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Title: Church and State as Seen in the Formation of Christendom
Author: Allies, T. W. (Thomas William), 1813-1903
Language: English
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Author of
"Per Crucem ad Lucem, The Result of a Life,"
"A Life's Decision," "Journal in France and Letters from Italy,"
"The Formation of Christendom," etc.

London: Burns and Oates.





          TO CHRIST.

  1. _The Divine and the Human Society, founded in Adam, refounded
          in Noah._

  The origin of man, of woman, of marriage, and of the human family,  1
  Archetypal character of the fact that man is created a Race,        3
  Sole creation of Adam in the maturity of thought and speech and
          the perfection of knowledge, as shown in the naming of
          creatures,                                                  4
  Subsequent building of woman from man,                              5
  The divine Image and Likeness in the individual man,                5
  A further Image of the ever-blessed Trinity in the Race,            6
  Indication of the Headship and the Passion of Christ in the
  Beauty and splendour of the divine plan,                            9
  The part in the divine plan which belongs to man's free-will,      10
  The divine treatment of man as a Race not broken by the Fall,      11
  Adam after the Fall the head of the civil and the religious
  Bearing of man's condition before the Fall upon his subsequent
          state,                                                     13
  Adam receives in a great promise a disclosure of the future,       14
  He becomes the Teacher and likewise the Priest of his Race,        15
  The rite of sacrifice,                                             15
  Triple dignity of Adam in this first society,                      16
  Man breaks up this society by the misuse of his free-will,         17
  Resumption of the unity of the Race and its reparation in Noah,    18
  Condition of man, individual and collective, at this new beginning
          of the race; marriage and sacrifice,                       19
  Express establishment of civil government by divine authority,     20
  Union of religion with civil government from the beginning,        21
  Parallel between Adam and Noah,                                    22

  2. _The Divine and Human Society in the Dispersion._

  Unity of human language withdrawn on account of a great sin,       24
  Coeval with which the various nations spring forth out of the one
  Injury to human society by the degradation of the conception of
          God,                                                       28
  Loss of belief in the divine unity followed by loss of the sense
          of man's brotherhood,                                      29
  Proof of this brotherhood recovered by science in the case of the
          Aryan family of nations,                                   31
  The one universal society becomes many nations at enmity with
          each other,                                                32
  Their state after a long lapse of time, when their several histories
          begin,                                                     33
  Original goods of the race still remaining—
    1. Marriage,                                                     35
    2. Religion as centered in the rite of sacrifice,                37
    3. Civil government,                                             38
    4. Alliance between government and religion,                     41
  Cumulative testimony of the four in their contrast with slavery
          to the unity of man's Race, as its origin is recorded
          by Moses,                                                  43
  Summary of the course of mankind from the Dispersion to Christ,    44

  3. _Further Testimony of Law, Government, and Priesthood in the

  The fiction of universal savagery, or different races, or simial
          descent,                                                   45
  The author of "Ancient Law" upon original society,                 46
  Proof from comparative jurisprudence of the patriarchal theory,    47
  Law and government in their commencement,                          48
  Family the ancient unit of society,                                49
  Universal belief or assumption of blood-relationship,              50
  The Roman Patria Potestas a relic of the original rule,            52
  Family everything, the individual unknown,                         52
  Original union of religion with government,                        53
  Origin of law and property,                                        54
  Summary of the foregoing witness,                                  55
  The Two Powers from the beginning,                                 56
  Degradation of worship and degradation of society in Gentilism,    57
  Deification of the State,                                          58
  Which, however, remains a lawful power,                            59
  The distinction between sacerdotal and civil power in the Roman
          republic,                                                  60
  The power of the Pontifex Maximus united to that of the
          Principate,                                                62
  The College of Pontifices reversing a tribunitial law,             63
  The distinction between Sacerdotal and Civil Power running
          through all ancient nations,                               64
  Witness of the heathen priesthood to the unity of man's Race,      65
  The providence of Abraham's call,                                  66
  Relation of the Two Powers in the Mosaic law,                      67
  The actual result of the coming of Christ,                         68



  1. _The Spiritual Power in its Source and Nature._

  The Spiritual Power not only allied but subordinate to the Civil
          throughout the Gentile world at the death of Christ,       70
    1. Its independence in Israel alone, as acknowledged by the
          people, a result of the creation of the Aaronic
          priesthood,                                                72
      Special offices of the High Priest,                            73
    2. The part of the High Priest through the whole history from
          Moses to Christ,                                           75
    3. The actual jurisdiction of the High Priest under the Roman
          Empire,                                                    77
    4. The High-priesthood and the system of worship over which
          it presided viewed as a prophecy and preparation for
          Christ,                                                    80
  Bearing of the High-priesthood to Christ at His coming,            82
  The undisputed circumstances of Christ's death,                    83
  Extreme antecedent improbability of what followed,                 84
  Its dependence upon a supernatural and miraculous fact,            85
  As the Race springs from Adam in Paradise, so the Spiritual Power
          from Christ at His Resurrection,                           86
  The inward cohesion of Priesthood, Teaching, and Jurisdiction,     87
  The two forces of the Primacy and the Hierarchy from the
          beginning,                                                 90
  The unity and triplicity of power in the regimen of the Church
          an image of the Divine Unity and Trinity,                  92

  2. _The Spiritual Power a Complete Society._

  The supernatural society exists for a supernatural end,            93
  To which the present life is subordinated,                         94
  And which is beyond the provision of temporal government,          95
  Analogy between the Two Powers,                                    96
  Complete philosophical basis on which the Spiritual Power rests,   98
  How the inward life which it imparts is united with the Person of
          Christ,                                                    99
  From whom, in worship, belief, and conduct, the Christian people
          derives,                                                  101
  The King and the Kingdom not of this world but in it, fulfilled
          in thirteen particulars,                                  103
    1. A kingdom ruling all the relations of man Godward,           103
    2. Having an end outside this life,                             103
    3. Deriving all authority from Christ as Apostle and High
          Priest,                                                   103
    4. Producing its people from its King,                          103
    5. Imparting grace from the King in its sacraments,             104
    6. Transmitting the King's truth by the order of its regimen,   104
    7. Having a complete analogy with civil government,             104
    8. Fulfilling man's need of supernatural society,               105
    9. Generating an universal law for all relations of public and
          private life,                                             105
    10. Possessing independence of the Temporal Power,              106
    11. Not limited in space,                                       106
    12. Not limited in time,                                        107
    13. A kingdom of charity through union with its King,           107

  3. _Relation of the Two Powers to each other._

  Principles which ruled the relation between the Two Powers before
          Christ,                                                   108
  A new basis given to the Spiritual Power by Christ, from which
          every relation to the Temporal Power springs,             110
    1. All Christians subject to the Spiritual Power,               112
    2. And likewise to the Temporal Power as God's Vicegerent,      112
    3. The relation between the Two Powers intended by God is
          amity,                                                    114
    4. A separate action of the Two Powers, without regard to
          each other, not intended,                                 115
    5. Persecution of the Spiritual by the Temporal not intended,   119
    6. Contrast between human kingdoms and the divine kingdom,      120
  The _end_ the ground of the subordination of the one to the
          other,                                                    122
  Doctrine of St. Thomas to that effect,                            123
  The indirect power over temporal things,                          124
  Sum of the foregoing chapter; Orders of Nature and Grace,         125
  Co-operation of the Two Powers as stated by St. Gregory VII.,     126
  The image of marriage, as describing the ideal relation and the
          various deflections from it,                              128



  The Church a kingdom subsisting from age to age by its own force,
          but its original records to be considered,                131
  Institution of the Priesthood; St. Paul's and St. Luke's
          testimony,                                                132
  St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. John,                              133
  Transmission of Spiritual Power as recorded by St. Matthew,       136
  The same according to St. Mark,                                   138
  The same according to St. Luke in his Gospel,                     139
  And in the Acts,                                                  139
  His record of a peculiar promise made to Peter,                   141
  Conversation which forms his main addition to the narrative,      141
  Contrast between Gentile and Christian rule,                      143
  The kingdom disposed to the Apostles,                             144
  The confirmation of the brethren,                                 145
  The time of the confirming marked out,                            146
  St. Luke distinguishes Peter as markedly as St. Matthew and St.
          John,                                                     148
  Testimony of St. John as to the promises made to the Apostles,    149
  And as to the universal pastorship bestowed on St. Peter,         152
  Two classes of passages,                                          153
  Comparison of the two,                                            154
  And of the testimony of the four Evangelists,                     156
  Caution that what is recorded is not all that passed,             157
  Perfect instruction of the Apostles in the forty days,            158
  The powers comprising the Apostolate,                             159
  The powers bestowed on Peter,                                     160
  Testimony of St. Paul; conception of the Church as the Body of
          Christ,                                                   161
  Of the one ministry by which the Body is compacted together,      162
  Of mission from this Body as necessary to every herald of the
          gospel,                                                   164
  Of the grace given by ordination,                                 165
  Mow the unity set forth by St. Paul bears witness to the Primacy
          of St. Peter,                                             166
  Of the inseparable bond of unity, truth, and government in St.
          Paul's mind,                                              167
  Six names by which he designates the principle of his own
          authority,                                                168
  The great vision of our Lord and His Church in the Apocalypse in
          accordance with St. Paul and the Evangelists,             171
  Four qualities of Spiritual Power in this Scriptural testimony,   175
    1. The coming from above,                                       175
    2. Its completeness,                                            176
    3. Its unity,                                                   179
    4. Its independence,                                            181
  How the idea of perpetuity pervades all these qualities,          182


          OF THE CHURCH FROM A.D. 29 TO A.D. 325.

  The letter of St. Clement of Rome,                                184
  Description of this letter by St. Irenæus,                        185
  St. Clement urges the Roman military discipline as an example for
          Christian obedience,                                      186
  Minute regulations given by Christ as to religious ordinances,    187
  The descent of all spiritual order from above,                    188
  Example of Moses in establishing the Jewish Pontificate,          189
  How the Apostles appointed everywhere Bishops with a rule of
          succession,                                               190
  St. Clement fills up details omitted in the Gospel record,        190
  How he attests the continuation of the Mosaic hierarchy of high
          priest, priest, and levite in the Christian Church,       191
  How he says that Christian ordinances are to be observed more
          accurately than Mosaic,                                   193
  How the Apostles carried out the descent of power from above,     194
  Why St. Clement instances the origin of the Jewish hierarchy,     195
  How St. Clement exercises the Primacy,                            197
  St. Ignatius of Antioch supplements St. Clement of Rome,          200
  His statement as to Bishops throughout the world, combined with
          his statement as to the authority of the local Bishop,    201
  The complete testimony of St. Clement and St. Ignatius,           203
  The historian Eusebius notes three periods in the first ninety
          years,                                                    205
  Sum of his testimony as to the great Sees and the Episcopate,     206
  How Tertullian describes the first propagation of the Church,     211
  And how Irenæus,                                                  213
  Concordance with the Gospels of these statements of St. Clement,
          St. Ignatius, Eusebius, St. Irenæus, and Tertullian,      215
  Bishops in every city and town of the Empire before the peace of
          the Church,                                               216
  St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Apostles appointed everywhere local
          Bishops,                                                  217
  The Bishop universally said to wield a government,                218
  Bishops sent out from Rome to convert the nations,                219
  Episcopal government universal,                                   220
  But the One Episcopate much more than this,                       222
  St. Cyprian's One Episcopate illustrated by St. Leo the Great,    223
  What the One Episcopate adds to the universal establishment of
          Bishops,                                                  224
  The special character of the miracle which St. Chrysostom and St.
          Augustine proclaimed,                                     227
  St. Augustine's criterion in the fourth century applied to the
          nineteenth,                                               229
  St. Chrysostom's epitome of the Church's course preceding his
          time,                                                     230
  Christ's special miracle is that He founds the race of
          Christians,                                               231
  Contrast of the race with that out of which it was formed,        232
  The incessant conflict amid which it was done,                    233
  A reflection upon this picture of the Church,                     236



  St. Clement's assertion of the care with which our Lord instituted
          the government of His Church,                             238
  Christ's High-priesthood consisting in two acts,                  239
    1. The assumption of a created nature,                          240
    2. The offering that nature in sacrifice,                       241
  His union of these two acts in instituting the Priesthood of His
          Church,                                                   242
  The institution of bloody sacrifice in the world before Christ,   243
  Lasaulx's statement how it enters into all the acts of human
          life,                                                     245
  What the ceremonial of Gentile sacrifice was,                     250
  Union and correspondence of prayer and sacrifice,                 253
  The sense of guilt in bloody sacrifice,                           254
  Bloody sacrifice a positive divine enactment,                     254
  Statement of St. Augustine to this effect,                        255
  St. Thomas on sacrifice as offered to God alone,                  256
  Bloody sacrifice the most characteristic fact of the pre-Christian
          world,                                                    257
  The practice of human sacrifices running through the history of
          ancient nations,                                          259
  Conclusion as to the divine appointment of sacrifice,             261
  The Christian Sacrifice the counterpart of the original
          institution,                                              263
  And the compendium of the whole dispensation,                     265
  Containing in itself all the original force of sacrifice,         267
  But besides it is guardian of the Divine Unity,                   268
  And of the Divine Trinity,                                        268
  And of the Incarnation,                                           269
  And of the Redemption,                                            270
  And of the adoption to Sonship,                                   271
  It contains also the fountain of spiritual life,                  272
  And the source of sanctification,                                 273
  And the medicine of immortality,                                  274
  The presence of Christ's physical body, St. Chrysostom,           275
  The unity of the Christian people its result, St. Augustine,      276
  How our Lord impressed His High-priesthood on the world,          276
  Jurisdiction necessary to constitute a kingdom,                   278
  Jurisdiction in the diocese and in the whole Church,              279
  The fulfilment of the parable, "I am the true vine,"              280
  The Eucharistic Sacrifice the centre of life in the Church during
          eighteen hundred years,                                   283



  The Church's triple independence in government, teaching, and
          worship as actually carried out,                          287
  Occasion of the Nicene Council's convocation,                     289
  The Emperor thereby recognised the Church as a divine kingdom,    290
  This kingdom, as it appeared in A.D. 29 and in A.D. 325,          291
  The Emperor also acknowledged the solidarity of the Episcopate,   292
  The Christian Council and the Roman Senate,                       293
  Force of the Council as to the relation between Church and State, 294
    A. Independence of the Church's government shown in five
          points,                                                   295
      1. The ordered gradation of the hierarchy in mother and
          daughter churches,                                        296
        Recognised as original in the 6th canon of the Council,     297
        This principle carried through the whole structure of the
          Church,                                                   298
        Symbolised in the building of the great medieval
          cathedrals,                                               301
      2. Development of Provincial Councils,                        302
      3. Action of the Church in hearing and deciding causes,       303
        Her proper jurisdiction in the exterior and interior forum, 304
        The episcopal magistracy exercised in a fourfold gradation, 306
      4. Election of Bishops and the inferior ministers,            307
        St. Cyprian's testimony,                                    308
        Outcome of the three centuries in this respect,             309
        The principle upon which all this practice was built,       310
      5. Administration of temporal goods,                          311
        Three states as to these goods in the early Church,         312
        Acquisition and usage of temporal goods,                    313
        Temporal goods in A.D. 29 and in A.D. 325,                  315
    B. Independence of the Church's teaching,                       316
      The first teaching purely oral, based upon authority,         317
      Three classes of truths forming the divine and the apostolical
          tradition,                                                319
      Importance in this period of exclusively oral teaching in
          exhibiting the Church's office of teacher,                320
      Seen in the rite of baptism,                                  321
      In the Eucharistic Liturgy,                                   322
      Picture of the Eucharistic Sacrifice by an Apostle,           324
      Further exhibition in the rite of Ordination,                 328
      Fullness of the Magisterium expressed in these rites,         329
      The Church's teaching office neither changed nor diminished by
          the writings of the New Testament,                        331
      Shown by the nature of the office in itself,                  331
        By the circumstances under which these writings came,       331
        By their internal arrangement,                              332
        By their own positive testimony,                            335
      The living personal authority an unchangeable principle,      335
      Things in the Church which preceded the publication of the
          New Testament,                                            336
      The written record of our Lord's words and acts,              337
      The various parts of ecclesiastical tradition,                338



  Germ of the Church in the missionary circuits of our Lord,        340
  The mission carried on by the Apostles,                           341
  Its two parts: work of positive teaching and defence against
          error,                                                    343
  As to the first—
    1. The system of catechesis,                                    344
    2. The employment of a Creed,                                   347
    3. The dispensing of Sacraments,                                349
    4. The system of Penance,                                       351
    5. The Scriptures carried in the Church's hand,                 352
  This mode of promulgation continued during fifteen centuries,     355
  Substitution of a private interpretation of Scripture by the
          individual attempted in the sixteenth century,            356
  Summary of the mode in which the Church promulgated the faith,    358
  As to the second, the Church's defence against error lay in the
          principle of her own authority,                           360
  The first conflict with unbelieving Judaism,                      362
  Three incidents of it—
    The proclaiming Jesus to be the Christ,                         362
    The receiving the Gentiles without Circumcision,                363
    The protection of being Jews enjoyed by the first preachers of
          Christ,                                                   364
  Gradual severance of the Christian Church from the Synagogue,     369
  Circumstances and peculiar difficulties of the Ante-Nicene
          Church,                                                   371
  The first condition of Christians one of simple faith,            376
  The two opposed principles of orthodoxy and heresy,               378
  Contest between them indicated in the Apostolic writings,         380
  Character of the first writings after the Apostles,               381
  Christian learning in the second century; conversions of heathens
          who became Christian apologists,                          382
  Extension of education given in great catechetical schools,       385
  The defence against error lodged in the Magisterium,              387
  The Magisterium lies in the Church's divine government and concrete
          life,                                                     388
  Athanasius as the expounder of it; his fundamental idea,          389
  His Statement as to the authority of Scripture,                   391
  As to the Rule of Faith,                                          392
  As to private judgment,                                           393
  His tests of heresy,                                              393
  Definitions,                                                      394
  How the Magisterium embraces Scripture and Tradition, and employs
          them as a joint rule,                                     395
  Testimony of the Council of Arles to the above principles,        397
  And Constantine's public recognition that the Magisterium of
          Christ is lodged in the Bishops,                          398



  Alliance of the Two Powers in the Roman Empire at the Advent of
          Christ,                                                   400
  The Emperor official guardian of all religions,                   401
  The Christian religion a singular exception,                      403
  Its cause the position of Christians towards heathendom,          404
  Contradiction in belief, worship, and government,                 405
  The Christian people as the outcome of these three constituents,  411
  The course of the Roman Empire and the Christian Church in three
          hundred years,                                            414
  The ten persecutions from Nero to Diocletian,                     417
  The Martyrs champions of a great army,                            421
  St. Paul's account of this army's creation,                       422
  The wonder of this creation,                                      424
  Supernatural character of the conversion wrought in these times,  426
  Accounted for only by the internal action of the Holy Ghost,      427
  Power of the κήρυγμα insisted on by Clement of Alexandria,        429
  Contrasted by him with the impotence of philosophy,               430
  Sufferings which followed on conversion according to Tertullian,  431
  Martyrs enduring or God what heroes endured for goods of nature,  432
  Origen insists on the divine power shown in converting sinners,   434
  On miracles of conversion as greater than bodily miracles,        435
  The spread of the Church and the conversion of sinners viewed
          together,                                                 436
  Miracles only could account for the spread of the Church,         437
  Statement of Irenæus as to miraculous powers exercised in his
          time,                                                     438
  Athanasius on the cessation of idolatry, oracles, and magic,      440
  And on the greatness of the conversion wrought by Christ,         442
  The necessity of miracles in proof of our Lord's mission,         444
  The connection between miracles and martyrdom,                    445
  Parallel between them as to their principle, witness, power, and
          perpetuity,                                               449
  How the liberty of the Church was gained against the empire,      455
  How the Martyrs constructed a basis for civil liberty,            456
  The five conflicts of the Church with Judaism, Heresy, Idolatry,
          Philosophy, and the Roman State,                          459



This volume, though entire in itself, is also the continuation of a
former work, the "Formation of Christendom," already written and
published by me in three volumes. It is, in fact, the further unfolding
of the subject under a particular aspect. In truth, the relation between
Church and State leads perhaps more directly than any other to the heart
of Christendom; for Christendom, both in word and idea, means not only
one and the same Church subsisting in all civil governments, but also a
community of Christian governments, having a common belief and common
principles of action, grounded upon the Incarnation of the Son of God,
and the Redemption wrought thereby. For this reason, the Formation of
Christendom can hardly be described, unless the relation which ought by
the institution of God to subsist between the two great Powers, the
Spiritual and Civil, appointed to rule human society, is first clearly

In this volume, therefore, I treat first of the relation of these two
Powers before the coming of Christ. Secondly, of their relation as it was
affected by that coming, in order to show what position the Church of
Christ originally took up in regard to the Civil Power, and what the
behaviour of the Civil Power towards the Church was. And, thirdly, the
question of principles being thus laid down, the remainder of the volume
is occupied with the historical exhibition of the subject during the
first three centuries; that is, from the Day of Pentecost to the Nicene
Council. The supreme importance of that period will appear to all who
reflect that the Church from the beginning, and in the first centuries of
her existence, must be the same in principles with the Church of the
nineteenth and every succeeding century. And this volume is, in fact, a
prelude to the treatment of the same subject in the last three centuries,
down to the Ecumenical Council of the Vatican.

The subject which I am treating is, then, strictly historical, being the
action of a King in the establishment of a kingdom; the action of a
Lawgiver in the legislation which He gave to that kingdom; the action of
a Priest in founding a hierarchy, whereby that kingdom consists; but,
moreover, which is something much more—the action of One who is Priest,
Lawgiver, and King at once and always, and therefore whose work is at
once one and triple, and indivisible in its unity and triplicity, and
issuing in the forming of a people which is simply the creation of its

1.—_The Kingdom as Prophesied._

As an introduction to it, let me refer to the distinct and explicit
prediction of such an event at a point of time six centuries before it
took effect, as well as now distant from us almost 2500 years, under
circumstances upon which it is most instructive to look back. For not
only did the secular and the religious histories of mankind then meet
together, as they had met before, but they began to stand in a certain
relation to each other, which continues from that time to this. The
intersection of two societies which work themselves out in the one human
history became permanent. At that moment a revelation was given, which is
perhaps the most definite detailed and absolute prophecy concerning the
whole compass of human society, as viewed in its relation to God, which
is to be found in the Old Testament. And the occasion upon which it was
given makes it even more significant, for it was like a burst of sunlight
suddenly scattering the darkness of a storm and bathing the whole
landscape in radiance.

That darkness indeed was terrible, for the ancient people chosen by God
to support His name among apostate nations no longer lived apart from
those nations in their own land which God had provided for them, with an
independence based upon the law especially given to them, but lay
prostrate under the feet of a heathen invader, who had placed a vassal
upon the diminished throne of Solomon, and the royal line of David seemed
on the eve of expiring in a degenerate descendant. For the continued
infidelities of four hundred years had worn out even the divine patience.
In vain had the ten tribes of schismatic Israel been carried into
captivity by Assyria. It needed that the remaining kingdom of Judah
should be broken up and its chiefs deported to Babylon, whose monarch was
now the heir of Assur's great empire, the king of kings, the sceptred
head of heathendom. Moreover, in a few years he was to punish the vassal,
rebellious to himself, but yet more faithless to the God of Israel, whom
he had placed on David's seat, and to burn that glorious Temple which the
wisest of kings had erected to the majesty of the one true God. And with
that fall of Zedekiah the line of David would cease for ever to sit upon
a temporal throne.

A darker moment in the history of the chosen people could not be found,
nor a more hopeless prospect, to all seeming, for the carrying out the
promises made to Abraham and his seed. What was a divine judgment on the
breakers of a special covenant with the one true God appeared to be the
triumph of a heathendom which had set up many false gods. Yet it was the
moment chosen to send to that very king, who was the executor of the
divine chastisements upon a faithless people, a revelation which
contained the future lot not only of the people which he had humbled, but
of the heathendom of which he was the crown. As he lay upon his bed,
Nabuchodonosor had a dream, "and his spirit was terrified, and the dream
went out of his mind." He strove in vain to recover it, either by the
efforts of his own memory or by the skill of the wise men and soothsayers
of Babylon. But among the captives in the imperial city was a youth of
David's lineage, nourished at the king's court, and a member of his
household. And when Daniel heard the decree of the great king ordering
the death of the wise men who failed to interpret a dream which the king
could not disclose to them, Daniel turned himself and his three
fellow-captives and companions to prayer and supplication, "to the end
that they should ask mercy at the face of the God of heaven concerning
this secret. Then was the mystery revealed to Daniel by a vision in the
night: and Daniel blessed the God of heaven, and speaking he said:
Blessed be the name of the Lord from eternity and for evermore: for
wisdom and fortitude are His. And He changeth times and ages: taketh away
kingdoms and establisheth them, giveth wisdom to the wise, and knowledge
to them that have understanding: He revealeth deep and hidden things, and
knoweth what is in darkness, and light is with Him. To Thee, O God of our
fathers, I give thanks, and I praise Thee; because Thou hast given me
wisdom and strength: and now Thou hast shown me what we desired of Thee,
for Thou hast made known to us the king's discourse. After this Daniel
went in to Arioch, to whom the king had given orders to destroy the wise
men of Babylon, and he spoke thus to him: Destroy not the wise men of
Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will tell the solution to the
king. Then Arioch in haste brought in Daniel to the king, and said to
him: I have found a man of the children of the captivity of Judah that
will resolve the question to the king. The king answered and said to
Daniel, whose name was Baltassar: Thinkest thou indeed that thou canst
tell me the dream that I saw, and the interpretation thereof? And Daniel
made answer before the king and said: The secret that the king desireth
to know, none of the wise men, or the philosophers, or the diviners, or
the soothsayers can declare to the king. But there is a God in heaven
that revealeth mysteries, who hath shown to thee, O king Nabuchodonosor,
what is to come to pass in the latter times. Thy dream, and the visions
of thy head upon thy bed, are these: Thou, O king, didst begin to think
in thy bed what should come to pass hereafter: and He that revealeth
mysteries showed thee what shall come to pass. To me also this secret is
revealed, not by any wisdom that I have more than all men alive, but that
the interpretation might be made manifest to the king, and thou mightest
know the thoughts of thy mind. Thou, O king, sawest, and behold there was
as it were a great statue: this statue, which was great and high, tall of
stature, stood before thee, and the look thereof was terrible. The head
of this statue was of fine gold, but the breast and the arms of silver,
and the belly and the thighs of brass: and the legs of iron, the feet
part of iron and part of clay. Thus thou sawest, until a stone was cut
out of a mountain without hands, and it struck the statue upon the feet
thereof that were of iron and of clay, and broke them in pieces. Then was
the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold broken to pieces
together, and became like the chaff of a summer's threshing-floor, and
they were carried away by the wind, and there was no place found for
them: but the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain, and
filled the whole earth. This is the dream: we will also tell the
interpretation thereof before thee, O king. Thou art a king of kings: and
the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, and strength, and power, and
glory: and all places wherein the children of men and the beasts of the
field do dwell: he hath also given the birds of the air into thy hand,
and hath put all things under thy power: thou therefore art the head of
gold. And after thee shall rise up another kingdom, inferior to thee, of
silver: and another third kingdom of brass, which shall rule over all the
world. And the fourth kingdom shall be as iron. As iron breaketh into
pieces and subdueth all things, so shall that break and destroy all
these. And whereas thou sawest the feet and the toes part of potter's
clay, and part of iron: the kingdom shall be divided, but yet it shall
take its origin from the iron, according as thou sawest the iron mixed
with the miry clay. And as the toes of the feet were part of iron and
part of clay, the kingdom shall be partly strong and partly broken. And
whereas thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay, they shall be mingled
indeed together with the seed of man, but they shall not stick fast one
to another, as iron cannot be mixed with clay. But in the days of those
kingdoms the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be
destroyed, and His kingdom shall not be delivered up to another people,
and it shall break in pieces and shall consume all these kingdoms, and
itself shall stand for ever. According as thou sawest that the stone was
cut out of the mountain without hands, and broke in pieces the clay, and
the iron, and the brass, and the silver, and the gold, the great God hath
shown the king what shall come to pass hereafter, and the dream is true,
and the interpretation thereof is faithful."

No one can study the vision and its interpretation without seeing that
the fabric of a great temporal empire, whose ruler is called a king of
kings, and whose seat is the city wherein Nimrod, "the great hunter
before the Lord," set up the first kingdom, to stand for ever at the head
of human history a kingdom symbolical not of justice but of force, is
therein contrasted with the fabric of a kingdom which the God of heaven
should set up. And it is specially noted that He should set up this
kingdom in the times of the empires denoted by the statue. And of the
kingdom so to be set up four things are predicated in, as it were, an
ascending scale. First, there is its divine institution: "the God of
heaven shall set up a kingdom," and that in a manner wholly unexampled,
which is expressed by "a stone cut out of a mountain without hands."
Secondly, "the kingdom shall never be destroyed." Thirdly, and further,
"it shall not be delivered up to another people;" a process which,
according to the interpretation of the vision, was to take place three
times in the empires represented by the statue. Fourthly, "that it should
break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, while itself should last
for ever."

Moreover, as the earthly kingdom was really a kingdom, so the force of
the similitude running through the whole, and heightened by the effect
of contrast, declares that the heavenly should be a kingdom. As the seat
of the earthly kingdom was this world, so evidently the seat of the
heavenly is this same world. As the earthly kingdom should be destroyed,
so the heavenly should be exempt from destruction. As the earthly kingdom
was to pass from one people to another, so the heavenly kingdom should
not pass from one people to another. But then comes a culmination which
no one could anticipate. For not only is there an antagonism between the
earthly and the heavenly kingdom, but by force of it, and in consequence
of it, the heavenly should consume and break in pieces the earthly.
Whereby the hearer is given to understand that the earthly kingdom,
terrible and grand and all-powerful as it seemed to be, was created for
the sake of the heavenly, which in due time should be set up in it, but
not of it nor from it.

It is no less implied through the whole tenor of the vision that the
authority which constitutes the essence of a kingdom—that is, supreme and
independent authority, which is expressed in legislation and administered
in government—subsists as much in the heavenly as in the earthly kingdom,
with this marked distinction, that it is transitory in the one case and
permanent in the other.

And, finally, the power by which all this should be done was something
beyond human power, and without parallel, very strange and astonishing,
"a stone cut out of a mountain without hands," which should not only
strike the statue upon its feet, but itself grow, "until it became a
great mountain, and filled the whole earth."

Thus the filling of the whole earth with the stone which struck the
statue and then became a great mountain terminates the vision. But it is
no less its scope and object. The statue exists before that the stone may
come after. The statue and the stone, as thus exhibited, indicate the
respective value in the divine counsels of the powers which they
represent; that is, the subordination of the human kingdom to the divine,
both in the order of causality and in duration, is distinctly laid down.
And the end of both accords with this. The great statue, when struck by
the stone, became like the chaff of a summer's threshing-floor; but the
stone which struck it filled the whole earth. And the vision leaves it in

The vision also reaches from end to end. It begins with the first empire,
which is human, and runs back by the place in which it is seated to the
commencement of actual things; and it ends with the last, which is
divine, and which shall consume all the other kingdoms recorded, and
itself last for ever. Thus the vision grasps the whole organism of
society in the human race, as it lies unrolled before the providence of

2.—_The Kingdom as Fulfilled._

Such was the prophecy. Now let us pass over a thousand years, and take
the first fulfilment of the vision as it presented itself to an ancient
saint at the beginning of the fifth century. We will only note that in
the interval Nabuchodonosor and Cyrus and Alexander and Cæsar had set up
the four world-empires. They were four indeed, for they passed three
times from one people to another—from Chaldean to Persian, from Persian
to Grecian, from Grecian to Roman, as the variety of metals in the statue
was interpreted to mean. Yet were they also one—a unity which, as that of
a single person, the great statue so faithfully represented. For they
were one with each other in the character and unbroken tradition of the
same civilisation, and in the principle of their authority, which was
conquest. They were filled with the same spirit of heathen domination,
which was in truth the voice and the power of a false worship, as with
the spirit of one man who rose in Babylon to set in Rome.[1] Two
Apostles, special friends and constant fellow-workers, had marked this
identity by giving the mystical name of Babylon to heathen Rome—St.
Peter[2] in the epistle which he dates from Babylon, St. John in his
vision of the woman drunk with the blood of saints and martyrs, and
seated upon the seven hills, whom he himself interprets to be "the great
city which had kingdom over the kings of the earth." These empires had
run their appointed course, and the last and greatest of them, which was
likewise the heir and successor of the three preceding in power and
thought, as well as in the body of their territories and the soul which
ruled therein, was ending in disgrace and dissolution. For at length the
tribes of the North had broken through the long-guarded frontiers of
Roman power. Alaric with his Goths had taken Rome, and a deep cry of
distress arose through all the vast provinces of her empire. Every city
in that wide domain trembled with the sense of insecurity for the present
and fear for the future which the fall of Rome inspired. Just at this
moment the great Western Father, whose voice sounded like the voice of
the Church herself, wrote thus to a heathen inquirer:—

"Faith opens the door to intelligence, while unbelief closes it. Where is
the man who would not be moved to belief, simply by so vast an order of
events proceeding from the beginning; by the mere connection of various
ages, which accredits the present by the past, while it confirms
antiquity by what is recent? Out of the Chaldean nation a single man is
chosen, remarkable for a most constant piety. Divine promises are
disclosed to this man, which are to find their completion after a vast
series of ages in the last times, and it is predicted that all nations
are to receive a benediction in his seed. This man being a worshipper of
the one true God, the Creator of the universe, begets in his old age a
son, of a wife whom barrenness and age had long deprived of all hope of
offspring. From him is propagated a most numerous people, which
multiplies in Egypt, whither a divine disposition of things, redoubling
its promises and effects, had carried that family from eastern parts.
From their servitude in Egypt a strong people is led forth by terrible
signs and miracles; impious nations are driven out before it; it is
brought into the promised land, settled therein, and exalted into a
kingdom. Then it falls more and more into sin; it perpetually offends the
true God, who had conferred upon it so many favours, by violating His
worship; it is scourged with various misfortunes; it is visited with
consolations, and so carried on to the incarnation and manifestation of
Christ. All the promises made to this nation, all its prophecies, its
priesthoods, its sacrifices, its temple, in a word, all its sacred rites,
had for their special object this Christ, the Word of God, the Son of
God—God that was to come in the flesh, that was to die, to rise again, to
ascend to heaven, that by the exceeding power of His name was to obtain
in all nations a population dedicated to Himself; and in Him remission of
sins and eternal salvation unto such as believed.

"Christ came. In His birth, His life, His words, His deeds, His
sufferings, His death, His resurrection, His ascension,—all the
predictions of the prophets are fulfilled. He sends forth the Holy
Spirit; He fills the faithful who are assembled in one house, and who by
their prayers and desires are expecting this very promise. They are
filled with the Holy Spirit; they speak suddenly with the tongues of all
nations; they confidently refute errors; they proclaim a most salutary
truth; they exhort to penitence for the faults of past life; they promise
pardon from the divine grace. Their proclamation of piety and true
religion is followed by suitable signs and miracles. A savage unbelief is
stirred up against them. They endure what had been foretold; hope in
what had been promised; teach what had been commanded them. Few in
number, they are scattered through the world. They convert populations
with marvellous facility. In the midst of enemies they grow. They are
multiplied by persecutions. In the straits of affliction they are spread
abroad over vast regions. At first they are uninstructed, of very low
condition, very few in number. Their ignorance passes into the brightest
intelligence; their low ranks produce the most cultivated eloquence;
their fewness becomes a multitude; they subjugate to Christ minds the
most acute, learned, and accomplished, and convert them into preachers of
piety and salvation. In the alternating intervals of adversity and
prosperity, they exercise a watchful patience and temperance. As the
world verges in a perpetual decline, and by exhaustion expresses the
coming of its last age, since this also is what prophecy led them to
expect, they with greater confidence await the eternal happiness of the
heavenly city. And amid all this the unbelief of impious nations rages
against the Church of Christ, which works out victory by patience, and by
preserving unshaken faith against the cruelty of opponents. When the
sacrifice unveiled by the truth, which had so long been covered under
mystical promises, had at length succeeded, those sacrifices which
prefigured this one were removed by the destruction of the Temple itself.
This very Jewish people, rejected for its unbelief, was cast out of its
own seat, and scattered everywhere throughout the world, to carry with it
the sacred writings; so that the testimony of prophecy, by which Christ
and the Church were foretold, may not be thought a fiction of ours for
the occasion, but be produced by our very adversaries—a testimony in
which it is also foretold that they should not believe. The temples and
images of demons, and the sacrilegious rites of that worship, are
gradually overthrown, as prophecy foretold. Heresies against the name of
Christ, which yet veil themselves under that name, swarm, as was
foretold, in order to call out the force of teaching in our holy
religion. In all these things, as we read their prediction, so we discern
their fulfilment, and from so vast a portion which is fulfilled we rest
assured of what is still to come. Is there a single mind which yearns
after eternity and feels the shortness of the present life, that can
resist the light and the force of this divine authority?"[3]

St. Augustine wrote thus to his friend Volusian, the uncle of St.
Melania, a Roman nobleman of high reputation, who was then, as he
continued for many years to be, a heathen. But we must also take note
that he wrote at a point of time scarcely less remarkable than that of
the vision interpreted by Daniel. The old world with its sequence of
world-empires was passing away. And so soon as it passed another travail
of extraordinary severity was preparing for the Church, such a travail as
even the eagle eye of the Bishop of Hippo could not discern as he stood
before the beginning of its accomplishment. When he wrote there was a
Catholic Church, the fulfilment of a long train of prophecies in that
"connection of ages" which he has so wonderfully drawn out, but there was
not yet a Christendom. Nor could he the least foresee what was to take
place before that Christendom could be formed. Only, as he spoke, the
iron of Roman discipline—the inflexible Romulean mind—which had held
together the miry clay of so many various and divergent nationalities,
European, Asiatic, African, so that "the kingdom took its origin from the
iron," was losing its tenacity. That vast structure of Roman power, the
breaking up of which had been feared in the wars and insurrections
arising upon the death of Nero, and extinction of the family of Augustus,
was in truth dissolving.[4] The western and eastern limbs of the statue
were parting away from each other, and the toes were crumbling. But
though Augustine heard the sound of the advancing tide, he saw not yet
the full flood of the deluge from the north; and still less could he
foresee the counter desolation from the south; Teuton flood and Arab
desolation which in their joint effect would blast utterly the Roman
Peace, and break the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold
in pieces together, until they became like the chaff of the summer's

As little could he anticipate another sight, the further fulfilment of
the vision, when the provinces, those crumbling toes of the statue, which
lay before him in an impending dissolution, were to be formed into great
independent kingdoms, having for the common foundation of their power
"the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us." Then in that "connection of
ages" which should be drawn out after the time of Augustine in even
greater distinctness than before him, and with greater claim upon the
believing mind, which "yearns after eternity," a grander fulfilment of
the vision would be disclosed. The royalties set up by barbarian chiefs
of tribes among incoherent populations of victors and vanquished were to
educate mature nations with individual character in the one Christian
faith, and shine as distinct stars set in the crown of the Successor to
Peter's pastorship. For as the Word made flesh created Christian
monarchies and Christian nations in their several being, so the charge of
the Word to a disciple by the lake of Gennesareth, "Feed My Sheep,"
created the great unity of Christendom which bound them together. In
Constantine one empire had acknowledged the reign of Christ, and bent the
neck of heathen domination to raise the cross upon a heathen crown. But
then a group of nations should base the fabric of their laws, and the
whole civilisation which redeemed them from barbarism, upon the truth
that God assumed flesh for man's sake, and should acknowledge in Peter's
Successor the Vicar of that God, who by and in that pastoral rule of
Peter made them members of one Body, and in so making them "took the
Gentiles for His inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for His

This was a second and further fulfilment of the vision, which as yet
Augustine saw not, nor even anticipated; but after thus writing he set
himself in the last years of his life to a great task, even that of
comparing together from their origin to their end the course of the two
societies, not national, but world-wide, which run out through human
history, intermingled together, and claiming possession of the same man.
First, the natural society of the human race played upon by all the
passions and infirmities which are the effect of man's original Fall; and
secondly, that other society chosen by God from the beginning in view of
His Son's Incarnation, for the purpose of repairing and counterworking
that Fall. It was the capture of Rome by Alaric, and the deep despondency
which thence arose in the minds of many, both Christian and heathen, that
moved him originally to this design, of which the first tracing is seen
in the letter to Volusian just quoted. He sought to meet conclusions
unfavourable to the Christian faith, which were drawn by weak, or narrow,
or unbelieving minds from the fall of the imperial city. His plan
accordingly led him to take a complete view of all human history; and the
result has been that one of the last representatives of the old world,
and certainly the greatest of all as thinker, philosopher, and
theologian, the most universal genius of the patristic ages, whether
among Greeks or Latins, has left us a Philosophy of History, the first in
time, and as yet unequalled in ability; for it supplies a key to the acts
of man and the providence of God in that masterly comparison between the
City of God and the City of the devil in their origin, their course, and
their end.

The leading thought of this great work gives me a final text bearing on
the subject of this volume.

"Thus, then, two Cities have been created by two loves: the earthly, by
that love of self which reaches even to the contempt of God; the
heavenly, by the love of God which reaches even to the contempt of self.
The first has its boast in self; the second in its Lord. For the first
seeks its glory from men; whereas to the second, God, the witness of
conscience, is the greatest glory. The first in that glory which it has
made for itself exalts its own head; the second says to its God, 'Thou
art my glory and the lifter up of my head.' In the first the lust of
domination sways both its rulers and the nations which it subjugates. In
the second a mutual service of charity is exercised by rulers who consult
the good of subjects, and by subjects who practise obedience to rulers.
The first loves in its own potentates its own excellence; the second says
to the God of its choice, 'I will love Thee, O Lord, my strength.' And
thus in the first its own wise men, living after human fashion, pursue
the goods of their body or their mind, or both at once, or they who might
have known God, have not 'glorified him as God nor given thanks, but
became vain in their thoughts, and their foolish heart was darkened;
professing themselves to be wise,' that is, extolling themselves in their
own wisdom through the pride that mastered them, 'they became fools, and
changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the image
of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of four-footed beasts, and of
creeping things;' for they either led their peoples or followed them in
the adoration of such-like images; and 'worshipped and served the
creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever.' But in the
second there is no wisdom of man save piety, by which the true God is
rightly worshipped, awaiting its reward in the society of saints, not men
only, but angels, that God may be all in all."[5]

I put together these three facts of human history, the vision of the King
of Babylon interpreted by Daniel six hundred years before Christ, the
summary of its fulfilment down to his own age written by St Augustine
four hundred years after the coming of Christ, and his delineation, a few
years later, of the Two Cities, as set forth by him in a work on which
the Christian mind has now been nurtured for fourteen hundred and fifty
years. The simple juxtaposition of these shows how Babylon stretches to
Rome, and Rome is heir of Babylon; and the heathen man thus formed
illustrates "the Man who is born in Sion, the city of the great King."[6]
It is true that the two great Powers of Civil and Spiritual government,
the relation between which forms the subject of this volume, are not
exactly represented as concerns that relation in the vision of Daniel;
but only the heathen growth of the Civil Power, and the miraculous rise,
permanent rule, and progressive growth of the Spiritual Power in the
midst of it; yet the mighty promise is recorded that in presence of the
Civil Power the Spiritual shall never pass away; rather that it shall
last unchanged, while the other is shifting and transitory; and also the
cognate truth, that the great and terrible Power represented by the
Statue is, in the counsels of God, subordinate in its scope to the Power
represented by the Stone.

It is true, again, that the vivid contrast of the Two Cities as drawn by
St. Augustine does not represent the legitimate relation of the Two
Powers to each other, but only the perversion of the one Power from its
true end and object, and the perfect antagonism of the other to that

But the kingdom set up by the God of heaven in the vision interpreted by
Daniel, and the connection of ages dwelt upon by St. Augustine, which
leads up to the Person of Christ, and then starts afresh from Him, and
the Divine City delineated by St. Augustine, fit exactly into each other,
and so they seem to me to form together an appropriate introduction to
that most remarkable period of history with which the present volume is
occupied, when the Stone cut out without hands struck the Statue, and
became a great mountain, in preparation for that further growth when it
would fill the whole earth.

The Statue presented in vision to the heathen king has indeed been swept
away, but in every country a reduced likeness of it, "the look whereof is
terrible," stands over against "the Man born in Sion." And the Two Cities
everywhere run on in their predestined course until the end contemplated
by Augustine takes effect. But as he did not discern the second
fulfilment of the divine kingdom which followed upon the wandering of the
nations, so neither can we discern the third and yet grander fulfilment
when the divine kingdom shall become to the whole world what once it was
in the Roman Empire. For, to repeat St. Augustine's words, "In all these
things as we read their prediction, so we discern their fulfilment, and
from so vast a portion which is fulfilled we rest assured of what is
still to come." And "the stone that struck the statue became a great
mountain, and filled the whole earth."

  February 12, 1882.


    "Dentro dal monte sta dritto un gran veglio,
      Che tiene volte le spalle inver Damiata,
    E Roma guarda sì, come suo speglio."

    —DANTE, _Inferno_, 14, 101.

[2] 1 Pet. v. 13; Apocal. xvii. 18, xviii. 2, 20.

[3] St. Aug. Epist. 137, ad Volusianum, § 15-16. A.D. 412. It is remarkable
that Volusian, who held the highest offices in the Roman Empire, and among
the rest was Prefect of the City, was not converted either by the genius or
the saintliness of Augustine. But more than twenty years after this letter,
about A.D. 435, he was sent on an embassy from the Emperor of the West to
the Emperor of the East at Constantinople. His niece, St. Melania the
younger, left the seclusion of her monastery at Jerusalem, and travelled
all the intervening distance to see him. When he met in the garb of
humility and poverty the niece whom he remembered at Rome in all the
splendour of youth, rank, and beauty at the head of the Roman nobility, he
was so impressed by the force of Christian charity which had wrought such a
change, that he was converted and baptized by the Patriarch Proclus, and
died shortly afterwards. God did by the sight of the nun what he had not
done by the learning of the theologian and the philosopher.

[4] The words which Cerialis addressed to the Gauls, as recorded by
Tacitus, Hist. 4, 74, apply in all their force to the times when the
trans-migration of the northern tribes took effect, four hundred years
after they were written. "Octingentorum annorum fortuna disciplinaque
compages hæc coaluit, quæ convelli sine exitio convellentium non potest."
And every city of the Roman empire could testify to the truth of what he
added: "Sed vobis maximum discrimen penes quos aurum et opes, præcipuæ
bellorum causæ."

[5] De Civ. Dei, xvi. 28.

[6] Ps. lxxxvi. 5.






1.—_The Divine and Human Society founded in Adam, refounded in Noah._

In one of the most ancient books of the world, which, in addition to its
antiquity, all Christians venerate as containing the original tradition
of man's creation, guaranteed in purity and accuracy by divine assistance
given to the writer, we read the following words:—"God made the beasts of
the earth according to their kinds, and cattle, and everything that
creepeth on the earth after its kind. And God saw that it was good. And
he said: Let us make man to our image and likeness: and let him have
dominion over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and the
beasts, and the whole earth, and every creeping creature that moveth upon
the earth. And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he
created him: male and female he created them." And further: "The Lord God
formed man of the slime of the earth; and breathed into his face the
breath of life, and man became a living soul.... And the Lord God took
man and put him into the paradise of pleasure, to dress it and to keep
it. And he commanded him, saying, Of every tree of paradise thou shalt
eat; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat.
For in what day soever thou shalt eat of it, thou shalt die the death.
And the Lord God said, It is not good for man to be alone; let us make
him a help like unto himself. And the Lord God having formed out of the
ground all the beasts of the earth, and all the fowls of the air, brought
them to Adam to see what he would call them: for whatsoever Adam called
any living creature, the same is its name. And Adam called all the beasts
by their names, and all the fowls of the air, and all the cattle of the
field; but for Adam there was not found a helper like himself. Then the
Lord God cast a deep sleep upon Adam: and when he was fast asleep he took
one of his ribs and filled up flesh for it. And the Lord God built the
rib which he took from Adam into a woman: and brought her to Adam. And
Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall
be called Woman, because she was taken out of man. Wherefore a man shall
leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be
two in one flesh. And they were both naked, Adam and his wife, and were
not ashamed."

Such is the account of the origin of man, of woman, of marriage, as the
root of human society, and of that society itself, beginning in the
absolute unity of one who was father and head of his race, created in
full possession of reason and language, and exercising both by an
intuitive knowledge of the qualities of living creatures as they are
brought before him by his Maker. This account stands at the head of human
history, and has been venerated as truth by more than a hundred
generations of men since it was written down by Moses, not to speak of
those many generations among whom it had been a living tradition before
he had written it down. Human language scarcely possesses elsewhere such
an assemblage of important truths in so few words. Perhaps the only
parallel to it is contained in the fourteen verses which stand at the
opening of St. John's Gospel, wherein are recorded the Godhead and
Incarnation of the Divine Word. The first creation has its counterpart
only in the second; and the restoration of man by the personal action of
God alone surpasses, or, perhaps, more truly may be said to complete, the
Idea of his original formation by the same personal action of the same
Divine Word, who, great as He is in creating, is yet greater in
redeeming, but is one in both, and in both carries out one Idea.

For the creation of man as one individual, who is likewise the head and
bearer of a race, is the key to all the divine government of the world.
The fact rules its destinies through all their evolution. The world, as
it concerns the actions, the lot, and the reciprocal effect of men upon
each other, would have been quite a different world if it had not sprung
out of this unity. If, for instance, mankind had been a collection of
human beings in all things like to what they now are, except in one
point, that they were independent of each other and unconnected in their
origin. This unity further makes the race capable of that divine
restoration which from the beginning was intended, and with a view to
which man was made a race: which in restoring man likewise unspeakably
exalts him, for He who made Adam the father and head of the race, made
him also "the figure of One that was to come."

Let us briefly enumerate the parts of the divine plan as disclosed to us
in the narration just given.

In the council held by the Blessed Trinity it is said, "Let us make man
to our image and likeness;" not, Let us make men, but man: the singular
number used of the whole work indicates that the creation to be made was
not only an individual but a family. From the beginning the family is an
essential part of the plan. This is no less indicated in the single
creation of Adam first, not the simultaneous creation of the male and
female, as in the case of all other creatures, but the creation by
himself of the head alone, from whom first woman by herself, and then
from the conjunction of the two his family is drawn. In Adam first, while
as yet he is alone, the high gifts of reason, speech, and knowledge
indicated in the twofold and also congenital possession of reason and
language, are exhibited as residing as in a fountain-head, when all
creatures of the earth and the air are brought before him by his Maker,
and he with intuitive understanding of their several qualities and uses
imposes on them the corresponding name. Thus Adam is created complete, a
full-grown man, in whom the divine gift of thought finds expression in
the equally divine gift of language, both exerted with unerring truth,
for it is intimated that the names which he assigns to the creatures thus
passed in review render accurately their several natures. It is not said
that the Lord God intimated to Adam the names which he should give; but
the knowledge by which he gave the names was part of his original
endowment, like the gift of thought and language, which answer to each
other and imply each other, and in a being composed of soul and body
complete by their union and joint exercise the intellectual nature. "The
Lord God brought all beasts and all fowls before Adam to see what he
would call them; for whatsoever Adam called any living creature, the same
is its name."

This presentation of the creatures before Adam, and their naming by him,
is the token of the dominion promised to him "over the fishes of the sea,
and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole earth," as the
result of his being made to "the image and likeness" of the Triune God.
Only when he has thus taken possession of his royalty is the creation of
the family completed out of himself. For when "for Adam there was not
found a helper like himself," the Lord God took not again of the slime of
the earth to mould a woman and bring her to man, but "He cast a deep
sleep upon Adam, and built the rib which He took from Adam into a woman,
and brought her to Adam." And then He uttered the blessing which should
fill the earth with the progeny of the woman who had been drawn from the
man her head, saying, "Increase and multiply and fill the earth, and
subdue it, and rule over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air,
and all living creatures that move upon the earth."

What, then, is the image and likeness of the Triune God? The image
consists in the soul, with its two powers of the understanding and the
will, proceeding out of it, indivisible from it, yet distinct. May we not
infer that the likeness is the obedience of the soul, with its powers, to
the eternal law? This law, viewed in the Triune God, the prototype of
man's being, is the sanctity of the Divine Nature; but in man, thus
created, the obedience to it was the gift of original justice superadded
to his proper nature: the gift by which the soul, in the free exercise of
the understanding and the will, was obedient to the law of God, its

This was an image and likeness which belonged to Adam in a double
capacity, firstly, as an individual, secondly, as head of a family; for
it was to descend to each individual of the family in virtue of natural
procreation from Adam. The man created after the image and likeness of
the Triune God was, according to the divine intention, to be repeated in
every one of the race.

But what of the family or race which was to be evolved out of Adam alone?
Not the individual only but the race also is in the divine plan. Is
there a further image of the Triune God in the mode of the race's

To give an answer to this question, we must first consider what is the
prototype of that singular unity according to which the first parents of
the race are not formed together out of the earth, male and female, like
the inferior creatures. For in most marked distinction from all these man
is formed by himself, and alone; receives the command to eat of all trees
in the garden except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, under
penalty of death if he take of it; and then is shown exercising the
grandeur of his knowledge and the fulness of his royalty in the naming of
the subject creatures. But inasmuch as none of them could supply him with
a companion, and as "it was not good for him to be alone," a council of
the Triune God is held again, and a help like to himself is taken out of
himself. Is there not here, with that infinite distance which separates
the created from the Increate, a yet striking image of the Divine

Again, from the conjunction of the two, from Adam the head, and from Eve
when she has been drawn out of him, proceeds, in virtue of the blessing
of God, the human family. Is there not here, again, at that distance
which separates divine from human things, an image of the procession of
the Third Divine Person, the Lord, and the Giver of life, from whom all
life proceeds?

May we not then say with reverence, that from the council of the Triune
God, "Let us make man to our image and likeness," proceeds forth the
individual man, an earthly counterpart in his memory, understanding, and
will to the divine Creator, and likewise man, the family, a created image
of the primal mystery, the ineffable joy of the Godhead, the ever blessed
Trinity in Unity? And since the origin of creation itself is the free act
of God, it ought not to surprise us that the chief work of His hands in
the visible universe should reflect in the proportion of a creature the
secret life of the Divine Nature, the Unity and Trinity of the Godhead.

But next to this primal mystery, which is the source of all creation,
stands that unspeakable condescension, that act of sovereign goodness, by
which God has chosen to assume a created nature into personal unity with
Himself, and to crown the creation which He has made. As to this the
first Adam, in all his headship, with the privileges included in it, the
transmission to his family of original justice, and of that wonderful
gift of adoption superadded to it, is "the figure of Him who was to
come." But more also, St. Paul tells us, is indicated in the formation of
Eve out of Adam during the sleep divinely cast upon him. This was the
"great sacrament of Christ and of His Church" (Eph. v. 32), to which he
pointed in reminding his hearers of the high institution of Christian
marriage. And thus we learn that God, in the act of forming the natural
race, supernaturally endowed, was pleased to foreshadow by the building
of Eve, "the mother of all living," out of the first Adam, the building
of another Eve, the second and truer mother of a divine race, out of the
wounded heart of the Redeemer of the world asleep upon the cross. As then
in Adam's headship we have the figure of the Headship of Christ, so in
the issuing of Eve from him in his sleep we have the Passion of Christ
and the issuing forth of His Bride from it, when His work of redemption
was completed and His royalty proclaimed.

Thus the mysteries of the blessed Trinity, that is, of God the Creator,
and of the Incarnation and Passion of Christ, that is, of God the
Redeemer, lie folded up, as it were, in the Mosaic narrative of the mode
in which Adam was created, and in the headship of the race conferred upon

Before we approach the sin of Adam and its consequences to human society,
let us cast one glance back upon the beauty and splendour of the divine
plan in the original creation as it is disclosed to us in the narrative
of Moses. As the crown of the visible creation is placed a being who is
at once an individual and the head of a family, representing in his
personal nature the divine Unity and Trinity, and in the race of which he
is to stand at the head the same divine Unity and Trinity in their aspect
towards creation; representing the royalty of God in his dominion over
the creatures, a dominion the condition of which is the obedience of his
own compound nature to the law given to it by the Creator; representing
again in the vast number to which his race shall extend the prolific
energy of the Lord of Hosts; representing also in that secret and
altogether wonderful mystery, out of which the multiplication of his race
springs, the yet untold secret of the divine mercy, in virtue of which
his fathership is the prelude to a higher fathership, the first man is
the pattern of the Second, and the royalty of his creation but a
rehearsal at the beginning of the world of the reparation which is to
crown its end.

The whole work of creation as above described, depends in its result upon
the exercise of man's free-will. His value, before God, lies simply in
the way in which he exerts this great prerogative of his reasonable
nature. Without it he would be reduced from one who chooses his course,
and in that choice becomes good or evil, to the condition of a machine
devoid of any moral being. To test this free-will man was given a
commandment. We know that he failed under the trial; that he broke the
commandment. His disobedience to his Creator was punished by the
disobedience of his own compound nature to himself. That divine grace,
which we term the state of original justice, and in virtue of which his
soul, with its understanding and will, illuminated and fortified, was
subject to God, and the body with all its appetites was subject to the
soul, was withdrawn. He became subject to death, the certain death of the
body, with all that train of diseases and pains which precede it; and the
final separation of the soul from its Creator, unless by the way which
God indicated to him he should be restored. Becoming a sinner, his refuge
was penitence; henceforth his life was to be the life of a penitent; he
had lost the grace which was bestowed royally on the innocent; he was
left the grace which was to support and lead on the penitent. From the
garden of pleasure he is expelled, to go forth into a world which
produces thorns and thistles, unless he water it with the sweat of his
brow. To all this I only allude, since my proper subject is to trace the
first formation of human society as it came forth from the fall. But the
primal state of man could not be passed over, because the state in which
he grew up, and the state in which he now stands, cannot be understood
nor estimated rightly without a due conception of that original

With the loss of original justice Adam does not lose the headship of his
race. All men that are to be born remain his children, and continue to be
not a species of similar individuals, but a family, a race. All the
dealings of God with them continue to be dealings with them as a race.
Adam's fathership, had he not fallen, would have been to them the source
of an inestimable good, would have secured to them the transmission of
original justice, crowned as it further was by a wholly gratuitous gift,
the gift of adoption to a divine sonship. But that fathership, in
consequence of his sin, actually transmitted to them a nature penally
deprived both of the original endowment and of the superadded adoption;
and, as a fact, all the difficulties which occur to the mind in the
divine government of the world spring out of this treatment by God of man
as a family, a race. But likewise through this continuing fathership of
Adam, the Fathership of Christ appears as the completion of an original
plan, devised before the foundation of the world, and actually carried
out at the appointed time. He was to be son of David and son of Abraham
in order that He might be Son of man. This original plan of God is not
frustrated but executed by the fall of Adam. The yet undisclosed secrets
of human lot have their origin in Adam and their solution in Christ. We
are allowed to see that they belong to one plan. No doubt the hidden
things of God in this dispensation baffle our scrutiny: they remain for
the trial of faith until faith passes into sight, but we are allowed to
see the fact of a vast compensation; and over against the fathership
which brought death and corruption and the interminable ills of human
life, we see all the supernatural blessings of the new covenant,
consisting in the triple dowry of adoption, betrothal, and consecration,
come to man as a spiritual race descending from the Second Adam.

Thus, not only the primary but the actual state of man in society springs
out of an absolute unity. We have here to note two great truths. Adam, as
he was expelled from paradise to till the earth and subdue it, was the
head of his race in two particulars: first, as to natural society, whence
springs civil government; and secondly, as to the worship of God, and the
promises included in that worship, whence springs priesthood and all the
fabric of religion. The two unities, the social and the religious, had in
him their common root; and man thus comes before us in history as a
family in which the first father stands at the head of the civil and
religious order in most intimate intercourse with God. The only
description which we possess of that first period of human society from
the Fall to the Deluge, suggests to us a state which seems absolutely
walled round by God with securities, both as concerns human life in the
intercourse between man and man, and as concerns the purity of their
worship of God. As to the first, have we not said all which can be said
when we say that they were a family? The king of the human race was the
father of every one in it. Certainly if any king could ever command the
love and respect of his subjects it must have been Adam in that royalty.

But let us very briefly consider the bearing of man's condition before
the fall, as set forth to us in the sacred records which have been so far
followed, upon his knowledge of divine and human things, and his moral
state in his first society after the fall.

We have seen Adam in possession of a great dignity, created in the
maturity of reason, exercising the full power of thought and speech as
directed to truth by an inward gift, which conveys to him the knowledge
of the creatures surrounding him; moreover, taught by God as to his
present duties and future hopes. We have seen a wife bestowed upon him,
who is, as it were, created for him and drawn from him, and a vast family
promised to him. He is thus made father and head of his family and his
race, and his Creator is his immediate Teacher. After his fall these
privileges do not become to him as if they had never been. The memory of
them all is complete in him, but a very large portion of their substance
remains. Let us take three points, which are enough for our purpose. He
receives, at the fall itself, firstly, a great promise of God; secondly,
he becomes the Teacher and, thirdly, the Priest of his race. As to the
promise, God declares to him that, as the result of the serpent seducing
the woman to sin, He will create enmity between the serpent and the
woman, the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman; the seed of the
woman should crush the serpent's head; the serpent should lie in wait for
his heel. All human history is gathered up in that division of the race,
between the seed of the woman, from which springs the City of God, and
the seed of the serpent, from which springs the City of the Devil. That
is a communication of fresh knowledge to Adam, knowledge of good and
evil, a mixture of consolation and sorrow. That is a disclosure of the
issue of things stretching to the very end of the world, which comes to
sustain Adam in his penitence, to complete the knowledge which he
previously had of God and of himself.

In this first great prophecy, which embraces all the religion, the hope,
and the destiny of man, the consequences of which are not yet worked out,
man is treated as a race. The punishment falls on him as a Father; the
Woman through whom it comes, the Mother of his children, points to
another Woman and Mother, through whom it is to be reversed, and the
Deliverer is to come to him as a Descendant.

Adam, then, was cast out of paradise, but not without hope, still less
without knowledge, for he carried with him the knowledge which God had
given to him, and the lesson of a great experience. Thus he became the
great Teacher of his family. Through him from whom they received natural
being and nurture, they received the knowledge of God, of their own end,
of all which it behoved them to know for the purpose of their actual
life. The great Father was likewise the great Penitent; and the first
preacher of God's justice to men told them likewise of His mercy: a
preacher powerful and unequalled in both his themes.

But, by the fall, Adam became likewise the Priest in his family. We learn
from the narrative of Cain and Abel that the worship of God by sacrifice
had been instituted, and it is not obscurely intimated that it was
instituted even before he was cast out of paradise, since God Himself
clothed Adam and Eve with skins of beasts, which, doubtless, were slain
in sacrifice, since they were not used for food.[7]

The rite of bloody sacrifice, utterly unintelligible without the notion
of sin, and inconceivable without a positive divine institution, so
precise in its formularies about the statement of sin, and the need of
expiation, is an everliving prophecy of the great sacrifice which God had
intended "before the foundation of the world," and a token of the
knowledge which He had communicated to Adam before he became a father.
Unfallen man needed to make no sacrifice, but only the triple offering of
adoration, thanksgiving, and prayer. These Adam would have given before
he fell; after his fall he became a priest, and the bloody sacrifice to
God of His own creatures, a mode of propitiating God which man could
never have invented or imagined of himself, is a token of the ritual
enjoined upon him, and of the faith which it symbolised and perpetuated.

Such, then, was the condition of the children of Adam, the first human
society, in those "many days" which passed before Cain rose up against
Abel: the state of a family living in full knowledge of their own
creation, being, and end, in vast security, for who was there to hurt
them? worshipping God the Creator by a rite which He had ordained in
token of a great promise, at their head the Father, the Teacher, and the
Priest, with the triple dignity which emanates from the divine
sovereignty, and makes a perfect government.

The two powers which were to rule the world rested as yet undivided upon
Adam after his fall.

It is evident that nothing could be further from a state of savagery or
barbarism, from a state of defective knowledge of God and man, and his
end, than such a condition as this, which suggests itself necessarily to
any one who considers attentively the sacred narrative.

But as Adam in paradise was left to the exercise of his free-will, and
fell out of the most guarded state of innocence by its misuse, so the
first-born of Adam broke out of this secure condition of patriarchal life
through the same misuse, and begun by fratricide the City of the Devil.
We are told that God remonstrated with him when he fell under the
influence of envy and jealousy, but in vain. He rose against his brother
and slew him; he received in consequence the curse of God; "went out from
his face, and dwelt a fugitive on the earth at the east side of Eden."
There it is said that he built the first city, on which St. Augustine
comments: "It is written of Cain that he built a city; but Abel, as a
stranger and pilgrim, built none."

The fratricide of Cain leads to a split in the human family. The line of
Cain seems to depart from Adam and live in independence of him. It
becomes remarkable for its progress in mechanical arts, and for the first
example of bigamy. The end of it is all we need here note. In process of
time, "as men multiplied on the earth," two societies seem to divide the
race of Adam—one entitled that of "the sons of God," the other that of
"the daughters of men." But the ruin of the whole race is brought about
by the blending of the better with the worse: the bad prevail, the two
Cities become mixed together in inextricable confusion. God left to man
throughout his free-will, but when the result of this was that "the
wickedness of men was great upon the earth, and that all the thoughts of
their heart was bent upon evil at all times," that is, when the City of
the Devil had prevailed over the City of God in that patriarchal race
which He had so wonderfully taught and guarded, He interfered to destroy
those whose rebellion was hopeless of amendment, and to make out of one
who had remained faithful to Him a new beginning of the race.

The race had been cut down to the root because in the midst of knowledge
and grace it had deserted God; and Noah, as he stepped forth from the
ark, began with a solemn act of reparation. He "built an altar to the
Lord and offered holocausts upon it of all cattle and fowls that were
clean." God accepted the sacrifice, inasmuch as it was in and through
this act that He bestowed the earth upon Noah and his sons, and gave him
everything that lived and moved on it for food. He consecrated afresh the
life of man by ordaining that whoever took human life away, that is, by
an act of violence, not of justice, should himself be punished with the
loss of his own life; and He grounded this great ordinance upon the fact
that man was made after the image of God. At the same time God repeated
to Noah and his sons the primal blessing which had multiplied the race,
and was to fill the earth with it, and made a covenant with him and with
his seed for ever, a covenant to be afterwards developed, but never to be
abrogated. It is to be noted that the sacred narrative dwells rather upon
the sacrifice made by Noah immediately upon issuing from the ark than
upon the original sacrifice offered by Adam. Of the first institution of
sacrifice it makes only incidental mention, referring with great
significance to those skins of beasts, of which God provided a covering
for the nakedness of Adam and Eve. It is as if the rite of sacrifice,
instituted as a prophecy of the future expiation of sin, might fitly
supply from the skins of its victims a covering for that nakedness which
sin alone had revealed and made shameful. The mention of this fact ensues
immediately upon the record of the fall, before Adam is cast out of
paradise. And again, by the mention of the sacrifice of Abel, and of its
acceptance, it is shown that the rite already existed in the children of
the first man. But now the sacrifice of Noah, and the covenant made in
it, as being of so vast an import to every succeeding generation, is
described at length as the starting-point of the whole renewed, that is,
the actual race of man. In this sacrifice it is emphatically declared
that "the Lord smelled a sweet savour," since it stood at the beginning
of man's new life, coming after the waters of the deluge as the image and
precursor of the Sacrifice on Calvary, which was to purify the earth, and
which those waters typified.

As, then, we considered lately the position of man as to his knowledge of
God and of himself in the "many days" which ensued after the fall before
the death of Abel, so let us glance at his condition in these same
respects at the starting-point of this new life of man. First of all, out
of the wreck of the old world Noah had carried the two institutions, one
of which makes the human family in its natural increase, while the other
constitutes its spiritual life—marriage and sacrifice. In marriage we
have the root of society; in sacrifice the root of religion. These had
not perished, neither had they changed in character. They were the
never-displaced foundation of the race, an heirloom of paradise never
lost; marriage, as established in the primeval sanctity before man fell,
sacrifice as superadded to man's original worship of adoration,
thanksgiving, and prayer immediately upon his fall, in token of his
future recovery. God, in selecting Noah to repair the race, made him, in
so far like to Adam, the head of the two orders, King and Priest, and
from that double headship the actual government of the world through all
the lines of his posterity descends.

Thirdly, we find in Noah's family the divine authority of government
expressly established; for in the protection thrown over human life the
power to take it away in case of grievous crime is also given. Authority
to take life away belongs of right to the giver of life alone. He here
bestows the vicarious exercise of it upon that family which was likewise
the first State, and the fountain-head of actual human society. "At the
hand of every man, and of his brother, will I require the life of man:
whosoever shall shed man's blood, his blood shall be shed, for man was
made to the image of God. But increase you, and multiply, and go upon the
earth, and fill it." We have then the charter here of human society;[8]
the delegation to it of supreme power by the Head of all power, to be
vicariously exercised henceforward over the whole race as it went out,
conquered, and replenished the earth; the sacredness of man's life
declared, in virtue of that divine image according to which he alone of
all creatures upon the earth was made, yet power over that life for the
punishment of crime committed to man himself in the government
established by God. An absolute dominion over all beasts was given at the
same time to man; first for himself, in virtue of his distinction from
the beast, in virtue of the divine image resting upon him, a delegation
of divine power was set up in the midst of him, the supreme exercise of
which is the power of life and death. Civil government therefore was no
less created by God than marriage, and sacrifice, with the religious
offices belonging to it. Like them it was ratified afresh in the race at
this its second starting-point.

But, fourthly, it was as Father and Head of the race that the first act
of Noah leaving the ark was to offer sacrifice; he offered it for himself
and for all his children. With him, as offering in a public act the
homage of his race, the great covenant of which we have been speaking was
made. Besides the divine things bound together in the institution of
sacrifice—the accord of four acts, adoration, thanksgiving, prayer, and
expiation, which express man's knowledge of his condition of God's
sovereignty, and of his own last end, as well as the dedication of his
will to God—great temporal promises, such as the dominion over all other
creatures, and the filling the earth with his race, promises which belong
to man as one family and one race, were made to Noah in this solemn
covenant ratified in sacrifice. The common hopes of the whole community
for the present life and the future also were jointly represented in it.
It is, in fact, the alliance of the civil government with religion, of
which we see here the solemn ratification. Noah the Father, the King, and
the Priest, sacrifices for all, where all have a common hope, a common
belief, a common knowledge, a life not only as individual men, but as a
family, as a race, as a society.

Thus in marriage, in sacrifice, in the vicarial exercise of divine power
by civil government, and in the alliance of that government with the
worship of God, we have the four central pillars on which the glorious
dome of a sacred civilisation in the human family, when it should be
conterminous with the whole earth, was intended to rest. These four
things date from the beginning of the race; they precede heathenism, and
they last through it. Greatly as man in the exercise of his free-will may
rage against them, grievously as he may impair their harmony, and even
distort by his sin the vast good which that harmony ensures and guards
into partial evil, yet he will not avail to destroy the fabric of human
society resting upon them before the Restorer comes.

Noah having lived 600 years before the flood, and having been the
preacher of justice for 120 years to a world which would not listen to
him, has his life prolonged for 350 years after the flood. During this
time he is to be viewed as the great Teacher of his family, like Adam
when he came out of Paradise. What the Fall was in the mouth of Adam the
Deluge was in the mouth of Noah, a great example of punishment inflicted
on man for the disregard of God as his end. It is hard to see how God
could have more completely guarded those two beginnings of human society
from the corruption of error and the taint of unfaithfulness than by the
mode in which He caused them to arise, in that He formed them both
through the teaching of a family by the mouth of a Parent, and the
government of a race by the headship of its Author. For the larger
society sprung actually out of brethren as the brethren themselves out of
one parent. "They have," to use Bossuet's striking recapitulation, "one
God, one object, one end, a common origin, the same blood, a common
interest, a mutual need of each other, as well for the business of life
as for its enjoyments." And one common language, it may be added, serves
as the outward expression, the witness, and the bond of a society so
admirably compacted, based, as it would seem, on so immovable a

Let us sum up in three words the history so far as it has yet been
recorded. The foundation of all is man coming forth by creation out of
the hand of God. He comes forth as one family in Adam. Falling from his
high estate by his Father's sin, he receives a religion guarded and
expressed by a specific rite of worship, which records his fall, and
prophesies his restoration. After this the family springs from parents
united in a holy bond, which, as it carries on the natural race, is
likewise the image of a future exaltation. As he increases and multiplies
the divine authority is vicariously exercised in the government of the
race as a society. That government is strictly allied with his religion.
It is most remarkable that the last end of man dominates the whole
history; that is, all the temporal goods of man from the beginning depend
on his fidelity to God. Disregard of this works the Fall; the same
disregard works the Deluge. It remains to show how that compact and
complete society instituted under Noah depended, as to the maintenance in
unimpaired co-operation of the great goods we have just enumerated, upon
the free-will of man to preserve his fidelity to God; that is, to show
how in the constant order of human things there is an inherent
subordination of the temporal to the spiritual good, as for the
individual so for the race.

2.—_The Divine and Human Society in the Dispersion._

The divine narrative of the beginning of human society ends with an event
of which the consequences remain to the present day, and from which all
the actual nations of the earth take their rise. The blessing and command
given to Noah and his family were, "Increase and multiply and fill the
earth." It would seem that the family of man continued in that highly
privileged and guarded state which has just been described during five
generations, comprehending perhaps the life of Noah and Shem. Of all this
time it is said, "The earth was of one tongue and the same speech." The
division of the earth among the families of a race by virtue of a
natural growth, which was itself the effect of the divine blessing and
command, did not carry with it as a condition of that growth the
withdrawal of so great a privilege as the unity of language. God had
formed the human family out of one; had built it up by marriage; cemented
it by a religious rite of highest meaning; crowned it with His own
delegated authority of government, and sanctified that government by its
alliance with religion. Unity of language is as it were the expression of
all these blessings. The possession of language by the first man, the
outer vocalised word, corresponding to the inner spiritual word of
reason, was a token of the complete intellectual nature inhabiting a
corporeal frame—a fact expressed by the doctrine that the soul is the
form of the body—which constituted his first endowment. And in a
proportionate manner the possession of one language as the exponent of
mind and heart by his race, was the most effective outward bond of inward
unity which could tie the race together, whatever its numerical and local
extension might be. It is to be noted that though the cause of the deluge
was that "the earth was corrupted before God, and was filled with
iniquity" (Gen. vii. 11), yet God had not withdrawn from man the unity of
language, perhaps because the revolt of man had not hitherto reached to a
corruption of his thought of the Divine Nature itself. But now ensued an
act of human pride and rebellion which led God Himself to undo the bond
of society, consisting in unity of language, in order to prevent a
greater evil. The sin is darkly recorded, as if some peculiar
abomination lay hid underneath the words; the punishment, on the
contrary, is made conspicuous. "And the earth was of one tongue and the
same speech. And when they removed from the east, they found a plain in
the land of Sennaar and dwelt in it. And each one said to his neighbour,
Come, let us make brick and bake them with fire. And they had brick
instead of stones, and slime instead of mortar. And they said, Come and
let us make a city and a tower, the top whereof may reach to heaven: and
let us make our name famous before we be scattered abroad into all lands.
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the children
of Adam were building. And He said, Behold it is one people, and all have
one tongue; and they have begun to do this, neither will they leave off
from their designs till they accomplish them indeed. Come ye, therefore,
let us go down and there confound their tongue, that they may not
understand one another's speech. And so the Lord scattered them from that
place into all lands, and they ceased to build the city. And therefore
the name thereof was called Babel, confusion, because there the language
of the whole earth was confounded; and from thence the Lord scattered
them abroad upon the face of all countries."

It may be inferred that the city and the tower thus begun point at a
society the bond of which was not to be the worship of the one true God.
As a matter of fact, thenceforth and to all time the name of Babel has
passed into the languages of men as signifying the City of Confusion, the
seat of false worship, the headship of the line of men who are the seed
of the serpent, and of that antagonism which the primal prophecy
announced as the issue of the fall.

But the severity of the punishment and its nature seem further to
indicate that we are here in presence of the beginning of the third great
sin of the human race, in which, as in the former, the free-will of man,
his inalienable prerogative and the instrument of his trial, runs athwart
the purpose of God. The first was the sin of Adam's disobedience
resulting in the Fall; the second the universal iniquity of the race
punished by the Deluge; the third is the corruption of the idea of God by
setting up many gods instead of one, a desertion of God as the source of
man's inward unity, which is punished by the loss of unity of language in
man, the voice of the inward unity, as it is also the chief stay and bond
of his outward unity. The multiplication of the race and its propagation
in all lands was part of the original divine intention. When the bond of
living together in one place and under one government was withdrawn,
there remained unity of worship and unity of language to continue and to
support the unity of the race. Man was breaking his fealty to God not
only by practical impiety, as in the time before the flood, but by denial
of the Divine Nature itself as the One Infinite Creator and Father; God
replied by withdrawing from rebellious vassals that unity of language
which was the mark and bond of their living together as children of one
Parent. With the record of this event Moses closes his history of the
human race as one family, which he had up to this point maintained. He
had hitherto strongly marked its unity in its creation, in its fall
through Adam, in its first growth after the fall, and in the common
punishment which descended upon it in the flood, and again in its second
growth and expansion from Noah. Language is the instrument of man's
thought, and the possession of one common language the most striking
token of his unity; and here, after recording the withdrawal of that
token by a miraculous act of God in punishment of a great sin, Moses
parts from all mention of the race as one. He proceeds at once to give
the genealogy of Shem's family as the ancestor of Abraham, and then
passes to the call of Abraham as the foundation of the promised people.
He never reverts to the nations as a whole, whom he has conducted to the
point of their dispersion and there leaves.

Through this great sin the division of the earth by the human family
started not in blessing, but in punishment. "The Lord scattered them
abroad upon the face of all countries." He who had made the unity of
Noah's family, Himself untied it, and we may conceive that He did so
because of that greatest of all crimes, the division of the Divine Nature
by man in his conception of it, his setting up many gods instead of one.

Let us see how this sin impaired, and more and more broke down, that
privileged civilisation brought by Noah from before the flood, and set up
by him in his family.

If God be conceived as more than one, He ceases by that very
conception to be self-existing from eternity, immense, infinite, and
incomprehensible, he ceases also to have power, wisdom, and goodness in
an infinite plenitude; and, further, He ceases to be the one Creator,
Ruler, and Rewarder of men.

Thus the conception of more gods than one carries with it an infinite
degradation of the Godhead itself, as received in the mind and heart of

But it likewise unties the society of men with each other, and lays waste
the main goods of human life. Thus it was in the case of Noah's family.
As it was planted by God after the deluge, it possessed a distinct
knowledge and worship of Him, as the one end and object of human life.
This knowledge and worship were contained, as we have seen, in the rite
of sacrifice and its accompaniments. Proceeding from this, it possessed
the love of God, obliging men to mutual love, a precept the more easy
because it was given to those who, as members of one family, were
brethren. From these it followed that no man was stranger to another man;
that every one was charged with the care of his brother; and that a unity
of interest itself bound men to each other.[9]

But all these goods are dependent on the first. For if men do not worship
one and the same God, as the Creator, the Ruler, and the Rewarder of all,
their life ceases at once to have one end and object; their love to each
other is deprived of its root, for they suppose themselves to be the
creatures of different makers, or not to be made at all, to spring out of
the earth, or to come into the world no one knows how, whence, or
wherefore. Again, the natural brotherhood of man depends on his origin
from one family, which must be the creature of one maker. And if the root
of this natural affection and brotherhood be withered, men become strange
to each other, rivals in their competition for the visible goods of life;
they cease to care for others, and cease to be united in one interest.

When the family which had formed a patriarchal state became by natural
growth too large to live together, the natural process for it was that it
should swarm, and each successive swarm become a patriarchal state. Here
was in each the germ of a nation, as they occupied various countries.
Naturally, they would have parted in friendship, and if the bond of
belief and of language had continued unbroken, they would have become a
family of nations; they would each have carried out and propagated the
original society from which they sprang without alloy or deterioration.

What actually took place was this. The division of the race into separate
stems, and the corruption of the conception of God into separate
divinities, pursued a parallel course, until the deities became as
national as the communities over which they presided. As there ceased to
be in their thought one God of the whole earth, they ceased to believe in
one race of man, nor does any good seem to have more utterly perished
from the peoples who sprung out of this dispersion than the belief in the
universal brotherhood of man; and the conduct which should spring out of
that belief, the treatment of each other as brethren.

That their having lost the consciousness of such brotherhood is no proof
that it never existed, has been established for us by the new science of
comparative grammar in our own day in a very remarkable instance. The
careful study of a single family of languages in the great race of Japhet
has proved beyond question that those who came after their dispersion to
speak the Sanscrit, the Persian, the Greek, the Latin, the Celtic,
Slavic, and Teutonic tongues, all once dwelt as brethren beside a common
hearth, in the possession of the same language. Yet, in ancient times, it
never crossed the mind of the Greek that he was of the same family with
the Persian, by whose multitudinous inroad he was threatened; to him the
barbarian, that is the man who did not speak his tongue, was his enemy,
not a brother. As little did the Saxon, when he displaced the Celt, and
gave him, too, the name of barbarian,[10] as not understanding his
tongue, conceive that he was of the same family. It was with no little
wonder that the first French and English students of Sanscrit found in it
uneffaced the proofs of its parentage with Greek and Latin.

The study of the comparative grammar of various languages, when carried
out as fully in other directions, may have in reserve other surprises as
great as this; but the proof of unity in this case, where yet the
divergence has proceeded so far, of unity in a family from which the
greatest nations of the earth have sprung, and whose descendants stretch
over the world, tends to make the unity of the original language of man
credible on principles of science, independently either of historical
tradition or of revelation, while it shows into what complete and
universal oblivion a real relationship may fall.

With the belief in one God, then, fell the belief in one human
brotherhood as well as the existence of one human society. Each separated
stem became detached from the trunk, and lived for itself. It is true
that each state, as it began, was patriarchal; but identity of interests
was restricted to the single state; beyond its range there was war, and
within it, in process of time, war led to conquest, and after conquest
the conquering leader became head of the conquered. Thus the patriarchal
state, in which the head of the family was its priest, passed into
kingdoms compacted by war and its results, in an ever-varying succession
of victories and defeats.

But it is our special task to see what portion of the goods, which
belonged to the race when undivided, passed on to its several stems in
the dispersion with which Moses closes his account of the one human

The universal society stops at Babel, and national existence begins; that
is, a number of inferior local unities succeed to the one universal. It
would be well if we had a Moses for guide through the long period which
follows, but he restricts his narrative to Abraham and his family, and to
such incidental notice of the nations with whom they come in contact as
their history requires. When we reach the beginnings of history in the
several peoples who took their rise at the dispersion, a long time has
intervened. The bond of one society in a race seems to consist in unity
of place, of language, of religion, and of government. Now for man in
general the unity of place was taken away by the dispersion itself. As to
language, the lapse of a thousand years was more than sufficient to make
the inhabitants of various countries strange to each other and
barbarians. Men of different lands had long utterly ceased to acknowledge
each other as brethren. As to religion, the worship of the one true God
had passed into the worship of many false gods in almost every country
each one of which had its own gods, generally both male and female, whom
it considered as much belonging to itself as its kings or its cities.
This diversity of deities in each nation, and the appropriation of them
by each to itself, was become a most fertile principle of division and
enmity among men. But if man had lost the unity of religion he had
created for himself in every land an institution which might be said to
be universal: the division of men into bond and free, the institution of
slavery. That condition of life whereby man ceased to be a member of a
family invested with reciprocal obligations and rights, came in fine to
be regarded, not as a person, but as the thing of another man, that is
the institution which man had made for himself in the interval between
the dispersion of Babel and the commencement of authentic history in each
nation. Man, who had divided the unity of the Godhead, had not only
ceased to recognise the one ineffaceable dignity of reason as the mark of
brotherhood in all his race demanding equality of treatment, and the
respect due to a creature who possesses moral freedom, but had come to
deprive a vast portion of his kindred of the fruit of their labour, and
to confiscate their toil for his own advantage.

There remains the fourth bond of unity, government, whether national,
tribal, or municipal, without which social existence is not possible; and
this, as the nations emerge into the light of history, appears everywhere
among them standing and in great vigour. In the vast majority of cases
that government clothes itself in the form of royalty; the king is
undoubtedly the most natural descendant of the patriarchal chief, the
father passing by insensible gradation into the sovereign. But whether
monarchy or republic, whether the rule of the many or of the few,
government, by which I mean the supreme dominion in each portion of the
race over itself, of life and death over subjects, is everywhere found.
Nowhere is man found as a flock of sheep without a shepherd.

Over these unrecorded years of human life, which want their prophet and
their bard, sounds yet the echo of perpetual strife. If mighty forms loom
among their obscurity, and come out at length with fixed character and a
strong and high civilisation, such as the Assyrian and Egyptian, the
Indian and Chinese monarchies, and so many others of more or less extent
and renown, we know that states have suffered change after change in a
series of wars. The patriarchal ruler has given way to the conquering
chief; conquest has humiliated some and exalted others. What remains
intact in each country, and after all changes, is government itself. This
carried on the human race.

But if we examine more closely this race which is thus scattered through
all countries, which speaks innumerable tongues, has lost the sense of
its own brotherhood, worships a multitude of local gods, is divided, cut
up, formed again, and torn again with innumerable wars, and has degraded
a large part of itself into servitude, so as to lose as it would seem all
semblance of its original unity, we yet find running through it, existing
from the beginning as constituent principles which the hand of the
Creator has set in it, four great goods.

1. For what hand but that of the Creator could have impressed
ineffaceably upon a race, misusing as we have seen to such a degree the
faculty of free-will, such an institution as marriage, in which the
family, and all which descends from the family, is contained? The
dedication of one man and one woman to each other for the term of their
lives, for the nurture and education of the family which is to spring
from them, is indeed the basis of human society, but a basis which none
but its Maker could lay. It exists in perpetual contradiction to human
passion and selfishness, for purposes which wisdom or the pure reason of
man entirely approves, but which human frailty is at any time ready to
break through and elude. If we could so entirely abstract ourselves from
habit as to imagine a company of men and women thrown together, without
connection with each other, without any knowledge, any conception
beforehand of such an institution, and left to form their society for
themselves, we should not, I think, imagine them one and all choosing to
engage themselves in such a union, resigning, respectively, their
liberty, and binding themselves to continue, whatever might happen to
either party, however strength and vigour might decline on one side, or
grace and attractiveness on the other, in this bondage for life. Yet this
institution of marriage is found established, not, as was just imagined,
in a single company of human beings thrown together, but in a thousand
societies of men separated by place, by language, by religion, and by
government. The most highly policied among them are the strictest in
maintaining its purity; and the higher you are enabled by existing
records to ascend in their history, the stronger and clearer appears the
conception of the duties of the married state. It is surrounded with all
the veneration which laws can give it, and the blessing of religion
consecrates it. Take marriage among the Romans as an instance. Their
commonwealth seems to be built upon the sanctity of marriage and the
power of the father. The like is the case with China, the most ancient of
existing politics. There is not one nation which has gained renown or
advanced in civilisation but shows, as far back as you can trace its
history, this institution honoured and supported. I leave to
mathematicians the task of calculating what are the chances of such an
institution springing up in so great a multitude of nations according to
an identical rule, guarded in all of them with whatever protection
religion and law could afford, except by the fiat of a Creator in the
manner described by Moses. The signet of God impressed on Adam at his
origin could alone create such a mark on his race; the Maker alone lay
such a foundation for it.

We find this institution in the course of time and in various countries
debased by polygamy, and corrupted by concubinage. These aberrations
testify to the force of human passion, and the wantonness of power and
wealth ever warring against it, but they only enhance thereby the force
of the institution's universal existence from the point of view from
which I have regarded it.

2. Take, secondly, the rite of bloody sacrifice. It would be hard to find
anything more contrary to reason and feeling than the thought that taking
away the life of innocent creatures by pouring out their blood could be
not only acceptable to the Maker of those creatures, but could be
accepted by Him in expiation of sin committed by man. Yet this is the
conception of bloody sacrifice; this was expressed in the rites which
accompanied it; and besides this particular notion of expiation, which is
the correlative of sin, the most solemn duties of man, that is,
Adoration, Thanksgiving, and Petition, the whole expression of his
obedience to God, and dependence on God, were bound up with this rite,
and formed part of it. And we find this rite of sacrifice existing from
the earliest times in these various nations; continued through the whole
of their history, solemnised at first by their kings and chief men, and
then by an order of men created for that special purpose, and in every
nation themselves holding a high rank in virtue of their performing this
function. What, again, are the chances of a rite so peculiar being chosen
spontaneously by so many various nations, and chosen precisely to express
their homage for their own creation and continuance in being, to make
their prayers acceptable, and above all, to cover their sin, to serve as
an expiation, and to turn away punishment. This is the testimony which
Assyria and Egypt, which Greece and Rome, which India and China bear to
their original unity. If God instituted this rite, at the fall itself, as
a record and token of the promise then made, its existence through the
many changes of the race becomes intelligible; on any other supposition
it remains a contradiction both to reason and feeling, which is like
nothing else in human history.

The institution of sacrifice comprehends with its accompaniments the
whole of religion. It suffered the most grievous corruption in that it
was offered to false gods, to deified men, to powers of nature, to those
who were not gods but demons. Again, its meaning was obscured, and the
priests who offered it were not pure in their lives. But whatever
abominations were at any time or in any place connected with it, its
peculiarity, its testimony to the unity of the race, to the power which
established it, remain without diminution.

3. Thirdly, let us take the great good of civil government. The human
race is scattered over all countries, in divisions which range as to
amount of population from the smallest independent tribe to the largest
empire. God suffered them to pursue their own course, to engage in
numberless wars, and to pass through a succession of the most opposite
circumstances, but He implanted in them from the beginning, and preserved
in them throughout, the instinct of society, which develops in
government. And He established that government in possession by the
patriarchal constitution of life, which each portion of the race at its
first start in independence took with it. By this He maintained order and
peace, as a rule, in the bosom of each community; the smallest and the
greatest alike possessed the commonwealth in the midst of them, which was
thus, independent of walls and forts, a citadel of safety. Not even the
most savage tribe in the most desolate northern wilderness, barren shore,
or inland lake, was left in its self-wrought degradation without this
support. In cultured nations, such as the Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians,
Indians, Chinese, the State attained a high degree of perfection; while
from the practice of the Hellenic cities Plato and Aristotle could draw
principles of government which are of value for all time; and Rome, the
queen-mother of cities, has been the teacher of state-wisdom to mankind.
But what I wish to note here is that civil government was everywhere
throughout the dispersion of the nations a dam, constructed by Divine
Providence, sufficiently strong to resist the inundation of evils brought
about by man's abuse of his moral freedom. It was the moon in heaven
which shone as a stable ordinance of God amid the storms and darkness of
human life in the fall of heathendom. It belonged to man as man and never
departed from him; because as conscience was given to the individual, the
witness and mark of God, sovereignty was given to the community, a
delegation of the divine kingship. "It is entirely by the providence of
God that the kingdoms of men are set up," says a great father.[11] "He
gave to every one of them, said the Son of Sirach, commandment concerning
his neighbour. Their ways are always before him, they are not hidden from
his eyes. Over every nation he set a ruler, and Israel was made the
manifest portion of God" (Ecclus. xvii. 12-15).

The human race, from its beginning and through all its dispersion, was
never in any of its parts without civil government. The headship of Adam,
repeated in Noah, itself a vicarious exercise of divine authority,
rested, amid its dispersion and partial degradation, upon each portion of
the race, so that it might never be kingless and lawless: never a herd,
always a society.

This great good had also its corruption, into which it very frequently
fell; the corruption of tyranny. Against this the Book of Wisdom (vi.
2-5) warned: "Hear therefore ye kings and understand: learn ye that are
judges of the ends of the earth. Give ear, you that rule the people, and
that please yourselves in multitudes of nations. For power is given you
by the Lord, and strength by the most High, who will examine your works,
and search out your thoughts: because being ministers of his kingdom, you
have not judged rightly, nor kept the law of justice, nor walked
according to the will of God." But this corruption of tyranny no more
destroys the good of government or its testimony as the mark of the
Creator, than the corruption of marriage by concubinage, or the offering
of sacrifice to false gods, impairs the testimony of those institutions.

4. The fourth good which I shall note as running through all the nations
of the dispersion, is the alliance between government and religion.
Distance of place, diversity of language, division of the idea of God
into separate divinities, which become the guardians of their several
peoples, these causes all co-operate to sever from each other the various
peoples and to make them enemies. But observe, at the same time, with
this hardening and estrangement of the peoples from each other, the
enlacement of all human life, public and private, by the rites and ties
of religion in each society. At the head of the new race we have seen
Noah offering sacrifice for his family, and a covenant with the whole
earth struck in that sacrifice between God and man. That aspect of the
public society towards religion was not altered during the whole course
of heathendom, and in all its parts. It is a relation of the strictest
alliance. No nation, no tribe of man, up to the coming of Christ,
conceived any condition of society in which the Two Powers should not
co-operate with each other. "If it be asked," says Bossuet,[12] "what
should be said of a State in which public authority should be
established without any religion, it is plain at once that there is no
need to answer chimerical questions. There never were such States.
Peoples, where there is no religion, are at the same time without policy,
without real subordination, and entirely savage." It is a fact which we
see stretching through all the times and all the nations of the
dispersion, that however tyrannical the government, and however corrupt
the belief, still the separation of government from religion was never
for a moment contemplated. A Greek or a Roman, and no less an Egyptian or
an Assyrian, an Indian or a Chinese, must have renounced every habit of
his life, every principle in which he had been nurtured, to accept such a
divorce. For all of them alike, "ancestral laws" and "ancestral gods,"
went together. He who was traitor to the city's worship was considered to
overthrow its foundation. In this point of view heathendom in all its
parts continued to be profoundly religious. It risked the life of a
favourite of the people when the statues of a god at Athens were
mutilated, as it was supposed, with the connivance of Alcibiades; and
Marcus Aurelius, stoic philosopher as he was, offered countless
sacrifices for the Roman people, as Noah offered sacrifice for his
family; and the Chinese Son of Heaven is to this day the father of his
family who unites religious and civil power in his sacred person, and
calls upon his people for the obedience of children.

The corruption of this relation between civil government and religion,
which was an original good of the race, was the forcible maintenance of
the polytheistic idolatry with all the moral abominations which it had
introduced. But the corruption does not belong to the relation itself; it
issues, as in the preceding cases, from the abuse of his free-will by

Here then are four goods, marriage, religion, as summed up in sacrifice,
civil government, and alliance between civil government and religion,
which we find embedded in the whole human society from the beginning,
going with it through all its fractions, untouched by its wars,
dissensions, and varieties of belief, suffering indeed each one of them
by man's corruption, but lasting on. The force of any one of them as
testimony to the unity of God who alone could have established it in the
race, and so through Him to the unity of the race in which it is found
established, and so, further, to the whole account of Moses, would be
very great and not easily resisted by a candid mind seeking nothing but
the truth. But how great is the cumulative evidence of the four together
to the exactness of the account of the race's origin, establishment, and
education, which we receive through Moses.

How strangely also are these goods of the race contrasted each one of
them and all together with a great evil, universal like them, but man's
own invention, the result of his wars and of the destruction of the
feeling of brotherhood, in the various portions into which the race
divided. The hideous plague-spot of slavery, which yet is one institution
running through the race, attests also its unity, attests by its contrast
with the four goods, by its practical denial of their beneficent action
so far as the slave is concerned, the degradation of the race from that
condition of a family having one end in the worship of one God, one
brotherhood, a common care and charge of its members, a common interest
in which it started.

The sum then of the whole period which begins from the dispersion of
mankind at Babel and runs on to the coming of Christ is the progressive
moral degradation of a race founded in the unity of a family. That unity
itself rested upon the fidelity of the race to the belief and worship of
the God who created it. The race voluntarily parted from this belief and
worship; its own division followed; mutual enmity supplanted brotherhood,
and the end is to create two classes of men, dividing society in each
nation into the bond and the free. The nations themselves have lost all
remembrance that they were once actually brothers by one hearth. Yet they
still contain in themselves indisputable proof of that original unity.
There is not only the common nature which language, the token of reason,
raises to a dignity utterly incommensurable with the condition of any
other animal; but great divine institutions planted at the beginning
endure amid the corruption which has dimmed their original beauty, and
testify to the providence which has preserved them amid the surging flood
of heathenism for future restoration of the race.

3.—_Further Testimony of Law, Government, and Priesthood in the

The account of the human race in its origin and its dispersion thus
presented allows for the existence of tribes in every part of the world,
who, through their isolation, the effect of nomad life, war, and
severities of climate, but most of all by that tendency to degrade
itself—to fall from known truth to error—which is the characteristic of
the race, and through the impairing of social life which thus ensues,
have left records of their uncultivated or even savage condition, which
an eager search is continually discovering. These records have been taken
as aids to a theory which, rejecting the scriptural and traditional
account of man's origin, would wish him to start from men of different
races, or from universal savagery, or even from the ape as an ancestor.
But, while on the one hand the existence of such tribes is no difficulty
in the scriptural record of the dispersion, where they may be fully
accounted for by the causes above-mentioned, the universal existence of
the four great goods in the most ancient nations, where they appear also
purest at the most remote time, is quite incompatible with either of the
three invented origins of the human race. Neither different races of men,
originally distinct and separated, nor universal savagery, and far less
fathership of the ape, will develop into simultaneous existence four
uniform institutions found through the widest range of divided nations,
such as marriage, a religion based on sacrifice, civil government, and
the alliance between government and religion. An original language
accounts for the proofs of unity embedded in the primary structure of the
Aryan tongues, and science professes its full belief in such unity. It
is but a parallel to this to say that a creative hand impressing itself
on the plastic origin of the race accounts for the existence of these
goods in the most-widely severed branches of it. But that scattered
savages should emerge from savagery into cultivation of the same ideal,
or different races in their dispersion pitch upon the same very marked
peculiarities of social life, or the ape teach his offspring the highest
requirements of human society, such imaginations are contrary to the
collective testimony of reason, experience, and history. Perhaps one must
go altogether beyond the bounds of true science to account for their
arising, and attribute them to that passionate dislike of a creating God,
which is the recoil from the condition of a creature subject to
responsibility for his actions.

On the contrary, pure historical inquiry, going back in the dry light of
science to the archaic society of nations as they first appear to us at
the beginning of written records, shows this remarkable chain of facts. A
condition of things is found existing, of which the only explanation is
that family was the nidus out of which sprung forth the House, then the
Tribe, then the Commonwealth with its patriarchal government. When
property is traced to its origin it seems to be first found in the family
as joint-ownership; and further, its succession is blended inexplicably
with the existence and state of the family. Again, the close union of
government with religion finds its root in the family. No testimony can
be more unsuspicious than that of the learned author of "Ancient Law,"
who observes (p. 4), that "the earliest notions connected with the
conception of a law or rule of life are those contained in the Homeric
words θεμις and Themistes." "The divine agent, suggesting judicial awards
to kings or to gods, the greatest of kings, was Themis." She is the
assessor of Zeus, the human king on earth, not a law-maker, but a judge.
The Themistes are the judgments, in fact, of a patriarchal sovereign,
"whose judgment, when he decided a dispute by a sentence, was assumed to
be the result of direct inspiration." And Themis and Themistes were (p.
6) "linked with that persuasion which clung so long and so tenaciously to
the human mind of a divine influence underlying and supporting every
relation of life, every social institution. In early law, and amid the
rudiments of political thought, symptoms of this belief met us on all
sides. A supernatural presidency is supposed to consecrate and keep
together all the cardinal institutions of those times, the State, the
Race, and the Family. Men, grouped together in the different relations
which these institutions imply, are bound to celebrate periodically
common rites and to offer common sacrifices; and every now and then the
same duty is even more significantly recognised in the purifications and
expiations which they perform, and which appear intended to deprecate
punishment for involuntary or neglectful disrespect. Everybody acquainted
with ordinary classical literature will remember the _Sacra Gentilicia_
which exercised so important an influence on the early Roman law of
adoption and of wills. And to this hour the Hindoo Customary Law, in
which some of the most curious features of primitive society are
stereotyped, makes almost all the rights of persons and all the rules of
succession hinge on the due solemnisation of fixed ceremonies at the dead
man's funeral, that is, at every point where a breach occurs in the
continuity of the family."

Thus every king, as history begins, appears in a position which recalls
the memory of Adam or of Noah, as the divinely appointed judge, whose
office springs out of his fathership. The original consecration, which
rested on the government of the race when it begun, is seen not yet to
have parted from its scattered members in their tribal or national

It is observed of Homeric Greece that "the people in its orderly
arrangement of family or clans, or tribal relationships coming down from
the patriarchal form of life, derives its unity from its king, whose
power as little springs from the people as that of the father from his
children." Thus he possesses this power not in virtue of compact or
choice, but simply from Zeus.

    Οὐ μέν πως πάντες βασιλεύσομεν ἐνθάδ' Ἀχαιοί.
    οὐκ ἀγαθὸν πολυκοιρανίν· εἷς κοίρανος ἔστω,
    εἷς βασιλεὺς, ᾧ δῶκε Κρόνου παῖς ἀγκυλομήτεω
    σκῆπτροντ' ἠδὲ θέμιστας, ἵνα σφίσιν ἐμβασιλέυῃ.

    —Iliad, 2. 203.

This conception shows itself not merely on occasion in the poet, as
perhaps in the well-known epithets, Jove-born, Jove-nurtured, friend of
Jove, or in the genealogies which connect with the gods the princely
races by ties of blood, but he has a distinct theory on the subject
variously expressed.

          ἐπεὶ οὔποθ' ὁμοίης ἔμμορε πμῆς
    σκηπτοῦχος βασιλὲυς, ᾧ τε Ζεὺς κῦδος ἔδωκε.

Agamemnon's sceptre, the symbol of his rule over the Peloponnesus, is
referred to the immediate gift of Jupiter.

The effect of this evidence, says the author just before cited, derived
from comparative jurisprudence, is to establish that view of the primeval
condition of the human race which is known as the "Patriarchal Theory."
This is, "that the eldest male parent—the eldest ascendant—is absolutely
supreme in his household. His dominion extends to life and death, and is
as unqualified over his children and their houses as over his slaves;
indeed, the relations of sonship and serfdom appear to differ in little
beyond the higher capacity which the child in blood possesses of becoming
one day the head of a family himself. The flocks and herds of the
children are the flocks and herds of the father; and the possessions of
the parent, which he holds in a representative rather than a proprietary
character, are equally divided at his death among his descendants in the
first degree, the eldest son sometimes receiving a double share under the
name of birthright, but more generally endowed with no hereditary
advantage beyond an honorary precedence." "The sum of the hints given us
by legal antiquities" is that "men are first seen distributed in
perfectly insulated groups, held together by obedience to the parent.
Law is the parent's word. When we go forward to the state of society in
which those early legal conceptions show themselves as formed, we find
that they still partake of the mystery and spontaneity which must have
seemed to characterise a despotic father's commands, but that at the same
time, as they proceed from a sovereign, they presuppose a union of family
groups in some wider organisation. The next question is, what is the
nature of this union and the degree of intimacy which it involves? It is
just here that archaic law renders us one of the greatest of its
services, and fills up a gap which otherwise could only have been bridged
by conjecture. It is full in all its provinces of the clearest
indications that society, in primitive times, was not what it is assumed
to be at present, a collection of individuals. In fact, and in the view
of the men who composed it, it was an aggregation of families. The
contrast may be most forcibly expressed by saying that the _unit_ of an
ancient society was the Family, of a modern society, the Individual."

"In most of the Greek states, and in Rome, there long remained the vestiges
of an ascending series of groups, out of which the State was at first
constituted. The Family, House, and Tribe of the Romans may be taken as the
type of them; and they are so described to us that we can scarcely help
conceiving them as a system of concentric circles which have gradually
expanded from the same point. The elementary group is the family, connected
by common subjection to the highest male ascendant. The aggregation of
Families forms the Gens or House. The aggregation of Houses makes the
Tribe. The aggregation of Tribes constitutes the Commonwealth. Are we at
liberty to follow these indications, and to lay down that the commonwealth
is a collection of persons united by common descent from the progenitor of
an original family? Of this we may at least be certain, that all ancient
societies regarded themselves as having proceeded from one original stock,
and even laboured under an incapacity for comprehending any reason except
this for their holding together in political union. The history of
political ideas begins, in fact, with the assumption that kinship in blood
is the sole possible ground of community in political functions; nor is
there any of those subversions of feelings, which we term emphatically
revolutions, so startling and so complete as the change which is
accomplished when some other principle—such as that, for instance, of local
contiguity—establishes itself for the first time as the basis of common
political action. It may be affirmed, then, of early commonwealths that
their citizens considered all the groups in which they claimed membership
to be founded on common lineage."

"The conclusion, then, which is suggested by the evidence is, not that
all early societies were formed by descent from the same ancestor, but
that all of them, which had any permanence or solidity, either were so
descended, or assumed that they were. An indefinite number of causes may
have shattered the primitive groups; but wherever their ingredients
recombined, it was on the model or principle of an association of
kindred. Whatever was the fact, all thought, language, and law adjusted
themselves to the assumption" (p. 131).

"On a few systems of law the family organisation of the earliest society
has left a plain and broad mark in the life-long authority of the Father,
or other ancestor, over the person and property of his descendants, an
authority which we may conveniently call by its later Roman name of
Patria Potestas. No feature of the rudimentary associations of mankind is
deposed to by a greater amount of evidence than this, and yet none seems
to have disappeared so generally and so rapidly from the usages of
advancing communities" (p. 135).

"It may be shown, I think, that the Family, as held together by the
Patria Potestas, is the nidus out of which the entire Law of Persons has
germinated" (p. 152).

"When we speak of the slave as anciently included in the Family, we
intend to assert nothing as to the motives of those who brought him into
it or kept him there; we merely imply that the tie which bound him to his
master was regarded as one of the same general character with that which
united every other member of the group to its chieftain. This consequence
is, in fact, carried in the general assertion already made, that the
primitive ideas of mankind were unequal to comprehending any basis of the
connection _inter se_ of individuals apart from the relations of Family"
(p. 164).

"The point which before all others has to be apprehended in the
constitution of primitive societies, is that the individual creates for
himself few or no rights and few or no duties. The rules which he obeys
are derived first from the station into which he is born, and next from
the imperative commands addressed to him by the chief of the household of
which he forms part" (p. 311).

Then as to the union of government with religion:—"A stage occurs in the
history of all the families of mankind, the stage at which a rule of law
is not yet discriminated from a rule of religion. The members of such a
society consider that the transgression of a religious ordinance should
be punished by civil penalties, and that the violation of a civil duty
exposes the delinquent to divine correction" (p. 23). At the time of the
Code of the Twelve Tables, "Roman society had barely emerged from that
intellectual condition in which civil obligation and religious duty are
inevitably confounded" (p. 18).

For, in fact, originally, "Law is the parent's word" (p. 125), and "the
civil Laws of States first make their appearance as the Themistes of a
patriarchal sovereign" (p. 166); that is, "as separate, isolated
judgments, which, consistently with the belief in their emanation from
above, cannot be supposed to be connected by any thread of principle" (p.
5). Moreover, as to the origin of Property:—"It is more than likely that
joint-ownership, and not separate ownership, is the really archaic
institution, and that the forms of property which will afford us
instruction will be those which are associated with the rights of
families and the groups of kindred" (p. 259), as shown in the Indian
village-community, the Russian and Slavonic village. And "we have the
strongest reasons for thinking that property once belonged not to
individuals, nor even to isolated families, but to larger societies
composed on the patriarchal model" (p. 268). Thus the author conjectures
"that private property, in the shape in which we know it, was chiefly
formed by the gradual disentanglement of the separate rights of
individuals from the blended rights of a community" (p. 269).

He remarks "a peculiarity invariably distinguishing the infancy of
society. Men are regarded and treated not as individuals, but always as
members of a particular group. Everybody is first a citizen, and then, as
a citizen, he is a member of his order—of an aristocracy or a democracy,
of an order of patricians or plebeians; or in those societies which an
unhappy fate has afflicted with a special perversion in their course of
development, of a caste; next he is member of a gens, house, or clan; and
lastly he is member of his _family_. This last was the narrowest and most
personal relation in which he stood; nor, paradoxical as it may seem, was
he ever regarded as _himself_, as a distinct individual. His
individuality was swallowed up in his family. I repeat the definition of
a primitive society given before. It has for its units not individuals,
but groups of men united by the reality or the fiction of
blood-relationship" (p. 183). "The history of jurisprudence must be
followed in its whole course, if we are to understand how gradually and
tardily society dissolved itself into the component atoms of which it is
now constituted; by what insensible gradations the relation of man to
man substituted itself for the relation of the individual to his family,
and of families to each other" (p. 185).

Such is the strong—may we not say irrefragable?—testimony which the
condition of human society, as it emerges into the light of history,
bears to the family as the cradle of man's life. It is in the original
soil of the family that the four goods we have noted, marriage, religion,
government, and the alliance between religion and government, spring up
together. Further, also, they are seen to be not separate, one here and
another there, but bound together in the strictest coherence. For if this
human race be thrown up and down throughout the world, divided and
insulated in its several parts by vast distances and by thousands of
years, even the scattered limbs are shaped in the mould stamped upon it
at its birth, and in them government, law, property in its origin and its
succession, and religion bear witness to the family character. This
archaic society, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans, from Scythia in
the north to India in the south, is never a crowd of individuals but an
organic structure: Adam and Eve prolonged and living in their race. We
see that in the beginning the fathership of God created a human plant
which should reveal Himself in its development, bearing in its structure
and fruit an undying witness to His nature; and serving, in spite of
corruption and decline, for the future exhibition of His fathership in a
yet higher degree, even to the communication of the divine nature.

Whatever may be the interval of time which runs out between the
dispersion of the family at Babel, and the appearance of each separate
member on the platform of history—and the longer this time, the greater
the marvel we note—the family remains in each as a sort of universal
θεσμός upon which the commonwealth, the government, property viewed in
itself and in its descent, law, and religion itself rest. The "natural
state" and the "social compact" when inquired into become unsubstantial
fictions; "theories plausible and comprehensive," as the author of
ancient law observes, "but absolutely unverified" (p. 3). Man is seen to
be the child of Adam; and all the relations of men to each other to have
been originally determined by that origin, and persistently maintained in
its mould.

Now let us return to the relation between the Spiritual and the Civil
Power, which forms part of this original constitution of the race.

At the head of the human race we have seen, first in Adam and then in
Noah, the junction of the two orders, sovereignty and priesthood. There
never was a time when the race was without government; there never was a
time when the race was without sacrifice. The delegated authority of God
rested ever upon the former for the prosperity of man's life upon earth;
the worship of the one God, man's Creator and End, was summed up in the
latter. All human life consists of the tissue formed by the two; and as
in his first abode man's condition was subject to his obedience to the
divine command, so throughout his course his worship of God ruled his
temporal condition. The lot of the antediluvian world bore witness to
that truth. With Noah the experience began afresh. Then once again the
covenant with Noah and his seed after him was made in sacrifice, in which
the unity of God and the religion of man stand recorded, and man's
earthly lot is made dependent on the purity of his worship. Thus the two
orders are seen in their origin to be both of divine institution; just as
the life of man upon earth was from the beginning subordinate to his
ultimate end, so government, which was created for the former, was
subordinate to worship, which was created for the latter.

Let us follow rapidly the relation between man's social state and his
religion, arising out of such origin, that we may note how the
degradation of worship entailed the degradation of society.

In Noah and his sons, so long as the earth continued of one tongue and
speech, the priesthood belonged to the head of the family. That was its
natural descent. We may suppose that the dispersion began with the same
rule, but we are not able to say how long that rule continued in force.
There was intended to be one priesthood offering one sacrifice over all
the earth to the one God. How prodigious became the degradation when the
divine unity was lost! A variety of gods was introduced; a similar
variety of priesthoods followed: and the sacrifice, which was the
rendering of supreme homage to the one Creator and Lord of life, in which
was contained the everliving prophecy of man's future restoration, was
prostituted to a number of deities, the offspring of man's sensual
imagination, or of perverted tradition, or of worship of natural powers,
or of demoniacal trickery.

As soon as the patriarchal State was changed by war into the State
founded by conquest, the natural appurtenance of the priesthood to the
head of the family must at least have been modified. It was probably
often attached to the actual head of the State. But it does not need to
trace step by step the debasement of worship and the multiplication of
deities which took place in the Gentile world. It is enough to see how
the whole mass of nations had by the time of Christ become divided from
each other in their civil societies and their religious belief. But we
may note that as with the loss of belief in one God the nations
originally lost the belief in their own brotherhood, so their national
gods became the stronghold of national prejudices and hatreds. Thus a
debased religion was turned into a source of cruelty to man, who had no
bitterer enemy to his life and welfare than a foreign god; and instead of
human life being sacred to man, it was sometimes even an act of worship
to immolate him to an idol.

It is not too much to say that the profound enmity of the Gentile nations
to each other was grounded in the variety of their gods; and in this
instance religion, which in its purity is the bond of human society, had
become a main cause of alienation between the members of the race.

The alliance of the State in each nation with its religion was, as we
have seen, an original good of the race; and it continued through all
the debasement of worship. Had that worship maintained its original
purity, the alliance would have been an unmixed good. But as the belief
became corrupt, it ended in the public force being ever at the command of
error. The final issue of this alliance seems to have been when the State
had laid hold of religion to deify, as it were, itself. The Roman
emperors were the most complete, but by no means the sole, bearers of
this corruption. They were considered to embody in their single persons
the united majesty of the gods. Whoever refused obedience to their
worship was guilty of the double crime of sacrilege and treason.

If this be a correct summary of the relation between the Two Powers as it
issued in the final condition of Gentilism, it is clear that the State
had far less declined from the high purpose for which it was instituted,
that is, the preservation of human society, than the priesthood from the
corresponding purpose which belonged to it, that is, the worship of God
and the sanctification of human life. The civil power was still in every
respect a lawful power. And obedience was due to it for conscience' sake,
as expressly declared by our Lord and His Apostles. But the priesthood
had been so utterly debased by its worship of false gods, which tore from
it the crown of unity, and by the abominations which its rites in too
many instances carried with them, that it had ceased to be a lawful
power. It had moreover fallen, at least in the Roman empire, and from the
time of the Cæsars, under the dominion of the State.

Yet down to the very coming of our Lord the veneration which had belonged
to the original character and institution of the priesthood is made
manifest by the clear acknowledgment that the authority of the priest was
not derived from the king. The Gentiles in the lowest depths of their
moral degradation referred the excellency of the priesthood to its divine
origin. The honour due to God, and the thought of the future world, were
so imbedded in the original constitution of human society everywhere,
that even in a pantheon of false gods, and in a service paid to
numberless male and female deities, the priest's office itself was held
to be divine.[14]

In the case of the Romans, it is true that when the free state was
suppressed by the empire, the priesthood and the imperial power were
improperly conjoined in the same person. But this conjunction was at once
a novelty and an usurpation. Thus the office of Pontifex Maximus, first
seized by Lepidus after the death of Julius Cæsar, and after Lepidus
assumed by Augustus, and then kept in succession by the following Cæsars,
whether through the adulation of the people or their own pride, seemed to
pass as a proper title of their principate, and was numbered among the
honours, even of the Christian emperors, down to Gratian, who refused and
prohibited it. Nevertheless the functions of these two powers were
reckoned as distinct; but in the time of the Kings and the free
Commonwealth this distinction was much more marked.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus thus describes the Roman Pontifical
College:—"They have authority over the most weighty affairs; they are
judges of all sacred causes, whether among private persons, or
magistrates, or ministers of the gods; they legislate for all sacred
things which are not written or prescribed by custom, enacting laws and
customs as seems to them good; they examine into all magistracies to
which sacrifice and worship of the gods belong, and scrutinise all
priests; they keep watch over the ministers which these use in their
sacred office, so that the sacred laws be not transgressed; they instruct
and interpret for lay persons who do not understand what concerns the
worship of gods or genii. If they observe any disobedient to their
commands, they punish them according to the due of each. They are
themselves exempt from all trial and punishment. They render account
neither to senate nor to people. It would be no error to call them
priests, or sacred legislators, or custodians, or, as we should prefer,
rulers of sacred things. On the death of any one another is elected to
his place, not by the people, but by themselves, whoever of the citizens
they judge the most meet."[15] From this account of the historian, says
Bianchi, we may deduce the following conclusions:—Firstly, how great was
the power of the Roman Sacerdotes in judging matters of religion, in
which the magistrates were subject to them. Secondly, their authority to
punish those who transgressed their laws, independently of kings and
magistrates. Thirdly, their immunity from the civil power, even of the
Commonwealth itself, to which they were not bound to render an account of
what they did. Fourthly, the distinction which existed between the power
of the priests and that of the civil magistrates, which results not
merely from the points recited, but also from the reflection that the
Pontiffs were perpetual, while the magistrates under the free
Commonwealth were temporary. The latter were created by the suffrages of
the people; in the former vacancies were filled by the College of
Pontiffs itself. This custom lasted from Numa's time to the year of Rome
601, when Cneius Domitius, tribune of the people, transferred the right
of filling vacancies from the College to the people; this was abolished
by Sylla in his dictatorship; but again restored by the Tribune Titus
Labienus during Cicero's consulship. But finally the right of electing
its members was given back to the College of Pontiffs by Augustus.

The Pontifex Maximus, though created by the suffrage of the people, was
always taken from the College of Pontiffs, and his office was perpetual.
Augustus would not take it from Lepidus during his life, though he took
it after his death. Thus the power of the Supreme Pontiff was by no means
confused with that of the magistrate or the prince; and the assumption of
this priesthood by the Cæsars makes it evident that they recognised it
not to be part of the prince's power to intrude into matters of religion;
and that they needed a sacerdotal power in order to superintend sacred
things. It was for the sake of this superintendence, Dio observes, that
the emperor always assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus, in virtue of
which he became master of all religious and sacred things.

The example of Cicero pleading before the College of Pontifices for the
restoration of his house, which had been dedicated by Clodius to Concord,
a plea involving their power to revoke a tribunicial law passed by
Clodius, is a remarkable testimony to the pontifical authority: "If
ever," he said, "a great cause rested on the judgment and power of the
Priests of the Roman people, it is this; in which all the dignity of the
commonwealth, the safety, the life, the liberty, the public and private
worship, the household gods, the goods, the fortunes, and the homes of
all seem intrusted to your wisdom and integrity."[16]

The fair conclusions from these facts, says Bianchi again, are that the
Romans knew religion to be directed to a higher end than temporal
felicity, though they did esteem it also necessary for the preservation
of the State; that the power of the priesthood was distinct from the
civil power of the magistrate; that it had the right to judge in all
cases of religion without interference from the magistrate; that immunity
and exemption from the civil power belonged to it.

It is needless to go through the various nations of antiquity in order to
show the veneration which everywhere belonged to the office of the
priest. That is shown likewise in the frequent connection of the royal
power with the priesthood; but though thus connected, they were not
confused; kings were priests, not in virtue of their kingship, but by a
distinct appointment. Plato asserts that in some nations the priesthood
was reputed so excellent that it was not considered to be properly placed
save in the person of the king; and that among the Egyptians it was not
lawful for any king to command the people without being first consecrated
to the priesthood. By this fact is seen how the sacerdotal dignity was
esteemed by antiquity, even in the darkness of idolatry; and, at the same
time, how the power of the priest was considered to be distinct from the
power of the sovereign. Plato gives his own judgment when he says that
the creation of priests should be left to the care of God; and that they
should be elected by lot, in order that the person destined to so high an
office may be divinely chosen.[17]

All that it is requisite here to point out seems to be that, however
great was the degradation of worship produced by the character of the
gods worshipped, as well as by the divisions of the godhead which the
multiplying of divine beings brought with itself, yet two things survived
in the minds of men: one the intrinsic excellence of worship in itself,
as the homage paid by man to a power above himself; and the other, the
sense that this worship was a thing of divine institution, coming down
from heaven upon earth, quite distinct in character from civil rule, and
if exercised by kings, exercised not because they were kings, but in
virtue of a separate consecration. Thus, if the patriarchal origin of
property, law, and government is borne witness to by the most ancient
institutions, customs, and feelings of men, which witness likewise
extends to the unity of the race, so likewise the original independence
of the priestly order as to all its sacred functions and the sense of its
divine origin, which runs through so many nations, bear joint witness to
the unity of the race and to the truth of the Mosaic record. They convey
a manifest contradiction to the theory that man sprung originally from a
number of different races, and likewise to the theory that he grew up
originally in a state of savagery.

The force of the testimony consists in this: first, a priesthood appears
everywhere; secondly, it is connected with the rite of sacrifice;
thirdly, it usually comprises an order of men devoted to the purpose of
divine worship, or at least having special functions which by no means
belong to the civil ruler as such, so that if he performs them, it is as
priest and not as king; fourthly, this order has a special authority from
the Divine Being or Beings whom it represents, not subject to the civil
rule; fifthly, injury to the priest's person or contravention to his
order in divine things is esteemed as an injury done to the God whom he

The peculiarity of a priesthood must therefore be added to the
peculiarity of the rite of sacrifice upon which his office rests, and
both together form an order of ideas so marked and distinctive as to
establish the unity of the race in the several portions of which they
appear; and at the same time it establishes, as the common inheritance of
that race, an overwhelming sense of human life being founded, preserved,
and exalted by a communion between heaven and earth: it is, in short, a
sense of man lying in the hand of God.

We have hitherto followed the dispersion of Babel in its Gentile
development down to that ultimate issue in which a long and unbroken
civilisation is combined with an extreme moral corruption; now let us
revert to the divine plan which was followed to repair this evil.

At a certain point of time, when forgetfulness of the divine unity was
becoming general, God chose one man out of whom to form a nation, whose
function should be the preservation of a belief in this unity. Abraham,
the friend of God and the forefather of Christ, was called out of his own
country that he might preserve the religion of Noah, and that "in him all
the kindreds of the earth might be blessed" (Gen. xii. 3). In the second
generation his family was carried down into Egypt, and became, in the
security of that kingdom, a people, but it likewise fell into bondage.
From this it was redeemed in a series of wonderful events under the
guidance of Moses, was led by him into the desert, and there formed into
a nation by the discipline of a religious, which was also a civil code.
In the law given on Mount Sinai we see once more the constitution of the
society established in Noah. The whole moral order of the world contained
in the ten commandments is made to rest upon the sovereignty of God: "I
am the Lord; thou shalt have no strange gods." From this precept, which
fills the first table, proceed the precepts which, in the second,
maintain the order of society: "Honour thy father and thy mother; thou
shalt not kill; thou shalt not steal," and the rest. Such, says Bossuet,
is the general order of all legislation. The ten words of God form the
core of a complete religious and civil code, in which the two Powers
exist in an ideal no less than a practical union. The individual and the
national worship is the same, and the society springs out of it, the root
being, "I am the Lord;" but the persuasiveness of redemption is added to
the power of creation: "I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of
the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." Abraham, the father of
the people, had exercised the patriarchal priesthood and the patriarchal
sacrifice in his family; but just as God had not chosen Abraham because
he was the first-born, so Moses, taking the patriarchal priesthood, with
a special sanction, set it not in the first-born of the tribes, but in
another tribe, and in a family of this tribe. He took, further, the rite
of sacrifice, which had existed from the beginning, only developing its
meaning in a series of ordinances, which, as St. Paul tells us, all
pointed to Christ: "Almost all things according to the law are cleansed
with blood, and without shedding of blood is no remission" (Heb. ix. 22).
But while there is here a complete union in faith, in practice, and in
worship, for every true Israelite and for the whole people, while there
is one source of authority to the three, the bearers of the dignities
which represent this triple life of man are separated. Moses instituted,
in the person of Aaron, a high priesthood which from that time stands
through the whole history of his people at the head of their worship,
superior in all that concerns it to the civil authority, which is bound
to consult it and obey it, not only in the things of God, but in the
chief civil acts which regard the nation. The outcome of this work is the
creation of a people whose function is to bear on the worship of the one
true God and faith in the Redeemer to come, a royal, prophetic, and
priestly nation, the special domain of the promised Messias.

I have no need here to follow this people through the trials, revolts,
chastisements, and humiliations of 1500 years. It is sufficient to
observe the result at the coming of Christ. The nation at length, as the
fruit it would seem of captivity and suffering, has accepted with one
mind and heart the doctrine and worship of one God; the Jewish
priesthood, uncorrupted in its essence by any of the abominations of
polytheism, offers the daily morning and evening sacrifice, which
typified the Lamb of God, in the spirit of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and
Moses. The power of the State had indeed just passed to a Roman lord, but
it left the rites and practices and doctrines of the Jewish faith
untouched in the hands of the High Priest and the Great Council, which
sat in this respect in the chair of Moses,—a great and manifest
distinction, perhaps, from the condition in this respect of the whole
Gentile world. In Rome, at least, the worship "of the Immortal Gods,"
though blended with the whole growth of the State, and seated
triumphantly in the Capitol, was simply subservient to the Civil Power:
in Judea, a small and despised province of Rome, the religion was the
life of the people, which had been made a people that it might be God's
domain, and, with all its divisions, was filled from the highest to the
lowest with an universal expectation of the promised Christ, who was to
be Prophet, Priest, and King.

In the relation between the two Powers, Gentilism required a total
reconstruction, in order that the priesthood, existing in it from the
beginning, might be completely purified, derived afresh from God, and
receive from Him an independence which it had lost from the moment that
it lost its fidelity to the One Creator,—and such a gift would be a token
of divine power. Judaism, on the contrary, made, after the programme of
God, an image in the nation of what the Christian people was to be in the
world, required only to acknowledge in the Christ the purpose for which
it was appointed, that the law might go forth from Sion and the word of
the Lord from Jerusalem.


[7] St. Aug. cont. Faustum, 22, 17. Antiqua enim res est prænuntiativa
immolatio sanguinis, futuram passionem Mediatoris ab initio generis
humani testificans; hanc enim primus Abel obtulisse in sacris litteris

[8] Leo XIII., in the great Encyclical of June 29, 1881, says: "It is
also of great importance that they by whose authority public affairs are
administered may be able to command the obedience of citizens, so that
their disobedience is a sin. But no man possesses in himself or of
himself the right to constrain the free-will of others by the bonds of
such a command as this. That power belongs solely to God, the Creator of
all things and the Lawgiver; and those who exercise it must exercise it
as communicated to them by God. 'There is one lawgiver and judge who is
able to destroy and to deliver' (James iv. 12)."

[9] Bossuet sums up the state in these six points: Politique, &c. Art. 1.

[10] Welsh, _i.e._, foreigner, not speaking a language understood.

[11] St. Augustine.

[12] Politique, &c., lib. vii. art. 2.

[13] Nägelsbach, Homerische Theologie, 275.

[14] See Bianchi, vol. iii. ch. ii.

[15] Ἵεροδιδάσκαλοι εἴτε ἱερόνομοι, εἴτε ἱεροφύλακες, εἴτε, ὡς ἡμεῖς
ἀξιοῦμεν, ἱεροφάνται. Dionys. Halic., 1. 2.

[16] Bianchi, Sect. VI.

[17] Bianchi, p. 23.



1.—_The Spiritual Power in its Source and Nature._

Taking as our basis the historical outline of the relation between the
Civil and Spiritual Powers which has preceded, let us attempt to have
present to our minds the state of this relation at the death of Christ.

The great world-empire had then been ruled in most peaceful security for
half a generation by Tiberius. Under him lay a vast variety of nations,
professing as strange a variety of gods and of worship paid to them, but
all, with one exception, accepting a religious supremacy in him as
Pontifex Maximus of the Roman religion. The Princeps of the civil power,
the Imperator of the civil force, was also Chief Priest of religion, and
by that union held in his hands those two Powers, an attack upon either
of which constituted, as Tertullian testifies, the double guilt of
majesty violated and sacrilege incurred. Within these limits, and with
this condition, it was free to the several nations to practise their
ancestral rites as well as to believe in their ancestral gods, at least
within their ancient territorial bounds. There can be no doubt that
these nations generally clung to their several rites and beliefs, not
only from the force of nurture and habit, but also as remnants of their
former independence as nations. As little can we doubt that the great
Roman power was employed to maintain and protect them as part of the
constituted order of things and in prevention of _sedition_. This, so far
as the Roman dominion extended, was the outcome of that long succession
of wars, and changes of rule ensuing on wars, which forms the history of
mankind so soon as it leaves the nest of pristine unity at the epoch of
the dispersion. It is clear that through the whole of this Gentile world,
while amity had not been broken between the Civil and the Spiritual
Powers, the priesthood, which represented the latter, had everywhere
become the subject of the former. It is no less clear that this
subjection was repaid with support. This condition of things was most
clearly expressed as well as most powerfully established in the position
of the Roman Emperor, who, as he received the tribunitial power, which in
union with the consular was distinctive of the imperial dignity, from the
Senate, so received also the supreme authority in matters of religion
which belonged to the Pontifex Maximus. This authority had indeed been in
its origin and its descent from age to age in the Roman city distinct
from secular power, but henceforth became practically united with the
civil principate. That undivided supremacy betokened the ultimate
constitution of the heathen State, antecedent to the coming of Christ, in
what concerns the relation between the two Powers. According to this,
the Civil Power prevailed over the Spiritual, and casting off the
subjection to religion in which itself had been nurtured, directed all
its actions to a temporal end.

Far otherwise was it with that people which Moses, under the divine
command, had created according to the pattern which he saw in the Mount.
Chosen by God to conduct the race of Abraham out of captivity into the
promised land, he alone in the history of the Israelitic race united in
himself the three powers bestowed by unction of Priest, of Prophet, and
of King. These powers he left to the people he was forming, but did not
deposit them all in the same hands. His creation of the priesthood in the
tribe of Levi, and of the high priesthood in the person of his brother
Aaron and his lineal descendants, stands without a parallel in all the
history of the world before the coming of Christ as an act of
transcendent authority. For instead of the original priesthood of the
first-born, which he found existing as it had been transmitted from the
earliest time, he selected a particular tribe, which was not that of the
first-born, to bear from that time forth the priesthood among the
children of Israel; and further, he selected a particular person in that
tribe, his brother Aaron, to erect in him the high priesthood, the most
characteristic institution of the Jewish people. In like manner he took
the ancient institution of sacrifice, dating, as we have seen, from
Paradise itself, and formed it into an elaborate system to be carried out
day by day through the whole succeeding history of his people, by
priests springing from the person of the first High Priest. At the door
of the Tabernacle, in the presence of all the assembled tribes, Moses
invested Aaron with the priestly garments, especially the ephod, bearing
attached to it the Rational, which contained the twelve stones indicating
the twelve tribes of the holy nation, by which the High Priest,
consulting God, issued the oracle of doctrine and truth. Moses further
set the mitre on his head, bearing on its golden plate the inscription,
"Holiness to the Lord;" and pouring on his head the oil of unction, he
anointed and consecrated him. Thus the whole Jewish priesthood descended
from above, being gathered up in one person, from whom all succeeding
priests were drawn, and the sous of the first High Priest were to
continue the line for ever according to primogeniture.

The High Priest's office had in it four points peculiar to him beyond the
office of the ordinary priest. First, once in the year, on the great day
of the atonement, he alone entered into the most holy place, "not without
blood, which he offered for his own sins and the sins of the people"
(Heb. ix. 7), inasmuch as he sent into the wilderness one he-goat,
charged with the sins of all the people, and sacrificed the other, whose
blood he carried into the sanctuary, sprinkling it seven times over
against the oracle, to expiate the sanctuary from the uncleanness of the
children of Israel (Lev. xvi. 15, 16). He thus once every year
represented in his person the whole sacred nation in that most remarkable
act of confessing its guilt before God, and offering an expiation of it,
which pointed even more to a future Redeemer. Secondly, he consecrated
the whole body of the priests and Levites for their several work. The oil
of unction poured upon his head was the palpable sign of priestly power
transmitted from him to the priest, in which, again, he was an image of
the future High Priest. Thirdly, whenever the civil rulers of the nation
required advice in matters concerning the good of the whole people, it
was the office of the High Priest to inquire for them by means of the
breastplate of light and truth, which he carried upon the ephod. The
relation of the Civil to the Spiritual Power was symbolised in the first
bearer of the former after Moses, to whom Moses was commanded by God to
communicate "part of his glory." God said to Moses, "Take Joshua the son
of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and put thy hand upon him, and he
shall stand before Eleazar the priest (who had then succeeded his father
Aaron in the high priesthood), and all the multitude, and thou shalt give
him precepts in the sight of all, and part of thy glory, that all the
congregation of the children of Israel may hear him. If anything be to be
done, Eleazar the priest shall consult the Lord for him, he, and all the
children of Israel with him, and the rest of the multitude, shall go out
and go in at his word" (Num. xxvii. 18). Thus David afterwards consulted
God by Abiathar, the High Priest in his day. Fourthly, on all questions
concerning the decalogue, or commands in the moral law, or the ceremonial
law, which embraced the whole field of the divine worship, or the
judicial law, which concerned reciprocal rights and duties between man
and man, the High Priest possessed a supreme and decisive jurisdiction,
from which there was no appeal.

It is necessary to distinguish between the third of those privileges, the
judgment by the breastplate of light and truth, which was an
extraordinary gift of God, bestowed at particular times, and analogous in
this to inspiration, and the fourth, the supreme jurisdiction and
judgment of the High Priest, which belonged to him as an ordinary part of
his office, and may be likened to a perpetual divine assistance inherent
in it.[18]

2. Such was the high priesthood in its institution, and its operation
through the whole of Jewish history down to the final destruction of the
Temple corresponds to its institution.

The children of Israel were made a nation for a specific purpose, that
is, in order that the race of Abraham, by Isaac his chosen son, should
maintain upon earth, in the midst of an ever-growing defection, the
worship of the one True God, and should likewise embody and represent no
less that which was bound up in this worship, the promise of redemption
given at the beginning of the world. The reason of its existence,
therefore, was to be the bearer of the Messianic idea. To this all its
ordinances and sacrifices pointed, and in the execution of all this
purpose the High Priest was the chief organ. The Pontificate was the stem
of the nation, of which the civil unity was made from the beginning
dependent on the spiritual. On Aaron, by God's command, Moses devolved
one "part of his glory;" and when Eleazar had succeeded his father in the
office of High Priest, and Moses was about to die, he devolved, by the
same divine command, another part of his glory upon Joshua, appointing
him to lead the children of Israel into their promised inheritance. To
invest him with this solemn charge, the civil leadership of the nation,
he brought him before Eleazar the priest, that, according to his
instruction, Joshua and the whole congregation "should go out and go in."
This relative position of Eleazar and Joshua is continued in the
respective religious and civil rulers during several hundred years down
to the kingship of Saul. When the Israelites chose themselves a king
after the pattern of the nations round them, the word of God to Samuel
respecting their act is, "They have not rejected thee, but me, that I
should not reign over them" (1 Kings viii. 7). Nevertheless God sanctions
the erection of a kingdom, leaving unaltered the position of the High
Priest. During the time of the kings the high priesthood continues the
centre of Jewish worship; and when the civil unity is broken by the
revolt of the ten tribes, they revolt likewise against the worship which
had its seat in Jerusalem and was gathered up in the High Priest. The
long-persistent iniquity of the people is punished by the captivity, and
when a portion of the nation comes back to take root afresh in its own
land, it is in the high priesthood more than ever that its unity is
restored and maintained. Thus, through the three periods of Israelitic
history, under the judges, under the kings, and after the return from
captivity, the High Priest remains the permanent centre of Jewish life,
the organ of spiritual, and therein of civil unity. Our Lord recognises
this spiritual ruler as at the head of the Great Council, "sitting in the
chair of Moses." At His birth Herod inquires of this authority where
Christ should be born, and receives the undoubting answer, "In Bethlehem
of Juda." Of Him Caiaphas, being then High Priest, uttered the famous
prophecy denoting the great act of His mediatorial sacrifice; and the
same Caiaphas, sitting as supreme judge of the nation, adjures Him by the
living God to declare if He be the Christ; and our Lord answers the
adjuration by the explicit declaration of His divine Sonship, and His
authority to be Judge of the living and the dead.

The judges pass, the kings pass, the nation goes into captivity; it comes
back chastened, and faithful at length to its belief in the divine unity
and the promises attached to it; and through all this, up to the time of
accomplishment, the High Priest sits in the chair of Moses, and offers
expiation on the day of atonement, and the priests emanate from his
person, and prophecy speaks from his mouth. He is the ordinary judge of
the whole people, the guardian and interpreter of the divine law, whose
decision is final and supreme.

3. That people lost its civil independence, which was merged in the great
Roman empire, but its spiritual independence, centred in its High Priest,
was preserved to it. At no period of its history was this independence
more remarkably maintained. Philo, himself a Jew settled in Egypt, says,
"Innumerable pilgrims from innumerable cities flock together by sea and
land, from East and West, from North and South, on every festival to this
Temple (of Jerusalem) as to a common harbour and refuge, seeking peace
there in the midst of a life of business or trouble."[19] "The Holy
City," he says in another place, "is my country, a metropolis not of the
single country of Judea, but of many others, on account of the colonies
from time to time thence sent forth." But not only was this city such a
metropolis to all Jews in every part of the world, and the High Priest
the centre of the worship which drew them from all parts of the world,
but his spiritual authority extended over them in the several cities
which they inhabited as well as when they came up to Jerusalem. This was
the power borne witness to by St. Paul, when "yet breathing out
threatening and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, he went to
the High Priest and asked of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues,
that if he found any men and women of this way, he might bring them bound
to Jerusalem." This was the power which counterworked and persecuted St.
Paul himself wherever he went, through which "five times he received of
the Jews forty stripes save one, and was thrice beaten with rods" (2 Cor.
xi. 24). This was the power which, wherever the Apostles went, preaching
the Gospel under the cover of a religion which enjoyed legal sanction,
and so disobeyed no Roman law, encountered them, and, after endless
particular persecutions, succeeded at last with Nero in getting them put
beyond the pale of the protection which their character of Jews might
afford them, and placed under the ban of the empire as preachers of a new
and unsanctioned religion. They were but summing up a long course of
previous persecution in this act, which was the master-stroke of Jewish
antagonism, by which they fulfilled to the uttermost the divine
prediction: "Therefore, behold I send to you prophets, and wise men, and
scribes; and some of them you will put to death and crucify, and some of
them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to
city" (Matt. xxiii. 40). And it was followed at once by the destruction
of the city, the Temple, and the priesthood, as the prophecy ran, "Behold
your house shall be left to you desolate." The position of the High
Priest in this last period of Israelitic history, the forty years which
elapsed from the day of Pentecost to the destruction of the city and
Temple, represents him most vividly as the guardian, judge, and
mouthpiece of a religion which, though national, had colonies in all
parts of the world, and in which not only the central seat of the worship
and the country of Judea, but the colonies also, in whatever part of the
world they might be situated, acknowledged his spiritual jurisdiction.
This privilege was given by Julius Cæsar, as to the Roman empire, and
continued by Augustus. It is of much moment to understand the history of
the first forty years of the Christian Church.

4. So completely had the high priesthood created by Moses, and the whole
system of worship, sacrifices, rites, and ceremonies which it presided
over and guarded, fulfilled the purpose for which it was created. It
presented in all its parts a type and a prophecy of Christ and His
kingdom—a type and a prophecy which through fifteen hundred years of
action and suffering had wrought itself out in the heart of a people who,
now deprived of their civil, but enjoying a spiritual, independence, lay
scattered through the whole world, ready to receive the spiritual
kingdom. Through all Gentiledom the sacerdotal authority had become, by
its corruption of the high truths of religion, the serf or minion of the
Civil Power, but to the Jews the worship of their God was in its own
nature supreme, and did not admit of interference even from that power
which they acknowledged to rule absolutely in temporal dominion. The same
scribes and pharisees and people who cried out before the Roman governor,
"We have no king but Cæsar," were ready a few years afterwards to
sacrifice their lives rather than admit into Jerusalem a statue of the
Emperor Caligula, which seemed to them an impugnment of their religious
law. And the Jewish people during the years of our Lord's teaching and
ministry were looking for their Messias, and when they should acknowledge
Him, were ready to acknowledge Him not only as Priest and Prophet but as
King also. So deeply had the words of Moses sunk in their hearts: "That
God would raise up to them a prophet of their nation and of their
brethren like unto him, whom they were to hear" (Deut. xviii. 18); that
is, a Prophet bearing, as Moses alone had done, the triple unction, and
who was to be supreme in teaching, in priesthood, and in rule. The civil
subjection of the people brought out more strikingly by its contrast
their spiritual independence, and the banishment, which scattered a
number of them into all lands, provided everywhere a seed-plot in which
the Gospel might be planted—a little gathering not only of Jews, but of
Gentile proselytes, "who feared God" in every place, and so could more
readily receive the doctrine of God incarnate and crucified upon their
belief of God the Creator. Had the Jews remained in their own land, they
would not have had the perception of a spiritual jurisdiction founded
upon a divine hierarchy alone, and stretching over the whole earth,
disregarding all national divisions and restrictions, and binding
Parthians and Medes, Elamites and Mesopotamians, Egyptians and Libyans,
Cretes and Arabians, Greeks and Romans into one. The mould into which the
Gospel was to be cast had been wrought out even through the obstinacy,
the sins, and the punishments of the chosen people, and was now complete
to receive and bear the tree for the healing of the nations. The high
priesthood had come forth from Moses by express inspiration, and bearing
its people through centuries of most various fortune, had imaged out
exactly the Christian high priesthood and rule to which it was to
yield.[20] A prophecy embodied in a fact which unites a people into an
indissoluble organisation, and works through centuries moulding
generation after generation, and gathering into one prodigious monument
of priesthood, sacrifices, ceremonies, and temple, and the hopes and
devotion of a race, this is the ground which our Lord selected for the
basis of the spiritual kingdom which He would set up. He had provided
Moses as a servant to construct the model of the house which hereafter He
would build Himself; He had inspired Moses to create Aaron and draw out
of him the levitical priesthood, because Himself would commission Peter,
the perpetual fountain of the Christian priesthood, and would make Peter
for all nations that which Aaron had been for one.

But, as in all the preceding history, God left to man the exercise of his
free-will. It was not open to the Jews indeed to frustrate the divine
purpose, but it was open to them to receive or not receive the Christ
when He came. They were ready to receive a glorious but not a suffering
Christ. And the High Priest, sitting at the head of the Great Council of
the nation, in the chair of Moses and in the dignity of Aaron, instead of
accepting, rejected and slew Him with the Roman death of crucifixion, by
the hand of the Roman governor, the bearer to the nation of the Roman
imperial power. The High Priest slew Him further on the affected charge
that He was plotting against the emperor's power; in reality because He
acknowledged Himself to be the Christ, the Son of God.

Let us take, then, what I am about to say as facts which have been
hitherto undisputed. There have been, and there are, unbelievers in
plenty of the Christian truth and Church, but no one has, I believe,
hitherto been found to deny that Christ was put to death by Pontius
Pilate at the instigation of the Chief Priest and the Sanhedrim. Let us
take this as a fact, and put ourselves in thought at the great Sabbath
during which His Body rested in the tomb. It is the Body of one executed
with the greatest ignominy, between two thieves, by a most cruel death,
under the authority of the Roman governor, upon the charge that He
claimed a kingship which interfered with that of the emperor, at the
instigation of those who rejected His claim to be their Messias, the Son
of God. His Body, even when dead, ceases not to be under the jurisdiction
of the Roman governor, who commits its custody to His chief enemies,
those whose instigation has brought about His death. Their seal is set
upon His tomb, and their guards watch it. Taking these bare facts, as
acknowledged by friend and foe, can any situation of more complete
impotence be conceived by human imagination than this? He has come, and
taught, and worked miracles, and been rejected by His own. He has been
put to death in the name and by the power of the world's lord, who bears
the crown of majesty and wields the authority of worship. The guards of
His enemies sit beside His tomb.

Such was the fact on the great Sabbath, the high day of the Jewish Pasch.

What can be conceived more improbable at that moment, and under these
circumstances, than the fact which we have now to record as following in
its evolution during so many ages? The sovereign in whose name and by
whose power that Body had been put to death held undisputed in his hands
the supremacy of Spiritual as well as Civil Power through the great world
of Gentilism, represented by the Roman empire. From that Body was to
spring, beginning with the morrow, the distinction and independence of
the Spiritual over against the Civil Power, which was to dissolve this
twofold supremacy throughout the whole range of that empire. And this was
to be accomplished by a series of actions arising out of the sole
proclamation of envoys taken from the people which had rejected Him—a
proclamation derived from the commission which He should give in the Body
raised again to life. The distinction, indeed, of the two Powers, so far
from being new, has been coeval with the human race itself, as we have
seen; but it has been broken down by human sin in all nations but one,
and that one, created for its maintenance, made, through all its history,
prophetical for its fulfilment when the time of that fulfilment came, has
rejected its Bearer; and yet out of its bosom, on the morrow, is to go
forth that word of power which in the end shall change the condition of
human society, and create it after another order.

It will be well thoroughly to grasp the truth that all which followed
depended upon a fact, the supernatural character of which cannot be
exaggerated. We are considering the Spiritual Power which arose and
diffused itself in the world from the Person of Christ. It took its
origin from the Body in which He appeared to His Apostles after His
resurrection. Without their belief in that resurrection, as evidenced to
all their senses, there was no ground for their conduct. Without the
reality of that resurrection there was no source for the Power. It would
seem that, whatever else the Christian order of things may be, it must be
supernatural and miraculous, since, to exist at all, it presupposes a
fact which is a lordship over nature and a miracle in the highest degree.
Without this primary miracle all Christian faith is vain, and in the
power which worked it all subsequent miracles are included. That the fact
took place, let the results which followed testify, at the beginning of
which our exposition stands. The Jews expected a Messias, who, according
to the prophecies long enshrined in their nation about Him, was to be
Priest, Prophet, and King. They put to death one who claimed to come
before them in this triple character. From one dead, so long as he
continues dead, no life can spring. But life and multifold life sprung up
here; therefore He who was dead had arisen, and all of which we have to
speak is the result of His life. The fundamental truth on which we have
to dwell is the going forth of a supernatural power from the Person of

We have seen Adam in Paradise created in the full maturity of intellect
and will, and placed at the head of a double order of things, of civil
and of spiritual authority. We have now to consider that greater One whom
Adam prefigured, and who, coming forth from the tomb, assumed forthwith
that double headship. When the great act of His pontificate had been
accomplished in giving up His Body to death for the sins of the world,
and its efficacy acknowledged by His resurrection, He declared to His
Apostles "that all power had been given to Him in heaven and upon earth."
This all-power in heaven and on earth, given to the God-man as the fruit
of His incarnation and the reward of His sacrifice, divides itself into
two—temporal and spiritual. The first is that by which He disposes of all
persons and all events. This power He has not delegated to any one in
chief, but keeps it in His own hands. Yet it is a part of this power of
which it is said, "By me kings reign, and princes decree justice." The
whole civil sovereignty is founded on an apportionment to it of the
divine sovereignty for the maintenance of human society. A part of the
second or Spiritual Power He delegated to St. Peter in chief, and to the
Apostles, with St. Peter at their head. Out of this all-power He set up
and sent forth in them a royal priesthood to proclaim and maintain the
truth which He had come to declare to the world; that is to say, He took
His own priesthood and put it upon them, investing it with a reproductive
ordering and maintaining power in His spiritual kingdom. To it He
attached the gift of truth, that is, of communicating, unfolding,
guarding, the whole body of doctrine which He came upon earth to declare;
and in it He placed the jurisdiction which is necessary to the priesthood
in order to exert itself in offering the sacrifice and in dispensing the
sacraments which He instituted, and in guarding the truth with which
they are bound up.

That power, then, which He designated in the keys given to Peter, in the
Rock which He set in his person, in the pastoral charge which He laid
upon him over His sheep, and in which He sent forth His Apostles to make
disciples all nations, to baptize them in the sacred Name, to teach them
to observe all which He had commanded, and in the exercise of which He
promised to remain with them to the end of the world, is one and
indivisible in itself, and triple in its range and direction—a priesthood
proclaiming the truth and ruling in the sphere which belongs to its
priesthood and its teachings. As Adam is created one and complete, and
his race springs from him, so this kingdom of Christ springs complete
from Him in its regimen, which is not the result of history, but formed
in His Person before its history begins, as He is at once Priest,
Teacher, and King. Thus this Power comes from above, not from below;
proceeds from emanation; is not gathered gradually by accretion; is an
effect of positive institution, derived from the Head; not the effect of
a need or the working out of a natural capacity in the body.

The root of that Power is the act for the accomplishment of which our
Lord Himself took our flesh upon Him—the act of His high priesthood, by
which, having taken our flesh, He took also the sins of the world upon
Himself, and offered Himself for them on the cross. It is as Redeemer
that He is Priest, the sacrifice of His body being the offering which He
made. It is in the perpetual service and offering of that body that the
priesthood which He created for others exists and provides the perpetual
bread of life, which is the food of sanctification, for His people. In
the priesthood, therefore, we have to deal with the whole range of
subject which embraces grace on the part of God and worship on the part
of man. It is most fitting that all spiritual power should grow upon this
stock. All priesthoods in the world from the beginning had been
connected, as we have seen, with the sense and acknowledgment of guilt;
and with the rite of sacrifice. In the Aaronic priesthood this has been
specially noted. Thus it bore a perpetual prophetical witness to the act
which Christ accomplished. All future priesthood dated from the
accomplishment of that act, and took its force from it. Thus it was truly
the central act of human history. Had not the Son of God assumed our
nature, He could not have been a Priest. His priesthood, therefore,
carried in it the two great divine acts—His incarnation and His
satisfaction, which make up the economy of human salvation. The first
direction, then, of the power which He delegated is that of the Priest.

The second is that of the Teacher. A principal part of His ministry while
on earth certainly was to teach. He was the Prophet that was to come into
the world, and all that He taught bore reference to the two acts just
dwelt upon, that He came forth from God and was going to God. Not a
sentence of His teaching but presupposes His Incarnation and His Passion.
That whole body of truth, therefore, which He did not write down
Himself, but committed to the living ministry of His Apostles, proceeds,
as it were, out of His Pontificate, and rests upon it. It is the truth of
the Word made flesh, and of God sacrificed for His creatures. The gift of
teaching, as the illuminating power in His Church, corresponds to the
virtue of faith in the taught, and implies the possession of truth in the
teacher. As the priesthood has a perpetual sacrifice stored up within it,
and a perpetual gift of grace accompanying it, so the teaching has a
perpetual gift of truth. The fountain of truth, therefore, in this Power,
can be no more discoloured and polluted than the fountain of grace in the
priesthood can be turned into sin. By virtue of it Christ remains for
ever the one Teacher and Master whom all His people have to follow.
Theology is an outcome of this Power. The issuing of doctrinal decrees is
grounded upon it, and the censure of writings and of all false opinions
on whatever subject which may impair Christian doctrine.

The third direction of the one Power is that of ruling and ordering, not
to be separated from the former two, since it consists, in fact, in the
free, legitimate, and ordered use of them, and has, therefore, been
termed Jurisdiction, inasmuch as it is government in the whole domain of
grace and truth. In every government there is a power which administers,
a power which legislates, a power which judges, and all these in the
sovereign degree; that is, in a degree not liable to revision and
reversal in the respective subject-matter. If we apply these three acts
to the full domain of grace and truth, which is the domain of the
Incarnate Son (John i. 14), set up in the world, we express that royalty
which is the third attribute of the priesthood. It comprehends supreme
pastorship in all its range; legislation in the kingdom of truth; and
judgment, whether external or internal, in the spiritual tribunal.

This was the Power, one and indivisible in itself, triple in its
direction, which Christ took from His own Person as part of the all-power
given to Him, and delegated to the Ruler of His Church, that in the
exercise of it He might fulfil all prophecy concerning Himself, and be at
once Priest, Prophet, and King: and out of this He made and makes His

In the transmission of that Power to the persons to whom He gave it He
observed two principles: that of unity, and that of hierarchical
subordination. To maintain the first, He made the Primacy; to maintain
the second, the College of Apostles. For the whole of this triple power,
the keys of the kingdom of heaven in the priesthood, the guardianship of
faith in the office of teacher, and the supreme pastorship of rule He
promised to one and bestowed on one, Peter. Thus He made Peter the
Primate, and by the centering this triple authority in his sole person
set him as the Rock on which the Church is built. At the same time He
associated with Peter the eleven, to exercise this same authority in
conjunction with Him. Thus at the very founding of the Church we find the
two forces which are to continue throughout, and from the union of which
the whole hierarchy with its graduated subordination springs. From the
Apostolic College descends the Episcopate, the everliving source of
which is in Peter the head, by union with whom it is "one Episcopate, of
which a part is held by each without division of the whole." Only on this
condition is the Episcopate one, without which, in all places and in all
time, it would be a principle of rivalry and division, using the triple
power of priesthood, teaching, and rule against itself. With this
condition we have exactly realised the image of the Rock on which the
Church is founded, and against which the gates of hell shall not prevail,
in the establishment of the Episcopate, as one indivisible power, having
its fountain and fulness in one person, a part of whose solicitude is
shared by a body of bishops spread through the whole world, speaking with
one voice the faith of Peter, because they are united with the person of

All that we have hitherto said as to the emanation of power from the
Person of Christ is comprehended by St. Peter when he calls our Lord,
"the Shepherd and Bishop of our souls," and by St. Paul when he calls Him
"a High Priest over the house of God," "the Apostle and High Priest of
our confession," "called of God High Priest after the order of
Melchisedek." And by Himself when He bade His disciples to have no other
Master, that is, Teacher, "for one is your Master, Christ;" and when,
treating on the eve of His passion this very subject, He said to His
Apostles, "I dispose to you, as my Father disposed to me, a kingdom;" and
after His resurrection, saying to them collectively, "As my Father sent
me, even so send I you;" and "Behold I am with you all days, even to the
consummation of the world;" and when He said to Peter on the shore of the
Lake of Galilee, after He had drawn in the unbroken net full of great
fishes, "Lovest thou me more than these? Feed my sheep."[21] For is He
not in priesthood, teaching, and government the prolific Father of the
age to come? He remains not solitary in His triple dignity, but is the
Adam of His race, and rules in it from His resurrection by those whom He

It may further be observed that in the supernatural regimen thus
established by our Lord, viewed as the one indivisible power which
constitutes it, there is an image traced upon His spiritual kingdom of
the ever-blessed Trinity, its royalty representing God the Father as the
source: its priesthood, wherein lies the whole economy of human
redemption, God the Son, who carries it out; its teaching, God the Holy
Ghost, the Spirit of Truth, whose ever-abiding presence guides its
subjects, as by the hand, into all truth. The regimen is the generative
power in His kingdom; and this image, wrought indelibly upon its society
in all lands and times, is as distinctly Christ's work upon the Christian
commonwealth as the image traced upon individual man in the soul's triple
constitution of memory, understanding, and will, when it has been
sanctified by His grace, is His work upon the individual.

That in the Episcopate there should be a triple power: of priesthood,
comprehending the whole divine worship, and the imparting of grace
through the sacraments; of teaching, which contains the communication of
the whole divine truth; and of ruling, that is, over the whole region of
action comprised by the priesthood and the teaching, the prototype of
which exists in the eternal relations of the Blessed Trinity, while
itself is that one undivided power which represents the divine unity,
seems to shadow out the very citadel in which the Divine Wisdom set up
His kingdom.

Who could have imagined beforehand such a constitution of government?
Who, placing himself at the time of Christ and contemplating as a fact
the actual relations of the Two Powers then in existence _before him_,
could ever have devised such a kingdom? Is not this in very deed the
kingdom of grace and truth? Have we not here visible to the eye of faith
the Priest, the Prophet, and the King, who has set up Altar, Chair, and
Throne together in the midst of the nations?

2.—_The Spiritual Power a Complete Society._

That man, who was originally made after the image and likeness of God, is
sent into this life in order that he may in a future life attain the end
of his being, that is, the enjoyment of God, is the primary fundamental
truth which is presupposed in that whole work of Christ just described.
The supernatural society exists for a supernatural end. The total denial
of this end would be the complete and perfect heathenism of which the
original heathenism was but a shadow; for that state of man in which the
whole of his public and private life was encircled by the ties and
consecrated by the rites of religion, even though those rites were
prostituted by being offered to false gods, was not a denial of this end.
In such a state man acknowledged a power beyond himself—beyond visible
nature: his mind, his heart, his imagination were filled with the sense
of that power. This is true of the great mass of the heathen before the
coming of Christ, and is true in a large degree of those nations
remaining still outside the Christian faith in their traditional
religion, which descends in however fragmentary, however perverted a
form, from the religion of Noah, and the primal and universal covenant
for all his family struck with him. It is only the apostasy of a few from
the Christian faith itself which has readied that final and absolute
impiety—the greatest which the human mind can reach—of entirely denying
this end of man.

Now, in considering the relation between the Civil and the Spiritual
Power in all its bearings, we assume as a postulate this supernatural end
of man. As it is the kernel of our belief, so it is the absolute basis of
our argument. It cannot be put in a terser form than that in which our
Lord stated it to those about Him when He asked the question, "What shall
it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul?" Those
only who have come to such a negation of reason as to suppose that they
have no souls can disregard it. And as it is of absolute necessity, so it
is all that is required for a full consideration of the subject.

"There is then a certain good beyond the natural society of man in this
his condition of mortal life, which is that ultimate beatitude which is
looked for after death in the enjoyment of God. And so the Christian, who
has acquired a right to that beatitude by the blood of Christ, and has
received the earnest of the Holy Spirit in order to attain it, requires,
beyond the aid which temporal government gives him for the concerns of
this life, a spiritual care which is given to the faithful by the
ministers of Christ's Church. Now, as to the ultimate end which they are
to seek, the same must be said of the whole mass of men as of one man.
If, then, the one man's end lay in any good existing in himself, the
ultimate end of government for the mass of men would be similarly that it
should reach such good and secure its possession. But all the goods of
this present life offer no such end, whether it be health, or riches, or
knowledge, or even virtue. For the virtuous life, whether of the
individual or the mass, is subordinate to a further end, which is the
future enjoyment of God. If that end could be obtained by a power of
human nature, it would belong to the office of temporal government to
direct men to it, since that is supreme in things purely human. But since
man does not attain the end of enjoying God by any merely human power but
by divine power, according to St. Paul's word, that 'the grace of God is
eternal life,' it requires not a human but a divine government to lead
men to that end. And so it is that such a government belongs to a King
who is not only man but also God, that is, to our Lord Jesus Christ, who
has introduced men to the glory of heaven by making them sons of God.
This, then, is the kingdom which has been delivered to Him, and which
shall not be broken up, on account of which He is named in Scripture, not
Priest only, but King. Hence a royal priesthood is derived from Him; and,
what is more, all the faithful of Christ, so far forth as they are His
members, are called kings and priests. Therefore the ministry of this
kingdom, in order that spiritual things might be distinguished from
temporal, has been entrusted not to the kings of the earth but to
priests, and in the highest degree to the priest who is over all, the
successor of St. Peter, the Vicar of Christ, the Roman Pontiff, to whom
all kings of the Christian people are to be subject as to our Lord Jesus
Christ himself; for this is in accordance with the principle that those
to whom belongs the care of antecedent ends should be subject to him who
has the care of the final end, and be directed by his rule."[22]

What we have just said amounts to this, that the whole life of man,
whether single or in society, while he lives upon earth, is subject to
the life which he hopes for in heaven as its supreme purpose and end; and
that being so subject, as there is a society to aid him in attaining the
goods of his natural life, so much more is there a society to aid him in
attaining that supernatural good to which the natural goods are
subordinate. We have next to compare the regimens of these two societies
with each other in regard to their completeness.

The analogy between the Two Powers is full of instruction; but it is to
be remembered that as, since the coming of Christ, the Spiritual Power
is one in all countries and in all times, whereas the Temporal Power is
one only in each country and at each time, the comparison of the two can
only take those points which belong to the Temporal Power alike in all
countries and times; and this will be found sufficient for our purpose.
We have just seen the conception of spiritual jurisdiction as wielding
the priesthood and the teaching: it corresponds in this respect to
secular sovereignty, under which is ranged on the one hand authority in
every degree, as held by all officials in administration, by all
councillors in legislating, by all judges in their several tribunals, by
all officers in the public force. Whoever in the public service holds a
portion of the public authority may be ranged under the general head of
magistrate, and stands herein to the sovereign power in the same relation
as the priest to the bearer of supreme spiritual jurisdiction. On the
other hand, whoever is engaged in the whole circle of human arts and
sciences, which comprehends the vast domain of human knowledge as
acquired by learning, answers to the spiritual teacher. This triple
division runs through every state, at every time, whatever may be its
relative advancement in the scale of government. And the comparison as to
both Powers is exhaustive with regard to their range, since in both, man,
individual or collective, is a being who acts because he first knows and
then wills. Sovereignty, presiding in the various kinds of magistracy
over all who command, and over all in the various arts and sciences who
teach, because they have first learned, covers that triple domain in the
one case, and in the other spiritual royalty, which acts through the
priest and the teacher. But the society is knit together in a much
stricter bond, by a far more perfect interaction of forces, in the
spiritual than in the temporal order; and this arises from the fact that
all spiritual power in its triple range actually descends from the
spiritual head through every degree, which is far from being the fact in
temporal sovereignty. That is the pre-eminence of Christ in His spiritual
kingdom; and it is the perfection of the Divine Legislator that He
exercises His royalty by the indivisible action of His Jurisdiction,
Priesthood, and Teaching, communicated to the whole structure at the head
of which He stands.

The completeness of the spiritual society in its regimen is likewise
shown by the philosophical basis on which it rests. Our knowledge of our
dependence upon the Being, the Truth, and the Goodness of God is the
foundation of religion in us, and produces in us the idea of three chief
duties binding us to God—Faith, Adoration, and Charity.[23] These answer
to man's triple nature, which acts upon the basis of knowing and willing;
and they correspond likewise to the office of the Teacher, the Priest,
and the Spiritual Ruler. Faith is evidently the virtue in man elicited by
the Teacher, and its office is to accept the truth which he communicates.
It leads on to Adoration, which ensues when the mind and heart dwell upon
the divine attributes and their relation to man, and which includes Hope
as a part of itself; and this answers to the special work of the Priest,
which is to communicate the whole treasure of grace to the human redeemed
family. And, lastly, Charity, which is the ruling principle of all action
to the Christian, so far as he acts christianly, is the special virtue of
the Ruler, according to the condition imposed by our Lord when He
instituted the pastoral rule in its highest degree, saying to Peter,
"Lovest thou me more than these?" that is, his brother Apostles and the
Apostle of Love himself, and then adding, "Feed my sheep." And these
virtues, Faith, Adoration, and Charity, it may be added, have as intimate
a connection with each other as the several bearers of power in the
regimen to which they belong are linked together. To exercise Faith,
Adoration, and Charity make the Christian man, as the Teaching, the
Priesthood, and the Rule make the Christian order.

Worship, belief, and conduct embrace the whole man in his relations
godward; but much more than this is true in the order of the Christian
kingdom, for there these three things are inseparably joined with the
Person of Christ. As we have said above, the whole power grows upon the
root of His Priesthood, the particular act of which is the offering of
His Body, the Body of the Incarnate Son, for the sin of the world. His
communicated Priesthood consists in the perpetual presentation of that
Sacrifice to God by His ministers in the name and in the presence of the
Christian people; and the Sacrifice thus offered becomes further to them
the food of eternal life. In this great sacrament, carrying with it the
perpetual presence of Christ in and with His Church, all the other
sacraments are potentially contained. It is the well-spring of the whole
sacramental life, which He caused to open when His own Passion was
beginning. Of indescribable grandeur is that order, beginning with the
eve of His Passion, and stretching unbroken through all times and climes
to the consummation of the world. In that great act, carried on by the
High Priest through the voice and hands of countless successors, which
daily in every generation gathers into one the prayers of His people, the
manifold life is concentered which provides for every need.

But this Priesthood it is which carries on the Faith. That Faith is not a
belief in God "as the Architect of the universe," but in the love of God
the Father, the Creator of man, who sends His Son to be their Redeemer,
and in the love of God the Son, who is so sent; so that the Faith grows
on the root of the Priesthood. And out of this Faith is developed that
vast fabric of doctrine which in the course of eighteen centuries and a
half has made Christian theology, and reared for itself a harmonious
system of Christian law. The Eternal Priest carries in His hands eternal
truth, which He alone can preserve amid the never-ending conflicts of
human opinion, the surging strife of the bottomless sea of human
imaginations. The gift of maintaining all the truth which concerns human
redemption in every one of its remotest issues cannot be parted from the
Priesthood by which that redemption was wrought. Thus it coheres with the
sacramental life, and is not a fruit of man's intellect by itself, but
is bestowed on that intellect in union with grace. It is as it were an
atmosphere of thought which the Christian people breathe.

And, once more, Christian conduct is the action of those who have this
worship and this faith. It springs from an intention united at least
implicitly to the Author and Finisher of the Faith. It is this intention
which gives to the action the quality of merit. For an action done with
it differs incalculably from an action done without it, though the
external appearance and effect of the two actions may be the same. It is
to Christ as King that we are answerable for our actions, and worship and
belief culminate in action. The inward life of His subjects therefore
answers to the triple outward order established by the Priest, the
Prophet, and the King. It is in virtue of this answering in His people
that He has fulfilled the prophecies concerning Him as to His triple
character. Had He left no government for His kingdom, how would He be a
King? Had He left no priesthood to be perpetuated in His Church, how
would He be Priest after the order of Melchisedek? Had He left no truth
inaccessible to error, how would He be the Prophet that was to come into
the world?

It is then in their worship, their belief, and their conduct that the
Christian people one and all are derived from Christ, as much as the
triple regimen of His kingdom. Every individual man, so far as he is a
Christian, is a copy of Christ, while the whole people "is Jesus Christ
diffused and communicated, Jesus Christ complete, Jesus Christ perfect
man, Jesus Christ in His fulness."[24]

Nothing can show the universality of this Christian society more than
this derivation alike of the individual and of the mass from Christ. When
the children of Noah wore scattered abroad over the face of the whole
earth at the dispersion, the great family was broken up and nations
arose; but in the baptism of Christ nations disappear and the great
family is restored. There it is the member of the human race, the child
of Adam alone, who is assumed to be the brother of Christ. All the
conditions of human life which have arisen in the society of the nation,
which St. Paul has summed up in the words Greek and Jew, barbarian,
Scythian, bond or free, disappear also; there arises from that fontal
birth only the man "created anew to knowledge after the image of the
Creator" (Col. iii. 10, 11). Yet there is no interference with the
natural society, with its rights on the one side and its obligations on
the other. It is the human being, with body and soul, making one manhood,
of which the soul is the form, which is thus taken; but he is taken in
his relations to that last end with the mention of which we begin. As to
the other relations of his natural stale, they continue as they were,
subject only to a superior end, which is superior because it is the last.

Our Lord, when traduced before the Roman tribunal as infringing on the
sovereignty of the emperor, was solemnly asked if He was the King of the
Jews. He replied with a threefold assertion: that He was a King; that
His kingdom was not of this world, and yet that it was in this world. How
far does the kingdom which we have so far attempted to delineate
correspond to these three truths?

1. It is a kingdom because, according to the delineation of it which we
have just made, it is a royal priesthood, ruling inasmuch as it deals
with the belief, the worship, and the conduct of its people—all the
relations of man with God. In all this it does for the divine life in man
everything which the temporal kingdom does for his secular life. The
analogy between the two is precise and complete.

2. It is not a kingdom of this world, inasmuch as it governs with a view
to an end which is outside and beyond this life. This end determines
everything within it, as also we have seen above.

3. Again, it is not of this world because the source of its regimen lies
in the Incarnation and Passion of the Son of God, acts the virtue of
which consists in God's supreme government of the world, in His absolute
lordship over it as Creator and Redeemer. All authority in it descends
from Christ, "as the Apostle and High Priest" by this divine appointment,
from whose Person the apostolate and priesthood are transmitted to those
whom He sends, in like manner as He Himself was sent by His Father.

4. Again, it is not of this world because its subjects are produced as so
many copies of this divine original; it is the only kingdom in which the
people proceeds out of the King as much as the regimen by which it is
ruled. He is strictly the Father whom His children imitate so far as they
are His children; in Him Fathership and Kingship are identical.

5. Again, it is not of this world because its sacraments bestow grace, a
gift of God coming down upon the world, in it, but not of it; the
fountain-head of the gift being that God has taken the flesh of Adam and
borne the sin of Adam, and therefore, through seven sacramental streams,
dispenses the grace which heals the sin, as it affects the whole life of
man as the offspring of Adam.

6. Again, it is not of this world in the perpetual witness which it bears
to the truth, in which witness specially our Lord declares that His
sovereignty lies. If this witness had closed with His death, that would
have been the triumph of falsehood. And those who allege that truth has
been corrupted in His kingdom do, in fact, declare with the same breath,
though they often do not perceive the consequence, that His witness has
ceased and failed. But truth, as the token and inheritance of His
kingdom, depends, like grace, upon a divine gift attached to His Person,
and transmitted through the order of His kingdom's regimen.[25]

7. Furthermore, it is a kingdom because of the complete analogy with that
civil government which makes a temporal kingdom. It has jurisdiction for
jurisdiction, and a graduated hierarchy of officers descending more
directly from the head than exists in any temporal monarchy. And what
the multifold arts and sciences which embellish natural life are to any
of these kingdoms, that the divine inheritance of teaching Christian
truth, in its bearings upon the acts and thoughts and philosophy of
mankind, is with a much higher degree of perfection in the Christian

8. And if man has naturally need to live in society, if to do so is a
fulfilment of God's purpose in creating him a race, much more has he this
need of the supernatural society; and in so living he fulfils the purpose
of God in so much higher a degree as Christ exceeds Adam. All the
sacraments fulfil this purpose according to the needs of human life, by
incorporating him with a divine order; most of all the divinest of them,
in which the King appears for ever in the act of His Priesthood,
dispensing bread to His people. And here again this spiritual
nourishment, whereby His people live in society, testifies that the
kingdom is not of this world.

9. Nor is it to be forgotten that the kingdom thus far described
generated for itself a law, not confined, like the law of any earthly
kingdom, to a particular time or place, but universal as itself, defining
and arranging the various relations by which it subsists, that is, the
whole order of the internal Christian life and the external Christian
society. The power of the Legislator who is seated in this empire nowhere
is shown more manifestly than in the great and uniform fabric of
Christian law which He has caused to proceed out of it, and which, made
for the rule of a Christian people gathered out of all the tribes of the
earth, contains in it, drawn out and applied, all the principles needed
to provide a mirror of justice and equity for the nations of the earth in
their intercourse with each other.

10. Most striking is this witness to the truth that it is not of this
world in the essential and inherent independence of the civil government
which the kingdom possesses as to its end, as to its regimen, as to the
production of its people, as to its sacraments, as to its maintenance of
the truth committed to it, and as to its Canon Law. With regard to all
these it is in the midst of these governments, but it is not of them. No
one of these things can their mechanism produce, while the divine kingdom
consists in the exercise of them all within the limits of these various
kingdoms, with or without their concurrence, but never with any
originating power in temporal rule as to any of them.

11. And this leads to two of the most striking differences between the
Temporal and the Spiritual Power. Every temporal kingdom is limited in
space. The proudest and most imperial which has yet existed, that great
Roman empire of which Christ was a subject, and in the bosom of which His
greater kingdom arose, how small a portion of the earth's surface did it
cover! Not so the Kingdom of Truth. It is in place, but not local; it
runs through all the kingdoms of the world, grasping them, not grasped by
them. By the token of ubiquity it is in them, but not of them; and if it
be retorted that this attribute has but imperfectly been fulfilled in
fact, I reply that it has been sufficiently fulfilled to mark to all eyes
that it is a token of the one kingdom, fulfilled more and more, and
advancing to greater fulfilment; besides that I am here considering the
divine kingdom in its conception, in its idea.

12. And still more than in place is the Temporal Power limited in time.
Immortal in the institution itself, so far as the human race is immortal,
it is subject to decline and death in numberless individual applications.
If man is likened to a flower in duration, many a kingdom lasts not so
long as a tree. All change in the character of their government, passing
from the one to the few, from the few to the many, or again reabsorbed
from the many to one. The succession of human governments is likened to
the sea in its changes, whose turbulent waves image forth the
fluctuations of empires. Where is the government that has remained one
and the same but that concerning which Christ said, "Feed my sheep;" "I
will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven;" "Confirm thy
brethren;" "Thou art the Rock on which I will build my Church"? By its
domination over time and space the kingdom of the truth shows that it is
in but not of the world.

13. There is yet one more quality, as distinctive and as peculiar as any
which we have yet passed in review. It is the kingdom not only of the
truth, but of Charity. Not that within it there have not been innumerable
scandals; not that within it sin has not ever been fighting with grace;
but that the whole kingdom is compacted and held together by a divine
charity, and has in it as a common possession the treasure of the merits
of Jesus Christ. "The king is one with the kingdom, because He bears its
sins; the kingdom is one with the King, because it bears His cross."[26]
This is an interchange of charity which goes on for ever. It is an effect
of this bond that no virtue and no suffering in it is lost. The whole
kingdom, from the beginning to the end, makes up "that which is wanting
of the sufferings of Christ." There is no such bond of unity, no such
fruit of communion, in any temporal kingdom comparable to this. I suppose
that patriotism in the natural society corresponds to the charity
engendered in the supernatural kingdom; and patriotism is limited to the
temporal objects of the particular society; charity extends to the
eternal interests of the kingdom without end.

3.—_Relation of the Two Powers to each other._

In the treatment hitherto pursued we have divided the consideration of
the two Powers into the period before Christ and the period which ensues
upon His coming.

In the period before Christ we have found that both Powers were
originally of divine institution in the beginning of man, and that both
belonged to him as a race. Civil government began with the family;
worship, and with it priesthood, began also with the family; both were
united in the head of the race; both were instituted for the good of man
as he lived in society. Their subject was the same—man—the secular Power
treating him in his relation to his natural end, its object being to
provide all things which concerned the temporal prosperity of his life;
the Spiritual Power treating him in relation to his supernatural or last
end, its object being to provide whatever concerned his eternal state
after this life. And their relative importance was determined by their
end, with regard to which the temporal life was subject to the future
life. No fact was more strikingly illustrated by the whole history than
this; for three times the condition of the whole race upon the earth was
affected by its conduct in regard to the last end, which belongs to the
Spiritual Power. Once, and at a stroke, the whole race fell in its first
sire from its state of original justice, and from the happiness which
depended on the preservation of that state, by disregard of the end for
which it was created. A second time the whole race, with the exception of
one family, because disobedience to God became universal, fell in like
manner, and was destroyed. A third time the lapse proceeded to the
corruption of the idea of God Himself; the unity and brotherhood of the
race was broken up in consequence; it divided into nations at enmity with
each other, and man, from being a family of brethren, became the
bitterest foe of his fellow-man, inventing war, and slavery as its
result, and inflicting on himself worse evils than those which came to
him from any external cause. By the same lapse the Spiritual Power was
specially affected. The unity of the priesthood was destroyed with belief
in the unity of the Godhead; the truth which it was intended to attest
and carry on, that is, the sense of man's guilt and the promise of his
restoration, was overclouded; the sacrifice which it was intended to
offer to the one God was offered to a multitude of false gods; the rites
which accompanied the sacrifice and the prayers which explained its
meaning lost their force. The corruption of religion entailed with it a
terrible descent in the moral character of its ministers. In this state
it may be said that the Spiritual Power was so far fallen from its
original purpose, that it had almost ceased to have relation to the
supernatural end of man. In every country it continued to be, it is true,
in amity with the civil government, but at the price of absolute
subjection at last. The truth which should have guarded it was all but
lost, and the honour which belonged to it was seized by the civil ruler
as a decoration of his crown.

In the period which ensued upon the coming of Christ we have found a new
basis given to the Spiritual Power. As it lay through all Gentilism with
its truth corrupted, its power appended to the State, its offices
stripped of all moral meaning, it needed to be renewed from its very
source. A foul pantheon of male and female deities, differing as to names
and functions with every country, could generate no priesthood. Such
generation was the work of the Most High God, and for it He sent His Son.
The nation which He had built up to form the Altar, the Chair, the Throne
of His Son refused, through the worldliness of its rulers, to discharge
its office. Yet in its despite He sent forth the law from Sion, where the
act of His Son's high priesthood was effected by the very sin of His
people; and henceforth we find the Spiritual Power a derivation from the
Person of Christ as the Incarnate God in His work of redemption. We have
seen it one and indivisible in its essence, triple in its direction or
modality; in its Priesthood representing the Son; in its Teaching of the
truth, the Holy Spirit; in the Spiritual Royalty, from which Priesthood
and Teaching both proceed, and which both exercise, the Father, the
source of the Godhead; thus rendering an image, perfect so far as the
weakness of created things allows, of the Divine Trinity in Unity,
according to the prayer offered for it by our Lord in His Passion: "They
are not of the world, as I am not of the world: as Thou hast sent me into
the world, I also have sent them into the world; that they all may be
one, as Thou, Father, art in me, and I in them, that they also may be one
in us."

It is, then, out of the union of the divine and human natures in Christ,
in virtue of His Passion, and from His Person when He rose from the dead,
that the Spiritual Power is drawn. The Spiritual Power itself makes its
subjects; and thus the Father of the future age creates His people from
Himself, as of old time and in figure of Himself He made the race out of
Adam. Thus, as regards Gentilism, He formed anew the priesthood to
replace that original priesthood which had so fallen from its duties, so
corrupted its witness, so lost its honour. The act in view to which that
original priesthood was set up being accomplished, He resumed its power,
for the symbolical sacrifice became useless so soon as the real sacrifice
was offered. As regards Judaism, he fulfilled the purpose for which it
had been created, offering Himself as the Paschal Lamb in the midst of
it; and by His resurrection He caused the prophet-nation to subserve for
the generation of an universal kingdom of truth, whose power lay
henceforth in Himself.

This is the condition of things established by Christ, and all that we
have further to say as to the relation between the Two Powers is a
deduction from it.

1. And, first, it is clear that all Christians are subject to the
Spiritual Power. This subjection rests upon the same ground as subjection
to Christ Himself, for the power represents Him. As regards any
individual Christian this will hardly be contested. But it is equally
true of all corporate bodies, whether small or great. This obligation
touches us strictly the mightiest kingdom, if it be Christian, as the
humblest private person. There is nothing in the quality of numbers or of
temporal sovereignty which exempts from obedience to the law of Christ
those who acknowledge Him for their King; and the King's government is as
the King Himself. Of course it is only so far as the spiritual domain
extends—that is, over the things which belong to the Priesthood, the
Teaching, and that Spiritual Jurisdiction which makes their Royalty—that
the obligation of obedience extends.

2. Secondly, all Christians are subject likewise, as all men in general,
to the Temporal Power, in the respective country in which they live, so
far as the domain of that Temporal Power extends, which even more than
the Spiritual has its limits. The Spiritual Power has itself laid down
in absolute terms the obligation of this obedience and the ground on
which it rests. "Let every soul be subject to higher powers, for there is
no power but from God, and the powers which are have been ordained by
God. So that he who resists the power, resists the ordinance of God, and
they that resist purchase to themselves condemnation, for the power is
God's minister to thee for good." And again, "Be subject to every human
creature for God's sake, whether it be to the king as excelling, or to
governors as sent by him for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the
praise of the good; for so is the will of God." This may be termed the
comment of the two chief apostles, Peter and Paul, upon the words of
their Lord, "Render to Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's," which is
followed by the limitation, "and to God the things which are God's."
Temporal government is herein declared to be the vicegerent of God; to
have been such from the beginning of the world; to continue to be such to
the end of it. The statement that authority, as such, is the minister of
God to man for good applies, of course, not to any particular form of
temporal government, as emperor, king, or republic, in which the
government is administered in the persons of many or few, and in various
degrees of delegation, but to temporal government in itself, in the
principle of its authority. And being spoken by the highest Christian
authority in regard of what was actually a heathen government, it
manifestly belongs not only to Christians under Christian governments but
to the subjects of civil power in all times and conditions of things.
And, further, it is remarkable that our Lord and His apostles, who so
strongly recognise civil government as the ordinance of God, "as the
minister of God for good," themselves suffered the loss of their lives in
obedience to it, by an unrighteous judgment.

We have, then, the two Powers set forth as two Vicegerences of God, in
the government of His human world: the temporal Vicegerency belonging to
each sovereignty for the country which it rules, so far as the sphere of
that sovereignty extends; the Spiritual Vicegerency belonging to His one
spiritual kingdom in all times and places in the sphere of its

3. Here we are in presence of two societies, the authority in each of
which is a divine Vicegerency, whose subject is the same man, whether
individual or collective. The one is the minister of God for good to man
in all his natural relations in every country; the other is the very
authority of the Incarnate God Himself, unlimited as to time and place,
over the same man in all his supernatural relations. Not only do both
represent God, but both govern the same man. These two conditions fix
what is the divinely intended relation between them. It cannot but be one
of amity. As these powers existed in the beginning they were united even
as to the person bearing them. The great sin of unfaithfulness to God in
the race caused them to be placed in different bearers. Amid all the
corruption which ensued, as to worship on the one hand, as to civil
government on the other, the two Powers never ceased to be in amity with
each other. For the basis of this amity is, in truth, a condition of
human nature which never varies, being, in fact, the subjection of man's
natural life to his supernatural end. As long as man is sent into this
world for the purpose of trial, to live in another world an endless life,
the quality of which shall be determined by his conduct as a free moral
agent in this life, so long the power which rules him in reference to the
concerns of this life is bound to live in amity with the power which
rules him as to the concerns of that future life. This, on the one hand,
being the reason for amity in man himself; on the other hand, both Powers
proceeding from the same God. must be intended by Him to work in harmony.
He has no more made them rivals in the government of His moral world,
than He has made the sun and moon rivals in the physical enlightenment of
the earth, and the government of its motions.

To illustrate further the necessity of amity between the two Powers for
the good of man's life, let us consider three other relations which have
been conceived as possible to exist.

4. A separate action of the two Powers in their respective spheres, that
is, a complete division between Church and State, has been imagined by
some as feasible and desirable. But with regard to this it must be
observed that the two Powers rule over one human commonwealth, whether
that be viewed as existing within the limit of any particular state, or
as spread over the whole world. Again, that they rule conjointly over
both soul and body. For, if we use accurate language, it is not as if the
Church ruled over the soul, and the State over the body. It is, indeed,
true that, in order to bring home the relative importance of the two ends
pursued by the two Powers, this illustration has been constantly used, by
the Fathers first, and by other writers afterwards; but it is only an
illustration, not an accurate statement of a real relation. They rule, in
fact, over both soul and body, but in different relations; the State over
soul and body as to their natural end, the Church over soul and body as
to their supernatural end. The State's rule is over all those things
which are ordered for the tranquillity and stability of human society;
the Church's rule is over all those things which concern the salvation of
souls, all those things which fall under the domain of her priesthood,
her teaching, and her jurisdiction. It is obvious that both these classes
of things belong both to soul and body. How, for instance, can rule over
the soul be denied to the State if it can demand of its subjects, for the
defence of country, the sacrifice of life, in which the condition of the
soul as well as that of the body is involved? How can rule over the body
be denied to the Church, when the body enters into every act of worship
and receives the sacraments?—when the inward belief requires to be
testified by word and deed, in order to confess Christ before men?

The Temporal Power, therefore, rules over all temporal matters, that is,
those which concern natural right and man's natural end; the Spiritual
Power rules over spiritual things, those which concern man's
supernatural end. Can the former perform rightly the duties which belong
to it without considering the rights appertaining to the latter?

To answer this question, let us take the case of the individual man. Is
it possible for a man rightly to perform his duties to the State without
consideration of his duties to God? As we have before seen, all the
duties of man in life are subject to his supernatural end. Every particle
of natural right rests upon the authority of God the Creator; and if God
has created man for a supernatural end, to discharge the civil duties of
life without regard to that end is simple impiety. It is plain that,
according to the intention of God, every part of man's natural life has
been ordered with a view to the end of his supernatural life.

But in this the case of the individual in no respect differs from the
case of the collective mass. The State has been created with a view to
the ultimate end of man as much as the individual. In fact, the cause of
its creation was to establish an order in human things which should help
man continually to attain that end. It was not created for itself. The
society of man in this life is not the ultimate fact. Once more; the
Fall, the Deluge, and the Dispersion have uttered three voices upon that
truth which can never be silenced, which have echoed through the whole
world and touch all human nature. The State, then, as much as the
individual, must perform all which it is intended to perform in the
government of man, in obedience to the principle that man's present life
is ordered with a view to his future life.

To apply this more particularly, it means that the State, in its
administration of all temporal things, is bound incessantly to have
regard to the free exercise by the Spiritual Power of its authority over
spiritual things. It must allow that power to administer the whole work
of the priesthood, and the whole work of the teaching, with that liberty
of internal government which constitutes its jurisdiction, the seat of
its royalty. It is not the place here to enumerate in detail how much
that involves. It is enough to say that the ordinary action of the State
and the ordinary action of the Church run daily into each other, as being
concerned with the same man and the same society of men; and accordingly,
that the allowing such a liberty to the Church by the State carries with
it great consideration and regard for the Church by the State. But such a
consideration and regard are quite incompatible with separate action of
the two Powers in their respective spheres. An instance in point would be
the State compelling a subject, who is a minister of the Church, to
become a soldier. It is a purely natural right of the State to require
the service of the subject for such a purpose. It is a purely spiritual
right of the Church to have the use of her ministers for her own work.
The use of the former right without consideration of the latter would
constitute a separate action of the State in its sphere. But it would be
at the same time an act of the utmost hostility on the part of the State
to the Church. And other instances of the same kind present themselves
through the whole domain of things which, in themselves, are purely
temporal or purely spiritual. Besides these there is the class of mixed
things, and, as one of them, let us take education.

Education, so far as it embraces instruction in the several arts and
sciences which subserve man's natural life, belongs to the domain of the
State; so far as it embraces the formation of the spiritual character in
man, which includes instruction in religion, and that not only as it
concerns dogma, but also philosophy and science, belongs to the domain of
the Church. If the State exercises its natural right over education with
regard to the former, without allowing the supernatural right of the
Church over the latter, which in itself would be no more than a separate
action in its own sphere, it would constitute, at the same time, a
complete infringement of the Church's rights in her spiritual power of
teaching and jurisdiction.

This is enough to show that the separate action of the two Powers in
their respective spheres leads to the disjunction of man's natural life
from his supernatural end. This was not the intention of God in creating
the two Powers, and placing man's life under their joint government.

5. Another relation between the two Powers which may be conceived, is
that of hostility upon the part of the State to the Church. This cannot
be reciprocal. The Church can indeed and must resist, with her own
weapons, unlawful aggression against the exercise of her rights in
administering the "things of God," but she cannot war against the State
as such, because it is in her sight "the minister of God." The hostility
of the State which invades the Church's exercise of her Priesthood,
Teaching, and Jurisdiction constitutes persecution. There are many
degrees of this. A heathen State may aim at the complete destruction of
the Christian Church within its borders, as at times the Roman emperors
did. A Christian State may also vex and hamper with every form of
impediment the exercise of the Church's powers. A State which has been
Christian, becoming heretical or apostate, may assault the Church with a
hatred, combined with deceit, which shall surpass the malignity of the
Roman State of old or the heathen State at any time. In the course of
centuries every degree of persecution has been exercised by the State,
heathen, Christian, heretical, or apostate, against the Church, by the
permission of the divine Providence; but no one will pretend to say that
such a relation as hostility on the part of the State, and of suffering
on the part of the Church, is the normal relation intended by God in the
establishment of the two Powers. On the contrary, the States which
persecute the Church, while they fulfil the divine purpose for its trial
and purification, incur punishment in many ways for their crime against
God in assaulting His kingdom, and, if they persevere, have been and are
to be rooted up and destroyed.

6. In contrast to such relation between the two Powers, let us look for a
moment at the divine Idea as it is thrown out in strong projection upon
the background of ages. We have human government founded indeed by God
at and with the commencement of the race, and continued by the strong
sanction of His power ever since, through the dispersion, through the
various races of men, one rising and another falling; human government
possessed in common by a vast number of sovereignties, great and small,
particular in place, with changing constitutions, everything about them,
the people who bear them, the boundaries within which they flourish, the
laws by which they are administered, shifting and transitory: no one of
these sovereignties having a claim to say that it was founded by God,
inasmuch as they all spring out of a long series of conquests and changes
which succeed after the original patriarchal rule. These are
distinctively the kingdoms of men, and in them is fulfilled, with a
little longer range, what the poet says of each human generation—

    "Like leaves on trees the race of man is found;"

the only thing about them which is not shifting and not transitory is the
one thing which is of divine appointment, government itself. And in the
midst of these nations, borne upon them, and shaken indeed, but
imperturbable amid their fluctuations, behold the one government founded
immediately by Christ in St. Peter, as no other sovereignty has been
founded; in St. Peter, made by express language His Viceregent. Here is
one sovereignty, universal in time and place, with no changing
constitution, after the fashion of its human shadows, which are a royalty
one day, a democracy another day, an empire a third, but one and the
same for ever. Here is the kingdom of Christ.

But that which rules the relation of the one kingdom and the many
kingdoms to each other, is the _end_ for which they are constructed:
human government, the one abiding because divine element in the many
kingdoms, exists for the peace, the order, and the prosperity of man's
life on earth. But this, its highest end, is subject, like all the
natural goods of man, to a higher end, the eternal beatitude of man. In
the last resort temporal government itself was originally founded and
actually exists only for this purpose. But the one kingdom of Christ is
directed immediately to this very purpose. Because there is an
inseparable relation of all earthly things to that highest end, therefore
each of these temporal kingdoms and the one spiritual kingdom have a bond
between them which cannot be broken. If it were not for this, their range
is so apart from each other, their powers so independent of each other,
that they would speedily part company. The strong hand of God has joined
them to draw together the chariot of human government by the yoke of the
last end.

How entirely independent in themselves are their constituent parts! On
the one hand, earthly might, grounded indeed in right but ruling by
force, cemented by riches, carrying the sword of life and death in its
hands, exulting in all the vast accumulation of human arts and sciences,
the work of civilised man through long ages; on the other hand, a royal
priesthood, with a divine truth, carried through the ages by an order of
men generated spiritually in virtue of the consecration once given by the
hands of Christ to Peter and his brethren. The temporal government marked
by wealth and force; the spiritual by poverty and weakness. Yet both
reign over the soul and body of man individual and collective. These
powers are both ordained by God; can they be also ordained with

The following passage of St. Thomas[27] leads, I think, to a full answer
to this question:—

"As the life by which men live well here on earth is as means to the end
of that blessed life which we hope for in heaven, so whatever particular
goods are obtained by man's agency, as, for instance, riches, profits of
trade, health, eloquence, or learning, have for their end the good of the
mass. If then, as we have before shown, the person charged with the care
of the last end ought to be the superior of those who are charged with
means to an end, and to direct them by his authority, it is evident from
what we have said that, just as the king ought to be subject to that
domain and regimen which is administered by the office of the priesthood,
so he ought to preside over all human offices and regulate them by his
supreme authority. Now whoever has the duty of doing anything which
stands to another thing as means to an end, is bound to see that his work
is suitable to that end; so the armourer furbishes his sword for
fighting, and the builder arranges his house to be lived in. Since, then,
the beatitude of heaven is the end of that life by which we live at
present virtuously, the king's office requires him to promote such a life
in his people as is suitable for the attainment of blessedness in heaven,
by ordaining what tends thither, and by forbidding, so far as is
possible, the contrary."

The king will here stand for whoever has sovereign authority. That
sovereign authority therefore is itself subject to the law of God through
all its exercise. The bearer of that law of God is the Spiritual Power
which stands over against all sovereigns, in all countries, with the
commission placed expressly in its hands by Christ. So far, therefore, as
the law of God is concerned, which is precisely the same for the
individual and the multitude, the sovereign is in every country subject
to it, and the more stringently because, in the words of St. Thomas, he
presides over all _human_ offices. These by their nature are subject to
the _superhuman_ office.

This is the indirect Power over temporal things possessed by the Royal
Priesthood which has been instituted by Christ. The indirect Power rests
simply on the supernatural end of man, and cannot be denied without the
denial of that supernatural end. And on account of this end the relation
between the two Powers cannot be one of co-ordination, and must be one of

Nothing can be further removed from the confusion of the two Powers, or
from the absorption of the one by the other, than this Idea of their
relation. For it is a purely spiritual power which belongs to the
priesthood: any power which it exerts over temporal things is indirect,
based simply upon the subjection of those temporal things to the bearer
of the divine law; and therefore this indirect Power extends over _all_
temporal things without exception, but over all only so far as they
concern the last end of human life.

The sum is this. God is the one Creator, Designer, and Ruler of the order
of Nature and the order of Grace, and in both has one end in view, the
glorification of Himself by His creatures; which glorification in beings
possessed of reason can only consist in the knowledge and love of His
infinite perfections.

There is no power on earth of man over man but that which is derived from
God, either mediately or immediately; and therefore every power is,
strictly speaking, vicarious, a portion of His lordship over the human
race, committed to man, and subject to the end of His glorification by
His creature: in which is comprehended the ultimate happiness of that
creature; since that happiness is itself the exercise of his mind and his
will in knowing and loving his Creator, so that God's honour is the
creature's bliss.

But, further, the order of nature was in its origin united with the order
of grace, and subordinated to it. The intervention of the Fall did not
dissolve this subordination. The long ages of the Revolt only led up to
the Restoration, which was prophesied at the moment of the Revolt, and
intended even before it. Thus the Power divinely instituted to carry on
the human race—the Power of civil government—the power which represents
God in the order of nature, is yet subordinated by Him to the power
which He Himself has instituted in the order of Grace.

This second Power at the time of the Restoration springs directly from
the Person of the Son; who as He was sent by the Father, so sent His
apostles; but He conveyed that power especially to Peter and his heirs in
the fulness of a royal priesthood which teaches His faith for ever; so
that no power on earth exists so directly instituted by God, and so
manifestly vicarious of God's own power, as that of Peter, viewed in
himself and in his heirs; and given with the express promise that all the
power of the enemy shall not prevail against it.

In all this God, who cannot be at variance with Himself, made the two
Powers to help each other, conferring upon each distinct offices, which
concern respectively the natural and the supernatural life of man, but
likewise subordinating the natural to the supernatural end in the person
and race of the Second Adam, as He had subordinated it in the person of
the First Adam.

One of the greatest saints and rulers, who shines in the firmament of the
Church with almost unparalleled lustre, has expressed this union under
the image of a human body, seeing the natural light by two eyes, but
directed by one mind, the mind of Christ. He is the one Head of the two
Powers, ruling in temporal sovereignty by the hand of kings, in spiritual
by the Priesthood which He has inaugurated. If we imagine the one mind of
the God-man thus ruling the Christendom which He has made out of Himself
by the two eyes of the kingdom and the priesthood, we reach the divine
ideal of the relation between the two Powers. Thus St. Gregory VII.
observes in his letter to Rodolph, Duke of Suabia, A.D. 1073:[28] "The
sovereign reigns most gloriously, and the Church's vigour is
strengthened, when priesthood and empire are joined in the unity of
concord. There should be no fiction, no dross, in that concord. Let us
then confer together, for as the human body is directed in the natural
light by two eyes, so when these two dignities are united in the harmony
of pure religion, the body of the Church is shown to be ruled and
enlightened with spiritual light. Let us give our best attention to these
matters, so that when you have well entered into what is our wish, if you
approve of our reasons as just, you may agree with us. But if you would
add or subtract anything from the line of conduct which we have marked
out, we shall be ready, if God permit, to consent to your counsels." The
words "if God permit" indicate very gently that subordination, grounded
upon the pre-eminence of the divine law, and the divine Ruler who upbears
it, which, in case of difference, the natural must yield to the
supernatural authority. There is the fullest recognition that to temporal
sovereignty all things belong which concern natural right. In these few
words I think that St. Gregory VII. has summed up the settled view,
policy, and practice of all his predecessors and of all his successors
upon the relation between the two Powers, and the importance of their
agreement for the good of human society. Never has any one of them
denied to human sovereignty the exercise of all those rights which belong
to natural law. Never has any one of them failed to maintain that all
things which belong to natural law are subordinate to those things which
touch the salvation of man, and accordingly that when the two orders of
things come into conflict, the natural must yield to the supernatural. It
is obvious to add how many mixed things there must be, which enter into
both domains, and the treatment of which will affect the harmony between
the two Powers.

From all the above it results that the denial of the supernatural end in
man, individual or collective, constitutes that which is the complete
heathenism. In proportion as the bearers of the Temporal Power have more
or less approached this heathenism has their opposition to the Spiritual
Power been more or less intense; in proportion as they have acknowledged
and acted with a due regard to the supernatural end, they have also
acknowledged the Spiritual Power and acted in harmony with it.

The perfect ideal relation between the two Powers has been expressed by
the term of marriage, in which Christ, the celestial Bridegroom in the
Spiritual Power, espouses the temporal order. This image is in remarkable
accordance with the origin of the race, and with the prefiguration of
Christ in Adam. It is as if the divine order at the Fall fell into the
background, and in its slumber the human was taken out of it. But when
the human race awoke in the new Adam, the divine order greeted the human
as bone of its bone and flesh of its flesh, and wooed it to rule the
world with it in the stable union of wedlock. This image at least may
serve to indicate the various relations which have hitherto existed
between the two Powers. It is itself the ideal relation intended by God.
Then, as a matter of fact, during the first three centuries the Church,
with her divine claims, turns to the Temporal Power inviting it to an
alliance. This is the Church's relation to the heathen State, as it were
the time of wooing. Next the Temporal Power accepted this invitation and
united itself with the Church, so that each preserving its own domain,
they ruled the world together. That was the relation of the Church to the
truly Catholic State, a marriage disturbed by no division and separation,
when unity of faith preserved the marriage vow unbroken. Each then,
indeed, might have misunderstandings, because the bearers of the two
Powers, like husband and wife, are human beings; but since there was the
stable will in both to preserve the marriage vow undefiled in Christ,
such misunderstandings were easily overcome. Perhaps this expresses the
whole medieval condition of things in this respect as accurately as can
be done. Thirdly, the Temporal Power divorced itself from the Church's
faith, and from obedience to her in divine things; that is the state of
broken wedlock. It has various decrees. First, the housewife divorces her
husband and breaks the marital band: that in itself constitutes the
apostate State. Secondly, she dissolves the marriage by entering into
connection with another, to whom she gives power over the household, and
with his aid oppresses the lawful husband: that is the position of the
heretical State. Thirdly, the housewife will no longer tolerate the
single rule of him who has alienated her from her husband; she is willing
to have more than one temporary connection, and amongst the many perhaps
the husband, if he will accept such terms: that is the position of the
indifferent State. Thus we get from this image of marriage[29] an
adequate measure of all the relations which have hitherto subsisted
between Church and State.

But the purpose of the foregoing chapter has been to set forth the ideal
relation between the two Powers intended by God in the Incarnation and
the Passion of His Son, and springing out of the junction of these two
mysteries of His love.


[18] See Die Harmonie des alten und des neuen Testamentes, von Dr. Konrad
Martin, p. 190.

[19] Philo de Monarchia, lib. 2. Legation to Caius, quoted by Vincenzi,
p. 21.

[20] Observe in St. Clement's Epistle how it is assumed as undoubted that
bishop, priest, and deacon had succeeded to the three orders of the
levitical worship.

[21] 1 Peter ii. 25; Heb. x. 21, iii. 1, v. 10; Matt. xxiii. 8; Luke
xxii. 29; John xx. 21; Matt. xxviii. 20; John xxi. 15.

[22] S. Thos. de Reg. Prin., lib. I. c. 14, translated.

[23] Taparelli, Saggio teoretico di dritto naturale.

[24] Bossuet.

[25] See Ephes. iv. 11-16.

[26] Bossuet.

[27] De Regimine Principis, lib. I. c. xv.

[28] Mansi, Collectio Conciliorum, xx. p. 75.

[29] I am indebted to Phillipps' "Kirchenrecht" for this illustration of
marriage. It is a work to which I am under many obligations.



_Transmission of Spiritual Authority from the Person of Our Lord to Peter
and the Apostles, as set forth in the New Testament._

The Spiritual Power rests for its origin, so far as all Christians are
concerned, upon the transmission of spiritual authority from the Person
of our Lord to Peter and the Apostles.

That transmission runs up as a fact by a living unbroken line of men to
our Lord Himself. It subsists as a kingdom subsists. As the governments
of England, or France, or Russia, or China, occupy a portion of the
earth, and by that fact are recognised quite independently of any records
which attest their rise and growth, so the far greater and more widely
spread government of the Church exists, and is in full daily action,
independently of any records which attest its origin. Day by day in the
sacrament of Baptism it admits children into the Christian covenant; day
by day upon myriads of altars, from the rising to the setting sun, it
offers the unbloody sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ; day by day
in unnumbered confessionals it exercises in binding and loosing the
sacrament of Penance; day by day its priests teach, support, console,
uphold, in ways which it would exhaust the power of language to describe,
a multitude of its people. This is its vital force as a kingdom, which it
has gone on exerting for eighteen hundred and fifty years without a
moment's suspension. This vital force does not proceed from any record
which attests it: it is not stored up in any book, but in a divine
presence resting on a living succession of men, which perpetuates
itself—which, as a fact, goes on increasing in volume and in the effects
which it produces from age to age.

Nevertheless, it is desirable to draw out as accurately as we can the
account of the first transmission of that spiritual authority by which
this kingdom exists, as we have it recorded for us in the writings of the
New Testament. For this purpose I shall quote the terms which express it
as given in each of the four Gospels and in the Acts of the Apostles and
the Epistles of St. Paul and in the Apocalypse.

First of all is the institution of that Priesthood which supports the
whole spiritual superstructure, and from which, as the stem, all its
branches spring. And this is seen to take place at a moment when our
Lord's Passion may be said to have begun—to be, as it were, the first act
of it. The fullest record we have is that given by St. Paul in the First
Epistle to the Corinthians, which runs thus: (1 Cor. xi. 23) "For I have
received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you: the Lord
Jesus, the same night in which He was betrayed, took bread, and giving
thanks, broke, and said, Take ye, and eat: this is My Body which shall be
delivered for you: this do for the commemoration of Me. In like manner
also the chalice, after He had supped, saying, This chalice is the new
testament in My Blood: this do ye, as often as ye shall drink, for the
commemoration of Me." The Apostle adds in His own words that this was an
everlasting memorial of the Lord's death, to continue until His second
coming, and that it so contained the Lord's Body and Blood that he who
ate or drank unworthily was guilty of the Body and Blood of the Lord.
"For as often as you shall eat this bread, and drink this chalice, you
shall show the death of the Lord until He come. Therefore, whosoever
shall eat this bread or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall
be guilty of the Body and Blood of the Lord."

St. Luke in the Gospel mentions the institution in terms similar to those
of St. Paul, especially in that he uses in respect of the Body the
sacrificial words, "Do or offer this in commemoration of Me," which St.
Paul uses of the chalice also, while St. Luke omits them. St. Matthew and
St. Mark record it more briefly still, not giving the sacrificial words
in either case; and St. John passes over the institution itself of the
Blessed Sacrament, while he adds very largely to the record of what was
said by our Lord on the eve of his Passion, and gives three whole
chapters which might almost be considered as a comment upon that act of
divine love. Indeed, the opening words, "I am the true Vine," seem to
point to the rite as having just been accomplished, and to give a divine
interpretation of the graces stored up in it. On the whole, it must be
said of these four accounts, even including that of St. Paul, that they
are rather an allusion to a thing otherwise well known to those for whom
it was written than a description of it. When St. Paul wrote, the
Priesthood and the Sacrifice had been in daily operation for twenty-five
or thirty years, and every Christian knew by the evidence of his senses
the full detail, both as to Priesthood and to Sacrament, of that to which
reference was made. This is a consideration which it is requisite to bear
in mind. Nothing could be further removed from the truth than to suppose
that we were intended to obtain our knowledge of what the Priesthood, the
Divine Sacrifice, and the Blessed Sacrament were, merely or mainly from
the record of them in the Gospel narrative. When this was first published
in writing, they were institutions upon which the Church had been already
founded; every detail of them was imprinted upon the heart of every
Christian, associated with his daily life, and enshrined in his practice.
To a heathen reading the Gospel, the words, "Do this in commemoration of
Me," might be an enigma; while to a Christian they carried the power of
which his whole spiritual being was the growth.

The institution of the Blessed Sacrament and of the Priesthood which is
to offer the Sacrifice is enacted by our Lord on the eve of His Passion
before the Apostles collected together, as He is about to make the
offering in commemorating which forever, until His final coming, the
Priesthood consists. Thus the moment of the institution is so chosen as
to connect it most intimately not only with His Person, but with that act
of our Lord wherein He is our High Priest, and in reference to which His
own words of institution carry so deep a significance. That which was
given by our Lord to His Apostles, that which they were to receive
themselves and give to others to the end of the world, was precisely that
which was to be offered on the same day for the sin of the world, which
is very exactly intimated in the tense used in the original; not a future
but a present tense: "Take, eat: this is My Body which is being broken
for you;" as if the action of His immolation had begun.

As the whole divine mission of our Lord is collected up in his
Priesthood, and no less the whole power which He left to His Church,
every circumstance of time, place, and occasion which belongs to its
institution has to be noted, and this in particular, that it is bestowed
before His death, and that it is the only power which is recorded to have
been actually bestowed before it. Perhaps it would be more correct to say
that His death is the crowning act of the eucharistic institution, and
accompanies the institution, understanding in this sense the words of St.
John, "Jesus knowing that His hour was come that He should pass out of
this world to the Father, He loved them unto the end," words by which he
introduces the account of that last evening of our Lord's life.

The basis of the whole structure being thus laid in the act which began
our Lord's Passion and commemorates it for ever, we proceed to the
testimony of the several Gospels as to the investiture of the Church's
rulers which followed the Passion.

1. The words in which St. Matthew records the transmission of spiritual
power from the Person of our Lord after His resurrection are the
following:—"The eleven disciples went into Galilee, unto the mountain
where Jesus had appointed them.... And Jesus came and spoke to them,
saying, All power is given to Me in heaven and in earth. Go forth,
therefore, and make disciples all nations, baptizing them in the name of
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to
observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold I am with
you all days, even to the consummation of the world."

The power thus given, as recorded by St. Matthew, comes direct from
Christ, as an outflowing of His all-power in heaven and on earth: it is
an universal power, co-extensive with all the purposes for which the
Church has been created, and enduring so long as the Church endures,
through the accompanying presence of the Lord; and it is given to the
Apostles collectively as to one body.

But St. Matthew, in a former part of his Gospel, had recorded a most
remarkable and singular promise made to Peter, or rather a group of four
promises forming one mass: the first, that he should be the Rock on
which Christ would build His Church; the second, that against this the
gates of hell should not prevail; the third, that Christ would give to
him the keys of the kingdom of heaven; the fourth, that whatsoever he
should bind on earth should be bound in heaven, and whatsoever he should
loose on earth should be loosed in heaven. Matthew (xviii. 17, 18) had
also recorded, a little later, a promise made to the Apostles
collectively, in which our Lord, after referring to the Church as an
authoritative tribunal for all His people, had added, "Amen, I say to
you, whatsoever you shall bind upon earth shall be bound also in heaven,
and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed also in
heaven." This promise then contained a part of the fourfold promise
already made to Peter, with the limitation, however, not only that it was
made to the Apostles conjointly, whereas it had been made to Peter
singly, but also that it was detached from the other part of the promise
so given to Peter. With respect to the first point, a power vested in a
Body, with the condition that it be exercised by common consent, differs
greatly from the same power vested in the Head of that Body, to be
exercised by him singly. It differs, as far as the conception of
aristocracy differs from the conception of monarchy. And the second point
above noted, that the promise thus given to the Apostles is detached from
the other parts of the promise which had been given to Peter,
corroborates this distinction. The powers which indicate monarchy lie in
those parts of the promise which were not given to the Apostles

The whole testimony of Matthew, therefore, consists in the promise of
powers which he records to have been made before the Resurrection, and in
the giving of powers which he records to have been made after it.

2. The testimony of Mark is contained in the last six verses of his
Gospel: "And He said to them (the eleven), Go ye into the whole world and
preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized
shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned. And these
signs shall follow them that believe: in My name shall they cast out
devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents;
and if they shall drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they
shall lay their hands upon the sick, and they shall recover. And the Lord
Jesus, after He had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sitteth
on the right hand of God. But they went forth and preached everywhere,
the Lord working withal, and confirming the word with signs that

Here also the power comes direct from Christ; it is universal in its
range and permanent in duration; it is given to the Apostolic Body, and
St. Mark attaches to it the perpetual accompaniment of miraculous
effects, which he connects with the session of our Lord at the right hand
of God, as witnessing to the truth of the Apostolic mission; and not only
so, but as further implying that so long as the session at the right hand
of God continues, the divine effects which proceed from it shall
continue also.

It is remarkable that St. Mark's Gospel, which is the Gospel of Peter,
set forth by his disciple at his instance, is the only one of the four
which does not record either the promise or the conveyance of the special
power bestowed upon Peter.

3. St. Luke's record is this: Our Lord coming to the Apostles on the
evening of His Resurrection bestows upon them His peace; convinces them
that He has risen again; eats with them; illuminates their mind to
understand the Scriptures and the need of His Passion. "And He said to
them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to
rise again from the dead the third day; and that penance and remission of
sins should be preached in His name to all nations, beginning at
Jerusalem. And you are witnesses of these things. And behold I send the
promise of my Father upon you; but stay you in the city until you be
indued with power from on high. And He led them out as far as Bethania,
and lifting up His hands, He blessed them. And it came to pass while He
blessed them He departed from them and was carried up into heaven."

Luke completes his account in the Acts, where he says our Lord "showed
Himself alive, after His Passion, to the Apostles whom He had chosen by
many proofs, for forty days appearing to them and speaking of the kingdom
of God. And eating together with them He commanded them that they should
not depart from Jerusalem, but should wait for the promise of the
Father, which you have heard, saith He, by My mouth. For John indeed
baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not
many days hence. They, therefore, who were come together asked Him,
saying, Lord, wilt Thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?
But He said to them, It is not for you to know the times or moments which
the Father hath put in His own power; but you shall receive the power of
the Holy Ghost coming upon you, and you shall be witnesses unto Me in
Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and even to the uttermost part
of the earth. And when He had said these things, while they looked on, He
was raised up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight."

The power thus promised as about to be bestowed in terms so concise and
yet so simple, as "the promise of the Father sent down by the Son," "the
power from on high," "the power of the Holy Ghost coming upon you," is
afterwards described in the events which took place on the Day of
Pentecost, which therefore supplement or give their full meaning to St.
Luke's account of the transmission of spiritual authority. It is a power
coming down on the Apostles in a Body direct from Christ—the power, in
fact, which makes the Church to be what she is; it is a visible descent
of that perpetual presence of the Holy Ghost within her which is her
life, by which she is the kingdom of God on earth—a power universal and

It is given to the Apostolic College collectively, and there is no
mention here of a special power given to Peter. But St. Luke in his
account of the Last Supper introduces in a manner peculiar to himself a
special prerogative promised by our Lord to Peter. To gather its whole
force, it is necessary carefully to study the context in which it is

Immediately after his reference to the institution of the Lord's Supper
and the announcement that there was one among them who should betray his
Lord, St. Luke writes: "And there was also a strife among them which of
them should seem to be greater. And He said to them, The kings of the
Gentiles lord it over them; and they that have power over them are called
beneficent. But you not so; but he that is the greater among you, let him
become as the younger, and he that is the leader, as he that serveth. For
which is greater, he that sitteth at table or he that serveth? Is not he
that sitteth at table? but I am in the midst of you as he that serveth.
And you are they who have continued with Me in My temptations; and I
dispose to you, as My Father has disposed to Me, a kingdom; that you may
eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and may sit upon thrones judging
the twelve tribes of Israel. And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold
Satan has desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat. But I have
prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not; and thou being once converted,
confirm thy brethren. Who said to Him, Lord, I am ready to go with Thee
both into prison and to death. And He said, I say to thee, Peter, the
cock shall not crow this day till thou thrice deniest that thou knowest
Me. And He said to them, When I sent you without purse and scrip and
shoes, did you want anything? But they said, Nothing. Then said He unto
them, But now, he that hath a purse let him take it, and likewise a
scrip, and he that hath not, let him sell his coat and buy a sword. For I
say unto you that this which is written must yet be fulfilled in Me, 'And
with the wicked was He reckoned.' For the things concerning Me have an
end. But they said, Lord, behold here are two swords. And He said to
them, It is enough."

We may judge of the importance of this conversation by the fact that the
space given to it by St. Luke makes much more than half of his whole
record, so far as the events are concerned which took place in the upper
chamber, while it exceeds the whole record of those events given either
by St. Matthew or St. Mark. In fact, it constitutes the main addition
which St. Luke has made to the record of the first two Evangelists, and,
viewed as that addition, it specially draws our notice to his reason for
inserting it. The incident thus dwelt upon by St. Luke with so much
detail is omitted not only by St. Matthew and St. Mark, but by St. John
also. If we view the narrative of the Passion as a whole, given by the
four Evangelists, it is as special a contribution to it by St. Luke as
the conversation given by St. John.

And here, first, it may be again remarked, that our knowledge of the
institution either of the Priesthood or of the Blessed Sacrament did not
depend upon its record in the Gospels, because both were institutions of
the divine kingdom carried into effect before the Gospels were published,
and exhibited in the daily action of the Church. But our knowledge of a
contest having arisen among the Apostles at the very time our Lord was
speaking of one out of the Apostolic College itself who was to betray
Him—a contest the subject of which regarded the person who should be the
greater in that College—does depend upon the written record of it; and
the selection of it to occupy so large a part in so short a narrative, as
well as to form almost the whole addition which St. Luke was to
contribute to the previous record of St. Matthew and St. Mark, shows that
something was contained in it which was to be kept in perpetual
remembrance among Christians.

First, then, our Lord does not put aside this contest, but proceeds to
determine it. He draws the strongest contrast between heathen domination,
such as it both was then and had been in past time, and Christian
government, which as yet was not, but was to be. "The kings of the earth
lord it over them, and they that have power over them are called
beneficent. But you not so; but he that is the greater among you, let him
become as the younger, and he that is the leader as he that serveth."
Thus "a greater" and "a leader" in the Apostolic College is pointed out
as to be. But it is also pointed out that the type and example of this
superior is our Lord Himself. It is the character of one who represents
Him. "For which is greater, he that sitteth at table or he that serveth?
Is not he that sitteth at table? But I am in the midst of you as he that
serveth." If the character of our Lord's example is here pointed at on
the one hand, on the other the greatness of the rule to be exercised is
indicated. In both, in the character of the rule as being a service to
those who are ruled, and as representing our Lord Himself, the
application makes itself felt. The superior was to exercise not a
domination which had become the mark of Gentile kings, but a service for
the good of the governed such as Christ in all His ministry had shown.
The words recorded by St. Luke bring back those recorded by St. John,
which our Lord had uttered just before: "Know you what I have done to
you? You call me Master and Lord, and you say well, for so I am. If then
I, being your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, you also ought to
wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that as I have
done to you, so you do also." If this had been all which St. Luke had
recorded, the existence of a Superior in the Church after the pattern of
Christ Himself might have been inferred as to come.

But our Lord then proceeds to speak positively of a kingdom which He was
setting up, and of the place in it which the Apostles should hold: "And
you are they who have continued with me in my temptations; and I dispose
to you, as my Father hath disposed to me, a kingdom; that you may eat and
drink at my table, in my kingdom, and may sit upon thrones, judging the
twelve tribes of Israel." From these words we gather that in the kingdom
thus announced there should be not only one Superior after the pattern
of Christ—"the greater and the leader"—but the College of the twelve,
sitting on thrones, and judging the whole people of God. The kingdom and
its rulers are correlative and co-enduring. And is not the whole of the
order of the Episcopate symbolised in these words, as well as the
distinctive rank of the twelve Apostles? For do not they in their heirs
carry on through the whole duration of the kingdom on earth the mysteries
of that wonderful priesthood instituted at this moment, eating and
drinking at His table in His kingdom, and judging His people in the
tribunal which has reference to it?

This interpretation seems intimated in the words which follow, in which
an attack is spoken of as to be made upon all the rulers of this kingdom;
and not, as it would seem, a passing, but a continuing attack. "And the
Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he
may sift you as wheat. But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail
not; and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren." He singles
out one Apostle, and speaking of the whole Body in the plural as the
object of the attack, declares that He has prayed for that one, that he
may be able, at a future time, when he has been converted, to confirm his
brethren. Peter, supposing that our Lord spoke of the actual moment, said
to Him, "Lord, I am ready to go with Thee both into prison and to death.
And He said, I say to thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, till
thou thrice deniest that thou knowest Me."

Thus pointedly did our Lord exclude the time then present from that at
which Peter should confirm his brethren; and the event showed that, so
far from confirming them during the night of the Passion and the
subsequent Crucifixion, his faith and his conduct conspicuously failed:
while all deserted Him and fled, he denied Him.

But of what time, then, did our Lord speak? of what attack? of what
confirmation to be rendered by Peter?

The words which follow seem to give an answer to these questions. "And He
said to them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, did
you want anything? But they said, Nothing. Then said He unto them, But
now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a scrip, and he
that hath not, let him sell his coat, and buy a sword. For I say to you,
that this that is written must yet be fulfilled in Me, 'And with the
wicked was He reckoned.' For the things concerning Me have an end. And
they said, Lord, behold here are two swords. And He said to them, It is

What is this but that our Lord contrasts all the time of His ministry,
when He was with them, their visible Master, Lord, and Comforter, when He
sent them forth with instructions, after fulfilling which they were to
return to Him, with another period—that in which the things concerning
Him had an end: when He was to be taken from them: when they were to go
forth in His power, but without the resource of His visible Headship and
the comfort of His visible presence. That period is the whole time
during which the apostolic ministry—the eating and drinking at His table,
and the sitting on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel—continues.
During all this time the attack of which our Lord spoke is going on:
there is one who desires to have them that he may sift them as wheat:
there is one also whose faith, in virtue of our Lord's prayer, fails not,
and who is appointed to "confirm his brethren." Peter and the eleven, as
individual men, passed away and went to their reward; but the kingdom of
which our Lord was speaking, and which He disposed to them, did not pass,
nor by consequence its rulers, neither those who were to be sifted as
wheat, nor he who was to confirm his brethren. Thus during all that time
which was to begin after His passion, death, and resurrection, when the
kingdom was disposed to the Apostles, when the apostolic ministry was
being carried on, and when the undying enmity of the great enemy was to
be shown in the persistence of his attack, the chaff is burnt, the wheat
is sifted, and the Confirmer, after having been converted, is in the
midst of his brethren and performs his work.

Thus completely does our Lord answer the question of the strife which had
arisen among the Apostles, and so great is the pertinence of the
narrative thus introduced by St. Luke, so important its bearing upon all
future history. If, then, these fifteen verses be considered in their
whole context, not forgetting that they constitute the insertion of a
totally new incident, in which consists mainly the addition made by St.
Luke to the two points which are common to his own record and that of
the first and second Evangelist, that is, the declaration of our Lord as
to the disciple who should betray Him, and the institution of the Blessed
Eucharist, it will appear that St. Luke distinguishes Peter from the
other Apostles, and the power promised to him of confirming his brethren
from the powers given to hint in common with them, no less markedly than
St. Matthew and St. John, though in quite other language. And it must be
added that, as his narrative in the Acts of what took place on the Day of
Pentecost completes his statement in his Gospel concerning that "promise
of the Father," and "power of the Holy Ghost" coming down, with which the
Apostles were to be endued; so his narrative, from the Day of Pentecost
through eleven chapters of the Acts, to the end of the time during which
he speaks of the whole College of the Apostles, their preaching and
miracles, illustrates what is meant in his Gospel by the special office
here promised to Peter of "confirming his brethren." For Peter throughout
appears at the head of the Apostles: his Primacy is exhibited in action
from the first mention on the Day of Pentecost itself, as in the words,
"Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice and spoke to
them;" while his supervision of the whole work, which comprises the first
period of the Church's history, while the Apostles acted in one country
together and until they separated, is stated in the words, "Peter, as he
went through, visiting all," which indeed may be said to be a compendium
of the whole narrative. And of him alone is it recorded that, when he
was in prison, "prayer was made without ceasing by the Church unto God
for him."

This, then, is the testimony of St. Luke considered as a whole, contained
partly in the Gospel, partly in the Acts, as to the transmission of
spiritual power, and such is the very remarkable addition which he
contributes to the narrative given by his predecessors, St. Matthew and
St. Mark.

4. The testimony of St. John as to the transmission of spiritual power
may be divided, as in the cases of St. Matthew and St. Luke, into the
promises which he records as made before our Lord's Passion and the
fulfilment which he records as made after His resurrection.

The promises are contained in that same wondrous discourse of our Lord to
His Apostles, of which St. Luke has preserved for us another portion in
the passage just transcribed. They are given to the apostolic Body
collectively, and, so far as they refer to this particular point, the
transmission of spiritual power, are contained in the following verses:—

"Whatsoever you shall ask the Father in My name, that will I do: that the
Father may be glorified in the Son. If you shall ask Me anything in My
name, that will I do.—And I will ask the Father, and He shall give you
another Paraclete, that He may abide with you for ever: the Spirit of
truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, nor
knoweth Him: but you shall know Him, because He shall abide with you, and
shall be in you. I will not leave you orphans: I will come to you.—These
things have I spoken to you, abiding with you. But the Paraclete, the
Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all
things, and bring all things to your mind, whatsoever I shall have said
to you. Peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you: not as the
world giveth, do I give unto you.—If you abide in Me, and My words abide
in you, you shall ask whatsoever you will, and it shall be done unto
you.—You have not chosen Me: but I have chosen you; and have appointed
you, that you should go, and should bring forth fruit: and your fruit
should remain: that whatsoever you shall ask of the Father in My name, He
may give it you.—I tell you the truth: it is expedient to you that I go:
for if I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you: but if I go, I will
send Him to you.—But when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will teach
you all truth. For He shall not speak of Himself: but what things soever
He shall hear, He shall speak, and the things that are to come He shall
show you. He shall glorify Me: because He shall receive of Mine, and show
it to you.—And in that day you shall not ask Me anything. Amen, amen, I
say to you: if you ask the Father anything in My name, He will give it
you.—Sanctify them in truth. Thy word is truth. As thou hast sent Me into
the world, I also have sent them into the world."

In these words our Lord foretells and promises the coming of the
Paraclete to His Apostles, whom He would send to them from His Father,
and the perpetual possession of truth which the Paraclete, by His
presence, would confer upon them, and our Lord also says how He would
bestow on them His own mission, received from the Father. There was the
promise of a vast and manifold spiritual power involved in these things,
which we do not attempt to draw out; but we pass to the record of St.
John as to the bestowal of spiritual power made by our Lord on the eve of
His resurrection to the assembled Apostles. A clear and striking
connection and correspondence between the bestowal and the promise are
here to be seen. An interval of three days only in time had taken place,
but in it the passion and resurrection of our Lord had been accomplished.

"Now when it was late that same day, the first day of the week, and the
doors were shut, where the disciples were gathered together for fear of
the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them: Peace be
to you. And when He had said this, He shewed them His hands and His side.
The disciples therefore were glad when they saw the Lord. He said
therefore to them again: Peace be to you. As the Father hath sent Me, I
also send you. When He had said this, He breathed on them; and He said to
them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are
forgiven them: and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained."

In these few words, addressed to the Apostles together, our Lord would
seem to have conveyed a power as universal and as direct from Himself as
that contained in the corresponding passages of the three preceding
Evangelists. Nothing could be wanting to that mission of which it is
said, "As the Father hath sent Me, I also send you;" nothing to the
fulness of the grace communicated by the Lord breathing on them, and
saying, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost;" while the concluding words coincide
exactly with the promise made to the Apostles in St. Matthew, that they
should receive the power to forgive or to retain sins. In this interview
with His Apostles on the evening of the day of His resurrection. He
conveys to them the full apostolate in terms the simplicity of which is
only equalled by their majesty.

Had the testimony of St. John stopped here, it would have seemed to give
to the Apostles every attribute of power needed for their work. And it is
to be noted that St. Peter was present with his brethren, St. Thomas
alone being absent, and so, notwithstanding his recent fall, was included
in that grant to the Apostolic College.

But St. John, in the last chapter of his Gospel, has added to it a record
of that famous scene wherein our Lord bestowed on Peter singly a power as
universal as that contained in the fourfold promise recorded by St.
Matthew, a power also completely including the power given collectively
to the Apostles in the four Evangelists. Indeed, we seem to hear the same
voice sounding which said, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them,
and they that have power over them are called beneficent. But you not so;
but he that is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and
he that is the leader as he that serveth:" when the Lord said to Peter,
"Simon, son of John, lovest thou Me more than these? Feed My lambs: be
shepherd over My sheep; feed My sheep." How else was it possible for
Eternal Love to give so stupendous a charge and power in language so

But considering that our Lord had already bestowed a mission on the
Apostles collectively, which He likened to the mission received by
Himself from the Father, what could these words mean save the universal
pastorship of the flock of Christ? What _more_ could Peter receive than
the others, in answer to his greater love for his Master, except this?

The passages which we have now cited contain the whole account which we
possess, as written in the Gospels, of the spiritual authority first
promised, and then communicated by Christ to the Apostles and to Peter.

They comprehend two classes of passages, those which regard the Apostolic
College collectively, and those which regard Peter singly. And this
division is made the more remarkable by the fact that no power is either
promised or conveyed to any Apostle distinctly from the rest except to

In estimating their relative force, on the one hand, the full meaning
must be given to each of these classes; on the other, no interpretation
can be admitted which puts one class into conflict with the other. That
interpretation alone can be sound which binds them in one harmonious

If we take the passages which we have above cited, and which are
addressed to the Apostles collectively, that is, Matt. xxviii. 18 20,
Mark xvi. 15-20, Luke xxiv. 46-49, with Acts i. 3-9, and the passages
from our Lord's last discourse in St. John together with John xx. 21-23,
we find them to contain an universal supernatural power which is conveyed
to a Body consisting of the Apostles, and which is co-extensive with the
needs of that Body, and which lasts so long as the Body is to last.
Moreover, the language used by each Evangelist is sufficient by itself,
without reference to the others, to express the conveyance of this power,
but at the same time the language of each several Evangelist corresponds
to the meaning of the others.

If we take the passages addressed to Peter singly, that is, Matt. xvi.
17-19, Luke xxii. 31, 32, John xxi. 15-17, we find a power of Headship
superadded to the former power which had been conveyed to the Apostles as
a College. This Headship is conveyed in various expressions, such as the
Rock on which the divine House is built, while to it the promise of
perpetual stability is attached; the Keys, which indicate the supreme
power in the divine Kingdom; the power to bind and to loose everything in
heaven and earth, as given not to a collective Body, but to one singly,
which distinction in the terms of the grant greatly enlarges the
authority of the recipient by removing all restraint arising from common
action; the Confirming the brethren in the divine Family; the Pastorship
of the divine Flock. Each of these five things indicates sovereignty;
together they express it with cumulative evidence: but each of these
five things also indicates not collective sovereignty given to a college
of men, but the sovereignty proper to a single person.

These passages in three several Evangelists addressed to Peter singly
correspond to each other even more closely than the former class of
passages corresponds to each other, and the power conveyed in them is a
power more definitely marked than the power conveyed in the other.

Again, the two classes of passages, as given in the several Evangelists,
may be separately compared in the case of each; as Matt. xxviii. 18-20,
given to the College, with Matt. xvi. 17-19, promised to the individual;
as Luke xxiv. 46-49 and Acts i. 3-9, as said to all, with Luke xxii. 31,
32, prophesied of Peter singly; and, lastly, the various words addressed
to the Apostles collectively in the discourse after the Last Supper, and
the gift of the Holy Ghost breathed on them together in John xx. 21-23,
with the charge to Peter alone recorded in John xxi. 15-17. The result of
the most careful and accurate comparison will be to see that the full
power given to the Apostolic College in the concluding words of St.
Matthew's Gospel is not interfered with by the Headship promised to Peter
in chap. xvi. 17-19: that in Luke, the power from on high, and again the
power of the Holy Ghost coming down upon the Apostolic College, do not
exclude the confirming power promised to one of them: that in John, the
universal Apostolic mission and the imparting of the Holy Ghost, bestowed
by Christ upon the Apostles in common, so far from being opposed to the
universal Pastorship conferred upon Peter by our Lord on the shore of the
lake, receive as it were their completion and crown in the privileges of
the Head.

It may be noted that in St. Mark alone, the Evangelist who wrote from St.
Peter's side and at his direction, there is an absence of this
distinction of passages, some of which relate to the Apostles
collectively, others to Peter singly. He gives only one class of
passages, that which expresses the powers given to the Apostles in
common. But Matthew and Luke, while they record only the first class of
passages relating to powers given after the Resurrection, record also
singular promises made to Peter by our Lord before His Passion. St. John
alone, writing last, and in that purpose of supplementing the preceding
Gospels which so remarkably belongs to him, gives both words addressed
and powers assigned after the Resurrection to the Apostles collectively,
and words addressed and powers assigned to Peter singly. His record of
the creation of the universal Pastorship following upon his record of the
apostolic mission, following also the promise of the Holy Ghost to dwell
perpetually with the Apostles, and the gift of the Holy Ghost breathed
upon them from His mouth, seems to bind together in one harmony the whole
narrative in the four Gospels of the power given by our Lord for the
establishment of His Church. "As My Father sent Me, I also send you,"
addressed to a company of men, and the gift of the Holy Ghost accompanied
with the power to remit or retain the sins of men, seem to embrace all
the powers of the Apostolate. So, too, the words in the promise, "When
He, the Spirit of truth, be come, He shall lead you by the hand into all
truth," seem to embrace the whole gift of maintaining revealed truth in
the world: while the solemn charge, thrice given, and in the presence of
his brethren, to feed the sheep of Christ, addressed to one singly,
contains all the powers of the Primacy.

St. Luke says of our Lord, that "He showed Himself alive after His
Passion, by many proofs, for forty days appearing to the Apostles, and
speaking of the kingdom of God." We have cited all that we possess in the
written record of that intercourse, so far, that is, as concerns the
government of the kingdom which He was establishing. It would be a great
error to suppose that what we possess in the written record is all that
took place. There is a double warning of St. John given to prevent
precisely such an error. Immediately after his account of our Lord's
first and second appearance to the Apostles together, he adds, "Many
other signs also did Jesus in the sight of His disciples, which are not
written in this book. But these are written that you may believe that
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that, believing, you may have
life in His name." And immediately after his record of the Pastorship
conferred on Peter, he closes his Gospel with the words, "But there are
also many other things which Jesus did, which, if they were written every
one, the world itself, I think, would not be able to contain the books
that should be written."

The inference from these passages would be the same which meditation on
the whole subject would suggest, that in the great forty days between His
Resurrection and Ascension our Lord instructed His Apostles perfectly in
all which they needed to know concerning the kingdom of God for the
execution of their office as God's ministers for its propagation. Under
this head would fall the number and nature of the sacraments, their
ritual—in short, the government of the Church as a spiritual society. Of
the details which regarded these subjects, nothing was made known in the
writings, of which even the first in time, the Gospel of St. Matthew,
began to be published many years after the Church had been carried on in
its appointed order. The simple statement of such a fact is enough to
show that for the Christians themselves such details were not needed to
be expressed in a writing which might fall into other than Christian
hands; while to lay them open to the heathen empire, in the midst of
which the Church was rising, would have constituted a gratuitous danger,
and would have contradicted what we know to have been the discipline of
discretion long practised during the era of persecution. It was precisely
the polity of the Church at which the Roman State would take umbrage.
Thus the powers which are requisite for establishing and perpetuating
this polity were recorded as having been conveyed to the Apostles under
general heads. The language used for this purpose has a terseness, a
concentration, a sublimity which betokens the voice of a Sovereign, the
fiat of a Legislator. It befits the Person of the Word in the
construction of His divine work. It harmonises admirably with those
eight words upon the Mount which sustain and reveal a whole fabric of
divine philosophy and Christian life.

Thus the central mystery of divine love, carrying in it the perpetual
presence of the Incarnate God in His Church and the institution of the
Priesthood, is referred to in the briefest terms, as given to the
Apostles by our Lord on the eve of His Passion: "This do in commemoration
of Me." The authority which He bestowed on them after His Resurrection
is, as St. Matthew states it, a power to confer sacraments and to teach
all nations, carrying with it an obligation upon those who are taught of
obedience to all which the Apostles should enjoin as commanded by Christ,
and a promise of His perpetual presence with them in the fulfilment of
the office. As St. Mark states it, a power to teach all nations, to
dispense sacraments, and to work miracles, accompanied by the
co-operation of Christ sitting at the right hand of God. As St. Luke
states it, the promise of the Father sent upon them by Christ; power from
on high; power of the Holy Ghost coming upon them; baptism with the Holy
Ghost: all which is, in this case, elucidated by what took place on the
Day of Pentecost. As St. John states it, such a mission of the Apostles
by Christ as Christ received from the Father, and the gift of the Holy
Ghost proceeding from the mouth of Christ, together with the power of
remitting and retaining sins.

All this was power bestowed upon the Apostles collectively, which Peter,
as one of them, shared.

The privileges recorded to have been bestowed on Peter, if we treat, as
we must, the promise and the fulfilment as of equal force, are six—

The first, to be the Rock on which Christ would build His Church.

The second, that to the Church thus founded on the Rock, or to the Rock
itself, perpetual continuance and victory are guaranteed.

The third, that the keys of the kingdom of heaven, that is, supreme power
in the Lord's house, guardianship of the Lord's city, are committed to
him alone.

The fourth, that the power of binding and loosing whatsoever shall be
bound or loosed in earth and in heaven is committed to him singly.

The fifth, the power to confirm his brethren, in which name the Apostles
are specially indicated, because his own faith shall never fail.

The sixth, the supreme Pastorship of the whole flock of Christ.

Comparing carefully together what is said to the Apostles as a body with
what is said to Peter singly, we cannot but be struck with the fact that
while they received nothing without him, he received a power including
and crowning theirs. The terms of conveyance in the two cases are indeed
of similar majesty and simplicity, being the language of God in the
sovereign disposition of His gifts; but in the case of Peter there is
greater definiteness, and to him our Lord employs constantly the
parabolic form of expression, calling him the Rock, giving him the Keys,
committing to him singly the binding and loosing, and the confirmation
of the brethren, which is the image of a tower or structure held together
in one mass, charging him finally with the Pastorship of the flock of
Christ. This imagery is capable of wider application than any other form
of speaking, and as we know by the instance of the parables, contains in
it an amount of instruction which direct language can only convey at a
much greater length. None of it is given to any Apostle by himself,
except Peter; what the rest receive of it together, as in the case of the
power of binding and loosing, first promised and then given to them
collectively, is greatly exceeded by what he receives alone. And besides,
their commission and his throw light upon each other. The Papacy and the
Episcopate are their joint result. Give its full force to the Apostolic
commission, and Christ is with the one universal Episcopate all days to
the consummation of the world. Give the same full force to the words
bestowed upon Peter, and he feeds the flock of Christ until the second
coming of the Great Shepherd. Perpetuity enters equally into both.

There is thus accordance in the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles
as to the persons to whom transmission of spiritual power in the Church
was made. The Gospels and the Acts record in the form of narrative the
institution of the divine kingdom from its beginning and before it was
carried into effect. But there is another inspired writer who speaks of
it incidentally in his Epistles after it had been in operation between
twenty and forty years. The eminence of St. Paul as the Preacher of the
Gentiles is so great that we may endeavour to put together his testimony
concerning the constitution of that Church which he loved so well, and
for which he gave his life.

And, first, it is from him we derive that name of the Church which, more
perhaps than any other, expresses her nature, and identifies her with our
Lord. The Church to St. Paul is "the Body of Christ." "As the human
body," he says, "is one and has many members, and all the members of the
body, whereas they are many, yet are one body, so also is Christ. For in
one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles,
whether bond or free; and in one Spirit we have all been made to drink."
"There are," he says, "diversities of graces, but the same Spirit; and
there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord; and diversities
of operations, but the same God who worketh all in all;" and saying this
to the Corinthian disciples he well-nigh repeats it to the Roman. To him,
therefore, the whole structure of the Church's government is divine, as
drawn from Christ's Person, as animated by His Spirit, as the work of the
Eternal Father in and through the Son whom He has sent, and by the Spirit
whom He has also sent. And again, as he thus wrote in the middle of his
course to his Corinthian converts, so nearly at the end of it he
expressed to the beloved Church of Ephesus, the fruit of so many toils,
the same doctrine. This passage is sufficient of itself to give the
complete Pauline conception of the Church as it was present to his mind
in the whole range of time, stretching from the first to the second
coming of our Lord. "I therefore, a prisoner in the Lord, beseech you
that you walk worthy of the vocation in which you are called, with all
humility and mildness, with patience, supporting one another in charity,
careful to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. One Body
and one Spirit: as you are called in one hope of your calling. One Lord,
one faith, one baptism. One God and Father of all, who is above all, and
through all, and in us all. But to every one of us is given grace
according to the measure of the giving of Christ. Wherefore He saith:
Ascending on high He led captivity captive; He gave gifts to men. Now
that He ascended, what is it, but that He also descended first into the
lower parts of the earth. He that descended is the same also that
ascended above all the heavens, that He might fill all things. And He
gave some apostles, and some prophets, and other some evangelists, and
other some pastors and doctors for the perfecting of the saints unto the
work of the ministry, unto the edifying of the Body of Christ: until we
all meet into the unity of faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God,
unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of the fulness of Christ:
that henceforth we be no more children tossed to and fro, and carried
about with every wind of doctrine by the wickedness of men, by cunning
craftiness by which they lie in wait to deceive: but doing the truth in
charity, we may in all things grow up in Him who is the Head, even
Christ: from whom the whole Body, being compacted and fitly joined
together, by what every joint supplieth, according to the operation in
the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying
of itself in charity."

Are not these words a divine comment from the Apostle himself upon what
he means by the Body of Christ? It is no figure of speech, but the
grandest reality in the universe. The words contain the beginning,
middle, and end of his belief concerning the instrument of our salvation.
It is an inspired summary of the record in the Gospels which we have been
so long considering. Its compass reaches from the ascension above the
heavens to the completion "of the perfect man" in the fulness of the
mystical Body, when all the labours and sufferings of earth are at an
end. It places the security against error of doctrine, as well as the
growth of charity in the working together of one ministry through the
whole Church, and through all time, not only drawn from the institution
of Christ, but enclosed in the sacred structure of His Body; nor can we
conceive of any preaching of the Gospel without a divine mission derived
from Christ through this ministry, as he elsewhere wrote to the Roman
Church: "How shall they call on Him in whom they have not believed? or
how shall they believe Him of whom they have not heard? or how shall they
hear without a preacher? and how shall they preach except they be sent?"
There is, in his conception, one mission only in the Body of Christ. The
splitting of this Body of Christ into two or three parts would be simply
the destruction of St. Paul's conception, not an atom of it would remain.
There is, in his conception, but one ministry, in unity and harmony with
itself, the guardian and the propagator of the truth—Bishops existing
outside this one divine ministry and exercising authority are a complete
denial of the whole idea.

It is in exact accordance with these passages that St. Paul, in his
pastoral letter to his disciple St. Timotheus, reminds him of the grace
of God derived to him by the imposition of the Apostle's hands, and the
hands of the Presbytery. He speaks manifestly of a divine gift descending
through the hands of men from Christ, "who, ascending up on high, gave
some apostles, some prophets," and the rest.

Again, it is after a strict and precise charge to St. Timotheus
respecting the quality of the persons whom he should choose for the
office of the episcopate that St. Paul winds up with the words: "These
things I write to thee, hoping that I shall come to thee shortly, but if
I tarry long that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in
the house of God, which is the Church of the living God, the pillar and
ground of the truth." Here then, also, as in the letter to the Ephesians,
he describes the divinely appointed ministry as bearing and upholding the
truth which it is charged to impart; so that St. Augustine was putting
St. Paul's doctrine forth when he wrote, "I should not believe the Gospel
unless the authority of the Catholic Church moved me thereto."[30]
According to St. Paul's mind, it is the living ministry which carries to
the world the knowledge "of the living God," a knowledge which dwells in
"the house of God" alone. Outside the house the truth is corrupted, and
the ministry loses its gift.

From the union of these passages, to which many more of like import might
be added, we learn that the unity of the Church, in St. Paul's idea and
expression, rests upon the very deepest foundation, the unity of Christ's
Person as receiving a mission from the Father, which He accomplishes in
His own Body, and by the working of His Spirit. If the promise to St.
Peter and its fulfilment were for a moment put out of sight, yet this
divine unity testified in St. Paul's letters would still remain in all
its force, and could not be disregarded without giving up St. Paul's mind
altogether. How can it be accomplished except by means of the promises
given and the charge imposed on St. Peter? Thus St. Paul, in testifying
directly to the unity, a witness the depth, precision, force, and
tenderness of which no one can deny, testifies indirectly to the means by
which it is obtained. If there be one ministry discharging in the Body of
Christ the functions which St. Paul assigns to it, there must be the
organ also by which that ministry remains one. Nor does it follow less
that, as the ministry is visible and permanent, so likewise must the
organ of its unity be visible and permanent. And if St. John records, in
the most emphatic manner, the universal pastorship bestowed on Peter by
his Lord, St. Paul sets forth as a reality the unity thus created in a
symbol more striking, if possible, than the flock of the One Shepherd,
for it is the Body of the One Lord. If the Apostle who lay on our Lord's
breast and heard Him declare Himself to be the good Shepherd who gives
His life for His sheep, recorded the transmission of that charge to St.
Peter under that same figure of the Shepherd in the injunction to feed
the lambs and the sheep of Christ, St. Paul, who was carried up to heaven
and heard unspeakable words, saw from his prison in Rome, through the
whole vast period from our Lord's first to His second coming, the growth
of that sacred Body which was to fill all in all, compacted together of
the apostles, doctors, and pastors, whom at the beginning Christ gave,
whom He would continue to the end to give; for does it not run, "until we
all meet into the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of
God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of the fulness of
Christ." In all this St. Paul declares that, so long as the Church is
militant, her ministry is the organ of truth, and this because the Church
is the Body of Christ.

Thus it is a great and striking harmony with the witness of the Gospels
and of the Acts to the transmission of Spiritual Power in the Church
which the vessel of election, the Preacher of the Gentiles, contributes.
Thus the figure of St. Peter stands in the New Testament between St.
Matthew and St. John, supporting him on one side, and St. Paul and St.
Luke on the other.

Nothing can be clearer than the mind of St. Paul in these passages. To
him the fabric of government is inseparably united with the fabric of
doctrine. It is one and the same institution which is indivisible in its
organic structure and infallible in the truth which it upbears and
expounds. He sets forth a Creed at the same moment that he describes a
Body. The Creed and the Body make one thing. St. Paul's doctrine of unity
is part of his conception of truth. The Church, the Body of Christ, is as
completely possessed by all the truth which came by Jesus Christ as it is
dowered with the grace which also came by Him. And the Christian
ministry, viewed as a whole, as the mantle dropped by Him who, ascending
up on high, led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men, is that wherein
the double gift of truth and grace resides indefeasibly.

I pass to another point in St. Paul's teaching. Do the recipients of the
government which in general and in particular he thus describes receive
it from above or below? Does the magistracy draw its authority from a
charge which the community bestows, or from a power which creates the
community itself? Which is first both in principle and in time, the
magistracy or the community?

There are six names by which, in various parts of his epistles, St. Paul
describes the commission in virtue of which he spent his life and finally
poured forth his blood in preaching the Gospel. These six names are
apostle, minister, doctor, steward, ambassador, and herald. Sometimes
they are mentioned singly, sometimes they are blended with each other in
a way which sheds light upon them reciprocally. He terms himself an
ambassador, when he says, "for Christ, therefore, we are ambassadors, God
as it were exhorting by us." And he beseeches his converts to pray for
him "that speech may be given me that I may open my mouth with
confidence, to make known the mystery of the Gospel, for which I am an
ambassador in a chain."[31] He refers all his power back to God when he
says, "Our sufficiency is from God, who also has made us fit ministers of
the New Testament," for this word, the original of deacons, signifies
here a ministry to God, not a service of men. The sufficiency was that
God had accredited certain men to bear to their fellow-men a certain
document, a new covenant. They stood in the relation of ministers to Him
who appointed them; to those to whom they came they were the commissioned
agents of a sovereign. He calls himself also a steward,[32] where he
says, "Let a man so account of us as the servants of Christ, and the
dispensers of the mysteries of God. Here now it is required in dispensers
that a man be found faithful; but to me it is a very small thing to be
judged by you, or by man's day,—but He that judgeth me is the Lord." And
in another place he very remarkably joins together three terms which he
applies to himself, while he specially connects them with the source and
head of all power in that work of the dispensation which He became man to
accomplish. St. Paul breaks into a sort of creed, which is like a summary
of his whole message, in these most solemn words which he addresses to
the archbishop whom he had himself set in the great see of Ephesus:
"There is one God and one Mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus,
who gave Himself a redemption for all, a testimony in due times.
Whereunto I am appointed a herald and an apostle (I say the truth, I lie
not), a doctor of the Gentiles, in faith and truth." And he joins the
same three names together in another letter to the same Bishop, "The
Gospel whereunto I am appointed a herald and an apostle and a doctor of
the Gentiles."[33] The original word herald was rendered by preacher; and
the term Apostle has become so fixed as the name of those to whom our
Lord committed His Church in chief, that the lesson as to the source of
the authority which it bears in its meaning of "the sent," has been
impaired to many minds. A multitude of men preach in these days without
any notion that a preacher is a man who bears a divine commission from a
Sovereign to announce pardon to His people, and that a man who chooses
himself for such a function is an impostor. Now what I wish to remark of
these six terms, by which St. Paul expresses his own authority and that
of the brethren who held the like rank with himself, is that they all
concur in deriving the power and the commission which they represent from
the person giving it, that is Jesus Christ, in the name of His Father,
and not from the people for whose good it is bestowed. The whole
publication of the Gospel is, in fact, called "The Proclamation," which
the word preacher and preaching no longer conveys. It is the message of a
King to His subjects declared by His heralds. They convey it to those who
hear it by a commission from above. Their whole authority comes from
above, not from below. It is not the election of brethren which is the
principle of their mission, but the charge of the Sender, Christ. And as
the Apostles were sent, they sent their successors. Election, in
subsequent times, however conducted, indicated the person upon whom power
fell; but the power was from God.

A further light is thrown upon this most grand and beautiful doctrine of
St. Paul as to the Church being the Body of Christ, and her ministry the
appointed organ for maintaining divine truth through the whole course of
time upon earth, by the magnificent vision bestowed upon the beloved
Apostle when he was by command of Domitian a prisoner in the island of
Patmos, "for the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus." As he "was in
the Spirit on the Lord's day, he heard behind him a great voice as of a
trumpet, saying: What thou seest write in a book, and send to the seven
Churches which are in Asia, to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamus,
and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicia. And
I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. And being turned, I saw
seven golden candlesticks; and in the midst of the seven golden
candlesticks one like to the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to
the feet, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. And His head and
His hairs were white, as white wool and as snow, and His eyes were as a
flame of fire, and His feet like unto fine brass, as in a burning
furnace. And His voice as the sound of many waters. And He had in His
right hand seven stars. And from His mouth came out a sharp two-edged
sword: and His face was as the sun shineth in His power. And when I had
seen Him, I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me,
saying, Fear not, I am the First and the Last, and He that liveth, and I
became dead, and behold I am living for ever and ever, and have the keys
of death and of hell. Write, therefore, the things which thou hast seen,
and which are, and which must be done hereafter: the mystery of the seven
stars which thou sawest in My right hand, and the seven golden
candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven Churches: and
the seven candlesticks are seven Churches."

This vision occupies a quite singular position. It is, as it were, the
opening scene of that revelation which was made by our Lord to the
Apostle of the things that should happen in His Church from His first to
His second coming; and which terminates only in the conclusion of the
great conflict between the city of God and the city of the devil, when
the seer beholds the Holy City "coming down out of heaven from God,
prepared as a bride adorned for her husband." It took place rather more
than sixty years after the day of Pentecost, when two persecutions of the
Church, the first under Nero, and the second under Domitian, had already
tried the patience of the saints. Thus it dates a full generation after
the time of St. Paul. In accordance with the position which it occupies
at the head of a revelation given by the Lord Himself to him,

                  "Che vide tutti i tempi gravi,
    Pria che morisse, della bella sposa,
    Che s'acquistò con la lancia e co' chiavi,"

it is a vision of extraordinary power and majesty, repeating, and if
possible excelling, the grandeur of similar visions in the old prophets,
Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.[34] Our Lord appears with the incommunicable
name of God, as the First and the Last: as the Redeemer, that Living One
who became dead and is alive for ever and ever; as the Ruler who orders
all things as to the race of man, having the keys of death and of hell;
as the world's Teacher, with the sharp sword of the Word, the instrument
of His dominion, proceeding out of His mouth; in the glory of the
Resurrection, for His face is as the sun shining in his strength. The
disciple who lay upon His breast at the Supper, now, when he saw Him,
fell as one dead at His feet; but He, deigning to lay His right hand on
him, raised him up, and communicated the meaning of the vision: and we
learn from our Lord's own words that it showed Him present in the
government of His Church. Write, He commanded the seer, the mystery of
the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand, and the seven golden
candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven Churches, and
the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are seven Churches. The mystery,
He said—and the number seven is mystical. The seven stars represent the
whole Episcopate held in the right hand of the Lord:[35] the seven
candlesticks the whole number of Churches throughout the world: and that
He, the Son of Man, is in the midst of them, His perpetual government in
and through those whom He has appointed:[36] and the seven letters
directed to the seven Churches, may by parity betoken seven ages or
conditions of the one Church.[37] For the vision, taken as a whole,
exhibits the perpetual action of Christ, not in one place, but in the
midst of His people from the beginning to the end. It is thus equivalent
to the scope of the entire Apocalypse, at the head of which it stands. It
also conveys to us, with the witness of St. John, a complete agreement
with the conception of St. Paul as to the unity of the divine mission
centred in the Church, and exerted by her Episcopate; as to the relation
of that Episcopate to Christ, which in every age is held in His right
hand, as in every age He is in the midst of the seven golden
candlesticks; as to the relation also of that Episcopate to the people
over which it is set: for our Lord commands what He would say to the
Churches to be written to their several angels, to express the truth that
they summed up in their person the flock committed to them. The stars
are in His hand, while He is in the midst of the candlesticks. They are
His angels, and their authority lies in the message which they bear from
Him, not in any charge deputed to them by those whom they govern. Each
letter gathers up the character of the people, in the single person of
the angel: "I know thy works, thy labour, and thy patience:" thus
expressing the doctrine of St. Cyprian, "the Church is in the Bishop."

Thus St. Paul's truth of the Body of Christ is delineated in the vision
of Him who is the First and the Last, who became dead, and who lives for
ever and ever, and from whom not only does all spiritual power originally
descend, but is perpetually carried in His right hand; which does not
leave Him because it is used by human instruments under Him. And if the
vision seen by St. John is in perfect agreement with the conception of
St. Paul, no less does it agree with, and convey in visible action, that
whole account of the origin and transmission of spiritual power which we
have been contemplating in the harmony of the Gospels and the Acts. Only
it is to be noted that what the Gospels declare is _to be_, the vision
exhibits _as being_.

If we take the whole mass of the Scripture testimony respecting the
transmission of spiritual power for the government of the Church and the
constitution of her polity, four qualities will appear salient: its
coming from above; its completeness; its unity; its independence of civil

1. First, the power thus instituted comes down from Christ upon Peter
and the Apostles, and from them upon their successors. It does not spring
from election out of the body, but by an exactly reverse process; the
body itself springs from it. On the eve of the Passion, just after the
institution of the Priesthood, our Lord said: "You have not chosen Me,
but I have chosen you, and have appointed you that you should go and
should bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain."[38] This is
the whole order of the divine appointment, from beginning and throughout.
The Apostles develop out of themselves ministry and people. This growth
Peter's preaching on the day of Pentecost inaugurated, as the power from
on high came down upon him and his brethren. The whole history of the
Church through the first three centuries is a faithful continuation of
this beginning. But here we have to note how every particle of the
Scripture record testifies to the spiritual power coming down from above,
not rising up from below. The figure of this in the old law was Aaron
invested by Moses with the Priesthood in the face of the whole
congregation of the children of Israel; the counterpart in the new is
Christ ascending to heaven, blessing His brethren as He ascended, and
sending down upon them the promise of the Father. Thus the divine polity
unfolds itself in a spiritual descent.

2. The second quality is the completeness of this power. The absence of
details in the records, far from being an impeachment of this
completeness, subserves to its expression, because the power given is
summed up in a general head, which embraces all particulars under it. Of
this summing up we have in the same Gospel of St. John an instance both
in what is said to the Apostles and in what is said to Peter. As to the
Apostles, the Incarnation, often called by the Fathers the Dispensation,
embraces the whole work of our Lord; not only His coming in our flesh,
but His satisfaction for the sins of the world in the flesh assumed. All
this was a mission from the Father. Now, in investing His Apostles with
power on the evening of the Resurrection, He used this very expression:
"As My Father hath sent Me, I also send you." Whatever there was to be
done and ordered in the Church from the beginning to the end was, by the
force of the similitude with Himself thus used, included in these words.
They are truly imperial words, constituting a spiritual empire. So,
again, as to St. Peter, our Lord was "the great Pastor of the sheep in
the blood of the everlasting testament." As such He had been marked out
by prophecy: it was His name of predilection: "I am the Good Shepherd:
the Good Shepherd giveth His life for the sheep." Now, this and none
other was the term He used when He would convey to Peter, in the
concluding words of the last Gospel, supreme authority: "Lovest thou Me
more than these? Be shepherd over My sheep." What could be added to this
one word? That which we render "Be shepherd" comprehends all offices
which government in the divine polity requires. It is the word chosen of
old in psalm and prophecy for the sovereignty of the Messiah. First the
Psalmist sung, as he recorded the splendid promise of the future King,
"Ask of Me, and I will give Thee the Gentiles for Thine inheritance, and
the utmost parts of the earth for Thy possession: Thou shalt _rule_ them
with a rod of iron."

Again, when Herod, assembling all the high priests and scribes of the
people, inquired of them when the Christ should be born, they replied to
him out of the prophet Micheas, describing by this word the reign of
Messiah: "Out of thee shall come forth the Captain that shall _rule_ My
people Israel."

Again, when the last prophet saw in the Apocalyptic vision the glory of
the Word of God going forth as a Conqueror, he described His power in the
same expression: "The armies of heaven followed Him on white horses,
clothed in linen white and clean. And out of His mouth goes forth a sharp
sword, that in it He may strike the nations: and He shall _rule_ them
with a rod of iron." Our Lord of set purpose selected the one word[39]
which conveyed His regal dominion, and bestowed it upon Peter. Nor did He
give it with a restricted but with a universal application: "Be shepherd
over My sheep." Who can refuse St. Bernard's comment: "What sheep? the
people of this or that city, or country, or kingdom? _My_ sheep, He said.
To whom is it not plain that He did not designate some, but assign all?
Nothing is excepted where nothing is distinguished."[40] On the two
sides, therefore, the power is complete; in its nature, as that
specially belonging to Christ; in its subjects, as universal. This one
word includes in itself all inferior derivations, whether of episcopal or
other subordinate power, and in virtue of it St. Peter becomes the source
of the whole episcopate as well as the type or figure of every local

If the special conversations between our Lord and the Apostles which
passed in the forty days are not recorded for us in their details, as
being privileged communications made only to the chiefs of His kingdom,
for their guidance, and as instructions to be carried out by them in
practice, yet the institution of an everlasting polity by Him is marked
out in the two instances of Mission and Rule just cited, as well as in
the other passages before collected. In fact, it is in the institution of
such a polity that the perfection of our Lord as Lawgiver and Governor
consists. Nothing in His kingdom was left to chance, or to sudden
expedients arising in unforeseen dangers. All was from the beginning
foreseen and provided for. When He said to Peter, "Follow thou Me," which
was His interpretation of the commission He had just before given to
Peter, and a crucifixion which ensued upon a crowning in the case of the
disciple as of the Master, the whole sequence of His Church through the
centuries was in His mind and expressed in His voice.

3. But further, the very basis of the Spiritual Power, as delineated in
the testimony of Scripture, is so laid in unity, that if unity be broken
the idea itself is utterly destroyed.

"The Captain who should rule My people Israel" presents a very definite
idea. "To feed the flock of Christ" is equally definite. The one is the
portrait of Christ in prophecy; the other represents His kingdom in
history. It is one people and one flock, as it has one King and one
Shepherd. So the Rock on which the Church is built is one structure; the
confirmation of the brethren is the holding together one family in that
one structure. When St. Paul convoked the ancients of the Church at
Ephesus, he expressed the duty of Bishops through all time and place:
"Take heed to yourselves and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost
hath placed you Bishops, to rule the Church of God, which He has
purchased with His own blood." This work of the Holy Ghost was not
limited either as to time or as to place, and belongs to the Bishops of
the whole world as much as to those who met at Ephesus to receive the
farewell of St. Paul. In precisely similar terms St. Peter charged the
Bishops whom he had planted in the provinces of Pontus, Galatia,
Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, "to feed the flock of God which is among
you;" indicating at once the unity of the flock and the unity of the
episcopate held by many shepherds. For it is one flock which they rule
everywhere; not each a separate fold. A confederation of Bishops, each
ruling a fold of his own, would frustrate the divine idea; also it would
be difficult to imagine a government more futile, or a spectacle less
persuasive to the world. If we take the account of the Church's ministry
quoted just above from St. Paul, its unity runs through the whole as much
as its descent from above. The Body of Christ expresses both equally. If
either part is taken away, the essence is gone. A ministry such as is
there described, existing in a dozen different countries of the earth,
even if it possessed the same succession and order would present no such
idea as the Apostle contemplates, and offer no such guarantee of divine
truth as he dwells upon, unless it were organically one. Its witness in
one country might otherwise be diverse from its witness in another
country; and as each would have the same claim to be heard, the one would
neutralise the other. In fact, the Body of Christ would cease to be. So
ineffaceably is the Sacrament of Unity impressed on the whole Gospel
account of spiritual government. There is not a single promise made nor a
single power given except to the whole Church and to the one Church.

4. The three qualities we have described, the coming from above,
completeness, unity, are intrinsic to the essence of spiritual
government. They form together an external relation of entire
independence with regard to civil government. Nothing can by plainer than
the fact that Christ came from God, and that He gave to His Apostles, and
not to kings or rulers of the world, the Spiritual Power which He meant
to transmit. Equally plain is it that the power so given, being complete,
could derive nothing intrinsic to its essence from the Civil Authority;
and its unity demonstrates in no less a degree its independence of that
authority, for it is the same one power everywhere, whereas civil
government is both complete and different in each separate State. Thus
the independence of the Spiritual Power is essential to it, as flowing
out of the qualities which make it.

When we view the Spiritual Power as possessing inalienably these four
qualities, as coming from above, as complete in itself, as one in all
lands, and as independent of the Civil Power, the notion of perpetuity
will be found to be inherent in the thing so conceived. Again, the
promises made to it last as long as the subject to which they belong. As
the kingdom of Christ and the flock of Christ are perpetual from His
first to His second coming, so therefore is the Bearer of the keys and
the Shepherd of the flock. And yet more, the Body of Christ moves through
the ages, ever growing to His full stature and measure, so that this
living structure can as little fail as Christ Himself. The Head and the
Body live on together. Again, the secular power also, over against which
and in the midst of which in all lands and times the Spiritual Power
stands, is perpetual. The promise made to the College of Apostles,
"Behold I am with you all days to the consummation of the world," is an
express grant of perpetuity. The promise to Peter that the gates of hell
shall not prevail against the Rock, or the Church which is founded on the
Rock, is a grant of perpetuity equally express. The same is implied in
St. Mark's closing words, that our Lord sat down on the right hand of
God, after giving His commission to the Apostles to preach the gospel
through the whole world to every creature; and that as they went forth He
worked with them, confirming the word by signs following—a work and a
confirmation on His part which should last equally to the end, so long
as He was seated at the right hand of God. So equally the promise of the
Father, the Paraclete, sent down from above by the Son, is a permanent
power by which the Church was originally made and perpetually subsists.
All these divine promises cohere and shed light upon each other. Thus the
commission to Peter, "Feed My sheep," is universal, not only as to its
subject, which is the whole flock of Christ, but as to its duration,
which is so long as there is a flock to feed. It was a charge, not only
to a person, but to an office. If the thing itself to which it related
was to endure, it is obvious that the longer it lasted, and the more it
grew, the greater also the need of the office which should upbear it. The
duration of the living organism moved by the Head, which St. Paul so
strongly attests, and carries on into the unseen world, attests the
reciprocal duration of the Head.

As those divine words which convey the promise or confer the gift of the
Spiritual Power cohere and shed light on each other, so the impairing
them in any particular destroys their idea, which is to say that they
express a real and concrete existence, wherein the idea has passed into
an adequate act. This is Jesus Christ in His Kingship, the same
yesterday, to-day, and for ever.


[30] Contr. Epist. Manichæi, cap. 5, tom. 8, 154.

[31] 2 Cor. v. 20; Ephes. vi. 19, 20; 2 Cor. iii. 6.

[32] 1 Cor. iv. 1: ὑπηρέτας χριστοῦ καὶ οἰκονόμους μυστηρίων Θεοῦ.

[33] 1 Tim. ii. 7; 2 Tim. i. 11.

[34] Isaias vi. 1; Ezech. iv. 32; Dan. vii. 9.

[35] Compare the strikingly similar and almost contemporary passage in
the letter of St Ignatius to the Ephesians: "For Jesus Christ, our
inseparable life, is the mind of the Father, as also the bishops,
appointed throughout the earth, are in the mind of Christ."

[36] Baur, Kirchengeschichte der drei ersten Jahrhunderte, p. 272,
remarks, "Nicht ohne Grund hat man daher schon in den Engeln, an welche
die den sieben Gemeinden der Apocalypse bestimmten Schreiben gerichtet
sind, einen Ausdruck der Episcopatsidee gesehen—da die den sieben Engeln
entsprechenden Sterne alle zusammen in der Hand Christi sind, in ihm also
ihre Einheit haben, so kann durch den Engel, welchen jede Gemeinde hat,
nichts anders ausgedrückt sein, als die Beziehung, die sie mit Christus
als dem einen Haupte aller Gemeinden und der ganzen Kirche verknüpft."

[37] "Ideo septem scribi ecclesias ut una Catholica septiformi gratiæ
spiritu plena designetur."—_Cornel. a L. in loco._ "Wherefore in the
Apocalypse the whole Church is represented by the sevenfold number of the
Churches."—_St. Greg._, 1. B. 23, _Morals. on Job_. "Propter quod et
Johannes Apostolus ad septem scribit ecclesias, eo modo se ostendens ad
unius plenitudinem scribere."—_St. Aug. de Civ. Dei_, xvii. 4.

[38] John xv. 16.

[39] Heb. xiii. 20; John x. 11, xxi. 16; Ps. ii. 9: Sept. Matt. ii. 6, in
translating Mic. v. 2, where its equivalent is ἄρχοντα τοῦ Ισραὴλ; Apoc.
xix. 15; the same word, ποιμαίνειν, is used in all these passages.

[40] De Consideratione ad Eugenium Papam, 2, 8.



_The Transmission of Spiritual Authority as witnessed in the History of
the Church from A.D. 29 to A.D. 325._

It was requisite to draw out the full statement of the transmission of
Spiritual Power, as recorded in the Scriptures of the Church, before
passing to its historical fulfilment. How exactly the fulfilment
corresponded to the promise is attested for us by an unexceptionable
authority, almost at the end of the first century. This witness was given
just before the closing of the Canon of the New Testament itself. It is
to be deplored that almost all the early letters of the Sovereign
Pontiffs have been lost, but one of the first is extant in the letter of
St. Clement of Rome to the Corinthian Church. It belongs to the year 95
or 96, and was written during or immediately after Domitian's
persecution, when St. John the Evangelist was the sole survivor of the
Apostolic College. Its occasion was an attempt to depose the Bishop of
Corinth by a party in that Church. The matter was referred to the Roman
Church, and the Pope gives his judgment in words which we will quote
later. St. Irenæus,[41] about eighty years after this letter was
written, referred to it in these terms: "The blessed Apostles (Peter and
Paul), having founded and built up the (Roman) Church, delivered up the
administration of it to Linus; this is the Linus of whom Paul has made
mention in his letter to Timothy. His successor was Anacletus, and in the
third degree from the Apostles Clement received the bishopric, who had
both seen the blessed Apostles and lived with them, having their
preaching yet sounding in his ears, and their tradition before his eyes;
not alone in this, for there were still many left at that time who had
been taught by the Apostles. In the time then of this Clement, no slight
dissension having arisen among the brethren at Corinth, the Church in
Rome sent a most authoritative letter to the Corinthians, drawing them
together into peace, and renewing their faith, and recording the
tradition recently derived by it from the Apostles."

The nature of the dissension which he sought to appease was a violation
of the due succession in the episcopate. This fact led St. Clement to
give an account of its origin. This account, be it observed, dates
sixty-six years, or just two generations after the Day of Pentecost. It
is an historical narration of what had intervened, exhibiting the manner
in which the Apostles and their immediate successors had understood the
commission given them by our Lord, the terms of which we have just been
considering. There can be nothing more authentic or more valuable than
such a statement coming from such a source. It is a summary at the end
of the first century,[42] giving the order according to which the Church
was propagated, and it has the peculiarity of being issued by the
authority which stood at the head of all.

St. Clement[43] there enjoins obedience within the Christian body,
referring to the discipline of the Roman army, in these terms: "Let us
take service, therefore, brethren, with all earnestness in His faultless
ordinances. Let us mark the soldiers that take service under our rulers,
how exactly, how readily, how submissively, they execute the orders given
them. All are not prefects, nor rulers of thousands, nor rulers of
hundreds, nor rulers of fifties, and so forth; but each man in his own
rank executeth the order given by the emperor and his commanders. The
great without the small cannot exist, neither the small without the
great. There is a certain mixture in all things, and therein is utility.
Let us take our body as an example. The head without the feet is nothing,
so likewise the feet without the head are nothing; even the smallest
limbs of our body are necessary and useful for the whole body; but all
the members conspire and unite in subjection, that the whole body may be
saved. So, in our case, let the whole body be saved in Christ Jesus, and
let each man be subject unto his neighbour, according as also he was
appointed with his special grace.

"Forasmuch, then, as these things are manifest beforehand, and we have
searched into the depths of the divine knowledge, we ought to do all
things in order, as many as the Master[44] has commanded us to perform at
their appointed seasons. Now the offerings and liturgic[45] acts He
commanded to be performed with care, and not to be done rashly or in
disorder, but at fixed times and seasons. And where and by whom He would
have them performed He himself fixed by His supreme will, that all things
being done with piety, according to His good pleasure, might be
acceptable to His will. They, therefore, that make their offerings at the
appointed seasons are acceptable and blessed; for while they follow the
institutions of the Master they cannot go wrong. For unto the high priest
his proper liturgic acts are assigned, and to the priests their proper
office is appointed, and upon the levites their proper ministrations are
laid. The layman is bound by the layman's ordinances.

"Let each of you, brethren, in his own rank give thanks to God,
maintaining a good conscience, and not transgressing the appointed rule
of his service, but acting with all seemliness. Not in every place,
brethren, are the continual daily sacrifices offered, or the free-will
offerings, or the sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings, but in
Jerusalem alone. And even there the offering is not made in every place,
but before the sanctuary in the court of the altar, and this too through
the high priest and the aforesaid officiants, after that the victim to be
offered has been inspected for blemishes. They then who do anything
contrary to the seemly ordinance of His will receive death as the
penalty. You see, brethren, in proportion as greater knowledge has been
vouchsafed to us, so much the more are we exposed to danger.

"The Apostles evangelised us from the Lord Jesus Christ: Jesus Christ
from God. So then Christ was sent forth by God, and the Apostles by
Christ. Both therefore came of the will of God in the appointed order.
Having therefore received a charge, and having been fully assured through
the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and confirmed in the Word of
God with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth with the good
tidings that the kingdom of God was about to come. So preaching
everywhere from country to country and from town to town, they went on
appointing their first-fruits, when they had proved them by the Spirit,
to be bishops and deacons for those that were to believe. And this they
did in no new fashion; for indeed it had been written concerning bishops
and deacons in very ancient times: for thus saith the Scripture in a
certain place, I will appoint their bishops in justice and their deacons
in faith.

"And what marvel if they who were entrusted in Christ with such a work by
God appointed the aforesaid persons, seeing that even the blessed Moses,
who was a faithful servant in all his house, recorded for a sum in the
sacred books all things that were enjoined upon him. And him also the
rest of the prophets followed, bearing joint witness with him unto the
laws that were ordained by him. For he, when jealousy arose concerning
the priesthood, and there was dissension among the tribes which of them
was adorned with the glorious name, commanded the twelve chiefs of the
tribes to bring to him rods inscribed with the name of each tribe. And he
took them and tied them, and sealed them with the signet-rings of the
chiefs of the tribes, and put them away in the tabernacle of the
testimony on the table of God. And having shut the tabernacle, he sealed
the keys, and likewise also the rods. And he said unto them, Brethren,
the tribe whose rod shall bud, this hath God chosen to be priests and
officiants unto Him. Now when morning came, he called together all
Israel, even the six hundred thousand men, and showed the seals to the
chiefs of the tribes, and opened the tabernacle of the testimony, and
drew forth the rods. And the rod of Aaron was found not only with buds,
but also bearing fruit. What think ye, beloved? Did not Moses know
beforehand that this would come to pass? Assuredly he knew it. But that
disorder might not arise in Israel, he did thus, to the end that the Name
of the true and only God might be glorified: to whom be glory for ever
and ever. Amen.

"And our Apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be
strife over the dignity of the episcopate. For this cause, therefore,
having received complete foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid
persons, and they established a succession, that if these should fall
asleep, other approved men should succeed to their liturgic function.[46]
Those, therefore, that were appointed by them, or afterward by other men
of repute, with the consent of the whole Church, and who performed their
office blamelessly to the flock of Christ, with lowliness, gentleness,
and a generous spirit, and for a long time have borne a good report with
all, these we judge it not consonant with justice to deprive of their
office. For it will be no light sin in us to deprive of the episcopate
those who offer the gifts blamelessly and holily. Blessed are those
presbyters who have gone before, seeing that their departure was fruitful
and ripe, for they have no fear lest any one should remove them from
their appointed place. For we see that you are displacing certain persons
who were living honourably from the office which they had blamelessly

St. Clement, in the above passages, states in few but precise words how
the whole Christian ministry was appointed by Christ with the most exact
order. "The Master commanded the offerings and liturgic acts to be
performed with care, and not to be done rashly or in disorder, but at
fixed times and seasons. And where and by whom He would have them
performed He himself fixed by His supreme will, that all things being
done with piety, according to His good pleasure, might be acceptable to
His will." We have seen that only the appointment of the supreme
authority—that of St. Peter and the Apostolic College—is recorded in the
Gospels and Acts. All details are omitted. But this does not mean that
such details were either unimportant or left to be developed casually.
Here it is expressly said that our Lord appointed them all, and left
strict injunctions both as to the persons who should execute them and the
things to be done. And then St. Clement assumes rather than states—so
entirely uncontested and acknowledged seems it to be in his mind—that the
Christian order succeeds the Mosaic in the triple division of high
priest, priest, and levite. "They therefore that make their offerings at
the appointed seasons are acceptable and blessed; for while they follow
the institutions of the Master they cannot go wrong." He speaks of a
present, not a past time; of an actual, not a typical order, continuing
thus: "For unto the high priest his proper liturgic acts are assigned,
and to the priests their proper office is appointed, and upon the levites
their proper ministrations are laid. The layman is bound by the layman's
ordinances. Let each of you, brethren, in his own rank, give thanks to
God, maintaining a good conscience, and not transgressing the appointed
rule of His service, but acting with all seemliness."[47] It cannot be
denied that these are injunctions issued to those to whom he was
speaking. And the tacit appropriation of the Jewish names and offices to
the Christian order, with the injunction of present obedience, all based
upon the direct institution of "the Master," is every way to be noted.
But he proceeds to say that, if the Mosaic services are accurately
performed according to a divine rule, much more should the Christian be.
"Not in every place, brethren, are the continual daily sacrifices
offered, or the free-will offerings, or the sin-offerings, and the
trespass-offerings, but in Jerusalem alone. And even there the offering
is not made in every place, but before the sanctuary in the court of the
altar, and this too through the high priest and the aforesaid officiants,
after that the victim to be offered has been inspected for blemishes.
They then who do anything contrary to the seemly ordinance of His will
receive death as the penalty. You see, brethren, in proportion as greater
knowledge has been vouchsafed to us, so much the more are we exposed to

How, it may be asked, comes it that he mentions the worship at Jerusalem
as going on when the city and temple had been destroyed twenty-five years

I would suggest that St. Clement is considering the whole order of the
Aaronic priesthood and worship as a divine appointment. In this point of
view, it is apart from time, that is, he mentions it ideally as a divine
institution. Moreover, he clearly considers it as carried on in the
Christian ministry, as having found in that ministry its complete
fulfilment. In this aspect it was of no importance that the worship at
Jerusalem, to which he referred, had ceased by a divine judgment to be
any longer in existence. It had fulfilled its work; the blood of bulls
and goats, which typified the most Precious Blood, was offered no more;
but instead the sacrifice to which it had pointed. He quotes it for what
had not passed, the divine institution of a certain order in it. If, for
the violation of this order, death was inflicted, how much more should
those who transgressed the Christian institution, as having been
vouchsafed greater knowledge, be exposed to danger. Moreover, was not the
fact of Jesus being the Christ a basis in St. Clement's mind for the
belief that the Mosaic worship was carried on, with the requisite change,
in the Christian? How deeply lay in his mind the feeling that the
Christian Church was a continuation of the Jewish—the child coming forth
from the embryo of the Jewish womb—is apparent through the whole letter.

The third point, then, which we note is, that the ordinances of Christ,
in all that concerns the priesthood and the rites of His Church, were to
be observed according to the rule which "the Master" Himself had given
even more accurately than the Mosaic ritual, though that also was of
divine institution, had been observed.

In the next section St. Clement states very concisely, but with the
greatest energy, that quality in the transmission of spiritual power on
which we have dwelt in drawing out the scriptural record, that it came
altogether from above, not from below: "The Apostles evangelised us from
the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus Christ from God. So then Christ was sent
forth by God, and the Apostles by Christ. Both, therefore, came of the
will of God in the appointed order. Having then received a charge, and
having been fully assured through the resurrection of our Lord Jesus
Christ, and confirmed in the word of God with full assurance of the Holy
Ghost, they went forth with the good tidings that the kingdom of God was
about to come." As the whole appointment proceeded originally from Christ
to the Apostles, so in the appointments of the Apostles it proceeded from
them to those whom they chose. Authority, therefore, in the kingdom of
Christ, pursued throughout one descent: it came by the mandate of
superiors, not by the election of inferiors. Thus St. Clement restates
the Apostolic mission as recorded by St. John: "As My Father hath sent
Me, I also send you." But he adds a fact to a principle—a fact which,
recording as it does the whole order of the propagation of the faith in
the first two generations from the day of Pentecost, is of the utmost
value. "So preaching everywhere from country to country, and from city to
city, they went on appointing their first-fruits, when they had proved
them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons for those that were to
believe." That is, the Apostles when they came into a town, preaching as
St. Paul and St. Barnabas are described as doing at Iconium, at Lystra,
and at Derbe, were guided by a special inspiration of the Holy Spirit in
the choosing of future rulers among those who heard them and listened to
them. These "first-fruits" of their labour they invested with the
episcopal consecration and office, and themselves passing on to other
places, left the bishop and his deacons to form the future people. In the
bishop they planted the root of the complete tree; from his person
radiated the priests and deacons; from his mouth came the tradition of
the divine doctrine, and thenceforth in that place all Christian
ordinances began to exist and to be exercised. The bishop is the
ecclesiastical unit, the father and generator after the pattern of
Christ, whom he represents. The process is entirely different from
another which has often in thought been substituted for it, according to
which an existing number of believers might elect their superiors, and
the ecclesiastical rule be exercised in virtue of a sort of imagined
social compact. But the words of St. Clement are precise in excluding any
such origin of Christian mission: he says that the Apostles appointed
their first-fruits to be bishops and deacons of those who were to
believe, not of those who believed already; they created the ministry,
that the ministry might form the people as yet future.[48] All this, he
adds, was in accordance with ancient prophecy.

He then proceeds to draw attention to the most remarkable origin of the
Jewish hierarchy, in that Moses determined the devolution of the high
priesthood to Aaron by appealing to a miraculous judgment of God in
causing his rod to bear fruit among the rods of the chiefs of the tribes.
In truth, there is no act recorded more strikingly typical of the divine
economy in the mission of our Lord than the creation of the whole Jewish
priesthood in the person of Aaron. In that one act the entire Jewish
ritual, with the doctrine which it upheld and propagated, proceeded by a
divine interference attested in a miracle from above, exactly as in the
Person of our Lord and from His sacrificial act as Redeemer the whole
Christian hierarchy and the doctrine which it upbears came forth from the
God and Father of all. Under this example, and as an instance of power
coming from above, St. Clement places the conduct of the Apostles in
determining the appointment and the succession of rulers in the Church.
"And our Apostles knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would
be strife over the dignity of the episcopate. For this cause, therefore,
having received complete foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid
persons, and they established a succession that, if these should fall
asleep, other approved men should succeed to their liturgic function."

Thus before the end of the first century we have a historical statement
of the universal and regular appointment of bishops throughout the world
by the Apostles in consequence of "complete foreknowledge received" from
our Lord Himself. The principle on which they proceeded is clearly
defined; the generation of the Christian people from a hierarchy
existing before itself is marked out. This is said to be in accordance
with ancient prophecy, and follows the great example of God, who created
by the hand of Moses the order of the Aaronic priesthood, the precursor
and preparer of the Christian, in which it was merged, when the High
Priest at length appeared and consummated the act which the whole Jewish
ritual was formed to symbolise.

In all this statement St. Clement not merely confirms the scriptural
record, but he supplies those details which it enveloped in general
heads. Titus and Timotheus are instances of episcopal appointment in the
writings of St. Paul, and the bishops or angels of the seven Churches in
the Apocalypse; but here the appointment is recorded as general, as
everywhere carried out by the Apostles in each city according to the
special instruction of our Lord.

Scarcely less remarkable is the manner in which this Pope, the third from
St. Peter, exercises in the lifetime of St. John the supreme pastoral
office, the creation of which that Apostle has recorded. The question to
be decided is the deposition or the maintenance of the Bishop at Corinth,
and there follows immediately upon the text above cited the act of
authority. "Those, therefore, that were appointed by them or afterward by
other men of repute, with the consent of the whole Church, and who
performed their office blamelessly to the flock of Christ, with
lowliness, gentleness, and a generous spirit, and for a long time have
borne a good report with all, _these we judge it not consonant with
justice to deprive of their office_. For it will be no light sin in us
to deprive of the episcopate[49] those who offer the gifts blamelessly
and holily." He who speaks in this language intimates thereby that he has
power to deprive of the liturgic office, that is, of the episcopate, and
acknowledges that he will have to answer for the exercise of that power.

But further, the sentence thus given he declares to be the sentence of
God Himself. "Receive our counsel, and you shall have no occasion of
regret. For as God liveth, and the Lord Jesus Christ liveth, and the Holy
Spirit, who are the faith and the hope of the elect, so surely shall he
who, with lowliness of mind and instant in gentleness, hath without
regretfulness performed the ordinances and commandments that are given by
God, be enrolled and have a name among the number of them that are saved
through Jesus Christ, through whom is the glory to Him for ever and ever.
Amen. But if certain persons should be disobedient unto the words spoken
by Him through us, let them understand that they will entangle themselves
in no slight transgression and danger; but we shall be guiltless of this
sin."[50] Further on in the letter he continues:—

"Therefore it is right for us to give heed to so great and so many
examples, and to submit the neck, and, occupying the place of obedience,
to take our side with them that are the leaders of our souls, that,
ceasing from this foolish dissension, we may attain to the goal which
lies before us in truthfulness, keeping aloof from every fault. For you
will give us great joy and gladness if you render obedience to the things
written by us through the Holy Spirit, and root out the unrighteous anger
of your jealousy, according to the entreaty which we have made for peace
and concord in this letter."[51]

Let us sum up the force of the words just cited.

St. Clement, after invoking the Three Persons of the Blessed Trinity as
witnesses of the judgment he was about to promulgate, declares that "he
who performs without regretfulness the ordinances and commandments that
are given by God" shall "be enrolled and have a name among the number of
them that are saved through Jesus Christ." On the other hand, that those
who are "disobedient unto the words spoken by Him through us" "will
entangle themselves in no slight transgression and danger." He adds,
moreover, "You will give us great joy and gladness if you render
obedience to the things written by us through the Holy Spirit."[51]

From all which we learn that a decision of the Church of Rome, issued by
its Bishop, as to whether the Bishop of Corinth was rightly or wrongly
deposed, is declared, after attestation of the Three Divine Persons to be
among the commandments and ordinances given by God; to be "words spoken
by God through us," that is, the Pope and the Church of Rome; to be
"things written by us through the Holy Spirit," to which absolute
obedience was due, and which could not be neglected "without no slight
transgression and danger." The Pope, moreover, takes upon himself the
power to deprive of the episcopate by issuing a judgment that an actual
possessor of it is in his right, while he says at the same time that it
would be "no light sin in us to deprive him of it unjustly."

It is in every way remarkable that the first pastoral letter of a Pope
which has been preserved to posterity should contain so undeniable an
exercise of his supreme authority. Again, it is another noteworthy matter
that this supreme authority should have been exercised in the lifetime of
the last surviving Apostle, the Beloved Disciple. Further, would it be
possible to apply in a stronger way than St. Clement, issuing an
authoritative judgment, here applies them, those words of our Lord: "He
that heareth you, heareth Me; and he that despiseth you, despiseth Me;
and he that despiseth Me, despiseth Him that sent Me."[52] And again,
"Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven." Lastly,
it is to be noted that the authority thus exercised concerns not a point
of dogma, but the office of a Bishop; yet disobedience to it is
considered as disobedience to "words spoken by God through us."

The part of St. Clement's letter, which contains the whole judgment thus
commented on, has only been recovered within the last few years.

But that whole view of the constitution of the Church during the first
century which is presented to us in the Epistle of St. Clement is
remarkably corroborated by the letters of his contemporary, St. Ignatius
of Antioch. That fervent confessor of God, passing in chains to
martyrdom, pours forth, as is well known, the deepest fulness of his
heart to the Churches which he visits in his long way of the cross from
Antioch to Rome. The letters are short, the style abrupt, the expressions
only incidental; he had no thought of writing a treatise on the
constitution of the Church. Thus any short quotation is quite inadequate
to render the full witness of the saint. It would be necessary to read
through the whole series in order to feel how incessantly he dwells upon
union with God wrought through obedience to the hierarchy of bishops,
priests, and deacons, which is the test in his mind of love to Christ.
Thus, at the beginning of his letter to the Church of Smyrna, he speaks
of the most blessed Passion of Christ, "a fruit of which are we that He
might set up a token for all ages through His Resurrection to His holy
and faithful ones, whether they be among Jews or Gentiles, in the one
body of His Church."

In his letter to the Church of Ephesus there is a remarkable passage, in
which he joins together the thought of the unity of a particular diocese
with the unity of the bishops throughout the world. "It is fitting that
you should by all means glorify Jesus Christ, who has glorified you, that
by a uniform obedience you may be perfectly joined together and subject
to the bishop, and the presbytery may be in all things sanctified. I do
not command you, as if I were anybody; for though I am bound in the name
of Christ, I am not yet perfected in Him. For now I begin to learn, and
speak to you as my fellow-disciples. For I ought to be confirmed by you
in faith, in admonition, in patience, in long-suffering. But since
charity permits me not to be silent in regard to you, I have therefore
taken upon me to exhort you that you may run together with the mind of
God. For Jesus Christ, our inseparable life, is the mind of the Father,
as also the bishops, appointed throughout the earth, are in the mind of
Christ. Whence, also, it becomes you to agree with the mind of the
bishop, as indeed you do. For your illustrious presbytery, worthy of God,
is fitted as exactly to the bishop as the strings are to a harp. Hence it
is that, in your concord and harmonious love, Jesus Christ is sung; and
one and all you make up the chorus, that, being harmonious in concord,
taking up the song of God in unity, you may sing with one voice to the
Father through Jesus Christ, that He may both hear you and recognise by
your good deeds that you are members of His Son. It is well for you,
then, to be in blameless unity, that you may in all things partake of

The vivid love and sense of the Church, as the great instrument of unity
wrought by the Passion of Christ in the world, and compacted by the
ministry which He has set up, distinguishes the letter of St. Ignatius as
it does that of St. Paul to the same Ephesian Church, so specially
beloved by the Apostle, and the scene of so many of his labours. But St.
Irenæus[53] tells us that it was also from the bosom of this Church of
Ephesus that the Apostle of love issued the Gospel in which he recorded
for the world the great commission to feed the whole flock of Christ
given to St. Peter on the shore of the lake of Galilee.

Let us add one more passage from the letter to the Trallians. "For when
you are subject to your bishop as to Jesus Christ you seem to me to live
not after the manner of men, but according to Jesus Christ, who died for
us, in order that, believing in His death, you may escape death. It is
therefore necessary that you do nothing without your bishop, but that you
be subject to the presbytery also, as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ,
our hope, in whom if we walk we shall be found. The deacons also, as
being the ministers of the mysteries of Jesus Christ, must be acceptable
to all. For they are not the ministers of meat and drink, but servants of
the Church of God. Wherefore they must avoid all offences as they would
fire. Let all in like manner reverence the deacons as Jesus Christ, and
the bishop as the type of the Father, and the presbyters as God's senate
and the College of Apostles. Without these there is no Church."

These words expressly state the organic unity of a local Church to be the
bishop with his priests and deacons; but he had likewise noted that the
bishops established throughout the earth were together "in the mind of

The words of St. Clement the Pope, and St. Ignatius, the bishop of one of
the three original patriarchal Sees, thus complete and corroborate each
other. If we put the passages just cited from the latter with the
statement of the former, that "the Apostles, preaching from country to
country and from city to city, established their first-fruits, after
proving them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of a people that
were to believe," we have a perfect chain let down from above, and
binding the earth in its embrace: God, who sends forth Christ; Christ,
who sends forth the Apostles; the Apostles, who appoint local bishops,
who are the bond to their clergy and people. In the whole of this the
expression of St. Ignatius is verified: "hence in your concord and
harmonious love Jesus Christ is sung." If the bishops throughout the
world were not united with each other in as complete a harmony as the
presbytery with the bishop in a particular diocese, these words would not
be true. But, on the contrary, they are together "in the mind of Christ,"
as He is "the mind of the Father," and they feed not each a separate
flock, but together "the flock of Christ."

But who is the bond of their union? It pleased the Divine Providence
that, even before St. Ignatius wrote, and even in the lifetime of the
Apostle who recorded the commission to feed the whole flock of Christ,
the harmony and obedience of which St. Ignatius spoke should be broken in
a particular diocese, and that St. Peter's third successor should execute
his office and assert the Divine commission by fulfilling it. His conduct
in this marks, by a solemn act, the line between the Apostolate and the
Primacy. That he speaks in the name of the whole Roman Church, as the
voice of a Body, illustrates further the words of St. Ignatius, "Your
presbytery is fitted as exactly to the bishop as the strings are to a

In the testimony of these Apostolic Fathers, each completing the other,
we have not only the local bishop planted as the unit of the Church's
organism in any particular city, but the bishop who sits in the See of
Peter, the tie and bond of his brethren. The harp sounds its notes to
Christ throughout the world.

Another point in which their testimony exactly agrees is, that while St.
Clement speaks of the government of the Church as enacted with even
greater accuracy and enforced with even stronger penalties than the law
of Moses, St. Ignatius takes the strict observance of unity and obedience
to external authority as a perfect test of the inward disposition, a
perfect assurance that those who exercised these virtues were members of
Christ. The temper in which these Fathers write is as far as possible
removed from the notion that Church government was either lax or
uncertain. To them it comes from above, and requires inward obedience, as
the appointment of Christ.

Eusebius, the first historian of the Church, compiling about the year
324 notices of the times before him, with, records at his command which
are no longer extant, describes in the following terms the first period,
that in which the Apostles themselves preached, which we may speak of as
running from the Day of Pentecost to the destruction of Jerusalem:—

"Thus, under a celestial influence and co-operation, the doctrine of the
Saviour, like the rays of the sun, quickly irradiated the whole world.
Presently, in accordance with divine prophecy, the sound of his inspired
Evangelists and Apostles had gone throughout all the earth, and their
words to the end of the world. Throughout every city and village, like a
replenished barn-floor, numerous and populous churches were firmly
established. Those who, in consequence of the delusions that had
descended to them from their ancestors, had been fettered by the ancient
disease of idolatrous superstition, were now liberated by the power of
Christ, through the united force of the teaching and miracles of His
messengers; and, as if delivered from dreadful masters, and emancipated
from the most cruel bondage, they renounced the crowd of deities
introduced by demons, while they confessed the one God, the Creator of
all things. This same God they now also honoured with the rites of a true
piety, under the influence of that inspired and reasonable worship which
had been planted among men by our Saviour."[55]

The next period is distinctly marked by Eusebius as the first succession
from the Apostles. St. Paul,[56] he says, preaching to the Gentiles, laid
the foundations of Churches from Jerusalem in a circle round to
Illyricum; and St. Peter preached to the circumcision in the five
provinces recorded by him in his letter. He continues, "It is not easy to
say how many imitators of these were by them judged worthy to exercise
the pastoral office in the Churches founded by them, except so far as St.
Paul's own words record them. For he had numberless fellow-workers,
fellow-soldiers, as he himself called them, most of whom he has delivered
to immortal memory by mention of them in his letters." Thus Timotheus was
first Bishop of Ephesus; Titus was set over Crete, and expressly enjoined
to appoint bishops in its several cities, for St. Paul draws out what
sort of a character the bishop so appointed should be.[57] "Linus, whom
he mentions being with him at Rome, has already," says Eusebius, "been
named by us as having been first Bishop of the Roman Church after Peter.
But likewise Clement, who was the third appointed Bishop of the Romans,
is recorded by St. Paul as his colleague and fellow-labourer."

In a third passage Eusebius,[58] after speaking of Ignatius "as the
second who received the episcopal succession of St. Peter at Antioch,"
Evodius having been the first, and after quoting at length his letters,
proceeds, "There were many others also noted in the times of these men
who held the first rank of the apostolic succession. These, as the holy
disciples of such men, built up further in every place the foundations of
the Churches which had been laid by the Apostles. They spread the
preaching further abroad and scattered the saving seeds of the kingdom of
heaven far and wide through the breadth of the world. For the most of the
disciples at that time, kindled by a more ardent love of the divine word,
had first fulfilled the Saviour's exhortation by distributing their
substance to the needy. Afterwards, leaving their country, they performed
the work of evangelists, filled with a noble ambition to proclaim Christ
to such as had not yet heard the word of faith, and to deliver to them
the writing of the sacred Gospels. Thus laying merely the foundations of
the faith in new and strange places, and, appointing others to the
pastoral office, they left them to cultivate the new plantation, and
again went on to other places and nations by God's grace and
co-operation. For a great number of marvellous works of power were still
done by them through the Holy Spirit; so that at the first hearing
multitudes of men in a mass received into their souls readily the worship
of the One Creator. As I cannot record by name all those who received the
first succession of the Apostles as pastors and evangelists in the
Churches throughout the world, I will mention those only where tradition
of apostolical doctrine is carried down to us by actual memorials."

The gradations thus marked in the propagation of the gospel are three:
first, that of the Apostles in Judea before their dispersion; secondly,
that of the Apostles with their personal fellow-workers throughout the
world; thirdly, that of the men called Apostolic, because they had lived
in the time of the Apostles without having been their first co-operators,
or, to use the Pauline expression, fellow-soldiers. This carries us over
the ninety years from the Day of Pentecost to the end of Trajan's reign,
during which reign, the time, as Eusebius calls it, of St. Clement of
Rome and of St. Ignatius of Antioch, he notes that there was a specially
abundant outburst of such teachers.

Eusebius bears witness through the whole of his History to the
universality of the episcopal regimen. Likewise he carefully gives the
descent of the three great Sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch. He
notes how they took their rise from the person of Peter, who sat at
Antioch himself, who sent his son Mark to Alexandria, and whose coming to
Rome the historian describes in the words following:—

"Immediately in the reign of the Emperor Claudius, the most benign and
man-loving providence of God conducted to Rome Peter, the great and
powerful among the Apostles, who for his virtue was chosen to lead them
all against Simon, the plague of mankind.[59] Peter, like a valiant
commander of God's army, clothed in heavenly panoply, carried from the
East to the West the precious freight of intellectual light, bearing the
proclamation of the heavenly kingdom, to be the sure and saving word of
souls." He records the martyrdom of the two Apostles, Peter and Paul,
together at Rome under Nero, giving for this fact a fourfold testimony;
of historians generally; of their tombs, which were still to be seen at
Rome; of the presbyter Cains, who, at the beginning of the third century,
appealed to the existence of these tombs, the one at the Vatican, the
other on the Ostian Road, as a proof where "the sacred tabernacles of
these Apostles had been deposited;" and lastly, to the letter of
Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth in the middle of the second century, who
spoke of their having both taught the Church of Corinth as well as that
of Rome, and of both having suffered martyrdom together. "These
particulars I have given," says Eusebius, "that the memory of the fact
may be the more confirmed."[60] He gives carefully during two hundred
years the descent of the bishops in these three Sees, and the number of
years they sat—a tacit witness to the eminent rank of the three great
Mother Sees established by Peter in the three chief cities of the Roman
Empire; and an honour which he gives besides only to the Church of
Jerusalem, since all, he says, have ever borne reverence "to the throne
of the Apostle James, the first who received the episcopate of the city
of Jerusalem from the Saviour Himself and the Apostles!"

In another place he writes: "Again, when I consider the power of the
Word, how the most populous churches were constructed by the rudest and
most ignoble disciples of Jesus, not in obscure and unknown places, but
founded in the most conspicuous cities, in very imperial Rome itself, in
Alexandria and Antioch, for all Egypt and Libya, for Europe, and for
Asia,—again I am compelled to search out the reason of this, and to
confess that they could not have succeeded in so audacious an attempt
except by some divine and superhuman power, and the working together with
them of Him who said 'Make disciples all nations in My name.'"[61]

Between St. Clement of Rome and St. Ignatius of Antioch at the end of the
first century, and Eusebius at the beginning of the fourth, stands at the
end of the second century the witness of Tertullian. In setting forth the
legal ground of prescription against the heretics of his day, he gives an
account of the original propagation of the divine kingdom, which exactly
tallies with all that precedes. "Christ Jesus our Lord ... had chosen
twelve disciples to be attached to His side, whom He destined to be the
teachers of the nations. Accordingly, after one of these had been struck
off, He commanded the eleven others, on His departure to the Father, to
go and teach all nations, who were to be baptized into the Father, and
into the Son, and into the Holy Ghost. Immediately, therefore, the
Apostles, whom this designation indicates as the Sent, having on the
authority of a prophecy, which occurs in a psalm of David, chosen
Matthias by lot as the twelfth into the place of Judas, obtained the
promised power of the Holy Ghost for the gift of miracles and of
utterance. And after first bearing witness to the faith in Jesus Christ
throughout Judea, and founding Churches, they next went forth into the
world, and preached the same doctrine of the same faith to the nations.
They then, in like manner, founded Churches in every city" (that is, an
episcopal See in each city, without which, as St. Ignatius told us, there
is no Church) "from which all the other Churches, one after another,
derived the tradition of the faith and the seeds of doctrine, and are
every day deriving them that they may become Churches. Indeed it is on
this account only that they are able to deem themselves apostolic, as
being the offspring of Apostolic Churches. Every sort of thing must
necessarily revert to its original for its classification. Therefore the
Churches, though they are so many and so great, comprise but the one
Primitive Church founded by the Apostles, from which they all spring. In
this way all are primitive and all are apostolic, while all together make
up a unity; while they have peaceful communion, and title of brotherhood,
and bond of hospitality, privileges which no other rule directs than the
one tradition of the self-same mystery. From this, then, do we prescribe
the rule that, since the Lord Jesus Christ sent the Apostles to preach,
no other ought to be received as preachers than those whom Christ
appointed; for 'no man knoweth the Father save the Son, and he to
whomsoever the Son will reveal Him.' Nor does the Son seem to have
revealed Him to any other than the Apostles, whom He sent forth to
preach that, of course, which He revealed to them. Now what this was
which they preached—in other words, what it was which Christ revealed to
them—can, as I must here likewise prescribe, properly be proved in no
other way than by those very Churches which the Apostles founded in
person, by declaring the gospel to them directly themselves, both by word
of mouth, as the phrase is, and subsequently by their Epistles. If, then,
these things are so, it is in the same decree manifest that all doctrine
which agrees with the Apostolic Churches—those wombs and original sources
of the faith—must be reckoned for truth, as undoubtedly containing that
which the said Churches received from the Apostles, the Apostles from
Christ, and Christ from God; whereas all doctrine must be prejudged as
false which savours of contrariety to the truth of the Churches and
Apostles of Christ and God."[62]

But the whole work of St. Irenæus against heresies is based exactly upon
the fact which we are here setting forth. His object was to show that the
true faith was preserved intact in all the Churches of the world by means
of the bishops appointed by the Apostles. Thus he commences his third
book: "For the Lord of all gave to His Apostles the power of the gospel,
through whom we have learnt the truth, that is, the doctrine of the Son
of God; to whom the Lord said, 'He who heareth you, heareth Me, and who
despiseth you, despiseth Me, and Him who sent Me.'" ... "For after our
Lord arose from the dead, and they had been clothed with the power of the
Holy Spirit coming down upon them from on high, they were completely
filled and had perfect knowledge: they went forth into the ends of the
world, proclaiming the gospel of good things from God, and announcing
peace from heaven to men, all of them and every one of them possessing
equally the gospel of God." ... "All, therefore, who wish to see the
truth may behold in every Church the tradition of the Apostles, which was
made known through the whole world; and we can number up those who were
appointed by the Apostles bishops in the Churches, and their successors
down to our own times, who have neither taught nor known any such
delirious imagination as theirs." He is speaking of the heresy of
Valentinus. "For had the Apostles known recondite mysteries, which they
were in the habit of teaching separately and secretly from the rest to
the perfect, they would deliver such especially to those to whom they
were intrusting the Churches themselves. For they desired those to be
very perfect and blameless in all things whom they were leaving as their
successors, handing over to them their own place of teaching. For if
these acted faultlessly, the good would be great; whereas if they failed,
the calamity would be complete."

Irenæus sums up all this view in another place, where he says: "True
knowledge is the doctrine of the Apostles, and the ancient compacted
fabric of the Church through the whole world, and the character of the
Body of Christ, according to the succession of bishops, to whom they
delivered that Church which is everywhere."[63]

In what has preceded we have traced carefully the transmission of
spiritual authority, putting together the various intimations respecting
it which are given in the four Gospels, the Acts, the Epistles of St.
Paul, and the Apocalypse. From these intimations a most clear and
unambiguous result has been deduced. Then proceeding to historical
proofs, we find the third Pope from St. Peter, at the end of the first
century, in an official document, summing up in words of great precision
what had been the actual course of things in the two generations which
lay between the Day of Pentecost and the time at which he was writing. If
we compare the Gospels which record the institution of the power, and the
history which records its actual beginning and exercise, as thus given by
St. Clement, we find the most exact agreement. Another saint and martyr,
contemporary with St. Clement, and holding by second succession from St.
Peter what became the great patriarchal See of the East, affords the
strongest corroboration to him in the doctrinal statements which are
found interwoven in the letters addressed by him to various churches as
he is carried a prisoner on his way to martyrdom. The first extant
historian, writing in 324, on the eve of the assembling of the first
General Council, testifies throughout the ten books of his work the
universality of the episcopal regimen, and intimates its organic
structure by giving each link in the spiritual descent of the three great
Sees of Peter and of the Church of Jerusalem. Intermediate between these
three authorities, Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, writing seventy years after
St. Clement, and Tertullian, writing thirty years after Irenæus, give
very graphic accounts of the Church in their day, which exactly accord
both with the Pope and Martyr-bishop preceding and the historian
following them. Instead of calling in other witnesses, let us attempt to
give a general view of the Episcopate as it is found when emerging from
the last great persecution, which terminated the first stadium of its
course, and was followed by the peace of the Church, proclaimed by the
Emperor Constantine 283 years after the Day of Pentecost. The whole of
this period marks a time in which the growth of the Church and the form
of her constitution were the result of a power proceeding solely from
within, never favoured by the civil power, often actively persecuted, and
daily in a thousand ways discouraged.

St. Augustine, writing in the year 398, observes precisely of this time,
that is, the year 314, that if the Donatists suspected the judgment of
their African colleagues, there were thousands of bishops beyond the sea
to whom they might have recourse.[64] In his own time he counted 476
Catholic bishoprics in the African provinces. Throughout the Roman Empire
it would seem that, before the peace of the Church, not only every
considerable city, but even small towns, possessed their bishop. St.
Hilary says: "Though there be only one Church in the world, yet every
city has its own Church;" and St. Cyprian and St. Dionysius of Alexandria
assert this of their own time.[65]

The conduct, then, of St. Peter, of St. Paul, and of all the Apostles in
the propagation of the Church, was from the beginning one and uniform,
and impressed itself on the succeeding generations.[66] They founded a
Christian colony on the solid basis of a complete administration, and
establishing their most fervent disciples as the chiefs of that
hierarchic organisation, they left to them the charge of forming new
centres of spiritual life in the cities dependent on those first chosen.
Thus St. Peter chose first Antioch, Queen of the East, the head
afterwards of fifteen ecclesiastical provinces; then Rome, the head of
the whole Empire, of which Pope St. Innocent said, writing in the year
416 to the Bishop of Eugubium, that "it was an acknowledged fact that no
one had established Churches" (by which he means a Bishop's See) "in all
Italy, the Gauls, the Spains, in Africa, in Sicily, and the intervening
islands, except those whom the venerable Apostle Peter or his successors
had appointed bishops."[67]

Thirdly, he chose Alexandria, whose bishops became the head of the three
provinces, Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis. But no less St. Paul planted in
Ephesus the Mother Church of the province of Asia (one-twentieth only of
the great country called Asia Minor); in Thessalonica, the metropolis of
Thrace; in Corinth, that of Achaia; he and Barnabas, in Salamis, that of
Cyprus; while he set a disciple to appoint bishops over the whole island
of Crete. These are specimens of the power which was thus established in
every city over the whole world traversed by the Apostles and their
descendants, a power fixed, not transitory; local, not roving. It was an
occupation of each city by the spiritual authority exactly similar in
divine things to the military colonies which Rome planted in its
provinces for the propagation of its temporal sway. It was a corporate
body with a most compact unity, at the head of which, informing and
directing every act, stood the bishop, a name of power and jurisdiction.
Of them St. Paul said, "Obey your prelates, and be subject to them." From
such words the power of government is a clear inference. If the faithful
are obliged to obey the prelates of the Church, these must have authority
to command. Thus St. Gregory of Nazianzum, addressing in the year 373 the
governor of his province, used these words: "The law of Christ subjects
you to my authority and to my tribunal. For we also have a government,
nay, I will add a greater and more perfect government, unless spirit
must yield to flesh, and heavenly things to earthly. I know that you will
accept my freedom of speech, because you are a sheep of my flock, a
sacred sheep of a sacred flock, nurtured by the Great Shepherd."[68]
Elsewhere he calls it "the government which is innocent of blood,"
contrasting it with "the government of the sword and the lash." The Greek
Fathers universally, in explaining the dignity of the episcopate, use
this word government.[69]

Of the way in which the world was thus evangelised we have an instance
recorded by Photius, who says that Caius, a grave and learned priest of
the Roman Church, was ordained by Pope Zephyrinus (who sat from 202 to
218), Bishop of the Nations, that is, without designation of any
particular diocese, as if anointed and crowned for a kingdom, which by
his valour and wisdom he was to obtain for himself. In this way the Roman
Pontiffs consecrated a great number of bishops, whom they sent to bring
the provinces under the yoke of the faith, as recorded above by St.
Innocent.[70] But it is to be noted that those who were thus sent out
during two centuries from the first age were not elected by the people of
the several churches which they founded. They came to them by authority
from without—the authority of the Apostles and the Apostolic See,
mediately or immediately. In the cases just mentioned the mission was
immediate: in other cases, where it was derived from some Patriarchal See
or from a metropolis, it still descended from that original mission of
the Apostles, and the distribution of authority made by Peter at their

For the whole of this mission there is one great type and source; our
Lord at the head of His Apostles is the prelude to the bishop in the
midst of his presbytery. He repeats Himself in every diocese, the first
and everlasting Bishop, whose heirs spread throughout the world. All is
from above.

But each bishop's chair thus established is a centre of dogmatic truth
and of moral force. The government extending thus over the whole Church
is a mean between autonomy and centralisation. "The bishop is contained
in the Church, and the Church in the bishop:" it is "a flock united to
its pastor." This is its local character: a most living authority, and a
most careful representation of those governed. What it is in reference to
the like authority planted elsewhere, we shall see presently.

The bishop, with his presbyterate and diaconate, fitted to him as the
strings to a harp, in the words of St. Ignatius, this was the instrument
by which our Lord chose to take hold of the world. "Many nations of
barbarians," St. Irenæus observes, "believing in Christ, follow the order
of tradition without pen and paper, having salvation written in their
hearts by the Spirit;"[71] but nowhere as to this point of episcopal
regimen did this tradition vary. The Church having traversed the three
centuries, assaulted from within by sects innumerable, and from without
by a hostile Empire, emerges under this government alone. Nowhere was it
without this settled order of the Episcopate. A presbyter not subject to
a bishop, a single church or any number of churches not ruled by a
bishop, these were unknown things. In the sects, indeed, there were all
sorts of disorder and continued changes of government, just as there was
incessant fluctuation of doctrine; the true and only Church showed itself
precisely in this, that it preserved its doctrine and its government
alike unchangeable.

Eusebius observes how "the devices of opponents destroyed each other by
their own violence. New heresies continually rose and fell, one giving
way to the other, and corrupting themselves in a long series of the most
diverse and strange conceptions. But the one Church, proceeding on the
same lines, and in an even tenor, kept upon its path, ever increasing in
brilliancy, and shedding forth upon every race of Greeks and barbarians
the dignity, sincerity, and freedom, the tempered wisdom and purity, of
the divine polity and philosophy;" where it is observable that by the
words polity and philosophy he blends together the form of life and the
truth of doctrine as coinherent with each other.[72]

Thus in less than three centuries the Episcopate was flung as a golden
network over the greatest of the world-empires, and far beyond its
borders. But let us well understand what this means. It does not mean
simply that there were bishops everywhere; that no church existed save
under the rule of a bishop; that there were no presbyterian, still more,
no independent churches. It is a much greater fact which we have to note;
it is that there was "one Episcopate, of which a part was held by each
without division of the whole;" "one Episcopate spread abroad in the
concordant multitude of many bishops."[73] The doctrine of St. Cyprian is
thus set forth by De Marca: "As there is one body of the Church divided
into many members through the whole world, so there is in it one only
Episcopate, spread abroad in the harmony of many bishops. If these be
considered as a body, they hold the entire Episcopate in common. But a
certain portion of the flock has been assigned to each bishop to lead and
direct it singly, but in consonance with the charity and communion due to
the whole body. For if unity be relinquished, the bishop who departs from
the body would dry up as a stream deflecting from its source, and wither
as a branch cut off from the trunk and root. This distribution of
portions, which have been committed to the various bishops, descended
from the apostolic rule. For when the Apostles founded churches, though
they conferred on the ordained bishop by the imposition of their hands
all the power of order and jurisdiction, yet they assigned to him the
place in which he should discharge his office. This has been marked with
great clearness in the 20th chapter of the Acts, where we read that the
Holy Spirit appointed bishops to govern the Church of God. But since the
Church was to be ruled in unity, it was necessary that some mode of
communion between the bishops should be established by the Apostles
according to the example given by Christ in establishing the College of
Apostles, which represented the whole body of the Church."[74] And what
this rule was De Marca proceeds to state in the words of St. Leo the
Great, which, as written in the middle of the fifth century by the
highest authority, will serve better to convey a lucid view of the one
Episcopate than any more modern statement. In the year 446 St. Leo
writes: "It is the connection of the whole body which makes one soundness
and one beauty; and this connection, as it requires unanimity in the
whole body, so especially demands concord among bishops. For though these
have a common dignity, yet have they not a general jurisdiction; since
even among the most blessed Apostles, as there was a likeness of honour,
so was there a certain distinction of power; and the election of all
being equal, pre-eminence over the rest was given to one. From which type
the distinction also among bishops has arisen, and it was provided by a
great disposition that all should not claim to themselves all things, but
that in every province there should be one whose sentence should be
considered the first among his brethren; and others again, seated in the
greater cities, should undertake a larger care, through whom the
direction of the universal Church should converge to the one See of
Peter, and nothing anywhere disagree from its head."[75]

It is thus that the Church appeared when it came out of the fire of
persecution and the perpetual conflict with heresies into peace and
recognition by the Civil Power. It was not merely that by an innate
force—which all the Fathers attribute to the gift of the Holy Spirit
dwelling in it—a uniform episcopal government had been established
wherever it extended, but that it was one Episcopate ruling one flock.
Between a bishop viewed as the centre of unity in his own diocese, but
unconnected with other bishops, and independent of them, and an
Episcopate organically one, ruling one flock through the whole world,
there is all the difference which exists between what is human, weak, and
perishable and what is divine, strong, and enduring. In the former case
the bishop's throne would simply be a seat of rivalry, confusion, and
error; in the latter, the union of the body is the test of health, and
makes that divine beauty which our Lord in His prayer for His Church at
the entrance of His Passion contemplated, which He likened even to the
divine unity. This was the vision which lay before St. Cyprian's eyes
when he cried out, "The Spouse of Christ cannot be adulterated; she is
incorrupt and chaste; she has one single home; she guards the sanctity of
one marriage chamber with inviolable modesty. The Lord says, 'I and the
Father are one;' and again, of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit
it is written, 'These three are one.' Can any one believe that the unity
which springs from the divine strength, which is bound together by
heavenly sacraments, can be broken in the Church and torn asunder by the
collision of opposing wills."[76] But St. Cyprian's safeguard against
this was the one Episcopate, which he views as centred in the See of
Peter, its origin and matrix, and which, two hundred years after him, the
great successor of St. Peter describes in act.

The Fathers regarded the establishment of bishops everywhere as a
wonderful fulfilment of the Psalmist's vision: "Instead of thy fathers,
sons are born to thee: thou shalt make them princes over all the
earth."[77] And, in truth, the uniform planting in every city and town of
a divine government such as we have described, the doing this, moreover,
without favour or protection from the civil power, nay, in spite of its
jealousy, resistance, and persecution, is a wonder of divine power. But
this is only half what was done. This is not yet the One Episcopate, but
there is to be added to it that "Sacrament of unity" whereby every one of
these bishops belonged to an indivisible whole, and fed a portion of the
one "flock of Christ." Bishops, holding each in his own person the
fulness of the priesthood, its generative and ruling power, whether the
number of their people were small or great, whether their presbyters and
deacons were many or few, in these respects equal to each other and
complete in themselves, were in a further point of view members of one
hierarchy, which could no more be multiplied than the Body of Christ or
His Flock. The one Saviour could not have two bodies, nor the one
Shepherd two flocks. Hence, what St. Leo calls "the provision of that
great disposition that all should not claim to themselves all things, but
that in every province there should be one whose sentence should be
considered the first among his brethren;" in which words he marks the
Metropolitan and his suffragans; "and others again seated in the greater
cities should undertake a larger care"—as, for instance, the Bishop of
Antioch, when he had fifteen Metropolitans subject to his chair—"through
whom the direction of the Universal Church should converge to the one See
of Peter, and nothing anywhere disagree from its head." What terser and
clearer statement of the actual government of the Church could be given
now, though more than fourteen hundred years have passed since it was

This, then, is the full meaning of the One Episcopate; this is the marvel
superadded to the sons of the Church who are made princes over all the
earth, that they are not individual governors only of a local republic,
but bound together by a manifold subordination, Bishop to Metropolitan,
Metropolitan to Patriarch, Patriarch to Pope. There is the twofold beauty
of unity and order; the first, "sweet and comely as Jerusalem;" the
second, "terrible as an army set in array."

And it may be said that if there be any one feeling which shows itself on
all occasions in the writings of the Fathers, any one conviction which
sways all their arguments, it is the feeling that the flock of Christ is
one and indivisible; that the Episcopate which rules it throughout the
earth is one and indivisible also; and both because the Great Shepherd is
one, and the Father who sent Him is one; as we have heard St. Cyprian in
unsurpassable words declaring sixteen hundred years ago.

We see, then, the two forces of the Primacy and the Episcopate coexist at
the end of this first great stadium of the Church's course, as they
coexisted on the Day of Pentecost. It is precisely when setting forth the
testimony given to the one Christian faith against all heresy by the
churches as established throughout the world, especially those which had
Apostles for founders, that Irenæus, a hundred years after St. Peter's
death, dwelt upon this bond of the one Episcopate, "that necessity by
which, on account of its superior principate, every Church, that is the
faithful everywhere, were bound to agree with the Roman Church."

The two great Fathers, one the glory of the East, as the other of the
West, Chrysostom and Augustine, born within a few years of each in the
middle of the fourth century, and thus placed at a period sufficiently
near, and yet not too near to contemplate the whole course of the Church
during her conflict with the Roman Empire, both speak in numberless
passages and in enthusiastic words of the wonder of the Catholic Church
spread in all lands. The wonder was increased by the existence of
heresies and schisms, which seemed by force of contrast the better to
delineate the form of the one Spouse of Christ. St. Epiphanius and St.
Augustine himself had recorded a number of these when that notable
sentence of the great Father, "The judgment of the whole world is a safe
one," which has passed into a proverb, was pronounced against the
Donatists. What was the marvel which especially convinced their minds and
touched their hearts? The Roman Empire, as they still saw it and lived in
it, was, in fact, a vast confederation of many peoples, lands, and
religions: the only unity which it possessed, amid endless varieties and
contradictions, was that unity of civil government which Roman
discipline, energy, and valour had so long maintained; which, the one of
African the other of Hellenic race, equally felt and appreciated. This is
the greatness especially of the imperial period. Now, springing up in the
midst of this endless variety, this most profuse and party-coloured
polytheism, this antagonism and rivalry of countless races, and no less
in the light of a proud, refined, and most ancient, if also most corrupt,
civilisation, they saw the establishment of one uniform government,
bearing in its bosom one uniform religion, carried on through ten
generations of men, and accomplished after manifold persecutions. They
saw the religion and the government start together from the Person of one
who claimed to be the Son of God, while He certainly died, as a
malefactor would be condemned to die, upon the cross. They saw the
religion and the government carried on in the second degree by twelve
men, poor, illiterate, and powerless. And before their own time their
fathers had told them how the chief of this mighty empire had bowed his
head before the religion and the government springing from One who hung
upon the cross, and in His name taught by the Fisherman and the
Tentmaker. Was it not the One Episcopate with its one doctrine planted in
all these lands, and imposing a uniform rule of life on men and women of
every degree, attested by its hosts of martyrs, the purity of its
virgins, the patience of its people, which seemed to them a miracle, the
force of which they were never tired of proclaiming? That stately fabric
in which doctrine and government permeate each other, "that unity coming
from the strength of God, and seated in heavenly sacraments," was it not
this to which St. Augustine appealed in combating a heresy in the errors
of which he had long been himself ensnared?—an appeal couched in words
the force of which is vastly greater when they can be applied with equal
truth in the nineteenth as in the fourth century. "I am held in the bosom
of the Catholic Church by the agreement of peoples and nations; by the
authority which took its rise in miracles, was nurtured in hope, reached
its growth in charity, is confirmed by antiquity. I am held by the
succession of bishops, down to the actual episcopate, from the very See
of the Apostle Peter, to whom after His resurrection the Lord intrusted
His sheep to be fed. Lastly, I am held by the very name of Catholic,
which, not without reason, among so many heresies that Church alone has
possessed; so that though all heretics would like to be called Catholics,
yet if a stranger ask where the Catholic Church is, no heretic would
venture to show him his own church or house."[78]

These words were written before the end of the fourth century, and
exhibit the aspect in which the Church of Christ presented itself to St.
Augustine. That which he has summed up in a few sentences was drawn out
at somewhat, greater length by St. Chrysostom about ten years before,
when the worn-out religion of paganism was falling to the ground, and the
judgment of Theodosius in levelling heathen temples only expressed the
victory of the Christian society. His words[79] portray so graphically
the several features of that "divine and invincible power" to which he
attributed the growth and expansion of the Church as he beheld it 350
years after the Day of Pentecost, that I will quote them here
notwithstanding their length.[80] He begins with saying: "If a heathen
says to me, How can I know that Christ is God? for this is the first
thing to be established; the rest all follows from it; I will not make my
proof from heaven, or such things. For if I say to him, He made the
heaven, the earth, and the sea; he will not receive it. If I say, He
raised the dead, He healed the blind, He cast out devils; that too he
will not accept. If I say, He promised a kingdom and blessings
unspeakable; if I talk to him of the resurrection, not only will he not
receive it, he will laugh at it. How, then, can we approach him,
especially if he be an ordinary man? How but by those things which both
of us admit without contradiction, of which there is no doubt. What,
then, does he admit Christ to have done which he will not dispute? This,
that He founded the race of Christians. He will not deny that Christ
Himself established the Churches throughout the world." Afterwards he
thus comments on the marvellous fulfilment of our Lord's prophecy on this
subject: "Twelve disciples followed Him; of the Church no one had then
conceived so much as the name, for the synagogue was still flourishing.
When, then, almost the whole world was under the dominion of impiety,
what was His prophecy? 'Upon this Rock I will build My Church, and the
gates of hell shall not prevail against it.' Weigh as you please this
word, and you will see the splendour of its truth. For the wonder is, not
that He built it throughout all the world, but made it impregnable, and
that though assaulted by such conflicts. For 'the gates of hell shall not
prevail against it' are dangers which drag down to hell. Now, compare the
distinctness of the prediction with the force of the result; behold words
which have their evidence in facts, and an irresistible power producing
its effects with ease. They are but few words: 'I will build My Church.'
Do not run over them simply, but draw them out in your thoughts. Form a
conception how vast a thing it is to fill the whole world with so many
Churches in a short time; to change so many nations; to persuade
multitudes; to break up hereditary customs; to extirpate rooted habits;
to scatter like dust the tyranny of pleasure, the strength of vice; to
sweep away like smoke _altars of blood_, and temples and idols and
mysteries, and profane festivals, and the impure odours of victims, and
everywhere to raise _unbloody altars_[81] in the country of Romans,
Persians, Scythians, Moors, and Indians, beyond the limits of our own
world. For even the British Islands, lying in the ocean beyond our own
sea, have felt the power of this word; for there too churches and altars
have been erected. The word then uttered by Him has been planted in all
men's souls, is current in all their mouths. The world, which was
overgrown with thorns, has been cleared of them, is become pure arable
soil, has received into it the seeds of piety. It would be a proof of
exceeding greatness, an evidence of divine power, if nobody offered
resistance, in the midst of peace and in the absence of opponents, for so
vast a portion of the earth to be changed in a mass from a long
inveterate bad habit, and to assume another habit far more difficult. It
was not merely custom which offered resistance, but pleasure which held
possession, two tyrannous things. For men were persuaded to reject what
they had inherited from a long succession of ancestors, from
philosophers, and from orators; and not only so, but what was most
difficult, to receive a new habit of life, in which the hardest point of
all was, that it carried with it much endurance. For it led away from
luxury to fasting, from the love of money to poverty, from impurity to
temperance, from anger to meekness, from enviousness to kindliness, from
the broad and wide way to the narrow and straight and rugged way; and
this too the very men who had been nurtured in the former. For it did not
take men of another world and another habit of life, but the very men
who, through their utter corruption, were softer than mire in their old
habit of life; on these it enjoined to tread the narrow and straight way,
in all its roughness and sharpness, and they listened. How many? Not two,
or ten, or twenty, or a hundred, but the vast majority of a world-wide
population. And by whom did the persuasion come? By eleven men without
literature, without station, ineloquent, ignoble, poor, who had no
country, nor abundance of resources, nor bodily strength, nor
distinguished reputation, nor renown of ancestors, nor strength of words,
nor skill in rhetoric, nor eminence of knowledge; fishermen, tentmakers,
foreigners. For they had not even the same language as those they
persuaded, but that strange and outlandish Hebrew tongue. Through them He
built this Church, which stretches from one end of the earth to the

"Nor was this the sole wonder, but there was a further one. These few,
poor, private men, undistinguished, untaught, and unvalued, foreigners
and despised, had the remodelling of the whole world placed in their
hands, and were bidden to change it into a far more difficult condition
of things. Yet this was not to be done in peace, but amid wars of all
kind surrounding them. War was in every nation and every city; nay, they
felt its blast in every house. For this doctrine entering in, and
severing often the child from the father, the daughter-in-law from the
mother-in-law, brother from brother and servant from master, subject from
ruler, husband from wife and wife from husband, and the parent from his
offspring, since conversions did not take place in a mass, produced daily
enmities, perpetual conflicts, a thousand deaths to its bearers, from
whom men turned as common enemies. All persecuted them—emperors, rulers,
private persons, freemen, slaves, cities and their peoples; nor them
alone, but, hardest of all, their neophytes, while they were yet under
instruction. War was waged equally upon the taught and the teachers,
since the doctrine was opposed to imperial commands, to the common habit,
to inherited manners. They were bidden to abstain from idols, to despise
the altars of blood, which their fathers and all their ancestors had
served, to quit impure beliefs, to ridicule festivals and reject
initiations—things to them the most formidable and tremendous, and for
which they would rather have given up their life than choose what the
others said to them, to believe, that is, on the Son of Mary, on One who
stood before the procurator's tribunal, who was spit upon, who suffered
unnumbered horrors, who endured an accursed death, who was buried, who
rose again. But the strange thing of all was this: the sufferings were
manifest to all, the scourging, the blows on the cheek, the spittings on
the face, the strokes from the palms of the hand, the cross, the long
mockery, the being put to scorn by all, the burial granted by favour.
Not so the facts of His Resurrection; for when He rose again He appeared
to them alone. And yet when they told these things they persuaded men,
and so they built up the Church.

"But how did they do this? By the power of Him who commanded it. He
Himself levelled the way for them; He made the difficulties easy. For had
not a divine power given success here, there would not even have been a
beginning, not even the first step. How otherwise was it? He who said,
'Let there be a firmament,' and produced it in fact; 'Let the dry land
appear,' and it came; 'Let the sun shine,' and it shone; He who did all
things with a word planted also these Churches, and the saying, 'I will
build my Church,' produced all these effects. For such are the words of
God, creative words, of creations wonderful and strange....

"Thus, then, they build the universal Church. Yet no workman who was
driven about and hindered could with stone and mortar build a single
wall; but these men erected so vast a number of churches through the
inhabited world while they were being beaten and imprisoned, pursued and
put to flight, banned and scourged, slaughtered, burned, and drowned,
together with their disciples. They built not with stones, but souls, in
the fulness of free choice. How can one compare a mason's work with that
of changing by persuasion a soul wherein demons had so long revelled, so
that from a state of madness it should reach the height of a sound mind.
Yet such was the strength of men who went about all the world naked and
discalced, and with a single coat; for they had fighting with them the
irresistible power of Him who said, 'Upon this rock I will build My
Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.' Count up the
number of tyrants who were ranged in battle against it from that time,
what persecutions they raised, in what position the faith stood all that
first time when it was newly planted and men's minds were tender.
Heathens were the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caius, Nero, Vespasian,
Titus, and all those who succeeded them down to the time of the blessed
Constantine. All these fought against the Church, some with more, some
with less violence; all of them, however, fought. If some of them
seemed to be quiet, the very fact that those who reigned were conspicuous
for impiety was a cause of warfare against the Church, because those
around them flattered and served them therein. Yet all these snares and
attacks were scattered like spiders' webs, smoke, or dust. For the effect
of their plotting was to produce a great host of martyrs, to unfold the
immortal treasures of the Church, to disclose its pillars and towers.
They, not only by their life but by their death, were the assurance of a
great help to all who came after them.

"Here is the strength of the prediction: the gates of hell shall not
prevail against it. From that which has been trust concerning that which
is to be, and that no one shall overcome the martyrs."

In reflecting on the history thus sketched out, the thought occurs how
completely the ideal of Pope St. Clement, St. Ignatius, St. Irenæus,
Tertullian, St. Cyprian, St. Chrysostom, St. Augustine, St. Epiphanius,
and St. Leo, nay, not their ideal only, but that spiritual kingdom which
they described as they saw before their eyes, would have been overthrown,
if there were substituted for it a number of bishops scattered through
the world in a variety of temporal kingdoms, some holding one part and
some another part of an original revelation, with a multitude of
discrepancies, and all deriving their authority to exercise their mandate
from the several temporal powers to which they were civilly subject. The
wonder which these Fathers one and all testify in gazing upon a divine
Church would have passed into disgust and derision for an institution
over which "the gates of hell" had prevailed by destroying its spiritual
independence together with its doctrinal unity.

Let us proceed to examine how these two were both maintained, penetrating
the divine work so far as to reach that intimate union which made one
substance of outward regimen and inward belief by the force of an
indissoluble life; for if the Episcopate had been a mere government, it
would have had neither such unity nor such vitality, nor have been
capable of supporting the Church's fabric.


[41] Contra Hæreses, 3, 3.

[42] For the date of the epistle, as at the end of the century, see the
arguments in the Prolegomena, pp. 22, 23, of Funk's "Opera Patrum

[43] St. Clement to the Corinthians, 37 and following sections, in which
I follow generally Dr. Lightfoot's translation, with a few changes.

[44] Ὁ Δεσπότης.

[45] προσφορὰς καὶ λειτουργίας, sacrificial terms, belonging to the Holy

[46] τὴν λειτουργίαν αὐτῶν.

[47] On this passage Bianchi, "Della Potestà e della Politia della
Chiesa," vol. iii. p. 158, remarks: "In oltre era noto a San Girolamo il
senso della Chiesa intorno all' ecclesiastica gerarchia d' ordine, che
ella ne' tre gradi de' Vescovi, de' Preti, e de' Ministri, ovvero de'
Diaconi, sotto il cui nome altri Ministri inferiori si comprendono,
discendeva dal Vecchio Testamento, e da origine divina, cioè dall' ordine
stabilito da Dio nel sommo Sacerdote, ne' Sacerdoti inferiori, e ne'
Leviti: i quali gradi diversi nella potestà componevano la gerarchia
della vecchia Chiesa." St. Jerome himself says, Ep. 101 ad Evangelum: "Et
ut sciamus traditiones Apostolicas sumptas de V. Testamento, quod Aaron
et filii ejus atque Levitæ in templo fuerunt, hoc sibi Episcopi et
Presbyteri, et Diaconi vindicent in Ecclesia."

[48] καθίοτανον τὰς ἀπαρχὰς αύτῶν, δοκιμάσαντες τῷ πνεύματι, εἰς
ἐπισκόπους καὶ διακόνους τῶν μελλόντων πιστεύειν.

[49] τῆς λειτουργίας—ἐπισκοπῆς ἀποβαλεῖν.

[50] Sections 58, 59.

[51] Section 63.

[52] Luke x. 16.

[53] Irenæus, iii. 1—ἐπειτα Ἰωάννης, ὁ μαθητὴς τοῦ Κυρίου, ὁ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ
στῆθος αὐτοῦ ἀναπεσών καὶ αὐτὸς ἐξέδωκε τὸ ἐυαγγέλιον, ἐν Ἐφέσῳ τῆς Ἀσίας

[54] I note this because Dr. Lightfoot, in his recent edition of St.
Clement's complete letter, not knowing how to meet the very strong proof
of the Primacy contained in the newly recovered part, suggests that the
Primacy belonged not to the bishop of the Roman Church, but to the Roman
Church. This is so total a misstatement of the position held by every
bishop in his See as to smack of Presbyterianism. But when he goes on to
attribute the Primacy thus located in the Roman Church to a supposed
superior sanctity residing in the members of that Church, he would seem
to be substituting a pure invention of his own for history.

[55] Eusebius, Hist. 2, 3. The words are so specific that it is desirable
to give the original: καὶ δῆτα ἀνὰ πάσας πόλεις τε καὶ κώμας πληθυούσης
ἅλωνος δίκην μυρίανδροι καὶ παμπλήθεις ἀθρόως ἐκκλησίαι συνεστήκεσαν. The
last word indicates the regular formation of a Church, that hierarchical
constitution of the bishop, with his attendant ministry, without which,
in the words of St. Ignatius, ἐκκλησία ὀυ καλεῖται. I have used Cruse's
translation, altering it occasionally.

[56] Lib. iii. 4.

[57] Titus i. 5-9.

[58] Lib. iii. 37.

[59] Eusebius appears to say that the Apostle Peter came to Rome very
shortly after he had discomfited Simon Magus in Samaria. See lib. ii. 14.

[60] Hist. 2, 25.

[61] Eusebius, Hist. 7, 19; and Præp. Evan. lib. 3, towards the end,
quoted by Bianchi, 3, 137.

[62] Tertullian, De Præscriptione Hæreticorum, 20, 21, Dr. Holmes'
translation, with a word or two altered.

[63] Irenæus, 4, 33, 8. The same is set forth with great force in Book 5,

[64] Ep. 43, 11: "Nec in illis solis episcopis Afris erat Ecclesia, ut
omne judicium ecclesiasticum vitasse viderentur qui se judicio eorum
præsentari noluissent. Millia quippe collegarum transmarina restabant,
ubi apparebat eos judicari posse, qui videbantur Afros vel Numidas
collegas habere suspectos."

[65] St. Hilary on Ps. 14, 3; St. Cyprian, Ep. 52.

[66] See Dom Chamard, L'Etablissement du Christianisme, p. 141.

[67] _Sacerdotes_; as ἐκκλησία means a Bishop's See, so _sacerdotes_
meant a bishop; that word in the language of the day signified the bishop
who presided in each Church, pre-eminently the _Sacerdos_, as offering
the Sacrifice of the Altar. See Coustant. Rom. Pont. Epist., p. 856.

[68] Orat. 17, 8; Ep. 224, Africano.

[69] ἀρχή. Bianchi, 3, 475.

[70] See Bianchi, 3, 484.

[71] Irenæus, 3, 4.

[72] Hist., 4, 7, speaking of the time of Hadrian and the Gnostic

[73] St. Cyprian, De Unit. Ecc. 4, and Epis. 52.

[74] De Marca, De Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii, lib. 6, 1.

[75] St. Leo I., Ep. 14.

[76] De Unitate Ecclesiæ, 4.

[77] Ps. xliv. 17.

[78] Cont. Epist. Manichæi, 5.

[79] θεία τις καὶ ἄμαχος δύναμις τοῦ ταῦτα προειποντος καὶ
τελέσαντος.—St. Chrysostom, tom. i. p. 579.

[80] Against the Jews and Gentiles to demonstrate that Christ is God,
tom. i. p. 558, and pp. 574, 577, 578.

[81] The contrast is marked in the original by totally distinct words,
which the rendering both by the same word _altar_ would efface: 1.
βωμοὺς, altars of the religion with bloody sacrifices; 2. θυσιαστήρια,
which are altars whereon the Unbloody Sacrifice is offered.



_The One Episcopate Resting upon the One Sacrifice._

One of the points on which Pope St. Clement most strongly dwells is the
care with which our Lord communicated to His Apostles definite and
accurate instructions as to the kingdom which they were to set up. And
from this care he draws the conclusion that, if infringement of the
Mosaic law was punished by death, how much more guilty were they who
showed insubordination to a precept of Christ in the institution of
Christian rule? Thus St. Clement affirms that our Lord, far from leaving
the government of His Church to be evolved out of local circumstances or
individual temperaments or political affinities, determined it from the
beginning. We shall now further show that He enshrined in it the very
life of His people; and so that their worship, their government, their
belief, and their practice were wrapped up together. Their government
contained their doctrine, and set before their eyes in distinct vision
Him in whom they trusted, Jesus Christ and Him crucified. It was not a
human device but a divine ordinance, and the preaching of Christ through
it was His action also. His words were deeds as much in the teaching of
His Church as they were in the days of His flesh.

Our Lord created the priesthood of His Church on the eve of His Passion.
It is the basis on which all spiritual power and all doctrinal truth rest
in His kingdom; and He willed that the episcopate should be the
instrument to communicate both power and truth to His people, and that
the priesthood should be stored up in the person of each bishop. This
plant of life, complete in itself, but only as a sucker of the One
Vine,[82] the Apostles deposited in every city and town by the
inspiration of the Holy Ghost; as St. Clement says, they passed on
themselves and left it to grow by virtue of the same Spirit. The result
was that when Constantine gave the acknowledgment of the Civil Power to
the great Spiritual Kingdom, its Episcopate had far outgrown the limits
of his empire.

In what does the High-priesthood of Christ consist? In two acts, which it
is well carefully to distinguish.

The first is that divine act of the Blessed Trinity by which the Second
Person, the Eternal Son of the Father, assumed a created nature into the
unity of His Person, and that the nature of man. The act whereby He
became man is the act constituting His Priesthood.[83] Before His
Incarnation He was not a Priest; in the divine nature in which alone He
is from eternity, He does not offer but receive sacrifice. St. Paul
describes the act, and the instantaneous acceptance by the Divine Son, as
man in His human nature, of the mission to be High Priest for the human
race in these words: "When He cometh into the world He saith: Sacrifice
and oblation Thou wouldest not: but a body Thou hast fitted to me:
Holocausts for sin did not please Thee. Then said I, behold I come: in
the head of the book it is written of Me, that I should do Thy will, O
God." The whole purpose of His Incarnation and the whole course of His
future human life are here summed up, as accepted by Him in the first
moment of His human existence, when He says: "A body Thou hast fitted to
Me—behold I come—that I should do Thy will, O God." The whole Christian
faith rests upon this divine act. It is the simply inconceivable
humiliation of the Divine Majesty, the simply unutterable effect of the
Divine Love. The angels, who have had it before them from their creation
in vision, and for more than eighteen hundred years in effect, have not
yet mastered its depths; nor is the Mother of fair Love herself—the
nearest to it—equal to the task either of expressing it or of
comprehending it. How, then, was it to be impressed on the human race in
a manner which should cause its full force to be received by those who
learnt it for the first time; and when it had been thus learnt what
further provision was to bring about that it should never be forgotten,
nor pass into the crowd of things which have once been and then cease to

We have, first, in these words of St. Paul, the Divine Son accepting His
mission as the first act of His human nature, and, further, expressing
the nature of His mission—to do the will of His Father, that will being
that He should take the body which His Father had prepared for Him. In
that acceptance is comprised all the labours and sufferings of the
thirty-three years foreseen from the beginning, willed by the Father,
freely chosen by the Son in His manhood, as the first act of that
manhood, which yet is prolonged through His whole life.

After this the Apostle goes on to exhibit the second act of His
High-Priesthood, springing out of the first, and its consummation—the
abrogation of the ancient sacrifices, although divinely instituted, and
the substitution for them of that Body which God had fitted to Him. "In
saying before, Sacrifices and oblations and holocausts for sin Thou
wouldst not, neither are they pleasing to Thee, which are offered
according to the law: then said I, Behold I come to do Thy will, O God:
He taketh away the first, that He may establish that which followeth. In
the which will we are sanctified by the oblation of the Body of Jesus
Christ once." As the first act, the Incarnation, runs on into the second,
the Atonement, so the second depends on the first. Without the assumption
by God the Son of a created nature, the nature of man, there would be no
sacrifice for man and no reconciliation. The source of sanctification is
the offering of the Body of the God-man, of no other body; and without
the Godhead of Christ His religion would be the shadow of a dream.

How, again, was this second act of His High-Priesthood, the oblation of
His Body on the cross once for all for the sins of the whole world, to be
impressed upon the world?

Human acts pass away into the abyss of past time, and the ever-flowing
tide of successive existence sweeps them into the background. The
sufferings and teachings of our Lord Himself, even His death upon the
cross, would in themselves as human acts be subject to this lot. How were
they to be made ever-living and ever-present, rescued from oblivion,
carried in the heart and professed by the lips of men in every succeeding
generation until the day of doom?

Truly there was wisdom needed for this effect, and what did our Lord do?

He was at the very point of completing that will of God which He came to
do, and for which a Body was fitted to Him. Having celebrated the Pasch
of the Law, which had been instituted so many ages before, as the
speaking type of what He was to accomplish, He with a word made His
disciples priests to offer that Body which He then first gave to them,
which on the morrow He was to offer on the cross, and in doing this utter
the "Consummatum est." The Priesthood, which was to carry in itself the
whole power and virtue of His Church, He created before the sacrifice of
the cross, but in immediate view of it, as the first act, as it were, of
His Passion.

But the Priesthood which He created, and the offering in which it
consisted, sprung from the union of the two acts which formed His own
High-Priesthood, the assumption of the manhood for the purpose of
redeeming man, and the execution of that purpose by His death on the
cross. The Priesthood contained them both in itself, for the Body given
was the Body broken on the cross, the Blood given was the Blood shed on
the cross; and they were both the Body and Blood of a God-man. "Do this,
He said, in commemoration of Me;" and as long as it was done daily, the
double truth, the double benefit of God to man, the double marvel of
redeeming love, offering itself and offering what is divine for the
erring creature, could not fade from remembrance. It is as present now as
it was at the hour of the crucifixion, and will be equally present to the
end of the world.

But in order better to understand the force and meaning of our Lord's
action, it is necessary to consider the institution which, at the time of
it, was in existence and full operation all over the world, the
institution, that is, of bloody sacrifice.

From the beginning of history, and in all countries, the intercourse
between God and man consisted in two things, prayer and sacrifice, and
they were carried on together. For this much the Greek may fitly
represent all Gentilism. Now Plato represents Euthyphron as saying to
Socrates, "If any one knows how to say and to do things acceptable to the
gods by praying and by sacrificing, that is piety, and such conduct
preserves both private families and the commonwealth; and the contrary to
these acceptable things is impiety, which overthrows and destroys
everything." To which Socrates replies, "You call, then, piety a certain
knowledge of sacrifice and prayer." "I do." "Then sacrifice is giving to
the gods, and prayer asking of them."[84]

A most careful student[85] of the Greek mind tells us: "As the need of
the gods was felt by man in all the events of his life, in every work and
every purpose, sacrificial worship, the burnt-offering, or the briefer
libation-offering, ran through the whole of his being, and seemed to be
prayer clothed in action." And again, "We have shown that man conceived
of the Godhead not only as by its immortality infinitely exalted above
himself, but likewise as the Ruler and Administrator of the whole
universe and the being of man; and moreover, that man, in spite of all
doubt and error as to the nature of his gods, in spite of his allowing
impersonal powers to be at their side who threaten their dignity, yet
never detaches himself from them, because he always feels himself
impelled to seek a living personal Godhead. To this he was riveted by the
insoluble bonds of a spiritual and natural need; and the recognition of
this dependence, the expression of human subjection, the tribute of
homage which man offers in the certainty of needing its grace, that is
piety, as it is shown in action and in word, that is to say, in sacrifice
and in prayer." And "the whole worship, that is, all sacrifices and
divination, are made by Plato to be identical with the communion of gods
and men with each other."[86]

Another writer,[87] most learned in Greek and Roman antiquity, says:
"These two constitute the oldest and most general form of honouring God.
It might perhaps be said that the first word of the original man was a
prayer, and the first act of the fallen man a sacrifice. Moses in
Genesis, at any rate, carries the origin of sacrifice up to the first
history of man, to Cain and Abel; the Greek legends, to Prometheus and
the centaur Chiron, or to the eldest kings, Melisseus, Phoronæus, and

"In Gentilism as in Judaism, actual sacrifices of animals are everywhere
the rule; beside them, in particular cases, offerings also of vegetable
substances. Indeed, sacrifices were offered not merely for expiation, but
wherever man had need of the gods, or reason to thank them, on all
important moments of life, at the beginning and end of every weighty
action, in order to maintain and make manifest the unbroken connection of
man with God.

"Those most ancient domestic precepts recorded by Hesiod enjoin on every
one, at declining and at dawning day, to conciliate the gods, with pure
and chaste heart, by holy sprinklings and fragrant perfume, that their
heart may incline to us with good-will and peace, and as often as thou
returnest from a journey, offer fair sacrifices to the immortal gods. In
family life sacrifices were made specially at birth, marriage, and death.
The Cretans, who considered human marriage as a transcript of the
heavenly marriage between Zeus and Hera, made offerings on occasion of it
specially to these gods. If a man wished to marry at Athens, he first
made his prayers and sacrifices to the so-called Tritapatores, the first
father's of life, for the happy generation of children, since no birth
takes place without God. At the marriage itself, again, there were
sacrifices, when the gall of the victim was thrown behind the altar to
signify that no bitterness should infect their union. Moreover, the bride
at Athens was introduced by a sacrifice into her husband's race; and
again, a victim was offered upon the inscription of children on the tribe
list. At Sparta mothers were wont, on the espousal of their daughters, to
make offerings to Aphrodité Hera, the goddess of married love; the
Bœotians and Locrians to Artemis Euklea; the maidens of Haliartus made a
preparatory gift to the fountain Kissoessa, according to ancestral
custom. If the marriage was blest by a child, a sacrifice was offered for
this on the seventh or tenth day after the birth, and thereupon the child
was named. At death, again, sacrifices were offered for the peace of
departed souls, as well by individuals as by the commonwealth. According
to Plato, it was an orphic doctrine that there were certain deliverances
and purifications which availed also for the dead. The gravestones were
anointed and crowned with flowers, pyres were erected, and victims
slaughtered on them, or cakes were thrown into the fire, holes made in
the earth, and libations of wine, milk, and honey poured into them. Only
no sacrifices were offered for children, because, as they had departed
unstained by intercourse with earthly things, they needed no further
reconcilement. Plutarch describes the great public sacrifice for the
dead which the Platæans, in late times, continued to offer yearly for
those who had fallen in battle against the Persians.

"In agricultural life, also, which is the beginning and foundation of all
religious habit, every important moment was sanctified by sacrifice. The
Athenians, at the beginning of tillage, before they turned up the land,
offered the preparatory sacrifice to Demeter[88] for the prosperity of
the future fruits, and are said on one occasion, in the fifth Olympiad,
at a time of general dearth, to have made such an offering for all Hellas
at the command of the Delphic god. So at the end of the winter, when the
fruits of the field began to grow, all the magistrates, from eldest time,
offered the previous thanksgiving[89] to Athené, the protectress of the
city. So they offered at Rome, at the time of the pear-tree blossom,
before ploughing, vows and grain cakes, for the health of the labouring
oxen; then before harvest offerings to Ceres of bread and wine, and so
again when a wood was cleared, at the digging and blessing of the fields.
So both peoples were wont in general to give the first-fruits of
everything which the favour of the gods gave to them; fruits of the field
as of the herd, of the vintage, and of the trees; the former liquid, and
the latter solid. These first-fruits represented the whole mass, for all
the productions of nature belong to the Giver thereof. Aristotle holds
the offering of such first-fruits of the field to be the oldest kind of
offerings in general, and a Roman writer finely says, since the ancients
lived in the belief that all nourishment, the fatherland, nay, life
itself, is a gift of the gods, they were wont to offer something to these
of everything, more to show their gratitude than because they believed
that the gods needed it. Hence, before they ate anything of the new
fruits, they consecrated a portion to the gods; and since they possessed
both fields and cities in fee from the gods, they dedicated to them a
portion for temples and chapels, and some were wont to offer to them the
hair, as the topmost portion of the body, for the sound state of the
rest. Thus the Bhagavadgita[90] says: 'Sacrifice to the gods; they will
give you the wished-for food. He who eats what they have given without
first offering therefrom is a thief; they who ate what remained of the
sacrifice are free from all sins.' The fathers of families made an
offering every month to Hecaté for reparation of sins committed in the
house. Certain dishes were prepared and carried through the whole house,
while the curse which rested on evil deeds committed was put therein, and
then they were placed at midnight upon a cross-road. Whoever ate of this,
it was believed he took the curse into him with the food. Only curs and
currish men did it.

"Sacrifices were connected not less with all important acts of political
life. 'Those before us,' says Philo, 'began every good action with
perfect victims, deeming this the best means to bring about a good end to
them,' In the consciousness that all were stained with sin, but that
sinful men could discover no good counsel, swine were sacrificed before
every assembly of the people at Athens, and their blood sprinkled as a
purification over the seats of the meeting. A priest then carried certain
parts of the victim round the assembly, and cast their sins into these
parts. When this was done, incense was offered, and the same priest went
with a vessel of holy water round, blessing the assembled people
therewith for the matter which it was to undertake. Then the herald
recited the customary prayers, and the consultation at last began. The
sacrifices by which the council, the generals, the Prytanes, and all
public magistrates entered on office were similar. In like manner
sacrifices preceded the sittings of justice and the taking of oaths. In
war no important step was taken before the sacrifices were prosperous and
announced a good result. Sacrifice was offered at the first start, at the
passage of boundaries and rivers, at making an advance, at taking ship,
at landing, before assault of besieged cities, before battle, and after
victory. The Athenian generals were wont specially to sacrifice to
Hermes, the leader. All truces, peace-makings, leagues, and treaties were
accompanied with sacrifice. A direction was attached to all sacrifices
ordered by law or oracular decrees, that they should be according to the
hereditary three customs, that is, take place on months, days, and years,
_i.e._, solar years, lunar months, and days of the month. Plato enjoins,
as in Athens was really the fact, that on every day of the year the
magistrate should offer sacrifice to a god or genius for the city and its
inhabitants, their goods and chattels. Of Julian, the last emperor
attached to the Hellenic worship, it is expressly said that he, not only
on new moons, but every day, welcomed the rising sun-god with a bloody
victim, and accompanied his setting with another, and served the gods not
by other hands, but himself took part in the sacrifice, ran about the
altar, took up the mallet and held the knife, and that, in order the
better to discharge these duties, he had built a temple to the sun-god in
the midst of his palace. The shedding of blood was everywhere the bond of
union between man and man, and between man and God; to the commonwealth
the guarantee of its security, the firmest pillar of its government."

If we extend this description of the prevalence of sacrifices among the
Greeks and Romans to all the nations of antiquity, we shall be able to
form a conception which, after all, will be very feeble when compared
with the reality, of the degree in which the whole religious life between
man and God, the national life in the various nations, the social life in
each nation, the domestic life in each family, was alike dominated by the
idea and practice of bloody sacrifice.

The ceremonial of sacrifice was as follows: "The sacrificial usages
themselves were very solemn. Everything expressed that the sacrifice was
made freely and joyously. Those who offered to the heavenly gods wore
white robes, and crowns on the head and in the hands. Those who offered
to the gods beneath the earth were robed in black. The victim was also
crowned and adorned with ribbons, and on solemn occasions its horns were
gilt. It was led by a loose cord, to indicate that it followed willingly
and of its own accord. If the animal took to flight, that was a bad
prognostic. It had to be put to death, but might not be led up again to
the altar. Before touching the sacrificial utensils, the hands were
washed in order to approach the holy with purity. As with us, a boy
poured water over the hands of the sacrificant. Then the sacrificial cake
or sacred salt-meal and the knife of sacrifice were brought in a basket
and carried round the altar. A branch of laurel or olive, symbol of
purification and peace, was dipped in the water-stoup and the bystanders
sprinkled therewith. The holy water itself was consecrated with prayers
and the dipping into it of a firebrand from the altar. Silence was then
enjoined, and when the profane had been dismissed with such words as
'Depart, depart, whoever is a sinner,' the herald cried with a loud
voice, 'Who is here?' those present answered, 'Many, and they pious.'
Then the proper prayer of sacrifice began for the gracious acceptance of
what was offered; and after the victim had been proved sound and
faultless, a line was drawn to mark its willingness with the back of the
sacrificial knife from the forehead to the tail, and grain was poured
over its neck until by nodding it seemed to give its consent to be
sacrificed. Then there were fresh prayers; the priest took a cup of red
wine, tasted the blood of the vine, allowed also those present to drink
of it, and poured the remainder between the animal's horns. Then the hair
of its forehead was cut off and cast into the fire as a firstling;
incense was kindled, and the remaining grain finally poured upon the
altar with music of pipe and flute, that no ill-omened word might be
heard during the sacred action. In specially solemn sacrifices there were
also choral hymns and dances. The animal was struck with the axe and its
throat cut; when the sacrifice was to the gods above, with hands raised
towards heaven; when to the gods below, with head bowed to the earth. The
blood was then received in a vessel and partly poured out upon the altar,
partly sprinkled on those around, that they might be delivered from sin.
Especially all who wished to have a portion in the sacrifice had to touch
the victim and the sacrificial ashes. According to the oldest usage the
whole victim was burnt; later only certain portions—the head and feet
(the extremities for the whole), the entrails, especially the heart as
the seat of life, the shanks as the place of strength, and the fat as the
best portion. Then red wine, unmixed, was poured upon the flames. The
sacrificers consumed the rest, as in the Hebrew thank-offerings and among
the Egyptians and Indians, in a sacred festive meal; among the Arcadians,
masters and slaves altogether. Such meals were usual from the most
ancient time after the completion of the sacrifice, and in them
originally the gods were considered to sit as guests with men. All sang
thereby, as law and custom determined, sacred hymns, that during the meal
moral comeliness and respect might not be transgressed, and the harmony
of song might consecrate the words and the conduct of the speakers. By
this common partaking of the pure sacrificial flesh, the communion of the
offered meats, a substantially new life was to be implanted in the
partakers; for all who eat of one sacrifice are one body.

"Hence the first Christians obstinately refused to eat of the flesh of
heathen victims. 'I had rather die than feed on your sacrifices.' 'If any
one eat of that flesh he cannot be a Christian.'[91] At the end of the
feast, as it seems, the herald dismissed the people with the words λαοῖς
ἄφεσις—Ite, missa est."

Thus we find that sacrifice existed from the beginning of history in all
nations, and was associated with prayer; the two together made up
worship, and the spiritual acts of the mind, expressed in prayer, were
not considered complete without sacrifice, a corporeal act as it were, so
that the homage of soul and body together constituted the complete act of
fealty on the part of man to his Maker. But we find also more than this.
The spiritual acts which are contained in prayer, as the expression of an
innocent creature to his Creator, are three: adoration, which recognises
the supreme majesty of God; thanksgiving, which specially dwells on the
benefits received from Him; and petition, which speaks the perpetual need
of Him felt by the creature. And with these in a state of innocence
prayer would stop. But if the harmony between the Creator and the
creature has been broken, if sin has been committed, and a sense of guilt
arising from that sin exists, then prayer expresses a fourth need of the
creature, which does not exist in the state of innocence—the need of
expiation. Now offerings of the natural fruits of the earth, of whatever
kind, correspond, it is plain, to the three former parts of prayer—to
adoration, thanksgiving, and petition for support; but the bloody
sacrifice of living creatures, in which occurs the pouring out of their
blood in a solemn rite, the presentation of it to God, and the sprinkling
of the people with it, can only be accounted for by a consciousness in
man of guilt before God. The existence of a rite so peculiar in so many
nations, and its association everywhere with the most solemn act of
prayer, is not accounted for even by such a consciousness alone; for what
power had the shedding of an animal's blood to remove the sense of guilt
in man or to propitiate God? There was no doubt the consciousness of
guilt on man's part, but what should ever lead him, of himself, to
conceive such a mode of expiating his guilt, such a mode of propitiating
God? It was much more natural for him to conceive that the act of pouring
out the blood of a creature, in which was its life, the most precious
gift of the Creator, would be an offence to that Creator, the Lord of
life, its Giver and Maintainer. Thus the act of bloody sacrifice can only
be accounted for as in its origin a directly divine institution, a
positive law of God. As such it is plainly recognised by Moses when he
introduces it in the history of Cain and Abel, where, in the first man's
children, it appears as already existing. God alone, the absolute Lord of
life, could attach together prayer and bloody sacrifice, and enact that
the worship which He would receive from His creature, the worship which
not only adored Him as Creator, thanked Him as Benefactor, asked His
help as Preserver, but likewise acknowledged guilt before Him for sin
committed, should be made up of a compound act, that of solemn prayer,
and that of shedding and offering blood, and partaking of a victim so
offered. The rite of bloody sacrifice is, therefore, the record of the
Fall stamped by the hand of God on the forehead of the human race at its
first starting in the state of guilt. The death of a vicarious victim was
the embodiment of the doctrine that man had forfeited his life by
disobedience to God his Creator, and that he should be restored by the
effusion of the blood of an innocent victim. The fact of the
concentration of these four acts of prayer about the rite of bloody
sacrifice, through all Gentilism, as well as in Judaism, has no end of

This conclusion was drawn by St. Augustine,[92] who says: "Were I to
speak at length of the true sacrifice, I should prove that it was due to
no one but the one true God; and this the one true Priest, the Mediator
of God and men, offered to Him. It was requisite that the figures
promissive of this sacrifice should be celebrated in animal victims, as a
commendation of that flesh and blood which were to be, through which
single victim might take place the remission of sins contracted of flesh
and blood, which shall not possess the kingdom of God, because that
self-same substance of the body shall be changed into a heavenly quality.
This was signified by the fire in the sacrifice, which seemed to absorb
death into victory. Now such sacrifices were duly celebrated in that
people whose kingdom and whose priesthood were both a prophecy of the
King and Priest who was to come, that He might rule, and that He might
consecrate the faithful in all nations, and introduce them to the kingdom
of heaven, the sanctuary of the angels, and eternal life. Now this being
the true sacrifice, as the Hebrews celebrated religious predictions of
it, so the Pagans celebrated sacrilegious imitations; for in the
Apostle's words, what the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice to devils and
not to God. For an ancient thing is that immolation of blood, carrying an
announcement of the future, testifying from the beginning of the human
race the Passion of the Mediator that was to be, for Abel is the first in
sacred writ recorded to have offered this."

The rite of bloody sacrifice, thus enacted by God, and set by Him upon
flesh and blood as a perpetual prophecy, is one of those acts of supreme
worship which may be offered to God alone. "Genuflexions," says St.
Thomas,[93] "prostrations, and other indications of such-like honour, may
be offered also to men, though with a different intent; but no one has
judged that sacrifice should be offered to any one unless he esteemed him
to be God, or pretended so to esteem him. But the external sacrifice
represents the internal true sacrifice, according to which the human mind
offers itself to God. Now, our mind offers itself to God as being the
Source of its creation, as being the Author of its operation, as being
the End of its beatitude; and these three things belong to the supreme
principle of things alone. Whence man is bound to offer the worship of
sacrifice to the one supreme God alone, but not to any spiritual

The Gentile world broke this primary law of worship in offering the rite
of bloody sacrifice to numberless false gods. It is, therefore, no wonder
that, falling so low in its conception of the Godhead as to divide God
into numberless parts, it fell likewise into oblivion of the meaning and
prophecy contained in the sacrifice itself; yet though it might forget,
it could not efface the idea enshrined in the act, so long as it
preserved the material parts of the act, which in so striking a manner
exhibited to the very senses of man the great doctrine that without
effusion of blood there is no remission of sins. And this was declared
not merely in the Hebrew ritual, divinely instituted for that very
purpose, and in full operation down to the very time of Christ; but in
all those sacrifices of the dispersed and corrupted nations, which,
debased in the persons to whom they were offered, and performed with a
routine oblivious of their meaning, yet bore witness to the truth which
God had originally impressed on the minds of men, and committed to a
visible and prophetic memorial.

If we survey the whole world at the coming of Christ, we may say that the
institution of bloody sacrifice is the most striking and characteristic
fact to be found in it. This conclusion will result in the mind if four
things be noted which are therein bound up together. The first of these
is its specific character; for surely the ceremonial of sacrifice, as
above described, deserves this title, if anything ever did. It is a very
marked and peculiar institution, conveying an ineffaceable sense of guilt
in those who practise it, and a quite singular manner of detaching from
themselves the effects of that guilt. Secondly, it is found everywhere;
without sacrifice no religious worship is complete; its general diffusion
has with reason been alleged as a proof of its true origin and deep
meaning. Were it only found in single or in rude nations, it might have
been attributed to rude and barbarous conceptions; but all nations had
it, and the most civilised offered it in the greatest profusion. Thirdly,
it had the most astonishingly pervading influence; from the top to the
bottom of the social scale it ruled all; the king made it the support of
his throne; the father of the family applied it to his children; bride
and bridegroom were joined together in its name; and warring nations made
peace in the blood of the sacrificed victim. Fourthly, the three notes
just given are indefinitely heightened in their force when we consider
that the institution, far from being of itself in accordance with man's
reason, is quite opposed to it. Reason does indeed suggest that the
fruits of the earth should be offered in mark of honour, gratitude, and
dependence to that Almighty Lord by whose gift alone they are received;
but reason of itself, far from suggesting, flies back from the notion
that the Giver of life should accept as a propitiatory offering from His
creature the blood of animals, in which, according to the general sense
of antiquity, their life itself consisted. That this blood should be
poured out, and sprinkled on those present as an act of religious faith;
that it should be accompanied by words expressing adoration,
thanksgiving, and petition; and further, that it should be considered to
remove guilt,—the whole of this forms a conception so alien from reason,
that he who reflects upon it is driven to the conclusion of a positive
enactment, bearing in it a mysterious truth, which it was of the utmost
importance for man to know, to bear in mind, to practise, and not to
forget. And if we put together these four things, the specific character
of the bloody sacrifice, its universality, its pervading influence, and
the token of unreason, apart, that is, from the significance of a deep
mystery, which rests upon it, we must feel that there is nothing in the
constitution of the world before our Saviour's time more worthy of
attention than this. There is no solution of it to be found but that of
St. Augustine, "that the immolation of blood, carrying an announcement of
the future, testified from the beginning of the human race the Passion of
the Mediator that was to be."

But there is likewise a series of portentous facts, bearing upon the
institution of bloody sacrifice, which runs through all human history.
This is the offering of human sacrifices in expiation of guilt, or to
ward off calamities. The religious ideas which lie at the bottom of this
are, that as life is a gift of God to man on the condition that he
fulfils God's commands, every sinner has thereby forfeited his life. The
rule of inexorable justice is set forth in strongest language by the
Greek tragedians, as when Æschylus says, "It abides, while Jove abides
through the series of ages, that he who has done a deed shall suffer for
it. It is an ordinance."[94] But as all men stand in a real communion of
life to each other, and as members of one living whole are bound in one
responsibility to the Godhead, the idea also prevailed that one man's
life could be given for another's; that one might offer himself in
expiation for another, and the willing sacrifice of the innocent was
esteemed to have the more power in proportion as the vicarious will of
the offerer was pure, and therefore acceptable to the gods: "For I think
that a single soul performing this expiation would suffice for a
thousand, if it be there with good-will," says Œdipus in Sophocles. So
kings offer themselves for their people; so the royal virgin gains for
the host with her blood prosperous winds. But from such acts of
self-devotion, freely performed, we proceed to a further step, in which
men are sacrificed against their will. At Athens is found the frightful
custom that two miserable human beings, one of each sex, were yearly
nourished at the public cost, and then solemnly sacrificed at the feast
of the Thargelia for expiation of the people. Not only did the Consul
Decius, at the head of his army, solemnly devote himself for his country,
but so often as a great and general calamity threatened the existence of
the Roman State human sacrifices were offered, and a male and female
Gaul, a male and female Greek, or those of any other nation whence danger
threatened, were buried alive in the ox-market, with magic forms of
prayer uttered by the head of the college of the Quindecemviri. Nay, the
human sacrifices yearly offered upon the Alban Mount to Jupiter Latiaris
were continued down to the third century of our era.

What thus took place in Greece and Rome is found likewise amongst almost
all the Eastern and Western peoples. The most cruel human sacrifices were
nowhere more frequent than among the idolatrous races of Shem, whether
Canaanites, Phœnicians, or Carthaginians. These specially offered the
eldest or the only son. Egyptian, Persian, Arabian, the most ancient
Indian history, and that of the Northern peoples, Scythians, Goths,
Russians, Germans, Gauls, British, and the Celts in general, give us
examples of the same custom.

The conclusion from all this is, how strong and general in the religious
conscience of all ancient peoples was the sense of sinful man's need to
be purified and reconciled with God, and that the means of such
reconcilement were thought to be in the vicarious shedding of human

At any rate, we may draw from this custom a corroboration of the meaning
which lay in the rite of bloody sacrifice of animals, that the vicarious
offering of an animal's life, which was deemed to be seated in the blood,
was made in the stead of a human life as a ransom for it, as is exactly
expressed in the lines of Ovid—

    "Cor pro corde precor, pro fibris accipe fibras,
    Hanc animam vobis pro meliore damus,"

    —_Ovid_, _Fasti_, 6, 161.

The vicarious character of animal sacrifice is shown in the Egyptian
usage, wherein a seal was put upon oxen found pure and spotless for
sacrifice, which represented a man kneeling with hands bound behind his
back, and a sword put to his throat, while the bystanders lamented the
slaughtered animal and struck themselves on the breast. The same idea
that the victim was a ransom for man's life is also found in the Indian
sacrificial ritual.[95]

The institution of bloody sacrifice, then, was not merely an instinctive
confession by man of guilt before God, though this confession was
contained in it in an eminent degree, but sprung from a direct divine
appointment. This conclusion is borne in upon the mind by its existence
every where, and by the astonishing force with which it seemed to hold
all parts of human life in its grasp. Such an influence, again, shows the
extent to which, in the original constitution of things, all human life
was bound up in a dependence upon God. Not mental acts only, acts of
adoration, thanksgiving, petition, and expiation were enjoined, but all
these were expressed in a visible, corporeal action, and associated with
it. It is precisely in this association that I trace the stamp of the
divine appointment, as well as a seal of permanence, which is shown in
the unbroken maintenance of the rite through so many shiftings of races
and revolutions of governments in the lapse of so many centuries.

Thus on the original human society, the family of the first man, God had
impressed the idea that man by sin had forfeited his life before God;
that there must be reparation for that forfeiture; that such reparation
was one day to be made by the offering of an innocent victim; that in the
meantime the vicarious sacrifice of animals should be offered to God as a
confession of man's guilt; that their blood poured out before Him and
sprinkled on the sacrifices should be accepted by God in token of an

Now what we have seen of the original institution of sacrifice will help
to show how absolutely divine an act it was which our Lord took upon
Himself in establishing a sacrifice for His people. But He was not only
ordering a new worship; He was likewise at once fulfilling and abolishing
by that fulfilment the old, that which had prevailed from the beginning
of man's race. Instead of the blood of animals poured out profusely all
over the world, He said, "This is the chalice, the new testament in My
Blood, which shall be shed for you;" and speaking as the Lamb of God who
takes away the sin of the world, using also the special sacrificial term,
He said, "This is My Body, which is given for you; do this for a
commemoration of Me." The act was doubly a divine act, in appointing a
sacrifice for the whole human race, and in making His own Body that
sacrifice; the first an act of divine authority, the second not that
only, but pointing out the personal union of the Godhead with the
Manhood, in virtue of which the communication of His flesh gives life to
the world, as He had foretold a year before: "The bread which I will
give is My flesh for the life of the world."[96] Thus the Christian
sacrifice is the counterpart of the original institution, and throws the
light of fulfilment upon that offering of the blood of bulls and goats
which seemed in itself so unreasonable; which would have been so, but
that it earned in itself the mystery hidden from the foundation of the
world. Thus it was that the animal creation placed below man was chosen
to bear witness in its flesh and blood to the offering which was to
restore man, and the Lord of life made use of the life which He had given
to signify in a speaking prophecy that supreme exhibition of His mercy,
His justice, and His majesty, which He had purposed from the beginning.
If the earth without Calvary might seem to have been a slaughter-house,
Calvary made it an altar.

But if this be the relation of the Christian sacrifice to the original
institution in general, it has a special relation to that whole order of
hierarchy and sacrifice which was established by Moses. The whole body of
the Mosaic law, from head to foot and in its minutest part, was
constructed to be fulfilled in Christ. It was alike His altar and His
throne, prepared for Him fifteen hundred years before His coming. Moses
found the patriarchal priesthood and the patriarchal sacrifice, and drew
out both so as to be a more detailed picture of the Priesthood and
Sacrifice which were to be.

Then as the whole ancient worship, whether Patriarchal, or Jewish, or
Gentile, had been concentrated in sacrifice, the Lord of all, coming to
create the world anew, in the night of His Passion, and as the prelude of
it, instituted the new Priesthood, and made it the summary of His whole
dispensation. The Priest according to the order of Melchisedec came forth
to supply what was wanting in the Levitical priesthood. Signs passed into
realities, and the Precious Blood took the place of that blood which had
been shed all over the earth from the sacrifice of Abel onwards.[97] St.
Paul has told us how the King of justice and of peace, fatherless,
motherless, and without genealogy in the sacred narrative, having neither
beginning of days nor end of life, as then recorded, was the image of the
Son of God, who remains a Priest for ever. For though He was to offer
Himself once upon the altar of the cross, by death, to God His Father,
and to work out eternal redemption, His Priesthood was not to be
extinguished by His death. Therefore in the Last Supper, on the very
night of His betrayal, He would leave to His beloved bride the Church a
visible sacrifice, such as the nature of man required. This should
represent the bloody sacrifice once enacted on the cross; this should
preserve its memory fresh and living to the end of time; this should
apply its saving virtue to the remission of sins daily committed by human
frailty. Thus He declared Himself a Priest for ever after the order of
Melchisedec. He presented His Body and His Blood under the species of
bread and wine to God His Father. Under these symbols He gave them to
His Apostles to receive, and so doing He made them priests of the new
testament, and charged them, and those who should succeed them in this
priesthood, to make this offering, by the words, "This do in
commemoration of Me;" thus, as St. Paul adds, "showing the death of the
Lord until He come."[98] For when He had celebrated that old Pasch which
the multitude of the children of Israel immolated in memory of their
coming out of Egypt, He made Himself the new Pasch, that this should be
celebrated by the Church through her priests in visible signs, in
commemoration of His passage from this world to the Father, when by the
shedding forth of His own Blood He redeemed us and delivered us from the
power of darkness and translated us into His own kingdom. This is the
pure oblation, incapable of being stained by the unworthiness or malice
of those who offer it, which God by the mouth of His prophet Malachias
prophesied, saying, "From the rising of the sun even to the going down
thereof My name is great among the Gentiles, and in every place there is
sacrifice, and there is offered to My name a clean oblation." This St.
Paul pointed out with equal clearness when he wrote, "The things which
the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils and not to God; and I
would not that you should be made partakers with devils. You cannot drink
the chalice of the Lord and the chalice of devils: you cannot be
partakers of the table of the Lord and of the table of devils." For as in
the one case the table indicates the altar on which the heathen
sacrifice was offered, so on the other it indicates the altar on which
the sacrifice of Christ is offered; and the reality asserted in the one
case is equally asserted in the other. And this, in fine, is that
offering, the figure of which was given by those various similitudes of
sacrifices in the time of nature and the time of the law; for, as the
consummation and perfection of all these, it embraces every blessing
which they signified.

All the force which sacrifice originally had to represent doctrine in a
visible form, in accordance with the twofold nature of man, belonged in
the most eminent degree to the sacrifice thus instituted. It became at
once the centre of the Church's worship, being celebrated by the Apostles
daily,[99] as we are told, while the Liturgies of the East and West make
any question as to the character of the sacrifice impossible, and show
how the great acts of adoration, thanksgiving, petition, and expiation
were united in it and with it. It was the voice of the Christian people
evermore mounting to the Eternal Father, and representing to Him in an
action of infinite solemnity how He "so loved the world as to give His
only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him may not perish but may
have life everlasting."[100]

But more particularly let us observe the doctrines which our Lord taught,
and as it were clothed with flesh in the daily sacrifice of the Church.

First, the cardinal doctrine of religion from the beginning, as it is
equally the certain witness of human reason, the unity of the Godhead;
for the sacrifice is offered to the one God alone. It is the guardian of
this great primary truth from all corruption, whether the polytheistic
corruption of division and limitation, or the pantheistic corruption of
vagueness and impersonality. Wherever this sacrifice is offered, the
great Christian unity of the one living and holy God, the God who knows,
the God who wills, the God who creates, is maintained by those who offer

Secondly, the Trinity of the Divine Persons; for the sacrifice consists
in the offering of God the Son in His human nature as a sin-offering for
man to His Father: "Wherein the same Christ is contained, and immolated
without blood, who once on the altar of the cross offered Himself with
blood;"[101] which, moreover, is accomplished by the descent of the Holy
Ghost upon the gifts. Thus the three Divine Persons enter into the
sacrifice, He to whom it is offered, He who offers it, and He by whose
operation it is consummated. So distinct yet so interwoven is their
action, so divine in each, that the sacrifice guards the doctrine of the
most Blessed Trinity as it guards that of the Divine Unity, and those who
offer this sacrifice are faithful in the maintenance of the second
mystery as in that of the first. But the Divine Unity and Trinity is the
very life of God, the very source of beatitude, to the knowledge and the
faith of which this sacrifice subserves. It preaches these truths as no
mere word could preach them; for action and word enter into each other
and complete themselves reciprocally in the sacrifice.

Thirdly, the stupendous mystery of God the Creator assuming a created
nature for the sake of the creature enters into the very substance of the
sacrifice. This can scarcely be expressed more distinctly than by the
very words of St. Justin Martyr in the second century, who says, "We
receive not these as common bread or common drink, but as by the word of
God Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh, had both flesh and
blood for our salvation, so we have been taught also that the food which
has been blessed by the word of prayer made by Him, from which our blood
and our flesh are by their change nourished, are the flesh and the blood
of that incarnate Jesus. For the Apostles, in their memorials called the
Gospels, have handed down that thus Jesus enjoined them: that He took
bread, and having blessed it, said, This do in commemoration of Me: this
is My Body; and that He took likewise the chalice, and having blessed it,
said, This is my Blood."[102] Here the martyr appeals to the reality of
the flesh assumed by the Word, as a supposition necessary to understand
the reality of His Body and Blood in the Eucharist, as St. Ignatius had
done before him, and as St. Irenæus and others did after him.[103] In
this connection, Eusebius of Cæsarea, setting forth the typical character
of the Jewish Pasch and its fulfilment in the new covenant, says, "The
followers of Moses sacrificed the Paschal Lamb only once a year, on the
fourteenth day of the first month about evening tide, but we in the new
covenant celebrating the Pasch every Sunday, are ever satisfied with the
Body of the Lord, and ever take part in the Blood of the Lamb."[104] And
here, once more, wherever this sacrifice is truly offered, the offerers
show themselves truly penetrated by that belief which comes next in
preciousness and dignity to the belief in the Divine Unity and
Trinity—the belief of that assumption by the Divine Son of human nature,
on which the Christian faith rests.

Fourthly, the sacrifice in St. Paul's words, "Sets forth the Lord's death
till He come," that is, the divine act of redemption; for in it our Lord
lies upon the altar in the state of a victim, the flesh and the blood
separated, as in the state of death, which He took upon Himself
voluntarily for the sin of the world, being offered because He willed it
Himself. The sacrifice exhibits most directly this act of the divine
love, which with that other act just treated of, the assumption of human
nature, makes up the double mystery of God's love to man—the double
mystery which, boundless and immeasurable as are the power and the wisdom
disclosed to man's reason in the structure of the visible universe,
disclosed equally in the infinity of smallness as in the infinity of
greatness, disclosed in every branch of science and every portion of
nature, makes both power and wisdom to pale before the greatness of
condescendence and affection; for truly it is greater that the Maker of
all these things should, for the sake of one of them, descend from His
greatness, and that the Lord of life and Author of beauty should
encounter death and embrace dishonour, than that He should have created
the universe in all its magnificence by the word of His power. But here,
in this sacrifice, He lies before His people in the state of
annihilation, dishonour, and death. The world's ransom is ever in the
sight of those whom He has ransomed, in the very act of paying their
debt: the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world goes through its
unfolding centuries, ever presenting to His Father the price which He has
paid for the salvation of His brethren. And it may be noted that those
who offer the Divine Sacrifice in the complete faith of the Church
preserve at the same time their full assurance in that redemption which
separated sects seem to lose as a consequence of their division, it being
too great and awful a doctrine for their weak and paralysed condition to

For it is impossible, fifthly, to separate the gift of adoption from the
Divine Sacrifice, which contains it and imparts it. Wherefore does the
Son of the Eternal Father lie upon the altar in the state of death? He
cries out aloud there, "Behold I and my children whom God has given Me."
It is precisely out of the act assuming our nature, and out of the act
offering that nature to death, that He draws His human family. It is
after the detailed account of His sufferings in the 21st Psalm that He
concludes with the words which St. Paul has quoted in this
connection:[105] "I will declare Thy name to My brethren: in the midst
of the Church will I praise Thee." It is in the act of priesthood that He
creates His race. "Because the children are partakers of flesh and blood,
He also Himself in like manner has been partaker of them, that through
death He might destroy him who had the empire of death." Thus, "It
behoved Him in all things to be made like unto His brethren, that He
might become a merciful and faithful High Priest before God." And the
daily act of His Priesthood thus performed, the unbloody immolation for
ever presented before God in the eyes of His people, is the bond and
pledge to them of the communicated sonship. They who have the Church's
daily sacrifice have never fallen from the belief of the divine
brotherhood, have never substituted for it the natural kinship of fallen
man. They have not sunk away from the bond of redemption giving sonship,
to the phantom of brotherhood, dispensing with faith, and vainly calling
on men to unite in the midst of national enmity, broken belief, and
thirst for material enjoyment. The Divine Sacrifice, as it is the
instrument, so also it is the guardian of divine adoption, and
perpetuates it upon the earth.

There are three parts, so to say, of adoption which are further
distinctly contained in the Divine Sacrifice. The first of these is the
derivation of spiritual life from the Person of Christ; for here
especially is fulfilled what He said of Himself, "The Bread of God is
that which cometh down from heaven and giveth life to the world." In the
act of sacrifice He becomes also the food of His brethren: here He was
from the beginning daily; here He is to the end. This is the inmost
junction of life with belief, so that the faithful people by its presence
attesting belief in the Divine Unity and Trinity, in the Incarnation of
the Son of God, in His redemption of the race, in the adoption of man by
God, at the same time become partakers of the life which these doctrines
declare. The perfection of the divine institution consists in this
absolute blending of belief, worship, and practice. The unbelieving Jews
strove among themselves, saying, "How can this Man give us His flesh to
eat?" Our Lord answered by establishing a rite on which His Church lives
through all the ages, in which He bestows Himself on each believer
individually, being as much his as if He was for him alone. Space and
time disappear before the Author of life in the act of communicating
Himself, and He is the sole Teacher of His Church, in that He alone feeds
it with the Divine Food, which is Himself.

But this food is the source of sanctification: as that by which man fell
away from God was sin, so that which unites him to God is holiness. It is
from the Incarnate Son in the act of sacrifice that this holiness
emanates to His people; and the gift of His flesh, the banquet at the
sacrifice, dispenses it. No teaching of words could so identify the
Person of our Lord with the source of holiness as the bodily act of
receiving His flesh. It is the command, "Be ye holy, for I am holy,"
expressed in action. This is the perennial fountain of holiness which
wells forth in the midst of His Church; and beside it, as subordinate and
preparatory, is the perpetual tribunal of penance: one and the other
given to meet and efface the perpetual frailties of daily life, first to
restore the fallen, and then to join them afresh with the source of

There is yet another gift consequent upon adoption, which completes as it
were the two we have just mentioned. It is that the flesh of our Lord
given in the Blessed Sacrament is the pledge and earnest of eternal life.
This He has Himself said in the words, "He that eateth My Flesh and
drinketh My Blood hath everlasting life, and I will raise him up at the
last day." And St. Thomas, in the beautiful conclusion to the grandest of
hymns, has summed up numberless comments of the Fathers on these divine
words, where he sings—

    "Bone Pastor, panis vere,
    Jesu nostri miserere,
    Tu nos pasce, nos tuere;
    Tu nos bona fac videre
      In terra viventium:
    Tu qui cuncta scis et vales,
    Qui nos pascis hic mortales,
    Tuos ibi commensales
    Cohæredes et sodales
      Fac sanctorum civium."

The Fathers[106] with great zeal insist that the physical Body of Christ
in the Eucharist, being one in all the receivers, is a principle of unity
of Christ's mystical Body. St. Augustine especially dwells upon this
effect in Christ's mystical Body, but the effect presupposes the cause,
which is that physical Body of Christ received by each.

Take an instance of the first statement, that is, the presence of
Christ's physical Body, in St. Chrysostom. Commenting on the words, "How
can this Man give us His flesh to eat?" he says, "Let us learn what is
the marvel of the mysteries, what they are, why they were given, and what
is their use. We become, He says, one body, members of His flesh and of
His blood. Let those who are initiated follow my words. That we may be
so, then, not only by charity but in actual fact, let us be fused with
that Flesh. For it is done by that Food which He bestowed on us in the
desire to show us the longing which He had for us. He mingled Himself
with us, and made His Body one mass with us, that we may be one thing, as
a body united with its head. This is what Christ did for us, to draw us
to closer friendship and to show His own longing for us; He granted those
who desired Him, not only to see Him but to touch Him, and to eat Him,
and to fix their teeth in His Flesh, to be joined in His embrace, and to
satisfy all their longing. Parents often give their children to be
nourished by others; I not so, but I nourish you with My own Flesh; I set
Myself before you. I wished to become your Brother, I have partaken of
flesh and blood for you; again, I give to you that Flesh and Blood
whereby I became your kinsman."[107]

Of the effect proceeding from this cause St. Augustine says, "The whole
redeemed city, the assembly and society of the saints, is offered as an
universal sacrifice to God by the Great Priest, who also offered Himself
in His Passion for us, according to the form of a servant, that we might
be the Body of so great a Head. For this form He offered, in this He was
offered, because according to this He is Mediator, in this Priest, in
this Sacrifice. When, therefore, the Apostle exhorted us to present our
bodies a living sacrifice: 'For as in one body we have many members, but
all the members have not the same office, so we, being many, are one body
in Christ, and every one members one of another:' this is the sacrifice
of Christians, many one body in Christ. Which also the Church constantly
performs in the sacrifice of the altar, as the faithful know, where it is
shown to her that she is offered herself in that which she offers." As he
says a little further on, "Of which thing (that is, Christ being, in the
form of a servant, both Priest and Victim) He willed the daily sacrifice
of the Church to be the Sacrament; for she being the Body, as He the
Head, she learns to offer herself by Him. To this supreme and true
sacrifice all false sacrifices have given way."[108]

Thus, then, the question has been answered how our Lord impressed for
ever on the world the double act of His Priesthood, the assumption of
human nature to His Divine Person, and the offering of that assumed
nature in sacrifice. For whereas He made the bloody sacrifice once for
all upon the altar of the cross, He ordered the daily sacrifice of His
Church to represent it for ever in the name of His people to God the
Father, wherein He immolates Himself without blood. "What then?" says
St. Chrysostom; "do we not offer every day? We do offer, but making a
commemoration of His death. And this is one sacrifice, and not many. How
is it one and not many? Because that was once offered which entered into
the Holy of holies. This is the figure of that. For we offer ever the
same; not to-day one lamb and another to-morrow, but always the same. So
that the sacrifice is one. Otherwise, according to the objection, 'Since
it is offered many times,' are there many Christs? By no means, but there
is one Christ everywhere, complete here and complete there, one Body. As
then He, being offered in many places, is one Body and not many bodies,
so there is one sacrifice. Our High-Priest is He who offered the
sacrifice that cleanses us; that same we offer now which was then
offered, which is inconsumable. This is done for a commemoration of that
which was then done; for, 'Do this,' He says, 'in commemoration of Me.'
We offer not another sacrifice as the (Jewish) high-priest, but ever the
same; or rather we make a commemoration of the sacrifice."[109]

The one perpetual sacrifice thus instituted in His Church, to be offered
from His first to His second coming, carrying in it indissolubly the
great truths of His religion, the life and the unity of His people, this
is the instrument which He used to impress His High-Priesthood on the
world; and He set up the one episcopate as the bearer of the one
priesthood. The government of His Church is not an external magistracy,
but rests on the mass of worship and doctrine intimately blent together,
so that the outward regimen and the inward belief form an indissoluble
unity in the daily practice.

In this unity we must likewise comprehend the jurisdiction expressed in
planting and maintaining belief and worship throughout the world. For our
Lord is a King, and came to establish a kingdom; not several kingdoms,
nor a confederation of states, but one kingdom, concerning which His
people confesses for ever, in the words of the angel who announced His
coming, "Of His kingdom there shall be no end." But without jurisdiction,
that is, without the power which says to one man, "Go here," and to
another, "Go there," the first foundation of a kingdom was as impossible
as was its continuance and permanence.

All the records of that ancient Church which fought a victorious battle
with the Roman Empire and received a civil enfranchisement from the
Emperor Constantine tend to show that the principle of hierarchical order
was very strong in it, and was most severely maintained. It could not be
well stated in a more absolute form than in the letter of Pope St.
Clement above quoted. But the Church which met in representation at the
great Nicene Council offers a perfect picture of what that order was,
working itself out in absolute independence of the Civil Power through
three centuries from the Day of Pentecost.

In the diocese the bishop's jurisdiction was complete. No priest was
independent in the exercise of his functions. Thus jurisdiction in the
interior forum entered into the daily dispensing of the sacraments. For
a long time the Holy Eucharist was dispensed by the bishop from one
altar, and sent from him to the sick. He was the imposer of penance, and
when, as churches and priests multiplied, the system of parishes and
parish priests arose, they executed all their functions in complete
subordination to the bishop, whose title in those early times was taken
from the rite on which all his power rested, when he is called
pre-eminently Sacerdos, _i.e._, the sacrificing priest. Within the limits
of the diocese there can be no sort of doubt that the idea of
jurisdiction was perfectly realised in practice.

But did it stop with the diocese? Was the bishop independent in the
exercise of his powers? In the first place, he exercised them all within
a certain district. He had no power to encroach upon the district of a
neighbouring bishop, nor to execute therein functions which were
perfectly lawful and usual in his own. It is plain that had he possessed
any such power, the whole system established would not have made one
kingdom of Christ, but would have been a congeries of similar
governments, not tied together but agitated by perpetual rivalries.
Nothing could be more unlike the actual system of government as disclosed
by the bearing of the Church of Rome to that of Corinth in the letter of
St. Clement, or to that orderly division into provinces which is seen in
its full development at the Nicene Council. We may conclude that the tie
which held the bishops together was at least as strict and as defined as
that which formed the unity of the particular diocese.

We now behold that marvellous spiritual fabric of which St. Chrysostom
and St. Augustine, at the head of the Fathers of the fourth century,
spoke with such affection, acknowledging that its existence was to them
an absolute proof of the Godhead of its Founder. It was not its material
extension alone, but its inmost nature and character which moved them
thus. It was the evolution of the one indivisible power in its threefold
direction of Priesthood, Teaching, and Jurisdiction. It was that the one
episcopate tied together in a hierarchy of several thousand bishops was
but the outward regimen of an inward polity in which the One Sacrifice is
offered, and the one Body of Christ communicated by the work of the one
Priesthood, which lives upon and dispenses one doctrine, proclaiming it
from age to age to the whole earth.

Thus the words of our Lord, spoken immediately after He had instituted
the priesthood according to the order of Melchisedec, committing to it
the sacrifice of His Body and Blood, were marvellously accomplished. "I
am the true Vine, and My Father is the husbandman.—Abide in Me, and I in
you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abide in the
vine, so neither can you, unless you abide in Me. I am the Vine, you the
branches: he that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same beareth much
fruit; for without Me you can do nothing." The human nature which He had
taken had sent forth, in virtue of the Person who took it, the triple
power bestowed upon it: His priesthood, His teaching, and His rule had
occupied the earth. All the nations composing the Roman Empire had
brought in their first-fruits to form clusters of the mystical Vine. They
had made the triple offering of the Eastern kings from the peoples of
Europe, Asia, and Africa to the Royal Infant; to the King they had given
their gold, for His sake and after His likeness becoming poor; to the God
their frankincense, worshipping Him at the altar of His love; to the
Victim their myrrh, presenting to Him their bodies as a sacrifice, in
repetition of His martyrdom. It was the very scoff of the heathen
philosopher and magistrate that any one could think to reduce to one
worship the various rites of the Empire, a conglomeration of European,
Asiatic, and African superstitions. Out of that seemingly hopeless
diversity, that endless antagonism, He had constructed a divine unity, a
table at which the children of Scipio knelt side by side with the vilest
slave, at which many an Aspasia became a penitent, and a Boniface sent
back as holy relics to his mistress, Aglae, the body in which he had
sinned with her. The vine of the synagogue, planted of old with the
choicest care, and protected from the inroads of wild beasts in the
security of a single nation of brethren, had brought forth but wild
grapes, and therefore it had been plucked up; its hedge had been broken
down and its tower ruined. Instead of it, the Vine of His Body had grown
abundantly, and from its single root, to use Tertullian's application of
the parable, suckers had been carried everywhere, and the harvest of its
vintage rendered the earth fruitful; the hills and the valleys of many
vast regions were covered with its grapes. But this itself was but the
beginning of a vaster growth in the future, the first realisation of an
ever-expanding kingdom. Only it was a complete specimen of all that
should be. This generation of the Christian people from the person of
Christ was the one miracle which St. Chrysostom thought no heathen could

The Eucharistic Sacrifice is the centre and instrument of all this work;
the other Sacraments lead up to it or attend upon it. That which is most
intimate in man, the forming his soul after a divine type, and the
sanctifying it with all its affections; that which is most intellectual,
the doctrine of God made man, surpassing all knowledge in its development
as in its conception; that government which is necessary to the
well-being of every kingdom; that worship which is most exalting, the
worship of the Infinite One, the source, example, and giver of
personality, which is the last and highest gift of the Creator to the
rational creature,—all these were here joined together by the simple act
of God when He perpetuated in a visible rite the double power of His
High-priesthood, the assumption of our nature, and the dying for our
sins, and brought out of it the generation of His people, wherein the
resurrection of one Man to bodily life became the resurrection of a
countless host to spiritual brotherhood, and created the Family of the
Incarnate God.

I have been exhibiting the institution of the most blessed Eucharist, and
the planting of it throughout the Church in the three centuries which
ended with the Nicene Council. Throughout these it was the life of the
Church; all the marvels of faith, endurance, zeal, and charity spring
from it; the works of the Saviour were hidden in it. But since then
fifteen centuries and a half have elapsed, and the Church which filled
the Roman Empire has dilated itself over the whole earth. In all the
countries which it has thus occupied, in all the races of which it has
converted the first-fruits, the same blessed Eucharist—that divine
banquet of the Flesh and Blood of the Word made man—has continued to be
the life of the Church. Upon it the race of martyrs, saints, doctors, and
virgins have been nurtured, and the power which in each one of them was
supernatural has to be also estimated in its aggregate. Among all the
proofs of the Godhead of the Son of Man, that Divine Food which He
foretold to the multitude satisfied with the miraculous multiplication of
the natural food on the shores of the Lake of Galilee, and which He first
gave to His Apostles in the upper chamber on the eve of His Passion, is
in its results the most transcendent. It is enough by itself to quench
all the doubts of unbelief, to kindle all the fires of an endless
charity. It is the Church's unparalleled possession, of which no false
religion possesses even a shadow; her testimony, which grows not old; her
youth, which never fails. Unnumbered myriads of people of all times and
countries have been supported by it through the desert of this world, and
been led in its strength to the Paradise in which the Son of God in the
glory of His humanity communicates Himself face to face to those whom He
has redeemed, and imparts to them the vision of God in His Unity and His

But if this Church, possessing this Divine Sacrifice and Sacrament, was a
wonder to minds such as St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine in their day of
the fifth century, what ought it to be to us at the end of the
nineteenth? The Roman Empire broke up, and the tribes of the North dashed
into fragments its unrivalled organisation, and destroyed that peace
under which the fairest regions of the earth, washed by the inland sea,
dwelt for centuries, rich in all the arts of commerce, in all the
security of civilisation. The Blessed Eucharist survived this convulsion;
far more, it restored this ruin. By founding religious houses through the
whole extent of the countries occupied by the German tribes, whose
indwellers, in virtue of it, lived _the common life_ under the safeguard
of the three great vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, it produced
a Christian France, Spain, Italy, Germany, England, and Poland out of the
torn and bleeding members of the Empire. This was its work in the Western
half of the Roman broken statue.

In the Eastern the savage power of the Mahometan Califate arose, denying
at once the redemption of Christ, and the sacrifice in which He had
enshrined that redemption, and the divine banquet which ensued upon it.
Thousands of Christian Sees fell not before its persuasive power, but its
ruthless sword of conquest. The Mahometan Califate has for hundreds of
years trampled on the fairest regions of the earth, and turned the Roman
peace into a desolation. At length it trembles for its existence; the
divine Eucharist remains unimpaired in strength, and is ready to enter
into the desolated territory and repeat its work of restoration, to turn
the foulness of the Mahometan harem into the sanctity of the Christian

Again, when iniquity abounded and the love of many had waxed cold, there
arose a defection in the West as terrible as that of the East 900 years
before, and it was marked by special enmity to the Blessed Eucharist. It
cast down and trampled under the feet of those who approached the
desecrated churches the very altars at which for a thousand years the
generations of a Christian people had worshipped. It denied the great
mystery which was the heart of the doctrine; it enrolled the denial in
the coronation oath of its sovereigns; it abolished the belief which had
soothed all sorrows as it had made all saints. But that defection has
broken into innumerable wavelets against the Rock of the Christian
Church, upon which rises, as of old, the impregnable citadel of the
faith—the faith which dispenses, as in the first ages, to the children of
all the races of the earth that sacred Body and Blood, in virtue of which
now, as in the upper chamber, the Word of God declares, "I am the Vine;
ye are the branches: he that abideth in Me and I in him, the same beareth
much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing."

Can there be any proof of the Godhead of the Word made flesh to compare
with that which has been the life of the living and the hope of the
dying to sixty generations of men for eighteen centuries and a half? "For
this is the chalice in My Blood of the new and everlasting testament, the
mystery of faith, which shall be shed for you and for many, for the
remission of sins."


[82] "A quibus traducem fidei et semina doctrinæ cæteræ exinde ecclesiæ
mutuatæ sunt." _Tradux_, the vine branch carried along above the ground
from the parent stem, so that there is but one tree. Tertullian, De
Præscrip. Hæret. 20.

[83] Franzelin, De Verbo Incarnato, p. 520.

[84] Plato, Euthyphron, 14.

[85] Nägelsbach, Homerische Theologie, 207; Id., Nachhomerische
Theologie, 193.

[86] The Banquet, p. 188 _e_.

[87] Lasaulx, Die Sühnopfer (extracts from), pp. 234-270.

[88] προηρόσια.

[89] προχαριστήρια.

[90] 3, 12.

[91] Ruinart, Acta Martyrum, pp. 350 and 527.

[92] Contr. Faustum, l. 22, s. 17, tom. viii. 370.

[93] S. Tho. contr. Gentilis, 3, 120.

[94] Agamemnon, 1520.

[95] The above account of human sacrifices is drawn from Lasaulx's
treatise, pp. 237-255. He gives a profusion of examples, with their
references in ancient authors.

[96] Luke xxii. 20; John vi. 52.

[97] See Council of Trent, sess. 22, cap. i.

[98] 1 Cor. xi. 26.

[99] Acts ii. 46.

[100] John iii. 16.

[101] Council of Trent, sess. 22, cap. ii.

[102] Justin. Apol. i. 66.

[103] Franzelin, De SS. Eucharistiæ Sacramento et Sacrificio, p. 81.

[104] Eusebius Cæs.: περὶ τῆς τοῦ Πάσχα ἑορτῆς, cap. 7.

[105] Heb. ii. 12.

[106] Franzelin, De SS. Eucharistiæ Sacramento, p. 111.

[107] S. Chrys. Hom. in Joan, 46, c. 3, tom. viii. 272.

[108] St. Aug. De Civitate Dei, lib. 10, c. 6 and 20.

[109] S. Chrys. 16 Hom. on the Hebrews, tom. xii. p. 168.



_The Independence of the Ante-Nicene Church shown in her Organic Growth._

The foundation-stone of the Church of God is the Person of our Lord, a
truth embodied with marvellous force and terseness of expression in that
famous symbol of the Catacombs, the Sacred Fish, denoting by its initial
letters the name of our Lord as Man, His office as Messiah, the two
natures in the one Divine Person, the salvation which is their result,
Jesus, the Christ, Son of God, Saviour.[110] As in that Divine Person the
Godhead and Manhood are joined in that special union which constitutes
personality, as He who governs and He who teaches, He who offers
sacrifice and He who is sacrificed, is one and the same Saviour
throughout, so He continues to be in the life of His Body the Church. And
this is very manifest during the first stadium of the Church's course,
stretching from the Day of Pentecost to the decree of Constantino, which
granted to it civil recognition as a lawful religion; for government and
doctrine, like warp and woof, form the robe woven from the top
throughout in which our Lord as High Priest appears to the world.
According to the prophecy, "He builds a temple to the Lord, and bears the
glory, and is a Priest upon His throne."[111] His kingdom resides in this
unity. It is one flock, and the pastures in which His people feed upon
the truth make the domain of the government by which the kingdom is
ruled, and to feed the flock is to rule it. It is the one temple in which
the sacrifice offered is the Lord Himself, while in the sacrifice the
people is fed and grows, and is reciprocally offered to the Lord.

In all this the Church continues the mystery of her Lord's life, the
Divine Incarnation, the suffering of the Nature assumed, the resurrection
which follows. We have, then, to deal with one particular but complex
fact, the outcome of this whole period in the government, teaching, and
worship of the Church inseparably blent together, as borne into and upon
the world by its hierarchy, as enacted in its liturgy, as contained in
its sacramental life, as exhibited in the living Christian people, the
invincible race,[112] which grew up in those centuries without
interference by the State. It is a period during which the State's legal
position of undeviating hostility served as the guardian of the new
spiritual kingdom's independence.

That independence resided in a threefold sanctuary, which is one and the
same, being the House, the Temple, the Tribunal which the Blessed
Trinity, the source and model of the Church, had constructed for Himself
in the hearts of His people. First there is the sanctuary of worship, in
which Christ is Priest, the starting-point of the whole economy;
secondly, the sanctuary of teaching, from which as Prophet He dispenses
all that doctrine wherewith He is charged; thirdly, there is the
sanctuary of government, whereof jurisdiction is a necessary and
inalienable part, and in this He rules as King the distribution of all
powers belonging to His kingdom.

We have to consider how, in the first three centuries, all this was
actually carried out; and we shall best do so by placing ourselves at the
remarkable point of history, the convocation of the Nicene Council in the
year 325, and by summing up the result of the long conflict which
preceded that event, as regards these three particulars.

The Nicene Council was convoked to terminate the question which Arius had
raised as to the Godhead of our Lord. It was the remedy of the Emperor
Constantine for the malady which had broken out in the Church. He had
just become, by the death of Licinius, sole ruler of the Roman world.
Though not yet a Christian by the reception of baptism, he had conceived
the highest veneration for the Christian Church. There can be no doubt
that he trusted, by means of its spiritual unity, to weld together on a
firmer basis the shaken fabric of imperial Rome. Thus he looked with much
sorrow and no little perplexity upon the rise of a heresy in the
important Church of Alexandria; and when its bishop, in spite of his
great authority, as the head of the second Church in the world, which by
a most powerful organisation governed the three secular provinces of
Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis, was unable to expel the mischief, he urged
the convocation of a General Council. He convoked it, so far as a secular
prince could do so, by giving all the assistance which the public
authority could render in a State politically absolute; for he not only
invited the bishops to attend, but ordered that they should travel free
of cost at the public expense. Pope Sylvester, on his side, assented; he
sent his legates to the Council, where they alone represented the whole
West, and so by his assent and by the mission of his legates gave the
Council its œcumenical character.

By this act the Emperor, who, it should be borne in mind, was still the
Pontifex Maximus of heathen worship, and the official head of the old
State religion, recognised the Church of Christ as a spiritual kingdom,
possessing a doctrine of which it was the sole judge and bearer;
recognised in its bishops the representatives of the various powers
placed by Christ, its Founder, therein, as those who bore throughout his
empire a priesthood, and exercised a spiritual rule and jurisdiction, and
preached a doctrine all bound together in one whole; who, moreover, in
virtue of this triple character, which came upon them from above, by the
institution of Christ and through the medium of consecration, which is to
say, by the force of a divine unction, and not by any human authority,
represented a people which likewise was spread everywhere, while it was
one likewise in virtue of a divine consecration, baptism in the threefold
name of God.

Such a recognition is an enormous fact, which reason and imagination flag
in their effort to realise. Two hundred and ninety-six years before, a
Man had died upon a cross the death of a Roman slave, and the evening
before His death He had ordered His disciples to commemorate that death
for ever in a certain rite which should constitute the central worship of
His people. This Man died by the edict of a Roman procurator, which had
been extorted from him by the threats of the people and their rulers over
whom he maintained Rome's supremacy. This Man also died with the record
over His head that the cause for which He died was, the assumption of
kingship over a people who refused Him for their King, and chose in
preference the Roman Emperor. His death was reported to the Emperor of
that day; but we know not whether he took any note of the death of one
recorded as a pretender to a provincial throne, or of a death enacted at
the command of a very subordinate officer of his empire, a mere
procurator under the Proconsul of Syria. The twelve disciples of this
Man, made up of fishermen, a publican, and afterwards a tent-maker, went
forth, carrying with them this rite, which they delivered to other men
throughout the empire. Upon this rite grew up a whole fabric of doctrine
and worship; rulers who propagated the doctrine and celebrated the rite,
and a people which sprung out of both. The Roman emperors, at first
superciliously disregarding the seed which had been so silently dropped
in their cities, presently turned to persecute this people and their
rulers; during ten generations having always persistently
discountenanced them, they imprisoned, tormented, or executed a certain
portion. They also destroyed the seat and worship of the people who had
rejected this Man as their King, and had chosen the Emperor instead. And
now, in rather less than three centuries, the Emperor of Rome, the
successor of Tiberius, acknowledged this crucified Man for what He
declared Himself to be: acknowledged His kingdom; acknowledged as princes
in all lands the missionaries whom He had sent forth; acknowledged as one
people, bound together in sacraments, those who had believed in His word,
or in the word of others derived from Him; acknowledged, moreover, as a
living authority, as judges of what was or was not the true doctrine as
so derived from Him, men whose sole claim was the consecration received
from that Man on the eve of His public execution, and transmitted by the
imposition of hands to their successors; acknowledged the rite of
sacrifice which He had created by His word in the offering of His Body as
the most august, the most tremendous, the most precious thing existing in
the world.

Moreover, in the convocation of the Council, the Emperor acknowledged of
his own accord the solidarity of the Christian episcopate. St. Cyprian
did not express it more plainly in his famous aphorism, "The episcopate
is one of which a part is held by each without division of the whole,"
than the Emperor in supposing that a point of doctrine on the maintenance
of which the whole fabric of revelation rested, since it concerned the
Person of the Founder, could be resolved by the common consent of its
episcopate. For the decision to be come to would bind the whole as one
Body; and herein lay another imperial attestation of Christ's kingdom.
The Emperor of Rome looked upon the Church and treated it, not as a
beehive of separable cells, but as a Body the force and life of which lay
in its oneness; and in causing a single heresy to be thus judged, he was
condemning the principle of every heresy which should at any time arise.

All this and much more is comprehended in that act of the Emperor
Constantino which sanctioned the convocation of the Nicene Council. It
was not a Christianity split up into sects, but the solid unity of the
Catholic Church in doctrine, discipline, worship, and constitution, which
the Emperor looked to for a support to the tottering political fabric of
the State, and as a new bond to its maintenance.[113]

But yet again. The Senate of Rome had been in the day of Rome's freedom a
great power. At first representing the authority of a free people who had
in course of time established a vast rule, it was a name of dignity and
glory on the earth. Next, as the official bestower or ratifier of
imperial authority, as even yet representing the Roman people, as
collecting in its bosom those who had borne high offices, ruled
provinces, gained victories, were the instruments by which the Pax Romana
kept the earth quiet and obedient, the Senate was still an august body.
But now appeared before the world another council, consisting of men
each of whom represented in his person a spiritual community while he
carried a divine power. These men were not imposers of taxes or rulers of
armies, not enactors of laws for human contracts, but men whose rule was
over souls, whose word was divine, who announced not to a particular race
but to all races of the earth one God, one Christ, one faith; a rule the
centre of which was an act of transcendent worship, and the scope and
object holiness. And this council, while it met in the empire of an
absolute sovereign, who raised up and put down whom he pleased, the lives
and fortunes of whose subjects were entirely in his hands, alone
possessed freedom, the freedom to worship what they believed, to obey the
commands of their conscience as Christians, to acknowledge a power
stretching over the whole range of their most secret life, and in nowise
derived from the Roman Emperor nor dependent on him. This power
Constantine acknowledged in causing the Council to be convoked; and by so
doing he pointed out the Council of the Christian Church as that from the
imitation of which every future parliament should spring to construct
civil liberty under Christian sovereigns. Assuredly the Council, as a
deliberative body, possessed a dignity far transcending that of the
Senate whether of free or of imperial Rome.

This is the meaning of the Nicene Council in the great arbitrament
between the Spiritual and the Civil Powers, or, in Catholic language,
between the Priesthood and the Empire. And it is a meaning put upon it
by the Roman Emperor himself. Viewed on this side, the Council is a
summary of the whole preceding history from the Day of Pentecost to its
convocation, the records of which are as scant as the facts are precious.
What know we as to the number of the martyrs and confessors in that
interval? What infinitesimal portion of individual lives and sufferings
then undergone has been preserved for our love and imitation? Among the
Fathers present at the Council there was one, Paphnutius, who had lost an
eye in the preceding persecution. We are told the Emperor would kiss the
empty socket in token of his veneration. That act symbolised his whole
demeanour to the Church for whose faith Paphnutius had suffered. It
likewise expressed the witness which the fact of the Council convoked and
acknowledged by the Roman Emperor gave to all those sufferings the
innumerable incidents of which went to construct that victory of patience
over force whereby the Christian kingdom was established in its first
field of combat. This was the conflict of the natural society of man, as
it existed in the grandest empire of Gentilism, with the supernatural
society founded in Christ.

Thus the convocation of the Nicene Council is the definitive declaration
by the Roman Empire through the mouth of its chief that it recognised a
kingdom of Christ upon earth.

To illustrate the spiritual government of this kingdom, as it had grown
up in the three centuries which intervene between the Day of Pentecost
and the convocation of the Council, let us touch upon five points: the
first shall be the ordered gradation of the hierarchy; the second, the
holding of provincial councils; the third, the hearing and the judging of
causes; the fourth, the election of the Church's ministers; the fifth,
the administration of her temporal goods.[114]

1. As to the first, the Sixth Canon of the Council ordered that the
ancient custom should continue in force, according to which the great
mother Churches of Alexandria and Antioch possessed jurisdiction over the
whole civil diocese, the one of Egypt and the other of the East, in like
manner as the Church of Rome possessed a similar jurisdiction in the
West. The ground upon which the Council rests this canon is much to be
observed; it does not institute this jurisdiction, but orders it be
continued because it was the ancient custom. Now as there had been no
other Council prior to that of Nicæa, in which this power of jurisdiction
over the Metropolitans in the civil dioceses of Egypt and of the East had
been granted to the Bishops of Alexandria and of Antioch, the origin of
this ancient custom must be referred to apostolic institution, according
to St. Augustine's rule, "That which is held by the whole Church, which
has not been ordered by councils, but always been kept, we are most right
in believing to have been handed down by none other than apostolic
authority."[115] Pope Innocent I.,[116] writing to Alexander Bishop of
Antioch, about eighty years after the Council, recognises his
jurisdiction over not only one province, but over the whole assemblage of
provinces which made up the civil jurisdiction of the Prefect of the
East, not so much on the ground of the city's civil dignity as because it
had been the first See of the chief of the Apostles. St. Gregory the
Great[117] repeatedly in his letters speaks of the See of the chief of
the Apostles as being the See of one in three places, Rome, Alexandria,
and Antioch.

That which the Sixth Canon of the Council witnesses, therefore, is the
original jurisdiction of the two great mother Sees of Alexandria and
Antioch over their daughter churches, which it corroborates by referring
to the norm, as it were, supplied by the still greater See of Rome.
Though these Sees were not called at the time of the Nicene Council
patriarchal, a name which arose in the fifth century; yet the thing
itself, and the institution which it denoted, existed from the beginning.
The system of mother and daughter churches is shown in the highest degree
in these three great Sees, in two of which St. Peter himself sat, while
he founded the third by his disciple Mark. It is, in fact, a derivation
from St. Peter's Primacy, and the constituent principle of the hierarchy
in its intermediate gradation of ranks. As the institution of bishops
throughout the world is a derivation of apostolic authority, so likewise
is the repartition of jurisdiction among them. One and the same
principle—power coming from above—made the whole hierarchy, whether in
the bishop over the simple diocese, or in the metropolitan over a single
province, or in the primate over several metropolitans, or in the central
See of St. Peter, the Head of all. The three former of these gradations,
the Sixth Canon of the Council recognised as of immemorial existence.
With regard to the fourth, when the Roman legate at the Council of
Chalcedon cited this canon, he cited it with the heading: "The Roman
church always had the Primacy." And although the Greek copies of the
Council did not bear this heading, the Greek bishops there did not
dispute the fact which it stated. And it must be noted that this heading
did not assert the Primacy of Rome to be given by the Council, but that
it had always existed; nor was any fact more constantly repeated by Pope
after Pope when addressing the Church in her bishops, than this, that his
authority, whatever it was, was the gift of Christ to St. Peter, and not
bestowed by any Council: and so of divine, not apostolical, institution.

It would appear that the Apostles,[118] in carrying out the divine
instructions of their Master for the establishment of His kingdom,
followed His own example. Inasmuch as He had given them a head, they
would appoint inferior heads in the Church who should hold an order among
themselves in its administration, and all refer to the Superior. In doing
this they had regard to the civil disposition of the empire, using it as
a model upon which they formed the exterior polity of the Church. For
just as in the civil and temporal government of each province there was a
mother city, the prefect of which administered the whole province,
ruling under the Prince over the subordinate governors, to whom matters
of more grave importance were referred, so the Apostles and their
disciples after them instituted in the chief cities bishops to whom they
gave all the powers of metropolitans before the name came into use, in
order that ecclesiastical regulations of the greatest moment might be
treated before them in union with the bishops of their respective
provinces.[119] Thus St. Paul, finding Ephesus the metropolis of
Proconsular Asia, placed Timotheus to be bishop there, giving him at the
same time jurisdiction over the bishops of that province, who should be
drawn as it were out of the womb of the parent See; and in his first
letter we find instructions as to the quality of the bishops whom he
should select. In the 19th chapter of the Acts, we are told that St. Paul
had drawn a great number of disciples to him, not only at Ephesus, but in
nearly every part of Asia, that is, the proconsular province of that
name. In the 17th chapter, at a later date, he summoned at Miletus the
bishops of Ephesus and its province to meet him, calling them "all you
among whom I have passed preaching the kingdom of God," which words
denote that he was speaking, not to the priests of one city, but to the
bishops of a province, in which "the Holy Ghost had set them as bishops
to rule over the church of God." St. Irenæus also notes that they were
bishops and elders from Ephesus and the adjoining cities. St. John
recognises these bishops in the seven letters which he is ordered to
communicate to the angels of the churches in the Apocalypse. At the head
of these is the Angel of the church of Ephesus as metropolis. So, again,
the Apostle Paul set Titus as metropolitan over the whole of Crete,
expressly ordering him to establish bishops in every city, and describing
what their character should be. His letters to Corinth and to
Thessalonica, as well as to Ephesus, are letters to cities each of which
was a metropolis. Thus the 34th of the Canons, called apostolical, runs:
"It behoves the bishops of each nation to recognise him, who is the first
among them, and to esteem him as their head, and to do nothing of
importance without his sentence; but let each of them do only what
concerns his own diocese and the places belonging to it, and not that
without the agreement of all."[120] Here is seen the discipline of the
ancient church, beyond a doubt derived from the Apostles, as to the
Metropolitan's superintendence over the bishops of every province.

Thus the distribution[121] of episcopal jurisdiction began with the
beginning, and was the outflow of one principle as stable as it was
simple. The structure of the diocese, that of the province, that of the
patriarchate, that of the whole Church, was identical throughout. It was
a series of concentric circles, at the centre of which was our Lord
Himself. In the simple diocese He was seen as walking and teaching with
His Apostles on earth; in the province the metropolitan, with his
suffragans, repeated the same image; in the patriarchate, the Primate
and his metropolitans; while in the See of Peter, our Lord stood by the
lake of Galilee delivering with the thrice enjoined question, "Lovest
thou Me more than these?" the divine pastoral power over His whole flock.
This was the example of the Master Himself, which the Apostles faithfully

From the beginning as to this exterior polity of His Church nothing was
undefined, nothing was casual; it was the Body of Christ in its natural
action gradually filling the world, by which the Head was gradually
drawing man to Himself. It was the perfection of order, and yet the
perfection of a divine liberty, which took hold of earthly things, such
as the civil disposition of a temporal empire, to exalt it into the
structure of a supernatural kingdom.

The great builders of the Middle Ages, in these stupendous cathedrals
which the piety of generations raised in honour of the Mother of God,
represented the Body of our Lord in that form of the cross on which He
purchased our redemption. Every wall, every buttress, every chapel
therein converged towards the centre, and lent its several portion of
support to the whole. Therein the Church in her unity and solidarity was
visibly portrayed, the Head with His members, the Mother of fair love,
bearing the Divine Child, with His saints and confessors around Him.
Therein the mystery of our salvation, the mystical altar of sacrifice,
was ever set forth, in which the Divine Presence, the greater Schechinah
of the new law, abode without ceasing. Such an intellectual and moral
structure is presented to us in the hierarchy of the Church, graduated
according to the system just described, from the first Apostolic Council
at Jerusalem to the first General Council at Nicæa. No bishop stood apart
from his fellows; no important matter of doctrine or discipline, of
government or worship, was terminated by him without common council of
his brethren. Every province was ranged round the central shrine, and
made part of the one edifice. It was the Body of Christ sculptured, not
on stone, but on human hearts, joined together by the wisdom of His
saints, and cemented with the blood of His martyrs.

2. The second point[122] to be considered is the development of synodical
institutions which kept even pace with the metropolitical hierarchy. As
the council of his priests stood beside the bishop, so the provincial
synod, the earliest form of councils, stood beside the metropolitan. From
the second half of the second century these came into action for the
subjugation of doctrinal errors and divisions, such as the Montanist
heresy, and the contest as to the proper day for the celebration of
Easter. The unity and solidarity of the churches and their bishops found
more and more expression in these synods; here the heretical attack was
stayed, and the common action of the bishops met the common assault of
opponents. In the third century these episcopal meetings took place
generally once, and in some countries twice a year. In them the bishops
only had a decisive voice; priests and deacons could take part in them,
the latter usually standing, while bishops and priests sat; the laity
also were not absolutely excluded. The decrees of councils were usually
sent by encyclical letters to other bishops. Bishops who could not appear
in person had to be represented either by other bishops, as in A.D. 286
at Carthage, or by clerics of their church, as in 314 at Arles. The
bishops of higher rank, who presided over the synod, generally
metropolitans, were accustomed to subscribe the decrees alone.
Accusations against bishops, and wrong acts on their part, were likewise
examined at synods, and decided there. We no longer possess acts of the
most ancient councils, except those of some African synods under Cyprian,
and of that of Antioch in 269; we have 28 disciplinary decrees of the
Council of Amyra in 314, and 14 of that of Neocæsarea held at about the
same time.

3. Nothing sheds clearer light upon the constitution of the Church, as a
perfect society, than her action in the hearing and deciding of
causes.[123] The coercive power of the Church descends to her direct from
God, and not from man, and was comprised from the beginning in the
twofold jurisdiction of the external and the internal forum, the one
criminal and the other penitential. The Son of God, who gave this power
to the prelates of His Church, appointed them to be judges of men,
granting to them full power to absolve and to condemn, and pledging His
divine word that their sentences should be confirmed in heaven. The grant
is recorded in the sixteenth chapter of St. Matthew, as promised to St.
Peter in his quality as head of the Church, and in the eighteenth chapter
as promised to the Apostles collectively, and in their persons to the
bishops who descend from them. By this divine disposition they are the
sole and ordinary judges of the Church who belong essentially to the
ecclesiastical polity; and therefore St. Cyprian wrote: that "heresies
have arisen and schisms sprung up from no other reason than the not
yielding obedience to God's priest; and from not reflecting that there is
at a time but one priest in the Church, and one judge at a time in
Christ's place: to whom, if according to the divine commands the whole
brotherhood yielded obedience, no one would venture to do anything
against the College of Priests;"[124] that is the episcopate.

This power of the keys gave a true and proper jurisdiction as well in the
criminal as the penitential forum. But the difference between the two is
marked. The punishment inflicted by the Church on those who were accused
and convicted in judgment was different from that which was laid upon
such as of their own accord, either in public or in secret, confessed
their sins. The punishment inflicted on delinquents after accusation and
proof of their misconduct was called a sentence, a condemnation, a
sacerdotal censure, to use St. Cyprian's term; the other, which was laid
upon any one who of his own accord confessed his faults, was properly a
penitence, and never called a condemnation, but, on the contrary, carried
with it a sacerdotal absolution from the soul's stains. The former
belonged to the exterior forum, judicial and contentious; the latter to
the interior forum, that of conscience. There was, indeed, a great
difference between the two; for the censure laid its stroke upon those
who resisted and were contumacious, who refused to confess their crime,
if they were once judicially convicted; but penitence was only given to
those who, by confession, voluntarily disclosed their fault, and they
only who were the guilty parties formed the accusers and the witnesses
against themselves.[125]

During the whole period of the first three centuries the Church exercised
through her bishops this true and proper jurisdiction, both of the
exterior and the interior forum. Instances of the former are the
punishment of Ananias and Sapphira by St. Peter; of Elymas the sorcerer
and the incestuous person at Corinth by St. Paul. But, further, the
latter Apostle in his first Epistle to the Corinthians directed that
causes of all kinds among Christians should be settled, not before the
secular Gentile magistrates, but before the divine magistracy of the
Church. And according to this rule the bishops in the first ages took
cognisance of all causes and temporal differences, as well of clergy as
of laity, and terminated them by their judgment; and this custom lasted
even into the fourth century, after the peace of the Church, so that the
most troublesome occupation which the bishops of those ages had was to
exercise this judicial power over secular matters, as St. Augustine
confesses in his own case, where he says, "They demand of us that we
should occupy ourselves with their vicious and troublesome covetousness,
and give them up our time; at least they press the weak, and force them
to bring their causes to us; and we do not venture to say to them, 'Man,
who made me a judge or a divider among you?' For the Apostle instituted
ecclesiastical judges in such causes by prohibiting Christians from
pleading before secular tribunals."[126]

Jurisdiction is defined to be "cognition of causes belonging to the
magistrate by right of his office."[127] Such a cognition was exercised
by the bishops over every sort of cause among Christians in the first
centuries. Aristotle says, "Those are most properly to be called
magistrates whose function it is to deliberate, to judge, and to command,
but especially the latter, as being more characteristic of them." And
when St. Paul writes, "Obey those that are set over you, and be subject
to them; for they watch as those who will give account of your souls," he
says the same, since by the force of relative terms there cannot be the
duty of obedience on one side without the right to command on the other.
This episcopal magistracy was executed in four degrees, corresponding to
the hierarchy and the councils as they have been just described. First,
in his diocese the bishop was the proper judge, as Origen in his answer
to Celsus draws a parallel between the bishop with his presbytery in each
particular city and the chief magistrate of that city with the council.
Secondly, the metropolitan with his council of bishops, so that the
apostolical canons enjoin that if a bishop be accused by persons of the
faith, worthy of credit, he should be brought and judged before that
tribunal.[128] Thirdly, if a metropolitan were accused, the higher
tribunal of the Primate and his Episcopal Council would intervene.
Fourthly, if a Primate, or one of those afterwards termed Patriarchs,
were in fault, as Paul of Samosata, holding the See of Antioch in the
third century, a council of still greater rank would meet to judge him;
and in this case even the secular sovereign, the Emperor Aurelius,
recognised that the episcopal house ought to belong to the person
indicated by the bishops of Italy, that is, the Pope.

4. The fourth point which I will endeavour to sum up is the practice of
the Church in the period preceding the Nicene Council as to the election
of bishops and the other ministers of inferior rank to the bishop from
the priest downwards, together with the principle on which this practice
was founded.

It has been shown above how the first bishops were planted by St. Peter,
St. Paul, and the other Apostles, who chose by direction of the Holy
Spirit, in the cities wherein they preached, those whom they would invest
with the plenitude of the priesthood, to be sources of future spiritual
rule and centres of Christian life. But when successors to those had in
the course of time to be appointed, what rule was followed?

The form of the sacred elections in those first ages was this: when a
bishop died, the bishops of the province, together with the metropolitan,
assembled in the city of the defunct prelate. They here took information
from the clergy and the people respecting the persons who were considered
worthy of episcopal rank. The bishops deliberated by themselves on the
matter, and then proposed in public the person whom they considered
worthy of the bishop's seat. They heard thereupon the opinion and the
wish of the clergy and the faithful people. Having heard these, they
issued their judgment, in which the sentence of the metropolitan had the
larger share; and the new bishop being elected, they at once consecrated
him. As to the election of the priests and the other inferior clergy, the
same order was pursued in consulting clergy and people, and the whole
judgment was ultimately reserved to the bishop.

St. Cyprian has left us in his 68th letter a most lucid testimony to this
being the custom in his day, not only in the Churches of Africa, but in
all other provinces. "We must," he says, "diligently observe and maintain
the custom which has come down to us by divine tradition and apostolical
observance, which is kept among ourselves and in almost every province.
In order that ordination be rightly celebrated, the nearest bishops of
the province must assemble among that people for whom a superior is to be
appointed. The bishop must be chosen in the presence of the people,
which has the fullest knowledge of the life of every one, and is
thoroughly acquainted with his conduct by his acts." He supports the
custom by the example of Eleazar, who, though chosen to be high priest by
Moses alone, in obedience to a divine command, was yet set before the
people, to show that sacerdotal ordinations should be made in the
presence of those who by intimate knowledge can testify the merits of
those chosen; and, again, by the example of the Apostles, who, in the
election as well of St. Matthias as of the seven deacons, called together
the people and heard their testimony, "that no unworthy person might find
means to be advanced to a higher rank or the sacerdotal dignity."

The outcome of these three centuries is, that the election of the bishop
lay in the hands of the metropolitan, assisted by the bishops of his
province, and that the election of the metropolitan lay in the synod of
his bishops, but confirmed by the bishops of the first Sees, to whom
belonged the consecration of metropolitans.[129] This was the discipline
in the East, while in the West the Roman Pontiff, through the dignity of
his throne as head of the whole Church and of all particular Churches,
did not personally intervene in the election of bishops to vacant Sees,
but the successor was chosen by the neighbouring bishops according to the
desires of the clergy and people, and the decree of the election was
transmitted him, leaving to his choice its confirmation, or provision
for the vacant See in some other manner, as might seem to him most

The election of all ministers below the bishop belonged to the bishop

It is evident that the great number of bishops who in the course of two
centuries were sent out by the Roman Pontiffs[130] to convert the nations
to the faith were not elected by the faithful people which they
themselves founded; nor could the testimony or the consent of the people
be asked. But if the election of ministers had belonged by divine
institution to the faithful laity and the Christian people, neither the
Apostles, nor their disciples, nor the successors of St. Peter could have
altered a divine disposition, nor elected pastors without the consent of
the people.

But the principle on which the Church acted from the beginning is as
clear as her practice; for the priesthood and the whole order of pastors
in the Church having been established by the Son of God, and the
perpetuity of this same priesthood in this same Church being also
necessary by this divine disposition, it follows that the election of
sacred ministers to maintain the succession and the disposition given by
Christ to the Church, must belong by divine order to some one. As it
cannot belong to laymen, it must belong to the clergy alone. In fact, St.
Paul, in the Epistle to the Hebrews, declares that God Himself prescribed
the form of this election in the priesthood of Aaron, and that this form
was observed by our Lord. "No one," he says, "takes this honour to
himself but he that is called by God, as was Aaron. So, too, Christ
glorified not Himself to be called High Priest, but He that said to Him,
'Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee;' as also in another
place He says, 'Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of

Exactly, then, as Aaron was elected solely by Moses at God's command,
without waiting for any consent or any council of the people, so in the
Church bishops did not need the consent or counsel of the people to be
elected to their ministry, but they required the suffrage and the
institution of their own order. And our Lord, on the day of His
Resurrection, when He met His assembled Apostles, gave the whole rule,
order, and descent of election and institution in His Church in the
words, "As My Father sent Me, so I also send you." As He elected His
apostles and disciples, excluding all consent of the multitude, so He
made them electors and institutors of the ministers who should succeed
them, independent of popular election. In His Church power is from above,
not from below; from within, not from without; nor is any truth attested
with a more complete and unbroken witness in the history of three hundred
years than this.

5. The fifth point to be considered is the administration of the Church's
temporal goods.

Our Lord died upon the cross in utter want and nakedness; in similar want
and nakedness of temporal goods the Church, His Body, began her course.
She had to draw by the power of His resurrection from the hearts of men
what should be sufficient for her clothing and sustenance. The charge of
our Lord in sending out His twelve Apostles is, in brief, the history of
His Church during these three centuries. They went out without gold or
silver in their girdles; they stayed in the houses which received them,
eating and drinking of what was set before them. They preached the
kingdom of heaven; freely they had received, and freely they gave; and
for their heavenly gifts, since the labourer is worthy of his hire, they
received temporal support. The 34th Apostolic Canon expresses the
obligation to support the clergy and the divine service, which created
all the property of the Church. "The law of God has appointed that those
who abide at the altar should live by the altar."

The support of their religion was from the beginning both a natural and a
divine obligation lying upon all Christians; the natural obligation,
expressed in the words "The labourer is worthy of his hire," received
from our Lord a supernatural application, when, using these words, He
commanded that they who preached the gospel should live of the

We may note three states of the Church in these early ages as to this
matter.[132] In the beginning, during the first fervour of the disciples
in Jerusalem, the clergy and laity were united in one heart and spirit,
and had all things in common, and those who possessed property sold it,
and laid the price at the feet of the Apostles, that they might provide
for the common needs. Those who lived in this manner had no obligation
of paying tithes or first-fruits. A second state was that when the faith
was spread beyond the bounds of Palestine, and that common life could
hardly be maintained. Then the faithful retained their property as
individuals, but collections were made on certain days for the support of
the clergy and the poor, as St. Paul records.[133] When, subsequently,
the Christian faith spread through the whole Roman Empire, and assumed a
more complete and established form, these stated collections were
retained, while Irenæus, and Origen, and Cyprian bear witness to the
institution of tithes and first-fruits. Whether the specific amount of
contribution was or was not imposed, at least the sustenance of the
clergy and of religion was ever considered a debt of justice.

As to the acquisition and usage of temporal goods, the course of things
in these first ages may be thus summed up.[134] It is not easy to know
precisely at what time churches began to possess immovable goods; it is,
however, very probable that this took place soon after the death of the
Apostles, and as soon as the faithful gave up the practice of selling
their property. Not that every Church made such acquisitions, but that by
degrees, now in one city and now in another, some real property was
secured; for it is certain that collections continued to be made for a
long time, and the faithful continued to give tithes and first-fruits.
These collections were not only made for the local Church, but for
churches of distant provinces which were in need, for such a
communication of goods was always enjoined by charity and recommended by
unity. And it must be further remarked that these oblations of a
particular Church were not only sent to another Church when they were
more than were needed at home, but often made on purpose to be sent to a
distance, as we learn from innumerable examples of ecclesiastical
history. The reason of this is plain; for the whole Church being one, as
all particular parts are bound to maintain religious union, so are they
bound to have communication of those temporal goods which are the
endowments necessary to preserve it, and one must help the other when
just reason requires it, that all may help reciprocally in maintaining
each other.

There was also in these centuries already made a fourfold distribution of
the temporal goods acquired; one portion was given to the bishop, a
second to the other clergy, a third for the support and relief of the
poor and of strangers, a fourth for the building, reparation, and
furnishing of churches, for it would seem that there were from the
beginning places destined for divine worship. St. Paul[135] speaks of
such for the reception of our Lord's Body and Blood. The Martyrology
records the festival of the first Christian Church at Rome, which was
consecrated by St. Peter. Justin, Tertullian, Cyprian make mention of
churches, sometimes the heathen emperors even allowed these, as is
specially mentioned of Alexander Severus.

If, then, we compare the want and nakedness in which the Church began
with the state in which she emerged from the period of persecution
terminated by Constantine, we find that in spite of spoliations undergone
in so many assaults of the heathen empire, she had created funds to
support the whole body of her Episcopate, and the clergy subject to them
in each diocese, to make ample relief for the poor, for the reception of
strangers, for the support of hospitals; to build, maintain, and adorn
churches for the celebration of her sacraments and the preaching of her
word. In all this she exerted a parallel force with that which shows
itself in the construction of her hierarchy, the system of her provincial
councils, the constitution of her tribunals, the free election of her
bishops and subordinate ministers. In no one of these things did the
temporal government give her any aid. That is, indeed, to say much less
than the truth. In no one of them did the temporal government do
otherwise than thwart her, from the lowest degree of persecution,
consisting in a social contempt and disregard, to the highest, of violent
confiscation and bloody torture. The extent of favour which she enjoyed
was that here and there a politic emperor shut his eyes to her
proceedings, or even remarked in the plenitude of his forbearance that a
church was better than a cookshop.[136] As the hierarchy proceeded forth
by an inward strength derived from our Lord's command, uniting local
autonomy with central authority, exercising a rule at once paternal and
majestical, the rule of Him who joined the commission to feed His whole
flock with the condition to love Him more than all others loved Him, so
this same hierarchy, passing from house to house and city to city with
the word, "the Kingdom of God is at hand," clothed itself as it passed
with such a measure of material goods as was necessary for its
maintenance by the offerings of the faithful, which they considered at
once a natural and a divine obligation, for throughout they saw in the
body they were covering the Body of the Lord, who for their sakes, being
rich, had become poor.

The five subjects we have just reviewed belong to the Church's external
government, in which she manifested from the beginning a complete liberty
and independence of all power outside of herself. It is next in order to
show the same liberty and independence in the evolution of her teaching.

In this respect the task which fell upon the Apostles, from the time of
her Lord's departure, has been very concisely but, at the same time, very
exactly defined in the last words of St. Matthew's Gospel, wherein our
Lord Himself charged them to "Go forth and make disciples all nations,
baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded
you." Herein the construction of the Church is marked in the authority
which makes disciples everywhere, for the disciple stands to the teacher
in a relation of obedience; in the rite of baptism, which binds them
together in one whole, and which, standing at the head, represents the
whole system of sacraments; while the teachers are enjoined to require
observance of all those things which Christ had commanded them to teach
in His name. These injunctions were recorded by St. Matthew in his Gospel
many years after they had been exactly fulfilled by those to whom they
were addressed. As soon as the Apostles were invested "with power from on
high" at the Day of Pentecost, they began the simple work of making
disciples, binding them together with sacraments, teaching them obedience
to those things in which they had been enjoined by their Lord to instruct
them. Again, we possess in the Gospel of St. Luke, dated, as is supposed,
at least thirty years after the Day of Pentecost, a continuous record of
what they began to do. But the work done, in all its length and breadth,
was independent of these records. It is important to realise as well as
we can the fact that the whole settlement of the Church as an
institution, which embraces the worship of God, the administration of
sacraments, the regulation of discipline, her essential polity, including
the vocation, ordination, and jurisdiction of her ministers, and no less
the instruction of men in that whole doctrine of salvation which
consisted in the confession that our Lord was the Christ; all this, which
was effected in the forty years which passed between the Day of Pentecost
and the destruction of Jerusalem, was effected by oral teaching and
living authority. The chief Sees were planted, and the divine polity in
each of them, which formed the life of the Christian people, was laid
down before the writings of the New Testament began to be published,
long before they were collected, still longer before the Canon of the
writings forming them was closed. The first generation of Christians
received their religion from the lips of Messengers, Ambassadors,
Heralds, who spoke in Christ's name the words which Christ had put in
them. Christians so made entered upon the practice of a life the whole
course of which was drawn out for them by their teachers. This is the
force of the commission, "Make disciples of all nations." Mysteries were
dispensed to them of which these teachers were stewards, and which they
accepted from the hands of the teachers. And only when this work had been
done, during a course of years and in many great cities, did the first
written collection of some of the words and acts of Christ begin to be
made public; while the last of this fourfold collection was not
communicated to the general body of disciples until more than sixty years
after the termination of our Lord's earthly life. Before that time the
structure of the Church in those points of her external government which
we have touched above had been entirely completed; the sound of the
Apostles had gone out into all the world; a multitude of teachers had
been commissioned by the Apostles; a multitude of people had been taught
by them; martyrs had borne witness to the faith thus planted everywhere.

In this first era, which lasted certainly during the lifetime of the
Apostles in general, probably to the death of the last Apostle, John, the
tradition of the Christian faith was oral. By all this period the
kingdom of Christ preceded the book in which we read at the distance of
so many centuries the account of its origin. The book did not make the
kingdom, but the kingdom made itself, and in making gave us the book, as
a part of itself, a permanent though not a complete record of our Lord's
words and acts, and a portion of that oral teaching which had been the
instrument of its first propagation.

This oral teaching comprehended three classes of facts: first, the things
taught by our Lord to His Apostles, whether they were afterwards written
or whether they were not written; and as to such a distinction nothing
can be more express than St. John's repeated testimony that only a small
portion of the things which He did and the signs which He wrought were
written—a testimony the more important as it comes from him whose
writings close the canon of Scripture. Secondly, it comprehended those
things which the Apostles learnt by illumination from the Holy Spirit,
according to the promise recorded for us by St. John, "I have yet many
things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now; but when He the
Spirit of Truth is come, He will guide you by the hand into all
truth,"[137] and which under His guidance they taught to the first
disciples; and these two classes of things make up together the divine
tradition. Thirdly, it comprehended those things which the Apostles in
propagating the Church enjoined upon the pastors whom they appointed for
the regulation of discipline, for the administration of sacraments, and
for the worship of God, which were not written; and these things make up
the apostolic tradition.

It is obvious that out of this treasure-house of the divine and
apostolical tradition came the whole planting and propagation of the
Church during that first period which elapsed from the Day of Pentecost
to the end of the personal teaching of the Apostles. At first, and for
many years, the Gospels were not set forth in a written shape, much less
were the other books of the New Testament composed. The writings forming
the actual canon were not completed until about the year 98. In this
interval the acts and the life of Christ were to be impressed on the
world; the character of His people was to be formed upon them; the
Christian race was born and passed through more than two generations, and
the kingdom of heaven upon earth received its definite shape. The divine
and apostolic tradition which came from Christ through living men worked
these effects. The principle upon which all rested was personal
authority. The historical demonstration of the Apostolic Church in this
respect is complete and absolute.

It would seem as if this period were of special importance in enabling us
to understand distinctly the nature of the Church's teaching office. The
work then done comprised the whole evangelical announcement, the
preaching, that is, of Christ in His kingdom; the establishment of the
worship which He had enjoined, the administering not merely the sacrament
of baptism, but the other sacraments in their due order, as they touched
the several parts of human life, the discipline which regulated the daily
course of life, and also the ordering of penance. In the first community
set up at Jerusalem all this would take place; it would be repeated at
Antioch, at Rome, at Alexandria, at Ephesus, at Corinth, at every place
in which the Apostles established bishops. These things, with the almost
interminable series of arrangements and actions which they involve, are
all contained in the charge given by our Lord to His Apostles, to which
we have just referred. This it is "to make disciples of all nations."

Thus when St. Peter preached on the Day of Pentecost, the immediate
effect of his word was the reception of about three thousand hearers into
the Church. These had at once to be baptized; therefore the form and
ceremonies of baptism were ready prepared for them; but their life is
immediately described as a steadfast continuance upon the teaching of the
Apostles, in the communion of the breaking of bread, which took place day
by day, and in prayers.

From the Day of Pentecost, therefore, the Liturgy of the Church, with all
the treasure of doctrine and worship which it contains, was in full
operation. I have endeavoured above to give a very short sketch of the
vast amount of doctrine contained in the Liturgy, which is at the same
time an explicit confession of faith, an act of worship, and an
exhibition of spiritual rule. Further, it is an act daily repeated
throughout the whole Church, in which she testifies her life, and the
dwelling of her Lord in her. The testimony thus given of the threefold
power of doctrine, worship, and rule is entirely independent of those
allusions to it which are afterwards made in the narrative either of the
Gospels or of the Apostolic Epistles. For instance, the term "breaking of
bread" points indeed unmistakably to the Eucharistic service, but it
gives no description of what that service as celebrated was. We gather
this from the ancient Liturgies of the East and West which have come down
to us, showing a perfect accord in their parts and meaning and general
disposition. Vast is the difference between these Liturgies, viewed in
their completeness as acts of worship—that is, not merely in their words,
which are so grand and spirit-stirring, but likewise in the function
visibly carried out by the bishop, his attendant clergy, and the adoring
people—between all this, and the allusion made to it in the few passages
of the Gospels, the Acts, and the Epistles. Yet all this existed from the
very beginning, and is part of that which St. Peter at the head of the
Apostles instituted from the Day of Pentecost. As an act, it is quite
independent of any subsequent narrative which records it; but before the
end of this first period it was an act which had been carried out daily
in a vast number of cities wherein the Church had taken root.

The Eucharistic Liturgy was from the beginning the Church's explicit and
solemn exhibition of her faith in her worship. She kept it strictly for
her own people, and did not allow it to be divulged. It was an act
expressing Christ visibly in the midst of His Church. The altar was His
throne. The chiefs ministrant bore His person, and enacted before the
eyes of the observant people the work of Christ's Incarnation and
Redemption, presenting it to God the Father. The rites and ceremonies
which accompanied the words removed, for those beholding and
participating the mysteries, that obscurity which may belong in matters
of faith to mere words. But, moreover, words of singular simplicity and
perspicuity were used in describing the acts by which our Lord became man
for us and redeemed us. When the attendant deacon[138] gave warning that
all should be in fear and trembling, before the commencement of the
sacred action, and before the invocation of the Holy Ghost, did not the
words themselves signify the expectation of some signal miracle to be
wrought by the Divine Omnipotence? When the people heard the celebrant
invoking the descent of the Holy Ghost on the gifts lying before him,
that by His presence He might make the bread to be the Body of Christ,
and the wine and water the Blood of Christ, transmuting them by His
divine power,—when the ministers delivered them to each of the faithful,
with the words, "the Body of Christ," "the Blood of Christ," to which he
replied, "Amen," what merely verbal announcement could equal in force of
teaching that visible setting forth of Christ? On one part, it was Christ
giving Himself to His people; on the other, a supreme acknowledgment of
joy, gratitude, and prostrate homage by His people for the gift.

When the Beloved Disciple, who lay on the Lord's bosom, had a revelation
of what was to happen in the time to come, the vision was presented to
him under the form of that worship which Peter first, in the company of
his brother Apostles, which the bishop of each city afterwards,
surrounded by his ancients and in the presence of the faithful people,
celebrated. It seems to be the interior of a church in the apostolic age
which we have described, and all the meaning of the Eucharistic
Sacrifice, as the witness of creative power and redeeming love, set
forth. But it is the Lord Himself, who with the voice of a trumpet
proclaimed Himself to be the First and the Last, and charged His Apostle
with letters to the Seven Churches, who now says with the same voice,
"Come up hither, and I will show thee the things which must be done
hereafter." "I looked," he says, "and behold a door was opened in heaven,
and immediately I was in the spirit; and behold there was a throne set in
heaven, and upon the throne One sitting. And He that sat was to the sight
like the jasper and the sardine-stone; and there was a rainbow round
about the throne in sight like unto an emerald. And round about the
throne were four-and-twenty seats; and upon the seats four-and-twenty
ancients sitting, clothed in white garments, and on their heads crowns of
gold. And from the throne proceeded lightnings and voices and thunders;
and there were seven lamps burning before the throne, which are the seven
spirits of God." Here, in the likeness of an ancient basilica, with the
throne of the bishop in the apse, and the seats of his presbyters in a
semicircle round him, we have the court of the Almighty set forth, and
the ineffable grandeur of the creating God: when "the four living
creatures full of eyes gave glory and honour and benediction to Him that
sitteth on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, the four-and-twenty
ancients fell down before Him that sitteth on the throne, and adored Him
that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne,
saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord our God, to receive glory and honour and
power, because Thou hast created all things, and for Thy will they are
(εἰσὶ,) and have been created."

So far the homage paid to God in the great overwhelming mystery of
creation. All things have been made by Him and for Him. But another
mystery succeeds: the fall and the redemption of man. "And I saw in the
right hand of Him that sat on the throne a book written within and
without, sealed with seven seals. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming
with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book and to loose the seals
thereof? And no man was able, neither in heaven, nor on earth, nor under
the earth, to open the book, nor to look on it. And I wept much because
no man was found worthy to open the book nor to see it. And one of the
ancients said to me, Weep not; behold the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the
root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven
seals thereof. And I saw, and behold in the midst of the throne and of
the four living creatures, and in the midst of the ancients, a Lamb
standing as it were slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are
the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. And He came and
took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne.—And
when He had opened the book, the four living creatures and the
four-and-twenty ancients fell down before the Lamb, having every one of
them harps and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of
saints; and they sang a new canticle, saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to
take the book and to open the seals thereof; because Thou wast slain and
hast redeemed us to God in Thy blood, out of every tribe and tongue, and
people and nation, and hast made us to our God a kingdom and priests, and
we shall reign on the earth. And I beheld, and I beard the voice of many
angels round about the throne and the living creatures and the ancients;
and the number of them was thousands of thousands, saying with a loud
voice, The Lamb that was slain is worthy to receive power and divinity,
and wisdom and strength and honour and glory and benediction. And every
creature which is in heaven and on the earth, and under the earth, and
such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, I heard all saying, To
Him that sitteth on the throne, and to the Lamb, benediction and honour
and glory and power for ever and ever. And the four living creatures
said, Amen. And the four-and-twenty ancients fell down on their faces,
and adored Him that liveth for ever and ever."

We have now added to the throne of the Almighty, in the midst of the four
living creatures and the twenty-four crowned elders, "a Lamb standing as
it were slain," who, having received the sealed book from Him that sat
upon the throne, becomes Himself the centre of adoration. He takes the
place of the altar in the Church, being Himself the altar and the
celebrant; He opens the seals of the book which no one in heaven or earth
could open but Himself; He rules the evolution of all the events which
make up the history of His people; He the victim; He the priest; He the
ruler. And under the Eucharist Sacrifice thus exhibited the whole
evolution of judgments and victories are drawn out, which ends with "the
holy city, the New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God,
prepared as a Bride adorned for her Husband."

Only this vision of the Beloved Disciple and the feelings which it
exhibits would adequately represent that awe and joy, that gratitude and
triumph, with which the faithful took part in what the Fathers call "the
tremendous and unbloody sacrifice." And could any Christian of the
Apostle's day read the words of this heavenly vision without recognising
in it the very order and arrangement of the great worship which formed
then, as it forms now, the central act of united Christian life?

No higher act of authority is even conceivable than that establishment of
worship. But this was a worship which the Apostles had received in secret
from their Lord, which they did not commit to writing, but carefully
imprinted upon the memories of their disciples, which they guarded with
the utmost care and jealousy from the knowledge of all until they had
first instructed them and then baptized them, the participation in which
was the crown of all Christian privileges. Thus they understood what
Christ had ordered them to do in commemoration of Himself. They began it
at Jerusalem; they carried it with them in their dispersion to all
Churches. It is found the same in its principal parts and sequence in all
places. The same form was received everywhere solely in virtue of an
Apostolic tradition, which originally was not written, but conveyed by
word of mouth, and at once and incessantly practised.

The commemoration in which they earned out their Lord's command was
contained in words, and rites, and vestments illustrating those words,
and making up together an act, a permanent act, going through all the
life of the Church from end to end. This act in the present day, as in
every past age, is not derived from any written authority, though the
Gospels and Epistles of the Apostles, and, as we have seen, the
Apocalypse, bear witness to it, but from the authority of the Church,
immanent in her from the beginning by perpetual descent from the

Another instance of the like kind is scarcely inferior in its force. The
Apostles, in passing from city to city in the course of their preaching,
selected those in whom they would deposit a portion of their power. But
this they did by the imposition of their hands, accompanied by a certain
rite, which, like the Eucharistic rite in the beginning, was not written,
but conveyed by word of mouth. But the life of the Church depended upon
this transmission of spiritual power. The conveying of this power was an
act of authority similar in character to the institution of worship, with
which indeed it was closely allied. Part of the power which they conveyed
by their act was the right to celebrate this very worship. The pastoral
Epistles of St. Paul speak of the grace and gift bestowed upon Timotheus
by the imposition of hands, as well as of the power given both to
Timotheus and to Titus to impart these gifts to others, accompanied with
advice as to the quality of persons whom they should select. But the
Scriptures of the New Testament do not contain the rite itself, than
which nothing could be more necessary to the continued existence of the

No acts could possibly exhibit the teaching office of the Church in
greater perfection and fulness than the exercise of the rite which
admitted men into her fold; of the rite, again, which communicated to
them daily the divine life of the Saviour indwelling in her; and thirdly,
of the rite which propagated the whole of that hierarchy by the descent
of which from our Lord Himself her existence was secured and perpetuated.
The immense authority which documents such as these possess is mentioned
in a letter of Pope St. Celestine in the year 431 to the Gallic bishops.
"Let us have regard," he says, "to the sacred rites used in sacerdotal
supplications, which, having been handed down from the Apostles, are
celebrated uniformly in the whole world and in every Catholic Church,
wherein the law of supplication establishes the law of belief. For when
those who preside over the holy people in various places exercise the
office of ambassadors committed to them, they plead the cause of the
human race before the divine mercy, and offer their requests and their
prayers while the whole Church joins with them in urgent entreaty."[139]
It is sufficient to mention these several public and official acts
without going on to dwell upon the system of penance in its doctrinal
aspect, which has been described above in another aspect, that of
government. Such a system, it is evident, existed from the beginning, and
the act of St. Paul in reference to the incestuous person at Corinth
bears witness to it. The society possessing and exercising these rites,
and forming a people upon their discipline, had a complete rule of inward
life. Such was the Christian society in the first forty years following
the day of Pentecost. And this whole life rested upon the personal
authority of its teachers, which they exercised in the name of Christ,
and by the power of the Holy Spirit continually attending upon their
ministry, and attesting His presence as well by the perpetual operation
of His grace as by the extraordinary and visible action of spiritual
gifts. That authority was complete before the sacred writings of the New
Testament were made public, and without their attestation.

The authority divinely instituted[140] to preserve and propagate the
doctrine preached by the Apostles was neither changed in character nor
diminished by the writing of the books of the New Testament and by their
delivery to the several churches. The proof of this is twofold. First,
the nature of the teaching office itself, placed by Christ in the
Apostles and their perpetual succession, to which He promised His own
ever-abiding assistance, with the gift of the Holy Spirit dwelling in
them. For these two things were not accidental or temporary, but the
cause for ever of the Christian profession's continuance.

Secondly, the consideration of all the circumstances which surround the
writings themselves corroborates this conclusion.

Before these books were written,[141] and much more before they were all
collected and read in all churches, these churches themselves had been
arranged by the teaching and ordering of the Apostles according to the
charge they had received from Christ; bishops had been appointed in them
by imposition of the Apostles' hands; the doctrine delivered to them by
the Apostles had been committed to them as a deposit to be faithfully
guarded through the gift of the Holy Spirit: they had been charged to
appoint successors in every place, endowed with the like authority and
the same gift. Thus the faithful everywhere depended, with the obedience
of faith, upon the authority of the apostolic successors as God's
messengers, from whom they were to receive Christian doctrine and
discipline. This was not a mere dependence of those who were learning
upon the knowledge of those who were teaching, because as yet there were
no books from which each individual might learn for himself, but it was a
proper office of teaching upon which the obedience of faith depended by
Christ's institution, and by which the unity of the churches was
maintained. When, therefore, inspired books containing revealed doctrine
were gradually delivered by the Apostles to the churches, the
ecclesiastical constitution already existing was not destroyed, but
documents were added to be used in accordance with that constitution, to
be preserved by those same bishops as successors of the Apostles and
guardians of the deposit, and to be explained by them should doubt arise
as to the meaning.

Further, it is an historical fact, and is evident from the internal
arrangement of the books, that each one of them was written on some
particular occasion and necessity for some particular end. No one of the
sacred writers had the intention to give complete instruction as to the
doctrine, discipline, and worship of the Christian religion. Accordingly
in no one of them is the whole Christian doctrine found set out in
catechetical order and connection; and in each one many most important
points are either omitted, or merely alluded to, or can only be deduced
from it, if otherwise known. Now such an origin of the books from
particular occasions and for a particular scope, and such an internal
arrangement, make it evident that it was not the Holy Spirit's design in
writing any particular book, or the whole together, nor any purpose of
the Apostles, to substitute books so composed for the ministry of those
pastors and doctors whom Christ had appointed to teach all nations to the
end of the world. It was not meant to abolish the constitution of a
teaching office by which, up to the moment when these books appeared,
every one had, in virtue of Christ's institution, been taught by the
acknowledged messengers of God, in order that he might teach himself from
a written book. This would be plain even were it to be granted that the
whole revealed doctrine was contained in those books; for the argument
holds not so much from deficiency of matter as from the form of teaching,
and the manner of proposing and explaining doctrine.

But when we have stated the historical origin of the books, and their
internal arrangement which corresponds to their origin, it is a mere
gratuitous assertion that all revealed doctrine is contained in them. For
as neither the sacred writers, each taken by himself, intended to
comprehend the whole Christian doctrine in his own books, nor concerted
together to contribute each his portion to make up one whole, but as each
wrote on the most diverse occasions what was necessary or opportune for
the particular circumstances, the Holy Spirit indeed, who is the chief
Author of the Scriptures, might direct everything, so as to form a
complete body of doctrine without the knowledge and beyond the intention
of the writers, but that He did so can in nowise be shown. For this the
supposition is required that it was the will of God that Scripture should
be the sole source, or at least the complete code, from which the entire
revelation might be acquired. We have certain evidence from the charge of
Christ that the Apostles and their successors should teach to the end of
the world all nations to observe whatever He had commanded them, and from
the promise of the Spirit of truth teaching all truth and remaining with
them for ever, by whom Christ's witnesses are ordered to go to the end of
the earth, that the whole revelation was to be preached by an authentic
office of teaching in perpetual succession. On the other hand, there is
not a vestige of a charge that this revelation should be committed entire
to writing, either in the words of Christ or in the sayings of the
Apostles, or in the manner of acting and writing of the Apostles or of
the other sacred writers, or in the arrangement, scope, and occasion of
the books, or in the persuasion of Christians down to the sixteenth
century. How, then, is this to be maintained unless you first lay down
not to believe the word propagated by preaching which Christ appointed by
charges and promises distinct and irrefragable, and enjoined to
comprehend the whole revealed truth, but to believe only the word in
Scripture, which He did indeed superadd to preaching, but never either
enjoined or promised that all revealed truth should be contained in it?

But whatever be the fact as to the material fulness of Scripture, the
form of the books, each and all, is such that they evidently are not
written for the purpose of teaching the whole Christian religion to each
of the faithful independently of the teaching office.

It must be added that these books were addressed to those who were
already Christians, and give directions and advice which could not be
rightly understood save by those who had been previously instructed, and,
moreover, refer the faithful in express words to the preaching which they
had heard and received, and in which they are exhorted to abide. They
further also refer to guardians of the deposit, and to a line of
authentic teachers who shall continue to hand it on from generation to

That which had existed from the beginning by the institution of Christ,
and that which was to last unaltered to the end, was an apostolic
succession of men, in whom He put His power and presence, to whom He
promised the perpetual assistance of His Holy Spirit, and to whom He
committed the propagation of His faith. It was impossible that this
principle of action, the living personal authority, which, as we have
seen, did everything in the first two generations of the Christian
people, should ever be changed, because Christ appointed it to bear His
Word, the Word of God, whether oral or written, to every succeeding

Among the things which preceded in time the publication of the writings
of the New Testament, and which, therefore, were not derived from them,
were these: The hierarchy, including therein the election, ordination,
and jurisdiction of bishops throughout the world, and of the ministers
inferior to them; the several sacraments, with the rites which conveyed
them; the worship, and herein especially the Eucharist, and all which
belongs to it; and fourthly, that daily discipline of life which received
men into the Christian body, numbered them in it, imposed penance for
faults committed, restored the fallen, and, in fact, which was that
atmosphere by breathing which the Christian lived. All this the living
succession of men, instinct with the power and presence of the Holy
Ghost, the Sanctifier and the Comforter, the Spirit of truth, originally
conveyed, as the living succession of men perpetuates it from age to age.
These things, the writings of the New Testament, as they were gradually,
first one and then another, given to particular churches, or intended for
classes of believers, and finally collected in one and made the heirloom
of the whole body, found in existence and in full operation. With all the
instruments of the divine life thus enumerated these writings did not
meddle, except that they alluded to them more or less, usually in few
words, attesting them, it is true, but in a manner which those only who
were in possession of them would understand aright. The action of the
Church as a living Body consisted very largely in these things, and this
action, at least in all its details, the Apostles were not directed by
any charge of their Lord, nor inspired by the Holy Ghost, to commit to a
book. These things, from their nature, formed an essential part of the
ecclesiastical tradition; in fact, the Church as a society could not
exist without them.

Another part of the ecclesiastical tradition was the announcing to men
the words and the acts of Christ. The Christian character was to be
formed upon the living example of the Shepherd who had gone before His
sheep. For this task men were chosen who had been with Him during the
whole time of His ministry. So long as they were on earth they would
speak with all the authority of those who had seen what they witnessed;
but it is not apparent how an accurate account of our Lord's words and
acts could be transmitted to succeeding generations except by writing.
Thus it pleased the Holy Spirit to inspire some of the Apostles and some
of their disciples to commit to writing that record of our Lord's words
and actions which we possess in the four Gospels. Inexpressibly dear,
indeed, and precious to every Christian, must be the words of the Word;
like nothing else upon earth, the sounds which came from the lips of God
manifest in the flesh; of untold depth His utterances; of inexhaustible
fruitfulness His teaching. And the same may be said of His acts. As a
single parable would disclose the nature of His kingdom, so a single act
might be rich in endless application to the history of His Church and to
the heart of every believer. This most precious part of the
ecclesiastical tradition the Evangelists deposited in the bosom of the
Church, to be communicated, guarded, interpreted by her for ever to the
end of time. It was not the creation of one power to balance another,
for a book and a society do not come into competition; it was endowing
the society which Christ had created with the breath of His mouth, and
investing it with a permanent knowledge of His words and acts—a knowledge
to be transmitted under its keeping to all times.

As the Gospels contained words and acts of our Lord, so the Apostolic
Epistles contained comments, illustrations, and developments of their
personal teaching, bearing witness everywhere to that teaching, and to
the society which their own labours had constructed under their Lord's
direction, and only by the power of His Spirit working in themselves who
preached, and in the hearers who accepted the faith which they preached.
These writings the Church collected and placed in her treasury; they
became part of that deposit which St. Irenæus[143] celebrates "as being
new and fresh in an excellent vessel, and giving perpetual youth to that
vessel, which is the divine office intrusted to the Church, as life is
given to the body to vivify all the limbs belonging to it."

If we put together that large mass of teaching above described, which
consisted in the government everywhere set up by the Apostles, in the
sacraments which they carried into effect according to their Lord's
instructions, in the worship which they established, in the life of
faith, the daily discipline of which they set on foot, with that written
mass of documents of which by the end of the first century the Church was
in possession, we can form an approximate notion of the written and
unwritten tradition which it was her abiding office to expound.

That which is primary and essential,[144] the very substance of God's
institution, is the perpetual succession of living men from the Apostles.
All the rest are means by which that succession acts. These means the
providence of God has placed round His own central creation. Such means
are the word contained in the Divine Scriptures, the word contained in
sacraments, the word contained in worship, the word contained in the most
various ecclesiastical monuments, which exhibit the consent and
definitive judgment of the successors of the Apostles in past time.

These were the various means which the apostolic succession itself used,
under the assistance of the Holy Spirit, to maintain and expound and
preserve from error that whole tradition of the truth which Christ in the
beginning committed to it. But the subject requires further


[110] Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς, Θεοῦ Υιὸς, Σωτήρ = Ἰχθύς.

[111] Zach. vi. 13.

[112] τό ἄμαχον γένος, St. Chrys., above quoted.

[113] See Hagemann, Die römische Kirche, p. 558.

[114] Bianchi, vol. iii. pp. 120, 121.

[115] Aug. l. iv. De Bapt. c. Donat. cap. ult. (B. 120 note).

[116] Innocent. Ep. 18, c. 1.

[117] S. Greg. I., 1. 6, Ep. 39; 8, Ep. 35.

[118] Bianchi, 3, 137.

[119] Bianchi, 3, 136.

[120] The Council of Antioch, in the year 341, almost repeats this canon,
and lays it down as of universal application.

[121] Bianchi, 3, 132.

[122] The following paragraph is a translation from Cardinal
Hergenröther's History, vol. i. pp. 196, 197, sec. 228.

[123] Bianchi, 3, 468; quoting the constitution of Pope John XXII.

[124] Bianchi, 3, 440. The word _Sacerdos_ is here used as the proper
appellation of the bishop in his diocese by Cyprian, Ep. 57, according to
the usage in the third century, as the word _Ecclesia_ indicates the
diocese; the argument being that if complete obedience were rendered to
the bishop in the diocese, there would be complete peace in the whole
Church ruled by the Collegium of Bishops.

[125] This paragraph translated from Bianchi, 3, 445.

[126] Bianchi, 3, 457, 458; St. Augustine in Ps. cxviii.

[127] Bianchi, 3, 474, 475.

[128] Bianchi, 3, 444; Apostol. Canon, 66 and 74.

[129] Bianchi, 3, 500, translated.

[130] Bianchi, 3, 485, translated.

[131] 1 Cor. ix. 14.

[132] Bianchi, 3, 526, 527.

[133] 1 Cor. xvi. 1.

[134] Bianchi, 3, 536, translated.

[135] 1 Cor. xi. 22.

[136] An incident mentioned of Alexander Severus.

[137] John xx. 30, xxi. 25, xvi. 12.

[138] Renaudot, Dissertatio de Liturgiarum Orientalium Origine et
Auctoritate, p. li.

[139] St. Cœlestini, Ep. 21, Coustant, p. 493. The part quoted is
supposed to have been added to St. Cœlestine's letter (which refers to
the death of St. Augustine as having just happened) a little later, but
was always joined with it afterwards from the beginning of the sixth

[140] Franzelin, De Traditione, Thesis vii. p. 49.

[141] Translated from Franzelin, Tractatus da Traditione Divina et
Scriptura, pp. 50-53, down to "The Teaching Office."

[142] As, _e.g._, Rom. xvi. 17; 1 Cor. vii. 17, xi. 23, xiv. 33, xv. 12;
2 Cor. i. 18; Gal. i. 18; Phil. iv. 9; Colos. ii. 6, 7; 1 Thess. iv. 2; 2
Thess. ii. 14; 2 Tim. ii. 2; Heb. ii. 3, referred to by Franzelin, but
especially Ephes. iv. 11-16, which is of itself sufficient to decide the
whole question.

[143] St. Irenæus, iii. 24.

[144] See Franzelin, De Traditione, p. 134.



_The Independence of the Ante-Nicene Church shown in her Mode of Positive
Teaching and in her Mode of Resisting Error._

The Church is the Body of Christ as it moves through the centuries from
His first to His second coming. We have been tracing the course through
the first three of these centuries. Let us recur for a moment to the
beginning, when we behold our Lord, at the head of His Apostles, passing
through the towns and villages of Galilee, preaching that the kingdom of
heaven is at hand, imparting, as in the Sermon on the Mount, the
principles of that divine kingdom, healing every infirmity and disease;
then sending out His Apostles, and afterwards His disciples, by two and
two, as His heralds and messengers. This was the prelude, the type and
germ, of what was to come. Then, after His Passion and Resurrection, we
see the first stadium in the mission of the Apostles. They speak in His
name; they manifest His power; His Person is in the midst of them; His
Spirit upon them. The Apostle who once denied Him stands at their head,
and speaks with authority, declaring the mission intrusted to him.
Forthwith three thousand, who speedily become five thousand, accede to
the voice of his preaching. In twelve years Judæa and Palestine and
Antioch have had the new doctrine planted among them, and then it is set
up in Rome, the sceptred head of heathendom. The forty years of that
first mission are crowned by the destruction of the deicide city, after
that, by the hands of the Apostles and the fellow-labourers whom they
have chosen, the suckers of the Vine have been laid in all the chief
places of the Roman world. A kingdom had been preached and a kingdom had
been founded; and its basis had been laid in authority—that of a
crucified Head, transmitted to His Apostles.

The whole of this forty years' work is a Tradition or Delivery, to
translate literally the Greek title. Its bearers gave what they had
received. It was intrusted to them, to their truthfulness and their
accuracy; and those who received their message did not question it, but
accepted it as they gave it. From first to last the Tradition rested on
the one principle of authority, which had its fountain-head in the Person
of our Lord. He spoke as one having authority in Himself, not as the
Scribes and Pharisees, who interpreted an existing law; and they whom He
had deputed to follow Him claimed a delegation from that authority, and
spoke in virtue of it.

But if this was so in the lifetime of the Apostles, who had seen and
touched and handled the Word of Life, it was no less the case in the
teachers who immediately followed them. We have seen a most striking
instance in St. Clement, who claimed for the decision of the Roman
Church in an important matter, and that during the lifetime of the
Apostle John, that the words uttered by it were the words of the Holy
Ghost, and asserted that those who did not listen to them refused to
listen to God Himself. But this language represents the language and the
conduct of those who succeeded to the place of the Apostles in the whole
three hundred years. There is no break and no change in this respect. The
Nicene Council in its decisions has the same tone as the Apostolic
Council at Jerusalem; it is no other than "it has seemed good to the Holy
Ghost and to us."

For in truth, from first to last, all success in the divine kingdom is
the work of the Spirit of Christ. Ho is the one power who gives life to
the whole. In Him lies the secret of its unity, whereby the Body of
Christians, or the Christian nation,[145] is one and the same at Rome,
Alexandria, Antioch, and a thousand other places; for Jew and Greek,
barbarian, Scythian, bond and free, male and female, have all been made
to drink into one Spirit.

Thus a living God will have a living Church; and in this first great
period—instinct with a character of its own, as the conflict between the
new Christian nation and the mightiest offspring of the old civilisation,
that heir of Egypt, Assyria, Persia, and Greece, which transcended its
ancestors—the great charter lies in the words, "As My Father sent Me, so
also send I you." It is this ever-living mission which perpetuates "the
Tradition or Delivery." Thus it is the accordant witness of all that we
have hitherto said, from the testimony of the sacred writings to that of
the first fathers and teachers, exhibited in all their conduct, that the
living apostolic succession is the one thing instituted by God to carry
on His revelation and to maintain His kingdom. This succession it is
which bears in its hands the various records forming the treasury of the
kingdom, whether they be the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, or
the sacraments which communicate a divine life, or the majestic liturgy
which expresses the divine worship, or the daily praxis of the Church,
which is, in fact, the embodiment of its unwritten tradition: in all
these, and through them in all ages, the apostolic succession works. And
the mission through which it works is as living, real, and present, as
immediate and efficacious now, as when the words first dropped from the
lips of our Lord in the Body in which He rose again, "As My Father sent
Me, so also send I you."

We may divide the consideration of the manner in which the Apostles
proclaimed the divine kingdom into two heads, the first of which will be
the whole work of positive promulgation, and the second the whole defence
against error.

As to the first, I will touch on five points—the system of catechesis,
the employment of a creed, the dispensing of sacraments, the system of
penance, and the Scriptures carried in the Church's hand. And I am
considering these especially in one point of view, as illustrating the
method of teaching pursued by a body which was intrusted with a divine

1. Converts were admitted into the Church after a process of oral
instruction of more or less duration; for I am not here concerned with
the extent of that duration, but with the fact that such instruction was
invariably given by word of mouth, not by placing a book in the hands of
those who came to be taught. What the Christian doctrine was it belonged
to its teachers to say, and the system by which it was learnt was termed
catechesis, _i.e._, instruction by word of mouth, by question and answer.
This is the word applied by St. Luke in the beginning of his Gospel to
Theophilus, to whom he addressed it; and the opening verses of the Gospel
describe the thing itself with an accuracy which leaves nothing to be
desired; for the Evangelist speaks "of the things that have been
accomplished among us, according as they have _delivered_[146] them unto
us, who from the beginning were eye-witnesses and ministers of the
word;"[147] and adds, "It seemed good to me also, having diligently
attained to all things from the beginning, to write to thee in order,
most excellent Theophilus, that thou mayest know the verity of those
things in which thou hast been instructed by word of mouth." By which we
see that it was not a book which had been put into the hands of
Theophilus to teach him Christian truth, but a doctrine delivered by
personal teachers, and derived from those who were eye-witnesses, and
administered to others what they knew. But after Theophilus had become a
full Christian, a Gospel might be addressed to him for confirmation of
his faith.

The Church of which we know most as to its method of converting Gentiles
is the Alexandrine Church, in which, from very early time, there was a
famous catechetical school, founded, it is said, by St. Mark himself, the
names of whose after teachers, Athenagoras, Pantænus, and still more
Clement and Origen, have distinguished it.[148] Its method has been thus

"In the system of the early catechetical schools the _perfect_, or men in
Christ, were such as had deliberately taken on them the profession of
believers, had made the vows and received the grace of baptism, and were
admitted to all the privileges and the revelations of which the Church
had been constituted the dispenser. But before reception into this full
discipleship, a previous season of preparation, from two to three years,
was enjoined, in order to try their obedience and instruct them in the
principles of revealed truth. During this introductory discipline they
were called _catechumens_, and the teaching itself _catechetical_, from
the careful and systematic examination by which their grounding in the
faith was effected. The matter of the instruction thus communicated to
them varied with the time of their discipleship, advancing from the most
simple principles of natural religion to the peculiar doctrines of the
gospel, from moral truths to the Christian mysteries. On their first
admission they were denominated _hearers_, from the leave granted them to
attend the reading of the Scriptures and sermons in the church.
Afterwards, being allowed to stay during the prayers, and receiving the
imposition of hands as the sign of their progress in spiritual knowledge,
they were called _worshippers_. Lastly, some short time before their
baptism, they were taught the Lord's Prayer (the peculiar privilege of
the regenerate), were intrusted with the knowledge of the Creed, and, as
destined for incorporation into the body of believers, received the
titles of _competent_ or _elect_.[149] Even to the last they were granted
nothing beyond a formal and general account of the articles of the
Christian faith, the exact and fully developed doctrines of the Trinity
and the Incarnation, and, still more, the doctrine of the Atonement, as
once made upon the cross, and commemorated and appropriated in the
Eucharist, being the exclusive possession of the serious and practical
Christian. On the other hand, the chief subjects of catechisings, as we
learn from Cyril, were the doctrines of repentance and pardon, of the
necessity of good works, of the nature and use of baptism, and the
immortality of the soul, as the Apostle had determined them."[150]

It is not needful for our present purpose to go further into the
"Discipline of the Secret." It is enough to point out how this whole
method, which belonged to the Church everywhere, though carried out no
doubt in various degrees of perfectness according to the endowments and
zeal of individuals and the energy of pastoral care, testified throughout
the magistral character of the Church, and that those who came into her
fold must come in the spirit of little children, according to our Lord's
saying. Those certainly who so came could not question the doctrines
which they received, nor the authority of which they were not judges, but

2. But the use of a Creed,[151] communicated at a certain advanced period
of the instruction given, and as a prelude to the rite which admitted
into the Body, was a further token of authority. Nor indeed can any
greater act of authority be well imagined than the summing up what is to
be believed as the doctrine of salvation in a few sentences. This is not
done in the Scriptures themselves, whether of the Old or New Testament,
or both together. And how great an act of authority it was in the mind of
the Christian people is well expressed in the tradition which not only
called the first creed the Creed of the Apostles, but represented them
before their separation not again to be reunited, as contributing each
one to the twelve propositions forming it. Such a tradition, even if it
be not true, is not only a picturesque but a most powerful and emphatic
exhibition of the feeling which Christians entertained as to the act of
authority implied in creating the instrument which conveyed the Christian
faith. For if each separate article of the Creed may be attested by the
Christian Scriptures, yet the selection of such and such doctrines, their
arrangement and force when put together, indicate something quite other
than the existence or expression of such doctrines scattered about
Scripture, just as the faggot is something much more than the sticks
which compose it. And in accordance with this judgment upon the authority
of a creed as such, we find that enlargements or explanations of the
first Creed have only been made by the highest authority in the Church,
and on rare occasions, as a defence against heresies which threatened the
very being of the Church, or as the more complete expression of doctrines
in which the Church felt her life to be enshrined. But it was a Creed
which from the beginning bore the title of the Rule of Faith. The Creed
was recited by the baptized, as a token of their acceptance and
incorporation into the Church; repeated as a daily prayer of singular
power and efficacy; renewed by the dying as a confession of faith and
passport to the tribunal of the great Judge. St. Augustine,[152] in a
sermon to catechumens, said, even in his time, "You must by no means
write down the words of the Creed in order to remember them, but you must
learn them by hearing them; nor when you have learnt them must you write
them, but hold them ever in your memory and ruminate on them."

Nor, though the doctrines contained in the original Creed may be
attested by the Scriptures, was the authority of the Creed and of the
power which imposed it derived from the testimony of the Scriptures. It
was antecedent in time to such testimony, and it was derived from those
who were authors of the Scriptures, and who were at least as infallible
in such an act as in the account which they might communicate to the
churches of what they had seen and heard.[153]

To the method of catechesis, therefore, as the means of instruction, we
add the employment of the Creed, which is the Church's oriflamme, round
which her host gathers, and to which it looks in the ever-during struggle
of the faith.

3. Next consider the daily life into which the convert was introduced
when his course of catechetical instruction was concluded and he was put
in possession of the Creed.

The first sacrament, that of baptism, administered with the utmost
solemnity at certain times of the year, the one being the eve of the
Lord's resurrection, the other the eve of the descent of the Holy Spirit
upon the Church, was "an enlightening" which opened to him the wonders of
the spiritual world. In virtue of it he became a member of "the household
of God," he entered into brotherhood with his Redeemer, he shared in the
gift of the Almighty Spirit, the Author and Giver of all grace. At the
same time, or shortly after, the chrism of confirmation added to his
strength for the perpetual conflict of the Christian life. And here by
the imposition of episcopal hands the same sevenfold Spirit of grace
descended upon him, marking by the rite itself how the Christian society
was inhabited by that Spirit, whose power the bishop bestowed upon the
newly born Christian. But both baptism and confirmation were sacraments,
however enduring in their effects, yet given once and never to be
repeated; whereas for the perpetual sustenance of spiritual life a tree
was needed which should bear perpetual fruit. And here the Lord Himself
was at hand; for the baptized and confirmed Christian was forthwith fed
with the Bread of Angels; and that majestic altar was disclosed to his
sight on which daily lay the Body of the Lord of Angels, offered for him
in mystical sacrifice; and he heard the accents of that divine liturgy
which called upon heaven and earth to rejoice together in the great glory
of God. It was impossible for any faithful heart to hear the glowing
words in which the sacrificant described the mercy of God in bestowing
His Son upon men as their Deliverer and their daily food without being
kindled into an unspeakable joy, "while the angels praise, the
dominations adore, the powers tremble, the heavens, the heavenly virtues,
and the blessed Seraphim with common jubilee glorify" that majesty so
shown forth in mercy. In the eucharistic service he felt himself at once
the citizen of a heavenly kingdom, for the divine polity breathed in all
around him. Sight and touch, language and every sense, testified a divine
presence, and religion became to all participants a living thing. This
was a permanent, not a fleeting gift; the endowment of a life, the
supersubstantial daily Bread.

But the heavenly blessing encircled every act. It joined the sexes in a
consecration which ennobled while it sanctified that lifelong treaty on
which rests the whole existence of a home for family and children; it
supported the infirmities of the dying with a special strength; it
recruited the ministers of the Church in rites which imaged out in most
expressive formulas the power from on high, that delegation from the
Saviour's Person which was the whole ground of authority.

4. But there is yet another institution, which in as forcible a way as
any of the six just mentioned exhibits the Christian Church as a polity;
for the one enemy against which a perpetual watchfulness needed to be
maintained was the frailty of the human heart itself. Even from the
beginning there never was a time in which Christians did not fall, and so
from the beginning there was a system of penance to meet that case of
their fall, and to provide for restoration. The Apostle Paul found the
evil among his converts at Corinth, and used the remedy. But that remedy
powerfully illustrates the control of a living society over its members.
Those who fell in any way from the Christian profession could only be
restored by a double action; the inward repentance of the individual
sinning was required on the one hand, but this did not of itself suffice;
the outward action of the society itself was needed, and this society
imposed such rules as it thought good for the granting of pardon. It is
not to my point to go into any details on the subject, because it is the
principle itself contained in the system of penance which I wish to
dwell upon alone. Sins of infidelity, impurity, idolatry, as a rule
excluded for long periods of years, or even for the whole course of life,
from the Church. The bishop dispensed this discipline either in person or
through his priests, in a tribunal in which he represented Christ
Himself, and exerted His authority, the greatest given to man upon earth,
an authority belonging to God alone, the power to remit or retain sins.
From the beginning the Church exercised this authority, and in it ruled a
kingdom, the kingdom of man's innermost thoughts, the hopes and the fears
of an eternal world. They whose lives were not safe a moment from the
persecuting powers of heathen magistrates, wielded a much more awful
power over their fellow-Christians, subject to them by the bond of a
divine hierarchy which had its source, its centre, and its crown in our
Lord Himself, which was His gift to the world, which He left behind Him
to carry on His kingdom. This power was an essential part of the
priesthood borne by the episcopate, in no sense derived from the
particular community wherein it was exercised, but descending from above.

5. If we put together the constant action of these divine institutions,
which we term sacraments, we gain from the contemplation a picture of the
entire Christian life, the daily course of the Christian citizen in his
citizenship, subsisting by the force of the Tradition above spoken of.
But there is another point to be exhibited. When St. Luke wrote to
Theophilus that the intention of his Gospel was to confirm him in the
certainty of those things which he had been taught by word of mouth, he
disclosed to us the position which the Scriptures held in this period of
the Ante-Nicene Church. They were not the immediate instrument of
teaching, and far less were they put in the hands of the neophyte in
order that, by an act of his private judgment, he might compare the
doctrine which he supposed to be contained in them with the doctrine
taught to him by his instructors. The Scriptures, both of the Old and New
Testaments, were carried in the Church's hand, and presented to the
faithful as documents beyond the reach of their criticism, guaranteed by
the authority through which they themselves became Christians. This is a
totally different presentment from that of a book which exists without
credentials external to itself. The notion of treating the narratives of
our Lord's actions and words as common books, subject, like any ordinary
history, to the judgments of their readers, would have struck with horror
those who had a special name for such weak or unfaithful Christians as in
times of danger delivered up their sacred books to the heathens. They
called them Traditores, whence we derive the most loathsome appellation
which can be applied to a man who disregards the dictates of conscience
and the pledges of fidelity. It would have been _treason_ indeed to their
minds to question the truth of a miracle recorded by St. Matthew or a
doctrine set forth by St. John. But why? Because behind the Holy
Scriptures lay the whole authority of that living Church in virtue of
which they themselves had the privilege of knowing the Scriptures at
all. That the Spirit of God dictated these Scriptures they knew only from
the Church. The kingdom of which these Scriptures spoke was the Church
herself. The Scriptures were _part_ of her. They did not produce the
hierarchy by which she was governed, nor the sacraments on which her
people lived, nor that whole daily discipline in and through which the
Christian people existed. Even had they constituted, which they did not,
a code of laws, a code is an unexerted power without those who administer

But the Church from the beginning literally _dispensed_ the Scriptures;
she selected portions of the Gospels and Epistles for recitation in her
eucharistic liturgy; she referred to them in her daily teaching. They
were a treasury out of which she brought perpetually things old and new.
The parables of our Lord became in her hands the structure of a living
kingdom; she herself was the fulfilment of that great series of
prophecies. In her the Sower went forth to sow His seed, and the field in
which He sowed was the world, and the time of the sowing the last age—the
time between the first and the second coming of the King. She herself was
the net which gathered a multitude of fish, "which when it was filled
they drew out, and sitting by the shore they chose out the good into
vessels, but the bad they cast forth." She herself was "the grain of
mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field, which is indeed
the least of all seeds, but when it is grown up it is greater than all
herbs, and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and dwell in
the branches thereof." And especially in all this process she was "the
leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal until the
whole was leavened," whether we regard those three measures as the
corporeal, animal, and spiritual nature of the individual man, or as the
family, the social, and the political life of the collective man.

And this continued to be the relation between the Church and the
Scriptures which were committed to her charge, and which she dispensed to
her people, not merely by reading them in her liturgies and the devotions
of her clergy and her religious orders, but in the realising and acting
them out in her own life during full fifteen centuries. During this vast
period of time the Holy Scriptures were received throughout the whole
extent of Christendom as the unquestioned Word of God, with an entire
faith in their inspiration. The faithful mind was not prone to analyse
the basis on which this belief rested, which was the Church's
attestation. They had been copied out by the unwearied labours of
innumerable hands in religious houses scattered throughout the world, to
whose occupants it was the most pious of toils to multiply the sacred
books. It was not the paid work of hirelings, indifferent to their
contents, which, up to the invention of printing, wrought this
multiplication. How many a monk spent his life in adorning a copy of the
Gospels not with pen only but with pencil, so that the loving service of
years was enshrined in the leaves he wrought! It followed of course, that
down to the time in which printing became common, copies of the Sacred
Scriptures were costly, and the reading of them never could have been
popular. Thus it was physically impossible, if it had not been besides
contrary to all Christian practice and principle, that they should be the
immediate instrument of teaching. Only when the Church had been for long
ages in possession of men's minds, and had built up one harmonious
structure of doctrine and practice by the work of a uniform hierarchy in
many lands, and when, besides, a new invention had multiplied with a
great economy of manual labour copies of the Scriptures, so that they
could be produced in thousands and sold as an ordinary book, a notion,
until then unheard of, was set up. A man arose who maintained that the
Church in her ministers was not the teacher to whom God had committed the
propagation of His gospel, but that each Christian was to teach himself
by personal study of the written Word. This notion rested upon the
assertion that the Holy Spirit coalesces with the written Word in such a
manner as to act immediately on the mind of the reader. To those who
could embrace such a notion the written Word came to stand to the reader
in exactly that relation to divine truth which up to that time the Church
herself had occupied. There seems to have been a real confusion in the
mind of the man who devised this notion, and in the minds of his
followers, between the outward material Word, which they read and
construed, and its true sense, or the inward Word. Thus they argued from
the possession of the former to that of the latter, and supposed that
unity of belief would follow from the individual's study of the same
documents. They always refused to see the conclusion which all of the old
belief set before them, that they were substituting their own private and
subjective interpretation of the Bible for the Church's public and
authorised one. They opposed instead what they called the Word of God,
that is, the real sense of Holy Scripture, to the word of man, which they
called the Church's interpretation of it.

It is true that this notion contained in it something very flattering to
the human mind and the natural feelings, for it supposed an immediate
relation between Christ and the individual, and an illumination of the
readers mind by the influence of the Holy Spirit, the sole instrument of
which was the reading of the Scripture. Thus this notion got rid at one
stroke of Church, sacraments, discipline, and all spiritual rule.

The objections to it at once apparent were: First, it was not only
without warrant from Scripture itself, but directly opposed to its
plainest statement, such as "Go ye into all the world and preach the
gospel to every creature," and all those other passages in which the
foundation of spiritual authority is set forth. Secondly, it was directly
opposed to the historical fact in the way in which the Church was
actually instituted. Thirdly, it was no less opposed to the way in which
the Church had been carried on in every age and every country through the
fifteen centuries. A fourth objection was made to it as soon as it was
set up, but only the actual experience of three centuries and a half
could adequately express its force. It has been found to produce not
unity of belief, but every possible variety and opposition, until at last
the final point has been reached, that this variety and opposition are
viewed as being a good in themselves, and an assurance of the mind's
freedom; and the possession of one faith, which was the glory of all
Christians, and viewed by the Fathers as a sensible token of Christ's
Godhead, has ceased, by those who received and transmitted Luther's
notion, to be deemed practicable or even desirable. In other words, those
who deserted the unity of the supernatural kingdom have been broken
without hands into a shapeless anarchy.

If, then, we consider as a whole the work of positive promulgation
carried on by the Church from the Day of Pentecost to the bestowal of
civil liberty upon it by Constantine, we find it to consist in the action
of the Spirit of Christ animating that teaching Body which began with the
Apostles and was continued in their living succession. We find the method
of internal promulgation which that teaching Body pursued was the
creation everywhere of a Christian polity. Of this the main parts were
the discipline and direction of the whole spiritual being which the
sacraments embraced. One of them contained the great central act of daily
worship and the supersubstantial bread of daily life. Into this polity
men were admitted after careful probation and instruction of each
individual by word of mouth, and the chief articles of belief were
delivered to him upon his admission by an act of supreme authority. The
Creed was the soldier's oath of fidelity when he entered into the sacred
army. The censure and restoration of sinning members were provided for by
other acts of supreme authority. Nor did it only impart to the incoming
disciple what he should believe summed up in the Creed, but it presented
to its members collectively the Sacred Scriptures of the Old and New
Testaments. Thus the living society carried both the written and
unwritten Word, not as separate and disjointed, but as one treasure-house
of truth committed to its perpetual guardianship. For all these means
were comprehended in a divine unity which excluded partition. That unity
was the mystical Body of Christ, and these means subsisted in and by
force of the Body of Christ; for just as the human soul[154] is the life
of the human body, without which its members would cease to be an
organism and fall back into dust, so the Spirit of God animated this Body
of Christ, binding together in one life those manifestations of doctrine,
worship, and government the system of which we have been trying to

We proceed to consider the dangers which beset that unity.

What during this period was the defence of the Church against errors of

We may subdivide our answer into two heads: first, the question of the
_principle_ which actuated the Church in all her conduct of promulgating
her faith; and, secondly, the question of _fact_, or a review of the
errors themselves which she had to oppose.

The principle of the Church was, in one word, that which defines her own
being—a divine authority establishing a kingdom, Jesus Christ, her Lord
and Founder, living and acting in her. The consideration of the faith
which she promulgated cannot be severed from that of her government and
her worship. If we put together that which we have been observing, we
find a hierarchy stretching over the whole earth, developing itself in
councils, hearing and deciding causes both in an exterior and an interior
forum, having a fourfold gradation, the Bishop in the diocese, the
Metropolitan in the province, the Primate in the larger circle of several
provinces, the Pope in the whole Church. But, further, the whole of this
authoritative government rests upon an identical worship, in which
dwells, in a wonderful manner, the very Person of Him who is the Founder
and Maintainer of the kingdom, and which exhibits daily to the hearts and
minds of His people the sublime truths upon which His presence rests.
Again, this worship itself is a part of that daily discipline of life in
which the people live, and by which they are subjects of their sovereign
in the spiritual world of thought and action. The administration of
sacraments, which belongs to practice, embraces a whole world of
doctrine. It is also the carrying out and application to daily life of
the Scriptures which the Church holds in her hands, and presents to her
people under the guarantee of her authority.

Again, in all that we are enumerating, in the whole system of government,
worship, and teaching, is comprised _the Word_ of God committed to the
Church, a word partly written and partly unwritten, but in both its parts
equally the word of God, not human thought or inference; and the teaching
office is exercised in the living administration of the one and the other
part, which cannot in practice be divided.[155]

Again, the knowledge of revealed truth as a whole, and of the system in
which it should be enshrined and perpetuated on the earth among men, was
a special gift communicated to the Apostolic Body. They could not
propagate a religion without this special gift of understanding what they
were to propagate. This was part of their endowment as Apostles, a point
in which they were superior to all who should come after them, who would
have to continue and hand on that which they had established.[156]

Further, from this gift followed the consciousness from the beginning
that the revelation made by Christ to His Apostles was complete as to its
substance.[157] He was the Teacher whose word was final: they were those
whom He _sent_ to convey it to men. Their name expressed their
office—_the sent_. They transmitted what they had received. Those who
followed, even the greatest who sat in Peter's seat, watched over the
maintenance of what the Apostles had transmitted. They were _overseers_.
The name of predilection which stands at the head of documents declaring
the faith, re-establishing discipline, terminating disputes, is, as it
may be, Gregory, Leo, Pius, but always _Bishop_; and the whole plenitude
of spiritual power is conveyed in the word "Bishop of the Catholic

Since all that we have been so long saying is an illustration of this
principle of the Church,—her own divine authority in promulgating her
Lord's message,—we need not dwell on it further, but turn at once to a
review of those combats which she actually underwent, in order to see how
her liberty and spiritual power are manifested during the period of
persecution, by the issue of the conflict in which, from the beginning,
she was engaged with various enemies.

The first of these conflicts is with unbelieving Judaism, and its period
is chiefly from the Day of Pentecost to the destruction of the temple and
city of Jerusalem by Roman arms.

When the Apostles went forth to their work, they first addressed
themselves to their own brethren, the people of Israel; and for twelve
years they addressed themselves to their brethren alone. The great point
to which they had to win Jewish consent was that Jesus was the Christ.
Those to whom they preached were well convinced that there would be a
Christ, and many of them also that the time for His coming was at hand.
The work of the Apostles was to show that the life and death of Jesus
corresponded to the manifold prophecies concerning the Messiah contained
in the books of Moses, the Psalms, and the Prophets, and that He had
done "the works of the Christ." In this first period of their preaching a
considerable number, even of the priests, listened to their call; but a
much greater number rejected it. In Jerusalem itself the Sanhedrim began
the long list of Christian persecutions, and those who had slain the Lord
commanded His disciples not to preach in His name. We cannot doubt that
the enmity of those Jews who rejected a suffering Christ was very bitter
against their countrymen who proclaimed Him.

But as soon as the Apostles embraced the Gentiles in their teaching this
bitterness would greatly increase; for then, besides proclaiming One who
had suffered the death of the cross at the hands of His own people to be
the appointed Head and Deliverer of that people, the Apostles opened all
the benefits of His Headship to the very nations in the midst of which
the Jews lived with the proudest sense of their own superior claim to the
favour of God. We see, by the example of St. Paul and St. Barnabas, how
the Apostles addressed themselves in each city to their brethren in the
synagogue, and through them to the Gentile proselytes, male and female,
who frequented it; how they received into the communion of the Church
such as accepted their message, and these not only when they were Jews,
but the Gentiles also; and how, by the decision of the Council at
Jerusalem, the Gentiles so entering were not bound to accept the
ceremonial law of Moses nor the rite of circumcision. If it was a
grievous offence to Jewish pride that a crucified man should be
propounded as the son of David and King of Israel, how intense was the
anger excited by the fact that the children of the hated and despised
nations were allowed to enter into possession of the divine inheritance
of Israel's race without receiving circumcision, the pledge of the Jewish
covenant, the mark of the children of Abraham!

Such was the double cause of indignation which led the Jews continually
to plot against the life of St. Paul, to cut off St. James by the sword
of Agrippa, to attempt at the same time the life of St. Peter, and during
the whole period of apostolic preaching to set the Roman magistrates
against the Christians.

We must add another cause of Jewish enmity, which, coming upon the two
great causes already indicated, must have still more inflamed it.

For a considerable time, perhaps down to the persecution of Nero in the
year 64,[158] the Christian faith appeared to the Romans to be what
Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia, and the brother, be it observed, of
Seneca, called it, "a question of a word and names, and of your," that
is, the Jewish, "law;" so that practically, in this first time, to use
the well-known expression of Tertullian, the apostolic preaching "was
sheltered under the profession of a most famous, at least a licensed
religion."[159] This means that whereas by the laws existing at Rome
before the coming of our Lord, the setting up of religions not authorised
by the Senate was strictly forbidden; and whereas the profession of
their own religion was everywhere allowed to the Jews as subjects of the
empire, who were not called upon to renounce their ancestral belief, and
whose synagogues were much frequented, as we know from Horace, even in
his time; the first teachers of the Christian faith being Jews, and using
the synagogue itself as a means of propagating their message, were
covered by the protection extended to the Jewish religion. To the
unbelieving Jews this protection, thus enjoyed by those whom they
considered not only teachers of a false Messiah, but surrenderers of the
special privileges and promises of the Jewish race, must have been very
galling. Were apostates to be saved by their Jewish character from the
very punishment which the Roman law itself imposed on religious
innovators? Were they who overturned the very foundation of Jewish
distinction to preach their sect under cover of the Jewish name?
Accordingly they set themselves to kindle Roman enmity against the
Christian faith by every means in their power. In the whole period
between the conversion of Cornelius and the destruction of their own
temple and city they were sleepless enemies, so that they fulfilled to
the utmost the divine prediction, "Therefore, behold I send to you
prophets and wise men and scribes: and some of them you will put to death
and crucify, and some you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute
from city to city: that upon you may come all the just blood that hath
been shed upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the just even unto the
blood of Zacharias, the son of Barachias, whom you killed between the
temple and the altar. Amen. I say unto you all these things shall come
upon this generation."[160]

Poppæa is said by Josephus to have been a Jewish proselyte, and to have
used her influence with Nero in favour of the Jews; and Tacitus[161]
records her to have been surrounded with fortune-tellers, which would
include Jewish diviners of the future; and the combination of these
statements has led to the conclusion by some that Nero was moved by her
to those acts which resulted, not only in the sacrifice of that "vast
multitude" recorded by Tacitus as suffering in the persecution raised
against them for the burning of Rome imputed to them, but in removing for
ever from the Christian religion the protection of being "licit," as a
part of an allowed religion. If this be so, all the subsequent
persecutions were contained as in germ in the decision of Nero. The
special cruelties of the punishments inflicted by Nero might cease upon
his deposition, but the decision that the Christian faith was not a part
of the Jewish, and therefore not "licit," would remain as a principle of
imperial legislation,[162] as appears, in fact, in the conduct of Trajan
when Pliny appealed to him for guidance. For it should not be forgotten
that Pliny had already treated the profession of Christianity as in
itself a capital crime, inasmuch as he ordered those who were guilty of
it to be executed before he applied to Trajan for directions as to how he
should treat them in future, on account of the difficulty which arose
from their number. This evidence is complete so far as to show that it
was not Trajan's answer to Pliny which made the Christian religion
illicit, but that it was already of itself a capital crime.

When St. Peter and St. Paul had crowned the Roman Church with their joint
martyrdom under the authority of Nero, that Jewish revolt had already
begun the issue of which was the accomplishment of the divine prediction
that their "house should be left to them desolate." But the stroke of
Nero's sword, wielded by his deputies,[163] was but the final act of
Jewish enmity to St. Paul; what his life had been at their hands we have
vividly described in his own words: "Of the Jews five times did I receive
forty stripes save one. Thrice was I beaten with rods, once I was stoned;
thrice I suffered shipwreck; a night and a day I was in the depth of the
sea."[164] And as to St. Peter, they for whom Herod Agrippa, seeing that
the slaughter of St. James pleased the Jews, proceeded to imprison Peter,
intending after the Pasch to bring him forth to the people for public
execution, would pursue him with their enmity all the rest of his life.
And what happened to the chiefs, St. Peter and St. Paul, happened in
their measure to the other first teachers of the new faith: they gained
their crown of martyrdom through the perpetual enmity of the unbelieving
Jews stirring up the Roman power against them.

The position of bitter enmity to the Christian religion taken up by the
unbelieving Jews was far from terminating with the destruction of
Jerusalem. As the nation, with its imperishable vitality, survived that
blow, and the further severe punishment dealt upon it after the
insurrection headed, in the reign of Hadrian, by the false Messiah
Barcochba, who inflicted upon the Christians in Judæa fearful torments,
so through the whole period of persecution which the Church suffered from
the Roman empire, the Jews fanned by every means in their power the
heathen hatred of the Christian people. Tertullian, at the end of the
second century, represents them as not possessing an inch of land which
they could call their own, yet at the same time as propagating every vile
report against Christians. He gives this specimen: "Report has introduced
a new calumny respecting our God. Not so long ago a most abandoned wretch
in that city of yours (Rome), a man who had deserted indeed his own
religion—a Jew, in fact, who had only lost his skin, flayed of course by
wild beasts, against which he enters the lists for hire day after day
with a sound body, and so in a condition to lose his skin—carried about
in public a caricature of us with this label, An ass of a priest. This
had ass's ears, and was dressed in a toga, with a book, having a hoof on
one of his feet. And the crowd believed this infamous Jew. For what other
set of men is the seed-plot of all the calumny against us?"[165]

Jewish hatred of the Christian faith stopped as little with Constantine's
edict of toleration as it had with the destruction of the temple by Titus
or the banishment of the people by Hadrian; but here we have only to
consider it in the first period of the forty years.

This is one aspect of that first conflict with Judaism, but there is
likewise another, of which the issue was the gradual severance of the
Christian Church from the synagogue. As the first struggle came from the
enmity of those who rejected Jesus as the Christ, so the second came from
those who received Him, but at the same time clung to the Jewish law and
its observances.

The problem of the first twelve years' teaching was, whether the Jewish
nation would, as a nation, receive the faith of Him whom its rulers had
crucified. An ardent longing for the salvation of their people as a whole
must have lain deep in the heart of those first Jewish converts. But even
after it became plain that only a remnant would accept the faith, and
after a great number of Gentile converts had been received throughout the
empire, on conditions which exempted them from the practice of the law of
Moses, when St. Paul, at a late period of his ministry, went up to
Jerusalem, he was entreated, because there were many thousands among the
Jews that had believed who were all zealots for the law,[166] to perform
in his own person publicly in the temple a vow according to the law, with
which he complied.

No doubt one of the greatest difficulties experienced in these first
forty years was the amalgamation of Jewish and Gentile converts in the
one Christian Church; but I would draw attention only to the completeness
of the result. Among the questions then settled[167] were the meaning of
the Old Testament law in regard to the faith in Christ, the relation of
our Lord to the Jewish prophets, His superiority to them, His divine
nature, and thus His relation to God the Father. I pass over the
consideration of all these to make one remark. The ultimate result is the
proof of power, and by the time the Jewish temple and the public worship
carried on in it were destroyed by the Roman avenger of the God he did
not know, the Christian Church was seen to emerge in its character of a
religion for all mankind. The association of St. Paul with St. Peter in
the patronage of the Roman Church is the most conclusive refutation of
theories as to their enmity and rivalry. The one Christian community,
ruled by one Episcopate, derived from the Person of Christ, and
containing Jews and Gentiles in the one Body of Christ, is the best proof
that the force of that divine unity prevailed over zeal for the law and
national privileges on the one hand, as over all the errors and
confusions of heathen life on the other. Jewish persecution had its
completion in the ruin of the deicide city. Those thousands of believers,
zealots for the law, were in a few short years merged in the
ever-increasing number of the Gentile converts. That great mother Church
of Jerusalem, mindful of her Lord's prophecy dwelling in her thoughts,
was warned by the Roman standards encompassing the city to migrate to
Pella, beyond the Jordan, and thus the centre of Jewish influence in the
Church was dissipated beyond recall. The Christian Church took over the
inheritance of the synagogue, displaced and destroyed, without being
confined to its rites and ceremonies. The high priest, the priest, and
the levite of the old covenant, touched with the life-giving flesh of
Christ, passed into the ministry of the new; and while the lamb ceased to
be offered for the daily sacrifice in the temple, the Lamb of God on
every Christian altar became the Sacrifice and the Food of the one
Christian people.

Thus the providence of God, offering to His chosen people their Saviour,
had, when they rejected Him, worked a double result of their unbelief:
one, the destruction of their city and polity; the other, the coming
forth in unity and independence of the true Israel, "the nation of

In all this the Divine Kingdom accomplished its first stage, being
founded by Jewish teachers in spite of the enmity of unbelieving Judaism
without, and blending the Jew and the Gentile convert within by the force
of its potent unity.

The contest with Judaism in both its phases had but a restricted scope,
if we compare it with that manifold contest with error which filled the
whole history of the Church from the Day of Pentecost to the convocation
of the Nicene Council. It is not easy to realise the circumstances under
which that contest was waged. First, from the persecution begun under
Nero in the year 64, to the edicts of Constantine in 311-313, the
Christian Church lay under the ban of the Empire as an illicit religion.
It is indeed true that the whole of this long period of two hundred and
fifty years is not a time of active persecution. There are intervals
throughout, of considerable length, in which the Church carried on her
silent course of conversion, without the law being executed against her,
with at least anything like a general intention to destroy her. Still,
even in these intervals, she was in the condition of a society in
opposition at all points to the powers of the world, and, to say the
least, discouraged by the spirit of the time. She could not unfold and
publish her constitution. The thing of all others which she could least
venture to disclose was her _polity_, that episcopate with its centre in
Rome which was the bond of her strength as a regimen. In spite of
herself, Roman law forced her into the position, in many respects at
least, of a secret society; secret, not because her doctrines in
themselves required concealment; secret, not because her polity was in
itself an infringement of the Empire's civil rights, but because both
doctrine and polity involved a change in the religious, social, and civil
relations of the world which the Roman Empire was not prepared to
concede, and which, had it divined, not Nero alone, or Domitian, "a
portion of Nero in his cruelty,"[168] but every Roman emperor, with
Trajan at their head, would have stamped out. Again, it is difficult to
realise the condition of a religious society which could not carry out
its worship under the protection which publicity confers. Yet as to this
we have no authority to show that there were public Christian churches
before the reign of Alexander Severus, two hundred years after the Church
began. Her eucharistic liturgy was a secret; her sacred books were kept
out of the sight of the heathen; but even so the language and the
treatment of subjects in these books, not to speak of the choice of those
subjects, betoken that they belonged to a society which needed not only
the harmlessness of the dove but the wisdom of the serpent. It had need
to keep its head under cover. To take one instance out of many. I do not
know a more remarkable example of reticence than that passage in the Acts
of the Apostles wherein it is said of Peter, that when delivered by the
angel from prison, he sent a message to James and the brethren, and then
"went out and departed into another place." Here St. Luke, writing in a
time of active persecution, rather more than twenty years after the event
which he was recording, and when Nero had broken out against the Church,
carefully abstains from saying that the place to which St. Peter went was
Rome, and that he went to found the Church there, for such foundation was
the thing above all others which Roman law looked upon with most
suspicion, in its confusion of temporal with spiritual rule. Now we have
to bear in mind, in order to realise the condition of the Church in this
whole period, that all her work of promulgation, her daily administration
of sacraments, her worship, her defence of the truth which she had
received and which she was to guard, were carried on under this state of
compression, a perpetual outlawry in the letter of the law, which might
be put into exercise at the will of a local magistrate or the rising of a
discontented populace, and which on many occasions was actually enforced
by the supreme authority of the emperor. And it is not a little to be
borne in mind what the political condition of the empire then was. The
rights of the citizen, as opposed to the government, were overborne by a
tremendous despotism, which only allowed light and air to its subjects so
far as the science of government had not reached the complete development
of modern times. The Roman emperors were not enabled to wield a secret
police, because such an instrument of servitude had not yet been
invented, nor had they reached an universal military conscription,
because the Roman peace rendered such a sacrifice unnecessary; they had
only the supreme power of life and death in their hands without
restriction. Into the midst of such a despotism the Christian religion
was cast. The seed silently deposited in each city in the episcopal germ
grew with its individual life, which was yet the life of one tree; but
how little was that secret unity of root apparent to the world, at least
in the first half of this time! How truly, indeed, was the prophecy of
the Lord fulfilled: "Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst of
wolves;"[169] and how apposite the warning, "Be ye therefore wise as
serpents, and harmless as doves!"

But as the Episcopate was a tree growing upon one root, so the faith on
which it lived was one sap. Yet to what danger of isolation, especially
in those first times, were small communities of Christians in so many
several cities exposed. The Sees, it is true, were not crystallised
units, but associated in provinces under Metropolitans. Yet their bishops
did not possess the civil liberty of meeting when they chose. Upon the
whole action of the Church there was a perpetual constraint from without.
The two forces which held the Church together were the Episcopate viewed
as one body, and the directing, controlling, regulating authority of St.
Peter's See at its centre. Yet not once in the well-nigh three hundred
years could the Episcopate meet in universal councils, and the action of
the Roman Church, an action which of all others within the bosom of the
Christian society the Roman State would regard with the most jealousy,
could only be exercised with a due respect to that jealousy, and in
conjunction with that large measure of autonomy which the condition of a
compressed and often-persecuted society, sprinkled over a vast number of
provinces, imposed.

One of the most effective means for maintaining unity and overcoming
error was the regular meeting of Councils. In ante-Nicene times these
took place in various provinces of the Church, but did not extend to the
whole Church. The first Western General Council was held at Arles in 314,
and it needed the permission of the Emperor Constantine to take place.
Before the peace of the Church its various provinces stand out in groups,
under the presiding influence of the greater Sees. Thus, Alexandria
unites all the Churches of Egypt and Libya, and the great See of Antioch
serves as a centre for the numerous Sees of the East. Ephesus collects
the churches of Asia Minor, and Carthage those of Africa. A certain local
spirit and certain tendencies of thought would grow up. Perhaps a certain
school of teaching may be said to characterise each of these groups. Even
the natural temperament[170] of the African, the Egyptian, the Asiatic,
and the Oriental character, receiving the one seed of Christian doctrine,
would show itself in their several developments. The correction of such
local tendencies lay in the free and unfettered intercourse and relation
with St. Peter's See; but it was this precisely which the above-noted
circumstances of the times rendered difficult.

For all these reasons we may look upon the period stretching from the Day
of Pentecost to the Nicene Council as one whole, in which the contest
between the faith of the Church and the various forms of emergent or
antagonistic error was carried on under trials which tested to the utmost
her inherent vigour.

We may approach the subject by reflecting that the first condition of
Christians was one of simple faith. The Son of God had come upon earth,
and being found in fashion as a man, had taught, worked miracles,
suffered, died, and risen again. He had thus delivered a divine truth to
His Apostles for communication to the world. It was not the result of
human inquiry, but the working of a new life derived from the Person of
the Incarnate God. A new knowledge formed part of this life, and a new
speculation was thus begun. But the complete thing was the life, that is,
the Church as an institution, with her sacrifice, her sacraments, her
daily discipline, her hierarchy; Jesus Christ dwelling in His people,
perpetuating in that people the life which He had begun on earth.

This life was received by an act of faith. It was based upon authority,
continued by a tradition which carried in its bosom all the things just
enumerated. Such a state is borne witness to in the letters of St. Paul,
St. Peter, and St. John, and again in the letters of St. Ignatius and in
the Epistle to Diognetus. Its force lay in the strength, simplicity, and
earnestness of the faith received as a divine revelation. It is vividly
expressed by St. John in his opening words: "That which was from the
beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which
we have looked upon, and our hands have handled of the Word of life; for
the life was manifested; and we have seen and do bear witness, and
declare unto you the life eternal which was with the Father, and hath
appeared to us: that which we have seen and have heard we declare unto
you, that you also may have fellowship with us, and our fellowship may be
with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ."

The fulness of truth had thus appeared corporally in the Word become
flesh, and by this appearance a new epoch had begun to man,[171] and
henceforth there were only two attitudes of the human spirit possible
towards the truth thus revealed. On the one hand, it might recognise the
revelation as truth given by God, and make it the standard and guiding
principle of speculation. On the other hand, it might use its freedom to
assume an independent standing-point over against this revelation, which
it might subject to its private reason. In the former case revelation
would be primary and reason secondary; in the latter case the position
would be reversed. Reason would take what it liked and reject what it
disliked in revelation. In the former, reason, using the natural powers
of the human mind in subordination to revealed truth, and accepting the
Christian mysteries as data, would proceed by profound meditation upon
them, would connect doctrine with doctrine, and come to the perception of
the harmony contained in the structure of the revelation made in Christ;
to a system, in fine, of speculative theology. In the latter, following
its particular bias, according to the spirit of the time in each period,
it would attempt to subject revelation to itself, to alter some parts, to
discard others, to improve or reject according to its own inward

The one is the principle of orthodoxy, the other that of heresy.

As a matter of fact, we find from the institution of the Christian
Church—that is, the entrance of Christ's Person into the world—a
spiritual war commence, which runs through all the ages, and of which the
time from the Day of Pentecost to the convocation of the Nicene Council
is only the first period. But in that period the combatants are already
well defined, the two standing-points definitely taken up, and the battle
waged even upon the most important of all truth, the existence and the
character of God Himself. The Christian God is carried through three
centuries, and impressed upon the belief of men by the Christian Church;
the philosophic god is set up against Him by those who subjected faith to
reason; and in the collision between the two the pantheon of false gods
is dispersed and shattered, and dissolved in the pure light of the
Christian heaven.

That first condition of the Christian Church, during which it lived on
pure faith—I mean the simple historical transmission of its worship, its
sacraments, its discipline, and its government, as they were
instituted—lasted for several generations; it may be said quite to the
end of the second century. During this whole time the attacks of human
reason acting upon the principle of heresy were incessant, and it was to
defend themselves against these attacks that those who stood entirely
upon the ground of faith and tradition in the first instance gradually
betook themselves to the arms of reason, reflection, and learning
superadded to the faith.

But before passing to any intellectual defence of the faith, it is well
to remark that the only adequate defence against error in doctrine
consisted in the Church's own life diffused amongst its members; that is,
the ordinary teaching office, comprehended in worship, sacraments,
discipline, and government, including therein the dispensing of the
Scriptures, whether of the Old or New Testaments. Wherever error
appeared, this was the power which met it first, met it continuously,
and in the end met it successfully; and part of this teaching office was
the unity of the Episcopate and the uniformity of its teaching, while
error was ever various and changing.

Now let us proceed to the assaults of innovators or one-sided thinkers
upon this institution of the Church and her faith. No sooner was the
Church in action than the attack began. We have a proof of this in the
constant warning against false teachers which occurs in the Apostolic
writings. It would be hard to say whether St. Peter, St. Paul, or St.
John is the stronger in this warning. It shows us that great as the
authority of the Apostles was, and built as the Church was upon their
living word, transmitting the charge of their Lord intrusted to them,
there was full freedom as to the manner in which it would be received. If
Hymeneus and Philetus afflicted St. Paul, "and were delivered by him up
to Satan, that they might learn not to blaspheme;" if their "speech
spread like a cancer;" if St. Peter, using against error words as strong
as any used by his successors in the Papal chair, denounced false
teachers as "fountains without water and clouds tossed with whirlwinds,
to whom the mist of darkness is reserved;" if St. John even wrote his
Gospel against Gnostic errors, and in his first chapter attested the
Godhead of the Eternal Word, with His relation to the Father and His
assumption of human flesh, in the face of their imaginary æons, and their
placing the seat of evil in matter—this is but the first page of the
never-ending conflict between truth and error; between "the men of good
will" on the one hand, and "the children of malediction" on the other,
"who left the right way and went astray."[172]

We possess very few written remnants of the time immediately succeeding
the Apostles. The writers are St. Clement of Rome, St. Barnabas, Hermas,
St. Ignatius of Antioch, St. Polycarp, Papias, and the writer of the
letter to Diognetus. With the exception of the "Pastor," these are all in
the form of letters, conveying strong feelings expressed in few words,
short and touching exhortations, simple narratives of joys and sorrows.
These first Christians were anything but literary; they were only
conscious of possessing a divine truth which had incomparable value above
all earthly things. Nevertheless it deserves to be remarked, that short
as these writings are, we have in them the first outlines of all future
learned teaching.[173] In the letter to Diognetus we have a sketch of the
course which Christian apology against heathens afterwards took; in the
letters of St. Ignatius, the first features of the Church's defence
against heretics; in the letter of Barnabas, an approach to speculative
theology; in the "Pastor," the first attempt at a Christian science of
morals; in the letter of Pope St. Clement, the first development of the
government which afterwards produced the Canon Law; and in the Acts of
St. Ignatius' martyrdom, the earliest historical production. In these, as
it were, infantine movements of His first disciples, the Divine Child was
manifesting the future conquests which He would achieve in leading His
people through the whole range of the divine science.

In the second century the Church vastly increased in the number of her
faithful and in her influence; at the same time she was exposed to much
severer attacks from within and without. Through the whole century the
false Gnosis afflicted her. The Greek and the Oriental philosophy had
fully detected the presence of a great enemy, and fought against her with
all the arms of learning, the brilliance of Eastern imagination, the fire
of religious zeal. It is said that in the first fifteen hundred years no
sect has pushed the Church more hardly than Gnosticism, which through the
brilliant talent of its leaders in Alexandria, Antioch, Edessa, and other
great cities gained many adherents. The attacks from the heathen and the
defacements which Christian doctrine received through heretics formed
thus the strongest challenge to Christians to defend themselves with the
arms of learning and science on their own side.

There were great difficulties in the way. The mass of Christians was
still drawn from the lower ranks, and was accordingly unlettered. All,
too, that were of higher rank had no other than the heathen schools to
frequent, and were thus in great danger themselves from the force of
heathen culture. A remarkable result ensued: for, one after another,
champions of the Christian cause arose from among the heathen themselves
who were converted to the Christian faith. Justin, we are told, sought
for truth about the being of God and the soul's immortality in the
schools of the Greek philosophy. He tried successively the Stoic, the
Peripatetic, the Pythagorean, and the Platonic, and thought that he had
found truth in the last; when, in the midst of these dreams, walking out
one day in a lonely place by the sea-shore, he met with an old man with
whom he entered into conversation. This man, pointing out the futility of
his past search, directed him to the Christian teaching. Justin says that
he felt a fire in his heart kindled by the old man's words; he followed
his advice, and found here what he had in vain sought elsewhere—the only
true philosophy. He became a Christian in middle age, dedicated his life
to propagate the faith which he had embraced, and died a martyr for it.

His pupil, Tatian, seems to repeat this history. An Assyrian by birth, he
was instructed in all branches of Grecian literature, and had tried every
shade of the old heathen wisdom. But the corruption of the heathen world
inspired him with abhorrence; he was converted by Justin, and found in
the Christian doctrine the ideal which he sought. Yet afterwards certain
rigorous views led him into error, and he became the head of a Gnostic

Athenagoras of Athens supplies us with another like conversion. He was an
adept in the Greek, especially the Platonic philosophy, and was devoted
to heathendom. With the intention of writing against Christians he
studied the Holy Scriptures, and in doing so was converted. He has left
us two brilliant writings, one an apology in defence of Christians,
addressed to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and another setting forth the
doctrine of the resurrection with admirable skill.

Theophilus of Antioch continues the list of converts. The study of the
Holy Scripture led him to become a Christian, and he afterwards rose to
the great See of Antioch, and has left learned writings in defence of the

More brilliant than all these, the first as well as the greatest Latin
writer in the West of the whole ante-nicene period, Tertullian, born of
heathen parents, studied philosophy and literature, was converted about
the age of thirty, became a priest, and dedicated himself by word and
writing to the defence of the faith. Every subsequent age has admired the
force of his reason. It amounted to genius, yet a rigoristic spirit led
him to fall off to a sect.

Pantænus, who became head of the catechetical school at Alexandria about
180, had been a Stoic. His conversion repeats that of Justin. A man of
the highest renown for his Grecian learning, he became equally
distinguished as a Christian. He devoted himself to preaching. He was
also noted as the first who not only commented by word of mouth on the
Sacred Scriptures, but wrote his commentaries against Gnostic
commentators of the day. For it is remarkable that, in their zeal to get
the Scriptures on their side, the Gnostics had preceded the Christians in
the explanation of Scripture, which they treated with the utmost latitude
of private judgment.

Still more distinguished was Clemens, the pupil as well as the successor
of Pantænus. Born about the middle of the second century at Alexandria or
Athens, and endowed with great ability, he searched all the systems of
Greek philosophy. He was full of learning when grace made him a
Christian, and from that time he devoted all his powers to deepen his
knowledge of the Christian faith, and to convey that knowledge to others,
by drawing out a true Gnosis against the false, a main seat of which was
at Alexandria, over the school of which he presided.

I have taken the seven great converts, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras,
Theophilus, Tertullian, Pantænus, Clemens, who all became apologists of
the Church after their conversion, as specimens of the power which she
exercised in the second century of drawing the higher spirits among the
heathen into her fold. That power did not diminish but increase in the
third century. It exerted itself with great effect through the
establishment in the course of the second century of a system of learned
instruction in the great catechetical schools. The chief of these was at
Alexandria; for where the munificence of the Ptolemies had planted and
richly endowed a seat of Greek learning, science, and philosophy, which
had been enlarged by Tiberius, so that youth thronged to it from all
parts of the Roman Empire, now the Christian Church, which probably from
its beginning had there the usual school for instruction of catechumens,
by degrees enlarged the instruction given in that school, and introduced
learned lectures upon the Christian faith. Before long a complete learned
education, all that we mean by an university, was set up. The object was
not only to instruct Christian youths, but likewise to attract cultured
heathen, especially the young, to prepare them gradually, and gain them
to the Christian faith. Explanation of the Sacred Scriptures formed the
chief point, but likewise grammar, rhetoric, geometry, and philosophy
were studied. The exact point of time when all this took effect cannot be
assigned; it is probable that it took time to perfect the system.
Athenagoras is the first named president, who was followed from the year
170 to 312 by Pantænus, Clemens, Origen, Heraclas, Dionysius, Pierius,
Theognostus, Serapion, Peter the Martyr. Each of these had fellow-workers
under him, who increased in number as time went on. A crowd of learned
men, bishops, saints, and martyrs, came out of this school. The envy and
hatred of the heathens were so incited by it, that they often surrounded
the house with soldiers, seized upon students, and led them away to
execution. The renown of the school was so great in the middle of the
third century, that Anatolius, a pupil of it, was sought by the heathen
themselves to succeed Aristoteles in the headship of the Alexandrian

Another school of the like kind was set up by Origen at Cæsarea in
Palestine, and became famous. Rome also possessed a learned school,
founded by Justin, concerning which, however, we know very little.[174]
Edessa and Antioch possessed the like. It is apparent how important such
schools must have been for the formation of a learned clergy. The more
the Christian Church increased, and spread to all ranks of society, the
more need there became for learning in its defenders.

But great as was the renown won by these schools, and important as were
the services rendered by them to the Christian Church in the advance of
learning, in building up that progress from faith to knowledge—that
growth of knowledge founded upon faith which marks the whole ante-nicene
period—nevertheless the development of the sacred science was connected
not so much with a regular course of teaching in the schools as with the
vehement struggle for life which the Church was then waging on the one
hand against Judaism and heathendom, on the other hand against the great
heresies which successively attacked all the main truths of religion and
the chief mysteries of Christianity.[175] Also, it must ever be
remembered that the gift of infallible teaching, derived from the
assistance of the Holy Spirit, is lodged, not in science, even not in
theological science, but in the magisterium of the Church.[176] The most
accomplished defence during all this period of the Church against the
attacks of heathenism is, by common consent, allotted to the work of
Origen in reply to Celsus. There is also a like consent that the same
author's work upon Principles is the first attempt at systematic
theology; but with all its ability, learning, and acuteness, it is not
free from great errors. The one is a pure success, the other shows that
the contact with Platonic philosophy had led the author in certain points
astray. Again, all his genius and all his zeal did not save Tertullian
from falling into Montanism, nor from discharging upon the chief ruler of
the Church the sarcasm which he had so often employed against its
enemies. In inquiring closely into the belief of some of those whose
conversion from heathenism I have above instanced, an illustrious writer
says: "It must be considered that the authors whom I have above cited
whatever be the authority of some of them, cannot be said to speak _ex
cathedra_, even if they had the right to do so, and do not speak as a
Council may speak. When a certain number of men meet together, one of
them corrects another, and what is personal and peculiar in each, what is
local or belongs to schools, is eliminated."[177]

But if, as seems to be fully admitted, theology was not treated as an
organic body of doctrine up to the Nicene Council, and even much beyond
it, and yet, if in this period the Church maintained, as she did
maintain, her faith against three great foes, the Jews, the many-sided
influence of the Gentile world arrayed with all its powers against her,
and the manifold attacks of false doctrines rising from within in the
shape of heresies, or in the shape of antichristian systems which
simulated Christianity, how was her work accomplished?

I proceed to give as definite an answer as I can to this question.

I have traced above the transmission of spiritual power from the Person
of Christ to the College of Apostles presided over by St. Peter, and the
planting of bishops throughout the world by the Apostles as a further
transmission of that power. The episcopate so appointed formed,
instructed, taught, and governed the Christian people, one and identical
in itself. This people, with the hierarchy which governed it, the
sacraments which contained and dispensed its inward life, most of all the
sacrifice wherein was the Lord Himself, made a polity; and the Christian
doctrine was, so to say, to that polity what blood is to the body. From
the beginning, then, the office of teaching was lodged in those who
governed; they conserved, handed down from age to age, all that which
constituted the polity, of which doctrine was the life-blood.

Now, I will take as an exponent of this whole belief one who came forth
into active life just at the time of the Nicene Council, and whose name
has been ever since identified with the defence of that especial doctrine
upon which the whole fabric of the Christian faith rested, namely, the
Godhead of Christ. St. Athanasius may well stand as the representative of
those principles in virtue of which the Church maintained her faith when
she could not meet freely in council, when her theology was contained in
the form of simple faith rather than drawn out as an organic structure,
when her bishops everywhere had to meet the brunt of persecution, when
the action of her central and presiding Bishop was hampered by the
perpetual jealousy of a hostile government; when, for all these reasons,
the unity and impact of the whole body, as one people, were exposed to a
severer strain than at any other period.

I take this account of the mind of St. Athanasius from one who has
studied his writings with peculiar care, not to say with the affection of
a kindred spirit:—

"This renowned Father is in ecclesiastical history the special doctor of
the sacred truth which Arius denied, bringing it out into shape and
system so fully and luminously, that he may be said to have exhausted his
subject, as far as it lies open to the human intellect. But, besides
this, writing as a controversialist, not primarily as a priest and
teacher, he accompanies his exposition of doctrine with manifestations of
character which are of great interest and value.

"The fundamental idea with which he starts in the controversy is a deep
sense of the authority of tradition, which he considers to have a
definitive jurisdiction even in the interpretation of Scripture, though
at the same time he seems to consider that Scripture, thus interpreted,
is a document of final appeal in inquiry and in disputation. Hence, in
his view of religion, is the magnitude of the evil which he is combating,
and which exists prior to that extreme aggravation of it (about which no
Catholic can doubt) involved in the characteristic tenet of Arianism
itself. According to him, opposition to the witness of the Church,
separation from its communion, private judgment overbearing the
authorised catechetical teaching, the fact of a denomination, as men now
speak,—this is a self-condemnation; and the heretical tenet, whatever it
may happen to be, which is its formal life, is a spiritual poison and
nothing else, the sowing of the evil one upon the good seed, in whatever
age and place it is found; and he applies to all separatists the
Apostle's words, 'They went out from us, for they were not of us,'
Accordingly, speaking of one Rhetorius, an Egyptian, who, as St. Austin
tells us, taught that 'all heresies were in the right path and spoke
truth,' he says that the impiety of such doctrine is frightful to

"This is the explanation of the fierceness of his language when speaking
of the Arians; they were simply, as Elymas, 'full of all guile and of all
deceit, children of the devil, enemies of all justice,' θεομάχοι—by court
influence, by violent persecution, by sophistry, seducing, unsettling,
perverting the people of God.

"Athanasius considers Scripture sufficient for the proof of such
fundamental doctrines as came into controversy during the Arian troubles;
but while in consequence he ever appeals to Scripture (and, indeed, has
scarcely any other authoritative document to quote), he ever speaks
against interpreting it by a private rule instead of adhering to
ecclesiastical tradition. Tradition is with him of supreme authority,
including therein catechetical instruction, the teaching of the _schola_,
ecumenical belief, the φρόνημα of Catholics, the ecclesiastical scope,
the analogy of faith, &c.

"In interpreting Scripture, Athanasius always assumes that the Catholic
teaching is true, and the Scripture must be explained by it. The great
and essential difference between Catholics and non-Catholics was, that
Catholics interpreted Scripture by tradition, and non-Catholics by their
own private judgment. That not only Arians, but heretics generally,
professed to be guided by Scripture, we know from many witnesses.

"What is strange to ears accustomed to Protestant modes of arguing, St.
Athanasius does not simply expound Scripture, rather he vindicates it
from the imputation of its teaching any but true doctrine. It is ever
ὀρθός, he says, that is, orthodox; I mean, he takes it for granted that a
tradition exists as a standard, with which Scripture must, and with which
it doubtless does agree, and of which it is the written confirmation and

"The recognition of this rule of faith is the basis of St. Athanasius's
method of arguing against Arianism. It is not his aim ordinarily to
_prove_ doctrine by Scripture, nor does he appeal to the private judgment
of the individual Christian in order to determine what Scripture means;
but he assumes that there is a tradition substantive, independent, and
authoritative, such as to supply for us the true sense of Scripture in
doctrinal matters—a tradition carried on from generation to generation by
the practice of catechising, and by the other ministrations of Holy
Church. He does not care to contend that no other meaning of certain
passages of Scripture besides this traditional Catholic sense is possible
or is plausible, whether true or not, but simply that any sense
inconsistent with the Catholic is untrue—untrue because the traditional
sense is apostolic and decisive. What he was instructed in at school and
in church, the voice of the Christian people, the analogy of faith, the
ecclesiastical φρόνημα, the writings of saints,—these are enough for him.
He is in no sense an inquirer, nor a mere disputant; he has received and
he transmits. Such is his position, though the expressions and turn of
sentences which indicate it are so delicate and indirect, and so
scattered about his pages, that it is difficult to collect them and to
analyse what they imply.

"The two phrases by which Athanasius denotes private judgment on
religious matters, and his estimate of it, are 'their own views' and
'what they preferred;' as, for instance, 'laying down their private
impiety as some sort of rule, they wrest all the divine oracles into
accordance with it,' and 'they make the language of Scripture their
pretence, but instead of the true sense, sowing upon it the private
poison of their heresy,' and 'he who speaketh of his own speaketh a lie.'
This is a common phrase with Athanasius, 'as he chose,' 'what they
chose,' 'when they choose,' 'whom they chose;' the proceedings of the
heretics being self-willed from first to last.

"Revealed truth, to be what it professes, must have an uninterrupted
descent from the Apostles; its teachers must be unanimous, and persistent
in their unanimity; and it must bear no human master's name as its
designation. On the other hand, first novelty, next discordance,
vacillation, change, thirdly, sectarianism, are consequences and tokens
of religious error. These tests stand to reason, for what is over and
above nature must come from divine revelation; and if so, it must descend
from the very date when it was revealed, else it is but matter of
opinion, and opinions vary, and have no warrant of permanence, but depend
upon the relative ability and success of individual teachers, one with
another, from whom they take their names. The Fathers abound in passages
which illustrate these three tests.

"From the first the Church had the power, by its divinely appointed
representatives, to declare the truth upon such matters in the revealed
message or gospel tidings as from time to time came into controversy; for
unless it had this power, how could it be 'the pillar and ground of the
truth;' and these representatives, of course, were the rulers of the
Christian people, who received as a legacy the depositum of doctrine from
the Apostles, and by means of it, as need arose, exercised their office
of teaching. Each bishop was in his own place the Doctor Ecclesiæ for his
people; there was an appeal, of course, from his decision to higher
courts, to the bishops of a province, of a nation, of a patriarchate, to
the Roman Church, to the Holy See, as the case might be; and thus at
length a final determination was arrived at, which in consequence was the
formal teaching of the Church, and, as far as it was direct and
categorical, was from the reason of the case the word of God. And being
such, was certain, irreversible, obligatory on the inward belief and
reception of all subjects of the Church, or what is called _de fide_.

"All this could not be otherwise if Christianity was to teach divine
truth in contrast to the vague opinions and unstable conjectures of human
philosophers and moralists, and if as a plain consequence it must have
authoritative organs of teaching, and if true doctrines never can be
false, but what is once true is always true. What the Church proclaims as
true never can be put aside or altered, and therefore such truths are
called _definitions_, as being boundaries or landmarks."

From all the above "it would appear that the two main sources of
revelation are Scripture and Tradition, that these constitute one Rule of
Faith, and that sometimes as a composite rule, sometimes as a double and
co-ordinate, sometimes as an alternative, under the _magisterium_, of
course, of the Church, and without an appeal to the private judgment of

Now I conceive that the picture thus drawn from the writings and the
practice of Athanasius gives us, in fact, a palpable embodiment of that
spiritual power by which the Church defended and carried on her faith
from the Day of Pentecost to the Nicene Council; for the principles and
practice of Athanasius were the principles and practice of the whole
Church, and nothing short of the continuous action of the Holy Spirit
could have created and maintained a polity whose subjects were instinct
with such a loyalty of mind, heart, and action. It was not a gift of
learning; it was not philosophic power of thought; it was not the
scientific labour of theology, as in after medieval times, arranging in a
luminous system the results of the Church's doctrine through ages of
spiritual warfare and trials of every kind. It is true that in all this
period, as well as in the succeeding four hundred years, the armour of
theology was wrought out bit by bit through the blows of heresy, and not
before St. John of Damascus did any one work the separate pieces into a
panoply. The great mind and nobler heart of Origen even failed in the
attempt. But from the beginning the Church moved on, filled with a divine
consciousness that it was the Body of Christ, carrying the truth in its
bosom. Each bishop, each father, each writer, and in a far higher degree
the Councils, were conscious of this; but most of all in the Apostolic
See, the centre of the whole body, was such a conviction living and
active, and exhibited in all the various functions of spiritual rule.

It is not possible from existing documents to form a continuous and
detailed history of the ante-nicene Church. Thus, if any will not accept
the Church at the Nicene Council as an evidence of what the Church was in
preceding times as to its constitution, principles of action, and faith,
it is possible, through the mere absence of written proof, to make
denials of those very things without which the Nicene Council could never
have come together. The spirit of negation luxuriates in that absence of
documents which more than anything else the state of persecution caused.
On the other hand, to the eyes of faith the grain of mustard seed planted
by our Lord on Calvary is become, at the end of three hundred years, a
tree which covers the Roman world, and gives its fruits for the healing
of the nations.

The writer just quoted says elsewhere, in treating the point how far an
accurate presentation of the doctrine respecting the Holy Trinity is
found in the apologists of those times, that "it is a great misfortune to
us that we have not had preserved to us the dogmatic utterances of the
ante-nicene Popes."[179] But I would draw attention to a remarkable proof
actually existing of the completeness with which the hierarchic principle
had worked itself out in the days of persecution. This testimony is the
more valuable because it belongs to the very first year of the Church's
freedom, the year 314. In that year, at the instance of the Emperor
Constantine, the Council of Arles was convoked as a representative
Council of all the West. Up to this time the Council of Antioch, which
deposed Paul of Samosata, had been the most important and general. That
of Arles was in a much greater degree a Council in which the bishops who
sat represented their respective provinces, as, for instance, from the
remote Britain the bishops of York and London and another British See
were present.

The Council of Arles then addresses in these terms Pope Sylvester:—"We
who, by the desire of the most religious Emperor, have been assembled in
the city of Arles, bound together by the common bond of charity and the
unity of the Church our Mother, salute you, most glorious Pope, with the
befitting reverence. We have endured here men grievous and pernicious to
our law and tradition, men of unbridled mind. Both the present authority
of our God, and the tradition and rule of the truth have rejected them,
for there was in them no reasonable ground for pleading, no limit or
proof for their accusations. Therefore, by the judgment of God and our
Mother the Church, who knows and approves her own, they have either been
condemned or repudiated; and would, most beloved brother, that you could
have been present at so great a spectacle; we believe, indeed, that our
sentence would then have been more severe, and had your judgment been
united with ours, our assembly would have rejoiced with a greater joy.
But you were not able to leave that place in which the Apostles daily
sit, and their blood without intermission testifies the glory of God."
Then sending to him the subjects of their decrees, they preface them with
the words, "It was our pleasure that knowledge of this should be
communicated to all by you who hold the greater dioceses. What we have
decreed by common counsel we signify to your charity, that all may know
what in future they are bound to observe. And, first, as to the
observation of the Lord's Pasch, that it may be kept on one day and at
one time through the whole world, and that according to custom you direct
letters to all to this effect."

But the Emperor, neither a Christian nor a catechumen for many long years
to come, writes to the Fathers of the Council: "They (the Donatists) ask
for my judgment, who am myself awaiting the judgment of Christ. For I
say, as the truth is, the judgment of bishops ought to be considered as
if the Lord Himself were present and judging. For these may have no other
mind and no other judgment but what they have been taught by the
teaching of Christ.[180] What, then, do those malignant men want,
instruments, us I truly call them, of the devil? They desert heavenly in
their search for earthly things. Oh, the rabid audacity of maniacs! they
interpose an appeal, as is customary in secular matters."[181]

The Council recognised the authority of the Apostles Peter and Paul
ruling for ever in the See of Rome, as the Pope at the present day
attests in solemn documents that same rule when he uses the words, "By
the authority of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul," adding to them,
"and by our own;" and the Emperor clearly understands the distinction
between secular and ecclesiastical judgments. In the former he knows
himself to be the judge of ultimate appeal. In the latter he recognises
the bishops as holding the magisterium of Christ Himself, and that their
judgments are His, as if He were present among them. What stronger
attestation of the Church's freedom in her ecclesiastical and dogmatic
judgments from the State's control could be given than this spontaneous
declaration by the head of the Roman empire? And it is to be noted that
he places the ground of that freedom and the force of its authority in
the magisterium of Christ transmitted to the rulers of the Church.

How did the successor of Nero, Domitian, Trajan, and Decius come to this
knowledge? That is a subject which requires special consideration.


[145] Corpus Christianorum: τὸ ἔθνος Χριστιανὸν.

[146] παρέδοσαν, in which is signified that the whole was a παράδοσις,
_traditio_, delivery. On the two meanings of the word _tradition_, the
one the unwritten word of God, the other the whole doctrine of salvation
as handed down by the Fathers, see Kleutgen's Theologie der Vorzeit, tom.
i. p. 73, and v. p. 405.

[147] ὑπήρεται τοῦ λόγου.

[148] Origen was followed by his pupil Heraclas; then the great
Dionysius, afterwards bishop; Pierius, Achillas, Theognostus, Serapion,
Peter the Martyr (Reischl in Möhler, i. 377).

[149] τέλειοι; ἀκροώμενοι, or _audientes_; γονυκλίνοντες or εὐχόμενοι;
_competentes_, _electi_, or φωτιζόμενοι. Bingham, Antiq., B. x.; Suicer,
Thes. in verb. κατηχέω.

[150] Newman's Arians, pp. 45, 46.

[151] See upon this use of the Creed, Möhler, Kirchengeschichte, i.

[152] Sermon 212.

[153] On this subject see Newman's Arians, pp. 137-142.

[154] As St. Irenæus says, 3, 24, and Origen, Contr. Celsus, 6, 48.

[155] See Kleutgen's Theologie der Vorzeit, v. 404-409.

[156] Ibid., pp. 395-404.

[157] For which see Franzelin, De Traditione, pp. 228-237.

[158] Baur observes, p. 432: "Erst die Regierung Nero's führte auf ihrer
würdigen Weise die Christen in die Geschichte ein."

[159] Tertullian, Apol. 21.

[160] Matt. xxiii. 34-36.

[161] Joseph. Antiq., viii. 8; Tacitus, Hist. i. 22.

[162] Baur remarks, p. 433: "Die neronische Verfolgung war der erste
Anfang alles dessen, was das Christenthum von dem römischen Staat, so
lange er keine andere Ansicht von ihm hatte, bei jeder Gelegenheit auf's
Neue erwarten musste."

[163] μαρτυρήσας ἐπὶ τῶν ἡγουμένων.—St. Clem. 5.

[164] 2 Cor. xi. 24.

[165] Tertullian, Ad Nationes, 14, translation in Clarke's edition.

[166] Acts xxi. 20.

[167] See Schwane, Dogmengeschichte, i. 68.

[168] Tertull. Apol., 5.

[169] Matt. x. 16.

[170] See this learnedly brought out by Hagemann in his introduction to
"Die römische Kirche."

[171] See Stöckl, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, p. 244.

[172] 2 Peter ii. 14.

[173] Möhler, Patrologie, p. 51.

[174] See Möhler, Patrologie, p. 423.

[175] Heinrich, Dogmatische Theologie, i. 71.

[176] Ibid., i. 70.

[177] Newman, Causes of Success of Arianism, pp. 215, 216.

[178] Newman, Notes on St. Athanasius, pp. 51, 261, 264, 452, 250, 247,
150, 82, 312.

[179] Newman, "Causes of the Rise and Successes of Arianism," p. 252, a
treatise which I have found a storehouse of information respecting the
Church of the first three centuries.

[180] Magisterio.

[181] Mansi, tom. ii. pp. 469-477.



_The Church's Battle for Independence over against the Roman Empire._

In the period before Christ, the two Powers, as well in every polity over
the earth as in the vast conglomerate called the Roman Empire, beginning
together, grew up in fast alliance. Such a thing as the Civil Power in
any particular polity putting under ban and persecuting the religion of
its people was unknown. In the Roman city, as originally constituted, the
union with religion, as an everyday work of life, was especially intimate
and strong. It subsisted no less when Rome ruled from Newcastle to
Babylon; for under the supremacy of the Emperor as Pontifex Maximus all
the various nations were allowed the free exercise of their ancestral
rites. Such was the state of the relation between the two Powers at the
Day of Pentecost; such it had been from the first creation of human
society. A foreign conqueror might, it is true, persecute the gods and
the priests of a nation which he conquered, as Cambyses, when, with the
zeal of a Persian worshipper of the single Sun-god, he burst upon the
gods of Egypt; but this state of things usually passed away, when
conquest became settled into possession; and in the Roman Peace each
country and city was in stable possession of its gods, its rites, its
temples, and among the rest the Jew might everywhere have his synagogue
for his own people and worship God.

Close and permanent as the alliance between the two powers of civil
government and religious worship, founded in the original constitution of
human things, had been up to the time of Christ, yet in the minds of the
people the two functions of civil government and of worship had ever been
distinct. It is true that in matter of practice the ever growing moral
corruption of Gentilism had tended to subordinate worship to government,
the priest to the ruler. Nevertheless, though the Emperor was Imperator
to his army, the possessor of tribunitial and consular power in the
State, and likewise Pontifex Maximus in religion, such a concentration of
distinct powers in his single person did not efface in the minds of the
many peoples subjected to his sway the distinction itself of the powers
wielded by him. A vast number of various priesthoods subsisted in the
different countries untouched and unmeddled with by him. He was, in fact,
by virtue of his religious pontificate, annexed to his civil principate,
the conservator of all these rites, religious customs, and priesthoods.
The meddling with them was a violation of his pontificate. Anubis in
Egypt, Astarte in Syria, Cybele in Phrygia, Minerva at Athens, no less
than Jupiter on the capitol, found their defender and guardian on the
Palatine Mount, while Augustus did not disdain to have a daily sacrifice
offered for him in the temple at Jerusalem, for the Jewish worship was
part of the Roman constitution. He was patron as well as suppliant.

Thus at the time the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles on the Day of
Pentecost there was strict alliance in all the provinces of the
world-empire between secular rule and religious worship; an alliance in
which worship was, it is true, subordinate to secular rule, but fostered
and guarded by it. The eye of a Trajan would, no doubt, discern a common
element in all the religions of which he was the official guardian, and
it was even for the security of the immortal gods at Rome that Anubis
should bark in Egypt, though he would not be allowed with impunity to
deceive the matrons of Rome,[182] and that Astarte, under the public
authority, should have trains of female priestesses in Syria. The fixed
idea of the Roman Emperors might be said to have been to keep these
party-coloured provinces, with their ancestral gods and rites, in due and
legitimate enjoyment of their own property, without encroaching on that
of their neighbours. And Marcus Aurelius was not deterred by his
philosophic pantheism from offering multitudes of white oxen for the
success of the Roman arms, but he sanctioned the perpetration of the most
fearful tortures upon Christian confessors in the arena of Lyons, and
imputed their patience of death to a sort of Galilean obstinacy. Why did
he, who sacrificed to Jupiter, while he was an outspoken Positivist,
persecute belief in Christ?

Let us endeavour to give a distinct and adequate answer to this question.

The subsisting alliance between civil authority and religious worship,
which existed in the Roman world, whatever the particular gods
worshipped, and rites and customs practised in the various countries
composing it might be, was interrupted and snapped asunder by the
proclamation of the Gospel as an universal religion. It is true that in
the first twelve years, while the Apostles addressed themselves to the
Jewish people, wherever they might be, inviting them to accept Jesus as
the Christ, the liberty to do this, within the various synagogues, might
be covered by the liberty accorded to the Jewish race everywhere on Roman
soil to practise their own religion as a thing handed down to them from
their ancestors. So long as it was a question of Jewish law—in the words
of the Roman proprætor, the brother of Seneca, at Corinth—the protection
of an undoubtedly sanctioned religion, to use the phrase of Tertullian,
would veil from censure the action of the Apostles; but as soon as, and
in proportion as the kingdom of Christ came forth to the Gentiles as an
universal religion—so soon as Christ was declared to them to be the Son
of God, the Saviour of the world—so soon as men were distinguished as
Christians, as they were already at Antioch, that is, recognised to be
not a Jewish sect, but the adherents of a substantive religion with
distinct belief, which was repudiated by the mass of Jews, a religion of
universal import, which was founded on the Person of a Redeemer, the
God-man who had come into the world, lived as a man, died, and risen
again, and who called upon all men to be His followers, whether Jews or
Gentiles, it became evident that the toleration, nay more, the support
and guarantee for all religions which were subsisting equally for the
various peoples of the Roman Empire, did not apply to the followers of
the new religion. St. Paul, for instance, as a ringleader of the Galilean
sect, was punishable and was punished by the Jewish Sanhedrim, as
infringing what they considered the orthodox Jewish belief, and this
conduct of the Jewish authority, everywhere pursued towards the
Christians, drew upon them the attention of the Roman magistrates. The
culmination of this conduct and policy was seen as to its result in the
persecution set on foot by Nero, under Jewish instigation, and the act of
Nero seems to have had the permanent effect of establishing the
illicitness of the Christian faith, in the sight of Roman law. The
destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, as the seat of Jewish worship,
completely established the severance of the Christian people from the
Jews, and gave them religious independence with all its honour and all
its perils.

For what was their position towards that universal heathendom which
surrounded them on all sides?

Take the three great constituents of belief, of worship, and of
government, which we been have considering in their several departments,
in their relations with each other, and in their co-inherence.

Heathendom, under the sway of Tiberius, lay stretched out over the vast
regions of the empire in numberless varieties of costume which covered an
identity of substance. The dark mysterious forms of Egyptian gods, the
gods of Greece arrayed in human shapes of consummate loveliness, the
voluptuous rites of Syrian goddesses, the sober and homely deities of
ancient Rome vested somewhat awkwardly in the robes of their Grecian
congeners, the local deities, mountain oreads and river naiads, which had
their seat in every city and district of civilised or semi-barbarous
provinces, the representatives of oriental traditions, philosophies, and
religions,—all these had part in a worship offered by some or other
subjects of Rome. And now went forth from city to city preachers who
proclaimed to all who would hear them that there was one God alone who
had made out of nothing, by an act of the purest free-will, the heavens
and the earth, and that He made also of one blood the human inhabitants
of this earth. And they declared that this one God was not only the
Creator of all matter and of all spirit, of all men in all nations, but
that in order to redeem them from a terrible slavery into which they had
fallen, He had sent His own Son, one in nature with Himself, in human
form among them, to die the death of a malefactor upon the cross, which
was the legal punishment of the slave in the Roman law for capital
crimes; nor only to die, but by rising again in the same body in which He
had died, to attest the truth of His mission, and to gather all men
together, the freeman and the slave, the Roman conqueror and the most
abject of his serfs, in one religious community. Thus the same one God
who was Creator, was proclaimed to be Redeemer. And, further, the name of
this God, communicated in the very rite which admitted into membership
with the religion, disclosed a third Divine Person, whose work was
pre-eminently a work belonging to the one God alone, for it was to
sanctify, by His presence in their hearts, all its members.

Thus these preachers proclaimed, as the basis of all they taught to their
hearers, belief in a God who was One[183] and who was Three; who was
single and alone, but outside the conception of number, and who was at
once Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier altogether.

And they proclaimed this to peoples who had every conceivable variety of
gods, male and female, to whom various functions, down to the lowest
employments in the service of mankind, were assigned, according to the
caprice or the inherited traditions of their worshippers.

What was the position of these preachers towards the various deities and
their worshippers who occupied the Roman empire? It is obvious that it
was one of an absolute uncompromising hostility. And it is plain that, on
the other side, all who did not closely and impartially examine their
doctrine, would count them to be "godless," and treat them accordingly.

This, the barest outline of the primary and fundamental belief as to the
all-important being of God, on which all further development of teaching
rested, is sufficient to exhibit the intense opposition between
Christianity and that which it was attempting to displace in the matter
of belief.

But belief becomes concrete and actual in worship. What was the worship
offered by the nations of the Roman empire to their various gods? From
end to end this vast region was covered with magnificent temples, rich
with the offerings of successive generations, wherein day by day and
often many times a day sacrifices of living animals were offered by
priests appointed to that end. I only refer here to this rite of
sacrifice, because I have dwelt sufficiently upon it in a former place.
The varieties of the worship accompanying it were great, but the
substance of the rite identical; the number and names and offices of the
deities to whom it was offered were bewildering.[184] The customs and
traditions which encircled these various temples and the rites offered in
them struck their roots into the family, the social, and the political
life of the various peoples among which they stood.

What, as over against this "palpable array of sense," was the Christian
worship which the new teachers brought with them?

It was withdrawn into the innermost recess of the Christian society
itself. For many generations they had not public churches, but were
reduced to meet in secret. And those who shared the Christian membership
received, in assemblies held in the silence of the early morning, under
cover of some private house, a victim which they adored as the very Body
and Blood of the God who for their sakes had become incarnate, for their
sakes also had suffered His Body to be broken, and His Blood poured out.
Instead of the sacrifices of slain animals, whose blood was sprinkled
upon the worshippers, the Christian received the Immaculate Lamb of God,
offered upon a mystical altar, in commemoration of that one Sacrifice by
virtue of which he was a Christian.

If the contrast in belief between the one Christian God and the many gods
of heathendom was great, the contrast between heathen sacrifices and the
one Christian Sacrifice was at least as great—perhaps the more wonderful
in this, that while natural reason fought in every human breast for the
doctrine of the Divine Unity, no reason nor thought of man could ever
have imagined a Sacrifice at once so tremendous and so gracious as that
which the Christian worshipped, wherein the Victim which received his
homage contained and imparted his life.

But if the doctrine of the Divine Unity destroyed the heathen gods, and
so rendered its adherents liable to be called "godless" by their
worshippers, no less did the doctrine of the Christian Sacrifice, which
abolished at a stroke the whole worship of heathendom, create the keenest
antagonism; they who were without gods were said to be without altars;
they who never presented themselves at the heathen sacrifices were
accounted as outcasts and sacrilegious men who renounced all piety.

Yet complete and thorough as the antagonism drawn forth in these two
great points of belief and worship, perhaps the third constituent element
of the Christian society, its government, was even more calculated to
awaken the jealousy and excite the resentment, if not of the various
peoples which composed the empire, at least of the Roman rulers.

The priests who ministered in the multitudinous temples to the various
deities of the Roman world, were as various as the objects of their
worship. No common hierarchy held together the priests of Egyptian,
Asiatic, Hellenic, Roman gods, and all the intermediate gradations. But
far more than this, there was an absence of hierarchy in the particular
or national gods of each several country; the priest of Jupiter had
nothing to do with the priest of Apollo, the priest of Juno, and the
rest. The conception of many gods had introduced unnumbered weaknesses,
anomalies, and incongruities into the arrangements of their ministers.
When that which was worshipped was divided, the ministers of the several
parts became rivals, with this grand result, as it affected the civil
power, that it stood in one great mass of solid unity over against
different religions, varying in their objects, crossing each other,
contradicting each other. Thus it was that the original independence of
divine worship had been lost; no one of these various priesthoods could
maintain any real opposition to the civil ruler; no one of them
presented any body of concordant doctrine which man's mind could
approve, or his heart accept. That which ought to be most sacred among
men was by internal contradictions become weak and contemptible.

How, on the other hand, stood the case of the Christian society as to

And here as for a long time the Christian altar lay concealed from the
sight of the heathen, and they knew not Him who was offered on it, so for
a long time the Christian ruler was withdrawn from recognition. They did
not even surmise that which grew up gradually and silently in the midst
of them: the establishment, that is, of a _new_ spiritual power, of _one_
power for all nations, of a spiritual governor in every city, a member of
this one power. It may safely be said that while Trajan did not apprehend
the existence of any such power in his empire, Decius had come to the
knowledge of it, and he liked it so little that it was said of him by an
eye-witness how he would rather hear of a competitor for his throne than
of a Bishop being set at Rome in the See of Peter.

But from the beginning the power was there, concealed in the humility of
the mustard seed, while it rested upon the authority of Him who had
dropped the seed into the soil.

This power of spiritual government was _new_, in that it sprung from the
Person of our Lord Himself, and until He communicated the charge
contained in it, did not exist. It was pointed out in type and prophecy
to Adam, to Noah, and to Moses, but realised in Him at His resurrection.
Thus, whereas these priesthoods which it came to displace were the
ultimate form of corruption into which the original worship instituted by
God when man fell had sunk, the Redeemer, in the work of His
dispensation, sent forth this pastorship of spiritual rule afresh from
Himself, gave it to Peter and His Apostles, and propagated it through
them upon earth.

For this reason, as coming from one who was Lord of all, it was one for
all nations. Corresponding to the unity of the Triune God, and the unity
of the Christian Sacrifice, it was one in its origin, its duration, its
effect. What greater contrast could there possibly be than between the
diversity and contradiction of heathen priests ministering in numberless
religions, and the unity of the Christian priesthood, a replication in
every instance of Christ's person, between worships varying with every
country in their bearers and their rites, and the unity of the Christian
episcopate, a replication of His charge to feed His sheep, resting on one
Sacrifice as unique as its own rule.

And, again, that which was one in origin, duration, and effect, stretched
itself forth and dilated itself to embrace every city, placing at its
head a spiritual ruler, who was distinct but not separate from his
fellows; who preached one doctrine and ministered to one worship, as he
also participated in one power.

If we embrace in one view the three constituents on which we have
touched—belief, worship, and government—and contemplate the Christian
people which is its outcome, how total a contrast does it present in the
Christian habit of life to that of the heathen. The Christian worships a
single God, who by the greatest of mysteries is at once one and three;
who has a triple personality; he partakes of a worship in which that God,
offered first as a Victim for him, becomes his Food; he is governed by
one who bears the person of that God, whose priesthood is the foundation
of his rule, and whose teaching is bound up with both rule and worship.
That which the heathen called nature was to the Christian the ever-living
operation of a creative hand hiding under shapes which met the senses an
illimitable power, wisdom, and goodness; and the majesty of the God whom
he thus adored was presented to him in the holiest rite of his worship as
the Victim who redeemed him, and the Food which nourished his spiritual
life. Greek and Egyptian, Syrian and African, Roman and barbarian, it was
difficult to say from which he was most removed in all his thoughts of
God and man, and the world around.

But to the whole body of people thus created it was the shifting of the
basis on which the heathen State rested, because it was the discovery of
the one Lord from whom all rule descended, and in whose name it was
administered. The Roman ruled not in virtue of the principle that one God
had made all the nations of the earth of one blood, and partitioned the
kingdoms of the earth among them, but by virtue of the fact that the
children of the wolf-cub had been the strongest in fight and the firmest
in discipline, and had reduced a hundred peoples beneath their sway. The
Roman himself worshipped and protected in others the worship of
ancestral, that is, national gods, and the God of the Christians claimed
not to be national, and to dethrone them all. The Roman, and the nations
he held in subjection, believed in a multitude of traditionary doctrines
respecting the earth and its inhabitants, and the powers presiding over
them, some true and some false, mixed up in each case with peculiar and
national interests, and all these the Christian swept away in the sublime
belief, austere at once and tender, of a single Being who created,
sustained, and ruled all, with the love of a Creator for all, while He
kept watch over every thought, word, and action of every rational
creature; that is, who was Judge and Rewarder, as well as Creator. And,
lastly, this new Christian people held as the very bond of its existence
that being the Body of Christ, it was to embrace all nations, and be
co-extensive with the earth, co-enduring with man's race.

This was the people and the power which, having been more or less
concealed during five generations from the watchful eyes of Roman
statesmen, may be said to have come forth and shown itself by the
multiplication of its numbers and the tenacity of its purpose, and the
fixity of its doctrines in the time of Marcus Aurelius, and which five
more generations of Romans, until the time of Constantine, either watched
with ever-increasing anxiety, or tolerated in the mistaken hope of
assimilating, or finally contended with for life or death in fearful

And this was the people and power before which the Emperor Marcus
Aurelius, when he saw it in the persons of women and slaves and aged men,
who sacrificed their lives for their belief, lost his philosophic
indifference, and persecuted it as if he had been a voluptuous profligate
like Nero, or a cruel tyrant like Domitian.

That the belief, the worship, and the spiritual government which carried
both, had been from their first appearance in the reign of Tiberius
independent of the imperial rule, whose officer crucified their Founder,
under the title of the King of the Jews, we have seen in all the
preceding chapters. But how was this independence actually acquired and
maintained? By what talisman did the Christians compel the emperors to
acknowledge that there were things of God to be rendered to God, as well
as things of Cæsar to be rendered to Cæsar? For when this fight began the
Emperor claimed all things, the things of Cæsar as Emperor, and the
things of God as Pontifex Maximus.

Melito, Bishop of Sardis, addressing an apology for the Christian faith
to Marcus Aurelius, besought him to "protect a philosophy which was
nurtured together and began together with Augustus;"[185] and, in fact,
it was at the moment when Augustus closed the temple of Janus, and
proclaimed that there was peace in the Roman world, that our Lord was
born at Bethlehem. Thirty-three years after, He was crucified by the
governor of a province who represented the person of the Emperor
Tiberius, and on the ground that he had infringed the rights of that
emperor by calling Himself King of the Jews. Forthwith, when "Peter rose
up in the midst of the brethren" to propose the appointment of a twelfth
apostle, that he might take the place of the traitor who had betrayed his
Master to death, we are told the number of the persons together was about
a hundred and twenty. This number, then, indicated those disciples of our
Lord who had been gained during His ministry, and were then at Jerusalem.
We have another indication of numbers, where it is said that our Lord,
before His ascension, was seen by "more than five hundred brethren at
once,"[186] which would indicate the larger number of His adherents in

These two statements give a notion as to the extent to which the teaching
of our Lord had been accepted when the event of His public execution took
place, which was intended by those who brought it about to effect the
destruction of His claim to teach the world, and which was calculated,
according to all human judgment, to produce the effect intended.

The empire of Augustus, and "the philosophy nurtured and begun together
with it," took their several courses, and at the end of three hundred
years the greatest man who had sat upon the throne of Augustus in all
that interval came to the conclusion that the Christian Church was become
the power of the time. What makes the greatness of Constantine, we have
been told, makes him one of those characters in the world's history who
are the individual expression of the spirit of their time, is, that he
understood his time, that he perceived the weakness and powerlessness of
the heathen world, the inward dissolution of the old beliefs; that the
Christian faith was alone the substantial power of the time, the
Christian faith, as the Corpus Christianorum, in the strong, flexible,
and yet compact organisation of the Catholic Church, as seen in its one
episcopate. Constantine knew Christianity only in this form; and the
majestic unity into which the episcopate of the Church had already grown
was for him so imposing that he saw in the Christian Church[187] the
power through which the Roman empire, greatly needing a regeneration,
could alone be made capable of it. That was the real power which could
give a new basis to the State when it was falling into self-dissolution.

To indicate the greatness of the change involved in the action of the
Roman emperor, we may here use the words of St. Gregory the Great to the
Anglo-Saxon King Ethelbert, when he wrote to him at the end of the sixth
century: "Illustrious Son, guard carefully the grace which thou hast
received by a divine gift; hasten to extend the Christian faith among the
peoples subject to thee, for He will render the name of your glory yet
more glorious to your posterity, whose honour you seek and preserve in
the world. For so Constantine, most pious emperor of old, calling back
the Roman commonwealth from the perverted worship of idols, subjected it
with himself to Jesus Christ, our omnipotent Lord God."[188]

But what had passed in the interval, since the officer of Tiberius
crucified the Head, that the successor of Tiberius, Constantine, should
recognise the Body as the only power which could hold together his
tottering State?

What had happened was such facts as these.

After the Jews had spent their utmost malice in persecuting the Christian
messengers, first at Jerusalem, upon St. Stephen's death, and then
throughout the empire, wherever the authority of the Sanhedrim could
reach them, Nero, the last emperor of the family of Augustus, moved by
Jewish instigation, turned upon Christians the accusation of burning
Rome, and slew what the Roman historian calls a "huge multitude" of them,
with torments so atrocious that pity for them began to arise even among
those who hated them.

Secondly, at the distance of another generation, Domitian slew his
cousin, even while he held the consulate, and an unknown number of other
Christians, on the imputed charge of impiety, that is, of deserting the
heathen gods.

Thirdly, twenty years later, in the time of Trajan, we learn, by his
correspondence with Pliny, that the mere profession of the Christian
faith was a capital crime; and the punishment of Ignatius, in the Roman
amphitheatre, made his name famous to all future generations. We know not
to how many in the reign of Trajan the profession of the Christian faith
was the sacrifice of life. But the Bishop of Antioch, if the most
illustrious, was far from the only victim.

Fourthly, an abundance of martyrs in the reign of his successor, Hadrian,
testifies the continuance and the exercise of this law proscribing the
Christian profession. The noble Roman matron who witnessed the execution
of her seven children is an instance how savage a man of letters and
curious taste could be, when there was a question of Christian realities
crossing his feelings as a heathen.

Fifthly, the reign of Marcus Aurelius, noblest of heathen rulers, is
conspicuous for the number of its martyrs, in Asia Minor and in Gaul, as
well as at Rome; for the increasing number of the Christians had now
brought the religion into general notice. It is of this time that
Irenæus, an eye-witness, shortly himself to be one of those he
commemorates, writes "that the Church in every place, on account of that
love which she bears to God, sends forward a multitude of martyrs in
every time to the Father; while all the rest (by which he means the
various sects), not only are not able to show this thing among them, but
do not even say that such a martyrdom is necessary.... For the reproach
of those who suffer persecution for the sake of justice, and endure all
penalties, and are done to death for their affection towards God and
their confession of His Son, these the Church alone continuously
maintains, often thereby weakened, and straightway increasing its
members, and becoming entire again."[189] Of this time Eusebius writes,
that by the attacks made in various cities through the enmity of the
populace calling upon the magistrates to execute the laws, "martyrs
almost numberless were conspicuous through the whole world."[190]

Sixthly, after another generation, in the time of Septimius Severus,
Eusebius states that there were martyrdoms in every part of the Church.
This is the time of which Tertullian writes that Christians were now
everywhere, and from their numbers would have been able to wage a civil
war with their persecutors, had their religion permitted them. Of this
also an eye-witness, Clement of Alexandria, says, "It was a good remark
of Zeno about the Indians, that he would rather see one Indian roasted
than hear any number of arguments about the endurance of pain. But we
have every day a rich stream displayed before our eyes of martyrs
roasted, impaled, and beheaded. All these the fear of the law has been a
tutor to lead to Christ, and has wrought them up to show their piety by
shedding their blood. 'God hath stood in the congregation of gods, and
being in the midst of them He judgeth gods.' Who are these? They who are
superior to pleasure; they who conquer sufferings; they who know each
thing which they do; possessors of true knowledge, who have mastered the
world."[191] This was the time when Origen, a youth of seventeen, tried
to share with his father, Leonides, the martyr's crown, while death, as
the result of sufferings undergone in confession, was reserved for him
fifty years later in the persecution under Decius. Many writings of
Tertullian bear witness of the persecution of his own time, respecting
which he says: "You crucify and impale Christians; you tear open their
sides with hooks; we lay down our necks; we are driven before wild
beasts; we are burnt in fires; we are banished into islands."[192]

Again, we pass thirty years, in which, while emperors hold their hands,
yet individual Christians suffer under the law which proscribes their
religion in general, and then we come to a seventh persecution of great
severity under the Emperor Maximinus, which lasts for three years. After
another interval of ten years we reach the great persecution of Decius,
the eighth in number, which aims with decision at the general destruction
of the Christian clergy and people.

The ten years which commence with the reign of Decius contain also two
general persecutions under the Emperors Gallus and Valerianus. It is in
this period that three Popes, Fabian, Lucius, and Stephen, Cyprian,
Bishop of Carthage, and Laurence, Deacon at Rome, are crowned with
martyrdom. The extant letters of Cyprian and Dionysius of Alexandria bear
witness to the wide extent of suffering inflicted upon all classes.

Upon this succeeds the longest period of rest which occurs during the
three centuries, and is terminated by the persecution commenced in the
year 303 by Diocletian, which is likewise the longest, and also the most
universal, and the most severe of all.

No human record preserves the names or assigns the numbers of all those
who sacrificed their lives for the sake of their Master in these ten
persecutions, and in the intervals of comparative peace which lay between
them; in all of which it needed but the execution of the empire's
existing laws to imperil any Christian life. A persecution meant that the
sovereign power called upon the several governors of provinces and
magistrates in cities to execute the law.

Thus the period from the Crucifixion in the year 29, to the Edict of
Toleration in 313, a space of 284 years, bears one character. It is that
of opposition by the great world-empire to the free propagation of the
religion of Christ. Not only is every human motive which can have force
upon the mind of man set against this propagation, but at constantly
recurring times men and women and children give up the joys of home, the
security of civilised life, wealth, peace, social happiness, in order to
maintain and profess their belief in a crucified man as Son of God and
Saviour of the world. To this end a great multitude during ten
generations sacrifice life itself, and that often not by simple death,
but under torments the most severe and prolonged which the ingenuity of
savage enemies can invent.

Martyrdom was the ripe fruit of the Christian mind carried to its highest
degree of excellence; the imitation of a crucified Lord in finished
perfection. The martyr expressed in his own soul and body the truth
uttered concerning his Lord, that "though He was a Son, yet learnt He
obedience through the things that He suffered." The martyrs were the
choice soldiers and champions of the great army of faith which arose
upon the earth between Augustus and Constantine. It was by the sufferings
of these three hundred years that the Church won, over against the
persistent enmity of the Civil Power, the inestimable right of liberty in
her faith, her worship, and her government.

But how did the army itself arise of which the martyrs were the
champions? When I attempt to collect in one view the history of these
first three centuries, what I find most wonderful is, not that they who
believed in a crucified Head were ready as His members to suffer in and
for Him, but that men and women of the most various nations, characters,
and ranks, came to accept a crucified Head. Martyrdom is the outcome of a
perfect faith—but the faith itself, whence was it, and how came it? Hear
the Apostle who laboured more abundantly than all others describe his own
work: "Christ sent me to preach the Gospel, not in wisdom of speech, lest
the cross of Christ should be made void. For the word of the cross to
them indeed that perish is foolishness, but to them that are saved, that
is to us, it is the power of God. For it is written, I will destroy the
wisdom of the wise; and the prudence of the prudent I will reject. Where
is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world?
Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? For seeing that in
the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the
foolishness of our preaching to save them that believe. For both the Jews
require signs, and the Greeks seek after wisdom; but we preach Christ
crucified, unto the Jews indeed a stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks
foolishness, but unto them that are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ
the power of God and the wisdom of God. For the foolishness of God is
wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men. For see
your vocation, brethren, that there are not many wise according to the
flesh, not many mighty, not many noble; but the foolish things of the
world hath God chosen, that He may confound the wise, and the weak things
of the world hath God chosen that He may confound the strong. And the
base things of the world and the things that are contemptible hath God
chosen, and things that are not that He might bring to nought things that
are: that no flesh should glory in His sight. But of Him are you in
Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom and justice, and
sanctification and redemption, that, as it is written, he that glorieth
may glory in the Lord. And I, brethren, when I came to you, came not in
loftiness of speech or of wisdom, declaring unto you the testimony of
Christ. For I judged not myself to know anything among you, but Jesus
Christ and Him crucified. And I was with you in weakness and in fear and
in much trembling; and my speech and my preaching was not in the
persuasive words of human wisdom, but in showing of the spirit and of
power; that your faith might not stand on the wisdom of men, but on the
power of God. Howbeit we speak wisdom among the perfect, yet not the
wisdom of this world, neither of the princes of this world, that come to
nought: but we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, a wisdom which is
hidden, which God ordained before the world, unto our glory: which none
of the princes of this world knew, for if they had known it, they would
never have crucified the Lord of Glory. But as it is written, That eye
hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of
man what things God hath prepared for them that love Him. But to us God
hath revealed them by His Spirit."[193]

Thus St. Paul wrote to some of his early converts about the year 50. The
records which would have described by a continuous and detailed history
the labours of the Apostles and their successors in the two centuries and
a half which followed these words, have almost entirely perished. Their
result subsists in the conversion of the Roman world, and the recognition
of the kingdom of Christ by the kingdom of Cæsar. These words describe
the process. We have no more to say than this, and no less. The Church
has not to show in all this period great and renowned men among her
members; she has not to show men distinguished for their science; she has
not to show men who made themselves of mark in public life, who had
wealth, or influential connections, or anything which makes power
according to the natural constitution of the world.[194] Even her great
writers were not yet come; of those whose writings have come down to us,
Tertullian and Origen were her sole men of genius. Among those who sat in
the chair of Peter, there had as yet arisen no one such as the great Leo,
whose word was equal to the power which he swayed. Her schools of
theology scarcely existed; no golden tongue among her preachers had yet
spoken "with lips of flame;" no heathen rhetorician, converted in the
middle of life, had become the great doctor for future ages, a fountain
at once of philosophy and theology. She knew and she preached nothing but
Jesus Christ and Him crucified, and the effect was that no such contrast
exists in all history as that supplied by the weakness of that company,
the number of whose names was about 120, who met to elect a successor to
the traitor apostle, and the grandeur of that body represented by the 318
Fathers at Nicæa, on whom the majesty of the Roman people waited in the
person of Constantine. For behind those Fathers was the Christian people,
converts of every race, from the haughtiest patrician of Cornelian blood
to the humblest slave of Egypt, who had heard and obeyed the call to
believe on Jesus Christ and Him crucified. There had been ten generations
of youths and maidens who had offered to Him the very flower of human
beauty and superhuman purity; mothers who had surrendered their children,
husbands who had lost both wives and children, bishops maimed, or
one-eyed, for the love of Christ, who had laboured in mines, a host of
missionaries who had been treated as "the offscourings of the world," all
for the sake of that Crucified One, who was ever before their eyes, and
in their hearts; to whom they were joined by suffering with Him, and who
promised them, in recompense for those sufferings, that which eye hath
not seen, nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man to
conceive, but God had revealed by His Spirit.

For no greater change can be conceived for man to accept, than to pass
from the life which a Pomponia Græcina or a Callista would lead in her
Roman or her Grecian home, into the life of a Lucina burying martyred
apostles, or the death of a Callista, in a dungeon of the third century;
between the prosperous Cæcilius in the midst of the wealth and luxury of
Carthage, and the Cyprian who, after ten years of apostolic labour,
uttered his _Deo gratias_ upon the Proprætor's sentence of death. Nor
must we take only as samples those who were conspicuous for their work as
Christians, even though it were accompanied by sufferings. We must take
rather the staple of the common Christian life in its opposition to the
discarded heathendom—the life of charity, of poverty, of chastity pursued
by those of humblest position, over against the hatred, the avarice, the
impurity out of which they came. The acceptance of such a law as the
Christian law, founded upon such a belief as the Christian belief, is in
any one case the result of a power quite beyond man, whatever his
learning, eloquence, or persuasiveness from any natural gift may be, to
bring about in his fellow-men. What, then, was that power shown in
instances innumerable—shown when the acceptance of Christ crucified as
the exemplar of life involved the risk of losing life, and all which made
life naturally sweet or even tolerable, involved a living crucifixion?
The state of virginity, confession of any kind, and finally martyrdom,
made the highest point of this life; but we must look upon the great
mass of the Christian people as that which produced such fruits. The
Martyrs, whatever their number, were no doubt relatively few in
comparison with those who were not martyred. They were "the first-fruits
of the threshing-floor which the world would offer to the Redeemer;" how
numerous must have been the grains of wheat out of which they were
chosen? They were "the new leaven and the salt of humanity, which by the
offering of their bodies and the pouring out their blood would sanctify
the whole mass;"[195] but how great was the spiritual power which had
descended into that mass? Surely Chrysostom had good reason when he
selected the creation of the Christian people as that one miracle of
Christ which no heathen gainsayer could deny.

What we find, then, as an ultimate fact in the historical conversion of
the heathen world, is this internal action of the Holy Spirit in the
preaching of the Apostles and their successors, by which the Christian
people was formed in spite of the world around them; in spite of
seductions from the pride of life, the desire of the eyes, the terrible
empire of sensuous beauty; in spite of terrors which involved every
suffering as well us every privation of lawful enjoyments.

All that vast development of doctrine, worship, and government, which we
have been endeavouring to trace out, has been from first to last
originated, accompanied, and maintained by the action of the Holy Spirit
upon each individual heart. Here at last is the power which we seek in
vain to detect as lodged in any natural gift possessed by the preacher.
The heart is that sanctuary of liberty which no human power can invade:
the heart's free acceptance of the belief offered to it is the result
which no human power can win. If the Church's one Episcopate has thrown
the net of Christ over the whole empire, and into regions more or less
barbarous beyond it; if the Church's one doctrine has grown out into
palpable form, scattering the gods of heathendom with the demons who
lurked under their masks, and uplifting the strong personality of the
divine Triad, in spite of pantheism, to universal adoration; if the
Church's one worship has come forth from the catacombs into the light of
day, and the celebration over a martyr's body in an obscure vault to a
celebration in lordly temple, rich with marble and precious stones; the
one adequate cause for all is the manifestation of spirit and of power,
the cross set up in the heart of man before it was applied to living
members of the body: it is a process inexplicable save upon the
supposition of divine power. That world which by wisdom knew not God,
which philosophy had failed to convert, was converted in a great
proportion of its subjects by the foolishness of God which was wiser than
men, and the weakness of God which was stronger than men. A crucified God
was the palmary test of this foolishness and weakness; the army of
martyrs was its witness; the empire's recognition of the Church's freedom
in doctrine, worship, and government, was the victory which it gained.

Those who lived in the midst of this great movement fully recognised its
wonderful character. Thus Clement of Alexandria, in his address to the
Greeks, exclaimed: "The power of God casting its beams upon the earth
with incredible rapidity and most attractive kindness has filled
everything with the seed of salvation. For the Lord could not have
brought about so great a work in so small a time without a divine
goodwill and affection; despicable in appearance, worshipped in deed;
purifier, Saviour, propitious, the Divine Word, the most manifest truly
God, equal to the Lord of the universe, for He was His Son, 'and the Word
was in God.' Nor was He disbelieved when first announced; nor when He
took upon Him human form and fashioned Himself after the flesh, and acted
the saving drama of the manhood, was He ignored. For He was a lawful
combatant and a fellow-combatant with His creature; and when swifter than
the sun He dawned upon us at the Father's will. He was communicated most
speedily to all men, and with the utmost ease caused God to shine upon
us; showing whence He was Himself, and who He was by what He taught and
by what He did; bearer to us of the treaty and the reconciliation, our
Saviour Word, a fountain of life and of peace, poured over the whole face
of the earth; through whom the world has become a very sea of

No less were eye-witnesses struck with the impotence of philosophy in
comparison with the doctrine of the cross. Thus the same Clement in
another place says: "The heaven-taught wisdom is that alone which is with
us, from which spring all the sources of wisdom; such, I mean, as lead to
the truth. For certainly when the Lord who was to teach us came to men He
had innumerable pointers of His way, to announce, to prepare, to precede
Him, from the very foundation of the world. They pre-signified Him by
action and by word, they prophesied His coming, the where and the when,
and His signs. From afar off the Law provides for Him, and Prophecy; then
His precursor declares His presence; then the heralds teaching the power
of His appearance signify it. [But philosophers[197]] pleased their own
only, and not all these, for Socrates pleased Plato, and Plato
Xenocrates, and Aristotle Theophrastus, and Zeno Cleanthes. They
persuaded those only who embraced their own sect. But the word of our
Teacher did not remain in Judea alone, as philosophy did in Greece. It
was poured over the whole world, persuading from nation to nation,
village to village, city to city, whole houses of Greeks at once and of
barbarians, and each one of the hearers by himself, and bringing over to
the truth not a few of the philosophers themselves. Now, as for the Greek
philosophy, if any one in authority offers it hindrance, forthwith it
disappears; whereas our doctrine, from its very first announcement, has
been thwarted by kings and tyrants, and magistrates, and governors, with
all their satellites and men innumerable, who make war upon us, and do
their utmost to cut us off. For all which it flourishes the more. For it
does not die out like a human doctrine, nor fade away like a weak gift,
since no gift of God is weak; but it continues unhindered, having the
prophecy that it shall be persecuted to the end."[198]

If such was the marvel of conversion, viewed in itself, it is well also
to listen to another eye-witness of the consequences which this change of
life brought with it. The heathen objected that Christians ought to be
thankful for the sufferings which they wanted. Tertullian replied:

"Well, it is quite true that it is our desire to suffer, but it is in the
way that the soldier longs for war. No one indeed suffers willingly,
since suffering necessarily implies fear and danger. Yet the man who
objected to the conflict both fights with all his strength, and, when
victorious, he rejoices in the battle, because he reaps from it glory and
spoil. It is our battle to be summoned to your tribunals, that there,
under fear of execution, we may battle for the truth. But the day is won
when the object of the struggle is gained. This victory of ours gives us
the glory of pleasing God, and the spoil of life eternal. But we are
overcome—yes, when we have obtained our wishes. Therefore we conquer in
dying: we go forth victorious at the very time we are subdued. Call us,
if you like, Sarmenticii and Semaxii, because, bound to a half-axle
stake, we are burnt in a circle heap of faggots. This is the attitude in
which we conquer; it is our victory-robe; it is for us a sort of
triumphal car. Naturally enough, therefore, we do not please the
vanquished; on account of this, indeed, we are counted a desperate,
reckless race. But the very desperation and recklessness you object to in
us, among yourselves lift high the standard of virtue in the cause of
glory and of fame. Mucius, of his own will, left his right hand on the
altar: what sublimity of mind! Empedocles gave his whole body at Catana
to the fires of Etna: what mental resolution! A certain foundress of
Carthage gave herself away in second marriage to the funeral pile: what a
noble witness of her chastity! Regulus, not wishing that his one life
should count for the lives of many enemies, endured these crosses over
all his frame: how brave a man, even in captivity a conqueror!
Anaxarchus, when he was being beaten to death by a barley-pounder, cried
out, 'Beat on, beat on at the case of Anaxarchus; no stroke falls on
Anaxarchus himself.' O magnanimity of the philosopher, who even in such
an end had jokes upon his lips! I omit all reference to those who with
their own sword, or with any other milder form of death, have bargained
for glory. Nay, see how even torture-contests are crowned by you. The
Athenian courtezan, having wearied out the executioner, at last bit off
her tongue, and spat it in the face of the raging tyrant, that she might
at the same time spit away her power of speech, nor be longer able to
confess her fellow-conspirators, if, even overcome, that might be her
inclination. Zeno, the eleatic, when he was asked by Dionysius what good
philosophy did, on answering that it gave contempt of death, was, all
unquailing, given over to the tyrant's scourge, and sealed his opinion
even to the death. We all know how the Spartan lash, applied with the
utmost cruelty, under the very eyes of friends encouraging, confers on
those who bear it honour proportionate to the blood which the young man
shed. O glory legitimate because it is human, for whose sake it is
reckoned neither reckless fool-hardiness nor desperate obstinacy to
despise death itself and all sorts of savage treatment, for whose sake
you may, for your native place, for the empire, for friendship, endure
all you are forbidden to do for God! And you cast statues in honour of
persons such as these, and you put inscriptions upon images, and cut out
epitaphs on tombs, that their names may never perish. In so far as you
can by your monuments, you yourselves afford a sort of resurrection to
the dead. Yet he who expects the true resurrection from God is insane if
for God he suffers. But go zealously on, good presidents; you will stand
higher with the people if you sacrifice the Christians at their wish.
Kill us, torture us, condemn us, grind us to dust; your injustice is the
proof that we are innocent. Therefore it is of God's permitting (not of
your mere will) that we thus suffer. For but very lately, in condemning a
Christian woman to infamy rather than to the lion, you made confession
that a taint on our purity is considered among us something more terrible
than any punishment and any death. Nor does your cruelty, however
exquisite, avail you; it is rather a temptation to us. The oftener we are
mown down by you, the more in number we grow; the blood of Christians is
seed. Many of your writers exhort to the courageous bearing of pain and
death, as Cicero in the Tusculans, as Seneca in his Chances, as Diogenes,
Pyrrhus, Callinicus. And yet their words do not find so many disciples as
Christians do, teachers not by words, but by their deeds. That very
obstinacy you rail against is the preceptress; for who that contemplates
it is not excited to inquire what is at the bottom of it? Who, after
inquiry, does not embrace our doctrines? and when he has embraced them,
desires not to suffer that he may become partaker of the fulness of God's
grace, that he may obtain from God complete forgiveness by giving in
exchange his blood? For that secures the remission of all offences. On
this account it is that we return thanks on the very spot for your
sentences. As the divine and human are ever opposed to each other, when
we are condemned by you we are acquitted by the Highest."[199]

Origen, in replying to the attacks of a very subtle and able Platonic
philosopher of the second century, appeals again and again to the divine
power shown forth in the conversion of so many, and among them of those
who had previously been the slaves of sin. Heathen philosophy could boast
of two converts, Phædo and Polemo; on which he says, "We assert that the
whole habitable world contains evidence of the works of Jesus, in the
existence of those churches of God which have been founded through Him by
those who have been converted from the practice of innumerable sins. And
the name of Jesus can still remove distractions from the minds of men,
and expel demons, and also take away diseases, and produce a marvellous
meekness of spirit and complete change of character, and a humanity, and
goodness, and gentleness in those individuals who do not feign themselves
to be Christians for the sake of subsistence or the supply of any mortal
wants, but who have honestly accepted the doctrine concerning God and
Christ and the judgment to come."

Celsus, unable to resist the miracles which Jesus is recorded to have
performed, had on several occasions spoken of them slanderously as works
of sorcery, to which Origen had severally replied. But he also pointed
out how far greater a divine power is manifested in healing the maladies
of the soul than in raising the daughter of Jairus, or the son of the
widow of Nain, or Lazarus four days dead; for indeed these miracles were
the symbols of the greater things which our Lord promised to do by His
Apostles. "I would say that, agreeably to the promise of Jesus, His
disciples performed even greater works than these miracles of Jesus,
which were perceptible only to the senses. For the eyes of those who are
blind in soul are ever opened, and the ears of those who were deaf to
virtuous words listen readily to the doctrine of God and of the blessed
life with Him; and many too who were lame in the feet of the 'inner man,'
as Scripture calls it, having now been healed by the word, do not simply
leap, but leap as the hart, which is an animal hostile to serpents, and
stronger than all the poison of vipers. And these lame who have been
healed received from Jesus power to trample with those feet in which they
were formerly lame upon the serpents and scorpions of wickedness, and
generally upon all the power of the enemy; and though they tread upon it,
they sustain no injury, for they also have become stronger than the
poison of all evil and of demons."

On this point he dwells further. The Jew introduced by Celsus argued that
our Lord was a man. Origen replied: "I do not know whether a man who had
the courage to spread throughout the entire world His doctrine of
religious worship and teaching could accomplish what He wished without
the divine assistance, and could rise superior to all who withstood the
progress of His doctrine—kings and rulers, and the Roman Senate and
governors in all places, and the common people. And how could the nature
of a man possessed of no inherent excellence convert so vast a multitude?
For it would not be wonderful if it were only the wise who were so
converted; but it is the most irrational of men and those devoted to
their passions, and who, by reason of their irrationality, change with
the greater difficulty so as to adopt a more temperate course of life.
And yet it is because Christ was the power of God and the wisdom of the
Father that He accomplished and still accomplishes such results, although
neither the Jews nor Greeks who disbelieved His word will so admit. And,
therefore, we shall not cease to believe in God, according to the
precepts of Jesus Christ, and to seek to convert those who are blind on
the subject of religion, although it is they who are truly blind
themselves that charge us with blindness; and they, whether Jews or
Greeks, who lead astray those that follow them, accuse us of seducing
men—a good seduction, truly, that they may become temperate instead of
dissolute, or at least may make advances to temperance; may become just
instead of unjust, or at least may tend to become so; prudent instead of
foolish, or be on the way to become such; and instead of cowardice,
meanness, and timidity, may exhibit the virtues of fortitude and courage,
especially displayed in the struggles undergone for the sake of their
religion towards God, the Creator of all things."

The wonder of the formation of the Christian community itself was never
absent from the mind of those who were eye-witnesses of the heathendom in
the bosom of which it arose. The place now occupied in the minds of men
by the sins of professing Christians was then occupied by the sins of
heathens in the midst of whom Christians formed so striking a contrast.
Origen refers to the moral miracle as supported and in part explained by
the material miracle, which, like every writer of those centuries, he
presupposed and dwelt upon as a fact which was manifest before the eyes
of every one—a fact which might be ascribed to sorcery, but could not be

"I think," he says, "the wonders wrought by Jesus are a proof of the Holy
Spirit's having then appeared in the form of a dove; and I shall refer
not only to His miracles, but, as is proper, to those also of the
Apostles of Jesus. For they could not without the help of miracles and
wonders have prevailed on those who heard their new doctrines and new
teachings to abandon their national usages and to accept their
instructions at the danger to themselves even of death." And elsewhere:
"Christians, who have in so wonderful a manner formed themselves into a
community, appear at first to have been more induced by miracles than by
exhortations to forsake the institutions of their fathers and to adopt
others which were quite strange to them. And, indeed, if we were to
reason from what is probable as to the first formation of the Christian
society, we should say that it is incredible that the Apostles of Jesus
Christ, who were unlettered men of humble life, could have been
emboldened to preach Christian truth to men by anything else than the
power which was conferred upon them, and the grace which accompanied
their words and rendered them effective; and those who heard them would
not have renounced the old established usages of their fathers, and been
induced to adopt notions so different from those in which they had been
brought up, unless they had been moved by some extraordinary power and by
the force of miraculous events."[200]

This power of miracles, as inherited by the disciples from their Lord, is
thus recorded by Irenæus:[201]—

"They who are truly His disciples, having received the grace from Him,
effect it in His name for the good of others in proportion as each
individual has received the gift from Him. Some with true and permanent
effect expel demons, so that in many cases the very persons who have been
delivered from the evil spirits believe and are in the Church. Some have
foreknowledge of future events, visions, and prophetic utterances. Others
heal sick people by the imposition of their hands and make them whole.
Dead, too, have been raised to life, and have remained with us many
years. What shall I say? It is impossible to express the number of the
graces which the Church throughout the whole world, having received them
from God, effects every day for the good of the nations in the name of
Jesus Christ who was crucified under Pontius Pilate. And in this she
neither seduces any nor works for filthy lucre; for what she has freely
received she freely imparts."

In the time of Irenæus, Clement, Tertullian, and Origen, the proof from
the rapid growth of the Church in spite of the world's opposition was by
no means complete. Moreover, the greatest and most general persecutions,
those of Decius, Gallus, Valerian, and Diocletian, came after this.
Probably the struggle between the Church and the Empire was not
understood in all its bearings before the time of Decius. But we possess
two treatises of Athanasius, composed in his youth, about the year 320.
They are extremely beautiful both in style and matter; and in parts of
them Athanasius contemplates the whole preceding history of the Church
and the effects of her preaching the cross of Christ. I take as a
specimen what he says about certain miraculous effects worked by the name
and the cross of Christ, for the truth of which he appeals to universal

"When did men begin to desert the worship of idols except from the time
that the true God, the Word of God, appeared among men? When did the
oracles which were everywhere among the Greeks cease and come to nought,
save from the time that the Saviour manifested Himself upon earth? When
did the gods and heroes of the poets begin to be condemned as mere mortal
men, save from the time that the Lord set up His trophy against death,
and preserved incorruptible the body which He had taken by raising it
from the dead? And when was the deceit and madness of demons despised,
save when the Word, the power of God, the Lord of all, and of these among
all, in His condescension for the weakness of men, appeared upon the
earth? When did the art and the schools of magic begin to be trodden
underfoot, save upon the manifestation of the Word among men? In a word,
when did the wisdom of the Greeks become foolish, save when the true
Wisdom of God showed Himself on the earth? For of old the whole world and
every spot in it was filled with the false worship of idols, and men held
that there were no gods but idols. But now through all the world men
desert the superstition of idols and fly to Christ, and worship Him as
God, through whom they recognise the Father whom they knew not. And
observe this wonder. The religions were different and numberless; each
place had its own idol, and he that was invoked as god there could not
pass to the next spot to persuade his neighbours to worship him, but
could only just maintain his own worship; for no one worshipped his
neighbour's god, but kept to his own idol, thinking that he was the lord
of all; whereas the one and same Christ is worshipped everywhere by all;
and what the impotence of idols could not do to persuade its neighbours,
this Christ has done, persuading not only those near, but simply the
whole world to worship one and the same Lord, and through Him God His

"Of old, also, everything was full of the deceit of oracles, and those in
Delphi, and Dodona, and Bœotia, and Libya, and Egypt, and the Kabiri, and
the Pythia, were admired in men's imagination; but from the time that
Christ is preached everywhere, this their madness also is stopped, and no
one any longer acts the prophet. And of old the demons deceived men with
spectres, taking possession of fountains and rivers, of wood and stones,
and so astonishing the foolish with deceits. All these sights have
vanished since the Divine Epiphany of the Word; for a man using only the
sign of the cross scatters all their tricks. Of old men deemed those whom
the poets called Zeus, and Kronos, and Apollo, and the heroes, to be
gods, and were drawn into error by worshipping them; but now that the
Saviour has appeared among men, these have been reduced to the nakedness
of mortal men, while Christ has been recognised as alone true God, God
the Word of God. What shall I say of the magic which had so much vogue
among them? Before the Word was spread among us, it prevailed and worked
among Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Indians, and astonished the beholders;
but it was convicted and utterly brought to nought by the presence of the
truth and the appearance of the Word. But as to the Grecian wisdom and
the big words of the philosophers, I think it needs no word from us when
the strange sight is before the eyes of all, that all the volumes written
by the Greek wise men were not able to persuade even a few neighbours of
immortality and virtuous life; while Christ, only by a few cheap words in
the mouth of men who had no wisdom of the tongue, has persuaded numerous
assemblies of men throughout the whole world to despise death and to have
immortal longings, to pass by time and see eternity, earth's glory to
esteem as dust and ashes, and grasp instead of it a crown in heaven.

"These are not mere words of ours, but appeal to the test of experience
for their reality. Let any one who will go and see the proof of virtue in
Christian virgins and the youths who cultivate purity, and the assurance
of immortality in the vast multitude of martyrs. He that will try the
truth of what we have said, let him upon the appearance of demons, the
deceit of oracles, and magic wonders, use the sign of the cross which
they mock at, with the mere name of Christ, and he will see how the
demons fly, the oracles stop, the whole array of magic and trickery
disappears. Who, then, and how great is this Christ who has by His mere
name and presence cast His shade over and annihilated all these things
everywhere, who prevails over all alone, and has filled the whole world
with His teaching? Let the Greeks who mock and blush not say. Is He a
man? how then has one man been too much for the power of all their gods,
and convicted them by His own power of being nothing? Do they call Him a
magician? but how can all magic be destroyed by a magician, and not
rather be confirmed? For if He prevailed over some magicians, or was
superior to one only, He might well be deemed by them to have surpassed
the others by greater art; but if His cross carried off the victory over
all magic absolutely, and the very name of the thing, it is plain that
the Saviour is not a magician, since the demons invoked by other
magicians fly from Him as their Lord. If He only drove away some demons,
He might be thought to have power over the inferior by the chief of the
demons, as the Jews mocking said of Him. But if all the fury of the
demons is displaced and scattered by naming Him, it is plain they are
wrong, and that our Lord and Saviour Christ is not, as they think, some
demoniacal power. If, then, the Saviour is neither simple man, nor
magician, nor a demon, but by His own Godhead has annulled and frustrated
all the imagination of poets, the display of demons, and the wisdom of
Greeks, it must be plain and confessed by all that He is truly the Son of
God, the Word, and Wisdom, and Power of the Father. Hence His works are
not human, but above man's range, and are recognised to be the works of
God in truth by their manifest effects, and by the comparison of them
with the works of man."

Athanasius speaks in these words for the whole period preceding him. The
apologists of the early Church before him[203] lay the most stress in
proving her divine character upon five things—the predictions of the Old
Testament, the miracles of Jesus and the Apostles, the miraculous power
continuing on in Christians, the rapid propagation of the Church, and the
steadfast endurance of confessors under persecution. Our Lord Himself
laid the greatest weight upon the proof arising from prophecy, and from
the works of power, themselves announced in prophecy, which He did, "the
works of the Christ." His answer to the disciples of John the Baptist
included both. In fact, He came among a people possessing a divinely
appointed priesthood and office of teaching, which He expressly
acknowledged when He said, "The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in the
chair of Moses; all things, therefore, whatsoever they shall say to you,
observe and do." But He did not in any way attach Himself to this
authority, much less submit to it in His office of teaching. If we
reflect on the fact that He did not submit Himself to the authority which
He acknowledged to be divine, yet claimed supreme authority, it is
obvious that without miracles He could claim no authority as the Christ.
And He said so most plainly Himself when He summed up, as it were, the
whole bearing of His ministry towards the Jewish authorities in the
words, "If I had not done among them such works as no man ever did, they
should not have sin; but now have they both seen and hated both Me and My

Thus, as in His own life, so likewise in the life of His people, miracles
and prophecy were of necessity the double external witness to His
mission, as martyrdom, including under it every degree of confessorship,
was the great internal witness.

And every ancient Christian writer alleges the existence and the exercise
of miraculous power in the Church. But there is also another fact; not
only all Christians, but Jews and heathens of every class, the bitterest
opponents of the Christian faith, agreed in one point, namely, that
superhuman[204] power was at work in the world, and in the whole life of
man, by which works exceeding man's ability, and often transgressing the
laws of nature, were wrought. They were eye-witnesses of these works.
About a great number of them, so far at least as the fact was concerned,
they could not be deceived, though they might be deceived as to the
nature of the cause.

Without martyrdom and also without miracles the conversion which took
place between the Day of Pentecost and the Edict of Toleration in 313 was
not even conceivable. Let us consider the bond which connects the two

The Christian faith itself rests upon two miracles. The first is the
assumption of human nature by the Divine Word, the Second Person in the
Blessed Trinity, in the womb of the Virgin Mary. This act of the divine
condescension is so transcendent in all its bearings as not merely to
surpass the order of nature, but to be, as it were, the parent of
miraculous power in all that supernatural order which it creates and
maintains. It is the fontal source of grace to man, of his first creation
in grace, the first Adam himself being the image of the Second who was to
be, and for whose sake the whole creation was made. Take away from the
Christian faith that "Gospel of Mary" which St. Luke has recorded in the
mission of the Angel Gabriel to her, and that faith is not only altered,
but it ceases to be. Everything which the Christian believes and hopes
depends, in fact, upon that miracle of miracles, the union of the divine
nature with the human in the Person of Jesus Christ. Therefore all His
children are born of a miracle, nurtured upon a miracle, live and hope
and suffer and die in faith of a miracle, so great, so peculiar, so
inconceivable beforehand, that all other miracles are but its progeny.

But, secondly, the very existence of this first miracle was guaranteed
and made known by another—the resurrection of Jesus Christ in that very
Body bearing the marks of the nails and the wound of the spear in which
He was crucified. It was faith in this resurrection which sent forth a
College of twelve unlettered men to convert the world, and by that faith
they converted it, so far at least that the diadem of its emperors was
surmounted by the cross of Christ. They and their successors who went
forth in the same faith were misused, calumniated, persecuted, tormented
to death in every shape and fashion, until Constantine saw the token in
the sky and placed it on his banner.

What, then, we have said as to the Incarnation we may also say as to the
Resurrection of Christ; take it away, and the Christian people have no
longer a foundation on which to rest. They would simply cease to be.

They are, therefore, doubly the children of miracle.

They were thus from the beginning—and they could not but be—instinct with
the sense of miracle.

But these two miracles were no less the ground of martyrdom and of all
that life, consisting in the endurance and even choice of suffering,
hardship, privation of every kind, of which martyrdom is the seal and
crown. The connection between miracle and martyrdom seems to be this: The
Incarnation of our Lord is the very reason of miraculous power being
exhibited in the world, just as His assumption of human nature is itself
the miracle of miracles. The purpose of all miracle is to bring home to
the creature a special action of the Creator as Governor of the world,
but the head and crown as well as the starting-point of such special
action is, in our actual world, the miracle of the Incarnation.

Again, the original need of miraculous action springs from the moral
darkness superinduced by the Fall, which the Incarnation repairs. The
angelic world, while under probation, or any world of rational creatures
unfallen, needs no miracles. And all miracles anterior to Christ are part
of a chain of events leading on to Him, just as all martyrs before Christ
have their reason of existence in Him alone. The occasion of martyrdom is
the enmity between the seed of the serpent and the Seed of the Woman, and
miracle is from beginning to end the hand of God showing itself in the
contest. "All the just," says St. Augustine,[205] "who have been from the
beginning of the world have Christ for their Head. For they believed in
the future coming of that One whom we believe to have come, and they were
healed by faith in the same One by faith in whom we are healed, that He
might be head of the whole city Jerusalem." And the most inspired of
Christian poets, when he beheld the great rose of Paradise flowering with
the saints of all times, divided them by their preceding or following the
coming of Christ:

    "Da questa parte, onde 'l fiore è maturo
      Di tutte le sue foglie, sono assisi
      Quei che credettero in Cristo venturo
    Dall' altra parte, onde sono intercisi
      Di vôto i semicircoli, si stanno
      Quei ch' a Cristo venuto ebber li visi."

    —_Paradiso_, c. 32, 22.

In like manner the Apostle commences his illustration of the life of
faith by the martyrdom of Abel, "who being dead yet speaketh." Thus the
one life pleasing to God from the beginning to the end is identical in
its substance, and shows the oneness of the divine plan, commencing its
execution in the very family of the first man. There the just loses his
life for his justice' sake, and Abel becomes the type of Christ and of
all who follow the Divine Master. So St. John the Baptist, marking the
transition from the old covenant to the new, the precursor of our Lord,
with the triple aureole of virginity, doctorship, and martyrdom, gives up
his life to maintain the sanctity of marriage.

Further, the Passion of our Lord is the source of martyrdom; and union
with Him, especially in the act of His Passion, is the cause of all the
effects which martyrdom produces. As He said, in reference to His coming
Passion, of Himself, "Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and
die, it remaineth alone, but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit;" so
Tertullian said of His people, "The blood of Christians is seed." In
martyrdom lies the perpetuation of faith in Christ. He stands in the
midst of the ages, as the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world,
working backwards and forwards. The shedding of Abel's blood, the first
blood shed, and the blood of the brother shed by the brother, points to
the shedding of Christ's blood; and so in the interval between Abel and
Christ the blood of all the just ones is shed for the hope of Christ. As
all martyrdom preceding Him was for the hope of Him, so all following is
in remembrance and participation of Him.

There is a strong parallel between miracle and martyrdom as to their
principle, their witness, their power, and their perpetuity.

1. First, as to _principle_. The conception of miracle springs at once
from the doctrine of God the Creator, Orderer, and Maintainer of the
universe, united with the doctrine of the Fall of man and the ignorance
thence superinduced, and requiring to be dissipated by an objective
confirmation of the truth. This confirmation is produced when He suspends
that order of nature which He has impressed on things. "The divine power
can at any time, without prejudice to His providence, do something
beyond the order impressed on natural things by God. This is the very
thing which He sometimes does to manifest His power. For in no manner can
it be better shown that all nature is subject to the divine will than by
this, that sometimes He does something beyond the order of nature; for by
this it is made to appear that the order of things proceeded from God,
not by a necessity of His nature, but by His free-will."[206]

On the other hand, the conception of miracles is incompatible with the
notion of a power evolving itself by a strict necessity in the universe.
This involves at the same time the rejection of the notion of sin as a
violation of the eternal law. For the evolution itself is the only law
admitted, and is incapable of sin, which arises from the misuse of the
liberty of the will. A world evolved by eternal necessity denies any
liberty to the will. In this the Positivist and Materialist of the
present day only take the position which the Stoic took of old. All the
three deny miracle, because they deny creation.

And the principle of martyrdom is the intimate union between Christ and
Christians, whereby the Head and His members form one Body. The community
in suffering rests on this. At the head of persecution is the statement
of our Lord Himself (the narrative of which, it may be remarked, is given
three times in the Acts), "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me?" Thus a
martyr said to martyrs, "He who once conquered death for us is ever
conquering death in us. You know that you are contending under the eyes
of your present Lord; that by the confession of His name you reach His
own glory. For He is not as if He was only looking at His servants, but
He wrestles Himself, He combats Himself in them; in the contest of our
struggle, Himself both crowns and is crowned."[207]

The martyr Felicitas underwent in prison the sufferings of premature
childbirth. One of the attendants remarked to her, "You who so much show
your suffering now, what will you do when you are thrown before the wild
beasts, which you despised when you refused to sacrifice?" And she
answered, "It is I who suffer now that which I suffer; but then there
will be another in me who will suffer for me, because I also shall be
suffering for Him." On which St. Augustine comments: "It was He who
caused women to suffer with faith and the courage of men who deigned in
His mercy for their sake to be born of a woman.... Eve's penalty was not
absent, but Mary's grace was present. What she owed as a woman was
exacted; what she needed in help was given by the Virgin's Son."[208]

2. As to the _witness_ of miracles, in matter of fact the objective proof
of our Lord's mission as Messias and Son of God was based, both in His
own life and in the propagation of His faith, upon miracles viewed in a
double light—first, as they are in themselves, and secondly, as the
fulfilment of prophecy. "To confirm doctrines which surpass natural
knowledge He showed visibly works which surpass natural power, by the
healing of the sick, the raising of the dead, and, what is more
wonderful, the inspiration of human minds, so that untaught and simple
men, filled with the gift of the Holy Spirit, obtained in an instant the
utmost wisdom and readiness of speech; so that not by the violence of
arms, not by the promise of pleasures, but amid the tyranny of
persecutors, an innumerable multitude, not merely of simple, but of the
wisest men was drawn into the Christian faith. They preached doctrines
surpassing man's understanding; they set a restraint on carnal pleasures;
they taught contempt for everything that is in the world. It would be the
most marvellous of all marvels if the world without miracles had been led
to the belief of doctrines so difficult, the working of deeds so arduous,
the hoping of rewards so exalted, by simple and ignoble men."[209]

The witness of martyrdom is expressed in its very name, that they who
suffered death for the sake of Christ were simply called witnesses. The
analogy with miracles is very strong indeed, the one being the witness of
God attesting the truth of His messengers by visible signs, which suspend
or reverse the order which He has Himself established as a general rule;
the other being the witness of men who suffer all those things from which
the nature of man recoils in order to attest the truth of God.

3. As to the _power_ exercised by miracles over the minds of men, the
victory over idolatry and the whole heathen life, which was the
reflection of that idolatry, could not have been accomplished—all other
powers remaining in the Church—without this one. In fact, a diabolic
spiritual power, termed by our Lord "the strong man armed," being, as the
result of the Fall, in possession of his captive, could only be cast out
by One stronger than he, the Son of God Incarnate. The series of miracles
wrought by His disciples were the arms which He used. His name alone when
invoked by them is attested in numberless instances to have had a
supernatural effect.

As to the power exercised by martyrdom, the whole history is full of that
victory over idolatry and the heathen life which was accomplished by the
suffering of our Lord's disciples in His name and in community with Him.
Over and above the effect which the voluntary endurance of suffering for
conscience' sake has upon the minds of men, martyrdom merited the
propagation of the faith as if our Lord's Passion required to be repeated
in His members for the growth of His Body. Such is the fact expressed by
St. Paul in the words, "I rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up
those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ in my flesh for
His Body, which is the Church." And, again, "As the sufferings of Christ
abound in us, so also by Christ doth our comfort abound." In this
martyrdom threw a light upon the divine government of the world; and as
the reversibility of guilt had formed the history of fallen man, so the
reversibility of merit formed the history of man redeemed. Thus over
against the abyss of judgment lies the abyss of grace, the
treasure-house of the Church, of which the King of martyrs holds the key.
That treasure-house is the communion of saints. The power of martyrdom is
one of its great exhibitions. Its source is the Incarnation of the Son.
Taking the mass of sufferings undergone by the mystical Body of Christ in
the process of its growth, there is nothing in the web of human guilt,
how intricate soever it may be, from the beginning to the end of the
world, which has not its counterpart in the reversibility of merit, all
derived from the Passion of the Incarnate Son.

4. As to the _perpetuity_ of the miraculous power, the same reason exists
through the whole course of the Church's preaching for the signs in her
following them that believe. The promise is most clearly recorded at the
conclusion of St. Mark's Gospel, without limit of time or place. The
performance in this first age, when she had to meet all the tyranny of
rulers and all the rage of unbelievers, is recorded also. The promise
clearly extends to the whole time over which the command relating to it
extends: "Go ye unto the whole world, and preach the gospel to every

As to the perpetuity of martyrdom, it is clear, to use St. Paul's
expression, that what is wanting of the sufferings of Christ will not be
made up until His Body is completed "in the measure of the stature of the
fulness of Christ."

In all these respects the two great powers of miracle and martyrdom,
united in their origin, seem to run into and complete each other. The
witness of God and the witness of man concur in the formation of the
kingdom of His Son.

It may also be noted that all those who reject God as Creator, Judge, and
Remunerator proclaim as a first principle that a miracle is impossible,
while they have the same dislike to martyrdom as the great adversary is
said to have for holy water.

I have now, then, answered the question which I put above—How came the
Roman Emperor to allow to Christians the liberty to render to God the
things of God, that is, to believe, to worship, and to be governed
according to the law of Christ? It was done by an internal action of the
Holy Spirit, forming by a process of individual conversion in the minds
of an innumerable multitude a certain type of Christian character, an
image in each one of the Founder of the line; and at the same time by an
external action of the same Holy Spirit co-operating in this conversion
"with signs following." Never before were the divine and the human
societies pitted against each other in so absolute a conflict. Perhaps it
is even the only period as yet in the 1850 years of Christian life in
which the Battle of the Standards, of poverty, affliction, and contempt
on the one side, of the lust of the eyes, the lust of the flesh, and the
pride of life on the other, has been completely carried out—completely in
that the representation on each side embraced the whole society. For if
any would not be poor, afflicted, and despised in those times, either
they could not become Christians, or becoming so in times of comparative
peace, they were speedily scattered by the winnowing flail of
persecution. But on the other side, the combative heathenism from
Tiberius to Maxentius was pre-eminently corrupt. It should be added, that
in the 1850 years, never has there been so astonishing a result as the
advance of the Christian Church, from those who met in the upper room on
the Day of Pentecost to those who received from Constantine perfect civil
freedom to believe that doctrine, to exercise that worship, to be
governed by that Episcopate, which formed together the greatest
conceivable contradiction to the heathen world of Augustus. It was the
result of ten generations, sanctified by suffering and multiplied by

There is another point of view also in which this period should be
regarded. What did these champions of conscience do for that very civil
order of things to which in their character of Christians they had so
often to refuse obedience, and to say simply, in the words of their first
leader, "We ought to obey God rather than men"?

They conferred upon all future generations of men an inestimable benefit,
for they established the doctrine that the individual man has rights
which the collective society of men may not violate. They overthrew the
autocracy of the State, which had crushed out the heart of humanity.

During those ages, after the conversion of the original Roman
commonwealth into the Cæsarean empire, there was no guarantee of civil
liberty. From the city which only refused fire and water to its guiltiest
citizens, the Empire had grown into a power wherein a charge of majestas
justified the application of every torment to the accused; and the charge
of majestas was ever at hand in the case of a Christian. If Augustus,
though he slaughtered without mercy when his interests were concerned,
studied to give his rule the aspect of moderation, the emperors his
successors became more and more uncontrolled. Not only had they
legislative power, but the imprisonment and the execution of any
obnoxious person was entirely in their hands. In this long period of 284
years, Christians without number suffered loss of goods, confinement in
loathsome dungeons, separation from their families, and finally death
itself under torment and insult, because they would worship Christ as
God, because they would not swear by the genius of the Emperor, because
they would not burn a few grains of incense on the altar of an idol,
because one who had dedicated herself to God would not marry, because a
soldier would not carry out an impious command, for any of the
innumerable reasons for which they were offensive to the world, which the
world called "their hatred of the human race," that being the phrase of
the day for the Kulturkampf.

Thus they suffered and they died, and in so suffering and dying they
constructed a new basis of civil liberty. For this it was which the
Church's creation of the Spiritual Power betokened. It meant the
establishment of the Christian conscience not merely in the individual,
but in the great world-wide corporation of the Church, which thus formed
an impregnable citadel of defence against civil absolution, by cutting
off from it the triple domain of the Church's priesthood, teaching, and
jurisdiction. What heathenism had destroyed by corrupting the worship of
the one true God into a multitude of false gods, the Church restored by
setting up the worship of the Blessed Trinity; and the priesthood, which
unutterable degradations had humbled in the dust of human passions and
vices, the Church took from the Body of her Lord, dyed red in blood, and
invested with the imperishable sanctity of the Priest after the order of
Melchisedek; and that kingship which Nero and Domitian, Elagabalus and
Galerius, had stained with unspeakable crimes, it renewed in the example
of those princes over all the earth who ruled not as the kings of the
Gentiles, but as Fathers in God. Christian monarchy is the Church's work,
and the Christian State became possible because the Christian people in
times of authority which was cruel, and of majesty which was selfish, had
shown the example of rulers who governed for their people's sake,
governed by the authority of One who created the government of His people
when He said by the Lake of Galilee to the disciple who should be the
type and mould and origin of the episcopate for ever, "If thou lovest Me,
feed My sheep."

This was a purifying and ennobling of civil society wrought by the Church
over and above its spiritual end. The kingdom of heaven, whilst it
limited, also invigorated the earthly kingdom, showing that Christians
alone are freemen, by exercising the highest of all freedoms in belief,
in worship, and in obedience to spiritual government, and in the conduct
which is their united result.

Retracing the ground we have traversed, we find that the Church, between
the Day of Pentecost and the Edict of Toleration, passed unscathed and
victorious through five great trials, which were calculated to test to
the utmost the power vested in her. Two of these conflicts—that with
Judaism and that with heresy—were internal, and three—the conflict with
idolatry, that with Greek and Oriental philosophy, and that with the
civil power of the Roman Empire—were external. Moreover, while one of
these conflicts—that with the enmity of the unbelieving Jews, and the
spirit which urged the obligation of the ceremonial law upon the
Christian Church—raged chiefly in the first forty years, and was greatly
assuaged in its influence by the destruction of the city and temple of
Jerusalem, the remaining four contests lasted continuously, and acted
with collective force against the Church during the whole period. For as
to heresy, it was rife from the time of the Apostles themselves. Those
who became Christians, whether Jews or Gentiles, were all themselves
exposed to the danger of intellectual and moral seduction: we find,
indeed, that some of the most distinguished converts yielded to it, such
as Tatian and Tertullian. Those especially who in middle age had passed
over from heathen customs and a youth perhaps spent in the study of
Hellenic literature and philosophy into the Christian confession, would
naturally remain all their lives liable to the danger of false teaching,
if they were not guarded from it by the utmost purity of life, and not
only sincerity but humility of mind. Certainly no period of the Church's
history shows a greater number of sects than this.

Another enemy which the Church had from the beginning, and which
continued in the utmost force through the whole time, was idolatry, and
that whole contexture of life of which it was first the prolific source,
then the vigilant nurse and the constant support. Every part of Gentile
life was flavoured by the spirit of the false worship—the passions of the
young, the ambitions of middle life, the avarice of age. Its power was
all around the Church, to corrupt morals, to pervert belief, to
sensualise worship. As we have seen above, Christian writers dwell upon
the fact that vast numbers of those who became Christians had previously
been stained with heathen vices: those who had yielded to all manner of
sensual passions became chaste: those who had revelled in pride of
intellect became humble. But what a force of opposition to the spread of
the Christian religion did the moral state of the great cities in which
it had its principal seats present! Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Ephesus,
Corinth and Carthage were the very centres of all moral corruption when
the Christian seed was dropped upon them. This glamour of the heathen
life was an enemy the intensity and ubiquity of whose power lasted
without intermission from the beginning to the end of the time.

From the beginning likewise to the end the heathen philosophy, whether
Greek or Oriental, or in that amalgam of both which probably formed the
texture of cultured minds in this period, was a most dangerous and
influential foe. Against this also the Apostles themselves warn their
converts. From a very early time indeed the Gnostic sects put up the
pantheistic unity of the philosophic God against the Christian Trinity in
Unity. They tried to convert the Divine Logos into an æon. Led by their
doctrine that the essential seat of evil was in matter, they attacked
Christ in His human nature, denying the verity of His Body. They
constructed divine theogonies with all the brilliance of the Eastern
imagination and all the cleverness of Greek subtilty; and many who
resisted the foulness of heathen idolatry were led away by fantastic
schemes of spiritual unity—by pantheism in one of its many shapes. This
enemy also lasted through the whole period: the Gnostic systems passed
into the Neoplatonic, perhaps the most dangerous enemy which the Church
encountered in the three hundred years, and Arianism itself was but a
modification of Gnostic error.

But heresy, idolatry, and philosophy were helped throughout by that
jealousy of the Civil Power, the most marked perhaps in the best rulers,
such as Trajan and Decius, which abhorred above all things the formation
of an independent religious community in its bosom. How would an emperor
of cultivated tastes and incessant curiosity, such as Hadrian, exult over
the divisions of heresies and the varying systems of philosophy, looking
down on them all from his superior height! Irenæus observed that
heresies had no martyrs—the State did not persecute them. And philosophy
did not die for its belief; its essence was free thought—that is, the
license to change to-morrow what it asserted to-day. But how would a
monarchy which scrupled to authorise a guild of firemen in a provincial
city, lest it should form the nucleus of a secret society, abhor the
growth of a Church which had its centre in Rome and a governor in every
city, bound to the centre at Rome by the accord of a common faith, a
common worship, and the undivided rule of a single people, the _corpus
Christianorum_! Therefore heresy, idolatry, and philosophy were the
friends and allies of the Civil Power throughout this time. It patronised
them, and it could use all their influence, their resources, and their
intellect against the insurgent Church, while all the time it had at its
command every punishment which force can inflict on those who disregard
the laws of an empire. To be a Christian was to violate the Roman

Over against these five enemies the Church received her spiritual
authority from the Person of her Lord; she planted it through her
episcopate over the earth; she maintained her one doctrine in the
teaching of that episcopate, her one worship in the sacrifice which it
everywhere offered; she worked out her independence in her organic growth
of structure, in the mode of her teaching, in her resistance to error of
every sort and kind; and, finally, the empire which had used every arm
against her, acknowledged her doctrine, her worship, and her government,
and her essential independence in all these as the kingdom of Christ,
when Constantine appeared at the Nicene Council, not to control, but to
carry into effect its decision, and when he wrote concerning it, "The
sentence of the three hundred bishops is nothing else but the decision of
God; especially since the Holy Spirit, by His action upon the minds of
such men, has brought into full light the divine will."[210]

When the Emperor of Rome, the successor of Tiberius, gave official
utterance to such words, he showed that the blood of martyrs shed through
ten generations, the endurance of confessors, the labours of priests who
refused the joys of domestic life in their imitation of the Virgin's Son,
the continence of those who carried out in themselves the vow of the
Virgin Mother of that Son, and what is included in all these, the
generation of the Christian people, had done their appointed work; and so
the kingdom of Cæsar recognised the kingdom of Christ.


[182] See Josephus, Jud. Antiq., l. 18, c. 4.

[183] See St. Basil, Ep. 141.

[184] For instances, see the utmost incredible account in De Civitate Dei
vi. 9; and, again, Clement of Alexandria, Cohortatio, p. 81 (Potter's
ed.); what I have said is in exact accordance with St. Athanasius, de
Inc. Verbi, sec. 46.

[185] A fragment of this apology is preserved for us in Eusebius'
History, iv. 26.

[186] 1 Cor. xv. 6.

[187] As Baur, Die drei ersten Jahrhunderte, p. 464, attests.

[188] St. Greg. I Epist. xi. 66.

[189] Irenæus, iv. 33, 9.

[190] Eusebius, Hist., v. 1.

[191] Clement, Strom., ii. 20, p. 494, τοὺς γνωστικοὺς, τοὺς τοῦ κόσμου

[192] Apologeticus, cap. 12.

[193] 1 Cor. i. 17, ii. 9.

[194] See Schwane, Dogmengeschichte, i. 557.

[195] Panegyric of the Martyrs by the Deacon Constantine.

[196] Clement of Alex., Cohortatio, sec. 10, p. 85. It might be fruitful
to compare the view of the world taken by the Christian Clement with that
taken by the pessimist Schopenhauer.

[197] The words inserted seem here to have fallen out of the text.

[198] Clement of Alex., Strom. vi., at the end.

[199] Tertullian, Apology, 50; Edinburgh translation.

[200] Cont. Cels., 1, 67; 2, 48; 2, 79; 1, 46; 8, 47; Edinburgh

[201] Irenæus, 2, 32.

[202] Athanasius, De Incarnatione Verbi Dei, c. 46-48.

[203] Gieseler, i. 208.

[204] As admitted by Friedländer, Sittengeschichte Roms., iii. 458, 459,
and see the argument of Celsus in Origen, 8, 45.

[205] On Psalm xxxvi. 3.

[206] St. Thomas, Cont. Gent., 3, 99.

[207] St. Cyprian, Ep. 8.

[208] Sermon 281.

[209] St. Thomas, Contra Gent., 1, 6.

[210] Constantine's letter to the Church of Alexandria, recorded by
Socrates, Hist. 1, 9.


  ADAM, Father and Head of his race, 3;
    does not lose the Headship by his fall, 11;
    is likewise Priest and Teacher of his race, 14-16;
    created in full possession of language, 5;
    has an infused knowledge of the animal creation, 5;
    has the Image and Likeness of God both as an Individual and as Head
          of his race, 6;
    subserves the mystery of the Incarnation, 8;
    as does the whole society founded in Adam and his children, 55.

  Æschylus, his rigid statement of satisfaction due for sin, 260.

  Alexandria: its catechetical school, 345;
    becomes a Christian university, 385;
    its succession of ten distinguished presidents, 386.

  Altar, the heathen, on which beasts were sacrificed, βωμὸς, the Christian,
          on which the Unbloody Sacrifice is offered, θυσιαστήριον, 232.

  Apostolate, the powers conveyed to it by Christ, 136, 138, 139, 149-151;
    summary of these powers, 154, 155, 159;

  Aquinas, St. Thomas, his doctrine of the subordination of the Temporal
          to the Spiritual Power, grounded upon the superiority of the
          end pursued by the latter, 123;
    Miracles a proof that the order of things proceeds from God, not by
          necessity of nature, but by His free-will, 450;
    the conversion of the world without miracles would have been the most
          marvellous of all marvels, 452;
    marks that sacrifice must be offered to God alone, 256;
    his statement of the supernatural government tending to a supernatural
          end, 94-96;
    sums up patristic doctrine on the Eucharist in his hymn, Lauda Sion,

  Athanasius, St., represents the principles on which the ante-nicene
          Church maintained the faith, 389;
    how he states the authority of Scripture, 370;
    the rule of faith, 392;
    what he thinks of private judgment, 393;
    his tests of heresy, 393;
    on ecclesiastical definitions, 394;
    says Scripture and Tradition are united in the Church's magisterium,
    how he accounts for the cessation of idolatry, oracles, and magic,

  Athenagoras, his conversion, 383.

  Augustine, St., his description of the "Connection of Ages" down to
          Christ, and from him, xxx-xxxii;
    witnessed the Catholic Church, but did not foresee Christendom, xxxiv;
    his description of the Two Cities, xxxvii;
    attests that the shedding of blood in sacrifice from the beginning
          points to the sacrifice of Christ, 15, 255;
    that the Christian Sacrifice is the principle of unity to Christ's
          mystical Body, 276;
    how he understood the "One Episcopate," 280;
    mentions thousands of bishops as existing in 314 A.D., 216;
    why he saw in the Church the Godhead of its Founder, 280;
    his testimony to the force of the Catholic Church upon his mind,
          165, 229;
    the number, names, and offices of heathen deities, 407;
    the seven churches in the apocalypse signify the fulness of the one
          Church, 174;
    his rule that what has been always kept in the Church, without being
          ordered by a council, is of apostolical authority, 296;
    complains of judgments as to secular matters being pressed upon
          him, 306;
    forbids the words of the creed to be written down, 348;
    comments on an answer of St. Felicitas, 451.

  BABYLON, type of the kingdom of force, xxvi;
    identified with heathen Rome by St. Peter and St. John, xxix.

  Basil, St., places the nature of God outside the conception of number,

  Baur, Die drei ersten Jahrhunderte, 364, 366;
    Constantine's view of the Church, 416;
    sees the episcopal idea in the angels of the seven churches, 174.

  Bernard, St., his comment on the sheep committed to Peter, 178.

  Bianchi, Potestà della Chièsa, on the honour given by the Gentiles to
          their priesthood, 60, 63, 64;
    how St. Jerome says that bishops, priests, and deacons succeed the
          high-priest, priests, and Levites of the Mosaic hierarchy, 191;
    the bishop's office an ἀρχή, 219;
    selects five points of the Church's organic growth, 296;
    the Apostles follow their Lord's example in placing power in a head,
    distribution of episcopal jurisdiction from the beginning, 300;
    on the Church's hearing and deciding causes, 303;
    on the criminal and penitential forum, 304;
    the Apostles prohibited Christians from pleading before secular
          tribunals, 306;
    jurisdiction, 307;
    election of bishops in the first three centuries, 309;
    bishops sent out from Rome to convert the nations, 219, 310;
    the Church's administration of temporal goods, 312, 313.

  Bossuet, his six points of the original human society, 29;
    what he thinks of a State without a religion, 41;
    the Christian people's relation to Christ, 101, 108.

  CATECHETICAL SCHOOLS, at Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Edessa,
          386, 387.

  Chamard, Dom, L'Etablissement du Christianisme, quoted, 217.

  Christ, His action as at once and always King, Lawgiver, and Priest,
          the subject of this volume, xx;
    kingdom of Christ as prophesied, xxi-xxviii;
    as fulfilled, xxix-xl;
    His High-priesthood consists in two acts, 239;
    His people answer to Him in the triple order established by Him as
          the Priest, the Prophet, and the King, 101.

  Chrysostom, St., his epitome of the Church's course preceding his own
          time, 230;
    Christ's one undeniable miracle that He founded the race of
          Christians, 231;
    contrast of the race with that out of which it was formed, 232;
    the incessant conflict amid which it was done, 233;
    dwells on the presence of Christ's physical Body in the Eucharist,
    the Eucharist one sacrifice, everywhere, and for ever, 277.

  Cities, the Two, date from the Fall, 14;
    city of the devil, prevailing, leads to the Deluge, 17;
    described by St. Augustine, xxxvii.

  Clement of Alexandria, his conversion, and great ability, 385;
    attests the persecution in his time, 419;
    on the power of the κήρυγμα, 429;
    impotence of philosophy contrasted with it, 430;
    exposes the heathen deities, 407.

  Clement, St., of Rome, his letter to the Church of Corinth, the first
          Papal Pastoral, 184;
    called most authoritative by Irenæus, 185;
    likens Christian obedience to Roman military discipline, 186;
    speaks of minute regulations as to religious ordinances given by
          Christ, 187;
    makes all spiritual order to descend from above, 188;
    argues for the Christian order _à fortiori_, as compared with
          the Mosaic, 189;
    says the Apostles established bishops everywhere, with rule of
          succession, 190;
    attests the continuation of the Mosaic hierarchy in the Christian,
    says Christian ordinances are to be observed more accurately than
          Mosaic, 193;
    describes the descent of power from above in the first sixty years,
    confirms in this the Scriptural records, and supplies details, 197;
    exercises the primacy in the lifetime of St. John, 197-200;
    St. Clement and St. Ignatius complete and corroborate each other, 203;
    insists on the care with which our Lord instituted the government of
          His Church, 238;
    marks St. Paul to have been martyred by Nero's deputies, 367.

  Council of Arles, 375;
    its testimony to the Pope's authority, 397;
    says the Apostles Peter and Paul sit for ever in the Roman see, 398;
    Constantine acknowledges its judgment as that of Christ, 398.

  Council of Trent, its description of the Christian sacrifice, 265, 268.

  Cœlestine, Pope, St., how the law of supplication establishes the
          law of belief, 329.

  Cyprian, St.—every city has its bishop in his time, 217;
    meaning of his aphorism on the oneness and solidarity of the
          Episcopate, 222;
    which he compares with the divine Unity in the Trinity, 224;
    his testimony as to the election of bishops in his own time, 308;
    sees Christ present in the martyrs, 450.

  DANIEL, the prophet, his vision of the kingdom of God set
          up on earth, xxiii-xxviii.

  Dante, the great statue, xxix;
    St. John the Evangelist, 172;
    the saints before and after Christ form the great rose of Paradise,

  Dionysius of Halicarnassus, description of the Roman Pontifical
          College, 61.

  EPISCOPATE, the One, planted in every city by the Apostles, 194;
    attested by St. Ignatius, 202;
    by Eusebius the historian, 207;
    who gives the succession at Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem,
    by Tertullian, 212;
    by Irenæus, 213;
    each city and small town had its bishop before the peace of the
          Church, 216;
    the bishop said to wield a government, 218;
    bishops sent out from Rome to convert the nations, 219;
    episcopal government universal, 220;
    but the One Episcopate much more than this, 222;
    a regimen ruling one flock through the whole world, 224-226;
    the undivided rule of a single people, the Corpus Christianorum, 462;
    set forth by De Marca, 222;
    by St. Leo the Great in A.D. 446, 223;
    co-exists with the Primacy, 227;
    considered a miracle by St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine, 228;
    contrasted with national churches, 180, 181, 237;
    Christian government, worship, belief, and practice wrapt up together
          herein, 238;
    organic growth of the One Episcopate in mother and daughter churches,
    developed in provincial councils, 302;
    exercised in decisions of coercive power, 303;
    exhibited in election of bishops, 307;
    the whole a derivation of the mission of Christ, 311;
    gradually clothes itself in temporal goods, 312-316;
    the living personal authority that to which the assistance of the Holy
          Ghost is promised from beginning to end, 335;
    our Lord's missionary circuits the germ, 340;
    the mission carried on by the Apostles, 341-343;
    personal authority exhibited in the system of catechesis, 344;
    the use of a creed, 347;
    the dispensing of sacraments, 349;
    the inflicting of penance, 351;
    the dispensing of the Scriptures, 352;
    all this continued during fifteen hundred years, 355-359;
    gift of infallibility lodged in the magisterium, 387, 389;
    which is the Church's divine government and concrete life, as attested
          by Athanasius, 395.

  Eusebius, of Cæsarea, notes three periods in the first ninety years,
          206, 207;
    sum of his testimony as to the three great sees and the episcopate,
    records that Peter came to Rome in the reign of the Emperor Claudius,
    and the martyrdom of the two Apostles, 210;
    attests the divine power by which the Church was planted, 211;
    the Paschal Lamb sacrificed once a year, but Christians are ever
          satisfied with the Body of the Lord, 270;
    contrasts the divine polity and philosophy of the Church with the
          incessant variation of heresies, 221;
    attests the multitude of martyrs everywhere in the reign of Marcus
          Aurelius, 418.

  FISH, the sacred symbol in the catacombs of Christ's person
          and work, 287.

  Franzelin, Cardinal, the Church's teaching office, 330-335;
    that which is essential, the perpetual succession of living men, 339;
    the revelation made by Christ to the Apostles complete as to its
          substance, 361;
    the act of Christ's High Priesthood in the Incarnation, 239;
    the reality of the Body and Blood of Christ on the altar asserted by
          St. Ignatius of Antioch, St. Justin, and St. Irenæus, 269;
    the physical Body of Christ in the Eucharist insisted on by the
          Fathers, 274.

  Friedländer admits the universal belief in miracles of Jews and heathens
          as well as Christians, 445.

  GIESELER, five things on which the apologists laid stress, 444.

  Gregory the Great, St., his letter to King Ethelbert, 416;
    the whole Church represented by the sevenfold number of the churches,
    repeatedly speaks of the see of the chief of the apostles as the see
          of one in three places—Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch, 297.

  Gregory of Nazianzum, calls his office as bishop a government, 218.

  Gregory VII., St., on the union of Church and State, 127.

  HAGEMANN, Die römische Kirche, how Constantine looked at the
          Church, 293;
    speaks of particular tendencies in local churches, 376.

  Heinrich, Dogmatische Theologie, 387.

  Heresy, its principle, as opposed to that of orthodoxy, 378;
    the apostolic writings full of warnings against it, 380;
    its incessant attacks through the second century, 382.

  Hergenröther, on the development of synodical institutions, 302.

  Hilary, St., attests that every church has its bishop, 217.

  IGNATIUS of Antioch, St., contemplates the whole Episcopate
          in the mind of Christ, as the mind of the Father, 173, 202;
    corroborates St. Clement of Rome, 200, 203;
    states the organic unity of a local church, 203.

  Innocent I., Pope, St., grounds the wide jurisdiction of the See of
          Antioch on its being the first see of the chief of the apostles,

  Irenæus, St., quoted, 185, 202;
    describes the propagation of the Church, 213;
    barbarians believing in Christ follow the order of tradition without
          pen or paper, 220;
    the Church's deposit of doctrine like the principle of life in a body,
    bears witness to the multitude of martyrs everywhere, 418;
      and of miracles, 438.

  JOHN, ST., does not record the institution of the Eucharist,
          but adds what may be considered a comment upon it, 134;
    records promises made to the Apostles, 149-151;
    the universal pastorship conferred on Peter, 152;
    how his expressions sum up both the universal mission of the
          apostolate, and the supreme pastorship of Peter, 177;
    his double warning as to the many things concerning Jesus not written,
    his vision of the heavenly court as the Eucharistic Sacrifice, 324-327;
    his vision of our Lord in the government of the Church through his
          bishops, 171-175;
    identifies heathen Rome with Babylon, xxix.

  Josephus, 402;
    States Poppæa to have been a Jewish proselyte, 366.

  Jurisdiction, how partitioned in the Episcopate, stated by De Marca, 222;
    by St. Leo the Great, 223;
    Bianchi, 306;
    necessary in any kingdom, 278-280.

  Justin Martyr, St., says the presence of Christ's Body and Blood on the
          altar is as real as the Incarnation itself, 269;
    the tale of his conversion, 382.

  KINGDOM of Christ, thirteen characteristics of, 103-107;
    foretold by Daniel, xxii-xxviii;
    subsists from age to age by its own force, 131;
    disposed to the Apostolic College, 144;
    jurisdiction necessary to it, 278;
    as it appeared in A.D. 29 and A.D. 325, 291;
    recognised by Constantine at the Council of Arles, A.D. 314, 398;
    and at the Nicene Council, 290, 463;
    consists in three things, Sacerdotium, Magisterium, Jurisdictio,
          answering to worship, belief, and government in the people which
          is its outcome, 411;
    the intimate cohesion of these three, 87-90;
    the perfect antagonism which they constituted in Christians to the
          Pagan empire, 404-411;
    the five conflicts which the kingdom underwent in the three centuries,

  Kleutgen, on the two meanings of _tradition_, 344;
    on the word of God, written and unwritten, 361;
    on the special gift of the Apostolic Body, 361.

  LASAULX, Die Sühnopfer der Griechen and Römer, und ihr
          Verhältniss zu dem einem auf Golgotha, extracts from, 245-253;
    on human sacrifices, 259-262.

  Leo the Great, St., illustrates the "One Episcopate" of St. Cyprian, 223;
    his perfect picture of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in his day, 223.

  Leo XIII. in his encyclical June 1881, declares civil power to be a
          vicegerency from God, 20.

  Lightfoot, Dr., suggests that the Primacy belongs not to the bishop but
          to the Church of Rome, 205.

  Luke, St., records the institution of the priesthood, 133;
    the power given to the Apostles, 139, 159;
    vast importance of the conversation which he alone records about the
          disposition of the kingdom, and its ruler, 141-147;
    distinguishes Peter from the other Apostles, as much as St. Matthew
          and St. John, 148;
    his reticence as to the place to which St. Peter went, when delivered
          from prison, and its reason, 373.

  MAGISTERIUM, of the Church, shown in her teaching, 316;
    which at first was oral only, based upon authority, 317;
    three classes of truths forming the divine and apostolical tradition,
    the period of exclusively oral teaching specially exhibits the Church's
          teaching office, 320;
    seen in the rite of baptism, 321;
    in the Eucharistic Liturgy, 322;
    in the rite of ordination, 328;
    fullness of the magisterium shown in these rites, 329;
    not changed or diminished by the writings of the New Testament,
    consists in the unchangeable principle of a living personal authority,
    thus expressed by Irenæus, 213;
    acts of the magisterium which preceded the New Testament, 336;
    is the continuation of Christ's personal teaching, 340;
    and of the apostolic mission, 341;
    and abides in all ages, 343;
    is shown in five things, the system of catechesis, the use of a Creed,
          the dispensing of sacraments, the enjoining of penance, the
          handling of Scripture, 343-355;
    unimpeached through fifteen centuries, 355;
    its principle, a divine authority establishing a kingdom, 360;
    it transmits the word of God, written or unwritten, 361;
    which is complete, as to its substance, from the beginning, 361;
    the defence against error lodged in it, 387;
    consists in the Church's divine government and concrete life, 389;
    employs the whole word of God, written or unwritten, as its Rule of
          Faith, 395.

  Maine, Sir Henry, author of "Ancient Law," quoted upon original society,
    the patriarchal theory, 47, 49;
    family, the unit of ancient society, not the individual, 50-54;
    universal belief, or assumption of blood-relationship, 51;
    the Roman _patria potestas_, a relic of the original rule, 53;
    union of government with religion, 53;
    property sprung out of joint-ownership, 53.

  Marca, De, his statement of jurisdiction in the Episcopate, 222.

  Mark, St., the only Evangelist who does not record special powers given
          to Peter, 156;
    records the institution of the priesthood, 133;
    the powers given to the Apostolic Body, 138, 154.

  Martin, Dr., Bishop of Paderborn, on the High-priest's office, 75.

  Martyrdom, an essential element in the world's conversion, 445;
    its occasion the enmity between the serpent's seed and the Woman's
          Seed, 447;
    before Christ looks to Christ, and after Christ looks back on Him, 448;
    parallel with miracles in principle, witness, power, and perpetuity,
    martyrs, champions of a great army, 421;
    endure for God what heroes endure for natural goods, 431-434;
    fill up what is wanting in the sufferings of Christ, until His mystical
          Body is completed, 453, 454;
    hated by all who deny a Creator, Judge, and Remunerator, 455;
    the Deacon Constantine's panegyric, 427.

  Matthew, St., records the institution of the priesthood, 133;
    the transmission of spiritual power, 136;
    the special promises to Peter, 137;
    distinguishes the Apostolate and the Primacy, 154-155.

  Melito, of Sardis, calls the Christian faith a philosophy nurtured
          together and begun together with Augustus, 414.

  Miracles, their existence alleged by every ancient Christian writer, 445;
    by Jews and Heathens of every class, 445;
    by Origen, who insists on miracles of conversion as greater than
          bodily miracles, 435;
    and that miracles only could account for the conversions wrought, 438;
    attested by Irenæus, of his own time, 439;
    by Athanasius, of the sign of the cross, and the name of Christ, 442;
    connection between miracles and martyrdom, as to their principle,
          witness, power and perpetuity, 449-454;
    the Christian faith rests upon two miracles, the Incarnation and the
          Resurrection of Christ, 445-447;
    the absolute necessity of miracles to substantiate the mission of
          Christ, 444;
    the Incarnation, the reason of miraculous power, 447;
    and the Fall of man its necessity, 447.

  Möhler, on the use of the Creed, 347;
    on the first Christian writers, 381;
    on the Roman catechetical school, 386.

  NÄGELSBACH, original kingship springs from fathership, 48;
    sacrifice, an essential of Greek piety, 244;
    the Greek seeks a living personal God, 244.

  Newman, Cardinal, describes the system of catechesis, 345;
    his history of the Arians referred to, 349;
    notes on St. Athanasius quoted, 390-395;
    his treatise on the Rise and Successes of Arianism, a storehouse of
          information, 397;
    says that particular authors do not speak _ex cathedra_, nor as
          a Council may speak, 388.

  Nicene Council, occasion of its convocation, 289;
    Constantine recognised therein the Church as a divine kingdom, 290;
    and the solidarity of the Episcopate, 292;
    compared with the Roman Senate, 293;
    its force as to the relation between Church and State, 294;
    its sixth Canon, 297;
    Constantine, acknowledging its sentence as the decision of God,
          recognised the kingdom of Christ in the world, 463.

  Noah, refounds the human race, 18;
    his first act, an act of sacrifice to which God attaches an universal
          covenant with his race, 18-21;
    is Father, King, Priest, and Teacher of his race, 22;
    among whom he establishes Marriage, Sacrifice, Civil Government, and
          the alliance of Government with Religion, 22-24.

  ORIGEN, insists on the divine power shown in converting
          sinners, 434;
    on miracles of conversion as greater than bodily miracles, 435;
    on the spread of the Church and the conversion of sinners viewed
          together, 436;
    not possible without miracles, 437;
    as the soul vivifies and moves the body, so the word arouses and moves
          the whole body, the Church, 359;
    sets up a catechetical school at Cæsarea in Palestine, 386.

  Ovid, his statement of the power of vicarious sacrifice, 261.

  PANTÆNUS, his conversion, labours, and renown, 384.

  Paul, St., six names whereby he describes his commission, 168;
    the Church to him "the Body of Christ," 162-165;
    says mission is necessary to every herald of the Gospel, 164;
    attests the grace given by ordination, 165;
    places in the one Christian Ministry the seat of dogmatic truth, 162;
    sees an inseparable bond in unity, truth, and government, 167;
    how he records the institution of the Priesthood, 132;
    appoints bishops, 165, 217.

  Peter, St., the six privileges recorded to have been bestowed on him,
          in which his primacy consists, 160;
    speaks of Rome under the name of Babylon, xxix.

  Phillipps' Kirchenrecht, 130.

  Philo, describes the concourse of Jews to Jerusalem, 78;
    quoted upon sacrifice, 248.

  Plato, makes piety to consist in prayer and sacrifice, 243.

  ποιμαίνειν, force of the word, to be Shepherd, 177-178.

  Power, the Spiritual, a derivation from the Person of Christ, out of the
          union of the divine and human natures in him, 103, 111, 162;
    creates the supernatural society for a supernatural end, 93;
    to which the present life is subordinated, 94;
    and which is beyond the provision of temporal government, 96;
    a kingdom subsisting by its own force from age to age, 131;
    divine truth maintained by the perpetual operation of its one hierarchy
          in the Body of Christ, 162-164;
    has in Scripture five qualities, 175;
    the coming from above, 175;
    completeness, 176-179;
    unity, 179-181;
    independence of civil government, 181;
    perpetuity to the end of time, 182;
    the transmission of such a power witnessed in the Church's history from
          A.D. 39 to A.D. 325, 184-237;
    the resting of this power upon the Sacrifice of His Body instituted by
          Christ, 238-243, 263-286;
    its independence as to government shown in its organic growth, 295-316;
    its independence as to teaching shown in its communication of doctrine,
    in its mode of positive teaching, 340-355;
    in its mode of resisting error, 359-399;
    in its conflict with the Roman empire's civil power, 400-463;
    the creation of such a power by the direct action of God foretold by
          the Prophet Daniel, 600 years before Christ, xxi-xxviii.

  Powers, the Two, appear united in the Headship of Adam, 11-13;
    and again in Noah, 19;
    in whom civil government is established by divine authority, 20;
    it is a common good of all his race, 38-40;
    the two Powers ever in alliance through all gentilism, 41-42;
    civil government springs as little from those governed, as fathership
          from children, 48-52;
    "Law originally is the parent's word," 53;
    relation of the two Powers from the beginning, 56, 108;
    Gentile deification of the State, 58;
    relation of the two Powers in the Mosaic Law, 67, 72-82;
    Analogy between them, 95;
    subjection of the spiritual to the civil power, the final result of
          gentilism, 70;
    the spiritual power has a new basis in the Person of Christ, 110;
    co-operation of the two Powers as stated by St. Gregory VII., 126;
    Christians subject to both Powers, 111;
    amity intended by God between them, 114;
    their separate action not intended, 115;
    persecution of the spiritual by the temporal not intended, 119;
    the indirect spiritual power over temporal things, 124;
    the ideal relation of the two Powers, and the various deflections from
          it described under the image of marriage, 128;
    alliance of the two Powers in the Roman empire at the advent of
          Christ, 400;
    how and why the civil power acknowledged the triple spiritual liberty
          of belief, worship, and government, 455, 462.

  Priesthood, begun in Adam, 15;
    and afresh in Noah, 22;
    carried on from them through all the race, 56;
    distinguished from the Civil Power in the Roman Republic, 60;
    united afterward to the Principate, but still distinct, 62;
    the College of Pontifices reverse a tribunicial law, 63;
    the distinction from civil power in it runs through all ancient
          nations, 64;
    witness to the unity of man's race, 65;
    the Aaronic, 72;
    special offices of the High-priest, 72;
    part of the High-priest through the whole history from Moses to
          Christ, 75;
    his jurisdiction under the Roman empire, 77;
    the Jewish priesthood and worship, a prophecy and preparation for
          Christ, 80;
    the High-priest's treatment of Christ, 82;
    the Christian priesthood springs from the Person of Christ, 86;
    as the human race from Adam, 111;
    institution of the Christian Priesthood, 132-135;
    all the mission of Christ collected in his Priesthood, 135;
    the Christian hierarchy succeeds the Mosaic, 191;
    Priesthood of the Church springs from the two acts of Christ's High
          Priesthood, 242;
    priesthood, teaching, and jurisdiction cohere inwardly, 87, 287-288;
    acknowledged equally by Constantine, 462.

  Primacy, the, of the Church, instituted by Christ himself, 137, 143-148,
          152-153, 176-179;
    the words conveying it compared with those which convey the Apostolate,
    the witness of St. Matthew to the distinction between Apostolate and
          Primacy, 155;
    the witness of St. Luke to the same distinction, 155;
    the witness of St. John to the same distinction, 155, 156;
    summary of its powers as given in the Gospels, 160;
    how St. Paul bears witness to it, 166-168;
    exercised by St. Clement in the lifetime of St. John, 197-200;
    the two forces of the Primacy and the Hierarchy exist from the
          beginning, 90;
    are exactly expressed by St. Leo in the year 446, 223;
    hold the Church together in the ante-nicene period, 375;
    are the joint result of our Lord's words, 161.

  RENAUDOT, the Eucharistic Liturgy, 323.

  SACERDOS, in the language of the third century, signifies the
          bishop, as offering the sacrifice of the altar, 217, 279;
    as ἐκκλησία signifies a diocese, 304.

  Sacrifice, rite of bloody, appears in the family of the first man, and
          dates from his fall, 15;
    unintelligible without the notion of sin, 15;
    its prevalence among the Gentiles, 243-250;
    specialities of the rite, described by Lasaulx, 250-253;
    associated with prayer, 253;
    with the sense of guilt, 254;
    enacted by God at the Fall as a perpetual prophecy, 256;
    the most striking characteristic of the world before Christ, 257;
    human, 259-261;
    enaction of, a divine act, 263;
    the Christian Sacrifice counterpart of the original institution, 264;
    and fulfilment of the whole Mosaic ritual, 264;
    its prodigious meaning and power, 267-274;
    presence of Christ's physical Body in it, according to St. Chrysostom,
    is the principle of unity to Christ's mystical Body, according to St.
          Augustine, 276;
    the double act of Christ's High-priesthood thereby impressed on the
          world, 276;
    fulfils over the world the parable, I am the true Vine, 280-286;
    the Eucharistic, picture of, by an apostle, 324.

  Schwane, Dogmengeschichte, 370, 424.

  Sophocles, his sense of the power of vicarious sacrifice, 260.

  Stöckl, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, 377.

  TACITUS, his _compages_ of the Roman empire, xxxiv;
    says that Poppæa was surrounded with fortune-tellers, 366.

  Taparelli, Saggio teoretico di dritto naturale, philosophical basis
          on which the spiritual society rests, 98.

  Tatian, history of his conversion, 383.

  Tertullian, history of his conversion, 384;
    marks Domitian as a persecutor of the Church, 372;
    attests the persecution in his time, 420;
    sufferings which followed on conversions, 431-434;
    describes the first propagation of the Church, 211-213;
    compares the Church to a single vine planted in all lands, 239;
    the apostles sheltered by their position as Jews, 364;
    marks the Jews as sources of all calumny against Christians, 368.

  Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, his conversion and writings, 384.

  Tradition, has two meanings, (1) the _unwritten_ word of God,
          (2) the whole doctrine of salvation as handed down, 344;
    divine and apostolical tradition, 319;
    announcing the acts and words of Christ, part of, 337;
    various parts of tradition in its full sense, 338.



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