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Title: Book Collecting: A Guide for Amateurs
Author: Slater, J. Herbert (John Herbert), 1854-1921
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Book Collecting: A Guide for Amateurs" ***

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    J. H. SLATER

    Editor of _Book Prices Current_; formerly Editor of _Book Lore_;
    Author of _The Library Manual_; _Engravings and their Value_; _The
    Law relating to Copyright and Trade Marks_, etc., etc.






From the _Quintilian of Vascosan_, folio, _Paris_, 1538.]


    CONTENTS. Page.

    CHAPTER I. 1

    CHAPTER II. 12


    CHAPTER IV. 25

    CHAPTER V. 34

    CHAPTER VI. 44



    CHAPTER IX. 74

    CHAPTER X. 100

    CHAPTER XI. 112




The Bibliophile, as he is somewhat pedantically termed, probably dates
his existence from the time when books began to be multiplied in
sufficient quantities to render the acquisition of duplicate copies by
the public a matter of possibility, but his opportunities of amassing a
large number of volumes can hardly be said to have arisen until many
years after the invention of printing.

The most ancient manuscript extant has been identified with the reign of
Amenophis, who ruled in Egypt no less than 1600 years before the
Christian era, and this manuscript, old as it is, shows such superior
execution that there can be little, if any, doubt that caligraphy in its
oldest--that is, its hieroglyphic--form must be referred for its origin
to a period still more remote. Diodorus Siculus relates that Rameses II.
founded a library in one of the chambers of the Memnonium at Thebes, and
deposited therein the 42 sacred books of Thoth, which had they been in
existence now would be nearly 5000 years old. In those days, however,
education was looked upon as the peculiar property of the priesthood;
the library had sealed doors; even the very books themselves must have
been wholly unintelligible to all but the favoured few whose duty it was
to preserve them with religious care. All the early Egyptian manuscripts
extant have served in their day an ecclesiastical rather than a secular
object, and all of them abound with mythological stories more or less
recondite. To use the art of writing for any less sacred purpose would
have been held disrespectful to the educated class and resented
accordingly. Ptolemy Sotor, who reigned over Egypt about the year 280
B.C., appears to have been the first to break through the artificial
barrier which the priestcraft of age upon age had succeeded in building
up; and his magnificent twin library at Alexandria, known as the
Bruchium and Serapeum, which was partly stocked with the confiscated
books of travellers who touched at the port, became in course of time
the most famous in the world, and would most probably have been so at
this day had it not been destroyed by Theodosius and his army, as a
sacrifice at the shrine of ignorance and superstition. With the
destruction of the library at Alexandria, containing, as it did, books
which can never be replaced, the literary importance of the Egyptians
came to an end; thenceforward all that remained was the consciousness of
having instructed others better able to preserve their independence than
they were themselves. Yet after all it is somewhat extraordinary that
Egypt should have been not merely the first to encourage a love of
literature, but also the last; for simultaneously with the destruction
of the Bruchium and Serapeum were ushered in the first centuries of the
dark ages, when the ability to read and write was looked upon as
unworthy the status of a free man, unless indeed he were a priest, and
when fire and sword were brought into requisition for the purpose of
annihilating everything that suggested mental culture.

In the eras which intervened between the reign of Rameses the
Constructor and that of Theodosius the Destroyer, Pisistratus had
founded his public library at Athens, and collected the poems of Homer
which had previously been scattered in detached portions throughout
Greece; and Plato, the prince of ancient book hunters, had given no less
than 100 attic minæ--nearly £300 of our money--for three small treatises
of Philolaus the Pythagorean. Aristotle too, unless he has been sadly
maligned, thought 300 minæ a fair exchange for a little pile of books
which had formerly belonged to Speusippus, thereby setting an example to
that French king of after ages who pawned his gold and silver plate to
obtain means wherewith to purchase a coveted copy of Lacertius, as
Gabriel Naudé calls the great Epicurean biographer. In Rome also
Lucullus had furnished his house with books and thrown open his doors
to all who wished to consult them. Atticus the famous publisher had
turned out a thousand copies of the second book of Martial's _Epigrams_,
with its 540 lines of verse, bound and endorsed in the space of a single
hour, and the booksellers carried on a flourishing trade in their shops
in the Argeletum and the Vicus Sandalarius, exhibiting catalogues on the
side posts of their doors exactly as the second-hand dealers in London
and elsewhere do now. Of all this vast enterprise of Greece and Rome not
a trace remains: only the sepulchral writings of mother Egypt and the
clay tablets of Assyria.

History tells us how the luxurious rich of Athens and Rome regarded
their books as so many pieces of furniture, and engaged learned slaves
to read aloud at their banquets; and if the example of Plato were
followed to any extent, doubtless large sums of money were spent on rare
originals which had passed through the hands of a succession of
dilettanti, and acquired thereby a reputation for genuineness, which
they could not have gained in any other manner. Seneca indeed ridicules
the vulgar emulation which prompted some of his contemporaries to
collect volumes of which, he says, they knew nothing except the
outsides, many of them possibly barely that. It has been ever so: in
England to-day there are many who would have felt the lash of Nero's
tutor across their shoulders.

When the public no longer took pleasure in mental culture, and the whole
world was overrun with hordes of barbarians intent upon destruction,
learning of every kind was banished to the monasteries, and the monks
became the only book lovers, making it their business to transcribe,
generation after generation, the volumes which had been saved from the
general conflagration. It is entirely through their efforts that the old
classics have been preserved to our day; we have to thank them, and them
alone, for the preservation of the Bible itself. Even in the
monasteries, however, the same spirit of emulation which had prompted
Greek to compete with Greek, and Roman with Roman, became apparent in
course of time. Ordinary transcripts, though never numerous, began to be
looked upon as hardly pretentious enough, and the larger houses
established _scriptoria_, where trained monks sat the livelong day,
painfully tracing letter after letter on the purest vellum, while
Bibliolatrists added illuminated borders and miniatures in a style that
would task the skill of our best artists of to-day. This competition
led to the exchange of manuscripts, or to their loan for a brief period,
so that by degrees monastic libraries assumed large proportions,
numbering many hundreds of neatly bound volumes, which, on being opened,
looked as though printed, so accurately and carefully had the copying
been done. This explains how Fust, the inventor, or one of the
inventors, of printing, was enabled to deceive the people of Paris, for
he flooded the market there with printed copies of the Bible which he
sold for 50 crowns each, instead of for 400 or 500 crowns, which would
have been a fair price had they been in manuscript. The book buyers of
Paris _thought they were in manuscript_, until the recurrence of one or
two defective types cast from the same matrix caused an inquiry. Fust
was arrested, not for the fraud but for witchcraft, and to save his life
he explained his process. Thus did the old order give place to the new.

In a very few years after the discovery of Fust's secret the whole of
the western portion of Europe was dotted with printing presses. Before
1499 there were 236 in operation; and six years after Gutenberg had
completed his Bible of 42 lines there were no less than 50 German cities
and towns in which presses had been established. Considering that this
only brings us down to about the year 1462, it is evident with what
rapidity the art of printing was seized upon through the length and
breadth of the country of its probable origin.

In 1475 our own famous printer Caxton was being instructed in the office
of Colard Mansion at Bruges, and in 1477, if not earlier,[1] he settled
as a printer at Westminster, thus laying the foundation of our English
industry and establishing a native press which has continued to grow
year by year until it has assumed its present enormous proportions.
Authorities, however, point out that improvement in the art of printing
did not come by age or experience, for, curiously enough, the
science--for such it really is--was almost perfect from its origin, and,
so far as this country is concerned, has distinctly deteriorated since
the death of Caxton and his pupils Wynkyn de Worde, Faques, and Pynson.
The typefounders of that early period were as expert as many at the
present day and immeasurably superior to most. The greatest care appears
to have been exercised in the casting, and competition did not engender
the slovenly haste which is only too apparent in many of our modern
publications. It is probable that, simultaneously with the introduction
of printing into England, a certain limited few, most likely
ecclesiastics and powerful nobles, would commence to collect works from
the press of Caxton, and subsequently from the foreign presses. In 1545
the Earl of Warwick's library consisted of 40 printed books, in 1691
that of the Rev. Richard Baxter of 1448. It is not until a comparatively
modern period that any single man has been able to mass together
thousands of volumes during the course of a single lifetime, for it is
only recently that printing has been used on every trivial occasion, and
in the manufacture of books which would originally have been deemed
unworthy of the application of the art.

At the present day books constitute one of the necessities of life and
private libraries one of its luxuries. The collector has such ample
scope for the exercise of his favourite pursuit that it has long since
become a question not so much of accumulating a large number of
miscellaneous volumes, as of exercising a rigid discrimination and
confining one's attention to works of a certain class, to the almost
entire exclusion of all others. Thus, some book hunters collect first,
or, at any rate, early, editions of popular modern authors, such, for
example, as Dickens, Thackeray, and Lever; others collect old editions
of the Scriptures, a few, the expensive early printed volumes which are
every year becoming absorbed into the public libraries, and consequently
growing more scarce. A small number attempt to form an extensive
all-round library, but they rarely, if ever, succeed, partly because
life is too short for the purpose, and money too limited in quantity.
Occasionally a large collection comes to the auctioneer's hammer, but in
nearly every instance it will be found that it represents the labours of
several generations of owners, each of whom has contributed the
principal publications of his day or taken advantage of any proffered
bargain which he may have happened to come across during the course of
his lifetime.

The book lover however is not content with mere acquisition, he feels it
his duty to know something of the inner life, so to speak, of each
volume on his shelf--something, that is to say, beyond the outside
lettering. He wishes to know the chief incidents in the history of the
person who wrote it, under what circumstances it was written and why,
how many editions have been published, whether the particular copy is
perfect, how much it is worth from a pecuniary point of view, and
occasionally the nature of the contents. The word "occasionally" may be
considered by some as used in an objectionable sense, implying in fact
that book lovers are not always in the habit of reading what they
possess. Let the collector of Bibles say whether he is in the habit of
reading the various editions which he has been at such pains to collect,
and it will then be time enough to inquire into the practices of other
collectors who, like himself, though in different departments, may not
consider themselves justified in spending the amount of time necessary
for careful and satisfactory study. In truth, if all books were read, it
is only reasonable to suppose that all libraries would be small; and, as
we know the contrary to be the fact, we must acknowledge the truth of
the main proposition to a very large extent. The happiness of the book
lover, as we know him when in the plenitude of his glory, consists by no
means in reading, but in the contemplation of his possessions from afar;
an inane treatise on theology becomes the object of his daily prayers
when bound in morocco and stamped with the Golden Fleece of Longepierre.

In this short dissertation we have but little to do with the contents of
any book. This knowledge can be acquired as circumstances and
opportunity offer; we deal rather with extraneous details which are
necessary to be known by everyone who aspires to form a collection of
books for himself and would know something of the history of each.

Every bibliographer, and also every collector of any eminence, has
within reach certain books of reference which experience has shown to be
absolutely necessary. Chief among these is Lowndes' _Bibliographer's
Manual_ of which two editions have been issued. The first was published
in 1834; the second in seven parts from 1857-61, with an appendix volume
in 1864, having been re-issued from the stereotype plates without a date
in 1871. The latter may frequently be picked up at auction sales for
about 25s., but there is this peculiarity about the work, that it really
would not seem to be very material which edition is purchased. The book
is imperfect and full of errors: it cannot be relied on, and the second
edition, which was edited by the late Mr. H. G. Bohn, the eminent
bookseller, is as untrustworthy as the first edition. The original plan,
which has never been departed from, was to give the names of English
authors in alphabetical order, placing under each the title of the works
he wrote, with the date of each edition, number of volumes, in many
cases the collation, and finally the sums realised at auction. Nothing
fluctuates so greatly as auction values, and it is not surprising,
therefore, to find that not a single entry in Lowndes under this head
can be accepted at the present day. Some of the variations between past
and present prices are ludicrous in the extreme, and there is no doubt
that anyone who attempted to obtain his knowledge of the value of books
from Lowndes' _Manual_ would find himself in possession of a mass of
old-time information which would be rather a hindrance to him than
otherwise. The _Manual_ is useful because it gives a full and tolerably
complete list of English authors, and collates many of their works with
considerable care; it is, moreover, the authority quoted by cataloguers,
and, being a copyright publication, practically bars the way to any
rival work on the same subject. For these and other reasons it is

To ascertain the value of a book is an exceedingly difficult operation;
in fact, there are many who assert that it is impossible to do so.
Booksellers' prices, as disclosed in their catalogues, are not much to
go by, for it is notorious that a West End dealer will often charge more
than one who is established further East. Again, some London booksellers
charge more or less than provincial ones, according to circumstance and
the character of their customers. Until recently there were only two
ways of becoming an adept in this department, the first and best by
practical experience, a method which is not, of course, available to any
but dealers and their assistants; and the second, by indexing retail
catalogues and striking an average. A third method, that of taking the
average of auction sales, was not available until recently, for it is
too troublesome, for any save those whose business it is, to attend
sales by auction all day long for nine months out of the twelve, in
order to obtain the necessary materials.

In 1886, I conceived the idea of fully reporting all sales of any
importance taking place either in London or the provinces, and in
December of that year the necessary arrangements were completed, with
the modification that for the present, at any rate, no notice was to be
taken of any book which did not realise at least 20s. by auction. This
publication, the success of which amply demonstrates the necessity for
its existence, is named _Book Prices Current_, and already five volumes
are published, and a sixth will be ready at the beginning of next year
(1893). As a book of this kind would be useless without a full index,
the greatest possible care has been taken to make it as complete and as
accurate as possible. From _Book Prices Current_ a very good idea of the
average value of almost any book may be obtained. Careful note of the
way in which the particular volume is bound must, of course, be taken,
for this, as might be expected, makes a great difference in the price.

The French are supposed to be much better bibliographers than our own
countrymen, and if the character of the authoritative works published in
either country is a criterion of national merit there cannot be much, if
any, doubt that this is so. Lowndes' _Bibliographer's Manual_ takes no
notice of books published abroad, and, as they are in the majority, it
becomes necessary to seek an additional guide. This is afforded by
Brunet's _Manuel du Libraire et de l'Amateur de Livres_, published at
Paris in 6 vols. from 1860-65, and usually found, with the Appendix on
_Géographie_, 1870, and 2 vol. _Supplément_, 1878-80. In its place it is
a much better book than Lowndes', but it is very expensive, frequently
bringing as much as £10 and £12 by auction. Here again, however, the
values are quite unreliable, and, as in the case of Lowndes', there is
no index of subjects whatever. From the three works mentioned very much
may undoubtedly be learned about almost any book provided the author's
name be known; but as it frequently happened that many authors chose,
for reasons satisfactory to themselves, to conceal their names
altogether, or in the much commoner instance of the name being forgotten
by or unknown to the searcher, an index of subjects becomes a necessity.
This is partly supplied by Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_ in 4 vols.
4to, 1824, two volumes being devoted to authors and two to subjects,
there being also cross references from one to the other. This
inestimable work occupied the author the greater portion of his life,
and is a monument of industry and research. The auction value amounts to
£3 within a fraction, this being one of the few books which has a fixed
market price all over the kingdom. Good copies in handsome bindings
frequently occur, and are worth £4 to £5. The _English Catalogue_,
initiated by the late Mr. Sampson Low, is a periodical which makes its
appearance annually, and, unlike all the other works I have mentioned,
is confined entirely to current literature. The title of every work
published during the year is given, with the month in which it was
issued, the price, and publisher's name, the whole being arranged in one
line under the name of the author. At intervals, which do not appear to
be strictly defined, collective editions of these annual catalogues,
arranged in one alphabet, are published, as well as of the indexes of
the _titles_ which are appended to each annual issue.[2]

It is obvious that a work of this kind must be of the greatest utility,
and as the _English Catalogue_ is merely a continuation of the _London
Catalogue_ and the _British Catalogue_, the former of which commenced so
far back as the year 1811, it will be seen that a comprehensive view can
be taken of the whole range of English literature from that date to the
present. The _Catalogue_ has not, however, always been so carefully
prepared as it is now, and consequently in the earlier days many
publications were omitted. When this is the case Lowndes and Watt will
be found of material assistance, the latter especially. A complete set
of these catalogues, unfortunately, is very difficult to obtain, and as
the earlier ones are not indispensable, it may be perhaps advisable to
forego them and to commence in 1814. The volumes to be acquired
therefore would be _London Catalogue_, 1816-51; _English Catalogue_,
1835-63, 1863-71, 1872-80, 1881-89; with the accompanying subject
indexes to the _London Catalogue_, 1814-46; and to the _English
Catalogue_, 1835-55, 1856-75, 1874 (_sic_)-80. It will be noticed that
the dates sometimes overlap each over, but this is an advantage rather
than a drawback. Among the other books frequently consulted by both
dealers and amateurs are Mr. Swan Sonnenschein's _The Best Books_; the
_Reference Catalogue of Current Literature_, and Halkett & Laing's
_Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature of Great Britain_,
in 4 vols. These are mentioned together because they are essentially
subject indexes and the best of their kind.

Sonnenschein's _The Best Books_, already in a second and vastly improved
edition, is a comparatively recent publication, in which, under subjects
arranged systematically, are placed the best current books, whether
ancient or modern, on each subject, with the prices, sizes, publisher's
name and dates of the first and last editions of each. There are about
50,000 works included, and they together give a very good idea of all
the material in the various departments of research which the specialist
is likely to have occasion to read or refer to. Old books are included
where they are of actual present-day value to the student. The selection
is not, of course, entirely made by the author, as it is impossible for
him to have read a hundredth part of the books recommended; most
probably the list has been compiled from the works of specialists, the
various encyclopædias, and so forth; but however this may be, it is a
very useful one in the hands of a person capable of discrimination
(towards which the numerous critical and bibliographical notes and the
system of asterisks are a great help), especially if he live near one or
other of the large libraries now springing up in different parts of the

The _Reference Catalogue of Current Literature_, a cumbrous and unwieldy
tome, the last issue of which was out of print within a couple of months
of its publication, consists of a large number of publishers' catalogues
arranged in alphabetical order. Each work mentioned is indexed, and this
has been accomplished so fully and accurately that almost any book to be
bought new in the market makes its appearance here.

Halkett & Laing's _Dictionary_ is, as the title implies, a record of the
anonymous and pseudonymous literature of Great Britain. If an author
wrote under an assumed name or anonymously, his real name will be found
here, together with a short account of his publications. This work can
hardly be said to be indispensable, but it is, notwithstanding,
exceedingly useful, and well worth the three and a half guineas which
will have to be expended upon it.

Among other works which at one time were thought more of than they are
now is Quaritch's _Catalogue of Books_, in one thick volume, 1880, and a
supplement which is back-dated 1875-7. The chief value of this lay not
only in the prices, which were, as in every other bookseller's
catalogue, appended to the items, but in the extraordinary number of the
entries, which cover the whole range of British and foreign literature.
Even now the work is useful, but there is no doubt that it is gradually
decreasing in importance, owing to the high-class works of reference
which have lately made their appearance. As to values, _Book Prices
Current_ gives them much more satisfactorily than any bookseller can
pretend or afford to do, while most of the bibliographical notes and
references are to be found in one or other of the works I have

The collector who, as yet, is not sufficiently advanced to fully realise
the difficulties he will have to surmount before he can bring together a
judicious assortment of books, will at any rate begin to see that the
knowledge requisite to enable him to do so is of no mean order. The
preliminaries will take him a long time to master, and he will find that
the expense is a factor by no means to be despised. Even the books
mentioned are not all that he may have to procure, for if, after
consideration, he should decide to devote his attention exclusively to
one branch of Bibliography, there are other books of reference to be
purchased, and a special course of study must be entered upon and
carefully followed, if he would hope to be successful. Thus, should he
decide to make Dickens or Thackeray his one author, as so many people
are doing now, he will need a guide to direct his course. Memory is so
treacherous that he can take nothing on trust, and time so short that he
cannot afford to journey two sides of the triangle when he might have
taken the third. These special works for special departments are set out
and enlarged upon in the following chapter, but before referring to them
it may not be superfluous to remind the reader that a book of reference
only possesses a relative value. It is quite possible to have a whole
library within reach and yet to be ignorant of the proper method of
using it. Some of our best writers had no library worthy the name, but
the few books they had they knew--knew, that is to say, how to extract
the information they required, which book to consult, how it was
arranged, and what might be expected of it. Though a book collector is
not necessarily a book reader, he will have to be absolute master of his
works of reference, or he will find every volume on his shelf a useless
incumbrance. Where to possess all the absolute facts is of importance,
the newest works are, generally speaking, most likely to be the best;
but this is very far from being applicable to a library in all its
departments. Yet even in the case of works of a general nature a careful
and economic selection may be made, so as to cover, in a small compass,
much valuable ground.


[1] _The Dictes and Sayinges of the Philosophers_, Caxton's first book
which bears a date, was finished in November, 1477; and it is upon the
strength of this that the Caxton Quarcentenary Festival was held in
1877. There can be little doubt, however, that he printed many books of
which no copies remain, some of which were probably earlier than _The

[2] In the annual volume for 1891 a new scheme has been started, the
authors and titles entries appearing in _one_ alphabet in "dictionary



The first sale of books by auction which is recorded as having taken
place in England was held in Warwick Lane exactly 213 years ago, and Dr.
Lazarus Seaman, whose library was dispersed on the occasion in question,
appears to have confined his attention strictly to Latin Bibles of the
16th century, the cumbrous works of the Puritan divines, and the great
editions of the Fathers--huge folios thought so little of that, allowing
for the change in the value of money, they can now for the most part be
bought from the booksellers for less than they could then at auction.
The reason which prompted this old collector to limit his purchases to
works of a single class was in all probability much the same as that
which prevails under similar circumstances at the present time, namely,
a natural desire for finality, the outcome of an experience which shows
plainly enough that in order to form a complete collection of anything
its scope must be reduced to the smallest possible compass. As a matter
of fact Dr. Seaman appears to have embarked on a somewhat extensive
undertaking, for in the period mentioned by far the greater majority of
works issued from the press were of a religious nature. Still the
incident is valuable from an antiquarian point of view, as it forms a
good precedent for a large body of modern collectors who, like Seaman,
follow the prevailing fashion of the day. This fashion on being analysed
will be found to vary at different periods and to be of longer or
shorter duration according to a variety of circumstances which appear to
be entirely without the range of argumentative discussion.

In the year 1699, for example, a book was published, entitled
_Entretiens sur les Contes de Fées_, in which one of the characters is
described as saying, "For some time past you know to what an extent the
editions of the Elzevirs have been in demand. The fancy for them has
penetrated far and wide to such an extent, indeed, that I know a man who
starves himself for the sake of accumulating as many of these books as
he can lay his hands on." In the chapter devoted to the Elzevir press,
these important publications are treated as fully as space permits, so
that at present it will be sufficient to say that for nearly 200 years
many generations of collectors have made painstaking attempts to form a
complete library of these little books, which, after all, excel only in
the quality of the paper and the beauty of the type. For real scholarly
merit the editions of Gryphius or Estienne are much to be preferred, but
this makes no difference. The Elzevirs were fashionable, much more so
than they are now, and accordingly they were valued. It is, moreover,
quite possible that they may again rise in popular favour, in which
event those far-seeing individuals who are even now imitating the
example of the collector mentioned in the _Entretiens_ will reap a rich
harvest in case they choose to avail themselves of it. The great
guide-book on the productions of this famous press is that by Alphonse
Willems, entitled _Les Elzevier, Histoire et Annales Typographiques_,
published at Brussels in 1880, with the _Etudes sur la Bibliographie
Elzevirienne_ of Dr. G. Berghman, a kind of supplement to it, published
at Stockholm in 1885.[3]

Each publication is given in the order in which it was issued, and what
will be found especially useful is an appendix containing a list of the
spurious Elzevirs issued from the Dutch presses and of the forgeries
which have from time to time been foisted on the confiding amateur. With
the assistance of this work, the Elzevir collector cannot go very far
wrong, though he will undoubtedly have much to learn from his own
practical experience. He will become more or less perfect in his lesson
in time, and may take comfort in the reflection that nothing so quickly
ensures perfection as a limited series of bad mistakes. As examples of
the Elzevir press are of "right" and "wrong" editions, with and without
red lines, and are, moreover, usually measured in millimetres with the
assistance of a rule which the enthusiastic collector invariably carries
about with him wherever he goes, it is evident that there is much to
learn and a great deal to be carried in the memory before the amateur
can trust himself to become his own mentor.

Difficult as the subject of the Elzevir press is, that of the Aldine
press is more so. It was established much earlier--_viz._, about
1489--and examples are more numerous and altogether more confusing. As a
general rule they are also more expensive, and none but rich collectors
can afford to compete for examples of the best class. Still, good
specimens may occasionally be got for reasonable sums; and as a guide to
the subject as a whole Renouard's _Annales de l'Imprimerie des Alde_
(1st ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1803; 2nd, 3 vols., _ib._, 1825; 3rd, 1 vol.,
_ib._, 1834) occupies a unique position. This work is arranged on a
similar plan to the _Elzevier_ and is quite as indispensable to the
specialist. An ordinary copy of the 2nd ed. will cost about 30s., but
the more recent edition can sometimes be got for considerably less.

Those fortunate persons who succeed in forming a good library of early
printed books usually consult Dibdin's _Bibliotheca Spenceriana_, which
professes to be nothing more than a descriptive catalogue of books of
the 15th century in the incomparable collection of Earl Spencer. It is,
however, full of notes by one of the best of English bibliographers. The
British Museum _Catalogue of Early Printed Books in English_, 3 vols.,
1884, which is carried down to 1640, and Maitland's _Early Printed Books
in Lambeth Library_, 1843, carried down to 1600, are also frequently
consulted. These works are of course supplementary to Lowndes'
_Bibliographer's Manual_ and Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_, which, as
previously explained, are on the shelves of every collector worthy the
name, be he a specialist or not. The department of early printed books
may, however, be left without further comment, as not one person out of
many thousands is able for obvious reasons to devote his serious
attention to it. Public libraries and similar institutions, which may be
said to have a continuing existence, frequently contain a good show of
works of this class, and, in the opinion of many, are the only suitable
repositories for them.

Privately printed books are those which are issued either from a private
press or for the benefit of private friends. They are never published in
the ordinary acceptation of that term, and cannot be bought at first
hand. A good collection of these is of course difficult, though by no
means impossible, to acquire; and for the benefit of those who may wish
to devote themselves to this department--uninteresting as it undoubtedly
is--Martin's _Privately Printed Books_ (1834, 2nd ed., 1854), in 1 vol.
8vo, is readily available. Many of these so-called "books" consist
merely of single sheets of letterpress; others, on the contrary, are
more pretentious. In the former case they are more correctly termed
"broadsides"; and R. Lemon's _Catalogue of the Collection of Broadsides,
in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries_ (8vo, 1866), though by
no means a perfect book, is certainly the best that can be procured for
our purpose.

Early printed American books, or those which in any way relate to the
American Continent, provided only they were published during the 16th or
17th centuries, have lately become exceedingly scarce. In June, 1888,
nine small quarto tracts, bound in one volume, brought, £66 by auction,
a record entirely surpassed by the preceding lot, which, consisting of
twelve similar tracts only, brought no less a sum than £555. These
prices are of course highly exceptional; but so great is the desire to
obtain books of this class that the amounts in question, exorbitant
though they may appear to be, were perhaps not excessive.

The amateur may in this instance follow the rule with every confidence.
Should he at any time see a work relating to America, no matter where
printed so long as it is dated before the year 1700, he should on no
account pass it by without very careful consideration; and the same
remark applies, though to a less extent, to all books printed in
Scotland before that date. In both cases it is probable that the
specimen offered for sale will have a most unprepossessing exterior, and
in some instances the price asked may be small. This frequently happens,
since the more uneducated class of dealers commence by valuing a book
from its appearance, and while a coloured plate or two would at once put
them on the _qui vive_ there is generally nothing about books of this
kind which _looks_ valuable. It is no disparagement to the trade as a
whole to say that some booksellers, particularly those who carry on
business in small provincial towns, are absolutely ignorant of anything
more than the first principles of their trade, and it is out of these
that bargains are made. Henry Stevens' _Catalogue of the American Books
in the Library of the British Museum_ (1886, 8vo) is from the pen of a
late famous bookseller who made many "bargains" in his time and whose
profound knowledge of the insides as well as of the outsides of his very
valuable collection was in every way worthy of his success.

Shakespearian collectors cannot do better than consult the article
"Shakespeare" in Lowndes' _Bibliographer's Manual_, where every known
edition, translation, and commentary professes to be catalogued and also
in many cases collated and described. Some of Halliwell-Phillipps'
works, though not absolutely indispensable, are nevertheless exceedingly

Bible collectors do not as a rule notice editions later than what is
styled the "Vinegar" Bible, published in 1717. They commence with
Coverdale's issue of 1535, and proceed onward in regular order, for the
most part arranging their collection not according to date but under the
various "versions". This subject is very extensive and exceedingly
difficult to handle, so much so that, without a competent guide, it will
be found impossible to make satisfactory progress. This is provided in
Cotton's _Editions of the Bible and Parts thereof in English_ (1821, 2nd
ed., 1852), and J. R. Dore's _Old Bibles_ (1876, 2nd ed., 1888). Mr.
Dore is probably the best living authority upon English Bibles and
Testaments, and his book is in itself amply sufficient for the amateur.
It is published by Eyre & Spottiswoode at 5s.

For works on botany consult Pritzel's _Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ_
(Leipsic, 1847-51, 2nd ed., 1872-7, 4to); and for books exclusively
relating to tobacco, some of which are very rare and valuable, W.
Bragge's _Bibliotheca Nicotiana_ (priv. prin., r. 8vo, 1880).

Angling and the whole of the literature devoted to it is dealt with in
Westwood's new _Bibliotheca Piscatoria_ (1883), and swimming in R.
Thomas' _Bibliographical List of Works on Swimming_ (1868, 8vo).

The Greek and Latin Classics were at one time great favourites with all
classes of collectors, but of late they have fallen considerably from
their high estate. Many of the early editions, being printed by famous
houses, as the _editio princeps_ of Virgil's works was, which sold for
£590 at the Hopetoun House dispersion, a few months ago, are still
eagerly sought after, but not _quâ_ classics--merely as specimens of
ancient typography. Ordinary editions of Horace, Virgil, Sallust, Plato,
Livy, and the rest can be bought now for a fourth or fifth part of the
sum they would have cost thirty or forty years ago, and, from all
appearances, they are likely to decline still further in the market. The
great work on this subject is Dibdin's _Rare and Valuable Editions of
the Greek and Latin Classics_ (2 vols., 1827), which can sometimes be
bought by auction for as little as £1.

Art books are so numerous, and so readily subdivided into an infinite
number of classes, that they are rarely, if ever, collected as a whole.
Amateurs invariably use the _Universal Catalogue of Books on Art_, which
was compiled by order of the Lords of the Committee of the Council on
Education, and published between the years 1870-7 (in 3 vols. sm. 4to).
It is a work that would be exceedingly difficult to improve upon, though
as time goes on it will of course be necessary to add to it.

Works on Shorthand are catalogued by J. W. Gibson (Pitman & Sons, 1887),
on Magic and Witchcraft in Scribner's _Bibliotheca Diabolica_ (New York,
1874), while books on music and all about them are noted in C. Engel's
_Literature of National Music_ (1879, 8vo).

We now come to the point when a short description of the more modern
methods of book collecting becomes a matter of necessity. For some years
it has been the fashion to collect not so much works of a certain class
as of particular authors, chiefly those which are embellished with
plates. By common consent first editions are, with a few exceptions,
alone worthy of note; and it is also an axiom that where a book was
originally published in parts, those parts must on no account be bound
up in volume form. If the collector should be so ill advised as to bind
the parts, notwithstanding the decrees of fashion to the contrary, he
may save his position no little by binding in the title-pages and also
the lists of advertisements, but if he neglects to do this, then his
case is hopeless. This is an example of the ridiculous rules which have
been laid down by a generation of autocratic book lovers, not one of
whom could in all probability give a satisfactory reason for his
_dicta_. It is, however, the rule, and will have to be followed, since
great pecuniary loss is certain to follow the slightest infraction of
it. Although the amateur does not buy his books to sell again, still I
apprehend it is a satisfaction to know that, in case he should ever be
compelled, though against his will, to sell them, he will be able to do
so without losing by his bargain. Original editions of Dickens' works
find a ready market, at ever-increasing prices; but in addition to his
better-known books, the very titles of which have now become household
words, there are others which are not so generally known, such, for
example, as the _Curious Dance_, the _Village Coquettes_ and many small
pieces which are scattered about the pages of the magazines, and are
usually classed under the heading _Dickensiana_. The same remarks, but
even perhaps to a still greater extent, apply to Thackeray and his
works, for that great author worked for many years before his genius
became recognised. The bibliographer who has smoothed the way for the
Dickens and Thackeray collector is Mr. C. P. Johnson, in his _Hints to
Collectors of Original Editions of the Works of Charles Dickens_ (1885),
and his _Hints to Collectors of Original Editions of the Works of W. M.
Thackeray_ (1885).

The same author's _Early Writings of William Makepeace Thackeray_ (1888)
contains a list of all the pieces which can now be identified, and of
the places where they are to be found, so as to put it readily in the
power of the biographer, the collector, and the student to refer to them
if he will. The _Snob_, _Gownsman_, _National Omnibus_, _National
Standard_, _The Constitutional_, and _Fraser's Magazine_ all contain
essays, articles, or tales from his able pen, which, but for Mr.
Johnson's patient efforts, might have been lost in course of time, when
the evidence to identify them would have been wanting.

Bibliographies of the works of Carlyle, Swinburne, Ruskin, and Tennyson,
as well as those of Dickens and Thackeray, have been compiled by R. H.
Shepherd, and of the works of Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, and Lamb by Alexander

That famous artist George Cruikshank illustrated a large number of
books, all of which are eagerly sought after by certain bodies of
collectors. As in the case of other illustrated books, the value mainly
depends upon the earliness of impression of the plates, and the
condition; and consequently original editions are more highly esteemed
than those which followed. Some capacity for judging engravings is
required of the amateur who makes this branch of the subject a
speciality, but in other respects he will find almost everything he is
likely to require in G. W. Reid's _Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of
George Cruikshank_ (London, 1871, 8vo).

Bewick collectors have an infallible guide in the Rev. T. Hugo's _Bewick
Collector, a Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of T. and J. Bewick_
(published, with the supplement, in 2 vols., 1866-8, 8vo). It is related
of this author that he once found a battered and ragged specimen of a
child's book got up on strong-laid paper by the famous engraver. Only
one or two copies are known to exist, as Bewick found the enterprise too
expensive to pay, and accordingly discontinued it. The owner of this
treasure was an old woman, who had derived her infant ideas of lions and
tigers from its well-thumbed leaves, and who refused to part with an old
friend, though sorely and even desperately pressed to do so.

How often is the enthusiastic book hunter thwarted when his hopes are on
the point of being realised; how often must he succumb to what he may
consider to be nothing better than prejudice or obstinacy? This is a
question which every amateur learns in time to answer for himself.


[3] To those who do not read French or do not possess _Les Elzevier_,
Mr. Goldsmid's _The Elzevir Presses_, published as part of his
_Bibliotheca Curiosa_, may be of some assistance. It is a species of
compendium of the work of M. Willems, and was issued in 1889. It is
somewhat faulty and incomplete; but not without its value to beginners
in the study of the Elzevir press.



The mould used by paper-makers is a kind of sieve of an oblong shape,
bottomed with the very finest wire strands, all of which run
horizontally from end to end. From top to bottom, and about an inch
apart, are placed "chain wires," and on the right-hand side of the mould
the wire water-mark, which, together with the wire-marks, appears
semi-transparent. The reason of this is that both water-mark and wires
are slightly raised, and of course the pulp is thinner there than
anywhere else. Any ordinary sheet of paper held up to the light will
show this, and serve to extra illustrate the following diagram.


Here CDEF is the mould which the workman drops into a vat of pulp, the
fine strands run from G to H all the way down the mould, AA, &c., are
the chain wires, and B is the water-mark, in this case a jug. The water
in the pulp of course runs through the sieve, leaving a layer of soft
matter, which after a while hardens into a sheet of paper. The
water-mark was at one time the trade mark of the maker, but subsequently
became merely a symbol denoting the size of the sheet of paper before it
was folded. The smallest sheet was water-marked with a jug, as above,
and termed "pot"; the next had a cap and bells, hence our term
"foolscap"; the next a horn, hence "post". Others had a "crown," and so
on. At the present day all water-marks have once more become trade
symbols, and cannot be depended upon to afford any evidence of size; but
at one time--_i.e._, before the year 1750--this was not so, and,
therefore, these water-marks, irrespective of their antiquarian value,
serve a useful purpose--namely, to point out in cases of doubt whether
any given book is an octavo, quarto, or folio, or a variation of any of
these sizes.

To refer once more to the diagram. Take a sheet of paper supposed to
have come from the mould and double it in half at the line AX. The
water-mark will in that event appear in the centre of the half sheet,
and the folded paper is of folio size. Now fold the paper the contrary
way, and the water-mark will appear at the bottom, but cut in half; the
paper thus folded is quarto (4to). Now fold it the contrary way again,
and a section of the water-mark will appear at the top; the paper thus
folded is octavo (8vo). We can go on folding, and in every subsequent
case the watermark will appear at the edges, while, as the paper gets
smaller and smaller, the sizes are styled 12mo, 16mo, 32mo, and so

In the example given, a book made of the sheet of paper in question
would be a pot folio, pot 4to, pot 8vo, and so on; but as larger-sized
papers were used, another book might be a post 8vo, or a crown 4to, &c.,
according to circumstances.

As stated, this is one way of finding out the size of an old book; but
there is another way--by means of the "signatures," which consist of
small letters or figures at the foot of the page of nearly every book.
The leaves (not pages) must be counted between signature and signature,
and then if there are two leaves the book is a folio, if four a 4to, if
eight an 8vo, if twelve a 12mo, if sixteen a 16mo, and if thirty-two a
32mo. Take, as an example, this very book you hold in your hand, and it
will be found that there are eight leaves between signature and
signature; hence it is an 8vo, though a small one, owing, of course, to
the small size of the paper from which it has been made, _viz._, crown.
Had it been a little smaller (still preserving its oblong shape) it
would have been a foolscap 8vo, if somewhat larger a demy 8vo, if larger
still a royal 8vo, and largest of all imperial 8vo. The quartos and
folios are governed by identical rules, and hence in the trade the sizes
of books are very numerous.

Simple as this method of computation may appear, a great deal of
controversy has taken place on the subject--so much so, indeed, that
there are people to be found who stoutly maintain, and adduce proof to
show, that what looks like a 4to is in reality an 8vo, or _vice versâ_.
It would be out of place to enter into a discussion of this nature, and,
therefore, I should advise the young collector to count the leaves
between signature and signature, and to abide by the result, regardless
of all the learned arguments of specialists. If there are no signatures,
and the book is an old one, then study the position of the water-mark.

As examples, it will be sufficient to note that the _Illustrated London
News_ is folio, _Punch_ is 4to, and the _Cornhill_ and nearly all the
monthly magazines are large 8vos. There is a large number of varieties
of each size, but on the whole books which approximate to the sizes of
magazines are of the sizes named. Occasionally in judging by the eye in
this manner a mistake may be made; but of one thing there is no doubt,
that a vast amount of argument would have to be expended upon the
subject before the judgment could be proved to be wrong.

Paper-makers at one period made their sheets in frames of a given size,
so that it was a comparatively easy matter to distinguish the size of a
book at a glance. Now-a-days, however, there appears to be but little
uniformity in this respect, and the difficulty is consequently
considerably increased. The following measurements will, however, be
found approximately correct, and they may be utilised in a practical
manner by taking a sheet of brown paper of the required size and folding
it as previously mentioned, thus forming crown 8vos, crown 4tos,
elephant folios, &c., at will. The practice is good, and it will not
need to be often repeated.

    A sheet of foolscap measures about 17 in. x 13 in.
        " post " 19 in. x 15 in.
        " crown " 20 in. x 15 in.
        " demy " 22 in. x 17 in.
        " royal " 24 in. x 19 in.
        " imperial " 30 in. x 22 in.
        " elephant " 28 in. x 23 in.
        " atlas " 34 in. x 26 in.

The only paper used, as a general rule, for making up into 8vo books is
foolscap, post, crown, demy, royal, and imperial; 4to books are made up
of all the sizes; though elephant and atlas are chiefly devoted to

I now take leave of this branch of the subject, and return to
water-marks, which, as previously stated, were formerly used, as they
are now, for trade marks, and as trade marks only.

Before the year 1320, paper was very rarely used to write upon, but
still there are a few examples of it having been so employed extant, the
chief of which is an account-book preserved at the Hague, commencing
with the year 1301. The water-mark on the paper of this book is a globe
surmounted by a cross, while on paper of a little later date the rude
representation of a jug frequently appears. The globe and the jug are
consequently the most ancient water-marks yet discovered, and these
became the principal marks on paper, then exclusively manufactured in
Holland and Belgium. The "can and reaping hook" appeared a little later,
so did the "two cans," the "open hand," and the "half _fleur-de-lis_,"
all executed, as might be expected, in the rudest possible manner.

The Holbein family at Ravensburg--a town famous to this day for the
manufacture of paper--used a "bull's head". Fust and Schoeffer (_circa_
1460) used a "clapper" or rattle, which has a somewhat curious history.
At Ravensburg there was an hospital for lepers, and whenever any of the
inmates had occasion to leave the building he was strictly enjoined to
flourish a rattle with which he was provided, so that healthy folk could
get out of his way. Paper made at the town is often found marked with
the rattle, that having grown, by reason of its frequent use, into an
institution of the place.

The next marks in point of date are in all probability the "unicorn,"
"anchor," and the "P" and "Y," the initials of Philip of Burgundy and
his wife Isabella, who were married in 1430.

The famous English printer Caxton (_c._ A.D. 1424-91)[4] used the
"bull's head" paper from Ravensburg, the "P" and "Y," the "open hand,"
and the "unicorn"; sometimes even the "bunch of grapes," which came from

The first folio of Shakespeare's works (1623) has paper marked with a
"fool's cap" among other devices. The "post horn," another favourite
device, which has given the name to a particular size of paper--namely,
"post"--was first used about the year 1670, when the General Post Office
was established, and it became the fashion for the postman to blow a

In modern times paper-marks have become so numerous that it would be
next to impossible to classify them; nor would it be of much advantage
to the book collector even if it could be done. With old marks it is
different, for _fac-simile_ reprints of scarce and ancient volumes are
frequently detected by looking at the water-mark on the paper. Of
course, this also may be imitated, but there is often considerable
difficulty in attaining the requisite degree of perfection; and, under
any circumstance, some little knowledge of the early history and
appearance of water-marks will be found useful as well as interesting.
The best books to consult on the subject are Herring's _Paper and
Papermaking_ and Sotheby's _Principia Typographica_, 1858, the latter of
which is a masterpiece of learning and constructive skill.


[4] It is very improbable that Caxton was born in 1412, as nearly all
his biographers state, but about ten or twelve years later. Evidence of
this is contained in the records preserved at Mercers' Hall, Cheapside,
London, where his name is inscribed as having been apprenticed in the
year 1438, the age at which apprenticeship was entered upon being most
commonly between twelve and fourteen years.



It must be borne in mind that the title-page of a book, though
constituting a very old method of showing at a glance the nature of the
contents, together with the place of publication and frequently also the
date, is by no means the earliest means of attaining that object. The
title-page, such as we see it, was first adopted in England in 1490, the
year before Caxton's death, having been introduced on the Continent in
1470;[5] but previously--and, indeed, for some years after that
date--the _Colophon_ was in general use.

The term "Colophon" has its origin in the Greek proverb, "to put the
colophon to the matter," that is, the "finishing stroke," and contains
the place or year (or both), date of publication, printer's name, and
other particulars considered necessary at the time for the
identification of the volume. It frequently commences somewhat after the
following form: _Explicit liber qui dicitur_, &c.[6] The colophon,
moreover, is always found on the last page, and sometimes takes the form
of an inverted pyramid. In the early days, when the printer was not
unfrequently author or translator as well, the completion of a work upon
which he had probably been engaged for many months--or, perhaps, in some
instances, years--was rightly regarded as matter for much
self-congratulation, as well as for thanks to the Divine Power, by
whose permission alone he had been enabled to persevere. Hence the
_Psalterium_ of Fust and Schoeffer, a folio of 175 lines to the page,
and remarkable as being the first book in which large capital letters,
printed in colours, were employed, has for its colophon a very
characteristic inscription, which may be translated as follows:--

"This book of Psalms, decorated with antique initials and sufficiently
emphasised with rubricated letters, has been thus made by the masterly
invention of printing and also type-making, without the writing of a
pen, and is consummated to the service of God through the industry of
Johann Fust, citizen of Mentz, and Peter Schoeffer, of Gernsheim, in the
year of our Lord MCCCCLVII., on the eve of the Assumption".

This Psalter is also the first known book which bears any date at all,
and for that and other reasons is one of the most highly prized of

From what has been said, the reader will no doubt clearly understand
that it does not follow that, because an old book is minus a title-page,
it is necessarily imperfect. He should turn to the last leaf for the
colophon; but should that be wanting also, it is probable that the book
is deficient, though even this is not a conclusive test. In cases of
doubt the volume must be _collated_, that is, critically compared with
some other specimen: each leaf must be examined carefully, and notes
made of any differences that may appear during the course of the
examination. There is a business-like way and the reverse of tabulating
these notes, so much so that an adept can see at a glance whether it has
been performed by a competent man. The following is the collation of a
copy of the first edition of the famous Genevan version of the Bible
printed by Rowland Hall in 1560, 4to: "Four prel. leaves. Text, Genesis
to ii. Maccabees, 474 ll. folioed, N. T. 122 leaves, 'A Briefe Table' HH
h iii to LLl iii., 13 ll. followed by 1 p. 'The order of the yeres from
Paul's conversion,' &c., rev. blank."

At first sight this may appear somewhat technical, but when a few of
these collations are compared with actual copies of the works to which
they refer, there will be no difficulty in understanding all the rest.
The above, for instance, would read, when set out at full length, as
follows: "There are four preliminary leaves, and then follows the Bible
text proper, which, from Genesis to the 2nd of Maccabees, is on 474
numbered leaves. The New Testament, which follows, has 122 leaves; then
comes 'A Briefe Table,' extending from signature HH h iii to LL l iii,
and comprising 13 leaves, followed by one page, 'The order of the yeres
from Paul's conversion,' &c. The reverse side of this page is blank."
The words "page" and "leaf" have distinct meanings, the latter, of
course, containing two of the former, unless, indeed, one side happens
to be blank, as in the above example. If both sides are blank, the
description would be simply "i 1 blank".

From 1457--the date of Fust and Schoeffer's Psalter, already described
as being the first printed book disclosing on its face the year of
publication--until comparatively recent times, it was customary to use
Roman numerals on the colophon or title-page, as the case might be. This
system of notation is so well understood, or can be so speedily mastered
from almost any arithmetical treatise, that it is hardly worth while to
enlarge upon it here. On some old books, however, there is a dual form
of the "D" representing 500, which is sometimes the cause of
considerable perplexity; e.g., MI[C]XL standing for the year 1540. In
this example the I[C] is equivalent to D; in fact, it would appear
as if the former numeral were merely a mutilation of the latter. Again,
the form CI[C] is equivalent to M or 1000. A few instances will make the
distinction apparent:--

    M I[C] XXIV}
    or M D XXIV} = 1524;

    CI[C] I[C] CLXXXV}
    or M D CLXXXV} = 1685;

    CI[C] I[C] CLXI}
    or M D CLXI} = 1661.

The only part of a title-page which gives any real difficulty to a
person who has a fair knowledge of the Latin language, in which most of
these old books were printed, is the name of the place of publication,
which, being in a Latinised form, frequently bears but a slight
resemblance to the modern appellation. Dr. Cotton, many years ago now,
collected a large number of these Latin forms, partly from his own
reading and partly from the works of various bibliographers who had
chanced occasionally to mention them in their works, and at the present
day his collection stands unapproachable in point of the number of
entries, as well as in general accuracy. The use of this compilation
will be apparent to those who have occasion to consult it even for the
first time, while to advanced collectors, who are not satisfied with
mere possession, it will be found indispensable. The title-page of a
book now before me runs as follows: "_Kanuti Episcopi Vibergensis Quedam
breves expositõs s legum et jurium cõcordantie et allegatiões circa
leges iucie_"; at the foot is "Ripis, M. Brand, MI[C]IIII". The question
immediately arises: Where is Ripis, the place where the book was
evidently printed by Brand? The best gazetteer may be consulted in vain,
for the title is obsolete now; it is, in fact, the Roman name for Riben,
a small place in Denmark. In like manner, Firenze frequently stands for
Florence, Brixia for Breschia, Aug. Trinob. (Augusta Trinobantum) for
London, Mutina for Modena, and so on. This being the case, some kind of
tabulation becomes absolutely necessary, and the best that occurs to my
mind is to place the Latin titles of all the chief centres of printing
in alphabetical order, and append to each the English equivalent. The
date is that of the first book known to have been printed at the
particular town against which it is set. As the list is not complete,
and could not be made so without the sacrifice of a great deal of space,
the reader is referred to Dr. Cotton's _Typographical Antiquities_ for
any further information he may require. The omissions will be found,
however, to consist, for the most part, of unimportant places, from many
of which only some half-dozen books or less are known to have been
issued, so that the following list will be found sufficient in the vast
majority of cases:--

    1486. Abbatis Villa Abbeville.
    1621. Abredonia Aberdeen.
    1493. Alba Acqui (in Italy).
    1480. Albani Villa St. Albans.
    1501. Albia Albia (in Savoy).
    1480. Aldenarda Oudenarde.
    1473. Alostum Alost (in Flanders).
    1467. Alta Villa Eltville, or Elfeld (near Mayence).
    1523. Amsteloedamum Amsterdam.
    1476. Andegavum Angers.
          Aneda Edinburgh.
    1491. Angolismum Angoulême.
    1482. Antverpia Antwerp.
    1482. Aquila Aquila (near Naples).
    1456(?). Argentina, or Argentoratum Strassburg.
    1477. Asculum Ascoli (in Ancona).
    1474. Athenæ Rauracæ Basle.
    1517. Atrebatum Arras.
    1469. Augusta Vindelicorum Augsburg.
    1480. Augusta Trinobantum London.
    1481. Auracum Urach (in Wurtemberg).
    1490. Aurelia Orleans.
    1490. Aureliacum Orleans.
    1497. Avenio Avignon.
    1462. Bamberga Bamberg.
    1478. Barchine Barcelona.
    1497. Barcum Barco (in Italy).
    1474. Basilea Basle.
    1470. {Berona, or}
          {Beronis Villa} Beron Minster (in Switzerland).
    1487. Bisuntia Besançon.
    1471. Bononia Bologna.
    1485. Bravum Burgi Burgos.
    1472. Brixia Breschia.
    1475. Brugæ Bruges.
    1486. Brunna Brunn.
    1476. Bruxellæ Brussels.
    1473. Buda Buda.
    1485. Burgi Burgos.
    1484. Buscum Ducis Bois-le-duc.
    1478. Cabelia Chablies (in France).
    1480. Cadomum Caen.
    1475. Cæsar Augusta, or Caragoça Saragossa.
    1484. Camberiacum Chambery.
    1521. Cantabrigia Cambridge.
    1497. Carmagnola Carmagnola.
    1622. Carnutum Chartres.
    1494. Carpentoratum Carpentras.
    1486. Casale Major Casal-Maggiore.
    1475. Cassela Caselle (in Piedmont).
    1484. Chamberium Chambery.
    1482. Coburgum Coburg.
    1466. Colonia Cologne.
    1466. Colonia Agrippina Cologne.
    1466. Colonia Claudia Cologne.
    1460. Colonia Munatiana Basle.
    1466. Colonia Ubiorum Cologne.
    1474. Comum Como.
    1516. Conimbrica Coimbra.
    1505. Constantia Constance.
    1487. Cordova Cordova.
    1469. Coria Soria (in Old Castile).
    1500(about). Cracovia Cracow (Poland).
    1472. Cremona Cremona.
    1480. Culemburgum Culembourg (in Holland).
    1478. Cusentia Cosenza.
    1475. Daventria Deventer (in Holland).
    1477. Delphi Delft.
    1491. Divio Dijon.
    1490. Dola Dol (in France).
    1564. Duacum Douay.
          Eblana Dublin.
    1509. Eboracum York.
          Edemburgum Edinburgh.
    1440(?). Elvetrorum Argentina Strassburg.
    1491. Engolismum Angoulême.
    1482. Erfordia Erfurt.
    1472. Essium Jesi (in Italy).
    1473. Esslinga Esslingen (in Wurtemberg).
    1531. Ettelinga Etlingen.
    1471. Ferrara Ferrara.
    1471. Firenze Florence.
    1472. Fivizanum Fivzziano (in Tuscany).
    1471. Florentia Florence.
    1495. Forum Livii Forli (in Italy).
    1504. Francofurtum ad Moenum Frankfort on the Maine.
    1504. Francofortum ad Oderam Frankfort on the Oder.
    1495. Frisinga Freysingen.
    1470. Fulgineum Foligno (in Italy).
    1487. Gaietta Gaeta.
    1490. Ganabum Orleans.
    1483. Gandavvm, or Gand Ghent.
    1478. Geneva Geneva.
    1474. Genua Genoa.
    1483. Gerunda Gerona (in Spain).
    1477. Gouda Gouda.
    1490. Gratianopolis Grenoble.
    1493. Hafnia Copenhagen.
          Haga Comitum The Hague.
    1491. Hamburgum Hamburg.
    1491. Hamnionia Hamburg.
    1483. Harlemum (probably earlier date) Haarlem.
    1504. Helenopolis Frankfort on the Maine.
    1479. Herbipolis Wurtzburg.
    1476. Hispalis, or Colonia Julia Romana Seville.
    1483. Holmia Stockholm.
    1487. Ingolstadium Ingolstadt.
    1473. Lauginga Laugingen (in Bavaria).
    1483. Leida Leyden.
    1495. Lemovicense Castrum Limoges.
    1566. Leodium Liège.
    1503. Leucorea Wittemburg.
    1480. Lipsia Leipsic.
    1485. Lixboa Lisbon.
    1474(?). Londinum London.
    1474. Lovanium Louvain.
    1475. Lubeca Lubec.
    1477. Luca Lucca.
    1473. Lugdunum Lyons.
    1483. Lugdunum Batavorum Leyden.
    1499. Madritum Madrid.
    1483. Magdeburgum Magdeburg.
    1442(?). Maguntia Mayence.
    1732. Mancunium Manchester.
    1472. Mantua Mantua.
    1527. Marpurgum Marburg.
    1473. Marsipolis Mersburg.
    1493. Matisco Maçon.
    1470. Mediolanum Milan.
    1473. Messana Messina.
    1500. Monachium Munich.
    1470. Monasterium Munster (in Switzerland).
    1472. Mons Regalis Mondovi (in Piedmont).
    1475. Mutina Modena.
    1510. Nanceium Nancy.
    1471. Neapolis Naples.
    1493. Nannetes Nantes.
    1525. Nerolinga Nordlingen (in Suabia).
    1480. Nonantula Nonantola (in Modena).
    1469. Norimberga Nuremberg.
    1479. Novi Novi (near Genoa).
    1479. Noviomagium Nimeguen.
    1533. Neocomum Neuchatel.
    1494. Oppenhemium Oppenheim.
    1468. Oxonia Oxford (the date is disputed).
    1477. Panormum Palermo.
    1471. Papia Pavia.
    1470. Parisii Paris.
    1472. Parma Parma.
    1481. Patavia Passau (in Bavaria).
    1472. Patavium Padua.
    1475. Perusia Perugia.
    1479. Pictavium Poitiers.
    1483. Pisa Pisa.
    1472. Plebisacium Piobe de Sacco (in Italy).
    1478. Praga Prague.
    1495. Ratiastum Lemovicum Limoges.
    1485. Ratisbona Ratisbon.
    1480. Regium Reggio.
    1482. Reutlinga Reutlingen.
    1484. Rhedones Rennes.
    1503. Ripa or Ripis Ripen (in Denmark).
    1467. Roma Rome.
    1487. Rothomagum Rouen.
    1479. Saena Siena.
    1480. Salmantice Salamanca.
    1470. Savillianum Savigliano (in Piedmont).
    1474. Savona Savona.
    1483. Schedamum Schiedam.
    1479. Senæ Siena.
    1484. Soncino Soncino (Italy).
    1514. Southwark Southwark.
    1471. Spira Spires (in Pavaria).
    1465. Sublacense Monasterium. An independent monastery
              about two miles distant from Subiaco, in the
              Campagna di Roma.
    1484. Sylva Ducis Bois-le-duc.
    1471. Tarvisium Treviso (in Italy).
    1474. Taurinum Turin.
    1468. Theatrum Sheldonianum (the date is disputed) Oxford.
    1521. Tigurum Zurich.
    1479. Tholosa Toulouse.
    1480. Toletum Toledo.
    1473. Trajectum ad Rhenum Utrecht.
    1504. Trajectum ad Viadrum Frankfort on the Oder.
    1471. Trajectum Inferius Utrecht.
    1470. Trebia Trevi (in Italy).
    1483. Trecæ Troyes.
    1440 (?). Tribboccorum Strassburg.
    1483. Tricasses Troyes.
    1476. Tridentum Trent (in the Tyrol).
    1498. Tubinga Tübingen.
    1521. Turigum Zurich.
    1496. Turones Tours.
    1479. Tusculanum Toscolano (in Italy).
    1471(?). Ulma Ulm.
    1471. Ultrajectum Utrecht.
    1485. Ulyssipo Lisbon.
    1481. Urbinum Urbino.
    1474. Valentia Valentia.
    1474. Vallis S. Mariæ {Marienthal (an Augustine monastery
                            {near Mentz, now suppressed).
    1469. Venetiæ Venice.
    1485. Vercellæ Vercelli.
    1470. Verona Verona.
    1487. Vesontio Besançon.
    1473. Vicentia Vicenza.
    1517. Vilna Wilna (in Russia).
    1482. Vindobona Vienna.
    1503. Vitemberga Wittemburg.
    1488. Viterbium Viterbo.
          Vratislavia Breslau.
    1474. Westmonasterium Westminster.
    1475. Wirceburgum Wurtzburg.


[5] _Vide_ Pollard's _Last Words on the History of the Title-page_
(Lond., 1891).

[6] Some recent French publishers, such as Quantin and Rouveyre, have
imitated the practice in their editions for bibliophiles.



The reasons which contribute to make up the pecuniary value of a book
depend on a variety of circumstances by no means easy of explanation. It
is a great mistake to suppose that because a given work is scarce, in
the sense of not often being met with, it is necessarily valuable. It
may certainly be so, but, on the other hand, plenty of books which are
acquired with difficulty are hardly worth the paper they are printed
upon, perhaps because there is no demand for them, or possibly because
they are imperfect or mutilated.

One of the first lessons I learned when applying myself to the study of
old books was never, on any account or under any circumstances, to have
anything to do with imperfect copies, and I have not so far had any
occasion to regret my decision. It is perfectly true that no perfect
copies are known of some works, such, for example, as the first or
1562-3 English edition of Fox's _Book of Martyrs_; but books of this
class will either never be met with during a lifetime, or will form, if
met with, an obvious exception to the rule. Fragments of genuine
Caxtons, again, sometimes sell by auction for two or three pounds a
single leaf, and even a very imperfect copy of any of his productions
would be considered a good exchange for a large cheque; but these are
exceptions and nothing more--exceptions, moreover, of such rare
practical occurrence as to be hardly worth noting. In the vast majority
of instances, when a book is mutilated it is ruined; even the loss of a
single plate out of many will often detract fifty per cent. or more from
the normal value, while if the book is "cut down" the position is worse.
This lesson as a rule is only learned by experience, and many young
collectors resolutely shut their eyes to the most apparent of truisms,
until such time as the consequences are brought fairly home to them. It
is exceedingly dangerous to purchase imperfect or mutilated books, or to
traffic in them at all. This position will be enlarged upon during the
progress of the present chapter.

To return to the reasons which contribute to the value of a book, it may
be mentioned that "suppression" is one of the chief. This is a natural
reason; others are merely artificial, which may be in full force to-day
but non-existent to-morrow, depending as they do upon mere caprice and
the vagaries of fashion: with these I have, in this volume at any rate,
nothing to do.

De Foe, in his _Essay on Projects_, observes: "I have heard a bookseller
in King James's time say that if he would have a book sell, he would
have it burned by the hands of the common hangman," by which he
presupposed the existence of some little secret horde which should
escape the general destruction, and which would consequently rise to ten
times its value directly the persecution was diverted into other
channels. This is so, for where an edition has been suppressed, and most
of the copies destroyed, the remainder acquire an importance which the
whole issue would never have enjoyed had it been left severely alone.
The Inquisition has been the direct cause of elevating hundreds of books
to a position far above their merit, and the same may be said of Henry
VIII., who sent Catholic as well as Protestant books wholesale to the
flames; of Mary, who condemned the latter; of Edward VI., who acquiesced
in the destruction of the former; and of Elizabeth and the two
succeeding sovereigns, who delighted in a holocaust of political
pamphlets and libels.

The Inquisition, with that brutal bigotry which characterised most of
its proceedings, almost entirely destroyed Grafton's Paris Bible of
1538, with the result that the printing presses, types, and workmen were
brought to London, and the few copies saved were completed here, to be
sold on rare occasions at the present day for as much as £160 apiece.
There is nothing in the Bible more than in any other; it is not
particularly well printed, but it has a history, just as the Scotch
Bassandyne Bible has, though in that case the persecution was directed
against persons who _declined_ to have the book in their houses, ready
to be shown to the tax collector whenever he chose to call. One Dr.
James Drake, who in the year 1703 had the temerity to publish in London
his _Historia Anglo-Scotica_, which contained, as was alleged, many
false and injurious reflections upon the sovereignty and independence of
the Scottish nation, had the pleasure of hearing that his work had been
publicly burned at the Mercat Cross of Edinburgh, a pleasure which was
doubtless considerably enhanced when another venture--the
_Memorial_--shared the same fate in London, two years later. Drake had
the honour of hearing himself censured from the throne, of being
imprisoned, and of having his books burned, distinctions which some
people sigh for in vain at the present day. As a consequence, the
_Historia_ and the _Memorial_ are both desirable books, and Drake's name
has been rescued from oblivion.

William Attwood's _Superiority and Direct Dominion of the Imperial Crown
of England over the Crown and Kingdom of Scotland_ (London, 4to, 1705)
is another book of good pedigree which would never have been worth the
couple of guineas a modern bookseller will ask for it, had it not been
burned by jealous Scotchmen immediately on its appearance.

The massacre of St. Bartholomew produced a large crop of treatises, and
any contemporary book on the Huguenot side is worth preservation, for a
general search was made throughout France, and every work showing the
slightest favour to the Protestants was seized and destroyed. Among them
was Claude's _Défense de la Réformation_ (1683), which was burned not
only abroad, but in England as well, so great an ascendency had the
French Ambassador acquired over our Court.

Bishop Burnet's _Pastoral letter to the Clergy of his Diocese_ (1689)
was condemned and burned for ascribing the title of William III. to the
Crown, to the right of conquest. The _Emilie_ and the _Contrat Social_
of Jean Jacques Rousseau shared the same fate, as did also _Les
Histoires_ of d'Aubigné and Augustus de Thou.

Baxter's _Holy Commonwealth_ went the way of all obnoxious books, in
1688; the _Boocke of Sportes upon the Lord's Day_, in 1643; the Duke of
Monmouth's proclamation declaring James to be an usurper, in 1685;
Claude's _Les Plaintes des Protestans_, in 1686.

Harris' _Enquiry into the Causes of the Miscarriage of the Scots Colony
at Darien_ (Glasgow, 1700); Bastwicke's _Elenchus Religionis Papisticæ_
(1634); Blount's _King William and Queen Mary, Conquerors_, &c. (1692);
the second volume of Wood's _Athenæ Oxoniensis_ (1793); De Foe's
_Shortest Way with the Dissenters_ (1702); Pocklington's _Sunday no
Sabbath and Altare Christianum_ (1640); Sacheverel's _Two Sermons_
(1710); and Coward's _Second Thoughts concerning the Human Soul_ (1702),
were all burned by the hangman, and copies destroyed wherever found.

Perhaps the most extraordinary instance of a work being destroyed for
positively nothing at all is furnished by Cowell's _Law Dictionary_,
which was sent to the flames by order of King James the First himself.
This dictionary, and indeed every one of the books mentioned as having
been subjected to the purification of fire, are now rare historical
landmarks, and consequently both extrinsically and intrinsically
valuable. Hence the reason of the high prices frequently demanded for
them and for other works of this class.

The remaining copies of editions which were suppressed by their authors,
or which have escaped accidental destruction, are frequently of
considerable value. In the former class, Rochester's _Poems_ and Mrs.
Seymour's _Account of the Origin of the Pickwick Papers_ are prominent
examples; in the latter, the third folio edition of Shakespeare's Plays
(1664), almost the entire impression of which was destroyed in the Great
Fire of London. Dugdale's _Origines Juridiciales_ (London, folio, 1666)
was also almost entirely destroyed at the same time. Books coming under
one or other of these classes are to be met with, and the note-book
should always be at hand, so that a memorandum can be jotted down before
the reference is lost. This course is adopted by the most experienced
bibliographers, as well as by the amateur who wishes to become
proficient in a study which is pleasant and profitable when
conscientiously undertaken, but difficult and worse than useless to
those who will not take the trouble to learn the rudiments of their

Works of limited issue are sometimes, but not always, nor indeed often,
of especial value. It has been the practice for some years among
publishers to issue works on what is nothing more nor less than the old
subscription plan; but, unlike the hungry poets of old, who trudged the
streets taking the price of copies in advance, the publishers keep faith
with their subscribers. The edition is limited to a given number of
copies, after which the type is distributed, and the plates--if the work
is illustrated--broken up. Many speculators in books have endeavoured
from time to time to "corner" editions so limited in quantity, buying at
the published price, and subsequently selling again at an increased
amount. In this way considerable sums have been _lost_, for works
published on this plan have a decided tendency to fall in the market,
and when this is the case they seldom if ever recover their former
position. Hogarth's works, published in 1822, by Baldwin and Cradock, is
a very good example of this tendency. The work was originally issued at
£50, and the impressions, taken from Hogarth's original plates,
restored, however, by Heath, are consequently of full size. There is a
secret pocket at the end containing three suppressed and highly indecent
plates, which considerably add to the value. I myself have many a time
seen this large and sumptuous book knocked down in the auction room at
sums varying from £3 to £5, and once bought a good copy by private
contract for £4 10s. Ottley's _Italian School of Design_ is another
example. This work when on large paper, with proof impressions of the 84
tinted fac-similes of original drawings by Cimabue, Giotto, Guercino,
and other famous painters, is worth about £3 by auction. The published
price in 1823 was no less than £25 4s. The issue of each of these works
was limited, but neither have succeeded in retaining its position in
popular favour, and in all probability will decline still further in the
market as time goes on.

The lesson to be learned here is that such phrases as "only 100 copies
printed," or "issue strictly limited to 50 copies," frequently to be
observed in publishers' and auctioneers' catalogues, should be taken
_cum grano salis_. The description may be accurate, but it does not
follow that the limitation necessarily increases the value of the book.
On the contrary, it may be well imagined that the publisher hesitated to
launch the book entirely on its own merits, seeking rather the
extraneous inducement of a "limited number". The earlier editions of
Ruskin's works are an exception to the rule, for that author's
reputation is deservedly great, and he is, moreover, master of his own
books, which from choice he has, until the last year or two, preferred
to render difficult of access.

Volumes of transactions and proceedings of learned societies usually
have a market value, which fluctuates much less than is usually the
case. These being supplied to members only, and rarely published for
purposes of sale, may be said to be both privately printed and limited
in issue at the same time. As a rule they increase proportionately in
value as the series becomes more complete, and a point once reached,
they generally maintain it. Hence works of this character are safe
investments--perhaps the safest of any.

The result of every investigation into the causes which regulate the
value of books has shown conclusively that no publication is of great
worth merely _because_ it is scarce. The scarcity is a secondary and not
a primary cause. Highly appreciated English publications of the
sixteenth and two following centuries may be counted by thousands; but
the number of inferior treatises, which have long ago sunk into eternal
oblivion, which never were of any value, and never will be, are as the
sand on the sea-shore.

However scarce and valuable a book may be, it must be remembered that
the element of perfection has yet to be taken into account. It does not
by any means follow that, because a copy of one of Shakespeare's 4tos is
worth £300, another copy of the same 4to edition will be of equal value.
It may be worth more or less, and here it is that the critical eye of
the _connoisseur_ and dealer tells. Defects, such as a tear in the cover
or any of the leaves, stains, worm-holes, and the like, detract from the
value; if these are entirely absent, the value may, on the contrary, be
raised above the average. The fact of a rare book being "uncut," and in
the original sound binding, clean, and free from blemishes, considerably
add to its value.

The first part of a book to get worn out is the binding, for some one or
more of its previous owners are almost certain to have ill-treated it
either by bending the covers until they crack, or by leaving the work
exposed to the rain and damp. When the volume is coverless, and usually
not before, it will have been re-bound, and the binder will, in
ninety-nine cases out of every hundred, have trimmed the edges, that is
to say, planed them smooth with a machine he has for the purpose.
Sometimes he will have cut as much as half-an-inch from the top, and
nearly as much from the other edges; on other occasions, he may have
been more merciful; but the result is the same, the book is damaged
beyond hope of redemption, and the only question is as to the extent of
the injury. The term "uncut," so often seen in catalogues, is,
therefore, a technical term, meaning that the edges are left in the same
condition as they were when the book was originally issued. It does not
mean that the leaves are "not cut open," as so many people appear to
think, but simply that the binder, with a fine sense of what is due to a
volume of importance, has for once kept his shears in his pocket. The
value of a book which has been cut is reduced to an extent proportionate
to the quantum of injury inflicted: from 50 to 75 per cent. is the usual
reduction, but many works are altogether destroyed. If a scarce book is
sent to be re-bound, the binder should have the clearest instructions,
in writing, that he is not to trim the edges. Should he do so,
notwithstanding the direction, a by no means impossible contingency, he
will do it at his own risk, and can be made to suffer the consequences.

Imperfect volumes are always a source of great inconvenience to the
collector. First-class bookselling firms will not allow an imperfect
book to leave their hands without notice to the purchaser, and, as a
consequence, they charge a higher price than would be the case if the
latter exercised his own judgment. There are mutual advantages to be
gained in dealing with first-class people, for, if a mistake is made on
one side or the other, there is usually no difficulty in rectifying it
afterwards. Fine old crusted book-worms of the John Hill Burton type
prefer, however, to exercise their own discretion in these matters,
looking upon that as no inconsiderable part of the pleasure to be
derived from the pursuit of their favourite occupation. They do not care
to pay for being taught, at least not directly, and make it part of
their business to find out for themselves whether a copy offered for
sale is perfect or the reverse. As each page is usually numbered, there
is no difficulty in ascertaining whether any are missing; not so with
the plates, for, unless there is an index to these, the loss of one or
two may hardly be noticed until the book comes to be collated with
another copy known to be complete. This is a risk which the book buyer
has to run, though, as a matter of practice, he protects himself when
the purchase is an expensive one, and the dealer a man of credit.

In buying books at a cheap rate, or, in other words, when making a
bargain either at a shop or an ordinary street-stall, the purchaser will
have to observe the maxim, "Caveat emptor," and it will probably not be
until he arrives home with his treasure under his arm that he will have
the satisfaction of ascertaining that his bargain is a real one, or the
mortification of adding another imperfect book to the long row already
on his shelf.

Imperfect books are frequently what is called "made up," that is,
completed from other copies, themselves imperfect in other respects. One
complete book is worth more than two incomplete ones, and many desirable
specimens, in the public libraries and elsewhere, are made up so well
that it is frequently impossible to detect the hand of the renovator.

So long as all the leaves of a made-up book are of the same measurement,
there would not seem to be much objection to this practice, but there
certainly is when the paper of the interpolated leaves is different from
the rest, or smaller in size, which it will be if cut down by the
binder. Great care must be taken to see that neither of these defects is
present, especially when, from the value of a book offered for sale, it
may have been worth anyone's while to perfect it.

Another point to be observed in the purchase of very expensive and
valuable works is, that none of the leaves have been fac-similed. These
fac-similes are done by hand, and frequently so well that they cannot be
detected without the aid of a strong glass. The late Henry Stevens tells
a good story of a customer of his--Mr. Lenox, of New York, the founder
of the Lenox Library, and a most indefatigable collector up to the last
hour of his life. "Mr. Lenox was," says Stevens, "principled against
raffles, wagers, lotteries, and games of chance generally, but I once
led him into a sort of bet in this way, by which I won from him £4. I
had acquired a fair copy of that gem of rare books, the quarto edition
of _Hariot's Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginea_
(London, Feb., 1588), wanting four leaves in the body of the book. These
I had very skilfully traced by Harris, transferred to stone, printed off
on old paper of a perfect match, the book and these leaves sized and
coloured alike, and bound in morocco by Bedford. The volume was then
sent to Mr. Lenox to be examined by him _de visu_, the price to be £25;
but, if he could detect the four fac-simile leaves, and would point
them out to me without error, the price was to be reduced to £21. By the
first post, after the book was received, he remitted me the 20 guineas,
with a list of the fac-similes, but on my informing him that two of
_his_ fac-similes were originals, he immediately remitted the four
pounds, and acknowledged his defeat."

This Harris, whose name is prominently mentioned, was probably the
greatest adept at this species of imitation who ever lived, and many
important but defective works, now in the British Museum, left his
hands, to all appearance, in first-rate order and condition.

"Laying down" is a technical term used to express the process of
re-backing a torn plate or engraving. Many of the Shakespeare folios
have the portrait and verses by Ben Jonson laid down or "re-laid," as
the catalogues generally describe it. This, of course, can be detected
at a glance, and it may be stated positively that a laid-down plate,
frontispiece, or title is looked upon as a serious blemish, inferior
only to the entire absence of one or more of the three.

Worm-holes, stains, fox-marks, and other flaws also detract from value;
but as many of these may be removed by a judicious application of proper
remedies, a special chapter will be reserved for their consideration.
The market value of a book is thus composed of many elements, the chief
of which is "condition"--above all things, a broad margin, and next, to
that, leaves of spotless white.

I have already stated that where editions of the works of famous modern
authors containing plates were originally issued in parts, such parts
should, on no account, be bound up in volume form. The result of such a
course cannot be better illustrated than by taking the well-known
_Pickwick Papers_ as our example, and studying the following prices, all
realised at auction quite recently:--

_Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club_, original ed., with
illustrations by Seymour & Browne, and the Buss plates, _complete in
numbers_, 1837, 8vo, £8 10s.; £12 14s.; £8 10s.; £6 5s.; £11 5s.

_Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club_, original ed. (_bound_), with
illustrations by Seymour & Browne, and the Buss plates, 1837, 8vo, £1
(half calf), £1 1s. (half calf), £3 (calf extra), £2 12s. (half morocco
extra), £2 5s. (half calf extra), £1 7s. (half morocco extra), £3 10s.
(calf, gilt, an unusually clean copy, recently sold at the Mackenzie
sale). The evidence furnished by these quotations is conclusive, and
illustrates the principle better than anything else can do, that, in the
present state of the English book market, it is the height of folly to
bind up original parts of this nature. If, however, it must be done, the
depreciation in value may be reduced to a minimum by binding in the best
style, and taking care that not only all the covers, but even the pages
of advertisements, are bound up also. On no account must the edges be
cut, or in any way tampered with, or the value will sink from pounds to
shillings on the instant.

I shall conclude this chapter by calling attention to the expression
"large paper," so often noticed. It has been the practice for many
years, on publishing certain classes of books, to print off a limited
number of copies on "large paper," or paper of a larger size than that
used for the ordinary copies. Thus, the second edition of Bewick's
_Birds_, in 2 vols., 1804, is found in no less than three sizes,
ordinary copies in demy 8vo, large paper copies in royal 8vo, and
largest paper in imperial 8vo. The text is in each instance precisely
the same, but the books themselves are larger in size as we ascend the
scale. The well-known _Badminton Library_ of sports and pastimes is
printed in two sizes, and as large paper copies are invariably limited
in number, their value is always greater than that of their more humble
brethren. Whether they maintain their original published value is
another question which can only be solved by reference to particular
cases as and when they arise.



The great enemy of books is unquestionably damp, which corrodes the
paper, covering it with reddish brown spots, or, in extreme cases,
patches. These unsightly marks, if once they have taken a firm hold,
cannot be removed, and the most that can be hoped for is some preventive
against an aggravation of the evil. Damp, unlike mere surface stains,
attacks the tissue of the paper, rotting it completely through, and not
infrequently destroying it altogether. It is like a vital disease which
insinuates itself into the very seat of life, and, with more or less
despatch, consumes its victim.

Unslaked lime, as is well known, has a strong affinity for moisture of
every kind, and when there is plenty of this substance about, damp is
irresistibly attracted to it. Small saucers full of lime should
therefore be placed in close proximity to valuable books, on the shelves
if necessary, but never in immediate contact with the books themselves,
or the remedy will be as bad as the disease to be guarded against. The
action of lime upon moisture has been very well known for centuries, yet
no one seems to have thought of applying it to this useful purpose, and
books have been doomed to slow but sure destruction for the want of a
precaution as simple as it is obvious. Only the other day a
correspondent, writing to an American bibliographical journal, pointed
out what he called a new remedy against damp, which turned out to be
based upon nothing else than the well-known relationship which exists
between lime and water. If damp has only just commenced its attack, the
part affected should first be touched with a wash of spirits of wine,
and when dry with a very weak solution of oxalic acid. If the "fox
spots," as they are called, do not then disappear, the injury is
permanent and no remedy exists, as far as we at present know.

A really valuable book which stands in need of a thorough cleaning
should be placed in the hands of some competent person, as considerable
experience is necessary before even a reasonable degree of success can
be assured. If the marks to be obliterated are numerous, the book had
better be taken to pieces by removing the cover and separating the
leaves, first cutting the binder's threads and taking especial care not
to _tear_ anything. Each leaf must then be examined, both on the flat
and when held up to the light, for it is essential that the particular
description of dirt should be identified as closely as possible.

If grease is apparent, it should first of all be removed, as its
presence will interfere with some of the subsequent processes. With this
object, the leaf must be laid perfectly flat on a sheet of glass and the
grease marks damped out with a pad of cotton wool moistened with
benzine. Rubbing is never resorted to; the spots must be merely patted
over and over again until they disappear, which they will do after a
time. Sometimes the text itself will vanish as well, but whether it will
do so or not depends upon the character of the paper and the quality of
the printer's ink. If there is any danger, benzine should not be used,
as the whole sheet may be cleared of grease marks almost equally well by
covering it with a layer of chalk, placing a piece of blotting paper on
the top of it, and pressing with a hot iron. Each leaf will, if
necessary, have to be treated in the same way, and it may occasionally
be found necessary to work on both sides of the paper.

When this process is complete, the next step is to give each leaf a good
general cleaning, and this may be done effectually by placing it in a
leaden trough and pouring upon it a shallow surface of water. Two or
three days of exposure to the rays of the sun will bleach the paper
perfectly white, and all kinds of stains except fixed dyes will come
out. The leaf is then dried (not in the sun or it will turn yellow), and
is ready for the next process. It may happen that the sun is not
available for this, or, indeed, any other purpose, and when such is the
case, the surface dirt may be bleached off with a solution of chloride
of lime in the proportion of one part to forty of water. The paper must
be soaked in cold water before this mixture is poured on it, and both
sides must be operated upon. This solution being essentially weak--if it
were otherwise it would eat into the material--it is possible that it
may be found unequal to the task of removing some of the more obstinate
stains, which must therefore be touched with nitro-hydrochloric acid.
Finally, the leaf must be well washed in a stream of running water, and
allowed to dry naturally.

Another method of removing surface stains sometimes used by restorers is
to cover the paper with a thin layer of fine powdered salt. Lemon juice
is then squeezed on the surface in sufficient quantities to dissolve the
mineral, and the subject finally washed in boiling water. The chief
objection to this process is the use of hot water, which, as may well be
imagined, is apt to pulp the paper, or in some cases even to efface the
printed text.

Stains which cannot be removed by these processes are of several kinds.
Lead pencil marks, for instance, will become fixed if the paper is
damped, and they should therefore be helped out first of all with fine
bread crumbs. Indian ink stains give way before a camel's hair brush and
a cup of hot water, and all kinds of grease marks yield to benzine,
turpentine, or ammonia.

Lead stains can be got rid of by an application of peroxide of hydrogen,
or even hydrochloric acid; but the greatest care will have to be
exercised in handling the latter, or it will corrode the paper in a very
short time, causing it to crack and break to pieces. If mixed with its
own weight of water, and to three parts of this compound one part of red
oxide of lead is added, its power for evil will be very materially
diminished; but even under these circumstances it is dangerous to use.

Each of these remedies has to be very carefully undertaken, as the fatty
matters in the printer's ink are exceedingly liable to resolve, in which
case the book will be spoiled. With care and attention I doubt not that
almost any book can be very materially improved, if not made quite as
good as new, by a combination of the processes described; and the best
plan is to practise on some dirty and worthless specimen until the
requisite degree of proficiency is attained.

A "Literary Note" in the magazine entitled _Book Lore_ for July, 1887,
observes as follows: "The renovation of books is, of course, a work of
art in itself, and so clever are experts in the manipulation thereof,
that many a dirty and decrepit volume has left their hands looking
quite fresh and new. One of the most difficult processes has hitherto
been to take dirt off the leaves without injuring the print. With this
object bread crumbs were at one time used; but modern science has
discovered three ways of effecting the same object in a much more
satisfactory manner. Oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid, when
in solution, will eliminate every trace of dirt without in any way
acting on the printer's ink. Writing ink is not, however, proof against
the attack of any one of the three, and this, too, being considered for
the most part as 'dirt,' comes out with the rest. If the leaf is
afterwards bleached with chloride of lime, the regenerating process is
complete. The remedy for oil stains, it may be observed, is sulphuric
ether. If the stains are extensive, it is best to roll up each leaf and
insert it into a wide-mouthed bottle half full of ether, shaking it
gently up and down for a minute or so. On its removal the oil marks will
be found to have disappeared, and, as ether rapidly evaporates, a little
cold water is all that is afterwards required. Mineral naphtha and
benzoline each possess the property of dissolving oils fixed and
volatile, tallow, lard, wax, and other substances of this class."

Worm-holes, another source of disquietude to the collector, are caused
by grubs, which are popularly supposed to be the larvæ of beetles. They
bore a circular hole through all the leaves, utterly destroying the
appearance of any volume upon which they have fixed their attention.

The book worm has a pedigree in comparison with which the family tree of
a Howard or a Talbot is a wretched weed. Lucian, in days remote, chides
the voracious worm, and other ancient authors have called attention to
its ravages. Another pest, called the "acarus," feeds on the paste and
glue in the binding; in fact, these two parasites between them will very
quickly digest the contents of an ordinary-sized book unless steps are
taken for their destruction. The late Sir Thomas Phillipps, in a
communication to the British Association in 1837, observes: "My library
being much infested with insects, I have for some time turned my
attention to the modes of destroying them, in the course of which I
observed that the larva of certain kinds of beetles does not seek the
paper for food, nor the leather, but the paste. To prevent their
attacks, therefore, in future bound books the paste used should be mixed
up with a solution of corrosive sublimate, or, indeed, with any other
poisonous ingredient. But to catch the perfect insects themselves, I
adopt the following plan: _Anobium striatum_ commonly deposits its ova
in beech wood, and is more partial, apparently, to that than any other
wood. I have beech planks cut, and smear them over, in summer, with pure
fresh paste (_i.e._, not containing anything poisonous). I then place
them in different parts of the library where they are not likely to be
disturbed; the beetles flying about the room in summer time readily
discover these pieces of wood, and soon deposit their eggs in them. In
winter (chiefly) the larva is produced, and about January, February, and
March I discover what pieces of wood contain any larvæ by the sawdust
lying under the planks, or where it is thrown up in hillocks on the top
of them. All the wood which is attacked is then burnt for firewood: by
this simple method I have nearly extirpated _Anobia_ from my library."

To surprise and capture a book worm was at one time looked upon as an
impossible task; but lately a few successes have been chronicled, but
only a few. In order to ward off their insidious attacks, many devices
more or less satisfactory have been proposed, but none appear to be
absolutely preventative. Dr. Hermann, a noted bibliophile of Strassburg,
after careful experiments, has come to the conclusion that a combination
of safeguards such as he suggests will have the desired effect of
putting to flight not only the worm itself but all other enemies of the
library, always excepting biblioklepts and borrowers, against whom there
is no defence. The combination suggested by Dr. Hermann certainly seems
sufficiently powerful to resist almost any attack, in the same degree
that a huge man-of-war may be considered invulnerable when exposed to
the assaults of some cockle-shell of a boat. The only objection is the
immense amount of trouble and labour involved in preparation, as will
readily be perceived after a perusal of the preventives, ten in number.

1. Abolish the use of any wood in the binding processes. 2. Recommend
the bookbinder to use glue mixed with alum in place of paste. 3. Brush
all worm-eaten wood in the repositories of books with oil or lac
varnish. 4. Preserve books bound in calf by brushing over with thin lac
varnish. 5. No book to lie flat. 6. Papers, letters, documents, &c., may
be preserved in drawers without any danger provided the wafers are cut
out and that no paste, &c., is between them. 7. The bookbinder is not
to use any woollen cloth, and to wax the thread. 8. Air and dust the
books often. 9. Use laths separated one from the other one inch in place
of shelves. 10. Brush over the insides of bookcases and the laths with
lac varnish.

Dr. Hermann cannot at any rate be charged with any such sentimental
regard for "vermin" as that which influenced Mr. Day, a well-known book
hunter of the earlier part of the present century. One day, upon
removing some books at the chambers of Sir William Jones, a large spider
dropped upon the floor, upon which Sir William, with some warmth, said,
"Kill that spider, Day! Kill that spider!" "No," said Mr. Day, with that
coolness for which he was so conspicuous, "I will not kill that spider,
Jones; I do not know that I have a right to do so. Suppose, when you are
going in your carriage to Westminster Hall, a superior being, who
perhaps may have as much power over you as you have over this insect,
should say to his companion, 'Kill that lawyer! Kill that lawyer!' How
should you like that? I am sure to most people a lawyer is a more
noxious insect than a spider."

The simplest protection yet discovered against book worms is a liberal
use of common snuff, which should be sprinkled all over the shelves, the
process being repeated every three or four months. This is almost
infallible, and probably quite as effectual as Dr. Hermann's ten
preventives rolled into one. There is no magic in the art of preserving
books--the great art is to be able to get them, and to know what to buy
and how much to give for them. This acquired, the rest will come easily
enough. The contents of a whole treatise on the custody and preservation
of books might be very accurately and succinctly summed up in a few
lines. Keep out damp, let the shelves be lined if possible with good
leather, and last, but by no means least, look at the insides of your
books as well as at the outsides.

Collectors of books are continually being asked to lend volumes which
happen to take the passing fancy of a friend or even chance
acquaintance, and it is frequently a matter of some delicacy to refuse.
Not one person in a hundred knows how to treat a book properly, and the
borrower is therefore usually regarded as but one degree removed from an
enemy. Curiously enough, the famous bibliophile, Grolier, stamped his
books with a motto of invitation, "_Jo Grolierii et Amicorum_". So did
Charles de Savigny, who went to even greater lengths still with his
legend, "_Non mihi sed aliis_". The private history of neither of these
enthusiasts states how they fared, or how many choice tomes were
returned dog-eared and stained, even if they were returned at all. For
my part I possess no books that I should fear to lend, as my whole
library consists of "working copies," useful, probably, but not
valuable. The amateur who is the proud owner of a single book out of the
common should hide it from the borrower even as from a book worm. He may
well lay the couplet which graced the library doors of Pixérécourt to
his heart:--

    "_Tel est le triste sort de tout livre prêté
    Souvent il est perdu, toujours il est gâté_".



The revival of classical literature in Europe is generally assigned to
the middle of the fifteenth century, and is, perhaps, coeval with the
invention of printing, when for the first time it became possible to
multiply books not only rapidly but without the multitude of mistakes
which invariably occurred in ordinary manuscripts. We have seen that in
the palmy days of Rome some of the large publishing houses were quite
capable of turning out extensive editions at a few hours' notice. No
modern type-setter could possibly keep pace with one of the trained
slaves of Atticus, and when some hundreds of the latter were assembled
in a room transcribing the MS. of some favourite author through the
medium of a professional reader, many copies would be completed in an
incredibly short space of time. If, however, the reader made a mistake,
it would be faithfully and universally reproduced, while in addition
each transcriber might fairly be credited with a number of errors of his
own. To this extent the printing press was a great improvement. If it
did its work more slowly, less workmen were required; and though each
movement of the machine would perpetuate the same errors, these might be
reduced to a minimum by the very simple expedient of carefully reading
and correcting the "proofs".

The year 1450 ushered in, as is supposed, the great art which was
destined to revolutionise the world; and although the pen was employed
for many years after that, it gradually gave place to its more
convenient if less nimble rival, taking at last a position more
congenial to it. "The pen for the brain, the press for reproduction,"
became henceforth a motto which had for its basis a new division of
labour as convenient as it was efficacious.

In the same year,[7] at Sermonetta, a little Italian town, Aldus
Manutius, the great printer and editor, first saw the light. The earlier
portion of his life was devoted entirely to scholastic duties and in
preparing himself, by hard and assiduous study of the Greek and Latin
classics, for the more important work of revising and printing the text.
It was not until 1490 that the preliminaries were complete, and he found
himself, with a little money and an immense stock of knowledge, a
comparative stranger at Venice, where already 160 printers and
publishers had been engaged for some time in glutting the market with
almost worthless books. The old Greek manuscripts especially were a
source of inconceivable trouble and continual annoyance. They were
written for the most part in bastard characters, and crowded with
mistakes and omissions, the result of some hundreds of years of repeated
transcriptions. They were, moreover, almost as difficult to procure as
they were corrupt in text. Nor was this the only difficulty that faced
the intrepid pioneer editor. Greek was a language but rarely used,
having given place to Latin in all but the most cultivated circles; the
demand for books in that character was accordingly limited, while even
at that early period competition was ruinous. To say nothing of the army
of printers at Venice, there was a large number at Rome who more than
supplied the Italian and foreign markets, turning out books in such
profusion that the important and oldest printing house, that of
Sweinheym & Pannartz, was compelled to petition the Pope to save
themselves from bankruptcy. In their petition they state that they had
printed no less than 12,475 separate volumes, a statement most likely
exaggerated, but none the less cogent evidence of the fierce struggle
which was being carried on when Aldus determined to swell the ranks of
the already crowded profession.

He was disgusted with the slipshod efforts of the ignorant proprietors
of these numerous printing shops, who were so eager to forestall one
another that they could not pay any attention to the quality of their
work, even assuming they had the aptitude for doing so. He took his
stand upon his accomplishments alone, apparently not doubting for an
instant that conscientious work, coupled with a superior education,
would in the long run repay him for the years of anxious toil which he
well knew would be his lot.

The Greek types of Rome, Milan, and Florence, hitherto in use, and all
cut to a single pattern, were abominable, and Aldus commenced by casting
types of his own. A fount of Roman and Italian letters consisted of only
24 capital and an equal number of small letters--the J and U were the
same as I and V--but a complete collection of Greek types with all the
varied accents and double characters, with which the language abounds,
amounted to no less than 600. Many of these he was compelled at the
outstart to forego, and he set to work upon his first book, the
_Grammatica Græca_ of Lascaris, with barely a tithe of that number. It
was well that Aldus should commence with this work, for it was the first
which had been printed in Greek, some eighteen years previously by
Paravisinus, of Milan, whose small and crabbed type presents a
remarkable contrast to that of Manutius. Closely following upon this
venture comes the _Editio Princeps_ of Aristotle, which, in its 5 vols.
folio, is unquestionably the most splendid and lasting monument of the
Aldine press. It was issued, one volume at a time, between the years
1495-8, and was sold by the editor and publisher for a sum equivalent to
about £5 of our money. Next comes the _Editio Princeps_ of Aristophanes,
also in folio, and dated 1498, which, like all the other productions of
this press at that early date, was printed from large open types with
broad margins. The expense of production and consequent cost of these
sumptuous volumes were great, too great in fact to command a speedy
sale, and Aldus at last began to realise that it was infinitely
preferable to print and sell a large number of works at a cheap price
than a smaller number at a high one. Accordingly he had a more minute
fount of type cast, and in April, 1501, published his famous _Virgil_, a
small book of 228 unpaged leaves, measuring not quite 8 inches by 4. The
text, so it is said, was modelled after the neat handwriting of
Petrarch, and became known throughout Italy as the Aldino type, though
in France it was called _Italic_, the name it goes by to this day
throughout Europe. This book was sold for about 2s. of our money, and
was the first serious attempt ever made to produce cheap printed

No sooner was the success of this venture assured than an unknown
printer of Lyons took advantage of the opportunity to issue a wretched
reprint, alike in every detail except the quality of the workmanship.
Aldus' painstaking textual corrections were slavishly copied: even his
title-page was stolen, and the whole immoral production foisted on the
public as a genuine example from Venice, and at a little more than half
the cost. Horace and Juvenal, Martial and Ovid, shared the same fate as
fast as they issued from the legitimate press; the Lyonnese printer was
as persevering as he had proved himself unscrupulous, and kept good time
with the movements of Aldus. But the fame of the latter was proof
against servile imitations, his types alone being so extravagantly
praised by his admirers that there were some who seriously contended
that their beauty was owing to the silver of which they were made. There
is, indeed, no mistaking them, and the collector has only to place an
original side by side with one of the reprints from Lyons, to fix the
superiority distinctly and irrevocably in his mind. Aldus during his
life printed altogether 126 editions known to bibliographers, 78 of
which are in quarto or folio, and many in two or more volumes. Some of
these consist of choice copies printed on white linen paper, notably the
_Opera_ of Ovid and Plutarch, and many more passed through several
editions during his lifetime and after his death, which, to the great
loss of the world of letters, took place on the 6th February, 1515, when
he was 65 years of age.

The distinguishing mark of the Aldine press is the well-known dolphin
and anchor which first makes its appearance on the edition of the _Terze
Rime_ of Dante of 1502, and with few exceptions on all the books
afterwards issued from the press. The story is that Aldus was engaged in
printing Columna's _Hypnerotomachia Poliphili_, which appeared in 1499
(a good copy sold in February last for £80), and which contained
numerous illustrations, most probably by Andrea Mantegna. One of these
represents a dolphin twining about an anchor, a mark so pleasing to
Aldus that he subsequently adopted it, using it over his office door as
well as on the title-pages of all his books.

[Illustration: _The first Aldine Anchor, 1502-1515._]

[Illustration: _Mark of A. Torresano, and that of his Sons._]

At the death of Aldus Manutius his son Paolo, or Paulus, being only
three years of age, went to reside with his maternal uncle Andrea
Torresano, himself a famous printer of Asola, who subsequently, with his
sons, carried on the Aldine press at Venice for the benefit of the
parties interested. From that date until 1524 most, if not all, of the
books printed at the press bear the imprint: "In ædibus Aldi et Andreæ
Asulani soceri," and though, as usual, bearing the anchor, a fresh block
had been cut which slightly alters its appearance.

[Illustration: _The second Aldine Anchor, 1519-1524. Last appearing in
this form on the "Homer" of 1524, the first anchor being again used from
1524 to 1540._]

From the year 1524 to 1529, when Torresano died, an exact copy of the
_first_ anchor was again employed and continued to be so used until
1540, when Paulus Manutius, the son of Aldus, took exclusive possession
of his father's business. It will be noted that during the three years
following the death of Torresano (1530-31-32) no books were issued from
the press; and when it recommenced operations in 1533, it was for the
benefit of Paulus Manutius and the representatives of Torresano "In
ædibus hæredum Aldi Manutii et Andreæ Asulani soceri". In 1540, as
before stated, Paulus Manutius took entire control of the business, and
a third variation of the anchor was introduced, the inscription on the
title-pages being "apud Aldi Filios".

[Illustration: _The third Aldine Anchor, 1540-1546, called the Ancora

[Illustration: _The fourth Aldine Anchor, 1546-1554._]

From 1546 to 1554 yet another variation of the anchor was adopted,
sometimes without the surrounding device. In 1555 a slight modification
of the _third_ anchor, surrounded sometimes with scroll work, came into
fashion again, and so continued until the death of Paulus Manutius on
the 6th of April, 1574.

[Illustration: _Modification of the third Anchor, 1555-1574._]

With the death of Paulus, the glory of the Aldine press departed. He,
like his father, had patiently striven to infuse neatness and accuracy
into his work, and is said to have been in every respect his equal.

Aldus, the son of Paulus, who is known among bibliographers as "the
younger," had not perhaps the same opportunities as were afforded to his
predecessors. The art of printing had advanced universally, and there
was not so much room for improvement as there had been formerly. He
printed in a good, but by no means exceptional, style, from 1574 until
the time of his death in 1597, when the Aldine press ceased to exist.
During a period of 103 years some 823 books had been issued, many of
which are among the prizes of book collecting.[8]

Aldus Junior, like his father and grandfather, used the anchor, but
between the years 1575-81 it is so hidden in the foliage of a
magnificent coat-of-arms which had been granted to the family by the
Emperor Maximilian, that it is likely to be overlooked by any who have
not made the Aldine press their special study.

[Illustration: _The Aldine Anchor, enclosed in a coat-of-arms, as used
by Aldus Junior, 1575-1581. On some occasions, and always after the
latter date, he used the anchor alone, sometimes without the word

The collector will need to be cautioned against accepting every work
bearing the anchor as a genuine example from the Aldine press. Some are
mere forgeries, but so badly executed as to deceive nobody who has seen
half-a-dozen of any of the originals. Some printers assumed the mark by
licence, as did Torresano, who used Anchor No. 3, with the words "Ex
Aldina Bibliotheca," and occasionally Anchor No. 1, but, these
exceptions apart, it may usually be taken for granted that a book if
well printed and bearing the mark in question is authentic. If any
doubt exists it is easy to turn to the pages of Renouard, where every
genuine example is catalogued and described. Some fifty years ago,
Aldine collectors were more numerous than they are now, and as a
consequence prices were higher. This particular branch of bibliography
demands the sacrifice of much time, and cannot be even approached
without a fair knowledge of Latin, Greek, and French. As a consequence,
the new school of collectors, whose knowledge of those languages is not
always as well grounded as it might be, have long since severed their
allegiance from old traditions and now confine their attention to sober
English, where, it must be admitted, there is plenty of scope for good

Even yet, however, the earlier productions of the Aldine press maintain
their former position: perhaps they have even surpassed it, for as
specimens of ancient typography they stand unrivalled. Reference is made
chiefly to works dated before 1500, and to such exceptional specimens as
the _Virgil_ of 1501, some of which are still worth more than their
weight in gold. The majority of works from this famous press have,
however, fallen enormously in value of late years, as witness the fine
copy of Augurellus, 1505, 8vo, beautifully bound in blue morocco, which
quite recently was sold by auction for less than a sovereign: some few
years ago it would have brought three times the amount, and been
considered cheap even then.

By way of illustration, I cannot do better than give a few examples of
modern prices, comparing them with the approximate amounts which would
have been obtained some twenty-five or thirty years ago.

     _Homeri Opera_, 2 vols. 8vo, red morocco extra, gilt edges,
     _Venetiis_, Aldus, 1524, £3 15s. Would have sold for £9 or £10.

     _Silius Italicus de Bello Punico_, old Venetian binding, gold
     tooling, lettered in gold, gilt edges, _Venetiis_, Aldus, 1523,
     £1 18s. Would have sold for about £5.

     _Virgilius, cura Aldi Pii Manulii_, red morocco, gilt edges, by
     Roger Payne, _Venetiis_, Aldus, 1514, £4 5s. Sold in 1825 at
     from £10 to £12 in equally good binding.

     _Psalterium Græce_, a fine copy, in blue morocco, with gilt
     edges, _Venetiis_, Aldus, no date, but about 1498, £12.
     Notwithstanding the fact that this is one of the few fifteenth
     century books from the Aldine press, its value has declined
     about 25 per cent.

     _Quintiliani Institutiones_, fine copy in russia, gilt edges,
     _Venetiis_, Aldus, 1521, on title 1522, 14s. Former price about

     _Aristophanis Comoediæ_, first edition, fine copy in russia,
     gilt edges, _Venetiis_, Aldus, 1498, a rare book, £4. Former
     price about £15.

     _Thucydidis Historia_, first edition, and one of the few copies
     printed on fine paper, old russia, gilt, _Venetiis_, Aldus,
     1502, a very scarce book in this condition, £2 14s. Former
     price from £12 to £15.

The above examples are taken from a single catalogue, and, if occasion
demanded, the list could be indefinitely increased. They will, however,
be sufficient to show that if the good old days when Eliot's _Indian
Bible_ of 1661, now worth considerably more than £500, could have been
got for thirty shillings or less, are not likely to return, there is yet
plenty of opportunity for picking up rare books at a moderate price, and
for much less than would at one time have had to be paid for them.

Who knows that the fashion will not change again some day, and that the
most coveted of all volumes will not be choice examples from the Aldine

[Illustration: _The Elzevir Buffalo's Head, from the "Cæsar" of Leyden,


[7] M. Firmin-Didot inclines to the year 1449 for the date of Aldus'
birth--_vide_ his _Alde Manuce et l'Hellenisme à Venise_, p. 1, Paris,

[8] In addition to this number there are about sixty "Doubtful
Editions". The number of recognised Forgeries is about forty-five.



If Aldine collectors were at one time numerous and enthusiastic,
amateurs who affected the Elzevir press, and were never tired of
extolling the excellence of the little books which issued therefrom,
were more so. Long before the death of the last member of the great
printing family, a whole mass of rules, some of them arbitrary, others
founded on subtle distinctions, were already regarded as binding on the
community of bibliomaniacs which looked upon _L'Aimable Mère de Jésus_
as their pole-star, and _Le Pastissier François_ as something to be seen
only on rare occasions, and to be touched, if touched at all, with bated

There is something harsh, comparatively speaking, about Aldus and his
works. He was the taciturn, frugal-living man of letters, who for five
years, as he himself confesses, never spent a single peaceful hour save
when he was asleep. His very doors were barred with the inscription--

     "Whoever you are, Aldus entreats you to be brief. When you have
     spoken, leave him."

Compared with this grim old editor-printer of a bygone age, the Elzevirs
one and all were literary children, playing with their master's
text--children who never grew old, and whose many liberties were not
only endured, but excused out of consideration for their engaging ways.
They were pirates, too, without exception, but they turned you out well.
If they mutilated your text, they at any rate supplied you with the best
of paper, ornaments and type; from their hands you emerged a
well-dressed gentleman, a little ignorant perhaps, but decidedly

A short sketch of the history of the Elzevir family will be found useful
for reference:--

The founder of the family, Louis, was born at Louvain in 1540, and,
curiously enough, as in the case of Aldus Manutius, did not establish
himself at the scene of his future labours until he was forty years old.
In 1580 he started as a bookbinder and bookseller at the University city
of Leyden, and at first confined his attention entirely to retailing
such works as fell into his hands. Three years later, however, he set up
a press and printed his first book, the _Drusii Ebraicarum quæstionum ac
responsionum_, 8vo, 1583, which, though desirable, is not to be
compared, either in intrinsic merit or in value, with some of the latter
productions of the press; in fact, what are known as the "good dates" do
not commence until the latter portion of the year 1625. Louis died in
1617, and is remarkable only as the founder of a famous family of
printers; not one of his 123 different books can be considered important
from a collector's point of view; and although a specialist would no
doubt endeavour to make his collection as complete as possible, and with
that object might be disposed to pay more for these early examples than
anyone else might think it worth his while to pay, even he, if well
advised, would draw the line at anything like lavish expenditure. Louis
left five sons, whom, with a view to further development, it is
necessary to bear in mind--Matthieu, Louis, Gilles (Giles), Joost
(Justus), and Bonaventure. The last-named son--Bonaventure--commenced
business on his own account as a printer in 1608, and on the death of
his father in 1617 he took the management of the Elzevir press. In 1626
he took into partnership Abraham, a son of Matthieu, and the
newly-constituted firm, which continued to exist until 1652, are
entitled to most of the credit which attaches to the name of Elzevir.

Though the Greek and Hebrew works issued by this firm are inferior to
those of Aldus and the Estiennes, their small editions of the Latin and
French Classics in 12mo, 16mo, and 24mo cannot be surpassed for elegance
of design, neatness, clearness, and regularity of type, as well as for
the beauty of the paper which they used. Mention may be made especially
of the _Novum Testamentum Græcum_, 1624 and 1633; the _Psalterium
Davidis_, 1635 and 1653; the _Virgil_ of 1636; and the _Comediæ_ of
Terence, 1635; though the works which gave the press its chief
celebrity were the collection of French authors on History and Politics,
in 24mo, known as _Petites Republiques_, and the series of Latin,
French, and Italian Classics, in small 12mo.

It seems to be an almost universal belief that all the works issued from
the Elzevir press are small in bulk, and various terms, more or less
foolish, have been invented by careless or incompetent persons to give
expression to this idea. One of them, and perhaps the most hideous of
them all, is "dumpy twelves". In the first place, works issued from the
Elzevir press in 12mo are perfectly symmetrical in shape, and not at all
dumpy; and, secondly, many books are in 4to, some even in folio, as, for
example, the _Académie de l'Espée_, printed by Bonaventure and Abraham
in 1628. The amateur must avoid being misled by the poetical effusions
which from time to time make their appearance, and which for the most
part are written by persons who know nothing whatever of the subject. To
obtain a rhyme for "Elzevir" is difficult, but it has been done at much
sacrifice of common-sense.

Jean, the son of Abraham above mentioned, was introduced into the firm
in 1647, five years before it came to an end through the death of the
two partners in 1652. On this latter event taking place, he entered into
partnership with Daniel, the son of Bonaventure, but the firm was not
very successful, and was dissolved by mutual consent in 1655. Jean
continued to trade on his own account until 1661, when he died, and
Daniel joined Louis, the third of that name, and son of the second
Louis, who had been printing at Amsterdam since 1638.

From 1655 to 1666 Daniel and Louis printed a series of Latin Classics in
various sizes. Louis died in 1670, and Daniel ten years later.

We now come to the closing years of the press, though reference must be
made _en passant_ to Isaac, another son of Matthieu, who established a
press at Leyden in 1616, and continued to print there until 1625. None
of his editions, however, attained any fame.

The last representatives of the Elzevir family were Peter, the grandson
of Joost, who, during the years 1667-75, printed seven or eight volumes
of little consequence, which were published at Utrecht, and Abraham, the
grandson of the first Abraham, who, from 1681 to 1712, was University
printer at Leyden. As the family pedigree is considerably involved, or,
like most other pedigrees, appears to be so at first sight, I give a
chart for the convenience of the reader, with the dates during which
each member of the family flourished, omitting, however, the names of
many other members of the family, who do not enter into the scope of the
inquiry, and who were, in fact, not printers at all.

                           Printer at Leyden,
       |               |          |                 |             |
   _Matthieu_,      Louis,       Gilles,           Josse,    _Bonaventure_,
Printer at Leyden, a Bookseller  a Bookseller  a Bookseller   Printer at
    1616-22.      at La Haye.[9] at La Haye.   at Utrecht.    Leyden,
        |              |                            |           1617-52.
        |              |                            |             |
        |          _Louis_,                       Peter.      _Daniel_,
        |    Printer at Amsterdam,                  |         Printer at
        |          1638-64.                         |         Leyden,
        |                                           |         1652-55;
        |                                           |         at Amsterdam,
    ____|___________________                        |           1655-80.
        |                   |                       |
     _Abraham_,         _Isaac_,                    |
Printer at Leyden, Printer at Leyden,               |
    1626-52.            1617-25.                    |
        |                                           |
        |                                           |
      _Jean_,                                    _Peter_,
Printer at Leyden,                         Publisher at Utrecht,
    1652-61.                                     1667-75.
Printer at Leyden,

The number of works issued from the press of the Elzevirs, whether at
Leyden, Amsterdam, or Utrecht, numbers, according to Willems, 1608
different publications, of which 1213 bear the name or mark of the firm
which issued them. Of these latter, 968 are in Latin, 126 in French, and
the remainder in Greek, Flemish, German, Italian, and Hebrew. There is
also a single volume, printed in English, which seems to have escaped
the notice of bibliographers. It is entitled "_Confession_ _of Faith,
and the Larger and Shorter Catechisme, &c._, Amsterdam, printed by Luice
Elsever, for Andrew Wilson, and are to be sold at his shop in Edinburgh,
1649". It is usually stated in works of reference that none of the
Elzevir publications were printed in English, but the above, if it is
genuine, affords an exception.

As every amateur is aware, the Elzevirs frequently--but not
always--marked their title-pages with devices, of which the most
frequent were the Sphere, the Hermit, Minerva, and the Eagle on a cippus
(low column) holding in its claws a sheaf of seven arrows. As each firm
adopted or relinquished the family marks to suit its convenience at the
time, it becomes necessary to tabulate them for the purpose of avoiding
confusion. The number in brackets gives the total number of books, not
including catalogues, produced by the firm to which it is annexed.


    _Louis Elzevir._ 1583-1617 (102 books).
        Marks.--A hand, with the device--"Æqvabilitate".
                An angel with a book.
                The Eagle (with seven darts representing the
                  seven provinces of the Netherlands) on a
                  cippus, with the inscription--"Concordia res
                  parvæ crescunt" (most frequent).
                A book of music, opened.

    _Matthieu and Bonaventure Elzevir._ 1617-1622 (71 books).
        Marks.--The Eagle on a cippus.
                The book of music, opened.
                The Hermit, first appearing on the _Acta Synodi
                  Nationalis_, 1620 (Isaac Elzevir), motto--"Non


Of the three marks mentioned above the first and last were more usually

    _Isaac Elzevir._ 1617-1625.
        Marks.--Two hands holding a cornucopia (rare).
                The Eagle on the cippus.
                The Hermit.

    _Bonaventure and Abraham Elzevir._ 1622-1652 (514 books).
        Marks.--The Hermit (most frequent).
                The Eagle on a cippus.
                The Sphere, first appearing on the _Sphæra
                  Johannis de Sacro-Bosco_, 1626.
                The Arms of the University.
                A palm tree with the device "Assvrgo pressa".[10]
                Minerva, with her attributes (the olive tree and
                  the owl) and the motto "Ne extra oleas".


    _Jean and Daniel Elzevir_. 1652-1655 (55 books).
        Marks.--The Sphere (frequent).
        The Hermit (frequent).
        The Arms of the University.


    _Jean Elzevir._ 1655-1661 (113 books).
      Marks.--The Hermit.
              The Sphere.

    _The Widow and Heirs of Jean Elzevir._ 1661-1681 (48 books).
      Marks.--The Hermit.
              Two Angels holding an open book; motto--"Immortalité".

Of the books printed by this firm, some bear the imprint: "A Leide, chez
Pierre Didier," and also "Ex Officina Danielis et Abrahami à Gaasbeeck".

    _Abraham Elzevir._ 1681-1712 (24 books).
      Marks.--The Hermit (most frequent).
              The Arms of the University; motto--"Hæc
                libertatis ergo".

[The total number of books printed by the Leyden firm from 1583 to 1712
(129 years) is thus 938.]


    _Louis Elzevir II._ 1590-1621 (9 books).

    _Jacob._ 1621-1636 (3 books).
      [A total of 12 books in 31 years.]


    _Louis Elzevir III._ 1638-1655 (231 books).
      Marks.--The Sphere.
              Minerva (most frequent).

    _Louis and Daniel Elzevir._ 1655-1664 (150 books).
      Marks.--The Sphere.
              Minerva (most frequent).

    _Daniel Elzevir._ 1664-1680 (260 books).
      Marks.--The Sphere.

    _The Widow of Daniel Elzevir._ 1680-1681 (7 books).
              The Sphere; motto--"Indefessus Agendo".
              The Eagle; motto--"Movendo".

[A total of 658 books in 43 years.]

After seven books had been published by the representative of Daniel
Elzevir, the business was wound up. The ornamental punches, &c., by
Christopher Van Dyck, were sold, and most probably melted down.

    THE UTRECHT PRESS (so called, though it was merely a
                                publishing centre).

    _Peter Elzevir._ 1667-1675 (10 books).
      Marks.--The Sphere.
              The Hermit.
              Minerva sitting under an olive tree; motto--"Pallas
                Trajectina semper Augusta".

[The total number of books produced by the whole family during 129 years
amounts to 1618 works.]

The above are the chief, but by no means the only, marks used by the
various members of the family. The few which have not been noticed occur
only at rare intervals, and are of but little importance. One device,
representing a bees' nest, with a fox and the motto "Quaerendo," though
frequently ascribed to the Elzevirs, is in reality none of theirs, being
the mark of Abraham Wolfgang, a Dutch printer of considerable repute.

The Elzevirs, as before stated, were pirates, who thought nothing of
reproducing the full title-page, with the original publisher's name,
and, when this is the case, it is often a matter of very great
difficulty to distinguish between the original and the reprint. Again,
when these printers did not wish to put their name to any particular
work, for fear of embroiling themselves with the Government, they either
marked it with the Sphere or else adopted a pseudonym. Thus Jean and
Daniel frequently marked their title-pages "A Leyde, chez Jean Sambix,"
the Amsterdam printers occasionally adopted "Jacques le Jeune," while
"Nic Schouter" was a favourite fictitious name. These pseudonyms are,
however, much less numerous than was at one time supposed. The first
reproduction of the _Provincial Letters_, by Louis and Daniel Elzevir,
of Amsterdam, bears on the title-page, "A Cologne, chés Pierre de la
Vallée, 1657"; that of 1659, by Jean Elzevir, of Leyden, has "A Cologne,
chez Nicolas Schoute". A _Recueil de Diverses Pièces servant à
l'Histoire de Henry III._, &c., bears "A Cologne, chez Pierre du
Marteau"; _Les Imaginaires_, of the Sieur de Damvilliers, in its two
parts purports to be issued "A Liége, chez Adolphe Beyers". _Il Divortio
Celeste_, with other works of Pallavicini, dates from Villafranca, while
other undoubted productions of the Elzevir press were ostensibly
published "A Mons, chez Gaspard Migeot; Londini, typis Du Guardianis;
Stampati in Cosmopoli," and so on, through a list which, difficult
enough to remember, is yet not very extensive.

It will be readily seen that the knowledge requisite for a collector to
possess, if indeed he wishes to become a master of his subject, is of no
mean order, for not only must he have the family pedigree at his
fingers' ends, and be capable of detecting a pseudonymous or pirated
work, but he must also be in a position to appreciate the "right dates,"
and to detect an improper head or tail piece when he sees it. Some books
which pass as Elzevirs are in reality spurious, even though marked with
the "Sphere" or other device; others, though coming from the press, are
inferior editions, "not of the right date," as the specialist puts it.

One of the most beautiful little books ever issued from the Elzevir or
any other press is the _Cæsar_ of 1635, which, on referring to the
table, we shall see must have been printed by Bonaventure and Abraham at
Leyden.[11] It is in 12mo, and there are no less than three editions,
the first and second being so much alike that no one could detect the
difference without the most careful of careful inspections. The "right"
_Cæsar_ is the first, and may be recognised from the Buffalo's Head on a
scroll at the head of the dedication. Pages 149, 335, and 475 are
misprinted 153, 345, and 375 respectively in the first edition, and
there are 35 lines to the page. The second edition, which has not,
pecuniarily speaking, a tenth part of the value, has 37 lines to the
page, and the misprints are corrected. Another fine work, the _Comediæ_
of Terence, Leyden, 1635, 12mo, passed through five editions, all of
which are very much alike. The first and "right" edition has, however,
on page 51, the word _laches_ printed in red, while page 101 is
improperly numbered 69. In the second edition _laches_ is in black, in
the fifth it changes to red again, so that the greatest caution has to
be exercised lest the first and fifth editions should be confounded. The
former is worth much more than the latter, as the unfortunate purchaser
will find to his cost when he comes to sell again.

As previously stated, the "good dates" begin from 1625, the year when
Bonaventure and Abraham went into partnership at Leyden, and any books
dated from that year to 1655, when Jean and Daniel dissolved
partnership, are most likely to be of value, provided only the right
edition is forthcoming. Daniel was, however, by far the best printer in
the family, though some make an exception in favour of Bonaventure and
Abraham; and as he continued in business at Amsterdam, either by himself
or in conjunction with Louis from 1655 to 1680, those dates must also be
considered "good". From the Amsterdam press, in 1655, issued that prize
of Elzevir collectors, the _Pastissier François_, and the splendid
_Virgil_ of 1676 in _grand_ as well as _petit format_, or as we should
say in English, on large and small paper. The halcyon days of the press
at Leyden date from 1625 to 1655; those of the press at Amsterdam from
1655 to 1680.

It is, of course, impossible for anyone, be he dealer or amateur, to
carry in his head all these details and distinguishing marks, and
reference in cases of doubt will have to be made to Willem's _Les
Elzevier_, a work which has superseded all others on the subject. With
this book at hand it is difficult to go wrong, as the minutest points of
difference are chronicled with great fidelity.

We will now take it for granted that the amateur is in full possession
of, or can obtain, all the information necessary to enable him to
distinguish between a right and a wrong date. He has still, however, to
bear in mind that even a right-dated volume may be in such a wretched
condition as to be hardly worth purchasing. If he will take a walk down
Holywell Street he may frequently meet with genuine Elzevirs which the
dealers will be only too glad to dispose of for a shilling or two each.
The reason of this is that, not only are the works offered for sale
_not_ "of the good date" (_i.e._, inferior editions), but they are
also, in the vast majority of instances, battered, dirty, and, worse
than all, "cropped," sometimes even to the very headlines. For a dirty
book there is some hope, since it may be possible to clean it, but for a
cropped specimen there is none: like Lucifer, it has fallen from its
high estate "never to rise again".

As the measurement of these small books is always made in millimetres,
25·4 of which go to the inch, the enthusiastic collector carries with
him an ivory rule on which the French measures are marked. The _Ovid_ of
1629, 3 vols. 16mo, runs to 127 millimetres; the _Cæsar_ of 1635 to 130
millimetres--anything below 125 millimetres is hardly worth looking at;
the _Virgil_ of 1676, if uncut, reaches as high as 148 millimetres, or,
if in _grand format_, even to 184 millimetres. A book of high
measurement, or entirely uncut, may be worth £100 or more, according to
its quality; but if cropped below the fashionable height it would not
bring as many shillings. A copy of _Le Pastissier François_, 128
millimetres high, was not long ago offered at 1500 francs, or £60; an
entirely uncut copy brought 10,000 francs, or £400; and yet between the
two there could not have been a greater difference in height than three,
or at the most four, millimetres. The truth is that Elzevirs are
measured with the same accuracy observable in the weighing of precious
stones, and the 25th part of an inch makes a wonderful difference.

That book collectors sometimes go to extreme lengths cannot be doubted
by anyone who has spent much time in their company; but the English
bibliophiles are not to be compared in this respect with their French
brethren. The latter are _the_ collectors of Elzevirs, and will
frequently spend enormous sums on specimens which from their appearance
and real practical utility are worth hardly anything at all. What can be
more incorrect than the Leyden _Virgil_ of 1636? It is literally crammed
with the most shameful errors, so much so that Heyne says it is
destitute of the slightest trace of any good quality. Yet the famous
Charles Nodier spent nearly all his life searching for a genuine copy of
the first edition, which, when obtained, filled a place purposely left
vacant for it. Up to that time he had declined to "profane" his shelves
with any _Virgil_ at all.

Thus much for the Elzevir press, which, like the Aldine, is not regarded
with the same favour by collectors as it formerly was. Nevertheless
there are many, particularly in France, who yet make a speciality of
these little books with "good dates," and it is, therefore, necessary to
know something of them. Of one thing the collector may be quite
confident: he has here plenty of material for the study of a lifetime,
and, what is greatly to the point, ample opportunity of accumulating a
representative series of examples of the press. Good Elzevirs, though
rare, are not hopelessly so; while bad ones are as plentiful as
blackberries. In this respect, at any rate, the Elzevir collector has a
great advantage over many of his fellows, whose hunting-grounds are
circumscribed, and who frequently would give anything to obtain even a
mutilated copy from the press of their favourite printer.


[9] Louis Elzevir II. (1590-1621) produced nine books, one, however, the
_Navigatio ac Itinerarium_ of Linschoten, 1599, bearing the name of
Gilles Elzevir (probably inserted whilst he was temporarily managing the
business of his brother, who in 1599 was called to Leyden to help his
father, Louis I.).

[10] This was the mark of Erpenius, whose stock was purchased by the

[11] The imprint is merely _Lvgdvni Batavorum, ex officina Elzeviriana_.



In the short time that intervened between the invention of printing by
means of movable type and the end of the fifteenth century some 20,000
different works are known to have been issued from the European press.
Many copies of these are doubtless hidden away in old lumber rooms, or
in the recesses of imperfectly catalogued libraries of obscure and
decaying towns. Some have altogether perished, leaving no trace of their
ephemeral existence; others are known by name, but have themselves
vanished as effectually as if they had never existed. What, for
instance, has become of the fifteen books of Ovid's _Metamorphoses_
which Caxton, in his preface to the _Golden Legende_, says that he
printed? Hitherto no copy has been unearthed, nor any fragment of a
copy. Where is the _Lyfe of Robert Erle of Oxenford_ mentioned in the
preface to the _Four Sons of Aymon_? What was the great printer doing
between the years 1486-8, during which time, so far as can be
discovered, he printed nothing? These and many similar questions are
important, as raising a very strong probability that the bibliography of
Caxton is very far from being complete. The same remarks apply more or
less to nearly every other fifteenth century printer. There is a field
here which has never been fully explored, and which, in all probability,
never will be until some Augustus shall arise, and by a wave of his hand
throw open the dwellings, the libraries, and even the outhouses of the
world to his troop of eager agents. In the meantime, a single discovery
of a hitherto unknown book of the fifteenth century acquires an
importance proportionate to the exceptional nature of the occurrence;
and though the book hunter never despairs, he knows only too well that
such rarities fall only to fortunate mortals like the French
bibliophile Resbecq, whose extraordinary luck was proverbial, or to
those whose ignorance is so dense that they seem provided, as
compensation, with more than a fair share of attractive power. It seems
a pity that the unappreciative should often obtain chances which are
denied to those who could utilise them to advantage, but it is often the
case. The merest tyro sometimes experiences a success which the
experienced bibliophile sighs for in vain.

Glowing as this picture appears, the collector must not run away with
the idea that all early printed books are valuable. Some, even of the
fifteenth century, are not worth an Englishman's ransom by a long way.
The question of value depends mainly on the name of, and the degree of
reputation acquired by, the printer. Thus, books printed by Fust and
Schoeffer, Gutenberg and Fust, Sweynham and Pannartz, and many others of
the oldest continental printers, are scarce and valuable in the extreme;
so are any books from the presses of the early English printers. On the
other hand, the Estienne, Giunta, and Plantin presses are comparatively
neglected. Here, again, it is a question of reputation, only, in this
case, the inquiry is directed not to the book itself, but to the
printer, a reversal of the usual rule, and one that is productive of an
extraordinary result, namely, that trivial books are often the most
valuable, simply because they have not been worth keeping. Let no one,
then, look, in the first instance, to the character of an early printed
book, but let him rather study that of the craftsman, keeping in mind
the current of popular favour and the direction in which it flows. If he
does this, he will find that, so far as this country is concerned, there
is a scope amply sufficient to satisfy the most earnest aspirations. The
long line of printers from Caxton, in 1477, to Day, in 1546, and, in a
lesser degree, those of the subsequent fifty years, discloses names
which are graven on the heart of the collector, who often accounts
himself fortunate if he can procure a single specimen from the early
English press. As the chance of his doing so, though remote, is by no
means impossible, seeing that copies are frequently offered for sale
while many others must be hidden away, it is necessary that he should
have some ideas of his own. To let slip a chance which fortune throws in
his way, and which may never occur again, would be productive of
never-ending regret, especially as, with a little care and attention,
there is no reason why such a disaster should occur.

The subject of the early English press could not, of course, be entered
upon fully without occupying considerable space, and I must content
myself with such a _résumé_ as can conveniently be compressed within the
compass of a few pages.

It is worthy of note that many of these old English printers were, like
Aldus Manutius, editors as well. In the early days labour was not
divided as it is now, and it is well known that Caxton, for example, not
merely translated many of his publications, but cast his own type and
bound the sheets when ready for publication. Each of these processes was
perfected in his own office, and so well that to this day his handiwork
is seldom surpassed. Improved apparatus cannot always hold its own
against manual dexterity--an observation which becomes more than ever
accentuated when we apply it to the art of Typography, perfect in its
results almost from infancy.

    WILLIAM CAXTON, 1474(?).


Caxton, as, indeed, many of the other printers whose names are
subsequently mentioned, used several devices, of which, I think, it will
be sufficient to give the chief. This pioneer English printer learned
his art during the years 1474-5 in the office of Colard Mansion at
Bruges. Sometime about the year 1477 he established himself as a printer
at Westminster, where he died in 1491. There are certain distinguishing
features by which any of Caxton's works may be known, even if the
colophon is lost or the book a mere fragment. His type is _always_
Gothic or old English; he never used catchwords nor commas; and although
works from the press of Lettou and Machlinia of London (1480) are
exactly like Caxton's in these respects, the measurement of any given
space occupied by 20 or 22 lines, according to the description of type
used, varies considerably. Since 1819, some twenty hitherto unknown
works by Caxton have been identified by the measurement test, for a full
explanation of which the collector is referred to Blades' _Life of

Among the works printed by this great master may be mentioned the
following, which have brought the prices affixed at auction, within the
last few years:--

     _The Game and Playe of Chesse_, small folio, 31st March, 1474,
     the first book of Caxton with a date, and a perfect copy, but
     wanting the two blank leaves (10-1/8 in. × 7-1/8 in.), old
     calf, £645.

     _Dictes and Sayinges of the Philosophers_ (11-1/2 in. × 8 in.),
     1477, folio, morocco extra, perfect, £650.

     _Higden's Discripcion of Britayne_, evidently made up from two
     imperfect copies (11-1/2 in. × 8 in.), morocco extra, 1480,
     folio, £195.

     _Chronicles of Englonde_, 1480, folio, wanted part of the index
     and otherwise greatly imperfect, £67; another copy (9-1/2 in ×
     7 in.), perfect, £470.

     _Higden's Polychronicon_, 1482, 4to, a very imperfect copy,
     containing only 205 leaves, £31.

     _Ryal Book, or Book for a King_, perfect, but several leaves
     mended (11-1/8 in. × 8-1/8 in.), no date (1487?), folio, £365.

     _The Prouffitable Boke for Mannes Soule, called The Chastysing
     of Goddes Children_, no date, folio, quite complete; and
     another called _The Tretyse of the Love of Jhesu Christ by_
     _Wynkyn de Worde_, 1493, folio, both in one volume, £305.

     _Boecius de Consolacione Philosophie_, in Latin and English, a
     complete copy, several leaves stained (10-3/4 in. × 7-1/2 in.),
     old calf, no date, folio, £156.

Contemporary with Caxton were the printers Lettou and Machlinia,
previously mentioned, who carried on business in the city of London,
where they established a press in 1480. Machlinia had previously worked
under Caxton. Their productions are scarce, but not so much so as those
of Caxton. An inferior copy of their _Vieux Abrigement des Statutes_, no
date, but about 1481, folio, sold by auction in August, 1887, for £8
10s., and occasionally other and better specimens may be picked up for
two or three times that amount.

    WYNKYN DE WORDE, 1491.


In all probability this famous printer was one of Caxton's assistants or
workmen, when the latter was living at Bruges, but without doubt he was
employed in his office at Westminster until 1491, when he commenced
business on his own account, having in his possession a considerable
quantity of Caxton's type. Wynkyn de Worde, who was one of the founders
of the Stationers' Company, died in 1534, after having printed no less
than 410 books known to bibliographers, the earliest of which bearing a
date is the _Liber Festivalis_, 4to, 1493. The whole of these works,
especially when in good condition, are excessively scarce, and
invariably bring high prices. A wormed copy of the _Descrypcion of
Englonde, Wales, and Scotlonde_ brought £10 at the Gibson Craig sale in
July, 1887, and the _Vitas Patrum_, 1495, folio, £71, at the Crawford
sale in the same month. Voragine's _Golden Legend_, printed by de Worde
in 1527, brought £81 a short time ago; his _Higden's Polychronicon_,
1495, folio, wanting title, £16 5s.; the _Nova Legenda Anglie_, 1516,
folio (wormed), £28; and Dame Juliana Berner's _Fysyhing with an Angle_,
1496, folio (frontispiece inlaid), £120.



This early English printer was by birth a Norman, but became naturalised
in England by letters patent and was appointed king's printer. He was
the first to introduce the Roman letter into this country, though this
honour is by some attributed to Wynkyn de Worde. The Italian penmen of
the fifteenth century furnished the model for the round character which
has been successively adopted in most of the typographical foundries
since the days of Pynson, and which is known as the Roman character; and
these penmen are supposed to have imitated the writing of the
Carlovingian MSS. Thus the small alphabet used by our printers is a copy
of that adopted in the churches of France in the time of Charlemagne.

Among Pynson's works may be mentioned the following. The prices affixed
have, as before, been realised at auction within the last few years.

     Sebastian Brant's _Shyp of Folys of the Worlde_, translated by
     Barclay, black letter, woodcuts, morocco extra, imperfect,
     1509, folio, £23.

     _Jeronimi de Sancto Marcho Opusculum_, &c., woodcut signs of
     the Zodiac and Pynson's device on title, a fine copy in morocco
     extra, bound by Bedford (1509), 4to, £85.

     _Intrationum Liber_, woodcut of royal arms, perfect, old
     russia, 1510, folio, £36 15s.

    JULIAN NOTARY, 1498.


The periods of the birth and death of this ancient typographical artist
are entirely unknown. One of his books, the _Missale Secundum vsvm
Sarvm_, dates from Westminster, the 20th December, 1498, and one or two
others are dated 1520, so that it is safe to say that he flourished
between those dates. One of the most extraordinary books issued at this
early time is the _Shepherd's Calendar_, printed by Julian Notary. It is
full of quaint woodcuts, illustrative of religious myths, which,
considering the times, are excellently executed. An edition of this
calendar was also printed and published by Richard Pynson. The total
number of books known to have been printed by Julian Notary is 23.



This printer is known in connection with a few books, about half-a-dozen
in number, which, as usual, are excessively scarce and very valuable.
The dates of his birth and death are uncertain. The first of his books,
however, is dated 1499, and the last 1508.



Although the date of the first book printed by Richard Fawkes is given
as 1509, it is more than likely that the date on the title-page (_Salus
Corporis, Salus Anime_, folio, 1509) is a misprint. The next in point of
date is a book of _Hours_, 1521, and it is hardly likely that twelve
years should have elapsed without his printing anything. Still, time has
spared such a few of this printer's publications that it is quite
possible the date may be correct. Specimens from Fawkes' press are
excessively rare, none having been offered for sale, so far as I am
aware, for many years.



Our information about this printer is very meagre, so much so that
little seems to be known of him beyond the fact that he was the first
printer in the borough of Southwark. He printed for John Reynes, a
bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard in 1527; also for Laurence Andrewe,
who carried on business in Fleet Street about the same date. Anthony à
Wood, in his _History and Antiquities of Oxford_, says that Treveris
printed some of Whitinton's pieces there in 1527, but no evidence of the
fact appears to be forthcoming. The first book known to have issued from
his press is the _Disticha Moralia_, 4to, 1514, though some
bibliographers deny that Treveris was the printer. The whole number of
his productions, inclusive of the grammatical treatises of Whitinton,
which, on the authority of Wood and for purposes of convenience, are
ascribed to him, does not amount to 30. They are, as usual, very scarce.

     _The Grete herball whiche gyueth parfyt Knowledge_, &c., black
     letter, woodcuts, badly cut down, 1529, folio, £5.


This printer was one of the assistants of Wynkyn de Worde, and a legatee
under his will. He was also a stationer and bookseller, dwelling at the
Rose Garland in Fleet Street, where he carried on business from about
1515 to the year 1547 or beginning of 1548. His productions are not only
few in number, but very rarely ever met with. He seems to have been fond
of small and fugitive pieces, of which, doubtless, a large number have
perished owing to the popularity which formerly attended publications of
this kind. The number of his works catalogued by Ames amounts to 12.
This printer must not be confounded with William Copland (_post_), whose
productions are, comparatively speaking, common.

    JOHN RASTELL, 1520.


According to Bale, this printer was a citizen of London, and married the
sister of Sir Thomas More. The date of his birth is not known, but he
died in 1536, leaving two sons, one of whom, William, succeeded to his
business. Ames mentions 31 works printed by John Rastell and 15 by
William, and among the former is the famous _Pastyme of People, or
Cronycles of Englond_, of which only three perfect copies are known to
exist. A fac-simile reprint was issued in 1811 by Dr. Dibdin. An
original copy of this work, which contains 18 woodcut full-length
portraits of the kings, was, though imperfect, sold at the Wimpole sale,
in June, 1888, for as much as £79. A copy of the reprint is worth about

    JOHN SKOT, 1521.


Books printed by this workman, which are only 13 in number, are seldom
seen. Much--and probably it is no exaggeration to say, most--of the work
of the English printers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries has
been destroyed, and it is probable that between the years 1521 and 1537,
when John Skot, or Scott, as he sometimes spelled his name, is known to
have been working, a large number of publications was issued from his
press, of which not a trace remains. There is a good copy of the
diminutive tract known as _The Rosary_, printed by Skot in 1537, in the
library of Earl Spencer at Althorpe.

    ROBERT REDMAN, 1523.


Robert Redman set up a printing press at the house quitted by Pynson,
just outside Temple Bar, and called the George. He seems also to have
adopted a colourable imitation of his device, and altogether to have
taken great advantage of his opportunities to undermine the business of
his rival. In the 1525 edition of _Lyttleton's Tenures_, printed by
Pynson, the latter takes Redman roundly to task, and in an edition of
_Magna Charter_, dated 1527, a similar strain of abuse is maintained.
The first book known to have been printed by Redman bears date 1523. He
died somewhere about the year 1540.

     Fitzherbert's _Diuersite de Courtes_, black letter, 24 ff.,
     1528, 16mo, £2 10s.

    ROBERT WYER, 1527.


This prolific printer was in business, "in the felde besyde Charynge
Crosse," from 1527 to about 1542, but as the greater number of his books
were published without dates, it is possible that he may have lived
beyond the year given. The number of his books catalogued amounts to 68,
and they consist chiefly of treatises on Astrology, Medicine, and, more
rarely, Poetry.



Towards the middle of the sixteenth century the popular demand for
biblical legends and treatises on scholastic divinity began to decline,
and a taste for classical literature to take its place. The productions
of Berthelet, which give evidence of the improvement in this respect to
no slight degree, are intrinsically valuable, as well as unusually
numerous. Berthelet died about Christmas, 1555, as appears by an entry
in the Stationers' Hall books for 26th of January, 1555-6. The number of
his works, as catalogued, amounts to 190.

     _The Praise of Folie_, by Erasmus, translated by Chaloner,
     black letter, wormed, and title mended, 1549, 4to, £2 8s.

     Gower's _De Confessione Amantis_, black letter, Berthelet's
     first edition, wormed, oak boards, covered in stamped leather,
     1532, folio, £8.

     _Institution of a Christen Man_, black letter, woodcut border
     to title by Holbein, morocco extra, 1537, 4to, £22 10s.

     _Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christen man_, black
     letter, morocco extra, 1543, 4to, £12.

     _Psalms or Prayers_, black letter, wanting title and signature
     Lv, calf, no date (1548), 8vo, £10 5s.

     _Henrici VIII. Pia et Catholica Christiani Hominis Institutio_,
     morocco extra, by Pratt, fine copy, 1544, 4to, £5 5s.

    JOHN BYDDELL, 1533.


John Byddell first carried on business at the sign of "Our Lady of
Pity," and seems to have borrowed his device from one of the earlier
pages of Corio's _History of Milan_, 1505. Subsequently he removed to
the "Sun," in Fleet Street, formerly occupied by Wynkyn de Worde. This
printer died somewhere about 1544, having published 29 volumes,
according to Ames, most of which are of a serious character.

     _Prymer in Englishe, with Calendar and Almanake_ (1535-54),
     black letter, title in fac-simile, russia extra, 16th June,
     1535, 4to, £97.

     _Bible in English_ (by R. Tavener), black letter, several
     leaves mended, morocco extra, by Bedford, folio, 1539, £57.



Richard Grafton, the king's printer, was at one time a citizen and
grocer of London, and seems to have been brought up as a merchant. He
commenced business as a printer with Edward Whitchurche in or about the
year 1537, and from that date to 1541 they continually printed in
partnership. The dissolution was probably due to the persecution to
which they were subjected on account of the Act of the Six Articles.
Whitchurche, whose device is given below, is said to have married the
widow of Archbishop Cranmer, and is known to have been living in 1560.
Grafton, who was continually in difficulties, and on one occasion
narrowly escaped with his life, is supposed to have died about the year

     _Boke of Common Praier_, black letter, blue morocco extra, by
     Rivière, August, 1552, folio, £60.

     _Primer in Englishe_ (black letter) _and Latyn_ (roman type),
     brown morocco extra, by Bedford, 1545, 4to, £28.

     _Orarium seu Libellus Precationum_, woodcuts, blue morocco,
     16mo, 1546, £20 10s.

     Marbeck's _Concordance of the Bible_, black letter, title
     inlaid, russia, small folio, 1550, £1 6s.

     Halle's _Chronicle_, black letter, russia extra, by Bedford,
     folio, 1550, £9.

     Harding's _Chronicle_, black letter, morocco extra, by Bedford,
     1543, 4to, £11 5s.

     _The Order of the Communion_, black letter, wanted title,
     morocco, 8th March, 1548, sm. 4to (the only copy known), £55.



     _Byble in Englyshe_ (Cranmer's), black letter, cut down at the
     top, morocco extra, by Bedford, folio, 1541, £50.

     _Booke of Common Prayer_, black letter, first edition of Edward
     VI.'s Prayer Book, with the rare order for the price, a fine
     copy in blue morocco extra, folio, 1549, £155.

     _Boke of Common Prayer_, second edition of Edward VI.'s Prayer
     Book, a fine copy in blue morocco, folio, 1552, £100.

     _Book of Prayers used in the Queen's_ (Catherine Parr's)
     _House_, black letter, a fragment of an unknown edition, 32mo,
     1550, £2.

Grafton and Whitchurche, in conjunction, printed the first issue of the
_Great_ or _Cromwell's Bible_, a folio book dated 1539, a fair copy of
which was sold at the Crawford sale for £111; also the _New Testament,
both in Latin and English, after the vulgare texte_ (Coverdale's
version), 1538-39, 8vo, partly printed at Paris by Regnault and
completed in London. Nearly the entire impression was seized and burnt
by order of the Inquisition, and the few copies that remain are
extraordinarily rare and valuable.

    JOHN WAYLANDE, 1537.

A printer who, according to the best authorities, lived at the sign of
the "Blue Garland in Fleet Street," and, in the year 1541, at the sign
of the "Sun, against the Conduit". He was in business in 1558.

     _The Primer in English and Latin, after Salisburye Use_, some
     leaves in fac-simile, bound by Rivière in morocco, 22nd August,
     1558, 12mo, £20.

     _Tragedies of all such Princes as fell from their estates
     throughe the Mutabilitie of Fortune, translated into Englysh by
     John Lidgate_, black letter, some leaves mended, no date,
     folio, £4 10s.

     _Prymer in Latin and Englishe ...and Almanacke_ (1555-71), black
     letter, brown morocco extra, by Rivière, 1555, sm. 4to, £27.

     _Prymer in Englishe_ (black letter) _and Latine_ (roman type),
     _after Salisbury Use, with Calendar, &c._, woodcuts, calf, 1557,
     16mo (only six copies are known), £13.

     _Prymer in Englyshe, with Calendar_, black letter, title in
     fac-simile, brown morocco extra, _Ihon Mayler for Ihon
     Waylande_, 1539, sm. 4to (only four copies are known), £91.



William Myddylton, or Middleton, succeeded to the business of Robert
Redman, which he carried on at the sign of the "George, next to St.
Dunstan's Church, in Fleet Street". This printer turned out some 30
different publications, known to bibliographers. There is no doubt,
however, that many more must be lost, or remain undiscovered. Myddylton
probably died somewhere about the year 1550. Another printer, by name
Henry Middleton, flourished about the year 1579. His works are scarce,
but not nearly so valuable as those of William.

     Froissart's _Cronycles of Englande, &c._, translated by
     Bourchier, 2 vols., black letter, 1525, folio, russia extra,
     (printed by Myddylton and Pinson), £9 12s.

    REYNOLD WOLFE, 1542.


The king's printer, was in all probability a foreigner by extraction, if
not by birth. He commenced printing in 1542, but a great portion of his
time was spent in collecting materials for an _Universal Cosmography of
all Nations_, which, though undigested at his death in 1573, laid the
foundation for Holinshed's _Chronicles_. His works are described as
being 59 in number, and, as is always the case where any specimens from
the presses of early English printers are concerned, are scarce and
valuable. After the death of Reynold, his widow, Joan, printed three
books, which bear her name. The last of these is dated in 1580, about
which time, doubtless, the press ceased to exist.

Care must be taken that this printer is not confounded with others of
the same name, who, for the most part, carried on business in France and

    JOHN DAY, 1546.

Next to Caxton and Wynkyn de Worde, this printer certainly ranks the
highest in the opinion of bibliographers. Herbert says that Day first
began printing a little above Holborn Conduit, and about 1549 removed to
Aldersgate. He kept also at the same time several shops in different
parts of the town, where his books were sold. Day was the first printer
who used Saxon characters, and brought those of the Greek and Italic to
perfection. He died in 1584 after having followed the business of a
printer for nearly forty years.

The name of John Day will sometimes be found in conjunction with that of
William Seres, but rarely, if ever, after 1550. This William Seres was a
printer, who, on dissolving partnership with Day in 1550, carried on
business by himself for some twenty or twenty-five years in London.

     _A Short Catechism_, black letter, morocco extra, 1553, 16mo,

     _Booke of Christian Prayers Collected out of the Ancient
     Writers_, black letter, blue morocco extra, by Pratt, 1578,
     4to, £26 10s.

     _Certaine Select Prayers Gathered out of S. Augustine's
     Meditations_, 2 vols., 1575, sm. 8vo, £5 15s.

     _Psalmes in Metre with Music_, black letter, 1571, sm. 4to,
     £140. This work was sold with another by Jugge and Cawood, and
     was bound in an exceptionally fine Elizabethan style.

     _Preces Privatæ in Studiosorum_, first ed., 1564, 16mo, also
     another edition of 1573, 16mo, in two volumes (both printed by
     William Seres), £3.


Probably a son of Robert Copland, though the relationship is very
doubtful. It has been supposed that William was a younger brother of
Robert, and worked in the office of the latter up to the time of his
death, in the same manner as Robert worked in the office of Wynkyn de
Worde. It is evident that both William and Robert used the same battered
types, which they set up with an equal amount of carelessness.
Notwithstanding the workmanship, however, these books are valuable, and
always command high prices. The first book of William Copland's
printing found with a date is the _Understandinge of the Lorde's
Supper_, 1548, 8vo; and between that year and 1568, the time of his
death, he is credited with over 60 different publications.

     _Story of the most noble and worthy Kynge Arthur_, black
     letter, woodcuts, the title and several leaves in fac-simile,
     morocco extra, 1557, sm. folio, £10; another copy, quite
     perfect, £30.

     _The right plesaunt and goodly Historie of the foure sonnes of
     Aimon_, black letter, woodcuts, the title and several leaves in
     fac-simile, no date or name, but printed by W. Copland in 1554,
     small folio, £14.

     _Hystorie of the two Valyaunte Brethren, Valentyne and Orson_,
     black letter, woodcuts, a defective copy, several leaves having
     been repaired, no date, small 4to, £21.

Among the other old English printers, whose names frequently appear on
the title-pages of books, may be mentioned:--

     WALTER LYNNE, 1548-50, whose _Cattechismus_, in small 8vo,
     1548, brought £59 in June, 1889.

     RICHARD JUGGE, 1548-77, _The Holie Bible_, Bishops' Version,
     black letter, 1568, folio, £70.

     THOMAS MARSHE, 1549-87, _Certaine Tragicall Discourses_, black
     letter, 1567, 4to, £15; also _Heywoode's Woorkes_, 1576-77,
     4to, £9 9s.

     JOHN CAWOOD, 1550-72, who printed the first collected edition
     of _Sir Thomas More's Works_, 1557, now worth from £15 to £20,
     the _Stultifera Navis_ of Brant, black letter, woodcuts, folio,
     1570, £12, and many others.

     RICHARD TOTTEL, 1553-94.

     HUGH SINGLETON, 1553-88, _The Supplication of Doctour Barnes_,
     &c., black letter, morocco extra, by Rivière, no date, 8vo,

     JOHN KYNGSTON, 1553-84, the printer of the best folio edition
     of _Fabian's Chronicle_, 1559.

     ROWLAND HALL, 1559-63.

     JOHN ALLDE, 1561-96.

     ROBERT REDBORNE (cir. 1576), whose only known work is entitled
     _The history of the moost noble and valyaunt knyght, Arthur, of
     lytell brytayne_, folio, no date, but about 1576. Of this work
     only two perfect copies are known. One sold at the Crawford
     sale in June, 1889, for £27 10s.

     THOMAS EST (_cir._ 1592), _Whole Booke of Psalmes_, 1592, 8vo,
     £15 10s. Wilbye's _Second Set of Madrigales_, half morocco,
     1609, 4to, £6. Yonge's Musica Transalpina, 1588, 4to, £7.
     Yonge's _Musica Transalpina_, the seconde booke, half morocco,
     1597, 4to, £11.

With the advent of the seventeenth century presses became very numerous
all over England. Christopher and Robert Barker at London, and John
Field at Cambridge, are perhaps the best known printers of that era, but
the importance and value of their works depend upon circumstances, and
cease to exist as a matter of course. It is indeed from this point that
the study of English bibliography becomes more difficult and confusing,
and here precisely that the young collector is apt to go astray.

The most famous English printer of modern times was undoubtedly John
Baskerville; in fact, he seems to have been the only one possessed of
exceptional merit. Everyone has heard of Baskerville: he rises the one
solitary genius out of the multitude of labourers in the same field, and
towers so high above the rest as to eclipse them entirely. Baskerville
started as a printer in Birmingham in 1756, having spent hundreds of
pounds in the experimental casting of type, which he ultimately brought
to the highest state of perfection. Every book printed by him is a
masterpiece: his paper is clear and elegant and of a very fine quality,
while the uniformity of colour throughout testifies to the care taken in
printing every sheet. At one time works from the Birmingham press,
presided over by Baskerville, were much sought after, but of late years
the fashion has changed and prices have consequently much diminished.
The splendid edition of Addison's works, 4 vols., 4to, with portraits
and plates, 1761, a beautiful copy bound by Derome in red morocco,
brought £10 a short time ago, a depreciation of at least a third in the
value, while in some other instances the fall is much more marked.
Baskerville appears at one time to have studied the workmanship of the
Elzevirs, and on one or two of his books, notably the _Elegantiæ Latini
Sermonis_ of Meursius, 1757, he has dated the title-page as from _Lugd.
Bat. Typis Elzevirianis_. This little volume is a fit tribute to a
family of famous printers of the seventeenth century, from a no less
excellent workman of the eighteenth, and I feel certain that some day
collectors will again vie with each other in collecting choice examples
from his press.



Books cannot live long without being bound, and the more expensive and
artistic the appearance of the binding, the greater the chance of
preservation for the whole. A book is sometimes handled gently, not
because of any merits of its own, but simply on account of its cover,
which thus becomes its protector in a double sense. Like those old
earthen boxes, which on being broken are found to contain the clay
tablets of Assyria, many of which run as far back as 1500 years before
the Christian era, bindings were doubtless originally intended to act
the part of preservatives; beauty of design and even neatness would be
after-considerations, and entirely subservient to the sole object, that
of protection. By degrees the book lover made demands upon art, and, in
obedience to an universal law, the supply answered to his call. Cicero,
we are told, was a connoisseur of bindings, and himself employed famous
workmen to glorify his rolls of papyrus and vellum, or to bind up his
diptychs in the manner of our modern books, but more expensively, if the
tastes of the old Roman are not belied, than the majority of book lovers
can afford to do in these latter days.

In the palmy days of Rome, art in all its varied forms was probably as
advanced as it is now, and we cannot doubt that Virgil and Homer, the
representative poets of Rome and Greece, were to be found in a score of
palaces, dressed as befitted their high reputation, in the most noble
and expensive of coverings. Two thousand years have, however, made a
clean sweep of Roman artist and Roman bookman alike, and we have nothing
to guide us beyond the casual remarks of one or two diarists and
historians of the day, whose chronicles have happened, almost by chance,
to come down to us. The names of none of the ancient binders survive,
and not a trace of their workmanship remains; we know only that there
were such beings, who occasionally threw into their work great taste and
skill, and that bibliophiles vied with each other in gaining possession
of their choicest examples.

When, therefore, the question is asked, Who was the first binder known
to fame? we cannot look to Greece or to Rome for an answer, nor yet to
Italy. Curiously enough it is to Ireland that we must turn, for there
the monk Dagæus practised the art so long ago as 520 A.D. One example
only of his handiwork has survived to our own day, and is now to be
found in the library of the British Museum along with the _Textus
Sanctus Cuthberti_ bound by the first English workman, one Bilfred, a
monk of Durham, who flourished nearly 1200 years ago. This _Textus_, so
the old legend says, was once swallowed up by the sea, which, respectful
of the merits of the saint, gracefully retired fully three miles of its
own accord, and so restored the cherished volume to its owners. As the
monks were the sole multipliers of books, so also they were, until the
invention of printing in 1450, the only binders. Manuscripts of the
ninth century are extant, heavily encased in ivory-carved covers or
confined between gold and silver plates studded with precious stones.
More often than not these expensive coverings were destined to be their
ruin, for, to say nothing of private peculation, the sumptuous bindings
were ripped off at the time of the Reformation for the sake of the metal
or stones, and the manuscripts thrown in thousands upon the tender
mercies of the vandals into whose hands they fell.

In the fourteenth century Petrarch was knocked down by one of his own
tomes, and was within an ace of breaking his leg, but this was at a
period when monastic bindings ordinarily consisted of wood, covered with
leather and protected by metallic bosses, corner plates, and massive
clasps of iron. Bulk and weight were then the great desiderata, though
every now and then the richest materials were still employed in binding,
as when a king's library was added to, or some rich monastery gave
orders for a sacred volume to be covered with the enamels of Limoges,
ivory, gold or silver, and encrusted with jewels.

From the end of the fifth to the middle of the fifteenth century, books
were excessively rare and costly, and comparatively few bindings
illustrative of the art during the dark ages have been preserved. The
few that have survived are wonderful specimens of art, and in every way
worthy of the illuminated manuscripts they enclose.

The period of the Renaissance, which is usually assigned to the
Pontificate of Leo X., was witness of another change. The ponderous
tomes, whose weight was alone a protection, gradually gave way to
smaller-sized volumes, and these were often bound in velvet or silk,
beautifully embroidered by lady amateurs, perhaps also by professed
binders. At other times the monastic covering of wood and leather is
observable, and often the leather gave way to seal and shark skin
without any tooling or other ornamentation.

These different styles of binding continued in vogue side by side until
the introduction of typography, when the Venetians introduced morocco
from the East and found out the virtues of calf. Books now became bound
in oak boards covered with these leathers or in thick parchment or pig
skin, old manuscripts often being cut up and of course destroyed for the
purpose: boards, clasps, and bosses became obsolete, while silken
embroidery maintained a precarious existence, dependent solely on the
spasmodic efforts of accomplished amateurs whose tastes and inclinations
were swayed by fashion. Finally, parchment disappeared and leather
bindings held universal sway, and have so maintained it to our own time,
though the English cloth-bound book is now employed whenever expense is
an object.

Such is a short history of the development of the art of bookbinding, as
necessary to be understood and remembered as any other branch of our

Some of the better-known and more valuable descriptions of ornamental
bindings, whether Italian, French, or English, derive their entire
importance by reason of their having come from the libraries of noted
collectors, who bound their books after a model pattern. Many of these
specimens are of the greatest rarity and often of great value. As works
of art, too, they are frequently far superior to anything that can be,
or at any rate is, produced at the present day. A really well bound book
by Le Gascon, or one of the Eves, for example, is a beautiful object.
The covers, of the choicest calf or morocco, are tooled in patterns,
_i.e._, hand engraved, in gold; the edges are of gilt, _gauffré_, that
is to say, designs are impressed on them also; the whole is a splendid
specimen of bibliopegistic skill. Such artists as these disdained blind
tooling, where the patterns are worked out and left without their meed
of gold. Half-bound volumes with their back and corners of leather and
their sides of vulgar paper or boards they were either ignorant of or

All this excellence of course cost money, which then, as now, was in the
hands of the few, and it must not for a moment be supposed that examples
of high-class binding were at all common even during the era in which
they were produced. They are scarcer now, for time and fire have claimed
their share of spoil, but it was only the great collectors of almost
unlimited means, popes, kings, and cardinals, and their favourites, who
could afford at any time to furnish a library where beautiful bindings

These collections have for the most part been dispersed over the world,
and an amateur of the true old-fashioned type will not allow himself to
be looked upon as fortunate, if his shelves do not contain one or two
examples at least from the magnificent libraries of brother amateurs
long since passed away.

The Italians were the first to awake to the enormity of binding their
books in pig skin, or encasing them between clumsy wooden boards; and
readily profiting by the teachings of the great master painters, who
made Italy their peculiar home, they began to use calf and morocco,
elaborately tooled to geometrical patterns. Leo X. (1513-21) had a good
library, and one book at least is extant, bound by an Italian artist in
red morocco, with the Papal arms on the sides. Some years previously to
this, Aldus Manutius had bound his own books at Venice, and he took as
much care of their dress as he did of the text. Some of these bindings
appear to be imitations of the designs sculptured on the walls of
mosques, and it was from the East therefore that the great Venetian
school obtained its first instruction in the art. The book lover
rejoices exceedingly when he meets with any of these ancient Italian
bindings, but if he can only possess a Maioli, his cup of happiness
literally overflows.

This Maioli--who or what he was are alike unknown--this Maioli had an
extensive library, and all his books were sumptuously bound in the
choicest leathers and tooled in gold on the backs and sides. On an
embossed shield was the title of the work, and underneath, that
inscription afterwards imitated by Grolier, "Tho Maioli et Amicorum".
Let not the collector be deceived however:--there were two Maiolis:
Thomasso, above mentioned, whose choice bindings are sought after all
the world over, and Michel, whose artistic tastes were less fully
developed, and who perhaps knew better than to invite his friends to
borrow from his store.

Cardinal Bonelli (1541-98) and Canevari, the physician to Pope Urban
VIII. (1559-1625), were both enamoured of costly bindings, the latter
especially, for on the sides of his books appears a gorgeous object
representing Apollo in gold, driving his chariot in blue or red over a
silver sea.

Lorenzo de Medici, Prince of Florence, scholar and patron of art and
literature, called the Magnificent, who died in 1492, stamped his books
with the Medici arms, together with a laurel branch and the motto
_Semper_. Others of the Medici family had splendid libraries, and their
books were often covered with silver and gold beautifully inlaid, after
the designs of painters of the highest eminence.

Amongst other Italian collectors whose fondness for calf and morocco
carried them perhaps just a little too near the border line of
extravagance, were Pietro Accolti, Cardinal of Ancona (1445-1532),
Antonio Alemanni, the poet (1500), and Pasqual Cicogna, Doge of Venice,
who died in 1595. Specimens from the libraries of any of these, and
others besides, are sometimes worth far more than their weight in gold.

The Italian bookbinders were the instructors of the French, who
subsequently rivalled and finally eclipsed their masters. At first the
French merely imitated, but towards the close of the reign of Francis I.
(_cir._ 1540), they struck out fresh lines of their own.

Jean Grolier is the representative collector of the early French school,
but he was, at the same time, the most famous judge of bindings that the
world has yet seen. He was born at Lyons in 1479, and died in 1565,
having spent nearly the whole of his life in the collection of books.
His opinion of French binders appears to have been the reverse of
complimentary, for he went to Italy to find a workman after his own
heart, and one who could be relied upon to satisfy his fastidious taste.
Many people think that Grolier was by trade a bookbinder, but this is a
mistake--he was merely an enthusiastic amateur who allowed his passion
for bindings to become his master. Some of his designs he prepared
himself; others are undoubted imitations of those adopted by Maioli,
whom he so greatly admired, that even his motto is reproduced, with of
course the necessary variation, "Io Grolierii et Amicorum". This appears
on the sides of most of his books, and there is consequently no
difficulty in identifying them. Others bear an emblem, and in a scroll,
"Æque difficulter," and others again the words of the Psalmist arranged
so as to form a triangle, "Portio mea Domine sit in terra
viventium".[12] Most of Grolier's books were printed by Aldus at Venice,
and they are generally found lettered on the back, a practice which was
not in vogue before his day. But however bound, and whatever device,
maxim, or motto he employed, the name of Grolier invariably causes great
excitement among amateurs. The value of any of his books is proverbial,
and their scarcity equally so. A rare book may occasionally be snapped
up for a hundredth part of its worth, not so a magnificent specimen of
binding, which courts further inquiries on the part of the vendor, and,
as we all know, "further inquiries" are usually fatal to the would-be
snapper-up of unconsidered valuables.

Louis de Sainte-Maure was a contemporary of Grolier, and like him an
enthusiastic book hunter. His bindings are said to be even rarer still.
They too are tooled with geometrical figures, and on the side, in the
centre, is the inscription, "Invia virtuti nulla est via".

Diana of Poitiers, the mistress of Henri II. of France (_cir._ 1540),
was another famous collector, who spent vast sums on binding her books.
The designs were made in all probability by Le Petit Bernard, one of the
most famous engravers of his day, and her books, like those of Grolier,
were gold tooled on both back and sides. Diana's device consisted of a
bow and a crescent, sometimes with a sheaf of arrows. Those books which
the infatuated Henri sent to his mistress bear the H. surmounted by a
crown and flanked by the _fleur-de-lys_. Henri was himself a collector
of no mean order, and his volumes, like those belonging to the fair
Diana, have their countless worshippers. The king, whatever the laxity
of his morals, was a stickler for etiquette, and drew a wide distinction
between a mistress and a wife. Some of his books are stamped with the
interwoven initials H. and D., and ornamented with the usual emblems of
the chase, but no crown is observable. That makes its appearance over a
solitary H., banished, so to speak, to the remoter regions of the
cover. Sometimes the initials are changed to H. C., interwoven and
surmounted by the crown, and then we know that Henri chose to honour his
wife Catherine de Medicis with notice.

Diana's library at the Château d'Anet was dispersed by auction in 1723:
it contained volumes of the most varied descriptions, lives of the
saints and lewd songs jostling one another with impudent familiarity.

Catherine de Medicis herself had the taste of Diana for beautiful
bindings, and kept a staff of workmen, who vied with each other in the
production of beautiful specimens of ornamentation. She had the mania of
the true book collector, for on the death of the Maréchal de Strozzi,
she laid violent hands on his choice and valuable library, promising to
pay for it sometime, but ultimately dying herself without doing so.

The books of Francis I. (1515-47), if bound for his use while Dauphin of
France, are marked with a dolphin, in addition to the ordinary kingly
stamps of the Royal Arms, a salamander, and the letter F. The motto in
each case is the same: "Nutrio et extinguo". Specimens of binding having
the dolphin are extraordinarily rare.

Henri III. (1574-89) did much to reduce the extravagant cost of
bookbinding, for, in 1583, he made a decree that ordinary citizens
should not decorate any single book with more than four diamonds, or the
nobility with more than five; he himself and a few other scapegraces of
the Royal House were under no restriction. The same King instituted the
order of the "Penitents" as some little compensation for a life of
shameless vice and crime, and celebrated the occurrence by the invention
of a new binding, the originality of which is undoubted. On black
morocco, and sometimes with the Arms of France, appear a death's head,
cross-bones, tears, and other emblems of woe, including a joke in the
form of a motto, "Spes mea Deus". Henri, when Duke of Anjou, loved Mary
of Clèves, and subsequently consoled himself for her untimely death by
binding a quantity of books in his library. Skulls, tears, and
_fleurs-de-lys_ are thrown about in profusion; the motto, "Memento
mori," looks out at you from among floreated ornaments; Jesus and Marie
are placed on a level. When ordered to attend the Court after the death
of his beloved Mary, he made his appearance in a black robe, embroidered
all over with the usual funereal emblems.

The gloomy bindings of Henri III. brought on a reaction, giving rise to
a style of decoration known as _à la fanfare_. No sooner was the King
gathered to his fathers than his sister, Margaret of Valois, exchanged
the death's heads for a fanciful decoration, consisting of a profusion
of foliage, sprinkled with daisies. Bindings of this period are very
choice, but not so elaborate as the development of the _fanfare_
eventually made them. The foliage became much more delicate, and the
clusters of leaves and flowers at last resembled lace work, under the
magic touch of the great binder Le Gascon.

We now leave Royal personages, and descend to a lower level, meeting at
the very threshold the historian Thuanus, better known as De Thou
(1553-1617). This celebrated amateur and patron of bookbinding was an
intimate friend of Grolier, and president of the Paris Parliament in the
reign of Henri IV. All his books, of which he possessed a large number,
were bound in morocco or gilded calf skin in a style which varied with
the different periods of his life. His bachelor's library was
embellished with his arms in silver, between two branches of laurel,
with his name below. After his marriage in 1587, his wife's escutcheon
is stamped alongside his own with the initials J. A. M. below, and also
on the backs of his volumes. During his life as a widower, a wreath of
twining-stems tipped with red berries, and his own and dead wife's
initials interlaced, take the place of other ornaments. After his second
marriage in 1603, his new wife's escutcheon appears in conjunction with
his own, but the initials are changed to J. A. G.

This splendid library remained intact for more than 200 years, and it
was not until 1677 that it was sold almost as it stood to the Marquis de
Ménars. At his death in 1718, it was purchased by Cardinal de Rohan, but
in 1789, his heirs, impoverished by legal proceedings, were compelled to
disperse the collection. The binders principally employed by De Thou
were the Eves (Nicholas, Clovis, and Robert), whose splendid workmanship
is a model for such of our modern binders as follow the higher branches
of the art.

Le Gascon, the binder to the Duke of Orleans, who seems to have
flourished between the years 1620 and 1640, was another workman of the
first rank. The Duke was a great collector, whose shelves were covered
with green velvet, garnished with gold lace and fringe, and whose
bindings by Le Gascon were similarly ornamented.

Among the large number of French bibliophiles who now appeared on the
scene, and competed with each other in the beauty of their bindings, one
or two must necessarily be mentioned, since the modern collector envies
or admires their taste.

Chancellor Séguier, at the end of the seventeenth century, employed
Ruette to make the bindings _au mouton d'or_, which graced his shelves;
and a little later still, the Baron de Longepierre utilised the
well-known ornament of the Golden Fleece, which, when found on any book,
no matter how intrinsically worthless, greatly enhances its price. These
are the prizes of book collecting, seldom met with, and always strongly
competed for.

The Colberts stamped the sides of their books with their crest, in which
the climbing adder is always conspicuous. There were no less than seven
members of this family who loved books, and all embellished them with
the adder in a shield surmounted by a crown.

Nicholas (1680) and Charles Louis Fouquet (1684-1761) each adopted the
coat of arms with a squirrel--looking for all the world like a lion--and
the motto, "Quo non ascendam". Cardinal Mazarin, who died at Vincennes
on the 9th of March, 1661, had many devices, the most common of which is
the coat of arms, consisting of an axe bound up in a bundle of fasces,
and surmounted by a cardinal's hat. These and many other figures which
generations of bibliophiles have caused to be tooled on their books,
point conclusively to what library any given specimen formerly belonged,
though, as might be expected, it is sometimes a matter of great
difficulty, or even impossibility, to identify particular volumes. Some
amateurs discarded their own crests, and adopted others, for reasons
which are not apparent, while women, as, for example, the Duchesse du
Maine, who decorated her books at Sceaux with a golden bee-hive, appear
to have possessed the most intricate armorial bearings, or to have been
guided by mere caprice, in their choice of emblems. Many books bearing
crests or coats of arms cannot, therefore, be identified, and for this
reason, amongst others, the few books which have been written on this
branch of the art of binding are necessarily incomplete. One of the
best--which, moreover, contains some hundreds of woodcuts illustrative
of various devices--is Guigard's _Armorial du Bibliophile_, 2 vols.,
8vo, Paris, 1870-3, but this is strictly confined to French devices.
Even Hobson's choice, however, is often better than none.[13]

Although the sixteenth century was _par excellence_ the era of
ornamental bindings, it cannot be said that England made much progress
in the art. Up to the reign of Elizabeth we seem to have persisted in
the use of clumsy oak boards or stiff parchment covers, and when a
really choice and expensive binding was required, it took the form of
embroidered silks and velvets. Queen Elizabeth herself was very expert
in this method of ornamentation, which continued to exist, in all
probability, simply because it was fashionable.

The first English bookbinder of any repute was John Reynes, a printer,
who lived in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. Specimens of his work
are very rare, though, when compared with the French bindings of the
same date, they appear miserably inferior. The truth is that England
was--and, indeed, is--much behind some other countries in everything
relating to bibliography, and binding in particular.

Robert Dudley, the great Earl of Leicester, was the first English book
collector who was possessed of any degree of taste. His cognisance of
the "bear and the ragged staff" appears on the sides of a (generally)
quite plain binding, although sometimes a rough attempt at ornamentation
is found. Archbishop Parker, and Burghley the Lord Treasurer, had good
libraries of well-bound books, and one specimen from Bothwell's
collection is known to exist. This, the _Larismetique et Géometrie_ of
La Roche, _Lyon_, 1538, was in the possession of the late Mr.
Gibson-Craig, and is mentioned by him in his _Fac-similes of Old
Book-Binding_. It is in the original calf gilt, with gilt _gaufré_
edges, and on the sides are the arms of James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
Although Bothwell is known to have possessed literary tastes, books from
his library are excessively rare. This fine book belonged originally to
the family of Forbes of Tolquhon, and a signature and date 1588 written
on the title-page show that it had been acquired by them a few years
after the outlawry and death of the original proprietor. At the
Gibson-Craig sale this fine specimen was knocked down for £81.

James I. was a bibliophile, as well as a reputed _savant_, and paid much
attention to the binding of his books, some of which, now to be seen in
the British Museum, are ornamented with thistles and _fleurs-de-lys_.
Lord Clarendon, who died in 1674, had a very fine collection of books,
many of which were bound by Notts, the most experienced English workman
of that day, and who was, it appears, also patronised by Pepys, the

It was not, however, until the eighteenth century that we made in this
country any real advance in bookbinding. Robert Harley, the first Earl
of Oxford (1661-1724), had established a library, and this had not only
been added to by his son, but bound in a most expensive manner, by two
workmen named Elliott and Chapman, who seem to have attained a certain
amount of proficiency, and whose efforts gave rise to a new style of
ornamentation known as the "Harleian". Though much inferior to the
Continental designs, this had a beauty of its own, and was a vast
improvement upon anything hitherto attempted by English binders.

Thomas Hollis, the _littérateur_ and antiquary, who died in 1774, bound
his extensive collection in calf, adding, in each instance, a device
suitable to the contents of the work. Thus, as the owl is the symbol of
wisdom, his scientific books bear the figure of an owl stamped on the
covers. Military works have the short Roman stabbing sword, and so on.

If we except, perhaps, the French emigrants who made their home in this
country at the end of the eighteenth century, there really was no binder
of any note until the advent of Roger Payne (1739-1797). This workman,
though dissolute, had, nevertheless, a reputation in his line second to
none. In person, he is stated to have been dirty and untidy, but
certainly neither of these defects appear in his bindings, which, though
not, as a rule, heavily gilt, are tooled to neat classical or
geometrical designs after the Venetian style. Where Payne made his mark
was, perhaps, in the _appropriateness_ of his bindings. His judgment, in
this respect, appears to have been sound and popular.

After Payne followed Walther, Charles Hering, and Charles Lewis, all of
whom, the last particularly, did very good work. In more recent times
still we have Hayday, Rivière, Francis Bedford, Ramage, and last, but
by no means least, Zaehnsdorf, whose son yet carries on business in

The ordinary cloth bindings, such as we see every day in the
booksellers' shops, are purely English, and have been in use since 1823,
when they were invented by Lawson, and adopted by Pickering, the
publisher. In Continental countries they use paper covers, and even the
most expensive works are issued originally in this form. There they bind
their books after publication if they are found to be worth binding. In
this country cloth is now largely used, and is certainly a great
improvement on the old clumsy covers of a bygone age, or on the paper
wrappers of this.

Bookbinding in the higher styles is now done fairly well in England,
though, in the opinion of many, the workmanship is not equal to that of
the French artists of three hundred years ago.


[12] See Guigard, _Armorial du Bibliophile_, vol. i. p. 248.

[13] Mr. Quaritch, the bookseller, has in preparation a _Dictionary of
English Book Collectors_, somewhat after the scheme of M. Guigard's



One of the most difficult branches of bibliography is that which treats
of the books to choose and those to avoid, with reference mainly to
their pecuniary value. Few collectors, who are not specialists, care
very much for the utility of their libraries; in many cases, indeed, it
is not a question of utility at all, but of extent, though I apprehend
that no one would wish to crowd his shelves with rubbish merely for the
sake of filling them. As an immense proportion of the books which have
been published during the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and
nineteenth centuries clearly come under that category, the collector has
much to avoid, and stands in need of considerable experience to enable
him to make a selection.

Naudé, the apologist for "great men suspected of magic," whose patron,
by the way, was Cardinal Mazarin, had a method of purchasing which, if
not unique, was at any rate uncommon. His favourite plan was to buy up
entire libraries, and sort them at his leisure; or when these were not
available in the bulk, he would, as Rossi relates, enter a shop with a
yard measure in his hand, and buy his books by the ell. Wherever he
went, paper and print became scarce: "the stalls he encountered were
like the towns through which Attila had swept with ruin in his train".
Richard Heber, the bibliotaph, too, had collections of miscellaneous
books at Paris, Antwerp, Brussels, and other continental towns, to say
nothing of London, where the aristocracy among his treasures were
deposited. The books were sold by auction after his death; the sale
occupied 202 days, and flooded the market with rubbish--a worthy
termination to a life of sweeping and gigantic purchases, made in the
hope of acquiring single grains of wheat among his tons of worthless

But Naudé had the wealth of Mazarin at his back, and free licence to
purchase as and where he would at the Cardinal's expense, while Heber
was rich beyond the dreams of avarice; the modern book hunter, whose
means we will suppose are limited, must discard the yard measure and the
scales, and rely on his judgment, taking care to get the utmost value
for his money. He will have to make up his mind to buy or not to buy on
the spur of the moment, for while he is consulting his books of
reference at home, a golden opportunity may be missed. This is his
capital difficulty, and one which it will take years of experience to
surmount, for there is no _vade mecum_ capable of being carried in the
waistcoat pocket, which will enable him to spot a rarity at a glance;
nothing, in fact, which can compensate for a lack of practical
knowledge. I have often thought that a register of scarce but
mean-looking English books, of such a convenient size as to be carried
in the palm of the hand, might be of assistance to those who haunt the
stalls, and delve among the rubbish usually to be found there; some day,
perhaps, it may be worth while to try the experiment, _sed Gloria,
quantalibet quid erit; si gloria tantum est_? What will be the value of
ever so much glory, if it be glory and nothing else?

In turning over the contents of an old book-stall, the major portion of
the heap will be found to consist of volumes of sermons, and other
theological treatises, recipe books, odd historical volumes, and
poetical effusions, besides periodical literature of the _Spectator_ and
_Tatler_ brand. Books of this class are, as a rule, merely rubbish; but
still there are a few exceptions. Sermons of John Knox and Dr.
Sacheverell, or any of Mather's tracts, are invariably worth purchasing;
as also are first editions of sermons by Cardinals Manning or Newman.
Early editions of Mrs. Glasse's cookery book, or any recipe books of the
seventeenth century, may safely be speculated in; so may early editions
of poetical works, if written by authors whose reputation subsequently
became established. Third, fourth, or later editions are seldom of much
value, no matter who the author may be, and no matter of what character
or description, provided they come under one or other of the heads
enumerated above. In purchasing books of the class generally found on
second-hand stalls, there are two preliminary questions to be asked:
first, was the author of sufficient reputation to make his name well
known? and secondly, is the particular copy of his works offered for
sale an early edition? If an affirmative answer can be given to each of
these inquiries, it will be advisable to tender the small sum likely to
be asked, and to run the risk.

Another point to be observed is that where a printer's device appears on
the title-page, or indeed on any other part of an _old_ book, it is more
likely than not to have a value, and it ought never to be passed over
without a careful scrutiny.

Should the collector be fortunate enough to pick up a rare French book,
his best policy will be to have it suitably bound in France by a
first-rate binder. Though already valuable, its importance will be still
further increased by this manoeuvre; for when the inevitable day of
parting shall arrive, the French bibliophiles will be more inclined to
welcome native talent than any English imitation of it.

Volumes containing separate tracts should always be examined, as it
sometimes happens that rare pieces are found bound up with a mass of
worthless matter. I once heard of original editions of two of Molière's
plays being found in this way; and as these stand pretty much in the
same position, so far as rarity and consequent value is concerned, to
the early Shakespearean quartos, the importance of the "find" to the
lucky discoverer can hardly be exaggerated. This is only another example
of the rule which can never be too often repeated, since it can never be
sufficiently understood. If the author is "big enough," and the edition
is early enough, buy. The probability is you may not realise the full
importance of what you have got until you have had time to consult some
book of reference; it may indeed turn out that a wretched and dirty
reprint has done duty for the original, or it may so be that the book is
worthless on its merits. This is one of the risks of book collecting,
and, it may be added, one of its charms. Hundreds of thousands of dead
and forgotten books must be annually disposed of, for nominal sums, in
London alone, and there is no telling how often these and others may
have been turned over and flung aside by passers-by before they
eventually find a market. Among all this profusion of rubbish, a certain
percentage of valuable pieces must necessarily exist, and these, from
the very circumstances under which they are offered for sale, will be
unknown, and more or less unbound and uncut. Every year some of these
princes in disguise are rescued from the wind and rain, and henceforth
considered a fair exchange for gold instead of copper; but alas! we
cannot both eat our cake and have it too. "Finds," as they are called,
are not so numerous as they once were, nor hucksters so ignorant as in
the merry days of Dibdin and Burton, to say nothing of such foreign
Nimrods as Colbert, Grolier, and the great Pixérécourt.

The same rules which guide the haunter of the stalls are suitable to
those who purchase from the regular booksellers. There is so much to be
learned, so many artificial rules and distinctions to be observed in
everything relating to books, that mistakes are of frequent occurrence.
Ignorant assistants have before now unwittingly thrown shabby little
books, like Burns' Poems (Kilmarnock, 1786), into the sixpenny-box at
the shop door; others have been too lazy to sort the "parcels" as they
have come in from the auctioneers, and have bundled the whole contents
into the same repository. There are a hundred and one accidents in
favour of the book hunter, but he needs experience in order to take
advantage of them, and this cannot be got without the expenditure of
much time and money and the suffering of many disappointments, which,
indeed, seem to increase as he grows older, rather than to diminish.
This is doubtless because the sphere of his operations becomes wider
until it exceeds that of his experience; the seventh age of the
Bibliophile is even as his first.

Apart from the books which are fashionable for the time being and
invariably command fancy prices, there are others which may be styled
"standards," that is to say, are sold over and over again, both by
auction and private contract, for sums which vary only according to
condition. These for the most part are in several volumes, 8vo,
frequently also in 4to or folio. Their very appearance precludes any
prospect of a bargain; indeed the purchaser, unless well versed in
book-lore, stands a very good chance of paying for mere bulk. When the
library at Sion College took fire, the attendants at the risk of their
lives rescued a pile of books from the flames, and it is said that the
librarian wept when he found that the porters had taken it for granted
that the value of a book was in exact proportion to its size. To this
day the impression that big books contain wisdom is all but universal.
This has always been so, as witness the temporary reputation of Nicholas
de Lyra, who wrote and printed 1800 folios of Commentary on the Bible,
and of Aldrovandus, whose thirteen large folio volumes on General
Zoology (1599-1668) have greatly perplexed the scientific world ever
since they were published. Let not the collector be led away by massive
tomes, nor imagine that standard works of acknowledged reputation can
often be got for less than they are worth.

Of late years there has been a violent competition for books and even
tracts published in or in any way relating to the American Continent
provided only that they were published during the sixteenth,
seventeenth, and sometimes also the eighteenth centuries. Thus Cotton's
_Abstract of the Laws of New England_, 1641; _The Description of
Jamaica_, 1657; Brereton's _Relation of the Discoverie of the North Part
of Virginia_, 1602, and many other obscure little 4to tracts--not
books--would be cheap at twenty guineas each, while others are worth
even more. American collectors are largely responsible for this. In the
same way treatises of any kind which have a Scotch local interest, and
are dated about the same period, are always worth two or three guineas
at the least, and in many cases far more than those amounts.

The earliest book printed in Scotland is _The Knightly Tale of Golagrus
and Gawane and other ancient poems_ (Edinburgh, 1508), 4to, which was
reprinted in fac-simile under the superintendence of Dr. Laing in 1827.
As might be expected, the original is so scarce as to be unprocurable,
and even the reprint is of considerable value. Early Scotch-printed
books by such workmen as Walter Chepman, Androu Myllar, Andro Hart,
Alexander Arbuthnot, Thomas Davidson, Anthony Marlar, James Watson,
Andrew Anderson and his widow the would-be monopolist, Robert Freebairn,
and several others, some of whom carried on business into the eighteenth
century, should never be overlooked or discarded. These are just the
kind of books which are occasionally discovered on stalls in obscure
streets, and which may be expected to be bought for a few pence. They
are scarce, of course, or it would not be worth while to mention them;
but they look insignificant, and many, for anything I know, may this
very day be making their weary pilgrimage on costermongers' barrows in
the New Cut, despised and rejected of men.

Specimens of typography from the presses of Caxton, Wynkyn de Worde, and
other early English printers, some of which have already been mentioned,
are essentially curiosities, and it is almost useless to hope for even
the semblance of a bargain so far as they are concerned. Still,
occasional finds are from time to time reported from out-of-the-way
villages whose inhabitants have not yet wakened from their mediæval
slumbers, and great is the rejoicing of the explorer, and many the
paragraphs with which the discovery is heralded in the newspapers. The
collector who is fortunate enough to come across a work of this
class--he can hardly expect a repetition of such extraordinary
luck--will have crowned his labours, be they great or small, and can
henceforth pride himself on his success. If he never handles a book
again, he will have earned his laurels.

Inferior County Histories in one volume, generally 8vo, are always worth
buying if they can be got for a few pence, as is often the case, for
there are very few of them which are not worth as many shillings at the
least. Topographical works are now being inquired for to a much greater
extent than was the case several years ago, and the booksellers can
dispose of almost any quantity. Such examples as are likely to be
casually met with are, however, very small game; yet they represent the
average amount of success likely to be achieved at one time in these
days of widespread knowledge. The demand for book rarities is very
great, and every hole and corner, likely and unlikely, is periodically
ransacked by booksellers' "jackals," to say nothing of the army of
amateurs ever on the look-out for bargains. Accident is, however,
productive of occasional successes, and every man has, or may have, if
he thinks proper to put it to the test, an equal chance.

In addition to the ready-made bargains, which do more than anything else
to delight the heart of the book lover and encourage him to further
exertions, there is such a thing as playing upon popular likes and
dislikes, or, in other words, speculating on the vagaries of fashion. At
present the rage is for original editions of modern authors, principally
those with plates, coloured or uncoloured. Some day the fashion will
change, and books hitherto neglected will suddenly take their place and
increase many times in value. Such books should be bought while they are
cheap, and they doubtless would be if there was such a thing as a
literary barometer capable of forecasting the state of the market; but
there is not, and it is impossible to foretell the direction in which
the mass of book lovers will turn when once they are tired of

Every bookseller is of necessity a speculator, for it is his business to
buy at a low price and to sell at a higher. The amateur, however,
should, if he would preserve his title, abstain from traffic of this
kind and be satisfied to pay for the privilege of forming a library
without regard to the ultimate profit or loss. His pleasure should
consist in acquisition and the opportunity afforded of fondling his
store while there is time, for he may be absolutely certain that the
whole assortment--bookcases, shelves, and all--will find their way to
the auctioneer directly he has done with them. This mournful prospect
has been the indirect means of founding a new school, that of the
semi-amateurs, which, while claiming for itself all the attributes of
the book lover, has, nevertheless, an eye to the main chance, and is
prepared at a moment's notice to transfer an entire collection _inter
vivos_ if the required sum be forthcoming. As an ardent Waltonian would
regard a brother of the angle who went a-fishing with the object of
selling his catch, so the old-fashioned bibliophile views this
degenerate school--that is to say, with unfeigned disgust. It makes no
difference, nay, if anything it is an aggravation, that the culprit is
"well up" in his subject and knows a book when he sees one. "Fancy!"
says a member of the old academy, "here is an educated man who for years
has occupied his leisure hours in studies the most delightful, and among
friends the most courteous and refined. He knows them, can put his hand
upon any in the dark, and yet----;" but here the power of words fails to
describe the heartless greed which alone could send a row of life's
companions to the block. Nevertheless this is being done every day, and,
however vexed the respectable book lover may be, the fact remains that
the new school is just now showing remarkable activity and is running
the booksellers very close indeed. The advisability of purchasing
depends upon the answer to a single question, "Will this book go up?"
Never mind the author, or a syllable of what he wrote, but take especial
care to see that the work is perfect, clean, and uncut, and then ask
yourself this solitary question. This is the first and last commandment
of the semi-amateur, whose method of procedure it may be interesting to

Let us suppose that a London publisher advertises a new edition of some
famous work, tastefully got up and luxuriously bound and illustrated.
The issue of course is limited, as the price is high, and
discriminating purchasers must be tempted. The old-fashioned amateur is
not to be charmed because he persuades himself that there is plenty of
time, and what matter if a few years later he has to pay a slightly
enhanced price? The book will be worth it, for it will be scarce, and,
moreover, have attained a respectable degree of antiquity, and so he
passes it by. Not so the new school, which we will assume has answered
its solitary question in the affirmative. The edition is snapped up in a
moment, and single members will buy as many duplicates as they can
afford to invest in--buy to sell again ultimately, and in the meantime
to gloat over, like so many jackdaws eying a secreted heap of stolen
goods. This is commonly called "cornering" an edition; and when several
persons possessing the same opinions and the same tastes join their
forces, it will readily be perceived that if a book will not go up of
its own accord it may readily be forced up by judicious retention and
self-denial. This, of course, is nothing more nor less than
Stock-Exchange speculation, and it is satisfactory to find that
sometimes the greedy purchaser makes a mistake and is saddled with a
small stock of waste-paper.

As previously stated in the fifth chapter, a book which has perhaps been
cornered as often as any other, and never successfully, is Ottley's
_Italian School of Design_, on large paper, with proof impressions. The
published price was £25 4s., the present value is about £3 by auction.
Here is a dreadful falling off, and the adherents of the new school have
never yet been able to understand the reason, or to cease persuading
themselves that the day must surely come when the book will go up. If
anything, however, it is going down, and in the opinion of many experts
it can never again take a respectable position in the market.

Another book which has also been speculated in, and with even more
disastrous results still, is _Hogarth's Works_, from the original
plates, restored by Heath, and published by Baldwin and Cradock, in
1822, at £50. This is a large and sumptuous work, with a secret pocket
at the end, in which are, or should be, found the three suppressed
plates. The present auction value is not much more than £4, and, judging
from appearances, it is very unlikely to get any higher. How many people
have burned their fingers over these two tempting works it would be very
difficult even to guess; suffice it to say, that the amateur speculator
often has half-a-dozen of each on his shelves, and in nine cases out of
ten he finds them an encumbrance and a loss. As John Hill Burton truly
says, "No good comes of gentlemen amateurs buying and selling". This is,
of course, as it should be; but rejoicing at the fate of the enemy is
likely to be turned into gall when it is discovered that defeat is
bolstered up with the inevitable axiom "Better luck next time".

It cannot be denied that, from a practical everyday stand-point, the
collector who buys to sell has everything in his favour. Why should he
not employ his knowledge to advantage? why be compelled to stock his
library at a loss which will fall chiefly on his immediate descendants?
why suffer the pain and mortification of ever remembering that after all
his books are only lent to him on hire, and that as others have parted
with the identical volumes before, so he must also part with them in his
turn? The pleasure of possession is mixed with an alloy which is
disquieting to the man who loves his books too well. Still, after all,
there is one pleasure which the votaries of the new school can never
hope to enjoy, and that is the communion with old friends. Their books
are strangers, and even though they should learn them by heart, they
would be strangers still. The remembrance of happy hours spent with a
lost volume is to them as nothing compared with the ringing metal which
replaces it; or to put the case as pleasantly as possible, we will say
that the speculator regards a book as possessing an interest quite apart
from its literary or domestic value. How such an one would hunger after
the treasures secured by an eager collector at a fishmonger's shop in
Hungerford Market some fifty years ago--"Autograph signatures of
Godolphin, Sunderland, Ashley, Lauderdale, Ministers of James II.,
accounts of the Exchequer Office signed by Henry VII. and Henry VIII.,
wardrobe accounts of Queen Anne, secret service accounts marked with the
'E. G.' of Nell Gwynne, a treatise on the Eucharist in the boyish hand
of Edward VI., and a disquisition on the Order of the Garter, in the
scholarly writing of Elizabeth," all of which, as Mr. Rogers Rees
narrates, had been included in waste-paper cleared out of Somerset House
at £7 a ton.


[***] _The Date Appended is that of the Firm's Establishment._

Free use has been made of Mr. Clegg's _Directory of Second-hand
Booksellers_ in the preparation of this list; but reference has also
been made to each firm personally.


    _Aberdeen_--Bisset, Jas. G., 1879.
      Middleton, Geo.
      Murray, James, 1825.
      Nicoll, Thomas P.
      Walker & Co.
      Wilson, J.
      Wyllie & Son, D., _c._ 1830.

    _Accrington_--Wardleworth, Jno., 1864.

    _Barton-on-Humber_--Ball, Henry William, 1856.

    _Bath_--Cleaver, H.
      Gregory, George, 1879.
      Meehan, B. & J. F., 1867.
      Pickering, G. & F., 1852.

    _Belfast_--Burns, Alex., _jun._
      Shone, J., & Co., 1885.

    _Birmingham_--Baker, Edw., 1884.
      Brough, Wm., & Sons, 1845.
      Downing, William, 1830.
      Hitchman, John, 1855.
      Lowe, Charles.
      Midland Educ. Trading Co., Limited.
      Thistlewood, Alf.
      Wilson, James.

    _Bournemouth_--Commin, H. G.
      Gilbert, H. M.

    _Bradford_--Hart, James.
      Matthews & Brooke, 1840.
      Miles, Thomas, 1879.

    _Brechin_--Black & Johnston, 1817.

    _Brighton_--Smith, W. J.
      Thorpe, James.

    _Bristol_--George, James.
      George's, William, Sons, 1847.
      Jefferies, Charles S.
      Matthews, J., & Son.
      Nield, Ashton.
        " Walter.

    _Burnley_--Coulston, William.
      Lupton Brothers.

    _Burton-on-Trent_--Waller, Thos.

    _Bury, Lancs._--Vickerman, Chas.

    _Cambridge_--Deighton, Bell & Co.
      Hall, J., & Son, 1798.
      Johnson, Elijah.
      Macmillan & Bowes.
      Tomlin, W.
      Tomson, Octavus.

    _Canterbury_--Goulden, W. E.

    _Carlisle_--Grant, George S.

    _Carnarvon_--Jones, John D.

    _Carrickfergus_--Weatherup, Jas.

    _Cheltenham_--Pink, John Wm.
      Rawlings, H. E., 1880.

    _Chester_--Edwards, J. W. P., 1870.

    _Cirencester_--Baily & Son.

    _Colchester_--Forster, Thos., 1883.
      Harwood, William H. (private dealer).

    _Cork_--Massey, Nassau, 1840.

    _Derby_--Clayton, Mrs.
      Murray, Frank, 1884.

    _Devizes_--Colwell, John.

    _Devonport_--Clarke, Josiah, & Sons.

    _Dover_--Johnson, Wm., 1843.

    _Dublin_--Carson Brothers.
      Rooney, M. W., 1842.
      Traynor, Patrick, 1849.

    _Dumfries_--Anderson, John, & Son.

    _Dundee_--M'Gregor, Mrs.
      Maxwell, Alexander.
      Petrie, George, 1875.

    _Edinburgh_--Baxendine, A.
      Brown, W.
      Bryce, William, 1885.
      Cameron, Richard, 1868.
      Clay, Wm. F.
      Dunn, James, 1888.
      Elliot, Andrew, 1854.
      Grant, John.
      Hossack, T. M., 1875.
      Hunter, R. W. (su'r. to Gemmell).
      Johnston, George P., 1880.
      Johnstone, Thomas.
      Mackay, James.
      Mackenzie, John, 1861.
      Macleod, Norman.
      Macniven & Wallace.
      Macphail, Alexander.
      Melville, Thomas.
      Stevenson, Thos. George, 1824.
      Stillie, James, 1826.
      Thin, James, 1847.

    _Elgin_--Watson, J. and J. A., 1775.

    _Ennis_ (_Ireland_)--Hayes, James.

    _Exeter_--Commin, James G.
      Drayton, S., & Sons, 1838.

    _Fritchley_ (_Derbysh._)--Wake, Hy. Thomas, 1863.

    _Glasgow_--Forrester, J. P.
      Forrester, Robert, 1850.
      Hannah, J.
      Hopkins, Hugh.
      Kerr & Richardson, 1827.
      MacLehose & Sons, 1838.
      Sime, W. S., 1837.

    _Halifax_--Teal, J., 1880.


    _Hull_--Annandale, R. C.
      Cook, Robert.
      Tutin, J. R., 1882.

    _Inverness_--Melven Brothers, 1864.
      Noble, J., 1859.
      Snowie, William M., 1887.

    _Ipswich_--Read & Barrett, 1827.

    _Lancaster_--Duxbury, John, 1879.
      West, G. S., 1877.

    _Leamington_--Collier, John.
      Kennard, Tho., 1875.

    _Leeds_--Ashworth, J. H. and A., 1830.
      Dodgson, Joseph.
      Jackson, R.
      Lees, F. R., & Co., 1880.
      Miles, James.
      Milligan, Thomas, 1859.
      Symington, John S., 1881.

    _Leicester_--Holyoak, W. H., 1880.
      Murray, Frank.
      Spencer, Jno. and Thos., 1853.

    _Lichfield_--Asher, Henry, 1877.

    _Liverpool_--Gibbons, F. and E.
      Hales & Co., 1869.
      Howell, Edward.
      Parry & Co.
      Potter, William.
      Young, Henry, & Sons, 1849.

    _London_--Alexander, S., 42 Kingsland Rd., E.
      Bailey Brothers, 36A Newington Butts, S.E., 1875.
      Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket, S.W.
      Bensberg Bros., 344 Holloway Rd., N.
      Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq., W.C.
      Brown, C. and E., 13 Bishop's Rd., Paddington, W., 1876.
      Buchanan, J., 49 Great Queen St., W.C.
      Bull & Auvache, 35 Hart St., W.C.
      Bumpus, Edw., Holborn Bars, W.C.
      Bumpus, John, 350 Oxford St., W., 1840.
      Cooper, Alf., 234 and 236 King St., Hammersmith, W., & 8 Newland
        Terrace, High St., Kensington, W.
      Cornish, Jas., & Sons, 297 High Holborn, W.C., _c._ 1840.
      Edwards, Francis, 83 High St., Marylebone, 1860.
      Edwards, Thomas, & Co., Northumberland Avenue, W.C.
      Evans, M., & Co., 61 Charing Cross Rd., W.C.
      Galwey, John, 17 Garrick St., W.C., 1890.
      Garrett, J. E., & Co., 48 Southampton Row, W.C.
      Gladwell, T., 101-3 Goswell Rd., E.C., 1860.
      Glaisher, George, Southampton Row, W.C., 1841.
      Grose, Wm., 17 Panton Street, Haymarket, W., 1875.
      Gunn, James, 49 Bedford St., W.C., 1870.
      Hartley, H. H., 81 Park St., Camden Town, N.W., 1888.
        [_Specialité_: 18th cent. Literature.]
      Hayes, T., 50 Broke Rd., Dalston, N.E.
      Herbert, C., 319 Goswell Rd., E.C.
      Higham, Chas., 27A Farringdon St., E.C., 1862.
      Hill, H. R., & Son, 1 Booksellers' Row, W.C., 1849.
      Hindley, C., 41 Booksellers' Row, W.C.
      Jackson, Alb., G. Portland St., W.
      Jarvis, J. W., & Son, 28 King William St., Strand.
      Jones, F. R., 82 Ilbert Street, Queen's Park, W.
      Lazarus, S. H., 3 and 51 Booksellers' Row, W.C.
      McCaskie, R., 110 Iverson Rd., N.W.
      Maggs, Uriah, 159 Church St., Paddington Gr., W., 1860.
      Maurice, A., & Co., St. Martin's House, Gresham St., E.C.
      May, 225 Edgware Rd., W., 1878.
      May, George H., 9 Royal Arcade, Old Bond St., W., 1882.
      Menken, E., 3 Bury St., Oxford St., W.C.
      Mills, T. B., 2 Palace Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W., 1880.
      Myers, A. I., & Co., 49 Booksellers' Row, W.C., 1889.
      Nicholls, Wardour St., W.
      Nutt, David, 270-1 Strand, W.C., 1830.
      Parker, R. J., 204 High Holborn, W.C.
      Parsons, E., & Sons, 45 Brompton Rd., S.W., 1858.
      Quaritch, B., 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Reader, A., 1 Orange St., Red Lion Square, W.C.
      Reeves & Turner, 196 Strand, W.C., 1848.
      Ridler, W., 45 Booksellers' Row, W.C.
      Roche, J., 38 New Oxford St., W.C., 1850. [_Specialité_:
        Standard Library Editions.]
      Rogers, H. A., 83 Hanley Rd., Strand Green, N.
      Sabin, F. T., 118 Shaftesbury Avenue, W.
      Salisbury, Jesse, 11 New Court, Farringdon Street, E.C.
      Salkeld, John, 315 Clapham Rd., S.W.
      Sandell & Smith, 136 City Rd., E.C., 1830.
      Selwyn, Henry, 74 Brompton Rd., S.W., _c._ 1876.
      Sotheran, Henry, & Co., 36 Piccadilly and 136 Strand.
      Simmons, New Oxford St., W.C.
      Streletzki, L., 19 Newcastle St., Whitechapel, E.
      Westell, J., 114 New Oxford St., W.C., 1841.
      Wright, W., 34 Cranbourn St.

    _Manchester_--Battle, F.
      Cornish, J. E., 1854.
      Maddocks, J. J. [_Specialités_: Shakespeare, Wordsworth,
      Sotheran, Henry, & Co., 1816.
      Sutton, Albert, 1848.
        " R. H.
      Wilson, James, 1866.
      Wilson, Thomas, 1840.

    _Merthyr Tydvil_--Wilkins, W.

    _Montrose_--Davidson, David P.
      Nairn, John, & Son.

    _Nairn_--Melven Brothers.

    _Newcastle-on-Tyne_--Bond, Wm. B., 1881.
      Browne & Browne, 1884.
      Thorne, Thomas.

    _Northampton_--Billingham, Wm., 1850.
      Mutton, Fred., 1876.
      Taylor & Son.

    _Norwich_--Hunt, Wm., 1860.
      Jarrold & Sons.

    _Nottingham_--Bryan, George.
      Murray, Frank, 1881.

    _Oban_--Boyd, Thos. [_Specialité_: Gaelic.]

    _Omagh_--Carson, Nathaniel, 1870.

    _Oxford_--Blackwell, B. H., 1879.
      Gee, W. H.
      Parker & Co., Jas., _c._ 1800.
      Shrimpton, T., & Son, _c._ 1790.
      Slatter & Rose.
      Thornton, Joseph, & Son, 1835.

    _Paisley_--Ballantyne, Jno., & Son, 1877.

    _Penzance_--Kinsman, John.

    _Plymouth_--Attwood, G. H.

    _Portsmouth_--Griffin & Co. [naval only].
      Long, W. H., 1876.
      Trayte, George.

    _Preston_--Halewood, William.
      Robinson, Henry, 1860.

    _Reading_--The Lovejoy Library, 1832 (Miss Langley).
      Poynder, E.
      Smith, William, 1874.
      Thorp, Thomas, 1860.

    _Retford_--Smith, Jno. Martin, 1870.

    _Richmond, Surrey_--Hiscoke & Son, 1851.
      Palmer, George M.

    _Rochdale_--Clegg, James, 1857.

    _Rugby_--Lawrence, Alf., 1834.
      Over, George E., 1882.

    _St. Neots_--Tomson, David Rich., 1860.

    _Salisbury_--Broadbere, Benj.
      Brown & Co.
      Simmonds, N., & Co., 1881.

    _Scarborough_--Hargreaves & Inger.
      Yule, John.

    _Sheffield_--Warde, Thomas.

    _Shrewsbury_--Bennett, John.

    _Southampton_--Gilbert, H. M.
      James, T., & Co., 1849.

    _Southport_--Ashworth, Jno., 1885.

    _Stirling_--Cook, William B.

    _Stockton-on-Tees_--Brown, John.

    _Stratford-on-Avon_--Miss Trimming.

    _Stroud, Gloucs._--Collins, William, 1881.

    _Swansea_--Price, Thomas, 1874.

    _Taunton_--Barnicott & Pearce.
      Butland, Reuben.

    _Teddington_--Miss Millard.

    _Tiverton_--Masland, Wm., _c._ 1840.

    _Torquay_--Iredale, Andrew, 1872.
      King, Charles.

    _Truro_--Clyma, William J.
      Pollard, Joseph.

    _Walsall_--Robinson, George.

    _Walthamstow_--Mayhew, F.

    _Weymouth_--Wheeler, Harry.

    _Wigan_--Starr, James, 1886.

    _Winchester_--Warren & Son, 1835.

    _Worcester_--Humphreys, E. G., 1805.

    _Worksop_--White, Robert, 1847.

    _York_--Sampson, John B.

=The majority of the Undermentioned Booksellers are also General
Booksellers, but their Specialities are as indicated.=


    _Bath_--Meehan, B. & J. F., 1867.

    _Brighton_--Smith, W. J.

    _Bristol_--George's, Wm., Sons, 1847.

    _Exeter_--Commin, James G.

    _Leeds_--Ashworth, J. H. and A., 1830.
      Milligan, Thomas, 1859.

    _London_--Brentano's, 430 Strand, W.C.
      Edwards, Francis, 83 High St., Marylebone, 1860.
      Gray, Henry, 47 Leicester Sq., W.C.
      Maggs, Uriah, 159 Church St., Paddington Gr., W., 1860.
      Petherick, E. A., & Co., 33 Paternoster Row, E.C. [Colonial
      Pickering & Chatto, 66 Haymarket, S.W., 1820.
      Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Stevens, B. F., 4 Trafalgar Sq., W.C.
      Stevens, Henry, & Son, 39 Great Russell Street, W.C.

    _Walthamstow_-­Mayhew, F.


    _Leeds_--Symington, John S., 1881.

    _London_--Christie, Manson, & Woods, 8 King St., S.W.
      Hodgson, H. H., & Co., 115 Chancery Lane, W.C.
      Puttick & Simpson, 47 Leicester Square, W.C.
      Sotheby, Wilkinson, & Hodge, 13 Wellington St., Strand, W.C.


    _Barton-on-Humber_--Ball, H. W.

    _Birmingham_--Conway, Noel, & Co.

    _Colchester_--Golding, Chas., 1873.

    _Edinburgh_--Brown, A.
      Brown, William, 1877.

    _London_--Barker, Fred., 41 Gunterstone Rd., W., 1882.
      Davey, Sam. J., 47 Gt. Russell St., W.C.
      Fawcett, H., 14 King Street, Covent Garden, W.C.
      Pearson, J., & Co., 5 Pall Mall Place, S.W.
      Robson & Kerslake, 23 Coventry St., W., 1870.

    _Teddington_--Miss Millard.


    _Aberdeen_--Bisset, Jas. G., 1879.

    _Bath_--Gregory, George, 1879.

    _Cambridge_--_See_ General.

    _Durham_--Slack, John.

    _Edinburgh_--Bryce, William, 1885.
      Hossack, T. M., 1875.
      Mackenzie, John, 1861.
      Thin, James, 1847.

    _Glasgow_--Sime, W. S., 1837.

    _Leeds_--Symington, Jno. S., 1881.

    _Liverpool_--Howell, Edward.
      Parry & Co.

    _Oxford_--_See_ General.


      Shone, J., & Co.

    _Birmingham_--Crees, Wm. Henry, 1884 [water-col. drawings].
      Downing, William.

    _Bristol_--George, James.

    _Glasgow_--Forrester, Robert.
      M'Clure, Robert, 1880.

    _Ilkley_--Watson, Wm.

    _London_--Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket, S.W.
      Batsford, B. T., 52 High Holborn, W.C., 1843 [specially
        architecture, engineering, &c.].
      Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq.
      Bumpus, Edw., Holborn Bars, W.C.
      Bumpus, John, 350 Oxford St., W., 1840.
      Jackson, A., 224 Great Portland St., W.
      Parsons, E., & Sons, 45 Brompton Rd., S.W., 1858.
      Quaritch, B., 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Rimell, J., & Son, 91 Oxford St., W.
      Selwyn, H., 74 Brompton Rd., S.W.
      Sotheran, H., & Co., 36 Piccadilly and 136 Strand.
      Ward, William, 28 Southampton St., Strand.

    _Rugby_--A. J. Lawrence.


    _Liverpool_--Howell, Edward.

    _London_--Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq., W.C.
      Bumpus, Jno., 350 Oxford St., W., 1840.
      Ellis & Elvey, 29 New Bond St., W.
      Pickering & Chatto, 66 Haymarket, S.W., 1820.
      Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Robson & Kerslake, 23 Coventry St., W., 1870.
      Sotheran, H., & Co., 36 Piccadilly, and 136 Strand.
      Tregaskis, J. & M. L., 232 High Holborn, W.C.
      Zaehnsdorf, Shaftesbury Av., 1840.


    [***] _See also_ RARE BOOKS.

    _Bath_--Meehan, B. & J. F., 1867.

    _Birmingham_--Baker, Edward.
      Hitchman, J., 1855.

    _Bournemouth_--Commin, H. G.

    _Burnley_--Lupton Brothers.

    _Derby_--Murray, Frank, 1884.

    _Edinburgh_--Brown, Wm., 1877.
      Stillie, James, 1826.

    _Exeter_--Commin, J. G.

    _Leeds_--Milligan, Thos.

    _Leicester_--Murray, Frank, 1884.

    _Liverpool_--Parry & Co.
      Young, Hy., & Sons, 1849.

    _London_--Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket, S.W.
      Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq.
      Bumpus, Edw., Holborn Bars.
      Bumpus, Jno., 350 Oxford St., W., 1840.
      Dobell, B., Charing Cross Rd.
      Hubbard, J. R., 10 Allen Terr., High Street, Kensington.
      Hutt, F. H., 10 Clement's Inn Pass., Strand.
      Hutt, Wm., 3 Hyde St., Oxford Street, W.C.
      Lachlan, F. C, 60 Canonbury Road, N., 1876.
      Maggs, Uriah, 159 Church St., Paddington Gr., W., 1860.
      Mathews (Elkin) & Lane (John), Vigo St., W.
      Maurice, A., & Co., Gresham St.
      May, B., 225 Edgware Rd., W., 1878.
      Menken, E., 3 Bury St., Oxford Street, W.C.
      Parsons, E., & Sons, 45 Brompton Road, S.W., 1858.
      Pickering & Chatto, 66 Haymarket, S.W., 1820.
      Robson & Kerslake, 23 Coventry St., W., 1870.
      Sabin, F. T., 118 Shaftesbury Avenue, W.
      Spencer, W. T., 27 New Oxford Street, W.C., 1884.
      Tregaskis, J. & M. L., 232 High Holborn, W.C.

    _Nottingham_--Murray, Frank, 1884.

    _Salisbury_--Simmonds, N., & Co., 1881.


    _Birmingham_--Hector, E., 1886.

    _Cambridge_--Deighton, Bell & Co.

    _Edinburgh_--Williams & Norgate.
      Young, George Adam, & Co.

    _Liverpool_--Hales & Co., 1869.
      [Specialité: Spanish Books.]

    _London_--Asher & Co., 1864.
      Dulau & Co., Soho Sq., W.
      Grevel, H., & Co., 33 King St., Covent Garden, W.C.
      Kolckmann, J. W., 2 Langham Place, W.
      Luzac & Co., 46 Great Russell Street, W.C., 1890.
      Menken, E., 3 Bury St., Oxford St., W.C.
      Nutt, David, 270-1 Strand, W.C., 1830.
      Paul (Kegan), Trench, Trübner & Co., Ld., Charing Cross Road, W.C.
      Siegle, A., 30 Lime St., E.C.
      Thimm & Co. (Franz), 24 Brook St., W., 1841.
      Williams & Norgate, 14 Henrietta Street, W.C.


    _Leicester_--Holyoak, W. H., 1880.

    _London_--Forder, G., Stonecutter St., E.C.
      Watts & Co., 17 Johnson's Ct., Fleet St., 1860.

    _Walthamstow_--Mayhew, F.


    _Birmingham_--Hitchman, J., 1855.

    _Bristol_--George's, Wm., Sons, 1847.

    _London_--Mitchell & Hughes, 140 Wardour Street, W., 1797.
      Parsons, E., & Sons, 45 Brompton Rd., S.W., 1858.


    _Edinburgh_--Green, Wm., & Sons, 1874.

    _London_--Amer, R., Lincoln's Inn Gate, W.C., Carey St., 1848.
      The Kelly Book Co., Ld., Lincoln's Inn Gate, W.C.
      King, P. S., & Son, 5 King St., Westminster [Parliamentary papers
        and books].
      Reeves & Turner, 100 Chancery Lane, W.C.
      Stevens & Sons, Ld., 119-20 Chancery Lane, 1810.
      Sweet & Maxwell, Ld., 3 Chancery Lane.
      Wildy & Sons, Lincoln's Inn Archway, W.C., 1830.


    _Birmingham_--Thistlewood, A.

    _London_--Gladwell, Thos., 101-3 Goswell Rd., E.C.
      Reeves, Wm., 185 Fleet St., E.C.
      Salisbury, J., 11 New Court, Farringdon St., E.C., 1884.


    _Bath_--Marsden, Herbt. W., 1875.

    _Colchester_--Harwood, Wm. H. (private dealer).

    _Exeter_--Commin, James G.

    _London_--Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket.
      Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq., W.C.
      Irvine, J., 28 Upper Manor St., Chelsea, 1863.
      Maurice, A., & Co., Gresham St.
      Porter, R. H., 18 Princes St., Cavendish Sq., W., 1875.
      Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Sotheran, H., & Co., 36 Piccadilly, and 136 Strand.
      Wesley, W., & Son, 28 Essex St., Strand, W.C.
      Wheldon, J., 58 Great Queen Street, W.C., 1838.


    _Colchester_--Forster, Thos., 1883.
      Golding, Chas., 1873.

    _Inverness_--Snowie, Wm. M., 1887.

    _London_--Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.


    _London_--Baxter, Sam., 20 Paternoster Row, E.C.
      Dent, W., 34 Southampton Rd., Kentish Town, N.W.
      George, E., 231 Whitechapel Road, E.
      Platnauer, Fetter Lane, E.C.


    _London_--Allen, W. H., & Co., Ld., Waterloo Place, S.W.
      Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.

    _See also_ Luzac, Nutt, Williams & Norgate, _under_ FOREIGN.


    _Fritchley, Derby_--Wake, H. T., 1863.

    _London_--Hicks, E., _jun._, 14 Bishopsgate St., E.C.
      Smith, Joseph, 6 Oxford St., Whitechapel, 1848.


    _Bath_--Gregory, Geo., 1879.
      Meehan, B. & J. F., 1867.


    _Brighton_--Bohn, Jno.
      Smith, W. J.
      Toon, Thomas.

    _Edinburgh_--Brown, Wm., 1877.
      Johnston, Geo. P., 1880.
      Stillie, James, 1826.

    _Glasgow_--Kerr & Richardson, 1827.

    _Liverpool_--Young, H., & Sons, 1849.

    _London_--Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket, S.W.
      Ellis & Elvey, 29 New Bond Street, W.
      Harvey, Frcs., 4 St. James's St., S.W.
      Leighton, J. & J., 40 Brewer St., Golden Sq., W.
      Maggs, Uriah, Paddington Green, W.
      Nattali, H. C., 23 Bedford St., Strand, W.C., 1825.
      Nutt, David, 270-1 Strand, W.C., 1830.
      Pearson, J., & Co., 5 Pall Mall Place, S.W.
      Pickering & Chatto, 66 Haymarket, S.W., 1820.
      Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Robson & Kerslake, 23 Coventry Street, W., 1870.
      Sabin, F. T., 118 Shaftesbury Avenue, W.
      Sotheran, H., & Co., 36 Piccadilly, and 136 Strand.
      Tregaskis, J. and M. L., 232 High Holborn, W.C.


    _Edinburgh_--Grant, John.

    _Exeter_--Commin, J. G.

    _London_--Avery, E., 63 Greek St., Soho, 1879.
      Gibbings, W. W., 18 Bury St., W.C. (Trade only.)
      Glaisher, Wm., 265 High Holborn, W.C., 1853.
      Herbert, C., 319 Goswell Rd., E.C.
      Miles, T., & Co., 95 Upper St., Islington, N.
      Reeves & Turner, 196 Strand, W.C.
      Smith, W. H., & Son, 186 Strand, W.C.

    [***] _Most General Booksellers also
    deal in "Remainders" now._


    _London_--Baker, Thos., 1 Soho Sq., W., 1849.
      Burns & Oates, Ld., Orchard St., W.
      Washbourne, R., 18 Paternoster Row, E.C., 1866.

    _See also_ THEOLOGY.


    _Aberdeen_--Bisset, Jas. G., 1879.

    _Birmingham_--Hector, E., 1886.

    _Cambridge_--_See_ General.

    _Edinburgh_--Bryce, Wm., 1885.
      Clay, W. F. [_Specialité_: Chemistry and Allied Sciences.]
      Livingstone, E. and S., 1863.
      Pentland, Young J.
      Thin, James, 1847.

    _Glasgow_--Sime, W. S., 1837.
      Stenhouse, Alex., 1860.

    _Liverpool_--Howell, Edward.

    _London_--Kimpton, Rich., 126 Wardour St., W.
      Lewis, H. K., 136 Gower St., W.C., 1844.
      Pentland, Young J., 38 West Smithfield, E.C.
      Poole, Jos., & Co., 39 Booksellers' Row, W.C., 1854.

    _Oxford_--_See_ General.



    _London_--McCaskie, R., 110 Iverson Rd., N.W.


    _Bradford_--Miles, Thomas, 1879.

    _Exeter_--Commin, James G.

    _Kelso_--Rutherford, J. and J. H., 1802.

    _London_--Robson & Kerslake, 23 Coventry St., W., 1870.
      Pickering & Chatto, 66 Haymarket, S.W., 1820.
      Spencer, W. J., 27 New Oxford St., W.C., 1884.
      Toovey, Jas., 177 Piccadilly, W.
      Wheldon, J., 58 Great Queen Street, W.C., 1838.

    _York_--Sampson, John B.


    _Edinburgh_--Douglas & Foulis.
      Grant & Son.
      Macniven & Wallace, 1878.

    _Glasgow_--Bryce, David, & Son.
      MacLehose & Sons, 1838.

    _London_--Cawthorn & Hutt, 24 Cockspur St., S.W., 1740.
      Day, John, & Son, 96 Mount St., W., 1771.
      Mudie's Select Library, Ld., 30-4 New Oxford St., W.C., 1842.
      Smith, W. H., & Son, 186 Strand.

    _Manchester_--Mudie's Select Lib. Co., Ld.


    _Leeds_--Lees, F. R., & Co., 1880.


    _London_--Kornman, F., 168 High Holborn, W.C., 1882.
      Suckling & Galloway, 13 Garrick St., W.C., 1889.


    _Aberdeen_--Milne, A. and R., 1852.
      Murray, Jas.

    _Barton-on-Humber_--Ball, H. W.

    _Bath_--Gregory, Geo., 1879.

    _Birmingham_--Crees, W. H., 1884.

    _Bournemouth_--Commin, H. G.

    _Bristol_--Fawn, Jas., & Son.
      George's, Wm., Sons, 1847.

    _Burton-on-Trent_--Waller, Thos.

    _Cambridge_--Johnson, Elijah.

    _Devonport_--Clarke, Josiah, & Sons.

    _Durham_--Slack, Jno.

    _Edinburgh_--Dunn, Jas., 1888.
      Elliot, Andrew, 1854.
      Hunter, R. W. (successor to Gemmell, 1873).
      Mackenzie, John, 1861.
      Macniven & Wallace.
      Thin, Jas., 1847.
      Young, Geo. Adam, & Co.

    _Ely_--Creak, W. B.

    _Exeter_--Drayton, S., & Sons.

    _Hull_--Annandale, R. C.

    _Liverpool_--Parry & Co.

    _London_--Baker, Thos., 1 Soho Sq., W., 1849.
      Barton, Jno., 11 St. George's Rd., S.E.
      Bull & Auvache, 35 Hart St., W.C.
      Cooper, Alfred--_See_ General.
      Dickinson, R. D., 89 Farringdon St., E.C., 1876.
      Harding, Geo., 6 Hyde St., Oxford St., W.C.
      Harper, Wm., 58 Tabernacle St., E.C., 1842.
      Higham, C., 27A Farringdon St., E.C., 1862. [_Specialité_:
      Sandell & Smith, 136 City Rd., E.C., 1830.
      Skeffington & Son, 163 Piccadilly, W.
      Westell, J., 114 New Oxford St., W.C., 1841.

    _Nairn_--Melven Brothers.

    _Northampton_--Billingham, Wm., 1850.

    _Oxford_--Parker & Co., Jas., _c._ 1800.

    _Worcester_--Humphreys, E. G., 1805.


    _Edinburgh_--Thomson Brothers, 1875.

    _Glasgow_--Thomson & Co., 1870.

    _London_--Burns, J., Southampton Row, W.C.
      Dobell, B., Charing Cross Rd., W.C.
      Foulsham, W., 4 Pilgrim St., E.C.
      Maggs, Uriah, 159 Church St., Paddington Green, W., 1860.
      Menken, E., 3 Bury St., Oxford St., W.C.


    _Aberdeen_--Wyllie, D., & Son, _c._ 1830.
      Murray, Jas.

    _Barton-on-Humber_--Ball, Hy. W.

    _Bath_--Gregory, Geo., 1845.
      Meehan, B. & J. F., 1867.

    _Belfast_--Shone, J., & Co.

    _Birmingham_--Downing, William.
      Hitchman, John, 1855.

    _Bournemouth_--Commin, H. G.

    _Bradford_--Miles, Thos., 1879.

    _Brechin_--Black & Johnston, 1817.

    _Brighton_--Smith, W. J.

    _Bristol_--Fawn, Jas., & Son.
      George's, Wm., Sons, 1847.

    _Cambridge_--Macmillan & Bowes.

    _Canterbury_--Goulden, W. E.

    _Colchester_--Forster, Thos., 1883.
      Golding, Chas., 1873.

    _Cork_--Massey, Nassau, 1840.

    _Devonport_--Clarke, Josiah, & Sons.

    _Dublin_--Carson Brothers.
      Traynor, Patrick, 1849.
      Weldrick, J. F.

    _Dundee_--Maxwell, Alex.
      Petrie, Geo., 1875.

    _Durham_--Slack, Jno.

    _Edinburgh_--Brown, Wm., 1877.
      Cameron, Rich., 1868.
      Clay, W. F.
      Stillie, James, 1826.

    _Exeter_--Commin, J. G.
      Drayton, S., & Sons.

    _Glasgow_--McClure, Rob., 1880.

    _Gravesend_--Ridgway, Alf., 1885.

    _Guildford_--Farnfield, S., & Co.

    _Hull_--Annandale, R. C.

    _Inverness_--Noble, J., 1859 [also Gaelic books].

    _Ipswich_--Read & Barrett, 1827.

    _Kelso_--Rutherford, J. & J. H., 1802.

    _Leamington_--Kennard, Tos., 1875.

    _Leeds_--Ashworth, J. H. & A., 1830.
      Milligan, Thomas, 1859.
      Symington, John S., 1881.

    _Leicester_--Murray, Frank, 1884.
      Spencer, Jno. and Thos., 1853.

    _Liverpool_--Howell, Edward.
      Young, Henry, & Sons, 1849.

    _London_--Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket, S.W.
      Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq.
      Daniell, W. V., 53 Mortimer St., W.
      Ellington, Robert, 15 Fitzroy St., W.
      Gray, Henry, 47 Leicester Sq., W.C.
      Harding, George, 6 Hyde St., Oxford St., W.C.
      Leighton, J. and J., 40 Brewer St., Golden Sq., W.
      Maggs, Uriah, 159 Church St., Paddington Gr., W., 1860.
      Millard, Miss, Teddington, W.
      Nield, Jon, 14 Great Russell St., W.C.
      Palmer, C. S., 100 Southampton Row, W.C., 1819.
      Parsons, E., & Sons, 45 Brompton Rd., S.W., 1858.
      Quaritch, Bernard, 15 Piccadilly, W.
      Ridler, W., 45 Booksellers' Row, W.C.
      Rimell, J., & Son, 91 Oxford St., W.C.
      Sotheran, H., & Co., 36 Piccadilly and 136 Strand.
      Toovey, Jas., 177 Piccadilly, W.

    _Nairn_--Melven Brothers.

    _Northampton_--Taylor & Son.

    _Norwich_--Hunt, Wm., 1860.
      Jarrold & Sons.

    _Oxford_--Parker & Co., Jas., _c._ 1800.
      Shrimpton, T., & Son, _c._ 1790.

    _Penzance_--Kinsman, John.

    _Rochdale_--Clegg, James, 1857.

    _Salisbury_--Brown & Co.

    _Stirling_--Cook, William B.

    _Torquay_--Iredale, Andrew.
      King, Charles.

    _Worksop_--White, Robert, 1847.

    _York_--Sampson, John B.


    _Bath_--Meehan, B. & J. F., 1867.

    _Bristol_--George's, Wm., Sons, 1847.

    _London_--Bain, Jas., 1 Haymarket, S.W.
      Bickers & Son, 1 Leicester Sq., W.C.
      Maggs, Uriah, 159 Church St., Paddington Gr., W., 1860.

    SPINK & SON,

List of a few Specialities on View and for Sale.


    =NOBLES.=    Edward III.    Edward IV.    from  £1 10 0
        Half do.      "            "            "    1  0 0
        Quarter do.   "                         "    0 10 0

    =ANGELS.= Edwd. IV. Henry VII. Henry VIII.  "    1  5 0

    =SOVEREIGNS.= Elizabeth.                    "    2 10 0
        Half do.      "                         "    1 10 0
        Quarter do.   "                         "    1  0 0

    =SOVEREIGNS.= James I. Charles I.           "    1  8 0
        Half do.      "        "                "    1  0 0
        Quarter do.   "        "                "    0 10 0

    =SOVEREIGNS.= Commonwealth                  "    2 10 0
        Half do.       "                        "    3 10 0
        Quarter do.    "                        "    2  5 0

    =FIVE GUINEA PIECES.= various reigns        "    6 10 0
        Two Guinea do.         "                "    2 10 0
        Guineas                "                "    1  2 6
        Half do.               "                "    0 11 6
        Quarter do. Geo. I. Geo. III.           "    0  8 6
        Seven Shilling Pieces                   "    0  8 0
        Greek Staters and divisions, Prices on application
        Roman Aurei                          "
        Jubilee Coins at close prices        "

SILVER. Early Pennies.

    Ethelred II. various Mints                 from  0  2 6
    Canute             "                         "   0  2 6
    William I.         "                         "   0  4 6
    Henry II. & III.   " (_long or short cross_) "   0  1 0
    Edward I. & II.    "                         "   0  1 0


    Edward III.                                  "   0  1 6
    Edward IV.                                   "   0  2 0
    Henry V., VI., VII., VIII.                   "   O  1 6

                Crowns.  Half-Crowns.  Shillings.  Sixpences.

    Charles I. from 20/- from 3/6      from 1/6    from 9d.
    Charles II.  "  5/9    "  3/6        "  1/6      "  8/6
    James II.    "  7/6    "  6/6        "  8/6      "  8/6
    William & Mary  20/-   "  3/6        "  5/-      "  7/6


    Naturalists' Stores,
    135 OXFORD ST., LONDON, W.


[Illustration: PATENTED.]


This most ingenious invention is designed for the rearing of all living
objects of Natural History, and is of the greatest assistance in the
scientific study (under the most favourable conditions) of the wonderful
economy and transformation of nature, and so constructed as to enable
the specimen to develop to the fullest perfection.

=No. 1=, as illustrated, is a Ventilated Lid or Cover, with deep rim
(which fits inside of glass case, No. 2), deep enough to prevent larvæ
from spinning on the glass, thus allowing the cover, with cocoons and
pupæ attached, to be removed for inspection, or stored away in large
cages until they emerge.

=No. 2=, Glass Case, which permits the full power of light to freely
enter on all parts of the specimens from every point of view.

=No. 3=, The Base (which the Case No. 2 fits into) is made to contain
earth for the growing of plants, or for the use of those insects who
bury during pupa state. The bottom of the base is perforated to allow
the air to pass through the case, thus preventing over-heating,
steaming, or mildew of the specimens, earth, or plants, which is very
difficult to prevent in other forms of cases.

=No. 4=, Is a small movable Pot to contain water in which the stems of
food plants may be placed that cannot be grown in the case, such as the
cuttings of trees, etc., which last for a considerable time in this

The Pot has a perforated india-rubber cover to prevent the larvæ from
entering the water.

    Height. Diameter. Price. | Height. Diameter. Price.
    6 in. 2-3/4 in. 2/-| 9 in. 4-1/4 in. 3/6
    7 in. 3-1/4 in. 2/6 | 10 in. 4-3/4 in. 5/6
    8 in. 3-3/4 in. 3/-| 11 in. 5-1/4 in. 7/6

    NOTE.--_The various parts are supplied separately._

E. SUMNER, 135 Oxford Street, London, W.



=The Largest and Cheapest Establishment in the World for every
description of Natural History Apparatus, etc.=

                     {British and Foreign Birds, Eggs, and Nests;
    Ornithological   {Aviaries, Cages, and Parrot Stands for the
      Department.    {Drawing Room, Conservatory, or Garden;
                     {Wirework of every description.

                     {Larvæ and Pupæ of Lepidoptera; Scientific
    Entomological    {Insect Cabinets, Cases, Setting Boards, Cork,
      Department.    {Killing Bottles, Spinning Wheels, Silkworms,
                     {Butterflies and Moths.
                     {=KENSINGTON INSECTARIUM, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6.=
                     {Gold Fish, Carp, Roach, Tench, Dace, Golden
    Piscatorial      {Orfe, Minnows, Snails, Beetles and Water
      Department.    {Plants; Aquariums, Globes, Fountains, Rocks,
                     {Cork Models, Swiss Chalets, Running Windmills,
                     {Nets and Syphons.
                     {=Sumner's Fish Food, 2d. pkt. Ants' Eggs, 6d. pt.=
                     {Snakes, Slowworms, Lizards, Chameleons,
    Reptilian        {Land and Water Tortoises, etc., in great
      Department.    {variety from all parts of the globe.
                     {=KENSINGTON REPTILARIUM, 2/-, 2/6, 3/6, 5/6.=
                     {Green Tree Frogs, Fire Frogs, Common and
    Amphibian        {Edible Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, Newts,
      Department.    {etc.
                     {Mexican Axoloti of every description.

Experienced Workmen in all branches kept on the premises for special
orders, etc.




36, STRAND, W.C.


(_Five doors from Charing Cross._)

Every description of Apparatus and Cabinets of the best make for
Entomology and general Natural History, &c.

Wire or Cane Ring Net and Stick, 1s. 8d., 2s., and 2s. 3d. Umbrella Net
(self-acting), 7s. 6d. Pocket Folding Net (wire or cane), 3s. 9d. and
4s. 6d. Corked Pocket Boxes, 6d., 9d., 1s. and 1s. 6d. Zinc Relaxing
Boxes, 9d., 1s., 1s. 6d. and 2s. Chip Boxes, nested, 4 doz., 8d.
Entomological Pins, mixed, 1s. per oz. Pocket Lantern, 2s. 6d. to 5s.,
Napthaline, 1-1/2d. per oz. Sugaring Tin (with brush), 1s. 6d. and 2s.
Best Killing Bottles, 1s. 6d. Store Boxes, 2s. 6d., 4s., 5s., and 6s.
Setting Boards, from 5d.; complete Set, 10s. 6d. Setting Houses., 9s.
6d., 11s. 6d., and 14s. Larva Boxes, 9d., 1s., 1s. 6d. Breeding Cages,
2s. 6d., 4s., and 5s.

Finest Stock of British and Foreign Butterflies, Beetles, Birds' Eggs,
&c., in the Kingdom.

Throughout the winter and early spring, a large stock of live pupae of
British and Foreign Butterflies and Moths, including the gigantic Atlas
and other Exotic Moths.

Collections of Natural-History objects, carefully named and arranged.

New and Second-hand Works on Entomology.

Label Lists of every description. The complete Label List of British
Lepidoptera (Latin and English names), 1s. 6d., post free.

One each of all the British Butterflies in a Case, 25s.

A magnificent assortment of Preserved Caterpillars always in Stock.

Birds and Animals stuffed and mounted in the best style by skilled
workmen on the premises.

_A full Catalogue sent post free on application._


Manufacturer of all kinds of Entomological Apparatus,


=Dealer in Insects, Birds' Eggs, Skins. &c.=

Plain Ring Net, cane or wire, 2s. Umbrella Net, 5s. 6d., 6s. 6d., 7s.
6d., and 10s. 6d. Folding Nets, cane or iron, 4s. 6d. Pocket Box, wood,
6d. and 1s. Ditto, metal, 1s. 6d. and 2s. Store Box, 1s. 9d., 2s. 6d.,
4s., 5s., and 6s. Larva Box, 1s. Larva Cage, 2s. 6d., 3s., 3s. 6d., and
5s. Sugaring Tin, 1s., 1s. 6d., 2s., and 2s. 6d. Entomological Pins,
from 1s. per ounce, assorted or mixed. Willow Chip Box, four sizes,
Nested, the packet of four dozen, 9d. Setting Boards, 6d. to 2s.; a
Complete Set, 10s.

All Articles Guaranteed.


Price Lists on Application.


       *       *       *       *       *


    The book does not have a table of contents; one has been added by the

    Seven [oe] ligatures have been simplified to oe.

    The reversed-C symbol is indicated by [C].

    The following obvious typos have been corrected:
    p. 36 "Défense de la Reformation" has been changed to "Défense de la
    p. 105 After "in a double sense" a period has been added.
    p. 105 "specime nof" has been amended to "specimen of".
    p. 106 "Momento" has been amended to "Memento".
    p. 124 "Specialites" has been amended to "Specialities".

    Other possible typos (for example "caligraphy" on p. 6, "horde" on p. 35
    and "neither have succeeded" on p. 43) have been left unchanged as they
    may reflect the spelling choice of the author.

    Variations in hyphenation have been retained as in the original.

    The asterism symbol on pages 126, 131 and 133 is indicated by [***].

    The three advertisement pages at the start of the book have been moved
    to the end, to follow other advertisements.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Book Collecting: A Guide for Amateurs" ***

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