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Title: Our Flowering Shrubs - and how to know them
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Our Flowering Shrubs - and how to know them" ***

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Gowans's Nature Books, No. 23


Our Flowering Shrubs

AND HOW TO KNOW THEM


CARSON & NICOL, LIMITED PRINTERS, GLASGOW

BLOCKS BY ANNAN ENGRAVING CO., LTD. GLASGOW



_BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM, PURSH._

[Illustration]

Holly-leaved Barberry
(Mahonia)
(Flower yellow)

Mahonia a Feuilles de Houx
(Fleur jaune)

Hulst-Sauerdorn
(Blüte gelb)



OUR
FLOWERING
SHRUBS

AND HOW TO KNOW THEM


_Sixty photographs by Charles Kirk_


GOWANS & GRAY, Ltd.
5 Robert Street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
58 Cadogan Street, Glasgow
1918



_First Edition, August, 1909. Reprinted, May, 1918 (completing 7000)._



_The success of "Our Trees and How to Know Them" has encouraged the
publishers to issue the present volume, which deals with a branch of
botany practically untouched by handbooks at a moderate price. They
trust that lovers of plants will show their appreciation of their
efforts by endeavouring to make this new departure very widely known._



_BERBERIS DARWINII, HOOK._

[Illustration]

Darwin's Barberry
(Flower yellow)

Épine-Vinette de Darwin
(Fleur jaune)

Darwin's Sauerdorn
(Blüte gelb)


_BERBERIS STENOPHYLLA, MOORE_

[Illustration]

Narrow-leaved Barberry
(Flower yellow)

Épine-Vinette à Feuilles étroites
(Fleur jaune)

Schmaler Sauerdorn
(Blüte gelb)


_BERBERIS VULGARIS, L._

[Illustration]

Common Barberry
(Flower pale yellow)

Épine-Vinette
(Fleur jaune pâle)

Gemeiner Sauerdorn
(Blüte blassgelb)


_CISTUS LAURIFOLIUS, L._

[Illustration]

Laurel-leaved Cistus
(Flower white)

Ciste a Feuilles de Laurier
(Fleur blanche)

Lorbeer-Cistrose
(Blüte weiss)


_TAMARIX PALLASII, DESV._

[Illustration]

Pallas's Tamarisk
(Flower pink)

Tamaris de Pallas
(Fleur rose)

Fünfmännige Tamariske
(Blüte rosa)


_RUTA GRAVEOLENS, L._

[Illustration]

Common Rue
(Flower yellow)

Rue des Jardins
(Fleur jaune)

Garten-Raute
(Blüte gelb)


_CHOISYA TERNATA, H.B.K._

[Illustration]

Mexican Orange-Flower
(Flower white)

Choisya a Feuilles ternées
(Fleur blanche)

Echte Zimmerraute
(Blüte weiss)


_PTELEA TRIFOLIATA, L._

[Illustration]

Hop Tree or Shrubby Trefoil
(Flower green)

Ptéléa trifoliolé
(Fleur verte)

Amerikanischer Hopfenstrauch
(Blüte grün)


_CEANOTHUS AZUREUS, DESF._

[Illustration]

Blue Mountain Sweet
(Flower blue)

Céanot azuré
(Fleur bleue)

Azur-Säckelblume
(Blüte blau)


_CEANOTHUS VEITCHIANUS, HOOK._

[Illustration]

Veitch's Mountain Sweet
(Flower blue)

Céanot de Veitch
(Fleur bleue)

Tiefblaue Säckelblume
(Blüte blau)


_GENISTA TINCTORIA, L._

[Illustration]

Dyers' Greenweed
(Flower yellow)

Genêt des Teinturiers
(Fleur jaune)

Färber-Ginster
(Blüte gelb)


_SPARTIUM JUNCEUM, L._

[Illustration]

Yellow Spanish Broom
(Flower yellow)

Genêt d'Espagne
(Fleur jaune)

Binsen-Pfriem
(Blüte gelb)


_CYTISUS CAPITATUS, JACQ._

[Illustration]

Capitate Broom
(Flower yellow)

Cytise en Tête
(Fleur jaune)

Kopfiger Kleestrauch
(Blüte gelb)


_INDIGOFERA GERARDIANA, WALL._

[Illustration]

Gerard's Indigo
(Flower pink)

Indigotier a Grappes
(Fleur rose)

Blumen-Indigostrauch
(Blüte rosa)


_COLUTEA ARBORESCENS, L._

[Illustration]

Bladder Senna
(Flower yellow)

Baguenaudier commun
(Fleur jaune)

Gewöhnlicher Blasenstrauch
(Blüte gelb)


_PRUNUS LUSITANICA, L.F._

[Illustration]

Portugal Laurel
(Flower white)

Laurier de Portugal
(Fleur blanche)

Portugiesische Lorbeer-Kirsche
(Blüte weiss)


_SPIRÆA DOUGLASI, HOOK._

[Illustration]

Douglas's Spiræa
(Flower red)

Spirée de Douglas
(Fleur rouge)

Kalifornischer Spierstrauch
(Blüte rot)


_SPIRÆA JAPONICA, L.F._

[Illustration]

Rosy Bush Meadow Sweet
(Flower pink)

Spirée du Japon
(Fleur rose)

Japanischer Spierstrauch
(Blüte rosa)


_NEILLIA THYRSIFLORA, D. DON_

[Illustration]

Vine-leaved Neillia
(Flower white)

Neillia a Fleurs en Thyrse
(Fleur blanche)

Echte Traubenspiere
(Blüte weiss)


_KERRIA JAPONICA, D.C., VAR. FLORE PLENO_

[Illustration]

Jew's Mallow
(Flower yellow)

Kerria du Japon
(Fleur jaune)

Japanischer Ranunkelstrauch
(Blüte gelb)


_RUBUS DELICIOSUS, JAMES_

[Illustration]

Rocky Mountain Bramble
(Flower white)

Ronce délicieuse
(Fleur blanche)

Köstlicher Zimt-Beerstrauch
(Blüte weiss)


_RUBUS LACINIATUS, WILLD._

[Illustration]

Cut-leaved Bramble
(Flower pinkish-white)

Ronce a Feuilles Laciniées
(Fleur blanc rosé)

Geschlitzter Brombeerstrauch
(Blüte rosaweiss)


_RUBUS NUTKANUS, MOC._

[Illustration]

Nutka Sound Raspberry or Salmon-Berry
(Flower white)

Ronce de Noutka
(Fleur blanche)

Weisser Zimt-Beerstrauch
(Blüte weiss)


_POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA, L._

[Illustration]

Shrubby Cinquefoil
(Flower yellow)

Potentille Arbrisseau
(Fleur jaune)

Strauch-Fingerkraut
(Blüte gelb)


_COTONEASTER MICROPHYLLA, WALL._

[Illustration]

Small-leaved Rockspray
(Flower whitish)

Cotonéaster a petites Feuilles
(Fleur blanchâtre)

Kleine Steinquitte
(Blüte weisslich)


_COTONEASTER SIMONSII, BAKER_

[Illustration]

Simon's Cotoneaster
(Flower white)

Cotonéaster de Simons
(Fleur blanche)

Mennigrote Steinquitte
(Blüte weiss)


_DEUTZIA GRACILIS, SIEB. & ZUCC._

[Illustration]

Graceful Deutzia
(Flower white)

Deutzie grêle
(Fleur blanche)

Zierliche Silbergerte
(Blüte weiss)


_PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS, L._

[Illustration]

Common Mock Orange (sometimes called Syringa)
(Flower white)

Seringa commune
(Fleur blanche)

Jasmin-Gertenstrauch
(Blüte weiss)


_PHILADELPHUS GRANDIFLORUS, WILLD._

[Illustration]

Large-flowered Mock Orange
(Flower white)

Seringa à grandes Fleurs
(Fleur blanche)

Geruchloser Gertenstrauch
(Blüte weiss)


_ESCALLONIA PHILIPPIANA, MASTERS_

[Illustration]

Philippi's Escallonia
(Flower white)

Escallonia de Philippi
(Fleur blanche)

Philippis Andenstrauch
(Blüte weiss)


_ESCALLONIA PUNCTATA, DC._

[Illustration]

Dotted Escallonia
(Flower red)

Escallonia pointillée
(Fleur rouge)

Punktierter Andenstrauch
(Blüte rot)


_RIBES AUREUM, PURSH._

[Illustration]

Buffalo or Missouri Currant
(Flower yellow)

Groseillier doré
(Fleur jaune)

Gold-Ribsel
(Blüte gelb)


_RIBES RUBRUM, L._

[Illustration]

Wild or Red Currant or Garnet Berry
(Flower pink)

Groseillier rouge
(Fleur rose)

Rote Johannisbeere
(Blüte rosa)


_FUCHSIA RICCARTONI, HORT._

[Illustration]

Riccarton Fuchsia
(Flower red)

Fuchsia Riccartoni
(Fleur rouge)

Winter-Fuchsie
(Blüte rot)


_CORNUS ALBA, L._

[Illustration]

White-fruited Dogwood or Red Osier
(Flower white)

Cornouillier blanc
(Fleur blanche)

Weisser Hartriegel
(Blüte weiss)


_AUCUBA JAPONICA, THUNB._

[Illustration]

Japanese Aucuba
(Flower whitish-green)

Aucuba du Japon
(Fleur vert blanchâtre)

Scheinorange
(Blüte weisslichgrün)


_SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS, L._

[Illustration]

Canadian Elder
(Flower white)

Sureau du Canada
(Fleur blanche)

Kanadischer Holunder
(Blüte weiss)


_VIBURNUM TINUS, L._

[Illustration]

Laurustinus
(Flower white)

Viorne-Laurier-Tin
(Fleur blanche)

Lorbeer-Schlinge
(Blüte weiss)


_VIBURNUM TOMENTOSUM, THUNB._

[Illustration]

Tomentose Guelder Rose
(Flower white)

Viorne tomenteuse
(Fleur blanche)

Filz-Schlinge
(Blüte weiss)


_VIBURNUM TOMENTOSUM, THUNB., VAR.
PLICATUM, MAXIM._

[Illustration]

Japanese Guelder Rose
(Flower white)

Viorne du Japon
(Fleur blanche)

Japanischer Schneeball
(Blüte weiss)


_SYMPHORICARPUS RACEMOSUS, MICHX._

[Illustration]

Snowberry
(Flower pink)

Symphorine a Fruits blancs
(Fleur rose)

Echte Schneebeere
(Blüte rosa)


_DIERVILLA FLORIDA, SIEB. & ZUCC._

[Illustration]

Bush Honeysuckle
(Flower pink)

Diervilla fleurie
(Fleur rose)

Blumiges Kapselgeissblatt
(Blüte rosa)


_OLEARIA HAASTII, HOOK. F._

[Illustration]

Daisy Tree
(Flower white, disc yellow)

Oléaria de Haast
(Fleur blanche, disque jaune)

Haasts Duftstrauch
(Blüte weiss, Scheibe gelb)


_OLEARIA MACRODONTA, BAKER_

[Illustration]

New Zealand Daisy Tree
(Flower white)

Oléaria énorme
(Fleur blanche)

Grosszähniger Duftstrauch
(Blüte weiss)


_PERNETTYA MUCRONATA, GAUDICH_

[Illustration]

Prickly Heath
(Flower white)

Pernettya microné
(Fleur blanche)

Stachelige Torfmyrte
(Blüte weiss)


_CASSANDRA CALYCULATA, D. DON.
ANDROMEDA CALYCULATA, L._

[Illustration]

Leather-Leaf
(Flower white)

Cassandrie Calycule
(Fleur blanche)

Kelch-Gränke
(Blüte weiss)


_PIERIS FLORIBUNDA, BENTH. & HOOK. F._

[Illustration]

Bundle-flowered Andromeda
(Flower white)

Pieris multiflore
(Fleur blanche)

Blumen-Gränke
(Blüte weiss)


_LEDUM LATIFOLIUM, AIT._

[Illustration]

Broad-leaved Labrador Tea
(Flower white)

Ledon à larges Feuilles
(Fleur blanche)

Breiter Porst
(Blüte weiss)


_RHODODENDRON FLAVUM, G. DON.
AZALEA PONTICA, L._

[Illustration]

Common or Yellow Azalea
(Flower yellow)

Rhododendron jaune
(Fleur jaune)

Gelbe Alpenrose
(Blüte gelb)


_RHODODENDRON FERRUGINEUM, L._

[Illustration]

Rusty-leaved Alpenrose
(Flower pale red)

Laurier-Rose des Alpes
(Fleur rouge pâle)

Rost-Alpenrose
(Blüte blassrot)


_RHODODENDRON PONTICUM, L._

[Illustration]

Common or Pontic Rhododendron
(Flower purple)

Rhododendron de la Mer Noire
(Fleur pourpre)

Pontische Alpenrose
(Blüte purpurn)


_JASMINUM OFFICINALE, L._

[Illustration]

White Jessamine
(Flower white)

Jasmin blanc (officinal)
(Fleur blanche)

Echter Jasmin
(Blüte weiss)


_SYRINGA VULGARIS, L._

[Illustration]

Common Lilac
(Flower lilac, pink or white)

Lilas commun
(Fleur lilas, rose ou blanche)

Türkischer Flieder
(Blüte lila, rosa oder weiss)


_VERONICA TRAVERSII, HOOK. F._

[Illustration]

Travers's Speedwell
(Flower pale purple)

Véronique naine
(Fleur pourpre pâle)

Travers' Ehrenpreis
(Blüte blasspurpurn)


_LAVANDULA VERA, DC._

[Illustration]

Common Lavender
(Flower blue)

Lavande
(Fleur bleue)

Echter Lavendel
(Blüte blau)


_LAURUS NOBILIS, L._

[Illustration]

Poet's Laurel or Sweet Bay
(Flower yellowish)

Laurier Sauce
(Fleur jaunâtre)

Edler Lorbeerbaum
(Blüte gelblich)


_DAPHNE LAUREOLA, L._

[Illustration]

Spurge Laurel
(Flower yellowish-green)

Lauréole, Laurier des Bois
(Fleur vert jaunâtre)

Lorbeer-Seidelbast
(Blüte gelblichgrün)


_DAPHNE MEZEREUM, L._

[Illustration]

Mezereon
(Flower pink)

Bois-gentil
(Fleur rose)

Echter Seidelbast
(Blüte rosa)


_RUSCUS ACULEATUS, L._

[Illustration]

Butcher's Broom
(Flower white)

Bois pointu ou Petit Houx ou Fragon épineux
(Fleur blanche)

Echter Mäusedorn
(Blüte weiss)



Some Short Notes

DESIGNED TO ASSIST THE READER IN IDENTIFYING THE SHRUBS ILLUSTRATED IN
THIS VOLUME.

BY

WILLIAM SMITH


The study of shrubs has greatly increased during recent years, and this
has no doubt been brought about by the increasing knowledge of nature
study now commonly included in the curriculum of schools and other
establishments, and while shrubs have not as yet received the same
attention as trees yet they offer quite as interesting a field, while
the beauty of certain of the species arrests the attention of even the
most casual observer.

The term "shrub" means a low, woody-stemmed perennial, but many of the
species attain the dimensions of a fair-sized tree.

The Holly-leaved Barberry or Mahonia (frontispiece), a North American
shrub, is commonly met with either planted as an undergrowth to
deciduous trees or as a covert plant in woodlands. It is easily
recognised from the leaflets being in two or three pairs, with an odd
one at top, in colour of a glossy dark-green, and the leaves of a
leathery nature. The flowers are borne in much-crowded, erect racemes
which open in early spring, followed later by clusters of purple
berries.

Darwin's Barberry (page 6) is a densely-branched, spreading evergreen
bush about 8 feet high, with numerous racemose flowers which open in
May, succeeded by purple berries throughout the summer. Leaves are about
one inch long, oval-shaped, with five spiny teeth. A near ally to the
preceding is the Narrow-leaved Barberry (page 7). It forms a shrub of
rare beauty; with slender arching shoots which in early spring are
densely covered with golden blossoms. May be known by the narrow
sharp-pointed leaves.

A British shrub, the Common Barberry (page 8) usually inhabits dry stony
soils, and forms a tall shrub about 10 feet high. In early spring the
plant is profusely covered with pendulous racemes of yellow flowers, and
later by the scarlet berries which are sometimes used for preserves.
Distinguished by the egg-shaped leaves and three-parted spines at the
axils of the leaves. A photograph showing the flowers on a larger scale
will be found on page 11 of _Wild Flowers at Home, Fourth Series_
("Nature Book," No. 16).

The Laurel-leaved Cistus (page 9) is a native of the South of Europe,
and grows over four feet high. The flowers, resembling in appearance
those of the dog-rose, are borne on terminal flower-stalks four and five
together, but are very ephemeral in character. The ovate spear-shaped
leaves are generally covered with a gummy substance. Flowers during July
and August.

Pallas's Tamarisk (page 10) is one of the shrubs which thrive in bleak
exposed places and in dry sandy soils. The leaves are of a minute
scale-like character, and from May onwards the long, terminal spikes of
rosy-pink flowers are an attractive feature.

A hardy evergreen, shrubby plant, the Common Rue (page 11) is well known
as a medicinal plant. The leaves are nearly blue and emit a very
unpleasant smell and have a bitter taste. Flowers are produced in late
summer.

One of the most fragrant shrubs, the Mexican Orange-Flower (page 12),
forms a large glossy-leaved bush with axillary stalks of white flowers
which, from their appearance and fragrance, resemble orange-blossom. The
flowers open in summer, and the leaves are bright-green, long-stalked,
with three leaflets to each.

The Hop Tree or Shrubby Trefoil (page 13), flowers from May to July and
produces flat-headed inflorescences of a greenish yellow colour,
succeeded in autumn by bunches of flat fruits of a greenish colour. As
the specific name suggests the leaves are in threes, long-stalked, of an
elliptical shape, and terminate in a sharp point. Reaches a height of 8
feet.

Generally grown as a wall-plant, the Blue Mountain Sweet (page 14)
flowers freely in that position during July and August. The alternate
leaves are oblong, sharply-serrated, and downy. From the axils of the
leaves spring the elongated spikes of pale blue flowers. A native of
Mexico.

The Veitch's Mountain Sweet (page 15) is another plant grown as a
wall-shrub, where it often attains a height of 12 feet, and is a most
conspicuous plant during its flowering period from May to July when it
is literally covered by dense clusters of bright blue flowers relieved
by neat, elliptical dark-green leaves.

Dyers' Greenweed (page 16), so-called from the plant yielding a yellow
dye, is found wild as a native plant in certain parts of Britain, and
flowers most of the summer. The yellow flowers are produced on spicate
racemes, while the leaves are alternate, smooth and spear-shaped. An
erect-growing plant about two feet in height.

The Yellow Spanish Broom (page 17) is a plant which delights in a dry
sandy loam, and is capable of resisting long periods of drought. This
species is a hardy deciduous shrub with rush-like and nearly leafless
branches, and attains a height of six feet. From July to September its
spikes of fragrant golden-yellow blossoms are particularly attractive.

One of the European species, the Capitate Broom (page 18) forms a shrub
over two feet high and opens its flowers from June onwards. The leaflets
are egg-shaped, and the whole plant is covered with loose, soft hair.

Gerard's Indigo (page 19), a native of India, is one of the most
beautiful of the Leguminosæ shrubs and is a low branching species.
Leaves pinnate and of a pale grey-green colour. Flowers open from July
onwards and are borne in many-flowered spikes.

A native of Europe, the Bladder Senna (page 20) is one of the few plants
that thrive in dry sandy soils. It forms a hardy, deciduous,
free-growing shrub 10 feet high, bearing stalks of yellow pea-shaped
flowers from July to September. The pinnate leaves are prettily divided
into ovate and flat-shaped leaflets. A distinctive feature of this plant
in the autumn is the large inflated seed-pods.

A popular and well-known evergreen shrub, the Portugal Laurel (page 21)
forms a large spreading bush from 10 to over 20 feet in height. The
ovate and lanceolate-shaped leaves are of a dense dark-green, and in
June the large erect spikes of white flowers are very striking. In
autumn the egg-shaped and dull-red coloured fruits are a noticeable
feature.

Douglas's Spiræa (page 22) forms a crowded cluster of erect shoots about
6 feet high, and in August the dense terminal spikes of rosy-red flowers
open. Leaves acute, rounded, and downy beneath.

_Spiræa Japonica_ (page 23) forms a bush 3 to 6 feet high with much
branched shoots terminating in brightly coloured flat flower-heads which
open from July onwards, and are relieved by the small spear-shaped,
abrupt-pointed, and finely-serrated leaves.

A native of Nepaul, the Vine-leaved Neillia (page 24) is frequently seen
in shrubberies, forming a hardy branching bush about five feet high, the
shoots bearing spikes of white flowers in June. A distinctive feature of
this plant is the heart-shaped, three-lobed, and serrated leaves.

The Jew's Mallow (page 25) is one of the favourite plants commonly grown
on cottage walls, and the illustration shows the double-flowering form
with the solitary, terminal stalks of flowers, which open in early
summer. The foliage is glabrous, spear-shaped and finely-toothed on the
margins.

Few shrubs when in flower are capable of arresting attention so much as
the Rocky Mountain Bramble (page 26). In May the large, single, white,
rose-like flowers are a beautiful feature of this bramble, which attains
a height of five feet. The kidney-shaped leaves are three to five-lobed
and finely-toothed. A native of North America, where this plant is said
to produce large fruits of delicious flavour.

The Cut-leaved Bramble (page 27) is frequently seen in a wild state, and
is known by its finely-cut leaves. Of a pinkish-white colour, the
flowers are borne in loose spikes from June to September, whilst fruit
can be picked during the latter month. It is a robust climbing plant,
and the wood is very prickly.

The Nutka Sound Raspberry (page 28) is one of the species that send up
annual shoots attaining to a height of two feet, on which are borne the
large ornamental five-lobed leaves. The large, handsome white flowers
open in June, and the large, conical-shaped, red fruits ripen early in
autumn.

Of a much-branched shrubby habit, the Shrubby Cinquefoil (page 29) forms
a small bush from two to four feet in height, with pinnate leaves and
entire hairy oblong leaflets. A native of the Northern Hemisphere, this
cinquefoil produces flat-headed inflorescences of yellow flowers
throughout the summer months.

The Small-leaved Rockspray (page 30) forms a prostrate bush about three
feet high, and is distinguished by the branches being densely covered by
small, acute, and dark-green glossy leaves. The small, white, solitary
flowers are borne in the axils of the leaves during April and May. This
plant is often grown as a wall plant, in which position it is
conspicuous in winter with its bright-scarlet fruits.

Simons's Cotoneaster (page 31) forms a much-branching, usually evergreen
shrub about six feet high. In April, solitary, white, and sessile
flowers are borne on lateral branches. Foliage angular-shaped and silky
beneath. Its bright scarlet fruits are conspicuous in late autumn.

_Deutzia gracilis_ (page 32) is a well-known Japanese shrub seen in
florists' shops in early spring. It forms a compact-growing bush two
feet high, producing in April terminal spikes of pretty white blossoms
set amidst the small egg-shaped and narrow-pointed leaves.

The Common Mock Orange (page 33) is an erect-growing shrub, from six to
ten feet high, profusely covered in May with white and strongly
orange-scented flowers. The ovate-shaped leaves are said to have the
odour and taste of cucumbers when crushed. A native of the South of
Europe.

On page 34 is illustrated the Large-flowered Mock Orange, a shrub from
the Southern United States. It differs from the Common Mock Orange in
its taller growth (fully 12 feet), and in the large white blossoms,
which open in midsummer, being practically scentless. The leaves also
are more narrow at the point and more rounded at the base.

Philippi's Escallonia (page 35) forms a straggling bush, and in July the
shoots are densely covered with panicles of small white flowers set
amidst small dark-green leaves.

The Dotted Escallonia (page 36) is a much-branched evergreen bush, five
to six feet high, with the shoots terminated by deep-red-coloured
flowers which open in July. The common name of this plant is derived
from the leaves having little dot-like swellings (glands) on the lower
side of the leaves, which are sharp-pointed, ovate in form, and very
glossy on the upper surface.

Early in May the Buffalo or Missouri Currant (page 37) one of the North
American Currants, opens its golden-yellow flowers, which are borne in
drooping clusters on short shoots arising from the main stems. It is a
loosely-growing plant, about four feet high, with long-stalked,
three-lobed leaves.

One of the European (British) shrubs, the Wild or Red Currant (page 38)
is found in the woodlands, where its red-coloured and acid-tasted fruits
are found in late summer. It throws drooping clusters of green-coloured
flowers in early spring, and the three to five-angled leaves are a
distinctive feature of this plant. It is from this plant that the garden
forms of the Red Currant have arisen.

To those familiar with the West Coast of Scotland, the Riccarton Fuchsia
(page 39) will have been noticeable to them there as forming hedges
often over six feet in height. It is a handsome plant, with its shoots
laden in summer and autumn with drooping red-coloured flowers.

The White-fruited Dogwood (page 40) is usually found in moist
situations, and opens its flat-shaped flower-heads in May. They are
succeeded in autumn by clusters of small, white-coloured, fruits. A
plant that is easily recognisable by its bright-red-coloured shoots and
large ovate-shaped and sharp-pointed leaves.

One of the most ornamental evergreen shrubs, the Japanese Aucuba (page
41), is grown in mostly all gardens. The leaves are pale green in colour
and beautifully spotted with yellow; in form, spear-shaped, leathery to
the feel, and very glossy. The flowers open in early spring, but are
inconspicuous, and hidden by the foliage.

The Canadian Elder (page 42) is a plant frequently seen in shrubberies,
opening its large, white-coloured flower-heads in late July, followed in
autumn by clusters of purple-coloured berries. The illustration is very
typical, the large flower-heads being shown among the pinnate leaves and
oblong-shaped leaflets.

A native of South Europe, the Laurustinus (page 43) flowers throughout
the winter, according to situation, and may be known by the flat corymbs
of white flowers. It is an evergreen shrub, with shining, dark-green,
and oval-shaped leaves.

In the Tomentose Guelder Rose (page 44) the flowers are barren around
the margin of the truss, and open in early summer, while the leaves are
flat, rounded, dark-green in colour, and very wrinkled.

The Japanese Guelder Rose (page 45) has large, rounded, barren trusses
of white flowers, which open in May. It forms a spreading bush from
three to four feet high.

The Snowberry (page 46) is familiar through its large, white fruits
hanging on the branches most of the winter. In late summer it opens its
flowers, which are borne in loose spikes at the end of the branches, and
forms a loose-growing bush about four feet high.

[A]One of the most ornamental free-flowering shrubs, the Bush
Honeysuckle (page 47), produces in early summer large clusters of
bell-shaped and rose-coloured flowers, set amidst light-green,
ovate-shaped leaves, and attains a height of over six feet.

[Footnote A: Page 69, the Bush Honeysuckle is generally known by
gardeners under its old Latin name of _Weigela_, which they often
pronounce "Vigilia."]

A native of New Zealand, the Daisy Tree is one of the most popular
free-flowering shrubs. The illustration (page 48) shews the foliage
completely hidden by the numerous small white and yellow-disked flowers.
It is a box-like plant, and grows over six feet high. The leaves are
crowded, about one inch long, dull-green colour above and whitish
beneath, and acute at each end.

The New Zealand Daisy Tree (page 49) has large holly-like leaves, which
are silvery on the underside, and large flower-heads, which are white,
with a red centre, and open in July. Forms a loose-growing plant.

A densely-growing bush, the Prickly Heath (page 50) flowers from May to
July, and the small white flowers are succeeded by berries of various
colours borne in the axils of the small, dark-green, rigid, shining
leaves. It rarely grows over four feet high.

The Leather-Leaf (page 51) is a sparse-growing, dwarf, evergreen shrub
from North America. It flowers from April to May, the small,
cylindrical-shaped, snow-white flowers being produced from the under
sides of the branches. Leaves scarce, narrowed to each end, and
rusty-coloured beneath.

At page 52 is illustrated the Bundle-flowered Andromeda, a shrub growing
about six feet high, which flowers in April, completely covering the
plant with spikes of lily-of-the-valley-like blossoms. A plant
recognised by the long, egg-shaped and sharply-pointed leaves, leathery
in touching, and of a very dark green colour.

The Labrador Tea (page 53) derives its common name from the leaves
having been used as a substitute for tea. It grows about three feet
high, of compact, rounded form, and in early May is profusely covered
with trusses of white flowers set amidst narrow rusty-looking foliage.

One of the best known shrubs is _Rhododendron flavum_ (page 54)
(commonly known as _Azalea pontica_), and in early summer it is one of
the freest-flowering plants. A plant easily known by its trusses of
yellow-coloured and clammy blossoms with long protruding stamens. The
large and shiny leaves are sparsely produced.

The Rusty-leaved Alpenrose (page 55) is a European plant rarely growing
over three feet high, of compact growth, with shining dotted leaves.
From May onwards plants are conspicuous in rock gardens with their small
trusses of scarlet and yellow-dotted flowers. For a photograph on a
larger scale, see _Alpine Plants at Home_, First Series ("Nature Book"
No. 20), page 39.

Few plants are so well known as the Common or Pontic Rhododendron (page
56), and in many parts of Britain it has naturalised itself in the
woodlands. It forms a tall-growing plant, frequently over 12 feet high,
producing trusses of purple-coloured flowers in May, relieved by large,
light-green, spear-shaped foliage.

From the delicacy and fragrance of its flowers the Common White Jesamine
(page 57) ranks as one of the most popular plants of the garden. It
forms a slender-growing, climbing plant, with feather-shaped leaves and
acutely-pointed leaflets, and flowers from May to October.

The Common Lilac (page 58) is familiar with its purple or white-coloured
spikes of flowers, which open in May. It forms a tall-growing plant,
with large heart-shaped leaves.

Travers's Speedwell (page 59) is a charming evergreen shrub about four
feet high, with short racemes of pale-mauve-coloured flowers, which open
in June and July. The leaves are arranged four-rowed along the shoots,
with short footstalks, narrow-oblong in shape, and dark-green in colour.

A plant peculiar to cottage gardens is the Common Lavender (page 60),
which produces long-stalked spikes of blue flowers throughout the
summer. These flowers are usually cut and dried for their lasting
fragrance, whilst the much-appreciated lavender water is distilled from
the flowers. It forms a dense-growing bush about two feet high, with
long narrow-shaped leaves.

On page 61 is illustrated the Poet's Laurel or Sweet Bay, a beautiful
evergreen shrub from South Europe. In many parts of Britain it grows
over 21 feet high, but it is usually grown in tubs for floral
decoration. The leaves, which are spear-shaped, have an agreeable,
slightly bitter taste, and are used in cooking and for confections. The
flowers, which are borne in the axils of the leaves, are yellowish in
colour, but inconspicuous, and appear in early spring.

The Spurge Laurel (page 62), one of the European (British) shrubs, forms
an evergreen bush about three feet high, with thick, shining,
spear-shaped leaves. The sweet-scented flowers, of a greenish-yellow
colour, appear in February and March, but are inconspicuous, and are
borne in drooping clusters at the base of the leaves. Fruit of this
plant is highly poisonous.

The Mezereon (page 63) is a conspicuous plant early in March through the
leafless branches being covered with red, fragrant blossoms, succeeded
later in summer by scarlet berries set amidst lance-shaped and
acute-pointed leaves. The Mezereon forms an erect-shaped bush, about
four feet high, of which the bark is used medicinally. A white-flowering
form of this plant is in cultivation and bears yellow-coloured berries
in summer.

Another of the British shrubs is illustrated at page 64 in the Butcher's
Broom, a plant growing about two feet high, with rigid, spiny, widened
branches on which are borne the small, white solitary flowers, which
open in March and April. For a photograph on a larger scale, see _Wild
Flowers at Home_, Fourth Series ("Nature Book" No. 16), page 58.

--------------------

The Latin nomenclature adopted for the shrubs in this volume is that of
the "Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs" (1902) issued by the Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew. The English and French names are compiled from various
sources; where none existed, suitable appellations have been coined. The
German names are due to the kindness of Herr Andreas Voss.



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No. 23.--OUR FLOWERING SHRUBS AND HOW TO KNOW THEM. Sixty Photographs by
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Transcriber's Note: In "Some Short Notes," the page reference for the
Bladder Senna was corrected from page 19 to page 20.





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