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Title: Light and Peace - Instructions for devout souls to dispel their doubts and - allay their fears
Author: Quadrupani, Carlo Giuseppe
Language: English
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                            LIGHT AND PEACE.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEVOUT SOULS
                       TO DISPEL THEIR DOUBTS AND
                           ALLAY THEIR FEARS.

                                   BY
                      R. P. QUADRUPANI, Barnabite.


                     _Translated from the French._


                        With an Introduction by
                    THE MOST REV. P. J. RYAN, D.D.,
                    Archbishop of Philadelphia, Pa.


                          ST. LOUIS, MO. 1898.
                        Published by B. HERDER,
                           17 South Broadway.


                             NIHIL OBSTAT.

                                                      F. G. Holweck,
                                                  _Censor Librorum_.


                              IMPRIMATUR.

St. Louis, Mo., 1. Oct. 1897.
                                            H. Muehlsiepen, _V. G.,_
                                                              _Adm._


_The French translation, from which the present English version has been
made, is approved by the Archbishop of Paris, the Bishop of Versailles
and the Bishop of Meaux._


                 Copyright, 1898, by Jos. Gummersbach.


                               —BECKTOLD—
                       PRINTING AND BOOK MFG. CO.
                             ST. LOUIS, MO.



                         TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE.


These _Instructions for Pious Souls_, now published in English under the
title _Light and Peace_, were written in 1795 by the illustrious and
saintly Barnabite, Padre Quadrupani. They contain a summary of spiritual
guidance for earnest Christians in the ordinary duties of life in the
world. The author had formed his own spirituality on the model presented
by the life and teaching of St. Francis de Sales, and in this little book
he reflects the wisdom, prudence and sweetness of that “gentleman Saint.”

The work has passed through uncounted editions in its original Italian,
and through a large number of editions in both the French and the German
translations. An English translation was published many years ago, but
besides its present rarity, its many imperfections warrant the belief
that a new rendition will not be unwelcome. The translator has, moreover,
been encouraged by the persuasion that the maxims of Father Quadrupani
are specially adapted to the American character. Unlike many foreign
religious works, whose spirituality often fails to touch the Anglo-Saxon
temperament, this author’s teaching is decidedly practical and
practicable, and appeals in every way to the common sense and fits in
with the busy, matter-of-fact life of the average American Catholic.

The present translation has been made from the twentieth French edition
and has been collated with the thirty-second edition of the original
Italian published at Naples in 1818. The many recommendations from the
Episcopacy of France prefixed to the French translation are here omitted,
as the Introduction by the Most Reverend Archbishop of Philadelphia is
abundant testimony to the doctrinal solidity of the work.

                                                          I. M. O’R.
Overbrook, PA.



                             INTRODUCTION.


God’s attributes being infinite and our intellects limited and also
darkened by the fall, we see these attributes only in part and “as afar
off and through a glass.” In contemplating His awful sanctity, we are
overwhelmed with fear and forget His ineffable mercy. Our views are also
greatly influenced by our natural temperaments, whether joyous or sad,
and change with our environments and moods.

As the blue firmament is ever the same, so is the great God Himself—“the
King of Ages immortal and invisible, without change or shadow of
vicissitude.” But as the clouds that hang as veils of the sanctuary are
movable and variegated, now dark and gloomy and again brilliant in silver
or gold, now opening into vistas of the firmament above and again closing
in darkness, except when arrows of light pierce them and show their
outlines, so are we variable and inconstant and need spiritual direction
adapted to our peculiar wants. The naturally joyous, hopeful and
sometimes presumptuous, need that wholesome fear of the Lord which is
“the beginning of wisdom.” The constitutionally severe, scrupulous and
almost despairing, need to remember God’s tender paternal character and
to learn that “His mercies are above all His works.” To such souls this
little book must prove invaluable. Its theology is sound, as the various
episcopal approbations testify. Hence its statements can be entirely
trusted. The fact that it has passed through twenty editions in French is
sufficient evidence of its appreciation in that country. May it continue
its holy mission of light and consolation and joy in this country and act
like the angelic messenger to Peter in prison, liberating the soul from
the chains of doubt and despondency, illuminating her by the light of
God’s holy truth and bringing her out of the darksome prison into the
company of the confiding, prayerful, joyous saints of God.

                                                        ✠P. J. RYAN.



                               CONTENTS.


                              PART FIRST.
                         _Exterior Practices._

                                                                     Page.
  I. Spiritual Direction                                                 1
  II. Temptations                                                        8
  III. Prayer                                                           19
  IV. Penance                                                           37
  V. Confession                                                         43
  VI. Holy Communion                                                    62
  VII. Sundays and Holydays                                             76
  VIII. Spiritual Reading                                               81

                              PART SECOND.
                            _Interior Life._

  IX. Hope                                                              85
  X. The Presence of God                                                90
  XI. Humility                                                          93
  XII. Resignation                                                      99
  XIII. Scruples                                                       108
  XIV. Interior Peace                                                  112
  XV. Sadness                                                          116
  XVI. Liberty of Spirit                                               119
  XVII. Christian Perfection                                           130

                              PART THIRD.
                             _Social Life._

  XVIII. Charity                                                       146
  XIX. Zeal                                                            153
  XX. Meekness                                                         162
  XXI. Conversation                                                    165
  XXII. Dress                                                          173
  XXIII. Human Respect                                                 176
  XXIV. Resolutions                                                    178
  XXV. Conclusion                                                      182
  Additions                                                            186



                            Light and Peace


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEVOUT SOULS
             TO DISPEL THEIR DOUBTS AND ALLAY THEIR FEARS.

                    By R. P. QUADRUPANI, Barnabite.



                              PART FIRST.
                          EXTERIOR PRACTICES.



                                   I.
                          SPIRITUAL DIRECTION.


  For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Ghost. (S. Mark, xiii, 11.)

1. It is absolutely true that in matters of conscience obedience to a
spiritual director is obedience to God, for Christ has said to His
ministers on earth: “He that heareth you, heareth Me.” (St. Luke, x, 16.)

2. A soul possessed of this spirit of obedience can not be lost: a soul
devoid of this spirit can not be saved. (St. Philip Neri.)

3. Saint Bernard says there is no need for the devil to tempt those who
ignore obedience and permit themselves to be guided by their own light
and deterred by their fears, for they act the devil’s part towards
themselves.

4. Do not fear that your director may be mistaken in what he prescribes
for your guidance, or that he does not fully understand the state of your
conscience because you did not explain it clearly enough to him. Such
doubts cause obedience to be eluded or postponed and thus frustrate the
designs of God in placing you under the direction of a prudent guide. It
was the priest’s duty to have questioned you further had he not fully
understood you, and that he did not do so is a positive proof that he
knew enough to enable him to pronounce a safe judgment. God has promised
his special help to those who represent Him in the direction of souls. Is
not this assurance enough to induce you to obey with promptness and
simplicity as the Holy Scripture commands?

5. God does not show the state of our souls as clearly to us as he does
to him who is to guide us in his place. You should be quite satisfied,
then, if your director tells you the course you follow is the right one
and that the mercy and grace of your Heavenly Father are guiding you in
it. You should believe and obey him in this as in all else, for as St.
John of the Cross tells us, “it betrays pride and lack of faith not to
put entire confidence in what our confessor says.”

6. Spiritual obedience is most needful for a Christian. Ignore,
therefore, the groundless suspicion that you sin by obeying, and walk
confidently in this path exempt from danger. “You sometimes fear,” says
St. Bonaventure, “that in obeying you act against the dictates of your
conscience, whereas, on the contrary, far from incurring guilt, you
really increase your merit before God.”

7. We should allow obedience to regulate not only our exterior actions
but likewise our mind and our will. Hence do not be satisfied with
performing the works it prescribes, but let your thoughts and desires be
also moulded according to its direction. In fact, it is in this interior
submission that the merit of spiritual obedience essentially consists.

8. Obedience should be simple and prompt, without reservation or
disquietude. Simple, because you ought not to argue about it, but decide
by the one thought: _I must obey_; prompt, for it is God whom you obey;
without reservation, because obedience extends to everything that does
not violate God’s law; without disquietude, because in obeying God you
cannot go astray: this thought should be sufficient to drive away all
fear of doing or of having done wrong.

9. When choosing a director, be careful to select one who has the
necessary qualifications. He should be not only virtuous, but prudent,
charitable and learned. St. Francis de Sales gives the following opinion
on the subject:

“Go,” said Tobias to his son, when about to send him into a strange
country, ‘go seek some wise man to conduct you.’ I say the same to you,
Philothea. If you sincerely desire to enter upon the way of devotion,
seek a good guide to direct you therein. This advice is of the utmost
importance and necessity. Whatever one may do, says the devout Avila, he
can never be certain of fulfilling God’s will, unless he practice that
humble obedience which the saints so strongly recommend and to which they
so faithfully adhere. And the Scriptures tell us: ‘A faithful friend is a
strong defence: and he that hath found him, hath found a treasure: ... a
faithful friend is the medicine of life and immortality: and they that
fear the Lord shall find one.’ (Ecclesiasticus, c. VI, vv. 14-16.)

But who can find such a friend? They that fear God, the Wise Man
answers—that is to say, those humble souls who ardently desire their
spiritual progress. Since it is so essential, then, Philothea, to have a
skilful guide in the devout life, ask God fervently to give you one
according to His Heart, and rest assured that when an angel is necessary
to you as to the young Tobias, He will give you a wise and faithful
director.

In fact, the selection once made, you should look upon your spiritual
guide more as a guardian angel than as a mere man. You place your
confidence not in him but in God, for it is God who will lead and
instruct you through his instrumentality by inspiring him with the
sentiments and words necessary for your guidance. Thus you may safely
listen to him as to an angel sent from heaven to lead you there. To this
confidence, add perfect candor. Speak quite frankly and tell him
unreservedly all that is good, all that is evil in you, for the good will
thus be strengthened, the evil weakened, and your soul shall thereby
become firmer in its sufferings and more moderate in its consolations.
Great respect should also be united with confidence and in such nice
proportion that the one shall not lessen the other: let your confidence
in him be such as a respectful daughter reposes in her father, your
respect for him such as that with which a son confides in his mother. In
a word, this friendship, though strong and tender, should be altogether
sacred and spiritual in its nature.

‘Choose one among a thousand,’ says Avila: “among ten thousand, rather, I
should say, for there are fewer than one would suppose fitted for this
office of spiritual director. Charity, learning and prudence are
indispensable to it, and if any one of these qualities be absent, your
choice will not be unattended with danger. I repeat, ask God to inspire
your selection and when you have made it thank Him sincerely, and then
remain constant to your decision. If you go to God in all simplicity and
with humility and confidence, you will undoubtedly obtain a favorable
answer to your petition.”

In conclusion, it may be well to remind you that the director and the
confessor have not necessarily to be the same priest. St. Francis de
Sales was the spiritual director of many persons to whom he was not the
ordinary confessor. “To a director,” he says, “we should reveal our
entire soul, whereas to a confessor we simply accuse ourselves of our
sins in order to receive absolution for them.”



                                  II.
                              TEMPTATIONS.


  My brethren, count it all joy when ye shall fall into divers
  temptations. (Epist. S. Jas., Cat., c. i, v. 2.)

  Now if I do that which I will not, it is no more I that do it, but sin,
  which dwelleth in me. (St. P., Rom., c. vii, v. 20.)

1. “If we are tempted,” says the Holy Spirit, “it is a sign that God
loves us.” Those whom God best loves have been most exposed to
temptations. “Because thou wast acceptable to God,” said the angel to
Tobias, “it was necessary that temptation should prove thee.” (Tobias, c.
xii, v. 13.)

2. Do not ask God to deliver you from temptations, but to grant you the
grace not to succumb to them and to do nothing contrary to His divine
will. He who refuses the combat, renounces the crown. Place all your
trust in God and God will Himself do battle for you against the enemy.[1]

3. “These persistent temptations come from the malice of the devil,” says
St. Francis de Sales, “but the trouble and suffering they cause us come
from the mercy of God. Thus, despite the will of the tempter, God
converts his evil machinations into a distress which we may make
meritorious. Therefore I say your temptations are from the devil and
hell, but your anxiety and affliction are from God and heaven.” Despise
temptation, then, and open wide your soul to this suffering which God
sends in order to purify you here that He may reward you hereafter.

4. “Let the wind blow,” remarks the same Saint, “and do not mistake the
rustling of leaves for the clashing of arms. Be perfectly convinced that
all the temptations of hell are powerless to defile a soul that does not
love them. St. Paul endured terrible temptations, yet God, through love,
did not deliver him from them.” Look upon God as an infinitely good and
tender father and believe that He only allows the devil to try His
children that their merits may increase and their recompense be
correspondingly greater.

5. The more persistent the temptation, the clearer it is that you have
not given consent to it. “It is a good sign,” says St. Francis de Sales,
“when the tempter makes so much noise and commotion outside of the will,
for it shows that he is not within.” An enemy does not besiege a fortress
that is already in his power, and the more obstinate the attack, the more
certain We may be that our resistance continues.

6. Your fears lead you to believe you are defeated at the very moment you
are gaining the victory. This comes from the fact that you confound
feeling with consent, and, mistaking a passive condition of the
imagination for an act of the will, you consider that you have yielded to
the temptation because you felt it keenly.

*St. Francis de Sales, with his usual simplicity, thus describes this
warring of the flesh against the spirit:

“You are right, my dear daughter. There are two women within you ... and
the two children of these different mothers quarrel, and the
good-for-nothing one is so bad that sometimes the good one can scarcely
defend herself, and then she takes it into her head that she has been
worsted and that the wicked one is braver than she. Now, surely, this is
not true. The bad one is not the stronger by any means, but only slyer,
more persistent and more obstinate. When she succeeds in making you weep
she is delighted, because that is always just so much time lost, and she
is content to make you lose time when she cannot make you lose
eternity.”*[2]

It is not always in our power to restrain the imagination. St. Jerome had
retired into the desert and still his fancy represented to him the dances
of the Roman ladies. His body was benumbed, as it were, and his blood
chilled by the severity of his mortifications, and yet the flames of
concupiscence encompassed and tortured his heart. During these frightful
conflicts the holy anchorite suffered, but he did not sin; he was
tormented but was not guilty; on the contrary, his merits were augmented
in the sight of God in proportion to the intensity of the temptations.

7. The holy abbot St. Anthony was wont to say to the phantoms of his
mind: I see you, but I do not look at you: I see you because it does not
depend upon me that my imagination places before my eyes things I would
wish not to see; I do not look at you because with my will I repulse and
reject you. “It is so much the essence of sin to be voluntary,” says St.
Augustine, “that if not voluntary, it is not sin.”

8. The attraction of the feelings towards the object presented by the
imagination is at times so strong that the will seems to have been
carried away and overcome by a sort of fascination. This, however, is not
the case. The will suffered, but did not consent; it was attacked and
wounded, but not conquered. This state of things coincides with what St.
Paul says of the revolt of the flesh against the spirit and of their
unceasing warfare. The soul, indeed, experiences strange sensations, but
as she does not consent to them, she passes through the ordeal unsullied,
just as substances coated with oil may be immersed in water without
absorbing a single drop of it.

*St. Francis de Sales explains this distinction so plainly and yet so
simply in one of his letters, that it may be useful to repeat the passage
here: “Courage, my dear soul, I say it with great love in Jesus Christ,
dear soul, courage! As long as we can exclaim resolutely, even though
without feeling, My Jesus! there is no cause for alarm. Do not tell me it
appears to you that you say it in a cowardly way, and only by doing great
violence to yourself. It is precisely this holy violence that bears away
the kingdom of heaven. Do you not see, my daughter, it is a sign that the
enemy has taken everything within our fortress except the impenetrable,
unconquerable tower—and that can never be lost save by wilful surrender.
This tower is the free-will which, perfectly visible to the eye of God,
occupies the highest and most spiritual region of the soul, dependent on
none but God and oneself; and when all the other faculties are lost and
in subjection to the enemy, it alone remains free to give or to refuse
consent. Now, you often see souls afflicted because the enemy, occupying
all the other faculties, makes therein so great a noise and confusion
that they scarce can hear what this superior will says; for though it has
a clearer and more penetrating voice than the inferior will, the loud,
boisterous cries of the latter almost drown it: but note this well: as
long as the temptation is displeasing to you, there is nothing to fear;
for why should it displease you, except because you do not will it?”*

9. Should it frequently happen that you have not a distinct consciousness
of your success against temptation, it may be that God refuses you this
satisfaction in order that, lacking this clear assurance, your knowledge
may come through obedience. Therefore, when your spiritual director,
after hearing your explanation, says that you have not given consent, you
should be satisfied with his decision and abide by it with perfect
tranquillity, discarding all fear that he did not understand you aright
or that you did not explain the matter sufficiently. These doubts are but
fresh artifices of the devil to rob you of the merit of obedience. As has
been said above, to give way to such inquietude is to offend seriously
against this virtue, for all direction would thus be rendered impossible,
by the failure of the penitent to recognize God Himself in the person of
his director.

10. To constitute a mortal sin three conditions must co-exist. First, the
matter must be weighty; secondly, the mind must have full knowledge of
the guilt of the action, omission or dangerous occasion in question; and,
thirdly, the will, through a criminal preference for the forbidden
action, culpable omission, or proximate occasion of sin, must give full
consent. These reflections should serve to reassure your mind if the fear
of having committed a mortal sin disturb it, for it is very difficult for
this threefold union of conditions to be effected in a God-fearing soul.
However, perfect security can come, and ought to come, only from
spiritual obedience.

11. In temptations against faith and purity, do not make great efforts to
form acts of these virtues, but simply turn a pleading glance towards
God, without speaking even to this compassionate Friend concerning the
thought that afflicts you, lest thereby you root the evil suggestion more
firmly. Then, without disquieting yourself, engage at once in some
exterior occupation or continue what you were doing. Make no answer to
the tempter, but ignore him, just as though his assault had never
occurred. In this way, whilst preserving your own peace of soul, you will
cover your enemy with confusion.

*The same counsel is given by St. Francis de Sales in his characteristic
style:

“Do you know how God acts on these occasions? He permits the wicked maker
of such wares to come and offer them to us for sale, in order that by the
contempt we show for them we may testify our love for holy things. And
for this is it necessary, my dear child, to feel anxious, and to change
our position? No, no. It is only the devil who is prowling around your
soul, raging and storming, to see if he can find an open door.... What!
and you would be annoyed at that? Let the enemy storm away; only be
careful on your part to keep all the entrances well fastened, and finally
he will grow weary; or if he do not, God will force him to raise the
siege.”*

12. Though you should be assailed by temptations during your entire life
time, do not be disquieted, for your merits will increase in proportion
to your trials and your crown be accordingly all the brighter in heaven.
The only thing necessary is to remain firm in your resolution to despise
the efforts of the tempter.

*“This serious trial, and so many others that have assailed you and left
you troubled in mind, do not at all surprise me, since there is nothing
worse. Do not worry, then, my beloved daughter. Should we allow ourselves
to be swept away by the current and the storm? Let Satan rage at the
door; he may knock and stamp, and clamor and howl, and do his worst, but
rest assured that he can never enter our souls but through the door of
our consent. Let us only keep that closed tight and often look to see
that it is well secured and we need have no concern about all the
rest—there is no danger.”*—St. Francis de Sales.

13. The most learned theologians and masters of the spiritual life agree
in saying that simply to ignore a temptation is a much more effectual
means to repulse it than words and acts of the contrary virtues. On this
subject read attentively Chapters III. and IV. of the _Introduction to a
Devout Life_. You will find much light and consolation in them. See also
Chapter XII. of the _Spiritual Combat_, and Chapters VI., VII., XII.,
XX., XXIX., LV., and LVII. of the Third Book of the _Imitation_.



                                  III.
                                PRAYER.


  Who can persevere the whole day in the praise of God? I will suggest a
  help. Whatsoever thou doest do well, and thou hast praised God. (S.
  Aug., on Ps. xxxiv., Disc. 2.)

  Oh! what do I suffer interiorly whilst with my mind I consider heavenly
  things; and presently a crowd of carnal thoughts interrupt me as I
  pray. (Imit., B. III., c. XLVIII., v. 5.)

1. We ought to love meditation and should make it often on the Passion of
our divine Lord, striving above all to derive therefrom fruits of
humility, patience and charity.

2. If you experience great dryness in your meditations or other prayers,
do not feel distressed and conclude that God has turned His Face away
from you. Far from it. Prayer said with aridity is usually the most
meritorious. *It is quite a common error to confound the value of prayer
with its sensible results, and the merit acquired with the satisfaction
experienced. The facility and sweetness you may have in prayer are favors
from God and for which you will have to account to him: hence the result
is not merit but debt. (Read the _Imitation_, B. II, c. IX.)* The very
fact that we derive less gratification from such prayer, makes it all the
more pleasing to God, because we are thus suffering for love of him. Let
us call to mind at such times that our Lord prayed without consolation
throughout his bitter agony.

*“All this trouble comes from self-love and from the good opinion we have
of ourselves. If our hearts do not melt with tenderness, if we have no
relish or sensible feeling in prayer, if we do not enjoy great interior
sweetness during meditation, we are at once overwhelmed with sadness: if
we find difficulty in doing good, if some obstacle is opposed to our
pious designs, we give way to disquietude and are eager to conquer all
this and to be free from it. Why? Undoubtedly because we love
consolations, our own comfort, our own convenience. We wish to pray
immersed in sweetness, and to be virtuous that we may eat sugar; and we
do not contemplate _our Saviour Jesus Christ, who, prone upon the ground,
is covered with a sweat of blood_ caused by the intense conflict He feels
interiorly between the repugnances of the inferior portion of his soul
and the resolutions of the superior.”*—St. Francis de Sales.

*The same teaching is given by another great master of the spiritual
life:

“We frequently seek the gratification and consolation of self-love in the
testimony we desire to render to ourselves. Thus we are disturbed about
our lack of sensible fervor, whereas in reality we never pray so well as
when we are tempted to think we are not praying at all. We fear to pray
badly then, but we should fear rather to give way to the vexation of our
cowardly nature, to a philosophical infidelity, which ever wishes to
demonstrate to itself its own operations—in fine, to an impatient desire
to see and to feel in order to console ourselves.

There is no penance more bitter than this state of pure faith without
sensible support. Hence I conclude that it is freer than any other from
illusion. Strange temptation! to seek impatiently for sensible
consolation through fear of not being sufficiently penitent! Ah! Why not
rather accept as a penance the deprivation of that consolation we are so
tempted to seek?”*—Fénelon.

3. You will sometimes imagine that at prayer your soul is not in the
presence of God and that only your body is in the church, like the
statues and candelabras that adorn the altars. Think, then, that you
share with those inanimate objects the honor of serving as ornaments for
the house of God, and that in the presence of your Creator even this
humble rôle should seem glorious to you.

*“You tell me that you cannot pray well. But what better prayer could
there be than to represent to God again and again, as you are doing, your
nothingness and misery? The most touching appeal beggars can make is
merely to expose to us their deformities and necessities. But there are
times when you cannot even do this much, you say, and that you remain
there like a statue. Well, even that is better than nothing. Kings and
princes have statues in their palaces for no other purpose than that they
may take pleasure in looking at them: be satisfied then to fulfil the
same office in the presence of God, and when it so pleases Him He will
animate the statue.”*—St. Francis de Sales.

4. When you have not consciously or voluntarily yielded to distractions,
do not stop to find what may have been their cause, or to discover if you
have in any way given occasion to them. This would be simply to weary and
disquiet yourself unprofitably. From whatever direction they come, you
can convert them into a source of merit by casting yourself into the arms
of the Divine Mercy. St. Francis de Sales when asked how he prayed,
replied: “I cannot say it too often—I receive peacefully whatever the
Lord sends me. If he consoles me, I kiss the right hand of his mercy; if
I am dry and distracted, I kiss the left hand of his justice.” This
method is the only good one, for as the same Saint says: “He who truly
loves prayer, loves it for the love of God: and he who loves it for the
love of God, wishes to experience in it naught but what God is pleased to
send him.” Now, whatever you may experience in prayer, is precisely what
God wills.

5. St. Francis de Sales teaches us that merely to keep ourselves
peacefully and tranquilly in the presence of God, without other desire or
pretension than to be near him and to please him, is of itself an
excellent prayer. “Do not exhaust yourself,” he says, “in making efforts
to speak to your dear Master, for you are speaking to Him by the sole
fact that you remain there and contemplate Him.”

*“Remember that the graces and favors of prayer do not come from earth
but from heaven and therefore that no effort of ours can acquire them,
although, it is true, we must dispose ourselves for their reception
diligently, yet withal humbly and tranquilly. We ought to keep our hearts
wide open and await the blessed dew from heaven. The following
consideration should never be forgotten when we go to prayer, namely,
that we draw near to God and place ourselves in His presence principally
for two reasons. The first is to render to God the honor and the homage
we owe Him, and this can be done without God speaking to us or we to Him,
for the duty is fulfilled by acknowledging that He is our Creator and we
are His vile creatures, and by remaining before Him, prostrate in spirit,
awaiting His commands. The second reason is to speak to God and to listen
to Him when He speaks to us by His inspirations and the interior
movements of grace.... Now, one or other of these two advantages can
never fail to be derived from prayer. If, then, we can speak to our Lord,
let us do so in praise and supplication: if we are unable to speak, let
us remain in his presence notwithstanding, offering him our silent
homage; he will see us there, our patience will touch him and our silence
will plead with him and win his favor. Another time, to our utter
astonishment, he will take us by the hand, and converse with us, and make
a hundred turns with us in his garden of prayer. And even should he never
do this, still let us be content to know it is our duty to be in his
retinue, and that it is a great favor and a greater honor for us that he
suffers us in his presence.

In this way we do not force ourselves to speak to God, for we know that
merely to remain close to him is as useful, nay, perhaps more useful to
us, though it may be less to our liking. Therefore when you draw near to
our Lord speak to him if you can; if you cannot, stay there, let him see
you, and do not be anxious about anything else.... Take courage, then,
tell your Saviour you will not leave him even should he never grant you
any sensible sweetness; tell him that you will remain before him until he
has given you his blessing.”*—St. Francis de Sales.

6. The same Saint gives further valuable advice as follows: “Many persons
fail to make a distinction between the presence of God in their souls and
the consciousness of this adorable presence, between faith and the
sensible feeling of faith. This shows a great want of discernment. When
they do not realize God’s presence dwelling within them, they suppose He
has withdrawn himself through some fault of theirs. This is an ignorant
and hurtful error. A man who endures martyrdom for love of God does not
think actually and exclusively of God but much of his own sufferings; and
yet the absence of this feeling of faith does not deprive him of the
great merit due to his faith and the resolutions it caused him to make
and to keep.”

7. Your vocal prayers should be few in number but said with great fervor.
The strength derived from food does not depend upon the quantity taken
but upon its being well digested. Far better one Our Father or one Psalm
said with devout attention than entire rosaries and long offices recited
hurriedly and with restless eagerness.

8. If you feel whilst saying vocal prayers—those not of obligation—that
God invites you to meditate, gently and promptly follow this divine
impulse. You may be sure that in doing so you make an exchange most
profitable to yourself and agreeable to God from whom the inspiration
comes.

9. Prepare yourself for prayer by peaceful recollection and begin it
without agitation or uneasiness. St. Francis de Sales has this to say on
the subject: “Some little time before you are going to pray, calm and
compose your heart, and be hopeful of doing well; for if you begin
without hope and already devoid of relish, you will find it difficult to
regain an appetite.... The disquiet you experience in prayer, accompanied
by great eagerness to discover some object that can fix and satisfy your
thoughts, is of itself sufficient to prevent you finding what you seek.
When a thing is searched for with too great eagerness, one may have his
hands or his eyes almost upon it a hundred times and yet fail to perceive
it. This vain and useless anxiety in regard to prayer can result in
nothing but weariness of mind, and this in turn produces coldness and
apathy in your soul.”

10. Be careful not to overburden yourself with too many prayers, either
mental or vocal. As soon as you feel uncontrollable weariness or
distaste, postpone your prayers, if possible, and seek relief in some
pleasant pastime, or conversation, or in any other innocent diversion.
This advice is given by St. Thomas and other learned Fathers of the
Church and is of the utmost importance. Follow it conscientiously, for
lassitude of mind begets coldness and a kind of spiritual stupor.

11. Never repeat a prayer, even should you have said it with many
distractions. You cannot imagine the innumerable difficulties in which
you may become entangled by the habit of repeating your prayers.
Therefore I beg of you not to do it. *In St. Ignatius’ time there was a
certain religious of the Society of Jesus who was a victim of this kind
of scruple. The recital of the daily Office always kept him much longer
than was necessary because he would repeat again and again and for hours
at a time any passage that he suspected had not been said with sufficient
attention. St. Ignatius tried to correct him by various means, but in
vain. At length the thought occurred that one scruple might be cured by
another. He therefore commanded the poor Jesuit, under pain of sin and in
virtue of religious obedience, to close his breviary every day at the end
of a specified time, this being just enough to allow him to read the
Office through once and rather quickly. The first day the religious was
obliged to stop before he had half finished. This caused him such intense
regret that ere long the fear of not being able to say the entire Office
made him contract the habit of finishing it within the allotted time.*
Begin your prayer with the desire of being very recollected. This is all
that is necessary. “A desire has the same value in the sight of God as a
good work”, says St. Gregory the Great, “when the accomplishment of it
does not depend upon our will.” During these involuntary distractions God
withdraws the sensible feeling of His presence, but His love remains in
the depths of our hearts. St. Theresa, in the midst of dryness and
distractions, was wont to say: “If I am not praying I am at least doing
penance.” I should say: you are doing both the one and the other: you do
penance by all that you are suffering, you pray by the desire and
intention you have to do so.

12. You should never repeat a prayer nor a point in your meditation even
if you have had in the inferior portion of your soul ideas and feelings
at variance with the words pronounced by your lips or with the sentiments
you wished to excite in your heart. Nay, do not be induced to do it, even
were these ideas and feelings injurious to God. Under such conditions, be
careful not to give way to anxiety and agitation and do not try to make
reparation for an imaginary offence. Continue your prayer in peace as if
nothing had disturbed it, not taking the trouble to notice these dogs
that come from the devil and that can bark around you while you pray in
order to distract you, if may be, but that cannot bite you unless you let
them. *“This temptation should be treated exactly the same as temptations
of the flesh: do not dispute with it at all, rather imitate the children
of Israel who made no attempt to break the bones of the paschal lamb but
cast them into the fire. You need not answer the enemy, nor even pretend
to hear what he says. Let the wretch clamor at the door as much as he
wants to, it is not even necessary to call: Who is there? What you tell
me is no doubt true, you say, but he annoys me and the uproar he makes
prevents those within from hearing one another speak. That makes no
difference. Have patience, prostrate yourself before God and remain at
his feet. He will understand from your very attitude, although you utter
no words, that you are his and that you crave his help. Above all,
however, keep yourself well within and do not on any account open the
door, either to see who it is, or to drive the importunate fellow away.
Eventually he will tire of shouting and will leave you in peace.”*[3] St.
Augustine says that the devil is a formidable giant to those who fear
him, but only a miserable dwarf to those who despise him.

13. Should it happen that the whole time given to prayer be passed in
rejecting temptations or in recalling your mind from its wanderings, and
you do not succeed in giving birth to a single devout thought or
sentiment, St. Francis de Sales is authority for saying that your prayer
is nevertheless all the more meritorious from the fact of its being so
unsatisfactory to you. It makes you more like to our divine Lord when he
prayed in the Garden of Gethsemani and on Mount Calvary. “Better to eat
bread without sugar, than sugar without bread. We should seek the God of
consolations, not the consolations of God: and in order to possess God in
heaven, we must now suffer with him and for him.”

*“When your mind wanders or gives way to distractions, gently recall it
and place it once more close to its Divine Master. If you should do
nothing else but repeat this during the whole time of prayer, your hour
would be very well spent and you would perform a spiritual exercise most
acceptable to God.”*—St. Francis de Sales.

14. It is well to bear in mind that in commanding us to pray always our
Saviour did not mean actual prayer, as that would be an impossibility.
The desire to glorify God by all our actions suffices for the rigorous
fulfilment of this precept, if this desire be habitual and permanent.
“You pray often,” says St. Augustine, “if you often have a desire to pay
homage to God by your actions: you pray always if you always have this
desire, no matter how you may be otherwise employed.”

*“Need we be surprised that St. Augustine often assures us that the whole
Christian life is but one long, continual tending of our hearts towards
that eternal justice for which we sigh here below? Our only happiness
consists in ever thirsting for it, and this thirst is in itself a prayer;
consequently if we always desire this justice, we pray always. Do not
think it necessary to pronounce a great many words and to struggle much
with one’s self in order to pray. To pray is to ask God that his will may
be done, to form some good desire, to raise the heart to God, to long for
the riches he promises us, to sigh over our miseries and the danger we
are in of displeasing him by violating His holy law. Now this requires
neither science nor method nor reasoning; one can pray without any
distinct thought; no head-work is necessary; only a moment of time and a
loving effusion of the heart are needed; and even this moment may be
simultaneously occupied with something else, for so great is God’s
condescension to our weakness that he permits us to divide it when
necessary between him and creatures. Yes, during this moment you can
continue what you were doing: it is sufficient to offer to God your most
ordinary occupations, or to perform them with the general intention of
glorifying him. This is the continual prayer required by St. Paul ...
thought by many devout persons to be impracticable, but in reality very
easy for those who know that the best of all prayers is to do everything
with a pure intention, and frequently to renew the desire to perform all
our actions for God and in accordance with his divine will.”—Fénelon.*

15. You should never omit or neglect the duties of your state of life in
order to say certain self-imposed prayers. These duties are a substitute
for prayers and are equally efficacious, St. Thomas teaches, for
obtaining the graces you stand in need of and which are promised to those
who ask them properly. It is even more meritorious to perform some work
for the love of God, to whom we offer it, than merely to raise the soul
to Him by actual prayer.

*“Every person is bound to observe strictly the duties of his particular
calling. Whoever fails to do this, although he should raise the dead to
life, is guilty of sin and should the sin be grave deserves damnation if
he die therein. For example, bishops are obliged to make a visitation of
their diocese in order to console and instruct their flock and to rectify
whatever may be amiss. If I, a bishop, neglect this duty I shall be lost
even though I spend my entire time in prayer and fast all my life.”—St.
Francis de Sales.*

16. Make frequent use of the prayers called _ejaculations_,—which are
short and loving aspirations that raise the soul to its Creator.
According to St. Francis de Sales, ejaculations can in case of necessity
replace all other prayers, whereas all other prayers cannot supply for
the omission of ejaculations.

*“Acquire the habit of making frequent ejaculations. They are sighs of
love that dart upwards to God to sue for His aid and succor. It will
greatly facilitate this custom if you keep in mind the point of your
morning’s meditation that you liked best and ponder it over during the
day. In sickness let pious ejaculations take the place of all other
prayers.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

17. Ejaculatory prayers can be made at all times, wherever we are or
whatever we may be doing. They might be compared to those aromatic
pastilles, which we may always have about us and take from time to time
to strengthen the stomach and please the palate. Ejaculations have a like
effect on the soul by refreshing and fortifying it.

18. The monks of old, of whom St. Augustine speaks, could not say long
prayers, obliged as they were to earn their bread by daily toil.
Ejaculatory prayers, therefore, took the place of all others for them,
and it may be said that although laboring unceasingly they prayed
continually.

19. I cannot too earnestly urge you to accustom yourself to the
profitable and easy practice of making frequent ejaculations. It is far
preferable to saying many other vocal prayers, for these when too
numerous are apt to employ the lips only rather than to reanimate and
enlighten the soul.

20. St. Theresa’s opinion is that the body should be in a comfortable
position when we pray, as otherwise it is difficult for the mind to pay
the proper attention to prayer and to the presence of God. Do not then
fatigue your body by remaining too long prostrate or kneeling: the
important thing is that the soul should humble itself before God in
sentiments of respect, confidence and love.

Read Chap. XIII, Part II, of the _Introduction to a Devout Life_.



                                  IV.
                                PENANCE.


  A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit; a contrite and humble heart,
  O God, thou wilt not despise. (Ps. L., 19.)

I. According to the teaching of St. Thomas there are three ways of doing
penance, namely, fasting, prayer, and alms-deeds—either corporal or
spiritual. Therefore you must not suppose you are prevented from doing
penance when not allowed to subject your body to severe fasts and painful
mortifications. The other two penitential works, prayer and alms-giving,
can in this case take the place of corporal austerities in the fulfilment
of the Christian duty of penance. Observe also that it is not in
accordance with the spirit of the laws of God and of his Church, which
prescribe fasting, to injure your health thereby, nor to hinder the
accomplishment of the duties of your state of life.

2. Labor, sickness, disappointments, reverse of fortune, dryness in
prayer, all these when accepted with resignation are penitential works,
such, too, as are the more agreeable to God from their being so
distasteful to ourselves. All virtues may be divided into two great
classes, active and passive. The characteristic of the active virtues is
to do good, of the passive, to endure evil. Now the virtues of the second
class are more meritorious and less perilous. In the active virtues
nature can have a large share, and a dangerous self-complacency, or
satisfaction in their effects, may easily glide into them. This danger is
less to be feared in the practice of the passive virtues, especially when
the sufferings are not of our own choosing but come to us direct from the
hand of God.

3. St. Jerome teaches that when the devil cannot turn a soul away from
the love of virtue, he tries to urge it to excessive mortification, in
order that it may thus become exhausted and lose the vigor indispensable
to its spiritual progress. Numbers of devout people have fallen into this
snare.

4. “I charge you,” says St. Francis de Sales, “to preserve your health
carefully, for God exacts this of you, and to husband your strength so as
to employ it in his service. It is even better to save more than the
requisite amount of strength than to reduce it too much, for we can
always lessen it at will, whereas, once lost, it is no easy matter to
regain it.” Therefore give your body the nourishment it needs to maintain
its strength and health.

5. We learn from Cassian and St. Thomas that in a celebrated conference
held by the holy Abbot St. Anthony with the most learned religious of
Egypt, it was decided that of all virtues moderation is the most useful,
as it guards and preserves all the others. It is owing to the lack of
this essential moderation in their devotional exercises and
mortifications that many persons whilst seeking holiness find only ill
health. As a consequence they eventually abandon the path of perfection,
judging it impracticable because they have attempted to walk in it bound
with fetters.

6. St. Augustine makes the following apt comparison, which you can look
upon as a good rule in this matter: “The body is a poor invalid confided
to the charity of the soul, the soul being commissioned to give it such
assistance as it requires. Hunger, thirst, fatigue, are its habitual
ailments; let the soul then charitably apply to them the needful
remedies, provided these be always within the bounds of moderation and
prudence.” He who acts in this way fulfils a duty of obedience to his
Creator.

7. From these various opinions it is easy to see how false are certain
maxims met with in some ascetical works: for example, that it is of small
consequence if one should shorten his life by ten or fifteen years in
order to save his soul. If this were true, a much surer way would be to
secure a still speedier death, and see to what that would lead. No: it is
not permissible in ordinary practice to impose upon ourselves arbitrarily
any kind of mortification that would directly tend to shorten life. “To
kill one’s self with a single blow,” says St. Jerome, “or to kill one’s
self little by little—I make but slight distinction between these two
crimes.” Life, health and strength are blessings that have been given us
in trust, and we cannot lawfully dispose of them as though they belonged
to us absolutely.

8. The example of those saints who practised extraordinary penances
deserves our sincere admiration, but it is not in these exterior acts
that we should try to imitate them; to do this would necessitate being as
holy as they were. Duplicate their miracles also, then, if you can. “If
we had to copy the saints in everything they did,” says St. Frances de
Chantal, “it would be necessary to spend our life in a horrible cave like
St. John Climachus, or on top of a pillar as St. Simon Stylites did, to
live several weeks without other nourishment than the Holy Eucharist like
St. Catharine of Sienna, or to eat but a single ounce of food each day as
St. Aloysius did.” Aspirations to imitate the saints in what is
extraordinary are the effect of secret pride and not of genuine virtue.

*The French translator of these Instructions had a conversation in Rome
with the learned and pious Jesuit, Rev. Father Rozaven, on this subject.
Speaking of the extraordinary fasts and mortifications of St. Ignatius,
Father Rozaven said: “Do not let us confound cause and effect. It is not
because he did these things that Ignatius became a saint: on the
contrary, it is because he was already a saint that it was possible and
permissible for him to do them.” In truth every act that exceeds human
strength is an act of presumption unless it be the result of a special
inspiration, and the Church approves it only if she recognizes this
divine impulse which alone can authorize a deviation from the general
rule. It is owing to such an exception that she venerates among those who
suffered for the faith Saint Theodora, Saint Pomposa, Saint Flora and
Saint Denys, notwithstanding the fact that they violated the law which
forbids any one to seek martyrdom. The same spirit influenced her in
sanctioning the voluntary death of Sampson and of Saint Appolonia, who
might be called pious suicides were it allowable to connect two such
contradictory words.—Read Chap. XXIII, Part III. of the _Introduction to
a Devout Life_.*



                                   V.
                              CONFESSION.


  I said: I will confess against myself my injustice to the Lord, and
  thou hast forgiven the wickedness of my sin. (Ps. XXXI, 5.)

  But if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ
  the Just. (1st Epist. St. John, c. II, v. 1.)

  Whose sins ye shall forgive, they are forgiven them: and whose ye shall
  retain, they are retained. (St. John, c. XX. v. 23.)

1. The sacrament of penance is a sacrament of mercy. We should therefore
approach it with confidence and in peace. Saint Francis de Sales assures
us that for those who go to confession once a week a quarter of an hour
is enough for the examination of conscience, and a still shorter time for
exciting contrition. Not even this much is necessary, he adds, for those
who confess more frequently.

2. Faults omitted in confession either because they were forgotten or
because they seemed too trivial to mention, are nevertheless effaced by
the absolution. St. Francis de Sales has this to say on the subject: “You
must not feel worried if you cannot remember your sins when preparing for
confession, for it is incredible that any one who often examines her
conscience would overlook or be unable to recall such faults as are
important. Neither should you be so keenly anxious to mention every
minute imperfection, every trifling fault; it is enough to speak of these
to our Lord, with a sigh of regret and a humble heart, whenever you
remark them.” And do not imagine in consequence that you are guilty of
secret sins which you are hiding from your confessor. This fear is an
artifice made use of by the devil to disturb your peace of mind.

*“You must not be so anxious to tell everything, nor to run to your
superiors to make a great ado over each little thing that troubles you
and that will, perhaps, be forgotten in a quarter of an hour. We must
learn to bear with generosity these trifles which we cannot remedy, for
ordinarily they are only the consequences of our imperfect nature. That
your will, feelings, and desires are so inconstant; that you are at one
time moody, at another cheerful; that you now have a wish to speak, and
presently feel the greatest aversion to do so; and a thousand similar
insignificant matters are infirmities to which we are naturally prone and
will be subject to as long as we live.... It is needless to accuse
yourself in confession of those fleeting thoughts that like gnats swarm
around you, or of the disgust and aversion you feel in the observance of
your vows and devotional exercises, for these things are not sins, they
are only inconveniences, annoyances.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

3. Rest assured that the more closely you examine your conscience the
less you will discover that is worth the trouble of telling. Moreover,
you must remember that too long an examen fatigues the mind and cools the
fervor of the heart.

4. To those who in their confessions are inclined to confuse
involuntarily movements with sins, Saint Francis de Sales gives the
following useful advice: “You tell me that when you have experienced a
strong feeling of anger, or have had any other temptation, you are always
uneasy if you do not confess it. When you are not sure that you have
given consent to it, I assure you it is unnecessary to mention it except
it may be in spiritual conference, and then not by way of accusation, but
to obtain advice how to behave another time in like circumstances. For if
you say: I accuse myself of having had movements of violent anger for two
days, but I did not give way to them, you are telling your virtues, not
your sins. A doubt comes into my mind, though, that I may have committed
some fault during the temptation. You must consider maturely if this
doubt have any foundation in fact, and if so, speak of the matter in
confession with all simplicity; otherwise it is better not to mention it,
as you would do so only for your own satisfaction. Even should this
silence cost you some pain, you must endure it as you would any other to
which you can apply no remedy.”

5. “Omit from your confessions”—we again quote the same Saint—“those
superfluous accusations which so many persons make merely through habit:
I have not loved God sufficiently; I have not prayed with enough fervor;
I have not loved my neighbor as much as I should; I have not received the
Sacraments with all the reverence due to them; and others of a like
nature. You will readily see the reason for this. It is that in speaking
thus you tell nothing particular that would make known to the confessor
the state of your conscience, and because the most perfect man living, as
well as all the saints in Paradise might say the same things were they
making a confession.”

6. Those who go to confession frequently should always bear in mind what
the saintly director says in addition: “We are not obliged to confess our
venial sins, but if we do so it must be with a firm resolution to correct
them, otherwise it is an abuse of the sacrament to mention them.”

7. After confession keep your soul in peace, and be on your guard—this is
a point of cardinal importance—against giving access to any fear about
the validity of the sacrament, either as regards the examination of
conscience, the contrition, or anything else whatsoever. These fears are
suggestions of the devil whose aim it is to instil bitterness into a
sacrament of consolation and love.

*“After confession is not the time to examine ourselves to find if we
have told all our sins. We should rather remain attentively and in peace
near our Lord, with whom We have just been reconciled, and thank Him for
His great mercy. Nor is it necessary subsequently to search out what we
may have forgotten. We must tell simply all that comes to mind; after
that we need think no more about it.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

8. It is essential to be sorry for our sins—it is not essential to be
troubled about them. Repentance is an effect of love of God, anxiety is
an effect of self-love. In the midst of the keenest and most sincere
repentance we can still thank God that He has not permitted us to become
yet more culpable. Let us promise Him a solid amendment, relying for
success solely upon the assistance of divine grace; and should we fall
again a hundred times a day, let us never cease to renew the promise and
the hope. God can in an instant raise up from the very stones children to
Abraham and exalt the most corrupt natures to the highest degree of
sanctity. At times He does so, but usually it is His will that we long
continue to bear the burden of our infirmity: let us not then lose our
trust in Him, nor mistake a state of trial for a state of reprobation.

*God has, indeed, on some occasions cured sinners instantaneously and
without leaving in them any trace of their previous maladies. Such, for
instance, was the case with the Magdalen. In a moment her soul was
changed from a sink of corruption into a well-spring of perfection, never
again to be contaminated by sin. But, on the other hand, in several of
the beloved disciples this same God allowed many marks of their evil
inclinations to remain for some time after their conversion, and this for
their greater good. Witness Saint Peter, who, even after the divine call,
was guilty of various imperfections and once fell totally and miserably
by the triple denial of his Lord and Master.

“Solomon says there is no one more insolent than a servant who has
suddenly become mistress.[4] A soul that after a long slavery to its
passions should in a moment subjugate them completely, would be in great
danger of becoming a prey to pride and vanity. This dominion must be
gained little by little, step by step; it cost the saints long years of
labor to acquire it. Hence the necessity of having patience with every
one, but first of all with yourself.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

*There is no sight more pleasing to Heaven than to witness the
persevering and determined struggle of a soul which, throughout, remains
united to God by a sincere desire and a firm resolution not to offend
him—and maintaining this struggle calmly and patiently even when it is to
all appearance fruitless. Such a soul, resigned to retain its defects if
it is God’s will, yet determined notwithstanding to fight against them
relentlessly, is more precious in the eyes of God than if the practice of
virtue were easy for it and it were in peaceful possession of spiritual
gifts. Labor, then, in the presence of your heavenly Father; struggle on
with strength and courage; but do not be too desirous of success, for
when this craving for self-satisfaction is excessive it is sure to be
accompanied by vexation and impatience.

“Evil things must not be desired at all,” says Saint Francis de Sales,
“nor good things immoderately.” And elsewhere: “I entreat of you, love
nothing too ardently, not even the virtues, for these we sometimes
forfeit by exceeding the bounds of moderation.” And again: “Why is it
that if we happen to fall into some imperfection or sin we are surprised
at ourselves and become disquieted and impatient? Undoubtedly it is
because we thought there was some good in us, and that we were resolute
and strong. Consequently when we find this is not the case, that we have
tripped and fallen to the earth, we are anxious, annoyed and troubled;
whereas if we realized what we truly are, in place of being astonished at
seeing ourselves down, we should wonder rather how we ever remain erect.”

“We should labor, therefore, without any uneasiness as to results. God
requires efforts on our part, but not success. If we combat with
perseverance, nothing daunted by our defeats, these very defeats will be
worth as much to us as victories, and even more. But beware!—there is a
rock here! If this conflict is not undertaken in perfectly good faith, we
will try to deceive ourselves as to the genuineness of our efforts by
calling the cowardice which caused us to refuse the battle a defeat, and
by dignifying with the name of trial the results of our own effeminacy
and sloth.”*

9. Contrition is essentially an act of the will by which we detest our
past sins and resolve not to commit them in future. Hence sighs, tears,
sensible sorrow are not necessary elements of true contrition. Contrition
can even attain that degree of disinterested perfection which suffices
for the justification of a sinner, in the midst of the greatest dryness
and an apparent insensibility. Therefore never allow yourself to be
disturbed by the want of sensible sorrow.

10. Do not make violent efforts to excite your soul to contrition, for
these only have the effect of producing anxiety, weariness and oppression
of mind. On the contrary seek to become very calm; say lovingly to God
that you wish sincerely you had never offended Him and that with the
assistance of His grace you will never offend Him more—that is
contrition. True contrition is a product of love, and love acts in a
calm.

11. “An act of contrition,” says St. Francis de Sales, “is the work of a
moment.” Cast a rapid glance at yourself to see and detest your sins, and
another towards God to promise Him amendment and to express a hope of
obtaining His assistance in keeping this promise. David, one of the most
contrite penitents that ever lived, expressed his act of contrition in a
single word: _Peccavi_—I have sinned, and by that one word he was
justified.

*“You ask how an act of contrition can be made in a short time? I answer
that a very good one can be made in almost no time. Nothing more is
needed than to prostrate oneself before God in a spirit of humility and
of sorrow for having offended Him.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

12. You say you would wish to have contrition but cannot succeed in
feeling it. Saint Francis de Sales replies: “The ability to wish is a
great power with God, and you thus have contrition by the simple fact
that you wish to have it. You do not feel it indeed at the moment, but
neither do you see nor feel a fire covered with ashes, nevertheless the
fire exists.” The immoderate desire of sensible sorrow comes from
self-love and self-complacency. A sorrow that satisfies only God is not
sufficient for us, we wish it to satisfy us also; we like to find in our
sensibility a flattering and reassuring testimony of our love of good.

13. If God does not grant you the enjoyment of sensible sorrow, it is in
order that you may gain the merit of obedience, which should suffice to
reassure you as to your perfect reconciliation. Believe therefore with
humility, obey with courage, and you will earn a twofold reward. The
greatest saints have at times believed they had neither contrition nor
love, but in the midst of this darkness of the understanding, their will
followed the torch of obedience with heroic submission.

14. Do not conclude that you lack contrition or that your confessions are
defective, because you fall again into the same faults. It is very
essential to make a distinction in regard to relapses. Those that are the
offspring of a perverse will which has preserved an affection for certain
venial sins, takes pleasure and wishes to take pleasure in them,—these
should not be tolerated; we must vigorously attack them at the very root
and not allow ourselves any respite until they are utterly exterminated.
But those relapses that proceed from inadvertence, from surprise
notwithstanding constant vigilance, from the infirmity and frailty of our
nature, to these we shall remain partially subject until our last breath.
“It will be doing very well,” says Saint Francis de Sales, “if we get
free of certain faults a quarter of an hour before our death.” And
elsewhere: “We are obliged not only to bear with the failings of our
neighbor, but likewise with our own and to be patient at the sight of our
imperfections.” We must try to correct ourselves, but we should do it
tranquilly and without anxiety. We cannot become angels before the proper
time.

*“You complain that you still have many faults and failings
notwithstanding your desire for perfection and a pure love of God. I
assure you that it is impossible to be entirely divested of self whilst
we are here below. We shall always be obliged to bear ourselves about
with us until God transfers us to heaven; and whilst we do this we carry
something that is of no value. It is necessary, therefore, to have
patience, and not to expect to cure ourselves in a day of the numerous
bad habits contracted through past carelessness in regard to our
spiritual welfare. Pray do not look here, there and everywhere: look only
at God and yourself; you will never see God devoid of goodness, nor
yourself without wretchedness and that wretchedness the object of God’s
goodness and mercy.”—St. Francis de Sales. (After the examination of
conscience read the _Following of Christ_, B. III., Chap. XX.)*

*Fénelon speaks in the same tone: “You should never be surprised or
discouraged at your faults. You must bear with them patiently yet without
flattering yourself or sparing correction. Treat yourself as you would
another. As soon as you find you have committed a fault make an interior
act of self-condemnation, turn to God to receive a penance, and then tell
your fault with simplicity to your director. Begin over again to do well
as though it were the first time, and do not grow weary if you have to
make a fresh start every day. Nothing is more touching to the Sacred
Heart of Jesus than this humble and patient courage. We should not be
cast down if we have many temptations and even commit numerous faults.
‘Virtue,’ says the Apostle, ‘is made perfect in infirmity.’[5] Spiritual
progress is effected less by sensible devotion, relish and spiritual
consolations, than by means of interior humiliation and frequent recourse
to God.”*

15. Habitually add to your confession some general accusation of all the
sins of your past life, or of such of them as occasion you most remorse.
Say, for example, I accuse myself of sins against purity, or charity, or
temperance. You thus preclude the possibility of there being lack of
sufficient matter for the validity of the Sacrament.

16. Banish from your mind the dread of having omitted any sins in either
your general or ordinary confessions, or of not having explained their
circumstances clearly enough. The learned theologian Janin sets forth the
following rules on the subject: The Church, the interpreter of the will
of Jesus Christ, requires sacramental integrity in confession, and not
material integrity. The former consists in the confession of all the sins
we can remember after a sufficient examination, the duration of which
should be regulated by the actual state of the conscience. Material
integrity would require a rigorously complete accusation of all the sins
we have committed with their number and circumstances, without the
slightest omission. Now sacramental integrity may be reasonably exacted
since it exceeds no one’s ability; whilst material integrity, on the
contrary, could not be exacted without the sacrament becoming an
impossibility; for, no matter how carefully we make our examination of
conscience, some sin, or some detail in regard to number or circumstance,
will always escape us. In a word, all that the Church demands of the
faithful is a sincere and humble avowal of every sin that can be brought
to mind after a suitable examen: for the rest, she intends good will to
supply for any defect of memory.

*Do not be uneasy because you fail to remember all your failings in order
to tell them in confession. This is unnecessary, because as you often
fall almost without being aware of it, so you often get up again without
perceiving it; just as in the passage you quote it is not said that the
just man sees or feels himself fall seven times a day, but simply that he
falls seven times a day: in like manner he gets up again without noticing
particularly that he has done so. Hence have no anxiety about this, but
frankly and humbly confess whatever you remember, and commit the rest to
the tender mercies of him who puts his hand under those who fall without
malice that they may not be bruised, and raises them up again so gently
and swiftly that they scarcely realize they had fallen.—St. Francis de
Sales.*

17. By a diligent examination of conscience you have thoroughly satisfied
all the requirements for sacramental integrity; therefore banish whatever
doubts and fears may come to beset you, for they are nothing but
temptations.

18. Should you suspect that you failed to fulfil these requirements owing
to not having been particular enough about your examination of
conscience, you may feel sure that your confessor has by prudent
interrogations supplied for whatever may have been wanting on your part.
And if he did not question you further it was due to the fact that he
understood clearly enough the nature of your sins and the state of your
soul, and this is the object of sacramental accusation.

19. How great then is the error of those poor souls who wish continually
to make their general confessions over again, either through fear of
incomplete examination or of insufficient sorrow; and how blameworthy the
weak complaisance of those confessors who offer no opposition to their
doing so! If such fears were to be listened to, every one would be
obliged to pass his entire life in making and repeating general
confessions, for they would incessantly spring up afresh and even the
greatest saints would not be exempt from them. A sacrament of consolation
and love would thus be transformed into a perfect torture for the soul—an
heretical perversion anathematized by the Council of Trent.

*“I have found in your general confession all the marks of a sincere,
good and earnest confession. Never have I heard one that more thoroughly
satisfied me. You may rely on this, for in these matters I speak very
plainly. However, if you really omitted something that ought to have been
told, consider if you did so consciously and voluntarily, in which case,
if it was a mortal sin or you thought it one at the time, you would
undoubtedly have to make the confession over again. But if it were only a
venial sin, or though mortal you omitted it out of forgetfulness or some
defect of memory, have no scruples; for at my soul’s peril, I assure you
there is no obligation to repeat your confession. It will be quite
sufficient to mention the matter to your ordinary confessor. I will
answer for this.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

20. It is the teaching of the saints and doctors of the Church that when
a general confession has been made with a sincere and upright intention
and with a desire to change one’s life, the penitent should remain in
peace in regard to it, and not make it over again under any pretext
whatsoever. Those who do otherwise recall to their memory things that
should be banished from it, and increase the trouble of their soul by a
too eager desire to purify it. For, as Saint Philip de Neri so well
expresses it: _the harder we sweep, the more dust we raise_.

21. Remember, in conclusion, that according to the common opinion of the
saints, the fear of sin is no longer salutary when it becomes excessive.



                                  VI.
                            HOLY COMMUNION.


  Unless ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink His blood, ye
  shall not have life in you. (St. John, c. vi., v. 54.)

  And he sent ... to say to those who were invited, that they should
  come; for now all things were ready. And they began all at once to make
  excuse. (St. Luke, c. xiv., vv. 17-18.)

  And if I send them away fasting ... they will faint in the way. (St.
  Mark, c. viii., v. 3.)

  My heart is withered; because I forgot to eat my bread. (Ps. ci.)

1. Frequent communion is the most efficacious of all means to unite us to
God. “He that eateth my flesh,” said our divine Saviour, “abideth in Me
and I in him.”[6]

2. St. Bernard calls the Holy Eucharist _the love of loves_. Hence you
should desire to receive it frequently in order to be filled with this
divine love.

3. St. Francis de Sales says there are two classes of persons who should
often receive holy communion; the perfect, to unite themselves more
closely to the Source of all perfection, and the imperfect to labor to
attain perfection; the strong that they may not become weak, the weak
that they may become strong; the sick that they may be cured, and those
in health that they may be preserved from sickness. You tell me that your
imperfections, your weakness, your littleness make you unworthy to
receive communion frequently; and I assure you it is precisely because of
these that you ought to receive it frequently in order that He who
possesses all things may give you whatever is wanting to you.

*The following words on this subject will not perhaps be considered by
others as giving much additional value to the authority of the saintly
Bishop of Geneva. They do so, however, in ours, because they are from the
lips of a holy religious whose memory will always be dear to us——from a
man whose last moments were the occasion of the greatest edification it
has ever pleased God to accord us. The Rev. Father Margottet, a Jesuit,
died at Nice, April 1st, 1835, shortly after his return from Portugal
where he had suffered a most cruel captivity with the courage that faith
alone can inspire. During the last months of his life he took great
pleasure in conversing with a certain young man who visited him regularly
to be instructed and edified by his pious discourse. One day this young
man confided to him the confusion he felt in availing himself of his
director’s permission to receive holy Communion several times a week.
This was due especially to the thought that St. Aloysius, whilst a novice
of the Society of Jesus, went to Communion on Sundays only. “Come, come,
my dear sir,” laughingly replied the good Father, “continue your frequent
Communions—you need them much more than St. Aloysius did.” It is indeed
an error to consider holy Communion a reward of virtue, and, in a
measure, a guage of perfection, whereas it is above all a means to attain
perfection, and the one pre-existing virtue required in order to employ
this means is the desire to profit by it. Our divine Lord did not say:
_Venite ad me qui perfecti estis_—_Come to Me all ye who are perfect_: He
said: _Venite ad me qui laboratis et onerati estis_[7]—_Come to me all ye
who labor and are burdened_. (Read Chapters XX. and XXI., Part II., of
the _Introduction to a Devout Life_; and Chapters X. and XVI. Book IV. of
_The Imitation_.)

The spirit of the Church has at all times been the same in regard to this
important subject. Fénelon says in his letter on frequent Communion that
St. Chrysostom admits of no medium between the state of those who are in
mortal sin and that of the faithful who are in a state of grace and
communicate every day. In vain certain Christians, believing themselves
purified and just, do no penance as sinners and nevertheless abstain from
Communion, because, they say, they are not perfect enough to receive it.
This intermediate state is not only most dangerous for one who wilfully
remains in it, but is also injurious to the Blessed Sacrament. Far from
doing honor to the Holy Eucharist by depriving ourselves of it, we offend
our divine Lord when we decline to partake of the Banquet to which He
invites us. In a word, according to this early Father of the Church, we
ought either to communicate with those who are in a state of grace, or to
do penance that we may be united to them as soon as possible.

We will quote the Saint’s own words: “Many of the faithful are weak and
languishing, many among them sleep. And how, you say, does this happen
since we receive the Blessed Sacrament but once a year? That is precisely
the cause of all the trouble! For you imagine that merit consists not so
much in purity of conscience as in the length of time intervening between
your Communions. You consider no higher mark of respect and honor can be
paid to this Sacrament than not to approach the Holy Table often....
Temerity does not consist in approaching the Altar frequently, but in
approaching it unworthily were this but once in an entire life time....
Why then regulate the number of Communions by the law of time, instead of
by purity of conscience, which should alone indicate how many times to
receive? This divine Mystery is nothing more at Easter than at all other
seasons during which it is celebrated continually. It is ever the same,
that is to say, ever the same gift of the Holy Ghost. Easter continues
throughout the year. You who are initiated will understand perfectly what
I say. Be it Saturday, or Sunday, or the feasts of the martyrs, it is
always the same Victim, the same Sacrifice.” “It was not the will of our
divine Lord that His Sacrifice should be restricted by the observance of
time.”

Other Fathers of the Church speak in the same way of Holy Communion:

“If it is daily bread,” says Saint Ambrose, “why do you partake of it but
once a year?... Receive it every day in order that every day you may
benefit by it. Live in such a manner that you may deserve to receive it
every day, for he who does not deserve to receive it every day will not
deserve to receive it at the end of the year.... Do you not know that
every time the Holy Sacrifice is offered, the death, resurrection and
ascension of our Lord are renewed to the atonement of sin? And yet you
will not partake daily of this Bread of Life! When one has received a
wound does he not seek a remedy? Sin which holds us captive is our wound:
our remedy is in this ever adorable Sacrament.”

In order that it may be plainly proved that the faithful of the present
day have no reason to act differently in this respect from those of the
primitive Church, let us see how this ancient discipline has been
confirmed in later times by the Council of Trent:

“Christians should believe in this Sacrament and reverence it with such a
firm faith, with so much fervor and piety, that they may often receive
this Super-substantial Bread; that it may be, in truth, the life of their
soul and the perpetual health of their spirit, and that the strength they
derive therefrom may enable them to pass from the temptations of this
earthly pilgrimage to the repose of their heavenly fatherland.... The
Council would have the faithful receive Communion each time they assist
at Mass, not only spiritually, but sacramentally, that they may derive
more abundant fruit from the Holy Sacrifice.”*

4. The evening before your Communion devote some little time to
recollection in order to ponder the inestimable gift that God is about to
bestow upon you, and endeavor also to excite in your soul the desire and
the hope of finding therein your delight.

5. Do not conclude that you derive no benefit from Holy Communion because
you find no perceptible increase in your virtues. Consider that it at
least serves to keep you in a state of grace. You give nourishment to
your body every day but you do not pretend to say that it daily gains in
strength. Does food appear useless to you on that account? Certainly not;
for, though it fail to augment strength, it preserves it by repairing the
constant waste. Now, this is precisely the case with the divine Food of
our souls.

*Observe, moreover, that there is no real increase in virtue without a
corresponding growth in humility. Consequently the more virtuous you are
the less so you will esteem yourself; the worthier you are to approach
your God, the more profoundly will you feel your unworthiness. For man,
no matter to what degree of virtue he attain, cannot be otherwise than
weak and sinful here below, and he realizes his baseness more and more
distinctly in proportion to his advancement in grace and in light.

Fénelon speaks as follows on the same subject: “Hitherto you lacked the
light to discover in your soul many movements of our malicious and
depraved nature, which now begin to reveal themselves to you. In
proportion as light increases we find ourselves more corrupt than we
supposed: but we should be neither surprised nor discouraged, for it is
not that we are in reality worse than we were,—on the contrary we are
better,—but because whilst our sinfulness decreases the light which shows
it to us increases.”*

6. Do not fear that you are ill-prepared for Holy Communion and abuse the
Sacrament because in receiving it you are cold, indifferent, and devoid
of feeling. This is a trial sent or permitted by God to test your faith
and to advance you in merit. All that has been said in regard to dryness
in prayer might be repeated here. Try to have an abiding desire to feel
for the Blessed Eucharist as ardent transports of love as were ever
experienced by the saints. A desire is equivalent before God to the thing
desired, as I have already quoted for you from Saint Gregory the Great;
therefore you should be satisfied with this when you can attain nothing
higher. Everything over and above this is grace, not merit.

7. If you dare not receive Holy Communion often because you are not
worthy, then you must never receive it, for you will never be worthy.
What creature could be worthy to receive a God? Nay more, to follow out
this principle We should have to abandon the practice of visiting
churches and of speaking to God in prayer; for a miserable, sin-stained
human being is unfit to enter the House of the Lord or to converse with
Him.

*“How many scrupulous Christians do we not see languishing for want of
this divine Food! They consume themselves with subtle speculations and
sterile efforts, they fear, they tremble, they doubt, and they vainly
seek for a certainty that cannot be found in this life. Sweetness,
unction, are not for them. They wish to live for God without living by
him. They are dry, feeble, exhausted: they are close to the Fountain of
Living Water and yet allow themselves to die of thirst. They desire to
fulfil all exteriorly, yet do not dare to nourish themselves interiorly:
they wish to carry the burden of the law without imbibing its spirit and
its consolation from prayer and frequent Communion!”—Fénelon.*

8. In regard to Holy Communion, therefore, do not confine yourself to a
consideration of your own unworthiness, but temper this with the thought
of God’s mercy. The guests at the symbolic marriage-feast,—a figure of
the Holy Eucharist,—were not the great and the rich, but the poor, the
blind, the lame. Whosoever is clothed in the nuptial garment, that is to
say, whosoever is in a state of grace, is welcome to this banquet.

9. St. Francis de Sales says that when we cannot go to Holy Communion
without giving annoyance to others, or without failing against duties of
charity, justice or order, we should be satisfied with spiritual
Communion. “Believe me,” he adds, “this mortification, this deprivation,
will be extremely pleasing to God and will advance you greatly in His
love. One must sometimes take a step backward in order to leap the
better.” It was not by frequent Communion that the holy anchorites
sanctified themselves, but by the exact observance of the duties of their
calling. Saint Paul the Hermit received Holy Communion but twice during
his long, penitential life, nevertheless he was precious in the sight of
God. A propos of this subject Saint Francis de Sales gives us this
admirable advice: “In proportion as you are hindered from doing the good
you desire, do all the more ardently the good that you do not desire. You
do not like to make such or such an act of resignation, you would prefer
to make some other; but offer the one you do not like, for it will be of
far greater value.” Saint John the Baptist was more intimately united in
spirit with our Lord than even the Apostles themselves: yet he never
became one of His followers owing to the fact that his vocation required
this sacrifice on his part and called him elsewhere. This is the greatest
act of spiritual mortification recorded in the lives of the saints.

*“I have often admired the extreme resignation of Saint John the Baptist,
who remained so long in the desert, quite near to our Lord, without going
to see, hear and follow Him. And after baptizing Jesus, how could he have
allowed Him to depart without uniting himself to Him with his bodily
presence, as he was already so united to Him by the ties of affection!
Ah! the divine Precursor knew that in his case the Master was best served
by deprivation of His actual presence. Well, my dear daughter, it will be
the same with you in regard to Holy Communion. I mean that for the
present God will be pleased if in accordance to the wish of the superiors
whom He has placed over you, you endure the privation of His actual
presence. It will be a great consolation to me to know that this advice
does not disquiet your heart. Rest assured that this resignation, this
renunciation will be exceedingly beneficial to you.”—St. Francis de
Sales.*

11. Never refrain from receiving the Holy Eucharist because you happen to
be beset by temptations; this would be to capitulate to your enemy
without offering any resistance. The more combats you have to sustain,
the greater the necessity of providing yourself with the means of
defence, and these are to be found in the Blessed Sacrament. Go
courageously then and renew your strength with the Food of the strong and
victory shall be yours.

12. Be careful not to frequent the Holy Table because such and such a
person does so: an imitation common for the most part to women’s vanity
and jealousy, says Saint Francis de Sales. It is through love that our
divine Saviour gives Himself to us in the Blessed Sacrament: love alone
should lead us to receive it.

13. Holy Communion should not be partaken of with the same frequency by
all the faithful. All, indeed, must have the same object in view, that is
union with God, but the same means to attain that object are not proper
for every one. It is only by obedience to the advice of a spiritual
director that each person can know what is suitable for him, as that
which would be too little for one might be too much for another.



                                  VII.
                         SUNDAYS AND HOLYDAYS.


  The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath. (St. Mark,
  c. II., v: 27.)

1. Every day of our life should be employed in glorifying God, but there
are certain days He has particularly appointed whereon to receive from us
a more special exterior worship. These are Sundays and holydays.

2. It is therefore obligatory upon us to sanctify such days. The ordinary
means of fulfilling this duty are, principally, works of charity, the
Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, the Sacraments, sermons, religious
instructions, and spiritual reading.

3. Nevertheless, we should avoid over-fatiguing the mind and wearying the
body by too many exercises of devotion. Excess even in holy things is
wrong, as virtue ends where excess begins. All that was said on this
subject in the chapter on Prayer is equally applicable here.

4. Moreover it is well to know that a friendly visit, a walk, a lawful
diversion, all of which can be referred to God, serve also for the
sanctification of Sundays and holydays, when undertaken with a view to
please Him. The same may be said of such daily occupations as are
required of man by his bodily needs.

*“How often we are mistaken in our point of view! I tell you once again
it is not the outward aspect of actions that we must look at, but their
interior spirit, that is to say, whether or not they are according to the
will of God. By no means regard the nature of the things you do, but
rather the honor that accrues to them, worthless as they are in
themselves, from the fact that God wishes them, that they are in the
order of his providence and disposed by His infinite wisdom. In a word,
if they are pleasing to God, and recognized as being so, to whom should
they be displeasing?”—Saint Francis de Sales.*

5. These things are said for the instruction of those who are eager and
anxious on Sundays and holydays of obligation to heap devotion upon
devotion and who make a crime of everything that is not an exterior act
of piety. They apply themselves, it seems, to the material observance of
the sabbath, following the superstitious custom of the Pharisees, instead
of peacefully sanctifying the Lord’s day with that sweet and holy liberty
of spirit which our divine Saviour teaches in the Gospel. Too much
dissipation and over long prayers are two extremes each of which it is
equally necessary to avoid.

6. Should it happen that you are obliged to travel on Sunday or to attend
to some unforseen business, do not be disquieted about the impossibility
of fulfilling your customary devout exercises. Replace these with pious
ejaculations, which, as I have already said, can in case of necessity
supply for the omission of all other prayers.

7. Remark, in conclusion, that to assist at a low Mass suffices strictly
speaking for the sanctification of the Sunday or holyday. Even this may
be omitted by those persons whom duty obliges to attend the sick, to mind
the house, or to take care of young children; for these being works of
justice and charity and good in themselves, may, when performed with a
pure intention and accompanied by ejaculatory prayers, equal and even
surpass in value all exterior practices of devotion.

I do not speak at all of the sick, for by their sufferings they can
sanctify every day and make each one equal to the greatest festival.

*“Worldly notions are forever blending with our thoughts and throwing
them out of perspective. In the house of an earthly prince it is not so
honorable to be a scullion in the kitchen as to be a
gentleman-in-waiting. But it is different in the house of God, where
those in the humblest positions are oft-times the most worthy; for
although they labor and drudge it is done for the love of God and in
fulfilment of His divine will; and the true value of our actions is fixed
by this divine will and not by their exterior character. Therefore he who
truly loves God’s will in the accomplishment of his duties, does not
allow his affections to become engaged in any of his spiritual exercises;
and so, if sickness or accident interfere with them he experiences no
regret. I do not say indeed that he does not love his devotions, but that
he is not attached to them.”—Saint Francis de Sales.*

*“If you have a sincere regard for the virtues of obedience and
submission, I wish that, should justice or charity demand it, you would
forego your pious exercises, which would be a sort of obedience, and that
this omission should be supplied by love. I told you on another occasion:
the less we live according to our own liking, and the less option we have
in our actions, the more goodness and solidity will there be in our
devotion. It is right and proper sometimes to leave our Lord in order to
oblige others for love of Him.”—Saint Francis de Sales.*



                                 VIII.
                           SPIRITUAL READING.


  Blessed is the man whom Thou shalt instruct, O Lord, and shalt teach
  him out of Thy Law. (Ps. XCIII, v. 12.)

  All scripture divinely inspired, is profitable to teach, to reprove, to
  correct, to instruct in justice. (S. P. Timoth., Ep. II, iii, 16.)

1. Spiritual reading is to the soul what food is to the body. Be careful,
therefore, to select such books as will furnish your soul with the best
nourishment. I would recommend you to become familiar especially with the
works of Saint Francis de Sales.

2. When the choice of reading matter is made by the advice of a spiritual
director the teaching it contains should be looked upon as coming from
the mouth of God.

3. Do not affect those lives of the Saints in which the supernatural and
marvellous predominate. The devout imagination becomes inflamed by such
reading and is imbued with vain and useless desires: it leads some to
aspire to the revelations of Saint Bridget or the raptures of Saint
Joseph of Cupertino, others to imitate the mortifications of the
Stylites; and thus by losing time in desiring extraordinary graces, they
neglect, to their great detriment, ordinary duties and real obligations.
Take great care, then, not to allow yourself to be absorbed in those
wonderful characteristics of the saints which we should be content to
admire; give preference rather to their simple and interior virtues, for
these alone are imitable for us.

*“We ought not to wish for extraordinary things, as, for example, that
God would take away our heart, as He did with Saint Catherine of
Sienna’s, and give us His in return. But we should desire that our poor
hearts no longer live save in subjection to the Heart of our loving
Saviour, and this will be the best way of imitating Saint Catherine, for
we shall thus become meek, humble and charitable.... True holiness
consists in love of God, and not in foolish imaginations and dreamings
that nourish self-love whilst they undermine obedience and humility. The
desire to have ecstacies and visions is a deception. Let us turn rather
to the practice of true meekness and submissiveness, of self-renunciation
and docility, of ready compliance with the wishes of others. Thus we
shall emulate the saints in what is more real and more admirable for us
than ecstacies.”—St. Francis de Sales.*

4. Use still greater precautions in regard to ascetical works. Many of
these are carelessly written, confound precepts with counsels, badly
define the virtues by not showing the limits beyond which they become
extravagances, and entertain the reader with trifling and purely exterior
practices that are more apt to flatter self-love than to reform the
heart.

5. It has been remarked very justly by a learned theologian that the
ignorance and indiscreet zeal of certain writers of ascetical books have
furnished the heretics of later times with arms to attack our holy
religion and to turn it into ridicule.

6. A judicious author expresses himself thus on the same subject: “In
order to write on spiritual matters it is not enough to have great
piety,—great learning is also necessary. A man actuated by the best
motives in the world may yet have strange delusions, and feed his
imagination with devout extravagances.” An author should be equally well
versed in theory and experienced in practice, otherwise he will err
either in regard to principles or to their application. There is a well
known saying generally attributed to Saint Thomas: “If a man be good and
holy let him pray for us; if he be learned too, then let him teach us.”
It is essential, in matters of religion especially, to give none but true
and precise ideas, or else they will do more harm than good. Doctrines
that are not exact create scruples in weak souls and invite the
criticisms of intelligent Christians, whilst they excite the railleries
of free-thinkers and furnish arguments to unbelievers.

7. Almost every day we find ascetical works published which contain many
inaccuracies of the kind described. Exercise great care, therefore, in
the selection of this kind of reading or you may injure your soul instead
of sanctifying it. The safest course is to consult your director on the
subject.



                              PART SECOND.
                             INTERIOR LIFE.



                                  IX.
                                 HOPE.


  Casting all your solicitude upon Him for He hath care of you. (St.
  Petr., Ep. I., c. V., v. 7.)

  Let Thy mercy descend upon us according to the trust we have placed in
  Thee. (Cant. Saint Ambrose.)

1. “Blessed is the man who hopes in the Lord,” says the Holy Spirit. The
weakness of our souls is often attributable to lukewarmness in regard to
the Christian virtue of hope.

2. Hold fast to this great truth: he who hopes for nothing will obtain
nothing; he who hopes for little will obtain little; he who hopes for all
things will obtain all things.

3. The mercy of God is infinitely greater than all the sins of the world.
We should not, then, confine ourselves to a consideration of our own
wretchedness, but rather turn our thoughts to the contemplation of this
divine attribute of mercy.

4. “What do you fear?” says Saint Thomas of Villanova: “this Judge whose
condemnation you dread is the same Jesus Christ who died upon the Cross
in order not to condemn you.”

5. Sorrow, not fear, is the sentiment our sins should awaken in us. When
Saint Peter said to his divine Master: “_Depart from me, O Lord, for I am
a sinful man,_” what did our Saviour reply? “_Noli timere,_—fear not.”[8]
Saint Augustine remarks that in the Holy Scriptures we always find hope
and love preferred to fear.

6. Our miseries form the throne of the divine mercy, we are told by Saint
Francis de Sales, for if in the world there were neither sins to pardon,
nor sorrows to soothe, nor maladies of the soul to heal, God would not
have to exercise the most beautiful attribute of His divine essence. This
was our Lord’s reason for saying that He came into the world not for the
just but for sinners.[9]

7. Assuredly our faults are displeasing to God, but He does not on their
account cease to cherish our souls.

*It is unnecessary to observe that this applies only to such faults as
are due to the frailty inherent in our nature, and against which an
upright will, sustained by divine grace, continually struggles. A
perverse will, without which there can be no mortal sin, alienates us
from God and renders us hateful in His eyes as long as we are subject to
it. At the feast spoken of in the Gospel, the King receives with love the
poor, the blind, and the lame who are clothed with the nuptial
garment,—that is to say, all those whom a desire to please God maintains
in a state of grace notwithstanding their natural defects and frailty:
but his rigorous justice displays itself against him who dares to appear
there without this garment. This distinction, found everywhere throughout
the Gospels, is essential in order to inspire us with a tender confidence
when we fall, without diminishing our horror for deliberate sins.*

A good mother is afflicted at the natural defects and infirmities of her
child, but she loves him none the less, nor does she refuse him her
compassion or her aid. Far from it; for the more miserable and suffering
and deformed he may be the greater is her tenderness and solicitude for
him.

8. We have, says Saint Paul, a good and indulgent High-Priest who knows
how to compassionate our weakness, Jesus Christ, who has been pleased to
become at once our Brother and our Mediator.[10]

9. Do not forfeit your peace of mind by wondering what destiny awaits you
in eternity. Your future lot is in the hands of God, and it is much safer
there than if in your own keeping.

10. The immoderate fear of hell, in the opinion of Saint Francis de
Sales, can not be cured by arguments, but by submission and humility.

11. Hence it was that Saint Bernard, when tempted by the devil to a sin
of despair, retorted: “I have not merited heaven, I know that as well as
you do, Satan; but I also know that Jesus Christ, my Saviour, has merited
it for me. It was not for Himself that He purchased so many merits,—but
for me: He cedes them to me, and it is by Him and in Him that I shall
save my soul.”

12. Far from allowing yourself to be dejected by fear and doubt, raise
your desires rather to great virtues and to the most sublime perfection.
God loves courageous souls, Saint Theresa assures us, provided they
mistrust their own strength and place all their reliance upon Him. The
devil tries to persuade you that it is pride to have exalted aspirations
and to wish to imitate the virtues of the saints; but do not permit him
to deceive you by this artifice. He will only laugh at you if he succeed
in making you fall into weakness and irresolution.

To aspire to the noblest and highest ends gives firmness and perseverance
to the soul. (Read _The Imitation_, B. III, C. XXX.)



                                   X.
                          THE PRESENCE OF GOD.


  Walk before Me and be perfect. (Genesis, c. XVII, v. 1.)

  I have lifted up my eyes to the mountains, from whence help shall come
  to me. (Psalm CXX, v. 1.)

1. The constant remembrance of God’s presence is a means of perfection
that Almighty God Himself prescribed to the Patriarch Abraham. But this
practice must be followed gently and without effort or disturbance of
mind. The God of love and peace wishes that all we do for Him should be
done lovingly and peacefully.

2. Only in heaven shall we be able to think actually and uninterruptedly
of God. In this world to do so is an impossibility, for we are at every
moment distracted by our occupations, our necessities, our imagination.
We but exhaust ourselves by futile efforts if we try to lead before the
proper time an existence similar to that of the angels and saints.

3. Frequently the fear comes to you that you have failed to keep yourself
in the presence of God, because you have not thought of Him. This is a
mistaken idea. You can, without this definite thought, perform all your
actions for love of God and in His presence, by virtue of the intention
you had in beginning them. Now, to act is better than to think. Though
the doctor may not have the invalid in mind while he is preparing the
medicine that is to restore him to health, nevertheless it is for him he
is working, and he is more useful to his patient in this way than if he
contented himself with merely thinking of him. In like manner when you
fulfil your domestic or social duties, when you eat or walk, devote
yourself to study or to manual labor, though it be without definitely
thinking of God, you are acting for Him, and this ought to suffice to set
your mind at rest in regard to the merit of your actions. Saint Paul does
not say that we must eat, drink and labor with an actual remembrance of
God’s presence, but with the habitual intention of glorifying Him and
doing His holy will. We fulfil this condition by making an offering each
morning to God of all the actions of the day and renewing the act
interiorly whenever we can remember to do so.

4. For this purpose, make frequent use of ejaculatory prayers. We have
already spoken of them. Accustom yourself to make these pious aspirations
naturally and without effort, and let them for the most part be
expressive of confidence and love.

5. Should it happen that a considerable space of time elapses without
your having thought distinctly of God or raised your heart to Him by any
loving ejaculation, do not allow this omission to worry you. The servant
has performed his duty and deserves well of his master when he has done
his will, even though he may not have been thinking of him the while.
Always bear in mind the fact that it is better to work for God than to
think of Him. Thought has its highest spiritual value when it results in
action: action is meritorious in itself by virtue of the good intention
which preceded it.



                                  XI.
                               HUMILITY.


  If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. (St. John, c. VIII, v. 54.)

  For behold I was born in iniquities: and in sins did my mother conceive
  me. (Psalm L., v. 7.)

1. Few persons have a correct idea of this virtue. It is frequently
confused with servility or littleness.

2. To attribute to God what is God’s, that is to say everything that is
good, and to ourselves what is ours, that is to say, everything that is
evil: these are the essential characteristics of true humility.

*Hence it would appear at first sight that simple good sense ought to
suffice to make men humble. Such would be the case were it not that our
faculties have been impaired and vitiated in their very source by pride,
that direful and ineffaceable consequence of original sin. The first man,
a creature owing his existence directly to God, was bound to dedicate it
entirely to Him and to pay continual homage for it is as for all the
other gifts he had received. This was a duty of simple justice. The day
whereon he asserted a desire to be independent, he caused an utter
derangement in the relations of the creature with his Creator. Pride,
that tendency to self-sufficiency, to refer to self the use of the
faculties received from God—pride, introduced into the soul of the first
man by a free act of his will, has attached itself as an indelible stigma
to the souls of all his descendants, and has become forevermore a part of
their nature. Thence comes this inclination, ever springing up afresh, to
be independent, to be something of ourselves, to desire for ourselves
esteem, affection and honor, despite the precepts of the divine law, the
claims of justice and the warnings of reason; and thus it is that the
whole spiritual life is but one long and painful conflict against this
vicious propensity. Divine grace though sustaining us in the combat never
gives us a complete victory, for the struggle must endure until
death,—the closing chastisement of our original degradation and the only
one that can obliterate the last traces thereof. (See _Imitation_, B.
III., Ch. XIII.—XXII.)*

3. As God drew from nothingness everything that exists, in like manner
does He wish to lay the foundations of our spiritual perfection upon the
knowledge of our nothingness. Saint Bonaventure used to say: _Provided
God be all, what matters it that I am nothing!_

4. When a Christian who is truly humble commits a fault he repents but is
not disquieted, because he is not surprised that what is naught but
misery, weakness and corruption, should be miserable, weak and corrupt.
He thanks God on the contrary that his fall has not been more serious.
Thus Saint Catherine of Genoa, whenever she found she had been guilty of
some imperfection, would calmly exclaim: _Another weed from my garden!_
This peaceful contemplation of our sinfulness was considered very
important by Saint Francis de Sales also, for he says: “Let us learn to
bear with our imperfections if we wish to attain perfection, for this
practice nourishes the virtue of humility.”

5. Some persons have the erroneous idea that in order to be humble they
must not recognize in themselves any virtue or talent whatsoever. The
reverse is the case according to Saint Thomas, for he says it is
necessary to realize the gifts we have received that we may return thanks
for them to Him from whom we hold them. To ignore them is to fail in
gratitude towards God, and to neglect the object for which He gave them
to us. All that we have to do is to avoid the folly of taking glory to
ourselves because of them. Mules, asses and donkeys may be laden with
gold and perfumes and yet be none the less dull and stupid animals. The
graces we have received, far from giving us any personal claims, only
serve to increase our debt to Him who is their source and their donor.

6. Praise is naturally more pleasing to us than censure. There is nothing
sinful in this preference, for it springs from an instinct of our human
nature of which we cannot entirely divest ourselves. Only the praise must
be always referred to Him to whom it is due, that is to say, to God; for
they are His gifts that are praised in us as we are but their bearers and
custodians and shall one day have to render Him an account for them in
accordance with their value.

7. The soul that is most humble will also have the greatest courage and
the most generous confidence in God; the more it distrusts itself, the
more it will trust in Him on whom it relies for all its strength, saying
with Saint Paul: _I can do all things in Him who strengtheneth me_.[11]
Saint Thomas clearly proves that true Christian humility, far from
debasing the soul, is the principle of everything that is really noble
and generous. He who refuses the work to which God calls him because of
the honor and éclat that accompany it, is not humble but mistrustful and
pusillanimous. We shall find in obedience light to show us with certainty
that to which we are called and to preserve us from the illusions of
self-love and of our natural inclinations.

*“We should be actuated by a generous and noble humility, a humility that
does nothing in order to be praised and omits nothing that ought to be
done through fear of being praised.”—Saint Francis de Sales.*

8. It is even good and sometimes necessary to make known the gifts we
have received from God and the good works of which divine grace has made
us the instruments, when this manifestation can conduce to the glory of
His name, the welfare of the Church, or the edification of the faithful.
It was for this threefold object that Saint Paul spoke of his apostolic
labors and supernatural revelations.



                                  XII.
                              RESIGNATION.


  Yea, Father: because so it has pleased Thee. (St. Luke, c. X., v. 21.)

  O my Father, if it be possible, let this chalice pass from me.
  Nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt. (St. Matthew, c. XXVI.,
  v. 39.)

1. We should recognize and adore the will of God in everything that
happens to us. The malice of men, nay of the devil himself, can cause
nothing to befall us except what is permitted by God. Our divine Lord has
declared that not a hair of our heads can fall unless by the will of our
Heavenly Father.[12]

2. Therefore in every condition painful to nature, whether you are
afflicted by sickness, assailed by temptations, or tortured by the
injustice of men, consider the divine will and say to God with a loving
and submissive heart: _Fiat voluntas tua_—Thy will be done: O my Saviour,
do with me what Thou willest, as Thou willest, and when Thou willest.

3. By this means we render supportable the severest pain and the most
trying circumstances. “Do you not feel the infinite sweetness contained
in that one sentence, _the will of God?_” asks Saint Mary Magdalen de
Pazzi. Like unto the wood shown to Moses, that drew from the water all
its bitterness, it sweetens whatever is bitter in our lives.

4. Without this practice, so comformable to faith, and without the light
and strength that result from it, the pains and afflictions of life would
become unbearable. This is what Saint Philip de Neri meant when he said:
It rests with man to place himself even in this life either in heaven or
in hell: he who suffers tribulations with patience enjoys celestial peace
in advance; he who does not do so has a foretaste of the torments of
hell.

5. Not only is it God who sends or permits our troubles, but He does so
for the good of our souls and for our spiritual progress. Do not, then,
make a matter of complaint that which should be a motive for gratitude.

6. Saint Francis de Sales says that the cross is the royal door to the
temple of sanctity, and the only one by which we can enter it. One moment
spent upon the cross is therefore more conducive to our spiritual
advancement than the anticipated enjoyment of all the delights of heaven.
The happiness of those who have reached their destination consists in the
possession of God: to suffer for the love of Him is the only true
happiness which those still on the way can expect to attain. Our Lord
declared that those who mourn during this exile are _blessed_, for they
shall be consoled eternally in their celestial fatherland.[13]

7. Notice that I say, _to suffer for the love of God_, for, as Saint
Augustine remarks, no person can love suffering in itself. That is
contrary to nature, and moreover, there would no longer be any suffering
if we could accept it with natural relish. But a resigned soul loves to
suffer, that is she loves the virtue of patience and ardently desires the
merits that result from the practice of it. A calm and submissive longing
to be delivered from our cross if such be the will of God, is not
inconsistent with the most perfect resignation. This desire is a natural
instinct which supernatural grace regulates, moderates, and teaches us to
control, but which it never entirely destroys. Our divine Saviour
Himself, to show that He was truly man, was pleased to feel it as we do,
and prayed that the chalice of His Passion might be spared Him. Hence you
are not required to be stolidly indifferent or to arm yourself with the
stern insensibility of the Stoics; that would not be either resignation,
or humility, or any virtue whatsoever. The essential thing is to suffer
with Christian patience and generous resignation everything that is
naturally displeasing to us. This is what both reason and faith
prescribe.

*The Redeemer of the World seems to wish to show us in His Agony the
degree of perfection which the weakness of human nature can attain amidst
the anguish of sorrow. In the inferior portion of the soul where the
faculty of feeling resides, instinctive repugnance to suffering, humble
prayer for relief if it please God to accord it; and in the superior
portion of the soul where the will resides, entire resignation if this
consolation be denied. A desire for more than this, unless called to it
by a special grace, would be foolish pride, as we should thus attempt to
change the conditions of our nature, whereas our duty is to accept them
in order to combat them and to suffer in so doing. (See _Imitation_, B.
III., Ch. XVIII-XIX.)

In the following terms Saint Francis de Sales proposes to us this same
example of our Saviour’s resignation during His agony: “Consider the
great dereliction our Divine Master suffered in the Garden of Olives. See
how this beloved Son, having asked for consolation from His loving Father
and knowing that it was not His will to grant it, thinks no more about
it, no longer craves or looks for it, but, as though He had never sought
it, valiantly and courageously completes the work of our redemption. Let
it be the same with you. If your Heavenly Father sees fit to deny you the
consolation you have prayed for, dismiss it from your mind and animate
your courage to fulfil your work upon the cross as if you were never to
descend from it nor should ever again see the atmosphere of your life
pure and serene.” (Read _The Imitation_. B. III., Chapters XI and XV.)

The same Saint also gives us some sublime lessons in resignation applied
to the trials and temptations that beset the spiritual life. He draws
them from this great and simple thought that serves as foundation for the
Exercises of Saint Ignatius, namely, that salvation being the sole object
of our existence, and all the attendant circumstances of life but means
for attaining it, nothing has any absolute value; and that the only way
of forming a true estimate of things is to consider in how far they are
calculated to advance or retard the end in view. Accordingly, what
difference does it make if we attain this end by riches or poverty,
health or sickness, spiritual consolation or aridity, by the esteem or
contempt of our fellow-men? So say faith and reason; but human nature
revolts against this indifference, as it is well it should, else how
could we acquire merit? Hence there is a conflict on this point between
the flesh and the spirit, and it is this conflict that for a Christian is
called life. (On this subject read _The Imitation_, B. II., Ch. XI.; and
B. III., Ch. XVIII., XIX., XXXVII., XLIX., L. and the prayer at the end
of Ch. XXVII.)

“Would to God,” he says elsewhere, speaking on the same subject, “that we
did not concern ourselves so much about the road whereon we journey, but
rather would keep our eyes fixed on our Guide and upon that blessed
country whither He is conducting us. What should it matter to us if it be
through deserts or pleasant fields that we walk, provided God be with us
and we be advancing towards heaven?... In short, for the honor of God,
acquiesce perfectly in his divine will, and do not suppose that you can
serve him better in any other way; for no one ever serves him well who
does not serve him as he wishes. Now he wishes that you serve him without
relish, without feeling, nay, with repugnance and perturbation of spirit.
This service does not afford you any satisfaction, it is true, but it
pleases him; it is not to your taste, but it is to his.... Mortify
yourself then cheerfully, and in proportion as you are prevented from
doing the good you desire, do all the more ardently that which you do not
desire. You do not wish to be resigned in this case, but you will be so
in some other: resignation in the first instance will be of much greater
value to you.... In fine, let us be what God wishes, since we are
entirely devoted to him, and would not wish to be anything contrary to
his will; for were we the most exalted creatures under heaven, of what
use would it be to us, if we were not in accord with the will of God?...”

And again: “You should resign yourself perfectly into the hands of God.
When you have done your best towards carrying out your design (of
becoming a religious) he will be pleased to accept everything you do,
even though it be something less good. You cannot please God better than
by sacrificing to him your will, and remaining in tranquillity, humility
and devotion, entirely reconciled and submissive to his divine will and
good pleasure. You will be able to recognize these plainly enough when
you find that notwithstanding all your efforts it is impossible for you
to gratify your wishes.

For God in his infinite goodness sometimes sees fit to test our courage
and love by depriving us of the things which it seems to us would be
advantageous to our souls; and if he finds us very earnest in their
pursuit, yet humble, tranquil and resigned to do without them if he
wishes us to, he will give us more blessings than we should have had in
the possession of what we craved. God loves those who at all times and in
all circumstances can say to him simply and heartily: _Thy will be
done_.”*



                                 XIII.
                               SCRUPLES.


  Having therefore such hope, we use much confidence. (St. Paul, II.
  Cor., c. III., v. 12.)

  Fear is not in charity: but perfect charity casteth out fear, because
  fear hath pain. And he that feareth is not perfect in charity. (St.
  John, I. Epist., c. IV., v. 18.)

1. There are persons who look upon scrupulosity as a virtue, confounding
it with delicacy of conscience, whereas it is, on the contrary, not only
a defect but one of a most dangerous character. The devout and learned
Gerson says that a scrupulous conscience often does more injury to the
soul than one that is too lax and remiss.

2. Scruples warp the judgment, disturb the peace of the soul, beget
mistrust of the Sacraments and estrangement from them, and impair the
health of body and mind. How many unfortunates have begun by scrupulosity
and ended in insanity! How many, more unfortunate still, have begun by
scruples and ended in laxity and impiety! Shun then this insiduous
poison, so deadly in its effects on true piety, and say with Saint Joseph
of Cupertino: _Away with sadness and scruples; I will not have them in my
house._

3. Scrupulosity is an unreasonable fear of sin in matters where there is
not even material for sin. But the victim does not call his doubts and
fears scruples, for he would not be tormented by them if he believed he
could give them that name. He should, however, place implicit reliance in
the opinion of his spiritual guide when he tells him they are such and
that he must not allow himself to be influenced by them.

4. In all his actions a scrupulous person sees only an uninterrupted
series of sins, and in God nothing but vengeance and anger. He ought,
therefore, to consider almost exclusively the attribute of the divine
Master by which He most delights to manifest Himself, _mercy_, and to
make it the constant subject of his thoughts, meditations and affections.

*“We should do everything from love and nothing from constraint. It is
more essential to love obedience than to fear disobedience.”—Saint
Francis de Sales.*

5. There is but one remedy for scruples and that is entire and courageous
obedience. “It is a secret pride,” says Saint Francis de Sales, “that
entertains and nourishes scruples, for the scrupulous person adheres to
his opinion and inquietude in spite of his director’s advice to the
contrary. He always persuades himself in justification of his
disobedience that some new and unforseen circumstance has occurred to
which this advice cannot be applicable.” “But submit”, adds the Saint,
“without other reasoning than this: _I should obey_, and you will be
delivered from this lamentable malady.”

6. By sadness and anxiety the children of God do a great injury to their
Heavenly Father. They thereby seem to bear witness that there is little
happiness to be found in the service of a Master so full of love and
mercy, and to give the lie to the words of Him who said: “Come unto Me
all you that labor and are heavily burdened and I will refresh you.”

*“Woe to that narrow and self-absorbed soul that is always fearful, and
because of fear has no time to love and to go generously forward. O my
God! I know it is your wish that the heart that loves you should be broad
and free! Hence I shall act with confidence like to the child that plays
in the arms of its mother; I shall rejoice in the Lord and try to make
others rejoice; I shall pour forth my heart without fear in the assembly
of the children of God. I wish for nothing but candor, innocence and joy
of the Holy Ghost. Far, far from me, O my God, be that sad and cowardly
wisdom which is ever consumed in self, ever holding the balance in hand
in order to weigh atoms!... Such lack of simplicity in the soul’s
dealings with Thee is truly an outrage against Thee: such rigor imputed
to Thee is unworthy of Thy paternal heart.”—Fénelon.*



                                  XIV.
                            INTERIOR PEACE.


  Martha, Martha, thou art careful, and art troubled about many things.
  (St. Luke, c. X., v. 41.)

  Always active, always at rest. (St. Augustine.)

1. Be on your guard lest your zeal degenerate into anxiety and eagerness.
Saint Francis de Sales was a most pronounced enemy of these two defects.
They cause us to lose sight of God in our actions and make us very prone
to impatience if the slightest obstacle should interfere with our
designs. It is only by acting peacefully that we can serve the God of
peace in an acceptable manner.

*“Do not let us suffer our peace to be disturbed by precipitation in our
exterior actions. When our bodies or minds are engaged in any work, we
should perform it peacefully and with composure, not prescribing for
ourselves a definite time to finish it, nor being too anxious to see it
completed.”—Scupoli.*

2. Martha was engaged in a good work when she prepared a repast for our
divine Lord, nevertheless He reproved her because she performed it with
anxiety and agitation. This goes to show, says Saint Francis de Sales,
that it is not enough to do good, the good must moreover be done well,
that is to say, with love and tranquillity. If one turn the
spinning-wheel too rapidly it falls and the thread breaks.

3. Whenever we are doing well we are always doing enough and doing it
sufficiently fast. Those persons who are restless and impetuous do not
accomplish any more and what they do is done badly.

4. Saint Francis de Sales was never seen in a hurry no matter how varied
or numerous might be the demands made upon his time. When on a certain
occasion some surprise was expressed at this he said: “You ask me how it
is that although others are agitated and flurried I am not likewise
uneasy and in haste. What would you? I was not put in this world to cause
fresh disturbance: is there not enough of it already without my adding to
it by my excitability?”

5. However, do not on the other hand succumb to sloth and indifference.
All extremes are to be avoided. Cultivate a tranquil activity and an
active tranquillity.

6. In order to acquire tranquillity in action it is necessary to consider
carefully what we are capable of accomplishing and never to undertake
more than that. It is self-love, ever more anxious to do much than to do
well, which urges us on to burden ourselves with great undertakings and
to impose upon ourselves numerous obligations. It maintains and nourishes
itself on this tension of mind, this restless anxiety which it takes for
infallible signs of a superior capacity. Thus Saint Francis de Sales was
wont to say: “Our self-love is a great braggart, that wishes to undertake
everything and accomplishes nothing.”

*“It appears to me that you are over eager and anxious in the pursuit of
perfection.... Now I tell you truthfully, as it is said in the Book of
Kings,[14] that God is not in the great and strong wind, nor in the
earthquake, nor in the fire, but in the gentle movement of an almost
imperceptible breeze.... Anxiety and agitation contribute nothing towards
success. The desire of success is good, but only if it be not accompanied
by solicitude. I expressly forbid you to give way to inquietude, for it
is the mother of all imperfections.... Peace is necessary in all things
and everywhere. If any trouble come to us, either of an interior or
exterior nature, we should receive it peacefully: if joy be ours, it
should be received peacefully: have we to flee from evil, we should do it
peacefully, otherwise we may fall in our flight and thus give our enemy a
chance to kill us. Is there a good work to be done? we must do it
peacefully, or else we shall commit many faults by our hastiness: and
even as regards penance,—that too must be done peacefully: _Behold_, said
the prophet, _in peace is my bitterness most bitter_.”[15]*



                                  XV.
                                SADNESS.


  I rejoiced at the things that were said to me: We shall go into the
  house of the Lord.... Sing joyfully to God, all the earth: serve ye the
  Lord with gladness.... Why art thou sad, O my soul, and why dost thou
  trouble me? (Psalms CXXI., XCIX., XLII.)

  And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. (Apoc. C. XXI., v.
  4.)

1. Sadness, says Saint Francis de Sales, is the worst thing in the World,
sin alone excepted.

2. It is a dangerous error to seek recollection in sadness: it is the
spirit of God that produces recollection; sadness is the work of the
spirit of darkness.

3. Do not forget the rule given by Saint Francis de Sales for the
discernment of spirits: any thought that troubles and disquiets us cannot
come from the God of peace, who makes his dwelling-place only in peaceful
souls.

*“Yes, my daughter, I now tell you in writing what I before said to you
in person, always be as happy as you can in well-doing, for it gives a
double value to good works to be well done and to be done cheerfully. And
when I say, rejoice in well-doing, I do not mean that if you happen to
commit some fault you should on that account abandon yourself to sadness.
For God’s sake, no; for that would be to add defect to defect. But I mean
that you should persevere in the wish to do well, that you return to it
the moment you realize you have deviated from it, and that by means of
this fidelity you live happily in the Lord.... May God be ever in our
heart, my daughter.... Live joyfully and be generous, for this is the
will of God, whom we love and to whose service we are consecrated.”—Saint
Francis de Sales.* (_Imitation_, B. III., Chap. XLVII.)

4. It is wrong to deny one’s self all diversion. The mind becomes
fatigued and depressed by remaining always concentrated in itself and
thus more easily falls a prey to sadness. Saint Thomas says explicitly
that one may incur sin by refusing all innocent amusement. Every excess,
no matter what its nature, is contrary to order and consequently to
virtue.

5. Recreations and amusements are to the life of the soul what seasoning
is to our corporal food. Food that is too highly seasoned quickly becomes
injurious and sometimes fatal in its effects; that which is not seasoned
at all soon becomes unendurable because of its insipidity and
unpalatableness.

6. As to the amount of diversion it is right to take, no absolute measure
can be given: the rule is that each person should have as much as is
necessary for him. This quantity varies according to the bent of the
mind, the nature of the habitual occupations, and the greater or less
predisposition to sadness one observes in his disposition.

7. When you find your heart growing sad, divert yourself without a
moment’s delay; make a visit, enter into conversation with those around
you, read some amusing book, take a walk, sing, do something, it matters
not what, provided you close the door of your heart against this terrible
enemy. As the sound of a trumpet gives the signal for a combat, so sad
thoughts apprise the devil that a favorable moment has come for him to
attack us.



                                  XVI.
                           LIBERTY OF SPIRIT.


  Now the Lord is a spirit: and where the spirit of the Lord is, there is
  liberty. (St. Paul, II. Cor., c. III., v. 17.)

  For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but ye
  have received the spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba,
  Father. (St. Paul, Romans, c. VIII., v. 15.)

  Love God and do what you will. (Saint Augustine.)

1. Christian liberty of spirit, so earnestly recommended by the saints,
consists in not becoming the slave of anything, even though good, unless
it be of God’s will. Thus our purest inclinations, our holiest habits,
our wisest rules of conduct, should yield without murmur or complaint to
every manifestation of this divine will, in order that they may never
become for us obstacles or impediments to good or the occasion of trouble
and disquietude. By this means only can we perform all our actions with
cheerful confidence and devout courage.

*“I leave you the spirit of liberty; not that liberty which hinders
obedience, for such is the liberty of the flesh, but that which excludes
scruples and constraint.... We ask of God above all things that his name
be hallowed, that His kingdom come, that His will be done on earth as it
is in heaven. All this implies the spirit of liberty; for provided God’s
name be sanctified, that His divine Majesty reign in you, that His will
be done, the spirit desires nothing more.”[16] (_Imitation_, B. III.,
Chap. XXVI.)*

2. St. Francis de Sales, speaking on this important subject, says: “He
who possesses the spirit of liberty will on no account allow his
affections to be mastered even by his spiritual exercises, and in this
way he avoids feeling any regret if they are interfered with by sickness
or accident. I do not say that he does not love his devotions but that he
is not attached to them.”

3. A soul that is attached to meditation, if interrupted, will show
chagrin and impatience: a soul that has true liberty will take the
interruption in good part and show a gracious countenance to the person
who was the cause of it. For it is all one to it whether it serve God by
meditating or by bearing with its neighbor. Both duties are God’s will,
but just at this time patience with others is the more essential.

4. The fruits of this holy liberty of spirit are prompt and tranquil
submission and generous confidence. Saint Francis de Sales relates that
Saint Ignatius ate flesh meat one day in Holy Week simply because his
physician thought it expedient for him to do so on account of a slight
illness. A spirit of constraint would have made him allow the doctor to
spend three days in persuading him, he adds, and would then very probably
have refused to yield. I cite this example for the benefit of timid souls
and not for those who seek to elude an obligation by unwarranted
dispensations.

*This matter is of such importance and a just medium so difficult to
follow in practice, that it seems useful to transcribe the following
passage from Saint Francis de Sales in its entirety, with the rules and
examples it contains, in order that the proper occasions for the exercise
of this virtue and its limitations may be well understood.

“A heart possessed of this spirit of liberty is not attached to
consolations, but receives afflictions with all the sweetness that is
possible to human nature. I do not say that it does not love and desire
consolations, but that its affections are not wedded to them.... It
seldom loses its joy, for no privation saddens a heart that is not set
upon any one thing. I do not say it never loses it, but if it does so it
quickly regains it.

The effects of this virtue are sweetness of temper, gentleness, and
forbearance towards everything that is not sin or occasion of sin,
forming a disposition gently susceptible to the influences of charity and
of every other virtue.

The occasions for exercising this holy freedom are found in all those
things that happen contrary to our natural inclinations; for one whose
affections are not engaged in his own will does not lose patience when
his desires are thwarted.

There are two vices opposed to this liberty of spirit,—instability and
constraint, or dissipation and servility. The former is a certain excess
of freedom which causes us to change our devout exercises or state of
life without reason and without knowing if it be God’s will. On the
slightest pretext practices, plans and rules are altered and for every
trivial obstacle our laudable customs are abandoned. In this way the
heart is dissipated and spent and becomes like an orchard open on all
sides, the fruit whereof is not for the owner but for the passers-by.
Constraint or servility is a certain lack of liberty owing to which the
mind is overwhelmed with vexation or anger when we cannot carry out our
designs, even though we might be doing something better. For example: I
resolve to make a meditation every morning. Now if I have the spirit of
instability or dissipation I am apt to defer it until evening for the
most insignificant reason,—because I was kept awake by the barking of a
dog, or because I have a letter to write, although it be not at all
pressing. If on the contrary I have the spirit of constraint or servility
I will not give up my meditation even though a sick person has great need
of my aid just then, or if I have an important and urgent dispatch to
send which should not be deferred; and so on.

It remains for me to give you some examples of true liberty of spirit
which will make you understand it better than I can explain it. But,
before doing so, it is well that I should say there are two rules which
it is necessary to observe in order not to make any mistake on the
subject.

The first is that a person must never abandon his pious practices and the
common rules of virtue unless it is plainly evident that God wills that
he do so. Now this will is manifested in two ways,—through necessity and
through charity. I desire to preach this Lent in some little corner of my
diocese; however, if I get sick or break my leg I need not give way to
regret or inquietude because I cannot do as I intended, for it is evident
that it is the will of God that I serve Him by suffering and not by
preaching. Or, even if I am not ill or crippled, but an occasion presents
itself of going to some other place which if I do not avail myself of the
people there may become Huguenots, the will of God is sufficiently
manifest to make me amiably change my plans. The second rule is that when
it is necessary to make use of this liberty of spirit from motives of
charity, care should be taken that it is done without scandal or
injustice. For instance: I may know that I should be more useful in some
distant place not within my own diocese: I should have no freedom of
choice in this matter for my obligations are here and I should give
scandal and do an injustice by abandoning my charge.

Thus it is a false idea of the spirit of liberty that would induce
married women to keep aloof from their husbands without legitimate reason
under pretext of devotion and charity.... This spirit rightly understood
never interferes with the duties of one’s vocation nor prejudices them in
any way. On the contrary, it makes every one contented in his state of
life, as each should know it is God’s will that he remain in it.

Saint Charles Borromeo was one of the most austere, exact and determined
of men; bread was his only food, water his only drink; he was so strict,
that during the twenty-four years he was an Archbishop he went into his
garden but twice, and visited his brothers only on two occasions and then
because they were ill. Yet this austere priest when dining with his Swiss
neighbors, which he often did in order to move them to amend their lives,
did not hesitate to join them in drinking toasts and healths on every
occasion and in doing so to take more than was necessary to quench his
thirst. Here is true liberty of spirit exemplified in the most mortified
man of his time. An unstable spirit would have gone too far, a spirit of
constraint would have thought it was committing a mortal sin, a spirit of
liberty would act in this way from a motive of charity.

Saint Spiridion, a bishop of olden times, once gave shelter to a pilgrim
who was almost dying of hunger. It was the season of Lent and in a place
where nothing was to be had but salt meat. This Spiridion ordered to be
cooked and then gave it to the pilgrim. Seeing that the latter,
notwithstanding his great need, hesitated to eat it, the Saint, although
he did not require it, ate some first in order to remove the poor man’s
scruples. That was a true spirit of liberty born of charity.”—Saint
Francis de Sales.*

5. Again, it is this Christian spirit of freedom that excludes fear and
uneasiness in regard to all those things which God has not permitted us
to know. It gives us a sweet and tender confidence as to the pardon of
our past sins, the present condition of our souls and our eternal
destiny. It reminds us continually that although we have deserved hell,
our divine Lord has merited heaven for us, and that it would be doing a
great injury to His goodness not to hope for pardon for the past,
assistance of divine grace for the present, and salvation after death.
Finally, it teaches us to drown our remorse for sin in the ocean of the
divine mercy.

6. I earnestly exhort you never to make indiscreet vows in the hope of
thus increasing the merit of your ordinary works. One can attain the same
end by many ways that are easier and less dangerous. Those who are guilty
of this imprudence often run the risk of breaking their vows and of thus
sinning gravely. And if they avoid this misfortune it is only at the
expense of their peace of soul, sacrificed to a craven and unquiet
servitude which is totally incompatible with the tranquillity and
confidence required in the great work of our spiritual perfection.

7. Many pious persons are too prone to advise obligations of this kind.
If they do so to you, humbly excuse yourself by saying that you do not
possess the extraordinary virtue requisite in order to fulfil them
without disquietude. Saint Francis de Sales disapproved of all the
particular vows made by Saint Jane Frances de Chantal and declared them
null. I have almost invariably found persons bound by such solemn
obligations restless and agitated, and have frequently seen them exposed
to the gravest falls.

8. Do not allow yourself to be misled by the example of some of the
saints who made vows. Rarely is the desire to imitate certain
extraordinary practices of theirs an inspiration of divine grace: rather
is it a temptation from the devil inciting us to pride and temerity.
Saint Francis de Sales exclaimed: “Give me the spirit that animated Saint
Bernard and I shall do what Saint Bernard did.” Let us apply ourselves, I
repeat, to the imitation of those simple and solid virtues by which the
saints attained sanctity, and be content to admire those supernatural
acts that suppose it already acquired.

9. To bind one’s self by arbitrary vows without compromising salvation,
three things are necessary: 1st. supernatural inspiration urging one to
make them; 2d. extraordinary virtue so as never to violate them; 3d.
unalterable tranquillity in order to preserve peace of soul in keeping
them.



                                 XVII.
                         CHRISTIAN PERFECTION.


  Conduct me, O Lord, in Thy way, and I will walk in Thy truth. (Psalm
  LXXXV.)

  Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain who build it.
  (Psalm CXXVI.)

1. A Christian is not obliged to be perfect, but to tend continually
towards perfection; that is to say, he must labor unceasingly and with
all his strength to increase in virtue. To make no attempt to advance is
to go back.

*You see it is a question not of succeeding but of laboring earnestly and
sincerely. Success does not depend upon us. God grants that or refuses it
or defers it according to what He knows is best for us.

“Let us do three things, my dear daughter, says Saint Francis de Sales:
first, have a pure intention to look in all things to the honor and glory
of God; second, do the little we can towards this end, according to the
advice of our spiritual father; third, leave the care of all the rest to
God. Why should he torment himself who has God for the object of his
intentions and does all that he can? why should he be anxious? what has
he to fear? God is not terrible for those whom He loves; He is satisfied
with little for He knows well that we have not much to give.”

... “Allow yourself to be governed by God; do not think so much of
yourself; make a general and universal resolution to serve God in the
best manner you are able and do not waste time in examining and sifting
so minutely to find out what that may be. This is simply an impertinence
due to the condition of your acute and precise mind which wishes to
tyrannize over your will and to control it by fraud and subtlety.... You
know that in general God wishes us to serve Him by loving Him above all
things and our neighbor as ourselves for love of Him; and in particular,
to fulfil the duties of our state of life; that is all. But it must be
done in good faith, without deceit or subterfuge, and in the ordinary way
of this world, which is not the home of perfection; humanly, too, and
according to the limitations of time; to do it in a divine and angelic
manner and according to eternity being reserved for a future life. Do not
therefore be so anxious to know whether or not you have attained
perfection. This should never be; for were we the most perfect creatures
on earth we ought not to dwell upon or glory in it but always consider
ourselves imperfect. Our self-examination must never be for the purpose
of discovering if we are imperfect, for this we should never doubt. Hence
it follows that we must not be surprised at seeing ourselves imperfect,
since we can never be otherwise in this life; nor on that account give
way to despondency, for there is no remedy for it. But, yes; we can
correct our faults gently and gradually, for that is the reason they are
left in us. We shall be inexcusable if we do not try to amend them, but
quite excusable if we are not entirely successful in doing so, for it is
not the same with imperfections as with sins.”—Saint Francis de Sales.*

2. Now the means to be employed in laboring for perfection and in making
progress in virtue do not consist in multiplying prayers, fasts and other
religious practices. Some good religious who had fasted three times a
week during an entire year, thought that in order to satisfy the
obligation of advancing more and more in virtue they ought to fast four
times a week the following year. They consulted Saint Francis de Sales on
the subject. He laughingly answered them: “If you fast four times a week
this year so as to advance in perfection, you will be obliged for the
same reason to fast five times the next year, then six, then seven times;
and the number of your fasts being always the guage of the degree of
perfection you shall have attained, it will be necessary for you, under
pain of advancing no more, thereafter to fast twice a day, then thrice,
then four times, and so on.” What Saint Francis de Sales said of fasting
is just as applicable to all other devout practices.

3. Instead, then, of continually adding to your religious exercises,
study to perfect yourself in the practice of those you already perform,
doing them with more love and peace of soul, and with greater purity of
intention. Should it happen that you are unable to perform all your usual
devotions conveniently, omit a portion of them so that the remainder may
be done with greater tranquillity. The spirit of perfection, says Saint
Bernard, does not consist in doing great things, but in doing common and
ordinary things perfectly. _Communia facere, sed non communiter_.[17]

*“Most people when they wish to reform, pay much more attention to
filling their life with certain difficult and extraordinary actions, than
to purifying their intention and opposing their natural inclinations in
the ordinary duties of their state. In this they often deceive
themselves, for it would be much better to make less change in the
actions and more in the dispositions of the soul which prompt them. When
one is already leading a virtuous and well regulated life it is of far
greater consequence, in order to become truly spiritual, to change the
interior than the exterior. God is not satisfied with the motions of the
lips, the posture of the body, nor with external ceremonies: What he
demands is a will no longer divided between Him and any creature; a will
perfectly docile ... that wishes unreservedly whatever He wishes and
never under any pretext wishes aught that He does not wish.

This will, perfectly simple and entirely devoted to God, you should bear
with you into all the circumstances of your life, and everywhere that
divine Providence leads you.... Even mere amusements may be transformed
into good works, if you enter into them only through a kindly motive and
to conform to the order of God. Happy indeed the heart of her for whom
God opens this way of holy simplicity! She walks therein like a little
child holding its mother’s hand and allowing her to lead it without any
concern as to whither it is going. Content to be free, she is ready to
speak or to be silent; when she cannot say edifying things she says
common-place things with an equally good grace; she amuses herself by
making what Saint Francis de Sales calls _joyeusetés_, playful little
jests, with which she diverts others as well as herself. You will tell me
perhaps that you would prefer to be occupied with something more serious
and solid. But God would not prefer it for you, seeing that He chooses
what you would not choose, and you know His taste is better than yours:
you would find more consolation in solid things for which He has given
you a relish, and it is this consolation of which He wishes to deprive
you, it is this relish which He wishes to mortify in you, although it may
be good and salutary. The very virtues, as they are practised by us, need
to be purified by the contradictions that God makes them suffer in order
to detach them the better from all self will. When piety is founded on
the fundamental principle of God’s holy will, without consulting our own
taste, or temperament or the sallies of an excessive zeal, oh! how
simple, sweet, amiable, discreet and reliable it is in all its movements!
A pious person lives much as others do, quite unaffectedly and without
apparent austerity, in a sociable and genial way; but with a constant
subjection to every duty, an unrelenting renunciation of everything that
does not enter into God’s designs in her regard, and, finally, with a
clear view of God to whom she sacrifices all the irregular inclinations
of nature. This indeed is the adoration in spirit and in truth desired by
Jesus Christ, our Lord, and His eternal Father. Without it all the rest
is but a religion of ceremonial, and rather the shadow than the reality
of Christianity.”—Fénelon.*

4. Apply yourself in a particular manner to become perfect in the
fulfilment of the duties of your state of life; for on this all
perfection and sanctity are grounded. When God created the world He
commanded the plants to produce fruit, but each one according to its
kind: _juxta genus suum_.[18] In like manner our souls are all obliged to
produce fruits of holiness, but each according to its kind; that is to
say, according to the position in which God has placed us. Elias in the
desert and David on the throne had not to become holy by a like process;
and Joshua amidst the tumult of arms would have sought in vain to
sanctify himself by the same means as Samuel in the peaceful retreat of
the Temple. This instruction is addressed to those who being placed in
the world would wish to practise there the virtues of the cloister, or
whilst residing in palaces would attempt to lead the life of the
solitaries of the desert. They bear fruits which are excellent in
themselves, no doubt, but not according to their kind, _juxta genus
suum_, and hence they do not fulfil the will of God.

5. Perfection has but one aim and it is the same for all,—to wit, the
love of God; but there are divers ways of attaining it. Among the saints
themselves we find most striking differences. Saint Benedict was never
seen to laugh, whereas Saint Francis de Sales laughed frequently and was
always animated, bright and cheerful. Saint Hilarion considered it an act
of sensuality to change his habit, whilst, on the other hand, Saint
Catherine of Sienna was extremely particular about bodily cleanliness
which she looked upon as a symbol of purity of soul. If you consult Saint
Jerome you hear only of fear of the terrible judgments of God: read Saint
Augustine and you will find only the language of confidence and love. The
minds, dispositions and characters of men are as varied as their
physiognomies; grace perfects them little by little but does not change
their nature. Hence in our endeavors to imitate the ways of such or such
a saint for whom we feel a particular attraction, we should not condemn
those of the others, but say with the Psalmist: _Omnis spiritus laudet
Dominum_.[19] Consult your director as to whom and what may be most
suitable for your imitation.

6. Never be afraid that you are not following the way of perfection
because you still have defects and commit many faults. This was true of
the greatest saints, for Saint Augustine declares that all of them could
exclaim with the Apostle Saint John: “If we claim to be without sin, we
deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us.” “He who came into the
world with sin,” says Saint Gregory the Great, “cannot live there without
sin.”

* “Act like the little child who, when it feels that its mother is
holding it by the sleeve, runs about quite boldly and without being
surprised at all the little falls it gets. Thus, as long as you find that
God is holding you by the good will and the resolution He has given you
to serve Him, go on bravely and do not be astonished that you stumble and
fall occasionally. There is no need to be troubled about it, provided
that at certain intervals you cast yourself into your Father’s arms and
embrace Him with the kiss of charity. Go on your way, then, cheerfully
and heartily, doing the best you can; and if it cannot always be
cheerfully, let it at least be always courageously and faithfully.”
—Saint Francis de Sales.*

7. But we must bear in mind the vast difference that exists between the
love of sin and sin committed inadvertently or from weakness. (See
_Confession_, § 14.) Affection for sin is the sole obstacle to
perfection. Thus the most learned Fathers of the Church make a
distinction between two kinds of tepidity: that which can be avoided and
that which cannot be avoided. The former condition is that of a soul that
retains an attachment for certain sins; the other, that of one falling
into sin through frailty and from being taken unawares, which has been
the case even with the greatest saints.

8. Therefore in place of troubling yourself about these accidental falls,
inseparable from human nature, make them turn to your spiritual advantage
by causing them to increase your humility. It often happens, says Saint
Gregory the Great, that God allows great defects to remain in some souls
at the beginning of their spiritual life that by means of them they may
grow in self-knowledge and learn to place their entire confidence in Him.
Saint Augustine tells us that God in his infinite wisdom has been better
pleased to bring forth good out of evil than to hinder the evil itself.
Thus when you learn to draw fruits of humility from your faults, you
correspond to the sublime designs of God’s unspeakable providence.

9. Should you happen to fear that you are not walking in the true way of
perfection, consult your director and place implicit reliance upon the
answer he gives you. Who is the saint that has not had to suffer because
of a like doubt? But they were all reassured by the consideration of
God’s infinite goodness and by obedience to their spiritual father.

*Some persons, although conscious of a sincere desire to serve God,
nevertheless are disposed to feel alarmed about their spiritual
condition, at the remembrance of all they have heard and read in regard
to false consciences, self-illusion and the deceptive security of those
who are following a wrong path. There are two ways of forming a false
conscience: first, by choosing among our duties those for which we feel
most attraction and natural tendency, and then, in order to give
ourselves up to them more than is necessary, to persuade ourselves we can
neglect the others. Thus a person with a preference for exterior acts of
religion will spend all day praying or attending sermons and offices of
the Church and considers herself very devout, although she may have been
neglecting her temporal duties. Another, being differently disposed, will
apply herself exclusively to the duties of her state of life, sacrificing
to them without regret those of religion, quite convinced that one who is
faithful in all the domestic relations, and gives to every one his due,
cannot possibly be otherwise than pleasing to God. The second way of
making a false conscience consists in giving the preference in our esteem
and practice to those among the Christian virtues which find their
analogies in our natural dispositions, for there is not one of the
virtues that has not its correlative amongst the various qualities of the
human character. Persons of a gentle and placid disposition will affect
meekness, the practice of which will be very easy for them and require no
effort; and imagining they exercise a christian virtue when in reality
they only follow a natural bent, they are liable to fall into a culpable
weakness. Those who, on the contrary, have an exact and rigid mind will
esteem justice and order above all else, making small account of meekness
and charity; and thus justifying themselves falsely by their natural
temperament, they follow the tendency of the flesh whilst believing they
obey the spirit, and may easily become addicted to excessive severity.

It is evident, therefore, that the first rule to be observed in order to
avoid these dangerous illusions and to walk securely in the way of
perfection, is to apply ourselves in a special manner to the practice of
those duties for which we feel least innate attraction, and always to
mistrust our natural virtues however good they may appear. Then there is
one consideration that should serve to reassure all Christians who are in
earnest about their salvation; whilst they act in good faith and deal
frankly and sincerely with their confessor, it is impossible for them to
become the victim of a false conscience.

In the following passage Saint Francis de Sales recommends us to watch
carefully over our natural tendencies and to substitute for them as much
as possible the inspirations of grace, which he calls living according to
the spirit:

“To live according to the spirit, my beloved daughter, is to think, speak
and act according to the virtues that are of the spirit, and not
according to the senses and feelings which are of the flesh. These latter
we should make serve us, but we must hold them in subjection and not
allow them to control us; whereas with the spiritual virtues it is just
the reverse; we should serve them and bring everything else under
subjection to them.... See, my daughter, human nature wishes to have a
share in everything that goes on, and loves itself so dearly that it
considers nothing of any account unless it be mixed up in it. The spirit,
on the contrary, attaches itself to God and often says that whatever is
not God’s is nothing to it; and as through a motive of charity it takes
part in things committed to it, so through humility and self-denial it
willingly gives up all share in those which are denied it.... I am
diffident and have no self-confidence, and therefore I wish to be allowed
to live in a way congenial to this disposition; any one can see that this
is not according to the spirit.... But, although I am naturally timorous
and retiring, I desire to try and overcome these traits of character and
to fulfil all the requirements of the charge imposed upon me by
obedience; who does not see that this is to live according to the spirit?

Hence, as I have said before, my dear daughter, to live according to the
spirit is to have our actions, our words and our thoughts such as the
spirit of God would require of us. When I say thoughts, I of course mean
voluntary thoughts. I am sad, says some one, consequently I shall not
speak; magpies and parrots do the same: I am sad, but as charity requires
me to speak, I shall do so; spiritual persons act thus: I am slighted and
I get angry: so do peacocks and monkeys. I am slighted and I rejoice
thereat: that is what the Apostles did.”

In fine, to live according to the spirit is to do in all circumstances
and on all occasions whatever faith, hope and charity demand of us,
without even waiting to consider if we are or are not influenced by our
natural disposition. (_The Imitation of Christ_, B. III., Ch. LIV.)*

10. Generally speaking it is only after a long and painful struggle that
one succeeds in climbing the mount of perfection. There are some statues,
says Saint Francis de Sales, that it has cost the artist thirty years’
labor to perfect. Now the perfecting of a soul is a much more difficult
work. We must therefore set about it with tranquillity, patience and
confidence in God. We shall always obtain what we wish soon enough if we
obtain it at the time God pleases to grant it.



                              PART THIRD.
                              SOCIAL LIFE.



                                 XVIII.
                                CHARITY.


  By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love
  one for another. (St. John, c. XIII., v. 35.)

  He who saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, he is in
  darkness even until now. (St. John, Ep. I., c. II., v. 9.)

1. Our divine Lord has said that His disciples should be known by their
love one for another. This christian virtue of charity makes us love our
neighbor in God, the creature for the sake of the Creator. Love of God,
love of our neighbor,—these virtues are two branches springing from the
same trunk and having but one and the same root.

2. Assist your brethren in their needs whenever you can. However, you
should always be careful to consult the laws of prudence in this matter
and to be guided by your means and position. Supply by a desire to do
good for the material aid you are unable to give.

3. When your neighbor offends you he does not cease on that account to be
the creature and the image of God; therefore the christian motive you
have for loving him still exists. He is not, perhaps, worthy of pardon,
but has not our Saviour Jesus Christ, who so often has forgiven you much
more grievous offences, merited it for him?

4. Observe, however, that we can scarcely avoid feeling some repugnance
for those who have offended us, but to feel and to consent are two
distinct and widely different things, as we have already said. When
religion commands us to love our enemies, the commandment is addressed to
the superior portion of the soul, the will, not to the inferior portion
in which reside the carnal affections that follow the natural
inclinations. In a word, when we speak of charity the question is not of
that human friendship which we feel for those who are naturally pleasing
to us, a sentiment wherein we seek merely our own satisfaction and which
therefore has nothing in common with charity.

*“Charity makes us love God above all things; and our neighbor as
ourselves with a love not sensual, not natural, not interested, but pure,
strong and unwavering, and having its foundation in God.... A person is
extremely sweet and agreeable and I love her tenderly: or, she loves me
well and does much to oblige me, and on that account I love her in
return. Who does not see that this affection is according to the senses
and the flesh? For animals that have no soul but only a body and senses,
love those who are good and gentle and kind to them. Then there is
another person who is brusque and uncivil, but apart from this is really
devout and even desirous of becoming gentler and more courteous:
consequently, not for any gratification she affords me, or for any
self-interested motive whatever, but solely for the good pleasure of God,
I talk to her, aid her, love her. This is the virtue of charity indeed,
for nature has no share in it.”—Saint Francis de Sales. (Read St. Luke,
C. VI., vv. 32-33-34.)

The literal and exact fulfilment of the evangelical precept is often
found impracticable. How, we say, is it possible to have for all men
indiscriminately that extreme sensibility we feel for everything that
touches us individually, that constant solicitude for our spiritual or
temporal interests, that delicacy of feeling that we reserve for
ourselves and for certain objects specially dear to us?—And yet it is
literally _au pied de la lettre_, that our Lord’s precept should be
observed. What then is to be done? An answer will be found in the
following passage from Fénelon, and we shall see that it is not a
question of exaggerating the love of one’s neighbor, but of moderating
self-love, and thus making both the one and the other alike subordinate
to the love of God:

“To love our neighbor as ourselves does not mean that we should have for
him that intense feeling of affection that we have for ourselves, but
simply that we wish for him, and from the motive of charity, what we wish
for ourselves. Pure and genuine love, love having for its sole end the
object beloved, should be reserved for God alone, and to bestow it
elsewhere is a violation of a divine right.”*

5. But although it is forbidden us to show hatred or to entertain it
voluntarily against the wicked and those who have offended us, this is
not meant to prevent us from defending ourselves or taking such
precautions against them as prudence suggests. Christian charity obliges
and disposes us to love our enemies and to be good to them when there is
occasion to do so; but it should not carry us so far as to protect the
wicked, nor leave us without defence against their aggressiveness. It
allows us to be vigilant in guarding against their encroachments, and to
take precautions against their machinations.

6. Always be ready and willing to excuse the faults of your neighbor, and
never put an unfavorable interpretation upon his actions. The same
action, says Saint Francis de Sales, may be looked upon under many
different aspects: a charitable person will ever suppose the best, an
uncharitable one will just as certainly choose the worst.

*“Do not weigh so carefully the sayings and doings of others, but let
your thought of them be simple and good, kindly and affectionate. You
should not exact of your neighbor greater perfection than of yourself,
nor be surprised at the diversity of imperfections; for an imperfection
is not more an imperfection from the fact that it is extravagant and
peculiar.”*

7. It is very difficult for a good christian to become really guilty of
rash judgment, in the true sense of the word,—which is that, without just
reasons or sufficient grounds he forms and pronounces in his own mind in
a positive manner a condemnation of his neighbor. The grave sin of rash
judgment is frequently confounded with suspicion or even simple distrust,
which may be justifiable on much slighter grounds.

8. Suspicion is permissible when it has for its aim measures of just
prudence; charity forbids gratuitously malevolent thoughts, but not
vigilance and precaution.

9. Suspicion is not only permissible, but it is at times an important
duty for those who are charged with the direction and guardianship of
others. Thus it is a positive obligation for a father in regard to his
children, and for a master in regard to his servants, whenever there is
occasion to correct some vice they know exists, or to prevent some fault
they have reasonable cause to fear.

10. As to simple mistrust, which should not be confused with suspicion,
it is only an involuntary and purely passive condition, to which we may
be more or less inclined by our natural disposition without our free-will
being at all involved. Mistrust, suspicion, rash judgment are then three
distinct and very different things, and we should be careful not to
confound them.



                                  XIX.
                                 ZEAL.


  But if you have bitter zeal, and there be contentions in your heart,
  glory not, and be not liars against the truth: for this is not wisdom
  descending from above, but earthly, sensual, diabolical. (St. James,
  Cath. Ep., c. III, vv. 14 and 15.)

  For the anger of man worketh not the justice of God. (St. James, Cath.
  Ep., c. I., v. 20.)

1. Zeal for the salvation of souls is a sublime virtue, and yet how many
errors and sins are every day committed in its name! Evil is never done
more effectually and with greater security, says Saint Francis de Sales,
than when one does it believing he is working for the glory of God.

2. The saints themselves can be mistaken in this delicate matter. We see
a proof of this in the incident related of the Apostles Saint James and
Saint John; for our Lord reprimanded them for asking Him to cause fire
from heaven to fall upon the Samaritans.[20]

3. Acts of zeal are like coins the stamp upon which it is necessary to
examine attentively, as there are more counterfeits than good ones. Zeal
to be pure should be accompanied with very great humility, for it is of
all virtues the one into which self-love most easily glides. When it does
so, zeal is apt to become imprudent, presumptuous, unjust, bitter. Let us
consider these characteristics in detail, viewing them, for the sake of
greater clearness, in their practical bearings.

4. In every home there grows some thorn, something, in other words, that
needs correction; for the best soil is seldom without its noxious weed.
Imprudent zeal, by seeking awkwardly to pluck out the thorn, often
succeeds only in plunging it farther in, thus rendering the wound deeper
and more painful. In such a case it is essential to act with reflection
and great prudence. There is a time to speak and a time to be silent,
says the Holy Spirit.[21] Prudent zeal is silent when it realizes that to
be so is less hurtful than to speak.

5. Some persons are even presumptuous enough in their mistaken zeal to
meddle in the domestic affairs of strange families, blaming, counselling,
attempting to reform without measure or discretion, thus causing an evil
much greater than the one they wish to correct. Let us employ the
activity of our zeal in our own reformation, says Saint Bernard, and pray
humbly for that of others. It is great presumption on our part thus to
assume the rôle of apostles when we are not as yet even good and faithful
disciples. Not that you should be by any means indifferent to the
salvation of souls: on the contrary you must wish it most ardently, but
do not undertake to effect it except with great prudence, humility and
diffidence in self.

6. Again, there are pious persons whose zeal consists in wishing to make
everybody adopt their particular practices of devotion. Such a one, if
she have a special attraction for meditating on the Passion of our divine
Lord or for visiting the Blessed Sacrament, would like to oblige every
one, under pain of reprobation, to pass long hours prostrate before the
crucifix or the tabernacle. Another who is especially devoted to visiting
the poor and the sick and to the other works of corporal mercy,
acknowledges no piety apart from these excellent practices. Now, this is
not an enlightened zeal. Martha and Mary were sisters, says Saint
Augustine, but they have not a like office: one acts, the other
contemplates. If both had passed the day in contemplation, no one would
have prepared a repast for their divine Master; if both had been employed
in this material work, there would have been no one to listen to His
words and garner up His divine lessons. The same thing may be said of
other good works. In choosing among them each person should follow the
inspirations of God’s grace, and these are very varied. The eye that sees
but hears not, must neither envy nor blame the ear that hears but sees
not. _Omnis spiritus laudet Dominum:_ let every spirit praise the Lord,
says the royal prophet.[22]

7. Bear well in mind that the zeal which would lead you to undertake
works not in conformity with your position, however good and useful they
may be in themselves, is always a false one. This is especially true if
such cause us interior trouble or annoyance; for the holiest things are
infallibly displeasing to God when they do not accord with the duties of
our state of life.

8. Saint Paul condemned in strong terms those Christians who showed a too
exclusive preference for their spiritual masters; some admitting as truth
only what came from the mouth of Peter, others acknowledging none save
Paul, and others again none but Apollo. What! said he to them, is not
Jesus Christ the same for all of you! Is it then Paul who was crucified
for you? Is it in his name you were baptized?[23] This culpable weakness
is often reproduced in our day. Persons otherwise pious carry to excess
the esteem and affection they have for their spiritual directors, exalt
without measure their wisdom and holiness, and do not scruple to
depreciate all others. God alone knows the true value of each human
being, and we have not the scales of the sanctuary to weigh and compare
the respective wisdom and sanctity of this and that person. If you have a
good confessor, thank God and try to render his wisdom useful to you by
your docility in allowing yourself to be guided; but do not assume that
nobody else has as good a one. To depreciate the merits of some in order
to exalt those of others at their expense is a sort of slander, that
ought to be all the more feared because it is generally so little
recognized.

9. “If your zeal is bitter,” says Saint James, “it is not wisdom
descending from on high, but earthly, sensual, diabolical.”[24] These
words of an Apostle should furnish matter of reflection for those persons
who, whilst making profession of piety, are so prone to irritability, so
harsh and rude in their manners and language, that they might be taken
for angels in church and for demons elsewhere.

10. The value and utility of zeal are in proportion to its tolerance and
amiability. True zeal is the offspring of charity: it should, then,
resemble its mother and show itself like to her in all things. “Charity,”
says Saint Paul, “is patient, is kind, is not ambitious and seeketh not
her own.”[25]

*“You should not only be devout and love devotion, but you ought to make
your piety useful, agreeable and charming to everybody. The sick will
like your spirituality if they are lovingly consoled by it; your family,
if they find that it makes you more thoughtful of their welfare, gentler
in every day affairs, more amiable in reproving, and so on; your husband,
if he sees that in proportion as your devotion increases you become more
cordial and tender in your affection for him; your relations and friends,
if they find you more forbearing, and more ready to comply with their
wishes, should these not be contrary to God’s will. Briefly, you must try
as far as possible to make your devotion attractive to others; that is
true zeal.”—Saint Francis de Sales.*

11. Never allow your zeal to make you over eager to correct others, says
the same Saint; and when you must do it remember that the most important
thing to consider is the choice of the moment. A caution deferred can be
given another time: one given inopportunely is not only fruitless, but
moreover paralyses beforehand all the good that might have subsequently
been done.

12. Be zealous, therefore, ardently zealous for the salvation of your
neighbor, and to further it make use of whatever means God has placed in
your power; but do not exceed these limits nor disquiet yourself about
the good you are unable to do, for God can accomplish it through others.
In conclusion, zeal, according to the teachings of the Fathers of the
Church, should always have truth for its foundation, indulgence for its
companion, mildness for its guide, prudence for its counsellor and
director.

*“I must look upon whatever presents itself each day to be done, in the
order of Divine Providence, as the work God wishes me to do, and apply
myself to it in a manner worthy of Him, that is with exactness and
tranquillity. I shall neglect nothing, be anxious about nothing; as it is
dangerous either to do God’s work negligently or to appropriate it to
one’s self through self-love and false zeal. When our actions are
prompted by our own inclinations, we do them badly, and are pretentious,
restless, and anxious to succeed. The glory of God is the pretext that
hides the illusion. Self-love disguised as zeal grieves and frets if it
cannot succeed. O my God! give me the grace to be faithful in action,
indifferent to success. My part is to will what Thou willest and to keep
myself recollected in Thee amidst all my occupations: Thine it is to give
to my feeble efforts such fruit as shall please Thee,—none if Thou so
wishest.”—Fénelon.*



                                  XX.
                               MEEKNESS.


  Blessed are the meek for they shall possess the land. (S. Matth., c.
  V., v. 4.)

  Learn of me because I am meek. (St. Matthew, c. XI., v. 29.)

1. Our Lord offers us in His Divine Person a model of all the virtues.
Meekness, however, is the one that He seems to have wished more
particularly to propose for our imitation since He said: “Learn of Me for
I am meek and humble of heart.”

2. Try, therefore, to acquire and always preserve in your soul this
christian virtue and to make all your exterior actions correspond with
it. I do not say that you should never have the slightest feeling of
irritation, as that would be to expect an impossibility; but you should
be attentive to repress these movements and never yield to them
voluntarily. It is natural for man to be often assailed by anger, says
Saint Jerome, but it is peculiar to the Christian not to allow himself to
be overcome by it.

3. A Christian, says Saint Bernard, who has no one at hand who gives him
occasion to suffer, should seek such a person eagerly and buy him at any
price, that he may have opportunity to practice meekness and patience. If
you are not disposed to go to this expense, at least profit of whatever
opportunities divine Providence has given you gratuitously, that you may
accustom yourself to the exercise of these two inestimable virtues.

4. An excellent rule to follow is to make a compact with your tongue such
as Saint Francis de Sales did with his, namely, that the tongue remain
silent whenever the feelings are irritated. Otherwise you will begin to
speak with the sincere resolution to keep within the bounds of moderation
and prudence, but you will never succeed in so doing, because the bridle
once loosened you will invariably be carried farther than you wished.
Reprimand from an angry man can do no good. Reproof is a moral remedy:
how would it be possible for you to select and administer this remedy
with discernment and prudence, when you yourself are ill and stand in
need of both medicine and physician? Wait therefore until your soul is at
peace, and when you have been restored to calmness you can speak
advantageously. Even when it is your positive duty to administer a
rebuke, defer it if possible until free from excitement, remembering that
to have a salutary effect both he who gives it and he who receives it
must be calm. Without this precaution the remedy will only aggravate the
disease.

5. When obliged to reprove the fault of another, never fail to pray that
God will speak to the person’s heart whilst your words are sounding in
his ears.

6. Observe, however, with Saint Gregory the Great and Saint Thomas, that
if those it is your duty to correct abuse your mildness and
considerateness, you are then justified in repressing their boldness with
vigor and firmness. “Speak to the fool,” says the Holy Spirit, “the
language that his folly renders necessary, that he may not continue wise
in his own eyes.”[26] I repeat it: reproof is a remedy, and a remedy must
be chosen and proportioned according to the nature and gravity of the
evil.



                                  XXI.
                             CONVERSATION.


  Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a
  candlestick, that it may give light to all who are in a house.

  Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good works,
  and glorify your Father who is in heaven. (St. Matthew, c. V., vv.
  15-16.)

  Contend not in words, for it is to no profit, but to the subversion of
  the hearers. (St. Paul, II Tim., c. II., v. 14.)

1. Conversation should be marked by a gentle and devout pleasantness, and
your manner when engaged in it, ought to be equable, composed and
gracious. Mildness and cheerfulness make devotion and those who practice
it attractive to others. The holy abbot Saint Anthony, notwithstanding
the extraordinary austerities of his penitential life, always showed such
a smiling countenance that no one could look at him without pleasure.

2. We should be neither too talkative nor too silent,—it is as necessary
to avoid one extreme as the other. By speaking too much we expose
ourselves to a thousand dangers, so well known that they need not be
mentioned in detail: by not speaking enough we are apt to be a restraint
upon others, as it makes it seem as though we did not relish their
conversation, or wished to impress them with our superiority.

*“Take great care not to be too critical of conversations in which the
rules of devotion are not very exactly observed. In all such matters it
is necessary that charity should govern and enlighten us in order to make
us accede to the wishes of our neighbor in whatever is not in any way
contrary to the commandments of God.”—Saint Francis de Sales.*

3. Do not conclude from this that it is necessary to count your words, as
it were, so as to keep your conversation within the proper limits. This
would be as puerile a scruple as counting one’s steps when walking. A
holy spirit of liberty should dominate our conversations and serve to
instil into them a gentle and moderate gaiety.

4. If you hear some evil spoken of your neighbor do not immediately
become alarmed, as the matter may be true and quite public without your
having been aware of it. Should you be quite certain that there is
calumny or slander in the report, either because the evil told was false
or exaggerated or because it was not publicly known, then, according to
the place, the circumstances and your relations towards those present,
say with moderation what appears most fitting to justify or excuse your
neighbor. Or you may try to turn the conversation into other channels, or
simply be content to show your disapprobation by an expressive silence.
Remember, for the peace of your conscience, that one does not share in
the sin of slander unless he give some mark of approbation or
encouragement to the person who is guilty of it.

5. Do not imitate those who are scrupulous enough to imagine that charity
obliges them to undertake the defence of every evil mentioned in their
presence and to become the self-appointed advocates of whoever it may be
that has deserved censure. That which is really wrong cannot be
justified, and no one should attempt the fruitless task: and as to the
guilty, those who may do harm either through the scandal of their example
or the wickedness of their doctrines, it is right that they should be
shunned and openly denounced. “To cry out wolf, wolf,” says Saint Francis
de Sales, “is kindness to the sheep.”

6. The regard we owe our neighbor does not bind us to a politeness that
might be construed as an approval or encouragement of his vicious habits.
Hence if it happen that you hear an equivocal jest, a witticism slurring
at religion or morals, or anything else that really offends against
propriety, be careful not to give, through cowardice and in spite of your
conscience, any mark of approbation, were it only by one of those half
smiles that are often accorded unwillingly and afterwards regretted.
Flattery, even in the eyes of the world, is one of the most debasing of
falsehoods. Not even in the presence of the greatest earthly dignitaries,
will an honest, upright man sanction with his mouth that which he
condemns in his heart. He who sacrifices to vice the rights of truth not
only acts unlike a christian, but renders himself unworthy the name of
man.

7. In small social gatherings try to make yourself agreeable to everybody
present and to show to each some little mark of attention, if you can do
so without affectation. This may be done either by directly addressing
the person or by making a remark that you know will give him occasion to
speak of his own accord,—draw him out, as the saying is. It was by the
charm and urbanity of his conversation that Saint Francis de Sales
prepared the way for the conversion of numbers of heretics and sinners,
and by imitating him you will contribute towards making piety in the
world more attractive. In regard to priests you should always testify
your respect for the sacerdotal dignity quite independently of the
individual.

8. Disputes, sarcasm, bitter language, and intolerance for dissenting
opinions, are the scourges of conversation.

9. Although this adage comes to us from a pagan philosopher, we might
profitably bear it always in mind: “In conversation we should show
deference to our superiors, affability to our equals, and benevolence to
our inferiors.”

10. Generally speaking, it is wrong for those whom God does not call to
abandon the world, to seclude themselves entirely and to shun all society
suited to their position in life. God, who is the source of all virtue,
is likewise the author of human society. Let the wicked hide themselves
if they will, their absence is no loss to the world; but good people make
themselves useful merely by being seen. It is well, moreover, the world
should know that in order to practice the teachings of the Gospel it is
not necessary to bury one’s self in the desert; and that those who live
for the Creator can likewise live with the creatures whom He has made
according to His own image and likeness. Well, again, to show that a
devout life is neither sad nor austere, but simple, sweet and easy; that
far from being for those in the world an impediment to social relations,
it facilitates, perfects and sanctifies such; that the disciples of Jesus
Christ can, without becoming worldlings, live in the world; and that, in
fine, the Gospel is the sovereign code of perfection for persons in
society as well as for those who have renounced the world.

*Fénelon, who perhaps had even greater occasion than Saint Francis de
Sales to teach men of the world how to lead a Christian life in society,
wrote as follows to a person at court:

“You ought not to feel worried, it seems to me, in regard to those
diversions in which you cannot avoid taking part. I know there are those
who think it necessary that one should lament about everything, and
restrain himself continually by trying to excite disgust for the
amusements in which he must participate. As for me, I acknowledge that I
cannot reconcile myself to this severity. I prefer something more simple
and I believe that God, too, likes it better. When amusements are
innocent in themselves and we enter into them to conform to the customs
of the state of life in which Providence has placed us, then I believe
they are perfectly lawful. It is enough to keep within the bounds of
moderation and to remember God’s presence. A dry, reserved manner,
conduct not thoroughly ingenuous and obliging, only serve to give a false
idea of piety to men of the world who are already too much prejudiced
against it, believing that a spiritual life cannot be otherwise than
gloomy and morose.”*

11. If all confessors agreed in instilling these maxims, which are as
important as they are true, many persons who now keep themselves in
absolute seclusion and live in a sad and dreary solitude would remain in
society to the edification of their neighbor and the great advantage of
religion. The world would thus be disabused of its unjust prejudices
against a devout life and those who have embraced it.

12. Never remain idle except during the time you have allotted to rest or
recreation. Idleness begets lassitude, disposes to evil speaking and
gives occasion to the most dangerous temptations.



                                 XXII.
                                 DRESS.


  Women also in decent apparel, adorning themselves with modesty and
  sobriety. (St. Paul, I. Tim., c. II., v. 9.)

1. Clothing is worn for a threefold object: to observe the laws of
propriety, to protect our bodies from the inclemency of the weather, and,
finally, to adorn them, as Saint Paul says, with _modesty and sobriety_.
This third end is, as you see, not less legitimate than the other two,
provided you are careful to make it accord with them by confining it
within proper limits and not permitting it to be the only one to which
you attach any importance, so that neither health nor propriety be
sacrificed to personal appearance.

2. External ornamentation should correspond with each one’s condition in
life. A just proportion in this matter, says Saint Thomas, is an offshoot
of the virtues of uprightness and sincerity, for there is a sort of
untruthfulness in appearing in garments that are calculated to give a
wrong impression as to the position in which God has placed us in this
world.

3. Be equally careful, then, to avoid over-nicety and carelessness in
respect to matters of toilet. Excessive nicety sins against moderation
and christian simplicity; negligence, against the order that should
govern certain externals in human society. This order requires that each
one’s material life, and accordingly his attire which is a part of it, be
suitable to his rank and condition; that Esther be clad as a queen,
Judith as a woman of wealth and position, Agar as a bond-woman.

5. I shall not speak of immodest dress, for these instructions being
intended for pious persons or for those who are endeavoring to become
such, it would seem unnecessary. Nevertheless, as some false and
pernicious ideas on this subject prevail in the world and lead into error
souls desirous to do right, here are some fundamental principles that can
serve you as a rule and save you from similar mistakes.

5. A generally admitted custom can and even should be followed in all
indifferent matters; but no custom, however universal it may be, can ever
have the power to change the nature and essence of things or render
allowable that which is in itself indecent and immodest. Were it
otherwise, many sins could be justified by the sanction they receive in
fashionable society. Remember, therefore, that the sin of others can
never in the sight of God authorize yours, and that where it is the
fashion to sin it is likewise the fashion to go to hell. Hence it rests
with yourself whether you prefer to be saved with the few or to be damned
with the many.



                                 XXIII.
                             HUMAN RESPECT.


  I will pay my vows to the Lord before all his people.... Lo, I will not
  restrain my lips.... I have not concealed thy mercy and thy truth from
  a great council. (Psalms CXV. and XXXIX.)

  That which you hear in the ear, preach ye upon the housetops....
  Whosoever shall confess me before men, I will also confess him before
  my Father who is in heaven. (St. Matthew, c. X., vv. 27-32.)

1. Charity towards your neighbor, tolerance for his opinions, indulgence
for his defects, compassion for his errors, yes; but no cowardly and
guilty concessions to human respect. Never allow fear of the ridicule or
contempt of men to make you blush for your faith.

2. We are not even forbidden to call one human weakness to the assistance
of another that is contrary to it: men do not like to contradict
themselves, and they dread to be considered fickle. Well, then, in order
that no person may be ignorant of the fact that you are a christian, once
for all boldly confess your faith and your firm resolve to practise it,
and let it be known that in all your actions your sole desire is to seek
the glory of God and the good of your neighbor. Let this profession be
made upon occasion in a gentle and modest manner, but firmly and
positively; and you will find that subsequently it will be much easier
for you to continue what you have thus courageously begun. (Read Chapters
I. and II., IVth Part of the _Introduction to a Devout Life_.)



                                 XXIV.
                              RESOLUTIONS.


  Long-standing custom will make resistance, but by a better habit shall
  it be subdued. (_Imitation_, B. III., c. XII.)

  To him who shall overcome, I will grant to sit with me in my throne, as
  I also have overcome. (Apocalypse, c. III., v. 21.)

1. We should not undertake to perfect ourselves upon all points at once;
resolutions as to details ought to be made and carried out one by one,
directing them first against our predominant passion.

2. By a predominant passion we mean the source of that sin to which we
oftenest yield and from which spring the greater number of our faults.

3. In order to attack it successfully it is essential to make use of
strategy. It must be approached little by little, besieged with great
caution as if it were the stronghold of an enemy, and the outposts taken
one after another.

4. For example, if your ruling passion be anger, simply propose to
yourself in the beginning never to speak when you feel irritated. Renew
this resolution two or three times during the day and ask God’s pardon
for every time you have failed against it.

5. When the results of this first resolution shall have become a habit,
so that you no longer have any difficulty in keeping it, you can take a
step forward. Propose, for instance, to repress promptly every thought
capable of agitating you, or of arousing interior anger; afterwards you
can adopt the practice of meeting without annoyance persons who are
naturally repugnant to you; then of being able to treat with especial
kindness those of whom you have reason to complain. Finally, you will
learn to see in all things, even in those most painful to nature, the
will of God offering you opportunities to acquire merit; and in those who
cause you suffering, only the instruments of this same merciful
providence. You will then no longer think of repulsing or bewailing them,
but will bless and thank your divine Saviour for having chosen you to
bear with Him the burden of His cross, and for deigning to hold to your
lips the precious chalice of His passion.

6. Some saints recommend us to make an act of hope or love or to perform
some act of mortification when we discover that we have failed to keep
our resolutions. This practice is good, but if you adopt it do not
consider it of obligation nor bind yourself so strictly to it as to
suppose you have committed a sin when you neglect it.

7. It is by this progressive method that you can at length succeed in
entirely overcoming your passions, and will be able to acquire the
virtues you lack. Always begin with what is easiest. Choose at first
external acts over which the will has greater control, and in time you
can advance from these, little by little, to the most interior and
difficult details of the spiritual life.

8. Resolutions of too general a character, such as, for example, to be
always moderate in speech, always patient, chaste, peaceable and the
like, ordinarily do not amount to much and sometimes to nothing at all.

9. To undertake little at a time, and to pursue this little with
perseverance until one has by degrees brought it to perfection, is a
common rule of human prudence. The saints particularly recommend us to
apply it to the subject of our resolutions.



                                  XXV.
                              CONCLUSION.


  But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and which have
  been committed to thee; knowing of whom thou hast learned them. (St.
  Paul, II Tim., c. III., v. 14.)

1. The writer of these instructions makes no pretension to have derived
them from his own wisdom. The material was furnished him by the greatest
saints and the most eminent doctors of the Church. You can therefore
believe in them with great confidence, follow them without fear and adopt
them as a safe and reliable guide in your spiritual life.

2. If you try to regulate your practice by making personal and
indiscriminate application of everything you find in sermons and books
you will never be at rest. _One draws you to the right, the other to the
left_, says Saint Francis de Sales: doctrine is one, but its applications
are many, and they vary according to time, place and person. Besides,
those who speak to a hardened multitude, from whom they cannot get even a
little without exacting a great deal, insist vehemently upon the subject
with which they wish to impress their hearers and for the time being
appear to forget everything else. If they preach on mortification of the
senses, fasting, or any other penitential work, they fail to explain the
proper manner of practising it, the limits that should not usually be
exceeded and the circumstances under which we can and should refrain from
it. This is due to the fact that the cowardly and the lukewarm, whom it
is more necessary to excite than to restrain, will take from these
instructions only just what is suitable for them. Now as these form the
majority, it is for them above all that it is necessary to speak.

3. It would then be better for you individually, without lessening your
respect and esteem for books of devotion and for preachers animated by
the spirit of God, to confine yourself as far as practice is concerned to
the advice of your director and to the teachings of the saints as
presented in this little volume.

4. Recall what has been already said, that Saint Francis de Sales
counsels you to select your spiritual guide from among ten thousand, and
to allow yourself subsequently to be entirely directed by him as though
he were an angel come down from heaven to conduct you there.

5. Without this rule of firm and confident obedience, books and sermons
and all that is said and written for the multitude, will become for you a
source of fatiguing inquietude, and of doubts and fears, owing to the
fact that you will try to assimilate things which were not intended for
you.

6. Remember, moreover, the pleasant saying of Saint Philip de
Neri,—namely, that he had a special predilection for those books the
authors of which had a name beginning with the letter S.; that is to say,
the works of the saints, because he supposed them to be more illumined by
heavenly wisdom.

Now, in observing these instructions you will have for guide and director
not the poor sinner who has compiled them for the glory of God and the
good of souls, but Saint Augustine, Saint Thomas, Saint Philip de Neri
and especially Saint Francis de Sales, in whom the Church recognizes and
admires such exalted sanctity, profound wisdom, and rare experience in
the direction of souls. These are the three eminent qualities requisite
to constitute a great doctor in the Catholic Church, and to form the
safest and the most enlightened guide for those who wish to be his
disciples.



                               ADDITIONS.
               FINAL ADVICE IN REGARD TO HOLY COMMUNION.


A cause of frequent error and trouble, particularly in regard to Holy
Communion, is that feelings are confused with acts of the will. The
faculty of willing is the only one we possess as our own, the only one we
can use freely and at all times. Hence it follows that it is by the will
alone that we can in reality acquire merit or commit sin. The natural
virtues are gratuitous gifts of God. The world is right in esteeming them
for they come from Him, but it errs when it esteems them exclusively for
they do not of themselves give us any title to heaven. God has placed
them at the disposal of our will as means to an end, and we can make a
good or bad use of them just as we can of all God’s other gifts. We may
be deprived of these natural virtues and live by the will alone,
spiritually dry and devoid of sentiment, and yet in a state of intimate
union with God.

This explanation is intended to reassure such persons as are disposed to
feel anxious when they find nothing in their hearts to correspond with
the effusions of sensible love with which books of devotion abound in the
preparation for Holy Communion. These usually make the mistake of taking
for granted the invariable existence of sentiment, and of addressing it
exclusively. How many souls do we not see who in consequence grow alarmed
about their condition, believing they are devoid of grace notwithstanding
their firm will to shun sin and to please God! They should, however, not
give way to anxiety, nor exhaust themselves by vain efforts to excite in
their hearts a sensibility that God has not given them. When He has
granted us this gift we owe Him homage for it as for all others; but God
only requires that each of His creatures should render an account of what
he has received, and free-will is the one thing that has been accorded
indiscriminately to all men. Thus we find Saint Francis de Sales, who
possessed in such a high degree sensible love of God and all the natural
virtues, making this positive declaration: “The greatest proof we can
have in this life that we are in the grace of God, is not sensible love
of Him, but the firm resolution never to consent to any sin great or
small.”

Pious persons can make use of the following prayers with profit when they
are habitually or accidentally in the condition described above. They
will then see how the will alone, without the aid of feeling, can produce
acts of all the christian virtues.


                           Act of Confidence.

  I will go unto the altar of God. (Ps. XLII.)

It is obedience, O my God! that leads me to Thy Holy Table: the tender
words by which Thou hast invited us would not have sufficed to draw me,
for in the troubled state of my soul I cannot be sure they are addressed
to me. Misery and infirmity are claims for admission to Thy Feast, but
nothing can dispense from the nuptial garment. Therefore when I turn my
eyes on myself, after having raised them to Thee, I doubt, I hesitate, I
tremble; for if I go from Thee I flee from life, and if I approach
unworthily, to my other sins I add the crime of sacrilege.[27] But Thy
merciful wisdom, O my God, whilst foreseeing our every need, has foreseen
all our weaknesses and has prepared helps for us against both presumption
and distrust. For if Thou hast not willed that, certain of Thy grace, we
should ever advance with the assurance of the Pharisee and say like him:
I come to the altar of the Lord because I know I am just in His eyes:
neither hast Thou permitted that a sacrament of love should become for us
a torture and an unavoidable snare. I therefore obey, O my God, and in
the darkness that envelops me I wish to follow implicitly the guidance of
him whom Thou hast appointed to lead me to Thee. I shall approach the
Holy Table without wishing for any other warrant than the words spoken by
my confessor, or rather by Thee: _You may receive Holy Communion_. I
accept, O my God!—be it a well merited punishment or a salutary
trial,—this privation of light and sensible devotion, this coldness and
distraction, which accompany me even into Thy presence when all the
faculties of my soul should be absorbed and confounded in sentiments of
adoration and of love. Faith, hope and charity seem to be extinct in my
heart, but I know that Thou never withdrawest these virtues when we do
not voluntarily renounce them.


                             Act of Faith.

Notwithstanding, then, the doubts that cross my mind, _I wish to
believe_, O my God! and _I do believe_ all that Thy holy Church has
taught me. I have not forgotten that brilliant light of Faith which Thou
didst cause to illumine my soul in the days of mercy in order that the
precious remembrance of it should serve me as support in the days of
trial and temptation.


                              Act of Hope.

In spite of these vague fears that seem to extinguish hope within my
soul, I know that although Thou art the mighty and strong God before whom
the cherubim veil themselves with their wings, the just and all-seeing
God who discovers blemishes in the purest souls, still Thou wishest to be
in the most Holy Sacrament only the Victim whose Blood effaces the sins
of the world; the Good Shepherd who hastens after the strayed sheep and
carries it tenderly and unreproachfully back to the fold; the divine
Mediator who comes _not to judge but to save_.[28] All this I know, O my
God! and therefore _I hope_.


                              Act of Love.

Notwithstanding the coldness and insensibility that benumb my soul, I
know that _I love Thee_, O my God! since my will prefers Thy service to
all the joys of this world, since Thy grace is the sole good to which I
aspire, and because I suffer so much by reason of my lack of sensible
love for Thee.


                             Act of Desire.

No, I am not indifferent, Thou knowest, O my God! that I am not
indifferent to this Most Holy Sacrament which I approach unmoved by any
sensible feeling: for Thou seest that although I find in Holy Communion
neither relish nor consolation, I would yet make any sacrifice in order
to receive it.


                           Act of Contrition.

I feel neither hatred nor horror of sins to which the world does not
attach shame and contempt; I experience no sensible sorrow for the sins I
have committed, but I know, O my God! that, with the assistance of Thy
grace, my will denounces them, for I am resolved to commit them no more.
I have taken this resolution because sin displeases Thee and because all
that swerves from eternal order is abhorrent to Thy infinite sanctity. _I
believe, then, that I am contrite_, O my God! because I believe in Thy
promises, and if Thou dost not always grant us the consolation of
realizing our contrition, Thou wilt never refuse its justifying virtue to
those who humbly implore it; and this I do.

No, my God, I shall not pray Thee to grant me sensible enjoyment, not
even that of Thy spiritual gifts: what I implore of Thy grace is to keep
my will ever turned towards Thee and never to permit it to fall or wander
anew on the earth.

_Lord! into Thy hands I commend my spirit._

(Read _The Imitation_, Chapters IV., XIV., XV. of B. IV.; and Chapters
XXV., XLVIII and LII of B. III.)


If you have an ardent desire for the sensible love of God, a desire that
cannot but be pleasing to Him provided you are at the same time resigned
to be deprived of it, remember that according to Saint John Chrysostom it
can be obtained only by fidelity to prayer. God wishes, says the Saint,
to make us realize by experience that we cannot have His love but from
Himself, and that this love, which is the true happiness of our souls, is
not to be acquired by the reflections of our minds or the natural efforts
of our hearts, but by the gratuitous infusion of the Holy Ghost. Yes,
this love is so great a good that God wishes to be the sole dispenser of
it: He bestows it only in proportion as we ask it of Him, and ordinarily
makes us wait for some time before He grants it.

There are few prayers better calculated to dispose the soul to receive
this great grace than the XVI. and XVII. chapters of the IVth. Book, and
XXI. and XXXIV. of the IIId. Book of _The Imitation_.

For thanksgiving after Communion, read Chapters XXXIV., V., XXI., II. and
X. of the III. Book of _The Imitation_.



                               Footnotes


[1]Saint Paul, I. Cor. x., 13, says: ... God is faithful, Who will not
   suffer you to be tempted above what you are able: but will even make
   with temptation an issue, that you may be able to bear it.

[2]The Chevalier du Chambon de Mésilliac, who translated this little work
   of P. Quadrupani’s into French, inserted much additional matter,
   quotations for the most part from the same authorities frequently
   cited by the Italian author. These selections he placed at the end of
   each _Instruction_ under the title of “Additions.” The English
   translator has changed this arrangement into one which seems more
   convenient and better calculated to maintain the connection of ideas.
   Therefore the extracts chosen by the French translator are here
   inserted in the body of the text, immediately following the paragraphs
   which suggested them, and are marked by asterisks to distinguish them
   from the original matter.

[3]St. Francis de Sales.

[4]Proverbs, XXX, 21-23: “By three things is the earth disturbed ... by a
   bondwoman, when she is heir to her mistress....”

[5]II. Cor., xii., 9.

[6]John, vi, 57.

[7]Matt. xi., 28.

[8]Saint Luke, c. V. vv. 8-10.

[9]Luke V., 32. Mark II., 17. Matthew IX., 13.

[10]Epist. St. Paul to the Hebrews.

[11]St. Paul to the Philippians, IV., 13.

[12]Matt. X., 30.

[13]Matt. X., 30:—Luke XII., 7.—“_Blessed are they that mourn, for they
   shall be comforted._”

[14]III Kings, C. XIX.

[15]Ecce in pace est amaritudo mea amarissima. (Isaias.)

[16]Saint Francis de Sales.

[17]See P. Rodriguez, S. J., Christian Perfection, C. I.

[18]Gen. I., 11.

[19]Psalm CL., 5. _Let every spirit praise the Lord_.

[20]Luke, IX., 54.

[21]Ecclesiastes III., 7.

[22]Ps. CL., 5.

[23]St. Paul, I Cor. I., 13.

[24]S. James, Cath. Ep. III., 14-15.

[25]S. Paul, I Cor. XIII., 4-5.

[26]Proverbs, XXVI., 5.

[27]_Imitation_, B. IV., c. VI.: “For if I do not appeal to Thee, I fly
   from life; and if I intrude myself unworthily I incur Thy
   displeasure.”

[28]S. John, c. XII., v. 47: “For I came not to judge the world, but to
   save the world.”



                           Translator’s Notes


--Corrected a few palpable typos.

--Added several missing quotation marks and asterisks where unpaired ones
  occurred.





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