204
         "    atratus                   204
         "    clementæ                  204
         "    magnirostris              204
         "    megalonyx                 204
         "    oregonus                  204

  Pipit                             38, 232
      Sprague                           232

  Piranga erythromelas                  171
      hepatica                          171
      ludovicianus                      171
      rubra                             171
       "   cooperi                      171

  Pitangus derbianus                    202

  Plataleidæ                         18, 87

  Platypsaris albiventris               274

  Plegadis autumnalis                    90
      guarauna                           90

  Plover, Black-bellied             24, 110
      European Golden                   267
      Golden                            110
      Little Ringed                     267
      Mongolian                         267
      Mountain                          105
      Pacific Golden                    110
      Piping                            112
      Ring                              112
      Semipalmated                      112
      Snowy                             112
      Wilson                            112

  Plautus impennis                       48

  Podasocys montana                     105

  Podicipidæ                              9

  Podilymbus podiceps                    43

  Polioptila cærulea                    243
               "    obscura             243
      californica                       243
      plumbea                           243

  Polyborus cheriway                    134
      lutosus                           134

  Pocecetes gramineus    221
              "      affinis            221
              "      confinis           221

  Poor-will                             156
      California                        156
      Frosted                           156

  Porzana carolina                       98
      coturniculus                      294
      jamaicensis                        98
      noveboracensis                     97

  Prairie Hen                           121
      Attwater                          121
      Lesser                            121

  Priocella glacialoides                 63

  Priofinus cinereus                    260

  Procellaria pelagica                   66

  Procellariidæ                      12, 61

  Progne chalybea                       304
      cryptoleucus                      250
      subis                             250
        "   hesperia                    250

  Protonotaria citrea                   187

  Psaltriparus lloydi                   242
      minimus                           242
        "   californicus                242
        "   grindæ                      242
      plumbeus                          242
      santaritæ                         242

  Psittaci                          30, 144

  Psittacidæ                        30, 144

  Ptarmigan                             119
      Adak                              296
      Alexander                         295
      Chamberlain                       296
      Allen                             119
      Dixon                             296
      Evermann                          120
      Kenai White-tailed                118
      Nelson                            119
      Reinhardt                         119
      Rock                              119
      Townsend                          120
      Turner                            120
      Ungava                            295
      Welch                             120
      White-tailed                      118
      Willow                            119

  Ptilogonatidæ                         298

  Ptychoramphus aleuticus                46

  Puffin                                 45
      Horned                             45
      Large-billed                       45
      Tufted                             45

  Puffinus assimilis                    260
      auricularis                        64
      borealis                           64
      bulleri                           260
      creatopus                          64
      cuneatus                           63
      gravis                             64
      griseus                            63
      lherminieri                        64
      opisthomelas                       64
      puffinus                          259
      tenuirostris                       64

  Pygopodes                               9

  Pyocephalus rubineus mexlcanus        177

  Pyrrhuloxia, Arizona                  172
      sinuata                           172
        "   peninsulæ                   172
        "   texana                      172
      St  Lucas                         172

  Quail                                 115

  Querquedula cyanoptera                 78
      discors                            78

  Quiscalus quiscula                    254
              "   aglæus                254
              "   æneus                 254

  Rail, Belding                          97
      Black                              98
      California Clapper                 97
      Caribbean Clapper                  98
      Carolina                           98
      Clapper                        20, 98
      Farallon                          265
      King                               97
      Light-footed                      294
      Louisiana Clapper                  98
      Scott Clapper                      98
      Virginia                           97
      Wayne Clapper                      98
      Yellow                             97

  Rallidæ                            21, 95

  Rallus beldingi                        97
      crepitans                          98
         "   saturatus                   98
         "   scottii                     98
         "   waynei                      98
      elegans                            97
      levipes                           294
      longirostris caribæus              98
      obsoletus                          97
      virginianus                        97

  Raptores                          28, 127

  Raven, American                       255
      Northern                          255
      White-necked                      255

  Recurvirostra americana               103

  Recurvirostridæ                   23, 100

  Redhead                                79

  Redpoll                           35, 176
      Greater                           176
      Greenland                         176
      Hoary                             176
      Holbœll                           176
      Red-shank                         266

  Redstart, American                38, 187
      Painted                           177

  Red-tail, Alaska                      296

  Red-wing, Bahaman                     178
      Florida                           178
      Northwestern                      178
      San Diego                         178
      Sonoran                           178
      Thick-billed                      178
      Vera Cruz                         298

  Reedbird                              251

  Regulus calendula                176, 215
             "    grinnelli        176, 215
      obscurus                          177
      satrapa                           187
         "    olivaceus                 187

  Rhodostethia rosea                     56

  Rhynchophanes mccownii                218

  Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha            145

  Riparia riparia                       211

  Rissa brevirostris                     52
      tridactyla                         52
         "      pollicaris               52

  Road-runner                           146

  Robin                             34, 207
      Southern                          207
      St  Lucas                         207
         "    Western                   207

  Rostrhamus sociabilis                 130

  Rough-leg, Ferruginous                135
      Ruff                              266

  Rynchopidæ                         12, 52

  Rynchops nigra                         60

  Salpinctes obsoletus                  234
                "    pulverius          301
      guadeloupensis                    234

  Sanderling                            108

  Sandpiper Aleutian                    107
      Baird                             109
      Bartramian                        105
      Buff-breasted                     105
      Curlew                            106
      Green                             266
      Least                             109
      Pectoral                          109
      Prybilof                          108
      Purple                            107
      Red-backed                        108
      Semipalmated                  23, 108
      Sharp-tailed                      109
      Solitary                          107
      Spoonbill                         266
      Spotted                           107
      Stilt                             106
      Upland                            105
      Western                           109
      Western Solitary                  107
      White-rumped                      109

  Sapsucker, Northern Red-breasted      152
      Red-breasted                      152
      Red-naped                         152
      Williamson                        152
      Yellow-bellied                    152

  Saxicola œnanthe                      248
               "    leucorhoa           248

  Sayornis nigricans                    251
              "    semiatra             251
      phœbe                             208
      saya                              205

  Scardafella inca                      126

  Scolecophagus carolinus               254
      cyanocephalus                     254

  Scolopacidæ                       23, 100

  Scoter, American                       83
      Surf                               83
      Velvet                            262
      White-winged                       83

  Scotiaptex nebulosa                   139

  Seed-eater, Morellet                  249

  Seiurus aurocapillus                  232
      motacilla                         232
      noveboracensis                    232
           "     notabilis              232

  Selasphorus alleni                    161
      platycercus                       161
      rufus                             161

  Setophaga picta                       177
      ruticilla                         187

  Shearwater Allied                     260
      Audubon                       64, 260
      Black-tailed                      260
      Black-vented                       64
      Buller                            260
      Cory                               64
      Dark-bodied                        63
      Greater                            64
      Manx                              259
      New Zealand                       260
      Pink-footed                        64
      Slender-billed                     64
      Sooty                              63
      Townsend                           64
      Wedge-tailed                       63

  Sheldrake                             262
      Ruddy                             262

  Shoveller                              78

  Shrike, California                    248
      Island                            248
      Loggerhead                        248
      Migrant                           304
      Northern                      37, 248

  Shrike, White-rumped                  248

  Sialia arctica                        182
        mexicana anabelæ                182
            "    bairdi                 182
            "    occidentals            182
        sialis                          182
            " azurea                    182

  Simorhynchus cristatellus              47
     pusillus                            47
     pygmæus                             47

  Siskin, Pine                          225

  Sitta canadensis:                     246
      carolinensis                      246
            "  aculeata                 246
            "  atkinsi                  246
            "  lagunæ                   246
            "  nelsoni                  246
      pusilla                           246
      pygmæa                            246
         "   leuconucha                 247

  Sittidæ                               294

  Skimmer, Black                     11, 60

  Skua                                   51

  Skylark                               297

  Smew                                  262

  Snakebird                              73

  Snipe, European                       265
      Great                             266
      Wilson                            105

  Snowflake                             251
     McKay                              251
     Pribilof                           251

  Solitaire, Townsend                   247

  Somateria dresseri                     82
     molissima borealis                  82
     spectabilis                         82
     v-nigra                             82

  Sora                               20, 98

  Sparrow, Acadian Sharp-tailed         225
      Bachman                           221
      Baird                             224
      Belding Marsh                     223
      Bell                              228
      Black-chinned                     219
      Black-throated                    249
      Botteri                           221
      Brewster                          228
      Brown Song                        229
      Bryant Marsh                      223
      California Sage                   300
      Cassin                            221
      Chipping                          222
      Clay-colored                      228
      Desert                            249
      Desert Song                       229
      Dusky Seaside                     226
      English                           219
      Field                             222
      Fisher Seaside                    226
      Florida Grasshopper               224
      Forbush                           226
      Fox                               231
      Golden-crowned                    227
      Grasshopper                       224
      Gray Sage                         228
      Henslow                           224
      Harris                            219
      Heerman Song                      229
      Intermediate                      227
      Ipswich                           225
      Kadiak Fox                   231, 301
      Lagoon                            224
      Laguna                            220
      Large-billed                      223
      Lark                              218
      Leconte                           225
      Lincoln                           226
      Macgillivray Seaside              226
      Mendocino Song                    301
      Merrill Song                      226
      Mountain Song                     229
      Nelson                            225
      Nevada Savannah                   300
      Nuttall                           227
      Pine Woods                        221
      Vesper                            221
      Rock                              220
      Rufous-crowned                    220
      Rufous-winged                     220
      Rusty Song                        230
      Sage                              228
      Samuel Song                       230
      San Benito                        224
      San Clemente Song                 230
      San Diego Song                    230
      Sandwich                          223
      Savanna                           223
      Scott                             220
      Scott Seaside                     226
      Seaside                           226
      Sharp-tailed                      225
      Shumagin Fox                      231
      Slate-colored                     231
      Song                              229
      Sooty Fox                    231, 301
      Stephen                           231
      St  Lucas                         223
      Suisun Song                       300
     Swamp                              222
     Texas                              215
     Texas Seaside                      226
     Thick-billed                       231
     Tree                               222
     Townsend                           231
     Vesper                             221
     Western Chipping                   222
     Western Field                      222
     Western Grasshopper                224
     Western Henslow                    224
     Western Lark                       218
     Western Savanna                    223
     Western Tree                       222
     Western Vesper                     221
     White-crowned                      227
     White-throated                     227
     Worthen                            228
     Yakutat Fox                        231

  Spatula clypeata                       78

  Speotyto hypogæa cunicularia          138
             "    floridana             138

  Sphyrapicus ruber                     152
               " notkensis              152
     thyroideus                         152
     varius                             152
       "   nuchalis                     152

  Spinus pinus                          225

  Spiza americana                       198

  Spizella atrogularis                  219
      breweri                           228
      monticola                         222
          "  ochracea                   222
      pallida                           228
      pusilla                           222
          " arenacea                    222
      socialis                          222
          " arizonæ                     222
      wortheni                          228

  Spoonbill, Roseate                     89

  Sporophila morelleti                  249

  Squatarola squatarola                 110

  Starling                              253

  Starnœnas cyanocephala                126

  Steganopodes                       13, 67

  Steganopus tricolor                   102

  Stelgidopteryx serripennis            211

  Stellula calliope                     161

  Stercorariidæ                      10, 49

  Stercorarius longicaudus               51
     parasticus                          51
     pomarinus                           51

  Sterna anæthetus                       58
     antillarum                          58
     aleutica                            58
     caspia                              57
     dougalli                            59
     elegans                             57
     forsteri                            59
     fuliginosa                          60
     hirundo                             59
     maxima                              57
     paridisæa                           59
     sandvicensis acuflavida             57
     trudeaui                           259

  Stilt, Black-necked               22, 104

  Stint, Long-toed                      266

  Strigidæ                              127

  Strix pratincola                      138

  Sturnella magna                       199
             "   argutula               199
             "   hoopesi                199
             "   neglecta               199

  Sturnidæ                              164

  Sturnus vulgaris                      253

  Sula bassana                           69
     brewsteri                           70
     cyanops                             70
     nebouxii                            70
     piscator                            70
     sula                                70

  Sulidæ                             13, 67

  Surf Bird                             111

  Surnia ulula caparoch                 143

  Swallow, Bank                         211
     Barn                               250
     Cliff                              250
     Lesser Cliff                       304
     Mexican Cliff                      250
     Northern Violet-green              250
     Rough-winged                       211
     St  Lucas                          251
     Tree                           36, 250
     White-bellied                      250

  Swallow-tailed Kite                   130

  Swan, Trumpeter                        84
     Whistling                           84
     Whooping                           263

  Swift, Black                          158
      Chimney                       33, 158
      Vaux                              158
      White-throated                    158

  Sylviidæ                          40, 169

  Symphemia semipalmata                 111
                "  inornata             111

  Synthliboramphus antiquus              47

  Syrnium occidentale                   139
             "  caurinum                139

  Syrnium varium                        139
        " alleni                        139
        " helveolum                     139

  Tachycineta thalassina lepida         250
                  " brachyptera         251

  Tanager, Cooper                       171
     Hepatic                            171
     Louisiana                          171
     Scarlet                            171
     Summer                         36, 171
     Western                            171

  Tanagridæ                         36, 165

  Tangavius æneus æneus                 304
              " involucratus            304

  Tantalus loculator                     90

  Tattler, Wandering                    111

  Teal, Blue-winged                      78
     Cinnamon                            78
     Green-winged                        78

  Telmatodytes marianæ                  237
     palustris                          237
        "   griseus                     237
        "   iliacus                     301
        "   paludicola                  237
        "   plesius                     237

  Tern, American Black                   60
     Aleutian                            58
     Arctic                              59
     Bridled                             58
     Cabot                               57
     Caspian                             57
     Common                          11, 59
     Elegant                             57
     Forster                             59
     Gull-billed                         58
     Least                               58
     Roseate                             59
     Royal                               57
     Sooty                               60
     Trudeau                            259
     White-winged Black                 259

  Tetraonidæ                        26, 113

  Thalassogeron culminatus               62

  Thrasher, Bendire                     216
     Brown                          39, 233
     Californian                        217
     Crissal                            217
     Curve-billed                       216
     Desert                             217
     Leconte                            217
     Mearns                             216
     Palmer                             216
     Pasadena                      217, 300
     Sage                               288
     Sennett                            238
     St  Lucas                          216

  Thrush, Alaska Hermit                 238
     Alma                          239, 302
     Audubon Hermit                     238
     Bicknell                           239
     California Olive-backed       239, 302
     Dwarf Hermit                       238
     Gray-cheeked                       239
     Hermit                             238
     Monterey Hermit                    302
     Olive-backed                       239
     Pale Varied                        207
     Russet-backed                      239
     Sierra Hermit                      302
     Varied                             207
     Willow                             238
     Wilson                             238
     Wood                           40, 233

  Thryomanes bewickii                   235
               "   calophonus           235
               "   charienturus         235
               "   cryptus              235
               "   leucogaster          235
               "   spilurus             235
     brevicauda                         235
     leucophrys                         235

  Thryothorus ludovicianus              234
                  "   lomitensis        234
                  "   miamensis         234

  Titlark                               232

  Titmouse, Ashy                        242
     Black-crested                      243
     Bridled                            244
     Gray                               242
     Plain                              242
     Sennett                            303
     Texan Tufted                  243, 302
     Tufted                             243

  Totanus flavipes                      111
     melanoleucus                       111

  Towhee                                204
     Abert                              206
     Anthony                            205
     Arctic                             204
     Californian                        205
     Canon                              205
     Green-tailed                       206
     Guadalupe                          204
     Mountain                           204
     Oregon                             204
     San Clemente                       204
     San Diego                          204

  Towhee, Spurred                       204
      St  Lucas                         205
      White-eyed                        204

  Toxostoma bendirei                    216
      cinereum                          216
         "    mearnsi                   216
         "     crissalis                217
      curvirostre                       216
          "    palmeri                  216
      lecontei                          217
         "    arenicola                 217
      longirostre sennetti              233
      redivivum                         217
         "    pasadenense               217
      rufum                             233

  Tree Duck, Black-bellied               83
      Fulvous                            83

  Tringa canutus                        106

  Trochilidæ                        33, 155

  Trochilus alexandri                   159
      colubris                          160

  Troglodytes aëdon                     236
                "    parkmanii          236
                "    aztecus       236, 301

  Troglodytidæ                 39, 168, 294

  Trogon ambiguus                       147
      Coppery-tailed                31, 147

  Trogonidæ                         31, 144

  Tropic Bird                            69
      Red-billed                         69
      Red-tailed                        260
      Yellow-billed                  13, 69

  Tryngites subruficollis               105

  Tubinares                              12

  Turdidæ                           40, 170

  Turkey Florida                        122
      Merriam                           122
      Rio Grande                        122
      Water                              73
      Wild                          27, 122

  Turnstone                         24, 102
      Black                             107
      Ruddy                             102

  Tympanuchus americanus                121
                 "   attwateri          121
      pallidicinctus                    121

  Tyrannidæ                         34, 163

  Tyrannus                              202
      domincensis                       247
      melancholicus couchi              202
      tyrannus                          247
      verticalis                        202
      vociferans                        202

  Uranomitra salvini                    298

  Uria lomvia                            48
         "   arra                        48
      troile                             48
         "   californica                 48

  Urubitinga anthracina                 134

  Verdin                                195
      Baird                             195

  Vireo, Anthony                        212
      atricapillus                      245
      Bell                              214
      belli                             214
        "   medius                      299
      Bermuda                           213
      Black-capped                      245
      Black-whiskered                   212
      Blue-headed                       214
      calidris barbatulus               212
      Cassin                            214
      flavifrons                        198
      flavoviridis                      213
      Frazar                            299
      gilvus                            213
        "  swainsonii                   213
      Gray                              214
      Hutton                            212
      huttoni                           212
        "    cognatus                   299
        "    obscurus                   212
        "    stephensi                  212
      Key West                          213
      Least                             214
      Mountain Solitary                 214
      noveboracensis                    213
          "      bermudianus            213
          "      maynardi               213
          "      micrus                 213
      olivaceus                         212
      Philadelphia                      213
      philadelphicus                    213
      Plumbeous                         214
      pusillus                          214
      Red-eyed                      37, 212
      Small White-eyed                  213
      solitarius                        214
         "    alticola                  214
         "     cassinii                 214
         "     lucasanus                214
         "     plumbeus                 214
      St  Lucas                         214
      Stephens                          212
      Texas                             299
      vicinior                          214
      Warbling                          213
      Western Warbling                  213
      White-eyed                        213
      Yellow-green                      213
      Yellow-throated                   198

  Vireonidæ                         37, 166

  Vulture, Black                        129
      California                        129
      Turkey                        28, 129

  Wagtail, Siberian Yellow               192

  Warbler, Alaskan Yellow               196
      Audubon                           190
      Bachman                           191
      Bay-breasted                      206
      Black and White                   249
      Blackburnian                      187
      Black-fronted                     190
      Black-poll                        249
      Black-throated Blue               180
      Black-throated Gray               249
      Black-throated Green              188
      Blue-winged                       191
      Brewster                          197
      Cairns                            180
      Calaveras                         195
      California Yellow                 299
      Canadian                          191
      Cape May                          196
      Cerulean                          181
      Chestnut-sided                    198
      Connecticut                       189
      Dusky                             210
      Golden-cheeked                    188
      Golden Pileated                   193
      Golden-winged                     189
      Grace                             190
      Hermit                            188
      Hooded                            188
      Kennicott Willow                  212
      Kentucky                          193
      Kirtland                          191
      Lawrence                          197
      Lucy                              206
      Lutescent                         210
      Macgillivray                      189
      Magnolia                          190
      Mangrove                          196
      Mourning                          189
      Myrtle                            197
      Nashville                     38, 195
      Northern Parula                   195
      Olive                             187
      Orange-crowned                    210
      Palm                              196
      Parula                            195
      Pileated                          193
      Pine                              191
      Prairie                           197
      Prothontary                       187
      Red-faced                         177
      Sennett                           195
      Sonora                            196
      Swainson                          215
      Sycamore                          190
      Tennessee                         212
      Townsend                          188
      Virginia                          197
      Wilson                            193
      Worm-eating                       215
      Yellow                        38, 196
      Yellow Palm                       197
      Yellow-throated                   190

  Water-Thrush                          232
      Grinnell                          232
      Louisiana                         232

  Waxwing, Bohemian                     198
      Cedar                         37, 198

  Wheatear                              248
      Greenland                         248

  Whimbrel                              267

  Whip-poor-will                    33, 156
      Stephen                           156

  Whiskey Jack                          252

  Widgeon, European                      77

  Willet                                111
      Western                           111

  Wilsonia canadensis                   191
      mitrata                           188
      pusilla                           193
         "   chryseola                  193
         "   pileota                    198

  Woodcock, American                23, 105
      European                          265

  Woodpecker, Alaska Downy              150
      Alaskan Three-toed                149
      Alpine Three-toed                 149
      American Three-toed           32, 149
      Arctic Three-toed                 149
      Arizona                           151
      Batchelder                        150
      Cabanis                           150
      Cactus                            297
      California                        158
      Downy                             154
      Gairdner                          155
      Gila                              158
      Golden-fronted                    158
      Hairy                             150
      Harris                            150
      Ivory-billed                      149
      Lewis                             152
      Narrow-fronted                    153
      Newfoundland                      297
      Northern Downy                    150
      Northern Hairy                    150
      Northern Pileated             32, 149
      Nuttall                           151
      Pileated                          149
      Queen Charlotte                   150
      Red-bellied                       153
      Red-cockaded                      151
      Red-headed                        153
      Rocky Mountain Hairy              150
      Saint Lucas                       151
      San Fernando                      297
      Southern Downy                    150
      Striped-breasted                  153
      Texan                             151
      White-breasted                    297
      White-headed                      151
      Willow                            151

  Wren, Alaskan                         235
      Aztec                             236
      Aleutian                          236
      Baird                             235
      Bewick                            235
      Bryant Cactus                     233
      Cactus                            233
      Canon                             234
      Carolina                          234
      Desert Cactus                     233
      Dotted Canon                      234
      Florida                           234
      Guadalupe                         235
      Guadalupe Rock                    234
      House                         39, 236
      Interior Tule                     237
      Kadiak Winter                     236
      Lomita                            234
      Long-billed Marsh                 237
      Marian Marsh                      237
      Northwest Bewick                  235
      Parkman                           236
      Prairie Marsh                     301
      Rock                              234
      San Clemente                      235
      San Nicolas                       301
      Short-billed Marsh                236
      Southwest Bewick                  235
      St  Lucas Cactus                  233
      Texas Bewick                      235
      Texan Cactus                      233
      Tule                              237
      Vigors                            235
      Western House                     236
      Western Winter                    236
      White-throated                    234
      Winter                            236
      Worthington Marsh                 237

  Wren-Tit, Coast                  216, 300
      Pallid                       215, 300
      Ruddy                             300

  Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus         199

  Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens         185

  Xema sabinii                           56

  Xenopicus albolarvatus                151

  Yellow-legs                           111
      Greater                           111

  Yellow-throat, Belding                194
      Florida                           194
      Maryland                          193
      Northern                          194
      Pacific                           194
      Rio Grande                        194
      Salt Marsh                        194
      Western                           193

  Zamelodia ludoviciana                 174
      melanocephala                     207

  Zenaida zenaida                       125

  Zenaidura macroura                    125
              "    marginella           296

  Zonotrichia albicollis                227
      coronata                          227
      leucophrys                        227
         "    gambeli                   227
         "   nuttalli                   227
      querula                           219

     *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Transcriber's Notes

The text presented is that obtained through the conversion of the
printed text into digital form. All OE and oe ligatures were converted
to the individual letters. Where questions remained as to the
identification of the converted image, several on-line versions of the
text and other resources were consulted in an attempt to resolve them.
The word "Alleghenies" appears 30 times and "Alleghanies" only 6. So for
consistancy, the 6 were converted. One instance of "Kæding" (Index) was
converted to "Keading" to match the rest. Two instances of "Zoölogy" and
one instance of "Zoology" which was retained as they are titles in
publications referenced.

In addition to the list of corrections listed below, a number of minor
corrections were made.

The U. S. adopted the named Kodiak in 1890; but islanders and others
continued to use "Kadiak" until the early 1920s. Therefore, the word
Kadiak was retained. In the case of the bird species, some have names
that differ from common names used today (for example Canon Wren instead
of Canyon Wren). The A.O.U. listing shows Cañon for two species of Wren
and a Towhee which were retained. As for the scientific names, there are
two spellings for species named in honor of Audubon ("auduboni" and
"audubonii") which have been retained as they appear in the original

  Typographical Corrections

    Page(s)           Typo => Correction
  ============ =====================================
    4           vernacluar => vernacular
   84           Chespeake => Chesapeake
  111, 166, 353 Tatler => Tattler
  151           Bailley => Bailey
  160           Nicaraugua => Nicaragua
  165           incalcuable => incalculable
  170           preceeding => preceding
  171           Louisana => Louisiana
  189           680. Macgillivray Warbler comma changed to period
                  at end of description
  199           501c. Florida Meadowlark says "Similar to No. 591..."
                  which is a Towhee assumed it should have been "501"
  201           474f. Ruddy Horned Lark says "Similar to No. 472e..."
                  472 is a Flycatcher assumed number should be "474e"
  209           466. Traill Flycatcher comma changed to period
                  at end of description
  212           632a. Stephen Vireo says: Similar to No. 622
                  622 is a Loggerhead Shrike number should be "632"
  213           Hamshire => Hampshire
  223           Savanna => Savannah
  230           581f. Sooty Song Sparrow comma changed to period
                  at end of description
  249           Second [Male] changed to [Female]
  257           Æchmorphorus => Æchmophorus
  275           nuttali => nuttalli
  281           bimacuculatus => bimaculatus
  283           Parrhuloxia => Pyrrhuloxia
  284           cyaneovirdis => cyanoviridis
  285           flavovirdis => flavoviridis
  295, 311      Athabaska => Athabasca
  299           Goldfish => Goldfinch
  303           atricistatus => atricistatus
  314           Avifouna => Avifauna
  315           Miffilin => Mifflin
  326           Annonated => Annotated
  326           Veterbrates => Vertebrates
  333           Removed duplicate entry for Actodromas maculata
  345           Mergus albellus => Mergellus albellus
  356           Guadelupe => Guadalupe

  Incorrect Page Numbers

  Page      Item                        Listed     Correction
  =====  =============================  ====== ===================
  333    Alcedinidæ                       147         144
  333    Bæolophus bicolor                248         243
  336    Ceryle torquata                  271         273
  337    Cowbird, Red-eyed                 27         253
  339    Flamingo                           7          16
  339    Flycatcher, Fork-tailed          274         276
  339    Flycatcher, Giraud (Alternate
           name for Buff-breasted)        274         276
  339    Fulmar, Giant                    259         260
  342    Jabiru                           263         264
  344    Macrochires                      154         155
  344    Mallard                            6          74
  344    Melanerpes torquatus             152  Not found in book
  345    Mergellus albellus               261         262
  345    Myiozetetes similis
            superciliosus                 274  Not found in book
  356    Wren, Alaskan                    235         236

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Color Key to North American Birds - with bibiographical appendix" ***

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