By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume III - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts.
Author: Pöllnitz, Karl Ludwig von
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume III - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

by the Biblioth\xE8que nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Note: The original publication has been replicated
faithfully except as shown in the Transcriber’s Amendments at the end of
the text. This etext presumes a mono-spaced font on the user’s device,
such as Courier. Words in italics are indicated like _this_. But the
publisher also wanted to emphasize names in sentences already italicized,
so he printed them in the regular font which is indicated here with: _The
pirates then went to +Hispaniola+._ Footnotes are located near the end of
the work.

There is an index.

       *       *       *       *       *

                             THE MEMOIRS
                          Baron de POLLNITZ.

                 BEING The OBSERVATIONS He made in his
                    late TRAVELS from _Prussia_ thro’
                    _POLAND_, _GERMANY_, _ITALY_,
                    _FRANCE_, _SPAIN_, _FLANDERS_,
                        _HOLLAND_, _ENGLAND_,

          Discovering not only the PRESENT STATE of the Chief
                           CITIES and TOWNS;


         The CHARACTERS of the PRINCIPAL PERSONS at the Several

                               VOL. III.


            Printed for DANIEL BROWNE, at the _Black Swan_,
            without _Temple-Bar_; and JOHN BRINDLEY, at the
          _King’s-Arms_, in _New Bond-street_. M.DCC.XXXVIII.



                           By the TRANSLATOR.

_The +Baron de Pollnitz’s+ Account of his +Travels+, and of the
Observations he made wherever he came, both of +Persons+ and +Things+, has
had such a Run in Foreign Parts, that the Bookseller at +Amsterdam+, who
first printed it in three Volumes in +12^{mo}+, soon after published a
second Edition of it in +four+ Volumes, and has now printed a third
Edition in +five+ Volumes._

_The three first Volumes, which are those that are translated in our first
and second, he calls +Letters+; and to the fourth and fifth he has given
the Title of +Memoirs+, which is +that+ we have chose for our Translation
of the Whole._

_It happens that these two New Volumes were written by our Author before
the first and second that were translated and publish’d last Year; but
why they were not also printed before the others, is thus accounted for by
M. +Changuion+ the Bookseller at +Amsterdam+, in his Preface to the
Original of these Memoirs_, viz.

_‘The Author, when at +Paris+, sold the Copy to a Person, who sold it
again to a Bookseller in +Holland+; and the latter was actually going to
print it when he heard that I was just ready to publish the +Letters+ of
the Baron +de Pollnitz+, (the same that are the Subject of our two first
Volumes). The Title-Pages of the one and the other had such a Resemblance,
that the Bookseller in +Holland+, who purchas’d the Copy, of which these
two additional Volumes are a Translation imagin’d it to be the same with
the other, and laid the +MS.+ by. But not long after this, he took it into
his head to review it, and by comparing it with the former Volumes, he
found this a quite different Treatise. He saw, that it not only contain’d
a History of the Author’s +Life+ and +Family+, but an Account of several
Courts and Courtiers of +Europe+, very circumstantial, and altogether new;
and that here was a Relation of several Travels of our Author, that to
+Spain+ in particular, of which there’s not a Word in the former Volumes;
in short, that this Copy of his was the Account of the Baron’s +first
Travels+, antecedent to those already publish’d.’_

_Upon his communicating this Discovery to M. +Changuion+, the latter
bargain’d with him for it, and has just published it in +Holland+, as a
Sequel to the former Volumes, tho’ if he had had the +MS.+ sooner, he
would undoubtedly have given it the Preference._

_At the End of the last Volume there is a Translation of a remarkable
Piece from the +Italian+ Original, which is the +Confession of Faith+ made
by the Baron +de Pollnitz+, and his Motives for changing his Religion._

_The said Bookseller thinks, that the Author (tho’ he has since abjur’d
the +Romish+ for the +Protestant+ Religion, as may be seen in our Preface
to the first Volume) will not be angry with him for publishing that Piece,
because it has such a tendency to confute the malicious Insinuations which
he complains of in his +Memoirs+, and proves, that if he did not then
embrace the +True Religion+, he took the Pains however to examine it._

_On the other hand, the Publication of this ample +Confession+ will
demonstrate to all Catholics, that whatsoever Arguments they employ
against Christians of the +Protestant Communions+, the latter are not
afraid to let them see the Light._

_To conclude; tho’ some Places are here and there mention’d in these
Volumes, which are also to be found in the Two First, and with that
Conformity indeed betwixt them, which the +Truth+ unavoidably demanded;
yet ’tis proper to observe, that the Descriptions are sometimes more
copious, the Reflections almost every where different; and that in both
there is an agreeable Variety and Vivacity which we flatter our selves
will not fail to recommend +These+ to the same good Acceptance from the
Public, with which it has favor’d the +former+ Volumes._


                                OF THE

                           Baron de POLLNITZ.

                               VOL. III.

                           To Madame de ----

The Family I am descended from was originally of _Thuringia_. My
Grandfather, after having turn’d Protestant, came and settled in the
Electorate of _Brandenburg_, where he was kindly receiv’d, and advanc’d to
the chief Employments by the Elector _Frederic-William_, who made him
Master of the Horse, Minister of State, Chamberlain, Major-General,
Colonel of his Guards, and Commandant at _Berlin_. His Brother who came
along with him had also a share of his Favor; for he was made Colonel of a
Regiment of Horse, Lieutenant-General, and Governor of _Lipstadt_. They
both married, but the only one that left Male Issue was my Grandfather,
who by _Eleonora_ of _Nassau_, Daughter to Prince _Maurice_ of _Orange_,
had two Sons, and two Daughters. This however prov’d a very unsuitable
Match; for my Grandmother was imperious, frugal, and jealous, whereas her
Husband was extravagant, and an Admirer of the Fair Sex: which Tempers so
opposite to each other created a Misunderstanding between them, that
amounted almost to a staunch Hatred. Yet my Grandfather, some time before
he died, settled all his Estate upon her, repented of the Vexation he had
given her, and he thought this Generosity of his would have made her easy,
but it only render’d her the more impatient to be a Widow, insomuch that
she had not the Complaisance to conceal it from him; and the very last
Words he liv’d to hear her pronounce, were neither comforting nor

Soon after the Death of my Grandfather my Uncle died, who was my Father’s
own Brother. The only Issue he left was a Daughter, who was chief Maid of
Honour to the Queen _Sophia Charlotte_, whose Bounties to her render’d her
a Person of no small Note in _Germany_.

My Father married the Daughter of Baron _D----_ by whom he had my Brother
in 1690. I was born thirteen Months after him, _viz._ the 25th of
_February_ 1692, at _Issouin_, a Village in the Electorate of _Cologn_,
where my Father then lay with his Regiment in Winter-Quarters. The
Electoress was my God-mother, and I was christen’d _Charles-Lewis_. Before
I was full two years of Age I had the misfortune to lose my Father, who
died at _Maestricht_, and left my Mother a Widow with three Children, and
a very little Estate to maintain us. My Grandmother, who, as I had said
before, had all my Grandfather’s Estate, was so extremely penurious, that
she had not the heart to part with any of it to my Mother, whose Situation
would have been very melancholy had it not been for the Generosity of the
King (at that time only Elector). This Prince sent for her back to
_Berlin_, and gave her a Pension; and in a little time after, my Relations
help’d her to another Husband, _viz. M. de M----_ Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs, who tho’ he died at the end of ten Months left her so
warm a Widow, that me might very well pass for one of the best Fortunes at
Court; and then she threw up her Pension, rather than keep it to the
prejudice of other Persons that stood more in need of it, which she
thought was an Abuse of the Elector’s Bounty.

My Mother’s Fondness for me would not suffer her to part with me, so that
I was brought up under her Wing, and at a Court which was at that time the
most splendid in _Germany_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Frederic-William_, when he died, left five Princes, _viz._ the Elector,
whom he had by _Louisa-Henrietta_ of _Nassau_ Princess of _Orange_; and
the Margraves _Charles_, _Philip_, _Albert_, and _Christian_, by _Dorothy_
Princess of _Holstein_, Dowager of the Duke of _Zell_. These Princes, at
an Age more proper for Pleasure than Business, studied how to be most
agreeable. Being frank and generous they adorn’d the Court, even more by
their personal Qualities than by their Magnificence; and the Elector
himself contributed to the splendor of it, by giving frequent Feasts, tho’
he was reproach’d with being too much addicted to them, too scrupulous in
the Ceremonies he requir’d to be observ’d at them, and more expensive in
them than elegant. Nevertheless, this is what strikes Foreigners more than
any thing; and ’tis Entertainments of this kind that give a Court its
fullest Lustre. The true Ornament of ours was the Electoress, Daughter of
_Ernest Augustus_, Elector of _Hanover_, and Sister to _George_ I. King of
_England_. Our Elector, after burying his first Wife the Princess of
_Hesse_, marry’d his second on the 28th of _September_ 1684, when he was
only the Electoral Prince. The latter Princess, from what Lineage soever
Heaven had sent her, had Qualities that would have procur’d her respect:
Her Beauty was regular, and tho’ she was but little in stature, her Air
was majestic. She spoke all the Languages of _Europe_ that are in present
use, with ease, and was so good as to converse with all Foreigners in
their own Tongue. She understood History, Natural Philosophy, and
Divinity; but with Knowledge so extensive, she was extremely careful to
avoid the reputation of being Learned. As fond as she was of Reading, she
was not an enemy to Pleasures. She lov’d Music, Dancing, and Plays; and by
her command, Comedies were often represented, in which sometimes she did
not disdain to be an Actress. Her regard for all who excell’d in any Art
drew them to her Court, in which Politeness bore sway, as much as in any
other Court of _Europe_. Of all things in the world she had nothing near
so much at heart as the Education of her Son the Electoral Prince, whom
she lov’d tenderly, and omitted nothing to inspire him with all the Ideas
that might hereafter render him as exalted in Sentiments as he was to be
in Power: And the young Prince on his part seem’d to make a suitable
return for the Princess’s care of him.

While the Court was thus addicted to Pleasures and Feastings, they gave
themselves little or no trouble about the Affairs of Government; so that
_Dankelman_ the Prime Minister bore the weight of all. He had then the
Elector’s intire Confidence, and so absolute an ascendant over his mind,
that he was suppos’d to be perfectly secure against the disgraces to which
Favorites are commonly expos’d. The Favor he stood in, was owing to the
most important Service that ’tis possible for a Subject to render to his
Sovereign: For one day when this Prince (as yet only the Prince Electoral)
was drinking Coffee with his Mother-in-law the Electoress, he was taken so
ill on a sudden that he was oblig’d to retire to his Apartment, where he
was seiz’d with Convulsions which threaten’d his Life. It happen’d that
_Dankelman_ then the Secretary of his Dispatches was the only Person at
hand, to relieve him: He open’d a Box in which there were certain
Antidotes, and having given him several Doses, for want of a Surgeon and a
Lancet he open’d a Vein with a Penknife; and his management was attended
with such good success, that the Prince, after having had a hearty Vomit,
found himself quite out of danger.

An Event of this nature could not but make a great Noise: The Vulgar
especially, who are fond of nothing so much as what is extraordinary,
thought that the Prince’s Indisposition did not proceed from a natural
Cause, but imagin’d that the Electoress’s tenderness for the Margraves her
Sons was reason good enough to suspect that she wanted to get rid of the
Prince her Son-in-law, which was to be sure the shortest way to let them
into the Succession. The Electoral Prince’s retreat to the Court of the
Landgrave of _Hesse-Cassel_ seemed to give a Sanction also to a Suspicion
of that sort. But be this as it will, the Prince stay’d there several
years, during which he married the Landgrave’s Sister, by whom he had
only one Daughter, who marry’d in 1700, to the Hereditary Prince of
_Hesse_, now King of _Sweden_.

_Dankelman_ was artful enough to make his advantage of this happy Incident
of having sav’d his Master’s Life: He stuck closer to him than ever; and
that grateful Prince, as soon he came to the Electoral Dignity, made him
his prime Minister, and confer’d all the marks of Friendship on him, that
’tis possible for any Subject to aspire to; insomuch that _Dankelman_
giving the Elector to understand one day, that he fear’d his Favour would
be of no long duration, this Prince was so good-natur’d, or so weak, as to
fortify him as far as was in the power of the most solemn Oaths[1].
_Dankelman_ was so credulous as to trust to those Protestations; and
forgetting that the most solid Friendship of Princes cannot be proof
against their Inconstancy or Caprice, he thought himself above the reach
of Fate, and behav’d like a Man that had nothing to fear. But the little
care he took to gain People’s Love, and the ever-odious Titles of Minister
and Favourite, made him soon hated by the whole Court. The Elector himself
began by degrees to be out of conceit with him; for their Tempers were
incompatible; the Minister being Covetous, and the Prince a Man of Pomp
and Expence; and he was so perpetually teaz’d with the Remonstrances of
_Dankelman_, that he hated him in his heart long before he durst make it
appear. The Minister too much elated with his Favour, and not so careful
to please his Master as to censure his Actions, thought himself able to
preserve the same ascendant over him, or at least, did not think the
Elector would ever offer to ruin him; which Confidence of his hinder’d him
from parrying the Thrusts that were made at him in secret; so that he was
arrested at midnight in his own House, and carry’d to _Spandaw_ in one of
the Elector’s Coaches, under a Guard of twenty Men.

His being so suddenly disgrac’d was matter of surprize to every body, but
of concern to few. ’Twas observ’d that on the very day wherein _Dankelman_
was arrested, the Elector spoke to him so kindly in presence of the whole
Court, that those of the nicest penetration little thought his Fall to be
so near. Indeed, every body had long before endeavour’d, or wish’d for an
opportunity to trip up his heels; and the natural Inconstancy of the
Elector to his Favorites, and this Minister’s want of complaisance to the
Elector, made it very probable that he would quickly be tumbled from that
Summit of Favor, on which he thought himself so sure of keeping his Hold;
there wanted only a more specious pretext to remove a Man from Court, who
had all along seem’d to aim at nothing but the welfare of the Government;
and such a one naturally presented itself in the affair of the Duchy of

This Duchy had been mortgag’d by _Spain_, as Security for considerable
Sums which were owing by that Crown to the Elector, who in consequence put
his Troops to quarter there for the Winter. The _Dutch_, to whom _Spain_
was a Debtor in like manner, would gladly also have had that Duchy made
over to them, as Security for their Debt; which not being to be done
without the evacuation of our Troops, the matter was propos’d to
_Dankelman_, who, whether he was surpriz’d, or brib’d, gave his consent
to it. This was imputed to him as a Crime of State the more heinous,
because _Spain_ being at that time ready to conclude a Peace with
_France_, in pursuance of the Treaty of _Ryswic_, was very indifferent as
to complying with the Demands of the Elector. To this the Minister fell a
Sacrifice, but by good luck for him he had remitted several Sums to
Foreign Countries, so that his disgrace was the lighter; which moreover
had this singularity in it, that neither of his three Brothers nor any of
his Creatures had a share in it, but were all continued in their
Employments; and all the alteration that happen’d, was, that the Count _de
Barfous_, then a Veldt-Marshal, performed for some time the Functions of
the Prime Minister.

In the mean time another Idol of Fortune rose upon the ruin of
_Dankelman_. This was _John Casimir de Kolbe_, a Gentleman originally of
the Palatinate: His first appearance at Court was in the time of
_Frederic-William_ the Great, in the retinue of the Princess-Palatine _de
Simmeren_, Sister of the first Electoress, who having desir’d the Elector
to give _Kolbe_ some Employment; he made him a Privy-Counsellor, but gave
him liberty to attend the Princess as much as ever, who was so good to him
that she was reproach’d with caring for no body else. He went with her
into the Palatinate, where that Princess died soon after, and then _Kolbe_
return’d to Court, where he was a meer Stranger, without Relations,
Acquaintance or Protection; and ’twas a long time before any the least
notice was taken of him. But after the death of _Frederic-William_, he
made his Court to _Frederic_ his Son who succeeded him, and to _Dankelman_
his Minister. Being always humble, and a Flatterer into the bargain, he
quickly gain’d their Friendship by his Assiduity, and by his study’d
Affectation not to meddle or make in any Affairs. _Dankelman_, as crafty a
Man as he was, did not perceive the Snare, but contributed most of all to
his Favor, thinking all the while that he was promoting a Creature from
whom he had nothing to fear. But _Kolbe_ no sooner perceiv’d the Elector’s
Coldness to his Minister than he resolv’d to make his Advantage of it. He
did not alter his Measures immediately, but seeming to have as little
Concern in Affairs as ever, his only Aim was to feed and propagate the ill
Humors which the Elector was often in with his Favorite. This Prince was
inconstant, suspicious and choleric; and when those three Passions were
stirr’d up and managed, he was to be persuaded to any thing. _Kolbe_ who
for a long time had made his Temper his only Study, plainly perceiv’d his
Foible, artfully wrought upon it, and in the sequel made it subservient to
the Accomplishment of his Designs. He soon attain’d to the highest Degree
of Favor; the Elector made him his Great Chamberlain and First Minister;
all the Court was oblig’d to truckle to him; and as it always happens in
the Changes of Government, the Minister in Disgrace was regretted. Indeed
_Kolbe_ did not want for personal Qualities enough to make him belov’d;
but the worst on’t was, they were eclips’d by an astonishing Fondness for
his Wife, to whom he was so blindly complaisant, that all the good People
at Court despis’d and hated him.

This Lady has play’d so extraordinary a Part in the World, that I can’t
avoid giving you some Account of her Origin and Character. Her Father,
one _Rickers_, was a Bargeman at _Emmerick_, a Town in the Duchy of
_Cleves_, where for better Subsistance he kept a sort of Tavern. He had
two Daughters, who pass’d for fine Women, that brought a good deal of
Company to his House, and in a Journey which the Elector made to _Cleves,
Bidekan_ his Valet de Chambre fell in love with the eldest, the Lady I am
speaking of, marry’d her and took her with him to _Berlin_, where she fell
so passionately in love with _Kolbe_, that after having been his Mistress
in her Husband’s Life-time, he was hardly cold in his Grave but she became
his Wife. The Wedding was kept at the House of one _Commesser_, another of
the Elector’s Valets de Chambre, where that Prince was present, with seven
or eight Persons in his Company; and from that very Juncture he began to
shew such great Marks of Complaisance to the Lady, that several People
thought she ow’d them to something more than to the Friendship he had for
his Favorite. Nevertheless I am very well persuaded they were mistaken;
and I remember, that when I was Gentleman of the Bed-chamber to the
Elector, he said to me in one of his ill Humors with his Favorite and his
Wife (and in these sort of Pets he was not capable of dissembling) _I know
the Notion that prevails of my being under certain Tyes to +Kolbe’s+ Lady,
but there is nothing in it_; _and the Wrong is greater to me than to her_.
For really was it not enough for a Woman of such mean Extraction, Parts
and Beauty too, to be the Wife of a Minister, but she must also be
ambitious to be the Mistress of a Sovereign? Yet it must be confess’d,
that whether it was meer Humor, or a weak Attachment to the Favorite, the
Elector heap’d Wealth and Honors upon this Lady, insomuch that nothing
would serve him but she must be admitted to the Electoress’s Circle, who
at that time indeed obstinately refus’d it; for who is there would not
have been disgusted to have seen the Daughter of _Rickers_ the Bargeman
mixing with Ladies of Quality that had a Right to be in the Circle?
However, some time after, the Electoress was oblig’d to wave all the Pleas
of Decorum, for the sake of the Need she stood in of the Great
Chamberlain; and his Wife had the Honor of the Circle.

The same Year that _Kolbe_ was declared Prime Minister, the Emperor made
him a Count of the Empire. He then chang’d his Name for that of Count _de
Wartemberg_, which was the Name of a ruinous Castle that he had in the
_Palatinate_. His Lady, when she became a Countess, had a mind that her
Children by her first Marriage should be promoted to the Dignity of
Barons; and they were accordingly call’d Barons of _Asbach_. But these new
Titles of the Count and Barons compleatly turn’d the Head of Madame _de
Wartemberg_, and she was every day guilty of Extravagancies which were
disgusting and ridiculous.

Such, _Madame_, was the State of our Court in my early years. It began to
shew its Superiority over almost all the Courts of _Germany_, by the
Influence it had upon the Affairs of _Europe_: But that which added new
Lustre to it, was the erecting the Duchy of _Prussia_ into a Kingdom. The
first Hint of this was given by _France_ to _Frederic-William_; but that
Elector, whether it was owing to some Obstacles that he foresaw, or to the
little Advantage he thought to reap from it, was not willing to put the
Project in execution. His Son too perhaps would have miscarried in it, had
it not been for the Situation of Affairs in _Europe_, on account of the
_Spanish_ Succession. _Kolbe_, whom I shall hereafter call the Count of
_Wartemberg_, had all the Honour of this Event, because it happen’d in
his Ministry. I had some Particulars, _Madame_, from his own Mouth, which
I think important enough to have a place in these Memoirs. The Affair is
moreover so weighty of it self that I shall trace it from its very

Great Events commonly have their Source in Trifles. This was owing to
nothing more than the Refusal of the Prince of _Orange_, who was King of
_England_, to give an Arm-Chair to the Elector in a Conference betwixt
those two Princes at the _Hague_ in 1695. The Elector cou’d not bear that
the Prince of _Orange_, who had always been his Inferior, shou’d carry it
to him in such a lofty manner, after Fortune had rais’d him to the Throne
of _England_; and from that time he resolved to be a King too.

_Dankelman_ the then Prime Minister, who cou’d not foresee the Situation
that _Europe_ was in some Years after, would fain have diverted the
Elector from a Project which he thought a perfect Chimæra; he put him in
mind of the Difficulties _Frederic-William_ met with in it, and of the
Reasons he had to refuse the Offers which _France_ made to him on that
head; he shew’d him that the same Reasons were still subsisting, and
reinforc’d by yet greater Difficulties; and that it was Madness to attempt
a Thing, the Success whereof was neither certain nor advantageous, his
Rank being so near a-kin to Royalty, that he would be never the better for
the Title. But the Elector had the refusal of the Arm-chair too much at
heart to hearken to any Reasons that could be brought against his Design,
and sent _Dankelman_, his Minister’s Brother, to _Vienna_, to impart to
the Emperor the Scheme which he had form’d to erect _Prussia_ into a

_Prussia_, which is a Province detach’d from _Poland_, formerly belong’d
to the _Lithuanians_, from whom it was conquer’d by the _Teutonic_ Order.
_Albert_ Margrave of _Brandenburg_, the Grand Master of the said Order,
who had marry’d _Dorothy_, Daughter of _Frederic_ I. King of _Denmark_,
took it from those Knights in 1511, and made himself Master of it. This
engag’d him in a War with _Sigismond_ I. King of _Poland_, his Uncle by
the Mother’s side, who had Pretensions upon the said Province; which War
continu’d five Years, till it was concluded by a Treaty, whereby it was
stipulated, That the Eastern _Prussia_ shou’d remain hereditary with the
Title of a Duchy to _Albert_, who, together with his Descendants shou’d
perform Allegiance and Homage for it to the King and Republic of _Poland_,
to which it was to revert on the failure of Issue Male in the Family of

The Emperor _Charles_ V. oppos’d this Transaction, by pretending that
_Prussia_ was a Fief of the Empire; and that therefore _Sigismond_ had no
Right to dispose of it. The Imperial Decree which was pass’d upon this
Occasion, had however no Effect, by reason of the Wars which the Emperor
was at that time engag’d in, and _Albert_ remain’d in peaceable Possession
of _Prussia_. He was succeeded by his only Son _Albert-Frederic_, who
receiv’d the Investiture of it from the King of _Poland_, for himself and
his Cousin-Germans in 1569. This Prince dying without Issue, _John
Sigismond_ Elector of _Brandenburg_ succeeded him, and again receiv’d the
Investiture of it from the King of _Poland_, for himself and his three
Brothers. Since that time the Duchy of _Prussia_ has always been
in the _Brandenburg_ Family from Father to Son; but the Elector
_Frederic-William_ the Great, having made War upon _Charles-Gustavus_ King
of _Sweden_, in favour of the Crown and Republic of _Poland_, the
Sovereignty of _Prussia_ was, in Acknowledgment thereof, yielded to him,
for himself and all his Male Descendants, by the Treaty of _Bydgost_ in

By virtue of this Treaty, the Elector claim’d that _Prussia_ depended on
no other Power; and that he held it immediately by Divine Right; and upon
this Plea he thought himself authoriz’d to be declar’d King. But before he
took this Step, it was necessary to secure the Consent of a Part, at
least, of the Princes of the Empire. As the Emperor’s Consent was not only
the most important, but the most difficult to obtain, the whole stress of
the Negociation lay almost at the Court of _Vienna_.

When _Dankelman_ arriv’d there, he did not find the Court in a Temper to
grant it. The august Title of a King conferr’d upon an Elector, was at
first thought to be prejudicial to the Imperial Authority, and it was
look’d upon as exposing of that Dignity, to acquiesce in the Elector’s
Demand before they had at least felt the Pulses of the Generality of the
Princes of _Europe_, and especially those of the Empire. ’Twas but
reasonable to imagine the Pope would oppose it strenuously upon the score
of the Protestant Religion, which by the Elector’s Advancement might
gather fresh Strength. All Kings in general were interested not to suffer
an Instance which had a seeming Tendency to authorize every Prince to take
the same Step, on the single Pretence of being possess’d of a Bit of Land,
and holding it of no Power but God. But the Persons from whom the
greatest Objections were expected, were the Electors; and indeed they had
reason to fear, 1. That when the Elector of _Brandenburg_ came to be a
King, he wou’d no longer look upon them as his Equals, but wou’d claim
certain Distinctions from them in the Empire and in the Dyets. 2. That he
would withdraw the Dominions of his Electorate from the Obedience of the
Empire, and from the Laws to which all the other Electors were subject.
This Article was of the utmost consequence to them, especially with regard
to the Contingent they are oblig’d to furnish towards Wars which concern
the Empire, and which are the more burthensome, the fewer Heads they fall

These being then the Notions of the Court of _Vienna_, _Dankelman_ had no
great Hopes of succeeding in his Negociation. Nevertheless the Court
always took care to keep fair with the Elector, whom they look’d upon as
an Ally that was well worth preserving; and perhaps they flatter’d
themselves they should get more by Promises and Expectations than by
granting him his Demand.

The Death of _John Sobieski_ King of _Poland_, which happen’d on the 17th
of _June_ 1696, was another Inducement to the Emperor to pursue the same
Politics. The Elector of _Brandenburg_ by having _Prussia_ in his
Neighbourhood, might be of great Weight in the Election of a new King of
_Poland_; and the Emperor who had a Design to advance the Margrave _Lewis_
of _Baden_ to the Throne, pretended to enter into the Views of the
Elector, that this Prince might afterwards fall in with his at the Dyet of
Election. For this end the Emperor’s Ministers gave _Dankelman_ to
understand, that the first thing to be done was to clear the Difficulties
which the several Powers of _Europe_ might raise against the Elector’s
Project; and that the Congress of _Ryswic_, at which all the Ministers
were to be present, was the most favourable Opportunity.

Hereupon _Dankelman_ was recall’d from the Court of _Vienna_, and sent to
_Ryswic_ as Plenipotentiary from the Elector, jointly with M. _de
Schmettau_. The Elector for his part set out for _Konigsberg_, the Capital
of _Prussia_, that he might be nearer at hand to favor the Election of the
Margrave _Lewis_ of _Baden_. Mean time he was strenuously sollicited in
favor of _Alexander_ and _Constantine_ Princes of _Poland_, who for that
reason came themselves to _Berlin_; but the Elector was far from breaking
the secret Engagements which he had made with the Emperor: Therefore he
answer’d the Solicitations of those two Princes in a very ambiguous
manner, by engaging himself to nothing, and only telling them that he was
going into _Prussia_ that he might be the better inform’d of every thing
that pass’d at the Dyet of Election.

The Necessity which the Elector stood in of _Poland_ to succeed in his
Views, laid him under an indispensible Obligation to concern himself in
that Election. He fully expected that the Right which the said Republic
claim’d to _Prussia_ wou’d induce it to oppose his Designs with Vigor; and
besides, under the Pretext of interesting himself in the Election of a
King, he might form a Party that hereafter would be capable to serve him;
therefore, as soon as he arriv’d at _Konigsberg_, he dispatch’d a
Messenger to the Cardinal _Radziowsky_ Primate of _Poland_, to acquaint
him of his Arrival, and sent M. _Dorerbeck_ Great Cup-bearer of _Prussia_
as his Ambassador to the Dyet of Election, with Orders to support the
Interests of the Margrave _Lewis_ of _Baden_, but in the mean time to do
nothing that might disoblige the _Poles_.

The Margrave _Lewis_ of _Baden_ was soon out of the Question; for the two
strongest Parties oblig’d him to retire, as well as the other Competitors
for the Crown. These two Parties were the one for _Frederic-Augustus_
Elector of _Saxony_, and the other for the Prince of _Conti_. The Cardinal
Primate favor’d the latter, and _France_ seem’d to have his Election very
much at heart; yet _Frederic-Augustus_’s Party carried it, and he was
proclaim’d King.

The Cardinal Primate was still obstinate for the Prince of _Conti_, and
actually sent one of his near Relations to the Elector to sollicit him in
his Favor; but the Elector, who thought the Elector of _Saxony_’s Party
the most substantial and the most powerful, did not scruple to own him for
King, and return’d for Answer to the Cardinal, That he advis’d him, as the
Chief Pastor of _Poland_, to maintain Peace in his Flock, and to submit to
the Elector of _Saxony_. Nevertheless the Primate stood out stiffly, and
form’d a Party in _Poland_, considerable enough to give the new King
Uneasiness. The Elector still persevering in his Views to make himself
necessary to _Poland_, return’d next year to _Konigsberg_, in hopes of
appeasing the Disturbances rais’d there by the two different Parties.
_Kolbe_, who was not yet Count of _Wartemberg_, but only Great
Chamberlain, made a Journey to _Warsaw_ for this purpose, on the part of
the Elector, and complimented the King on his Accession to the Crown. The
King in his Turn sent the Count _de Bilinsky_ Great Chamberlain of the
Crown to the Elector, to compliment him on his Arrival at _Konigsberg_,
and there to negociate an Interview betwixt them. The Elector wish’d for
it too heartily to refuse it, and _Fredericshoss_, one of his
Pleasure-houses, was chose for the place of Meeting. There every thing
pass’d, as is common upon those Occasions; a great deal of Business was
talk’d of, and referred to the Ministers for Conclusion. The two Princes
made each other magnificent Presents, and exchang’d all the Tokens of the
sincerest Friendship. This Union seem’d still increasing by the Sale which
the King of _Poland_ made this year to the Elector of the Fee for
protecting the Abbey-Town of _Quedlimbourg_, which no Elector of _Saxony_
would ever part with before, whatsoever Instances were made to them by the
Family of _Brandenburg_. The Elector had less Reason than any of his
Predecessors to hope for Success in this Affair. _Poland_, besides the
Pleas of Interest, had others of Resentment; and this Prince’s Conduct in
the affair of _Elbing_ bid fair to set the King and the Elector at
variance. The Dispute was about a Demand of 400,000 Crowns which the
Elector made upon _Poland_, for the Expences of the War, which his Father,
_Frederic-William_ the Great, had carry’d on in favor of the Republic
against _Charles_ XI. King of _Sweden_. The King of _Poland_ in the
Interview at _Fredericshoff_ had promis’d to persuade the Republic to pay
that Sum. The Elector whose Patience was worn out in Expectation of the
Performance, notwithstanding the many Reasons he had to keep fair with
_Poland_, caused the City of _Elbing_, which had been mortgag’d to him for
that Sum, to be invested. And M. _de Brantz_, my Uncle, who was
Lieutenant-General, was sent upon this Expedition, at the Head of a Body
of 12000 Men.

The _Poles_ no sooner heard of it but they made a very great Clamor, and
the King complain’d loudly of the Elector’s Proceeding, who being, _said
he_, his Cousin, his Friend, and Ally, ought to have had more Regard for
him. ’Twas at least after this manner that he express’d himself in the
Circular Letters, which he wrote to assemble the Nobility of _Poland_. But
the Elector went on still his own way, and the City of _Elbing_ was taken
before the _Poles_ had so much as a Thought of defending it. As soon as
the King of _Poland_ was told of it, he ordered the Elector’s Resident to
depart the City of _Thorn_ in 24 Hours, and the Kingdom without Delay. M.
_de Reitwitz_, Envoy of _Poland_ to the Elector, fearing the same
Treatment, was absent from Court for a Fortnight; but return’d then,
causing his Appearance to be notify’d to the Ministers, not as Envoy from
the King of _Poland_, but as Envoy from the Elector of _Saxony_. By this
piece of Management ’tis plain that the King of _Poland_ did not take the
Affair of _Elbing_ so much to heart as he seem’d to do; and some time
after the Matter was accommodated; the Elector consenting to lose one
fourth of the Debt, and the _Poles_ promising to pay the rest at the
Expiration of three Months, and depositing their King’s Crown for
Security. The Elector on his part restor’d _Elbing_ on condition
nevertheless, that he should have it again at the three Month’s end, if
the 300,000 Crowns were not then paid. This Affair has ever since remain’d
_in statu quo_: The _Poles_ are still Debtors for that Sum, and the
Elector contents himself with detaining the Crown, which is still at
_Berlin_, in the Gallery over the great Stables, where ’tis kept in a
Case, seal’d with the Seal of the Kingdom of _Poland_.

Mean time the Peace of _Ryswic_ was just sign’d, and sooner than expected,
by reason _France_ receded from several Pretensions; which every body
knows she was induc’d to do from the View she had at that time to the
_Spanish_ Succession, and to that end it was absolutely necessary for her
to make a Peace with that Power and to disarm the Allies. Consequently
Messieurs _Dankelman_ and _Schmettau_ had no time to push the Negociation
of the Affair of _Prussia_ any farther; nevertheless they acted with the
_Dutch_ to some purpose.

The Elector had sent _Bartholdi_ to _Vienna_ in the place of _Dankelman_,
and M. _Blaspiel_ to _Dusseldorff_ to the Elector _Palatine_, whom he
thought proper to treat with extraordinary Regard, as well upon his own
Account, as with relation to the Empress his Sister who had a very great
Ascendant over the Emperor.

_Bartholdi_ when he arriv’d at _Vienna_ found the Court in the very same
Disposition as it was in the time of _Dankelman_. There was a great shew
of Good-will, but no Advance made; for the Emperor’s Ministers were never
at a loss for a Reason to defer coming to the Point. The Republic of
_Poland_ furnish’d very cogent ones too, by the Protestations it made
against every Step taken towards erecting _Prussia_ into a Kingdom, on
pretence that it formerly belong’d to the Republic, and that the _Poles_
only suffer’d it to fall to the House of _Brandenburg_, on condition of
its reverting to them on the Failure of Issue Male in that Family. The
Emperor said he could not help having Regard to those Protestations, the
Alliance which he had been in for a long time with the Republic being
become much firmer since the raising the Siege of _Vienna_, when _John
Sobiesky_ at the Head of the _Poles_ so effectually reliev’d it.
_Bartholdi_ being dishearten’d with all these Delays, began to despair of
the Success of the Negociation. He flatter’d himself for a while that the
languishing State of _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, which presag’d his
approaching Death, and the cruel War between the Houses of _Austria_ and
_Bourbon_, on account of the _Spanish_ Succession, would promote the
Success of his Master’s Designs; and that the State Policy which at that
Juncture oblig’d the Emperor to strengthen himself with Allies, would make
him chuse to retain in his Party a Prince so powerful and so necessary to
his Interests as the Elector. But _Bartholdi_ was deceiv’d; and whether
the Court of _Vienna_ flatter’d itself that the Elector wou’d never
venture to take the part of _France_, or whether they thought it more
nearly concern’d them to humor the Powers that oppos’d the Elector’s
Views, they had always some fresh Pretence or other to trump up.

_Bartholdi_ cou’d not avoid giving an Account to the Elector his Master of
what he thought of these continual Delays, and he told him there was no
manner of Reason to hope that the Emperor would recognize him for King
before he was sure of the Consent of the Pope, and of all the Princes of
the Empire; that it was easy to see this was only a civil Excuse that the
Emperor made use of for his Refusal, rather than to make him his Enemy;
and that the Case was really so desperate, that he knew of but one
Stratagem to make use of before he retir’d; and that was that he shou’d
write with his own Hand to the Prince of ----, who, said _Bartholdi_, was
the only Person in the World to induce the Emperor to be more favorable.
His Dispatch was written in a Cypher, and the Secretary who decypher’d it,
thought he met with the Name of the Emperor’s Confessor, instead of that
of the Prince of ----. The Elector approv’d of his Minister’s Hint, and
wrote immediately to the Confessor, who happen’d to be a Jesuit. This
Reverend Father was overjoy’d to find himself courted by one of the
greatest Protestant Princes, and promising himself that he should reap
considerable Advantages for his Society, from the Success of a Negociation
which the Elector had so much at heart, and in which two of his most able
Ministers had already miscarried, he made no scruple to undertake it.

As soon as he began to meddle with it, it assum’d a new Face; the Court of
_Rome_ made but a faint Opposition to it: That of _Vienna_ being alarmed
at the News they received from the Count _de Harrach_ their Ambassador at
_Madrid_, of the bad State of the King of _Spain_’s Health, and of the
_Spaniards_ Byass for the Duke of _Anjou_, became more tractable; and the
very Reasons that _Bartholdi_ urg’d in vain, began to be relish’d when
they were represented by the Confessor. This Jesuit convinc’d the Emperor,
that as he was resolv’d to dispute the Succession to the Crown of _Spain_
with _France_, such an Ally as the Elector would give great Weight to
either of the two Parties that he fell in with. The Confessor’s Arguments
were applauded by some, and faintly rejected by others; so that the
Father, by craftily taking advantage of the Good-Will of the latter, and
of the Lethargy of the former, brought the Affair of _Prussia_ in less
than two Month’s Time to the Point of a happy Conclusion.

While such effectual Endeavors were us’d for the Elector at the Court of
_Vienna_, his Interest was as successfully manag’d with the King of
_England_. The Electoress, together with her Mother the Electoress of
_Hanover_, went to pay him a Visit at _Aix la Chapelle_; and in that
Interview, these two Princesses prevail’d on King _William_ of _England_
to recognize the Elector of _Brandenburg_ for King of _Prussia_, and to
call the House of _Hanover_ to the Succession of the Crown of _England_.

One particular Circumstance in this Journey that prov’d of such Service to
the Elector’s Designs, and which many People look’d upon as a politic
Action, is, that it would not have been undertaken, had it not been for
the extreme Fondness of Madame _de Wartemberg_ to be admitted in the
Electoress’s Circle. This Princess upon the Intelligence she receiv’d that
her Mother the Electoress of _Hanover_ was going to _Aix la Chapelle_, was
very desirous to go with her, but she cou’d not hope to obtain the
Elector’s Consent to it, nor to have Money enough with her to bear her
Expences, if the Count _de Wartemberg_ oppos’d it; and therefore she
charg’d Madamoiselle _de Pollnitz_ my Cousin to speak to him about it. The
Count _de Wartemberg_ promis’d not only to obtain the Elector’s Consent,
but also to give the Electoress an Order at large to take up any Sums of
Money that she should want, provided that Princess would on her part only
acknowledge the Favor, by granting his Wife the Honor of Admittance to her
Circle. The Electoress had this Journey so much at heart, because she knew
it wou’d give her the Pleasure of seeing a Mother whom she tenderly
lov’d, as well as a Freedom, for some time at least, from the Constraint
she was oblig’d to live in at _Berlin_, that she consented to the Count’s
Demand. Madame _de Wartemberg_ was admitted to the Circle, and all the
Mortification the Electoress gave her, was always to talk to her in
_French_, which being a Language she did not understand, plainly shew’d
the Obscurity of the Countess’s Birth; for at that Time all Persons of any
Rank or Figure convers’d in that Language commonly at our Court. The
Electoress’s Condescension upon this Occasion is the only thing for which
she was to blame; for ’twas a Precedent which gave others Authority to
desire the same Favor; and to this may be said to be owing the unequal
Matches which several of the Nobility made afterwards.

The Count _de Wartemberg_, in order to obtain the Elector’s Consent, gave
him to understand that the Princess his Consort cou’d do more than any
body to prevail with the King of _England_ to recognize him for King. This
was touching him in the most sensible part; and therefore he made no
Scruple to let the Electoress go, who went and met her Mother at _Aix la
Chapelle_, and from thence they set out afterwards for _Brussels_. There
they stay’d a few days, in order to disguise the Motives of their Journey,
and from thence they went to _Loo_, where the King of _England_ was. They
each obtain’d of the Prince what they went to ask him; the House of
_Hanover_ was soon after call’d to the Succession of the Crown of
_England_, and the King gave his Promise, that as soon as the Emperor had
own’d the Elector King of _Prussia_, he wou’d be one of the first to
follow his Example.

As soon as the News reach’d _Vienna_ that the King of _England_ had
promis’d to recognize the Elector of _Brandenburg_ King of _Prussia_, the
remaining Difficulties were soon got over; the Protestations of the
Republic of _Poland_ were superseded, and the Emperor declar’d at length
that he own’d _Prussia_ for a Kingdom, and the Elector of _Brandenburg_
for King; on condition however,

1. That the Elector should never withdraw from the Empire the Provinces of
his Dominions thereon depending.

2. That in the Emperor’s Presence he should require no other Distinctions
than those which he actually enjoy’d now.

3. That his Imperial Majesty when he wrote to him should only give him the
Title of your _Royal Dilection_.

4. That nevertheless his Ministers at _Vienna_ should be treated on a Par
with those of Crown’d Heads.

5. That the Elector should maintain six thousand Men in _Italy_ at his own
expence, in case the Emperor should be oblig’d to go to War for the
_Spanish_ Succession.

6. That those Troops should remain there as long as the War continu’d.

Thus, Madame, after tedious delays the Court of _Vienna_ consented at last
to the Success of this great Event, which after all ow’d its cause to the
refusal of an Arm-chair, and its issue to the mistake of a Secretary.
Nevertheless it did not fail to cost the Elector six Millions, of which
the Jesuits of _Vienna_ had 200,000 Crowns to their share.

This agreeable News was scarce arriv’d at _Berlin_ when they heard of the
Death of the King of _Spain_, which happen’d the 1st of _November_, 1700.
His Death was notify’d to the Elector by M. _Desalleurs_, Envoy of
_France_ to our Court, as was also the Will whereby the Duke of _Anjou_
was call’d to the Succession of all the late King’s Dominions. The Elector
had entered into such Engagements with the Emperor, that he could not own
him; for which reason the King of _France_ recall’d M. _Desalleurs_, and
likewise refus’d to acknowledge the Elector for King, who in his turn
recall’d M. _Spanheim_, and sent him to _England_ with the Title of

The Elector was so urgent to be crown’d, that he hasten’d to _Konigsberg_,
the capital City of _Prussia_, without staying for the fine Season of the
Year; having fix’d on the 17th of _December_ for his Departure thither
with the whole Court. My Mother would also have been one of the Company,
but she was too far gone with Child. She was now marry’d to her third
Husband, who was the Count _de Wesen_; and the Nuptials were perform’d at
_Konigsberg_ in 1698, when the Elector was there about the Election of the
King of _Poland_. This was a Match, in the making of which, neither Love
nor Interest had the least share: M. _de Wesen_, tho’ come of a very good
Family in the Duchy of _Zell_, was Heir but to a very small Estate, and
that he was obliged to divide with a great many Brothers; and my Mother
before he marry’d her had never so much as spoke to him, nor had she seen
him but while he was in the Office of Chief Steward. The Elector himself
made the Match at the solicitation of Madame _de Wartemberg_ who had a
very great kindness for M. _Wesen_ formerly, and perhaps had so still, and
by helping him to a rich Widow, she was willing to make him a recompence
for the Respect he had paid to her. There was no necessity of using
powerful Arguments with the Elector, to engage him to bring this Match
about. It was his Foible to make Matches, and were they good or bad,
provided he saw the Weddings, ’twas all alike to him. Consequently, as
soon as Madame _de Wartemberg_ had proposed this Marriage to him, he
promis’d to mention it himself to my Mother; nay, more than that, he came
to her House and made the Proposal. My Mother desir’d to be excus’d,
saying to his Highness, that she had been already married twice, that she
had two Sons by her first Husband, and that she did not care to hazard
their Interests and her own Peace by engaging herself in Matrimony a third
time. The Elector made her answer, that he would have it so, and that her
Children, so far from Losers, should be Gainers by it, because he would
take care of them. He added that he would allow her twenty-four Hours time
to consider of it, and then he left her, forbidding her to stir to the
Door, and promising to come and see her again next day, in order to have
her Answer. He then went into my Grandmother’s Chamber, and said so many
fine things to her, in favor of the Son-in-Law he had in his eye for her,
that she was for it by all means.

My Mother continued very wavering till next day, when the Elector return’d
as he had promis’d: And as ’tis not an easy matter to resist the Orders of
one’s Sovereign, my Mother, tho’ still against a new Engagement in her
heart, seemed however to consent to the Marriage, which in a few days
after was celebrated, and honour’d with the presence of the Elector, who
had the goodness to assure my Brother and me that it should not be the
worse for us. Mean time all my Relations exclaim’d against my Mother, and
when she return’d to _Berlin_ not a Soul of them went to see her. My
Grandmother by my Father’s side was loudest in her Complaint; for her
great Age and the Honour she had of attending the late Electoress, Mother
to the Elector, made her take the freedom to tell that Prince her mind.
She was in a passion with him even to a degree of Childishness, telling
him that it griev’d her to the heart that she was not strong enough to
twist the neck of the Man that he had given to her Daughter-in-Law for a
Husband. The Elector to pacify her, promis’d her that he would be such a
friend to M. _de Wesen_, that this Marriage instead of being a prejudice
should be an advantage to us. And as soon as he had left her, he declared
him Marshal of his Court.

This Office obliging my Father-in-law to follow the Prince in his Travels,
he left my Mother at _Berlin_, and carry’d me with him to _Konigsberg_, to
shew me the Ceremony of the Elector’s Coronation.

His Court was so numerous that upon the Road from _Berlin_ to
_Konigsberg_, which is reckon’d fourscore _German_ Miles, there were no
less than thirty thousand Hackney-Horses, besides those belonging to the
Stables of the King and Princes. The King, who was excessively fond of
Ceremony, omitted nothing that could be an addition to the splendor of his
Coronation. This Ceremony cost him immense Sums of Money, and convinc’d
Foreigners who came thither from a curiosity to see it, that our Court was
inferior to few others for Magnificence.

Tho’ one would think the preparations for such a solemn Festival must take
up a tedious deal of time, yet the King’s Impatience hurry’d them so fast
that every thing was ready by the eighteenth of _January_, about a
Fortnight after the Arrival of the Court. The Proclamation for erecting
_Prussia_ into a Kingdom was made two Days before the King’s Coronation,
with the sound of the Cannon, and all the Bells of the City, by four
Heralds at Arms in Mantles of blue Velvet with the Royal Arms thereon
embroider’d, and riding upon Horses richly accouter’d, the Housings being
of Silver-Brocade, sprinkled with Eagles and Coronets of Gold. They went
with a very numerous Train to the chief Quarters of the City, and there
made Proclamation in these terms:

_Whereas it has pleased the Divine Providence to erect this Sovereign
Duchy of +Prussia+ into a Kingdom, and to set up for our King the most
High and most Potent Prince +Frederic I.+ our gracious Sovereign; we have
thought fit to give notice thereof to the People of this Kingdom, that
they may say as we do, “Long live +Frederic+, our most Merciful and most
Gracious King! Long live +Sophia-Charlotte+, our most Gracious Queen.”_

The King to render the Ceremony of his Coronation still more august,
instituted the Day before[2] the Order of the _Black Eagle_, the Badges of
which are an Orange Ribband with a Cross hanging to it enamell’d with
Blue, in form of the Cross of _Malta_: In a Star of Silver which is
embroider’d upon the Coat, there is a black Eagle which gripes in one Claw
a Crown, and in the other a Scepter; and round the ’Scutcheon are these
words, _SUUM CUIQUE_, (i. e. to every one his own.) The principal
Statutes of this Order are, 1. That the Number of the Knights shall not
exceed thirty, exclusive of the Princes of the Royal Family, and Sovereign
Princes. 2. That the Knights shall prove their Nobility by sixteen
Descents. 3. That they shall promise to be just, chaste, and to protect
and support Widows and Orphans, according to their motto, _Suum cuique_.

Tho’ it was contrary to custom, to install the Knights before the
Coronation, the King was not so scrupulous as to conform to it, foreseeing
that the Ceremony of his Coronation receiv’d a new Lustre from this
Foundation. Nevertheless the Knights and Officers of the Order had then no
other Badges but the Ribband and Star embroider’d on their Clothes; and
’twas not till two Years after that the King gave to the new Knights, for
days of Ceremony, a Dress consisting of a Vest of Cloth of Gold, with
another over it of Sky-blue Velvet, reaching down to the Mid-leg, with a
Lining of Straw-color, and ty’d under the Cravat with yellow Ribbands, the
Tassels of which hang down to the Knees. Their Sash is of Straw-color’d
Velvet, embroider’d with Gold. Their Mantle is also of Straw-color’d
Velvet, lin’d with Gold-Mohair, and over it is a Collar of Gold enamell’d
with blue, forming these two Letters _F. R._ to signify _Fredericus Rex_:
This is call’d the Grand Collar of the Order. The Knights wear black
Velvet Caps on their Heads, with white Plumes of Feathers. The King’s
Habit differs not from that of the Knights; but the Habits of the Grand
Master of the Ceremonies, the Secretary, and the Treasurer, differ in that
they only wear over their common Clothes full Gowns of Straw-color’d
Velvet, with an Orange-color’d Lining, and upon them the Cross of the
Order, fasten’d only by an Orange-color’d Ribband that hangs to their

The King at the first Promotion, or rather on the day that he instituted
the Order, created the full number of Knights, prescribed by the Statutes.
He also gave the Ribband of the Order to the Electoral Prince his Son, and
to his two Brothers the Margraves _Christian_ and _Albert_. The Margrave
_Philip_ staying behind at _Berlin_ to govern in the King’s Absence, the
Ribband was sent to him by a Gentleman of the Bed-chamber.

On the Coronation-day, about nine in the Morning the King was dressed by
the great Chamberlain, attended by all the Officers of the Bed-chamber.
His Coat was Scarlet embroider’d with Gold, and brilliant Diamonds were
his Buttons. Over that, he had a Royal Mantle of Crimson-Velvet, lin’d and
turn’d up with Ermin, which was fasten’d to his Breast by a Clasp of three
Diamonds. As soon as the King was dressed he went into a Hall in his
Apartment, where a Throne had been erected, on each side of which, there
lay on two Tables of Silver the Royal Ornaments that were to serve the
King and Queen. The King being seated on his Throne, ordered they should
be brought to him, and they were accordingly presented to him on the Knee.
Having the Crown in his Hand, he put it himself on his Head, and then
taking the Sceptre in his right Hand and the Royal Globe in his left, in
that posture he receiv’d the first Homages of the Prince Royal and of the
Margraves, who bent one Knee before him. After this the King arose and
went to the Queen’s Apartment, preceded by the Knights of the Order, the
two Margraves, the Prince Royal, and the Noblemen that carried the Regalia
design’d for the Queen.

Her Majesty was dress’d in a Purple Gown, and a Royal Mantle like the
King’s. She was dress’d in her own Nut-brown Hair without any Powder,
which in conjunction with the Lustre of the Diamonds gave her an Air still
more noble and majestic. As soon as she perceiv’d the King, who met her at
the entrance of his Chamber, she fell on her knees, in which situation the
King embrac’d her, and with his own Hands set the Crown upon her Head. She
took the Scepter and Globe from the hands of the Lords who carried them,
and the King raising her up she follow’d him into his Apartment, where she
also receiv’d the Homage of the Prince Royal and the Margraves, in the
same manner as they had perform’d them to the King.

Their Majesties went afterwards to Church with all the Pomp and
Magnificence, (I dare to say it) of the ancient Kings of _Asia_. The King
walk’d under a Canopy of Silver-Brocade embroider’d with Gold borne by ten
_Prussian_ Lords of the first Quality, and at some distance came the Queen
under another Canopy like to that of the King. The Grand Chamberlain held
up the Train of the King’s Mantle, and the Queen’s was born by the Duchess
of _Holstein_, and the Ladies _Stingland_ and _Bulau_, the one Lady of
Honour to the Queen, and the other having the first Reversion of that
Office. The Duke of _Holstein_ officiated as Great Master of her Houshold;
and the Princess of _Holstein_ walk’d at the head of the Court-Ladies.
Their Majesties were receiv’d by the two Bishops that were to perform the
Ceremony of the Coronation, who were dress’d in purple Velvet, after the
_English_ mode, and had for their Assistants six Ministers, three of them
_Calvinists_ and three _Lutherans_. They conducted the King and Queen to
their Thrones which had been erected on the two sides of the Altar, the
King’s on the Right, and the Queen’s on the Left. Tho’ there is no Altar
in the _Calvinist_ Churches, the King had one, and had actually made a
present of a magnificent Crucifix to be plac’d upon it, in order to shew
how much he wish’d the Union of the two Protestant Churches.

The Prince Royal seated himself a little behind the King towards the Right
on a Folding-chair, with his Governor the Count _de Dobna_ behind him: The
Margraves also sate in two Folding-chairs on both sides of the Queen. The
Duke and Duchess of _Holstein_, and the Ladies _Stingland_ and _Bulau_,
sate upon Stools immediately behind the Queen. The Princess of _Holstein_
was also placed upon a Stool, but a little farther off. On both sides of
the Altar two Galleries were erected, the one for the Duchess of
_Courland_ the King’s Sister, the young Duke her Son, and the three
Princesses her Daughters-in-Law, the other for the Ambassadors and Foreign

When the King was to receive the sacred Unction, he went and kneel’d at
the foot of the Altar, gave the Globe and Sceptre to the Lords who had
before carried them, took off his Crown with his own hands, which he
plac’d on a Cushion like to that on which he kneel’d, and then receiv’d
three Unctions, one on the Forehead, and the two others on his Wrists. The
Great Chamberlain dried up the Oil with Cotton and Linnen, which one of
the Ministers presented to him on a Plate of Gold. After this the King
took his Crown again which no other hand had touch’d, and plac’d it
himself on his head; and having also taken the Sceptre and Globe again, he
went and replac’d himself on his Throne. The same Ceremonies were
observ’d at the Anointing of the Queen, with this difference only, that
she all the while kept the Crown on her Head, and that Madame _Stingland_,
her Lady of Honour, dried up the Oil.

This done, the two Bishops with the six Ministers pay’d the first Homage
to both the King and Queen. The Bishop at Consecration said to the King,
_May Blessing and Prosperity attend_ FREDERIC KING OF PRUSSIA! _May the
Lord, the God of our King say the same! May he continue his Presence with
him as he has done hitherto, to the end that his Royal Throne may
aggrandize his Power from day to day._

The same Bishop said to the Queen, _May Blessing and Prosperity attend_
SOPHIA-CHARLOTTA QUEEN OF PRUSSIA! _May the Lord our God preserve her for
a Token of his Blessing to her People, and may she from this time forward
see Prosperity and Salvation spread ever her Royal Family, and over her
Children, in the Peace of_ Israel!

While the Music as it were repeated these same words, the Prince Royal and
the Margraves went and paid their Homage also to the King and Queen,
kneeling on the last Step of their Throne and kissing their Hands. The
Homage of the other Nobility only consisted in their making a profound
Obeysance without stirring out of their places.

The Bishop who had perform’d the Consecration, turning about to the
People, said with a loud Voice, _Fear God and honour your King and your
Queen, for their Power cometh from the Lord who hath created Heaven and
Earth. May the same Lord vouchsafe to be their Guide and Guardian! May he
cover them with his Shadow, that the Heat of the Sun and the Rays of the
Moon, may never hurt their Sight! May the Lord keep them from all Evil?
save their Souls, and go in and out before them with Blessing, till Time
Shall be no more._ After some other Prayers, the King renew’d the Edicts
against Duels, and swore to observe them upon the Holy Gospels. And
therewith ended this long Ceremony.

The King had all the reason in the World to be pleased with it, by reason
of the exactness with which every one perform’d his Function, which was a
thing hardly to have been expected in a Ceremony that was quite new to the
Performers; but they so well knew his delicacy in every matter of
Ceremony, and the Emulation they had to please him in this Taste was such,
that the most consummate Experience could not have acquitted itself

The Queen herself was the only Person that got a reprimand, and that was
by her taking some Snuff. Her Throne being over-against the King’s, she
watch’d a long time for an opportunity, and when she thought his Majesty
did not observe her she stole out her Snuff-Box. The King happening to
turn his Eyes towards her the very same moment, she would fain have
conceal’d it, but his Majesty’s Countenance was so fix’d on her that she
was convinc’d he perceiv’d it; and indeed this Prince who was upon this
occasion not to be trifled with, immediately order’d one of his Gentlemen
who was behind him to go and ask the Queen in his Name, _Whether she
remember’d the Place where she was, and the Rank she held there_.

The King and Queen going out of the Church caus’d Gold and Silver Medals
to the value of ten thousand Crowns to be scatter’d among the People,
which had on one side their Effigies with these words, _FREDERICUS ET
SOPHIA-CHARLOTTA, REX ET REGINA_; and on the reverse a Crown with these

The Ceremonies at the Royal Feast which follow’d, were not much short of
those at the Coronation. It was kept in the great Hall of the Palace, to
which the King and Queen repair’d almost with the same Train, and in the
same order as they had observ’d going to Church.

When they were seated at Table, their Majesties return’d their Sceptres
and Globes into the hands of the Lords who had the Honour of carrying them
before. These Lords then plac’d themselves at each side of the Table, and
remain’d there during the whole Feast. The Prince Royal, the two Margraves
and the Duchess of _Courland_ the King’s Sister, were the only Persons
that had the honour of dining with their Majesties. Of all the Ceremonies
that were observ’d there, the two following are what I have no where seen
but in _Germany_. As soon as the King and Queen had taken their Seats at
Table, the two Grand Marshals went out of the Hall into the Courtyard of
the Palace, and from thence rode on horseback to the great Stables
attended by Kettle-drums, Trumpets, and a great many Officers of the
King’s Kitchen. There they found a whole Ox roasting on a Spit and stuff’d
with all sorts of Wild-fowl, of which they cut off a piece and carry’d it
in a Gold Dish to their Majesties Table.

After this, the Great Cup-Bearer went with the like Train to the same
Stables, where there were two Fountains of Wine running from the Beaks of
two Eagles. Of this he fill’d a gold Goblet, and went and presented it to
the King. His Majesty having taken it and return’d it to him, he presented
it afterwards to the Queen, who return’d it to him in like manner; and
then he carry’d it to the great Beaufet, which was set up at the other end
of the Room over-against the King’s Table. As often as the King or Queen
drank, nine Cannon were fired; six when the Prince Royal drank, and three
whenever the Margraves and the Duchess of _Courland_ drank.

This Repast held a very long time, yet none of the Courtiers sate down to
Table till their Majesties were retir’d to their Apartments. About nine
o’clock at Night all the Bells in the City were rung, and the Noise of the
Cannon added to that of the Kettle-drums and Trumpets, serv’d as a signal
for the Bonfires that were lighted in all the Cross-streets. The Burghers
illuminated the Fronts of their Houses. Some of the most substantial had
also erected Triumphal Arches before their Houses, with Emblems and
Devices; others let Wine run for the Populace, and in short there was no
Burgher but strove to signalize their Joy some way or other.

Their Majesties being desirous to honour the public Rejoicings with their
presence, went into the Streets about ten o’clock in a magnificent Coach,
accompanied by all their Courtiers on horseback. When they came before the
Town-House they were harangu’d by the chief Burgo-Master, who presented
them with a Collation in Panniers of Silver, after which they pass’d by
the House of the Duke of _Holstein_ Governour of _Konigsberg_. The Front
of the House represented the Temple of Glory; the Duke’s Gentlemen
represented the Priests of the Temple, and threw Amber and Incense into
the Coals which were upon the Altar; the Duke’s Children, who were eight
in number, were dressed like Shepherds and Shepherdesses, and as the King
and Queen pass’d by, the eldest presented them with a Basket of Flowers,
and pronounc’d some Verses to them in the _German_ Language, expressing
the Vows which all the People made for the duration of their Prosperity.
Their Majesties, after stopping some time before this House, return’d to
the Palace.

Throughout all the King’s Dominions there were the like Demonstrations of
Joy, and the Coronation-day was celebrated every where like a Sunday. The
King and Queen spent the whole Carnival at _Konigsberg_, where they
receiv’d the Count _de Tobianski_ the Great Cup-bearer of _Poland_, who
came as Ambassador from the King his Master, to congratulate their
Majesties on their Coronation. It must be observed in the mean time, that
the Republic of _Poland_ never recogniz’d the King of _Prussia_’s Royalty,
tho’ two of its Kings, _viz._ the Elector of _Saxony_, and King
_Stanislaus_ four years after recogniz’d him by their Ambassadors.

The departure of the Court for _Berlin_ was fix’d for the eighth of
_March_. As the King had not yet made his entry at _Konigsberg_, the
Citizens entreated him to permit them to accompany him as far as the
limits of their Territory, which was granted them. Then several triumphal
Arches were erected, all the Streets were hung with Tapestry, and the King
set out from _Konigsberg_ attended by all the City Companies. His Majesty
rode on horseback, supported by two Equerries on foot. His Clothes were of
Crimson-Velvet lin’d with Ermin and embroider’d with Gold, and the Buttons
were of Diamonds. He had on his Hat a Loop and a Hat-band of Diamonds.
His Horse was most richly accouter’d: The Bit, Stirrups, and all the
Ornaments of the Bridle, were of massy Gold; the Housing of
Crimson-Velvet, all cover’d with Gold Embroidery and Diamonds. The Queen’s
Coach was also of extraordinary Magnificence. Her Majesty sate in it
accompanied only by the Duchess of _Courland_, who sate over-against her.

In short, they went out of _Konigsberg_ with all the Pomp and Apparatus
that us’d to attend Public Entrys. When their Majesties were got a quarter
of a League out of the Town, they alighted and went into their
Travelling-Coaches, and there they received the last Compliments which
were paid by the Echevins bare-headed and kneeling. Then the King and
Queen return’d into the City through another Gate, and staid in their
Palace till next day that they set out for _Berlin_.

The Court was oblig’d to go by the way of _Dantzic_, because of the sudden
Thaw of the _Weissel_, which render’d it impassable. The Magistrates of
_Dantzic_ immediately sent out Deputies to their Majesties, to intreat
them to permit their City to make a public Entry for them; but the King
thank’d them, and was not willing they should be at any expence.
Nevertheless at the Entrance of the Territory of _Dantzic_ two
Burgo-Masters, four Counsellors, and the Syndic of the Town, at the head
of the Youth on horseback, went and paid their Majesties a Compliment. He
that spoke was the chief Burgo-Master, who pray’d their Majesties to
suffer the City to defray their Expences, while they stay’d in their
Territory. The King and Queen alighted at a House erected on purpose for
their Reception, which was of Wood, and represented the Temple of Glory.
There their Majesties found a magnificent Collation and a very fine
Concert of Music. In other Rooms several Tables were set up for the
Gentlemen of his Retinue. The King and Queen having spent the Night there,
pass’d thro’ _Dantzic_ next day, and went over the _Weissel_, which at
that part of it was still frozen. Yet as there was cause to apprehend that
it was not froze hard enough to be pass’d with safety, the Magistrates, to
prevent any Accident, had cover’d the Ice with Straw, Beams and Planks;
and twenty-four young Men and as many Lasses, dressed like Sailors in
Jackets of Velvet and Sattin, assisted the King and Queen in their
passage; during which, the Girls presented them with Fish, Fruit,
Sweet-Meats and Flowers, and the young Sailors play’d to them on several
Instruments of Music. When their Majesties had passed the River, they
dismiss’d the Deputies of the City, and made them each a Present of a Gold
Chain and Medal, on which were their Effigies. On the seventeenth of
_March_ the King arriv’d at _Potzdam_[3], and the Queen at _Lutzelbourg_.
The King who had a Design to make a solemn Entry at _Berlin_, stay’d at
_Potzdam_ till the sixth of _May_, to give time for making the necessary
Preparations to receive him, and for the finishing one of the Fronts of
his Palace, which he wish’d might be compleated by that day.

Towards the latter end of _April_ the King set out from _Potzdam_ for
_Schonhausen_, where the Queen met him some days after, and there their
Majesties prepared to make their Entry into Berlin.

This Ceremony was perform’d with all the Pomp and Magnificence possible.
The City had caus’d seven Triumphal Arches to be erected; the Description
of one of those Arches may suffice to give an Idea of the Taste of our
Court for Entertainments of this kind. This Arch, which was at the Bars
entring the Suburb, seem’d to have been built by Gardeners. It was one
entire Green-house with Pillars and Pilasters, adorn’d with Flowers.
_Pomona_ and _Flora_ were seen to support the Pictures of the King and
Queen. The _Spring_, attended by the _Zephyrs_, presented them with Fruits
and Flowers, and a Row of Orange-Trees and Laurels in gilded Boxes lin’d
the Way from that Arch to St. _George_’s Gate, which has ever since that
Day been call’d the Royal Gate, because their Majesties enter’d thro’ it
into the Town.

Next day after their Entry the Deputies of the Provinces presented the
King with Free Gifts on his joyful Arrival, and the Margrave _Philip_
Grand Master of the Artillery, caus’d a Fire-work to be play’d off, which
represented the King’s Return to _Berlin_, by that of _Jason_, after the
Conquest of the Golden Fleece.

After some other Festivals of this nature, occasion’d by the public Joy,
the Court separated, when the King set out for _Oranjebourg_[4], and the
Queen to _Lutzelbourg_. The Prince Royal staid at _Berlin_ to finish his
Exercises. Care had been taken to form a numerous Court for him, of all
young Gentlemen of his own Age, of whom this young Prince had form’d two
Companies, of which himself commanded the first, and the Duke of
_Courland_ the second. I was of this second Company, and we went
sometimes to perform our Military Exercises at _Lutzelbourg_ before the
Queen, who lov’d to see the Prince her Son display the first Fruits of his
Military Genius. We also acted some Comedies before her; for the Princess
aim’d to inspire the Prince her Son with a delicate Taste, even in

’Twas at this time that a Storm arose at Court against the Count _de
Wartemberg_ Great Chamberlain, and lately declar’d Prime Minister, which
threaten’d his Ruin; but it spent itself upon those only who had rais’d
it. The principal Authors of the Cabal were the Count _de Lottum_, M.
----, and the Grand Marshal, who had been for a long time the Great
Chamberlain’s sworn Enemy. The Count _de Wesen_, my Father-in-law, was
pitch’d upon by these Gentlemen to raise the first Prejudices in the
King’s Mind against this Minister. I have had the Honor to acquaint you,
_Madame_, that the Countess _de Wartemberg_ always wish’d well to M. _de
Wesen_ of which the advantagious Match she had procur’d for him was a very
convincing Proof. One would have thought therefore after such great
Service, that he ought in Gratitude to have devoted himself entirely to
the Fortune of the Count her Husband. But my Father-in-law puff’d up by
the Choice which the Count’s Enemies had made of him, forgot his Duty and
his Interest, and accepted a Commission for the undertaking of which he
had in truth all the necessary Temerity, but not that Judgment nor that
Favor, which was absolutely requisite for conducting so ticklish an

The King had a real Love for M. _de Wartemberg_, yet he sometimes made him
feel his ill Humors. The Prince seem’d one day to be so angry with him,
and spoke of him to my Father-in-law with so much Resentment, that the
latter thought he had now a fair Opportunity to ruin the Count. He said to
the King, that the whole Court was surpriz’d at his extraordinary Kindness
to a Minister who every day abus’d his Name in the Oppression of the
People, and in the Commission of a thousand Acts of Injustice against his
faithful Servants; that his Rapines were excessive; and that his Wife’s
Extravagance was so great, that he could shew by the Accounts of the
Comptrollers of the Kitchen, that the Great Chamberlain’s Table cost more
than his Majesty’s. _I know very well_, added M. _de Wesen, that if the
Prime Minister should hear of what I have now had the Honor to say to your
Majesty, I am undone; but if I held my peace, I thought I should be
wanting in my Duty; and what I have asserted I am ready to prove._

The King heard what he said very attentively, and my Father-in-law was so
vain as to think he had made Impression enough upon him to strike M. _de
Wartemberg_ quite out of his Favor; but this shallow Statesman, my
Father-in-law, did not consider that a Prince who complains of his
Favorite is not always dispos’d to receive the ill Impressions that others
are ready to give of him. Whether the King therefore thought after this
manner, or whether he was shock’d at the Ingratitude of M. _de Wesen_, who
ow’d his Fortune to M. _de Wartemberg_, he told the Minister the
Conversation that had pass’d, but assur’d him that he did not give Credit
to the Report; and that if he pleas’d he would take a Revenge on the Man
that had made it.

The crafty Minister affected at that time an Air of Moderation, which cost
him the less Pains because he was an excellent Comedian. He said to the
King that he thought himself sufficiently reveng’d, by the little Heed his
Majesty gave to the scandalous Tales which his Enemies gave out against
him, and he desir’d his Majesty to pardon those who had offer’d to abuse
his Goodness, for the sake of oppressing him. Thus did he for a while
conceal the keenest Resentment under the Mask of the most forgiving
Temper; being resolv’d in his Heart to ruin those who had employ’d M. _de
Wesen_, tho’ they were protected by the Queen, but especially to make
their Tool feel all the Weight of his Vengeance.

A Journey which the King took to _Goltz_, one of his Hunting-Seats, near
the Fortress of _Custrin_, gave him a good Opportunity for it. Being alone
with the King in the same Coach, he put him so much out of conceit with M.
_de Wesen_, that when he arriv’d at _Goltz_, all that came to wait on him,
as he alighted out of the Coach, perceiv’d he was in an ill Humor.
Contrary to his usual custom, he spoke to no body, only he order’d my
Father-in-law to give his Attendance. When he had sat down, he scarce
touch’d the Bread, but he found fault with it, and complained of it to M.
_de Wesen_, as the Person who had the Direction of what came to his Table.
M. _de Wesen_ said to the King, That ’twas true the Bread was not as it
us’d to be, because the Carriage of the Pantry broke down by the way, and
the Baker came too late to Town to provide more. The King not well pleas’d
with this Answer, said, he was weary of being ill serv’d, and that he
expected every one shou’d do their Duty. At the same time he threw his
Napkin on the Ground. M. _de Wesen_ fetch’d another, and offer’d it to the
King, but he would not take it, and order’d him to be gone that Moment out
of his Presence. Two Hours after, M. _de Wesen_ was arrested by an Exempt
of the Life-Guards, who conducted him in his Coach under a Guard to
_Custrin_, the Capital of the New Marquisate, situate upon the _Oder_.
There my Father-in-law was kept as a State-Criminal, and the Minister sent
Orders to the Aulic Counsellor to go to my Mother’s House, and clap a Seal
upon her Husband’s Effects. She was at that time in the Country, and my
Brother happen’d to be at Church with our Governor, so that I was alone in
the House when those Gentlemen came to execute their Order. After they had
shew’d it to me, they ask’d me which was my Father-in-law’s Apartment,
that they might not be oblig’d to put the Seal upon every thing. I made no
scruple to shew it to them, and as they withdrew they left me a Writing
which was an Order to my Mother not to come to Court, nor to sollicite her
Husband’s Liberty. I sent immediately For my Governor, that he might go
with this disagreeable News to my Mother, whose Surprize was as great as
her Sorrow; for as she had an entire Love for her Husband, so she knew
nothing of his Intrigues against the Minister, to whom she thought he was
all along devoted. As the King’s Order tied up her Hands, and hinder’d her
from coming to Court, I was charg’d to do what I could there, to obtain my
Father-in-law’s Liberty.

One day as the Queen made an Entertainment at _Lutzelbourg_ for the King,
I presented a Petition to him, in my Mother’s Name, intreating him to
remove the Seal from her Effects, and the Guard from her House; and that
his Majesty would be pleas’d to appoint Commissioners to try her Husband;
to the end, that if guilty, he might be punish’d, or if innocent, that he
might be set at liberty. My Youth, and the Tears which I shed at the
Delivery of this Petition, melted the King’s Heart, who told me, That he
would do what my Mother desir’d, for her sake only; that he sympathiz’d in
her Affliction; but that her Husband had so justly provok’d him, that he
could not avoid making him sensible of his Indignation: That withal, he
was very glad to see me so good-natur’d, as to sollicite in favor of a Man
who he knew had not dealt well either by my Brother or me, notwithstanding
the Injunction he laid upon him, when he match’d him to my Mother. I made
him answer, that I had no reason to complain of my Father-in-law; and that
tho’ I had, my Mother’s extreme Concern of Mind for what had happen’d,
wou’d be a sufficient Motive for me to sollicite his Liberty. _I commend
you_ said the King, _for these Principles. Go and tell your Mother that
she shall be made easy, and be assur’d that I will take care of you_.
Those were the very Expressions of the King, who, when I stoop’d to
embrace his Knees, encourag’d me also by clapping his Hand upon my
Shoulder. As soon as he was gone, the Queen sent for me into her Closet,
to give her an Account of this Conversation. I found her resting on a
Couch, attended by none but Madamoiselle _de Pollnitz_ my Cousin, who sat
on the Ground at her Feet. When the Queen had enquir’d after my Mother’s
Health, she order’d me to assure her of her Esteem and Friendship; and
when I had repeated to her what the King had said to me, she made Answer,
That she was very glad the King was so well inclin’d to me. _Cultivate his
good Disposition_, said she, _make it your Study to merit his Favor. As
for me, I will do every thing in my power to preserve you in it; and you
may always be sure of my Protection._

So gracious a Reception both from the King and Queen gave me great Hopes;
and I return’d to _Berlin_, not doubting but the Promises he had made to
me wou’d soon be perform’d; yet ’twas not without tedious Sollicitations
from my Mother’s Friends that she obtain’d her Husband’s Liberty, after
seven Months Confinement, besides paying a Fine for him of ten thousand
Crowns. The Revenge which the Minister took upon those who had made my
Father-in-law their Agent, was not so much talk’d of; for he contented
himself with banishing them to their respective Estates or Governments,
and disposing of their Offices among his most obsequious Creatures. One of
these was the Count _de Witgenstein_, upon whom he confer’d the Office of
the Grand Marshal. He was a Person of a good Family, but neither he nor
his Ancestors had ever done any Service to the State; and all his Merit
was an entire Devotion to the Prime Minister, to whom he was more a Slave
than a Friend. As long as the Count _de Wartemberg_ continu’d in Favor, he
kept his ground at Court; but the Fall of that Minister was attended with
his. The Disgrace of my Father-in-law did not fail likewise to create a
great deal of Trouble in my Family. My Mother follow’d him to his Estate
in the Duchy of _Zell_, and I was sent with my Brother under the Conduct
of a Governor to _Lunebourg_, there to finish my Studies.

All _Europe_ was at this time in motion, and had taken part in the Quarrel
between the Houses of _Austria_ and _Bourbon_, on account of the
Succession to the Monarchy of _Spain_. _Philip_ of _Anjou_ was already in
possession of it, by virtue of _Charles_ II’s last Will and Testament;
and in pursuance of the Right he had to it by his Grandmother _Mary
Theresa_ of _Austria_. The Emperor founded his Claim upon the Renunciation
made by that Princess when she was married to _Lewis_ XIV. The greatest
part of _Europe_, which the exorbitant Power of _France_ had begun to
alarm, sided with the Emperor, who quitted his Rights in favor of the
Archduke his Son. Besides the common Interest which it seem’d to be of all
_Europe_ to hinder two such Monarchies as _France_ and _Spain_ from being
govern’d by one Prince, several Potentates had their particular Reasons,
for laying hold of this opportunity, to make war with _France_.

The Court of _England_ was alarm’d at the Proceeding of _Lewis_ XIV. who
had just recogniz’d the Son of _James_ II. lately deceas’d at _St.
Germains_, for King of _England_, by the Name of _James_ III. in prejudice
of King _William_, who had been recogniz’d by the Treaty of _Ryswic_.

The _Dutch_ govern’d themselves by the Views of King _William_, who was
all along their Stadtholder: And they could not forget the War in 1672,
the Wounds of which were still bleeding.

The King of _Prussia_, besides his Interest in common with the other
Electors, to hinder _France_ from becoming too powerful, for fear lest
hereafter the said Court should saddle them with whom it pleas’d for an
Emperor, had Engagements subsisting with the Court of _Vienna_ and the
King of _England_. And in consequence of those Engagements he furnish’d
the Emperor with 6000 Men, and gave Orders for a Levy in his Dominions of
20,000 Men, which King _William_ had demanded of him, and which were
during the whole War in the Pay of the United Provinces.

_France_ had no Allies but the Electors of _Bavaria_ and _Cologn_, who
suffer’d themselves to be prevail’d on by the Promises of _France_; the
chief of which was, That she would not make an end of the War till she had
caus’d the Elector of _Bavaria_ to be declar’d King of _Swabia._

The Duke of _Savoy_ was proof against the Advantages offered him by
_France_: And notwithstanding the Marriage of his two Daughters to the
Duke of _Burgundy_ and the Duke of _Anjou_, King of _Spain_, he was the
most zealous Ally against those two Crowns. He foresaw too very plainly,
that as long as those two Powers were united, such was the Situation of
his Dominions, that they wou’d hem him in between them; and therefore when
the Duchess his Mother, who was a thorow _French_ Woman, ask’d him, What
would become of his Daughters, if he dethron’d the King of _Spain_, and
ruin’d _France_, he reply’d to her, _And if I do not, what will become of
my Son?_

These, _Madame_, were in general the various Motions that affected
_Europe_ when King _William_ of _England_ died: Nor did this Accident
occasion any Alteration; for the Princess _Anne Stuart_, who succeeded him
by the Name of Queen _Anne_, pursued the same Views as her Predecessor,
and the War of the Allies against _France_ was carried on with the same

By the Death of the King of _England_, who was the last Prince of the
_Orange_ Branch, our King was Heir to all his personal Estate; yet his
Right was contested by the Prince of _Nassau-Friesland_, who, tho’ not so
nearly related as the King, had the Advantage of Kindred by the Male
Line, and had a Will of King _William_ in his Favor, which intitled him to
his Succession. As the States-General of the United Provinces were the
Executors of this Will, the King immediately communicated his Pretensions
to them, as he did also to Queen _Anne_, by M. _de Spanheim_ his
Ambassador at _London_. He founded his Right upon a Will of
_Frederic-Henry_ Prince of _Orange_, King _William_’s Grandfather, who had
a Son and three Daughters, the eldest of whom married to the Elector of
_Brandenburg_ the King’s Father; the second to the Prince _de Simmeren_, a
younger Prince of the present reigning _Palatine_ Family, who dying
without Issue, left his Right of Succession to the Electorate, to the
Branch of _Neuburg_; and the third was married to the Prince of

The Will of _Frederic-Henry_ call’d the Male Descendants to his
Succession; and on Failure of them the three Princesses his Daughters; by
virtue of which, the King who descended from the eldest, claimed to be the
lawful Heir, notwithstanding the Testament of King _William_, who could
not dispose of an Estate which was intail’d. The King, for the better
Manifestation of his Rights, set out for the _Hague_, accompanied by the
Margrave _Albert_, his Brother, who left him at _Wesel_ in order to join
the Army at _Keiserswaert_[5].

At _Wesel_[6] the King receiv’d Messieurs _de Lintelo_, _Slingenlandt_,
and _Tour_, Deputies from the States-General, to whom he paid the same
Honors as to Sovereigns, and receiv’d them standing, with only an
Arm-Chair behind him. They gave him an Account of the last Will and
Testament of King _William_, which they had caus’d to be open’d in the
Presence of M. _Schmettau_ his Ambassador, Mr. _Stanhope_ the Envoy
Extraordinary of _England_, the Envoys of the Princesses of _Anhalt_ and
_Nassau-Friesland_, the Envoy of the Prince of _Nassau-Siegen_, the
Commissioners of the States appointed for that purpose, and the
Counsellors of the Domains of the late King _William_. They added that
they had found in this Will, that the Prince of _Nassau_, hereditary
Governor of _Friesland_, was call’d to the Succession as universal Heir,
and they exhorted the King to own him as such. But notwithstanding all
this, he enter’d his solemn Protest against the Will, and then set out for
the _Hague_.

The King at his arrival alighted at the Palace of the Old Court, which was
part of the Inheritance of the King of _England_, and of which he had
already taken Possession, as well as of _Honslaerdyke_, another Palace of
the late King of _England_. The _Dutch_ wou’d fain have secur’d the
Succession to the Prince of _Nassau-Friesland_, but they could not easily
do this, without embroiling themselves with the King. Therefore they chose
to temporize, and came to no Conclusion while the King staid in _Holland_,
during which they endeavor’d to amuse him by procuring him all the
Pleasures that their Country afforded; but the Grand Affair of the
Succession to the King of _England_ engross’d all his Thoughts, and he
went away very much dissatisfy’d with the Conduct of the States-General at
this Juncture.

As soon as he return’d to _Berlin_, he sent for my Brother and me from
_Lunenburg_, for fear lest my Mother, who was a _Lutheran_, should
persuade us to embrace that Religion. Next year he establish’d an
Academy, into which he gave Orders for our Entrance. The View of this
Establishment was to educate the young Nobility of the Court, in a manner
suitable to their Extraction. The King had the Nomination of those that
were to be admitted into this Academy, and Care had been taken to furnish
it with the best Masters in all the Arts and Sciences. The Expence of the
Students there were very moderate, the King having taken upon him to pay
the Extraordinaries. This illustrious School, which was then call’d, _The
Academy of Princes_, has lost very much of its former Splendor.

I found the Court of _Berlin_ in the same State as when I left it. The
Count _de Wartemberg_ was still in the highest Favor; and the Count _de
Barfous_, the only Man who had presum’d for some time to make head against
the Minister, had at length been oblig’d to retire to his Estate; but what
made his Banishment from Court the more tolerable to him, was a Pension
which the King allow’d him of 20,000 Crowns. His Post of Velt-Marshal was
given to M. _de Wartensleben_, Lieutenant-General of the Emperor’s Troops,
and General of those of the Duke of _Saxe Gotha_. This was also a Creature
of the Prime Minister; yet he had Honor and Honesty enough to oppose him
on Occasions, where he thought the Welfare of the State was concern’d. The
Count _de Lottum_, who had been involv’d in the Disgrace of my
Father-in-law, and whose Office of Grand Marshal had been conferr’d on the
Count _de Witgenstein_, retain’d a certain Air of Favor in his Disgrace,
as did also the Count _de Barfous_. The King had given him the Government
of _Wesel_, to which he retir’d; and as he could not avoid doing justice
to his Merit and Fidelity, he gave him the Command of the Troops design’d
for the _Netherlands_. He was charg’d with the Blockade of _Rhinberg_, a
Place in the Electorate of _Cologn_, which the _French_ then possess’d,
under color of being that Elector’s auxiliary Forces. The Town surrendring
in a little time, he undertook the Blockade of _Guelders_, which made a
part of the _Spanish Netherlands_, and was yielded to us by the Peace of
_Utrecht_. The taking of these two important Places in the midst of
Winter, and the Behaviour of the Count _de Lottum_, who notwithstanding
the Severity of the Season, and the Treatment he had received from Court,
took all the Care possible for the Preservation of the King’s Troops, made
him so much extoll’d at Court, as was mortifying to the Prime Minister.

_France_ endeavor’d to repair the Loss of these two Places by seizing the
Principality of _Orange_, which we were not near enough to defend, and he
put the Prince of _Conti_ in immediate Possession of it, who had some
claim to it through the _Chalons_ Family, of which he call’d himself Heir.
But he soon after yielded the said Principality and his Pretensions, to
_Lewis_ XIV. who likewise caus’d an Edict to be publish’d there, by which
it was put to the choice of all the Inhabitants to turn Catholics, or to
sell their Effects and retire out of the Kingdom within the space of three
Months. The Generality of those who were not willing to change their
Religion, retir’d to our Court, and among others, the Members of the
Parliament. The King reliev’d them as far as he could, and caus’d
Collections to be made in all the Churches of his Dominions, the Money of
which was distributed to those who had the most pressing Occasion for it.

Soon after the Loss of _Orange_, the Margrave _Albert_ married the
Princess of _Courland_. That Prince in 1696, had succeeded the late
Margrave _Charles_, his Father, in the Grand Mastership[7] of the Order of
St. _John_. This Order is the same as that of _Maltha_, and is only
separated from it since _Luther_. The Commanderies, subject to the Elector
of _Brandenburg_, which became Protestant, put themselves under the
Elector’s Protection, and chose a Grand Master, or rather the Elector
chose one for them. The Choice has always fallen upon a younger Prince of
the Family, who is not engag’d by it to any Vow, more than the Knights,
who are only obliged to prove their Nobility, to which the Sovereign very
often objects.

The Princess of _Courland_ was the eldest of the three Daughters that the
Duke of _Courland_ had by his first Lady. He married to his second Wife
the King’s Sister, and some time after he died. The Duchess his Widow, who
had been oblig’d to abandon _Courland_, which the _Swedes_, the _Poles_
and the _Muscovites_ equally harass’d, came to _Konigsberg_, to be present
at the Coronation of the King her Brother, who gave her that Protection
she expected. Here it was, that the Year before she had married the
Margrave of _Brandenburg Bareith_, the King’s Cousin; and when she went
with her Husband into his Dominions, she left the eldest of her
Daughters-in-law with the Queen, in hopes of her marrying the Margrave
_Albert_: And the Queen, who was fond of this Princess, ordered it so,
that she obtain’d the King’s Consent to the Marriage, which was celebrated
some time after at _Lutzelbourg_.

Much about this time we had a new Ceremony in our Climates. This[8] was
the Erection of a Statue which the King caus’d to be set up in honor of
his Father _Frederic-William_ the Great. ’Tis perfectly like that of
_Lewis_ XIV. in the Square of _Vendôme_ at _Paris_. The Pedestal and Base
are of white Marble. This Statue was set up _July_ 12, 1703; and the King
in order to do the more Honor to the Elector his Father, caus’d the
Ceremony to be perform’d with a magnificent Apparatus, in presence of the
whole Court, and all the Benches of Justice.

The following Year 1704 was happy to the Allies, by their Victories at
_Donawert_ and _Hochstet_. The Troops that the King had sent into
_Franconia_ and _Bavaria_, to the Emperor and the City of _Nuremberg_[9],
which call’d for Help against the _Bavarians_, contributed not a little to
the obtaining of those Victories. The King received the News of it by an
Express that was dispatch’d to him from the Prince of _Anhalt_, under
whose Command those Succours acted. This Express was follow’d some Days
after by a second, charg’d with a Letter from Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_,
who therein gave a sublime Encomium on the Valor of the _Prussian_ Troops.
_I have been an Eye-witness, +said he in his Letter+, particularly with
regard to the Infantry of the Right Wing, that all the Officers as well as
the common Soldiers fought with the most intrepid Courage, and for several
Hours check’d the Efforts of the Enemy, who at length not being able to
resist their Bravery, and the continual Fire which they made, were put
into such a Confusion, that they were oblig’d to fly with Precipitation,
and to abandon the Field of Battle to us._ The Prince attributes this
vigorous Action of the _Prussian_ Soldiers to the most exemplary Courage
and Valor of the Prince of _Anhalt_ their Commander. _’Tis but Justice_,
continu’d Prince Eugene, _to give the Prince of +Anhalt+ the Praise he has
so well deserved. He hazarded his Person upon all Occasions, and not
intimidated by the Danger to which he expos’d it, I always saw him at the
Head of his Troops, leading them on to Battle, and encouraging them by his
own Example; so that it may be said to his Honor, that he contributed the
greatest Share to that Victory._ This was a Panegyric the more pleasing to
the Subject of it, because it proceeded from the Mouth of a Prince, who
was too great a Master of Courage to be mistaken.

After the Campaign was over, my Lord _Marlborough_ came to _Berlin_, where
he receiv’d all the Marks of Esteem from the King, which he could possibly
have desired. Every Point that he negociated for the Operations of the
Campaign was granted him, and he went away from Court highly satisfied. As
soon as he was gone the Prince Royal set out for _Hanover_, from whence he
went to _Holland_; and he intended to pass over to _England_, but an Event
which happen’d to the Grief of him and the whole Court, oblig’d him to
return to _Berlin_.

This was the unexpected Death of the Queen, on the 1st of _February_ 1705,
after a few days Illness. This Princess us’d for some time past to go to
_Hanover_, to make a Visit to the Electoress her Mother, of whom, as I
have already had the Honor to acquaint you, she was extremely fond. The
Day that she was to set out for this Journey she found herself
indispos’d, but did not discover it, for fear lest the King should not
permit her to go. Her Illness continu’d during the whole Journey, and When
she came to _Hanover_, what with the fatigue of receiving Visits from the
Ladies of the Court, and her dancing at a Ball the same day, she grew much
worse. She came from the Ball with a Soreness in her Throat, which prov’d
so violent that the Physicians and Surgeons soon despair’d of curing her.
The Queen, tho’ in the Flower of her Age, was not at all terrify’d when
she saw Death approaching her. She wrote a very tender Letter to the King,
in which she thanked him for the Love he had always manifested to her, and
recommended her Domestics to him. Her Brother the Duke _Ernest Augustus_
was so deeply concern’d to see her in such a condition, that she did what
she could to comfort him: _There is nothing so natural_, said she to him,
_as Death; ’tis unavoidable, and tho’ I am young enough to hope to live a
few Years longer, yet I am not loth to die_.

M. _de la Bergerie_ the Minister of the _French_ Church, who assisted her
in her last Moments, was so surpriz’d at her courage and calmness, that he
was more attentive to hear her than to exhort her. _I have_, said she,
_for twenty Years seriously study’d my Religion, and have read the Books
that treat of it with too much application to be in any doubt as to my
Principles. You cannot mention any thing to me but what I have read, and
what you can say to me will certainly add nothing to my Opinion._ Then
turning towards my Cousin, who was on the other side of her Bed, _Alas!_
said she, _what a deal of needless Ceremony is now going to be us’d about
this Body of mine_! At the same time almost, she stretch’d out her Hand
to Duke _Ernest_ her Brother, and said to him, _Dear Brother, I am
choak’d_; and that Moment she expir’d.

A Courier was immediately dispatch’d to the Prince Royal, who was at the
_Hague_, and M. _de Bulau_ the Steward of the Queen’s Houshold carried the
News to the King, who was so surpriz’d at it, that he fainted away several
times. When he came to himself he shew’d marks of the sincerest
Affliction, and seem’d fully sensible what a loss he had sustain’d. Indeed
this Princess truly deserv’d his Lamentation, as well as the Sorrow of the
whole State; and I for my part with my whole Family lost a solid and
sincere Protectress.

The King’s Grief was such, that it had no Interval, but in his application
to pay those Honours to the Queen, that were due to her Rank. He was
willing to signalize it by the magnificence of a Funeral Pomp, and for
this purpose he himself issued the necessary Orders. The Elector of
_Hanover_ (afterwards King of _England_) omitted nothing on his part to
shew his Sorrow for the loss of so dear a Sister. Her Body was laid for
several days upon a sumptuous Bed of State; her Ladies and the Officers of
her Houshold who had waited on her to _Hanover_ encompass’d it, and the
Elector’s Guards and Officers stay’d with the Queen’s Corpse, and pay’d
the same Attendance as if she had been living. When every thing was ready
to carry the Corpse to _Berlin_, the Elector caus’d it to be convey’d by
all his Guards even to the Frontiers of the Duchy of _Zell_, where it was
receiv’d by M. _de Bulau_ the Grand Marshal of the Court, who conducted it
to the Territories of _Brandenburg_; and there it was receiv’d by the
Count _de Witgenstein_, who accompany’d it as far as _Berlin_, where I
remember it arriv’d about ten o’clock at Night in a terrible Shower of
Rain. The King accompany’d by the Prince Royal and the Margraves in long
Mourning-Cloaks and by the Ladies of the Court in deep Mourning-Veils,
receiv’d the Queen’s Corpse at its being taken out of the Funeral-Chariot,
and accompany’d it into the Old Chapel where a magnificent Cataphalque was
erected for depositing it.

It represented a Temple of an Oval Form, whose Roof was supported by
Pillars of the _Corinthian_ Order, between each of which were plac’d
Statues that represented the Queen’s Vertues. In the middle of the
Cataphalque just in the Upright there was a Glory, in which there was the
Queen’s Cypher form’d by Stars. All the Statues, that were silver’d, added
to the Lustres, Branches and Chandeliers, made a noble Contrast with the
Black that cover’d the Walls and the Roof. There the Queen’s Corpse was
repos’d till every thing was ready for her Interment. I will not here
enter into the detail of that Ceremony, which was one of the most
magnificent. What I observ’d extraordinary in it was, that ’twas the
King’s pleasure that the Parliament of _Orange_, of which the greatest
part were Refugees at Court, should appear there in their Scarlet Robes.

The Queen’s Death occasion’d no alteration in Affairs; for she meddled
with the Government very little, and left all the care of it to the King
and his Ministers: But in matters of Pleasure she was not so unconcern’d;
and she understood them so well, that she was soon miss’d. The Courtiers
sustain’d a Lose that was irreparable; for this Princess, who knew every
body, was perfectly acquainted with every one’s Birth and Merit, and took
a delight to distinguish them. Being lofty, but at the same time polite,
she knew better than any body in the World what it was to keep a Court;
and being virtuous without meanness, she could tell (which is no easy
matter) how to prescribe just Bounds to that Air of Gallantry, which alone
is capable of rendering a Court agreeable, and preserving Politeness in

The only Princess capable of supplying her place was the Margravine
_Philippa_, who then held the first Rank at Court. She was the Daughter of
the Prince of _Anhalt-Dessau_, and of the Princess of _Orange_. She was
good-natur’d and merry, and fond of Pleasures, but understood the delicacy
of them. She might sometimes have made us forget the loss of the Queen, if
the austere and perhaps jealous Humor of her Husband the Margrave _Philip_
had not inclin’d that Prince to prefer his Residence at his House at
_Schwedt_ to the Court.

Soon after the Queen, died the Emperor _Leopold_; which was an Event that
affected us not so much as the other, but concern’d the rest of _Europe_
more. It was presently imagin’d that the Views to the Succession of
_Spain_ would have suffer’d some alteration by this Prince’s Death; for
the Emperor _Joseph_ who succeeded his Father having no Son, the Archduke
his Brother who disputed the Crown of _Spain_ with the Duke of _Anjou_ was
his only Heir, and might one day or other by his Death become Master of
the Empire, and of the Dominions of the House of _Austria_. Therefore they
who dreaded to see the two Crowns united upon one Head, had as much and
more reason to fear the Archduke’s making himself Master of _Spain_; the
Duke of _Anjou_ who was already in possession of that Crown, being at
that time very remote from that of _France_, by reason of the great number
of Princes that had a prior Right to his. Nevertheless the Powers of
_Europe_ were not mov’d by these Reflections, and the War was continu’d on
the side of the Allies with considerable Success.

The King of _Sweden_ might, if he had pleased, have stopp’d the progress
of it, and immortaliz’d his Name by rendring himself the Arbiter of a
Quarrel, which divided _Europe_; for the Prosperity of his Arms had
render’d him the Terror of all the Powers in the North. He had in the Year
1704 depriv’d the Elector of _Saxony_ of the Crown of _Poland_, by causing
King _Stanislaus Leszinski_ the Palatine of _Posen_, to be proclaim’d King
of _Poland_; and he was already in the middle of _Saxony_ where he
committed universal Ravage, and when he might have turn’d the Balance
which way he pleas’d, the wrong Advice of his Favorite, corrupted by my
Lord _Marlborough_, was the cause of the Misfortunes into which that
Prince was afterwards precipitated.

Our Court has had a sufficient share in these different Events; but
perhaps, _Madame_, ’tis so little known at your’s as to deserve your
Curiosity: but I will only tell you of what I think most important.

The _Swedes_ and _Poles_ had scarce laid down their Arms when the
Differences between the King of _Denmark_ and the Duke of _Holstein_ gave
them a fresh occasion to take them up again. In the Conferences that were
begun at _Pinneberg_ in 1696, there were hopes that those Princes would
soon be reconcil’d; but they only patch’d up a Peace which could not last
long, because of the Umbrage the King of _Denmark_ took at the Duke of
_Holstein_’s strict Alliance with _Sweden_; and they quarrel’d again about
the limits of their Dominions. The _Danes_ were the Aggressors, and they
demanded a reinforcement of four thousand Men of the King of _Poland_.
This Prince, who naturally took part with those that declar’d against
_Sweden_, was pleas’d well enough with the _Danes_ Demand, and as there
was an absolute necessity of passing those Troops over the Lands of the
King, (at that time Elector) he sent the Count _de Flemming_, now his
Prime Minister, to our Court, in order to sollicite their passage. Of a
great many Arguments that were alledg’d against it, the most specious
were, ‘That the Mediators being still actually employ’d in procuring a
just and equitable Accommodation, it was the duty of a Mediator to hinder
the Rupture, rather than contribute to it by favoring this passage: That
the Court of _Prussia_ was Guarantee for the King of _Sweden_ and the Duke
of _Holstein_, that neither of those two Princes should begin the War
against the King of _Denmark_; and that consequently as War was not
declar’d against that Prince, his _Danish_ Majesty had no need of Foreign
Assistance; and that finally by giving passage to those Troops the Duke of
_Holstein_ would have just reason to accuse the Mediation of Partiality.’
Nevertheless, after all these fine reasons, the four thousand Men had
their Passage, either from surprise or the connivance of the Court. The
King of _Poland_ on his part, in order to make a considerable Diversion in
favor of the King of _Denmark_, brought Troops from _Livonia_ and besieg’d
_Riga_, which then belong’d to the _Swedes_. This Conduct of the King of
_Poland_, was, Madame, as the fatal Signal and the _Primum Mobile_ of that
tragical War, which tho’ so glorious for the King of _Sweden_ in the
beginning, ended in the ruin not only of his Kingdom, but also of _Poland_
and _Saxony_. And the greatest Gainer by it was the _Czar_.

The _Danes_ while they waited for the Succours they had demanded from
_Poland_, besieg’d the Fortress of _Tonningen_ in the Duchy of _Sleswic_.
The King of _Sweden_ and the Duke of _Holstein_, before they oppos’d this
Enterprize, preferr’d their Complaints to the Dyet of the Empire, and then
prepar’d for driving the _Danes_ out of the Country. The Elector of
_Hanover_ and the Duke of _Zell_ join’d those two Princes, and the latter
marching to the Relief of _Tonningen_ had the Honor of obliging the
Besiegers to abandon it, upon the report only of his Approach. This Prince
therefore having nothing to do towards _Tonningen_, went with his Troops
and rejoin’d the Elector of _Hanover_. They met the four thousand Men whom
the King of _Poland_ was sending to the Assistance of the _Danes_, but
only took their Baggage and Arms, and then left them at liberty to return

The King of _Sweden_, on his part, push’d on the War against the _Poles_.
That great Prince whom extraordinary Undertakings never startled, having
already ravag’d a part of _Poland_, design’d a bold stroke, which was no
less than dethroning the lawful King of that Country, and setting up
another in his room. He had cast his eyes upon _James_ of _Poland_, Son of
King _John Sobieski_; but the King of _Poland_ parry’d this blow, by
causing the Prince _James_ and his Brother Prince _Constantine_, to be
carried away from an Estate of theirs near _Breslau_ to _Saxony_, where
they were strictly guarded like Prisoners at the Castle of _Leipsic_. The
Confinement of these Princes did indeed hinder either of them from being
elected King; but the King of _Sweden_ still persisted in his design of
dethroning the King of _Poland_, on purpose to be reveng’d of that Prince
for being so rash as to be the first that declar’d War against him. He
caused the Election to fall upon _Stanislaus Leczinski_ the Palatine of
_Posen_. The Bishop of _Posen_ officiated as Cardinal Primate in this
Ceremony, and proclaim’d the new King. The King of _Sweden_ wrote to all
the Princes with whom he was at peace, to acquaint them of this new
Election, and to exhort them to recognize it. The Letter he wrote to our
King had no Influence over him; for he made answer, that he had recogniz’d
one King of _Poland_ already, and that as long as he liv’d he would
acknowledge no other. He wrote at the same time to the King of _Poland_,
to demand the Liberty of the two Princes. The Emperor, to whom the eldest
had the Honour of being Brother-in-law, seconded the King’s Demand; but
the Solicitations of both had no consequence, and the Princes were not
releas’d till a long time after.

The following Year the King undertook to procure a Peace between the Kings
of _Sweden_ and _Poland_; but as the view of such Reconciliation was to
re-establish the Prince of _Saxony_ upon the Throne of _Poland_, the King
of _Sweden_ would hearken to no Proposal of Peace, unless the dethron’d
King would solemnly renounce the Crown. Mean time his _Swedish_ Majesty,
in order to mollify his Refusal of the King’s Mediation, sent an
Ambassador-Extraordinary to him to recognize him as King of _Prussia_.
This Ambassador was the first that ever made a public Entry at _Berlin_,
and ’twas one of the most splendid that cou’d be, tho’ all the Equipages
were in Mourning by reason of the Death of the Queen.

Thus did this crafty King, by amusing those he had a mind to keep fair
with, always push at his own ends. He continu’d to ravage _Poland_, and
drove the King from thence into his Electorate of _Saxony_. There the
_Swedish_ Soldiers took up their Winter-Quarters, and committed such
Outrages as one would not have expected from a Nation so fruitful in
Heroes. The _Swedish_ Prince signaliz’d his Entrance into _Saxony_ by a
glorious Action, which was procuring the Liberty of the two _Polish_
Princes, who had for two Years been detain’d Prisoners with very great
Severity and as little Reason. He afterwards march’d through all _Saxony_
with the haughtiness of a Conqueror who comes to prescribe Laws to those
whom he has reduc’d to his Obedience. As for King _Stanislaus_ whom he had
caus’d to be crown’d King of _Poland_ at _Warsaw_, he led him about, with
him as it were in Triumph. As this new King advanc’d towards the
Territories of the Electorate of _Brandenburg_, to meet the Queen his Wife
who was coming from _Stetin_, our Court caus’d all the Honours to be paid
to him that were due to the Royal Dignity, without recognizing him all the
while for King. This Complaisance of our Court won the King of _Sweden_’s
Heart. Mean time the Neighbourhood of this great Monarch, who, where-ever
he march’d, carried Fire and Sword with him, gave vast uneasiness, and the
Joy was as great when he manifested a Design to turn his Arms against the
_Muscovites_, which he was put upon to do by the _English_. They had for
some time past suspected him to be supported under-hand by _France_, and
they thought the best way to embroil him with that Crown was to engage him
in a War with the _Czar_. The Person commission’d to negociate this Affair
was my Lord _Marlborough_, who went to the King of _Sweden_, and soon put
his Negociation in a hopeful way to succeed. He found about the King a
Minister so sordid, that he was not proof against an Offer of three
hundred thousand Crowns, to betray his Master into a War which could not
but be fatal to him; whereas, if he had pleas’d, he might have acquir’d
immortal Glory in the midst of _Saxony_, by rendring himself the Umpire of
two of the most potent Families in _Europe_, then contending for the Crown
of _Spain_. This Minister knowing his Master’s ambitious Temper, propos’d
no less to him than dethroning the _Czar_. The young Monarch full of Zeal
and Courage did not imagine how impossible it was to dethrone a Prince who
was retir’d behind Provinces quite deserted, and where the Snow lay so
deep that ’twas difficult to distinguish whether they walk’d upon Land or
Rivers. He march’d out of the Electorate of _Saxony_ at the Head of his
Troops about the end of the Year 1707. Never had People juster Reasons for
giving public Marks of their Joy, than the _Saxons_ had to see the
_Swedish_ Monarch turn his Back to them. His Troops had committed
excessive Outrages in the Electorate; all the flat Country of _Saxony_ was
intirely ruin’d, and, except some great Towns such as _Leipsic_, where
they generously enough spent part of the Money they had extorted from the
poor _Saxon_ Peasant, there was not a Hamlet but was laid waste to such a
degree, that there were no hopes of its being restor’d to its original
Condition one while.

Yet if the Misfortunes of an Enemy can in any measure compensate the
Losses he has occasion’d, the _Saxons_ had all the reason in the World to
be pleas’d in the Sequel. The _Swedish_ Troops gave way every where to the
_Muscovites_, who flush’d with former Victories, beat them to nothing.

The greatest Loss the King of _Sweden_ sustain’d was near _Pultowa_. This
Prince, who was more ambitious than prudent, being got too far into
_Muscovy_, did not perceive his error till it was too late to retrieve it.
The _Czar_ had the Precaution, as he retir’d a little before into his own
Dominions, to burn above forty Leagues of Country thro’ which the King of
_Sweden_ was to pass to him; so that this Prince soon found himself in a
very sad situation, not being able to stay in a place where there was no
manner of Provision, and forc’d to engage with an Army well intrench’d and
far superior to his own. But there was no avoiding it, and a Battle was
fought the 8th of _July_ 1709, when the _Swedes_ were all either cut in
pieces or taken Prisoners by the _Muscovites_. The King who was oblig’d by
a Wound in his Heel to be carry’d in a Litter had like to have been
kill’d, for one Cannon-Ball kill’d one of his Horses, and a second
demolish’d his Litter. The whole Army was in pain for the King’s Life; but
the Officers who were near his Person snatch’d him out of danger, and
advis’d him to provide for his safety. This Prince was very loth to comply
with such a resolution, but finding himself oblig’d to yield to Force,
retir’d to _Bender_, a little Town at the entrance of _Moldavia_, which
belongs to the _Turkish_ Empire. The King of _Sweden_ was no sooner safe,
but the Remains of his Army with their Generals at their head submitted
to the Conqueror. This, Madame, was the Success of the Battle of
_Pultowa_; a Battle glorious to the _Muscovites_, but so fatal to the King
of _Sweden_ that he could never recover it: For after this Defeat this
young Hero was always expos’d to the most cruel Reverses of that very
Fortune, which in his early Years seem’d to delight in heaping Favors on

Mean time the two Families in competition for the Crown of _Spain_ had not
yet sheath’d their Swords. The King of _Sweden_ was even yet in the
Electorate of _Saxony_ when the _French_ lost the famous Battle of
_Ramellies_, which procur’d the Allies the greatest part of the _Spanish
Netherlands_. The Troops in _Italy_ also distinguish’d themselves, and
particularly the _Prussians_, who had so great a share in the raising of
the Siege of _Turin_, that the Duke of _Savoy_ wrote a Letter to the King,
in which he extolled the Valor of the _Prussian_ Generals and Soldiers.
“Yesterday, _said he_, the Enemy’s Army was intirely put to the rout in
their own Lines before this place (_Turin_), in which your Majesty’s
Troops had the greatest share, and I can never enough commend their
Bravery, nor the notable Valour of the Prince of _Anhalt_, who led them
on, _&c._” This Letter was dated the 8th of _September_, 1706.

The Prince of _Anhalt_ too sent an Express with the same News to the King,
and gave a great Character of the Troops under his Command. “As your
Majesty’s Troops, _said he, in his Letter_, were the first that enter’d
the Enemy’s Trenches, so they have suffer’d very much, and especially the
Grenadiers. I may say that your Majesty’s Forces have behav’d so well,
that they are intitled to universal Praise and Admiration, _&c_.” Then he
enter’d into the Detail of the Losses sustain’d by the _French_, which
were indeed very considerable. ’Twas upon this occasion that the Marshal
_de Marsin_ was wounded and taken Prisoner, and besides forty-five Pieces
of heavy Cannon and one hundred and forty lesser that were taken from
them, they lost a great Convoy of two thousand Mules and one thousand
Horses, which was guarded by the Regiment of Dragoons of _Chatillon_.

The raising of this Siege, and the Reputation the _Prussian_ Troops
thereby acquired was very acceptable News to the King, and while the Court
was rejoicing for this, there arriv’d other Advices which gave them no
less pleasure; and that was the raising of the Siege of _Barcelona_. This
City had been besieg’d for some time by the Marshal _de Tesse_; but King
_Charles_ who defended it made so stout a Resistance and such destructive
Sallies upon the _French_ Army, that the latter was oblig’d to retire. The
King was inform’d of it by an Express from King _Charles_.

So many Successes one after another rais’d the hopes of the Allies
prodigiously. The Terror the _French_ Arms had for a long time impress’d
upon their Minds soon wore off, and nothing was heard every where but
shouts of Joy, to see so haughty a Nation at last humbled. Our Court was
more rejoic’d than any other at this great News, and every one envy’d the
Fortune of the _Prussian_ Soldiers, when they saw that the Duke of _Savoy_
and the Prince of _Anhalt_ themselves, gave them the highest Encomia.

At this happy Juncture was celebrated the Marriage of the Prince Royal,
which had been concluded at _Hanover_, a Journey the King made thither
with the Prince his Son. This young Prince had for a long time such a
veneration for the Princess the Elector’s Daughter, as ’twas possible for
the most accomplish’d Merit to inspire him with, and of all the Princesses
in the World she was like to be the most acceptable to her Subjects; she
represented to us the Idea of the late Queen, and as she was her Niece and
design’d to succeed to her Dominions, she seem’d also to have inherited
all the great Qualities that made the former ador’d at our Court. The
Electoral Prince of _Hanover_ married her at _Hanover_ by Proxy, in
presence of the Count _de Finck_ the King’s Ambassador. The Princess set
out from thence some days after with a Train becoming her present and her
future Dignity. The Elector her Father had given her the most magnificent
Suits of Apparel and Jewels that could be got for Money, and they were
purchas’d at _Paris_ by a Man sent on purpose. The Duchess of _Orleans_
was desirous to chuse and give Directions for the Clothes, and she
afterwards shewed them to _Lewis_ XIV. who thought them so rich that he
said it were to be wish’d for the sake of the Mercers of _Paris_, that
there were more Princesses that could afford to make such Purchases.

’Twas _Novemb. 27, 1706_, that this Princess made her public Entry at
_Berlin_. The King met her about half a League out of Town. As soon as her
Royal Highness perceiv’d the King’s Coach she alighted, as the King did
also from his and went to meet her. After having embraced the Princess he
presented the Prince Royal to her, together with his Brothers and the two
Princesses. Then the King took Coach again, where the Princess plac’d
herself on the King’s left hand; and the two Margraves sate over-against
them; the Prince-Royal and the King’s three Brothers being mounted on
Horseback. The Entry was one of the most magnificent that was ever seen.
All the Troops then at _Berlin_ were under Arms, as well as all the
City-Militia, and drawn up in a Line from the Out-parts of the Town quite
to the Palace. The next day after the Princess’s Arrival, there was a
sumptuous Feast, at which the Prince Royal and the Princess had
Arm-Chairs, but for that day only; for the next day their Royal Hignesses
sate in upright Chairs at the two ends of the Table.

Our Court was then as splendid as in the time of the late Queen. There was
a continual Round of Pleasures, and every day was remarkable for Feasts,
Balls, Comedies, _&c._ These Rejoicings had lasted a good while, when all
on a sudden we had a most terrible Alarm. The King fell dangerously ill,
and his Physicians began to despair of his Recovery. But God, who always
considers the Wants of his People, did us the favor to restore him to us
for a while longer. Upon his Recovery he receiv’d the Compliments of the
whole Court, and the Congratulations of the Princes his Allies, who
acknowledg’d as well as his Subjects how necessary his Preservation was to
the Common Cause.

Not long after the King’s Recovery, I saw the young Count _de Metternich_
arrive at _Berlin_, who came to bring the King Advice, That the _Swissers_
had at length recogniz’d his Majesty for Sovereign Prince of _Neufchâtel_,
preferably to the other Princes his Competitors. The Count _de
Metternich_, who was the King’s Ambassador in _Swisserland_, had the good
Fortune to carry this Point, notwithstanding the Menaces of _France_, who
asserted the Interests of several of her Subjects, at the Head of whom was
the Prince of _Conti_. Madame _de Nemours_, the Sovereign of _Neufchâtel_,
was no sooner dead, but each of the Claimants put in their Plea of Right
to this Sovereignty. As soon as the News of her Death was confirm’d, the
King sent Orders to M. _de Metternich_, his Ambassador-Extraordinary and
his Plenipotentiary in _Swisserland_, to repair to _Neufchâtel_ and take
care of his Interests. He went thither accordingly on the 30th of _June_,
and caus’d a Memorial to be distributed at his Arrival, containing the
King’s Right to the said Principality. The _French_ Competitors on their
part distributed another, to establish their own Rights, and invalidate
the Pretensions of the King. There happen’d to be Disputes between the
Prince of _Conti_ and the _Prussian_ Ambassador about Precedency. M. _de
Puisieux_ the Ambassador of _France_, as it was his Duty to do, maintain’d
the Interests of the Prince of _Conti_, and presented to the Council of
_Neufchâtel_ a Memorial so haughty and menacing, as if it had come from
victorious _France_ in the Time when she was flush’d with Conquests. He
said in this Memorial, “That the King his Master cannot look with
Indifference upon the Conduct at _Neufchâtel_, in presuming to be so
disrespectful to the Princes of his Family; that it wou’d be the wisest
way for the Gentlemen of the Council speedily to take Measures to prevent
this Pretension of the _Prussian_ Minister from being carried any further,
a Pretension, _said he_, which has no Foundation, but in Malice or
Ignorance; because even tho’ the new Title, which the Elector of
_Brandenburg_ has assum’d for some years, were universally recogniz’d, yet
this very Pretension of his Ambassador’s would be always chimerical.” Here
M. _de Puisieux_ gave them Warning, “That if they did not soon alter their
Conduct, the King of _France_ wou’d take Measures very opposite to the
pacific and kind Sentiments which he had entertain’d since the Affair of
_Neufchâtel_ was first in agitation.” Such, _Madame_, was the Strain in
which the _French_ Minister talk’d. This Memorial was follow’d by several
others, which went to the very bottom of the Affair; and M. _de Puisieux_,
in order to engage the Council of _Neufchâtel_ to favour the _French_
Claimants, still continued to talk in such a high Stile, as prejudiced
every body against the Side that he espous’d. You may judge of this
Ambassador’s manner of Negociation, by the last Memorial which he
presented towards the close of _October_ 1707. After having establish’d
the Right of the _French_ Competitors with continual Invectives, he
concluded thus; _If it happens contrary to my Expectation, that your
Answer is not conformable to what I demand,--I have fresh Orders from his
Majesty to assure you, that nothing will be capable to hinder the Effects
of his Indignation, or to screen you from that just Vengeance which he
proposes to take._ Then, as if he affected to speak in a softer Strain, he
said to them with an Air of Protection, “That he hop’d while he staid at
_Neufchâtel_, to find favourable Inclinations for the entire Performance
of what he wish’d for.” _’Tis the only thing you can do (+these are the
last Words of his Memorial+) to merit the Continuance of his Majesty’s
Good-will. I wish for my own part, that you wou’d furnish me with
Opportunities to help maintain you in it._ But all these Menaces of the
_French_ Ambassador came to nothing, and only procur’d him sharp Answers
from the Ambassadors of _Prussia_, _England_, and _Holland_; for things
went on in the same Course in the Council of _Neufchâtel_, and the whole
Affair was determined to the Satisfaction of the King, who was proclaim’d
Sovereign thereof on the 3d of _November_ 1707.

As soon as the King had been recogniz’d in that Sovereignty, the Count _de
Metternich_ sent his Son to his Majesty with the Sentence of the three
Estates, declaring the King lawful Heir of the said Principality, by
_Louisa_ of _Nassau_ his Mother, the eldest Daughter of Prince
_Frederic-Henry_, Son of _William_ of _Nassau_ call’d the _Belgic_, to
whom there had been a Transfer of the Rights of the House of _Chalons_, to
which the Sovereignty and Domaine of _Neufchâtel_ originally belong’d.

The News of the Acquisition of this Sovereignty cou’d not but be very
acceptable to the King, who gave the young Count a most favorable
Reception, made him noble Presents, and amongst others, gave him the Key
of Chamberlain.

Not many days after, _viz. Nov_. 23, 1707, the Court had a fresh Subject
of Joy, by the Princess Royal’s safe Delivery of a Prince, whom the King
immediately declared Prince of _Orange_, and made him at the same time a
Knight of the Grand Order. His Majesty after this dispatch’d Couriers to
his Ambassadors at the Courts of the Princes his Allies to acquaint them
of the Birth of his Grandson. M. _de Spanheim_ the Ambassador in _England_
received Orders to desire the Queen to be God-mother to the young
Prince;, and M. _de Schmettau_ Ambassador in _Holland_, and M. _de
Metternich_ Ambassador in _Swisserland_, were charged to invite the States
with whom they resided to be God-fathers. Besides these Powers, the King
and the Elector of _Hanover_ were God-fathers, and the Electoress of
_Hanover_ was God-mother. The Baptism was performed with great
Magnificence on the 3d of _December_ in the Church of the _Dome_. The Joy
at Court for the Birth of this Prince was of no long Duration; for in a
few Months after, he died: but the Sorrow for the Loss of him was
alleviated, by the Hopes that the Prince Royal had Youth and Health enough
to give us soon more Heirs. The Incident that was most alarming, was the
weakly Condition of the King, who recover’d but slowly from his Grand
Ailment; so that his Physicians advis’d him to make use of the Waters
of_Carlsbadt_ in _Bohemia_; and at the beginning of the fine Season, his
Majesty went thither accordingly.

The King’s Departure being resolv’d on, I begg’d his Majesty’s leave, to
make the Campaign in _Flanders_ in quality of a Voluntier. I set out from
_Berlin_ with the _Gens d’Arms_, in which my Brother was a Cornet, and we
join’d the Army near _Louvain_. The Count _de Lottum_ receiv’d me as a
Voluntier; and I had the Pleasure to be near him all the Campaign. Not
many days after I had reached the Army, the Electoral Prince of _Hanover_,
(now _George_ II. King of _England_) arrived in the Camp of my Lord
_Marlborough_, and did that General the Honor to serve with him as a
Voluntier. The young Prince distinguish’d himself very much in this
Campaign, and gave the _English_ sufficient Proof that he was worthy
hereafter of wearing their Crown. ’Twas in this Campaign that the famous
Battel of _Audenarde_ was fought, in which the _French_ were again obliged
to yield to the Efforts of the Allies. It must be said however, in their
favor, that they were forc’d to fight without Artillery; for they had but
four Pieces of Cannon, the rest of their Ordnance and Baggage not being
yet arriv’d. The Action was very hot on both sides; they fought for
several Hours with exceeding Obstinacy, and always with a considerable
Loss on the part of the Enemy; whose Infantry was not only put to the
rout, but a great many Squadrons of the _French_ King’s Houshold Troops;
which advanc’d to support the Foot; were cut in pieces; whereupon the
Confusion was so great, and the fire so furious in several places at once,
that ’twas almost impossible to distinguish the Allies from the Enemy;
therefore Orders were given to fire no more till next Morning, but to let
the Enemy escape, rather than run the risque of putting our own Army in

The Night being come, the _French_ scarce made any more Resistance but
retir’d by the way that goes from _Audenarde_ to _Ghent_, thro’ the
Village of _Heusden_. This very Evening as I was standing with some
Officers of the Guards, at a small distance from the _Prussian_ Guards, I
perceiv’d a Trooper riding full speed towards us, who, when he arriv’d
said, _Gentlemen, the Duke_ de Vendosme _orders you to retire towards_
Ghent. I cannot express to you how much he was surpriz’d when we told him
for Answer, That he was a Prisoner. _Kill me_, said he, _upon the spot, I
don’t desire to out-live what has happened to me_. We comforted him as
well as we cou’d, and carried him to the Count _de Lottum_’s Quarters, to
whom he made himself known for M. _Duplanti_, Aid de Camp to the Duke _de
Vendosme_. What led him into the mistake was the Habit of the _Prussian_
Guards, which is not very different from that of the _French_.

The Battle of _Audenarde_ was the more glorious for the Allies, because it
was a Victory gain’d over the Duke of _Burgundy_ who commanded the Army of
_France_, and had with him the Duke of _Berry_ his Brother, and the
Chevalier _de St. George_; but they say this Battle was quite against the
Opinion of the Duke _de Vendosme_, whose Advice was not hearken’d to, and
the Cabals which the Duke of _Burgundy_ gave into, hinder’d the Designs of
that famous General from being follow’d, and were the Cause of the Loss of
the Battle.

Next day about ten o’clock at Night the Count _de Lottum_ was detach’d
from the Grand Army with forty Squadrons and thirty Battalions, and
without any Resistance took possession, of the Lines towards _Ypres_,
which were immediately demolish’d. The 19th of that Month was celebrated
by the Army as a Day of Thanksgiving for the Victory they had gain’d; upon
which all the Cannon were fir’d, and there was a triple Salvo of all the
small Arms.

On the 26th, my Lord _Marlborough_, who only waited for a Convoy of the
heavy Artillery to begin the Siege of _Lisle_, sent a Detachment to
_Brussels_, where there was a considerable Train, which came partly from
_Sas van Ghent_ and _Maestricht_. This March was cover’d by 22,000 Men of
Prince _Eugene_’s Army, which he himself commanded in Person. This great
Convoy arriving safe before _Lisle_, the Town was invested the 13th of
_August_. As it was one of the most considerable Sieges that had been
undertaken for a long time; and as ’twas natural to expect a vigorous
Resistance, on the part of the Marshal _de Boufflers_ who commanded in the
Place, there came Voluntiers from all Quarters to the Camp of the
Besiegers. Two great Princes, both able Generals, thought fit to be
present at this Siege, _viz._ the King of _Poland_ and the Landgrave of
_Hesse-Cassel_, who were at the opening of the Trenches, which was on the
22d at Night.

Some Days after, the Enemy approach’d so near to us, that it was believed
they had an Inclination to engage. Our Generals were therefore at the head
of the Army as soon as the Day broke. Prince _Eugene_ join’d my Lord
_Marlborough_ with twenty-six Battalions and seventy-six Squadrons of his
Army which form’d the Siege; and the Army being drawn up in three Lines,
of which the two foremost consisted of the Cavalry; they remain’d in this
Posture till about ten o’ clock in the Forenoon, when ’twas visible that
the Enemy had no mind to come to a Battle, and that they only meant to
disturb us; for which Reason the Generals caus’d Entrenchments to be cast
up, which were finish’d next Day, and the Detachment which Prince _Eugene_
brought, was sent back again, excepting some Squadrons that staid.

There was then so little Apprehension of an Attack, that most of the
Generals quitted the Grand Army to assist in the storming of the
Counterscarp, which happen’d on the 5th of _September_ at Night. Our Men
earned it, tho’ with very great Loss on our side, and made Lodgments on
it. When this Attack was over, we set out to return to the Grand Army;
but to our misfortune the Guide that had conducted us, was run away; and
as it was not then more than one or two o’clock in the Morning, we were in
a very great Perplexity, and fell exactly into the Road that led to the
Centre of the Enemy’s Camp. I was on horseback, perhaps a hundred Yards
from the Count _de Lottum_ who was in his Coach, when all on a sudden I
heard some body call out, _Who goes there?_ I confess to you, _Madame_
that I was somewhat surpriz’d, but I comforted my self with the Thought,
that it was perhaps a Centinel of some _Walloon_ Regiment of the _Spanish_
Troops, so that I answer’d, _Officers_. We were got in the midst of Hedges
and Trees, which hinder’d me of the Benefit of a little Moonlight, by
which I might perhaps have discover’d with whom we had to do; and
therefore I still went on: but I was no sooner out of the Thicket, than I
found my self near enough to a Body of Horse, to discern that ’twas
impossible it shou’d belong to us, because it was too near the Place, and
because it fronted us. I presently saw our Danger; I turn’d back as gently
as I cou’d possibly to the Count _de Lottum_, and told him what I had
observ’d. M. _de K----_ his first Adjutant call’d me a Simpleton. _Kraut_
the second Adjutant treated me in much the same Stile; and in short I had
like to have been dismissed for a Fool; only the Count _de Lottum_ thought
it was Wisdom to run no hazard, and therefore he order’d his Coachman to
turn about, and the Officer of the Ordnance was detach’d to see whether I
was mistaken. The Truth of the Fact being by him confirm’d, the Adjutants
were almost frighten’d out of their Wits, made a thousand Apologies, and
promis’d to make me any sort of amends, if we were but so fortunate as to
escape the Danger which threaten’d us. At last we were delivered out of
it, I don’t well know how; for had the Enemy advanc’d ever so little, we
were sure of being left dead on the Spot.

Thus, _Madame_, have I given you what pass’d most remarkable since the
Storm of the Counterscarp. On the 11th, some Motion was made on the part
of the Enemy, who even advanc’d almost up to our Trenches; but we were in
a Posture to receive them. Their Army lay all Night under Arms, and next
Morning at Daybreak drew up in Order of Battle, but contrary to our
Expectation nothing came of it; for the Princes of _France_, the Chevalier
_de St. George_, the Duke _de Vendosme_, and several General Officers
contented themselves with taking a View of our Camp; but as they advanc’d
somewhat too near to our Intrenchments, we were oblig’d to be a little
rude to such great Princes, and to let fly some Cannon-Ball among them,
whereupon they thought fit to retire.

My Lord Duke heard the same Day, that M. _de Chamillard_, Secretary at
War, was arriv’d from _Versailles_ in the Army of _France_, to be present
at a Council which was to be held there. It was therein resolv’d, That we
should not be attack’d, and that their only Business should be to cut off
our Convoys from _Brussels_. To execute this Project they posted
themselves behind the _Scheld_, from whence they indeed did very much
incommode us. We had no Passage left now but from _Ostend_, by which
General _Webb_ brought us a considerable Convoy. M. _de la Motte_, a
Lieutenant-General of the _French_ Army endeavor’d to hinder its Passage;
he had also the Advantage of the Ground. Nevertheless he was defeated near
_Wynendale_. To this Convoy may be ascrib’d the Conquest of _Lisle_,
which was at length oblig’d to surrender on the 28th of _October_, and the
Marshal _de Boufflers_ retir’d into the Citadel; yet as brave as the
Garison was that march’d into it with him, he could not hold it out long.
Thus the Allies gain’d some considerable Advantage or other every day.
Never did they make a more glorious Campaign; for besides the taking of
_Lisle_ and its Citadel, they had also the Glory in this same Campaign of
raising the Siege which the Elector of _Bavaria_ had laid to _Brussels_,
and of reducing _Ghent_ and _Bruges_.

I forgot to tell you, that during the Siege of _Lisle_, we had like to
have lost Prince _Eugene_. This Prince receiv’d a Packet one day by the
Post, and having broke it open, he saw a greasy Paper, which gave him a
mistrust; but he only threw it upon the Ground, and a Person that gathered
it up being taken ill, it induc’d them to make an Experiment upon a Dog,
which when they had rubb’d it about his Nose, died that Instant. Thus was
God pleas’d to preserve this Hero from the basest of Treasons.

I wish’d I could have been at the taking of _Lisle_, but was oblig’d to
quit the Army some time before, M. _Dankelman_ my Tutor having receiv’d
the King’s Orders to send me to _Berlin_, where his Majesty design’d to
give me a Place at Court; and as he had Thoughts of marrying again, he
propos’d to prefer me to an Employment under the new Queen.

The King’s Marriage was talk’d of at the Waters of _Carelsbadt_. I have
had the honor to acquaint you, _Madame_, that the Physicians not knowing
what Remedy to prescribe, for curing him of the Faintness, which was the
Relic of his great illness in 1707, had at all adventures order’d the
Waters of _Carelsbadt_, and the King was perfectly recover’d by them. The
Recovery of his Health reviv’d the Pleasures of the Court. The voluptuous
Courtier, who had not yet forgot what the Presence of an amiable Queen is
capable of doing, began to form Vows, that the King might make a Choice as
good as the first: nay, the matter was carried farther; it was mention’d
to his Majesty, who was told withal, that nothing was more necessary, than
to think immediately of a second Marriage; and that the Prince Royal
having no Children, there was Danger of his Majesty’s leaving no Issue. In
short, every body voted so heartily for a Marriage, that the King, who
also was desirous of it, declar’d he wou’d marry again. The only
difficulty was to know, who should be the Princess that was to be advanc’d
to the Throne; and then arose several Parties, who had each very different

The Great Chamberlain was for the Princess of _Nassau-Friesland_, a
Marriage with whom, he imagin’d, would put an end to all the Disputes
about King _William_’s Succession. The King approv’d of the Proposal, and
sent the Baron _de Schalifer_ to negociate the Treaty. You would not
believe perhaps, _Madame_, that the very Mother of this Princess caus’d it
to miscarry, from a Jealousy of her Daughter’s Grandeur. Her Pretext was,
that she had before vainly flatter’d herself with the Hopes of marrying
her Daughter to the Prince Royal; that she had been bubbled then; and that
it would be the same thing now. The Assurances that the Baron gave her to
the contrary, and the Advantages he shew’d her would accrue to her Family
from this Match, were all to no purpose; she remain’d inflexible; and
told him in plain Terms, that she could not bear to think of seeing her
Daughter so much above her. The Baron having made some other Attempts,
this jealous Mother prevail’d on her Daughter to refuse the greatest Offer
she could ever hope for. A great many of the Courtiers were not sorry to
see this Match broke off. They had been jealous for a long time of the
great Credit of the Prince of _Anhalt_, who being Uncle to the Princess in
question, ’twas natural to presume, that she would grow more powerful than
before, besides the being more united than ever to the Great Chamberlain,
to whom the Prince would be oblig’d for this Marriage.

Then the Princess of _Hesse_ was propos’d, and the Princess of _Culmbach_.
The former had the Negative put upon her the very Moment that she was
mention’d, and that by the King himself. The latter was known to the King,
who had seen her at _Hall_, as he return’d from _Carelsbadt_. His Majesty
thought very well of her, and had even seem’d inclinable to determine in
her favor, when, opposite Cabals were set at work, which quite frustrated
the Proposal.

The Duchess of _Zeitz_, the King’s Sister, who married a Duke of
_Meckelbourg_ to her first Husband, proposed the Princess of _Meckelbourg_
to the King. His Majesty, who had still perhaps the Princess of _Culmbach_
in his Thoughts, did not seem at first to relish this Proposal;
nevertheless upon the Instances made to him by the Duchess his Sister, he
promised her to see the Princess of _Meckelbourg_ before he determin’d in
favor of any other Person. This he did accordingly, some time after he
return’d to _Berlin_, when he went to _Schwerin_, the Capital City of
_Meckelbourg_, on pretence of endeavoring to accommodate the Differences
between the Duke and the Nobility. There it was that the King saw the
Princess; she pleas’d him, and besides he had heard so much in her Praise,
that at length he determin’d to have her; and as soon as he return’d to
_Oranienbourg_, he declared his Marriage.

This News did not create so much Joy at our Court as I imagin’d it wou’d;
and the Courtiers began to reflect seriously, upon what they had seem’d to
wish for with Impatience. They call’d to mind the Time of the late Queen.
Moreover, the Age and Health of the Prince and Princess Royal gave them
ground enough to hope, that the _Brandenburg_ Family would not want Heirs.
In fine, the Character of Mother-in-law, ever hated, gave Apprehension
that there wou’d soon be a Division in the Royal Family. For my own part,
I verily believe, _Madame_, that what most of all disgusted the Courtiers,
in the Choice which the King had now made, was, that the Queen was a
devout Lady, a Quality not very likely to make that Air of Gallantry
prevail at Court, which captivates the Heart of the Courtier.

The King had no sooner declar’d his Intention to marry again, but there
was a Multitude of Sollicitors to be of the Queen’s Houshold. One
_Bassompierre_ put himself upon the List, and he desir’d the King wou’d
make him the Queen’s Chamberlain. The King made him answer, that he would
put no Officers about the Queen, except such as should be agreeable to
her; but that he would favor him so far, as to put him in the number of
those that shou’d be propos’d to the Queen as soon as she arriv’d.
_Bassompierre_ thought that by making previous Application to the Queen,
he should not fail of being admitted, and therefore he set out Post to
meet her. He told her Majesty that the King had sent him to be her
Chamberlain. The Queen believ’d him, admitted him in that quality, and
also gave him a Letter to carry to the King, with which he return’d to
_Berlin_. He told the King, that the Queen had appointed him her
Chamberlain. His Majesty easily imagin’d that the Queen had been
surpriz’d; and being justly angry with _Bassompierre_, forbad him the
Court. This _Bassompierre_ had a Brother who came to _Berlin_ the same
time as he did: These two Gentlemen said they were of that honest Family
of _Bassompierre_, of which there are some still in _Lorrain_: And by that
Name they went, _Anno_ 1707, in the Army in _Flanders_. The eldest said he
had been a Colonel in _France_, and that his Brother was a Captain in the
same Regiment. They pretended that they left their Country, the eldest for
having fought a Duel, and the youngest for being his Second. The King had
receiv’d them kindly, and given them Pensions, with a Promise to prefer
them to the Army the first Opportunity that should offer. These two
Brothers were at Court in a very agreeable Situation, and wou’d, no doubt,
have long enjoy’d it, when the eldest attempted to be the Queen’s
Chamberlain; in which perhaps too he would have succeeded, if his
Eagerness for it had not made him take that Step, by which he incurr’d his
Majesty’s Indignation. He was very much astonish’d at the Order which was
signify’d to him, not to be seen any more at Court; and at length fearing
he shou’d be found out to be what he really was, he retir’d, and went with
his Brother to _Saxony_, where they were both admitted into the King of
_Poland_’s Horse-Guards; but they did not enjoy that Shelter long: for the
Electoress of _Hanover_ having heard of their Intrigue at _Berlin_, wrote
to a great Lady in _France_, and desir’d her to inform her who those
_Bassompierres_ were. The Lady, who knew nothing at all of ’em, naturally
mistrusted that they were Fortune-Hunters; but for better Information she
enquir’d of M. _d’Argenson_, Lieutenant of the Police, who upon the
Description given him of those Gentlemen, discover’d they were a couple of
Sparks, whose Duel of Honor wou’d have been rewarded with the Brand of the
_Flower de Lis_ and the Galleys, if they could have been apprehended in
_France_. Upon this Discovery Messieurs _de Bassompierre_ were banish’d
out of _Poland_, and what became of them afterwards I cannot tell.

Mean time all the necessary Preparations were making at _Berlin_ for the
Reception of the Queen, who was preparing on her part for her public
Entry. The Duke of _Meckelbourg_ married the Princess his Sister by Proxy
from the King. Next day the new Queen set out from _Schwerin_, in company
with the Duchess her Mother, the Duke her Brother, and the Duchess of
_Meckelbourg_ her Sister-in law. This Train went with her to the very
Frontier of _Meckelbourg_, which borders upon the Electorate of
_Brandenburg_, and there the Queen found M. _d’Erlach_, Marshal of the
Court, who receiv’d her in the King’s Name, and offer’d her his House.
This Princess, after having taken leave of her Family, took Coach and
arriv’d at _Oranienburg_ the 24th of _November_. The King went and met her
about half a League from that House. As soon as she perceiv’d his Majesty,
she alighted out of her Coach and fell on her Knees. The King took her up
and embrac’d her, and after presenting the whole Royal Family to her they
went to the Castle. The King conducted the Queen to her Apartment, where
she always eat alone, to the very Day of the Celebration of the Marriage.
The 27th she made her Entry at _Berlin_, where she was receiv’d with all
possible Magnificence, and next Day their Majesties were married in the
Church of the _Dome_. The 29th, the King and Queen receiv’d the
Compliments of all the Deputies, Courts of Justice and Foreign Ministers;
and on the same day there was a great Entertainment which their Majesties
honor’d with their Presence. I was not willing, _Madame_, to tire you with
a tedious Detail of all the Ceremonies: I have already had the Honor to
acquaint you, that the King spar’d for nothing that might contribute to
the Magnificence of the Feast, which lasted several days, and was more
sumptuous every day than other. What I thought remarkable, was a Battle of
wild Beasts, at which their Majesties were present on the 17th of
_December_, when the Queen kill’d a Bear from her Gallery, with a shot
from a Hand-Gun.

The Arrival of the new Queen created no great Change at Court, and except
the first Rank which she had of the Ladies every thing continued in the
same state. The Princess-Royal kept her Court at her own Lodgings twice a
Week, that is to say, on those Days when there was no Circle at the
Queen’s; for upon the Drawing-Room Days she went to her Majesty’s
Apartment, as did most of the Princesses, and they stay’d there to sup.
Her Majesty likewise granted the same Honor to several other Ladies, to
whom she gave an Invitation by a Gentleman when they were in the Circle.

’Twas at the time of the King’s Marriage that I lost my Father-in-law: I
was very much concern’d for his Death, especially on account of the
Trouble it gave my Mother, who could never get over it as long as she
liv’d. The very day that the News of it was brought to me, the King
declar’d me a Gentleman of his Bed-chamber. I have had the Honor to tell
you, _Madame_, that I was taken out of the Army in hopes of being plac’d
near the Queen, but when I came to Court I found all her Houshold settled,
and my Name not in the List. I spoke of this to the Grand Marshal, who bid
me not be vexed, for that he would shortly get me a Post about the King,
and that was the Office of Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, to which I was
nominated some time after, _i. e._ about the latter end of the Year 1708.

You know, _Madame_, and one can hardly forget the prodigious cold Weather
we had the Winter following. It began on the Feast of _Epiphany_, 1709,
and was universal all over _Europe_. The Corn and Vines suffer’d so much
by it that there was a scarcity which lasted long enough to starve a
number of poor People, who cou’d not get Bread, it was so excessive dear.
Never was there a more melancholy Year; and there was such a poor
melancholy Court all the while, that it seem’d as if the severe cold
Weather had chill’d our Spirits. But when the fine Weather return’d they
began to revive, and every one prepar’d to set out for the Army. The
Prince Royal went to make the Campaign in _Flanders_ as a Voluntier, and
M. _d’Arnheim_ departed to rejoin the Troops of which he had the Command
in _Piedmont_. This Campaign was very glorious to the Allies, but ’twas a
very bloody one. The famous Battle of _Malplaquet_ was one of those
Victories which procured us Laurels cover’d with Funeral Scutcheons, and
two more such Victories would have ruin’d the Infantry of the Allies. The
Prince Royal was Witness of the Bravery of our Troops, which distinguish’d
themselves in this Campaign, wherein they had been great Sufferers. The
Enemy on their part besides the Battle lost also _Mons_ and _Tournay_.

I could have wish’d to have made this Campaign, but when I ask’d the
King’s Leave to go, his Majesty refus’d me, saying, that he design’d me
for some other Business than that of Arms. This Answer pleas’d me to the
Life, and as I was young and by consequence apt enough to be vain, I was
so simple as to believe my self for a while in the highest Favor. But I
was soon convinc’d of my mistake. What serv’d to open my Eyes was this.
The Post of Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, with which the King had honor’d
me, made it my duty to attend the King’s Coach on horseback as often as
his Majesty went abroad; but being one day so much out of order that ’twas
impossible for me to ride a Horse, as ill luck would have it, the King
happen’d to go that very day from[10]_Charlottenbourg_ to _Berlin_, and
perceiv’d that I was not upon Duty. This incens’d him so much against me,
that when I attended to receive his Hat and Cane upon his Return, he said
the harshest things that cou’d be to me, the least of which was, that if I
ever fail’d in my Duty again, he would deprive me of the Honor of serving
him. Guess, _Madame_, how much I was mortify’d at such a Reprimand given
in presence of eight or ten Persons that were in the King’s Chamber.
Indeed I had much ado to brook it, and at first dash I really had a
Thought of resigning my Post. I spoke of it to the Count _de Witgenstein_,
who pacify’d me a little by giving me to understand, that if I did not
abate of my Fire I had nothing to do but to renounce all Advancement in
the Service of my King, a Service always preferable to any Fortunes that
can be made at the Court of any Foreign Prince. He promis’d to set me
right in the King’s Opinion, and he kept his Word; for two or three Days
afterwards as the King return’d to _Charlottenbourg_, when I happen’d to
be all alone in his Chamber with the Chamberlain in waiting, his Majesty
did me the Honor to ask me, _If I was still in a Pet?_ I return’d no other
Answer but a profound Obeisance. The King said to me a second time, _I ask
you if you are out of humor because I chid you t’other day?_ I made Answer
with all the Respect possible, _That indeed I was vex’d to my heart that I
had given his Majesty any Cause to be out of Temper with me; that no body
was more ambitious than I was of serving him faithfully; and that tho’ I
had the Misfortune lately to be wanting in my Duty, it was owing to a very
sad Indisposition. But_, said the King, _you should have let me know it
then, and I should not have reprimanded you. After all, I did so only to
try you, for in the main I was not so angry as I seem’d to be._ _Jackel_
the King’s Jester, who was present at this Conversation, took up the
Discourse and said to the King, _But, good Sir, the Indisposition he talks
of, is of his own making; for the true Cause is, he has no Saddle-Horses,
and the reason of this, is because he has not wherewithal to feed them._
_Why then_, said the King, _I will give him wherewithal: The Great
Chamberlain_, said he to me, _shall dispatch you a Warrant for that
purpose; go to him._ I then advanc’d to kiss the King’s Robe, but he drew
back, and as I was stooping he laid his Hand upon my Head, and said to me,
_You are young, be good, and I will take care of you._ In a few days
after, I had my Warrant dispatch’d to send for Forage to _Michlenhoff_,
where the like was distributed to other Courtiers who had obtain’d the
same Favor.

At the same time the Duke of _Meckelbourg_ the Queen’s Brother came to
_Berlin_, where he had a magnificent Reception, yet he was not very well
pleas’d with his Journey; for this Prince expected, as he was a Sovereign,
to have Precedency of the Margraves the King’s Brothers, which was deny’d
him. He eat in private with the King, but the Margraves were not present,
and he stay’d at Court but three or four days, during which he was lodg’d
at the Palace and serv’d by the King’s Officers.

As for our new Queen she became so devout in a little time after her
Marriage, that every body was surpriz’d, and the Courtiers very much
disgusted. Nothing was talk’d of in her presence but Religion, and in the
Morning her Anti-chamber was frequented by Ministers, by Dr. _Francke_
whom she had sent for on purpose from _Hall_, and by _Borst_ her
Confessor. It look’d as if one was in the Anti-chamber of some Governess
of a Convent, rather than in the Palace of a great Queen. Under pretence
of Prayers for Deliverance from the Plague which infected some of our
Provinces, there was nothing to be heard in her Apartments but Litanies.
The King did not like all this Cant; for tho’ he had a great deal of
Religion, he did not love Bigotry. He made the Queen sensible that her
manner of living was not suitable to one that sate upon a Throne, and got
her content to the Removal of those Persons from about her who had
exhorted her to embrace the Party of the Pietists. _Francke_ was sent back
to _Hall_ to the great College which the Queen had newly founded for
Orphans, and whereof that Doctor had the Direction. Then there was only
_Borst_ her Majesty’s Confessor left at Court, and he was advis’d not to
give himself so much Trouble about the Queen’s Salvation. This Princess
was so zealous for her Religion, that she did not believe those who
profess’d a contrary one could be saved. I remember that one day as she
was talking about Religion to the King, she told him that she was very
much grieved to find him a _Calvinist_, and by that means out of the Road
to Salvation. The King who seem’d in an amaze at the Compliment, said to
her, _What, do you think then that I shall be damn’d? And what will you
say then when you speak of me after Death_? For you could not say _der
SEELIGE Konig_, (an Expression us’d in the _German_ Tongue, speaking of a
Person deceas’d, and which signifies, the _King is sav’d_.) The Queen was
a little puzzled how to reply, but after a few Moments Reflection she
said, I will say, _der liebe verstorbene Konig_, which signifies the _Dear
King deceas’d_. This Answer made the King uneasy, who return’d soon after
to his Apartment. I was that day in Waiting, and by consequence in his
Majesty’s Apartment with some of the Court-Nobility, when the King told us
with a deal of Concern upon his Mind of the Conversation he had with the
Queen, which affected him the more, because at that time he thought very
seriously of the Union of the _Protestant_ Churches.

Mean time the Pestilence, which had discover’d it self in some of our
Provinces, frighten’d us very much. The King upon this occasion acted like
a true Father of his People, by sending Money and Provisions to those that
were afflicted with it, and by causing a Day of solemn Fasting and Prayers
to be celebrated in all the Churches of his Dominions to beg of God that
he wou’d please to avert this Scourge from our Country. Moreover he caused
Lazarets or Pest-Houses to be erected at the Gates of all the Towns where
those who came from any suspected Place were to perform Quarantain. As the
whole time was now spent in Sermons and Prayers for removing the
Pestilence, the detail of which would not be very pleasing, I think it
will not be amiss here to tell you how the Service was perform’d before
the King and Queen. I will begin by giving you some Account
of[11]_Berlin_, and of his Majesty’s[12]Palace.

The City of _Berlin_[13] wou’d not have been what it is at this day, had
it not been for the _French_ Protestants. They had been kindly receiv’d by
the Elector _Frederic-William_: And the King, every whit as generous as
his Father, prolong’d and even augmented the Franchises granted to the
_French_, and in order to convince those Exiles that he was dispos’d to be
a Father to them, he had a mind that they should be no longer
distinguish’d from his natural-born Subjects; but caus’d Churches to be
built for them of which he maintain’d the Ministers, gave them a very fine
College for the Education of their Children, and also chose a Company of
Musketeers out of them in which none but _French_ were admitted.

These Refugees were so sensible of the King’s Goodness to them, that they
had an Emulation to shew their Gratitude to him by making Trade to
flourish. They were equally zealous for the embellishing and aggrandizing
of the City, and caus’d a great many Houses to be built there which were
both neat and commodious. They added to the City all that Quarter call’d
the _New Town_, which is certainly the most beautiful part of _Berlin_. Of
the Streets which run in a strait Line, the principal is adorn’d with six
Rows of Lime-Trees that form as many Walks, the middlemost of which is
lin’d with a Balustrade to keep off Coaches and Carriages. These Walks
terminate in a Wood, thro’ which there’s an Avenue of a League, which
leads to _Charlottenbourg_, a Royal Palace.

At the Entrance of the _New Town_ there’s the Arsenal[14], a Structure
which may pass for one of the finest in _Europe_: ’Tis a Quadrangle with a
large Square in the middle. The four outward Fronts are almost exactly
alike. The principal is divided into three Buildings, of which that in the
middle projects a little forwards. The Grand Floor consists of Arches
charged with Rustics, which support Pilasters of the _Ionic_ Order. The
part which projects from the middle is adorn’d with four Columns, and has
a large Pediment at the end of it. The grand or principal Gate is in the
middle. On the two sides there are four great fine Statues representing
the Cardinal Virtues on Pedestals. These seem to look towards the King’s
Picture, which is represented in a great Medal of Brass gilt in the coping
of the Gate. Over this Picture, there’s his Majesty’s Cypher in the middle
of a Cartridge crown’d, supported by Fame and Victory. The Cartridge is
fill’d up with an Entablature upon which there’s a _Latin_ Inscription in
Letters of Gold, to the Honor of the King. Finally, over this Entablature
there’s a great Pediment in Basso-Relievo perfectly beautiful,
representing a _Mars_ which seems to rest upon a Trophy, and to look upon
a couple of Slaves chain’d at his Feet. The whole is compleated by a
Balustrade which rests upon the Pedestals that support the Trophies. This
stately Edifice is encompass’d with Spurs of Iron in the form of Cannon,
upon which there’s the King’s Cypher gilt; and these Spurs serve for a
Support to the Iron Chains which are hung in Festoons from one to the

The Inside of this Structure is as magnificent as the Outside. Two Rows of
Pillars support the lowermost Arch-Roof and form three Walks, of which the
middlemost is the narrowest, but the only one that serves for the Passage;
those on the sides being full of noble Brass-Guns. The King had a Design
to have a Cannon of a hundred Pounder plac’d at each Corner; but there is
only one finish’d which is call’d _Asia_, a terrible Machine fitter to
adorn an Arsenal than for any other use. The Ascent to it is by a Step,
because they were oblig’d to build the Carriage in proportion to the piece
that it bears. This Cannon is adorn’d all over with Eagles and Crowns;
and the King’s-Arms are represented on it under a Royal Pavilion, as are
also those of the Margrave _Philip_ the King’s Brother, as Grand Master of
the Artillery. This is all that is remarkable on the side of the _New

The King’s Palace is also very magnificent; and the whole is so majestic,
that it appears at the first sight to be the Residence of some great
Monarch. Yet there’s one fault in it, which is, that Uniformity has not
been nicely observ’d in it, because it has been carry’d on by Fits and
Girds, and every Architect has followed his particular Plan.

This Palace consists of four large Buildings, which forms in the middle a
Court that is not so broad as ’tis long. The first Thing in the main Front
is a great high Portico with two Gates Arch-wise on the two sides. The
Proportions of the Columns and the Height of the Portico were copy’d from
_Constantine_’s Triumphal Arch at _Rome_. On the two sides of the Portico
there are twelve great Transom Windows encompass’d with Ornaments. The
Fronts that are on the side of the Court are much more magnificent than
the outer ones, but then they are more irregular. The Inside of the Palace
is not executed much better. Two Grand Stair-Cases lead to the Guard-Room,
the one on the Right and the other on the Left of the Entry. The
Stair-Case on the Left-hand is of a particular Contrivance, being in form
of a Glacis without any Step, so that a Coach may go up to it. The
Guard-Room is long but narrow, and has no Light but what comes from the
Windows on the Cupola over the Stair-Case. The Entry is in the middle.
There is a Turning on the Left to enter into the King’s Apartment, which
shews at first sight three Chambers in a Row. The third of these Rooms
separates the least Apartment from the greatest, of which the former is on
the Right and the latter on the Left. I will only speak to you of the
last, which is the most magnificent. In turning therefore to the Left one
perceives a long Suite of Apartments, which form a magnificent Point of
View. The Furniture is surprizingly rich; nor is any thing to be seen,
look which way you will, but Gold, Silver, Marble, Brass, Painting, Glass,
China, _&c._ in a word, every thing that can be wish’d for, that is rich
and elegant. At the end of this Suite of Apartments there is a long
Gallery, the Cieling of which, like that of _Versailles_, represents the
principal Actions of the King, and the sides are adorn’d with Pictures
done by the most famous Hands, the Frames of which are of Brass gilt.

At the end of this Gallery there was formerly a great Amber-Cabinet, with
divers Compartiments in Basso-Relievo, which perhaps had not its Fellow in
the World; but the King being desirous to make the _Czar_ a Present worthy
of his Acceptance, gave him this Cabinet and a Yatcht that cost eighty
thousand Crowns.

Were I to enter into the detail of the Beauties and Magnificence one meets
with at every step in this Palace, I should never have done; I believe it
may be sufficient to say that the King, as far as possible, imitated the
Inside of the Palace of _Versailles_. This great Prince took _Lewis_ XIV.
for a Model, and after his Example was intent on building magnificent
Structures and establishing different Manufactures, whereby the Poor might
earn their Living, and get for a reasonable Price those Commodities which
heretofore they used to import from Foreign Countries, at a very great
Expence. Thus, _Madame_, have I given you an account of almost all the
greatest Remarkables at _Berlin_. I shall now let you know after what
manner their Majesties are every day attended.[15]

I begin with the King’s Levee. His Majesty commonly rose between five and
six o’clock in the Morning, (I mean at the time that I have the Honour to
speak to you of;) tho’ formerly he rose at three or four o’clock. As soon
as the King awak’d, the Page of the Back-Stairs who had watch’d with him
went and gave notice of it to the Valets de Chambre and the Yeomen of the
Wardrobe, who presently came in, undrew the Bed-Curtains, and open’d the
Window-Shutters, after which they went out and declar’d that the King was
stirring. Then the Chamberlain in waiting, the Gentleman of the
Bed-Chamber, and the Officers upon Guard came in and made a very low Bow.
The next that enter’d were the Physicians, to whom his Majesty gave an
account how he had rested. Then the Pages of the Back-Stairs brought a
great Silver Table with Coffee upon it, which was presented to the King by
the first Valet de Chambre in waiting upon a Gold Salver, and the Page
presented it about to all the Persons of Quality that were at the Levee.
Every body was oblig’d to drink two Cups, or else they run the risk of
being reprimanded. After drinking of the Coffee the Table was carry’d
away, and the King convers’d half an hour or more with those that were
present: Then he veil’d his Bonnet and all the Company retir’d. The Valets
de Chambre and the Grooms of the Wardrobe stay’d to dress the King, which
when they had done, his Majesty retir’d into his Closet, where was a Desk
for Prayer, and there he commonly stay’d an Hour, while they made his Bed.
After this he return’d into his Chamber, and then the Prime Minister came
in to give him an account of his Dispatches, which lasted till ten o’clock
or thereabouts. After this the King went to Council, where he stay’d a
little above an Hour. This Council consisted of the Prince Royal, the
Margrave _Philip_ Brother to the King, and the Ministers. When the Council
broke up the King went into his Closet, and there gave out his Orders.
Then two Kettle-Drummers plac’d in opposite Balconies that look’d into the
lesser Court, gave notice by the Sound of their Kettle-Drums to the
Officers of the Kitchen and Buttery to get everything ready for the King’s
Service. As soon as the Cloth was laid, the Kettle-Drums were sounded a
second time. During this, the King accompany’d by the Prince Royal and the
Margraves his Brothers, pass’d thro’ the Guard-Room into the Queen’s
Apartment, where were all the Princesses. A few moments after, the
Kettle-Drums and twenty-four Trumpets divided into two Bodies, gave notice
for serving up Dinner. At the same time, two of the Life-Guards and six of
the Guard of Hundred _Swissers_ took possession of the Room where the King
was to eat. The two Life-Guard Men posted themselves behind the Arm-Chair
of the King and Queen, and the six _Swissers_ encompass’d the Table three
on each side with their Halberds in their hands. When Dinner was serv’d
up, the Great Chamberlain with his Staff in hand went and acquainted the
King of it, who immediately enter’d the Hall, follow’d by the Queen, who
was led by the Prince Royal; as were the Princess Royal and the
Margravines by the Margraves. At their entrance into the Hall, the King
gave his Hat and Cane, and the Queen her Gloves and Fan, to the
Chamberlains in waiting. Then two Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber held out a
great Silver gilt Bason for them to wash in, and when they had wash’d, the
two Chamberlains gave them the Napkins. The two Gentlemen of the
Bed-Chamber always offer’d the Bason in like manner to the Princes and
Princesses to wash in, but they wou’d not accept it.

When their Majesties had wash’d, the Grand Marshal who stood about the
middle of the Table opposite to the King gave a Rap with his Staff; at the
same time making a profound Obeisance; then a Page that stood by him did
the like, and after saying a short Grace their Majesties seated themselves
in their Arm-Chairs, and their Royal Highnesses in other Chairs, with only
Backs. Then the Carver approaching the Table tasted the Provision, and
therewith serv’d their Majesties, and the Princes according to their Rank.
When their Majesties call’d for Liquor the Chamberlain gave the hint to a
Page, and he did the same to a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber upon Duty, who
then went to the Side-board and fetch’d Wine and Water in two Bottles upon
a Salver of Gold. The Chamberlain tasted both, and then presented both to
their Majesties. The King always drank the Queen’s Health, and the Queen
in like manner drank the King’s. This done, their Majesties dismiss’d the
Court by making a Salute to the Grand Marshal. Then the Court retir’d, and
none stay’d but the Waiters. Before their Majesties rose from Table the
Prime Minister as well as the Master of the Horse approach’d, with the
Grand Master of the Wardrobe and the Captain of the Guards, to receive the
King’s Orders, in case his Majesty was willing to ride out. When the
Dessart was ready to be serv’d, notice was brought to the Grand Marshal or
to him that bore the Staff in his absence, who then return’d to the King’s
Table. When his Majesty rose from Table the Chamberlain brought him Water
to wash his Mouth, and the Queen’s Chamberlain and their Royal Highnesses
Gentlemen attended the Queen and Princesses with the same. After this the
King led the Queen into her own Apartment, where he stay’d a little time,
then return’d to his own, and rested himself for an hour in his Closet.

When the King was awaked, the Chamberlain and the Gentleman of the
Bed-Chamber enter’d his Majesty’s Closet, where sometimes the Queen paid
him a Visit, and at other times the Prime Minister came and talk’d with
him about Business. In the Summer-time the King went abroad for the Air,
or the Pleasure of Fishing or Hunting, especially the Heron, in which he
took great delight. About six o’clock in the Evening his Majesty went to
the Queen’s Apartment, and stay’d there about an Hour, after which he
return’d to his own, to that call’d _la Tabagie_ or the Tobacco-Room,
because there he smoak’d his Pipe, and several of the Nobility had the
Honour of smoaking there with him. The King never supp’d unless it was in
extraordinary cases, but amus’d himself with a Game at Chess. When he had
done playing he conversed very familiarly with the Chamberlain, the
Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, and some privileg’d Courtiers; and when he
had a mind to put an end to the Conversation, he gave his Orders to the
Grand Master of the Wardrobe what Clothes to equip him with next day, and
then every body retir’d, and the Valets de Chambre and the Grooms of the
Wardrobe went and put his Majesty to bed. This, _Madame_, was the manner
how the Service was perform’d at our Court. Never was there any
Interruption in the Hours prescrib’d for his Majesty’s Exercises, unless
he labor’d under some Ailment. I thought that this Detail, tho’ perhaps a
little tedious, wou’d not be quite so unpleasant as the Recital of all the
Litanies and other Prayers, in which the Queen was constant for the
remainder of the Year.

In the beginning of the Year following, that is to say the 19th of
_January_ 1710, the Count _de Lottum_ presented the King with eleven
Pieces of Cannon, and several Colors and Standards that fell to his
Majesty’s share in the distribution that was made of those that were taken
from the _French_, during the Campaign.

At the same time we lost the Duke of _Courland_ for ever. This young
Prince was the King’s Nephew by his Mother, who was his Majesty’s Sister
by the same Father, but not by the same Mother. He was but an Infant when
he lost his Father the Duke of _Courland_, whose death was to him the
greatest of all Misfortunes, because of the Misunderstanding which the
Guardianship of this young Prince created between those who aspir’d to it.
The Duchess his Mother asserted that she was the rightful Guardian of the
Prince, her Son. His Uncle also pretended ’twas his Right. In short, the
Nobility of _Courland_ disputed it with them both. During these Domestic
Troubles, the several Parties, not watchful of their Neighbours Motions,
quickly found they had powerful Enemies to cope with. The _Saxons_ being
the nearest, were the most forward to take possession of their Country.
The _Muscovites_ were soon at their heels, and in concert with the
_Saxons_ rush’d upon what they thought most convenient. But they were both
soon oblig’d to abandon that Duchy to the King of _Sweden_, who came at
the head of his Troops, and without much difficulty sent them going. But
after all, Fortune being weary of seconding the Arms of the _Swedish_
Monarch, he was oblig’d not long after his Entrance into _Courland_, to
yield the said Duchy to the _Muscovites_, who remain’d the sole Possessors
of it.

All these Troubles had oblig’d the Duchess, with the Prince her Son, to
retire. She came to _Berlin_ where she was present at the King’s
Coronation, and afterwards, as I have already had the Honor to tell you,
she marry’d the Margrave of _Brandenburg Bareith_. This Princess followed
the Margrave her Husband into his Dominions, and took the Duke of
_Courland_ her Son along with her. There did this young Prince stay with
the Margrave his Father-in-law, till after the King of _Sweden_’s Defeat
at _Pultowa_ by the _Muscovite_ Army. When the latter were become Masters
of _Courland_, the Duke flatter’d himself that he should be able to
prevail on the Czar to restore him to his Dominions: nor was he deceiv’d
in his Expectation; for the Czar was very ready to consent to it, on
condition nevertheless that he should marry his Niece, the Daughter of the
late Czar, his Brother. The Match was truly illustrious, for the Princess
was both the Daughter and Niece of a potent Monarch; but her Education had
been very different from that of the young Prince, and there was all the
Reason in the World to think, that they would not like one another long.
The Duke for his part could have wish’d to be restor’d to his Duchy upon
other Terms; but at length, thinking he could not do better than to accept
of those, and to put himself again at the head of his Subjects, who had
for several Years wish’d for his Presence; he set out for the Czar’s
Court, and there married the Princess. This Marriage, which was concluded
with some Reluctance on the part of the young Duke, seem’d to portend him
none but unhappy Days; and in short, he was scarce married, but he fell
dangerously sick, and in a few days after died, which Illness they said
was owing to his having been forc’d to drink to excess on his Wedding-Day.
This occasion’d a general Desolation throughout the Duchy of _Courland_,
the poor People having entertain’d some Hopes that the Presence of their
lawful Sovereign would make them forget the Evils they had suffer’d by
several years continual Wars.

Towards the Conclusion of this Year, the famous Count _de Wartemberg_,
Prime Minister and Great Chamberlain was disgrac’d; which, tho’ it had
been long wish’d for, was surprizing to all Mankind, who thought the
Credit of that Minister too well establish’d, the chief Places of the
Kingdom being in the hands of his Creatures, from whose Gratitude there
was nothing that he might not promise himself; besides, they did not think
any Person would be so daring, as to cast the first Stone; the then recent
Instance of the Count _de Wesen_ being a sufficient Warning to deter any
Persons from entring into so dangerous a Combination. Nevertheless there
were two Persons at Court who were not terrify’d by the Peril, to which an
Enterprize of this nature expos’d them. The Name of both these Courtiers
was _Kamcke_, and being Cousins into the bargain, they were only
distinguish’d by the Appellations of _Great_ and _Little_.

The _Great Kamcke_ had been successively Page to the King, Page of the
Bed-chamber, afterwards a declar’d Favorite, and at last Great Master of
the Wardrobe, which Post he held at the time of the Prime Minister’s
Disgrace. The Favor with which the King honor’d him, was what made him
esteem’d more than any thing else; for setting that aside, he was not
remarkable for either the Virtues or the Vices which contribute almost in
the same measure to the forming of Great Men. He was reckoned a Man of
fine Parts, because he was fortunate enough to gain, and to preserve the
King’s Favor; and he had the Reputation of being good-natur’d, because
having a place in which he might have done a great deal of Mischief, he
did none at all. ’Tis true too on the other hand, that he did no body any
Service; the Lethargy of his Temperament not permitting him to put himself
upon those Motions, which are equally necessary to serve a Friend, and to
ruin an Enemy.

The _Little Kamcke_, his Cousin, was of a Temper quite different. He was
not only a Person of a piercing sparkling Wit, but had all the Politeness
of the most elegant Courtier. Being ambitious and vain, but always with
Temper; he was cut out for those delicate Undertakings to which the
Success alone gives a Sanction; and what is seldom to be found in so young
a Man, he had all the Management and Dissimulation necessary for
Execution. The Count _de Wartemberg_ had always hated him; for he
suspected him to have had a hand in those Ballads which _M----_,
afterwards the King of _Poland_’s Minister, had made upon the whole
Court, and in which the Count and Countess were very ill treated; but
_Little Kamcke_, who never despair’d of his Success, still continued to
make his court to the King, without seeming to take the least Notice of
the Minister’s Ill-will. His assiduous Attendance was at length rewarded;
the King begun by granting him the Honor of playing with him every Night
at Chess; which was a Favor this young Courtier so artfully improv’d, that
in a little time after, his Majesty made him a Minister of State. The
Count _de Wartemberg_ was mortify’d in two Respects by the Advancement of
_Little Kamcke_; for he did not expect such a Favor to be convey’d by any
Canal but himself; and besides it was granted to a crafty Enemy, whose
rising Credit might well give him Umbrage. _Kamcke_ for his own part
believing that he was only obliged to his own Merit for his Preferment,
had even less regard for the Prime Minister than before. They star’d upon
one another at first, without venturing to make an Attack; but by degrees
they came to high Words; and at length _Kamcke_ being puff’d up with his
Favor; and being moreover supported by all good Men, he vow’d the
Destruction of the Prime Minister, and his Creature, the Grand Marshal. He
was so cunning as to engage his Cousin _Kamcke_ in the Scheme, because the
latter being Great Master of the Wardrobe, cou’d give the Prime Minister
the fatal Blow with more Ease than any other Person; and he succeeded
happily; for he aggravated to his Majesty the Complaints of the People,
and the Murmurings of the whole Court. The Queen too being prejudic’d by
the _Kamcke_ spoke sharply against the King, who at last consented to the
removal of a Minister, whom till then he had thought he could not be

This great Scene was open’d by the Disgrace of the Count _de Witgenstein_,
the Grand Marshal of the Court, and the Prime Minister’s Creature, who was
arrested in his House on the 27th of _December_ at 10 o’clock at Night, by
a Lieutenant of the Guards and ten Grenadiers. Next day, about 9 in the
Forenoon, M. _de Gersdorf_, Colonel of the Regiment of Guards, accompanied
by _Stoffius_, Treasurer of the Order of the Black Eagle, came from the
King to demand his Ribban. He presently restor’d it, assuring them that he
was wrongfully maltreated; but that nevertheless he did not complain of
the King, and that they were only his Enemies who had impos’d upon his
Majesty’s Goodness to ruin him. Not long after an Officer of the Guards
came in and told him, that he had Orders to carry him to _Spandau_. He
made answer, that he was ready to go wherever the King commanded him; only
he desir’d Leave to write to his Mother-in-law, who was the Queen’s Lady
of Honor. The Officer told him, that he was forbid to let him speak or
write to any Person whatsoever; and then he took him with him into a Coach
that was attended by 12 Life-Guard Men.

The Noise of his Confinement being presently spread throughout the Town, a
Multitude of People gather’d in a trice before his House, every one crying
out against the Grand Marshal, calling him the People’s Blood-sucker, and
the Author of all their Taxes. When they saw him put into a Coach to be
carried to _Spandau_[16], their Shouts, were doubled; but the Grand
Marshal, without being shock’d, let down the Glasses of his Coach, and
told the furious Rabble, that he had been a faithful Servant to his King,
and that he had never done any thing in his Administration that could be
laid to his Charge; but the Clamours of the People hinder’d him from being
heard, and he went out of Town, laden with Curses.

The Hatred that was manifested against him, came from a Source which
always touches the People in the most sensible part; he was suspected to
have had a hand in the Creation of several Taxes; and to have been the
Projector of the Insurance-Office from Fire. The Establishment of this
Office was very well design’d; for it undertook to indemnify private
Persons for the Loss they might have sustain’d by Fire; and for this
purpose, every one was tax’d in a certain Sum of Money, that there might
always be a Fund sufficient to answer the Losses by Fires. Frauds were
soon committed in the Management of the Moneys that seem’d to be
appropriated for a very good Use; and by degrees that Establishment, which
was erected for the Relief of the People in their extreme Necessities,
serv’d only to oppress them.

The Disgrace of the Grand Marshal was soon followed by that of the Prime
Minister. Two days after the Confinement of the former, the King ordered
M. _d’Ilgen_ one of his Ministers, and principal Secretary of State, to
demand the Seals of his Prime Minister, and to order him in his Name to
have nothing more to do with the Affairs of the Government. He receiv’d
this News with Courage, and said to the Secretary of State, that he never
had any other Will but his Majesty’s, and that therefore he was ready to
obey his Orders. The next day he received Orders to quit the Palace, and
to retire to his Estate at _Wolfersdorff_, a few Leagues from _Berlin_. He
immediately made ready to be gone; but before he set out, he sent to
desire the King to give him leave to wait on him, to thank him for all the
Favors he had receiv’d at his Majesty’s hands; to which the King
consented, and the Prime Minister appear’d with an Air suitable to the
situation of his Affairs. He put every Wile in practice that is possible
to be of service to a Minister who has had long experience of a Court, and
a perfect Knowledge of his Master’s Temper; he pray’d, he wept, but
contrary to his own Expectation and that of the whole Court, the King
continu’d stedfast, and dismiss’d him, tho’ with all the possible marks of
Friendship and Affection; for when he was going out of his Closet the King
call’d him back, and taking a Ring of twenty thousand Crowns from his
Fingers, he gave it to him, and said that he desir’d him to keep it as a
mark of his Esteem. Thus did the King to his regret dismiss a Person, whom
if he had pleas’d he might still have kept in his Service.

The Prime Minister, the moment he went from the King, set out for
_Wolfersdorff_, from whence he wrote a very moving Letter to his Majesty
to desire him to accept of that Estate for a Present, together with his
Wife’s Garden which is now the Queen’s, (they call it _Monbijou_[17]) and
all his Porcellane Ware. The King return’d him a very obliging Answer, and
accepted of the Presents he offer’d him, on condition however to pay him
for them; and indeed not long after the Count _de Wartemberg_ receiv’d the
Value of them. Yet notwithstanding this mark of Esteem he was on the
brink of being arrested; and _T----_ who was near the King’s Person at
that critical Juncture, assur’d me afterwards that ’twas _Little Kamcke_
that had diverted the King from it. The Count’s Enemies had so incens’d
his Majesty against him, that the Order for his Arrest was just ready to
be dispatch’d, when _Little Kamcke_ represented to the King, that all
things duly consider’d, the Prime Minister was not so culpable as to
deserve being arrested; that Banishment was sufficient; that however, if
his Majesty was apprehensive, that the Count knowing the Secrets of the
State would discover them to other Powers, the only way was to secure his
Fidelity to him by a handsome Pension, on condition however that he should
never lie out of _Francfort on the Main_, where he would be near his
Majesty’s Territories and out of a Capacity to give him any Umbrage. The
King approved of this Advice, and sent to tell the Count that he would
continue a Pension of twenty-four thousand Crowns to him for his Life, on
condition that he would promise not to stir out of _Francfort_. This was a
very advantageous Offer, to a Man who trembled every moment for fear of
losing his Liberty, and therefore without much deliberation what to do, he
thought of nothing but packing up and carrying off the Wealth he had
heap’d together. When the Count and Countess came to Court they had not
wherewithal to subsist; but they went away with Millions, and the Countess
alone had as many Diamonds as were worth half a Million of Crowns. She was
mortally uneasy for fear of being stripp’d of her Treasure, till she saw
herself quite out of the King’s Dominions, and then her Spirits began to
rise. Upon the Road they were overtaken by an Express, who brought an
Order to the Count _de Wartemberg_ to deliver up the Golden Key to the
Great Chamberlain, together with the Commission of Hereditary Post-Master;
which he obey’d instantly with very great Submission, and afterwards
continued his Journey towards _Francfort_.

The King gave the Chamberlain’s Key to the _Great Kamcke_, Grand Master of
his Wardrobe, and the Office of Post-Master was executed in Commission by
_Little Kamcke_. As to the place of Prime Minister, it was not fill’d up;
and the King, lest it should be thought that he intended to be still
govern’d as he had been all along, declar’d he would have no more Prime
Ministers. Not long after the Count _de Wartemberg_’s Departure, the King
sent for Count _Christoper de Dobna_, and the Count _de B----_, to come to
_Berlin_. The former for some time made a Figure very like to that of a
First Minister, but had not the Title. The Post of Grand Marshal was
supply’d by M. _de Printz_, with the Applause of the whole Court. The
Count _de Witgenstein_ was restor’d not long after to his Liberty, on
paying down a Fine to the King of fourscore thousand Crowns. Thus,
_Madame_, have you had the Catastrophe of the two chief Favorites of our

I had left _Berlin_ for some Months when this great Revolution happen’d,
which I heard the first News at _Hanover_. I happen’d to be with the
Electoress when she receiv’d the Letter from the King, that inform’d her
of the Change he had made At his Court, and of his Intention to be for the
future his own Prime Minister. For my part I was gone from _Berlin_ with a
design to travel, because of some very harsh words which the King said to
me one day when I had fail’d to pay my Attendance as a Gentleman of the
Bed-Chamber. The Assiduity with which I made my Court to the Margrave
_Philip_ subjected me to a very sharp Reprimand from the King. What gave
occasion to it was this, I endeavour’d to be with the Margrave as often as
possible, tho’ indeed I was not there so often as I wish’d; for I don’t
think there was a Prince in the World to whom a Man could make his Court
with so much Pleasure and Freedom. As the Margrave was almost always at
_Schwedt_, it happen’d one day that when ’twas my turn to wait on the
King, I took it in my head to stay at the Margrave’s Court, so that a Man
who happen’d to be then going out of the Service was oblig’d to be
continu’d in it some time longer. The King asking him the reason, the
Gentleman made him Answer that I was the cause of it, and that I had not
so much as taken care to speak to any body to officiate for me. I arriv’d
in two, or three days, and enter’d into the Service the Week following.
The King who knew very well that my Attachment to the Margrave his Brother
was the only cause of my Absence from my Post, ask’d me as soon as I made
my Appearance before him, whether I serv’d his Brother or him, and why I
did not do my Duty better? I was so thunder-struck at the manner with
which the King said these few words to me, that really I don’t remember in
the least what I said for my Excuse; but I don’t forget, that whether he
thought my Plea good or bad, he made me no Answer. I was so nettled at
this Rebuke from the King in the presence of several Persons, that I
resolv’d to be gone out of sight for a while, the better to digest my
Resentment. I therefore ask’d his Majesty’s Leave to travel, which I
easily obtain’d, on condition however that I should not go to _France_.
For the King was then at War with that Crown, which besides did not look
upon him in any other Light than as Elector.

As soon as I had obtain’d a Permission to travel, I prepar’d to set out,
but after having taken Leave of their Majesties, I went to pass a few days
more at the Court of the Margrave _Philip_: And the Margravine engag’d me
to go to _Dessau_ to pay my Devoirs there to the Princesses her Sisters. I
had the Honor to find them at ORANJEBAUM, a House built by the late
Princess of _Orange_, their Mother; and ’tis a magnificent Palace, worthy
of the Princess by whose Order it was erected. I stay’d there eight or ten
Days, and then continu’d my Journey towards the Duchy of _Hanover_, where
I wanted to go and see my Mother, before I engag’d farther in the great
Journey that I had in my Thoughts.

From _Oranjebaum_ I went to[18]HALL in _Saxony_, which is a City that
belongs to the King, and is a part of the Duchy of _Magdebourg_. The
Courts of Justice and the Regency of the Duchy were formerly held in this
City, but now they are kept in the City of _Magdebourg_[19]. And _Hall_ is
only remarkable for its University which was founded in 1695, and for its
excellent Salt-Works. From _Hall_ I went to HALBERSTADT, the Capital of a
Principality of the same Name. This City was for eight hundred Years
subject to its Bishops till it was seculariz’d and yielded by the Treaty
of _Westphalia_ in 1648, to the Electoral Family of _Brandenburg_. The
River here is very small, for which reason the Trade of this Town is
inconsiderable; but as it is the Seat of the Regency of the Principality,
and of the Courts of justice, ’tis much frequented. Its Cathedral Church,
which is worth seeing, belongs to a Chapter wherein the Catholics and the
Protestants are equally admitted, and both have the Liberty of their
Public Worship. The Catholics have several Convents in the Town, of which
that of the Recollets is the most beautiful, and their Church is very
fine. These Fryars say they owe their Foundation to the ancient Counts of
_Regenstein_, who were heretofore Feudataries to the House of _Brunswic_,
and whose Lands belong now to the King, notwithstanding the very fair
Pretensions of the Dukes of _Brunswic_, and especially of the Duke of
_Blankenbourg_, Father to the Empress, to whose share those Pretensions
devolv’d. In 1709 this Prince gave a Sum of Money for new vamping the Tomb
of their Founder, which they have done, and moreover added a _Latin_
Inscription to it in Capital Letters of Gold. When the King went to
_Halberstadt_ he honor’d this Convent with his Presence, on which occasion
the Father-Guardian preach’d before him and gave the Sacramental
Benediction, because his Majesty had a mind to see the Ceremonies of the
Catholic Church.

From _Halberstadt_ I went to WOLFEMBUTTLE[20], which City is the common
Residence of the Dukes of _Brunswic_. Tis built only of Timber, and has no
remarkable Structure but the Palace which is very fine, and the Library
which is worthy of the Observation of the Learned and the Curious, not
only for the Beauty of the Room and the regular Disposition of the Books,
but for the Number of the Printed Volumes and Manuscripts. As soon as I
arriv’d I sent to know if I might have the Honor of waiting on the Duke,
who was then at _Saltzdabl_, a League from _Wolfembuttle_. From this City
to the Castle the Road is lin’d with a very fine Row of Trees. His
Highness having permitted me to pay him my Respects, I waited on him, and
was receiv’d with extraordinary Kindness. This Prince, who was then
fourscore Years of Age, had nevertheless all the Presence of Mind and all
the Vigour of a Man of thirty. I believe it needless to observe to you
that the Person whom I have the Honor to mention to you was the late Duke
_Anthony-Ulric_. This Duke besides a superior Understanding knew many
things, which Princes are glad to abandon to Persons of a mean Condition.
If you have read the Romance of _Octavia_, and his Translation of several
of _Corneille_’s and _Racine_’s Tragedies, you will readily own that no
Person ever wrote in our Language more politely. This Prince was also
perfect Master of the _Roman_ History, which he had made his particular
Study. He had moreover a wonderful Taste for every thing that was Elegant,
and especially for the Liberal Arts. One may judge of the Skill he had in
Architecture by his Castle of _Saltzdabl_, which is a Structure not
inferior in Magnificence to any that has been rais’d by Sovereign Princes.
In this Castle, besides immensely rich Furniture, there is a numerous but
choice Collection of Pictures that are put up in a great Gallery, which is
one of the finest Rooms in all _Germany_. The Duke did me the Honor after
I had din’d to carry me to it.

The Ducal Family of _Brunswic_ was at that time no more than the Duke
_Anthony-Ulric_, and his two Sons, of whom the present Duke Regent was the
eldest. Tho’ this Prince has been three times married he has had no Issue,
so that the only one of the Family that has had Children is the Duke of
_Blankenbourg_, who marry’d a Princess of _Oetingen_, by whom he has had
three Daughters, the eldest of whom wears the Imperial Crown, the second
was marry’d to a Prince of the _Czarian_ Family, and the third to the
Prince of _Brunswic-Bevern_ presumptive Heir of the Dominions of

The Ducal Family of _Brunswic_ is intirely _Lutheran_; yet the late Duke
_Anthony_ died a Catholic, to which Religion he was converted a little
before his Death. The Enemies of his Reputation affected to give out, that
Ambition was the motive of his entring into the Pale of the Church, and
that the Bishopric of _Hildesheim_ or the Electorate of _Cologne_, which
were both vacant at that time by the Elector’s being put under the Ban of
the Empire, was the View of his Conversion: but ’tis easy to perceive that
this Reproach is nothing but meer Calumny, if it be consider’d, that the
Duke of _Brunswic_ consider’d only in that Quality had too high a Rank in
the Empire to be flatter’d with the Episcopal or Electoral Dignity,
especially at the Age of fourscore, and when he could not hope for
Posterity to inherit either. ’Tis very certain that the Conversion of this
Prince was the Effect of a long Examination which he had made of the
Religion that he embrac’d, he having entertain’d Thoughts of it for
several years. When he consented that his Grand-Daughter should be
married to the Emperor, it was demanded of that Princess, that she should
abjure the Religion in which she had been educated. There was at that time
an Assembly of the ablest Divines in _Germany_, who agreed as the _French_
Ministers did when _Henry_ IV. consulted them about his Conversion, that
Salvation was to be had in the Catholic Religion. This Confession of the
Ministers was some encouragement to the timorous Princess, who being but
young and very tender-conscienc’d, thought there was Danger in taking such
a Step. The Duke, in order to reconcile her thoroughly to it, promis’d her
to turn Catholic himself; and _Imhoff_ his Minister did the same. As the
latter was a Man of good Sense, and moreover of great Probity, he had
acquir’d his Master’s Confidence, and as Religion had for some time past
the principal Share in their Conversation, _Imhoff_ after having weigh’d
every thing well, could not deny, that the Catholic was the only true
Religion; and he made his Abjuration of the Protestant, some time after
the Princess. The Duke was a good while longer before he took this Step;
for tho’ he was a real Catholic in his Heart, he was willing to prepare
his Subjects for this Alteration by gentle means; but when he receiv’d a
Letter from his Grand-Daughter, he made no longer Delay. This Princess
arriving at _Barcelona_, and hearing that the Duke had not yet perform’d
the Promise he made to change his Religion, she wrote a long Letter to
him, wherein she let him know how uneasy she was, for fear that the
Religion which he had advis’d her to chuse was not the true Religion,
because he was so long in embracing it himself. Then the Duke declar’d
himself, and convinc’d his Grand-Daughter, that not content with having
procur’d her one of the principal Crowns in this World, he had also done
his Endeavor to secure her another that was more glorious and more

After the Duke had embrac’d the Catholic Religion, he caus’d a Church to
be built at BRUNSWIC[21], which is a City but two small Leagues from
_Wolfembuttle_, thro’ a very strait Road, lin’d on both sides with Trees.
When I had taken a good View of all that was worth seeing at _Saltzdabl_,
I came to this City, which I found did not come up near to the Notion I
had of it; nevertheless ’tis the Capital of the Duchy of _Brunswic_. They
say ’twas built _Anno_ 868, by _Bruno_ the Son of _Alphonsus_ Duke of
_Saxony_, who call’d it after his own Name. It was afterwards very much
enlarg’d by the Emperor _Henry_ the _Faulconer_. ’Twas formerly rank’d
among the chief _Hanse_ Towns, and govern’d it self after the manner of a
Republic, pretending to be independent of its Dukes, who always oppos’d
it’s Liberty Sword in hand, and ’twas not without great difficulty that
they brought it in Subjection to them. _Henry_ Duke of _Brunswic_,
surnam’d the _Young_, besieg’d it three times, but always in vain. At
length in 1617, the City was compell’d to perform Homage to Duke
_Frederic-Ulric_, the then Regent. Nevertheless it preserv’d its
Privileges, which still gave it an Appearance of Freedom till 1671, when
_Rodolph Augustus_, Duke of _Brunswic-Wolfembuttle_, made himself absolute
Master of it. Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ once had a Design to fortify this
Place, and the Duke his Son seem’d at first to have the same Intention;
but afterwards he chose rather to have noble Structures erected in it,
amongst which there’s a very great Palace, where ten Sovereigns might
lodge without incommoding one another. This Prince caus’d it to be built
for the Duchess his Wife, in case she should survive him; and no Cost was
spar’d to render it one of the richest and most magnificent Palaces that
was ever seen, to the intent that the Charms of so fine a Habitation might
contribute in some measure to make the Duchess more cheerful in her
melancholy State of Widowhood; which indeed could not but be the more so
to the Princess, because by losing her Husband, she must also lose her
Sovereignty; for they had no Children, and the Duke was too old for them
ever to expect any.

This is the only Palace in _Brunswic_ that is remarkable. The Duke of
_Blankenbourg_’s, ’tis true, is very large, and has very fine Apartments,
but is old, and has nothing extraordinary; it joins to the Church of St.
_Alaise_, which is the principal Church, and the Place where several of
the Dukes are buried. On the Square over-against the Church, there’s a
Lion of Brass, on a very high Pedestal, representing that which they say
was tam’d by the Duke _Henry_ surnam’d the _Lion_, to such a degree, that
the terrible Animal follow’d him wherever he went; and even after the
Duke’s Death and Interment in the Church of St. _Alaise_, the Lion went
towards the Church Door, try’d to break it open, stay’d there in spite of
all the Attempts to take him off, and died on the very Spot, for Grief
that he had lost his Master.

I afterwards went to ZELL[22], and from thence to HANOVER. The first of
these Towns is small, and has nothing remarkable. It was formerly the
common Residence of the Dukes of _Zell_, who had a very commodious Castle
in it; but since that Country devolv’d by Inheritance to the House of
_Hanover_, there’s nothing remaining here but the Courts of Justice and
the Regency.

HANOVER[23] is the Capital of the Electorate, and the Seat of the
Electors. This Court was always one of the politest in _Germany_,
especially during the Life of the late Princess _Sophia_, the Electoress
Dowager and Mother. This August Princess, who was descended from the most
illustrious Blood in _Europe_, was the Daughter of the unhappy _Frederic_,
the Elector _Palatine_, and of the Princess of _England_, Daughter of K.
_James_ I. by whom the Right of Succession to the Crown of _England_
devolv’d to the House of _Hanover_. This Princess, tho’ she was full
Fourscore when I was at _Hanover_, labour’d under none of those
Infirmities, which one would think to be inseparable from so great an Age:
She was really a Prodigy for Vivacity and Memory; she spoke _French_,
_English_ and _Italian_ as well as her Mother-Tongue, and had moreover a
wonderful just way of Thinking, which she had taken the pains to cultivate
by great Reading. This Princess had been the Mother of several Children,
of whom there were then but three Princes surviving, _viz._ the eldest,
who was then the Elector, and afterwards King of _Great Britain_; the
second whose Name was Duke _Maximilian_; and the third the Duke _Ernest
Augustus_, afterwards Bishop of _Osnabrug_ and Duke of _York_.

Of the Electoress’s three Sons, none but the Elector had any Children; and
these are the Electoral Prince, now King of _England_, and the Princess
Royal, now our Queen.

The Electoral Prince’s Family was more numerous. He has had a Son and
several Daughters by the Princess of _Brandenburg-Anspach_. I had the
Honor of waiting on the Princes and Princesses the very next day after my
Arrival, and was received very graciously, especially by the Electoress
Mother, who all the Time that I staid at Court, honor’d me with her
special Protection.

I spent all the _Carnival_ time at this Court, where ’twas open’d on the
2d day of _January_ by a _French_ Comedy, after which there was Play and a
Drawing-Room at the Electoress’s Apartment till ten o’clock at Night. Next
day there was a Ridotto in imitation of that of _Venice_, that is to say,
a public Ball, to which every body was admitted that had a Mask, but not
with Arms. This Ball was held at the Town-House, every other day during
the whole _Carnival_. In the same Room where the Ridotto was perform’d,
they play’d at _Ombre_ and _Picquet_, and in another at _Basset_; there
was a third Room in which the Tables were cover’d with a cold Treat; and
next to this third Room there was a fourth, in which were distributed
Coffee, Chocolate, Liquors, _&c._

I had a very great Share in all the Diversions of the _Carnival_, being
then at an Age when nothing is so much minded as Pleasures; especially
when a Person has Money enough to keep him from the Uneasiness, which is
the necessary consequence of the want of that precious Metal. Of this I
was now furnish’d with a handsome Stock, and therewith cut a very gay
Figure; but was soon oblig’d to lessen my Expences, because nothing would
serve me but I must try a fatal Experiment, in which I was bit. I had a
mind to try Fortune at Gaming; and play’d at first with pretty good Luck;
but afterwards the Chance turn’d, and I was soon in a very great Quandary
what to do with my Person, being neither able to proceed in my Journey,
nor return from whence I came; and much less to stay at _Hanover_, where I
had always made some Figure. I then did what young Fellows us’d to do in
such a Situation; that is to say, made several Bargains, but none to my
Advantage. At last I was oblig’d to expose my Circumstances to my Mother,
who was still my Guardian. I had much ado to get the Money of her that I
wanted; but I wrote such moving Letters to her, that she was sensible at
last that she was my Mother, and after having made me wait a little while,
she was so good as to send me the necessary Sums.

This little Disorder in my Affairs happen’d at a very unseasonable Time:
for the Electoress had been so kind as to get a Passport for me to go to
_Paris_, by means of the late Madame of _France_; but as the same was only
granted for two Months, ’twas impossible for me to make use of it, having
been oblig’d to spend almost all that time in contriving Expedients to
retrieve my Finances.

The Money that my Mother was so kind as to send me, put me again into a
Condition of travelling. The Emperor _Joseph_’s Death happening at that
time, I resolv’d to go and see the Election of a new Emperor. This great
Prince died at _Vienna_, the 17th of _May_, at 32 years of Age and nine
Months. He left the Imperial Throne vacant, but his other Crowns devolv’d
by Hereditary Right to his Brother. As soon as that Emperor died, the
Empress Mother assum’d the Government of his Hereditary Kingdoms and
Dominions, in the Absence of the King her Son, to whom she sent an Express
to carry the News, as she did also to each of the Electors. The _Saxon_
and _Palatine_ Electors, as Vicars of the Empire, took Care of the
Government of it during the Inter-regnum; and the Elector of _Mentz_, as
Great Chancellor of the Empire, wrote circular Letters (which are call’d
Letters of _Intimation_) to invite the Electors to the Assembly that was
to be at _Francfort_ for the ensuing Election.

As this Assembly was not to be till _August_, I went in the mean while to
_Holland_. The first Town I pass’d thro’ after I left _Hanover_, was
MINDEN, which is a Town upon the _Weser_, encompass’d with Walls, and
defended by some Half-Moons, which nevertheless don’t hinder one’s seeing
every thing that passes in the Square from a Hill that commands the Town,
and from whence ’tis an easy matter to beat it to the ground. ’Twas
formerly a Hanse Town, being a part of _Westphalia_, and had always the
Title of a Bishopric, till the Treaty of _Munster_, when it was
seculariz’d, and given to the Family of _Brandenburg_, who settled a
Regency here. It always retain’d two Chapters, one of Canons, and the
other of Canonesses, into which the Ladies must make proof of their
Nobility to be admitted. The famous Count _Tilly_, General of the Imperial
Troops, when he was pursuing _Maurice_ the Landgrave of _Hesse-Cassel_,
attack’d and took this Place in 1626, when the General, exasperated with
the Town, which tho’ extremely weak, refused to comply with the very
advantagious Terms that he offer’d it, took it by Storm, and put near 3000
Men, Soldiers and Inhabitants, to the Sword.

As I proceeded, I passed thro’ HERVORDEN, which is an ill-built Town, in
the County of _Ravensberg_. ’Tis an Imperial Town, and yet the King
maintains a Garison in it. There’s a Chapter of Ladies, the Abbess of
which is a Native Princess of the Empire; and indeed this is what the Town
is most remarkable for, it being otherwise not very considerable any more
than the Towns of LIPSTADT and HAM. These belong both to the King, of
which the first is fortify’d, and Justice is therein administer’d, in the
Name of the King and the Count _de la Lippe_, who has half of the Revenue.
Every thing relating to the Fortifications or the Garison, is the King’s.
The Baron _de Heiden_, General of the Horse, was Governor of it when I was

After having left these two Places, there is no considerable Town till we
come to WESEL, which stands upon the _Rhine_, and is a part of the Duchy
of _Cleves_. ’Tis now one of the strongest Places in _Europe_; for the
King, who was about fortifying it when I was there, ordered that no Cost
should be spar’d to carry the Works to the utmost Perfection. The Person
he employ’d to direct them was M. _Bot_ a _Frenchman_, and Governor of the
Place, one of the ablest Engineers now living. When I had rested a few
days at _Wesel_ I fell down the _Rhine_ to _Nimeguen_, and by the way saw
EMMERICK and SCHENK. _Emmerick_ is a Hanse Town upon the _Rhine_, which
was taken by the _French_ in 1652, and restor’d two years after to the
Elector of _Brandenburg_. _Schenk_, which is the first place in _Holland_,
stands at the Point where the _Rhine_ divides it self into two Branches,
one of which is call’d _Vahal_, and the other retains the Name of the
_Rhine_. This Place was built in 1586, by _Martin Schenk_ a _Gueldrian_,
from whom it took the Name.

NIMEGUEN[24] is built upon a Hill which rises by degrees to the very
Centre of the Place, and is part of the Province of _Guelderland_. This
Town is famous for having been taken and re-taken in the War the _Dutch_
carry’d on with _Spain_ for preserving their Liberty. That Crown was
oblig’d at last to yield it to the _Dutch_, from whom _Lewis_ XIV. took it
in 1672; but it was restor’d to them soon after. ’Twas in this Place that
the Peace was concluded between _France_ and the Allies in 1678. At the
beginning of the War for the _Spanish_ Succession, the Duke of _Burgundy_
endeavor’d to make himself Master of it, but he had not the Fortune to
succeed. The _Dutch_ have made it very strong, it being their main Bulwark
towards the Duchy of _Cleves_. To go by Land from _Nimeguen_ to UTRECHT, I
cross’d the _Vahal_ over a Flying-Bridge. I shall not speak of this City
now; for I did not stay there, but went strait to LEYDEN[25], a City in
the Province of _Holland_, famous for its University, founded in 1575.

This is without dispute one of the finest Cities in all the United
Provinces. ’Tis situate in the ancient Channel of the _Rhine_. The Streets
which are broad and very long, are extremely neat, and are for the most
part divided by Canals, that are of a great Conveniency to its Trade,
which consists chiefly in Woollen Cloth, whereof the City of _Leyden_
makes more than any other Town in _Holland_. There’s a Library also in
this City, which is a very good Collection of the most curious printed
Volumes, and a great Number of very scarce old MSS. Here is likewise a
Physic-Garden worth seeing, and especially a Hall for Anatomies, in which
there is all manner of Curiosities. This City sustain’d a Siege by the
_Spaniards_ in 1574, when the _Dutch_ shook off their Tyrants Yoke. During
this the City was reduc’d to the last Extremity, the Siege having
continu’d from _Easter_ to the 3d of _October_, when the _Spaniards_ were
oblig’d to retire. Tho’ _Leyden_ is a very pretty City, yet I take it to
be one of the dullest Places in all _Holland_ to live in; for go where one
will, we meet with such sickly Countenances as makes one melancholy to see
them: not but that the Town’s-People are as healthy here as elsewhere;
only the Habit they have got of appearing always in their Night-Gowns, and
of even walking the Streets in them, makes them look more like
Valetudinarians, than People in Health.

After a few days stay at _Leyden_, I went to the HAGUE[26], which I think
may well be call’d the principal Village of _Europe_, it having neither
Walls nor Ramparts; but bating that, ’tis one of the pleasantest Places in
all _Holland_; it being so delightful that the States-General have chose
it, preferably to any other, for holding their Assemblies; and here also
reside the Ministers of the Foreign Courts. There is not a Place in all
_Holland_ that yields such fine Walks, and the People are polite and much
more sociable than in any other part of the Country. Most of the People of
Quality meet every Evening alternately at one another’s Houses: These
Assemblies would be much finer than they are in general, if the Company
was not so promiscuous; but the Freedom of the Country, and the Wealth of
the Inhabitants, very often set the Burgher upon a Level with the Man of
Quality, and sometimes too above him.

The Houses at the _Hague_ are very fine, yet they are all without the
Rules of Architecture, without Ornament, and in a manner without
Regularity, excepting the Palaces of the Old Court and of Prince
_Maurice_, and the House of M. _Obdam_. There’s not a House in short that
has the air of a great Man’s House; the inner Rooms are commonly very
mean, and not very commodious; they have no Notion of Anti-Chambers; the
Domestics pass their Time in the Kitchens or the Entries; and, except at
the Houses of Ambassadors, what we call a _Swiss_ or Porter, is no where
to be seen. There’s a great Number of _Jews_ at the _Hague_, who make a
fine Figure, especially the _Portuguese Jews_. These Gentlemen have the
Equipages of Ambassadors, with magnificent Houses and Gardens; and they
often make Treats with the utmost Delicacy and Splendor. They are admitted
into all Companies, and only differ from the Christians of this Country by
being possess’d of much more Wealth, and living at a far greater Expence.
I knew one of ’em whose Name was _Duliz_, that was very much esteem’d: He
was good-natur’d, generous, extremely charitable, and reliev’d all
indifferently that were Objects of Compassion, without giving himself the
Trouble of enquiring whether the Sharers of his Bounty were _Jews_ or
_Christians_: And to my own knowledge he contributed as freely for the
Maintenance of a Church, as if it had been his own Synagogue.

When I had staid about a Month at the _Hague_, I set out to see the chief
Towns of _Holland_. The two first that one comes to are DELFT and
_Rotterdam_. _Delft_[27] is a League from the _Hague_. They say that this
Town was built by _Godfrey_ the _Crooked_ when he had conquer’d this
Country; and that _Albert_ of _Bavaria_ having made himself master of it,
demolish’d its Walls and Castle. It was entirely burnt to the ground by
Accident in 1536, and afterwards re-built. The like Misfortune happen’d to
it again in 1654, when the Powder Magazine took fire, and the Town, tho’
not totally consum’d, was nevertheless very much damag’d. It was again
entirely re-built in the general Taste of all the Towns of _Holland_, that
is to say, with Canals. There are two fine Churches at _Delft_, in the
Chief of which there is the Tomb of Prince _William_ of _Orange_, who was
assassinated in this Town in 1584, by _Belthazar Gerard_, a Native of
_Franche-Comte_; and in the other Church there is the Tomb of the famous
_Dutch_ Admiral _Martin Trompe_, which is of Marble, with a very fine
Inscription, and beautiful Basso-Relievo’s, which represent the principal
Actions of that great Man. ’Twas in this Town, that the Plenipotentiaries
of _France_ resided during the Congress of _Ryswic_. All Ambassadors are
receiv’d here on the part of the States, and ’tis here that they begin
their March for their public Entry at the _Hague_. The Road which leads
to it is lin’d with Elms, and entirely pav’d with Brick. There is not a
Place in all _Holland_ where so many Passage-Boats are continually coming
and going. They set out every Half-hour for the _Hague_, and every Hour
for _Rotterdam_. These Boats are the favorite Carriers of the Country; and
they are the most convenient Passage, not only for the Regularity of their
Departure and Arrival, but because the Fare is settled. I forgot to tell
you, that _Delft_ is the Place where they make the fine Earthen Ware.

From _Delft_ I went and lay at ROTTERDAM[28]. This City, which stands upon
the _Maese_, is second to _Amsterdam_ for Trade, notwithstanding the
Difficulty of entring the _Maese_, at the Mouth of which River Ships are
oblig’d to stay for the Tide, and for a Pilot that knows the Coast. They
say that _Rotterdam_ derives its Origin from _Ruther_ King of the
_Franks_. This City is large and well built; and by its several Canals has
a convenient Communication with all the Towns of _Holland_. The only
Monument at _Rotterdam_ is a Statue of Brass in the great Square,
representing the famous _Erasmus_, to whom this City gave Birth.

From _Rotterdam_ I went to DORT, or DORDRECHT, which is a very ancient
Town, and the first in Rank in the Dominions of _Holland_. It stands in an
Island between the _Maese_, the _Merwe_, the _Rhine_, and the _Ling_,
having been broke off from the main Land in 1421, by an Inundation, which
laid almost all its Territory under Water, and drown’d about 100,000
Persons. All these Rivers form a kind of Sea; so that at a distance the
Situation of this Town looks very much like that of _Venice_. This Place
was anciently the Residence of the Counts of _Holland_, one of whom,
_viz._ _Albert_ of _Bavaria_, founded a Collegiate Church here in 1363.
The Protestants assembled that famous National Synod here in 1618, which
did not separate till the year following, after having establish’d that
Religion which prevails at this time in the United Provinces.

When I had staid at _Dort_ as long as was necessary to see the Town and
Parts adjacent, I return’d to _Rotterdam_, from whence I went next day in
a Boat for AMSTERDAM[29]. This is the most famous City in all _Holland_,
its Extent, vast Trade and Riches being the Admiration of all Foreigners;
and what is more surprizing is, that it owes its Aggrandizement to itself,
and its great Wealth to its Commerce. ’Tis said that this City was not
known before the Year 1204; and that then it was no more than a little
Castle call’d _Amstel_, from the Name of the River on which it was built.
The then Lord of it, _Gysbrecht van Amstel_ brought Inhabitants to it, who
were for most part poor Cottagers, that carried on a small Trade with
their Neighbours by means of their Fishery; and at last by the force of
Industry throve so well, that _Amstel_ from a Village, became in a few
years, a very considerable Town, which was always subject to its own
Lords, till a second _Gysbrecht_ being concern’d in the Assassination of
_Florence_ V. Count of _Holland_, was oblig’d for some time to get out of
the way, which prov’d to the Detriment of _Amsterdam_; but _Gysbrecht_
returning at length began to build Bridges and Towers, as he did several
Houses at the same time in the neighbouring Country; and then they began
to call the Place _Amsteldam_, by the Addition of the Word _Dam_, i. e. a
_Dyke_, to its former Name of _Amstel_. This little Town was united
afterwards to the County of _Holland_. _William_ IV. Sovereign of the
Country, gave it several Privileges in 1342. These _Albert_ of _Bavaria_
confirm’d afterwards, by giving the Inhabitants a Power also of enlarging
the Town, which by its Situation, and the Industry of the Inhabitants to
improve its Commerce, soon became considerable; yet it continued without
any Walls, even so long as the Year 1482. In the 16th Century this City
increas’d considerably in Power; and during the Troubles which arose on
account of Religion, took great Care to preserve the Catholic Religion,
and their due Allegiance to its Princes. It turn’d out the Ministers of
the Reformed Religion, and all that had embrac’d that Doctrine several
times. But at length finding its Trade decay; and that the Succours
brought to it by the Duke of _Alva_, Governor of the _Netherlands_, were
scatter’d, ’twas oblig’d to surrender to the Prince of _Orange_ in 1587,
on condition nevertheless that the Catholics should not be molested. This
indeed was promis’d, but not duly perform’d; for the Clergy and Friars
were soon after expell’d, and the Altars demolish’d; the consequence of
which was the putting an entire stop to all the public Exercise of the
Catholic Religion. The War which the Inhabitants of _Amsterdam_ had upon
their hands, and the Persecution of the Catholics had hurt its Trade very
much, till the Civil Wars kindled in the neighbouring Provinces drove
several Merchants from _Brussels_, _Antwerp_, _&c._ to _Amsterdam_, where
these new Citizens contributed so much to the Revival of its Commerce,
that they have render’d it one of the finest and richest Cities in Being;
and ’tis commonly call’d, _The Warehouse of the World_.

If the Situation of _Amsterdam_ be duly considered, it may be said to be
one of the Wonders of the World. It stands so low, that it wou’d be
continually in danger of being drown’d, were not the Water kept out by
Dykes as high as the Waves. The River _Amstel_, so gentle that one can
hardly perceive which way it runs, passes thro’ the whole City, and forms
the great Canal over which there are two Bridges. That which is at the
Mouth of the Sea, call’d the _Pont-neuf_, is one of the finest of the
kind, not only for its Sluices, but for the noble View there is from
thence of the Harbor, where Ships are continually going out or coming in
from all parts of the World. Besides the Great Canal, there are others
which deserve to be taken notice of, as, _The Emperors_ Canal, _The Lords_
Canal; that of the _Cingle_, and the _Princes_ Canal: All these Canals are
broad and deep, and furnish’d with great Kays. The Sides are fac’d with
Free-stone or Brick, and adorn’d with Lime-Trees and Elms. Very fine
Houses are built on most of these Kays, and especially upon the Kay of
_The Lords_ Canal; and new ones are building every day, which are very
beautiful; and tho’ they are small, and not in the Rules of Architecture,
have a certain Air of Neatness which is to be found no where else. Almost
all the Houses have very fine Steps of shining black Marble, and noble
Window-Frames, with very fine Panes, which are often of polish’d Glass.

The Streets of _Amsterdam_ are generally pretty narrow, yet very fine and
neat; and on certain Days of the Week great Care is taken to wash them. I
must tell you by the way, that there is not a place where the People are
so fond of washing as they are at _Amsterdam_; for they scour the inside
of their Houses every Week without fail, together with the Furniture of
the Kitchen; so that they are always in the Suds. ’Tis true, that without
this Care every thing would grow mouldy and spoil, as Foreigners have very
often experienc’d, who, how loth soever to comply with this sort of
Slavery, which they thought only the Fashion of the Country, were soon
oblig’d to submit to it: And I believe, that were it not for this
Necessity of always washing, the _Dutch_ wou’d not lose so much Time about
it; for in other respects I have not observ’d ’em so nice. These People
wear a Shirt for a Fortnight very well under a nasty, greasy Woollen
Waistcoat: and their manner of eating is as slovenly; for the Generality
know no Forks but their Fingers, wherewith they scoop up the Sallad
swimming in the Vinegar, which is commonly their favorite Dish[30].

Of all the Public Buildings at _Amsterdam_, the Stadt-house is certainly
the most magnificent. ’Tis a great Pile built of Free-stones very finely
set, and forms a long Square. The 7 Porticoes which are in the main Front,
and which the Architect has reduc’d to the number of 7, to denote the 7
United Provinces, are look’d upon as a defect in Architecture; for they
are so narrow, that three Persons can scarce walk a-breast in them: which
indeed is contrary to the Rules of Architecture, but yet no Fault in a
Building, which like the Stadt-house is frequently expos’d to the Rage and
Riots of a People as turbulent as the _Amsterdamers_. These seven
Porticoes lead to two Gates at the Foot of the Grand Stair-Case. I don’t
pretend, _Madame_, to give you all the particular Beauties of this
Structure, being not acquainted enough with the Rules, or even the Terms
of Architecture, to presume to enter into any Description of this nature;
therefore I shall confine my self to what most strikes the Eye.

The Pediment of the principal Front was to my mind well fancy’d. ’Tis
adorn’d with a Relievo of white Marble, in which a Woman is represented
supporting the Arms of the City. There is also a _Neptune_, some Figures
of Heroes, Lions, Unicorns, and the whole is of admirable Workmanship.
This Pediment is crown’d with three fine Statues of Brass, which denote
Justice, Power and Plenty. On the very Top of this whole Building there’s
a Tower in form of a Dome. Here is a very fine Clock with Chimes, which
are a pretty Amusement for such as are fond of that sort of Music.

The Inside of this House is every part of it very magnificent. The Chamber
where they pass Sentence on Criminals is lin’d throughout with Marble, and
adorn’d with Basso-Relievo’s, representing all the Emblems and Attributes
of Justice. That which is most admir’d there is a fine Marble Statue
representing _Themis_. This Room is rais’d very high, and a little too
dark; yet ’tis so contriv’d, that all the People in the Square may see the
Criminals try’d. The three Porticoes at the Entrance answer to the three
Windows of this Hall, which Windows instead of Glass, have noble Bars of
Brass curiously wrought.

The Great Hall is another stately Room, to which there’s an Ascent by a
large Stair-Case with two Flights. All the Walls are lin’d with
Basso-Relievo’s of Marble, intermix’d with fine Paintings. There are two
Galleries or Corridors at the two ends of the Hall, which lead to
Apartments on the right and left. In these Chambers are kept the several
Offices relating to Affairs of the City. The Jurisdiction or Province of
each Chamber is inscrib’d over the Door; and the Affairs there treated,
are represented in magnificent Basso-Relievo’s. In one of these Rooms,
such Persons as are not of the Reform’d Religion are oblig’d to be married
before the _Echevin_, or else they are condemn’d in a Fine; and according
to the Laws, their Marriage is to be reckon’d null and void.

In the Town-House is kept the famous Bank, which is the Repository of such
a vast Treasure. Prodigious Arches and huge double Bars of Iron before the
Windows, render it inaccessible. The Vaults are admirable, being built
upon Piles in the middle of the Water, and yet so dry as if they were cut
out of a Rock. One part of these Vaults serves for containing the immense
Wealth, the other for confining Criminals. I had the Curiosity to go and
see those Dungeons, which are all very lightsome and kept very neat; and
in spite of the Proverb, they may be said to be very fine Prisons.

After I had been at the Town-House, I went to visit the Square where the
Merchants assemble about the Affairs of their Trade from Noon till half an
Hour past one o’clock. This Square, which is longer than ’tis broad, is
surrounded with a large open Gallery or Corridor, supported by Free-stone
Pillars, for shelter in case of Rain; and is call’d the _Bourse_ or
_Exchange_. Here are Merchants of all Nations, the diversity of whose
Habits and Languages is as pleasing as the Beauty of the Place; and
especially the Hurry those People are in that are call’d _Brokers_, who
are the Men employ’d by the great Merchants to traffick the Bills of
Exchange, or to transact their other Affairs. To see them scowering from
one to the other all about this Square, there’s no body but wou’d think
they were mad.

The _India_-House and Admiralty-Office are also worth seeing. The first
serves as a Warehouse for laying up such Merchandize as comes from the
_Indies_. In the latter there is all the necessary Rigging for fitting out
a Fleet to Sea. The _India_ Company have their separate Arsenal, which is
in nothing inferior to that of the States. In this City there are
Hospitals also of every Kind very well maintain’d, and Houses of
Correction for both Sexes. _Amsterdam_ is the Place of Refuge for Sects of
all Denominations, who have their several Chappels or Chambers there,
wherein they exercise their Religion, but the _Calvinists_ and _Lutherans_
only are allow’d the Liberty of Public Worship. However the _Jews_ have
two fine Synagogues here; the one for the _German_, and the other for the
_Portuguese_ Nation. Of this Sect there are great Numbers, and they live
in a particular Quarter, which is not the most inconsiderable of the City.

But notwithstanding all this Magnificence of Buildings, and the Concourse
of so many Nations, I was quite out of conceit with _Amsterdam_. Every
body sticks to Trade, and the Gratification of their Avarice is their
whole Study. The Generality with their immense Wealth live like Misers;
and all their Happiness, their Pleasure and their Pride consists in having
a great deal of Money: They think of nothing but how to acquire Riches;
and they look upon every Man that lives genteelly as a Prodigal. As to the
_Dutch_ Freedom, I don’t believe there’s a Place where it bears greater
Sway than at _Amsterdam_. ’Tis true, that this so much boasted Liberty
serves very often but to render the Citizens insolent with Impunity; for
there is not a Scrub but thinks himself as good a Man as the best in the
Country: Foreigners have sometimes much ado to bear it, they being often
abus’d without daring to complain; for it costs so much to obtain Justice
here, that People had rather put up with an Insult, than seek a Remedy by
due Course of Law. The Attorneys and Solicitors of this City outdo those
of all other Countries in flattering their Clients to their Ruin, and most
of this Gentry cut a great Figure, have noble Houses and Gardens, and some
too have very spruce Equipages.

From _Amsterdam_ I went to HARLEM[31], which is but three Leagues.
Heretofore, while the Catholic Religion subsisted in this Country, it was
a Bishopric, Suffragan of _Utrecht_. The Town stands but a League from the
Sea, or rather upon its Shore, the Sea having overflow’d a considerable
part of the Country, which forms a Lake, now call’d the _Harlem Meer_, or
Sea of _Harlem_. This Town communicates by its Canals both with
_Amsterdam_ and _Leyden_. They pretend it was founded by the _Normans_ in
the ninth Century. Pope _Paul_ IV. erected it into a Bishopric in 1559,
at the Request of _Philip_ II. King of _Spain_. In 1572 the Bishop was
turn’d out by the Protestants, not long after which the Town was besieg’d
and taken by _Frederic_ of _Toledo_ Son to the Duke of _Alva_, who oblig’d
the Inhabitants to surrender at Discretion, and caus’d them to be treated
in the most barbarous manner in the World. The _Dutch_ retook it
afterwards, and have held it ever since. There are very fine Walks in this
City, and especially a Grove which is deem’d a charming Place by the
Citizens of _Amsterdam_, who come hither in the Summer to make their
Parties of Pleasure.

After having seen what was most remarkable at _Harlem_, I return’d by the
way of _Leyden_ to the _Hague_, where I had not been many days, before the
King arriv’d, having pass’d the same day before _Rotterdam_, where he had
been saluted with a triple Discharge of the Cannon, as he was also at
_Delfshaven_, where he found his Yatcht, follow’d by several others that
had been sent to him from the _Hague_. These attended the King to _Delft_,
where his Coaches staid for him, with which he came to his Palace of the
_Old Court_.

There he found a Guard of fourscore Men, with a Captain and a Pair of
Colors. His Majesty caus’d his Arrival to be immediately notify’d to the
President of the Assembly of the States-General, and next day, after
Sermon time, he receiv’d the Deputation from the said States, consisting
of nine Members, who when they arriv’d at the King’s Palace found the
Guard under Arms, Colors flying, and the Drum beating, and were receiv’d
at the bottom of the Stairs by the Grand Marshal and several Gentlemen of
the Chamber, and introduc’d into the King’s Bed-chamber, who receiv’d
them bare-headed and standing before an Arm-Chair. As the Audience was
only to compliment his Majesty upon his Arrival, it was very short; and
the States returning to the usual Place of their Assembly, went afterwards
and din’d with the King.

Some days after this his Majesty set out for _Honslaerdyk_, a Place two
Leagues from the _Hague_, which he enjoy’d by Inheritance from the late K.
_William_ of _England_. Thither I follow’d the King, who staid there till
he had receiv’d Advice, that the Prince of _Nassau_, Governor of
_Friseland_, was to come from the Army in _Flanders_ to the _Hague_, there
to make an end of the Differences betwixt him and his Majesty about the
Succession to the Family of _Orange_, of which that Prince took the Title,
by virtue of the last Will and Testament of the late King of _England_,
the last Prince of the said Family. The King had been expecting him for
some days, when a Courier arriv’d with the News, that the Prince was
drown’d in the Passage of the _Moerdyke_. Having embark’d there with his
Retinue to pass the _Stryen-Sas_, he was not got above thirty or forty
Paces from Shore, when a furious Gust of Wind arose, by which the Vessel
was overset and lost. As the Sea swell’d at the same time, and the Prince
knew not how to swim, he could not get ashore. Colonel _Hilkes_ who
accompanied him was drown’d with him, and none but his Domestics escap’d.
The unfortunate Prince was seen to hang by the Mast of the Vessel for some
Moments, and there were some hopes of relieving him, had it not been for a
Wave, which drove by a Blast of Wind carried him off from the piece of
Wood he clung to, and cast him away. The Body of this Prince, who was
very much regretted, was not found till about a Week after, in the very
same place where the Vessel happen’d to be cast away. ’Twas carried to
_Dort_ where ’twas embalm’d, and then remov’d to _Lewarden_, there to be
interr’d in the Tomb of his Family.

The King was the more afflicted at this sad Accident, because the News was
told him too hastily, by a foolish Courier, who, for want of knowing his
Master’s Temper, thought that the News of the Prince of _Friseland_’s
Death wou’d not be disagreeable to him; but the King gave public
Demonstration how sorry he was for his Loss, and sent a Gentleman of the
Bed-chamber to the last Princess-Dowager of _Nassau_, to assure her how
much he sympathiz’d in her loss.

The Death of the Prince of _Friseland_ interrupted the whole Treaty of
Accommodation. The said Prince left a Daughter, and the Princess his Wife
pregnant, who wrote to the States to desire them not to do any thing in
prejudice of the Infant of whom she hoped to be deliver’d; and that as
they were Executors Testamentary, they would preserve the Bulk of his
Inheritance entire; and that otherwise she openly protested against every
thing that might be done. This Demand did not hinder the States from
granting the King a provisional Portion; and it was agreed, that his
Majesty, as well as the Heirs of the Prince of _Nassau_, now deceas’d,
should be paid 150000 _Dutch_ Florins a year, out of the Estate of the
_Orange_ Family: That the Palaces of Prince _Frederic-Henry_, of which the
King was already in Possession, shou’d continue his; but that the _Dieren_
Palace shou’d be common both to the King and the Prince’s Heirs; and that
the rest should be referr’d to a definitive Accommodation, which is the
Thing that still remains to be done. I had the Honor to pay my Court
punctually all the Time that his Majesty spent at the _Hague_; and when he
set out, I went with him to _Dieren_, where I took leave of the King,
little thinking ’twou’d be the last Time I should see him.

I went thro’ DUSSELDORFF[32], the Capital of the Duchy of _Berg_, which
was then the Residence of the Elector _Palatine_, who, it must be noted,
was the first of the _Palatine_ Electors that liv’d here; for the Electors
commonly resided heretofore at _Heidelberg_ or _Manheim_. The Elector
_John-William_ had preferred _Dusseldorff_ to all other Places, from an
early liking that he took to that Town, of which he was Master, even in
the Life-time of the Elector his Father; who when he married his Son to
the Emperor _Leopold_’s Sister, yielded to him the Duchies of _Juliers_
and _Berg_, of which _Dusseldorff_ is the Capital City, and wou’d have
been one of the finest in _Germany_, if the Emperor had liv’d long enough
to put the great Projects which he had form’d in execution. This Prince
had already begun to augment the City with one entire Quarter, the Streets
whereof were as strait as a Line; and I saw the Plan of a new Palace that
he intended to build, which wou’d certainly have been one of _Europe_’s
Grand Structures. As to that now at _Dusseldorff_, the only beautiful part
of it is that call’d the Gallery; tho’ why it has that Name I can’t
imagine, since nothing resembles a Gallery less. It contains five Rooms,
three of which are much bigger than the others. One of these Rooms is
quite full of magnificent Paintings by the famous _Rubens_. In another
there’s a great number of Paintings by _Van der Werf_, a _Dutch_ Painter
who died lately at the _Hague_. If a Man has ever so little Taste or Skill
in Painting, ’tis impossible for him to be indifferent for such Pictures,
which may be said to be all Master-pieces. Such are those representing the
good old Man _Simeon_ holding the Savior of the World in his Arms; our
Lord teaching in the Temple; and the Pictures of the Elector and
Electoress, in two particular Rooms of the first Story of this Gallery,
are the Models of the most magnificent Statues of _Italy_, sent for by the
Elector from all parts of that Country at a vast Expence. The three others
are full of modern Statues of Marble and Brass, which are for the most
part done by the famous _Gripilli_ an _Italian_, and an excellent Artist,
especially for Busts that require a Likeness.

In the Court-yard of the Palace there’s an Equestrian Statue of the
Elector arm’d cap-a-pee, with the Electoral Bonnet on his Head, and
mounted upon a very fine Horse of yellow Copper. In the same Court there
is likewise a very fine Fountain, the Group of which is of Brass very
curiously wrought, but so incumber’d with Works of different Kinds, that
’tis difficult to distinguish them.

Five Leagues from _Dusseldorff_ there’s a Hunting-Seat call’d
_Bensberg_[33], which is built in a Forest on a Hill, from whence there’s
a fine Prospect of the City of _Cologne_, the _Rhine_, and all the flat
Country. To this Castle there’s a large Avenue, by a gradual Ascent, till
one comes to the Grate of the first Court, on each side whereof there’s a
large Guard-House, the Front of which forms a Gallery supported by Pillars
of grayish Marble, which is dug in this Country. The rest of this Seat has
very much the air of the Castle of _Versailles_, only ’tis not so large or
lofty. In the two Wings of this Building, there are two Stair-Cases which
lead to the Apartments. ’Tis plain that this Structure was design’d
entirely by an _Italian_; because, according to the Fashion of that
Country, the Apartments consist of a great number of Rooms all upon one
Floor too, but without any Closets or Conveniencies. The outside of this
Structure is the oddest thing in the World. It consists of numberless
Ornaments, which ’tis impossible to distinguish: And I think it no
Injustice to the Castle of _Bensberg_, to say, ’tis a noble fine House
full of Imperfections.

After having given you an Account of the Elector’s several Buildings, I
fancy, _Madame_, that some short Memoirs of his Family will not be
disagreeable to you. To be sure you are not ignorant, that the Succession
of the _Neubourg_ Family to the Dignity of Elector _Palatine_, is owing
only to the Extinction of the Protestant _Palatine_ Family, the last of
which was the Elector _Charles_, who left but one Sister, married to
MONSIEUR _Philip_ of _France_, Duke of _Orleans_, Brother to _Lewis_ XIV.
_Philip-William_ Duke of _Neubourg_, the Father of him whom I have had the
Honor of mentioning to you, was the first Elector of this Branch. This
Prince, who had a numerous Family, match’d them to the chief Crowns of
_Europe_, and he had no less than four Princes and five Princesses.

The eldest of the Princes was the Elector _John-William_ of _Neubourg_,
who married to his first Wife an Archduchess of _Austria_, Sister to the
Emperor _Leopold_, by whom he had no Issue. He married to his second Wife
_Anne-Mary-Louisa_ of _Medicis_, Daughter to _Cosmo_ III. Great Duke of
_Tuscany_; but having no more Issue by this Match than by the former, he
took the Hereditary Prince of _Sultzbach_ to his Court, where he was
brought up as the Heir of his Family, in case that himself and the Princes
his Brothers died without Male Issue. This young Prince was then look’d
upon as the Electoral Prince, and receiv’d all the Honors as such. The
Person who had the Care of his Education was the Baron _de Seckingen_; and
it may be said, that he did his utmost to make a great Prince of him.

The second was _Charles-Lewis_, now the Elector.

The third _Francis-Lewis de Neubourg_, Elector of _Triers_ and Grand
Master of the _Teutonic_ Order.

The fourth _Alexander-Sigismond_, Bishop of _Augsbourg_.

The Princesses were all married. The eldest, whose Name was
_Eleonora-Magdalena-Theresa_ of _Neubourg_, married the Emperor _Leopold_,
Father to the present Emperor, and died _Jan. 19, 1719_, aged 74.

The second was married to the King of _Portugal_.

The third, nam’d _Mary-Anne_ of _Neubourg_, was married to _Charles_ II.
King of _Spain_.

The fourth, _Dorothy_ of _Neubourg_ was married to the Duke of _Parma_, by
whom she had among other Children Princess _Elizabeth Farnese_, the second
Wife of _Philip_ V. King of _Spain_.

The fifth and last of these Princesses, _Hedwiga-Elizabeth_ of _Neubourg_,
was married to _James-Lewis Sobieski_, by whom she had _Clementina
Sobieski_, Wife to the Chevalier _de St. George_. The Mother died at
_Olaw_ the 10th of _August_ 1722, aged 50.

After having pass’d some time at the _Palatine_ Court, I set out about the
middle of _August_ for _Francfort_ on the _Main_, where I arriv’d a few
days before the opening of the Conferences for the Election of an Emperor.

FRANCFORT[34] is one of the most considerable Towns of all _Germany_, has
the Title of an Imperial City, and is a part of the Diocese of _Mentz_.
’Tis divided into two parts by the _Main_, over which there is a fine
Stone Bridge. The frequent Fires which this City has suffer’d, and
especially that of 1719, have contributed not a little to its
Embellishment, all the Houses being re-built in a better Taste than
before; yet most of the Buildings are still of Timber and fac’d with
Plaister that is color’d, few private Men having been at the Expence of
building with Stone. _Francfort_ may thank the _Jews_ for most of those
Fires; for the _Jews_ who are very numerous here, live in a Quarter by
themselves, which is shut up every Night; and being so narrow, that they
are straiten’d for Room, they are oblig’d to lie in Heaps as it were upon
one another, in very high Houses, which being moreover of Timber, easily
catch Fire. They have seen their whole Quarter in Ashes twice
successively, because they refus’d the Assistance they might have had to
extinguish the Flames; for they never wou’d open their Gates for fear of
being robb’d, unless when they saw that the People were going to break
them open by Force. Notwithstanding all the Reasons for not suffering them
at _Francfort_, they have a better Toleration than the _Calvinists_, and
have fine Synagogues; whereas the _Calvinists_ do not enjoy the free
Exercise of their Religion, the Magistrates and most of the Inhabitants
being _Lutherans_.

The City of _Francfort_ is one of the first that embrac’d the Opinions of
_Luther_, which presently occasion’d a Revolt: For the Inhabitants
demanding the free Exercise of _Lutheranism_, and the Clergy and Senate
vigorously opposing it, there was an Insurrection, in which the
Inhabitants having the Advantage, they depos’d the Senate, and establish’d
a sort of Magistracy compos’d of twenty-four, taken from the Body of the
Populace. These Acts of Violence had such fatal Consequences, that at last
in 1530 the City embrac’d the Confession of _Augsbourg_, enter’d into the
League of _Smalcald_, and had a share in the other Calamities which
afflicted the Empire. ’Twas besieg’d twice in 1552, by _Maurice_ Elector
of _Saxony_, and by _Albert_ Margrave of _Brandenburg_, surnam’d the
_Alcibiades_ of _Germany_, who made himself Master of it; but it soon
after recover’d its Liberty, and since that time has increas’d very much.
The Elections and Coronations of the Emperors render it a very
considerable Place. These two Grand Ceremonies are perform’d in the Church
of St. _Bartholomew_, which is a vile, little, dark Building, very
improper, in short, for Solemnities of that sort. The Imperial Feast is
kept on the very Day of the Coronation, in the Great Hall of the
Town-house, which is indeed a very wide but irregular Room. The Town-house
is called _Romer_: They say ’twas anciently the House of a private
Gentleman, who made a Present of it to the City. If that be true, it may
be said the Gentleman liv’d at large.

This City has considerable Fairs, which draw a great Number of Merchants
to it and People of Quality. The River _Main_ which falls into the _Rhine_
near _Mentz_, is a great Advantage to its Commerce. This, _Madame_, is
within a Trifle all that can be said of _Francfort_. I am now to have the
Honor of giving you a particular Account of the chief Circumstances that
attended the Election and Coronation of the Emperor.

The Conferences for the Election were open’d on the 25th of _August_, and
held from nine o’clock in the Morning till Noon. The Plenipotentiaries of
the absent Electors therein communicated their full Powers, and referr’d
them to the Elector of _Mentz_, who afterwards made a Speech upon what had
given occasion to that August Assembly. In this first Session it was
resolv’d, that every thing there treated of shou’d be kept secret; and
then they adjourn’d.

The March of the Electors of _Mentz_ and _Triers_ to and from the
Town-house was very grand. The first was _Lotharius-Francis de Schonborn_,
of the Family of the Counts of _Schonborn_; and the second was
_Charles-Joseph de Lorrain_, who was of the _Lorrain_ Family, and died in
1715, on the 4th of _December_. These two Princes rode each in a great
Coach, cover’d with black Cloth, attended by all their Houshold and Guards
in close Mourning.

The Equipages of the Ambassadors of the absent Electors were very spruce,
especially the Equipages of the Ambassadors of _Saxony_, who had also the
Honor to have with them their Master’s Son, who went by the Name of the
Count of _Lusatia_. Besides, the King of _Poland_ had given them his own
Equipage, and permitted them to cloath their Domestics in his Livery.

The Ambassadors whom the King (of _Prussia_) sent in quality of Elector of
_Brandenburg_, appear’d likewise with a Splendor worthy of the Prince whom
they represented. They were the Count _de Dlona_ and M. _Henning_; but the
former had the Honors of the Embassy. This Minister appear’d with a Train
of 40 Gentlemen of the King’s Bed-chamber; he had 5 Coaches drawn by 6
Horses each, 8 Pages, 36 Footmen and 2 _Swiss_. M. _Henning_, who was
appointed to attend to the Business, had not the Satisfaction to see the
Success of these Assemblies; for having in the very first Session spoke
with great Zeal for the Interests of his Country, he heated himself to
such a degree, that he found himself out of Order when he came home; and
that very Night he had a Fit of an Apoplexy of which he died next day. The
Count _de Metternich_ was appointed to supply his Place. No body was
fitter to serve the King in the Assembly at _Francfort_ than this
Nobleman, who had in several Embassies acquir’d a great Knowledge of the
Affairs of the Empire; and particularly in the Embassy at _Ratisbon_, in
which he was employ’d a long time.

As soon as the Conferences were open’d, the Foreign Ministers, _viz._ the
Pope’s Nuncio, the Envoys of _Savoy_ and of the other Princes of _Italy_,
the Envoy Extraordinary of the States-General, and those of the Princes of
the Empire, notify’d their Arrival to the Electoral College, and sent
their Credentials to the Chancery, which was kept at the Palace of the
Elector of _Mentz_, that Prince being by Birth Chancellor of the Empire.

At the beginning of these Conferences there were some Difficulties
started, relating to the Pretensions of the Nuncio and Nephew of the then
Pope _Clement_ XI. who pretended that the Electors should pay him the
first Visit; and that when he return’d it to them, they were bound to give
him the Right Hand. The Electors were very much startled at the Nuncio’s
Demand, and publickly refus’d to subscribe to such Claims; so that no
Visit was made on either side, and the Nuncio only saw the Electors in a
Garden where they happen’d to meet by Chance. The Nuncio threaten’d he
would protest against the Ninth Electorate establish’d in favor of the
Family of _Brunswic-Hanover_, and against the Royal Dignity of _Prussia_;
but he was given to understand, that neither of his Protestations would
avail any thing. And the Ambassadors of _Prussia_ sent him word in plain
Terms, that if he offered to protest against the Regal Dignity of their
Master, the King would not fail to give Order to his Troops that were in
_Italy_, to enter into the Ecclesiastic State, and to live at Discretion
therein, as if it were an Enemy’s Country. The Nuncio frighted by those
Menaces, and thinking he already saw the _Prussian_ Troops in his
Holiness’s Territories, sent his Secretary forthwith to the Ambassadors to
assure them that he wou’d not protest; that he never had a Thought nor
Order for it; that his Holiness had all the Respect and Esteem for the
King their Master which so great a Prince deserv’d; and that he would be
glad to give Proofs of it upon every Occasion.

The Electors of _Cologn_ and _Bavaria_ protested likewise against the
Assembly, in case they were refused Admission to the Conferences for the
Election; but they were of no more avail than those of the Nuncio. Those
Princes sent their Protests by the Post, in form of Letters, directed to
the Count _de Papenheim_ Marshal of the Empire, and seal’d with an unknown
Seal. The Situation those Electors stood in at that time, did not permit
them to cause their Protests to be publish’d with the due Formalities,
nevertheless they were soon made public. The Respect and Friendship People
had for the illustrious Family of _Bavaria_, made every body eager to have
Copies of ’em, but they signify’d nothing, and the Conferences continu’d.

On the 2d of _October_ the Conferences being ended for that Day, the
Magistrates and Heads of the Militia, went in a Body to the Town-house, to
take the Oath prescrib’d by the Golden Bull. They there found the
Electors, who were at that time in _Francfort_, and the Ambassadors of the
absent Electors, all sitting in Chairs of State, under a great Canopy of
black Velvet. After the Oath was read, the Magistrates and the Officers of
the Militia took it in presence of the Elector of _Mentz_, as did also the
Citizens and the Garison, but the Ceremony was different; for it was not
taken in the Town-house, but without it, in an open Gallery, rais’d in a
great Square, and hung with Cloth. There the Chancellors of the two
Spiritual Electors and the Magistrates receiv’d the Oath of the Citizens,
in presence of the Electors and Ambassadors, who were plac’d at the
Windows of the Town-house. The Burghers, who were to the Number of 14
Companies, took the Oath first, and then the Soldiers of the Garrison.

On the 10th of _October_ Proclamation was made by Sound of Trumpet for all
Foreigners, who were not in the Retinue of the Electors, or the Electoral
Ambassadors, to retire out of the City before the Sun was set, till the
Electors had chose an Emperor. The Nuncio thought at first, that his
Character and the Respect due to the Holy Father would exempt him from the
general Rule; but being inform’d of the contrary, he retir’d to

On the 12th, about seven in the Morning all the Bells were rung, upon
which the Burghers and the Soldiers of the Garrison assembled at the
Houses of their respective commanding Officers; and then went and posted
themselves in the Streets leading from the Town-house to the Church of St.
_Bartholomew_. The Burghers had the Post of Honor from the Soldiers. At
nine o’clock the Electors and Ambassadors went to the Town-house, the
Courts and Equipages of all but the Ambassadors of _Bohemia_ having laid
aside their Mourning.

The Moment after the Electors arriv’d in the usual Chamber of the Assembly
they went into other Rooms, where they caus’d themselves to be dress’d in
their Electoral Habits, which are very majestic, being wide Gowns very
much plaited with very long Sleeves, the Linings and Facings being of
Ermin; and over all the Electors wear a sort of Mantle of Ermin. The
Habits for the Spiritual and Temporal Electors are much the same, only
those of the former are of Scarlet, and those of the latter of
Crimson-Velvet. Their Caps are of the Color of their Habits, and like them
turn’d up with Ermin.

As soon as the Electors were dress’d they return’d to the Assembly-Room,
and then went with the Ambassadors of the other Electors from the
Town-House to the Square, where they found Horses sumptuously caparison’d,
which they mounted, and thus rode in Cavalcade to St. _Bartholomew_’s
Church. The three Electors rode first in one Row bare-headed. The four
Ambassadors of the absent Electors rode next, according to the Rank of
their Masters. Their Electoral Highnesses and the Ambassadors were
receiv’d at the Door of the Church by the Bishop of _Neustadt_ at the Head
of the Chapter, who conducted them into the Choir, where they plac’d
themselves, according to their Rank, in the Stalls of the Canons, which
were lin’d with Velvet and Gold-Lace. The Elector of _Triers_ sate by
himself opposite to the Altar, where a Praying-Desk and an Arm-Chair were
set up for him, which were lin’d also with Crimson-Velvet.

When all the Company were seated, the Bishop of _Neustadt_ began the Mass.
At the first Consecration, the Ambassadors of the Protestant Electors went
into the Chappel of the Conclave which joins to the Choir: After the
Elevation of the Host they return’d to their Places, where they remain’d
during the rest of the Office, and then the Electors and Ambassadors all
went up to the Altar. The Elector of _Mentz_ was in the middle between the
Elector of _Triers_ on his Right and the Elector-Palatine on his Left. The
Ambassadors were in the same Row, according to their Rank, on the Right
and Left of the Electors. The Elector of _Mentz_ took the Book of the
Gospels and laid his Right Hand upon it, as did also the Electors that
were present, and the Ambassadors of those who were absent, and then took
the customary Oath to elect no Person for Emperor but one that they should
think in Conscience to be most qualify’d. After having taken the Oath they
went into the Chapel of the Conclave, where they were shut up near three
Hours. Then they return’d into the Church and plac’d themselves in a
Gallery erected over the Grate that separates the Choir from the Nave,
which was lin’d with Scarlet Cloth and hung with Tapestry, and had seven
Arm-Chairs plac’d in it of red Velvet, adorn’d with Lace and Fringe of
Gold. The Electors and Ambassadors being seated, the Chancellor of _Mentz_
read aloud the Act which had been just drawn up in the Conclave, whereby
CHARLES King of the _Romans_, and of _Spain_, was proclaim’d Emperor. Then
the whole Church resounded with great Shouts of _Long live the Emperor_!
And at the same instant the Cannon was fir’d from the Ramparts, and the
Burghers and the Garison made three Discharges of their small Arms.

After the Proclamation the Electors and the Ambassadors descended from the
Gallery to their Places in the Choir, and after the singing of _Te Deum_
which was tun’d by the Bishop of _Neustadt_, they return’d to the
Town-House in the same Order that they came. There the Electors quitted
their Robes of Ceremony, and each return’d to their Palaces, where they
stay’d till the Evening; and the Ambassadors did the same. At Night they
all supp’d at the House of the Count _de Windisgratcht_, the first
Ambassador of _Bohemia_, and by consequence the Ambassador of the new
Emperor, who gave a magnificent Feast, which was accompany’d with a very
fine Concert of Music. This great Day’s Work was concluded by the Choice
which the Electoral College made of Prince _Charles_ of _Neubourg_, to
carry to the new Emperor the Act of his Proclamation.

Notwithstanding the surprizing Concourse of People from all Quarters to
see this august Ceremony, there was not the least Disorder in the whole
Solemnity, excepting a little Dispute that happen’d between the Prince _de
la Tour Taxis_ and the Count of _Nassau-Weilbourg_. The former, tho’ of a
modern Family in comparison to the Count, yet presuming upon his Title of
Prince, claim’d Precedency of the Count, but the latter decided the
Difference in an instant; for he took the Prince by the Arm, and pushing
him behind him, said to him, _You are to know, Sir, that such Princes as
you are, walk behind such Counts as I am_. The Prince very much stunn’d at
the Compliment, did not think proper to push his Pretensions farther.

Immediately after the Ceremony of the Election was over, I set out for
_Zell_, where I had the Misfortune to find my self Motherless as well as
Fatherless. My Mother having died there during my stay at _Francfort_,
whose Death grieved me very much, and the more because ’twas the first
Incident I had met with in all my Life to give me a serious Concern: But
now perhaps, that I am more us’d to Disappointments, such News would not
make so much Impression upon me as it did then.

I stay’d some time at _Zell_ to settle several Affairs with my Brother
relating to my Mother’s Succession, till I had a Letter acquainting me
that the Ceremony of the Emperor’s Coronation was fix’d for the 22d of
_December_, and thereupon I set out immediately again for _Francfort_.

I travell’d thro’ _Hanover_, which I have already had the Honor to mention
to you, and from _Hanover_ I went to CASSEL, which Town is the common
Residence of the Landgrave of _Hesse_, and divided into two Parts by the
River _Fulde_. The New Town is very well built with pretty Houses, and the
Streets are very even and spacious. The Landgrave’s Palace which is old is
encompass’d with Ramparts, part of which on that side next to the Country
forms a Terras planted with Orange-Trees, which in Winter are cover’d by a
boarded House. The Name of the present Landgrave is _Charles_, who was
born the 3d of _August_ 1654, and has had seven Children by _Mary-Amelia_
of _Courland_.

1. Prince _Frederic_, born the 28th of _August_ 1676, who became King of
_Sweden_ by his Marriage with _Eleonora_ Princess of _Sweden_, who
succeeded _Charles_ XII. He had to his first Wife _Louisa-Dorothea-Sophia_
only Daughter of the King of _Prussia_, at which time he was Stadtholder
of _Cleves_, and had a Regiment of Foot in his Majesty’s Service.

2. The Princess _Sophia-Charlotta_ Duchess-Dowager of
_Mecklemburg-Swerin_, who lives still in _Mecklemburg_, from whence she
often goes to the Court of her Father.

3. Prince _William_, who is a Lieutenant-General of the _Dutch_ Forces,
and Governor of _Maestricht_. He marry’d _Wilhelmina_ of _Saxe-Zeits_.

4. The Princess _Mary-Louisa_, Dowager of the Prince of _Nassau-Friesland_
drown’d in his Passage at the _Moerdyke_.

5. The Prince _Maximilian_, marry’d to a Princess of _Hesse-Darmstad_.

6. The Prince _George_, a General Officer in the Service of _Prussia_,
Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the Black

7. _Wilhelmina-Charlotte_, who was a most accomplish’d Princess, but died
some time ago.

These Princes and Princesses met very often at the Court of the Landgrave
their Father, and then render’d it one of the most splendid in _Germany_,
not only by reason of their Magnificence, but for their affable Deportment
to all Mankind, but especially to Foreigners. I was loth to go from
_Cassel_, but as the Term fix’d for the Emperor’s Coronation drew near, I
could not stay there any longer.

And indeed, I arrived at FRANCFORT but a few Hours before the Emperor. The
Electors and Ambassadors went out of Town and met his Imperial Majesty, as
did also the Magistrates with the Burgo-Master, and complimented him under
a Tent erected there for that purpose. When the Compliments were ended his
Majesty went again into his Coach, as did the Electors and Ambassadors
into theirs, and they enter’d the City while the Cannon fir’d and the
People shouted, _Long live the Emperor Charles_ VI. His Imperial Majesty
alighted at the Church of St. _Bartholomew_. The Elector-Palatine who was
so indispos’d that he could not go out to meet his Majesty, receiv’d him
at the Door of the Church, as did also the Bishop of _Neustadt_ at the
Head of the Chapter; and his Majesty was conducted to a Throne set up for
him on the Right-side of the Altar, by the Electors. The Elector-Palatine
walk’d before, and the two other Electors supported the Emperor. When he
was seated on his Throne, the Bishop tun’d the _Te Deum_, and gave the
Benediction. The Emperor was afterwards conducted with the same
Ceremonies to his Palace, which was hung with Mourning. The Electors and
Ambassadors having accompany’d his Imperial Majesty to his Closet, retir’d
to their respective Habitations. The next and following Days the Emperor
receiv’d the Visits of the Electors, the Ambassadors, and the Electoress
Palatine, which he return’d.

When the 22d of _December_, the Day fix’d for the Coronation, was arriv’d,
all the Burghers and the Garison were drawn up under Arms all the way from
the Imperial Palace to the Church. The Procession was begun by the Footmen
and Pages belonging to the Ambassadors, to the Elector-Palatine and to the
Emperor, and they were follow’d by the Courtiers of the Elector and of the
Emperor, and by Persons of Quality that were in the Ambassadors Retinue.
After them there appear’d six Heralds at Arms, the first of which carry’d
a single Eagle, the second a double Cross, the third a Lion, and the three
others Spread-Eagles, the whole after the manner of the _Roman_ Ensigns.
After the Heralds, came the Ambassadors, the Vicars of the Electors, and
the Elector-Palatine, bearing the _Imperialia_ or Ornaments of the Empire;
and immediately after them the Emperor appear’d, under a stately Canopy.
His Habit was like that of the Secular Electors, that is to say, a Robe of
Crimson-Velvet turn’d up with Ermin: He had on his Head a Crown enrich’d
with Diamonds, which was the Crown of his Family, and he rode a very fine
_Spanish_ Horse, the Equipage of which was truly magnificent. Behind the
Emperor came the principal Officers of his Houshold, and the Captain of
the Guards at the Head of his Company; and the Elector-Palatine’s
Life-Guards closed the March.

When the Emperor arrived at the Church, the Electors of _Mentz_ and
_Triers_ in their Pontificalibus went and receiv’d him at the Door, from
whence they conducted him to his Seat in the Choir over-against the High
Altar. There his Imperial Majesty heard the Mass, after which he was
conducted to the Town-House almost in the same Order as was observ’d at
his coming to Church, with this Difference, that the Emperor was deck’d
with the Ornaments of the Empire, which consist of the Crown, the Mantle,
and _Charlemain_’s Sword. His Majesty was now on foot between the two
Ecclesiastical Electors, who accompany’d him, as did the Elector-Palatine,
and the Vicars and Ambassadors of the absent Electors to the Great Hall of
the Town-House, where the Imperial Feast was prepar’d. The Emperor plac’d
himself at one of the Windows looking into the great Square, on purpose to
be seen by the People; of whom there was such a Multitude, that not only
the Square but the Windows and Roofs of the Houses were cover’d with them.

From this Window his Majesty saw the Officers of the Empire perform their
Functions. The Count _de Papenheim_ the Elector of _Saxony_’s Vicar, as
Grand Marshal of the Empire, was the first that began the Ceremony. He was
mounted on a very fine Horse, which he rode full gallop to a Heap of Oats
in one Corner of the Square, wherewith he fill’d a Measure of Silver,
after which he return’d to the Middle of the Square, where he threw both
the Oats and the Measure among the Populace, and then he went to the

The Elector-Palatine appear’d next, encompass’d with his Guards, and
preceded by his Courtiers. He went on horseback to a Kitchen built for the
purpose in the great Square, where he found a whole Ox roasting on a Spit,
of which he cut off a Slice, and putting it into a Gold Dish he carry’d it
to the Emperor’s Table.

The Count _de Zinzendorf_, Vicar to the Elector of _Hanover_ as Treasurer
of the Empire, came next. He was on horseback attended by the Emperor’s
Guards, and taking a compass round the Square he scatter’d Medals of Gold
and Silver among the Populace, which he took out of a couple of Bags of
Cloth that were ty’d to his Saddle-Bow. These Medals represented on one
side the Globe of the Earth encompass’d with Clouds, and this _Latin_
Inscription, _Constantiâ & Fortitudine_. On the other side was this
Legend, _Carolus, Hispaniarum, Hung. & Bohem. Rex. A. A. Electus in Regem
Roman. coronat. Francof. 22 Decemb. 1711_. Over which there was an
Imperial Crown like to that of _Charlemain_.

The Count _de Dhona_ Ambassador from the King as Elector of _Brandenburg_,
perform’d the Function of Great Chamberlain of the Empire in the absence
of the Prince of _Hohenzollern_ the Elector’s Vicar, who was at that time
indispos’d. The Count preceded by all his Livery, and accompany’d by some
of the Emperor’s Guards, rode on horseback towards the middle of the
Square, where a Table was erected on which there was a Basin and Ewer of
Silver gilt full of Water, with a Napkin that had been dipp’d in it, all
which he took and carry’d into the Banquetting-Room, and gave to the
Emperor to wash.

Afterwards the Count _de Kinski_, Ambassador of his Imperial Majesty as
King of _Bohemia_, officiated for the Person whom he represented, as Great
Cup-Bearer of the Empire: For this purpose he took a Goblet of Gold and
fetch’d Wine at a Fountain erected in the middle of the Square
representing the Imperial Eagle; which done, the Count went into the
Banquetting-Room, and gave it to the Emperor to drink.

Thus did the Officers of the Empire acquit themselves of their several
Functions: After this the Emperor plac’d himself alone at a Table upon a
rais’d Floor, cover’d with red Cloth; and over it there was a Canopy of
Gold Brocade. When the Emperor was seated the Electors plac’d themselves
at Tables that were prepar’d for them on both sides of the Hall, on Floors
that were a Step lower than the Emperor’s. Over each Table there was a
Canopy of Crimson-Velvet inrich’d with Gold, and they had each an
Arm-Chair of the same. On the Right-side of each Table there was a
magnificent Beaufet. The three Electors sate alone at their several
Tables, and the Ambassadors of the absent Electors, after having stood a
little while behind the Chairs plac’d for their respective Masters, went
into another Room. On the following Days the Electors din’d with the
Emperor, and his Majesty went also and din’d with the Electors. At length,
after the Emperor had perform’d all the Ceremonies that are observ’d at
Coronations, he set out from _Francfort_ for his Hereditary Dominions,
where he was impatiently expected by his Subjects.

Just as I was ready to depart from _Francfort_ I receiv’d the melancholy
News of the Death of the King’s Brother the Margrave _Philip_, to whom I
was very much attached, and was therefore mightily afflicted for the Loss
of him. The King’s Ambassadors, to avoid the Expence of putting their
Equipage in Mourning, kept his Death secret, so that they did not notify
it to his Imperial Majesty till the Day before he went.

I set out from _Francfort_ much about the same time as the Emperor did,
and pass’d through _Cassel_, _Hanover_, and _Dusseldorff_. I lik’d
_Francfort_ so well before, that it tempted me to return to it; and
besides, that was the Place to which a Passport was to be directed that I
had sent for from _France_, in order to carry me to _Paris_. As soon as I
receiv’d it I traveled thro’ _Minden_, which I have already had the Honor
to mention to you; and from thence, after having pass’d through _Bilefeld_
a little Town in the County of _Ravensberg_, I arriv’d at MUNSTER.

This, which was formerly an Imperial City, is now the See of a Bishop,
Prince of the Empire, and Lord of the Town and its Jurisdiction. It stands
in _Westphalia_ in a large Plain, and on a little River which renders it
very strong. It was the Birth-place of the famous _Muntzer_, the Head of
the Anabaptists, a Sect of Heretics, who grew so powerful that they
undertook to make themselves Masters of the City, and to chuse themselves
a King; and about the End of the sixteenth Century, they accordingly chose
for their Sovereign one _John of Leyden_, a Taylor, infamous for the
Cruelties and Outrages which he committed. But Heaven deliver’d the City
from such a Scourge; for at length after some Resistance it was reduc’d,
and _John of Leyden_ was put to death by the Hangman. The City revolted
again afterwards; but at last the Bishop humbled it in 1661, and since
that time it has always been subject to the Bishops its Sovereigns. ’Twas
at _Munster_ that was held the famous Assembly of _Westphalia_, which
establish’d the Fortune of many Sovereigns, and the Religion of their
Subjects. The Peace which was there sign’d serves also as a Basis for all
the Treaties that are made at this time. The Treaty of _Munster_ imported
in substance, “That _Maximilian_ Duke of _Bavaria_ should remain in
Possession of the Electorate of the Counts Palatine, which had been given
him by the Emperor _Ferdinand_ II: That _Charles Lewis_ Count Palatine
should be restor’d to his Principality, and be created an eighth Elector
for himself and his Descendants. That the Protestants should have their
Churches and the free Exercise of their Religion, on the Footing as it was
in 1624; and that they should retain the Church-Revenues, of which they
had been possess’d ever since the first of _January_, that Year: That
_Sweden_ should have Hither-_Pomerania_, a Part of the other _Pomerania_,
the Island and Principality of _Rugen_, the Town and Port of _Wismar_,
Archbishopric of _Bremen_, and the Bishopric of _Verden_, with the Title
of a Duchy: That the Elector of _Brandenburg_ should have the Bishoprics
of _Halberstadt_, _Minden_ and _Camin_, with the Farther-_Pomerania_: That
_France_ should have the intire Sovereignty of _Metz_, _Toul_, and
_Verdun_, and the Dependencies thereof, that of _Pignerol_ and _Brisac_,
the Landgraviate of Upper and Lower _Alsace_, _&c._ That the Confederates
should restore the Towns they had taken, and disband their Troops; and
that the seven Circles of the Empire should furnish five Millions of
Rixdollars for the Pay of the _Swedish_ Soldiers.” Such were the
Conditions of this Peace, which was not very advantageous to the Catholic

The Bishop who had the See of _Munster_ while I was there, was of the
Family of _Metternich_, and at the same time Bishop of _Paderborn_. I did
not stay long in that City, but proceeded thro’ _Dusseldorff_, where I
found the whole Court return’d from _Francfort_.

From thence I set out for COLOGNE[35], where M. _Happe_ who was appointed
by the King to levy the Contributions which _Luxembourg_ and other
neighbouring Countries were oblig’d to pay, entertain’d me very civilly,
gave me an Apartment at his House, and made me exceeding welcome.

I stay’d some time in this City, which is a very flourishing Town by
reason of its convenient Situation for the Trade of their Merchants, who
have great Vessels constantly going up and down the _Rhine_, to
_Francfort_ and _Holland_. ’Tis a pretty large City, but always very dirty
and ill pav’d, and the Houses are for most part very old, and consequently
dark and incommodious. The City is governed by a Senate, which does not
depend on the Elector, whose Power is very much limited, he having no
Authority but in Criminal Affairs; yet he is allow’d Sovereign Command for
three Days, after which if he stays at _Cologne_ he is no more regarded
than a private Gentleman. This is the reason that the Prince commonly
resides at _Bonn_, and that he only goes to _Cologne_ on the Eves of the
Grand Festivals, to officiate there. Nevertheless the City is oblig’d to
pay Homage to the Elector, and to swear Fidelity to him, on Condition that
he preserve them in the Enjoyment of their Privileges; which is a
Condition that the Elector can scarce violate were he ever so much
inclin’d to it, because ’tis the City that maintains the Garison, and is
Mistress of the Arsenal.

The Catholic is the only Religion that is allow’d to be exercised at
_Cologne_. Nor are Protestants admitted into the Senate, or any Employment
in the City, but go to preach at _Mulheim_, a little Town in the Country
of _Berg_, which belongs to the Elector-Palatine.

I had not the Honor of seeing the Elector, who by reason of the
Misfortunes he had suffer’d in the late Wars, was oblig’d at that time to
live in _France_. His Name was _Joseph-Clement_ of _Bavaria_. He possess’d
the Bishoprics of _Hildesheim_ and _Liege_, together with the
Archbishopric of _Cologne_. He died the 12th of _November_ 1723, after
having caus’d his Nephew the Duke _Clement_ of _Bavaria_, Bishop of
_Munster_ and _Paderborn_ to be chose Co-adjutor of _Cologne_.

The Archbishops of _Cologne_ are Great Chancellors of the Empire in
_Italy_, but don’t officiate as such; for most of the Princes of _Italy_
pretend to be independent of the Empire, or call themselves perpetual
Vicars thereof; and in this Quality they perform what the Emperor might do
within the Extent of their Jurisdictions. This however extends only to
common Cases, for in extraordinary ones they are oblig’d to have recourse
to the Imperial Court. Then ’tis the Elector of _Mentz_ alone who
officiates in quality of Chancellor of _Germany_; and ’tis he that has the
Custody of the Archives and Titles which relate to _Italy_.

The Electors of _Cologne_ for a long time contested with those of _Mentz_
the Right of consecrating the Emperors, tho’ the latter pretend this Honor
belongs to them, as Primates of _Germany_. But the Differences between
those Princes have been regulated; and they have agreed that either of
them, in whose Diocese the Emperor happens to be crown’d, should
consecrate him; and that if the Coronation should be perform’d in neither
of their Dioceses, then they should take it by turns. Nevertheless after
this Accommodation the Elector of _Cologne_ consecrated the Emperor
_Leopold_ in 1658, at _Francfort_ a City in the Diocese of _Mentz_; but it
was done with the Consent of the Elector of _Mentz_, and without making it
a Precedent for the future.

I have observ’d, that at _Cologne_ most of the public Buildings are either
Churches or Convents. The Metropolitan Church would be one of the most
magnificent in all _Germany_, were it finish’d. Among other stately Tombs
here is that of the _Three Kings_ who came to worship the Savior of the
World, whose Bodies they say were remov’d from _Constantinople_ to
_Milan_, and from thence brought hither. All the People have a very great
Veneration for these Reliques.

Except the Churches and the Monasteries one sees no public Structures, nor
any House fine enough to raise a Stranger’s Admiration; here is still to
be seen the House where Death put an end to the Misfortunes of _Mary de
Medicis_, Queen of _France_, who came to _Cologne_ for Refuge from the
Persecution of Cardinal _Richelieu_. This Cardinal, tho’ he was oblig’d to
that Princess for his prodigious Wealth, was not content with having
forc’d her to quit the Kingdom of _France_, but abridg’d her even of the
Necessaries of Life; insomuch that ’twas a hard matter for her to find a
Butcher that would undertake to serve the Table of that unfortunate
Princess with Meat. She died the 3d of _July_, 1643.

After I had amused my self with seeing what was to be seen in the City of
_Cologne_, I long’d so much to see that famous City _Paris_, that I set
out thither very soon. I forgot to tell you that the Out-works of
_Cologne_, especially the Ramparts are very agreeable. There are noble
Rows of Elms which serve for Walks, and terminate in a Kay that runs along
the _Rhine_, and would be a very fine one, if it was not disfigur’d by a
Half-moon, which has been cut out to cover the Gate of the _Rhine_, and to
secure the Passage of the Flying-Bridge.

When I set out from _Cologne_ I went down the _Rhine_ and the _Vahal_, as
far as _Dort_, and from thence (without once going ashore) to ANTWERP,
which City I take to be the most beautiful of all the _Netherlands_. It
makes a part of _Austrian Brabant_, and is the Capital of the Marquisate
of the Holy Empire. ’Tis situate in a great Plain on the Right-side of the
_Schelde_, at a Place where that River separates the Duchy of _Brabant_
from the County of _Flanders_. It contains a number of Churches built in a
very good Taste, and a great many very noble public Edifices. The Church
of our Lady, which is the Cathedral, is a Work that has nothing like it
except it be in _Italy_. ’Tis above 500 Feet in length, 240 in breadth,
and 340 in height. It contains Sixty-six Chapels, adorn’d with Marble
Columns, all different, and with fine Paintings. The Tower which serves
for the Steeple is very lofty and perfectly beautiful.

The most magnificent of the Churches, next to the Cathedral, was that of
the _Jesuits_, which was consum’d by Lightning the 18th of _July_, 1718.
The Pavement was of Marble, in Compartiments. There were two low Isles,
one above the other, which were supported by fifty-six Marble Pillars. The
four Arches were clos’d with thirty-eight great Pictures in gilt Frames,
and the Walls in which there were forty Windows were lin’d with Marble.
The great Roof was of very fine carv’d Work, charg’d with a small Dome,
very lightsome and very well made. As to the High Altar it would require
an able Connoisseur to give such a Description of it as the Beauty of the
Workmanship requires: For my own part all I can say of it is, that ’twas
all over Marble, Jasper, Porphyry, and Gold. The Picture represented the
Assumption of the Virgin _Mary_, and was a complete Piece. Our Lady’s
Chapel, which was a part of the same Church, was as rich as the rest of
the Building, the Sides and the Roof of it being fac’d with Marble, and
adorn’d with six Statues of Alabaster. Besides this Chapel there were
fifty others, all of the utmost Magnificence. The Great Gate of the
Church, and the _Jesuits_ College adjoining to it, were answerable to the
Beauty of the Structure. All this stately Building was entirely destroy’d;
and what is most to be pitied, the Pictures of the famous _Rubens_, of
which this Church was full, were destroy’d with it; a Loss the more
considerable, because ’tis not to be repair’d; for as to the rest, they
are preparing to build a Church as magnificent as the former.

There are several other fine Edifices at _Antwerp_, of which I don’t
undertake the Description. I shall only mention a Word or two of the
Town-House and the Exchange. The former stands in a great Square,
encompass’d with fine Houses. Tho’ the Building is quite in the _Gothic_
Taste, yet ’tis a noble Monument of the Wealth of those who founded it.
The Exchange is worth seeing, on account of the Galleries round the
Square, in which the Merchants assemble as they do at _Amsterdam_, from 12
o’clock till half an hour past 1.

The Citadel or Castle of _Antwerp_ was formerly reckon’d one of the
strongest and most regular Citadels in _Europe_; but the Works which
_Lewis_ XIV. caus’d to be made in the _Netherlands_, and upon all the
Frontiers of the Kingdom, have very much sunk the Reputation of the
ancient Fortifications. ’Twas in the Square of this Castle, which was
built by Order of the Duke of _Alva_, that he caus’d that famous Statue of
Brass to be erected, which would have been an eternal Monument of his
Pride and Cruelty, if it had not been pull’d down and broke to pieces by
the Populace, as soon as the Duke quitted the _Netherlands_ by Order of
his Master K. _Philip_ II. ’Tis said that while he commanded in this
Country, he caus’d above 18000 Persons to be executed by the common

Next to the Citadel, I cannot help giving you some Account of the Harbor,
which is very beautiful and commodious. Here is a very large Square,
where, by the Help of a certain Machine, they easily unload all the Goods.
Another good Conveniency, and what contributes to render this a very
trading City, is, that besides the River there are eight great Canals, by
which Ships may enter into the City. Yet notwithstanding all these
Conveniencies, the Trade of _Antwerp_, tho’ considerable, is not near so
flourishing now, as it was before the Civil Wars, and the new Opinions in
Affairs of Religion. ’Tis even astonishing how this City could hold up its
Head again after the Calamities it suffer’d, even from its own Sovereign,
whose Troops in 1576, burnt above 600 Houses in _Antwerp_; and while the
unfortunate Inhabitants were running, as it were, into the midst of the
Flames, to rescue their best Effects, the _Spaniards_ fell upon ’em, and
kill’d and drown’d near 10000. This terrible Fire was the total Ruin of
_Antwerp_; the Town-House and several noble Palaces were reduc’d to Ashes;
and the immense Riches which they contain’d were carry’d off by
Plunderers, who pillag’d for three Days, during which they committed all
manner of Outrages. Nevertheless, this unhappy City, which had like to
have been buried for ever under its own Ashes, was rais’d to Life again
some time after by the Confederates, who remain’d, as it were, its
Sovereigns, till 1585, when the Prince of _Parma_ took it from them, after
a Siege that lasted near twelve Months, and was one of the most famous
Sieges that had ever been known before, as well upon account of the few
Troops the Duke of _Parma_ had to carry it on, which in all were but 1200
Men, as for that famous Dyke by which he shut up the Harbor, and for the
Bridge which he laid over the _Scheld_.

_Antwerp_ remain’d under the Dominion of the House of _Austria_ from that
Time to the Death of _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, when it was oblig’d to
receive a _French_ Garison in the Name of _Philip_ V. whom the Elector of
_Bavaria_, Governor of the _Netherlands_, own’d for King of _Spain_. But
by the Battle of _Ramellies_, _Antwerp_ and a part of the _Netherlands_
were reduc’d under the Dominion of the Emperor. During the War that was
enter’d into for the _Spanish_ Monarchy, a Battle was fought in the
Neighbourhood of _Antwerp_, near the Village of _Ekeren_, for which both
Parties sung _Te Deum_.

Having set out from _Antwerp_ to pursue my Journey to _Paris_, I pass’d
thro’ MECHLIN[36], which is a very fine City, and the See of an
Archbishop, whose Revenue is very considerable. The Metropolitan Church is
dedicated to St. _Rambaut_. This City is the Seat of a Great Royal
Council, which is, as it were, the Parliament of the Country, and was
establish’d by _Charles_ Duke of _Burgundy_ in 1473. _Mechlin_ is famous
for the Lace made there, which is finer and better than any that is made
in the other Towns of the _Netherlands_.

From _Mechlin_ I went to BRUSSELS[37], the Capital of the Duchy of
_Brabant_. This City stands on the little River _Senna_, that falls into
the _Scheld_ by the Canal of _Vilvorde_, and divides the lower Town by
several Canals that terminate in the said Canal of _Vilvorde_, which is
very convenient for their Trade, whereof this City has a considerable
Share. There are several Manufactures at _Brussels_, of which that of
_Devos_ for Tapistry is worth seeing; that skilful Operator having carried
his Art to the utmost degree of Perfection that the Curious can desire.
The common People of _Brussels_ are more polite than in any other City of
the _Netherlands_; for most of the Nobility of the Country come hither
commonly to pass the Winter; and there are few Families of Note that have
not a House here.

The Royal Palace is very large, and the Apartments beautiful, tho’ very
old. This Palace stands high above the City, being situate upon a Hill,
from whence there is a noble Prospect, which is diversify’d by the
Gardens, and the Park that joins to the Palace, wherein there are several
very pleasant Walks, adorn’d with fine Grottos and Fountains.

The Town-house is another very fine Building. It stands in a Square,
encompass’d with Grand Houses, built after _Brussels_ was bombarded by the
_French_, under the Command of the Marshal _de Villeroy_, when this
Quarter of the Town in particular suffer’d very great Damage; but it is
since become the more agreeable by the magnificent Houses built where the
old ones stood.

I left _Brussels_ to go to Mons the Capital City of _Hainault_, which
stands upon a Hill, on the Banks of the little River of _Trouil_, and is
one of the strongest Places in the Low-Countries. _Lewis_ XIV. besieg’d it
in Person, and took it in 1691. It was restor’d to _Spain_ by the Peace of
_Ryswic_, but afterwards at the Death of _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, it
return’d as well as all the Low-Countries under the Dominion of _France_.
But at length after the Battle of _Malplaquet_, it became subject to the
House of _Austria_. In this City there’s a famous Abbey of Nuns, which is
a very honorable Retreat for young Women of Quality, who are Orphans, or
don’t care to be dependant on their Parents. They wear the Habit of Nuns
in the Morning, to be present at the Office; but in the Afternoon they
dress like Gentlewomen; and they make no Vow.

From _Mons_ I went to VALENCIENNES[38], which City is a part of the
Province of _Hainault_, and the chief Town of _French Flanders_. Its
beautiful Fortifications display the same Magnificence that was always
observ’d in all the Works erected in the Reign of _Lewis_ XIV. That
Monarch besieg’d _Valenciennes_ in Person, in the Year 1677; and after
having taken it by Storm, caus’d a strong Citadel to be erected in it at
the Expence of the Inhabitants. This City had been besieg’d by the
Marshals _Turenne_ and _La Ferte_ in the Year 1656; but Don _John_ of
_Austria_, the Governor of the _Netherlands_, accompanied by the Prince of
_Condé_, who at that time, bore Arms against the King, made them raise the
Siege; and in this Expedition the Marshal _de la Ferte_ was taken

The late Elector of _Cologne_ liv’d at _Valenciennes_ when I was there,
the Casualties of the War having oblig’d him to quit his own Dominions. I
was introduc’d to that Prince by the Prince _de Tingri_, when his
Electoral Highness gave me a favorable Reception, and told me that he knew
my Father; but I plainly perceiv’d by what he said, that this Prince would
have been as glad to be in his City of _Bonn_, as in a Town of _France_.

I stay’d at _Valenciennes_ three Days, after which I set out for
CAMBRAY[39]. This City is the Capital of the _Cambresis_, and one of the
strongest Places in _Europe_. They say its Original is very ancient; for
some Authors pretend, that _Camber_ King of the _Sicambri_ was the Founder
of it. The Kings of _France_ conquer’d it, and were Masters of it a long
while. After the Death of _Charles_ the _Bald_, it was for some time a
Bone of Contention between the Emperor, the King of _France_, and the
Earls of _Flanders_; but the latter seiz’d it, and the Emperors afterwards
declar’d it a free City of the Empire. _Francis_ I. King of _France_
granted it a Neutrality; but the Emperor _Charles_ V. made himself Master
of it; and afterwards during the Revolutions of the _Netherlands_, it fell
under the Dominion of the Duke _d’Alençon_, Brother to _Henry_ III. who
restor’d it to the _French_ by a Treaty, which he concluded with _John de
Montluc_, whom King _Henry_ IV. afterwards made Prince of _Cambray_. Not
long after this, the _Spaniards_ took it by surprize, and kept it till
1677, when Lewis XIV. took it, and it has remain’d ever since in the
Possession of _France_, which Crown has considerably augmented its

_Cambray_ has the Title of an Archbishopric, which was erected in 1559, by
Pope _Paul_ II. at the Request of _Philip_ II. King of _Spain_. The
Suffragans granted to this Metropolitan were the Bishoprics of _Arras_,
_Tournay_, _St. Omer_ and _Namur_, which were anciently Suffragan Sees to
the Church of _Rheims_. The Archbishop takes the Title of _Duke of_
Cambray, _Count of the_ Cambresis, _and Prince of the Holy Empire_. He
that was the Archbishop while I was there, was the illustrious M. _de
Fenelon_, a Prelate as venerable for his Piety, as for the Delicacy of his
Pen. The present Archbishop is the natural Son of the late Duke of
_Orleans_ the Regent, and was formerly Bishop and Duke of _Laon_. This
Prelate fully answers the vast Hopes that were conceiv’d, from his good
Qualities in his Non-age. His Predecessor in this Dignity was the famous
Cardinal _Dubois_, the Minister of _France_.

I forgot to tell you, that the City of _Cambray_ is also of great Note for
the famous League that was concluded between the Pope, the Emperor
_Maximilian_, _Lewis_ XII. King of _France_, and _Ferdinand_ King of
_Arragon_, against the Republic of _Venice_.

From _Cambray_ I went to ST. QUINTIN, which City is the Capital of the
_Vermandois_, and is of Note for the famous Battle of _St. Quintin_,
call’d also the Battle of St. _Lawrence_, because ’twas fought on the 10th
of _August_, in 1557. After the Truce was broke between _Henry_ II. King
of _France_, and _Philip_ II. King of _Spain_, _Philibert-Emanuel_ Duke of
_Savoy_, who was Governor of the _Netherlands_, besieg’d the City of _St.
Quintin_, which was destitute of Troops, and moreover in a very bad
Condition. The Admiral _Coligni_ got into it with some Forces, which gave
Time to the Constable _de Montmorency_ to pass the _Somme_ with the
_French_ Army under his Command, and throw some Succours into the Town.
This was executed indeed, but with so much Precipitation, that the Men who
entered it were scarce five hundred in number. The Constable perceiving
the Approach of the _Spaniards_, and his Troops being moreover incumber’d
with their Equipage, endeavored to make his Retreat; but the Duke taking
advantage of his Incumbrance, surpriz’d him between the Villages of
_Essigny_ and _Rizerolles_, and charg’d him home before he had Time to put
his Men into Order of Battle; and the Constable and his Son were taken
Prisoners, with a great many Persons of Distinction. The Number of the
Slain was even greater than that of the Prisoners; and among the former
was _John_ of _Bourbon_, Duke of _Anguien_, a Prince of the Blood Royal,
and above 600 Gentlemen. The _Spaniards_ Loss did not exceed 500 Men.
_Philip_ II. in acknowledgment for this Victory, made that extraordinary
Vow, which he afterwards perform’d, to build the Monastery of St.
_Lawrence_ at the _Escurial_; upon which a certain Ambassador of _France_,
when he was shew’d that stately Edifice, said, _That +Philip+ must needs
be terribly afraid when he made so considerable a Vow_. After the Battle,
_St. Quintin_ surrender’d to the _Spaniards_, who kept it till the Treaty
of _Chateau-Cambresis_, in 1559.

From _St. Quintin_ I went to COMPIEGNE, a City in the Diocese of
_Soissons_, which is situate on the West side of the _Oyse_ and the
_Aisne_. The famous Maid of _Orleans_ ow’d the Loss of her Liberty to this
City. For that illustrious Heroine going to the Relief of _Compiegne_,
which the _English_ had resolv’d to besiege, had the Misfortune to fall
into their hands, and was carried Prisoner to _Roan_, where they burnt her
for a Witch. ’Twas at the Castle of _Compiegne_ that the Cardinal _de
Richlieu_ kept the Queen _Mary de Medicis_ a Prisoner, till that Princess
found Means to escape, and to retire to _Flanders_. I have had the Honor
already to tell you, that this unfortunate Queen died at _Cologn_.

This same Castle was also for some time the Residence of the Elector of
_Bavaria_, after he was ejected out of his Dominions by the victorious
Arms of the Emperor. The Court his Electoral Highness kept here was so
splendid, that it did not look like the Court of a Refugee Prince.

Near _Compiegne_ there’s a very large Forest, which renders the
Neighbourhood of this City very pleasant. There are fine Roads cut out in
this Forest, which render it very convenient for Hunting.

The only considerable Place from _Compiegne_ to _Paris_ is SENLIS; and
that purely on account of its being the See of a Bishop: for setting aside
its Situation, which is very agreeable, by reason of the Neighbourhood of
the beautiful Forest of _Chantilly_, _Senlis_ is a very trifling Place.
Near this City is the Abbey of our _Lady of Victory_, which _Philip
Augustus_ caus’d to be built as an Acknowledgment for the Victory he won
in Person at _Bouvines_, over the Emperor _Otho_ IV. and his Confederates,
on _Sunday July_ 27th, 1215; upon which very Day, his Son too won another
Battle over the _English_ in _Anjou_. They say that the two Couriers that
were carrying the News of each of the Victories, from the one Army to the
other, met at the very Place where now stands the Church of this Abbey.

Betwixt _Senlis_ and _Paris_ there stands the little Town of St. DENYS,
famous for the magnificent Abbey which gives Name to it. In this Church
are the Tombs of the Kings and Princes of _France_, whose Mausoleums are
of rich Workmanship. Here is a Treasure also which contains a great Number
of very curious Pieces. The Abbey of St. _Denys_ has also given its Name
to the great Plain in which it stands. ’Twas in this Plain that the famous
Battle was fought between the Catholics and Hugonots, in the Reign of
_Charles_ IX. when the Constable _Montmorency_, who at the Age of 83,
commanded the Catholics, was wounded, but gain’d the Victory over the

At my leaving _St. Denys_, I had at length the pleasure of seeing what I
had a long time passionately wish’d for, I mean the famous City of
PARIS[40], where I arriv’d about the beginning of the Year 1712. I make no
scruple to call it the chief City of the World, as it is the Capital of
the chief Kingdom in Christendom. The Extent of its Circumference, the
Beauty of its Buildings, the Multitude of its Inhabitants, the continual
Arrival and the Residence of Foreigners there, the Variety and Plenty of
Commodities of all sorts, render it the finest City in the World; and on
those Accounts ’tis justly reckon’d as the Ornament, the Soul and the
Strength of the _French_ Empire. I was not willing however to make any
stay here at first, because of my Impatience to see the famous Castle of
VERSAILLES, so much talk’d of at all Foreign Courts.

I had entertain’d so grand an Idea of this Palace, and was so fully
persuaded of its being all over Gold and Azure, that at the first Sight
the Beauty of it did not strike me. The Entrance to _Versailles_, as one
comes from _Paris_, does not set it off at all, tho’ the Avenue that leads
to it is one of the most magnificent; but when one comes up to the Castle,
and turns about towards this Grand Avenue, the two sumptuous Stables on
the sides of it form a Prospect, which gives a sublime Idea of the Master
of those stately Piles of Building. The Front of the Castle, which looks
towards the Gardens is the finest; and on that Side is the superb Gallery,
which is the Admiration of all Foreigners. What most surpriz’d me at
_Versailles_ is the Inside of the Castle, which if one examines it well,
looks like several Castles join’d together. The Royal Family, which was
still pretty numerous, was lodg’d there very much at their Ease, each
having their Guard-Chamber, an Anti-Chamber, a Presence-Chamber, a
Bed-Chamber, and Great Closet and Wardrobes. The chief Officers and Ladies
attending the Princesses were also commodiously lodg’d. The greatest part
of the Lords of the Court had Lodgings too here, which were indeed pretty
much straiten’d for want of room, but very convenient. In short, I was
assur’d, that when _Lewis_ XIV. was at _Versailles_, about 20,000 Persons
lay every Night in the Body of this Castle, and the Buildings in the Verge
of it, the Apartments and other Lodgings being so well laid out, that all
this great Multitude did not croud one another.

The finest Pieces in the Inside of the Castle are the Gallery and the
Saloons that join to it. The Walls are lin’d with Marble. Every Place
shines with the Works of the greatest Masters in Gold and Brass, and with
noble Pier-Glasses. I have heard say, that before the War for the
_Spanish_ Succession, all the Tables, Chandeliers and Stands, which are
now of Marble and gilt Frames, were of Massy Silver; but the King
converted them into Money to help defray the vast Expences of the Wars he
was then engaged in. The Cieling of the Gallery represents in several
Pictures the principal Actions of _Lewis_ the XIVth’s Life; and is also
adorn’d with Cartridges and Gildings, which are remarkable both for their
Richness and their Elegance.

The Chapel is perfectly answerable to the Magnificence of the Inside of
the Castle. The Critics indeed think ’tis too lofty for its Bigness; and
without pretending to much Skill in Architecture, of which what I now say
is perhaps a Proof, I should readily subscribe to their Opinion. Indeed a
Man ought to be plac’d in the Pew from whence the King hears Mass, to have
a just View of the fine Paintings with which the Cieling is enrich’d; and
than which there’s nothing to be seen that is finer or better fancy’d. The
principal Picture represents God the Father in all his Glory, as fully as
Human Weakness can conceive it. This is a piece of Painting I am never
weary of admiring; and I found some new Pleasure every time I look’d on
it. The Cieling is supported by noble Pillars of a white Stone, as
beautiful as Marble, which form a Gallery that runs round the Chapel, of
an equal height all along with the King’s Pew, and the Ballisters are of
yellow Copper and Marble. When one looks down from the Pew, the Chapel
seems too low, and the Great Altar not high enough. Opposite to the King’s
Pew, and exactly over the High Altar, there’s an Organ-Loft of a very good
Contrivance, where the King’s Music sits. ’Tis a very good Band; and those
who are nice Judges always admire the first Touch they give to their
Instruments, the Moment that the King enters the Chapel to hear Mass.

I own to you, _Madame_, that I thought it one of the finest Sights in the
World, to see _Lewis_ XIV. enter the Chapel in all his Grandeur, attended
by the Cardinals and the Lords of his Court. The Life-Guards and the
Hundred _Swiss_ took up the Gallery and the Bottom of the Chapel, and the
Drums beat, and the _Swiss_ Fifes play’d till his Majesty was seated. On
Communion or Sermon Days the King went down into the Chapel, and then the
Pavement, which is of very fine Marble, was cover’d all over with noble
Tapestry. When the King receiv’d the Sacrament, a Praying-Desk was set for
him over-against the High Altar, and then the Hundred _Swissers_ were
rang’d in two Rows, and the Courtiers encompass’d his Majesty. During the
Sermon the King’s Chair of State was plac’d over-against the Pulpit, and
the Princes and Princesses of the Royal Family and Blood were seated in
Folding Chairs, on both sides of the King in the same Line. But the
Princes and Princesses very seldom assisted at the King’s Mass; and when
they did, they kneel’d leaning on the same Ballustrade that the King did,
but quite off of his Carpet.

The Gardens of _Versailles_ may be rank’d among the modern Wonders; and I
don’t believe that the so much boasted Gardens of the superb _Semiramis_
were finer. For really, considering the Statues, Vases and Water-works of
Marble and Brass, one wou’d think Pains had been taken to ransac _Greece_
and _Rome_ it self, both ancient and modern, for its most wonderful
Productions on purpose to bring them to this charming Place. These Gardens
were plann’d by the famous _Le Nautre_. At the end of the Great Walk which
fronts the Castle there’s a very spacious Canal. It forms a Cross to a
certain Distance, one side of which leads to the _Menagerie_, and the
other to _Trianon_. The _Menagerie_ is a very little House with only a few
Rooms, from whence the King may see the rarest Animals of all sorts, which
are kept there. As for _Trianon_ and its Gardens, one would not think at
the first View that they were made by Man. The Whole is perfectly
inchanting, and a Person ever so little captivated with the strange Tales
of the Fairies, wou’d not scruple to think this magnificent Structure the
Master-piece of those ingenious Work-women. The whole Building, to outward
Appearance, seems very small; but when one examines the Inside of it, the
Apartments are both spacious and commodious. The Outside of this Palace
is partly hid by fine Groves; what appears of it is fac’d with white
Marble, adorn’d with an Order of Pilasters of red Marble, with Windows in
form of Arches between them. _Lewis_ XIV. often retir’d to this charming
Solitude, to be shelter’d from the Importunities of the Courtiers; and no
body was admitted to him but such Persons as his Majesty appointed.

A little League from _Versailles_ there’s _Marly_, another Royal Palace;
and which of all the Palaces has the most pleasant Gardens, tho’ those of
_Versailles_ are by much more sumptuous. The Great Cascade, which is all
of Marble of various Colors, makes a stately Appearance. When one is at
the Top of this Cascade, and looks toward the Palace, one sees all the
Gardens, and a Plain thro’ which the River _Seine_ winds itself, having on
one side the Castle of _St. Germain en Laye_; and on the other the Castle
_de Maisons_, belonging to the President of that Name, which forms an
admirable Point of View. _Lewis_ XIV. who was fond of _Marly_,
condescended to divest himself there of part of his Grandeur, and did a
great many Ladies of Quality the Honor to make them sit down with him at
Table. Thus, _Madame_, have I given you a slight Sketch of the famous
Palace of _Versailles_, and its Neighbourhood. I did not think it so
proper to give you an exact Detail of the Beauties one discovers at every
Step in this magnificent Palace. You have undoubtedly seen a good
Description of them already, in the Books printed upon that Subject. I
shall now add a Word or two of the Princes and Princesses of the Royal

I shall not presume to say any thing of the August Head of this
illustrious Family, since it wou’d require a more delicate Pen than mine
to treat so sublime a Subject with suitable Dignity. All that I shall do
my self the Honor to Say to you of _Lewis_ XIV. is, that if a good Mien
was to be the Merit for the Crown of _France_, this Great Prince might
have put in his Claim for it upon that account, as justly as on the
account of his Birth. He was already advanc’d in years in 1712, when I had
the Honor to see him; and yet he had a nobler Air than any Man in his

The Duke of _Burgundy_, who became Dauphin of _France_, by the Death of
his Father, _Lewis_ XIVth’s Son, who was the year before carried off in a
very few days by the Small-Pox at his Palace of _Meudon_, was the first
Prince in the Kingdom next to the King. His Great Qualities prognosticated
that if he liv’d, his Reign wou’d be very happy: Being Devout, without
neglecting any of the Duties of a Prince, he had a way of reconciling the
Retirement of a Cloyster to the Bustle of a Court; and tho’ he had the
Great Affair of his Salvation always at heart, yet he thought, and justly
too, that his Practice of Piety ought not to exclude his Application to
the Affairs of State. He married a Princess, whose great Qualities wou’d
have made the _French_ happy, if an untimely Death had not snatch’d her
away in the Flower of her Age. Her Name was _Mary Adelaide_ of _Savoy_. I
can assure you, _Madame_, that I never saw one that had a more Noble and
Majestic Presence than this Princess. And several Ladies that had the
Honor of being with her in private assur’d me, that none could be more
sprightly and gay. Her Youth made her fond of Pleasures; but yet she
never was forgetful of her Duties. She had an extraordinary Respect and
Regard for the King. She went every Evening to Madame _de Maintenon_’s
Apartment when the King was there, and after the Council was over, she put
every thing in practice that her gay Humor cou’d imagine to divert him.
The Princess had also a particular Esteem for the Dauphin her Husband, and
as this Prince never fail’d of being at Mass, nor at Vespers, or the
Evening Prayers, the Dauphiness always went with him, and very readily
made her Pleasures give place to her Duties.

I had not been long at the Court of _France_ when this illustrious Couple
died within a few days of one another. The first who paid that Tribute to
Nature was the Dauphiness. This Princess fell sick at _Versailles_, soon
after which the Purples discover’d themselves; and at length her Distemper
appearing desperate, she was admonish’d to prepare for Death: but this was
Advice she could not find in her heart to comply with, it being a hard
matter to renounce a voluptuous Life; especially when supported with the
Hopes of being e’er long possess’d of one of the first Crowns in the
World. This Princess died, as it were, in the Arms of the Duchess of
_Orleans_, who by her Desire never left her during all the time of her

The King, who was very much afflicted for her Death, set out immediately
for _Marly_, whither the Dauphin follow’d him. This Prince knowing the
Value of the Jewel he had lost, so indulg’d his Grief that he sicken’d
almost as soon as he arriv’d at _Marly_, of the same Distemper that had
just depriv’d him of his Consort. He received the Sentence of his Death
with a Resolution truly Christian; and in the Height of his Distemper was
often heard to put up this Petition, _My God! save the King and
Government_. The Night he died he had a very great Desire to hear Mass;
and whatever they could say to convince him that the Rules of the Church
did not allow it to be celebrated at that Hour, yet he wou’d not take a
Denial; so that as soon as the Midnight Bell rung, Mass was said in his
Chamber, at an Altar that was put up at his Bed’s feet. After the
Elevation of the Host, the Dauphin was very much compos’d, and continu’d
praying to God till his Strength failing him every Minute more and more,
he gave up the Ghost. This happen’d on the 18th of _February_ 1712, six
Days after the Death of the Dauphiness.

The King had need of all his Stock of Courage to support so many Shocks
one after another. The Royal Family was in the utmost Consternation. Those
that were about the King wou’d fain have persuaded him to retire elsewhere
a little while for Change of Air; but he answered undauntedly, _That he
was every where in the Hands of God_; _and that therefore he would
continue where he was_. This great Prince had soon after, another Trial of
his Patience, by the News he receiv’d of the Death of the Duke of
_Bretagne_, who upon the Decease of his Father had been declar’d the
Dauphin. This young Prince died at _Versailles_ the 8th of _March_ 1712,
when he was but five Years old. There never was a more sorrowful Scene
than to see the Funeral Pomp of this Year, which serv’d at the same time
for the Father, Mother and Son.

The only one that remain’d of this August Stock was the Duke of _Anjou_
now _Lewis_ XV. This Prince too, who was but a Child, was such a poor
Weakling all along, that no body thought he would live; and he was at this
time in such a bad way, that the very Physicians despair’d of his
Recovery. Nevertheless he insensibly gathered Strength, and now the
_French_ see their young Monarch in a more vigorous State of Health than
they could have hoped for in his Childhood: For this I believe they are
oblig’d to the great Care which was taken of this young Prince by the
Duchess of _Ventadour_, who was charg’d with his Education, in which Post
she acquitted herself with all the Zeal that a Person could do, who knew
the Value of that precious Deposit which was committed to her trust.

The next to the Throne after this young Prince was the Duke of _Berry_,
Brother to the Duke of _Burgundy_. He was of a fair Complexion, and for
his Age a little too corpulent. He spent his time chiefly in Hunting, and
when the Chace was over he us’d to go to his Duchess’s Apartments to game;
for this Princess, after the Death of the Duchess of _Burgundy_, kept an

The last Prince of the Royal Family was the Duke of _Orleans_, afterwards
Regent of the Kingdom; of whom I shall have occasion to say more, when at
the death of _Lewis le Grand_ he took on him the Government of the Kingdom
during the present Monarch’s Minority.

The first People at Court next to the Princes of the Royal Family, were
the Princes of the Blood. The chief was the Duke of _Chartres_, now Duke
of _Orleans_, by the Death of his Father who was the Regent of _France_
during the Minority of _Lewis_ XV.

The Duke of _Bourbon_, and the Counts _de Charolois_ and _Clermont_
compos’d the _Condé_ Branch. The first of these Princes whom they call
only _The Duke_, was a tall portly Man, very free and easy, but had the
misfortune to lose one Eye when he was a hunting by some small Shot that
scatter’d from the Duke of _Berry_’s Fowling-piece, as he let fly at some

The other two Princes were well-shap’d and very fair, but being as yet
very young, they were as well as the Duke of _Chartres_ in the hands of
their Governors.

The Prince of _Conti_, Son of him who was formerly decked King of
_Poland_, was the only Prince of the second Branch of _Bourbon_.

These, _Madame_, were the Princes that then composed the Court of
_France_. I shall now do myself the Honor to give you some account of the
Princesses according to their Rank, distinguishing them as I have done the
Princes, by the Titles of Princesses of the Royal Family, and Princesses
of the Blood.

The first Princess of the Royal Family was the Dauphiness, whom I have had
the Honor to mention to you.

Next to the Dauphiness, the Duchess of _Berry_ was first in Rank. This
Princess was the Daughter of the Duke of _Orleans_, afterwards the Regent.
She resembled her Father very much for her Wit, and had she not been a
little too bulky she would have been one of the most amiable Princesses of
the whole Court. I shall have occasion to let you into this Princess’s
Character presently.

_Madame_, the second Wife of _Philip_ of _Orleans_, Brother to _Lewis_
XIV. was the third Princess at Court, during the Life of the Dauphiness.
Her Name was _Elizabeth-Charlotte_ of _Bavaria_; being the Daughter of the
Elector _Charles-Lewis_ by _Charlotte_ of _Hesse_, and the last of the
illustrious Branch of the Palatine Family. The Court I constantly pay’d to
this Princess, to whom I was moreover well recommended by the Electoress
of _Hanover_ Mother to the King of _England_, enables me to tell you some
Particulars which will give you a just Notion of her.

This Princess was very affable, yet not very forward to grant her
Protection. She talk’d a great deal, and talk’d well. She lov’d especially
to speak in her Mother-Tongue, which she had not forgot tho’ she had been
fifty Years in _France_, for which reason she was overjoy’d to see her
Countrymen, and to correspond with them by Letters. She was very punctual
in writing to the Electoress of _Hanover_, and to several other Personages
in _Germany_; and the Letters she commonly wrote were not little Billets,
but took up twenty or thirty Sheets of Paper. Of these I had a sight of
several that would have been worth publishing, and have not seen any thing
better writ in the _German_ Tongue. In short, this Princess did nothing
but write from Morning till Night. Immediately after she rose, which was
always about ten o’clock, she sate down at her Toilet. From thence she
went into her Closet, where after having spent some time in Prayer, she
took Pen and Ink and wrote till she went to Mass. After this was ended,
she wrote again till Dinner-time, which did not last long, and then she
fell to writing again till ten o’clock at Night. About nine o’clock when
she received Company in her Closet she was found sitting at a great Table
spread with Papers, and there was an _Ombre_ Table just by it, at which
the Marshal _de Cleremhault_’s Lady and the other Ladies of the Princess’s
Houshold used to play. Every now and then the Princess cast an Eye upon
the Game, and would give her Advice and write at the same time. At other
times she convers’d with those who paid their Court to her. I once saw
this Princess napping, and the Moment after start out of her Sleep and
write on. This, _Madame_, was the common Life of the Princess when she was
at _Versailles_. Sometimes however she went out a hunting with the King,
dress’d like an _Amazon_, and sometimes to the Opera. For this Princess
was very fond of Plays, so that after the Death of _Lewis_ XIV. when the
Court came to settle at _Paris_ she often made the _French_ and _Italian_
Comedians perform at the Theatre of the Royal Palace.

As to Rank, never did any Princess support it better than this. As she was
punctual to the last degree in requiring the Honors due to her, so she
return’d to every one the Honors that belong’d to them. I heard her once
talk very sharply upon this head to the Duchess of _Berry_; and indeed
none but she durst have talk’d to that Princess in such a Stile. It
happen’d in _Lewis_ XVth’s Minority that the Duchess of _Berry_ came to
her one Evening in a Scarf. After she had been there about half an Hour
she ask’d Madame _de Mouchy_ what o’clock it was; whereupon the Princess
ask’d the Duchess of _Berry_ what she said to Madame _de Mouchy_. The
Duchess made her Answer, that she was going to the _Tuilleries_, and
therefore she ask’d what time of Night it was. _How! to the_ Tuilleries,
said Madame; _What are you going to take an Airing by the Light of
Flambeaus?_ For, indeed, it was just Night. _No, Madame_, said the Duchess
of _Berry_, _I am going to the King_. _To the King!_ reply’d Madame; _Pray
excuse me for expressing my Surprize!_ _What, go to the King, +Madame+,
in that Dress! I thought you knew your Duty to him better: I beseech you_,
Madame, _do no such thing. Render to the King the Respect that you owe
him, and then you will have a Right to challenge what is your due from
every body else._

The Duchess of _Berry_, who was not pleas’d at this Reprimand, was going
to reply, but Madame interrupted her, and said, _No_, Madame, _nothing can
excuse you: Surely you may think fit to dress your self as seldom as you
go to the King, since I that am your Grandmother dress my self every day.
Speak the Truth, and say ’tis meer Laziness that hinders you from putting
on your Clothes, which is a Fault that becomes neither your Age nor your
Rank. A Princess ought to be dress’d like a Princess, and a Chambermaid
like a Chambermaid._ The Duchess of _Berry_ being not us’d to such
Lectures, was extremely mortify’d at being so check’d, and upon this
occasion she did what she us’d to do when any thing was ever said that
offended her, and when Decency did not permit her to make a haughty Reply;
that is, she arose, made a low Curt’sy, and went away. Madame fell to
writing again, but talk’d still of the same Subject, and not without some
Warmth. She said, looking about to all the Company, _Was I in the wrong,
pray, to talk as I did to the Duchess of_ Berry? _What say you to it?_ You
will easily suppose, Madame, that nobody open’d their Lips, but while she
was running on still in the same strain, to the great Confusion of every
Soul in her Closet, the Princess of _Conti_ came in, which gave a Turn to
the Conversation.

After _Lewis_ XIVth’s Death, Madame follow’d the Court to _Paris_, where
she resided in the Winter, but commonly spent the fine Season at _St.
Cloud_. From thence she came very often to the King’s Apartment, us’d to
be at the Theatre, and return in the Evening to _St. Cloud_. She had then
with her _Mademoiselle_, now the Abbess of _Chelles_, and _Mademoiselle de
Valois_, now the Princess of _Modena_. The other Princesses, her
Grandaughters, liv’d at _Paris_ with the Duchess of _Orleans_ their
Mother. This Princess, tho’ the Mother of the Duchess of _Berry_, had not
the Precedency of her, and when she was at her Daughter’s House she had
only a Folding-Chair allowed her, whereas the Duchess sate in an
Arm-Chair. The Duchess of _Orleans_ was the last of the Royal Family.

The first of the Princesses of the Blood was the Princess-Dowager of
_Condé_, _Anne_ of _Bavaria_ Countess-Palatine, Daughter of _Edward_
Prince-Palatine of the _Rhine_. She was call’d only, Madame the Princess.
She commonly resided at _Paris_, where she liv’d a very exemplary Life for
her Piety and great Charity. She died the 23d of _February_, 1723, at
seventy-five Years of Age.

This Princess was Mother to the Duke of _Bourbon_ (that died in 1710)
whose Wife _Louisa-Francese_ of _Bourbon_, the legitimated Daughter of
_Lewis_ XIV. was, I can assure you, Madame, one of the most beautiful
Princesses of the Court; and tho’ already the Mother of eight Children, it
was much more natural to take her for their Sister. With so much Beauty,
she had also Charms still more preferable; and all these external
Qualities were supported by a majestic Air, and a Deportment which gain’d
this illustrious Princess Respect at the same time that her affable and
obliging Behavior procured her Love. She had moreover a lively sparkling
Wit, always sure to divert, whether in giving Merit its due Praise, or
whether by her delicate Raillery, she expos’d the Ridicule of that
Behavior, which notwithstanding the good Taste of the Age had perhaps made
the Fortune of some fawning Courtier.

The next in Rank to that Princess was the first Dowager-Princess of
_Conti_, the legitimated Daughter of _Lewis_ XIV. The Air, Shape and
Beauty of this Princess, have made such a noise in the World, that I
believe, Madame, you are not ignorant that she was reckon’d the tip-top
Beauty of the Kingdom; and really tho’ she was pretty much advanc’d in
Years, she had still that Air of Majesty and Modesty which partakes of the
Grandeur of her Father, and of the exemplary Piety of her Mother in her
latter Years. After the Death of _Lewis_ XIVth’s Son the Dauphin, this
Princess was very much retir’d, so that I never saw her any where but at
_Madame_’s Apartments; and since the Death of the King she scarce appears
any where at all.

The Princess of _Conti_, the second Dowager is by Birth Princess of
_Condé_. She is Mother of the Prince of _Conti_, of _Mademoiselle de
Conti_, who died Duchess of _Bourbon_, and of _Mademoiselle de la
Roche-sur-Yon_. It may be said that this Branch of _Bourbon_ have had
their share of Sense and Virtue.

The Duchess of _Maine_ and the late Duchess of _Vendôme_ were Sisters of
the second Dowager-Princess of _Conti_, and the Daughters of _Henry
Julius_ Prince of _Condé_, and of the Princess-Palatine, whom I have
already had the Honor to mention to you.

The Duchess of _Maine_ is a Princess of real Merit, and a great Wit. She
degenerates in no respect from the illustrious Blood of _Condé_. She
liv’d with more Splendor than any Princess of _France_. She commonly
resided at _Seaux_, a magnificent Castle not far from _Paris_, and one of
the finest that I have seen, not only for its commodious Apartments which
are also richly furnish’d, but for the extent of the Park in which there’s
such an agreeable Variety of Groves, and of Marble and Brazen Statues, as
presents the curious Spectator always with something new. It may be said,
that in her time the Pleasures had fix’d their Residence in this charming
Place. There was a Resort from all parts to this Princess, and People were
glad to leave both the Court and City, being sure of finding something at
_Seaux_ better contriv’d than the common Representations on the Stage; and
indeed they were never disappointed, the Duchess of _Maine_ having an
exquisite Taste in such things; for she lov’d the fine Sciences, and was a
better Judge than any body, of what they call Composures. This illustrious
Princess took a delight in bespeaking Plays, and sometimes did not think
it beneath her to act a part in them her self. The famous _Baron_ and
_Beauval_ had often the Honor of performing with her. Those who have
frequented the _French_ Theatre know full well that such a choice was a
very evident Proof of that Princess’s Taste for good Declamation. After
the Comedy there was generally a Party for Play, and then a magnificent
Supper, after which there was sometimes a Fire-Work, but most commonly
there was a Ball, at which there was always a vast Number of Masks; yet
the whole was so well ordered, that there was plenty of Refreshments for
every body.

These, _Madame_, were the Princes and Princesses who form’d the Court of
_France_ when I came thither, and I thought ’twas proper to give you a
Character of them before I mention’d the Conduct I observ’d at my Arrival

I first got my self introduc’d to Madame, to whom I was moreover
recommended by the Electress of _Hanover_, the King of _England_’s Mother.
This Princess, who always retain’d a particular Regard for the _Germans_,
receiv’d me with even more kindness than she commonly shew’d to those of
that Nation. She did me the Honor to introduce me to the King herself, one
Night after his Majesty had supp’d. This Prince was in his Bed-Chamber,
with all the Princes and Princesses of the Royal Family. The King
remember’d my Name, and did me the Honor to ask me, whether I was not the
Son of one _Pollnitz_, who had been at his Court from the Elector of
_Brandenbourg_? And upon my telling him that I was his Grandson, he said
to me, _Indeed, you seem to me to be too young to be taken for his Son_.
His Majesty then ask’d me if I intended to make any stay in _France_. I
answer’d, that I was so overjoy’d to find myself at the Feet of the
greatest of Kings, that I would do my self the Honor to pay my Duty to him
as long as possible. The King seem’d to like my Answer, and turning
towards Madame, he said to her, speaking of me, _He talks French well_. He
afterwards did me the Honor of a Salute, and told me as he withdrew that
he should take a pleasure in doing me Service.

Next day Madame introduc’d me to the Duke of _Burgundy_ the Dauphin, and
to the Dauphiness, which illustrious Couple died some time after, as I
have had the Honor to tell you. Madame also caus’d me to be introduc’d to
the Duke and Duchess of _Berry_, but neither of ’em said one word to me.
I was very well receiv’d by the Duke and Duchess of _Orleans_. It was not
easy to see this Prince without loving him; for his Affability supported
by a most sparkling Wit, and the most elegant Accomplishments, endear’d
him to all that had the Honor of Access to him. This Prince constantly
paid his Attendance at Court, and had the greatest Respect for Madame. He
never miss’d a Day of waiting upon this Princess. He went to her
Apartments every Night at half an Hour past eight, and play’d at Chess
there till the King’s Supper-time; but this Prince only sate down at the
Game, and as he went in and out he always kiss’d her Hand.

The Court of _France_, tho’ very splendid by reason of the number of
Princes and Princesses of which it consists, was nevertheless not so gay
as I expected. The Life at _Versailles_ was the most uniform in the World:
The King’s Hours were settled, and he that had seen but one Day there had
seen a Year. The King rose at nine or ten o’clock. The Princes and all the
Courtiers attended his Levee, and after he was dress’d he kneel’d down to
Prayers on a Cushion of Black Velvet, with his Chaplains and the Bishops
that were at his Levee, kneeling also round him. When Prayers were ended,
the King went into his Closet, where sometimes the Ministers came to speak
to him about Business, and in the mean while the Courtiers walk’d in the
great Gallery, thro’ which the King walk’d to hear Mass, and there all the
Courtiers waited to be seen by his Majesty as he pass’d. I never saw a
Nation more fond of paying their Attendance at Court than the _French_;
for I have even seen many Courtiers, who thinking the Prince had not
observ’d them, stept forwards into another Room, and then another, till
by chance his Majesty happen’d to cast his Eyes upon them.

After Mass was over the King return’d to his Closet; sometimes he held a
Council and afterwards din’d alone, at which time one might also observe
how the Courtiers strove to be seen by him. The King eat with a good
Appetite, nay I thought he eat voraciously. His Dinner lasted three
Quarters of an Hour, and upon certain Days there was Music. After Dinner,
the King went down by the Back-stairs, and took Coach to go a hunting in
the Park of _Versailles_, which was full of small Game. He return’d about
the Dusk of the Evening, and went to Madame _de Maintenon_’s Apartment,
where there were only a few of the old Courtiers, and generally speaking,
none but Ladies; as, Madame _de Caylus_, a Cousin of Madame _de
Maintenon_, and Madame _de Dangeau_, who play’d at Cards with the King
when the Ministers were not there; for then, instead of Gaming, Business
was the Subject, and there every thing was commonly settled. At ten
o’clock at Night, when word was brought to the King that Supper was serv’d
up, his Majesty went to the Table, where the Princes and Princesses always
accompanied him. The Duchesses were plac’d behind the Folding-Chairs of
the Princes, on both sides of the Table; and the other Ladies of Quality
stood on the Right hand of the King’s Arm-chair. His Majesty, after making
a Bow to the Princes and Princesses and all the Ladies, sate down in his
Chair, and then the Princes and Princesses took their Seats, as did also
the Duchesses. The other Ladies of Quality pass’d into a Salon just by,
where they were at liberty to sit down. The Supper lasted no longer than
the Dinner: The King talk’d there but little, and sometimes he address’d
himself to _Madame_, or to the Duchess of _Orleans_; but I never heard him
speak to the Dukes of _Berry_ and _Orleans_, nor even to the Duchess of

After Supper was over, the King, preceded by the Princes, went into his
Bed-Chamber, where he found such of the Ladies as were not Duchesses, to
whom he put off his Hat, and then sate down by the Ballustrade that was
before his Bed, where he stay’d till the Princesses and Duchesses were
enter’d into the Room. I observ’d that the old Court-Ladies made a
profound Curt’sy to the King’s Bed when they enter’d his Chamber, which
the young Ladies did not; for being perhaps more puff’d up with their
Youth and their Charms, they did not think themselves oblig’d to pay so
much Respect. When the Duchesses who had attended at Supper enter’d to the
King’s Bed-Chamber, the King made an Obeisance to them, as he did to the
other Ladies; and then the King preceded by the Princes, and followed by
the Princesses who had supp’d with him, went into his Closet, to which the
Princes and Princesses of the Blood also repair’d. His Majesty convers’d
with ’em for a while, during which the Duchesses and the other Ladies
withdrew. At length the King dismiss’d the Princes and Princesses, and
went to Bed. Then the Courtiers separated, and the Generality retir’d.
Some went to the Duke of _Berry_’s Couchée, and others to the Duke of
_Orleans_’s. Those who paid their Court to this Prince were well receiv’d
by him. For my own part I went thither as often as I could, not so much to
pay my Court to _Madame_, as from a natural liking I had to this Prince.

Thus, Madame, did the King pass his Life. The Pleasures of the Courtiers
were at best but dull, Gaming being almost their whole Amusement. The
Assembly was commonly held at the House of the Prince _d’Armagnac_ of
_Lorrain_, Master of the Horse, where there was Play in the Afternoon.
Foreigners were perfectly welcome to this Prince, as they were also to the
Cardinal of _Roban_. The latter liv’d very magnificently, and at the
Houses of these two Noblemen you were sure to see the Prime of the
Nobility of _France_.

When the Court was at FONTAINBLEAU[41], ’twas much more gay than it was
when at _Versailles_, where it may be said, that it shone in its full
Lustre. Nevertheless tho’ _Fontainbleau_ is not near so magnificent, it
has the Air of a Castle, which _Versailles_ has not. Moreover, Art and
Nature seem to have acted in concert towards forming the magnificent
Buildings which several Monarchs have caus’d to be erected at
_Fontainbleau_: Whereas at _Versailles_ Nature seems to have had nothing
to do, every thing being the Work of Art, and too much adorned. Perhaps I
may be the only one of this Opinion, but I always thought that the
Magnificence at _Versailles_ was too general.

I was at _Fontainbleau_ some time after the Conclusion of the Suspension
of Arms with the _English_. The News of the Peace on the point of being
concluded, and the Victory at _Denain_, seem’d to have restor’d to the
Court such an Air of Gayety as had not been known there for many years.
The Elector of _Bavaria_ was there at that time, and there was such Gaming
at the Duchess of _Berry_’s and the Duke of _Antin_’s, as if they had no
Sense at all of the public Calamities. The Party was of twelve Cutters at
_Lansquenet_, who began with setting four Lewid’ors, and at last stak’d
Rouleaus of a hundred Lewid’ors on a Card. I won seven hundred Lewid’ors
there one Night, in less than an Hour’s time, and the Duchess _de la
Ferte_ trick’d me out of no less than a hundred, besides fourscore that
she borrow’d of me, and never paid me again. Perhaps she thought ’twas the
best way to make herself amends for the Trouble she was pleas’d to take
upon her, of setting my Money upon the Table, there being such a Croud of
Ladies round it that I could not get near it.

While the Court was at _Fontainbleau_, who should come thither but Mr.
_St. John_, since made Lord _Bolingbroke_, to settle the Plan of the Peace
that was afterwards concluded at _Utrecht_. He could not have been better
receiv’d than he was there if he had been a Sovereign Prince, for the King
himself had an extraordinary Regard for him. I was one day to see his
Majesty dine, when there was to be Music, but as soon as it struck up the
King stopt it, by calling out aloud, _I am informed that M. +de St. John+
dines with the Duke of +Antin+. Let my Music wait on him there, and let
him know that I send it to him, and that I wish it may give him Pleasure._
You will easily imagine, Madame, that all the Courtiers, in imitation of
the Monarch, strove who should be most complaisant to the _English_
Minister, who for his part justly merited the Regard that was paid to him.

The Court stay’d at _Fontainbleau_ some time after the Arrival of this
Minister, and all the while there was nothing but Merriment and a
continual Succession of Pleasures. The Hunting-Matches were of the utmost
Magnificence. The Ladies were there either on horseback or in Chaises in
the Retinue of the Duchess of _Berry_ and _Madame_. So many fine Women
mounted on horseback all richly dressed, the King in a Chaise attended by
the whole Court on horseback, and the sumptuous Hunting-Equipages to be
seen all at once in the pleasant Forest of _Fontainbleau_, form’d one of
the finest Sights that could be. On the Days when there was no Hunting,
the King took the Air in an open Calash round the great Canal, accompany’d
by Ladies whose Habits were the finest and of the most beautiful Fancy
that could be imagin’d. When the Court return’d from their Airing there
was a Comedy or else a Drawing-Room at the Duchess of _Berry_’s, where
they play’d at _Lansquenet_.

At those times too when there was no Hunting there were Assemblies at M.
_le Grand_’s, and several others of Quality. I observ’d that most of the
Nobility were more inclinable to be complaisant at _Fontainbleau_, than at
_Versailles_: If a Man was ever so little known for a Person of Quality,
they freely furnish’d him with the King’s Horses for Hunting, which is
scarce ever practis’d but in _France_ and _Lorrain_. Indeed I have seen
the same thing done at the Court of _Bavaria_, but ’twas very seldom.

After I had follow’d the Court for some time to _Versailles_ and
_Fontainbleau_, I went back again to the famous City of PARIS. I no sooner
arriv’d there but I had a considerable Fit of Sickness, which brought me
almost to the Brink of the Grave. I committed myself to the care of the
famous _Dutch_ Physician _Helvetius_. This skilful Doctor set me upon my
Legs in a very little time; and when I was able to go abroad, he advis’d
me to take a Walk in the Garden of _Luxembourg_, which they cry’d up for
the best Air in all _Paris_. I did not fail to pursue the Doctor’s
Direction, and observ’d indeed, that the Air I breath’d in that Garden was
very good for me: But in a little time it had like to have prov’d most
pernicious to me. For one Morning as I was walking there, I saw two Ladies
coming a good way off, in a Deshabillé, who had both a grand Air, and a
most noble Carriage. They were footing it on the very Terrass where I was
walking; so that I sat down on a Bench to see them pass by. I confess to
you, that I thought their Persons as lovely as their Undress was genteel
and noble. As they sail’d by me, one of ’em happen’d to drop her
Handkerchief, which I that instant snatch’d up and presented to her. She
receiv’d it in a very polite manner, and I pass’d her a Compliment, to
which she made a witty Reply. By degrees we entered into a Conversation,
which tho’ it held only a Quarter of an Hour, cost me very dear; for I
fell in Love, and more deeply in Love than I can express to you. The
Ladies asked my Name. You will imagine I did not put them to the trouble
of asking it twice; the rather, because I hop’d that in requital they
would tell me their Names: But notwithstanding all my Intreaty they wou’d
not satisfy me. She that I was most enamour’d with at the first View, bid
me in very good _High-Dutch_ not to give my self any Uneasiness to know
who they were; as she was going away, she said that I should not fail to
see them again if I made any stay at _Paris_. I gave her my Hand and led
her to her Coach, which seem’d to be well lin’d. I also saw a Couple of
lusty Lackeys who were well clad. All this put together, confirm’d me in
the Notion I had conceiv’d, that they were Ladies of Quality; or, at
least, in good Keeping. I wou’d have given all the World to be inform’d
exactly who and what they were; but ’twas absolutely impossible for me to
make any Discovery. The Lackey that I had with me being a _German_, and
even more a Stranger here than my self, was upon that account an improper
Person, for the Management which is necessary for such Discoveries. I
remain’d therefore mortally uneasy, and it had like to have made me as
light-headed as I was in the Illness from which I was but newly recover’d.
I did not fail to go to _Luxembourg_ Gardens every day, and staid there
from nine o’clock in the Morning till Night, excepting only the little
time it took me to go home to Dinner. All these Jaunts forwards and
backwards lasted about a Fortnight, at the end of which I found my self
just as forward as I was the first Day. At last, when I had given over all
Thoughts of being so happy as to find this Fair-one out, I was surpris’d
to see her at a Place where I never dreamt of finding her. One day as I
waited upon the Ladies _de V----_ and _D----_ to the Play-house where
_Cid_ was to be acted, and _Quinaut_ the Elder began with playing
_Roderigo_; judge, _Madame_, how great was my Surprize when I saw that the
Heroine of my Passion was also the Heroine of this Play, in which she
perform’d the Part of _Clymene_. In all my Life I was never so confounded,
and began to question whether I ought to indulge a Passion of that nature.
I perceiv’d some Reluctance in my Mind against attaching my self to a
Person whose Profession is rarely susceptible of those nice Sentiments,
which Persons of Honor always demand in Love. But the Course I took was
really the same that a Boy of nineteen years of Age wou’d have done; that
is to say, I acted the very contrary to what I ought to have done. I
foolishly indulg’d my I Passion, so that I had scarce Patience to stay for
the Interval between the Play and the Entertainment, before I went behind
the Scenes, where I found my Fair-one, with several Gentlemen of my
Acquaintance about her, whom I took at first for so many Rivals; and as if
it was not Punishment enough to be in love, I must needs be jealous too. I
spoke to _D----_, (which was the Name of this dissembling Creature) but I
perceiv’d that what I said put her into a Flutter; and I observ’d that she
was over and above complaisant to a Gentleman of the Long Robe who stood
near her. I was not mistaken in my Guess; ’twas _B----_, one of the
Counsellors of Parliament, who bore this Lady’s Expences, and at such a
Rate too, as if he had been an Officer of the Finances, rather than a
Magistrate. I was so vain as to think of supplanting this Lover, or at
least, if I could not quite non-suit him, I flatter’d my self that I
should put him to a Non-plus. For this end I began to frequent the Comedy,
and soon had the Comfort to find that my Love was not repaid with

The Difficulty was to find a convenient Opportunity of seeing one another;
but Love and Fortune soon pav’d the way for our Interview. Young _Q----_,
the Sister of _D----_, who also liv’d with her, happen’d to have the
Small-Pox. The Counsellor, who was extremely afraid of the Consequence,
immediately took _D----_ from those Lodgings, and gave her an Apartment in
the Hotel _d’Entragues_: But my comic Mistress gave me notice of her new
Quarters; and the very same Day I hir’d a Chamber there too. I took no
body with me but one Domestic, who was the Confident of my little Secrets;
and there, in spite of my troublesome _Argus_, it was easy for me to see
his Mistress, who would have been glad to be mine, if I had been so
generous as he was, to give her 14000 Livres a year. But I chose rather to
go snacks with him in the Favors which the Fair-one granted, than to pay
so dear for the Exclusion of a Rival. The Counsellor, for his part, was
not so indifferent, and having a Mistrust, he left no Stone unturn’d to
find out the real Truth of the matter; nor was it long e’er his Curiosity
was satisfy’d. Any other Person, not so deeply smitten as he was, might
have known what he had to trust to for a Trifle of Expence; but this
unbelieving Gallant, who, perhaps, was also too much conceited of his own
Merit, and had too great an Opinion of his Nymph’s Virtue, to presume to
be jealous of her Honor upon slight Appearances, try’d new Experiments. He
gave a Bribe to a Chambermaid, who made him see enough with his own Eyes
intirely to remove those Suspicions which he had so fondly indulged. In a
word, he saw me with his dear Mistress; and at a time too, when we should
have least of all thought of being seen together. What a Fury the provok’d
Lover was in, is easy to imagine, Nevertheless he was so prudent as to
dissemble his Passion till I was retir’d to my own Chamber. Then, like
another _Roland_, he took a Revenge for the Infidelity of his _Angelica_
upon every thing that happen’d in his way. He broke and dash’d all to
pieces; he tore off her Topknot, and threaten’d no less than utter
Destruction to all about him. To all this Noise the Damsel return’d no
Answer but Tears, which at length wrought so far upon this outragious
Lover, as to pacify him: being then more calm, he larded his severe
Reproaches with the softest Expressions; and taking the advantage of her
Foible, offer’d her to increase her Pension, if she wou’d but promise him
inviolable Fidelity. The Fair-one swore that nothing should, hereafter,
lead her astray from her Duty; and in a Flood of Tears she consented to
receive 2000 Crowns Addition to her Pension, which made it 20000 Livres a
year. The Bargain was concluded with great Joy on both sides; but yet it
was not strictly perform’d; for I continu’d my Visits to the Damsel, till
at length her Sister being recover’d of her Distemper, Miss return’d to
her own House. The Difficulties that then occurr’d, together with my own
Fickleness, quite cool’d my Passion, which it was the easier for me to get
rid of, because it was not in the least founded in Esteem; and perhaps,
had it not been purely for the Pleasure of teazing that Limb of the Law, I
had withdrawn my Addresses sooner.

My Amour with the fair Comedian did not sequester me from Company; and I
will venture to say, that I made a tolerable Figure in a Country where
every body that is not _French_ passes readily for a Barbarian. Several
Gentlemen who saw how graciously the King receiv’d me at _Versailles_,
were eager to pay me their Respects; particularly the Duke _D----_, first
Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, made me such a Compliment as I cannot easily
forget. I became acquainted with this Nobleman at _Versailles_. He
accosted me with the utmost Civility in the Great Gallery, the very Day
after I had been introduc’d to his Majesty, and told me that I had good
reason to be pleas’d with the Reception which the King gave me; but much
more with what he said when I was withdrawn; which was, _That of all the
Foreigners who had been introduc’d to him, no body had saluted him with a
better Grace and a more easy Air than the Margrave of_ Anspach _and me_.
The said Duke made a Proposal to me for my entring into the Service of
_France_; and also promis’d me that I should be made a Colonel, if I would
turn _Roman Catholic_. I thank’d him for his obliging Offers; but assur’d
him, that Interest should never make me alter my Religion. I was also at
that time full of the Prejudices of the Protestants against the Catholics;
moreover, I was of an Age not mature enough for serious Reflections: for I
thought of nothing in the world but my Pleasures; and indeed, how could a
Man of my years help abandoning himself to them, when all the Kingdom,
_Paris_ especially, breath’d an Air of Gayety, which there was no
withstanding? _France_ saw that Peace which she had long wish’d for, on
the point of being concluded; her late Losses had been expung’d by the
Victory at _Denain_, and other Advantages which the _French_ Troops
obtain’d, not only by the raising of the Siege of _Landrecy_, which the
Allies had invested, but by the taking of _Marchiennes_ and _St. Amant_.
The Allies began therefore to think of a Peace, and the _English_ were at
last willing to consent to it. I have already had the Honor to acquaint
you, that my Lord _St. John_ was come to the Court of _France_ to have a
Conference upon the Articles of the so much desir’d Peace; and that he
was receiv’d there as a Man who came with the most important News that
’twas possible for them to receive.

As soon as that Minister was return’d to _London_, the Congress was open’d
at _Utrecht_ for a Peace; and _France_ and _England_ mutually sent their
Ambassadors to one another. The Duke _d’Aumont_ was appointed to go in
that quality to the Court of _England_; and before he departed, the King
gave him the Order of the Holy Ghost. This Nobleman was perfectly welcome
to the Court-Party at _London_, which was desirous of Peace; but was an
Eye-sore to the opposite Party, who hated to hear the mention of it. The
_French_ Ambassador was insulted, and treated with such Outrage, that his
House was set on fire, and the Loss thereby sustain’d was very
considerable; the said Duke having borrow’d the richest Furniture of
several Persons, which was entirely burnt. The Duke of _Orleans_ thereby
lost a noble Suit of Hangings, and several very scarce Pictures.

The Person who was sent to _France_, as Ambassador from the Court of
_England_, was the Duke of _Shrewsbury_, whose Reception by the King, the
Court and the Kingdom was sufficient Demonstration how well they lik’d the
Commission which he came to negotiate. This Ambassador kept no very great
Table at the Court of _France_; nor was his Equipage very gay. He was
indeed a Nobleman of very great Merit, but of a mean Presence; for he was
blind of one Eye, and exclusive of that Defect no body would hardly have
taken him for a Nobleman, if he had not been adorn’d with the Order of the
Garter. He had his Duchess with him, who was an _Italian_ Lady by Birth,
and Sister to the famous _P----_, so well known in _England_ for his
Extravagancies and his tragical Exit. The Duke of _Shrewsbury_ was
betroth’d to her in _Italy_, and married in _England_. This Duchess
appear’d at the Court of _France_ with the most Foreign Air in the World.
The Duchess _d’Aumont_ was to have introduc’d her to the King and the
Princesses; but as she was at that time indispos’d, she desir’d Madame _de
Chatillon_ to perform the Office for her. The King receiv’d the
Ambassadress with great Marks of Distinction; and she was afterwards
introduc’d to _Madame_, where she found a numerous Company that came
thither out of meer Curiosity; and there it was that I had the Honor of
seeing her. She seem’d at first in such Confusion, as if she had never
liv’d in any Court, but by degrees she took courage. She talk’d a great
deal, and talk’d well.

The same Night the Duchess of _Shrewsbury_ was with the King at Supper,
where she was plac’d in the Rank of the Duchesses, exactly behind the Duke
of _Berry_. She talk’d a great deal to this Prince, tho’ she had only a
Glimpse of him once before at the Duchess of _Berry_’s Apartment. All the
Supper-time she did nothing but twitch him by the Sleeve, to advise him
not to eat so much. Every body was very much surpriz’d to see this
Familiarity of her’s; and I observ’d that the Duke of _Berry_ was not a
little confounded at it. I forgot to mention one Circumstance wherein I
thought the King was over and above polite. As he came to the Table he
pass’d by the Duchess of _Shrewsbury_, without seeing her; but just as he
was going to sit down, M. _de Livry_ the Chief Steward acquainted him,
that the Ambassadress of _England_ was come to his Supper. Upon this, the
King return’d that instant to the Place where she was, and said to her,
_That he had pass’d her without saluting her, because he did not see her;
and that, he thought she was so fatigu’d with the Visits she had made in
the Day that she was retir’d_. The King also desir’d her to go and repose
her self; but she made her Excuse and said, _That ’twas impossible to have
the Honor of paying Duty to so great a King as his Majesty, and to
complain of Fatigue_.

The Duchess of _Shrewsbury_ was much of the same Temper as her Lord the
Ambassador: She did not care for expensive Living. I remember that one day
when I was at the Palace of _Soissons_, where she lodg’d, the Duchess _de
----_, who was a very gay Lady, wou’d fain have engag’d the Ambassadress
to give a Ball: for this purpose she signify’d what a general Melancholy
there was all over _France_, on account of the Death of the Princes, and a
War of several years continuance; and said, every body expected that the
Duke of _Shrewsbury_, who was come over to _France_ to bring Peace, would
also be inclinable to procure the Return of those Pleasures which so many
Calamities had banish’d. But it all avail’d nothing; for the Ambassadress
made answer to the Duchess, that she should be very glad to see a general
Mirth at _Paris_; and that she thought the Duke of _Shrewsbury_ had
brought the _French_ such important News, as wou’d have put an end to all
Sadness for the past Misfortunes, without expecting him to procure other
Pleasures. ’Twas to no purpose therefore to insist any longer on a Ball
from that Quarter.

You will undoubtedly be surpriz’d, Madame, when you hear who was the
Person that gave the first Ball, instead of the Ambassador of _England_.
’Twas I that reviv’d _Paris_ out of that fatal Lethargy, into which it
seem’d to be fallen. I gave a Ball at _Carneaux_, or rather _Mesdames de
la M----_ _D----_ and _de V----_ gave it for me. These Ladies having in
form desir’d me to give a Ball, I immediately excus’d my self, on the
consideration that as I was a Stranger it did not become me to set a
Pattern for Entertainments, especially for a Peace which could be of no
farther Advantage to me, than as it would indeed enable me to live more to
my Satisfaction, in a Country where it had been long wish’d for. Moreover,
there were other Reasons much of the same nature as those that govern’d
the Duke of _Shrewsbury_, which made me grudge the Expence of a Ball that
I foresaw would be very chargeable. My Arguments had some weight with the
Ladies; but a Ball they were resolv’d to have, and therefore they made a
Proposal to me, that if I would give them but ten Lewid’ors there should
be a Ball, and I should have nothing else to do but to give out at the
Opera and the Comedy, that there would be a Ball such a day at _Carneaux_.
This I did not fail to do, and wherever I came I found People very well
inclin’d to be present at the Assembly. The Ladies on their part hir’d the
great Hall of the _Carneaux_, which they caus’d to be very finely
illuminated, and having provided a very good Concert of Music there, they
caus’d the Ball to be open’d by their Waiting-Women and Valets de Chambre.
I supp’d with the Ladies that Evening, and ingenuously own’d to them that
I did not very well know what Effect a Ball of that sort would have at
_Paris_. After a good deal of joke upon it we went thither as soon as
ever we had supp’d, and I confess that in my Life I never saw more
Maskers. They crouded one another from the very Gate of the Court into the
Hall, where the People were ready to faint for the very Heat, and did not
know whom to apply to for a drop of Water: Every body rav’d against the
Ball, and against the Person that gave it. But by good luck they did not
know whom they were oblig’d to for such an Entertainment. Mean time I had
the Precaution to provide some Refreshments for the Ladies in my Company,
and they were not ill bestow’d. This Ball drew me in to give ten or a
dozen other Entertainments of the like kind, and altogether as unprovided
of Refreshments. Yet notwithstanding the general Thirst complain’d of for
want of Liquor, and the Curses that I heard them utter against the
_Undertaker_, there was always a vast Croud of Masqueraders.

Thus, Madame, did I pass my time at _Paris_, I kept the greatest and the
gayest Company, and I had pretty good Fortune at Play, which, together
with what was remitted to me from home, put me in a Condition to live
there like a Prince. I made fresh Acquaintance every day, and they gave me
fresh Pleasures, till I receiv’d News which troubled me very much, _viz._
the Death of our King _Frederic_ I. which happen’d on the 15th of
_February_ this Year, and was occasion’d by one of the saddest Accidents
that could have fallen out. ’Twas the Queen herself who in one of those
Vertigo’s, to which she had been for some time past subject, frighten’d
the King so that he never recover’d it. It happen’d thus:

The Queen had for a long while given herself up to more than ordinary
Devotion, and to a rigid Life not very agreeable to her natural Temper.
But the Princess thought ’twas the best Course she could take, to stop the
Mouths of those who had been so audacious as to give out that before her
Marriage she was not always the Fondest of Retirement. The recluse and
self-denying Life she led after Marriage, made her subject to Vapors,
which ended in Frenzy, the Fits whereof were terrible. The King was not
acquainted with her unhappy Disorder for a long time, till at last the
Queen being one day in a more outragious Fit than ordinary, was so strong
as to get loose from the Ladies that had the Care of her Person, and being
but half dress’d, with her Hair dishevel’d, she went thro’ a private
Gallery to the King’s Apartment. As she enter’d it she broke a Glass-Door,
by which she cut both her Hands and Arms; and in this bloody pickle rush’d
in upon the King like a Fury, and abus’d him with such Reproaches as would
never have enter’d into the head of the poor Princess, if she had been
well. The King, who was at the same time somewhat indispos’d, was taking a
Nap in an easy Chair; but he started out of his Sleep, and imagin’d
himself in the hands of a Ghost, every thing contributing to confirm him
in that Notion. For the Queen having her Hair flying about her Temples,
and no Clothes on but an Under-Petticoat, and a quilted Waistcoat of
_Marseilles_ Linnen, and her Arms and Face being moreover of a Gore-Blood,
the King fancy’d her to be the _White Woman_[42], and did so much believe
that this Apparition was a certain Presage of his approaching Dissolution,
that it threw him the same Instant into a Fever, which oblig’d him to
take to his Bed, and he never recover’d it. This Prince lay ill for near
six Weeks, during which he had the Consolation to see how dear he was to
his Subjects; for one day as he thought himself a little better, so that
the Physicians began to have hopes of his Recovery, he caus’d himself to
be carry’d towards a Window, from whence he saw the whole Square full of
People, who were offering up Vows to Heaven for his Life. This was so
moving a Scene to him, that the generous Prince could not refuse a Tribute
of Tears for the Tenderness of his People. But their Prayers were not
heard; and his Majesty died at _Berlin_ with a Constancy and Courage
worthy of him, after having given excellent Instructions to his Son the
Prince Royal.

This young Prince was heartily griev’d for the Death of the King his
Father, and as soon as he had receiv’d the first Homages of the Margraves
who were the late King’s Brothers, and of the whole Court, he shut himself
up in his Apartment where he abandon’d himself to that Lamentation which
he had reason to make for the Loss he had sustain’d. The Person that
notify’d his Death to the Courtiers who crouded the Apartments, was M. _de
Printz_, the Grand Marshal. They say, that when this Nobleman made his
appearance to proclaim the melancholy News, it so seiz’d him that he could
only say, _The King, the King, the King!_ his redoubled Sighs discovering
the rest that his Tongue had not power to declare.

The King’s Funeral Obsequies were very magnificent. In the Streets, from
the Palace to the place of Interment, several Regiments of Soldiers were
drawn up in a Line on each side. The new King accompany’d the Convoy, and
when the Corpse was deposited in the Royal Vault he went out of the
Church, and mounting on horseback put himself at the Head of the Troops
which made three Discharges of small Arms, and at the same time the Cannon
were fir’d from the Ramparts. Thus, Madame, were the last Devoirs paid to
_Frederic_ our First King.

As to the Queen, the Physicians were of Opinion that her Native Air would
be of service to her, and therefore she was carry’d to her Mother’s Seat
at _Grabau_ in _Mecklemburg_, where she still remains, but without any
Hopes as yet of her Recovery.

After the Death of _Frederic_ I. the King his Son dismiss’d the whole
Court, the three Companies of Life-Guards were broke, and the Guard of the
hundred _Swiss_ sent home to their own Country: In short, every thing
assum’d a new Face. I saw, and was really mortify’d to see, that there was
nothing more for me to hope for in my own Country. Nevertheless, tho’ I
thought I should have broke my Heart the first Moment that I receiv’d the
melancholy News, my Sorrow was of no long duration. I had not, indeed, a
very splendid Fortune to be my Comfort, but I was so young that I presum’d
to think I should never come to want. Besides, my Birth was some Relief to
my Mind; and to tell you the plain truth of the matter, as Things stood
with me at that time, I was quite in love with _Paris_, which was reason
good enough why I should not devote myself long to Melancholy.

Happening to be at the Fair of _St. Germain_, I there contracted Love for
another Mistress. I had no reason to be asham’d of the choice I then made,
because I might have hop’d to have been possess’d of every thing that was
capable of fixing a Man of Gallantry. I abandon’d my self intirely to this
new Amour, and as I was naturally fond of Expence, I laid out such a Sum
that all my Friends were startled at it. My Equipages, Clothes, Liveries,
_&c._ were all of the utmost Magnificence, and the frequent Presents that
I made were very rich. But I was soon reduc’d to a Necessity of making
very serious Reflections upon my past Conduct; tho’ I had no body to blame
but myself; for as to Mademoiselle _de S----_ (which was the Name of the
Angel I ador’d) she would certainly have been well enough pleas’d with a
Lover less profuse, so that with a little Oeconomy I might have made a gay
Figure at _Paris_: But my new Passion would not suffer me to think so
close of my Finances, which were now so much disorder’d that I saw no
Remedy, except to return to my own Country: But I was so uneasy to think
of going away, that I was very loth to fix on a day for my Departure. Mean
time my dear Mistress and her Mother both press’d me with Tears in
abundance to undertake a Journey so necessary; the one wishing it for my
own sake, and the other for the sake of her Daughter; for the good Mother
was as eager after Money, as the Daughter was disinterested. At length the
melancholy Day being come, I set out from _Paris_ without bidding Farewel
to any one Friend whatsoever except _Madame_, and the Duke of _Orleans_,
because I hop’d to be back again speedily. I left all my Servants behind,
except only one Domestic who was privy to all my Affairs.

The Day that I set out I arriv’d about five o’clock in the Evening at
_Roye_ in _Picardy_, where I was told I could not proceed farther for
want of Post-Horses, the Duke of _Ossuna_ who was gone Ambassador of
_Spain_ to the Treaty at _Utrecht_, having taken them all up. I resolv’d
therefore to go on with those that brought me to _Roye_. I halted at very
sad Quarters, at a place betwixt _Roye_ and _Peronne_. The first thing I
did was to go to Bed, and really need enough I had of Rest; for my Head
was so confus’d with a thousand different Thoughts, that I felt my Brains
work almost as if I had been light-headed. But when I was in Bed ’twas
much worse with me, I still indulg’d Melancholy. One while I wanted to go
back again to _Paris_, whither my Love call’d me strongly. On the other
hand, I was sensible of the sad Necessity of pursuing my Journey. In
short, Swarms of different Inclinations succeeded each other; but at last,
after a long debate with my self, I resolv’d to return to _Paris_. The
time when I made this noble Resolution was about two o’clock in the
Morning. I got up that Moment, and call’d for my Valet. As he lay in
another part of the House which was separate from my Apartment, I thought
’twas better to go my self and awake him, than to lose my time in calling
for him. I went out of my Chamber accordingly, but as ill luck would have
it, I had not observ’d, or rather the confusion I was in made me forget
that my Chamber-Door open’d into a Gallery that run round the House. This
Gallery was so lately built that they had not time to put Rails to it, so
that before I had gone two steps I had the finest tumble that ever I made
in my Life. I fell from the Gallery into the Yard, and by good luck upon a
heap of Dung, otherwise I might have been wounded, if not kill’d; so that
all the harm I had was the surprize to find my self sinking in a Matrass
as offensive as ’tis possible to conceive. My greatest perplexity was then
to contrive how to get out of it, and to find the way back to my Chamber:
But the Night was so dark, and I was so little acquainted with the House
where I lodg’d, that I despair’d of getting out without Help; I began then
to call out lustily for my Valet. But the Rascal never heard me, and
indeed I was inform’d soon after, that he had been drunk, so that his
Liquor had plung’d him into a profound Sleep. Seeing that I had to do with
one that was as deaf as a Post, I thought fit to call out aloud for
_Mary_, _Catherine_, _Joan_, and other Names, hoping that there was some
Servant-Maid in the House, whom one at least of these Names would fit: Nor
was I deceiv’d, for one of the Maids came to my Assistance, but the Wench
taking me for a Spirit ran away in an instant, with a great Cry of
_Jesu-Maria_. I was then terribly mortify’d: At this rate I plainly saw I
should be forc’d to spend the rest of the Night in the Dunghill, and to
wait with patience till the whole Family was risen. What made me the more
apprehensive of the Consequences of this Disaster was, that tho’ we were
got into the Summer Season, yet the Nights were cold, and I had nothing
over my Shirt but a Taffeta Night-Gown. I began again therefore to call
and baul so loud, that at length some of the Family ran out to see what
was the matter; but like the Servant-Maid they all took me for a Ghost
come to haunt the House, and were afraid to come near me. At length, all
this Noise awak’d my Valet, who ran out in his Shirt. He imagin’d at first
that there had been a Design to murder me, but when I bid him put the
Horses in my Chaise, he thought I was crazy; and indeed, I was pretty far
gone that way. I repeated my Order to get my Chaise ready, that I might be
gone that instant. My Valet, who had scarce recover’d from the Surprize he
was in at my giving such an Order, said, _Alas, Sir, be easy; ’tis but two
o’clock in the Morning yet, at five you shall be gone._ I told him, that
he was a Fool, and that go I would. But he, like other Skipkennels who are
apt to be fancy if their Masters treat them with any degree of
Familiarity, refus’d point-blank to obey me. He said that I had no
Consideration, that because I could not sleep my self I hinder’d others
from sleeping; that I roll’d along the Day in an easy Chaise, whereas he
rode generally upon very sorry Horses; that in short he wanted Rest, and
that he would not set out till he had two Hours more Sleep, and had a good
Breakfast. I was like to have been in a Passion, but saw ’twas to no
purpose, and therefore we split the Difference; he compounded with me not
to go to Bed again, and I gave him leave to take his Breakfast. When he
thought fit to make an end, I got into my Chaise, and order’d the
Postillion to strike into the Road for _Paris_. Then my Valet imagin’d
indeed that I was crack-brain’d; he said I was wrong, and that we must
turn into the Road to the _Netherlands_. I order’d him to hold his tongue,
and go on. The poor Boy being confirm’d more and more in his Notion that I
was Kite-headed, was wonderful uneasy, and at every Stage came with a
sorrowful Countenance to the side of my Chaise to know how I did, and if I
wanted any thing. At length I arriv’d at _Paris_, where all that knew of
my Departure were startled to see me return’d so soon. I feign’d my self
very much out of order, and that I came back again for fear of a Fit of
Sickness, in which case I chose to be at _Paris_ rather than any where
else. But no body would believe me, for they thought that some Love-Affair
at heart was the sole cause of my returning in such a hurry. I stay’d
three Days at _Paris_, but did not go once to _Versailles_ for fear of
_Madame_, who was a Princess that did not love such Frolics, and I for my
part did not love Reprimands, and therefore I thought it best to keep out
of her way. Mean time the very same reason that determined me the first
time to take a Journey to my own Country still subsisted, and at last I
quitted _Paris_ in good earnest, tho’ I was resolv’d to be absent as
little a while as possible.

I went the common Road to _Brussels_, and from thence through _Breda_ and
_Gorcum_, to _Utrecht_; having a desire to see in what state the Congress
was, which was then held at that place.

BREDA, which is a Place of Strength, situate on the River of _Mercke_, is
part of _Dutch Brabant_, and one of the most considerable Towns in the
_Netherlands_. This City and its Territory has the Title of a Barony, and
has had several Masters. The last Owners of it were the Princes of
_Nassau_, who acquired it in 1404, by _Eagelbert_ of _Nassau_’s Marriage
with _Joan_ the only Daughter of the Lord of _Leck_, who was Sovereign of
_Breda_. _Henry de Nassau_ founded the Castle in this Town, and the Tomb
of _René_ is still to be seen in the Collegiate Church of St. _Peter_,
which was founded about the Year 1303. This City suffer’d very much
towards the latter end of the sixteenth Century, during the Wars for
Religion. ’Twas at first seiz’d by the Confederates, who form’d the
Republic of the United Provinces. The Prince of _Parma_ took it from them
the 18th of _June_ 1581; but Prince _Maurice_ of _Orange_ made himself
Master of it in 1590, by means of a Boat laden with Turf, under which he
had caus’d about threescore Soldiers to be conceal’d, who made themselves
Masters of the Castle, and thereby gave the Prince an Opportunity to take
the Town by Capitulation. They tell a very remarkable Story of one of the
Soldiers that was hid in that Boat, _viz._ That having a Necessity of
coughing, he desir’d one of his Comrades to kill him outright, for fear
that his impertinent Cough should discover the Stratagem. This Soldier
richly deserv’d to have his Name transmitted to Posterity; for sure a
_Roman_ could not have said a more gallant Thing, and an Instance of
inferior Courage to this would perhaps have been rewarded with a Statue.
Some Years after the Reduction of _Breda_, the great _Spinola_ General of
the _Spanish_ Forces, besieg’d and took it after a Siege, or rather
Blockade of eleven Months. ’Twas a fourth time besieg’d by
_Frederic-Henry_ Prince of _Orange_, who took it after a Siege of four
Months, and then it came into the hands of the _Dutch_, who have remain’d
Masters of it ever since, and have considerably augmented its
Fortifications; and as the Place is situate in very Marshy Ground, they
have erected Sluices there, by means of which they can easily lay all the
neighbouring Country under Water. For the rest, this is not one of the
best built Cities in the _Netherlands_, and were it not for its Ramparts
would be a very inconsiderable Place. The King of _Prussia_, by virtue of
his Pretensions to the Succession of _William_ III. King of _England_,
adds to his Titles that of _Baron of Breda_.

Having pass’d through _Gorcum_, which I thought a Town of very little
consequence, I came to UTRECHT[43], which is one of the most noted Cities
in the _Netherlands_, and gives Name to one of the seven Provinces,
whereof it is the Capital. It was formerly a Bishop’s See, and the Bishops
were Sovereigns of the Province, and Princes of the Empire. The Dukes of
_Brabant_ and _Cleves_, the Counts of _Holland_ and _Guelderland_, and
other Sovereigns to the number of twenty-eight, were Feudataries to its
Bishop. The Emperor _Charlemain_, that great Founder of Bishoprics,
annex’d so Many Prerogatives to this with a View of engaging the Bishops
to act with Zeal for Conversion of the _Pagans_ who possess’d a Part of
the Neighbouring Countries. _Philip_ II. erected this Bishopric into an
Archbishopric in favor of _Schenck_ of _Tautenbourg_; but he did not enjoy
the new Dignity long, for at the same time that this Country revolted from
_Spain_, the Protestant Religion was introduc’d into it, and the
Archbishop was expell’d. _Henry_ of _Bavaria_ was the last Bishop who was
Sovereign of this Country, but his Subjects rebell’d against him and
turn’d him out. This Bishop implor’d the Protection of _Charles_ V. to
whom with the Consent of his Clergy and States he transferr’d the Temporal
Dominion of the Country in 1528, and from thence he was translated to the
Bishopric of _Worms_. The famous Union of the seven Provinces, to which
the Establishment of the Republic is owing, was concluded at _Utrecht_ the
13th of _January_, 1579.

The City of _Utrecht_ is famous also for the Birth of Pope _Adrian_ VI, in
1459. They say this Pontiff was of mean Extraction, and was only oblig’d
to his own Merit for his Advancement. The Emperor _Maximilian_ trusted him
with the Education of _Charles_ his Grandson. He was afterwards sent to
_Spain_ with the Title of Ambassador to King _Ferdinand_, who gave him the
Bishopric of _Tortosa_. Upon that Monarch’s Death he shar’d the Regency of
_Spain_ with the Cardinal _Ximenes_, and afterwards remained sole Viceroy
of that Kingdom. He was made a Cardinal the first of _July 1517_, by Pope
_Leo_ X. and chose Pope the ninth of _January 1522_.

While I am thus making Digressions in speaking of the City of _Utrecht_,
you will also permit me to tell you that this City gave birth to the
famous _Anna-Maria Schuurman_, that learned Lady who spoke _Latin_,
_Greek_, _Hebrew_, the _Syriac_, _Chaldee_, _Italian_, _Spanish_, and
_French_ Languages as fluently as the _Low Dutch_, which was her
Mother-Tongue. She also knew how to paint in Miniature, and to engrave
both with the Graving Tool and the Diamond upon Copper and Glass. Queen
_Christina_ of _Sweden_ did her the same Honor, as _Alexander_ formerly
did to _Diogenes_, for she went to pay her a Visit, and was surpriz’d at
the Beauty of her Performances. This most ingenious Artist of her Sex died
in 1678, at 71 Years of Age.

_Balderic_ of _Cleves_ the fifteenth Bishop of _Utrecht_, caus’d this City
to be encompass’d with Walls; and _Charles_ V. built its Castle, which has
at present nine Bastions, two Half-moons, and a Hornwork. They say that
the great Church dedicated to St. _Martin_, was built in the Year 630 by
King _Dagobert_; and after it was destroy’d, together with all the other
Buildings in the City by the _Normans_, _Adelbolde_ the 19th Bishop caus’d
it to be rebuilt and consecrated in 1024, in presence of the Emperor
_Henry_ II. and twelve Bishops. It was ruin’d a second time, but was
magnificently rebuilt. There’s a very fine Tower at the Entrance 388 Foot
high, from whence fifteen or sixteen Towns may be seen distinctly.

There’s a better Air at _Utrecht_ than in the other Towns of _Holland_,
the Ground it stands on being much higher, and by consequence not so
marshy. This Town, which is situate upon the old Channel of the _Rhine_,
is incompass’d with a fine fruitful Plain, and has charming Walks in the
Neighbourhood, which are not inferior to those at the _Hague_.

The _French_ were at one time Masters of this Place, but on the 13th of
_November_ 1673, it reverted to its lawful Sovereigns. When I arriv’d here
I heard that the Peace was just sign’d by the Plenipotentiaries of
_France_ and _Spain_ on the one part, and by the Ministers of _England_,
_Portugal_, _Prussia_, _Savoy_ and _Holland_, on the other part. The
principal Conditions were, That _Philip_ V. should remain in possession of
the Crown of _Spain_, on condition nevertheless that he should renounce
the Succession to the Crown of _France_, for himself and his Descendants:
That _England_ should have _Gibraltar_ in _Spain_, and _Port-Mahon_ in the
_Mediterranean_: That _Dunkirk_ should be demolish’d: _France_, by the
way, was very loth to consent to the ruin of a Place which had already
cost her several Millions, and requir’d a considerable Expence moreover to
demolish. The Elector of _Brandenburg_ was recogniz’d King of _Prussia_,
both by _France_ and _Spain_, and had even the Title of _Majesty_ given
him, which _France_ never us’d to allow to the Kings of _Denmark_ and
_Poland_. To the King of _Prussia_ was also yielded what he before
possess’d in _Spanish Guelderland_, as an Equivalent for the Principality
of _Orange_, which that Monarch yielded to _France_. The Duke of _Savoy_
was own’d King of _Sicily_, and he obtain’d some Places in the _Milanese_.
The King of _Portugal_ remain’d peaceable Possessor of the Conquests which
he had made during the War. The _Dutch_ got least of all by the Peace, and
perhaps they repented that they did not accept of the Terms offer’d them
at _Gertruydenberg_.

As soon as I arriv’d at _Utrecht_, I did not fail to make a Visit to the
Ambassadors of _Prussia_, who were the Count _de Denhoff_, the Count _de
Metternich_, and the Marshal _de Biberstein_. They receiv’d me with all
the Civility possible, and presented me to all the Foreign Ministers. I
found at this City the Countess Dowager of _Wartemberg_, who was lately
come hither. The Count her Husband, who died at _Francfort_, desir’d upon
his Death-bed that his Corpse might be carried to _Berlin_, which was
perform’d with a good deal of Pomp. They say, that the late King, who was
very fond of him, as I have already had the Honor to mention to you, wou’d
needs see his Funeral Convoy; and as it pass’d before the Windows of his
Castle he could not refrain shedding Tears. Perhaps he then repented that
he had disgrac’d that Minister on such slight Pretences; and perhaps too,
the melancholy Spectacle put him in mind of that unavoidable Coast, on
which both the Majesty of Kings, and the Magnificence of Courtiers, will
at last be run ashore.

The Countess of _Wartemberg_ was more undaunted. She was far from
indulging any mortifying Reflection; but on the contrary, was glad to
find her self in possession of a very great Estate; and gladder still to
think that she was uncontroulable. She left _Francfort_ where she had
resided ever since her Husband’s Disgrace; and thinking that too
melancholy a Place to spend her Life in, she made choice of the City of
_Utrecht_, as the most gay of any that she knew. She soon had an Intrigue
or two upon her hands; and when I arriv’d, I heard that the Chevalier _de
B----_ was her Bosom Friend. This Gentleman was newly set out for
_Versailles_, with a Commission to carry the News of the Peace. I was not
much concerned whether I made any Visit to the Countess; for I observ’d
that all of our Court who were then at _Utrecht_, were shy of her to such
a degree, that I did not care to be the only one that shew’d any Regard
for her. But tho’ I had resolv’d not to visit her, I happen’d to fall in
her Way. This Lady had brought a _French_ Gentlewoman with her, whom I
knew very well at _Berlin_; and as she had Wit at will, I had a mind to
renew my Acquaintance with her, the rather because I had a Curiosity to
know a little of the Countess’s History. The first time I paid her a Visit
she made me an Offer to carry me to see the Countess of _Wartemberg_;
which I refus’d in such a manner that she did not insist upon my going.
But she thought fit to tell the Countess that I was lately come to
_Utrecht_; that I had paid her a Visit; and that she thought I perfectly
resembled the Chevalier _de B----_. There needed no other Motive to set
the Countess agog to see me; and she desir’d her Gentlewoman to bring me
to her. But notwithstanding all her Persuasion, I peremptorily refus’d it.
At last, as I was making a Visit one day to the Gentlewoman, who should
bounce into the Room where I was, but the Countess _de Wartemberg_. She
said, that tho’ I scorn’d her so much as not to make her a Visit, she had
resolv’d to come and see me. I was going to reply, but the Countess,
without giving me time to speak, told me, that she thought me alter’d much
for the better; that no two drops of Water were more like than I, and the
Chevalier _de B----_; and that in short we perfectly resembled each other
even in the Tone of our Voice: But by Madam _de Wartemberg_’s leave, there
never were two People more unlike. The Knight Commander was a handsome
well-set Man, which you know, Madame, is a Character I never had the
Vanity to affect; and I thought every part of the Countess’s Compliment so
extraordinary, that in truth, a Scholar just come from the College could
not have been more dash’d than I was. I made an Answer, ’tis true, but to
tell you frankly, I knew not what I said. I gave her my Hand, and led her
to her own Apartment, where she still descanted upon the mighty
Resemblance betwixt the Chevalier and me. In fine, I think I may venture
to say, without giving my self an Air as if I was the Darling of the Fair
Sex, and without passing in your Opinion for a Coxcomb, that ’twas my own
fault I was not taken, in Body and Soul, for the Chevalier; but I was so
fortunate as to be disintangled by a Valet de Chambre, who came to
acquaint her of the Arrival of M. _Menager_ the third Plenipotentiary of
_France_ at the Congress, to whom I had Obligations for bringing me out of
this Scrape. This kind of Visit made me take proper Measures to prevent
any more such, for the little time I had to stay in this City.

From _Utrecht_ I went to _Wesel_, and from thence thro’ _Westphalia_ to
the Duchy of MAGDEBOURG. The City of this Name was formerly an
Archbishopric, erected by the Emperor _Otho_ the Great in favor of the
_Vandals_ newly converted, but by the Peace of _Westphalia_ the whole
Country was seculariz’d with the Title of a Duchy, in favor of the
_Brandenburg_ Family, in Exchange for that part of _Pomerania_ which was
yielded to the _Swedes_. There are few Towns in _Germany_ that have
suffer’d so many Revolutions as _Magdebourg_. This City was put under the
Ban of the Empire in 1553, by _Charles_ V. for refusing Submission to his
Orders, for it was then in open Rebellion, so that the Elector _Maurice_
of _Saxony_ was sent to reduce it. The Siege lasted a whole Year, the
Elector not being very much in haste to push on the Conquest. As this War
was undertaken purely for the Destruction of the Protestant Religion,
which this City had embraced; the Elector, who was himself a Protestant,
thought by spinning out the Siege to regain the good Opinion of those of
his Religion, who were uneasy to see him support the Interests of the
Emperor and the Catholics. The Elector however made them easy, by
promising the Protestants of _Magdebourg_, that he would join them in the
War against the Emperor, immediately after the Surrender of the Place.
Matters were transacted on both sides with very great sincerity. The Place
surrender’d, and the Elector entered it not as a victorious Prince, but
rather as an Ally who brought Relief to it. He made use of the Garison to
reinforce his Army, and then declar’d War against the Emperor, on pretence
that the Religion and Liberty of _Germany_ were in danger.

A Change of this nature was so extraordinary, that the Emperor could not
expect it: For this Prince had himself promoted the Elector of _Saxony_ to
the Dignity he possess’d, after having depriv’d the unfortunate _Frederic_
of his Dominions; and for so considerable a Present he might very well
hope the Elector would have made him grateful Returns. The Emperor
therefore was so far from thinking himself oblig’d to be on his Guard for
fear of Surprise, that he imagin’d himself in a State of perfect Security,
when the Elector of _Saxony_ had like to have surpriz’d him at _Inspruck_
the Capital of _Tirol_. The Emperor knew nothing of the Plot, till he was
on the point of being made Prisoner; and ’twas with much ado that he
escap’d, for he was at that time ill of the Gout, and oblig’d to leave
both his Equipage and Domestics behind him. He would upon this occasion
have given the Prince _John-Frederic_ his Liberty, but this Prince was
loth to abandon him in this Misfortune, and accompany’d him into
_Carinthia_, twenty-eight Leagues from _Inspruck_, where the Emperor made
his Retreat.

The City of _Magdebourg_ was a very great Sufferer in the War, which is
commonly call’d, _The War of thirty Years_, because during that Term
_Germany_ was ravag’d on all sides. _Tilly_ the Emperor’s General besieg’d
it in 1631, when ’twas taken by Storm, and all the Inhabitants put to the
Sword. A Fire also had a part in its Destruction, and committed such
Ravage that _Magdebourg_, which was one of the finest Cities in _Germany_,
was intirely reduc’d to Ashes. The Burghers indeed had no body but
themselves to blame for their Misfortune, for General _Tilly_ would not
have treated them so severely if they had not refus’d an advantageous
Capitulation, of which he made them an Offer some days before the Storm.

But since this Town has been in the hands of the _Brandenburg_ Family, the
Electors have taken care to fortify it so well, that it would now be a
hard matter to take it. The late King caus’d a Citadel to be built here,
which is separated from the City by the _Elbe_. The present King has added
considerable Works to it, which are remarkably substantial and
magnificent. His Majesty has also caus’d a very fine Arsenal to be built
in the Great Square, which tho’ not very large, is stor’d with a
considerable number of Cannon and other Arms. On the Right hand of this
Square is the Great Church, formerly the Cathedral, a _Gothic_ Building,
where meets the Chapter which is still subsisting, tho’ Protestant; and
according to ancient Custom, none are admitted into it but Men of Quality.

The Situation of _Magdebourg_ is very fine, having an Outlet on all sides
to spacious Plains, that are very fruitful in Corn. The _Elbe_, which, as
I have said, separates the Citadel from the Town, renders its Commerce
also very easy with _Hamburg_, _Saxony_ and _Bohemia_, for which reason
several Merchants are settled here who have noble Houses. And since the
King has transferr’d the Regency of the Country hither from _Hall_, the
Town grows every day finer, so that it may now be reckon’d one of the most
beautiful Towns in the two Circles of _Saxony_.

From _Magdebourg_ in my Way to _Berlin_ I pass’d thro’ BRANDENBURG, which
is a City on the River _Havel_, that was built by M. _Branden_, a Prince
of _Franconia_. ’Twas heretofore a Bishopric, but now the whole Country is
seculariz’d, and makes a part of the _Marquisate_ of _Brandenburg_. Here
is a considerable Trade, and the King keeps a Garison in it, consisting of
a Battalion of the tall Grenadiers. You have so often seen the Regiment of
which this Battalion is a part, that ’tis needless to commend it to you
farther than to observe, that ’tis perhaps the finest Regiment in

I did not stay at _Brandenburg_, because I would be the sooner at BERLIN.
On the day that I arrived there I was so tir’d with having walk’d all Day
and Night, that I kept my Bed till the Evening, when I had the Honor to
wait on the Queen, the King having been gone a few days before to
_Potzdam_, Her Majesty kept her Chamber, and had not been out of it since
her last Lying-in, when she was deliver’d of the Princess
_Charlotta-Albertina_, who died the Year following on the 10th of _June_.
I was so coldly receiv’d by her Majesty, that I had no reason to hope for
favor at Court, or at least with her Majesty. But the Margravines receiv’d
me with all the Civility possible. The Margravine-Dowager especially
assur’d me that she would continue that Protection with which she had
always honor’d me.

As to the City of _Berlin_, it had not yet dry’d up its Tears for the Loss
it had lately sustain’d, by the Death of _Frederic_. ’Tis true the King
his Son gave great hopes, but the thorough Change he had made in his
Court, caus’d the late King to be lamented. The new Monarch thought of
nothing but keeping up a numerous Army, and that he might do this without
laying a Burden upon his Subjects, he dismiss’d all his Court, and the
intire Houshold of the King his Father, so that there was nobody at Court
but the Ministers. Most of the Persons of Quality who lived heretofore at
_Berlin_, were retir’d either to their Estates or their Governments, which
made the City a most melancholy Place to stay in, and all these
Alterations convinc’d me that there was nothing for me to expect in this
Country. I therefore resolv’d to settle all my Domestic Affairs with the
utmost speed, designing to return forthwith to _Paris_. Before I went
thither, I made a Trip to _Zell_, in order to examine the Accompts of a
Person I had deputed as my Attorney to receive the Deeds of my Mother’s
Estate. But to my sorrow, my Mother had by her Will devis’d the greatest
part of her Estate to the Children she had by her former Husband, so that
what I could lay claim to was far short of what I promis’d my self.

From _Zell_ I went to HAMBOURG[44], purely to see that City. I had
travel’d thither once before, but was then so young that I was not in a
Capacity to take notice of any thing in this City worthy of Remark.
_Hambourg_, which is one of the best Towns in _Germany_, is a part of
Lower _Saxony_, being situate upon the _Elbe_ a few Leagues from the Mouth
of that River, which is a great Conveniency to its Trade. Before it was
erected into a Republic ’twas a part of _Holstein_, on the Territory of
which it was built; and therefore it had frequent Quarrels with the Dukes
of _Holstein_, and the Kings of _Denmark_, who are the Sovereigns of
_Holstein_. The latter, as well as the _Swedes_, have attempted several
times to make themselves Masters of _Hambourg_, but have been repuls’d as
often as they came before it: For this City is not easy to be reduc’d,
because it has noble Ramparts and very strong Out-works, and it also takes
care to be well provided with Artillery, and a good Garrison. Moreover,
’tis always sure of the Protection of the Families of _Brandenburg_ and
_Brunswic_, it being so advantagiously situated, that ’tis the Interest of
both, that no Power whatsoever should take it.

_Hambourg_ is also very considerable on account of the Wealth of its
Inhabitants, who are almost all Merchants, and much of the Temper of the
_Dutch_ Merchants, very greedy of Gain and thrifty. Their greatest Delight
is so have Gardens at the City-Gates, pretty much in the Taste of those of
_Holland_. The Wives of the great Merchants are as much confin’d at
_Hambourg_, as the Women of Quality are at _Venice_, but I observ’d they
were only pent up from Foreigners. A Man may pass his time very well in
this City, where there are several Persons of Quality to see, who make
their Visitors perfectly welcome. The Walks in and about this City are
charming, and especially that on the Ramparts is a noble one, there being
a double Row of Trees which forms an agreeable Covert, and from whence
there’s a Prospect finely diversify’d by noble Houses, Gardens, Woods,
Meadows, _&c._ in the midst of which one sees the Rivers _Elbe_ and
_Alster_, which both together yield a charming View. The River of _Alster_
comes into the Town and forms a Basin very like a great Pond, which has a
fine Kay on the sides of it planted with several Rows of Lime-Trees,
between which there’s a very fine Walk.

Near _Hambourg_ lies the Town of ALTENA[45]. The King of _Denmark_ gave it
this Name to banter the Deputies of _Hambourg_ who made Remonstrances to
him against his building this Town too near to theirs, and in their
Discourse to the King about the Town said several times, _Sie ist al te
na_, which in the Language of the Country signifies, _it is too near_. The
King taking particular Notice of the Monosyllables _al te na_, said to the
Deputies that he could not excuse himself from carrying on the Town which
he was building, and that all he could do to oblige them was to order it
to be call’d by the Name of _Altena_, which they themselves had given it.
And indeed, a more significant Name could not have been put upon this
Town, for ’tis situate just at the Gates of _Hambourg_, and is a part of
_Danish Holstein_. It was formerly a priviledg’d Place for Bankrupts, and
for all that had committed any Crime in _Hambourg_. But the present King
of _Denmark_, rather than this Town should continue any longer in the
Enjoyment of a Privilege which fill’d it with Knaves and Vagabonds,
delivers up Malefactors to the Magistrates of _Hambourg_ whenever they
reclaim them.

_Altena_ is remarkable for the Multiplicity of Religions which are there
publickly exercis’d. I believe, that excepting _Amsterdam_, there is not a
Town in _Europe_ where there are so many Sects; but few of ’em are allow’d
a Church. The Neighbourhood of this Town to _Hambourg_, and its Situation
moreover upon the _Elbe_, does great Prejudice to that City. ’Tis now
several years since _Altena_ was burnt by the _Swedes_, under the Command
of the Count _de Steinbock_; when they scarce allow’d Time to the
Inhabitants to make their Escape; so that they had the Grief to be
Eye-Witnesses of the burning of their Houses and Goods, and several Old
Men, and a number of Infants perish’d in the Flames. I found _Altena_ in
that sorrowful State when I first went thither; but upon a Review of it
since, I see that ’tis rebuilt in such a manner, that ’tis now a finer and
more flourishing Town than ever. After four or five days Stay at
_Hambourg_ I set out, and never did any body go off at a more proper Time;
for in a few days after it, the Plague discover’d it self in the City;
upon which it was shut up, and its Communication forbid with any other

I return’d thro’ _Zell_, where I made no manner of stay, to
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE[46], an Imperial City, on the Confines of the Duchies of
_Juliers_ and _Limbourg_. ’Tis encompass’d with Mountains, which form so
pleasant a Vale, that _Charlemain_ chose rather to reside at
_Aix-la-Chapelle_, than in either of the many beautiful Cities which he
conquer’d. This Emperor caus’d a Collegiate Church to be built here, in
which his Tomb is still to be seen; and the Memory of that Prince is to
this day held in great Veneration. On the Festival of St. _Charles_,
there’s a solemn Procession here, in which the Effigies of that Monarch is
carried with an Equipage which excites Laughter rather than Devotion. The
Preacher’s Pulpit in this same Collegiate Church is inrich’d with Plates
of Gold; and they say that the Branch which hangs down before the High
Altar is of the same Metal. ’Tis in this Church that many Emperors have
been consecrated; and several of the Imperial Ornaments are still kept
there. The Emperor is born Canon of the Church of _Aix_, and takes the
Oath as such on the Day of his Coronation.

Certain Reliques are preserv’d at _Aix-la-Chapelle_, which are shew’d but
once in seven years; and then they are expos’d to View from the top of a
Tower in the City, during which the People gaze at them on their Knees, in
the Squares and Streets leading to the said Tower. This Ceremony was
perform’d when I was at _Aix_ in 1713, at which time there was a Concourse
to it of an incredible number of Pilgrims from _Hungary_, _Tirol_, and all
the Provinces of _Germany_. Persons of superior Rank are allow’d the
Liberty of going up to the top of the Tower where those Reliques are
expos’d, and may look near to them, but must by no means touch them. Of
all that I saw, I only remember a Smock, which they affirm was the
Virgin’s: There were some spots on it, which they said were the Stains of
the Milk with which she suckled the Savior of the World. This Shift seem’d
to be quite seamless, and made of a sort of Stuff which I know not how to
describe to you, for it was neither of Linnen nor Callico.

The City of _Aix_ is very famous for its hot Baths, and for the Waters
that are taken there twice a year, _viz._ in _Spring_ and _Autumn_; at
which two Seasons there’s a great Resort hither of Foreigners. The Waters
are hot, and of a very unpleasant Taste, and they smell like a rotten Egg;
for which reason People are loth to take them when they first come; but
after they are us’d to it, they go down very well. The Baths especially
are wonderfully good against the Contraction of the Sinews and against
Wounds. Nor is there a Place where the Waters are us’d with more
Conveniency, there being plenty of every thing that one wou’d wish for,
and especially good Company; for _Brabant_, _Liege_, _France_, _Holland_
and _Germany_, lie so near to it, that there’s always a great many People
here, and very good Diversion.

I set out from _Aix_ for PARIS, by the way of _Maestricht_ and _Louvain_;
but as I travell’d Post thro’ these Towns, I shall reserve the Description
of them to you, till such time as I make a longer stay in them. On my
Arrival at _Paris_ I was deeper in Love than ever. I was receiv’d by my
dear Mistress with such Tokens of Love, as gave me all the reason in the
world to think, that I was the happiest Man living: And in reality I was
so, because at that time I knew of no other Happiness than to be in her
good Graces; yet my natural Levity made me soon think otherwise. I saw the
Marchioness _de P----_; and I will frankly own to you, that all the
Veneration I had for _S----_ abated. I thought then there was nothing to
compare with the new Object of my Passion. _S----_ quickly perceiv’d my
Inconstancy, and reproach’d me for it; but they were Reproaches unmix’d
with Gall, and such as nothing but Love can inspire. The consequence was,
that my Passion for her reviv’d; and upon this occasion I was made
sensible, that a Flame not well extinguish’d is always apt to burst out
again; and that there needs no great Compulsion to renew the Passion of
Love. The Sentiments of the Man of Honor being join’d to those of the
Lover, I ask’d my own Conscience what _S----_ had ever done to disgust me.
And in fine, I gave Judgment against my self, that I could not without
Ingratitude forsake so amiable a Mistress. I took care, therefore, to
absent my self by degrees from the Marchioness _de P----_; and found it no
very hard matter to stifle a Passion, which, to speak plainly, was but a
sudden Flash.

While I staid at the Court of _France_, I saw the Ceremony of the double
Marriage of the Duke of _Bourbon_ and the Prince of _Conti_, who married
each other’s Sister. The Duke married _Mary-Anne_ of _Bourbon-Conti_,
Sister to the Prince of _Conti_, who married _Louisa-Elizabeth_ of
_Bourbon-Condé_, the Duke’s Sister.

These Marriages made no addition to the Pleasures of the Court, and every
thing remained very quiet, till News came of the Advantages which the
Marshal _de Villars_ had gain’d over the Allies. This Campaign was both
glorious and advantageous to the Marshal; and every body talk’d of the
immense Sums of Money which he had put into his Pocket. His Conduct was
narrowly pry’d into, and his Enemies charg’d that to him as a Crime, for
which, perhaps, they would have commended any other General. They said
that he brought with him several Waggons laden with Bandoliers for
Safeguards; and that he got so much Money by this means, that at his
Return he laid out 1,800,000 Livres in a Purchase. Nay, they had the
Assurance to speak of it to the King, who said to the Marshal one day at
Dinner, _That he heard he had bought a fine Estate. ’Tis true, Sir_,
reply’d the Marshal, _I have just purchas’d a very pretty Estate_; _and if
I have the Honor to command your Army next year, I hope to buy a more
considerable one and make your Enemies pay for it_. This Answer quite
broke the Measures of those who had endeavour’d to do the Marshal ill
Offices. He knew very well that he had Enemies, but it gave him little
Concern; for he was in high Favor, and he deserv’d it. They say that when
he set out to make the Campaign in 1713, he said to the King at taking
leave of him, _I desire your Majesty to remember, that while I am going
to fight your Enemies, I leave your Majesty in the midst of mine._ He
acquitted himself very bravely; and at length, by the Reduction of
_Landau_ and _Fribourg_, he procur’d that Peace, by which the Electors of
_Cologne_ and _Bavaria_ were restor’d to their Dominions.

After I had been some Months at _Paris_ I receiv’d Letters from _Berlin_,
with Advice, that the King had Thoughts of forming his Houshold; and that
I could not do better than to go and offer him my Service. I was not long
in demurring upon what Course to take. I had always been bred up in
Sentiments which convinc’d me, that to serve one’s Sovereign was
preferable to any other Service; and besides, I always found my self
naturally attach’d to the Family of our Kings. I therefore resolv’d to
leave _Paris_ once more. You know my Humor so well, _Madame_, that you
cannot think but it was with some Reluctance that I form’d a Resolution of
this nature; and I will frankly own to you, that I was heartily grieved to
leave a Place where I had my fill of Pleasures, which I knew I could not
have a Taste of elsewhere: but at length I gave Attention only to my Duty;
and tho’ the Tears which I saw shed for my sake melted my Heart, yet they
were not powerful enough to make me alter my Design.

From _Paris_ to _Wesel_, I went the same Road that I came; and from
_Wesel_ I proceeded to HANOVER, where I fell sick. My Design was to be
_incog._ but the ill State of my Health oblig’d me to have recourse to a
Physician; nay, I thought one while, that all the Remedies in the World
would do me no good; and that ’twas high Time for me to prepare in good
earnest for my last long Journey. My Kinswoman Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_
was soon inform’d of my Arrival; and as soon acquainted the Electoress of
it, who was so gracious as to send to know how I did; and this she
repeated twice every day as long as I was ill. This Princess always had a
Kindness for me, which I shall for ever acknowledge. I was told, that
during my Illness, _F----_ thinking to divert the Company at my Expence,
said at the Elector’s Table, _That my Distemper was not mortal; that I had
caught it in +France+; and that there were Surgeons at +Hanover+ who had
Skill enough to set me to rights._ The Electoress was very angry with him,
and said, _Sir, your Banter is absurd; if he had the Distemper that you
say, he would have staid in +France+ for the Cure, since he is not
ignorant, that the People of this Country go thither for the same Purpose;
and he has too much Sense not to follow their Example_.

As soon as I was able to get abroad, I did not fail to wait on the
Electoress with my most humble Thanks. That Princess gave me a much better
Reception than I durst presume to have expected. The Kindness which she
show’d to me, induc’d Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_ and Madame _de K----_ to
think, that I might easily obtain Admission into her Service if I would
but ask her; and accordingly those Ladies prevail’d on me to take that
Step, tho’ I very much question’d my Success; and I found by Experience
that my Suspicion was but too well grounded. I made my Application to the
Princess by Letter; in which, perhaps, I acted indiscreetly, because I
thereby gave her Leisure to take the Opinion of other People. Accordingly
she did so; and to my misfortune applied to Madame _de B----_ who could
not endure me; because, as I heard afterwards, _Madame_ of _France_ had
acquainted the Electoress, that I told her the Electoral Prince had a
particular Respect for her Ladyship. This was enough to exasperate a
Person against me, who made outward Profession of the most rigid Virtue;
and when the Electoress consulted her about me, she was transported to
think what an infallible Opportunity she had to be reveng’d. She artfully
insinuated to the Electoress, that she ought not to admit me into her
Service, and did not want Reasons to back her Insinuations; the Desire of
Revenge being what always supplies specious Arguments in abundance to hurt
an Enemy. The Electoress so well approv’d of those she made use of to
exclude me from her Service, that she order’d M. _de P----_ to tell me,
_That she was very much oblig’d to me for the Attachment which I
manifested for her Person; but that she could not imagine, that after I
had serv’d a King, I should like to wait upon so old a Princess as she
was: That ’twould be more suitable for me to be in the Service of her Son;
and that she should take a Pleasure to help me to it: But that as for her
self she must stay till she was Queen of +England+ before she could admit
me into her Service; because, if that should happen, she should then be in
a better Capacity to make my Fortune_. You perceive, _Madame_, this was a
Refusal that I could not well complain of, ’twas so season’d with
everything to take off the Bitterness of it. For my part, I own to you
that I felt none. As I had only taken this Step in pure Complaisance to
Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_, she was stung to the quick at this Denial;
not so much for my sake (I knew very well what the matter was) but for her
own; whose Vanity was very much mortify’d by it; for she thought her self
in Favor, and saw ’twas a Favor without any Credit: And her Resentment
proceeded so far, that she hinder’d me from taking Leave of the
Electoress, who in a few days after set out for _Gohr_ with the Prince her
Son. For my part I also set out from _Hanover_ for BERLIN.

When I came thither I found the King’s Houshold Officers already
nominated, yet this did not hinder me from asking his Majesty for
Employment. The Person who spoke for me was M. _de Printz_ the Grand
Marshal, who brought me News of a Refusal of a very different sort from
what I found at _Hanover_. In the latter, I had no reason to complain of
the Electoress, who with all the Politeness possible refus’d me a Favor,
which when all is said and done, I should not have valued, if I had not
ask’d for it. But now I had a very cruel Repulse, by being deny’d the only
thing for which I had undertaken the Journey to _Berlin_. The Behaviour of
the Court to me in this Instance concern’d me not a little. I had never
done any thing to seclude me from an Establishment in my own Country. My
Ancestors had serv’d in it, and bore such a distinguish’d Rank in it too,
that I might very well think some Notice would have been taken of me.
Moreover, I had the Honour of being Gentleman of the Bed-chamber to the
late King, but now had the Mortification of seeing Persons prefer’d before
me who had never been seen at Court, and such too for most part as are of
very obscure Birth. Finding therefore I had no hopes of succeeding at
Court, I saw that I must go seek my Fortune elsewhere, and I thought of
entring into the Service of the King of _Poland_. There was not a fitter
Man upon earth to serve me with that Prince than his Prime Minister the
Count _de Flemming_, who happen’d to be then at _Berlin_ upon his Master’s
Affairs. I got my Friends to speak to the Count, and attended him
constantly. That Minister seem’d inclinable to serve me, and promis’d to
speak for me to the King his Master.

He set out for WARSAW the latter end of _November_, and thither I follow’d
him; upon which he introduc’d me to the King, and to all the
Court-Nobility. I cou’d not have set out better than I did at the Court of
_Poland_. I was patronis’d by the Man who mov’d in the highest Sphere
there, next to the King himself; and for that Reason every body strove to
shew me Respect. The Count _de Flemming_ seem’d to be pleas’d at the
Regard that was paid to me; at least, I was so short-sighted as not to
perceive that it was to him a matter of very great Indifference. I was
excusable in not suspecting him of double dealing with me; for hitherto I
had no other Reason but to applaud his Generosity, and that Good-will
which he had express’d to do me Service. Endeavors were not wanting to
undeceive me, and I soon after saw with my own Eyes, that the fair
Promises he made to me were nothing more nor less, than what they call

Not long after my Arrival at _Warsaw_, the King of _Poland_ set out for
_Germany_. I thought my self bound in Interest to wait for his Return, in
order to treat about my Affairs; and I spent this time at _Warsaw_ in the
most agreeable manner that could be. I was soon known by all the _Polish_
Nobility, who were as civil to me as could be imagin’d. Every thing I
beheld made me fancy I was at _Paris_, there being every where the same
Politeness, and a certain easy Deportment which the _French_ think none
are Masters of but themselves. The _Polish_ Ladies are very amiable,
witty, and have a good deal of Sprightliness. With these Qualities, one
would naturally imagine they are not indifferent to Pleasures; and I
observ’d that they have a delicate and very exquisite Taste for every
thing that passes under the Name of Diversions. They are passionately fond
of Music, and still more of Plays. And at _Warsaw_ they have as much of
both as they desire; for the King, who is a Prince as gallant as he is
magnificent, takes care that every thing be done at Court, in a manner
worthy of a great Prince. He maintains a Set of _French_ Comedians there;
and moreover, frequently gives Balls and Concerts. These Diversions are
generally attended with noble Feasts that the King makes for the Ladies of
his Court; at which times, that Prince is always admir’d for his good
Mien, and for that Gracefulness which sets off all his Actions.

The _Polish_ Lords are not near so gay as the Ladies; or, at least, they
don’t come up to them for Elegance and Contrivance. Their Domestics and
Equipage are generally slovenly; their Tables are indeed serv’d with
Profusion, but without Delicacy, which I take to be intirely owing to the
want of good Officers or skilful Cooks; for in other respects, _Poland_ is
a Country, where there is as good Cheer as any in the World. Their
Butcher’s Meat is delicious, and they have plenty of good Fish. Wine is
not the Produce of the Country, but the want of it is not perceiv’d at
the Tables of the _Polish_ Nobility, where the Wine of _Hungary_, tho’
very dear, is drank as common as Water. I observed one thing at the
Generality of their Tables, that does not tally with the Grandeur which
they pretend to, _viz._ That the Master of the House and his intimate
Friends drink the best Wine, while the other Guests that are invited, are
oblig’d to put up with the common sort. Tis to be observ’d, that tho’
_Poland_ abounds with all Necessaries for Life, yet ’tis a Country very
inconvenient for Travellers, especially those who are not in a Capacity to
carry every thing along with them. I have not seen a Place where there is
so little Accommodation at the Public-Houses, there being hardly a Chair
in them to sit down upon. Therefore the Travellers of any Fashion take
care to carry all Necessaries with them. The Duke of _York_, Bishop of
_Osnabruck_, said a very pertinent thing upon this occasion, _viz._ _That
he did not know a Country where Travellers were more at home than in
+Poland+, because they were always making use of their own Furniture_.

I heard that the King was shortly to go for _Dresden_, and therefore I set
out thither immediately with the Count _de Hoim_, a Minister of State to
his _Polish_ Majesty. In my Way to _Dresden_ I saw no Place of Note but
_Breslau_ and _Leipsic_. BRESLAU, the Capital of _Silesia_, is a pretty
large and very beautiful City, which in the Winter-Season is inhabited by
a great Number of Nobility. The Count _de Flemming_ stopping there a
couple of days, I halted there too. I saw very good Company here,
especially at the Houses of the Count _de Maltzam_, and the Princess of
_Teschen_, who was formerly the Princess _Lubomirski_. This Lady made a
grand Figure, gave People a hearty Reception, and treated with
Magnificence. I could have wish’d to have staid at _Breslau_ a few days
longer; but as the Count _de Flemming_, by whose Patronage I hop’d still
to get some Establishment at Court, was going to the King in _Saxony_, I
went with him to the Fair at _Leipsic_, where the King and Queen were
already arriv’d. As the King had been absent a good while, the Princes of
the Blood, and a great number of Persons of Quality, came hither to pay
their Respects to him; and after the Fair was ended, his Majesty return’d
to _Dresden_, where he had not been long arriv’d, but he married the Count
_de Saxony_ (his natural Son by the Countess of _Koningsmarck_) to
Mademoiselle _de Loven_, who was a young Gentlewoman of a good Family, and
one of the richest in _Silesia_. The Ceremony of this Marriage was
perform’d in presence of the whole Court; and for several days the King
gave Feasts answerable to his good Fancy and Magnificence. His Majesty is
very fond of this Count of _Saxony_, who is one of the most amiable
Gentlemen that I have seen; and besides, he very much resembles the King
of _Poland_, which, to be sure, makes that Monarch the more in love with

DRESDEN[47] was then the Centre of the Pleasures of _Germany_, and the
Plays, _&c._ exhibited here, made me almost think I was at _Paris_. I will
not trouble you with all the Particulars of the several splendid
Entertainments that were made in the Carnival Time, there having been
enough written on that Subject already by other Pens. I shall have the
Honor, therefore, to say nothing more of it to you, than that every
Spectator was more charm’d with the King’s affable Behavior, than they
were with the Beauty of the Representations, and the Splendor of the

I should, no doubt, have had a better Relish for all these Pleasures, if I
could have lik’d the Situation of my Affairs. I had all along conceiv’d
Hopes of entring into the Service of _Poland_, and plac’d a very great
Dependance on the Promises made by the Count _de Flemming_; but when I
came to _Dresden_, I found the Face of Affairs quite chang’d. I put him in
remembrance of his Promise; but he answer’d me in such a droll manner, as
convinc’d me that I ought not to expect any great Matter from him.
However, that I might have nothing to reproach my self with, I still
continu’d to give him Marks of a very great Attachment to his Person. Yet
I met with several Rebuffs, which did not discourage me; and which I had
the more Reason to bear with Patience, because I knew that he treated his
most trusty Confidents in the same manner. At last, not caring, perhaps,
to do any thing of himself, he sent me to M. _de Lowendahl_ the Grand
Marshal, and the latter referr’d me to M. _de Fitzthum_ the King’s
Favorite. I was charm’d with this Gentleman’s Politeness and good Manners;
and I don’t think there ever was a Favorite more obliging, and that took
less upon him. Far from amusing me, he convinc’d me of the Impossibility
there was of my obtaining any Place at Court, unless the King thro’ his
special Grace should be inclin’d to prefer me; which could not be done
neither, without disobliging several of the _Polish_ Noblemen, who
likewise sollicited Places at Court, and seem’d to have a sort of Right to
them by virtue of their Birth. I did not yet quite despair of Success;
and as this was a Favor that could only be granted by means of the Count
_de Flemming_, I had recourse again to that Minister; but I was never the
nearer. To be sure I took a wrong time to speak to him about my Business,
when perhaps he had other Affairs of greater Consequence that might
ingross his Thoughts. In a word, he rebuff’d me to such a degree, as was
sufficient to make me quite renounce my Pretensions. I took leave of the
King and Queen, and prepar’d to go for _Berlin_.

But before I set out, an Adventure happen’d, which, together with my
Vexation that I had not succeeded in my Designs, made me hate to stay any
longer at _Dresden_, as much as I was in love with the Place when first I
came to it. At _Leipsic_ Fair I had drawn a Bill of 300 Crowns, payable to
the Bearer. The Person for whom I drew the Bill had given a Commission to
a Merchant at _Dresden_ to receive that Sum. The Bill did not come to the
Merchant’s Hands, till the very Day of my Departure; and as the Term was
expir’d, he sent to my Quarters for the Money. I was not at home that
Minute; and the Man hearing that I was to set out the same Day, made use
of a Custom introduc’d and constantly observ’d in _Saxony_; which is, to
arrest the Person that fails to answer a Bill of Exchange upon the Day
appointed; so that just as I was going into my Chaise I was made a
Prisoner. It happen’d to be about ten o’clock at Night. By Misfortune I
had lost a great deal at Play this Carnival; and not having so much Money
by me, I had recourse to the Count _de Flemming_; who lent it to me. This
was the only time that I can be sure that Nobleman did me any Service. I
repaid him soon after my Arrival at _Berlin_.

Without making a long stay at _Berlin_, I went and pass’d a few days at an
Estate which I have, two Leagues out of that City; but the Uneasiness that
haunted me every where, made me resolve to return to _France_, having
still in View the getting some Establishment at _Berlin_ or elsewhere.
While I was preparing every thing for my Journey, I had the Misfortune to
break my Left Leg by a Fall from my Horse. This Accident, after the
various Disgraces and Disappointments I had already suffer’d, Does it not,
_Madame_, give you the Idea of another _Orestes_, pursu’d by Destiny from
one Country to another? I could expect nothing more after this, than to
fall into the Hands of some Quack of a Bone-setter, who, after putting me
to Torture, would, perhaps, leave me a Cripple for all the rest of my
Life. To tell you the plain Truth, I had some Apprehension of it; for a
Man of my Kidney could not but be afraid of every thing in such a Case.
However, whether it was owing to Hap-hazard, or to the Skill of the
Surgeon, after suffering very great Torment, I was perfectly cur’d; and in
such a manner, that I never felt any thing of it afterward. The ninth Day
after my Fall I went to _Berlin_. As my Indisposition was such, that I
could travel neither in a Chaise nor Coach, I hir’d Porters to carry me;
so that my Entry was more than ordinary comic. This new Equipage surpriz’d
all that saw it, the Children especially, who not being us’d to see such
Carriages, follow’d me from the Out-parts of the City to my Lodgings; and
as the Numbers swell’d by the Way, the Train consisted of at least 200
Followers, by that time I came home. I was very sensible, at my Arrival,
that I had done wrong to be carried abroad so soon; for a Fever took me,
and not long after an Imposthume gather’d, that bred the Distemper which
they call in _France_ the _King’s Evil_. A fresh Reason this for my
Complaint of the Severity of my Destiny; for in reality I suffer’d such
Pains for above twenty Days, as are impossible for me to express.

As soon as I was in a Condition to go abroad, I waited on the Queen, who
had just receiv’d Tydings, that the Elector of _Hanover_, her Father, was
then call’d over by the _English_ to succeed the deceas’d Queen _Anne_. No
doubt, _Madame_, you remember the Joy there was at Court upon this News.
The King made an Offer to the new Monarch of any Assistance that he might
have occasion for, to support him on the Throne. Some days after the
Arrival of this great News, I took leave of the Queen, and set out for

I was very well receiv’d in this City by _L----_, who was at that time
Envoy from _Prussia_ to the Circle of Lower _Saxony_. I knew him at a time
when Fortune, as it were, frown’d upon him; but now it might be said, that
she had loaded him with her Favors. He was glad to see me, and that he had
an Opportunity of shewing me in what Grandure he liv’d. Since he had
married a Woman, who was, indeed, very old, but very rich, he had been so
wise as to make an Acquaintance with such as were capable of serving him;
and whether ’twas owing to Money, or to mere Favor, he was quickly made a
Minister of State; and in a little time after receiv’d the Key as one of
the King’s Chamberlains. I was very well pleas’d to see him in so
splendid a Situation; but could not help taking pity on him for being
yok’d to a Wife so disagreeable. She was a Person, who with the Obstinacy
and Ill-nature of Old Age, had all the Mettle of Youth, besides her being
a perfect Original both in her Apparel, and in the Furniture of her House.
Her Husband could never prevail upon her to dress as became a Person of
her Rank, nor to alter any thing in her Furniture, tho’ ever so unpolite.
I had the Pleasure one day that I was invited thither to Supper, of
examining the Inside of the House at my Leisure. The Apartment where we
supp’d was furnish’d in a very whimsical Manner. The first Room was lin’d
with black Leather gilt, and round it were plac’d Chairs of green Taffety,
adorn’d with Furbelows of a Rose Color. The second Chamber was hung with
green Tapestry. The Chairs were of black Velvet, lac’d with Gold, and the
Room was full of Crystal Sconces. At one End of it there was an Alcove
hung with white Leather gilded, and in the Middle of the Alcove there was
a Bed of a very extraordinary Fashion, which had no Curtains, but had four
Pillars to support the Tester, and a Wooden Cornish at the top gilded; and
the Whole was cover’d with Mother of Pearl and Tortoise-shell. The Bed had
a Counterpane on it of black Velvet and Gold-Lace. In the four Corners of
the Alcove were four Statues of white Marble, each holding a Wax-Candle.
There were other Wax-Candles upon gilded Sconces, and a very fine Branch.
The Whole, I assure you, look’d much more like a Room for lying in State,
than a Chamber for Entertainment. We sat down, however, to Table; but this
amiable Lady refus’d to be of the Company, and chose to stay behind a
Door, which was in the Alcove, from whence she resolv’d to be a
Spectatress of the Entertainment through the Chinks.

We were all heartily at Supper, and in very little pain for the Absence of
our Landlady, when on a sudden there came from the Alcove a very ugly
Figure, dress’d all in white. I was the first that perceiv’d it; and
really, if I had given ever so little Credit to the haunting of Houses by
Spirits, I should have thought I then saw one. The Whole perfectly
resembled that Scene of the Knight in the _Festin de Pierre_, excepting
nevertheless that we were not honor’d with the least Obeisance. I heard
swearing and scolding at the Domestics, which made me suspect that it
might be the Mistress of the House. Nor was I mistaken, we were obliged
for this Apparition to a Wax-Candle that drop’d upon a Velvet Chair, which
she perceiv’d from the Place where she was conceal’d, and stay’d some
time, thinking that one or other of the Domestics would have remedied this
Evil; but at last seeing that no body minded it, she resolv’d to come out
her self to the Relief of the Chair. This Apparition was the Cause of a
great Hurly-burly; the Lackeys excus’d themselves, because they were
employ’d in waiting; and there were long and warm Disputes on both sides,
betwixt the Mistress and the Servants, during which, the Guests, who rose
in Respect to the Lady, were all the while standing. The Husband
endeavor’d to pacify his dear Spouse, and made her sensible of the
Situation in which she kept us; upon which, without making the least
Compliment, she sate down at the Table, and I thought the Rage of the
Storm was over; but far from it, she was no sooner seated than she began
again to rave with more Fury than before. A Lackey, to whom, it seems,
all this Bawling was more distasteful than it was to us, thought fit to
tell her very bluntly, _That she made a great Noise for nothing_. Then the
Lady was quite outragious, and went to give the Lackey a Blow with all the
Weight of her Arm; but the Droll cunningly parry’d it, by receiving the
Stroke upon a Plate he had in his Hand; which, as he manag’d it, serv’d
him for a Shield. The Gentlewoman gave herself such a terrible Blow, that
for one while she could not speak; and when she came to her self, she made
a worse Racket than before. At length, the Lackey was turn’d out of the
Room; and at that very instant, luckily for us, the Pain which the Lady
felt for the Blow, increas’d to such a degree, that she was forc’d to
retire. She was no sooner gone but we all burst out in a Laugh. The
Husband himself was ready to split his Sides, and desir’d the Company to
be under no manner of Restraint, but to talk as gayly of this Adventure as
we pleas’d. Indeed we were heartily merry at the Expence of the Old Lady;
but yet we were the greatest Losers by it in the end; for while we thought
her a good way out of Hearing, she thought fit to stay at the Door to
listen to what we said, which not being to her liking, she took an
immediate Revenge, for she deprived us of the Dessert, and the poor
Husband had not Interest enough to get another.

I was so gorg’d at this charming Repast, that for fear of a second
Invitation I set out next Day for HANOVER, where I arriv’d the very Day
before the new King set out for _England_. The Electoress, his Mother, to
whom the Crown first belong’d of Right, died suddenly, as she was walking
in _Herrenhausen_ Garden, not long before Queen _Anne_ died. The Elector
her Son was recogniz’d King by the _English_, as the next Protestant Heir;
for if the Catholics could have had any Right to the Crown, this Elector
would have been but the 23d or 24th in the direct Line. The Nobleman who
acquainted the Elector of his Advancement to the Crown was my Lord
_Clarendon_, Envoy from the Queen of _England_ at the Court of _Hanover_.
Perhaps it was with some Regret that he executed this Commission, being
related to the _Stuart_ Family; and as it was generally thought, not very
much inclin’d to the Family which now governs _England_. Be this as it
will, he discharg’d the Commission with a good Grace. My Lord receiv’d the
News that the _English_ had proclaim’d the Elector for their King, one
Evening as he had been at Supper with that Prince at a House called _The
Whim_, belonging to Madame _de K----_, now my Lady _L----_. As his
Lordship came home he found a Courier just arriv’d with the Privy
Council’s Orders to him, to recognize the Elector for King of _England_.
He immediately got into his Coach, and went to _Herrenhausen_, where he
found the Elector a-bed. His Lordship thinking ’twas worth while to awake
the Elector, for the sake of telling him the News that so great a Diadem
was fallen to him, enter’d his Bed-Chamber, and kneeling on the Floor, was
the first that recogniz’d the Elector for King. This Prince immediately
summon’d his Council. Many People were pleas’d to say, that the Elector
hesitated for a good while, whether or no he should accept of the August
Dignity that was offer’d to him; but for my part, I fancy, that the Voyage
to _England_ was more the Subject of the Council’s Deliberation, than the
Question, whether its Crown should be accepted.

After the Council was over, the new King was complimented upon his
Accession to the Throne; and that very Instant he gave Orders to get every
thing ready for his Departure, which was fix’d for the 11th of
_September_. The Time between the Elector’s assuming the Royal Stile and
his Departure, was spent in sending and receiving Couriers to and from the
principal Courts of _Europe_. All the Nobility and Gentry, Subjects to the
new Monarch, flock’d from all Parts to see him before he went away. This
Prince was so well belov’d, that his Subjects were very sorry that he was
going to leave them; but for his part, tho’ his People were not a little
dear to him, he preserv’d that Tranquillity of Mind, and that Discretion,
which govern’d all his Actions; and he seem’d no more concerned at parting
with them, than he was elated with his new Dignity: but it was otherwise
with the Prince his Son, who was so impress’d with the Fortune added to
his Family, that I heard him say to an _English_ Gentleman, the Day before
he went, _That he had not one Drop of Blood in his Veins but what was
+English+, and at the Service of his new Subjects_.

On the 11th of _September_, early in the Morning, the King and the Prince
of _Wales_ set out from _Herrenhausen_, amidst the Acclamations of the
Court and the People, with which the Road was lin’d. They wish’d his
Majesty all manner of Happiness, and accompanied him with their good
wishes a good distance from _Herrenhausen_, before they took Leave of his
Majesty. The last Farewels were attended with so many Tears, that the King
could not help being a little mov’d; and he assur’d them, _That it should
not be long before he would make a Tour to_ Hanover.

The King’s Retinue was not very numerous; for he only took with him such
Persons as were absolutely necessary for his Service; and of these too, he
sent some back, when he went on board the Yatcht that came for him to
_Holland_, to carry him over to _England_. The Princess of _Wales_
follow’d the King some time after, with the Princesses her Daughters; but
Prince _Frederic_ her Son remain’d at _Hanover_ for his Education.

When the King came to _London_, he found Subjects as much attach’d to his
Person, as those he had left at _Hanover_; and not long after his Arrival
he was, according to Custom, crown’d at _Westminster_. There was so great
a Concourse of People at the Ceremony, that it seem’d as if all the Nation
had flock’d thither to receive their new Sovereign. I was told there was
only one Person, and that was a Woman, who refus’d to own him for King;
and that this happen’d upon the very Day of the Coronation, when a
Champion, arm’d from Head to Foot, entring into the Banquetting-Hall, and
according to Custom challenging any Person whatsoever, who did not
acknowledge the Elector of _Hanover_ as lawful King of _England_, that
Lady threw down her Glove, and with a very ill-tim’d Effrontery made
Answer aloud, _That +James+ the Third was the only lawful Heir of the
Crown, and that the Elector of +Hanover+was an Usurper_.

Not many days after the King of _England_’s Departure, I set out from
_Hanover_ for _Aix-la-Chapelle_, where I made use of the Baths, as my
Physicians had order’d me, to strengthen my Leg. From _Aix_ I proceeded
in the _Paris_ Road to MASTRICHT[48], which is a strong Place belonging to
_Dutch Brabant_, tho’ situate in the middle of the Country of _Liege_, on
which it was for a long time dependent. It was also subject to the
_Spaniards_ till 1633, when it was taken by the _Dutch_, who were
acknowledg’d lawful Possessors thereof by the Peace of _Munster_, and were
thereupon at great Expence to fortify it, so that it was reckon’d one of
the strongest Places in _Europe_, when _Lewis_ XIV. took it in 1673, in 13
Days time. The King himself then commanded his Army; and he had with him
MONSIEUR his Brother. Three Years after this, the Allies besieg’d it also,
but their Arms being not so successful as those of _France_, they were
forc’d to abandon their Enterprize. At last, by the Peace of _Nimeguen_ it
was restor’d to the _Dutch_, who keep a strong Garrison in it.

_Mastricht_ is very well built, in a flat Country, surrounded with Hills.
The _Maese_ runs thro’ the City, over which there is a very high Stone
Bridge. They say that the late Count _d’Auverquerque_, who died
Velt-Marshal of the _Dutch_, out of pure Gallantry, to convince a Lady how
much he lov’d her, leap’d his Horse off the Bridge into the _Maese_. This
young Lady so much belov’d was Mademoiselle _de Feltbruck_. As she was
passing over the Bridge, Count _d’Auverquerque_, who rode by the side of
her Coach, entertain’d her very much about his Passion for her; but Miss
so little heeded what he said, that she scarce vouchsaf’d to lend him an
Ear. At length being fatigu’d with hearing the same String always harp’d
upon, she told him, that Lovers were never sparing of their Promises; but
when any Testimonials were demanded of their Love, they then discover’d
how little it was to be depended on. _For instance, Sir_, said she, _I
would venture a good Wager now, that if I were to ask you to leap from
this Bridge into the River, you would not do it_. The furious Lover made
no other Answer to this Defiance, but clapping Spurs to his Horse, leap’d
him off of the Bridge into the _Maese_. The young Lady thought her
generous Lover would most certainly be drown’d; but luckily for him he
kept his Seat, and his Horse, which was as mettlesome as the best, had
Strength enough after such a Leap, to swim with his Rider to an Island,
whither a Boat was sent to fetch him. After such a Trial as this, the
young Lady might boast, either that she was lov’d to Distraction, or that
she had a distracted Lover.

From _Mastricht_ I went to LOUVAIN[49], which is surnamed the _Wise_,
probably by reason of its University, which was founded in 1426, by _John_
IV. Duke of _Brabant_, and has been in its time one of the most celebrated
Universities in _Europe_; but it has not that Reputation now. And as to
the City, ’tis much more famous for its Antiquity, than upon any other
account; for they say it was founded by _Julius Cæsar_. ’Tis indeed, at
present, a very large City, but ill built, the only remarkable Edifices
that I saw there, are the Collegiate Church dedicated to St. _Peter_, and
the Church of the Jesuits. _Louvain_ is not a Place of great Trade as
yet, but a very fine Causey which is made from thence to _Brussels_, and
another to _Tongres_, which is to be carried on to _Liege_, will very much
increase its Commerce, especially with the _Austrian Netherlands_.

I went from _Louvain_ to _Brussels_, and from thence to GHENT[50], which
is the Capital of _Spanish Flanders_, and one of the biggest Cities in
_Europe_. It stands four Leagues from the Sea, is water’d with three
Rivers, the _Scheld_, the _Lys_, and the _Lise_, and adorn’d with fine
Squares and noble Buildings. The great Clock is worth seeing; it weighs
11000 Pounds, and is erected upon a Dragon, which Count _Baldwin_ brought
from _Constantinople_. A Canal has been dug from this City to the Sea,
which is of very great Service to its Trade.

’Twas at _Ghent_ that _Charles_ V. was born, who granted this City
extraordinary Privileges; yet the Inhabitants were so ungrateful as to
rebel against this Emperor, who resolv’d to punish them for it; and that
he might go the nearer way to work with ’em, ventur’d upon the Parole of
_Francis_ I. to pass thro’ _France_, in order to come at them. He
chastis’d those Rebels with such Severity, that they had no reason to
boast that this Emperor was their Countryman. He caus’d twenty-five of
their principal Citizens to be executed by the common Hangman, banish’d a
greater number of them, confiscated their Estates, and took away all their
Privileges. In fine, _Ghent_ which was one of the most considerable Cities
in _Europe_, soon became a Desert; and _Charles_ V. to leave a Monument
of his Wrath to Posterity, caus’d a Fortress to be built, which is still
the Citadel of this Place, and is of great Consequence to the Emperor,
when he happens to be at War with _France_; for when the _French_ are
Masters of _Ghent_, the Navigation of the _Scheld_ is interrupted; and in
case of a War, ’tis better to see them Masters of _Brussels_ than of
_Ghent_: For I remember, that in 1708, while the Allies besieg’d _Lisle_,
the _French_ being then Masters of _Ghent_, incommoded their Army very
much. This City is finely recover’d since _Charles_ the Vth’s Time. The
States of _Flanders_ have their Assemblies here, and the Emperor commonly
signifies his Will and Pleasure to them, by the Governor-General of the
_Netherlands_ residing at _Brussels_.

From _Ghent_ I went thro’ _Courtray_ and _Menin_ to LISLE[51], which is
the Capital of _French Flanders_, and one of the best and most beautiful
Towns of that Government. It belong’d formerly to the King of _Spain_,
till 1667, when _Lewis_ XIV. took it in Person. The Garison then
consisting of but 6000 Men, was not strong enough to check the Progress of
the _French_ Arms, so that after nine Days open Trenches the Place was
taken. _Lisle_ was left in the Possession of _France_ by the Treaty of
_Aix-la-Chapelle_, in 1668; but in 1708, the Allies after a tedious and
toilsome Siege, made themselves Masters of it. At last, however, this City
reverted to _France_ by the Treaty of _Utrecht_. The Inhabitants were so
overjoy’d at their not being left in subjection to the _Dutch_, which they
were afraid of, that on the Day the Place was evacuated, they made
Bonfires in all parts of the Town; and not without Cause, for after they
fell under the Dominion of the _Dutch_, their Trade stood still, those new
Guests chusing rather to send for what they wanted from _Holland_, than to
make use of the Manufactures of this City. But with the _French_ the Case
was otherwise, for they bought their Necessaries in the City, and liv’d
with the Inhabitants on perfect good Terms.

_Lewis_ XIV. made _Lisle_ one of the finest Places in _Europe_. Its
Streets are magnificent, and particularly the Street _Royale_, built in
the Reign of that Monarch. ’Tis very strait, and adorn’d on both sides
with very fine Houses built alike. In this City resides the Governor of
_Flanders_. The Marshal _de Boufflers_ was succeeded in this Government by
the Duke his Son. When I was here, the Prince _de Tingry_, Governor of
_Valenciennes_, officiated in this Government for the said Duke, who was
then under Age.

I was so impatient to be at _Paris_, that I made no stay in any Place upon
the Road, till I arriv’d there. I alighted at a Bagnio, and the first
Sally I made abroad was to pay my Devoirs to Mademoiselle _de S----_.
Absence had not damp’d my Flame, and I was only glad to see _Paris_ again,
in hopes of finding out her whom I ador’d. But how was I surpriz’d when
the Mother of that lovely Damsel came to welcome me with a Flood of Tears,
and told me, that I must think no more of her Daughter, for that she died
about a Month ago in the Province of _Perigord_, whither she went to
accompany a Lady of her Acquaintance! I was so thunder-struck at this
News, that I was not able to speak. I fainted away, was carried back to my
Lodgings, and was that Moment let blood; but ’twas some time after it
before I came to my self, and then I did nothing but give my self up to
Sorrow. Mine was no longer an inward Grief, but vented it self in such
continual Exclamations interrupted with Sighs, that every one who saw me
believ’d I was going the way of all Flesh; or that, at least, I should be
out of my Senses: And truly they were not much mistaken, for I was so in a
great measure. In this unhappy Situation did I remain five whole Days, at
the end of which the Mother of _S----_ came to make me a Visit; and at her
entring into my Room, she told me, that her Daughter was not dead; and
that she had just receiv’d a Letter from her, by which she acquainted her,
that she should soon be at _Paris_. This sort of Resurrection was as
reviving News to me, as the former was mortifying. I felt a surprizing
Revolution in my Spirits; and am of Opinion, that if ’tis possible to die
with an Excess of Joy or of Grief, I had share enough of both those
Passions within a short Space of Time not to survive them. But I was
reserv’d by Fate for other Adventures.

In Fact, I was hardly recover’d from the several Shocks which I had lately
undergone, but was forc’d to bear the Brunt of another. The Occasion of
this was, meeting at the House of a Lady of my Acquaintance with a Friend
of _S----_, whose Name was Madame _de R----_; and who had been married for
some time, by the Advice of her Parents, to a Man far advanc’d in Years.
The young Lady hated her Husband more heartily than is common for Girls of
sixteen that marry to Men of above sixty. I had seen her formerly, but she
was then so young, that I did not much mind her: And happy wou’d it have
been for me, if I had always view’d her with the same Indifference! But
when I came to see her after her Marriage, her Beauty, her fine Presence
and her noble Deportment made a very sensible Impression on me. I was
pitch’d upon to play at Cards with her and another Lady, and all the time
she did nothing but rally me upon my Amour with _S----_, and hinted
several times to me, that the Lady was not deserving of the Heart I had
set upon her. As I could not guess to what all this Discourse tended, when
the Game was over I went with the Lady to a distant Window, and there
begged her for God’s sake to explain her self. She stood out a long while,
on pretence that she should be oblig’d to tell me what would only make me
uneasy: But all these Delays rendering me still the more impatient to know
what it could be, I press’d her to such a degree that at last she
consented to let me into the Secret. _You won’t take a Denial, I see_,
said she: _Well then, if you must know, you shall. But you must thank your
self for it, if I tell you what will heartily vex you; for I know your
Temper, and to what a Degree you are smitten. You think_, continu’d she,
_that_ S---- _is in the Country, but you are mistaken; for she is at_
Paris, _and has never been out of it all the time. She is as much in love
with the Marquis_ de V----, _as he is with her. She keeps no Company now
but him. Two Months ago she remov’d from her House in the Suburb of_ St.
Antoine, _where she then liv’d, because she heard you was coming to Town.
The truth is, she did not care you should reproach her to her Face; and
being in Hopes that you might forget her, she sent to let you know, that
she was dead; but hearing that you was so inconsolably melancholy, it
mov’d her to pity you, and she has now sent you word that she is still
living. Indeed it won’t be long before you see her; but it will only be to
receive your Dismission, and to give you to understand from her own Lips,
that she prefers_ V----_’s Addresses to yours. I have heard all this from
one of my Waiting-Women, whose Sister is a Servant to Madame_ S----. _For
as to my part, since I am married to M._ R----, _’tis not convenient for
me to keep her Company. You will do well to renounce her, and need not
fear but you may find better than her._ As she express’d these Words her
Eyes darted in my Face, and at the same instant she blush’d. I was going
to make her an Answer, but she left me abruptly, and all the rest of the
Evening made it her Business to avoid me, I thought, however, to have an
Opportunity of speaking to her when she was going out; but she went away
with another Lady, so that ’twas impossible for me to say a Word to her.

I return’d home miserably disturb’d in my Mind. Hatred, Love, Revenge,
Contempt; in short, all the Passions of a Lover, slighted on the one hand,
and flatter’d on the other, play’d their part to rack my Brain. Guess,
_Madame_, in what a Condition I was, when I had such violent Attacks to
struggle with. In fine, Contempt triumph’d over the Passion I had
conceiv’d for _S----_. The charming Eyes of Madame _de R----_ made me
forget the false-hearted Creature on whom I had doated. But in the sequel
I was quickly convinc’d that I was no sooner cur’d of one foolish Amour,
but I was plung’d into another of the same Nature. The last Words of
_R----_ seem’d to be very engaging; I explain’d them in my own favor, and
thought sincerely that she had taken a Fancy to me. I flatter’d my self
again and again with these agreeable Notions, and found an infinite
Pleasure in making my own Chain. Nevertheless you will soon see that I was
bubbled as much in this Amour as I was in the former. Madame _de R----_
was one of the finest Women, and without dispute one of the greatest
Coquettes in _Paris_; being whimsical withal, and more self-conceited than
Women of that Cast generally are; she did not understand what it was to
settle her Heart upon any Man, and yet expected to be doated on herself. I
push’d head-long into this new Engagement, and thought my self at one time
the happiest Man in the World. My Friends too were as much deceiv’d as I
was, and thought me for a long while the only Favorite. I will tell ye
hereafter what became of this Amour, and shall for the present break off
the Detail of these ridiculous Amusements, to tell you how it far’d with
me in the Affair which most demanded my Application.

Soon after my Return to _Paris_, I went to _Versailles_, where I had the
Honor to pay my Duty to the King and the Princes. _Madame_ receiv’d me so
kindly that I thought my self sure of her Protection, and therefore
acquainted her of my Intention to beg an Employment of his Majesty, and
desir’d her that she would be so good as to recommend me. Madame promis’d
me that she would, and was true to her Word; for she not only spoke her
self but also made the Duke of _Orleans_ speak for me to M. _Voisin_, who
was at that time Chancellor and Secretary of War. This Gentleman promis’d
their Royal Highnesses that he would think of a Place for me; but when I
waited upon him, with one of Madame’s Officers, who, by her Order
introduc’d me, that Minister receiv’d me with a Countenance as crabbed as
ever I saw. His Head was invelop’d in a monstrous large Peruke, that
hindered both his Sight and Hearing, which at other times were natural
enough to him. However, in Respect to Madame he heard me, and then said,
that the King had already made one considerable Reduction in his Troops,
and was going to make another; and that therefore he did not see what
Hopes I could have of being employ’d. I was very much dissatisfied with
this Answer, which was so different from the Promise he had made to Madame
and the Duke of _Orleans_. I made a Report to their Royal Highnesses of
what the Minister said to me; upon which the Duke of _Orleans_ told me,
_This signifies nothing, I will speak to him again, and I hope you will
find your Account in it_. He spoke accordingly, but _Voisin_ did nothing
the more nor the less for it. However, as I had a grateful Heart for the
Advances which Madame and the Duke her Son had been so good as to make in
my favor, I continu’d to pay my Duty to them; and they both gave me
Demonstration that they were not Insensible of my constant Attendance. I
was almost every Night at the Duke of _Orleans_’s Couchée. His Court was
then but small, and excepting his Domestics I was sometimes all alone with
him. I was the more amaz’d at the Carriage of the Courtiers to this
Prince, because ’twas natural to think that the Government of the Kingdom
would soon fall into his hands. The Duke of _Berry_ was just dead. The
King was too old to expect he could live much longer, and the Dauphin too
young to take the Management of Affairs upon him for a good while. In
short, every thing promis’d this Prince the Regency of the Kingdom
infallibly, yet scarce any body regarded him as the rising Sun. The
Courtiers Respect for the King made them all stick to his Majesty, and a
Reign so glorious and so long, seem’d to them as if it was never to have

I stay’d at _Paris_ the rest of the year 1714, and some Months of the year
1715. This Winter there was one of the noblest Sights in _Paris_ that
could be, _viz._ The Entry of the _Persian_ Ambassador, and especially the
Audience he had of his Majesty some days after it. But the Ambassador did
not contribute so much to the Lustre of this Shew, as to give us any great
Idea of the _Persian_ Magnificence; and indeed, in my whole Life I never
saw any thing so pitiful; for all his Equipage being out of Order, his
Domestics having scarce Cloaths to their Backs, and almost all of them
ill-looking Fellows, formed a very melancholy Scene. Besides, the Presents
he brought were really not worthy of the Prince that sent them, or of him
that received them. Before this Ambassador made his Entry, he lodg’d at
_Charenton_, to which Place every body went to stare at him as a Prodigy.
The Torrent carried me thither among the rest, and a numerous Company
there was of us. The Interpreter told us, before we went in, that a
Compliment must be made to the Ambassador, and we drew Cuts to determine
who should be the Speaker. The Lot fell upon me. I made but a very short
Speech to him, wherein after having congratulated him upon his Arrival, I
told him, that I hop’d his Stay in _Europe_, and especially in _France_,
would not be disagreeable to him. He thank’d me by his Interpreter, and
bid him tell me, that as he was come to see the greatest King in the
World, next to the Sophy his Master, he should be always satisfy’d, happen
what would to him, when once he had appeared before his Majesty. He made
us sit down, and we ask’d him several Questions concerning his Voyage, the
Court of _Persia_, and the Sophy; but he told us, that he had never been
at _Ispahan_, and never seen the Sophy. During this Conversation he gave
us Coffee and Sweet-meats, and was mighty civil to us.

But upon all Occasions when his Character was to be supported, he was not
near so tractable; for he then took upon him too much State, so that when
the Marshal _de Matignon_, who was to come from the King to carry him to
the Ambassadors House, was to enter his Chamber, he pretended that he was
not obliged to stand up. The Baron _de Breteuil_, the Introductor of the
Ambassadors, represented to him that he could do no less than pay that
Deference to M. _de Matignon_ who came from the King; but he might as well
have reason’d with a Post; and all that he could get from him, was a
Promise, that when the Marshal entered his Chamber he wou’d that Moment
rise and go out all at once. There was another Scene to manage when he
came down Stairs. They proposed to him to ride in the King’s Coach; but he
said, he would do no such thing; that it was a Cage; and that he would
make his Entry on horseback. The Baron _de Breteuil_, therefore, in order
to make him get into the Coach, was under a Necessity of talking smartly
to him; and even to threaten him, that he should make no Entry, nor have
any Audience, if he did not subject himself to the Customs establish’d in
_France_. At length the Ambassador capitulated, they split the Difference,
and he consented to ride one half of the way in the Coach, and the other
on horseback. I never saw such a Multitude of People as I did at this
Entry; the Concourse was really astonishing; for from the first Bar in the
Suburb of _St. Antoine_ to the Ambassadors House, there were Scaffolds all
along on both sides of the way, full of People. The same Croud of
Spectators follow’d him for several days, so that when he went abroad,
either to the Bagnio, or to take the Air, he could scarce go along, there
were such Throngs of People to gaze at him.

The Audience which the King gave him was a very magnificent Scene. _Lewis_
XIV. appeared at it in all the Majesty of a great King; and be the
Audiences of the _Great Mogul_, describ’d to us by _Tavernier_, ever so
brilliant, I can scarce think they are to compare with the Ceremony I am
now speaking of, and whereof I was an Eye-witness, which was performed in
the Great Gallery at _Versailles_. The King’s Throne, which was at one
end, and rais’d very high, was of a Gold Ground, with Flowers and the Arms
of _France_ embroider’d on it. The King was dress’d in a Suit of
Coffee-color’d Velvet, adorn’d with Jewels, to the Value of several
Millions. The young Dauphin was at his Majesty’s Right Hand in a Robe of
Gold Brocade, adorn’d with Diamonds and Pearls. The Duke of _Orleans_ was
on his Left, dress’d in a Suit of blue Velvet, adorn’d with a Gold
_Spanish_ Point, seeded with very beautiful Diamonds and Pearls. The
Princes of the Blood, the legitimated Princes, the Prince of _Dombes_ and
the Count _d’Eu_, both Sons to the Duke of _Maine_, sat in the same Row,
on the Right and Left of the King, all observing the Rank due to their
Birth. All along the Gallery on the Right-Side of the Throne, there were
several Rows of Steps, on which stood the Ladies richly dress’d. The
Duchess of _Berry_ and Madame were next to the Throne, and next to them
stood the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_, who was then at the Court of
_France_ with the Title of the Count of _Lusatia_. That Side of the
Gallery which fronts the Garden was taken up by Noblemen richly
apparell’d, and the Space which serv’d for the Passage, from the Entrance
of the Gallery to the Throne, was cover’d with a magnificent Tapestry, as
were the rest of the Apartments from the Stair-Case of Marble to the
Gallery. In the Courts below, the Regiments of the _French_ and _Swiss_
Guards, newly cloath’d, were rang’d in Order of Battle: And the
Life-Guards, the Musketeers, and all the King’s Houshold Troops were also
drawn up in the same Order. But the Splendor of the Soldiery was very much
lessen’d by a great Quantity of Rain which pour’d down almost all day

The Ambassador with all his Attendance pass’d thro’ all those Troops to
the Gallery; and when he was advanc’d near to the Throne, he there
deliver’d his Credentials to M. _de Torcy_, Minister and Secretary of
State, by whom they were given to the Interpreter, who read them. He
afterwards gave his Majesty the Presents that the Sophy sent him, which
were so inconsiderable, that at first sight one could hardly imagine they
were sent from one of the most powerful Monarchs of _Asia_. The Whole
consisted of Turquoise Stones, a Scymitar garnish’d with precious Stones,
a Box of Balm to which he ascribed wonderful Virtues, and some other
things of no great Value. After the Audience was over, the Ambassador was
regal’d, and then reconducted to the House of the Ambassadors, where he
was defray’d at the Expence of the Court, all the time that he staid at
_Paris_. He was furnish’d at first with the King’s Horses for himself and
his Retinue; but as his Stay was long, and as besides he spoil’d all the
King’s Horses, he was accommodated afterwards with Horses that were hir’d.

Some time after this Audience, the Ambassador went to the Opera, where the
Benches in the Amphitheatre were taken away, to make it more commodious to
hold him and his Retinue. Tho’ there was an incredible number of People of
the first Quality, he seem’d to be under no manner of Constraint, and
smoak’d his Pipe there a good while, with as much Freedom, as if he had
been in his Chamber. The Eagerness of the People to run after him was soon
abated; they began in a short time after his Arrival, to be indifferent
whether they saw him or not; and at length, they were so weary of him,
that every body wish’d publickly that he was gone.

I have had the Honor to acquaint you, that the Electoral Prince of
_Saxony_ was at the _Persian_’s Audience. This Prince had been for some
time in _France_; and tho’ he was _incog._ by the Name or Title of the
Count of _Lusatia_, he had the Retinue of a King’s Son. The Count _de
Coste_, who died Bishop of _Warmia_, was his Governor, and the Baron _de
Hagen_ his Sub-Governor. He had also several Gentlemen with him, besides
Pages, and a number of Officers. His Equipage was magnificent, and his
Table as elegant as could be desir’d. He was presented to the King by
_Madame_, who gave him out to be a _German_ Gentleman of a good Family.

This Prince gave a sumptuous Ball at the Hotel _de Soissons_, in the
Apartment where _Dumont_ the Envoy of _Holstein_ liv’d. There was an
amazing Croud of Masqueraders, and among the rest your humble Servant, who
had good Diversion there with a Lady who trusted me with a Secret, by
mistake, for another Person. As she is a Lady of some Distinction, you’ll
excuse me from telling her Name. All that I shall do my self the Honor to
acquaint you of at present is, that she was a Duchess who was fond of
_R----_ to Distraction; but he had abandon’d her for Mademoiselle _de
S----_. The Duchess saw him enter the Ball-Room with _V----_, who was
formerly a Confident of their Amours, and an intimate Friend of _R----_.
The Duchess, as disguis’d as she was, was presently known by her faithless
Lover; so that when she went to lay hold of him, he slily stole away with
his Friend, and secreted himself in the Croud. Being afraid of Reproaches
from the Duchess, he thought fit also to change his Domino. _V----_
likewise exchang’d his for mine. _R----_ shew’d me the Place where he had
seen the Duchess, and desir’d me to pass by her, but not to speak to her,
in case that she offered to talk with me. I promis’d every thing he ask’d,
yet was resolv’d to have a Parley with her, if I found a proper
Opportunity, which soon presented. You must know, that I so much resembled
M. _de V----_ in Stature, that the Duchess readily took me for him, and
beckoning me aside, at the Instant that she was in high Wrath with
_R----_, for refusing to speak to her, she made a general Confession to me
of all her Intrigue. While she was going on thus, without Reserve, to
make a Variety of Confessions to me, of which I thought she might repent
when she knew that she had been speaking to the wrong Person; I
interrupted her by saying, _She was mistaken in her Man, and that I was
not_ V----. She reply’d hastily, _What need all these Grimaces? Hear me
out to the End of my Tale. This is not a Place to play the fool in. You
know_, continu’d she, _that I have granted the ungrateful Man but every
thing_. I broke in upon her again, and said to her, _By my Troth_, Madame,
_I did not know one word of the Matter till now_. She jeer’d me for
pretending to be ignorant of what she had been telling me, and continu’d
her Discourse to me with all the Plainness and True-heartedness that is
seldom found in Narratives of this nature. After she had run on a good
while, she said, _Alas!_ Sir, _What say you, Speak, now is your Time to
speak, and justify your Friend, if you can. I really think_, replied I,
_that +R----+ is a Scoundrel to set so little a Value upon the Kindness
you have for him; and instead of justifying him, when I see him, I shall
certainly rattle him for it. I shall tell him every Tittle that you have
now done me the Honor to divulge to me; and tho’ I am not +V----+, nor
very intimate with +R----+, I am persuaded that he will give Attention to
what I shall say to him. Ah, Sir!_ replied the Duchess, _Why do ye go to
alter the natural Tone of your Voice? How can you deny your self? What
have I done to be thus treated? Upon my Honor, Madam_ I said, _I don’t
impose on you; let your own Eyes be Witness_. At the same Moment I pull’d
off my Mask. The Lady was so astonish’d that I can’t express it. She cou’d
not speak; and I perceiv’d, by her Confusion for having made such an open
Confession to me, that she did not know, whether she had best say on, or
retire? I really pitied her, and did all I could to hearten her. I begg’d
her to be assur’d that I would keep every thing she had said to me
inviolably secret; and that I was as sensible as she could be, of the
Consequence of revealing Things of that nature. The good Lady began to
pluck up her Spirits; and after some farther Discourse she desir’d me to
hand her out, and to help her to find her Coach. It was impossible to
discover her Coach or mine either in the Croud; and therefore she chose to
take a Hack. I went with her to her House, where she desir’d me to go back
to the Ball, and tell the Ladies whom I had seen in her Company that she
was taken very ill. I obey’d her Orders punctually, and did not fail next
Day to pay her a Visit, and this Visit pav’d the way for others, which
gave me an Opportunity to contract a most intimate Acquaintance with her.
I had the Honor, in short, of being her most esteemed Friend, and found
her possess’d of a thousand good Qualities, which render’d her the best
Companion in the World.

The most comical part of this Adventure was, to find _R----_ quarrelling
bitterly with the Duchess for holding a long Parley with a Gentleman in
Masquerade at the Ball. He pretended to be jealous, and wrote a thundering
Letter to her next day, wherein he told her, that he would have nothing
more to do with her. On the other hand Madam _de R----_, with whom I went
to the Ball, and whom I was still passionately fond of, took advantage of
the Conference I had with the Duchess, and also pretended Jealousy, (for
to be serious, I knew afterwards that ’twas only a Copy of her
Countenance.) She expatiated a good deal upon her Uneasiness at the long
Conversation that pass’d betwixt us. I was silly enough to believe that
she was sincere in what she said, and more Fool still to be transported
with the Thought that I had made her jealous. I did all in my power,
however, to remove her Suspicions; in a word, I said every thing that a
Lover can say, who loves sincerely, and would convince that he does so.
She seem’d to be satisfy’d with my Protestations; but yet instead of
making a suitable Return to the Respect I had for her, she continu’d to
teaze me all the rest of the Winter. Her Behavior was so extremely
coquetish, that it gave me a deal of Vexation; and besides, I did not like
to see the Marquis _de V----_ so often at her House.

I had been pester’d with this Marquis for a long time. ’Twas he that took
away _S----_ from me; and no sooner was I got into the Favor of Madame _de
R----_, but he found a way to insinuate himself there too. I was so
provok’d to see him always at my Heels, that I quarrel’d with him one day
at _C----_, where we happen’d to meet at the House of the President _de
N----_. We were actually at Daggers-drawing, when M. _de C----_ came and
parted us. _V----_ assur’d me that he had no manner of Pretence to Madame
_de R----_, and actually promis’d me, that if I did not like his Visits to
her, he would not renew them. And he was as good as his Word, so that I
was perfectly reconcil’d to him; but I was not at all pleas’d with Madam
_de R----_. I saw plainly that I was betray’d. I had fresh Cause to
suspect her every day, and yet I hugged the Chains wherewith she had bound
me; in which I sufficiently confuted the vulgar Error of those who assert,
that People never love heartily but once. I ought, however, to reflect a
little upon this last Amour, which was extremely hurtful to me. Madam _de
R----_ was so extravagant that a Man could not be upon good Terms with
her, without being, at an excessive Expence. To support my self I borrow’d
Money every where, till e’er long I knew not where to find Lenders. On the
other hand my Creditors began to make me frequent Visits, till they were
tir’d with my continually putting them off from one time to another, and
then truly they resolv’d to proceed against me by Law; and at length took
out a Writ to attach my Person. I was very much stunn’d at the News, but
because I had put them in an ill Humor, I was willing to avoid the Effects
of it, by keeping my Chamber for some days, till M. _de N----_ had
procur’d me an Order to stay Prosecution. This Respite put me upon ways
and means to find Money, all my Desire being to satisfy my Creditors. I
was aware how difficult it was to get a sufficient Sum to pay them
remitted from home; for all my Estate was entail’d upon my Brother and
Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_; and she never intended to give her Consent to
the mortgaging of any part of it. Yet having no other way to bring my self
out of Trouble, I got my Friends to intercede with her; which they did so
powerfully, that at length they really prevail’d on her to agree to the
borrowing of some Money upon the Estate, which was lent accordingly; and
by this Means I got happily out of this Scrape. The Difficulties I had
been plung’d in made me wiser, and I lessen’d my Expences, which I
perceiv’d, indeed, was not the way to preserve the Favor of Madam _de
R----_. But what should I do? To dip my self again over head and ears in
Debt, and to run the risque of having another scurvy Action enter’d
against me, was what I could not resolve on. At this same time I obtain’d
a Pension of 2000 Livres; but as to an Employment, none could I get of the
Secretary at War.

This put me so much out of Temper, that notwithstanding my Passion for
Madam _de R----_, and my being so much attach’d to _France_, I determin’d
to try once more for an Establishment elsewhere. For this purpose I wrote
to the Prince of _H----_, a General Officer in the Emperor’s Service, and
a Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, who return’d me a very obliging Answer,
how glad he should be to admit me into his Regiment; but that there was no
Company vacant in it, nor none like to be, unless I could strike a Bargain
with a certain old Captain who had a Design to retire, and would gladly
part with his Company for 2000 Crowns. To find such a round Sum as 2000
Crowns, in the Situation which I was in then, and to find the
Philosopher’s Stone, was as easy for me one as the other. I resolv’d,
however, to treat with the Captain.

I therefore set out for _Bruges_, where the Prince of _H----_ was in
Garison with his Regiment. I met with a Captain, but he was pretty stiff,
and would absolutely hear of no Terms but the Money down, or old Plate for
Security. The Prince, who really wish’d me well, and perfectly knew the
State of my Affairs, wrote to my Cousin to persuade her to consent to my
taking up some more Money upon the Estate. I also indited the most moving
Letter I could, to melt her; but ’twas all to no purpose: The Answers she
return’d were very sarcastical. She set me off to the Life, and she had
the Art to persuade the Prince who had wrote to her, that to give me Leave
to borrow more Money, was to put a Sword into the Hands of a Mad-man. For
my own part I was in a manner convinc’d that she had Reason on her side. I
therefore quitted all Thoughts of the Company which I propos’d to buy, and
set out for _Paris_.

I was not sorry to leave BRUGES[52], it being one of the saddest Places in
the _Netherlands_ for a Man to live in, who is not a Merchant; yet ’tis a
very considerable City. ’Tis said to be very ancient, and that it was
encompass’d with Walls in the Year 865. It was formerly dependant on the
Bishopric of _Tournay_; but since the Reign of _Philip_ II. it has been
erected into a Bishop’s See, which is now Suffragan to the Archbishopric
of _Mechlin_. Its Cathedral, which is dedicated to St. _Donat_, is a very
old and a very fine Structure. The other Churches are also of an elegant
Model, especially the _Jesuits_ Church and our _Lady_’s. In the latter
there’s the Tomb of _Charles_ the _Bold_ the last Duke of _Burgundy_ who
was kill’d before _Nancy_, from whence his Corpse was translated hither,
by order of _Mary_ of _Austria_, his Grandaughter, the Widow of a King of
_Hungary_ and Sister to the Emperor _Charles_ V. The Situation of _Bruges_
is very advantagious, it being but three Leagues from the Sea; and for the
Ease of its Trade there are several Canals cut in it, on which Vessels
pass to and fro as they do in _Holland_; with this Conveniency moreover,
that People dine there as elegantly as in the best Tavern. Tho’ all these
Canals have a Communication with the Sea, yet their Waters are not fast,
by reason of the Sluices and other Machines, which they make use of to
prevent it. ’Tis natural to suppose, that Fields in which so many Canals
are cut, must be fertile; yet the Trade of _Bruges_ is very much dwindled
since the flourishing of that of _Amsterdam_, which has engross’d it all
to it self.

I forgot to tell you, that ’twas at _Burges_ the Order of the Golden
Fleece was instituted by _Philip_ the _Good_, Duke of _Burgundy_ on the
very Day that he consummated his Marriage with _Isabel_ the Daughter of
_John_ King of _Portugal_. ’Twas to this City also that _Charles_ II. King
of _England_ came for Refuge, when his Subjects rebell’d against him; and
so well was he receiv’d here, that when he was in peaceable Possession of
his Throne he shew’d his Gratitude, by permitting the Citizens to send
fifty Vessels every year to the Coasts of _England_, to catch Herrings. So
much, _Madame_, for _Bruges_.

Just as I was setting out, I heard that the Prince of _H----_ was going
for NEWPORT[53], where there was a Battalion of his Regiment in Garison;
and thither I went with him. This, which is a very ancient Town, was
heretofore intirely destroy’d by the _English_, and afterwards rebuilt by
_Philip_ the _Bold_, Duke of _Burgundy_. The Rebels of _Ghent_ burnt it in
1383, because it continued faithful to its Sovereign. It held out a very
sharp Siege by the _French_, in which the Women display’d a very great
share of Valour. During the Revolt of the _Netherlands_ it submitted to
the Prince of _Parma_. In that same War, the _Dutch_ who were besieging
it, under Prince _Maurice_ of _Orange_, gain’d a great Victory over the
_Spaniards_, at the Gates of the Town; and yet they thought fit to raise
the Siege. They say, that with some Expence _Newport_ might be made one of
the best Harbors in the Ocean; and a Plan for this purpose was given to
the Marquis _de Priè_, Commandant in the _Netherlands_; but hitherto it
has not been approv’d of. Tho’ ’tis a Town not very much fortify’d, yet
’tis a strong Place considering the Advantage it has of laying all the
Country round it under Water. ’Tis quite encompass’d with Downs and
Marshes, the former of which abound with Rabbets. The Prince of _H----_
gave me the Pleasure of Hunting there, which is the only Diversion that
can be taken by Officers who are condemn’d to be in Garison in such a Hole
as _Newport_. We staid there two Days, after which the Prince and Princess
of _H----_ return’d to _Bruges_. For my own part I accompanied the Prince
of _Holstein_ to YPRES, of which he is Governor for the _Dutch_.

This is one of the best Cities in _Europe_, and is notable for having
suffer’d several Sieges. The Rebels made themselves Masters of it in the
Reign of _Philip_ II. when they plundered the Churches and Convents, and
drove out the Fryars. The Archduke _Leopold_ retook it from those
Furiosos, and it remained in Possession of _Spain_ till 1658, when ’twas
taken by the Marshal _de Turenne_; but by the _Pyrenean_ Treaty it
reverted to its lawful Sovereign. In 1678, _Lewis_ XIV. besieg’d it in
Person and took it; and by the Treaty of _Nimeguen_, which was concluded
the same year, ’twas yielded to him by _Spain_. The _French_ caus’d it to
be considerably fortify’d; after which they remain’d peaceable Possessors
of it till the Peace of _Utrecht_, when they yielded it to the Allies, in
exchange for _Lisle_ which had been taken from the _French_. _Ypres_ is
now a Barrier for the _Dutch_, who keep a good Garison in it.
Nevertheless, Justice is administer’d, and the Taxes raised here, in the
Name of the Emperor, as Sovereign of _Spanish Flanders_.

From _Ypres_ I went to _Lisle_, of which I have already had the Honor to
give you some Account; and from _Lisle_ in a very short time I proceeded
to PARIS. Who should I see there, but the famous Countess of _Wartemberg_?
The Chevalier _de B----_, who being at _Utrecht_ during the Congress, had
there sign’d a Contract to marry her, returning to _France_ as soon as the
Peace was concluded, the Countess follow’d him and came to _Versailles_,
where she had the Honor of waiting on the King. She wore the Pictures of
three Kings as a Bracelet on her Arm, which she shew’d to the King,
telling him at the same time, _That after she had seen three Monarchs at
her Feet, she was now come from the Heart of_ Germany _to throw her self
at the Feet of his Majesty_. The King, who was surpriz’d at the
Compliment, star’d at her, but said not a Word. Some days after this she
appear’d at the Play-house, stuck all over with Diamonds; and those so
large, that she was call’d, _The Lady of precious Stones_. All the young
Fellows combin’d to have a Pluck at her, and every younger Brother of a
Family thought those Diamonds would look as well upon him as they did upon
the Countess. When they had pilfer’d some from her, she was more cautious
how she paraded with ’em for the future. Yet notwithstanding all her Care,
the Chevalier _de B----_ dextrously stripp’d her of all she had in one
day. He had been for some time wishing that he could revoke the
Marriage-Contract which he had sign’d with the Countess; his Family also
press’d him to break off his Engagement with her; and in fine, not knowing
what Course to take to recover the Contract, which the Lady refus’d to
restore, he made use of this very singular Expedient. One day when he was
at _Versailles_, he set out Post from thence to find out the Countess of
_Wartemberg_, and told her that the King had just receiv’d an Express from
_Berlin_, by which the King of _Prussia_ desir’d him to put her under an
Arrest, and to seize her Diamonds, and other Effects, as having been stole
from the King his Father. _I just had the News_, said the Chevalier to
her, _from M._ de T----, _who knowing the Respect I have for you, was
willing to give me an Opportunity of doing you Service, by guarding you
from the Misfortune that threatens you_. The Countess being thunder-struck
at this News, said to the Chevalier in a Fright, _O my God! What shall we
do? Your only way_, said he, _is to give me Charge of all your Diamonds;
your Interests and mine are the same; I don’t believe you suspect me; I
will carry them all to my Father’s House, where they will be safe: And as
for your Person, you may be very easy; for M._ de T----_has assur’d me,
that ’tis your Effects they want, and not your Person_. Madame _de
Wartemberg_ believ’d every Tittle of what he said, and esteeming the
Chevalier as her Guardian Angel, she deliver’d up all her Diamonds to him,
with every thing besides of most Value. _B----_ having all this Booty,
took his Leave of her. The Countess thought she had play’d a very cunning
Part in thus securing her Effects; but ’twas not long before she was
sensible that she had play’d a foolish one. _B----_ was not to be seen
for four or five days. The Countess, startled at his absenting himself,
wrote Letter after Letter to him, but could not obtain so much as one
Answer. At last, on the fifth day, _B----_ made his Appearance, and gave
the good Lady some Encouragement. He told her that her Jewels were all
safe; and that she might have them whenever she pleas’d, upon this
trifling Condition only; namely, that she would restore him the Contract
he had sign’d to marry her. The Countess extremely surpriz’d at this
Compliment, made Answer to the Chevalier, That Princesses of the Empire
were not to be thus treated; that she was come to _Paris_ upon his
Engagement to marry her; and that she knew how to oblige him to it.
_B----_, who was resolv’d to break with her at any rate, told her, that
she was at her full Liberty to chuse either of these two Proposals that he
made to her, _viz._ To go to Law, and thereby to be certain of losing her
Effects; or else, to recover them, by restoring that Paper to him which he
demanded. He made her sensible, that by going to Law, he might naturally
hope to get the better of her, not only from the Justice of his Cause, but
from the Interest of his Relations; and that as to her Effects, since
there was no Witness that saw her deliver them into his Hands, he should
take a Course which she would think pretty hard, _viz._ Deny that he had
ever receiv’d them, and in the mean time sell one part of the Jewels to
enable him to find Law to keep the rest. The Countess perceiving that the
Chevalier was resolv’d to be as good as his Word, and that she had no
Chance to get any thing, determin’d to give up the Contract; and _B----_
thereupon brought back her Diamonds; which was such an honest Action on
his part, that it engag’d Madam _de Wartemberg_ to make him a Present of a
noble Ring, valu’d at 20,000 Livres. And thus ended her Correspondence
with _B----_.

The Countess, to make her self easy for the Loss of her Lover, resolv’d to
look out for others; but she was not happy in the Variety of her Choice.
_They were all_, said she, _insincere; and for the most part knavishly
inclin’d_. In short, she renounc’d all manner of Society with _Frenchmen_;
she thought them too volatile and nimble for her, and upon this Occasion
she extol’d the _Germans_ for the honestest Souls in the World; yet she
soon found the contrary, to her Cost: For having made an Acquaintance with
a clever handsome young _German_, they both promis’d each other Marriage,
as soon as they came to a Protestant Country, and a Contract was actually
sign’d between them for that purpose; but the Spark thought that after
they had sign’d and seal’d, the Nuptial Benediction was only an
insignificant Ceremony to admit them into a Partnership in their worldly
Goods; and that his Right ought to commence from the very day that the
Articles were agreed to. Upon this Principle he thought fit to march off
with all the precious Stones of his Spouse that was to be, and set out
with them from _Paris_, designing to elope to _Lorrain_. The Countess, who
was soon inform’d of his Departure, was mortally uneasy at the Treachery
of her Lover, tho’ the Danger she was in of losing her Diamonds stuck most
to her Heart. By good Luck she had Intelligence what Road her dear Thief
went, and sent a Messenger after him, who found him at _Meaux_, where he
was so unwise as to make a Halt for some days. He was brought back to
_Paris_, where the Countess, who denied that she had ever made the least
Proposal of Marriage to the Stripling, was preparing to swinge him; but
the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_, by whom he was protected, put a stop to
all further Prosecution, and caus’d the Jewels to be restor’d to Madam _de
Wartemberg_, who did not insist upon his Promise of Marriage; for being of
a Temper that did not permit her to be idle, she had already contracted a
clandestine Marriage with _F----_. These various Intrigues happening so
soon one after another, were so much talk’d of, that the Countess did not
think fit to stay any longer in _France_, but set out for _Holland_, where
she remains to this day[54].

Towards the Close of the Year, _viz._ on the 1st of _September_ 1715,
_France_ lost _Lewis_ XIV. He died a Death truly Christian, for which he
had been some time before preparing himself; so that when Notice was given
him, that he must make ready to go out of this World, he was not at all
surpriz’d. He took his last Farewel of his Family with a Courage worthy of
Admiration. He gave his Blessing to the young Dauphin, the Heir of his
Crown; which he accompanied with several important Advices and
Exhortations, especially not to go to War without a just Cause, and not to
be so fond of it as he had been. Then he ordered what Mourning the young
Monarch should wear, adding, that what he prescrib’d to him was the same
that he wore at the Death of the King his Father. This Monarch express’d a
vast Affection for the Princes of his Family, and strongly recommended his
Successor to the Duke of _Orleans_. They say that he stretch’d forth his
Hand to the Marshal _de Villeroy_, and said to him, _Adieu, my Friend, we
must part_. Madame _de Maintenon_ staid with the King all the Time of his
Illness, because he desir’d it, except one Day, when the King being so ill
that they thought he could not recover it, she return’d to _St. Cyr_; but
as soon as the Monarch came to himself, and found Madame _de Maintenon_
gone, he sent for her, and begg’d her not to forsake him. Accordingly she
continu’d with him till his Death, upon which she went back to _St. Cyr_,
where she liv’d mightily retir’d till 1719, when she died.

’Tis astonishing to think what a Change there was at Court upon the Death
of _Lewis_ XIV. The Courtiers stuck fast to him, to the very last Moment
of his Life, not at all minding the Princes; no, not even the Duke of
_Orleans_: but the very Moment that the King died, the Face of every thing
was alter’d; and all the Court was made to the Duke of _Orleans_, as the
sole Dispenser of Favors, who went, accompanied by all the Princes and
Courtiers, to the young Monarch, and paid him the due Homage.

_Lewis_ XIV. had appointed the Duke of _Orleans_ Regent of the Kingdom by
his last Will; but at the same time he nominated several Noblemen for
Associates in the Government, without whom he could conclude nothing. He
also depriv’d him of the Guardianship of the young King, and gave it to
the Duke _de Maine_; in a word, he bound his Hands in such a manner, that
this Prince had nothing but the Shadow of the Regency. The Duke, however,
artfully procur’d that Honor to be paid to him, which he claim’d as his
due. He conducted the young King to Parliament with a great Train. The
_French_ and _Swiss_ Guards being drawn up in a Line in the Streets, to
the very Gates of the Palais or Parliament-House, the _Gens d’Arms_,
Musketeers, Light-Horse and Life-Guards attended his Majesty to the
Palais, where he was receiv’d with the usual Ceremonies, and conducted to
the Court, which they call his _Bed_ of Justice. When every body had taken
their Seats, the Duke of _Orleans_ broke silence and said, _That tho’ the
Regency belonged to him by Birth-right, yet he was very glad he could
produce the Codicil of the late King to them in proof of it; which having
caus’d to be read, together with the Will, he shew’d the Inconveniencies
that might arise from the little Authority which was given to him; and
that his Rank and Birth had always intitled him to hope for more_. And
having said this, he demanded of the Parliament, _Whether they did not own
him for the Sovereign Administrator of the Kingdom_. He added, _That
whatever Authority should be given him, he should be glad to follow the
Advice of the Parliament; that he would share his Authority with the
Grandees of the Kingdom; and that if there should happen to be a Failure
of Justice in his Administration, it would then be a Pleasure to him to
bear their Remonstrances_. He clos’d all with saying, _That he should like
well enough to have his Hands restrained from doing wrong, but that he
wish’d they might be at entire Liberty to do good_. The Votes ran in his
Favor; the late King’s Will was annull’d, the Duke of _Orleans_ declared
Regent of the Kingdom, and Guardian of the King; and the Superintendancy
of his Majesty’s Education was given to the Duke of _Maine_. The Regent
return’d his Thanks to the Parliament; and at the same time told them,
_that he was for pursuing a Plan of Government that was found among the
Papers of the Duke of +Burgundy+, Father to the present King; according to
which Plan it appeared that the said Prince had a Design to establish
Councils for every Province, whether of the Finances, War, Admiralty, &c.
and to be governed entirely by what the Majority of the Voices therein
should determine_.

The Duke _du Maine_ had no reason to be satisfy’d with this Assembly; for
besides being depriv’d of the Guardianship of the King, he had much ado to
preserve the Prerogatives which the late King had annex’d to the Quality
of a legitimated Prince of the Blood. The Dukes and Peers declared
immediately against the Precedency that had been granted to those Princes,
and carried their Complaints to the Bed of Justice, where they demanded
that they might only be considered as a Part of their Body; and that they
might be allow’d no other Rank than what they deriv’d from their Peerages.
Hereafter we shall also find the Princes of the Blood declaring against
those Princes that had been legitimated.

This Demand of the Dukes did not take place at that time, no more than
another which they also made upon the same Day, _viz._ that the first
President, when he ask’d their Opinion in Parliament, should veil the
Bonnet to them, in the same manner as to the Princes of the Blood. The
Duke of _Orleans_ desir’d them to permit the Usages of Parliament to be
observ’d on that Day, and assured them that he would decide that Affair
very shortly. The President _de Novion_, afterwards the first President,
then spoke, and answered the Regent, that his Royal Highness had no Right
to make a Decision in an Affair which related directly to the Person of
the King, whom the Parliament had the Honor of representing in his
Majesty’s Absence; and that consequently nothing could be alter’d in the
Usage of Parliament, but by the King himself when he came of Age.

After the Court of Justice broke up, the King return’d to _Vincennes_,
where he resided after the Death of the late King, till the Palace of the
_Thuilleries_ was made fit for his Reception. The Regent and the Princes
accompanied the King, and they afterwards went back to _Paris_, each Man
to his own House. They say that the Duke of _Maine_ was no sooner return’d
home, but the Duchess his Wife, impatient to know what had pass’d in the
Bed of Justice, came that very instant to ask him what News he brought;
and when he told her, that the Regent was the sole Master of the King and
Kingdom, she reproach’d him bitterly.

As soon as the _Louvre_ was in a readiness the King set out thither from
_Vincennes_, where Lodgings were laid out for the Princes and Princesses
of the Blood. The Palace of _Luxemburg_ was given to the Duchess of
_Berry_, who made great Alterations in the Apartments. This Princess had a
mighty Ascendant over her Father the Duke of _Orleans_, and she made such
a use of it that there was not a day but she obtain’d new Favors. As she
was the first Princess in the Kingdom, there being at that time no Queen,
she desir’d to have a Captain of the Guards to attend her; a Privilege
which none had ever enjoy’d before but the Queens. The Duke of _Orleans_
could not deny her, and the Person invested with this Character was the
Marquis _de la Rochefoucault_. Madame no sooner heard of this
Augmentation of Officers in the Houshold of the Duchess her Daughter, but
she presently appointed M. _de Harling_ to be Captain of her Guards, who
was a _German_ Gentleman that had been her Page. The Duchess of _Berry_
wanted also to be stil’d _Madame_ as well as the Princess her Mother; yet
to prevent Confusion she signify’d, that when they made mention of her
they should not call her _Madame la Duchesse de Berry_, but _Madame,
Duchesse de Berry_. Moreover, she pretended to the Right of having
Kettle-Drums and Trumpets sounded before her when she went abroad in
Ceremony, tho’ this was never observ’d to any body but the Queen. In
short, this Princess enter’d once into _Paris_ with all this Attendance,
as she return’d from _la Muette_. When she pass’d before the Palace of the
_Thuilleries_, the Officers of the Guards were very much astonish’d to
hear the Trumpets, and represented that no body but the King and Queen
ought to march with such Pomp; upon which Madame _de Berry_ wav’d her
Privilege for the future, tho’ with regard only to _Paris_.

Some will imagine, perhaps, that this Princess, who was so fond of
Grandeur, must naturally be difficult of Access and of very stiff Behavior
to Persons that had the Honor of approaching her. Yet she was quite the
Reverse. I was acquainted with several Ladies that had the Honor of some
Familiarity with her; and they all assur’d me, that she was the
best-natur’d Princess in the World. She never stood upon Formalities in
point of Ceremonial with the Generality of the Ladies, but freely
permitted them to come and visit her in a Scarf. ’Tis true indeed that she
did not affect Dress herself, and consequently it would not have been
good Manners for the Princesses and Court-Ladies to appear in a formal
Dress, which she was scarce ever seen in her self. _Madame_, as I have
already had the Honor to tell you, was much more precise. She was always
in the Court-Dress, and never suffer’d any but Ladies that were advanc’d
in years, or such as were not in Health, to appear before her in any

The Duke Regent, according to the Promise he had made to the Parliament,
when he held the Bed of Justice, establish’d several Councils. There was
one which was call’d _The Council of the Regency_, others for War, the
Finances, the Marine, and for Affairs Foreign. All the Ministers of the
late King were dismiss’d, except the Chancellor _Voisin_, who kept his
Post. M. _Desmaretz_ and M. _de Pontchartrain_, one the Minister of the
Finances, the other of Affairs Marine, were both destitute of Employment.
M. _Desmaretz_ was put to some trouble in a Chamber which the Regent
establish’d at the _Grand Augustins_, for calling to account those who had
had the Management of the public Money. ’Twas called the _Chamber of
Justice_; and the President _Portail_, who is now the first President, was
at the Head of it. Great Advantages were expected from this Establishment,
which would, they said, not only pay off the King’s Debts, but also bring
considerable Sums into his Coffers; nevertheless it all came to nothing.
There was a Fine laid indeed, and ’twas a general one; but as most of the
Financiers had married their Daughters to the Great Men of the Kingdom,
they came off for a Trifle; the Unfortunate paid for all: Some were
condemn’d to the Galleys, and others to perpetual Imprisonment, after
having been set in the Pillory, where the People had the Pleasure of
insulting them; and that was all they got by it. As for the King, he was
not a Penny the richer for it; and no body got more by it than the Ladies
who sollicited for the lowering of the Fines, and ran away with almost all
the Profit. The Public, in general, was very much perplex’d by it: Most
People, afraid of being fin’d, hid their Silver, which Metal so necessary,
became so scarce in but six Months time, that it look’d as if _Lewis_ XIV.
had carried it all out of the Kingdom with him to the other World. They
began to lament the Loss of that Prince, and the Love of the Public for
the Regent vanish’d very fast, ’Twas not long before, that every one
thought they had reason to curse the late King; and the _Frenchman_, who
is naturally fickle, imagin’d without knowing why or wherefore, that the
Death of _Lewis_ XIV. would be the beginning of a more happy Century. The
Prince who was at the Head of the Administration was loaded with
Blessings, tho’ he had not yet done any thing to win their Hearts; and in
a very short time this same Prince, who was so much ador’d, found himself
the Subject of the most stinging Satire. He soon took care to be inform’d
how the Public stood affected to him. I happen’d to be one day at
_Madame_’s, when this Prince declared aloud, _Six Months ago_, said he, _I
was perfectly ador’d in_ Paris, _tho’ I had done nothing to deserve it;
and I am now as much hated, but for what reason I should be glad to know_.
He knew perhaps, or at least he ought to have known it. The Scarcity of
Silver was the only Cause of it; and it appeared by the Regent’s Conduct,
that the King’s Coffers were so far from being full, that Payments were
made, not in Silver, but in Paper; a Money always fluctuating, and with
which the _French_ began to be tir’d. They had so often seen Bills, with
various Denominations; and the Fare of the last sort call’d _Mint-Bills_,
in particular, was so fresh in their Memory, that it was almost impossible
they should entertain a better Opinion of those that were created at the
beginning of the Regency, by the Name of _Government-Bills_: Yet these
were admitted notwithstanding the great Clamor against them; and by and by
we shall find that the _French_, who are always doom’d to be bubbled, gave
into a new Paper-Scheme, more specious perhaps to view, but more ruinous
in the Event, than those which had appear’d before it.

Another thing which put the People out of conceit with the Government, was
the Fluctuation of Measures at the Royal Palace, where nothing was fix’d;
and what was done one day, was cancell’d the next. The Regent, who was
really a good-natur’d and very affable Prince, seem’d to put himself into
the hands of too many People: No body that had a Favor to ask was turn’d
away; it often happen’d that the same Thing was promis’d to two Persons,
and a third obtain’d it. Pensions, Gratuities and Employments were
promis’d, but the Promise seldom kept: So far from it, that several
Pensions were suppress’d, and mine, which cost me so much Pains in the
Sollicitation, was of that number. I made some Bustle to be put upon the
List again; yet all that I could obtain was a Promise that my Pension
should be renew’d very soon: But the Performance is still to come.

All this striking off of Pensions, together with a considerable Reduction
of the Army, reduc’d a great many People to Beggary. I saw several
Knights of St. _Lewis_ at that very time, waiting with Impatience for the
Dusk of the Evening, that they might go out, and beg Alms in the public
Places. This extreme Misery was attended, as may be easily imagin’d, by
Robberies and Murders; so that all this while _Paris_ had a great
Resemblance to a Wood. My Apprehension that I should be a Sharer in the
common Desolation, engag’d me to pay my Court to _Madame_ with more
Assiduity than ever, and I earnestly intreated her to honor me with her
Recommendation to the Regent. The Princess return’d me for Answer, _That
she was resolv’d not to meddle or make; that however I had no reason to be
uneasy; that there was no Necessity for her speaking in my Behalf to the
Prince her Son, since he was naturally inclined to serve me; but that for
the present he was so over-burdened with Affairs and Sollicitations, that
I must have patience for a while longer_. I made her Answer, _That I was
very willing to wait as long as her Royal Highness pleas’d; but that I was
sadly afraid I was not in a Situation to stay long_. _Madame_ reply’d to
me, _There is a Remedy for all Things: Be you to-morrow at my Closet as
soon as I have din’d_. I was there punctually according to her Orders, and
found her all alone. As soon as she saw me she said, _I am a poor Widow
that can’t do great Matters for you, but I have a mind to oblige you_. She
then gave me the Key of her Bureau, and bid me open it, and take a Bag out
of one Corner of it, in which there was Gold to the Tune of three thousand
Livres. I receiv’d it with all the Gratitude possible; and this fresh
Token of her Royal Highness’s Goodness attach’d me to her more than ever.

The Dukes and Peers at this very time renew’d a Demand which they had
already made in the Parliament, touching the Obeisance they expected to be
made to them by the first President when he call’d for their Opinion: They
also claim’d several Prerogatives over the[55] Nobility, and wanted to
establish themselves as a Middle State between the Princes of the Blood
and those call’d Gentlemen. The Regent made them Answer, _That for his
part he had never acknowledg’d more than three Orders, the Clergy, the
Nobility, and the third Estate; and that ’twas their Business to choose
which Class they would be of, without aiming at a chimerical Establishment
which was intirely unprecedented_. The Dukes demanded moreover, to be
excus’d from drawing their Swords in any Quarrel with a private Gentleman;
but the Duke _de la Feuillade_ refus’d to sign this Petition, because he
said, _He would not be expos’d to an Affront from any Gentleman, and he
restrain’d from resenting it_.

The Parliament did not vouchsafe to answer the Memorial of the Dukes, and
only confirm’d what the President _de Novion_ had advanc’d, that it was
the King’s sole Right to determine Claims of that sort, and that therefore
they must wait till his Majesty was of Age. The Nobility did not treat the
Demand of the Dukes with the same Indifference as the Parliament, and met
to consider how they should behave; but there came an Order forbidding
them to continue their Assemblies. Yet for all this Prohibition they drew
up a Memorial between themselves, which was presented to the King. This
Conduct of theirs so disgusted the Court, that several of the Nobles who
were known to have the greatest Hand in the Memorial were taken up and
committed to the _Bastile_. The Dukes met at the same time at the House of
the Archbishop of _Rheims_, who was afterwards the Cardinal _de Mailly_.
In fine, the Result of all these Motions on both sides, was a Declaration
issued by his Majesty, requiring that every thing should remain in the
same State as in the late King’s Life-time, without prejudice to the
Rights of either Party. A zealous Parliamentarian, who, ’tis like, could
not brook that Pretensions so frivolous as that of the Dukes should remain
unanswer’d, publish’d a very long Tract to prove, that several of the
Dukes were not Gentlemen; and that the Generality of the Members of
Parliament were indisputably of better Extraction than those who were
grac’d with the Title of Dukes. I question if _Henry_ IV. who very often
did the Nobility the Honor to call himself a Gentleman, would have left
the Claim of the Dukes undetermin’d.

At this very time the Princes of the Blood presented a Petition to his
Majesty against the Legitimated Princes. The former were uneasy to see
the latter in possession of Rank equal to theirs, and pretending to an
equal Share with them in the Right of Succession to the Crown; and
therefore demanded that the Legitimated Princes, _viz._ the Duke _du
Maine_ and the Count _de Toulouse_, and their Descendants, should be
declar’d to have forfeited the Rank of Princes of the Blood; and that the
Act by which the late King declared those Princes capable of succeeding to
the Crown, should be struck out of the Registers of the Parliament.

The Legitimated Princes presented a Memorial to the King on their part,
whereby they represented to his Majesty, that the Demand of the Princes of
the Blood was contrary to his Authority; that the Sovereigns had always
the Liberty of granting such Honors as they thought fit, either to the
Court or the Parliament; and that moreover, the late King, when he
declar’d them Princes of the Blood, did it in the most authentic Manner,
the Declaration which gave them that Dignity, being register’d in
Parliament, in the Presence, and even with the Advice of the Princes of
the Blood, and of the Dukes and Peers.

Several Writings were publish’d at that time on both sides of the
Question, to prove the Justice of the Cause which each maintain’d. The
Amount of what the Legitimated Princes pleaded was, That Kings were the
absolute Dispensers of Favors; and that the Kings who were _Lewis_ XIVth’s
Predecessors, formerly granted those very Privileges, which they now aim’d
to deprive them of, without Opposition. They quoted for Example the
_Longueville_ Family, whose Descendants had always the Rank of Princes of
the Blood. They also instanc’d in several Bastards who had succeeded to
the Crown, in the first and second Race of the Kings of _France_; and
observ’d, that the Case would have been the same in the third Race, if the
same Fact had happen’d.

The Princes of the Blood gave an ample and solid Reply to the Memorial of
the Legitimated Princes. They advanc’d, that the King as great as his
Authority was, could not grant Prerogatives that were peculiar only to
Birth-right; that a Bastard was one without Father, without Mother,
without Kindred, _&c._ and by consequence incapable of holding any Rank
which Blood alone can give; that moreover, the Claim of the Legitimated
Princes would deprive the Nation of its Right of calling such Family to
the Crown as they thought fit, in case the Royal Family should happen to
be extinct.

This Memorial was confuted by another, and to the latter there was a
Reply. In fine, both sides grew so warm, that to put an end to the
Quarrel, the King was oblig’d to speak. He declared solemnly, _That the
Legitimated Princes should enjoy the Rank of Princes of the Blood during
their Lives, but that they could not succeed to the Crown_. This
Declaration was very well receiv’d, in appearance, by both Parties; but
perhaps too it was the Cause of some Events, which in the Consequence gave
the Regent no little Uneasiness, whereof I shall soon have occasion to
make mention.

During these Transactions in _France_, there were Commotions of much
greater Consequence in _England_, where a Revolution was expected in favor
of the Chevalier _de St. George_, who having spent some time at the Prince
_de Vaudemont_’s House at _Commercy_ in _Lorrain_, was just set out for
_Scotland_. He embark’d between _Ostend_ and _Dunkirk_, and had a happy
Passage. As soon as he arriv’d he found a considerable Party which
declar’d for him. Every thing seem’d at first to favor him: A great many
Persons came to own him for King, and he was serv’d in that Quality. But
his Happiness was of no long Duration, and he was oblig’d to retire with
Precipitancy from a Country where he was in danger of being ill us’d.

’Twas the Opinion of many People that this Undertaking would have
succeeded, if the Prince had not discover’d so much Zeal for the Catholic
Religion; for ’twas only desired of him to promise to preserve the
Privileges of _Scotland_ in Religious Matters, but he would not hear of
it. Moreover, he rose one day from Table without eating a Morsel, because
a Clergyman of the Church of _England_ had said the Grace; and upon this
Occasion he protested, that he would never eat a Bit of what a Heretic
pretended to give a Blessing to. This great Zeal for Religion, a Zeal
perhaps too flaming in Circumstances where he might, without any Crime,
have smother’d it, was the reason that all the Protestants in _Scotland_,
many of whom had already declared in his Favor, turn’d their backs on him.
I happen’d to be present when all this was told to the Duke of _Orleans_.
He made Answer, _If all this be true, ’tis no wonder that he has not
succeeded; and I look upon him as an undone Prince_. At the same time I
observ’d such an Air of Satisfaction in his and _Madame_’s Countenances,
as convinc’d me that they were not ill pleas’d to see the Elector of
_Hanover_ establish’d on the Throne of _England_.

The Chevalier _de St. George_ return’d to _France_, and having pass’d
thro’ the whole Kingdom _incog._ he went for Refuge to _Avignon_. The
_English_ did all they could with the Regent to engage him to arrest the
Chevalier, and demanded likewise that he would cashier all the _English_
and _Irish_ Officers in the Service of _France_, that were the Pretender’s
Adherents. The Regent satisfy’d them but in part, for he only cashier’d
the Officers. The Chevalier _de St. George_ was hotly pursu’d, and ’tis
even said that a certain Lord was a good while in chace of him, with a
Design to have killed him; but the Chevalier escap’d the Danger by the
Haste that he made to _Avignon_. When he quitted _Scotland_ he was oblig’d
to leave several Lords that had follow’d him in the Lurch, particularly
the Duke of _Lirie_, Son to the Marshal _de Berwic_, Natural Son of
_James_ II. who had so much Difficulty to get to _France_ again, that
’twas even reported for a long while that he had been taken Prisoner and
beheaded, as Lord _Derwentwater_ was at _London_.

The _French_ were sorry to see that Fortune always cross’d the Chevalier
_de St. George_, and could not help pitying the Queen his Mother, whose
Sorrows were by this Disaster increas’d; for she had, by the Miscarriage
of this Expedition, ruin’d several of her Friends, who had made their
utmost Efforts to support the Charges of it.

Tho’ the _Orleans_ Family was not very much afflicted at the Misfortune of
the Chevalier _de St. George_, yet it did not hinder _Madame_ from going
to _Chaillot_ to condole with the Queen upon her late Misfortunes. I was
at the Royal Palace when _Madame_ return’d from the Visit; and she did me
the Honor to tell me, _That she had been almost crying her Eyes out_. I
pretended to be ignorant of the Cause of her Tears, and took the Freedom
to ask her, _What was the matter? The poor Queen of +England+!_ said she,
_I pity her heartily. I have been weeping with her_. I could not help
letting _Madame_ know how much I was surpriz’d at this Grief of her’s,
because I imagin’d she was more in the Interest of the Family that
govern’d _England_, than of a Prince who was a Stranger to her; and one,
moreover, that was always out of Fortune’s Favor. _You are in the right_,
said Madame, _all the Relations of my late Aunt are dear to me, and I with
’em well. But this poor Queen takes it as much to heart as if it was but
to-day that she left the Crown. But what can she do? The only way for her
is to make her self easy. ’Tis not her Doom to be happy; and since one of
’em must be unfortunate, I had rather she was so than the King of
+England+. But_, added she, _this must not be told_. Madam _de D----_
coming in just after these Words, _Madame_ told her, _That she had been to
see the Queen of +England+, but that she thought she had been with the
Nymph +Arethusa+ all the while_. Madam _de D----_ made Answer to her,
_That it was not surprizing to see Tears shed by Persons so much afflicted
as the Queen was. What then_, said Madame, _are not thirty Tears
Misfortunes enough to inure her to them_? Thus did this Princess wipe away
the Tears which lately fell from her in such a Torrent.

The fine Season being come, _Madame_ went to _St. Cloud_, and took with
her Mademoiselle _de Chartres_ now the Abbess of _Chelles_, and
Mademoiselle _de Valois_ now Princess of _Modena_. _Madame_ spent all the
Summer at _St. Cloud_, so that I made several Trips thither. I told her
my Case, and desir’d that she would please to intercede for me with the
Duke her Son. She always promis’d me she would, but never did; and yet she
said to every body who talk’d of me to her, _That she wish’d me well_;
while, on the other hand, tho’ this Princess mortally hated _S----_ a
_Prussian_ Gentleman, she earnestly importun’d the Duke her Son to serve
him; and I was present one day when she sollicited for him. After the Duke
of _Orleans_ retir’d, she call’d me to her, and said, _You heard how I
espous’d the Interests of +S----+, yet I can assure you he does not
deserve it_. Then _Madame_ told me strange Stories to the disadvantage of
_S----_, upon which I took the Freedom to defend his Cause, and to assure
her Royal Highness that he had been misrepresented to her. _What!_ said
Madame, _will you offer to deny that he had his Hand cut off for
counterfeiting the Sign-Manual of the King of +Denmark+?_ As I knew the
Adventure of _S----_ at the _Danish_ Court, and that his was not a Crime
of such a nature; and as, moreover, I knew that the Loss of his Right Arm
was owing to a Fall that he had receiv’d, I represented to _Madame_, that
I should have thought the cutting off of his Hand Punishment enough in all
reason for the Crime of which she suspected _S----_; but that
nevertheless, his Arm was cut off near the Shoulder. _Alas_! said the
Princess, _that’s because it was cut a second time. But, Madame_, I
instantly reply’d, _How could your Royal Highness favor a Man that was
capable of such a Fraud? I have my Reasons for it_, said she. I did not
venture to indulge my Curiosity further. But in fine, this M. _de S----_
who was to the last degree abhorr’d, obtain’d what he desir’d; whereas,
for my part, as well as I was wish’d, I could not possibly obtain so much
as a positive Denial, which would at least have serv’d to undeceive me,
and to make me look out for Preferment from another Quarter.

While _Madame_ was at _St. Cloud_, the Duchess of _Berry_ resided at
_Meudon_, tho’ sometimes she came to _Paris_. I had the Honor of paying my
Compliments to this Princess very often. She was good-natur’d and
generous, and very free to ask Favors of the Regent her Father, who seldom
deny’d her; so that whoever had her Protection, was in a sure way to be
advanc’d. The Count _de R----_, a young Man of Quality, and who was just
enter’d as a Lieutenant in that Princess’s Guards, knew better than any
body how to gain his Mistress’s Favor. I knew him some time before this
Preferment of his, when he was a Lieutenant in the King’s Regiment, very
much out at heels, and by consequence not in a Condition to keep a certain
Sett of Company; at least, in the manner that he would have desir’d: But
by meer Chance he was quarter’d upon the Duchess of _Berry_, who wanted a
Man of a good Family to be Lieutenant of her Guards; for till then those
who officiated in that Post were only Persons of a common Extraction, for
which reason few there were that strove to get it. _R----_ thought very
prudently, that in his present Circumstances he was not oblig’d to mind
such Scruples; and he spoke to his Sister, who was a Lady of the
Bed-Chamber to the Duchess, of the Design he had to offer his Service. He
actually did so, and was admitted. He perform’d the Duty of it a good
while, and the Princess took no more Notice of him than she did of any of
her other Officers. What began to make him known was this. One day as the
Princess was going out she observ’d that _R----_ was not on horseback by
the side of her Coach, as his Duty demanded of him; and she complain’d of
it to the Duke _de la Rochefoucault_ the Captain of her Guards. This
Officer, who was fond of _R----_, and was, moreover, naturally inclin’d to
do him Service, said to the Princess that _R----_ was not well; but
setting his Indisposition aside, as he had the Honor to be a Gentleman, he
thought it hard to ride like a Stable-Boy by the side of her Coach, while
several Officers of the Houshold, who were not equal to him, rode in the
Coach that follow’d. The Duchess of _Berry_, who was a kind Mistress,
immediately gave Orders, that the Lieutenant of her Guards should ride in
the Waiting-Coach. _R----_ return’d her Thanks, and was more assiduous
than ever in his Attendance on her. Madame _de M----_ spoke afterwards so
much in Commendation of _R----_, that the Princess her self talk’d with
him several times, and was convinc’d that Madame _de M----_ had told her
the Truth, and that _R----_ deserv’d her Favor. He was quickly Master of a
splendid Fortune, gay Furniture, Clothes and Equipage; and she also
preferr’d him to several Regiments, which he always dispos’d of to his
advantage. To the Honor of _R----_ be it said, that his Prosperity did not
make him a jot the vainer; he was still as good-natur’d and civil as ever,
his old Friends always found him the same, and very often he did them
important Services. He had afterwards a Quarrel with the Regent, who
caus’d him to be banish’d from his Regiment; and during his Exile the
Duchess of _Berry_ died at _la Muette_, the 20th of _July, 1719_, aged
only 24.

Mean time the King who had been at _Paris_ ever since his Return from
_Vincennes_, was removed out of the hands of the Women into those of the
Men, and the Person appointed for his Governor was the Marshal _de
Villeroy_. The Choice of him was the more applauded, because he was one of
the old experienced Courtiers, and a Man whose Zeal and Attachment to the
King’s Person no body question’d. The Constitution of this young Prince
was so tender, that they could not be too careful of it. The Marshal, as
old as he was, fully answer’d what was expected of him: He gave
extraordinary Application to the discharge of his Duty, and was never out
of his Majesty’s sight. This Nobleman’s Post being the most honorable that
can be desir’d in _France_, there quickly arose envious Persons, who
strove, tho’ in vain, to depreciate him in the Esteem of the Public. They
confess’d that he was a very proper Person to teach the young Monarch to
walk and make his Salute like a King, to put his Hat on with a Grace, to
accost a Lady in the politest manner, and other things of that nature; but
that he was by no means fit to inspire him with Ideas suitable to his
Rank, and that he could never make him think like a King. But the
consequence shew’d what the Marshal was capable of, and the young Prince
quickly gave Proofs that he had learnt of the Marshal not only to walk,
but to think like a King. I remember one Passage, which is a very plain
Indication of his being fully persuaded that he was the sole Master in his
Kingdom, and that there was no Person above him. When _Madame_ came to the
_Thuilleries_, she made but a very short Visit at Court, because she went
to hear Mass; and she said to the King as she retired, _That she was
going to wait on a greater Lord than he_. The young Prince seem’d a little
surpriz’d at first, but after a Moment’s Reflexion he made her Answer,
_Undoubtedly_, Madame, _you are going to pray to God_. Another day the
_French_ Comedians having play’d the Tragedy of _Athalia_ before his
Majesty, ’tis said the Prince could not bear with any Patience to see
young _Joas_ seated on the Throne, for he had a Fancy that he was a second
King; nor would he so much as applaud the Lad who so perfectly well play’d
the Part of _Joas_. These Passages are a sufficient Demonstration, that he
had been inspir’d with Sentiments suitable to his Dignity; and that in
time, perhaps, he will not be inferior in any respect to his August

As to my own Affairs, I had the Mortification to find them still in the
same Situation. ’Tis certain that no Sollicitation was wanting on my part,
nor Promises on the part of the Regent; but after all, nothing was
concluded, and I was then not a whit forwarder than when I arriv’d in
_France_, tho’ I had not near so much Money. Mean time I was too earnest
for entring into the Service to be disheartened, and shutting my Eyes
against the Improbability of Success, I renew’d my Sollicitation. My
Residence at _Paris_ being extremely ruinous to me, my particular
Acquaintance could not conceive how I was able to support my self.
Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_ soon heard that I had not yet obtain’d any
thing in _France_, and that nevertheless I was obstinately bent on staying
there: She could not bear the Thoughts of the Expence, which she was
sensible I was oblig’d to be at; and as my Estate was entail’d upon her,
she imagin’d that the Money I spent in _France_ was so much taken out of
her Pocket. She resolv’d therefore to make me quit _Paris_, knowing very
well that ’twas cheaper to live elsewhere. For this end she desir’d the
Princess _de G----_, who corresponded by Letters with _Madame_, to write
to her Royal Highness, and to intreat her to protect me no longer, because
I did not deserve her Favors. The Letter was accordingly written and sent
to _Madame_, who told me the whole Contents of it. ’Twas so well cook’d
up, that my Cousin might boast of having a good Secretary. But her Royal
Highness assur’d me, that this Letter should make no Impression upon her,
and that she would always be my Friend. I most humbly thank’d the
Princess, withdrew in a terrible Pet with my Cousin; and in the first
transport of my Passion I wrote her a Letter, in which I did not spare
her. As she was really a Woman of very good Sense, she answer’d me in the
same Style. I replied; she did the same; and thus we carried on a Literary
Correspondence, in which there were very pretty Sayings on both sides.

To compleat my Happiness I was afflicted with a Redundancy of Choler,
which was follow’d with the Jaundice, a Distemper that brought me to the
very Brink of the Grave. My Friends did not forsake me; and among others I
may say, that I had more than ordinary Obligation to the Abbé _d’Asfeldt_,
who desir’d me to reflect on my State; and as he knew that I was not a
Roman Catholic, and that the Prejudices in which I had been bred up, gave
me great Prejudice to the contrary Party, he conjur’d me to permit him to
discourse me about Religion, only one Hour in a Day; to which I consented
with pleasure. Every body knows with what an Energy he speaks, and with
what a winning Grace. He continued his Visits all the time of my Sickness,
which by degrees went quite off. I was so affected with what he said to
me, that I promised him I would receive Instruction when I was recover’d;
and as soon as I got abroad, I was as good as my Word. He brought me
acquainted with Father _Denis_, a barefooted _Carmelite_, who in some
Conferences with me finish’d what the Abbé _d’Asfeldt_ had begun; so that
in a little time after, I made public Profession of my Faith to Father
_Denis_[56], in presence of an infinite number of Persons of Quality. The
Marquis _d’Asfeldt_ and the Abbé his Brother were my Witnesses, and sign’d
my Confession of Faith along with me. When the Ceremony was ended, I was
accosted on all sides with Embraces from abundance of People, of whom
three parts in four were quite unknown to me; yet their Zeal for Religion
made them fond of expressing how glad they were to see me admitted into
the Bosom of the Church. I receiv’d the Communion the same Week, upon the
Festival of _All-Saints_: And at length I waited on the Cardinal _de
Noailles_, who made a very fine Speech to me, exhorting me to continue
stedfast in the Religion that I had embrac’d.

The News of my Conversion was soon spread in _Germany_, and _Luther_ and
_Calvin_ themselves could not have exclaim’d against it more than my good
Cousin did. The same Princess who had formerly recommended me so heartily
to _Madame_, wrote to her again to tell her, _That she ought not to be
surprised at my changing my Religion, and that ’twas nothing but a
Ceremony which I had perform’d two or three times before_. But tho’ she
gave it this Turn, it made little or no Impression upon _Madame_. And for
my own part I did not give much heed to what my Enemies said; and that I
might not be in the way of hearing it, I left off going to the Royal
Palace, where _Madame_ resided after she quitted _St. Cloud_.

I spent the Winter of 1717 very disagreeably, that is to say, I wanted
Money; and without that current Metal, a Man may live as well in the
remotest Desert as in _Paris_. I was quickly oblig’d to by down my
Equipage, and at last to sell some of my Clothes to satisfy my clamorous
Debtors: Yet for all this I could not stave off an Affront from one of
them, who to be sure was more hungry than the rest; for tho’ he had
promis’d to give me a Month longer, he caus’d me to be arrested in the
little Market of the Suburb of _St. Germain_, and all at once was I
hurried to the Abbey. This might have prov’d a very fatal Misfortune to
me, if I had not been assisted that very day by M. _de N----_ a Counsellor
of Parliament, to whom I sent word of it the very Moment I was in Hold;
upon which he came immediately, and offer’d his Bond for the Debt: But my
Creditor would hear of no Terms except the Money down, and refus’d to take
his Security. M. _de N----_ was so exasperated at this Denial, that he
wrote a Line to the First President desiring him to set me at liberty,
which I obtain’d accordingly upon the Spot, without Money, or so much as
giving the Creditor any manner of Security. M. _de N----_ too, in order to
oblige me to all Intents and Purposes, was so good as to get a Writ of
Protection for me, after which my Creditors could not touch me: And
indeed, considering the Situation I was then in, that was the greatest
piece of Service that could be done for me.

I was no sooner got out of this Scrape but I fell into another, not
altogether so vexatious indeed, yet very perplexing. In my Visits to the
President _de P----_’s Lady, I became acquainted at her House with a
Widow, who tho’ old, ugly, covetous and silly, and to crown all, terribly
fond of Law, was so rich, that all those amiable Qualities were
over-look’d by a number of pleasant Companions, who strove to make Love to
her, in hopes of contracting a Marriage which seem’d so likely to make
their Fortunes. The Widow could not tell how to fix her Choice; not that
she was averse to Matrimony, but the Conditions she requir’d were so
extraordinary, that the very mention of them made her Gallants take their
Leave of her. The President _de P----_’s Wife, who knew the Lady very
well, and my Circumstances even better, advis’d me to try my Luck; and for
my Encouragement she promis’d to serve me: and serve me she did so
effectually, that the Lady was not displeas’d with the Pains which she
perceiv’d I took to make my self acceptable to her. She offer’d me an
Apartment in her House; in short, she made me to understand that I need
not despair of any thing. I had some Reluctance to accept of that Offer,
altho’ it was so advantagious; and for this Reason chiefly, the Want of
Money, because I did not care to be at her House without being better
equip’d. By good Luck my Landlady, who was one of those intriguing Dames
with which _Paris_ swarms, help’d me out of this Difficulty. She
discover’d all in an Instant what was the matter, and in concert with an
_Italian_ Valet de Chambre, who had liv’d with me for some time, she
help’d me without any Difficulty to every thing that was necessary for my
Appearance with Splendor. I then hir’d more Servants, bought very fine
Liveries; in short, all my Equipage was in a few days more gay than ever.
’Tis true it was all upon Tick; but our old Lady, as covetous as she was,
would not let me suffer upon that score. In the mean time I had a very
difficult Game to play; for I was oblig’d to counterfeit being over head
and ears in Love with the most disagreeable Woman upon the Face of the
Earth; and at the very time too when I was still courting Madame _de
R----_, who without dispute was as handsome a Woman as any whatsoever. Nor
was this all; for the old Lady, to be like the fine Women forsooth,
affected to be jealous; and whenever I ventur’d to leave her, which was
but very seldom, she was sure to set on a Spy to watch me. We generally
went abroad together. By eight o’clock in the Morning we us’d to be at the
Palais importuning the Judges, or else provoking the Attorneys and
Sollicitors to scold like Madmen. When we had done there, the good Lady
return’d home and sat down to her Toilet, and I us’d to sit by her in an
Arm-chair till I was quite tir’d. At first indeed I had some Pleasure in
being so near a Spectator of the Art by which a very disagreeable Face may
be sometimes made tolerable. My old Lady’s was all artificial from the
Forehead to the Chin; and I question whether a Picture takes up more
Colours than she made use of to dawb her Features with? Her Apparel was
rich, but as much dy’d and daub’d as all the rest. A Correspondence so
tiresome as this was, gave me a horrid Disgust; but yet when I reflected
what a Pass I had reduc’d my self to by my Extravagance, I thought it was
not my Interest to break it off. I continu’d therefore to play the Part of
an amorous Suitor. And at last, fearing that I should sink under the
Fatigue, I began to talk strenuously of Marriage; but the good Lady still
said it was yet too soon, and that she was willing to have further Tryal
of me. She resolv’d at length to consent to it; but ’twas upon such
extraordinary Terms, that really I should have renounc’d any other Match
upon that score, if it had been twenty times more advantagious. I resolv’d
therefore to have no more to say to the silly Woman, and to retire. I
thought of making another Tour to _Berlin_ to settle my Affairs, and to
sell my Land if Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_ would give her Consent; but I
put off my Departure for a little time in hopes of seeing the Czar of
_Muscovy_, who was shortly expected at _Paris_.

This Monarch, from no other Motive but Curiosity, came from one of the
Extremities of _Europe_ to see the Court of _France_. They would have had
him make a public Entry; but he desir’d to be receiv’d without Ceremony.
_Verton_ the King’s Chief Steward met him on the Frontier, and conducted
him to _Amiens_, where the Marquis _de Nesle_ complimented him in the Name
of the King, and then went with him half way to _Paris_. The Marshal _de
Tesse_, who was charged to accompany the Prince all the time he was to
stay in _France_, went also to meet him. The Czar arriv’d at the _Louvre_
by ten o’clock at Night, and was conducted to the Queen Mother’s
Apartment, which had been sumptuously furnish’d for his Reception. Some
Moments after his Arrival the Marshal _de Villeroy_ came from the King to
make his Excuses that he was not at the _Louvre_ to receive him, by reason
his Majesty’s tender Years and Constitution did not permit him to sit up
so late. They laid that the Czar was not satisfy’d with this Excuse, nor
with the Regent for not coming to meet him. ’Tis certain that he appeared
to be very much out of Temper all the Evening, would eat no Supper, and
took but one Glass of Beer: Nor would he stay at the _Louvre_, saying,
_That the Furniture of his Apartment was too rich; and that his
Attendants, who were not the most cleanly, might happen to spoil it_.
’Twas one o’clock in the Morning when the Czar was pleas’d to shift his
Lodging, and the Marshal _de Tesse_ would have been sadly put to it, had
he not caus’d the Palace of _Lesdiguieres_ to be furnish’d by way of
Precaution. The Czar thought this House also too richly furnish’d, and
notwithstanding all they could say he would not lie in a magnificent Bed
which was put up in the Apartment that was to be his, but caus’d a little
Bed to be set up for himself in the Wardrobe. Next day the Regent came and
paid him a Visit, when the Prince _de Kourakin_ the Czar’s Ambassador to
_Holland_ serv’d for their Interpreter. The Visit lasted near an Hour, and
there all the Ceremonial was settled that was to be observ’d to the
_Russian_ Monarch.

After this the King went to see him first, being accompanied from the
Palace of the _Thuilleries_, with the chief Lords and Officers of the
Crown. The Czar receiv’d his Majesty as he alighted from the Coach, and
took him in his Arms with a Transport of Fondness; at which the young
Monarch seem’d a little surpriz’d. He said to the Czar, _That he was very
glad to see him safe arrived at +Paris+; that he wish’d him Pleasure as
long as he staid in his Dominions; that he should have the same Respect
paid to him as to himself, and that he had given Orders for the
Court-Service always to give way to his_. Then the two Monarchs went hand
in hand into a Chamber where two Chairs of State were plac’d. The Czar
being the Stranger sate on the Right Hand. The Duke _du Maine_ and the
Marshal _de Villeroy_ stood behind the King’s Chair of State, and answer’d
the Questions which the Czar ask’d his Majesty. After a short Visit the
King rose first, and was accompanied to his Coach by the Czar, who at
taking Leave of his Majesty caught him up again in his Arms, and hoisting
him higher than his Head, said, _He wish’d that his Grandeur and Power
might surpass that of the late King_ Lewis XIV. He help’d the King into
his Coach, and did not return till it mov’d off.

Next day the Czar went to the _Thuilleries_ with the same Train as the
King has when he goes abroad, and rode in the King’s Coach attended by the
chief Lords of his Court, who sat over-against him, and at the
Coach-Doors. As soon as he enter’d the Court, the King went to the Gate of
the Castle, receiv’d him at his landing, and then conducted him to his
Apartment, always giving the Czar the Right Hand. I never saw more People
at the _Thuilleries_ than there were on that day, insomuch that the two
Monarchs had scarce room to pass. The Czar shew’d a prodigious Care of the
King, kept him up by one Hand, and wav’d the other to keep off such as
were apt to croud too near him. After a Visit no longer than that which
the King made to the Prince, his Majesty reconducted him to the Coach,
and the Czar return’d to his House with the same Train that had
accompanied him. When that Prince return’d to his Apartment, he told the
Marshal, _That he was very much surpriz’d at the infinite Croud of People
in the way_. To which the Marshal made Answer, _That the +French+ had so
great a Veneration for his Person, and so high an Idea of his illustrious
Qualities, that no wonder they were so eager to see a Prince, who they
knew beforehand was deserving of their Admiration_. The Czar seem’d very
well pleas’d with this Answer, yet he desir’d, _That for the future, when
he went abroad, the People might be oblig’d to keep out of his way_. He
paid a Visit next day to the Regent and to _Madame_. The latter talk’d to
him for two Hours in _High-Dutch_, and the Czar answer’d the Princess in
_Low-Dutch_. When he was withdrawn he said to M. _de S----_, _That
+Madame+ was extremely inquisitive; that she wanted to knew every thing;
and that she had ask’d him too many Questions; but that after all, he told
her no more than what he was willing she should know_.

The Czar was very curious to see every thing that was worth seeing in and
about _Paris_. He inform’d himself of every thing, and took care to write
every thing in his Pocket-book that he thought remarkable. He rose at
Day-break, and rambled about from one Place to another till Night. To
prevent all manner of Incumbrance he chose to make use of none but the
Marshal _de Tesse_’s Coaches, tho’ that Nobleman would have been well
enough contented without such Preference, because he kill’d several of his
Horses; and the poor Marshal himself must have sunk under the Fatigue of
the perpetual Motion that he was oblig’d to, if the Czar had staid much
longer; but this Monarch lost no time, and examin’d every thing with equal
Nicety and Dispatch, because he intended to be gone as soon as he had
satisfy’d his Curiosity.

The Court spar’d nothing to pay this Prince all due Honors. The Regent for
this purpose order’d a general Review of all the King’s Houshold Troops,
and of the _French_ and _Swiss_ Guards in the Walks of _Roule_ and in the
_Elysian Fields_. The Czar repair’d thither on horseback, and ’twas
expected he would have staid out the whole Review; but he only rode
briskly in the Front of the first Line, without casting his Eyes on the
Troops, and then clapping Spurs to his Horse, without paying any
Compliment to the Regent, he return’d full Gallop to _Paris_. From thence
he went directly to _St. Ouen_, where the Duke _de Tresmes_, First
Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, and Governor of _Paris_, gave him an
Entertainment, with which he seem’d better pleas’d than with the Review.
He was loth to consent to the Admission of the Ladies into the Orangery
where the Table was spread, and only spoke to Madame _de Bethune_,
Daughter of the Duke _de Tresmes_, for which Distinction she was oblig’d
to M. _de Bethune_, who having been a good while in _Poland_, talk’d the
_Polish_ Language very well, which procur’d him the Honor of being able to
converse with his Czarish Majesty. The chief Noblemen, after the Example
of the Duke _de Tresmes_, made Entertainments for the _Russian_ Monarch.
The Duke Regent also prepar’d a Grand Feast for him at _St. Cloud_; but
just as the Czar was setting out from _Paris_, he was seiz’d with a
violent Fit of the Cholic, which hinder’d his going abroad; nor do I know
that he had a Sight of the Castle of _St. Cloud_ at all. He seem’d to be
more delighted with _Versailles_ than any other Place, insomuch that he
caus’d a Plan of it to be taken, and said, _He would have a Building
something like to it erected in his own Country_. With this View he
engag’d Workmen of all sorts, and promis’d them great Advantages to
encourage them to go to _Muscovy_. A great number suffer’d themselves to
be taken in, and the Regent consented to let them go out of the Kingdom;
but we are assur’d that the Promises made to them were not perform’d, and
the Generality thought themselves very happy when they were return’d to
_France_. This Prince was not liberal; and what Presents he made were only
valuable as they came from so great a Prince. I saw a poor Soldier of the
Invalids make him a Present of a Plan of that Hospital, which had cost him
ten Years Labor; but tho’ the Prince seem’d to think it a fine Piece, yet
the Soldier had a very small Reward. The King of _France_, however, made
him a noble Present, and thereby convinc’d him how different the Temper of
the _French_ was from that of the _Muscovites_. The Czar, in short,
return’d towards his Dominions very well satisfy’d with _France_, and went
first to _Holland_ where the _Czarina_ staid for him; and from thence he
proceeded by Land to _Petersbourg_.

The Czar’s Residence in _France_ had brought such a vast Number of
Foreigners to _Paris_, that the City being more populous than ever, new
Pleasures were thought of to divert them. A private Gentleman made a
Proposal to me, which if I could have succeeded in, would have been of
very great Service to me at that Juncture; for it was to put a
considerable Sum of Money in my Pocket, if I could obtain a Patent for
licensing Balls and Plays in the _Elysian Fields_, where the Projector
wou’d have erected Booths for that purpose. I spoke of this to the Regent,
who, according to his Custom, promis’d me the Grant at the first Word; but
M. _d’Argenson_, who was then only Lieutenant of the Police, made him soon
alter his Mind; for he represented to his Royal Highness, that such Balls
would infallibly be attended with great Disorders. The Objection was
specious, and like enough to be true; but after all, such a Licence would
not have increas’d the Disorder very much, especially at a Place where
’twas for a long time the Fashion to take the Air in the Night, so that
there were often more Coaches in the Course or Ring after Midnight, than
in the Day-time. Besides, a way might be found to avoid all the Disorders
that could possibly be foreseen. But M. _d’Argenson_ was a Man that
neither lov’d Novelties, nor Opportunities of obliging. I was the better
pleas’d with this Project, because if it had taken, I saw that I should be
in a Condition to stay some time longer at _Paris_, and to live in a
genteel manner. But at last, when I saw it defeated, I thought of nothing
but returning to _Berlin_. While I was putting every thing in order for my
Journey, I saw the Count _de Rothenbourg_ at _Paris_, who was come from
_Berlin_, and to return thither shortly with a Commission on some Affairs
of _France_. This Gentleman, who encourag’d me in my Design to go thither,
assur’d me that it would be the easiest matter in the World for me to sell
my Lands; that the King had just erected Fiefs; and that he gave every Man
leave to dispose of his Estate; nay more, he offer’d to carry me along
with him, and to advance me what Money I wanted. I thought all these to
be very advantagious Proposals; but they were Words without Deeds. ’Tis
true he lent me Money, that is to say, Government-Bills; but taking an
advantage of the Necessity he found me in, oblig’d me to conclude one of
the most fatal Bargains I ever made in my Life. I discounted my Bills,
that is to say, I lost considerably by them, and with the residue of the
Money I set out from _Paris_ to _Strasbourg_, where M. _de Rothenbourg_
had appointed to meet me: But for his part he went by the way of
_Burgundy_, where he had an Estate; so that I staid for him near a Month,
which surely I should not have done if I had been in Cash. When he came he
told me, _That ’twas impossible for him to carry me with him to +Berlin+,
because he had no room in his Coach_. ’Tis true that it was full, but
there were some People in it, whom it would have better become to have got
up behind. I was by this means under an indispensable Necessity to stay at
_Strasbourg_, till I had a sufficient Remittance from _Berlin_, to enable
me to continue my Journey, without being beholden to any body.

I did not repent my Stay at STRASBOURG; for tho’ I had been at it before,
yet I never was there long enough to make any Observation upon the
Remarkables of the Place. _Strasbourg_[57] is one of the best Cities in
_Europe_. ’Tis the Capital of _Alsace_, and was conquer’d by _Lewis_ XIV.
in 1682, without any Expence but of Menaces and Money. That Monarch
fortify’d it considerably, and caus’d a Citadel and Arsenal to be built
there, which are Monuments worthy of a Great King. The Cathedral Church
has not its equal for its Bulk and Grandeur. The Doors are of Brass, and
very well wrought. There’s a Pyramidal Spire 574 Foot high, which is a
very noble Piece of Work. The Great Clock is also worth seeing. I was
surpriz’d to see the great number of Wheels and Machines that give Motion
to all the Constellations, and turn the Needles, which upon Dials of
several sorts mark the Hours of the Day and Night, with the Course of the
Moon and the other Planets. In the Vestry of this Church, which is very
rich, are most sumptuous Altar-Ornaments and Copes. The Episcopal Palace
which joins to the Church is indeed a very commodious, but not a
magnificent Building, tho’ it stands upon a considerable Spot of Ground,
whereon a fine Structure might be erected; but there’s no Appearance that
such a thing will be undertaken yet a while, because the Cardinal _de
Rohan_ now Bishop of _Strasbourg_, who would be the properest Person for
it in the whole World, resides but little at _Strasbourg_, and justly
prefers _Saverne_ to it, where he has a most stately Palace.

_Strasbourg_ was formerly an Imperial City, the Magistrates whereof were
_Lutherans_, but now the Catholics are the Masters, and have excluded the
_Lutherans_ from all manner of Employment. The King of _France_ keeps a
strong Garison in it, and the Commandant here for the King is the Marshal
_de Bourg_. This Nobleman lives more retir’d than is usual for People that
are in Power. The Officers go to him very often in the Morning, when the
Marshal makes them sit down in a Circle, where I have seen such a Silence
observ’d, that if Foreigners were Witnesses of it, they would not twit the
_French_ with having too much _Clack_. This Levee us’d to hold about half
an Hour, after which every one went to dinner where he pleas’d, the
Marshal only keeping a Table for Grand Festivals, or when any Person of
Distinction arriv’d from the Court of _France_, which is very rare, except
when the Cardinal _de Rohan_ is at _Strasbourg_. When his Eminency is
there, a great deal of Company follows him, and he lives with an Air of
Grandeur suitable to his Birth and Dignity. Add to this, that there is not
any Nobleman, perhaps, that is of a more courteous and polite Deportment.
When this Prelate is not at _Strasbourg_ the Place is very melancholy,
especially for such as don’t run into the common Debaucheries of Youth;
for the latter indeed always find wherewith to amuse themselves: and
indeed I have observ’d with my own Eyes that the young Fellows of
_Strasbourg_ are very debauch’d, and the Ladies very gentle.

After I had staid a while at _Strasbourg_, I receiv’d News at last from
_Berlin_, together with Money to proceed in my Journey. I made haste thro’
the Cities of _Heidelberg_[58], _Darmstad_ and _Francfort_, and stopt at
HANAU, where I had the Honor of paying my Compliments to the Count of that
Name, who commonly resides there. He married a Princess of
_Brandenbourg-Anspach_, Sister to the Princess of _Wales_, by whom he has
had but one Daughter, married to the Hereditary Prince of
_Hesse-Darmstad_, so that the Family of _Hanau_ is like to be extinct in
the Person of this Count. A part of his Territories, _viz_. those which
are Fiefs of the Empire, will revert to the Landgrave of _Hesse-Cassel_,
according to Conventions which this Prince has made with the King of
_Poland_, who was Heir to a good Part of the County of _Hanau_ as Elector
of _Saxony_; but the latter sold all his Pretensions to the Landgrave.

The City of _Hanau_[59] stands near the _Maine_, and is distinguish’d into
the Old and New Towns. The new Town owes its Foundation to the _Walloon_
Protestants, who came to settle in this County during the Religious Wars
in the _Netherlands_. The Streets of this Quarter, which is the finest of
the two, are broad, and as strait as a Line, and the Architecture of the
Houses on both sides is almost the same. A very exact Police is observ’d
in it, as well for the Neatness of the Streets, as for the Security of the
Inhabitants. This Count’s Predecessors establish’d several Manufactures at
_Hanau_; and here is a considerable Trade in Snuff and Woollen Stuffs. The
_French_ Refugees have contributed not a little to render this City much
more considerable than it was before.

The Castle or Palace of the Count is in the Old Town; and he has another
House at the Gates of the Town call’d _Philip’s-Ruhe_[60], the Apartments
of which are very fine and nobly furnish’d, and the Gardens are of a grand
Taste, and a very advantagious Situation.

From _Hanau_ I went to FULDE, an Abbat’s Town of the Empire, in which
stands the famous Abbey of _Fulde_ of the Order of St. _Benedict_. The
Fryars are all Gentlemen by sixteen Descents. The Abbat is elected by his
Fryars, and has the Title of _Primat of the Abbats, Prince of the Empire,
and Hereditary Chancellor of the Empress_. The Person who is now vested
with that Dignity is of the Family of _Butler_. He maintains a great Court
and several Regiments; so that he lives absolutely like a Temporal Prince.
I should have lik’d his Reception of me very well, if he had not made me
drink so hard, that if I had staid there longer, my next Journey might
probably have been a vast way beyond _Berlin_. ’Tis my Opinion, Things
duly consider’d, that there’s no need of any extraordinary Vocation to be
a Fryar at _Fulde_; for those Gentlemen enjoy every thing that a Man would
wish for in a genteel Life. The House they dwell in is more like the
Palace of a great King than a Convent; and the Abbey-Church, and another
lately built without the Town, may be reckon’d among the noblest Buildings
in _Germany_.

From _Fulde_ I went to EISENACH[61], thro’ the most detestable Roads that
I ever travell’d. _Eisenach_ stands upon the River _Nese_, at the feet of
horrible Mountains. ’Tis the Seat of the Duke of _Saxe-Eisenach_ of the
_Weimar_-Branch, who being absent at that time, I had not the Honor to see

I proceeded from _Eisenach_ to GOTHA[62], the Residence of the Duke of
_Saxe-Gotha_, who is the most powerful Prince of _Saxony_, next to the
Elector. He is descended from the unfortunate _John-Frederic_ Elector of
_Saxony_, who was put under the Ban of the Empire, and depriv’d of his
Electorate by _Charles_ V. The Town is well built, and the Duke’s Palace,
which is separate from it, is surrounded with Ramparts.

From _Gotha_ I went to ERFURT[63], a City which formerly was dependent on
the Family of _Saxony_, who by a solemn Treaty yielded it to the Elector
of _Mentz_ in 1665; and it now belongs to the present Elector of that
Name. The Inhabitants have made several Attempts to shake off their
Dependency upon that Elector, who on his part has not been wanting in
Measures to make them easy; and has made considerable Fortifications to
the Castle, in which he maintains a good Garison. The Town is large, and
contains fine Churches, of which the Cathedral is remarkable for its Bulk:
This Church had formerly a most magnificent Steeple; but some years ago
the Spire was entirely consumed by Lightning.

From _Erfurt_ I went to LEIPSIC[64] one of the most considerable Cities in
the Electorate of _Saxony_, and of special Note for its University and its
Fairs. The former, which was founded in 1408, by _Frederic_ the _Warrior_,
has always supported it self with Reputation, notwithstanding the
Neighbourhood of the University of _Hall_. The Situation of _Leipsic_ is
charming, and which way soever one enters it, there are beautiful Houses
and Gardens kept in excellent Order. The _Boses_ and _Appel_, Merchants of
_Leipsic_ have Gardens at the Gates of the Town, in which they have laid
out surprizing Sums of Money: _Appel_ especially has a Garden which a
Prince need not be asham’d of. Besides these Gardens here are Walks, which
are not the less agreeable for being natural. Here is a remarkable Wood,
which is called in the Language of the Country _Rosendahl_, _i. e._
the _Vale of Roses_. It consists of fourteen Walks, with a great Meadow in
the Middle. Each Walk has a noble Point of View, and they are all
agreeably diversify’d. The Inside of _Leipsic_ is perfectly answerable to
the Out-parts: The Streets are very even, and the Houses large and well
built. The only fault I found with them is, that they are too much charg’d
with Sculpture, and not duly proportion’d: They are all very lofty, and
for the Generality five or six Stories high. The Rents of them are very
dear, and at the time of the Fairs there’s such a Resort of Merchants
hither from all parts, that ’tis very difficult to get a Lodging. When I
came thither ’twas _Michaelmas_ Fair; at which time the King of _Poland_
was there. This Prince when he comes to _Leipsic_ does not lodge in the
Castle, tho’ it has very commodious Apartments, but resides in the House
of _Appel_, the Merchant whom I just now mention’d, who is Proprietor of
one of the finest Gardens thereabouts. That King gives the Preference to
his House, because ’tis near the Place where the Fair is kept. So much,
_Madame_, for what is chiefly remarkable at _Leipsic_.

I made no long stay there, because I was impatient to return to BERLIN. At
my first Arrival there I liv’d very retir’d. I foresaw the little
Satisfaction I had to expect at that Court, which made me resolve not to
be seen there. Nevertheless I could not conceal my self long; for the
Favors with which the Margravine-Dowager had always honor’d me, obliged me
to pay my Respects to that Princess, who receiv’d me very kindly, and soon
after spoke of me to his Majesty in so favorable a Manner, that he was
desirous to see me; and he sent M. _de Grumkau_ to bid me wait on him at
_Charlottenbourg_, and to send in my Name to him by _Ast_, one of his
Valets de Chambre. I could have been very glad to have been excused from
paying Obedience to that Order; but it was too punctual, his Majesty
having actually appointed the Hour that I was to appear before him. On the
Day fix’d I therefore went to _Charlottenbourg_, and sent for _Ast_, who
came and conducted me to a Gallery, where he bade me wait a little time;
but I had not been there a Quarter of an Hour when the King enter’d it,
attended by _la Fourcade_, Major-General and Commandant of _Berlin_. His
Majesty came up directly to me, and ask’d me, with a good deal of
Vivacity, _From whence I came, and what was the Cause of my Return to_
Berlin? I made answer, _That I was come last from_ France, _and that my
domestic Concerns had brought me back to_ Berlin. His Majesty, who
proceeded to enquire into my Affairs, seem’d well enough pleas’d with the
Answers I had the Honor of making to him, and turning towards _la
Fourcade_, said to him, _That he should never have known me, if he had not
been appriz’d who I was beforehand_: And then he said to me, _That he
should hereafter look on me no other than as a_ Frenchman. I made answer,
_That I should think my self very unfortunate if his Majesty should look
on me in that Light; and that let me be at ever such a Distance from his
Person and his Dominions, I should always be ambitious of calling my self
his Subject; and that I should constantly preserve the same Sentiments of
Respect and Loyalty to my King and Country, in which I had been educated_.
The King then ask’d me, _Whether I had any Intention to sell my Estate?_
I confess’d to him, _That I had no other Remedy left to enable me to
satisfy my Creditors_; and I actually entreated him to interpose his
Authority to procure the Consent of Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_ to the Sale
of it. The King said to me, _That he would give his Orders to M. +de
C----+, to engage her to hearken to Reason_; and then he very graciously
dismiss’d me.

I went back to _Berlin_, and did not fail to return Thanks to the
Margravine for the good Offices she had done me with the King. The Queen
returning some few days after this from _Charlottenbourg_ to _Berlin_, I
had the Honor to pay my Respects to her, and was kindly receiv’d. It was
quickly blaz’d after what Manner I had been receiv’d by their Majesties,
which was Reason enough to engage the Courtiers to shew me that
Complaisance, which otherwise I durst not have expected. I took little
notice, however, of those Gentlemens Compliments, but prepar’d my self for
finishing the Grand Affair for which I was come. I caus’d advantagious
Offers to be made to Mademoiselle _de Pollnitz_, to gain her Consent. The
King order’d a Letter to be wrote and sent to her at _Hanover_, to
determine her in my Favor; assuring her at the same time, _That he thought
my Proposals very reasonable; and that her Acceptance of them would do him
a Pleasure_. I also went my self to _Hanover_, to try if I could persuade
her: But neither the Visits I made to her upon the Affair, nor those so
powerful Recommendations of it, had any Effect; and she continu’d
obstinate in her Refusal.

At my Return from _Hanover_, the King sent me an Order to wait on him. I
was introduc’d by one of his Favorites into the Closet where his Majesty
us’d to smoak. The King was then playing at a Game with Tables call’d
_Tick-tack_, the Prince of _Anhalt_ Velt-Marshal, and several other
Generals and Officers being present. The King rose up as soon as the Game
was ended, came to me and talk’d with me for a while very graciously. And
then sitting down, he order’d all that were in Company to take their
Seats. Every one took his Place without observing any Rank. The King
smoaked, as did most of the Gentlemen in the Closet; but by good Luck no
body offer’d me a Pipe, which I was very glad of, because I could never
smoak in all my Life. The King talk’d to me a great deal about my Affairs;
and in particular about the Sale of my Estate. ’Twas not long before I
perceiv’d that my Cousin had brought the King over to her Interest; for as
soon as my Land came to be the Topic of Conversation, he told me in very
plain Terms, _That it would be very wrong for me to part with it, even
tho’ my Cousin were to give her Consent to it; that instead of paying my
Debts with the Purchase-Money, I would be apt to squander it in my
Pleasures; that ’twas high time to think of some Employment to enable me
to pay my Debts, without selling my Estate_. He added, _That if,
nevertheless, I persisted in my Resolution to sell it, he would write
again to Mademoiselle_ de Pollnitz _to perswade her to consent to it; and
that this was the utmost that he could do for me, as Affairs stood; since
it would be an Injustice to compel her to give a Consent to any thing that
she imagin’d would be to her prejudice_. After a little farther Discourse
with me about my domestic Affairs, his Majesty talk’d to me of the Report
current at _Berlin_, _That I had chang’d my Religion_; and ask’d me,
_Whether ’twas really true, that I was turn’d_ Papist. I told him, _That I
was of the Religion of my Ancestors_. Here I will acknowledge to my shame,
that I had not Courage enough to make public Declaration that I was a
Catholic. Besides, I hoped in so pressing a Dilemma to get off by a double
Entendre; which is a Rule adopted by the Doctors themselves. The double
Entendre consisted in that, when I said I was of the Religion of my
Ancestors, I meant that which was formerly profess’d by my Grandfather and
Great-Grandfather; and indeed all my Ancestors were Catholics. My
Grandfather himself was a Catholic once, tho’ he embrac’d the new
Religion, to swim with the Stream. The King, who concluded from what I
said, that I was still a Protestant, did not press me farther upon that
Head;, but the Prince of _Anhalt_ was not so easily satisfy’d; for he gave
the King to understand that he believ’d the Reports of my having chang’d
my Religion, were but too true, and he actually said to his Majesty _That
the only way to be sure of the Truth of what I had affirm’d, would be to
give me the Sacramental Test in the Church of the_ Dome. The King was also
of that Opinion, nevertheless it did not take effect. At our leaving the
King, the Prince of _Anhalt_, who, ’tis like, wanted to get a real
Confession from me, that I had chang’d my Religion, charg’d it home upon
my Conscience, and blam’d me very much for not having own’d that I was a
Catholic. But as I could not be certain what was the Drift of those
Remonstrances, I was so far from declaring my Mind to that Nobleman, that
I still continu’d in the Negative.

The Audience which I had of the King gain’d me his Good-will; and he one
day spoke so honorably of me in presence of the Courtiers, that my Friends
advis’d me to strike in with this Ray of Favor, and petition him for some
Employment. I followed their Advice, and wrote accordingly to the King,
who was then at _Potzdam_.

Two Days after I sent my Letter, I receiv’d an Answer, sign’d with his
Majesty’s own Hand, which was drawn up in these Terms;

_I received your Letter of the 9th of_ January, (1718) _and for Answer I
assure you, that I grant you the first Pension of Gentleman of the
Bed-Chamber that shall happen to be vacant_.


I had such a grateful Sense of his Majesty’s kind Intentions towards me,
that as soon as he was return’d to _Berlin_, I did not fail to go and
thank him. His Majesty was so good as to say, _That the Trifle he had now
granted me was not worth Thanks_. I thought, _Madame_, that this was a
very hopeful Beginning for a Man not us’d to see his Undertakings crown’d
with Success. The Courtiers strove who should be most complaisant to me;
and I receiv’d Compliments from all hands, which fully persuaded me, that
I was in high Favor: But my Stars did not indulge me long with this Calm;
and a Storm soon arose, which drove me farther out of Port than I was
before. It was owing to the following Accident.

In the beginning of the Year 1718, the King recall’d M. _de Kniphausen_
his Envoy in _France_, with a design to nominate another in his room.
Several Persons sollicited for this Post; but I thought my self as well
qualify’d for it as the best; and to pave the way for it, I propos’d to
save the Government a great deal of Charge, by contenting myself with an
Abatement of two hundred Crowns _per_ Month less than the usual Salary.
This Proposal was so well relish’d by M. _de Grumkau_ the Minister of
State, that he protected me, and undertook to recommend me to the King. I
also spoke of it my self to M. _d’Ilgen_, the Minister for Foreign
Affairs, whose Daughter was married to the said M. _de Kniphausen_. I gave
this Minister to understand, that I should never have had a Thought of
asking for this Place, if I had not been satisfy’d, that M. _de
Kniphausen_ himself had desired to be recalled. M. _d’Ilgen_ received me
with the utmost Civility, and promis’d with an Oath to serve me upon this
Occasion; adding, that he could not express his Happiness in having such
an Opportunity to discover the Respect and Veneration which he had for my
Family. Such extraordinary Complaisance in a Courtier made me suspect the
Sincerity of his Intentions, and I was quickly convinc’d that my Jealousy
was but too well founded. When my Audience was over, this Minister would
needs wait on me to the Door: I oppos’d it as much as I could, but when I
saw it was to no purpose I gave him his way, and he attended me to the
very Door of my Coach. I us’d many words with him upon his own Threshold,
and begg’d him not to go a Step farther, especially as it rain’d very
hard, which you’ll say was Reason enough of it self to have engaged him to
retire: Yet it all signify’d nothing, he would not abate an Ace of his
Complaisance, but stiffly stood it out by the side of my Coach, till it
mov’d off. This, however, was all the Service he did me; for instead of
serving me with the King, I knew from good Hands, that he acted the
Reverse. I was told that he was not pleas’d with me for desiring less
Salary than his Son-in-law had, who, when he was at _Paris_, was
continually writing to _Berlin_, that his Allowance was not sufficient to
maintain him.

To compleat my Happiness, the King receiv’d an anonymous Letter, assuring
him that I was a true Catholic; and to inforce the Belief of it, there was
added to the Letter an authentic Certificate from Father _Denis_, before
whom I had made the Confession of my Faith. The King express’d his
Resentment against me, and complain’d that I had impos’d upon him. Several
People alarm’d me with more Danger than there was in reality; however, I
was not frighten’d at first, for I suspected that the only Aim of the
general Talk was to hinder me from going to Court, and did not think that
the King was so angry as they gave out, till at last I was appriz’d that
his Majesty had some Thoughts of putting me under an Arrest. The Person
who came to bring me this Intelligence was _H----_, who was very well with
_M----_ the King’s Favorite; and I gave the more Credit to it, because I
did not think that he could be so dishonorable as to attempt to do me an
ill Office. This _H----_ was a poor Wretch, who after having spent a
handsome Fortune, had a very small Pension, which the King gave him, for
having executed a Commission at _Stralsund_ with the King of _Sweden_,
which few but himself would have accepted. As his Pension was too pitiful
to subsist him, several Persons reliev’d him; and I will venture to say,
That tho’ I was not in very easy Circumstances my self, yet I was some
Support to him. Nevertheless, I can with Truth declare it, that he
requited me with Ingratitude. He came to me with an Aggravation of that
piece of Intelligence, which when all was said and done, was not of such a
Nature as to drive me from the Court; but his manner of divulging it, made
me believe I was ruin’d past Recovery, if I persisted in staying at
_Berlin_. He came one day into my Chamber with a most dejected Air, and
told me, _That he had been just inform’d by M._ de M----, _that as soon as
the King was return’d, I should infallibly be arrested_; and at the same
time he put on such an external Appearance of Concern to see me oblig’d to
fly, that I took all he said for Gospel. I resolv’d therefore to be gone;
but the Difficulty was to raise Money, which I had no means of doing but
by making a great many disadvantagious Contracts, whereby I was a very
great Sufferer in the Sequel.

After I had made Money of every thing I set out in the Night from
_Berlin_, leaving word at home that I was bound to _Hanover_; but as soon
as I was got out of Town I steer’d my Course for _Leipsic_, where I staid
a few days, and then went to MENTZ, where I had a Cousin in the Elector’s
Service, who entertain’d me as a good Kinsman would do, and introduc’d me
to his Master, who gave me a most gracious Reception. I have already had
the Honor to tell you of the Prerogatives of the Elector of _Mentz_ at the
Coronation of an Emperor. It only remains for me to speak to you of his
Person. He was _Francis-Lotharius_ of _Schonborn_, of the Illustrious
Family of the Counts of _Schonborn_. Besides the Archbishopric of _Mentz_,
he had also the Bishopric of _Bamberg_. He had then two Coadjutors, the
Elector of _Triers_ Count _Palatine_ of the _Rhine_ for _Mentz_; and the
Count _de Schonborn_, Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, for _Bamberg_. He
might then be about seventy Years of Age. He was a Prince of a noble
Aspect, affable, ador’d by both his Domestics and his Subjects, and very
hearty for every thing that might contribute to the Tranquillity and Honor
of the Empire. The City of _Mentz_ is obliged to him for the noble Works
with which he has caus’d it to be fortify’d; for it may be said he has
spar’d no Cost to put his Capital in such a State as to have nothing to
fear from Foreigners.

_Mentz_[65] stands upon a rising Ground along the _Rhine_, in one of the
finest Parts of _Germany_. ’Twas formerly no more than a Bishopric
Suffragan to _Triers_, but Pope _Zachary_, or as some say _Gregory_ III.
erected it into an Archbishopric, and granted him at the same time the
Primacy of the Churches of _Germany_. ’Tis said that the first Bishop of
_Mentz_, who was honor’d with the Dignity of Elector, was nam’d
_Willigise_, and that he was the Son of a _Cartwright_, or, as others say,
a _Carman_ of the Village of _Schoningen_ in the Country of _Brunswic_. He
advanc’d himself purely by his own Merit to the Dignity of Chancellor to
the Emperors _Otho_ III. and _Henry_ II. and finally to that of Archbishop
of _Mentz_. But in all the height of his Fortune this Prelate continued in
such an humble Frame of Mind that he caus’d Wheels to be painted every
where about his Palace, that he might have the Badges of the Meanness of
his Extraction always in his Eyes: And we are assur’d this is the Reason
why the Electors of _Mentz_ always bear in their Arms a Wheel Argent in a
Field Gules.

The Chapter of _Mentz_ consists of forty two Canons, of whom the Dean and
the twenty three first are call’d _Capitulars_, and the other
_Domicellaires_. The former only are those that elect the Archbishop, who
from the Moment that he is chose, becomes an Elector of the Empire. The
Pope confirms his Election in Spirituals, and the Emperor does the same in
Temporals. The Elector becomes at the same time Great Chancellor of the
Empire of _Germany_, which gives him the Title of perpetual Dean of the
Electors, and an Inspection into the Aulic Council and the Imperial
Chamber of _Wetzlar_.

_Mentz_ has a very flourishing Trade, especially in Wines. The best
Vineyards for _Rhenish_ Wines are in the Dominions of the Elector, and
especially in the Neighbourhood of _Mentz_. And that which also
contributes very much to the Briskness of its Commerce is, that all the
Merchandize that passes up and down the _Rhine_, stops in its Harbor, to
be put on board fresh Bottoms.

I did not stay long at _Mentz_, but set out for STUTGARD[66], the Capital
of the Duchy of _Wirtemberg_. This City stands in a very fine Country, and
is divided into two parts by a small River call’d the _Neckar_. The Houses
at _Stutgard_ are generally ill built, yet as the Streets are broad and
lightsome, the Town is very gay. The Ducal Palace is very old but very
commodious, by reason of the Extent and Number of the Apartments. Here is
a very fine Garden with an Orangery, which is not to be parallel’d. The
Trees are kept in full Mould, secur’d by a Roof and a sliding Partition,
which they take care to warm in the Winter by several Stoves that make it
one continu’d Summer. The Duke of _Wirtemberg_ is seldom in this Palace,
except at the time of the Carnival; but as for his Duchess, she is there
almost always, and has a separate House from the Duke’s, where she lives
very retir’d. I wish’d for an Opportunity to pay my Respects to her, but
was deprived of that Honor, because I had not been introduc’d to the Duke.
This Prince’s usual Residence is at _Ludwigsbourg_ a Pleasure-House which
he caus’d to be built some Leagues from _Stutgard_; but while I was at
_Wirtemberg_ he was with the whole Court at _Wildstadt_, whither I went to
have the Honor of paying my Duty to him. _Wildstadt_ is one of the vilest
Places in _Germany_, yet ’tis very much frequented by reason of its Baths
of Mineral Waters, which are said to be a sovereign Remedy for many
Diseases, especially Sciaticas, and for bracing the Nerves. The Duke
commonly spends a Month or six Weeks here with his whole Court, which
being very numerous and splendid, _Wildstadt_ is then a Place agreeable
enough. The Duke had with him the Hereditary Prince, his Son, who is
married to _Henrietta_ of _Prussia_, the late Margrave _Philip_’s
Daughter. The Person of this Prince was very amiable, and like the Duke
his Father, his Behavior is the most courteous that can be, especially to
Foreigners, to whom they are both very kind. While the Court was at
_Wildstadt_, their Amusement in the Morning was the use of the Baths,
where the Duke and the Prince his Son gave Gentlemen the Liberty of
bathing with them; for it must be observ’d that each Bath will hold
twenty Persons very commodiously. When the Bathing was over, they took
their Rest. Towards Noon there was an Assembly in the Apartment of the
Duke, who went from thence to the Apartment of the Hereditary Princess,
who lodg’d with the Prince her Husband in a House over-against the Duke’s.
There was a Table for sixteen Guests very well serv’d, where the Gentlemen
eat with the Duke and his Children, and none but Pages waited. After
Dinner the Duke either rode, or caus’d others to ride some manag’d Horses,
than which I have no where seen any that were more beautiful or better
train’d than his were. In the Evening there was another Assembly at the
Princess’s, where there was play till Supper-time. I was told that when
the Court was at _Ludwigsbourg_ there was a greater Variety of Diversions,
and that besides Gaming there was some Theatrical Entertainments, of which
the Duke was very fond, and actually kept a Company of _French_ Comedians
in Pay, who perform’d very well. In a word, this Prince may be said to
have neglected nothing that he thought suitable to his Dignity, or that
might render his Court more splendid. And that every thing might look with
a certain Air of Grandeur, he was resolv’d, like other Sovereigns, to
establish an Order, of which he himself is the Head. They call it the
Order of St. _Hubert_. ’Tis a broad red Ribband, to which hangs a Cross
enamell’d white. None are admitted into it, but Persons of distinguish’d
Families. Besides this Order, the Duke also wears those of _Prussia_ and
_Denmark_ alternatively. The Hereditary Prince wears the _Prussian_ Order
at large, and that of the Duke his Father at his Button-Hole, just as they
wear the Cross of St. _Lewis_ in _France_, except nevertheless on the
Festival Days of St. _Hubert_, when he wears the red Ribband at full

Among the Persons of Distinction that accompanied the Duke to _Wildstadt_,
those of most Note were the Count _de Gravenitz_ and _S----_, which two
Gentlemen had the sole Disposition of Affairs. The first was Grand Marshal
of the Court and Prime Minister, and he wore the Order of _Prussia_, the
King having therewith honor’d him at the Marriage of the Hereditary Prince
with the Princess of _Prussia_. This Minister, who had the Duke of
_Wirtemberg_’s intire Confidence, had been nominated to accompany the
Hereditary Prince to _Berlin_. He certainly deserv’d the Favor with which
the Duke honor’d him; and I have not known many Noblemen more civil and
obliging. But _S----_ wanted a great deal of being so affable; tho’ his
Origin was very different. He was a meer Creature of Fortune, who to be
sure thought himself at the height of Felicity when he was Secretary to
the late M. _B----_, Minister of State to the late King at _Berlin_.
Nevertheless, after the Death of his Master his Star guided him to the
Court of _Wirtemberg_, where he has amass’d immense Riches, and is entered
into the greatest Employments. He wears the Order of _Dannebrog_, the King
of _Prussia_ having desir’d it for him of the King of _Denmark_, upon the
Recommendation of the Duke of _Wirtemberg_, who being very willing to give
his Minister some Badge of Honor, and not caring at the same time to
debase his own Order of St. _Hubert_, caus’d the Order of _Dannebrog_ to
be demanded for him, which is given to all Persons indifferently without
regard to Quality.

The Duke of _Wirtemberg_’s Court is altogether _Lutheran_, as well as the
rest of his Dominions. Mean time he permitted the Princess, who is a
_Calvinist_, to have a particular Chapel for her self and her Domestics.
The Countess _de Gravenitz_, Wife to the Grand Marshal, who is a Catholic,
was also allow’d a Chapel for the Exercise of her Religion.

I forgot to tell you what Title is assum’d by the Dukes of _Wirtemberg_.
They call themselves _Banner-Bearers of the Empire_, which Title they
distinguish in the third Quartering of their Shield, which is Azure with
the Banner of the Empire, Or charg’d with a Spread-Eagle Sable, plac’d
Bend-wise. The Dukes of _Wirtemberg_ have another Dignity more solid than
the former, _viz._ to be joint Directors of the Circle of _Swabia_, with
the Bishop of _Constance_.

The Duchy of _Wirtemberg_ was formerly confiscated to the use of
_Ferdinand_ I. Brother to the Emperor _Charles_ V. but ’twas afterwards
restor’d to the Princes of this Name, on condition of their holding it
dependent on the House of _Austria_. This Feudal Subjection was annull’d
in 1631, in the time of _Frederic_ Duke of _Wirtemberg_, on condition that
upon the Failure of Issue Male, the Duchy should devolve to the House of
_Austria_. In pursuance of these Treaties the Princes of that Family bear
the Title and Arms of the Family of _Wirtemberg_.

While I staid at this Court that Disorder which I had been teaz’d with for
several Years became at last so serious an Affair, that instead of
proceeding to _Vienna_, to which I at first purpos’d to go, I set out for
_Strasbourg_, in hopes of finding skilful Surgeons there to make the
necessary Operation upon me. Several offer’d to take me in hand, but the
King’s Lieutenant assur’d me, that my best way wou’d be to employ the
Person that was Surgeon to the Great Hospital. I did so, but can’t say I
had much reason to like him. He may, for aught I know, be an able Surgeon,
but sure I am that he is a very dangerous Physician. He thought fit to
give me Drugs (to prepare me, he said, to support the Operation) which had
like to have sent me into the other World: But by good Luck I perceiv’d
his Ignorance before he had time to kill me. I took no more of his
Remedies; and when I found my self well enough recover’d to bear the
Fatigues of a Journey, I resolv’d to go to _Paris_, which I take to be the
Nursery of the most experienc’d Surgeons. I stop’d a few days at SAVERNE,
where there was a very great Company at the House of the Cardinal _de
Rohan_, to whom I had the Honor of paying my Compliments; and he receiv’d
me with that Air of Politeness and Grandeur, for which we know this Prince
is distinguish’d.

From _Saverne_ I went to _Luneville_, and in all the Way found no
considerable Place but PHALTZBOURG, which was formerly a Part of
_Lorrain_, and had the Title of a Principality. ’Tis now a Place very
regularly fortify’d, and serves to guard the Road into _Lorrain_, which
_France_ secur’d to her self by the Treaty of _Ryswic_.

The Court of _Lorrain_ commonly resides at LUNEVILLE, since the Beginning
of the late War, when the _French_ put a Garison into _Nancy_, of which
they continu’d Masters till the Treaty of _Baden_. This City, which
heretofore was inconsiderable, is now worth seeing. The Duke of _Lorrain_
has added a great many Buildings to it, which are a great Ornament to it;
and therefore the Duke and Duchess chuse to reside here, preferably to
any other Place. As to the Duchess, she has a particular Reason for being
so fond of _Luneville_, it being the City assign’d her for her Jointure.

The Castle, which is very fine, has nothing noble without, but the Inside
is most magnificent. The Entrance and Front very much resemble those of
_Versailles_ towards _Paris_. As to the Front towards the Garden I can say
nothing of it, because that side of the Palace was not finish’d when I
went thither. The Apartments of their Royal Highnesses are spacious, and
richly furnish’d. The first Anti-chamber is a very large Saloon of curious
Structure. ’Tis wainscotted and adorn’d with the Pictures of the _Lorrain_
Family. In one, the Duke’s Father is represented making a triumphant Entry
in a Chariot drawn by four white Horses, with Fame flying before it, Peace
and Victory offering him Crowns of Laurel, and the additional Trophy of
_Turks_ in Chains trampled under his Horses Feet. The Whole together forms
a magnificent Painting; and I was told there are Tapestries in the Duke’s
Wardrobe, which are a Copy of it, but I did not see them.

This Saloon separates their Royal Highnesses Apartments from the Chapel,
which for the Contrivance of it very much resembles that of _Versailles_.
It stands on the Right of the Entry into the Saloon, and the Apartments
are on the Left. The Prince’s Apartment looks over _Luneville_, and over
the Courts belonging to the Kitchen, and the Princess’s is situate on the
Garden-side. The Princess’s is much larger than the Duke’s; and when I saw
it, ’twas richly furnish’d, adorn’d with noble Gilding, Glasses and
Paintings by the best Masters; but this Part of the Palace has since been
intirely consum’d by Fire, tho’ I am assur’d the Whole is re-built as well
as before, and that the Apartments are every whit as well furnish’d. So
much for the Palace: I will now give you a short Account of their Royal
Highnesses, and their August Family, as it stood in 1718, when I had the
Honor to see it.

_Leopold_ Duke of _Lorrain_ and _Bar_ was the Head of the Family, and the
Sovereign of the Country. He married Mademoiselle of _France_,
_Elizabeth-Charlotte_ of _Orleans_, Daughter of _Philip_ of _France_, Duke
of _Orleans_, Brother of _Lewis_ XIV. By which Marriage they had three
Princes and three Princesses. The eldest Prince, who was stil’d Duke of
_Bar_, died in 1723, at a Time when he was in Expectation of great
Fortune. His Brother, who is Heir to that Expectancy, is actually bred up
at _Vienna_, where the Emperor takes particular Care of his Education.

The Duke of _Lorrain_’s Houshold is considerable, and every thing is
establish’d there on a good Footing. His Hunting-Equipages are
magnificent, and so well furnish’d, that Foreigners who accompany the
Prince into the Field, are equipp’d with Horses out of his Stables. The
Prince’s Attendance is almost the same as that of the Princes of _France_,
and all his Houshold on the same Footing. The Marquis _de Craon_ was then
the Great Chamberlain and Prime Minister. He was a very courteous
Nobleman, and treated all that had Business with him with extraordinary
Civility. He had great Credit at Court, and the Prince was mighty
bountiful to him; insomuch that after having heap’d Wealth upon this
Favorite, he had a mind to see him promoted to the eminent Dignity of
Prince, which upon the Duke’s Desire the Emperor conferr’d upon him
accordingly. Not long after, one of the Prince of _Craon_’s Daughters was
married to a Prince of the _Lorrain_ Family, _viz._ the Prince _de Lixin_,
formerly known by the Name of the Chevalier _de Lorrain_, who is now the
Duke of _Lorrain_’s Steward of the Houshold. His Father-in-law has given
him his fine House at _Craon_, not far from _Luneville_. Madame _de
Craon_, who is a Partner in her Husband’s Fortune and Credit, is Lady of
Honor to the Duchess, and very much esteem’d by the Duke. I had the Honor
to see this Prince spend the Afternoons at her House, and the Courtiers,
after the Example of their Master, did justice to the Lady’s Merit.

From _Luneville_ I went to NANCY, which is the Capital City of _Lorrain_,
and was formerly the Residence of the Sovereigns of the Country. It stands
but a little distance from the River _Meurte_, in the midst of a beautiful
Plain; and is divided into two Parts, _viz._ the Old and New Towns. I had
the Honor to tell you, that the _French_ made a Conquest of it in 1631. It
had good Reason to remember, that it was once under a Foreign Dominion;
for its Fortifications were so demolish’d in 1668, that there was but one
Rampart remaining without a Parapet; and in this Condition it was restor’d
to its Sovereign at the Peace of _Ryswic_. Not many years after, when
_Lewis_ XIV. enter’d into the War for maintaining his Grandson upon the
_Spanish_ Throne, he oblig’d the Duke of _Lorrain_ to receive a Garison at
_Nancy_. The Duke was so disgusted at this Proceeding, that tho’ the King
had given Orders to his Officers, to pay his Royal Highness all the due
Honors and Respect, he would not stay in a Town, of which he might be said
to be Sovereign, but not the Master; and retir’d to _Luneville_, where he
continu’d ever after, tho’ _Nancy_ was evacuated at the Treaty of _Baden_.

A little way from _Nancy_, in the Road to _Paris_, there’s a Chapel and a
Cross, said to have been erected upon the very Spot where _Charles_ the
last Duke of _Burgundy_ was kill’d in 1476, when he was besieging the
Town, then in possession of _René_ Duke of _Lorrain_. There’s a
Copper-plate affix’d to the Cross upon the High-way, on which may be read
the Particulars.

Between _Nancy_ and _Toul_, which is in the _Paris_ Road, one passes thro’
the forest of _Haye_, wherein _Lewis_ XIV. caus’d a Way to be cut, which
will be a lasting Monument to Posterity, of the Magnificence of that Great
Prince. Those who are bound to _Toul_ cross the _Moselle_ in a Ferry-boat
about a League on this side that Town, to which they arrive over a pretty
large Plain. The Learned give a very ancient Original to the City of TOUL;
for they pretend it was first founded by _Tullus Hostilius_ King of the
_Romans_: But you may believe as much of this as you please. All that I
can say of the Town, after having view’d it well, is, that ’tis very ill
built, and not worthy of the Attention of the Curious. ’Tis a Bishopric
Suffragan of _Triers_, and one of the three Bishoprics of _Lorrain_ that
were yielded to _France_.

From _Toul_ I traveled to BAR-LE-DUC, the Capital of the Duchy of _Bar_.
This Duchy is dependant on the Crown of _France_, tho’ ’tis part of the
Dominions of _Lorrain_, and is under the Jurisdiction of a Parliament. The
Dukes of _Lorrain_ were formerly oblig’d, either in their own Person, or
by an Envoy, to perform Homage to the King of _France_, upon the Death
either of a King, or of a Duke; which Obligation was chang’d, or rather
limited, during the Regency of the Duke of _Orleans_, in a Journey which
the Duke and Duchess of _Lorrain_ made to _Paris_ in 1718, when it was
regulated, _That a Duke of +Bar+ should be oblig’d to pay Homage but once
in his Life to a King of +France+; but that he should pay it in Person_.
This Convention was register’d in the Parliament of _Paris_. But this was
not the only Advantage which the Duke reap’d from his Journey; for the
Regent, at the Request of his Sister, restor’d a great number of Villages
to him that ought to have been restor’d to the Duke of _Lorrain_ at the
Peace of _Ryswic_, and which the Ministry of _France_ had thought fit to

From _Bar-le-Duc_ to CHALONS, ’tis a wild desert Country, yet very
fruitful in Corn. The Roads are detestable if it rains ever so little;
which added to the length of the Post-Stages, renders it a very
disagreeable Journey. They say ’twas in these Fields that the King
_Meroveus, Aëtius_ General of the _Romans_, and _Theodoric_ King of the
_Visigoths_, fought so bloody a Battle in 451, with _Attila_ King of the
_Huns_, that they kill’d two hundred thousand of his Men. But this is a
Fact which I will not warrant. The Situation of _Chalons_ is very
advantageous. The River _Marne_ which runs into the _Seine_ almost at the
Entrance of _Paris_, is a great Convenience for the Merchants of that
City. This City is in _Champaigne_, and its Bishop has the Title of
_Count and Peer of_ France. The ancient Counts of _Champaigne_ resided
here, and the Palace they liv’d in is still to be seen. The Parliament of
_Paris_ was transferr’d hither in 1592; and there that illustrious
Assembly pass’d that famous Arrêt against the Pope’s Legate, and the
League, which under the Pretence of Religion tended to deprive _Henry_
III’s lawful Successor, _Henry_ IV. of the Crown of _France_.

Several most illustrious Marriages have been celebrated in the City of
_Chalons_. 1. That of _Philip_ of _Orleans_, Brother to _Lewis_ XIV. 2.
That of _Lewis_ Dauphin of _France_ Son of _Lewis_ XIV. with
_Anne-Christina-Victoria_ of _Bavaria_, on the 7th of _March_ 1680: And
finally, the Marriage of _Lewis_ Duke of _Orleans_, Son of the Duke
Regent, to _Augusta-Maria-Johanna_ of _Baden_, on the 13th of _July_ 1724.

There’s not one considerable Place all the way from _Chalons_ to _Paris_.
I pass’d thro’ CHATEAU-THIERRY, which is a Duchy that was given to M. _de
Bouillon_ in Exchange for the Principality of _Sedan_; with this Clause
nevertheless, that the King shall keep the Sovereignty of it. The _Marne_
runs at the Foot of this Town.

Ten Leagues from hence there’s the City of MEAUX, which is the Capital of
_Brie_, with the Title of a Bishopric. But neither in the Church nor Town
did I see any thing remarkable. The Suburbs are very fruitful, and the
Neighbourhood of _Paris_ gives the Inhabitants an Opportunity of putting
off their Commodities to Advantage.

’Tis but a few Hours Journey from _Meaux_ to PARIS in the direct Road. But
I went some Leagues out of the way to see M. _de N----_, at his Seat at
_C----_, near _Fontainbleau_, and after having spent some days there very
pleasantly, we travell’d together to _Paris_. When we had pass’d the Time
that was necessary to discharge the Obligations of Friendship and Decency,
I reflected on what was the real Motive of my Journey; which, as I have
had the Honor to tell you, was to put my self into the Hands of some able
Surgeon. The Man to whose Care I committed my self was the famous _La
Peronie_, who perform’d the Operation upon me with the utmost Skill, yet I
suffer’d extreme Pain. During my Illness, which was of some Continuance,
my Friends, who were my faithful Companions, were so good as to inform me
of every thing that pass’d; and if it had been lawful to have betray’d
them, or if I had been in any Post under the Government, I might perhaps
have made some Discoveries to the Duke Regent, which would have been to
his advantage, and enabled him to stifle that Flame at its first breaking
out, which indeed he extinguish’d afterwards, tho’ it was perhaps owing as
much, if not more, to his good Fortune, than to his Prudence.

_Paris_ was at that time in a Crisis, when it dreaded a Minority as
troublesome as that of _Lewis_ XIV. Every body was dissatisfy’d. There was
a loud Clamor against the Royal Bank. And the Government-Bills were a
fresh Subject of Complaint; for tho’ they were establish’d at the
Beginning of the Regency, with a Promise to keep up their Credit, yet
there was a very great Loss by discounting them; and as the Public was
overcharg’d with them, and as there is nothing which sits so uneasy on
People as their Loss, every one gave public Vent to his ill Humor. At this
same Juncture the Duke Regent was afflicted with sore Eyes, which
indanger’d his Sight. I was assur’d that the Chancellor said to some
People in Confidence, _That ’twas absolutely necessary to think of proper
Measures for transferring the Regency to another Person, in case that
Prince should happen to be blind_: And they say that ’twas for this
Expression that he lost the Seals, which were taken from him the 28th of
_January_ 1718. When M. _de la Vrilliere_ Secretary of State went to him
to demand them, the Chancellor resign’d them immediately, saying, _That he
restor’d them to his Royal Highness with more Pleasure than he took them_.
At the time that they were brought to the Regent the Duke _de Noailles_
was with him, who being more than ordinary surpriz’d to see the Seals,
because he knew nothing of the Chancellor’s Disgrace, could not help
asking the Regent, _What he was going to do with the Seals?_ To which that
Prince made Answer, _That he design’d them for M. +d’Argenson+ Lieutenant
of the Police_. The Duke being dissatisfy’d with this Change, desir’d the
Regent’s Leave to retire, which was granted him with more Readiness than
he desir’d.

The Seals were given upon the same day to M. _d’Argenson_. The Regent
himself sign’d the Patent, and the Grant of the Great and Little
Commissions; and in the Afternoon the new Minister took the usual Oath to
the King; and at the same time the Duke Regent declar’d him Chief of the
Council of the Finances. The Disgrace of the Chancellor made the
Parliament uneasy, and occasion’d fresh Murmuring among the People; the
rather because ’twas reported, that his Royal Highness ow’d him a Grudge
for his Refusal to sign certain Edicts which were not lik’d by the

While _Paris_ was in such a Ferment, there was some Commotion in
_Bretagne_. The Payment of the Free Gift being demanded of the States then
assembled, they made answer, _That they could not grant it till they had
first examin’d their Funds. They intended_, they said, _to regulate their
Finances, which were very much disorder’d_. This Delay was look’d upon as
an open Rebellion, and at the fourth Assembly they receiv’d Orders to
separate. This put them quite out of Temper, and the Nobility deputed four
of their Body to Court to present his Royal Highness a long Memorial, in
which they demonstrated how impossible it was for their Province to pay
the Free Gift at that instant. They complain’d of the Invasion of the
Privileges of a Province which had only submitted to _France_ upon
condition that they should be sacredly preserv’d. They concluded with
praying his Royal Highness to grant them, at least, some time longer. _We
flatter our selves, Sir_, said they, in the close of their Memorial, _that
a Delay of a few days, contrary indeed to an ill Custom, but agreeable to
ancient Possession, will not give your Royal Highness the worse Opinion of
a Nobility which is so much devoted to you, and to which you have declar’d
your Good-will_.

The Regent made answer to the Deputies, _That they must obey and pay, and
that then they would see what could be done_. This Answer did not satisfy
the uneasy _Bretons_, and the Parliament of the Province sent their
Deputies to _Paris_. When they were admitted to the King’s Audience, M.
_de Blossac_, who was their Spokesman, made much the same Representation
as the Deputies of the Nobility had done before. All the Answer they had
was a Declaration from the King, by the Keeper of the Seals, who was
present, _That the Privileges of their Province should not be infring’d_.
The same Deputies presented a long Petition to his Majesty, wherein they
discover’d not less Love and Respect to the King than Zeal for their
Privileges, but still insisted on the Impossibility of paying the Free
Gift so soon. These Remonstrances, however, were as ineffectual as those
of the States; and the Regent, who was resolv’d to be obey’d, made use of
his Authority, by banishing the most mutinous of the Gentry from the
Province, and others of ’em he caus’d to be summon’d to _Paris_, as well
as several of their Members of Parliament, in order to give an Account of
their Conduct.

Such, _Madame_, was the State of Affairs when I arriv’d at _Paris_. There
was no Talk of any thing but Disturbances, and every thing seem’d to tend
to a Revolt. The Duke Regent, in order to obviate any Enterprize of that
sort, thought fit to secure the Soldiery in his Interest; and for this end
he caus’d them to be paid punctually, gave Gratuities to the Officers, and
to put Feathers in their Caps he made a numerous Promotion of the Knights
of St. _Lewis_. There was a Creation of about four hundred in a few days,
so that go where one would, there was nothing to be seen but the Crosses
of St. _Lewis_. It were to be wish’d that the Species had been as common,
but of this there was less Probability than ever. The Regent had just
undertaken a general Recoinage of the Money, which seem’d to be a Thing of
great Consequence to private People. His Royal Highness caus’d the Edict
for this purpose to be register’d, and foreseeing that the Parliament
would not come into his Measures, he caus’d the same to be publish’d by
the Officers of the Mint. The Parliament was stung to the quick by the
Publication of this Edict, and pretended that, in order to its being
register’d, it ought to have been first communicated to them. The Chambers
met upon this Occasion, and ’twas agreed that all the Sovereign Courts
mould be invited to join with the Parliament in an Affair of such

_M. L. C. P. P. D. L. C. D. A._ when the Invitation was sent to his
Company, took the advantage of it to make his court to the Regent, and
went and inquir’d at the Royal Palace how he had best act. The Regent took
this well at his hands, and his Royal Highness sent an immediate
Prohibition to the Court of Aids, the Chamber of Accounts, and the
Officers of the Mint to take any notice of the Parliament’s Invitation.

Nevertheless the Parliament still continu’d its Assemblies, and sent a
Deputation to the Royal Palace, confiding of the First President, the
President _d’Aligre_, and several Counsellors, to engage the Regent to
revoke the aforesaid Edict; and they represented in a very long Discourse,
_That the Rise of the Species could not but be prejudicial to the_ French
_and profitable to Foreigners, who would get sixty Livres by a Mark of
Silver, which intrinsically would not be worth twenty five Livres; and
that this would circulate an infinite number of counterfeit Species in the
Kingdom, considering the immense Profit that Foreigners would make by it_.
They then complain’d of the Edict’s being register’d at the Court of the
Mint, and not in the Parliament, to whom it ought, at least, to have been
communicated. The Duke Regent made answer to the Deputies, _That he did
not think he ought to send the last Edict to the Parliament, because the
Court of the Mint was establish’d a superior and competent Court in
Matters of that kind; that there had been no Edict sent to Parliament
concerning the Mints, since the Year 1659, except one which was sent
thither in 1715, out of pure Respect to that Company; that as to the
Inconveniencies, he had maturely weighed them, but that he could not
excuse himself from issuing the Edict, and that as to the Suspension of
the Edict, ’twas not to be thought of, the Work being so far advanc’d, and
a great Quantity of Species already given out, besides Debts that must
necessarily be paid off._

The Parliament not being satisfy’d with this Answer, there was another
Assembly, to the Number of 165 Members, next day, _viz._ the 20th of
_June_, from 8 o’clock in the Morning till 2 in the Afternoon, when they
pass’d an Arrêt, by which it was agreed to make most humble Remonstrances
to the King to obtain Letters Patent for censuring the last Edict of the
Mint, not register’d in Parliament, as prejudicial to the King, to Trade,
to the Government, and to the Fortunes of private People; that in
consequence thereof all Persons should be prohibited to receive the
new-coin’d Species, and to make Payments in any other Species than those
which had their Currency, by virtue of the Edict of 1715, and all Notarys
should likewise be prohibited to pass any Act for Payments or
Reimbursements made with the new Species. This Arrêt was set up in Writing
within the Palais or Parliament-House, and the Parliament took care to
have several written Copies of it dispers’d, because of the Prohibition
which their own Printer was laid under, not to commit it to the Press.

The Regent, who was sensible how prejudicial this Arrêt was to his
Authority, assembled the Council, when they pass’d an Arrêt declaring that
of the Parliament to be an Incroachment upon the Regal Authority, and that
his Majesty revok’d and annull’d it, as well as all the Resolutions taken
in that Body. All Mankind was alarm’d, and they fear’d, not without
Reason, what would be the Consequences of so violent a Proceeding. The
Parliament on their part did not abate one jot of their State; and when
the King’s Council laid upon the Table a Letter de Cachet, with the Arrêt
of the Council of State, they agreed to send the Whole back again without
reading one Word of it; and that the Arrêt pass’d the day before should be
put in execution according to its Form and Tenor. Hereupon the Council of
State pass’d another Arrêt, by which the King claim’d to himself and his
Council the Cognizance of all the Differences which might arise with
regard to the Coin. This done, the Regent sent two Companies of _French_
Guards to the Mint, and another Detachment to the Bank: And after having,
by this means, made every thing secure, he gave the Parliament leave to
come and make their Remonstrances to the King. The Person who spoke in the
Name of the rest was M. _de Mesmes_ the First President, at the Head of
seven Presidents _a Mortier_, thirty-two Counsellors, and the King’s
Council. His Speech was long and well study’d. He began with extolling the
Qualities observable in the young King. Then he said, _That tho’ the
Parliament only wish’d for the Opportunity of coming into his Presence_
_to admire them, they were under a Necessity of acquainting him with the
just Alarms of all the Orders of the Kingdom, upon account of an Edict for
a general Recoinage of the Species, which impoverish’d those that had any
Fortunes left in_ France, _without being any Relief to the numerous Poor_.
This Speech was divided into two Parts. The first related to the manner in
which the said Edict had been publish’d. The second enter’d into the
particular Inconveniencies with which the various Clauses of the Edict
would be attended, if his Majesty was not so far mov’d by those Reasons,
as to order its Repeal. M. _de Mesmes_ supported those two Articles by a
Speech as nervous as it was eloquent; and at the Close he said, that in
the Arrêts which had been pass’d by his Company, they had only followed
the Precedents that had been found in the Registers.

The First President left his Speech in Writing, that the King might be
able to answer it; and it was not long before the said Answer was
return’d. The Deputies of the Parliament being sent for to the
_Tuilleries_, on the 2d of _July_ 1718, the Keeper of the Seals said to
them in his Majesty’s Presence, _The King has caus’d the Remonstrances of
his Parliament to be examin’d in Council, and his Majesty will always be
dispos’d to give them a favorable Hearing, when they have not a Tendency
to the splitting or the cramping of his Authority._ He added, _That the
Edict in question had been maturely examin’d; and that ’twas the best
Remedy for paying off the Debts of the State; that the said Edict was not
such a Burden upon the Public; and that it was only so to those who should
make advantageous Contracts by obligatory Deeds._ He concluded with
saying, _That the King prohibited every Assembly tending to the neglect
of Submission_; and that he had given Orders for registring the Letters
Patent in pursuance of the Arrêt of Council whereby his Majesty claims the
Cognizance of the Disputes already risen or that may arise relating to the
Edict. This Answer being reported to the Parliament, Commissioners were
appointed to examine it; and at the same time to search the Registers if
there was any Precedent for Letters Patent of that sort, in order to
conform to it. The Commissioners having made their Report, the Company
came to a Resolution to represent to the Duke Regent, _That nothing had
been determin’d on that Subject, because the Company desired that they
might first of all make new Remonstrances to the King; and that they
intreated his Royal Highness to procure them an Audience_. The Regent was
nettled at the Parliament’s Importunity, and he made answer to the King’s
Council, who were sent to him with the Message, _That he should have
thought that the Parliament would have rested satisfy’d with the Answer
which the King had before given; but that since he saw they were not, he
would venture, notwithstanding the Dislike that his Majesty expressed to
Remonstrances, to give them the Liberty of presenting them, but no
otherwise than in Writing_.

The Parliament was not discouraged, but still continu’d to demand an
Audience, which was at length granted for the 26th of _July_; when all the
People of Distinction in _Paris_ flock’d to Court to hear the
Remonstrances. The first President spoke for nearly three quarters of an
Hour, tho’ his Discourse was nothing more than a Recapitulation of what he
had said before. His Majesty made answer, _My Keeper of the Seals will
explain my Intentions to you_. But the Keeper of the Seals said no more
than this, _The King has already explained his Intentions to you, and he
will explain them to you farther hereafter_.

The Parliament dissatisfy’d with this Answer, which they thought too
Laconic, as Affairs then stood, fell in a Rage with the Man whom they had
good reason to look upon as the _Primum Mobile_ of the Confusion of
Affairs; I mean _John Law_, whose rapid Fortune furnish’d a large Field of
Discourse. They were very sensible that a Director of the Bank could not
easily acquire so much Wealth, but a great many People must be
considerable Losers. The Parliament therefore cited this Financier to
appear before them in Person, but he never went near them; and when, in a
few days after, they chang’d the Summons to a Warrant for arresting him,
the Duke Regent protected him by an Arrêt of Council. This Prince wisely
judging of what Importance it was to him to make the Parliament easy, and
to secure Respect to the Regal Authority of which he was the Depositary,
appointed a Bed of Justice to be held at the Palace of the _Thuilleries_
for the 26th of _August_. He order’d the King’s Houshold Troops to keep to
their Arms, and to be every Man at his Post. The same day he sent circular
Letters of Invitation to all the Dukes and Peers, to the Marshals of
_France_, to the Knights of the Orders, to the Governors and
Lieutenant-Generals of the Provinces, to the Secretaries, and to some of
the Counsellors of State who were nominated by the Keeper of the Seals.
The Princes were also invited to this Tribunal. The Parliament walk’d
thither on foot, about 11 o’clock in their red Robes. The President _de
Novion_ was at the Head of their Body, because the first President was at
that time very much afflicted with the Gout; however, he went to the
_Thuilleries_ in a Coach.

After the Council of the Regency broke up, the King went from his little
Apartment upon the Terrass to his Gallery, to which he was accompanied by
the Duke Regent and the Princes of the Blood. Four Presidents _au Mortier_
and six Counsellors came thither to receive him, and conducted him to his
Bed of Justice. The King being seated on his Throne, and all the Company
having taken their Places, they began with reading the Letters Patent
establishing M. _d’Argenson_ Keeper of the Seals, which were order’d to be
register’d. After this an Arrêt of Council was read, forbidding the
Parliament to take Cognizance of the Affairs of State. Upon the reading of
this Arrêt, the first President broke Silence and said, _The Subject
seem’d to him of so great Importance, that with the due Respect and
Submission which the Company had for his Majesty’s Orders, he desired his
Majesty’s Permission to withdraw, to take it into Consideration_. As
little Attention was paid to this Remonstrance, as to the preceding ones.
The Regent drew near to the King and whisper’d him; and the Keeper of the
Seals, after approaching his Majesty for a Minute, made answer to the
Company, _The King will be obey’d, and obey’d too upon the Spot_.

Then a Declaration was read, importing, that the Dukes and Peers should
have Seats in Parliament immediately after the Princes of the Blood. A
second, which derogated from the Declaration of the King, dated the 5th of
_May_ 1694, and restrain’d the Legitimated Princes to the meer Honors and
Prerogatives of their Peerages: And a third, which re-established the
Count _de Tholouse_ in all his Rights, Ranks and Prerogatives for his own
Person only.

After the reading of these Declarations the Duke spoke and represented to
his Majesty, _That the late King having seem’d desirous that the Duke of_
Maine _should have the Care of his Majesty’s Education, tho’ the Place
belong’d to him by Birth-right, he did not then oppose it, because he was
at that time a Minor; but as this was not the Case now, he desir’d that
the Honor might be conferr’d upon him_: which Demand was granted to him,
as well as that of the Dukes and Peers, who demanded to have Precedence of
the Presidents _au Mortier_ in Parliament.

Thus ended the Bed of Justice, which will no doubt be famous to the latest
Posterity. The Parliament was very much mortify’d at the Conduct observ’d
to them, and declared next day in their Assembly, by an Arrêt which was
register’d, _That they neither could, nor ought, nor intended to have any
Share in what pass’d the Day preceding in the Bed of Justice; and that
Posterity might be inform’d of it, Commissioners were nominated, to draw
up a verbal Account of all the Proceedings_. The Regent being inform’d of
what the Parliament was doing, sent Detachments of the Gray and Black
Musketeers, commanded by a Brigadier, who on the 28th at Night, took up
those that had been the most zealous for this Opinion. Such were Messieurs
_de Blamont_, President of the 4th of the Inquests, _Feydeau_ Counsellor
of the same Court, and _St. Martin_ a Counsellor of the Grand Chamber.
They were clapp’d into three Coaches, each guarded by eight Musketeers and
an Officer, and carried to Places which the Court had appointed; and at
the same time the Papers of the two former were seiz’d.

As soon as the Parliament was acquainted of this Arrest, they met and made
a Deputation to the King, to intreat him to permit them to enjoy the
Privilege they always had of trying those of their own Body for any Crimes
they may be accus’d of. The Keeper of the Seals made them answer, _The
Affairs which bring this Deputation to the King are Affairs of State,
which demand Silence and Secrecy: The King is oblig’d to see due Respect
paid to his Authority. The future Behavior of his Parliament will
determine his Majesty’s Sentiments of, and Dispositions towards them._ The
Deputies went next day to the Royal Palace to make fresh Intercession with
the Regent for the Liberty of their Brethren; but his Royal Highness
returned much the same Answer to them as they had the day before,
whereupon the Parliament shut up their Tribunals, and left off decreeing
Justice. Mean time the King’s Council were always in Motion at the
_Louvre_, and at the Royal Palace, but could not obtain a satisfactory
Answer; and on the 5th of _September_ the Marquis _d’Essiat_, Master of
the Horse to the Duke Regent, gave the Company notice on the part of his
Royal Highness, to open the Courts again, and to continue the Sessions,
assuring them, that an Answer should shortly be returned to their late

Mean time the Rumor of the Violence us’d to the President and the
Counsellors that had been apprehended, put a great many People out of
Temper: These Exiles were consider’d as Martyrs to the public Liberty, and
every Man made their Case his own. Several Parliaments seem’d inclinable
to support that of _Paris_. The Parliament of _Bretagne_ discover’d more
Zeal than any other, and wrote a fine Letter to the Parliament of _Paris_,
offering to join with them in the Demand of the Exiles Liberty; they also
wrote another on the same Subject to his Majesty, which they addressed to
M. _de la Vrilliere_ Secretary of State.

At the same time a very important Event happened, which took off the
Attention of the _French_, in a great measure, from their own Affairs, and
rais’d the Speculation of all _Europe_. This was the _Spanish_ Expedition
to _Sicily_. To let you fully into the Secret of this Affair, I must go
farther back, and give you a general Account of the State of Affairs of
_Europe_ in the preceding Year. The Emperor, in pursuance of his Alliances
with the Republic of _Venice_, from whom the _Turks_ had taken a Part of
the _Morea_, was sollicited to declare War against those Infidels. The
Pope, on his part, dreading that the _Turks_ should land in _Italy_,
caus’d Instances to be made to his Imperial Majesty to persuade him to the
War. The Emperor could not determine with himself for a good while to
break with the _Turks_, for fear lest _Spain_ should take an Advantage of
such Rupture, and fall upon his Provinces in _Italy_. The Pope encourag’d
the Emperor, by acquainting him, _That the King of +Spain+ had given him
his solemn Promise that he would undertake nothing in +Italy+._ He also
gave him to understand, _That instead of having any reason to be afraid of
+Spain+, he might expect all manner of Assistance from that Crown in the
present War; since it had engag’d to send him a powerful Squadron; and
that the better to enable him to do this, he (the Pope) had given him
leave to raise the Tenths upon the Clergy of +Spain+._ These
Representations made an Impression upon the Emperor; but the Thing which
absolutely determin’d him, was the Treaty of Guaranty, that he had
concluded with _England_, by which that Crown engaged to assist him with
its Navy, in case that his Dominions were invaded. He therefore declared
War against the _Turks_, and sent a numerous Army against them, under
Command of Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_. The Campaign prov’d very glorious
for this Prince. He began it with a Victory near _Temeswaer_, after which
he laid Siege to that Place, and in a very little time reduc’d it. Mean
while _Spain_ prepar’d a Naval Armament, under Pretence of sending
Succours to the _Venetians_. But how was all _Europe_ surpriz’d, when it
was known that the Prime Minister of _Spain_, the Cardinal _Alberoni_,
heretofore Chaplain to the Duke _de Vendôme_, afterwards Agent of _Parma_
at the Court of _Madrid_, and finally, by the Queen’s Favour, promoted to
the Summit of Grandeur and Prosperity, had prevail’d on the King of
_Spain_ to employ the Sums that were levied upon the Estates of the
Clergy, and appropriated for the Support of the Honor of the Christian
Name, in the Conquest of _Sardinia_! The Reduction of it was attended with
no great Difficulty, because the Island, in reliance upon the Faith of
Treaties, was at that time but indifferently furnish’d with Troops. The
Emperor made his Complaints to the Pope, and to _France_ and _England_ as
Guaranties of the Neutrality of _Italy_. These Powers did their utmost to
engage the King of _Spain_ to desist from his Pretensions. The Duke Regent
order’d the Duke of _St. Aignan_, Ambassador of _France_ at the _Spanish_
Court, to represent to the King all the Inconveniencies into which this
War might plunge him; but the _Spanish_ Minister, who rely’d upon the
secret Correspondence he had in _France_, refused all Proposals of an
Accommodation, tho’ they were so very advantageous to the King of _Spain_:
For it was propos’d to him, that the Emperor should recognize him the
lawful Possessor of _Spain_ and the _Indies_; and moreover, that he should
consent to the securing of the Successions of _Parma_ and _Placentia_ to
the Queen of _Spain_’s Children; Terms infinitely more advantagious than
those that had been granted to him by the Peace of _Utrecht_, and of which
the King, of _Spain_ so earnestly desir’d to see the Confirmation the Year
that _Lewis_ XIV. died.

                      The End of the Third Volume.

                         An Alphabetical INDEX

                                 TO THE

                             THIRD VOLUME.


  _Adrian_ VI. (Pope) his Birth and Parentage 220, 221.

  _St. Aignan_ (Duke de) 359.

  _Aix-la-Chapelle_, Relics and Town, 233, _&c._

  _Alberoni_ Cardinal, 359.

  _Albert_ of _Bavaria_ Count of _Holland_, 130, 131.

  _Albert_ (Margrave) of _Brandenbourg_, his Marriage to the Princess of
      _Courland_, 54.

  _Albert_, Margrave of _Brandenbourg_, Grand Master of the _Teutonic_
      Order, his Marriage, and War with _Poland_, 13.

  _Alcibiades_ of _Germany_, who so call’d, 146.

  ALTENA, _t._ 231.

  _Alva_, Duke of, his Cruelty and Statue, 168. his Son, 138.

  AMSTERDAM, _t._ its Foundation and Increase, 130, 131.
    Its Description, 132, _&c._
    Remarks on its Inhabitants, 133, 137.

  _Anabaptists_, their Head, 161.

  _Anhalt-Dessau_ (_Leopold_ Prince of) his Valor, 55, 56, 68, 83.

  _Arnheim_, (M. de) 88.

  ANTWERP, _t._ 166, _&c._

  _Appel_, a Merchant, 322.

  _Argenson_, M. de, 86, 346.

  _Arm-Chair_, consequence of its Refusal, 12, 25.

  _Asbach_, Barons de, 11.

  _Asfeldt_ (Abbot of) 306.

  _Attila_, King of the _Huns_, his Defeat, 343.

  _Audenard_ (Battle of) 76, 77.

  _Augsbourg_ Confession, 146.

  _Aumont_ (Duke of) his different Reception at _London_ by the several
      Parties, and the burning of his House, 206.

  _Auverquerque_ (Veldt-Marshal de) 255.


  _Baden_ (_Lewis_ Margrave of) 15, 16, 17.

  _Balderic_ of _Cleves_, Bishop of _Utrecht_, 221.

  _Ball_, extraordinary given by the Author, 209.

  _Barcelona_ Siege rais’d 69.

  _Barfous_ (Count de) 8. His Banishment from the _Prussian_ Court, 52.

  _Bargeman_’s Daughter, her notable Rise, 9 to 12.

  BAR-LE-DUC, _t._ 342.

  _Bartholdi, Prussian_ Minister, 20, 21, 22.

  _Bassompierre_ (Brothers) their History, 85.

  BENDER, _t._ 67.

  BENSBERG, _t._ 142.

  _Bergerie_, (M. de la) 57.

  BERLIN, 93, _&c_. 229. Distance from _Koningsberg_, 28.

  _Berry_ (Duke of) his Character, 185.
    Duchess, 186.
    Her Character and Favour with the Regent, 287, 288.
    Her Kindness for the Count de _R_----, 301.
    Her Death, 302.

  _Biberstein_, (Marshal de) 223.

  BILEFELD, _t._ 161.

  _Bilinsky_, Count de, 17.

  _Bills, French_, 291, 345.

  _Blamont_, M. de, President, 356.

  _Blankenbourg_, Duke of, 114, 116.

  _Blaspiel_, M. Minister, 20.

  _Bolingbroke_ (_Henry St. John_, Lord) his Reception in _France_, 198,
      205, 206.

  _Borst_, the Queen of _Prussia_’s Confessor, 91, 92.

  _Bose_, a Merchant, 322.

  _Bot_, the Architect, 124.

  _Boufflers_, Marshal, 259.

  _Bourbon_, Duke of, 185, 186, 236.

  _Bourg_, Marshal de, 318.

  _Bouvines_ Battle, 176.

  _Brandenburg_, Princes of, Apparition presaging their Death, 211.

  _Brandenbourg Bareith_, Margrave of, 54, 103.

  BRANDENBURG, _t._ 228.

  _Brantz_, General, our Author’s Uncle, 18.

  BREDA, _t._ 218.

  BRESLAU, _t._ 243.

  _Breteuil_, Baron de, 266.

  _Britany_ (Duke of) his Death, 184.
    Discontent of that Province, 347.

  BRUGES, _t._ 276.

  _Brunswic_ (Ducal Family of) 116.
    The City, 118.

  BRUSSELLS, _t._ 170.

  _Bulau_ Countess, 32.
    M. de, Steward, 58.

  _Burgundy_ (_Charles_ Duke of) kill’d, 343.

  _Burgundy_ (Duke of, afterwards Dauphin) his Character and his Death,
      182, 183.
    Death and Character of the Dauphiness, 182, 183.

  _Bydgost_ Treaty, 14.


  CAMBRAY, _t._ 172.
    Its Archbishop, 173.
    League, 174.

  CASSEL, _t._ 155.
    Landgrave’s Family, 155.

  _Chair_ of State refus’d by the Prince of _Orange_ to the Elector of
      _Brandenbourg_, and its Consequence, 12, _&c._

  _Chalons_ Family, 74.

  CHALONS-SUR-MARNE, _t._ 343.

  _Chamber_ of Justice, 289.

  _Chamillard_, M. de, 80.

  _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, his Death, 21, 26.

  _Charles_ V. (Emperor) 13, 257.

  _Charles_ VI. (Emperor)
    See _Election_ and _Coronation_.

  _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_, Origin and Progress of his War with
      _Poland_, 61, to 67.
    How he was betray’d by one of his Ministers, 61, 66.

  _Charolois_, (Count de) 186.

  _Chartres_, (Duke de) 185.

  CHATEAU-THIERRY, _t._ 344.

  ----_Cambresis_ Treaty, 175.

  _Clarendon_, Lord, 252.

  _Clermont_, (Count de) 186.

  _Colbe_ (see _Wartemberg_.)

  _Coligny_, Admiral, 174.

  _Cologne_, (_Joseph-Clement_ Elector of) 164. _t._ 163, _&c._
    Archbishops of, 164, _&c._

  COMPIEGNE, _t._ 175.

  _Condé_ (Princess of) 190.

  _Conty_ (Princess of) 191.
    (Second Dowager) 191.
    (Prince of) 17, 53, 72, 186, 236.

  _Coronation_ of the Emperors, 157, _&c._

  _Cough_, so dreaded by a Soldier, that he chose rather to be kill’d,

  _Courland_ (Duke of) 41.
    Dispute about his Guardianship, 102.
    His Marriage with the Czar’s Niece, and his Death, 103, 104.

  ----Duchess of, 36, 54.

  _Court_ what most contributes to its Lustre, 3.

  _Craon_, Marquiss de, 340.

  _Culmbach_, Princess of, 83.

  CUSTRIN, _t._ 44, 45.

  _Czar_ of _Muscovy_ in _France_, 310, to 315.


  _Danckleman_ (Baron de) Prime Minister of _Frederic_ I. King of
      _Prussia_, 4.
    The Rise of his great Favor, 5.
    His Disgrace, 6, 7, 8.
    Facts relating to it, 9, 12, 14, 15, 16.

  _Dankelman_ M. our Author’s Tutor, 81.

  _Dannebrog_ Order, 336.

  _Dauphin_ of _France_, his Death and Character, 182.

  DELFT, _t._ 128.

  _Denis_ (Father) 306.

  _Denmark_, King, his Dispute with the Duke of _Holstein_, 61, 63, _&c._

  _Desalleurs_ M. Envoy of _France_, 26.

  _Devos_, Manufacture for Tapistry, 170.

  _Dohna_, Count de, 33, 111, 148, 159.

  Don _John_ of _Austria_, 172.

  _Dorerbeck_ M. Cup-bearer of _Prussia_, 17.

  DORT, _t._ 129.

  DRESDEN, _t._ 244.

  _Dress_, a remarkable Conversation about it, between two great
      Duchesses in _France_, 186, to 189.

  _Duliz_, a wealthy and generous _Jew_, 127.

  _Duplanti_, his Adventure after the Battle of _Audenarde_, 76, 77.

  DUSSELDORFF, _t._ 141.


  _Eagle-Black_ (Order of) in _Prussia_, its Institution, 29, 30.

  _Eckeren_ Battle, 170.

  _Effiat_, Marquis de, 357.

  EISENACH, _t._ 321.

  _Elbing_ mortgaged and taken, 18, 19.

  _Election_ of the Emperors, 147 to 154.

  _Eltz_, see _Mentz_.

  EMMERIC, _t._ 124.

  _England_ (_George_ I. King of) his Behaviour at the News of his
      Proclamation, 251, 252.
    His Departure for _England_, 253.
    A singular Circumstance of his Coronation, 254.

  _Erasmus_, his Statue, 129.

  ERFURT, _t._ 322.

  _Erlach_, M. de, 86.

  _Ernest, Augustus_, Duke of _Hanover_, 57, 58.

  _Eugene_ (Prince of) a Plot to poison him, 81.
    His Character of the Prince of _Anhalt_, 55, 56.
    His glorious Campaign in _Hungary_, 359.


  _Feldtbruck_ (Mademoiselle de) see _Auverquerque_.

  _Fenelon_, M. Archbishop of _Cambray_, 173.

  _Ferte_ (Duchess de la) cheats our Author of some Money, 198.

  ----Marshal de, 172.

  _Finck_, Count, Ambassador, 71.

  _Fistula_, what call’d in _France_, 248.

  _Fitzthum_, M. de, 245.

  _Flemming_ (_James Henry_ Count de) 62.
    How he amus’d the Author, 241, 243, 246.

  _Florence_ V. Count of _Holland_, assassinated, 130.

  _Fontainbleau_, Palace and Court, 197.

  _France_ (_Lewis_ XIV. King of) his Character, 182.
    His remarkable Wish in favour of the Mercers of _Paris_, 70.
    How he liv’d in his latter days, 182, 195.
    His Death, 283, 284.

  ----(_Lewis_ XV. King of) 184, 185.
    His Answer to Madame, when she said she was going to wait on a
        greater Lord than he, 304.

  FRANCFORT on the _Main_, _t._ 145.

  _Francke_, Dr. 91, 92.

  _Frederic-Henry_, Prince of _Orange_ his Will, 50.

  _Frederic-William_ (King of) see _Prussia_.

  _Frederic_ Elector of _Saxony_, unfortunate, 227.

  _Frederic-William_ the Great, Elector of _Brandenbourg_, his War with
      _Charles-Gustavus_ King of _Sweden_, 14.
    His Statue, 55.

  _Frederic-William_, Elector of _Brandenbourg_, his Wives and Issue, 3,

  _Frederic_ Son to the Duke of _Alva_, as cruel as his Father, 138.

  FULDI, _t._ 320.
    Abbat, 321.


  _George_ I. (King) see _England_.

  _George_ II. (King) his Valor in _Flanders_, 75, 76.

  _Gersdorf_, M. de, Colonel, 107.

  GHENT, _t._ 257.

  _Golden Fleece_, Order instituted, 277.

  GOTHA, _t._ 321.

  _Gravenitz_, Count de, 336.

  _Gripilli_, a famous _Italian_ Statuary, 142.

  _Grumkan_, M. 329.

  _Gueldres_ taken, 53.

  _Gustavus-Charles_ King of _Sweden_, 14.


  HAGUE, _t._ 126, _&c._

  HALBERSTADT, _t._ 113.

  HALL in _Saxony_, _t._ 113.

  HAM, _t._ 124.

  HAMBOURG, _t._ 230, 249.

  HANAU, _t._ 319.
    Some Particularities of the Count and his Court, 320.

  HANOVER, _t._ 120.
    _George_ (late) Elector, his Concern for the Death of the Queen of
        _Prussia_ his Sister, 58.

  HARLEM, _t._ 137.

  _Harrach_, Count de, 22.

  _Haye_ Forest, 342.

  _Heiden_, Baron de, General, 124.

  _Henning_, M. de, _Prussian_ Minister, 148.

  HERVORDEN, _t._ 124.

  _Hesse_, Princess of, 83.

  _Hohenzollern_, Prince, 159.

  _Holstein_, Prince and Princess, 32, 33, 37, 61.

  _Honslaerdyke_ Palace, 139.

  St. _Hubert_, Order of Knights, 335.


  _Jackel_, the King of _Prussia_’s Jester, 90.

  _James_ II. how his Queen Dowager was condol’d by the _French_ Court,
      on the Miscarriage of the Pretender’s Expedition to _Scotland_,

  _Jesuits_ Church at _Antwerp_ consum’d, 167.

  _Jews_ at the Hague, 127.
    At _Francfort_, 145.

  _Illgen_ (Baron de) 108.
    His Disservice to the Author, 329.

  _Imhoff_, Minister to the D. of _Wolfembuttle_, 117.

  _Insurance-Office_ from Fire erected at _Berlin_, 108.

  _John_ of _Leyden_ the Taylor, 161.

  St. _John_, an Equestrian Order, 54.

  _Joseph_, Emperor of _Germany_, his Death, 123.

  _Joseph-Clement_, Elector, see _Cologne_.

  ISSOUIN, _t._ our Author’s Birth-place, 2.

  _Justice_, Bed of, erected in _France_, 354.


  _Kamcke_ (Brothers) their History, 104, 105, 110, 111.
    Authors of the Disgrace of the Count _de Wartemberg_, 105, 106, _&c._

  _Kings_ of _Cologn_, Three, 165.

  _Kinski_, Count de, 160.

  _Knights_ of St. _Lewis_, their Poverty, 292.
    Their Numbers, 348.

  _Kniphausen_, M. de, Ambassador, 328, 329.

  _Kolbe_, see _Wartemberg_ (_John Casimir de Kolbe_).

  _Koningsmark_, Countess of, 244.

  _Kraut_, M. Aid de Camp, 79.


  L----, Envoy of _Prussia_ at _Hambourg_, Character of his Lady, and an
      Account of an Entertainment that he gave the Author, 248 to 251.

  _Lady of Precious Stones_, who so call’d, and why, 279.
    A Learned Lady, 221.

  _Law, John_, Projector of the _Mississippi_ Scheme, 354.

  _League_ of _Cambray_, 74.

  _Leap_, a desperate one for a young Lady, 255, 256.

  _Leck_, Lord of ----, 218.

  _Legitimated_ Princes of _France_, 294, _&c._

  _Leopold_, Emperor, his Death, 60.

  LEIPSIC, _t._ 322.

  _Lewis_ XIV. and XV. See _France_.

  LEYDEN, _t._ 125.

  _Limbourg_ Duchy mortgag’d, 7, 8.

  _Lippe_, Count de, 124.

  _Lion_ tam’d by a Duke of _Brunswic_, 119.

  LIPSTADT, _t._ 124.

  _Lisle_ Siege, 73.
    Its Surrender, 81.
    Description of the Town, 258, 259.

  _Longueville_ Family, 295.

  _Lorrain_ (Court of) 338, 339, to 341.

  _Lottum_ (Count de) 52, 77, 79, 102.

  _Loven_, Mademoiselle de, 244.

  LOUVAIN, _t._ 256.

  _Lubomirski_, Princess of, 243, 244.

  _Lowendahl_, Marshal, 245.

  LUNEVILLE, _t._ 338.

  _Lutherans_ and Calvinists, 146.

  _Luxembourg_ Garden, 200.


  MAGDEBURG, _t._ and Duchy, 113, 226, 227.

  _Maine_ (Duke and Duchess) 191, 284, 286, 287.

  _Maintenon_, Madam, 284.

  _Malplaquet_ (Battle of) 89.

  _Marlborough_ (Duke of) his Journey to _Berlin_, 56.
    Bribes a Minister of the King of _Sweden_, 61, 66.

  MARLY, _t._ 181, 183.

  _Marne_, r. 343.

  _Marsin_, Marshal de, 69.

  MASTRICHT, _t._ 255.

  _Match-maker_, Elector of _Brandenburg_, a great one, 27.

  MEAUX, _t._ 344.

  MECHLIN, _t._ 170.

  _Mecklemburg_ (Princess of) married to _Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_,
    Her extravagant Devotion, 91.
    Her Answer to the King upon it, 92.
    Loses her Senses, 211.
    She is sent back to _Mecklemburg_ after the King’s Death, 213.

  _Medicis, Mary_ de, Queen of _France_, her Distress, 165, 166, 175.

  MENTZ, t. and Elector, 331, 332.

  _Mesmes_, M. de, President of the Parliament of _Paris_, 352.

  _Metternich_, Count de, Ambassador of _Prussia_, 71, 72, 75, 148.

  MINDEN, _t._ 123.

  MONS, _t._ 171.

  _Montluc, John_ de, 173.

  _Montmorency_, Constable, 174, 176.

  _Motte_ (M. de la) see _Wynendale_.

  MUNSTER, _t._ 161.
    Treaty, 162.
    Bishop, 163.

  _Muntzer_, Head of the _Anabaptists_, 161.

  _Muscovites_, Success over the _Swedes_, 65, to 68.


  NANCY, _t._ 341.

  _Nassau_, Princes of, 218.

  _Nassau-Orange_ (Princess of) refuses to give her Daughter to the King
      of _Prussia_, 82.

  ---- (Prince of) drown’d in passing the _Moerdyke_, 139.
    Provisional Settlement made by the Sates General, between him and the
        King of _Prussia_, touching King _William_’s Succession, 140.

  _Nassau-Weilbourg_ (Count de) 154.

  _Nautre_ (le) Gardener, 180.

  _Nemours_, Madame de, Princess of _Neufchâtel_, 72.

  _Neufchâtel_ adjudged to the King of _Prussia_, 71, 72, 73.

  NEWPORT, _t._ 277, 278.

  NIMEGUEN, _t._ 125.

  _Novion_ de, President, 354.


  _Orange, Maurice_, Prince of, his Daughter, our Author’s Grandmother,
    _Frederic-Henry_, Prince of, his Will, 50, 51.
    Parliament of _Orange_, 59.
    _William_, Prince of, his Tomb, 128.

  ORANGE, _t._ seiz’d by _Lewis_ XIV. 53.

  ORANJEBAUM, _t._ 113.

  _Orleans_ (Duke of) Regent of _France_, 185.
    Beginning of his Regency, 284, _&c._
    History of it, 345, _&c._

  _Orleans_ (Madame de) _Elizabeth-Charlotte_ of _Bavaria_, her
      Character, 186, 187.
    Her Censure of the Duchess of _Berry_, 188, 189.
    What she said to the Author on the Misfortunes of the Queen of
        _England_, who was Dowager to _James_ II. 299.
    Her Promise of Protection to the Author, and her Non-performance,
        300, 301.

  _Orleans_, Maid of, 175.

  _Osnabrug_ (Duke of _York_) Bishop of, his pertinent Remark on
      _Poland_, 243.

  _Ossuna_, Duke of, 215.


  _Palatine_ (_Charles Philip_ of _Neubourg_, Elector) 143.

  _Palatine_ (Family) 143, _&c._

  _Papenheim_, Count de, 150, 158.

  PARIS, _t._ 177, 199, 345, _&c._
    How the Author liv’d there, 176, _&c._ 210.

  _Parliament_ of _Paris_, its Broils with the Regent, 348, 349, _&c._

  _Peers_ of _France_, 293.

  _Persian_ Ambassador at _Paris_, Particulars relating to him, 265,
    His Entry at _Paris_ 265.
    His Audience of the King, 267.
    How he smoak’d his Pipe at the Opera, 269.

  PHALTZBOURG, _t._ 338.

  _Philip_ II. of _Spain_, his remarkable Vow, 175.

  _Philip_, V. see _Spain_

  _Philip_, Margrave of _Brandenbourg_, his Temper, 60.
    Character of his Lady, 60.
    His Death, 160.

  _Pinneberg_, Conferences there, 61.

  _Poland_ (Intrigues in the Election of its King) 15, to 18.
    Its Crown pawn’d to the King of _Prussia_, 19.

  _Poland, Augustus_ II. King of, see _Charles_ XII. K. of _Sweden_.

  _Poles_ (their Character); 241, 242.

  _Pollnitz_, Mademoiselle de, 23, 46, 238, 239, 325, _&c._

  _Pollnitz_ (_Charles-Lewis_, Baron de) our Author.
    His Extraction, Education, and the History of his Family, 1, 2, _&c._
    Has an Electoress for his God-mother, 2.
    His honourable Intercession with the King of _Prussia_ for his
        Father-in-law, 45, 46.
    His Entrance by that King into the Princes Academy, 52.
    His Service in _Flanders_ as a Voluntier, 75.
    Adventure that he tells after the Battle of _Audenarde_, 76.
    Another at the Siege of _Lisle_, 79.
    His Return to _Berlin_, 81.
    His Advancement to the Post of Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, 88.
    His mistaken Conceit, that he was in great Favor, 89.
    The King’s Reprimand of him and Reconcilement, 90, 91.
    His Departure from _Berlin_, in order to travel abroad upon some
        harsh Words said to him by the King, 111, 112, 113.
    How he lost all his Money by Play at _Hanover_, and prevail’d on his
        Mother for more, 122.
    His Loss of his Mother, 154.
    His Introduction to and Reception by the King of _France_ and the
        Princes, 192, 193.
    His dangerous Illness at _Paris_, 199.
    The Acquaintance he made with an Actress in _Luxemburg_ Garden, and
        the Consequences of that Amour, 200, 204.
    Tempted to turn Catholic, 205.
    What _Lewis_ XIV. said of him, 205.
    He gives an extraordinary Ball, 209.
    He falls in Love with Mademoiselle _de S_----, 214.
    Consequences of it, 215, 235.
    His unlucky Tumble into a Heap of Dung, 215.
    Oblig’d by his extravagant Charges to go home, 215, 217.
    His sudden Return to _Paris_, 217.
    His Amour with the Countess of _Wartemberg_, 224, 225.
    His Journey to and Reception at _Berlin_, 228, 229.
    His return back again to _Paris_, 235.
    He falls in Love with Madame _de P_----, 235.
    He renews his Courtship to Madame _de S_----, 235-236.
    His Return again to _Berlin_, 237.
    Remarks on his Distemper, 238.
    His Reception at the Court of _Hanover_, 238.
    And at _Berlin_, 240.
    How he was amus’d by the Count _de Flemming_, 241, 245, 246.
    His ill Success at the Court of _Poland_, 241, 242, 245.
    His Arrest at _Dresden_, and how he obtain’d his Liberty, 246.
    How he broke his Leg, and was troubled with a Fistula, 247.
    His merry Description of a House and Family at _Hambourg_, and of an
        Entertainment he had there, 249, 250.
    His Return once more to _Paris_, 259.
    How he fell in love with Madam _de R_----, 260, 270, to 275.
    The Consequences of it, 262, 270 to 275, _&c._
    He sollicits Employment in _France_, 263, _&c._
    An Adventure that happen’d to him at a Ball, 270, 271.
    His Quarrel with the Marquis _de V_----, 273.
    His Extravagance, his Arrest, and how he got out of the Scrape, 274,
    His Pension of 2000 Livres, 275.
    His Disputes with his Cousin, 276.
    His Loss of his Pension and Sollicitation to regain it, 291, 292.
    His Present from _Madame_, 292.
    Who made him large Promises, but did nothing for him, 301, 304.
    His melancholy Situation, 305.
    His embracing the Popish Religion, 306.
    His Arrest for Debt, 307.
    His Intrigue with an Old Woman, 308, 309.
    His unsuccessful Proposal of a Scheme to the Regent, 316.
    His Departure from _Paris_, 316.
    His Return to _Berlin_, and Reception by the King of _Prussia_, 323,
        324, to 327.
    His Reversion of the next Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber’s Pension that
        fell, 328.
    The Occasion of his Disgrace, 329, 330.
    His precipitate Retreat from _Berlin_, 331.
    Oblig’d by his Fistula to go to _Paris_, 337, 338, 345.
    The Operation there perform’d on him, 345.

  POTZDAM, _t._ 40.

  _Pretender_’s Miscarriage in his Expedition to _Scotland_, 296, 297.
    A flagrant Instance of his Bigotry, 297.
    His Return to _France_, 298.

  _Princes_ of the Blood, in _France_, Contention betwixt them, 294,

  _Princess_ (Madame la) 190.

  _Printz_, M. de, 111, 212, 240.

  _Prussia_ (_Frederic_ I. King of) his Coronation, 28, to 38.
    His Entry to Konigsberg, 38.
    His Reception by the Magistrates of _Dantzic_ when he came on their
        Territories, 39.
    His Entry at _Berlin_, 41.
    His Pretensions to the Succession of _William_ III. King of
        _England_, 49, 50.
    His Measures for justifying them, 51.
    His Reception at the _Hague_, 51.
    His Protection to the Refugees from _Orange_, 53.
    His Sovereignty of _Neufchâtel_ recogniz’d, 71, _&c._
    Negociations for his 2d Marriage, 82, 83.
    His Choice of the Princess of _Mecklemburg_, 84.
    The new Queen’s Arrival, 86, 87.
    Their Marriage 86.
    His Care of his Subjects that were afflicted with the Plague, 93.
    His Domestic Attendance, 98, _&c_.
    His Tour to the _Hague_, 138.
    The Magnanimity with which he receiv’d the News of the Prince of
        _Orange_’s Death, 140.
    He sickens of a Fright and dies, 210, 211, 212.

  _Prussia_ (_Frederic-William_ King of) his Diversion when he was Prince
      Royal, 41, 42.
    His Marriage to the Elector of _Hanover_’s Daughter, and her
        Character, 70.
    What _Lewis_ XIV. said when he saw her Wedding-Apparel, 70.
    Her Entry at _Berlin_, 70, 71.
    Her Delivery of a Prince, his Baptism as Prince of _Orange_, and his
        Death, 74, 75.
    His Accession to the Crown, 212.
    The Alteration he made at his Court, 213.

  _Prussia_ (Queen of) the first Wife of _Frederic_ I. and Sister to the
      late Elector of _Hanover_, her Death, 56.
    Honors done to her Corpse, 58, 59.
    Her Character, 4, 59, 60.

  _Prussia_ (Queen of) second Wife to _Frederic_ I. See _Mecklemburg_,
      Princess of.

  _Prussia_, (Court of) 3, to 113.

  _Prussia_, Duchy, 13.

  _Prussia_, particular Reason of its being erected into a Kingdom, 11,
      12, 29.
    And Negociations for that purpose, 14, _&c._ 25.
    Owing to a Blunder, 21, 22, 25.

  _Puisieux_, M. de, Ambassador of _France_, 72, 73.

  _Pultowa_, Battle of, 67, 68.


  _Quedlimbourg_ Abbey, 18.

  ST. QUINTIN, _t_. 174.
    Battle, _ibid_.


  _Radziowski_, Cardinal, 16.

  _Ramellies_ Battle, its Consequences, 68, 169.

  _Refugees, French_, their Reception at _Berlin_, 53, 93, 94.
    Their Gratitude, 94.

  _Regenstein_, Counts of, 114;

  _Reitwitz_, M. de, _Polish_ Envoy, 19.

  _Religions_, a Multiplicity of ’em, where, 232.

  _Rhinberg_ taken, 53.

  _Richlieu_, Cardinal, 165, 175.

  _Rohan_, Cardinal de, 319.

  _Rothenbourg_ (Count de) amuses the Author, 316, 317.

  ROTTERDAM, _t._ 129.

  _Ryswic_ Treaty, 20.


  ST. DENYS, _t._ 176.
  ----QUINTIN, _t._ 174.

  SALTZDAHL, _t._ 115, _&c._

  SAVERNE, _t._ 338.

  _Saxony_, _Frederic-Augustus_, Elector of, 17.
    Electoral Prince of, 269.

  _Saxony_ (_Maurice_ Count of) his Character and Marriage, 244.
    The Electorate ruin’d, 66.

  _Schalifer_, Baron de, 82.

  SCHENK, _t._ 125.

  _Schmettau_, M. de, the Minister, 16, 20, 51, 75.

  _Schonborn_, Count _Lotharius-Francis_ de, Elector of _Mentz_, 147.

  _Schuurman_ (_Ann Mary_) 221.

  _Seaux_ Castle, 192.

  _Seckingen_, Baron de, 144.

  SENLIS, _t._ 176.

  _Shift_, (seamless) said to be the Virgin _Mary_’s, 234.

  _Shrewsbury_ (Duke of) sent to _Paris_, 206.
    Characters of the Duke and Duchess, 206, 207.
    The King’s Complaisance to her, 207, 208.

  _Sigismund_ I. King of _Poland_, his War with the Margrave of
      _Brandenbourg_, 13.

  _Simmeren_, Princess de, 8.

  _Snuff_, the Queen of _Prussia_ reprimanded by the King for taking it,

  _Sobieski_ (_John_ King of _Poland_) his Death, 15.
    His Son _James_, 63.
    _Sobieski_, Princess, 145.

  _Sophia_, Princess of _Hanover_, her Character, 120.
    Death, 251.

  _Spanheim_, M. _Prussian_ Ambassador, 26, 50, 74.

  _Spanish_ Succession, Quarrel about it, 47, 48, _&c._ 60.

  _Stanhope_, Mr. 51.

  _Stanislaus_ (King) proclaim’d, 61, 64.
    Crown’d 65.

  _Steinbock_, Count de, 232

  _Stoffius_ (M. de) Treasurer of the Order of the Black Eagle, 107.

  STRASBOURG, _t._ 317.

  STUTGARD, _t._ 333.

  _Sultzbach_ (Hereditary Prince of) 144.

  _Sweden_ (see _Charles_ XII. King of) the present King’s Marriage, 6,

  _Synod_ of _Dort_, 130.


  _Tapistry_ Manufacture, 170.

  _Teschen_ (Princess of) 243, 244.

  _Tesse_, Marshal de, 69, 310, 311.

  _Tilly_, Count, 123.

  _Tobianski_, Count de, 38.

  TONNINGEN, _t._ 63.

  _Torcy_, M. de, 268.

  TOUL, _t._ 342.

  _Tour_, M. 50.

  _Tour Taxis_, Prince of, 154.

  _Treaty_ of _Munster_, 162.

  _Trianon_ Palace, 180.

  _Tromp, Martin_, the _Dutch_ Admiral, his Tomb, 128.

  _Troops, Prussian_, characteris’d, 55, 56, 68, 83.

  _Turenne_, Marshal, 172, 279.

  _Turin_ Siege rais’d, 68.


  VALENCIENNES, _t._ 172.

  _Vendosme_, Duke of 76, 77.

  VERSAILLES, _t._ 177, _&c._ to 197.

  _Vienna_ Siege, 21.

  _Villars_ (Marshal de) 236.

  _Villeroy_, Marshal de, 171, 303.

  _Vilvorde_ Canal, 170.

  _Voisin_, M. de, Chancellor, 263, 264.

  _Vrilliere_, M. de, Secretary, 358.

  UTRECHT, _t._ 220. Treaty, 223.


  WARSAW, _t._ 241, _&c._

  _Wartemberg_ (_John Casimir de Colbe_) Count de, Prime Minister to
      _Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_; his History, 8, 17, 24.
    Cabal against him, 42.
    His Revenge, 44.
    His Disgrace, 104, 109, 111.
    His Death at _Francfort_, and how he was lamented by the King of
        _Prussia_, 223.

  _Wartemberg_ (Countess de) her mean Extraction, great Fortune, 9, 10,
    Some Particulars relating to her Conduct 23, 24, 26, 27.
    Her Retirement to _Utrecht_, 223, _&c._
    Consequence of her Intrigue with the Chevalier _de B_----, 224, 225.
    Her Behaviour at _Paris_, 279, _&c._
    Departure for _Holland_, _ib._

  _Wartensleben_ (Marshal de) 53.

  _Web_ (General) see _Wynendale_.

  _Werf, Vander_, a _Dutch_ Painter, 142.

  WESEL, _t._ 124.

  _Wesen_ (Count de) his Marriage to our Author’s Mother, 26, 27.
    His Preferment, 28.
    His Engagement in a Cabal against the Count _de Wartemberg_, 42.
    How it prov’d his Ruin, 43, _&c._
    His Death, 88.

  _Westphalia_ Treaty, 162.

  WILDSTAT, _t._ 334.

  _William_ III, King of _England_, by whom prevail’d on to call the
      illustrious House of _Hanover_ to the Succession, 23, 24.
    Dispute about the Succession to his own Estate as Prince of _Orange_,
        49, 50.
    His Will, 51.

  _Winter_, very cold, 88.

  _Wirtemberg_, (Duke of) his Family and Court, 334, _&c._ 337.

  _Witgenstein_ (Count de) his Promotion and Disgrace, 47, 59, 90, 107.
    His Release, 111.

  WOLFEMBUTTLE, _t._ 114.
    Character of the Duke _Anthony-Ulric_, 115.

  _Wolfersdorff_, 109.

  _Woman_, in white, an Apparition, 211.

  _Wynendale_, M. _de la Motte_’s Defeat there by General _Web_, 80.


  _Ximenes_, Cardinal, 221.


  YPRES, _t._ 278, 279.


  _Zeits_, Duchess of, 83.

  _Zell, Dorothy_, Duchess-Dowager of, to whom remarried, 3.

  ZELL, _t._ 120.

  _Zinzendorf_, Count de, 159.


[1] See Vol. I. of the Letters, _pag._ 16. a remarkable Passage relating
to this Fact, together with this Minister’s Character and Death.

[2] See Vol. I. of the Memoirs, _p._ 29. some Particulars concerning this
Order, which are not here.

[3] See Vol. I. _p._ 34. for the Description of this Town, which is the
common Garrison of the first Battalion of the tall Grenadiers, so much
talk’d of in _Europe_.

[4] See the Account of this House Vol. I. _p._ 49.

[5] See for the present State of this Place, Vol. II. _p._ 347, 361.

[6] See the Vol. above mention’d, _p._ 362.

[7] See Vol. I. _p._ 28.

[8] See the compleat Description of this Monument, and of its Erection,
Vol. I. _p._ 9.

[9] See Vol. I. _p._ 196, where there are curious Observations upon this
City and its Inhabitants.

[10] See Vol. I. _p._ 35.

[11] See Vol. I. _p._ 3. _&c._ where this capital City of the Electorate
of _Brandenburg_ is describ’d with wonderful Exactness and Regularity.

[12] See also with regard to this Palace, Vol. I. _p._ 10.

[13] See also the same Vol. _p._ 31. for the Nature of the Pleasures of
the City and Court.

[14] See Vol. I. _p._ 18. where there is a more particular Description of
this Edifice.

[15] See Vol. I. _p._ 33, _&c._ the Temper of the present King, and his
Way of Living.

[16] See Vol. I. _p._ 3.

[17] See Vol. I. _p._ 3.

[18] See Vol. I. _p._ 82, 85, 377, 380.

[19] See Vol. I. _p._ 48, 80.

[20] See Vol. I. _p._ 75.

[21] See Vol. I. _p._ 69, 75.

[22] See the Description and State of this Town, Vol. I. _p._ 61,68. where
you will find a pleasant Remark upon the _French_ that swarm’d there in
the Time of the last Duchess, who was a _French_ Lady of the _Olbreuse_

[23] See Vol. I. _p._ 63, 68, _&c._

[24] See Vol. II. _p._ 365, 370.

[25] See Vol. II. _p._ 396.

[26] See Vol. II. _p._ 398.

[27] See Vol. II. _p._ 400, 425.

[28] See Vol. II. _p._ 426.

[29] See Vol. II. _p._ 317, 371.

[30] They who are well acquainted with _Holland_ know that the Author
could only draw this Character for the very Dregs of the People.

[31] See Vol. II. _p._ 394.

[32] See Vol. II. _p._ 358. where there’s a curious Inventory of the
Statues and Paintings of the greatest Masters that are all up and down the
Castle of _Dusseldorff_.

[33] See Vol. II. _p._ 357.

[34] See Vol. I. _p._ 340.

[35] See Vol. II. _p._ 332, 336.

[36] See Vol. II. _p._ 317.

[37] See Vol. II. _p._ 298, 317.

[38] See Vol. II. _p._ 296.

[39] See Vol. II. _p._ 291, 296.

[40] See Vol. II. _p._ 189, to 290.

[41] See Vol. II. _p._ 184, 188.

[42] That is a Spectre dress’d in white, which they say appears in the
Palace of the Princes of _Brandenburg_, a little before the Death of any
one of the Family.

[43] See Vol. II. _p._ 367, _&c._

[44] See Vol. I. _p._ 51, _&c._

[45] See Vol. I. _p._ 57, _&c._

[46] See Vol. II. _p._ 327.

[47] See Vol. I. _p._ 87, 157, _&c._

[48] See Vol. II. _p._ 319, 329. The dangerous Adventure of the Marshal
_d’Auverquerque_, for Mademoiselle _de Feltbruck_, is related there with
Circumstances that are different from the Account given of it by the
Author, in this and the following Page.

[49] See Vol. II. _p._ 319.

[50] See Vol. II. _p._ 310, 317.

[51] See Vol. II. _p._ 296, 315.

[52] See Vol. II. _p._ 312.

[53] See Vol. II. _p._ 313.

[54] See Vol. II. _p._ 409, 410.

[55] That our Reader may the better understand this, it must be observ’d
that the Custom of _France_ and that of _England_ are, in this respect,
very different: For tho’ in _England_ a Baron is as much a Peer as a Duke,
yet in _France_ none but the Dukes, and not all of them, are honor’d with
the Dignity of Peers: But these modern Peers are very different from the
ancient Peers of _France_, who were six Spiritual and six Temporal, _viz._
three Dukes and three Earls or Counts of each State. The former are still
in Being, namely, the Duke Archbishop of _Rheims_, the Duke and Bishop of
_Laon_, the Duke and Bishop of _Langres_, the Count Bishop of _Beauvais_,
the Count Bishop of _Chalons_, and the Count Bishop of _Noyon_; but the
Temporal, who were Sovereign Princes, have been extinct a long time.

[56] The Confession of Faith, as he deliver’d it some time after to the
Cardinal ---- at _Rome_, is inserted at the end of Vol. IV. by way of

[57] See Vol. I. _p._ 305, _&c._

[58] See Vol. I. _p._ 360.

[59] See Vol. I. _p._ 360.

[60] See Vol. I. _p._ 361.

[61] See Vol. I. _p._ 183.

[62] See Vol. I. _p._ 178.

[63] See Vol. I. _p._ 178.

[64] See Vol. I. _p._ 83.

[65] See Vol. II. _p._ 353.

[66] See Vol. I. _p._ 279.


       *       *       *       *       *

                        Transcriber’s Amendments

Transcriber’s Note: Blank pages have been deleted. On pages that remain,
some unnecessary page numbers may have been deleted when they fall in the
middle of lists. Footnotes have been moved to the end of the work. We have
rendered consistent on a per-word-pair basis the hyphenation or spacing of
such pairs when repeated in the same grammatical context. The publisher’s
inadvertent omissions of important punctuation have been corrected.

The following list indicates any additional changes. The page number
represents that of the original publication and applies in this etext
except for footnotes since they have been moved.

  Page          Change

   13  who, together with his Desendants[Descendents] shou’d perform
   35  could not have aquitted[acquitted] itself better.
   78  twenty-six Battallions[Battalions] and seventy-six Squadrons
   97  Acceptance, gave him this Cabinet and a Yatch[Yatcht]
  105  Lethargy of his Temperament not permiting[permitting]
  125  but he had not the Fortune to succeeed[succeed].
  162  humbled it in in[del 2nd in] 1661, and since
  180  kneel’d leaning on the same Ballustrade[Balustrade] that the
  182  Honor of being with her in private assurr’d[assur’d] me,
  196  kneel’d leaning on the same Ballustrade[Balustrade] that the
  197  [41] See Vol. II. [_p._] 184, 188.
  220  to one of the seven Provinces, wherof[whereof] it is
  228  had not refus’d an advantagious[advantageous] Capitulation,
  240  proceeded so far, that she hindred[hinder’d] me
  247  having still in View the getting some Establimment[Establishment]
  272  therefore she chose to to[del 2nd to] take a Hack
  281  a folish[foolish] one. _B----_ was not to be seen
  288  The Duchess of of[del 2nd of] _Berry_ wanted also to be stil’d
  304  for entring into the Service to be disheartned[disheartened],
  313  and the Czar answer’d the Princeis[Princess] in
  339  and richly furnish’d. The first Antichamber[Anti-chamber] is a
  342  ever after, tho’ _Nancy_ was evacuted[evacuated]
  356  Share in what pass’d the Day preceeding[preceding]
  Index:  Has an Electoress for his God-mother, {?}[2].
  Index:  _Brunswik[Brunswic]_ (Ducal Family of) 116.
  Index:  BRUSSELLS[BRUSSELS], _t._ 170.
  Index:  _Danckelman[Dankelman]_ M. our Author’s Tutor, 81.
  Index:  His Entry to Koningsberg[Konigsberg], 38.

       *       *       *       *       *

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume III - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.