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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 95, August 23, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A
list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the
end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 95. SATURDAY, AUGUST 23. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Pendulum Demonstration of the Earth's Rotation         129

      Minor Notes:--The Day of the Month--Foreign English--Birds'
      Care for the Dead--Snake's Antipathy to Fire--Aldgate,
      London--Erroneous Scripture Quotations                     130

      QUERIES:--

      The Lady Elizabeth Horner or Montgomery                    131

      Pope and Flatman, by W. Barton                             132

      Minor Queries:--Southampton Brasses--Borough-English
      --Passage in St. Bernard--Spenser's Faerie Queene--Broad
      Halfpenny Down--Roll Pedigree of Howard--Rev. John Paget,
      of Amsterdam--Visiting Cards--Duke de Berwick and Alva--The
      Earl of Derwentwater--"But very few have seen the
      Devil"--Aulus Gellius' Description of a Dimple--Forgotten
      Authors of the 17th Century                                132

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Sundays, on what Days of the
      Month?--John Lilburne                                      134

      REPLIES:--

      "Lay of the Last Minstrel"                                 134

      Meaning of "Prenzie," by Samuel Hickson                    135

      House of Yvery                                             136

      Queen Brunéhaut                                            136

      Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor                          137

      Cowper or Cooper                                           137

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Voce Populi Halfpenny--Dog's
      Head in the Pot--"O wearisome Condition of
      Humanity"--Bunyan and the "Visions of Heaven and
      Hell"--Pope's Translations of Imitations of Horace
      --Prophecies of Nostradamus--Thread the Needle--Salmon
      Fishery in the Thames--Entomological Query--School of the
      Heart--Fortune, Infortune, Fort une--Ackey Trade--Curious
      Omen at Marriage                                           138

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     142

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               143

      Notices to Correspondents                                  143

      Advertisements                                             144



Notes.


THE PENDULUM DEMONSTRATION OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION.

If the propounders of this theory had from the first explained that they
do not claim, for _the plane of oscillation_, an exemption from the
general rotation of the earth, but only the difference of rotation due
to the excess of velocity with which one extremity of the line of
oscillation may be affected more than the other, it would have saved a
world of fruitless conjecture and misunderstanding.

For myself I can say that it is only recently I have become satisfied
that this is the real extent of the claim; and I confess that had I been
aware of it sooner, I should have regarded the theory with greater
respect than I have hitherto been disposed to do. Perhaps this avowal
may render more acceptable the present note, in which I shall endeavour
to make plain to others that which so long remained obscure to myself.

It is well known that the more we advance from the poles of the earth
towards the equator, so much greater becomes the velocity with which the
surface of the earth revolves--just as any spot near the circumference
of a revolving wheel travels farther in a given time, and consequently
swifter, than a spot near the centre of the same wheel: hence, London
being nearer to the equator than Edinburgh, the former must rotate with
greater velocity than the latter. Now if we imagine a pendulum suspended
from such an altitude, and in such a position, that one extremity of its
line of oscillation shall be supposed to reach to London and the other
to Edinburgh; and if we imagine the ball of such pendulum to be drawn
towards, and retained over London, it is clear that, so long as it
remains in that situation, it will share the velocity of London, and
rotate with it. But if it be set at liberty it will immediately begin to
oscillate between London and Edinburgh, retaining, _it is asserted_, the
velocity of the former place. Therefore during its first excursion
towards Edinburgh, it will be impressed with a velocity greater than
that of the several points of the earth over which it has to traverse;
so that when it arrives at Edinburgh it will be in advance of the
rotation of that place; and consequently its actual line of oscillation,
instead of falling directly upon Edinburgh, will diverge, and fall
somewhere to the east of it.

Now it is clear that if the pendulum ball be supposed to retain the same
velocity of rotation, _undiminished_, which was originally impressed
upon it at London, it must, in its return from Edinburgh, retrace the
effects just described, and again return to coincidence with London,
having all the time retained a velocity equal to that of London. If this
were truly the case, the deviation in one direction would be restored
in the opposite one, so that the only result would be a repetition of
the same effects in every succeeding oscillation.

It is this absence of an element of increase in the deviation that
constitutes the first objection to this theory as a sufficient
explanation of the pendulum phenomenon. It is answered (as I suppose,
for I have nowhere seen it so stated in direct terms) that the velocity
of rotation, acquired and retained by the pendulum ball, is _not_ that
of London, but of a point midway between the two extremes--in fact, of
that point of the earth's surface immediately beneath the centre of
suspension.

There is no doubt that, if this can be established, the line of
oscillation would diverge in both directions--the point of return, or of
restored coincidence, which before was in one of the extremes, would
then be in the central point; consequently it would be of no effect in
correcting the deviation, which would then go on increasing with every
oscillation.

Therefore, in order to obtain credence for the theory, satisfactory
explanation must be given of this first difficulty by not only showing
that the medium velocity _is really that_ into which the extreme
velocity first impressed upon the ball will ultimately be resolved; but
it must also be explained _when_ that effect will take place, whether
all at once or gradually; because, it must be recollected, the
oscillations of the experimental pendulum cannot practically commence
from the central point, but always from one of the extremes, to which
the ball must first be elevated.

But this is not enough: there must also be shown reasonable ground to
induce the belief that the ball is _really free_ from the attraction of
each successive point of the earth's surface over which it passes; and
that, although in motion, it is _not_ as really and as effectually a
partaker in the rotation of any given point, during its momentary
passage over it, as though it were fixed and stationary at that point.
Those who maintain that this is not the case are bound to state the
_duration of residence_ which any substance must make at any point upon
the earth's surface, in order to oblige it to conform to the exact
amount of velocity with which that point revolves.

Lastly, supposing theses difficulties capable of removal, there yet
remains a third, which consists in the undeniable absence of _difference
of velocity_ when the direction of oscillation is east and west. It has
been shown that the difference before claimed was due to the nearer
approach to the equator of one of the extremities of the line of
oscillation in consequence of its direction being north and south; but
when its direction is east and west both extremities are equally distant
from the equator, and therefore no difference of velocity can exist.

I have directed these observations to the fundamental truth and reality
of the alleged phenomenon; it is quite clear that these must first be
settled before the laws of its distribution on the surface of the globe
can become of any interest.

    A. E. B.

  Leeds, August 5. 1851.


Minor Notes.

_The Day of the Month._--Many persons might help themselves, as some do,
by remembering throughout the year on what day the 1st of January fell,
and by permanently remembering the first day of each month, which agrees
with the first day of the year. Thus, this present year began on
Wednesday, and the 6th of August is therefore Wednesday, as are the
13th, 20th, 27th. By the following lines the key to the months may be
kept in mind:--

      The first day of October, you'll find if you try,
      The second of April, as well as July,
      The third of September, which rhymes to December,
      The fourth day of June, and no other, remember,
      The fifth of the leap-month, of March, and November,
      The sixth day of August, and seventh of May,
      Show the _first_ of the year in the name of the day;
      But in leap-year, when leap-month has duly been reckoned,
      These month-dates will show, not the _first_, but the _second_.

    M.

_Foreign English._--The specimens given in "NOTES AND QUERIES" have
reminded me of one which seems worthy to accompany them; in fact, to
have rather a peculiar claim.

I believe the facts of the case to have been these. When it was known
that Louis XVIII. was to be restored to the throne of France, a report
was circulated (whether on any good authority I do not know) that the
then Duke of Clarence would take the command of the vessel which was to
convey the returning monarch to Calais. At all events the people of
Calais expected it; and inferring that the English royal duke would pass
at least one night in their town, and of course go to the play, they
deemed that it would be proper to perform the English national anthem at
their theatre. It was obvious, however, that "God save the _King_" was
so very appropriate to their own circumstances, that, notwithstanding
its Anglicism, it left less of compliment and congratulation for the
illustrious foreigner than they really intended to offer. So that happy
people, who can do everything in no time, forthwith prepared an
additional verse. This being quite new, and of course unknown, they
printed on the playbill, from which I learned it. If you give his lines
a place in your pages, I will not say that the French poet's labour was
thrown away; but for the time it was so, as the English duke did not
accompany the French king. I believe that the additional verse was as
follows:--

      "God save noble Clarénce
      Who brings our king to France,
                God save Clarénce;
      He maintains the glorý
      Of the British navý,
      Oh! God, make him happý,
                God save Clarénce."

I am sorry that I can only speak from memory of the contents of a
document which I have not seen for so many years; but if I may have made
any mistake, perhaps some reader may be able to correct me.

    S. R. M.

_Birds' Care for the Dead._--It is not uncommon to find in poets of all
ages some allusion to the pious care of particular birds for the bodies
of the dead. Is there any truth in the idea? for certainly the old
ballad of "The Children in the Wood" has made many a kind friend for the
Robin Redbreast by the affecting lines:

      "No burial this pretty pair
        Of any man receives,
      Till Robin Redbreast piously
        Did cover them with leaves."

Herrick also alludes to the same tradition in his verses "upon Mrs.
Elizabeth Wheeler, under the name of Amarillis." (_Works_, vol i. pp.
62-3.: Edin. 1823)

        "Sweet Amarillis, by a spring's
        Soft and soule-melting murmurings,
        Slept; and thus sleeping, thither flew,
        A Robin Redbreast; who at view,
        Not seeing her at all to stir,
        Brought leaves and moss to cover her;
        But while he, perking, there did prie
        About the arch of either eye,
        The lid began to let out day,
        At which poor Robin flew away;
      And seeing her not dead, but all disleav'd,
      He chirpt for joy, to see himself disceav'd."

In the earlier editions of Gray's _Elegy_, before the Epitaph, the
following exquisite lines were inserted:

      "There scatter'd oft, the earliest of the year,
      By hands unseen, are showers of violets found:
      The Redbreast loves to build and warble there,
      And little footsteps lightly print the ground."

And about the same time Collin's "Dirge in Cymbeline" had adorned the
"fair Fidele's grassy tomb" with the same honour:

      "The Redbreast oft, at evening hours,
      Shall kindly lend his little aid,
      With hoary moss, and gather'd flowers,
      To deck the ground where thou art laid."

    RT.

  Warmington, Aug. 9. 1851.

_Snake's Antipathy to Fire._--There is in Brazil a very common poisonous
snake, the Surucucu (_Trigonocephalus rhombeatus_), respecting which the
Matutos and Sertanejos, the inhabitants of the interior, relate the
following facts. They say that such is the antipathy of this reptile to
fire, that when fires are made in the clearing away of woods, they rush
into it, scattering it with their tails till it is extinguished, even
becoming half roasted in the attempt; and that when an individual is
passing at night with a torch, they pass and repass him, lashing him
with their tales till he drop it, and the snake is immediately found
closely coiled round the extinguished torch. The greatest enemy of this
snake is an immense Lacertian, five and six feet long, the Tiju-açu (the
great lizard--its name in the Lingoa geral): it is said that when the
snake succeeds in effecting a bite, the lizard rushes into the wood,
eats some herb, and returns to the conflict, which almost invariable
terminates in its favour.

    JOHN MANLEY.

  Pernambucco, June 30. 1851.

_Aldgate, London._ (A Note for London Antiquaries)--After this gate was
taken down in 1760, Sir Walter Blackett, of Wallington, Northumberland,
obtained some of the ornamental stone (part of the City arms, heads and
wings of dragons, apparently cut in Portland stone, and probably set up
when the gate was rebuilt in 1606), and used them in decorating Rothley
Castle, an eye-trap which he erected on the crags of that name, near
Wallington.

    W. C. TREVELYAN.

  Wallington Aug. 11. 1851.

_Erroneous Scripture Quotations._--Some of your correspondents have done
good service by drawing attention to these things. Has it ever occurred
to you that the _apple_ is a fruit never connected in Scripture with the
fall of man;--that Eve was not Adam's helpmate, but merely a help _meet_
for him;--and that Absalom's long hair, of which he was so proud, and
which as consequently so often served "to point a moral and adorn a
tale," had nothing to do with his death, his head itself, and not the
hair upon it, having been caught in the boughs of the tree?

    P. P.



Queries.


THE LADY ELIZABETH HORNER OR MONTGOMERY.

In some curious manuscript memoirs of the family of Horner of Mells, co.
Somerset, written probably about the middle of the last century, I find
the following statement:--

  "The gentleman at Mells last mentioned, whose name I don't know,
  had his _eldest son George_, who succeeded him at Mells. He
  married the Countess of Montgomery, supposed to be the widow of
  that earl, who, in tilting with Henry II., King of France caused
  his death by a splinter of his spear running into the king's eye.
  But most probably she was the widow of that lord's son, which I
  conjecture from the distance of the time of that king's death to
  her death, which must needs be near seventy years, as she lived at
  Cloford to the year 1628. She must certainly be a considerable
  heiress, as several estates came with her into the family, and,
  among others, Postlebury-woods in particular, and, possibly, also
  the Puddimore estate; as her son, Sir John Horner, was the first
  of the family that presented a clerk to that living in 1639, viz.,
  William Kemp, who was afterwards one of the suffering clergy. Her
  jointure was a 500_l._ a-year, which was very considerable at that
  time."

Can any of your readers assist in elucidating this story, of which no
existing family records afford any corroboration, and which the
parochial registers of the neighbourhood appear rather to invalidate in
some of its statements? As far as we can gather from such sources, the
gentleman alluded to in the extract was not _George_ but _Thomas_
Horner, born 1547, M.P. for Somersetshire 1585, and sheriff 1607, who
was buried 1612. He married three times: _first_, Elizabeth Pollard, who
died, as well as her only son John in 1573; _secondly_, Jane Popham, who
died 1591, having had, amongst other issues, _Sir John_, born about
1580; and _thirdly_, as it would seem, a person called "The Lady
Elizabeth," who had issue _Edward_, born 1597, and who was buried at
_Cloford_, in 1599. Even allowing for the errors attendant upon a
tradition, it is scarcely _possible_ that this "Lady Elizabeth" should
have been widow of Count Gabriel de Montgomery,--_Elizabeth de la
Zouch_,--who married her first husband in 1549, and was left a widow in
1574. She _might_ have been widow of one of his sons; though the only
two mentioned in the _Biographie Universelle_, Gabriel and Jacques, left
issue, to whom their wives' property would have probably descended.

The whole matter, as far as I have been able to examine it, is a very
obscure one, and yet can hardly, I should think, be without some
foundation in fact. The title-deeds of Postlebury and Puddimore perhaps
would throw light upon it.

    C. W. B.


POPE AND FLATMAN.

I possess a small volume entitled _Manchester al Mondo; Contemplations
of Death and Immortality_, by the Earl of Manchester: the 15th edit.,
1688. At the end are appended several short but quaint poems on the
subject of mortality. One of them is stated to be taken from the
"incomparable Poems by the ingenious Mr. Thomas Flatman," and is
entitled "A Thought of Death." I have transcribed it side by side with
Pope's celebrated ode, "The Dying Christian to his Soul," in which some
lines run remarkably parallel. Is it probable Pope borrowed his idea of
the fine couplet,

      "Hark! they whisper; angels say,
      Sister Spirit, come away!"

from Flatman? If not, the coincidence is remarkable: has it been noticed
before? Perhaps some of your readers may be better able to enter into
the subject than he who communicates this.

    WILLIAM BARTON.

  19. Winchester Place, Southwark Bridge Road.

      "THE DYING CHRISTIAN TO HIS SOUL.

      "Vital spark of heavenly flame,
      Quit, oh, quit this mortal frame!
      [*]_Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying;
      Oh the pain the bliss of dying!_
      Cease, fond Nature, cease thy strife,
      And let me languish into life!

      "[+]_Hark! they whisper; angels say,
      Sister Spirit, come away!_
      What is this absorbs me quite,
      Steals my senses, shuts my sight,
      Drowns my spirits, draws my breath?
      Tell me, my soul, can this be death?

      "The world recedes; it disappears!
      Heaven opens on my eyes; my ears
        With sounds seraphic ring!
      Lend, lend your wings! I mount! I fly!
      O Grave! where is thy victory?
        O Death! where is thy sting?"

      [ALEXANDER POPE.]

          "A THOUGHT OF DEATH.

          "When on my sick Bed I languish,
          Full of sorrow, fully of anguish,
          [*]_Fainting, gasping, trembling, crying,
          Panting, groaning, speechless, dying_,
      My Soul just now about to take her flight
      Into the Regions of eternal night;
              O tell me, you
              That have been long below,
              What shall I do?
      What shall I think when cruel death appears,
            That may extenuate my fears?
      [+]_Methinks I hear some Gentle Spirit say
            Be not fearful, come away!_
      Think with thyself that now thou shalt be free,
      And find thy long-expected liberty,
      Better thou mayest, but worse thou canst not be,
      Than in this vale of Tears and Misery.
      Like Cæsar, with assurance then come on,
      And unamaz'd attempt the Laurel crown
      That lyes on th' other side Death's Rubicon."

      [THOMAS FLATMAN.]


Minor Queries.

80. _Southampton Brasses._--French Church, otherwise God's House,
Southampton. About eight or nine years ago, two monumental brasses were
discovered, in making some alterations in this church. I should feel
greatly obliged to any correspondent who could give me a description of
them, and inform me if they are still to be found there.

    W. W. KING.

81. _Borough-English._--Which are the towns or districts in England in
which _Borough-English_ prevails or has prevailed; and are there any
instances on record of its being carried into effect in modern times?

    W. FRASER.

82. _Passage in St. Bernard._--Wordsworth's _Ecclesiastical Sonnets_,
Part II. 1.:

      "CISTERTIAN MONASTERY.

      "Here man more purely lives, less oft doth fall,
      More promptly rises, walks with nicer heed,
      More safely rests, dies happier, is freed
      Earlier from cleansing fires, and gains withal
      A brighter crown."

  _Note._--"Bonum est nos hic esse, quia homo vivit purius, cadit
  rarius, surgit velocius, incedit cautius, quiescit securius,
  moritur felicius, purgatur citius, præmiatur
  copiosius."--_Bernard._

"This sentence," says Dr. Whitaker, "is usually inscribed in some
conspicuous part of the Cistertian houses." I cannot find in St.
Bernard's works the passage to which Wordsworth's sonnet alludes, though
I often see it referred to: e. g. Whitehead's _College Life_, p. 44.,
1845; and Mrs. Jameson's _Legends of the Monastic Orders_, Preface. Can
any of your correspondents direct me to it?

    RT.

83. _Spenser's Faerie Queene_ (b. ii. c. ix. st. 22.).--

      "The frame thereof seemed partly circulare,
      And part triangulare," &c.

Warton (_Observations on the Fairy Queen_, vol. i. p. 121.) says that
the philosophy of this abstruse stanza describing the Castle of Alma is
explained in a learned epistle of Sir Kenelm Digby addressed to Sir
Edward Stradling. In a foot-note he states that this epistle was--

  "First printed in a single pamphlet, viz., _Observations on XXII
  Stanza, &c._, Lond. 1644, 8vo. It is also published in Scrinia
  Sacra, 4to. pag. 244. London, 1654."

Could any of your readers, acquainted with Sir Kenelm Digby's works,
give his explanation of this stanza? There is no note on it in the
one-volume edition of Spenser lately published by Moxon. The best
explanation of it that I have seen is in the _Athenæum_, August 12,
1848.

    E. M. B.

84. _Broad Halfpenny Down._--There is a beautiful chalk down in the
parish of Hambledon, Hants, which goes by the above name, pronounced, of
course, _ha'penny_, like the coin. Can any of your antiquarian readers
give me the origin of this name? I have no doubt that the present
appellation is a corruption of some British or Saxon word, having, when
spoken, a sound somewhat analogous to the modern word into which it has
been converted. The "Broad Down" had a name of its own, I doubt not,
before the existence of either a penny or halfpenny.

    EFFARESS.

85. _Roll Pedigree of Howard, of Great Howard, Co. Lancaster._--In 1826
an elaborate pedigree on vellum of the family of Howard, of Great
Howard, in Rochdale, deduced, authenticated, and subscribed by Sir
William Dugdale, about the year 1667, was in the possession of a
gentleman in Rochdale, lately deceased. He is supposed to have lent it
to some antiquarian friend, and its present _locale_ is unknown. As no
record of this singular document exists in the College of Arms, the
writer of this note would feel obliged by being permitted to have a copy
of the original for his Lancashire M.S. Collections.

    F. R. R.

86. _Rev. John Paget, of Amsterdam._--Of what family was John Paget,
pastor of the Reformed English church at Amsterdam for thirty years? He
died there 1639, and his works were published 1641, being edited by
Thomas Paget, who was, according to his own account, "called to the work
of ministry many years ago in Chester diocese," and R. Paget, who writes
a Preface "from Dort, 1641." Perhaps the editors of the "NAVORSCHER" may
be able to give some information on the subject.

    CRANMORE.

87. _Visiting Cards._--When did these social conveniencies first come
into use?

    OUTIS.

88. _Duke de Berwick and Alva._--A sword amongst the Spanish jewels in
the Great Exhibition is said to be ordered by "S. E. Jacques Stuart, Duc
de Berwick and Alva." Is this a descendant of James II.'s illegitimate
son, the Duke of Berwick? and if so, can any of your correspondents give
me any information as to his descent, &c.?

    L.

89. _The Earl of Derwentwater._--The first earl, Francis, had several
sons--Francis his successor, Edward died unmarried, _Thomas_ a military
officer, Arthur, &c. Can any of your readers inform me in which army
this Thomas was an officer, whom he married, and where he died? The
family name was Radcliffe.

    BROCTUNA.

  Bury, Lancashire.

90. _"But very few have seen the Devil."_--Can any of your readers
inform me where some lines are to be found which run somewhat thus?--I
cannot remember the intermediate lines:--

      ". . . .
      But very few have seen the Devil,
      Except old Noll, as Echard tells us:
      . . . .
      But then old Noll was one in ten,
      And sought him more than other men."

      W. FRASER.

      Hordley, near Ellesmere, Aug. 4. 1851.

91. _Aulus Gellius' Description of a Dimple._--The poet Gray, writing to
his friend Mr. West, asks him to guess where the following description
of a _dimple_ is found:

      "Sigilla in mento inpressa Amoris digitulo
      Vestigio demonstrant mollitudinem."

      _Lett._ viii. sect. iii. vol. i. p. 261. Mason's
      edition. London, 1807.

Mr. West replies in the following letter:

  "Your fragment is Aulus Gellius; and both it and your Greek
  delicious."

I have never met with it in Aulus Gellius, and should be glad to find
it.

    RT.

92. _Forgotten Authors of the Seventeenth Century._--Can any of your
correspondents point out any biographical particulars relative to the
following authors of the seventeenth century?

1. WILLIAM PARKES, Gentleman, and sometimes student in Barnard's Inne,
author of _The Curtaine-drawer of the World_, 1612.

2. PETER WOODHOUSE, author of _The Flea; sic parva componere magnis_,
1605.

3. ROWLAND WATKINS, a native of Herefordshire; author of _Flamma sine
Fumo, or Poems without Fictions_, 1662.

4. RICHARD WEST, author of _The Court of Conscience, or Dick Whipper's
Sessions_, 1607.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Sundays, on what Days of the Month?_--Is there any printed book which
tells on what days of the several months the _Sundays_ in each year
occurred, during the last three or four centuries?

If there be more such books than one, _which_ of them is the best and
most accessible?

    H. C.

  [The most accessible works are Sir Harris Nicolas' _Chronology of
  History_, and _Companion to the Almanack_ for 1830, pp. 32, 33.
  Consult also _L'Art de Vérifier les Dates_ and, above all,
  Professor De Morgan's _Book of Almanacks_.]

_John Lilburne._--A list of the pamphlets published by, or relating to,
John Lilburne, or any facts respecting his life or works, will be of
service to one who is collecting for a biography of "Free-born John."

    EDWARD PEACOCK, Jun.

  Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsey.

  [Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_ contains a list of Lilburne's
  pamphlets, which would occupy two pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES!" A
  collection of tracts relating to Lilburne, 1646, 4to., 2 vols.,
  will be found in the Towneley Catalogue, Part I. p. 636. Sold for
  1_l._ 13_s._ _Truth's Victory over Tyrants, being the Trial of
  John Lilburne_, London, 1649, 4to., contains a portrait of him
  standing at the bar. Butler, in _Hudibrus_, Part III., Canto ii.,
  has vividly drawn his character in the paragraph commencing at
  line 421.:--

      "To match this saint, there was another,
      As busy and perverse a brother,
      An haberdasher of small wares,
      In politics and state-affairs," &c.

  "This character," says Dr. Grey, "exactly suits John Lilburne and
  no other. For it was said of him, when living, by Judge Jenkins,
  'That if the world was emptied of all but himself, Lilburne would
  quarrel with John, and John with Lilburne;' which part of his
  character gave occasion for the following lines at his death:--

      "'Is John departed, and is Lilburne gone?
      Farewell to both, to Lilburne and to John.
      Yet, being dead, take this advice from me,
      Let them not both in one grave buried be:
      Lay John here, and Lilburne thereabout,
      For, if they both should meet, they would fall out.'

  "Lilburne died a Quaker, August 28, 1657. See _Mercurius
  Politicus_, No. 379. p. 1597.; Mr. Peek's _Desiderata Curiosa_,
  from Mr. Smith's _Obituary_, vol. ii. lib. xiv. p. 30. Also a
  character of Lilburne, in Thurloe's _State Papers_, vol. iii. p.
  512; and an account of his obstinacy, in his _Trial_, reprinted in
  the _State Trials_."]



Replies.


"LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL."

(Vol. iii., p. 464.)

I am obliged to M. for his notice of my paper upon this poem, and
gratified by his concurrence with my remarks.

Very likely M. may be right in his explanations of the "_incuria_"
imputed by me to the great author, and I may have made a _mistake_,
without pleading guilty to the same charge: but if M. will refer to the
4th and two following Sections of sixth canto of the _Lay_, he will find
it thus written:

      "Me lists not at this tide declare
      The splendour of _the spousal rite_," &c.

Again, Sec. V.:

      "Some bards have sung, the Ladye high
      Chapel or altar came not nigh;
      Nor dust the _rites of spousal grace_
      So much she feared each holy place," &c.

Again, Sec. VI.:

      "_The spousal rites_ were ended soon."

And again, in Sect. VIII. are these words:

      "To quit them, on the English side,
      Red Roland Forster loudly cried,
      'A deep carouse to yon fair _bride_!'"

Now, in the ordinary acceptation of these words the _spousal rite_ means
nuptials, and a _bride_ means a newly married wife; and as the ceremony
of the _spousal rite_ is described as taking place with much pomp in the
chapel, and at the altar, it looks very like a wedding indeed. But if,
after all, it were only a betrothal, I willingly withdraw the charge of
"_incuria_," and subscribe to the propriety of the "Minstrel's"
information, that the bridal actually "befel a short space;"

      "And how brave sons and daughters fair
      Blest Teviot's flower and Cranstoun's heir."

And now a word touching M.'s hint of giving a corner in the "NOTES AND
QUERIES" to the "Prophecy of Criticism." If he will forgive me the
remark, I do not think the phrase a very happy one. Criticism does not
_prophecy_, it _pronounces_, and is valuable only in proportion to the
judgment, taste, and knowledge displayed in its sentence. Above all, the
critic should be impartial, and by no means allow himself to be biassed
by either prejudice or prepossession, whether personal or political.
Still less should he sacrifice his subject in order to prove the
acuteness and point of his own weapon, which is too often dipped in gall
instead of honey. To what extent these qualifications are found in our
modern reviewers let each man answer according to his own experience:
but as critics are not infallible, and as authors generally see more,
feel more, and think more than the ordinary run of critics and readers
give them credit for, I doubt not that a place will always be open in
the "NOTES AND QUERIES," in answer to the _fallacies_ of criticism,
wherever they may be detected.

    A. BORDERER.


MEANING OF "PRENZIE."

(Vol. iv., pp. 63, 64.)

As your correspondent A. E. B. has endeavoured to strengthen the case in
favour of the word _precise_ being the proper reading of "prenzie," will
you allow me to suggest a few further points for consideration in
inquiring into the meaning of this word?

I am afraid your etymological readers are in danger of being misled by
the plausible theory that "prenzie" is not an error of the press or
copyist, but a true word. In reference to this view of the case, as
taken by your several correspondents, allow me to suggest, first: that
Shakspeare was no word-coiner; secondly, that, for application in a
passage of such gravity, he would not have been guilty of the
affectation of using a newly-imported Scotch word; and, thirdly, that,
as we may reasonably infer that he was essentially popular in the choice
of words, so he used such as were intelligible to his audience. A word
of force and weight sufficient to justify its use twice in the passage
in question, if merely popular, would surely not so entirely have gone
out of use; whereas if merely literary it would still be to be found in
books.

My greatest objection to the word _precise_ is its inharmoniousness in
the _position_ it holds in the verse; and this objection would not be
removed by adopting _Mr. Singer's_ suggestion of accentuating the first
syllable, which must then be short, and the word pronounced _pressis_?
How horrible! Besides, if that were the case, as Shakspeare does not
vary in his accent, the corroboratory passage on which the advocates of
_precise_ depend would read, then, thus:

                            "Lord Angelo is _pressis_,
      Stands at a guard with envy, scarce _confesses_," &c.,

the double ending rhyme giving it the air of burlesque. The
appropriateness of _precise_, moreover, depends chiefly upon its being
assumed to express the quality of a _precision_, which has not only not
been proved, but which I am inclined very much to doubt.

Has it not been a true instinct that has guided the early English
commentators to the choice of words of the form of "prince_ly_,"
"priest_ly_," and myself to "saint_ly_," and do not the two passages
taken together require this form in reference to a character such as
that of a _prince_, a _priest_, or a _saint_? For instance, the term
_pious_ might be applied to Angelo, equally well with _priestly_ or
_saintly_; but it could not correctly be applied to garb or vestments,
while either of the latter could.

In what respect is the "cunning" of the "livery of hell" shown, if "the
damnedst body" be not invested in "guards" of the most opposite
character? Shakspeare never exactly repeats himself, though we
frequently find the same idea varied in form and differently applied.
The following passage from _Othello_, Act II. Sc. 3., appears to be
intended to convey the same idea as the one in question, and thus
strengthens the opinion that, if not _saintly_, one of like form and
meaning was intended:

                              "Divinity of hell!
      When devils will their blackest sins put on,
      They do suggest at first with heavenly shows,
      As I do now."

Any of your readers who are acquainted with the common careless
handwriting in use at the time, will greatly oblige by informing me if
it be beyond likelihood that a word commencing with the letter _s_
should have been read as though it began with _p_.

I have no intention of continuing the contest on the meaning of
"eisell," nor should I have felt it necessary to notice the remarks of
J. S. W. in No. 91., had they been avowedly in opposition to mine and
MR. SINGER'S. But when the advocate assumes the ermine, and proceeds to
sum up the evidence and pass judgment, I feel it only right that those
points in which he has _misrepresented_ my argument should not be passed
over. I did _not_ say "that the word cannot mean a river because the
definite article is omitted before it." What I did say was, that
"English idiom requires an article _unless it be personified_." Milton's
lines merely confirm this, though I am willing to admit that the
argument is of little weight When, however, J. S. W. expresses his
surprise that "a gentleman who exhorts," &c., had not looked to the
_general drift_ of the passage, I fancy he cannot have read my first
observations with regard to it, in which I say "the _idea_ of the
passage appears to be," &c. What is this but the "general drift?" Before
finally leaving this subject, allow me to explain, that, in objecting to
the terms "mere verbiage" and "extravagant rant" of a correspondent, I
took them _together_. I included the latter perhaps hastily. But,
however "extravagant" the "rant" of his real or assumed madmen may be, I
am satisfied that there is _no_ "mere verbiage" to be found in
Shakspeare.

      SAMUEL HICKSON.


HOUSE OF YVERY.

(Vol. iii., p. 101.)

Some years ago, in the library of a noble earl in the north of England,
I met with a "fair and _perfect_" copy of this rare book. The following
is a list of the plates which it contained:--

      Vol. i.

      1. View of the Manor of Weston, Somersetshire, p. 360.
      2. Monument of Richard Perceval, p. 406.

      Vol. ii.

      3. Manor of Sydenham, co. Somerset, p. 24.
      4. Portrait of Richard Perceval, p. 120.
      5. Another of the same, _ib._
      6. Portrait of Alice Perceval, p. 138.
      7. Portrait of Sir Philip Perceval, p. 144.
      8. View of Loghart Castle, Ireland, p. 192.
      9. Castle Liscarrol, Cork, p. 215.
      10. Portrait of Catherine, wife of Sir Philip, p. 320.
      11. Portrait of George Perceval, p. 322.
      12. Portrait of Sir John Perceval, p. 325.
      13. View of Castle Kanturk, Cork, p. 335.
      14. Portrait of Catherine, wife of Sir John Perceval, p. 361.
      15. Portrait of Robert Perceval, p. 368.
      16. Portrait of Sir Philip Perceval, second Baronet, p. 376.
      17. Monument of ditto, p. 386.
      18. Portrait of Sir John Perceval, eighth Baronet, p. 389.
      19. Portrait of Catherine, wife to ditto, p. 396.
      20. Portrait of the Hon. Philip Perceval, p. 400.
      21. Portrait of John Perceval, Earl of Egmont, p. 403.
      22. Map of part of the estate of John Perceval, Earl of Egmont,
          p. 404.
      23. Portrait of Sir P. Parker, ancestor of the Countess of Egmont,
          p. 451.
      24. Portrait of Catherine, wife of ditto, p. 452.
      25. Portrait of the Countess of Egmont, born 1680, p. 453.
      26. View of Mount Pleasant, near Tunbridge Wells, p. 461.
      27. Portrait of John Viscount Perceval, p. 467.
      28. Portrait of Catherine, wife of ditto, p. 467.
      29. View of Beverstan Castle, p. 496.

  The copy here described contains the "folding plate" mentioned by
  your correspondent; and as it was a presentation copy from the
  Earl of Egmont to Earl Ferrers, the presumption is that it is an
  _unmutilated_ one.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

In answer to the Query of your correspondent H.T.E., I beg to state that
the folding map of part of the estate of John Perceval, Earl of Egmont,
does occur in my copy of _The House of Yvery_, at page 92. of the
_first_ volume. Lowndes, in his list of the plates, assigns this map to
the second volume; but its proper place is as above. Perhaps this
mistake of Lowndes may have given rise to the doubt as to the existence
of this map; but I suppose any copy of the work without it must be
considered imperfect.

      J. H.


QUEEN BRUNÉHAUT.

(Vol. iv., p. 86)

I am sure that you will not be sorry to hear that "NOTES AND QUERIES" is
a great favourite with young people; and I hope you will have no
objection to encourage our "pursuits of literature" by admitting into
your delightful miscellany this little contribution.

I have been reading Thierry's _History of the Norman Conquest_ these
holidays; and when I saw MR. BREEN'S Queries respecting St. Gregory and
Queen Brunéhaut, I remembered that the historian had mentioned them. On
referring to the passage, at p. 11. of the translation published by
Whittaker and Co., 1843, I found that (1.) "Le Saint Pape Grégoire," who
"donna des éloges de gloire" to Queen Brunéhaut, _was_ Gregory the
Great;--that (2.) This illustrious Pope _did_ actually degrade himself
by flattering the bad queen;--and (3.) That the proof of his having done
so is to be found in a passage of one of Gregory's letters given by
Thierry, and appearing in the foot-note "12" at p. 11. of Messrs.
Whittaker's edition, as follows:

  "Excellentia ergo vestræ quæ proba in bonis consuevit esse
  operibus."--"In omnipotentis Dei timore, excelleltiæ vestræ mens
  soliditate firmata."--_Epist. Greg. Papæ, apud Script. rer.
  Gallic. et Francic._, tom. iv. p. 21.

    EDITH C.

  Preston, Aug. 1851.

It is, I think, indisputable that the St. Gregory commemorated on the
tomb of Brunéhaut is _Pope Gregory the Great_. Among his _Letters_ are
several addressed to the Frankish queen, betokening the unqualified
esteem in which she was held by the Roman pontiff. See _Gregor. Opp._
(tom. ii., edit. Paris, 1586), Lib. v. Indict. xiv. ep. 5; Lib. vii.
Indict. i. ep. 5.; Lib. ix. Indict. vi. ep. 8.; Lib. xi. Indict. vi. ep.
8. I will give a short specimen from the first and last _Letters_:

  "Excellentiæ vestræ prædicandam ac Deo placitam bonitatem et
  gubernacula regni testantur et educatio fidel manifestat."--_Col._
  766.

  "Inter alia bona hoc apud vos præ ceteris tenet principatum, quod
  in mediis hujus mundi fluctibus, qui regentis animos turbulenta
  solent vexatione confundere, ita cor ad Divini cultus amorem et
  venerabilium locorum disponendam quietam reducitis ac si vos nulla
  alia cura sollicitet."--_Col. 1061._

Much to her merit, in the eyes of Gregory, arose from her abjuration of
Arianism, and the patronage she extended to religious houses. At the
same time, it is impossible to acquit her of the serious charges under
which she labours.

  "Elle est diffamée," says Moreri, "dans les écrits des autres
  auteurs, par sa cruauté, sa vengeance, son avarice, et son
  impudicité."

    C. H.

  St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.


LORD MAYOR NOT A PRIVY COUNCILLOR.

(Vol. iv., p. 9.)

I entirely dissent from your correspondent's statements that "the Lord
Mayor is no more a privy councillor than he is Archbishop of
Canterbury." First, as to the argument on which your correspondent's
conclusion is founded. He assumes first that the title of Lord is a mere
courtesy title; and, secondly, that it is because of this courtesy title
that the Mayor is deemed a privy councillor. The second assumption is
the erroneous one. It is not necessary to have the courtesy title of
Lord in order to be a privy councillor; nor are all courtesy lords
styled Right Honorables. Your correspondent's assertion in this respect
is a curious blunder, which every day's experience contradicts. No one
styles a courtesy Lord "Right Honorable" except such persons as will
persist in the equally absurd blunder of calling a Marquis "Most Noble."
The Boards of the Treasury and Admiralty are not designated "Right
Honorable" merely because of the courtesy title of "Lord" being attached
to their corporate name, but because these Boards are respectively the
equivalents of the Lord High Treasurer and Lord High Admiral, each of
whom was always a member of the sovereign's Council. No individual
member of the Board is, by membership, "Right Hon." Your correspondent's
precedent is equally inconclusive on the subject. He says, "Mr. Harley,
when (1768) Lord Mayor of London, was sworn of His Majesty's most
honorable Privy Council." This precedent does not prove the argument;
and for this simple reason, that the individual who holds the office is
not "Right Honorable," but the officer is. Mr. Harley was not, as an
individual, a privy councillor, till he was made one: he could only have
appeared in council as "the Lord Mayor," and not as "Mr. Harley." The
description, therefore, of "The Right Honorable A. B., Lord Mayor,"
which has probably misled your correspondent, is, like the "Most Noble
the Marquis," a blunder of ignorant flattery; the correct description
being "A. B., the Right Honorable the Lord Mayor:" or rather, the A. B.
ought to be suppressed, except the individual, for a particular reason,
is to be personally designated, and the style should be written, "The
Right Honorable the Lord Mayor." This distinction between the officer
and the man is almost universal in our system. Our Judges are Lords in
court (yet, by-the-bye, this courtesy "Lord" does not give any one of
them at any time the title of Right Honorable, another instance of the
fallacy of your correspondent's reasoning), and they are Sirs in
individual designation. In Scotland the Judges assume the titles of
Baronies during their tenure of office, but become mere Esquires on
surrender of it. The Lord Mayor is always summoned to the council on the
accession of a new sovereign, and was formerly, when his office was of
greater practical importance than at present, accustomed to put his name
very high on the list of signatures attached to the declaration of
accession. A commoner might by the bare delivery of the great seal
become "Lord" in the Court of Chancery, and be the President of the
House of Lords, where he would sit by virtue of his office, without
having any title to speak or vote. Mr. Henry Brougham did so for one if
not two nights before his patent of peerage was completed. The same
distinction between officer and individual applies to the Lord Mayor,
who is Right Honorable as Lord Mayor, but in no other way whatever.

    L. M.


COWPER OR COOPER.

(Vol. iv., pp. 24.93)

The poet's family was originally of Stroode in Slinfold, Sussex, not
Kent, as Lord Campbell (_Lives of the Chan._, vol. iv. p. 258.) states,
and spelt their names Cooper. The first person who altered the spelling
was John Cooper of London, father of the first baronet, and he probably
adopted the spelling in affectation of the Norman spelling; the family
having in those days been styled Le Cupere, Cuper, and Coupre in
Norman-French, and Cuparius in Latin, as may be seen by the grants made
to Battle Abbey. The pronunciation was never changed. All the Sussex
branches continued the spelling of Cooper until the time of Henry Cowper
of Stroode, who died 1706. In Lord Campbell's _Lives of the
Chancellors_ (p. 259.) the first letter is signed "William Cooper."

    W. D. COOPER.

_Cowper._--There is an affectation in the present day for pronouncing
words, not only contrary to established usage, but in defiance of
orthography. The Bar furnishes one example, and "polite society" the
other. By the former, a judge on the bench is called, instead of "My
_Lord_" and "His _Lordship_," "My _Lud_" and "His _Ludship_;" and in the
latter, _Cowper_ is metamorphosed into _Cooper_. Now, I fancy that "My
_Lord_" is a vast deal more euphonious than "My _Lud_" and _Cowper_, as
Shakspeare has it, "becomes the mouth as well" as _Cooper_. We don't
speak of getting milk from the _coo_, but from the _cow_; and _Cow_
being the first syllable of the poet's name should not be tortured into
_Coo_, in compliment to a nonsensical fastidiousness, whoever may have
set the example. As _Cowper_ the poet has been hitherto known, and by
that name will be cherished by posterity. John Kemble, the great actor,
I remember, tried to alter the pronunciation of _Rome_ to _room_, and
was laughed at for his pains, though he had the authority of a pun of
the bard's own for the change: "Old _Rome_ and _room_ enough." But
Shakspeare was but an indifferent punster at the best, as is proved by
Falstaff's refusing to give a _reason_ on compulsion, even though
"_reasons_ were as plentiful as blackberries;" corrupting _raisin_ into
_reason_, for his purpose, which is as far-fetched as any instance of
the kind on record, I think. But I digress, and beg pardon for running
so away from the _cow_.

    JOHN BULL.

Lord Campbell, in his entertaining Lives of the _Chief Justices_, says,
in paragraph introductory to the life of Sir Edward Coke:

  "As the name does not correspond very aptly with the notion of
  their having come over with the Conqueror, it has been derived
  from the British word 'Cock' or 'Coke' a 'Chief;' but, like
  'Butler,' 'Taylor,' and other names now ennobled, it much more
  probably took its origin from the occupation of the founder of the
  race at the period when surnames were first adapted in England.
  Even in Queen Elizabeth's reign, as well as that of James I., Sir
  Edward's name was frequently spelt 'Cook.' Lady Hatton, his second
  wife, who would not assume it, adopted this spelling in writing to
  him, and according to this spelling, it has invariably been
  pronounced."

Lord Campbell, who seems rather fond of such speculations, however, in
the case of Lord Cowper does not give the etymology of the name. But he
gives a letter written from school by the subsequent chancellor, in
which he signs his name "William Cooper." However, elsewhere, in a note
he speaks of the propensity evinced by those who have risen to wealth
and station to obliterate the trace of their origin by dropping, adding,
or altering letters and among them he mentions "Cowper" as having its
origin in "Cooper." Mr. Mark Antony Lower, too, in his _Essay on English
Surnames_, classes Cowper among the surnames derived from trade.
Possibly, therefore, notwithstanding the alteration, the original
pronunciation has been continued.

    TEE BEE.


Replies to Minor Queries

_Voce Populi Halfpenny_ (Vol. iv., pp. 19. 56.).--I have _four_
varieties of this coin:

1. The one which J. N. C. describes, and which is engraved by Lindsay,
in his work on the coinage of Ireland, and is considered the rarest
type.

2. A precisely similar type, with the exception that the "P" is
_beneath_, instead of being _on the side_ of the portrait.

3. A more youthful portrait, and of smaller size than the preceding, and
a trifle better executed. It wants the "P" altogether, and has for "MM."
a small quatrefoil. The engrailing also very different.

4. A totally different, and older portrait than any of the preceding.
"MM." and engrailing the same as No. 3., and it also wants the "P."

The reverses of all four appear to differ only in very minute
particulars. Pinkerton, in his _Essay on Medals_, vol. ii. p. 127.,
after stating that the Irish halfpence and farthings were all coined in
the Tower, and then sent to Ireland, there being no mint in that
country, remarks--

  "In 1760, however, there was a great scarcity of copper coin in
  Ireland; upon which a society of Irish gentlemen applied for
  leave, upon proper conditions, to coin halfpence; which being
  granted, those appeared with a very bad portrait of George II.,
  and 'VOCE POPULI' around it. The bust bears a much greater
  resemblance to the Pretender; but whether this was a piece of
  waggery in the engraver, or only arose from his ignorance in
  drawing, must be left in doubt. Some say that these pieces were
  issued without any leave being asked or obtained."

    E. S. TAYLOR.

I would have referred J. N. C. to either Pinkerton or Lindsay, where he
would find a full account about his Irish halfpenny, but as he may not
possess a numismatic library, perhaps you will allow me to trouble you
with the extracts. Pinkerton says:

  "In 1760 there was a great scarcity of copper coin in Ireland upon
  which a society of Irish gentlemen applied for leave, upon proper
  conditions, to coin halfpence; which being granted, those appeared
  with a very bad portrait of George II., and 'VOCE POPULI' around
  it. The bust bears a much greater resemblance to the Pretender;
  but whether this was a piece of waggery in the engraver, or only
  arose from his ignorance in drawing, must be left to doubt."

Pinkerton does not here specially refer to the type, where "the letter
P is close to the nose:" but if J. N. C. can turn to Lindsay's _Coinage
of Ireland_, 1839, he will find his coin engraved in the fifth
supplementary plate, No. 16., and in the advertisement, p. 139., the
following remarks on it:

  "This curious variety of the 'voce populi' halfpence exhibits a P
  before the face, and illustrates Pinkerton's remark that the
  portrait on these coins seems intended for that of the Pretender:
  it is a very neat coin, perhaps a pattern."

    BLOWEN.

_Dog's Head in the Pot_ (Vol. iii., pp. 264. 463.).--The sign is of
greater antiquity than may be expected. See _Cocke Lorelle's Bote_:--

      "Also Annys Angry with the croked buttocke
      That dwelled at ye synge Of ye dogges hede in ye pot.
      By her crafte a breche maker."

    THOS. LAWRENCE.

  Ashby de la Zouch.

"_O wearisome Condition of Humanity_" (Vol. iii., p. 241.).--As no one
has hitherto appropriated these fine lines, as to the author of which
your correspondent inquires, I may mention that they are taken from the
"Chorus Sacerdotum," at the end of Lord Brook's _Mustapha_. (See his
Works, fol. 1633, p. 159.) The chorus is worth quoting entire:

      "_O wearisome condition of humanity!
      Borne under one Law, to another bound:
      Vainely begot, and yet forbidden vanity;
      Created sick, commanded to be sound:_
      What meaneth Nature by these diverse Lawes?
      Passion and reason self division cause.
      Is it the mark or majesty of power
      To make offences that it may forgive?
      Nature herself doth her own self defloure
      To hate those Errors she herself doth give.
      For how should Man think that he may not do
      If Nature did not fail and punish too?
      Tyrant to others, to herself unjust,
      Only commands things difficult and hard,
      Forbids us all things, which it knows is lust,
      Makes easy pains, impossible reward.
      _If Nature did not take delight in blood,
      She would have made more easy ways to good._
      We that are bound by vows and by promotion,
      With pomp of holy sacrifice and rites,
      To teach belief in good and still devotion,
      To preach of Heaven's wonders and delights;
      Yet when each of us in his own heart looks,
      He finds the God there far unlike his Books."

I should like to see a collected edition of the works of the two noble
Grevilles, Fulke and Robert, Lords Brook; the first the friend of Sir
Philip Sidney, the second the honoured of Milton. The little treatise on
_Truth_ of the latter, which Wallis answered in his _Truth Tried_, is
amply sufficient to prove that he possessed powers of no common order.

    JAMES CROSSLEY.

_Bunyan and the "Visions of Heaven and Hell"_ (Vol. iii., pp. 70. 89.
289. 467.).--The work referred to by your correspondents is so
manifestly not the Composition of John Bunyan that it is extraordinary
that the title-page, which was evidently adopted to get off the book,
should ever have imposed upon anybody. The question, however, put by
your correspondents F. R. A. and N. H., as to who G. L. was, has not yet
been answered. The person referred to by these initials is the real
author of the book, who was George Larkin, a printer and author, and
great ally and friend of the redoubted John Dunton, who gives a long
character of him, in his _Life and Errors_, in his enumeration of London
printers. (See _Life and Errors_, edit. 1705, p. 326.)

  "Mr. Larkin, Senior--He has been my acquaintance for Twenty years,
  and the first printer I had in London. He formerly writ a _Vision
  of Heaven_, &c. (which contains many nice and curious thoughts),
  and has lately published an ingenious _Essay on the noble Art and
  Mystery of Printing_. Mr. Larkin is my _alter ego_, or rather my
  very self in a better edition."

The book itself was first published about 1690, and went through many
editions in the early part of the last century.

    JAMES CROSSLEY.

_Pope's Translations or Imitations of Horace_ (Vol. i., p. 230.; Vol.
iv., pp. 58. 122.).--I am much obliged to MR. CROSSLEY for having
corrected the error (for which I cannot account) in the _title_ of the
pamphlet in question, which was certainly not by "_the author of the
Critical History of England_," and certainly was by Dennis, as is marked
by Pope's own hand in the copy now before me. As MR. CROSSLEY puts
hypothetically the correctness of my quotation, I subjoin the whole
passages.

  "After having been for fifteen years as it were an imitator, he
  has made no proficiency. His first imitations, though bad, are
  rather better than the succeeding, and this last Imitation of
  HORACE the most execrable of them all."--P. 7.

Again:

  "An extravagant libel, ridiculously called an imitation of
  Horace."--P. 11.

And again:

  "Of all these libellers the present Imitator is the most impudent
  and incorrigible."--P. 15.

MR. CROSSLEY says he has a fragment of the "Imitation of the second
satire of the first book of Horace," published by Curll in 1716. This,
which I never saw, nor before heard of, would solve the difficulty; and
I respectfully request MR. CROSSLEY to favour us with a transcript of
the title-page, which is the more desirable, because all Pope's
biographers, and indeed _he himself_ (to Spence), have attributed his
first imitation of Horace to a _much_ later date, certainly subsequent
to 1723. The imitation, therefore, of that satire of Horace, printed in
1716 by Curll, is valuable as to Pope's history, and great curiosity and
as MR. CROSSLEY states that _Lady Mary_ is not mentioned in that
edition, I am curious to know how Pope managed the _rhyme_ now made by
_her name_.

MR. CROSSLEY adds that this imitation was reproduced in "folio, printed
by J. Boreman about 1734, with some alterations from the former
edition." Would it be trespassing too much on your space and his
kindness, to request him to give us a few specimens of the alterations,
particularly the "change of _initials_" which MR. CROSSLEY mentions. MR.
CROSSLEY seems to think that this poem was not reprinted after the folio
in 1734, till it appeared in a supplement to Cooper's edition in 1756.
This is a mistake. It was published by Pope himself, with his other
imitations of Horace, in the collection of his works by Dodsley in 1738;
and though only entitled "_in the manner of Mr. Pope_,", excited very
natural surprise and disgust. His having deliberately embodied it in the
general collection of his works, is Warton's only excuse for having
reproduced it.

    C.

_Prophecies of Nostradamus_ (Vol. iv., p. 86.).--In accordance with the
wish of your correspondent SPERIEND, I have examined the series of early
editors of this celebrated astrologer in the Bibliothèque Nationale, and
the following is the result of my inquiries.

The _earliest_ edition of the _Prophecies of Nostradamus_ is not to be
found in any library in Paris, but was published in 1555 (so says the
latest account of the prophet, by M. Eugène Bareste) but contains little
more than three centuries (or cantos, as they might be called) of
prophecies; each century containing a hundred quatrains. The next
edition, which before the French Revolution belonged to the Benedictines
of St. Maur, is entitled:

  "Les Prophéties de M. Michel Nostradamus, dont il y en a trois
  cens qui n'ont encore jamais esté imprimées. Adjoustées de nouveau
  par ledict Autheur. A Lyon, chez Pierre Rigaud, rue Mercière, au
  coing de rue Ferrandière. Avec permission."

It has, in MS., on the title-page, "1555 et 1558." M. Bareste says of
this edition:

  "On prétend qu'elle est de 1558; mais nous ne le pensons pas, car
  elle a été probablement faite l'année même de la mort de l'auteur,
  c'est à dire, en 1566."

However, as there is no known edition between 1555, the date of the
first, and 1566, this doubtless is the earliest containing the ninth
century; and at No. 49. of this century is to be seen the following
quatrain:

      "Gand et Bruceles marcheront contre Anvers,
      Sénat de Londres mettront à mort leur Roy;
      Le sel et vin luy seront à l'envers,
      Pour eux avoir le regne en desarroy."

I can find no edition of Nostradamus dated 1572; but in the editions of
1605, 1629, 1649, and 1650, the prophecy is given as above, almost
letter for letter, so that there can be no doubt it was not first known
in that form in 1672. As to the number of this quatrain agreeing with
the year of King Charles's death, it is most probably an accident; for
out of the nine hundred and odd quatrains composing the twelve centuries
(the 7th, 11th, and 12th being imperfect), and which are nearly all
regularly numbered, it is, I believe, the only one in which this
singularity occurs. On the fly-leaf of a copy of Nostradamus in the
_Bibliothèque de Ste Geneviève_ (dated 1568, but really printed in
1649), I found, in an old handwriting, a couplet that may be new to the
English admirer of the astrologer:

      "Falsa damus cum Nostra damus, nam fallere nostrum est
            Et cum nostra damus, non nisi Falsa damus."

If SPERIEND wishes for more information on the subject of the life and
works of Nostradamus, I should recommend him to look at the work I have
quoted above, which treats very fully on all matters connected with this
"vaticinating worthy." It is entitled _Nostradamus, par Eugène Bareste_:
Paris, 1840, and will doubtless be found in the British Museum.

    H. C. DE ST. CROIX.

I have an edition of 1605 of these prophecies, _Revueës et corrigées sur
la coppie imprimée à Lyon, par Benoist Rigaud_, 1586, but without place
or printer's name. It contains (century nine, stanza 49.), the quatrain
quoted by SPERIEND.

The following quatrain may be thought to apply to Cromwell (century
eight, stanza 76.):

      "Plus Macelin que Roy en Angleterre,
      Dieu obscur nay par force aura l'empire:
      Lasche sans foy sans loy Seignera terre,
      Son temps s'aproche si près que je souspire."

The edition of 1605 does not contain the line quoted by SPERIEND, "Sénat
de Londres," &c., nor any address "A mes Imprimeurs de Hongrie;" but, in
addition to the ten centuries contained in the edition of 1568 (the
_original_ edition), it contains the eleventh and twelfth centuries;
also 141 stanzas of additional "Presages, tirez de ceux faicts par M.
Nostradamus en années 1555 et suivantes jusques en 1567:" and 58
"Predictions Admirables pour les ans courans en ce Siecle, Recueillies
des Memoires du feu M. Nostradamus, par Vincent Seve, de Beaucaire en
Languedoc, dès le 19 Mars, 1605, au Chateau de Chantilly."

My edition is not mentioned by Brunet nor in any of the French
Catalogues that I have been able to consult.

    R. J. R.

_Thread the Needle_ (Vol. iv., p. 39.).--The following is an extract
from a review in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of Dec. 1849, of the Life
of Shirley; it may be interesting as explaining some part of the verse
in the game of "Thread the Needle:"

  "Lord Nugent, when at Hebron, was directed _to go out by the
  needle's eye_, that is, by the small gate of the city; and in many
  parts of England, the old game of thread the needle is played to
  the following words:

      "'How many miles to Hebron?
        Three score and ten.
      Shall I be there by midnight?
        Yes, and back again.
          Then thread the needle,' &c.

  "Now this explains and modifies one of the strongest and most
  startling passages of Scripture, on the subject of _riches_; for
  the camel can go through the needle's eye but with difficulty, and
  hardly with a full load, nor without stooping."

The above was copied out from the magazine on account of its explaining
the camel and the needle's eye: it does not tell much upon the Query
concerning the game of "Thread the Needle;" but it may be interesting,
and so is sent with pleasure by

    E. F.

P.S. A friend suggests, could the game have come from the Crusades?

A line of players, the longer the better, hold hands and one end of the
line, which thus becomes almost a circle, runs and drags the rest of the
line after it through the arch made by the uplifted arms of the first
couple of the other end of the line--a process nearly enough resembling
_threading a needle_. There are subsequent evolutions by which each
couple becomes in succession the _eye of the needle_.

    C.

_Salmon Fishery in the Thames_ (Vol. iv., p. 87.).--Those of your
readers who know that I am connected with Billingsgate market would look
to me for the reply to R. J. R.'s Query. I must therefore inform them
that only thirty or forty years back salmon were taken in rather large
quantities in the Thames; but since the introduction of steam-boats and
the increase of traffic, the fish have gradually, I might say suddenly,
disappeared, for during the last twenty years very few salmon indeed
have been taken: those that found their way to market have realised high
prices; not that Thames salmon was ever esteemed for its flavour, but
only for its extreme rarity of late years.

The hindrance to salmon taking the Thames is the steam-boat and other
traffic, which, agitating the water, frightens them (they being a very
timid fish), and stirs up the mud, which chokes them; for there is no
doubt that ever after a salmon enters a river, it lives by suction. It
is possible that one or two salmon a season even make up our river now,
for becoming frightened, and rushing on having back and head nearly out
of water, and the tide with them, they would get a long way in a night,
and possible reach clear water above bridge with life, but in a very
weak state. I believe that, under the most favourable circumstances,
salmon would not again frequent the Thames in any large quantities, it
being too southern; and there is no doubt but that the fish have been
fast decreasing of late years, for some of the best rivers in the north
are now without salmon.

    BLOWEN.

  Billingsgate.

_Entomological Query_ (Vol. iv., p. 101.).--The insect which J. E. found
on the _Linaria minor_ is probably either the _Euphitecia Linariata_ or
_E. Pulchellata_. The former species is known to feed on Toad flax, and
there is little doubt that the latter does also. If J. E. found any of
the caterpillars he may identify them by referring to Westwood's
_British Moths_, vol ii. p. 59., where the caterpillar of _Euphitecia
Linariata_ is engraved and described as "yellow or greenish, with dark
chesnut spots on the back and sides."

    B. P. D. E.

_School of the Heart_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--The editor of the
_Christian Poet_ referred to in a paragraph signed S. T. D. has not the
_School of the Heart_ by Quarles at hand, and cannot now examine whether
the two small pieces quoted in the former volume under the name of
_Thomas Harvey_ from SCHOLA CORDIS _in forty-seven emblems_, 1647,
belong to one or the other writer. The only authority, from which he
recollects to have gathered them, he believes to be Sir Egerton Brydges'
_Censura Literaria_, or his _Restituta_, which are very voluminous and
miscellaneous, and are at present beyond his research. From internal
evidence, he thinks the two poems are not by Quarles, though not
unworthy of him in his best vein.

    J. M. G.

  Hallamshire.

P.S. Since the foregoing note was written, I have found the copy of Sir
E. Brydge's _Restituta_, from which I copied the extract of _Schola
Cordis_, in the _Christian Poet_.

  "_Schola Cordis_: or the Heart of itself gone away from God,
  brought back again to Him, and instructed by Him. In 47 Emblems.
  1647. 12mo. pp. 196."

Inscribed, without a signature,

  "To the Divine Majestie of the onely-begotten, eternall,
  well-beloved Son of God and Saviour of the World, Christ Jesus,
  the King of Kings, the Lord of Lords; the Maker, the Mender, the
  Searcher, and the Teacher of

          The Heart:
          the Meanest of his most unworthy Servants
      offers up this poore Account of his Thoughts,
          humbly begging pardon for all that is
          amisse in them, and a gracious
      acceptance of these weak endeavours
          for the Advancement of his
          Honour in the Good of others."

The third edition, dated 1675, ascribes these emblems to the author of
_The Synagogue_, annexed to Herbert's _Poems_. This, according to Sir
John Hawkins, in his notes on Walton's _Angler_, was _Christopher
Harvie_: but Wood, in his _Athenæ_, positively affirms that the author
of _The Synagogue_, in imitation of the divine Herbert, was _Thomas
Harvey_, M.A., and first Master of Kingston School in Herefordshire. To
_him_, therefore (adds Sir Egerton Brydges), we may presume to assign
it, until a stronger testimony shall dispossess him of a tenure, which
reflects honourable reputation on the copiousness of his fancy and the
piety of his mind.

_Fortune, Infortune, Fort une_ (Vol. iv., p. 57.).--I agree with MR.
BREEN that this inscription on the tomb of Margaret of Austria, in the
beautiful church of Brou, is "somewhat enigmatical," a literal
translation failing entirely to make sense of it. But perhaps MR. BREEN
may be willing to accept the interpretation offered by a writer in the
_Magasin Pittoresque_ for 1850, where, describing the monuments in the
church of Notre Dame de Brou (p. 22.), he says:

  "Cette légende bizarre est assez difficile à expliquer, si l'on ne
  regarde pas le mot _infortune_ comme un verbe. Avec cette
  hypothèse, la devise signifierait: 'La fortune a rendu une
  personne très-malheureuse?' Cette explication est d'autant plus
  plausible que la vie de Marguérite d'Autriche fut affligée de bien
  de revers. Destinée à regner sur la France, elle est répudiée par
  Charles VIII., son fiancé; elle épouse le fils du roi d'Aragon,
  qui la laisse bientôt veuve avec un fils qu'elle a aussi la
  douleur de perdre peu après; enfin, remariée à Philibert le Beau,
  elle le voit mourir au printemps de son âge."

There is little doubt, I think that the inscription was meant to typify
the misfortunes of Margaret; but the preceding solution is still, in a
grammatical point of view, unsatisfactory. If _fort_ could be transposed
to _fait_, the reading would be simple enough; but in these cases we are
bound to take the inscriptions as we find them, and the Rebus in stone
was the especial delight of the sculptors of the fifteenth century.

    D. C.

  St. John's Wood, July 28. 1851.

_Ackey Trade_ (Vol. iv., p. 40.).--Ackey weights were, and I believe
are, used on the Guinea Coast for weighing gold dust: 1 ackey=20-{1/32}
grains Troy. The _Ackey Trade_ must be, I suppose, the African gold dust
trade.

    W. T.

_Curious Omen at Marriage_ (Vol. iii., p. 406.)--H. A. B. asks at the
end of his Note, "Why a _coruscation of joy_, upon a wedding day, should
forebode evil?" and "Whether any other instances are on record of its so
doing?"

As these questions have remained unanswered for some weeks, I am tempted
to suggest that your correspondent may have laid too much stress on the
fact of the joy having been expressed at a _wedding_, and that the
passage he quoted from Miss Benger's _Memoirs of Elizabeth, Queen of
Bohemia_, may be simply an allusion to the old belief (still more or
less prevalent) of "_high spirits being a presage of impending calamity
or of death_." (See Vol. ii., pp. 84. 150.)

The late Miss Landon, in one of her novels, furnishes an additional
notice of this belief:

  "The ex-queen of Sweden has had one of the gentlemen of her suite
  put to death in a manner equally sudden and barbarous; and what
  excites in me a strong personal feeling on the subject is, that
  Monaldeschi, the cavalier in question, dines with me the very day
  of his murder, as I must call it. Such a gay dinner as we had! for
  Monaldeschi--lively, unscrupulous, and sarcastic--was a most
  amusing companion. His spirits, far higher than his usual bearing,
  carried us all along with them: and I remember saying to him, 'I
  envy your gaiety: why, Monaldeschi, you are as joyous as if there
  were nothing but sunshine in the world.' He changed countenance,
  and becoming suddenly grave, exclaimed, 'Do not call me back to
  myself. I feel an unaccountable vivacity, which I know is the
  herald of disaster.' But again he became cheerful, and we rallied
  him on the belief, which he still gaily maintained, that great
  spirits were the sure forerunners of misfortune."--_Francesca
  Carrara_, vol. ii. chap. 6.

Perhaps some of your readers may be able to say whether Miss Landon had
the authority of any cotemporary writer for the anecdote. Is not the
warning, "_Sing_ before noon, and you'll _sigh_ before night," also a
proof of the dread with which "_coruscations of joy_" were looked upon
by our forefathers?

    C. FORBES.

  Temple.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

The very unsatisfactory condition of the present laws on the subject of
international copyright has induced the eloquent author the _The History
of the Girondists_, when giving to the world _The History of the
Restoration of Monarchy in France_, to consent to write in English some
of the most important passages of that history with the view of
assisting his publishers in their endeavour to protect themselves
against piracy. To this circumstance we are indebted for the appearance
at the same moment of the English and French editions; and both at a
much lower price than that at which we have hitherto been accustomed to
receive original works. M. de Lamartine's present contribution to the
modern history of France cannot fail to excite great interest--despite
of the manifest prejudices of the writer; for it is written with marked
earnestness--not to say bitterness, and depicts in striking colours at
once the military genius and the heartless selfishness of Napoleon. The
history of the murder of Duc D'Enghien is told with consummate dramatic
effect; and as the reader finishes the narrative he feels, the force of
the author's closing words, "The murderer has but his hour--the victim
has all eternity." The book will be read and re-read for its brilliancy
and interest; it can however never by quoted as an authority, for its
writer has disdained to quote those on which his own statements are
based. M. de Lamartine in making this omission has done injustice both
to himself and to his readers.

_Letters Historical and Botanical, relating chiefly to places in the
Vale of Teign, &c._, by Dr. Fraser Halle, is a small volume which we can
conscientiously recommend as a desirable travelling companion to such of
our friends as may be about to visit this beautiful district of

  "Lovely Devonia, land of flowers and songs."

It is clearly the production of a thoughtful scholar; and besides its
botanical notices and historical illustrations, contains many pleasant
snatches of old song, and hints of by-gone legends.

_Lives of the most eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects,
translated from the Italian of Giorgio Vasari, &c._, by Mrs. Foster,
vol. iii., is another volume of Mr. Bohn's Standard Library. Vasari's
work was one of the favourite books of the unfortunate Haydon; and now,
when so much attention is being devoted by all classes to the fine arts,
when our nobles are throwing open their galleries to the public, and
admitting all to a free study of the exquisite works in their
possession, an English version of such a series of biographies as Vasari
has given us, and enriched as it is by notes and illustrations drawn
from his best commentators, cannot but find an extensive and ready sale.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson (3. Wellington Street) will sell on
Wednesday next a valuable collection of Engravings, the property of a
distinguished collector, by whom it was formed thirty years since,
chiefly from the Durand Collection; and on Thursday next a most
interesting collection of Manuscripts and Books of the poet Gray, the
whole in beautiful condition, together with a collection of various
editions of his works, a posthumous bust, and other items connected with
the poet. On Friday the same auctioneers will be engaged in the sale of
the interesting collection of Engraved British Portraits formed by the
late Thomas Harrison, Esq.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Lilly's (19. King Street, Covent Garden) Very
Cheap Clearance Catalogue of Five Thousand Volumes; B. Quaritch's (16.
Castle Street, Leicester Square) Cheap Book Circular, No. 32., Catalogue
of Books in all Languages.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ENTOMOSTRACÆ, by W. Baird, M.D. (Ray
Society's Publication.)

Barrington's Edition of THE ANGLO-SAXON VERSION OF OROTIUS, by Alfred
the Great. 8vo. London, 1773. (An Imperfect Copy, containing only the
Anglo-Saxon, from p. 1. to 242., would be sufficient.)

BRITISH ESSAYISTS, by Chalmers. 45 Vols. Johnson and Co. Vols. VI. VII.
VIII. IX. and XXIII.

KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL SHAKSPEARE. Part XXV.

_Budden's Life of Archbishop Morton_, 1607.

THOMAS LYTE'S ANCIENT BALLADS AND SONGS. 12mo. 1827.

DODWELL (HENRY, M.A.), DISCOURSE PROVING FROM SCRIPTURES THAT THE SOUL
IS A PRINCIPLE NATURALLY MORTAL, &c.

REFLECTIONS ON MR. BURCHET'S MEMOIRS; or, Remarks on his Account of
Captain Wilmot's Expedition to the West Indies, By Colonel Luke
Lillingston, 1704.

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. Vol. I. 1731.

NEW ENGLAND JUDGED, NOT BY MAN'S BUT BY THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD, &c. By
George Bishope. 1661. 4to. Wanted from p. 150. to the end.

REASON AND JUDGMENT, OR SPECIAL REMARQUES OF THE LIFE OF THE RENOWNED
DR. SANDERSON, LATE LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 1663. Sm. 4to. Wanted from
p. 90. to the end.

TRISTRAM SHANDY. 12mo. Tenth Edition. Wanted Vol. VII.

MALLAY, ESSAI SUR LES EGLISES ROMAINES ET BYZANTINES DU PUY DE DOME. 1
Vol. folio. 51 Plates.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE REMAINS OF THE WORSHIP OF PRIAPUS, to which is added a
Discourse thereon, as connected with the Mystic Theology of the
Ancients. London, 1786. 4to. By R. Payne Knight.

CH. THILLON'S (Professor of Halle) NOUVELLE COLLECTION DES APOCRYPHES,
AUGMENTÉ, &c. Leipsic, 1832.

SOCIAL STATICS, by Herbert Spencer. 8vo.

THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE. The back numbers.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. The part of the 7th edition edited by Prof.
Napier, containing the Art. Mortality.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON HEALTH AND MORTALITY, by
Arthur S. Thomson, M.D. (A Prize Thesis.)

REPORT ON THE BENGAL MILITARY FUND, by F. G. P. Neison. Published in
1849.

THREE REPORTS, by Mr. Griffith Davies, Actuary to the _Guardian_, viz.:

  Report on the Bombay Civil Fund, published 1836.

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OBSERVATIONS ON THE MORTALITY AND PHYSICAL MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN, by
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copies of the Queries referred to, they shall have immediate attention._

R. H.:--

      "Every one to their liking,
      As the old woman said when she kissed her cow--
      Is not the picture striking,"

_is the refrain of a song which was very popular some thirty or forty
years since._

LLAW GYFFES. _The motto of the extinct Viscounts Mount Cashel_,
"Sustenta la Drechura," _is Spanish and signifies_ "Maintain the Right."
_The Davies Queries in an early number._

G. CREED. _The Newcastle Apothecary, of whom George Colman records that
he_

      "Loved verse and took so much delight in it,
      That his directions he solved to write in it."

_was, we believe, altogether an imaginary personage._

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_Erratum._--Page 125. col. 1. l. 33. and 37. for "_proper_" read
"_paper_."



Solomon's Temple.

  The only Drawings that have been made of the Interior of the
  MOSQUE OF OMAR, standing on the site of the Temple of Solomon,
  were made by Messrs. Bonomi, Catherwood and Arundale, in 1833:
  from them has been painted the view of the Interior of the Mosque
  of Omar, in the Diorama of the Holy Land. It is the only painting
  of the Interior yet executed, and presents all the Architectural
  Detail. The GREAT MOVING DIORAMA OF THE HOLY LAND, EGYPTIAN HALL,
  Piccadilly. Daily at Three and Eight. Admission, 1_s._; Pit, 1_s._
  6_d._; Stalls, 2_s._ 6_d._


ARNOLD'S SELECTIONS FROM OVID'S METAMORPHOSES, WITH ENGLISH NOTES.

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  ECLOGÆ OVIDIANÆ, Part II., containing Selections from the
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  Of whom may be had, by the same Editor,

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Just published, Vols. III. and IV., 8vo. price 28_s._ cloth,

  THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND: with Sketches of their Lives, and
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  from the time of the Conquest. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A., of the
  Inner Temple.

  Lately published, Vols. I. and II. in 8vo. price 28_s._ cloth.

  "We spoke fully of the plan of this very able work on the
  appearance of the first and second volumes. The portion before me
  is in no respect inferior to that which was first published. It is
  now manifest that, quite apart from any biographical interest
  belonging to it, the work, in its complete state, will supply a
  regular and progressive account of English legal institutions,
  such as exists in no other equally accessible form in our
  language.... So completed, it will be a work of the highest
  merit--original in research, careful and conscientious in detail,
  bringing forward much that is new in connexion with the subject,
  correcting much that was doubtful in previous writers who have
  handled it, and supplying the best general view of our strictly
  legal history which any historian or jurist has yet aimed or
  attempted to give."--_Examiner._

  London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.


Price 2_s._ 6_d._; by Post 3_s._

  ILLUSTRATIONS AND ENQUIRIES RELATING TO MESMERISM. Part I. By the
  Rev. S. R. MAITLAND, D.D. F.R.S. F.S.A. Sometime Librarian to the
  late Archbishop of Canterbury, and Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.

  "One of the most valuable and interesting pamphlets we ever
  read."--_Morning Herald._

  "This publication, which promises to be the commencement of a
  larger worker, will well repay serious perusal."--_Ir. Eccl.
  Journ._

  "A small pamphlet in which he throws a startling light on the
  practices of modern Mesmerism."--_Nottingham Journal._

  "Dr. Maitland, we consider, has here brought Mesmerism to the
  'touchstone of truth,' to the test of the standard of right or
  wrong. We thank him for this first instalment of his inquiry, and
  hope that he will not long delay the remaining portions."--_London
  Medical Gazette._

  "The Enquiries are extremely curious, we should indeed say
  important. That relating to the Witch of Endor is one of the most
  successful we ever read. We cannot enter into particulars in this
  brief notice; but we would strongly recommend the pamphlet even to
  those who care nothing about Mesmerism, or angry (for it has come
  to this at last) with the subject."--_Dublin Evening Post._

  "We recommend its general perusal as being really an endeavour, by
  one whose position gives him the best facilities, to ascertain the
  genuine character of Mesmerism, which is so much
  disputed."--_Woolmer's Exeter Gazette._

  "Dr. Maitland has bestowed a vast deal of attention on the subject
  for many years past, and the present pamphlet is in part the
  result of his thoughts and inquiries. There is a good deal in it
  which we should have been glad to quote ... but we content
  ourselves with referring our readers to the pamphlet
  itself."--_Brit. Mag._

  W. STEPHENSON, 12. and 13. Parliament Street.


CUTTINGS FROM OLD NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

  Very interesting COLLECTIONS of OLD NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE
  CUTTINGS, curious EXHIBITION and PLAY BILLS, VIEWS, and PORTRAITS;
  relating to all the ENGLISH COUNTIES and LONDON PARISHES, to
  REMARKABLE EVENTS, and to CELEBRATED and EXTRAORDINARY CHARACTERS,
  may be had at moderate prices on application to

  MR. FENNELL, 1. WARWICK COURT, GRAY'S INN.

  N.B. All the articles are carefully dated, and many of the
  Cuttings are from Newspapers above a century old, and of great
  rarity.


Now ready, Price 25_s._, Second Edition, revised and corrected.
Dedicated by Special Permission to

  THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

  PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected
  by the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music
  arranged for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One,
  including Chants for the Services, Responses to the Commandments,
  and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. SALE, Musical
  Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco
  cloth, price 25_s._ To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
  Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post Office
  Order for that amount; and by order, of the principal Booksellers
  and Music Warehouses.

  "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with
  our Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

  "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
  country."--_Literary Gazette._

  "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
  merits the distinguished patronage under which it
  appears."--_Musical World._

  "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of
  Chanting of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
  appeared."--_John Bull._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

  Also, lately published,

  J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the
  Chapel Royal St. James, price 2_s._

  C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.


THE GENERAL LAND DRAINAGE AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY.

  Incorporated by Act of Parliament, 12 and 13 Vict. c. 91.

  DIRECTORS.

      HENRY KER SEYMER, Esq., M.P., Hanford, Dorset, Chairman.
      JOHN VILLIERS SHELLEY, Esq., Maresfield Park, Sussex,
          Deputy-Chairman.
      JOHN CHEVALLIER COBBOLD, Esq., M.P., Ipswich.
      WILLIAM CUBITT, Esq., Great George Street, Westminster.
      HENRY CURRIE, Esq., M.P., West Horsley, Surrey.
      THOMAS EDWARD DICEY, Esq., Claybrook Hall, Lutterworth.
      WILLIAM FISHER HOBBS, Esq., Boxted Lodge, Colchester.
      EDWARD JOHN HUTCHINS, Esq., M.P., Eaton Square, London.
      SAMUEL MORTON PETO, Esq., M.P., Great George Street.
      COLONEL GEORGE ALEXANDER REID, M.P., Bulstrode Park, Bucks.
      WILLIAM TITE, Esq., F.R.S., Lowndes Square, London.
      WILLIAM WILSHERE, Esq., The Frythe, Welwyn, Herts.

  This Company is empowered to execute--

  1. All works of Drainage (including Outfalls through adjoining
  Estates), Irrigation, Reclaiming, Enclosing, and otherwise
  improving Land.

  2. To erect Farm Homesteads, and other Buildings necessary for the
  cultivation of Land.

  3. To execute Improvements, under Contract, with Commissioners of
  Sewers, Local Boards of Health, Corporations, Trustees, and other
  Public Bodies.

  4. To purchase Lands capable of Improvement, and fettered by
  Restrictions of Entail; and having executed the necessary Works,
  to resell them with a Title communicated by the Company's Act.

  Owners of Entailed Estates, Trustees, Mortgagees, Corporations,
  Incumbents, Life Tenants, and other Persons having only limited
  Interests, may obtain the use of the Company's Powers to carry out
  every kind of permanent Improvement, either by the Application of
  their own or the Company's Funds, secured by a yearly Charge on
  the Property improved.

  Proposals for the Execution of Works to be addressed to

  WILLIAM CLIFFORD, Secretary.

  Offices, 52. Parliament Street, Westminster.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, on the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 196. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 23. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851     |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851     |  17- 31 | PG # 37568  |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851     |  33- 47 | PG # 37593  |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851     |  49- 79 | PG # 37778  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851   |  81- 94 | PG # 38324  |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851   |  97-112 | PG # 38337  |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851   | 113-127 | PG # 38350  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





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