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Title: Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836 - Volume I. - Proceedings of the First Expedition, 1826-1830
Author: Fitzroy, Robert, 1805-1865
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836 - Volume I. - Proceedings of the First Expedition, 1826-1830" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



generously made available by the Posner Memorial Collection
(http://posner.library.cmu.edu/Posner/))



Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *


In this version [=e] signifies "e macron"; [)e] "e breve"; and so forth.
The "Errata et Corrigenda" (after the list of Plates) have been actioned.

VOYAGES

OF THE

ADVENTURE AND BEAGLE.

------

VOLUME I.

[Illustration: P. P. King T. Landseer

PATAGONIAN.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

       *       *       *       *       *

NARRATIVE

OF THE

SURVEYING VOYAGES

OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS

ADVENTURE AND BEAGLE,

BETWEEN

THE YEARS 1826 AND 1836,

DESCRIBING THEIR

EXAMINATION OF THE SOUTHERN SHORES

OF

SOUTH AMERICA,

AND

THE BEAGLE'S CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE GLOBE.

------

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

------

LONDON:

HENRY COLBURN, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET.

------

1839.

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON:
Printed by. J. L. Cox and Sons, 75, Great Queen Street,
Lincoln's-Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOLUME I.

------

PROCEEDINGS

OF

THE FIRST EXPEDITION,

1826--1830,

UNDER THE COMMAND OF

CAPTAIN P. PARKER KING,

R.N., F.R.S.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

THE EARL OF MINTO, G.C.B.,

FIRST LORD COMMISSIONER

OF THE

ADMIRALTY.

------

  MY LORD:

I have the honour of dedicating to your lordship, as Head of the Naval
Service, this narrative of the Surveying Voyages of the Adventure and
Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836.

Originated by the Board of Admiralty, over which Viscount Melville
presided, these voyages have been carried on, since 1830, under his
lordship's successors in office.

Captain King has authorized me to lay the results of the Expedition which
he commanded, from 1826 to 1830, before your lordship, united to those of
the Beagle's subsequent voyages.

  I have the honour to be,
          MY LORD,
    Your lordship's obedient servant,
                  ROBERT FITZ-ROY.

       *       *       *       *       *


{ix}

PREFACE.

In this Work, the result of nine years' voyaging, partly on coasts little
known, an attempt has been made to combine giving general information with
the paramount object--that of fulfilling a duty to the Admiralty, for the
benefit of Seamen.

Details, purely technical, have been avoided in the narrative more than I
could have wished; but some are added in the Appendix to each volume: and
in a nautical memoir, drawn up for the Admiralty, those which are here
omitted will be found.

There are a few words used frequently in the following pages, which may not
at first sight be familiar to every reader, therefore I need hardly
apologize for saying that, although the great Portuguese navigator's name
was Magalhaens--it is generally pronounced as if written Magellan:--that
the natives of Tierra del Fuego are commonly called Fuegians;--and that
Chilóe is thus accented for reasons given in page 384 of the second volume.

In the absence of Captain King, who has entrusted to me the care of
publishing his share of this work, I may have overlooked errors which he
would have detected. Being hurried, and unwell, while attending to the
printing of his volume, I was not able to do it justice.

{x}

It may be a subject of regret, that no paper on the Botany of Tierra del
Fuego is appended to the first volume. Captain King took great pains in
forming and preserving a botanical collection, aided by a person embarked
solely for that purpose. He placed this collection in the British Museum,
and was led to expect that a first-rate botanist would have examined and
described it; but he has been disappointed.

In conclusion, I beg to remind the reader, that the work is unavoidably of
a rambling and very mixed character; that some parts may be wholly
uninteresting to most readers, though, perhaps, not devoid of interest to
all; and that its publication arises solely from a sense of duty.

ROBERT FITZ-ROY.

  London, March 1839.

       *       *       *       *       *


{xi}

INTRODUCTION

In 1825, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty directed two ships to be
prepared for a Survey of the Southern Coasts of South America; and in May,
of the following year, the ADVENTURE and the BEAGLE were lying in Plymouth
Sound, ready to carry the orders of their Lordships into execution.

These vessels were well provided with every necessary, and every comfort,
which the liberality and kindness of the Admiralty, Navy Board, and
officers of the Dock-yards, could cause to be furnished.

On board the Adventure, a roomy ship, of 330 tons burthen, without guns,[1]
lightly though strongly rigged, and very strongly built, were--

  PHILLIP PARKER KING, Commander and Surveyor, Senior
  Officer of the Expedition.

  J. COOKE              Lieutenant.
  B. AINSWORTH          Master.
  J. TARN               Surgeon.
  {xii}
  G. ROWLETT            Purser.
  R. H. SHOLL           Mate.
  J. C. WICKHAM         Mate.
  J. F. BRAND           Mate.
  T. GRAVES             Mate and Assistant Surveyor.
  G. HARRISON           Mate.
  E. WILLIAMS           Second Master.
  J. PARK               Assistant Surgeon.
  W. W. WILSON          Midshipman.
  A. MILLAR             Master's Assistant.
  A. MELLERSH           Volunteer 1st Class.
  J. RUSSELL            Volunteer 2d Class.
  G. HODGSKIN           Clerk.
  J. ANDERSON           Botanical Collector.

  Gunner--Boatswain--and Carpenter.

  Serjeant and fourteen Marines; and about forty Seamen and
  Boys.

In the Beagle, a well-built little vessel, of 235 tons, rigged as a barque,
and carrying six guns, were--

  PRINGLE STOKES          Commander and Surveyor.
  E. HAWES                Lieutenant.
  W. G. SKYRING           Lieut. and Assist. Surveyor.
  S. S. FLINN             Master.
  E. BOWEN                Surgeon.
  J. ATRILL               Purser.
  J. KIRKE                Mate.
  B. BYNOE                Assistant Surgeon.
  J. L. STOKES            Midshipman.
  R. F. LUNIE             Volunteer 1st Class.
  W. JONES                Volunteer 2d Class.
  J. MACDOUALL            Clerk.

  Carpenter.

  Serjeant and nine Marines; and about forty Seamen and Boys.

{xiii}

In the course of the voyage, several changes occurred among the officers,
which it may be well to mention here.

In September, 1826, Lieutenant Hawes invalided: and was succeeded by Mr. R.
H. Sholl, the senior mate in the Expedition.

In February, 1827, Mr. Ainsworth was unfortunately drowned; and, in his
place, Mr. Williams acted, until superseded by Mr. S. S. Flinn, of the
Beagle.

Lieutenant Cooke invalided in June, 1827; and was succeeded by Mr. J. C.
Wickham.

In the same month Mr. Graves received information of his promotion to the
rank of Lieutenant.

Between May and December, 1827, Mr. Bowen and Mr. Atrill invalided; besides
Messrs. Lunie, Jones, and Macdouall: Mr. W. Mogg joined the Beagle, as
acting Purser; and Mr. D. Braily, as volunteer of the second class.

Mr. Bynoe acted as Surgeon of the Beagle, after Mr. Bowen left, until
December, 1828.

In August, 1828, Captain Stokes's lamented vacancy was temporarily filled
by Lieutenant Skyring; whose place was taken by Mr. Brand.

Mr. Flinn was then removed to the Adventure; and Mr. A. Millar put into his
place.

{xiv}

In December, 1828, the Commander-in-chief of the Station (Sir Robert Waller
Otway) superseded the temporary arrangements of Captain King, and appointed
a commander, lieutenant, master, and surgeon to the Beagle. Mr. Brand then
invalided, and the lists of officers stood thus--

  Adventure (1828-30).

  PHILLIP PARKER KING, Commander and Surveyor, Senior
  Officer of the Expedition.

  T. GRAVES            Lieut. and Assist. Surveyor.
  J. C. WICKHAM        Lieutenant.
  S. S. FLINN          Master.
  J. TARN              Surgeon.
  G. ROWLETT           Purser.
  G. HARRISON          Mate.
  W. W. WILSON         Mate.
  E. WILLIAMS          Second Master.
  J. PARK              Assistant Surgeon.
  A. MELLERSH          Midshipman.
  A. MILLAR            Master's Assistant.
  J. RUSSELL           Volunteer 2d Class.
  G. HODGSKIN          Clerk.
  J. ANDERSON          Botanical Collector.

  Gunner--Boatswain--and Carpenter.

  Serjeant and fourteen Marines: and about fifty[2] Seamen and
  Boys.

  Beagle (1828-30).

  ROBERT FITZ-ROY      Commander and Surveyor.
  W. G. SKYRING        Lieut. and Assist. Surveyor.
  J. KEMPE             Lieutenant.
  M. MURRAY            Master.
  {xv}
  J. WILSON            Surgeon.
  W. MOGG              (Acting) Purser.
  J. KIRKE             Mate.
  B. BYNOE             Assistant Surgeon.
  J. L. STOKES         Midshipman.
  J. MAY               Carpenter.
  D. BRAILY            Volunteer 2d Class.
  J. MEGGET            Clerk.

  Serjeant and nine Marines: and about forty Seamen and Boys.

In June, 1829, Lieutenant Mitchell joined the Adventure; and in February,
1830, Mr. A. Millar died very suddenly:--and very much regretted.

The following Instructions were given to the Senior Officer of the
Expedition.

"By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

"Whereas we think fit that an accurate Survey should be made of the
Southern Coasts of the Peninsula of South America, from the southern
entrance of the River Plata, round to Chilóe; and of Tierra del Fuego; and
whereas we have been induced to repose confidence in you, from your conduct
of the Surveys in New Holland; we have placed you in the command of His
Majesty's Surveying Vessel the Adventure; and we have directed Captain
Stokes, of His Majesty's Surveying Vessel the Beagle, to follow your
orders.

"Both these vessels are provided with all the {xvi} means which are
necessary for the complete execution of the object above-mentioned, and for
the health and comfort of their Ships' Companies. You are also furnished
with all the information, we at present possess, of the ports which you are
to survey; and nine Government Chronometers have been embarked in the
Adventure, and three in the Beagle, for the better determination of the
Longitudes.

"You are therefore hereby required and directed, as soon as both vessels
shall be in all respects ready, to put to sea with them; and on your way to
your ulterior destination, you are to make, or call at, the following
places, successively; namely; Madeira: Teneriffe: the northern point of St.
Antonio, and the anchorage at St. Jago; both in the Cape Verd Islands: the
Island of Trinidad, in the Southern Atlantic: and Rio de Janeiro: for the
purpose of ascertaining the differences of the longitudes of those several
places.

"At Rio de Janeiro, you will receive any supplies you may require; and make
with the Commander-in-chief, on that Station, such arrangements as may tend
to facilitate your receiving further supplies, in the course of your
Expedition.

"After which, you are to proceed to the entrance of the River Plata, to
ascertain the longitudes of the Cape Santa Maria, and Monte Video: you are
then to proceed to survey the Coasts, Islands, and Straits; from Cape St.
Antonio, at the south side {xvii} of the River Plata, to Chilóe; on the
west coast of America; in such manner and order, as the state of the
season, the information you may have received, or other circumstances, may
induce you to adopt.

"You are to continue on this service until it shall be completed; taking
every opportunity to communicate to our Secretary, and the
Commander-in-Chief, your proceedings: and also, whenever you may be able to
form any judgment of it, where the Commander-in-Chief, or our Secretary,
may be able to communicate with you.

"In addition to any arrangements made with the Admiral, for recruiting your
stores, and provisions; you are, of course, at liberty to take all other
means, which may be within your reach, for that essential purpose.

"You are to avail yourself of every opportunity of collecting and
preserving Specimens of such objects of Natural History as may be new,
rare, or interesting; and you are to instruct Captain Stokes, and all the
other Officers, to use their best diligence in increasing the Collections
in each ship: the whole of which must be understood to belong to the
Public.

"In the event of any irreparable accident happening to either of the two
vessels, you are to cause the officers and crew of the disabled vessel to
be {xviii} removed into the other, and with her, singly, to proceed in
prosecution of the service, or return to England, according as
circumstances shall appear to require; understanding that the officers and
crews of both vessels are hereby authorized, and required, to continue to
perform their duties, according to their respective ranks and stations, on
board either vessel to which they may be so removed. Should, unfortunately,
your own vessel be the one disabled, you are in that case to take the
command of the Beagle: and, in the event of any fatal accident happening to
yourself; Captain Stokes is hereby authorized to take the command of the
Expedition; either on board the Adventure, or Beagle, as he may prefer;
placing the officer of the Expedition who may then be next in seniority to
him, in command of the second vessel: also, in the event of your inability,
by sickness or otherwise, at any period of this service, to continue to
carry the Instructions into execution, you are to transfer them to Captain
Stokes, or to the surviving officer then next in command to you, who is
hereby required to execute them, in the best manner he can, for the
attainment of the object in view.

"When you shall have completed the service, or shall, from any cause, be
induced to give it up; you will return to Spithead with all convenient
expedition; and report your arrival, and proceedings, to our Secretary, for
our information.

{xix}

"Whilst on the South American Station, you are to consider yourself under
the command of the Admiral of that Station; to whom we have expressed our
desire that he should not interfere with these orders, except under
peculiar necessity.

 "Given under our hands the 16th of May 1826.
              (Signed) "MELVILLE.
              "G. COCKBURN.

 "To Phillip P. King, Esq., Commander
  of His Majesty's Surveying Vessel
  Adventure, at Plymouth.

     "By command of their Lordships.
              (Signed) "J. W. CROKER."

On the 22d of May, 1826, the Adventure and Beagle sailed from Plymouth;
and, in their way to Rio de Janeiro, called successively at Madeira,
Teneriffe, and St. Jago.

Unfavourable weather prevented a boat being sent ashore at the northern
part of San Antonio; but observations were made in Terrafal Bay, on the
south-west side of the island: and, after crossing the Equator, the
Trade-wind hung so much to the southward, that Trinidad could not be
approached without a sacrifice of time, which, it was considered, might be
prejudicial to more important objects of the Expedition.

Both ships anchored at Rio de Janeiro on the {xx} 10th of August, and
remained there until the 2d of October, when they sailed to the River
Plata.

In Maldonado,[3] their anchors were dropped on the 13th of the same month;
and, till the 12th of November, each vessel was employed on the north side
of the river, between Cape St. Mary and Monte Video.

       *       *       *       *       *


{xxi}

CONTENTS

VOLUME I.

------

  CHAPTER I.
                                                               PAGE
  Departure from Monte Video--Port Santa Elena--Geological
  remarks--Cape Fairweather--Non-existence of Chalk--Natural
  History--Approach to Cape Virgins, and the Strait of
  Magalhaens (or Magellan)                                        1

  CHAPTER II.

  Enter the Strait of Magalhaens (or Magellan), and anchor
  off Cape Possession--First Narrow--Gregory Bay--Patagonian
  Indians--Second Narrow--Elizabeth Island--Freshwater Bay--
  Fuegian Indians--Arrival at Port Famine                        12

  CHAPTER III.

  Prepare the Beagle, and a decked boat (the Hope) for
  surveying the Strait--Beagle sails westward, and the Hope
  towards the south-east--Sarmiento's Voyage--and description
  of the colony formed by him at Port Famine--Steamer Duck--
  Large trees--Parroquets--Mount Tarn--Barometrical
  observations--Geological character--Report of the Hope's
  cruise                                                         26

  CHAPTER IV.

  Deer seen--Hope sails again--Eagle Bay--Gabriel Channel--
  'Williwaws'--Port Waterfall--Natives--Admiralty Sound--
  Gabriel Channel--Magdalen Channel--Hope returns to Port
  Famine--San Antonio--Lomas Bay--Loss of boat--Master and
  two seamen drowned                                             48
  {xxii}

  CHAPTER V.

  Lieutenant Sholl arrives--Beagle returns--Loss of the Saxe
  Coburg sealer--Captain Stokes goes to Fury Harbour to save
  her Crew--Beagle's proceedings--Bougainville's memorial--
  Cordova's memorial--Beagle's danger--Difficulties--Captain
  Stokes's boat-cruise--Passages--Natives--Dangerous service--
  Western entrance of the Strait of Magalhaens--Hope's
  cruise--Prepare to return to Monte Video                       65

  CHAPTER VI.

  Trees--Leave Port Famine--Patagonians--Gregory Bay--
  Bysante--Maria--Falkner's account of the Natives--
  Indians seen on the borders of the Otway Water, in 1829--
  Maria visits the Adventure--Religious ceremony--Patagonian
  Encampment--Tomb of a Child--Women's employment--
  Children--Gratitude of a Native--Size of Patagonians--
  Former accounts of their gigantic height--Character--
  Articles for barter--Fuegians living with Patagonians--
  Ships sail--Arrive at Monte Video and Rio de Janeiro           84

  CHAPTER VII.

  Leave Rio de Janeiro--Santos--Sta. Catharina--Monte
  Video--Purchase the Adelaide schooner, for a Tender to
  the Adventure--Leave Monte Video--Beagle goes to Port
  Desire--Shoals off Cape Blanco--Bellaco Rock--Cape
  Virgins--Possession Bay--First Narrow--Race--Gregory
  Bay--View--Tomb--Traffic with Natives--Cordial meeting--
  Maria goes on board--Natives intoxicated--Laredo Bay--
  Port Famine                                                   106

  CHAPTER VIII.

  Find that the Cutter had been burned--Anxiety for the
  Beagle--Uxbridge Sealer--Beagle arrives--Her cruise--
  Bellaco Rock--San Julian--Santa Cruz--Gallegos--Adeona--
  {xxiii}
  Death of Lieutenant Sholl--Adelaide sails--Supposed
  Channel of San Antonio--Useless Bay--Natives--Port San
  Antonio--Humming-birds--Fuegians--Beagle sails--Sarmiento--
  Roldan--Pond--Whales--Structure--Scenery--Port Gallant        118

  CHAPTER IX.

  Detention in Port Gallant--Humming-birds in snow showers--
  Fuegians--Geological remarks--Canoes--Carving--Birds--
  Fish--Shag Narrows--Glaciers--Avalanches--Natives--
  Climate--Winter setting in--Adelaide loses a boat--
  Floods--Lightning--Scurvy--Adelaide's survey--Bougainville
  Harbour--Indians cross the Strait, and visit Port Famine--
  Sealing vessels sail--Scurvy increases--Adelaide sent for
  guanaco meat--Return of the Beagle--Captain Stokes very
  ill--Adelaide brings meat from the Patagonians--Death of
  Captain Stokes                                                133

  CHAPTER X.

  Account of the Beagle's cruise--Borja Bay--Cape Quod--
  Stuart Bay--Cape Notch--Remarks on weather, and errors
  of Chart--Evangelists--Santa Lucia--Madre de Dios--Gulf of
  Trinidad--Port Henry--Puma's track--Humming-birds--Very
  bad weather--Campana Island--Dangers--Gale--Wet--Sick--
  Santa Barbara--Wager's beam--Wigwams--Guaineco Islands--
  Cape Tres Montes--St. Paul--Port Otway--Hoppner Sound--
  Cape Raper                                                    154

  CHAPTER XI.

  Leave Port Otway--San Quintin Sound--Gulf of Peñas--Kelly
  Harbour--St. Xavier Island--Death of Serjeant Lyndsey--
  Port Xavier--Ygnacio Bay--Channel's mouth--Bad weather--
  Perilous situation--Lose the yawl--Sick list--Return to
  Port Otway--Thence to Port Famine--Gregory Bay--Natives--
  Guanaco meat--Skunk--Condors--Brazilians--Juanico--Captain
  Foster--Changes of officers                                   173

  {xxiv}
  CHAPTER XII.

  Adventure sails from Rio de Janeiro to the River Plata--
  Gorriti--Maldonado--Extraordinary Pampero--Beagle's
  losses--Ganges arrives--another Pampero--Go up the river
  for water--Gale, and consequent detention--Sail from Monte
  Video--part from Consorts--Port Desire--Tower Rock--
  Skeletons--Sea Bear Bay--Fire--Guanacoes--Port Desire
  Inlet--Indian graves--Vessels separate--Captain Foster--
  Chanticleer--Cape Horn--Kater Peak--Sail from St. Martin
  Cove--Tribute to Captain Foster--Valparaiso--Santiago--
  Pinto Heights--Chilóe--Aldunate                               189

  CHAPTER XIII.

  Beagle and Adelaide anchor in Possession Bay--Beagle
  passes the First Narrow--Fogs--Pecket Harbour--Adelaide
  arrives with Guanaco meat--Portuguese Seamen--Peculiar
  light--Party missing--Return--Proceed towards Port
  Famine--Fuegians--Lieut. Skyring--Adelaide sails to survey
  Magdalen and Barbara Channels--Views--Lyell Sound--Kempe
  Harbour--Cascade Bay--San Pedro Sound--Port Gallant--
  Diet--Rain--Awnings--Boat cruise--Warning--Jerome
  Channel--Blanket bags--Otway Water--Frequent rain--
  Difficulty in lighting fires                                  212

  CHAPTER XIV.

  Place for a Settlement--Frost--Boats in danger--Narrow
  escape--Sudden change--Beagle Hills--Fuegian Painting--
  Tides--Medicine--Water warmer than the air--Jerome
  Channel--Mr. Stokes returns to the Beagle--Cape Quod--
  Snowy Sound--Whale Sound--Choiseul Bay--Return to the
  Beagle--Adelaide returns--Plan of operations--Difficulties
  removed--Preparations--Wear and tear of clothing--Ascend
  the Mountain de la Cruz--Sail from Port Gallant--Tides--
  Borja Bay--Cape Quod--Gulf of Xaultegua--Frost and snow--
  Meet Adelaide--Part--Enter Pacific--Arrive at Chilóe          230

  {xxv}
  CHAPTER XV.

  Extracts from the Journals of Lieutenants Skyring and
  Graves--Magdalen Channel--Keats Sound--Mount Sarmiento--
  Barrow Head--Cockburn Channel--Prevalence of south-west
  winds--Melville Sound--Ascent of Mount Skyring--Memorial--
  Cockburn and Barbara Channels--Mass of Islets and Rocks--
  Hewett Bay--Cypress trees useful--Adelaide rejoins Beagle
  in Port Gallant--Captain King's narrative resumed--Plan of
  future proceedings--Adelaide arrives at Chilóe--Abstract
  of Lieutenant Skyring's account of her proceedings--Smyth
  Channel--Mount Burney--'Ancon sin Salida'--Natives--Kirke
  Narrow--Guia Narrow--Peculiar tides--Indians in plank
  Canoes--Passage to Chilóe                                     251

  CHAPTER XVI.

  Chilóe--Its probable importance--Valdivia founds seven
  Cities; afterwards destroyed by the Indians--Migration of
  Spanish settlers--Province and Islands of Chilóe--Districts
  and population--Government--Defence--Winds--Town--
  Durability of wooden Buildings--Cultivation--Want of
  industry--Improvement--Dress--Habits of lower Classes--
  Morality--Schools--Language--Produce--Manufactures--
  Exports and imports--Varieties of wood--Alerse--Roads--
  Piraguas--Ploughs--Corn--Potatoes--Contributions--Birds--
  Shell-fish--Medical practitioners--Remedies--Climate          269

  CHAPTER XVII.

  Chilóe the last Spanish possession in South America--
  Freyre's Expedition--Failure--Second Expedition under
  Freyre and Blanco--Quintanilla's capitulation--Chilóe
  taken--Aldunate placed in command--Chilóe a dependency of
  Chile--Beagle sails to sea coast of Tierra del Fuego--
  Adelaide repaired--Adelaide sails--Adventure goes to
  {xxvi}
  Valparaiso--Juan Fernandez--Fishery--Goats--Dogs--
  Geology--Botany--Shells--Spanish accounts--Anson's
  voyage--Talcahuano--Concepcion--Pinoleo--Araucanian
  Indians--Re-enter the Strait of Magalhaens--Fuegians          298

  CHAPTER XVIII.

  Adelaide's last cruise--Port Otway--San Quintin--Marine
  Islands--Unknown river or passage--San Tadeo--Isthmus
  of Ofqui--San Rafael--Sufferings and route of Wager's
  party--Channel's Mouth--Byron--Cheap--Elliot--Hamilton--
  Campbell--Indian Cacique--Passage of the Desecho--
  Osorio--Xavier Island--Jesuit Sound--Kirke's report--
  Night tides--Guaianeco Islands--Site of the Wager's
  wreck--Bulkely and Cummings--Speedwell Bay--Indigenous
  wild Potato--Mesier Channel--Fatal Bay--Death of Mr.
  Millar--Fallos Channel--Lieutenant Skyring's illness--
  English Narrow--Fish--Wigwams--Indians--Level Bay--Brazo
  Ancho--Eyre Sound--Seal--Icebergs--Walker Bay--Nature of
  the Country--Habits of the Natives--Scarcity of population    323

  CHAPTER XIX.

  Sarmiento Channel--Ancon sin Salida--Cape Earnest--Canal
  of the Mountains--Termination of the Andes--Kirke Narrow--
  Easter Bay--Disappointment Bay--Obstruction Sound--Last
  Hope Inlet--Swans--Coots--Deer River--Lagoon--Singular
  Eddies--Passage of the Narrow--Arrival at Port Famine--
  Zoological remarks                                            346

  CHAPTER XX.

  Beagle sails from San Carlos--Enters Strait--Harbour of
  Mercy--Cape Pillar--Apostles--Judges--Landfall Island--
  Cape Gloucester--Dislocation Harbour--Week Islands--
  Fuegians--Latitude Bay--Boat's crew in distress--Petrel--
  Passages--Otway Bay--Cape Tate--Fincham Islands--
  {xxvii}
  Deepwater Sound--Breaker Bay--Grafton Islands--Geological
  remarks--Barbara Channel--Mount Skyring--Compasses
  affected--Drawings--Provisions--Opportunities lost            360

  CHAPTER XXI.

  Skyring's chart--Noir Island--Penguins--Fuegians--
  Sarmiento--Townshend Harbour--Horace Peaks--Cape
  Desolation--Boat lost--Basket--Search in Desolation Bay--
  Natives--Heavy Gale--Surprise--Seizure--Consequences--
  Return to Beagle--Sail to Stewart Harbour--Set out
  again--Escape of Natives--Unavailing search--Discomforts--
  Tides--Nature of Coast--Doris Cove--Christmas Sound--
  Cook--York-Minster--March Harbour--Build a boat--
  Treacherous rocks--Skirmish with the Natives--Captives--
  Boat Memory--Petrel                                           386

  CHAPTER XXII.

  Mr. Murray returns--Go to New Year Sound--See Diego
  Ramirez Islands from Henderson Island--Weddell's Indian
  Cove--Sympiesometer--Return to Christmas Sound--Beagle
  sails--Passes the Ildefonso and Diego Ramirez Islands--
  Anchors in Nassau Bay--Orange Bay--Yapoos--Mr. Murray
  discovers the Beagle Channel--Numerous Natives--
  Guanacoes--Compasses affected--Cape Horn--Specimens--
  Chanticleer--Mistake about St. Francis Bay--Diego Ramirez
  Islands--Climate--San Joachim Cove--Barnevelt Isles--
  Evouts Isle--Lennox Harbour                                   417

  CHAPTER XXIII.

  Set out in boats--Find Guanacoes--Murray Narrow--Birch
  Fungus--Tide--Channel--Glaciers--View--Mountains--
  Unbroken chain--Passages--Steam-vessels--Jemmy Button--
  Puma--Nest--Accident--Natives--Murray's Journal--Cape
  Graham--Cape Kinnaird--Spaniard Harbour--Valentyn Bay--
  {xxviii}
  Cape Good Success--Natives--Lennox Island--Strait le
  Maire--Good Success Bay--Accident--Tide race--San
  Vicente--San Diego--Tides--Soundings--North-East Coast--
  San Sebastian--Reflections--Port Desire--Monte Video--
  Santa Catharina--Rio de Janeiro                               438

  CHAPTER XXIV.

  A few Nautical remarks upon the passage round Cape Horn;
  and upon that through the Strait of Magalhaens, or Magellan   463

{xxix}

DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER

FOR PLACING THE PLATES.

  VOLUME I.

  Map of South America                                               Loose.
  Strait of Magalhaens                                               Loose.
  Patagonian                                                  Frontispiece.
  Monte Video                                                to face page 1
  Distant View of Mount Sarmiento (with two other views)                 26
  Curious Peak--Admiralty Sound (with other views)                       52
  Patagonian 'toldo' and tomb                                            94
  Monte Video Mole                                                      105
  Rio de Janeiro                                                        106
  Fuegian Wigwams at Hope Harbour, in the Magdalen Channel              126
  Monte Video--Custom-House                                             187
  Corcovado Mountain                                                    188
  Mount Sarmiento                                                       252
  San Carlos de Chilóe                                                  275
  Breast Ploughing in Chilóe                                            287
  Point Arena--Chilóe (with other views)                                300
  South West opening of Cockburn Channel (with views of Headlands)      407
  Wollaston Island, near Cape Horn                                      433
  Chart of a part of South America, by Captain P. P. King               463

------

NOTE.--The loose Plates are to be folded into pockets in the covers of the
volumes.

       *       *       *       *       *


ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA.

------

Page 76, line 4 from bottom, _for_ lying, _read_ being.

 118, Heading, line 4, _for_ Beagle sailed, _read_ Beagle sails.

 123, line 17, _insert_ narrow, _before_ and shoal.

 164, line 23, _instead of_ the, _read_ our.

 174, line 6, _for_ cuts, _read_ cut.

 193, line 5, _for_ have, _read_ had.

 223, (Note) line 2 from bottom, _for_ they, _read_ he.

 229, line 9, _for _was, _read_ were.

 265, line 8, _after_ day, _insert a_ colon _instead of a_ comma.

 273, line 21, _after_ as well, _insert_ as.

 301, line 23, _for_ Lieutenants Skyring and Graves again took with them,
_read_ Lieutenant Skyring again took with him.

 411, line 2, _dele_ the.

 437, line 16, _for_ contiue, _read_ continue.

 443, line 19, _for_ wit, _read_ with.

 462, line 21, _for_ Santa Catalina, _read_ Santa Catharina.

 473, line 17, _after_ which is, _insert_ a.

 481, bottom line, _for_ 53. 32. 30, _read_ 53. 52. 30.

 485, line 7, (of positions) _for_ 53. 31, _read_ 53. 51.

 ---- bottom line, _for_ 11. 51, _read_ 3. 26.

 488, line 9, _for_ Northern, _read_ Southern.

 489, line 4 from bottom, _for_ 46. 03, _read_ 46. 30; and _for_ 40. 50,
_read_ 40. 05.

 490, line 6, _for_ 50°, _read_ 49°.

 491, line 6, _for_ 36. 56, _read_ 36. 16.

 493, line 9, _for_ 54. 30. 00, _read_ 54. 05. 20; and _for_ 73. 1. 30,
_read_ 73. 25. 30.

 526, _for_ Variation, _read_ Dip.

MAMMALIA.

 529, line 8, _for_ Harlau _read_ Harlan.

 531, line 6, _for_ KERODA _read_ KERODON.

BIRDS.

 532, line 1, _for_ Dumérel, _read_ Duméril.

 ---- line 7, _for_ MILOAGO, _read_ MILVAGO.

 ---- line 19, _for_ SPAROERIUS, _read_ SPARVERIUS.

 533, line 16, _dele_ Spix.

 ---- bottom line, _for_ SILVIA, _read_ SYLVIA, and in next page the same.

 534, line 12, _dele_ Fursa, Veillot.

 ---- line 10 from bottom, _for_ SMARAGDIMIS, _read_ SMARAGDINUS.

 536, line 9 from bottom, _for_ STRUTHEO, _read_ STRUTHIO.

 ---- line 6 from bottom, for _rinacea_, read _binacea_.

 537, line 14, _for_ TOTAMUS, _read_ TOTANUS.

 538, line 5, for _subtas_, read _subtus_.

 ---- lower lines, _where_ HOEMATOPUS occurs, _read_ HÆMATOPUS.

 540, last line, for _meneque_, read _mineque_; and for _pariè_, read
_parcè_.

 541, line 12, _for_ CATARRHOCTES, _read_ CATARRHACTES.

 ---- line 2 from bottom, for _ud_, read _ad_.

 543, line 13, for _gracillimus_, read _gracillimis_.

SHELLS.

 545, last line, for _brachyptera_, read _brachypterus_; for _Patachonica_,
read _Patachonicus_.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: C. Martens T. Landseer

MONTE VIDEO.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

       *       *       *       *       *


{1} SURVEYING VOYAGES

OF THE

ADVENTURE AND THE BEAGLE,

1826-1830.

------

CHAPTER I.

  Departure from Monte Video--Port Santa Elena--Geological remarks--Cape
  Fairweather--Non-existence of Chalk--Natural History--Approach to Cape
  Virgins, and the Strait of Magalhaens (or Magellan)

We sailed from Monte Video on the 19th of November 1826; and, in company
with the Beagle, quitted the river Plata.

According to my Instructions, the Survey was to commence at Cape San
Antonio, the southern limit of the entrance of the Plata; but, for the
following urgent reasons, I decided to begin with the southern coasts of
Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego, including the Straits of Magalhaens.[4] In
the first place, they presented a field of great interest and novelty; and
secondly, the climate of the higher southern latitudes being so severe and
tempestuous, it appeared important to encounter its rigours while the ships
were in good condition--while the crews were healthy--and while the charms
of a new and difficult enterprize had full force.

{2}

Our course was therefore southerly, and in latitude 45° south, a few
leagues northward of Port Santa Elena, we first saw the coast of Patagonia.
I intended to visit that port; and, on the 28th, anchored, and landed
there.

Seamen should remember that a knowledge of the tide is of especial
consequence in and near Port Santa Elena. During a calm we were carried by
it towards reefs which line the shore, and were obliged to anchor until a
breeze sprung up.

The coast along which we had passed, from Point Lobos to the north-east
point of Port Santa Elena, appeared to be dry and bare of vegetation. There
were no trees; the land seemed to be one long extent of undulating plain,
beyond which were high, flat-topped hills of a rocky, precipitous
character. The shore was fronted by rocky reefs extending two or three
miles from high-water mark, which, as the tide fell, were left dry, and in
many places were covered with seals.

As soon as we had secured the ships, Captain Stokes accompanied me on shore
to select a place for our observations. We found the spot which the Spanish
astronomers of Malaspina's Voyage (in 1798) used for their observatory, the
most convenient for our purpose. It is near a very steep shingle (stony)
beach at the back of a conspicuous red-coloured, rocky projection which
terminates a small bay, on the western side, at the head of the port. The
remains of a wreck, which proved to be that of an American whaler, the
Decatur of New York, were found upon the extremity of the same point; she
had been driven on shore from her anchors during a gale.

The sight of the wreck, and the steepness of the shingle beach just
described, evidently caused by the frequent action of a heavy sea, did not
produce a favourable opinion of the safety of the port: but as it was not
the season for easterly gales, to which only the anchorage is exposed, and
as appearances indicated a westerly wind, we did not anticipate danger.

While we were returning on board, the wind blew so strongly that we had
much difficulty in reaching the ships, and the boats were no sooner hoisted
up, and every thing {3} made snug, than it blew a hard gale from the S.W.
The water however, from the wind being off the land, was perfectly smooth,
and the ships rode securely through the night: but the following morning
the gale increased, and veered to the southward, which threw a heavy sea
into the port, placing us, to say the least, in a very uneasy situation.
Happily it ceased at sunset. In consequence of the unfavourable state of
the weather, no attempt was made to land in order to observe an eclipse of
the sun; to make which observation was one reason for visiting this port.

The day after the gale, while I was employed in making some astronomical
observations, a party roamed about in quest of game: but with little
success, as they killed only a few wild ducks. The fire which they made for
cooking communicated to the dry stubbly grass, and in a few minutes the
whole country was in a blaze. The flames continued to spread during our
stay, and, in a few days, more than fifteen miles along the coast, and
seven or eight miles into the interior were overrun by the fire. The smoke
very much impeded our observations, for at times it quite obscured the sun.

The geological structure of this part of the country, and a considerable
portion of the coast to the north and south, consists of a fine-grained
porphyritic clay slate. The summits of the hills near the coast are
generally of a rounded form, and are paved, as it were, with small,
rounded, siliceous pebbles, imbedded in the soil, and in no instance lying
loose or in heaps; but those of the interior are flat-topped, and uniform
in height, for many miles in extent. The valleys and lower elevations,
notwithstanding the poverty and parched state of the soil, were partially
covered with grass and shrubby plants, which afford sustenance to numerous
herds of guanacoes. Many of these animals were observed feeding near the
beach when we were working into the bay, but they took the alarm, so that
upon landing we only saw them at a considerable distance. In none of our
excursions could we find any water that had not a brackish taste. Several
wells have been dug in the valleys, both near the sea and at a considerable
distance from it, by the {4} crews of sealing vessels; but, except in the
rainy season, they all contain saltish water. This observation is
applicable to nearly the whole extent of the porphyritic country.
Oyster-shells, three or four inches in diameter, were found, scattered over
the hills, to the height of three or four hundred feet above the sea. Sir
John Narborough, in 1652, found oyster-shells at Port San Julian; but, from
a great many which have been lately collected there, we know that they are
of a species different from that found at Port Santa Elena. Both are
fossils.

No recent specimen of the genus _Ostrea_ was found by us on any part of the
Patagonian coast. Narborough, in noticing those at Port San Julian, says,
"They are the biggest oyster-shells that I ever saw, some six, some seven
inches broad, yet not one oyster to be found in the harbour: whence I
conclude they were here when the world was formed."

The short period of our visit did not enable us to add much to natural
history. Of quadrupeds we saw guanacoes, foxes, cavies, and the armadillo;
but no traces of the puma (_Felis concolor_), or South American lion,
although it is to be met with in the interior.

I mentioned that a herd of guanacoes was feeding near the shore when we
arrived. Every exertion was made to obtain some of the animals; but, either
from their shyness, or our ignorance of the mode of entrapping them, we
tried in vain, until the arrival of a small sealing-vessel, which had
hastened to our assistance, upon seeing the fires we had accidentally made,
but which her crew thought were intended for signals of distress. They shot
two, and sent some of the meat on board the Adventure. The next day, Mr.
Tarn succeeded in shooting one, a female, which, when skinned and cleaned,
weighed 168 lbs. Narborough mentions having killed one at Port San Julian,
that weighed, "cleaned in his quarters, 268 lbs." The watchful and wary
character of this animal is very remarkable. Whenever a herd is feeding,
one is posted, like a sentinel, on a height; and, at the approach of
danger, gives instant alarm by a loud neigh, when away they all go, at a
hand-gallop, to the next eminence, where they quietly resume their feeding,
{5} until again warned of the approach of danger by their vigilant
'look-out.'

Another peculiarity of the guanaco is, the habit of resorting to particular
spots for natural purposes. This is mentioned in the 'Dictionnaire
d'Histoire Naturelle,' in the 'Encyclopédie Méthodique,' as well as other
works.

In one place we found the bones of thirty-one guanacoes collected within a
space of thirty yards, perhaps the result of an encampment of Indians, as
evident traces of them were observed; among which were a human jaw-bone,
and a piece of agate ingeniously chipped into the shape of a spear-head.

The fox, which we did not take, appeared to be small, and similar to a new
species afterwards found by us in the Strait of Magalhaens.

The cavia[5] (or, as it is called by Narborough, Byron, and Wood, the hare,
an animal from which it differs both in appearance and habits, as well as
flavour), makes a good dish; and so does the armadillo, which our people
called the shell-pig.[6] This little animal is found abundantly about the
low land, and lives in burrows underground; several were taken by the
seamen, and, when cooked in their shells, were savoury and wholesome.

Teal were abundant upon the marshy grounds. A few partridges, doves, and
snipes, a rail, and some hawks were shot. The few sea-birds that were
observed consisted of two species of gulls, a grebe and a penguin
(_Aptenodytes Magellanica_).

We found two species of snakes and several kinds of lizards. Fish were
scarce, as were also insects; of the last, our {6} collections consisted
only of a few species of _Coleoptera_, two or three _Lepidoptera_, and two
_Hymenoptera_.

Among the sea-shells, the most abundant was the _Patella deaurata_, Lamk.;
this, with three other species of Patella, one _Chiton_, three species of
_Mytilus_, three of _Murex_, one of _Crepidula_, and a _Venus_, were all
that we collected.

About the country, near the sea-shore, there is a small tree, whose stem
and roots are highly esteemed for fuel by the crews of sealing-vessels
which frequent this coast. They call it 'piccolo.' The leaf was described
to me as having a prickle upon it, and the flower as of a yellow colour. A
species of berberis also is found, which when ripe may afford a very
palatable fruit.

Our short visit gave us no flattering opinion of the fertility of the
country near this port. Of the interior we were ignorant; but, from the
absence of Indians and the scarcity of fresh water, it is probably very
bare of pasturage. Falkner, the Jesuit missionary, says these parts were
used by the Tehuelhet tribes for burying-places: we saw, however, no
graves, nor any traces of bodies, excepting the jaw-bone above-mentioned;
but subsequently, at Sea Bear Bay, we found many places on the summits of
the hills which had evidently been used for such a purpose, although then
containing no remains of bodies. This corresponds with Falkner's account,
that after a period of twelve months the sepulchres are formally visited by
the tribe, when the bones of their relatives and friends are collected and
carried to certain places, where the skeletons are arranged in order, and
tricked out with all the finery and ornaments they can collect.

The ships sailed from Port Santa Elena on the 5th December, and proceeded
to the southward, coasting the shore as far as Cape Two Bays.

Our object being to proceed with all expedition to the Strait of
Magalhaens, the examination of this part of the coast was reserved for a
future opportunity. On the 13th, we had reached within fifty miles of Cape
Virgins, the headland at the entrance of the strait, but it was directly in
the wind's eye {7} of us. The wind veering to S.S.W., we made about a west
course. At day-light the land was in sight, terminating in a point to the
S.W., so exactly like the description of Cape Virgins and the view of it in
Alison's voyage, that without considering our place on the chart, or
calculating the previous twenty-four hours' run, it was taken for the Cape
itself, and, no one suspecting a mistake, thought of verifying the ship's
position. The point, however, proved to be Cape Fairweather. It was not a
little singular, that the same mistake should have been made on board the
Beagle, where the error was not discovered for three days.[7]

From the appearance of the weather I was anxious to approach the land in
order to anchor, as there seemed to be every likelihood of a gale; and we
were not deceived, for at three o'clock, being within seven miles of the
Cape, a strong wind sprung up from the S.W., and the anchor was dropped.
Towards evening it blew so hard, that both ships dragged their anchors for
a considerable distance.

On the charts of this part of the coast the shore is described to be formed
of "chalk hills, like the coast of Kent." To geologists, therefore,
especially, as they were not disposed to believe that such was the fact,
this was a question of some interest. From our anchorage the appearance of
the land favoured our belief of the existence of chalk. The outline was
very level and steep; precipitous cliffs of whitish colour, stratified
horizontally, with their upper part occasionally worn into hollows,
strongly resembled the chalk cliffs of the English coasts.

The gale prevented our landing for three days, when (19th) a few minutes
sufficed to discover that the cliffs were composed {8} of soft clay,
varying in colour and consistence, and disposed in strata running
horizontally for many miles without interruption, excepting where
water-courses had worn them away. Some of the strata were very fine clay,
unmixed with any other substance, whilst others were plentifully strewed
with round siliceous gravel,[8] without any vestige of organic remains. The
sea beach, from high-water mark to the base of the cliffs, is formed by
shingle, with scattered masses of indurated clay of a green colour.[9]
Between the high and low tide marks there is a smooth beach of the same
green clay as the masses above-mentioned, which appears to have been
hardened by the action of the surf to the consistence of stone. Generally
this beach extends for about one hundred yards farther into the sea, and is
succeeded by a soft green mud, over which the water gradually deepens. The
outer edge of the clay forms a ledge, extending parallel with the coast,
upon the whole length of which the sea breaks, and over it a boat can with
difficulty pass at low water.

The very few shells we found were dead. Strewed about the beach were
numbers of fish, some of which had been thrown on shore by the last tide,
and were scarcely stiff. They principally belonged to the genus _Ophidium_;
the largest that we saw measured four feet seven inches in length, and
weighed twenty-four pounds. Many caught alongside the ship were, in truth,
coarse and insipid; yet our people, who fed heartily upon them, called them
ling, and thought them palatable. The hook, however, furnished us with a
very wholesome and well-flavoured species of cod (_Gadus_). Attached to the
first we found two parasitical animals; one was a _Cymothoa_, the other a
species of _Lernæa_, which had so {9} securely attached itself under the
skin, as not to be removed without cutting off a piece of the flesh with
it. An undescribed species of _Muræna_ was also taken.

Whilst we were on shore, the Beagle moved eight or nine miles nearer to the
Cape, where Captain Stokes landed to fix positions of remarkable land. One
peaked hill, from the circumstance of his seeing a large animal near it, he
called Tiger Mount. Mr. Bowen shot a guanaco; and being at a distance in
shore, unable to procure assistance, he skinned and quartered it with his
pocket-knife, and carried it upon his shoulders to the boat.

Next morning the ships weighed, and proceeded towards Cape Virgins.

When a-breast of Cape Fairweather, the opening of the river Gallegos was
very distinctly seen; but the examination of it was deferred to a future
opportunity. Passing onward, the water shoaled to four fathoms, until we
had passed extensive banks, which front the river.

Our approach to the entrance of the Strait, although attended with anxiety,
caused sensations of interest and pleasure not easily to be described.
Though dangers were experienced by some navigators who had passed it, the
comparative facility with which others had effected the passage showed
that, at times, the difficulties were easily surmounted, and we were
willing to suppose that in the former case there might have been some
little exaggeration.

The most complete, and, probably, the only good account of the navigation
of the Strait of Magalhaens is contained in the narrative of Don Antonio de
Cordova, who commanded the Spanish frigate Santa Maria de la Cabeza, on a
voyage expressly for the purpose of exploring the strait. It was published
under the title of 'Ultimo Viage al Estrecho de Magallanes.' That voyage
was, however, concluded with only the examination of the eastern part, and
a subsequent expedition was made, under the command of the same officer,
the account of which was appended to the Cabeza's voyage; so that Cordova's
expedition still retained the appellation of 'Ultimo {10} Viage, &c.' It is
written in a plain and simple style, gives a most correct account of every
thing seen, and should therefore be in the possession of every person who
attempts the navigation of the strait.

Cordova's account of the climate is very uninviting. Speaking of the
rigours of the summer months (January, February, and March), he says,
"Seldom was the sky clear, and short were the intervals in which we
experienced the sun's warmth: no day passed by without some rain having
fallen, and the most usual state of the weather was that of constant
rain."[10]

The accounts of Wallis and Carteret are still more gloomy. The former
concludes that part of his narrative with the following dismal and
disheartening description: "Thus we quitted a dreary and inhospitable
region, where we were in almost continual danger of shipwreck for near four
months, having entered the strait on the 17th of December, and quitted it
on the 11th of April 1767: a region where, in the midst of summer, the
weather was cold, gloomy, and tempestuous, where the prospects had more the
appearance of a chaos than of nature; and where for the most part the
valleys were without herbage and the hills without wood."

These records of Cordova and Wallis made me feel not a little apprehensive
for the health of the crew, which could not be expected to escape uninjured
through the rigours of such a climate. Nor were the narratives of Byron or
Bougainville calculated to lessen my anxiety. In an account, however, of a
voyage to the strait by M. A. Duclos Guyot, the following paragraph tended
considerably to relieve my mind upon the subject:--"At length, on Saturday
the 23d of March, we sailed out of that famous Strait, so much dreaded,
after having experienced that there, as well as in other places, it was
very fine, and very warm, and that for three-fourths of the time the sea
was perfectly calm."

In every view of the case, our proximity to the principal scene of action
occasioned sensations of a peculiar nature, in which, however, those that
were most agreeable and hopeful {11} preponderated. The officers and crews
of both ships were healthy, and elated with the prospect before them; our
vessels were in every respect strong and sea-worthy; and we were possessed
of every comfort and resource necessary for encountering much greater
difficulties than we had any reason to anticipate.

       *       *       *       *       *

    There has existed much difference of opinion as to the correct mode of
    spelling the name of the celebrated navigator who discovered this
    Strait. The French and English usually write it Magellan, and the
    Spaniards Magallanes; but by the Portuguese (and he was a native of
    Portugal) it is universally written Magalhaens. Admiral Burney and Mr.
    Dalrymple spell it Magalhanes, which mode I have elsewhere adopted, but
    I have since convinced myself of the propriety of following the
    Portuguese orthography for a name which, to this day, is very common
    both in Portugal and Brazil.

       *       *       *       *       *


{12}

CHAPTER II.

  Enter the Straits of Magalhaens (or Magellan), and anchor off Cape
  Possession--First Narrow--Gregory Bay--Patagonian Indians--Second
  Narrow--Elizabeth Island--Freshwater Bay--Fuegian Indians--Arrival
  at Port Famine.

A contrary tide and light winds detained us at anchor near Cape Virgins
until four o'clock in the afternoon, when, with the turn of the tide, a
light air carried us past Dungeness Point, aptly named by Wallis from its
resemblance to that in the English Channel. A great number of seals were
huddled together upon the bank, above the wash of the tide, whilst others
were sporting about in the surf. Cape Possession was in sight, and with the
wind and tide in our favour we proceeded until ten o'clock, when the anchor
was dropped. At daylight we found ourselves six miles to the eastward of
the cape. The anchor was then weighed, and was again dropped at three miles
from the cape until the afternoon, when we made another attempt; but lost
ground, and anchored a third time. Before night a fourth attempt was made,
but the tide prevented our making any advance, and we again anchored.

Mount Aymond[11] and "his four sons," or (according to the old quaint
nomenclature) the Asses' Ears, had been in sight all day, as well as a
small hummock of land on the S.W. horizon, which afterwards proved to be
the peaked hillock upon Cape Orange, at the south side of the entrance to
the First Narrow.

At this anchorage the tide fell thirty feet, but the strength of the
current, compared with the rate at which we afterwards found it to run, was
inconsiderable. Here we first experienced {13} the peculiar tides of which
former navigators have written. During the first half of the flood[12] or
westward tide, the depth decreased, and then, after a short interval,
increased until three hours after the stream of tide had begun to run to
the eastward.

The following morning (21st) we gained a little ground. Our glasses were
directed to the shore in search of inhabitants, for it was hereabouts that
Byron, and Wallis, and some of the Spanish navigators held communication
with the Patagonian Indians; but we saw none. Masses of large sea-weed,[13]
drifting with the tide, floated past the ship. A description of this
remarkable plant, although it has often been given before, may not be
irrelevant here. It is rooted upon rocks or stones at the bottom of the
sea, and rises to the surface, even from great depths. We have found it
firmly fixed to the ground more than twenty fathoms under water, yet
trailing along the surface for forty or fifty feet. When firmly rooted it
shows the set of the tide or current. It has also the advantage of
indicating rocky ground: for wherever there are rocks under water, their
situation is, as it were, buoyed by a mass of sea-weed[14] on the surface
of the sea, of larger extent than that of the danger below. In many
instances perhaps it causes unnecessary alarm, since it often grows in deep
water; but it should not be entered without its vicinity having been
sounded, especially if seen in masses, with the extremities of the stems
trailing along the surface. If there be no tide, or if the wind and tide
are the same way, the plant lies smoothly upon the water, but if the wind
be against the tide, the leaves curl up and are visible at a distance,
giving a rough, rippling appearance to the surface of the water.

During the last two days the dredge had furnished us with a few specimens
of _Infundibulum_ of Sowerby (_Patella trochi-formis_, Lin.), and some dead
shells (_Murex Magellanicus_) were brought up by the sounding-lead.

We made another attempt next morning, but again lost {14} ground, and the
anchor was dropped for the eighth time. The threatening appearances of the
clouds, and a considerable fall of the barometer indicating bad weather,
Captain Stokes agreed with me in thinking it advisable to await the
spring-tides to pass the First Narrow: the ships were therefore made snug
for the expected gale, which soon came on, and we remained several days
wind-bound, with top-masts struck, in a rapid tide-way, whose stream
sometimes ran seven knots. On the 28th, with some appearance of improving
weather, we made an attempt to pass through the Narrow. The wind blowing
strong, directly against us, and strengthening as we advanced, caused a
hollow sea, that repeatedly broke over us. The tide set us through the
Narrow very rapidly, but the gale was so violent that we could not show
more sail than was absolutely necessary to keep the ship under command.
Wearing every ten minutes, as we approached either shore, lost us a great
deal of ground, and as the anchorage we left was at a considerable distance
from the entrance of the Narrows, the tide was not sufficient to carry us
through. At slack water the wind fell, and as the weather became fine, I
was induced to search for anchorage near the south shore. The sight of
kelp, however, fringing the coast, warned me off, and we were obliged to
return to an anchorage in Possession Bay. The Beagle had already anchored
in a very favourable berth; but the tide was too strong to permit us to
reach the place she occupied, and our anchor was dropped a mile astern of
her, in nineteen fathoms. The tide was then running five, and soon
afterwards six miles an hour. Had the western tide set with equal strength,
we should have succeeded in passing the Narrow. Our failure, however,
answered the good purpose of making us more acquainted with the extent of a
bank that lines the northern side of Possession Bay, and with the time of
the turn of tide in the Narrow; which on this day (new moon) took place
within a few minutes of noon.

As we passed Cape Orange, some Indians were observed lighting a fire under
the lee of the hill to attract our notice; but we were too busily engaged
to pay much attention to {15} their movements. Guanacoes also were seen
feeding near the beach, which was the first intimation we had of the
existence of that animal southward of the Strait of Magalhaens.

When day broke (29th) it was discovered that the ship had drifted
considerably during the night. The anchor was weighed, and with a
favourable tide we reached an anchorage a mile in advance of the Beagle. We
had shoaled rather suddenly to eight fathoms, upon which the anchor was
immediately dropped, and on veering cable the depth was eleven fathoms. We
had anchored on the edge of a bank, which soon afterwards, by the tide
falling, was left dry within one hundred yards of the ship. Finding
ourselves so near a shoal, preparations were made to prevent the ship from
touching it. An anchor was dropped under foot, and others were got ready to
lay out, for the depth alongside had decreased from eleven to seven
fathoms, and was still falling. Fortunately we had brought up to leeward of
the bank, and suffered no inconvenience; the flood made, and as soon as
possible the ship was shifted to another position, about half a mile to the
S.E., in a situation very favourable for our next attempt to pass the
Narrow. This night the tide fell thirty-six feet, and the stream ran six
knots.

The ensuing morning we made another attempt to get through the Narrow, and,
from having anchored so close to its entrance, by which the full benefit of
the strength, as well as the whole duration of the tide was obtained, we
succeeded in clearing it in two hours, although the distance was more than
twenty miles, and the wind directly against us, the sea, as before,
breaking repeatedly over the ship.

After emerging from the Narrow we had to pass through a heavy 'race' before
we 'reached' out of the influence of the stream that runs between the First
and Second Narrow, but the tide lasted long enough to carry us to a quiet
anchorage. In the evening we weighed again, and reached Gregory Bay, where
the Beagle joined us the next morning.

Since entering the Strait, we had not had any communication {16} with the
Beagle on account of the weather, and the strength of the tide; this
opportunity was therefore taken to supply her with water, of which she had
only enough left for two days.

The greater part of this day was spent on shore, examining the country and
making observations. Large smokes[15] were noticed to the westward. The
shore was strewed with traces of men and horses, and other animals. Foxes
and ostriches were seen; and bones of guanacoes were lying about the
ground.

The country in the vicinity of this anchorage seemed open, low, and covered
with good pasturage. It extends five or six miles, with a gradual ascent,
to the base of a range of flat-topped land, whose summit is about fifteen
hundred feet above the level of the sea. Not a tree was seen; a few
bushes[16] alone interrupted the uniformity of the view. The grass appeared
to have been cropped by horses or guanacoes, and was much interspersed with
cranberry plants, bearing a ripe and juicy, though very insipid fruit.

Next day the wind was too strong and adverse to permit us to proceed. In
the early part of the morning an American sealing vessel, returning from
the Madre de Dios Archipelago on her way to the Falkland Islands, anchored
near us. Mr. Cutler, her master, came on board the Adventure, passed the
day and night with us, and gave me much useful information respecting the
nature of the navigation, and anchorages in the Strait. He told me there
was an Englishman in his vessel who was a pilot for the strait, and willing
to join the ship. I gladly accepted the offer of his services.

In the evening an Indian was observed on horseback riding to and fro upon
the beach, but the weather prevented my sending a boat until the next
morning, when Lieutenant Cooke went on shore to communicate with him and
other Indians who appeared, soon after dawn, upon the beach. On landing, he
was received by them without the least distrust. They were eight or ten in
number, consisting of an old man and his wife, three young men, and the
rest children, all mounted on {17} good horses. The woman, who appeared to
be about fifty years of age, was seated astride upon a pile of skins, hung
round with joints of fresh guanaco meat and dried horse-flesh. They were
all wrapped in mantles, made chiefly of the skins of guanacoes, sewed
together with the sinews of the same animal. These mantles were large
enough to cover the whole body. Some were made of skins of the 'zorillo,'
or skunk, an animal like a pole-cat, but ten times more offensive; and
others, of skins of the puma.

The tallest of the Indians, excepting the old man, who did not dismount,
was rather less than six feet in height. All were robust in appearance, and
with respect to the head, length of body, and breadth of shoulders, of
gigantic size; therefore, when on horseback, or seated in a boat, they
appeared to be tall, as well as large men. In proportion to the parts
above-mentioned, their extremities were very small and short, so that when
standing they seemed but of a moderate size, and their want of proportion
was concealed by the mantle, which enveloped the body entirely, the head
and feet being the only parts exposed.

When Mr. Cooke landed, he presented some medals[17] to the oldest man, and
the woman; and suspended them round their necks. A friendly feeling being
established, the natives dismounted, and even permitted our men to ride
their horses, without evincing the least displeasure, at the free advantage
taken of their good-nature. Mr. Cooke rode to the heights, whence he had a
distinct view of the Second Narrow, and Elizabeth Island, whither, he
explained to the Indians who accompanied him, we were going.

Mr. Cooke returned to the ship with three natives, whom he had induced to
go with us to Elizabeth Island; the others were to meet them, and provide
us with guanaco meat, to which arrangement the elders of the family had,
after {18} much persuasion, assented. At first they objected to their
companions embarking with us, unless we left hostages for their safety; but
as this was refused, they did not press the point, and the three young men
embarked. They went on board singing; in high glee.

While the ship was getting under way, I went ashore to a larger number of
Indians who were waiting on the beach. When my boat landed they were
mounted, and collected in one place. I was surprised to hear the woman
accost me in Spanish, of which, however, she knew but a few words. Having
presented medals to each of the party, they dismounted (excepting the
elders), and in a few minutes became quite familiar. By this time Captain
Stokes had landed, with several of his officers, who increased our party to
nearly double the number of theirs: notwithstanding which they evinced
neither fear nor uneasiness. The woman, whose name was Maria, wished to be
very communicative; she told me that the man was her husband, and that she
had five children. One of the young men, whom we afterwards found to be a
son of Maria, who was a principal person of the tribe, was mounted upon a
very fine horse, well groomed, and equipped with a bridle and saddle that
would have done credit to a respectable horseman of Buenos Ayres or Monte
Video. The young man wore heavy brass spurs, like those of the Guachos of
Buenos Ayres. The juvenile and feminine appearance of this youth made us
think he was Maria's daughter, nor was it until a subsequent visit that our
mistake was discovered. The absence of whiskers and beard gives all the
younger men a very effeminate look, and many cannot be distinguished, in
appearance, from the women, but by the mode in which they wrap their
mantles around them, and by their hair, which is turned up and confined by
a fillet of worsted yarn. The women cross their mantle over the breast like
a shawl, and fasten it together with two iron pins or skewers, round which
are twisted strings of beads and other ornaments. They also wear their hair
divided, and gathered into long tresses or tails, which hang one before
each ear; and those who have short hair, wear false tails made of
horse-hair. Under {19} their mantle the women wear a sort of petticoat, and
the men a triangular piece of hide instead of breeches. Both sexes sit
astride, but the women upon a heap of skins and mantles, when riding. The
saddles and stirrups used by the men are similar to those of Buenos Ayres.
The bits, also, are generally of steel; but those who cannot procure steel
bits have a sort of snaffle, of wood, which must, of course, be frequently
renewed. Both sexes wear boots, made of the skins of horses' hind legs, of
which the parts about the hock joints serve for the heels. For spurs, they
use pieces of wood, pointed with iron, projecting backwards two or three
inches on each side of the heel, connected behind by a broad strap of hide,
and fastened under the foot and over the instep by another strap.

The only weapons which we observed with these people were the 'bolas,' or
balls, precisely similar to those used by the Pampas Indians; but they are
fitter for hunting than for offence or defence. Some are furnished with
three balls, but in general there are only two. These balls are made of
small bags or purses of hide, moistened, filled with iron pyrites, or some
other heavy substance, and then dried. They are about the size of a hen's
egg, and attached to the extremities of a thong, three or four yards in
length. To use them, one ball is held in the hand, and the other swung
several times around the head until both are thrown at the object, which
they rarely miss. They wind round it violently, and if it be an animal,
throw it down. The bolas, with three balls, similarly connected together,
are thrown in the same manner.

As more time could not be spared we went on board, reminding the natives,
on leaving them, of their promise to bring us some guanaco meat. Aided by
the tide, the ships worked to windward through the Second Narrow, and
reached an anchorage out of the strength of tide, but in an exposed
situation. The wind having been very strong and against the tide, the ship
had much motion, which made our Patagonian passengers very sick, and
heartily sorry for trusting themselves afloat. One of them, with tears in
his eyes, begged to be landed, but was soon convinced of the difficulty of
compliance, {20} and satisfied with our promise of sending him ashore on
the morrow.

After we anchored, the wind increased to a gale, in which the ship pitched
so violently as to injure our windlass. Its construction was bad
originally, and the violent jerks received in Possession Bay had done it
much damage. While veering cable, the support at one end gave way, and the
axle of the barrel was forced out of the socket, by which some of the pawls
were injured. Fortunately, dangerous consequences were prevented, and a
temporary repair was soon applied.

The Beagle, by her better sailing, had reached a more advanced situation,
close to the N.E. end of Elizabeth Island, but had anchored
disadvantageously in deep water, and in the strength of the tide. Next
morning we made an attempt to pass round Elizabeth Island, but found the
breeze so strong that we were forced to return, and were fortunate enough
to find good anchorage northward of the island, out of the tide.

The Patagonians, during the day, showed much uneasiness at being kept on
board so much longer than they expected; but as they seemed to understand
the cause of their detention, and as their sickness ceased when we reached
smooth water, they gradually recovered their good-humour, and became very
communicative. As well as we could understand their pronunciation, their
names were 'Coigh,' 'Coichi,' and 'Aighen.' The country behind Cape Negro
they called 'Chilpéyo;' the land of Tierra del Fuego, 'Osch[=e]rri;'
Elizabeth Island, 'T[)u]rr[)e]tterr;' the island of Santa Magdalena,
'Shr[=e]e-ket-tup;' and Cape Negro, 'O[=e]rkr[)e]ckur.' The Indians of
Tierra del Fuego, with whom they are not on friendly terms, are designated
by them 'S[)a]p[=a]ll[)i][)o]s.' This name was applied to them in a
contemptuous tone.

Aighen's features were remarkably different from those of his companions.
Instead of a flat nose, his was aquiline and prominent, and his countenance
was full of expression. He proved to be good-tempered, and easily pleased;
and whenever a shade of melancholy began to appear, our assurance of {21}
landing him on the morrow restored his good-humour, which was shown by
singing and laughing.

The dimensions of Coichi's head were as follows:--

  From the top of the fore part of the head to the eyes  4 inches.
    Do                 do       to the tip of the nose   6
    Do                 do       to the mouth             7
    Do                 do       to the chin              9
  Width of the head across the temples                   7½
  Breadth of the shoulders                              18½

The head was long and flat, at the top; the forehead broad and high, but
covered with hair to within an inch and a half of the eyebrow, which had
scarcely any hair. The eyes were small, the nose was short, the mouth wide,
and the lips thick. Neck short, and shoulders very broad. The arms were
short, and wanting in muscle, as were also the thighs and legs. The body
was long and large, and the breast broad and expanded. His height was
nearly six feet.

The next day we rounded Elizabeth Island, and reached Cape Negro, where we
landed the Indians, after making them several useful presents, and sending
some trifles by Aighen to Maria, who, with her tribe, had lighted large
fires about the country behind Peckett's Harbour, to invite us to land. Our
passengers frequently pointed to them, telling us that they were made by
Maria, who had brought plenty of guanaco meat for us.

Our anxiety to reach Port Famine prevented delay, and, as soon as the boat
returned, we proceeded along the coast towards Freshwater Bay, which we
reached early enough in the afternoon to admit of a short visit to the
shore.

From Cape Negro the country assumed a very different character. Instead of
a low coast and open treeless shore, we saw steep hills, covered with lofty
trees, and thick underwood. The distant mountains of Tierra del Fuego,
covered with snow, were visible to the southward, some at a distance of
sixty or seventy miles.

We had now passed all the difficulties of the entrance, and had reached a
quiet and secure anchorage.

{22}

The following day was calm, and so warm, that we thought if Wallis and
Cordova were correct in describing the weather they met with, Duclos Guyot
was equally entitled to credit; and we began to hope we had anticipated
worse weather than we should experience. But this was an unusually fine
day, and many weeks elapsed, afterwards, without its equal. The temperature
of the air, in the shade on the beach, was 67½°, on the sand 87½°; and that
of the water 55°. Other observations were made, as well as a plan of the
bay, of which there is a description in the Sailing Directions.

Here we first noticed the character of the vegetation in the Strait, as so
different from that of Cape Gregory and other parts of the Patagonian
coast, which is mainly attributable to the change of soil; the northern
part being a very poor clay, whilst here a schistose sub-soil is covered by
a mixture of alluvium, deposited by mountain streams; and decomposed
vegetable matter, which, from the thickness of the forests, is in great
quantity.

Two specimens of beech (_Fagus betuloides_ and _antarctica_), the former an
evergreen,--and the winter's bark (_Wintera aromatica_), are the only trees
of large size that we found here; but the underwood is very thick, and
composed of a great variety of plants, of which _Arbutus rigida_, two or
three species of _Berberis_, and a wild currant (_Ribes antarctica_, Bankes
and Solander MSS.), at this time in flower, and forming long clustering
bunches of young fruit, were the most remarkable. The berberis produces a
berry of acidulous taste, that promised to be useful to us. A species of
wild celery, also, which grows abundantly near the sea-shore, was valuable
as an antiscorbutic. The trees in the immediate vicinity of the shore are
small, but the beach was strewed with trunks of large trees, which seemed
to have been drifted there by gales and high tides. A river falls into the
bay, by a very narrow channel, near its south end; but it is small, and so
blocked up by trees as not to be navigable even for the smallest boat:
indeed, it is merely a mountain torrent, varying in size according to the
state of the weather.

{23}

Tracks of foxes were numerous about the beach, and the footsteps of a large
quadruped, probably a puma, were observed. Some teal and wild ducks were
shot; and several geese were seen, but, being very wary, they escaped.

Upon Point St. Mary we noticed, for the first time, three or four huts or
wigwams made by the Fuegian Indians, which had been deserted. They were not
old, and merely required a slight covering of branches or skins to make
them habitable. These wigwams are thus constructed: long slender branches,
pointed at the end, are stuck into the ground in a circular or oval figure;
their extremities are bent over, so as to form a rounded roof, and secured
with ligatures of rush; leaving two apertures, one towards the sea, and the
other towards the woods. The fire is made in the middle, and half fills the
hut with smoke. There were no Indians in the bay when we arrived, but, on
the following evening, Lieutenant Sholl, in walking towards the south end
of the bay, suddenly found himself close to a party which had just arrived
in two canoes from the southward. Approaching them, he found there were
nine individuals--three men, and the remainder women and children. One of
the women was very old, and so infirm as to require to be lifted out of the
canoe and carried to the fire. They seemed to have no weapons of any
consequence; but, from our subsequent knowledge of their habits, and
disposition, the probability is they had spears, bows, and arrows concealed
close at hand. The only implement found amongst them was a sort of hatchet
or knife, made of a crooked piece of wood, with part of an iron hoop tied
to the end. The men were very slightly clothed, having only the back
protected by a seal's skin; but the females wore large guanaco mantles,
like those of the Patagonian Indians, whom our pilot told us they
occasionally met for the purpose of barter. Some of the party were
devouring seal's flesh, and drinking the oil extracted from its blubber,
which they carried in bladders. The meat they were eating was probably part
of a sea lion (_Phoca jubata_); for Mr. Sholl found amongst them a portion
of the neck of one of those animals, which is {24} remarkable for the long
hair, "like a lion's mane," growing upon it. They appeared to be a most
miserable, squalid race, very inferior, in every respect, to the
Patagonians. They did not evince the least uneasiness at Mr. Sholl's
presence, or at our ships being close to them; neither did they interfere
with him, but remained squatting round their fire while he staid near. This
seeming indifference, and total want of curiosity, gave us no favourable
opinion of their character as intellectual beings; indeed, they appeared to
be very little removed from brutes; but our subsequent knowledge of them
has convinced us that they are not usually deficient in intellect. This
party was perhaps stupified by the unusual size of our ships, for the
vessels which frequent this Strait are seldom one hundred tons in burthen.

We proceeded next morning at an early hour. The Indians were already
paddling across the bay in a northerly direction. Upon coming abreast of
them, a thick smoke was perceived to rise suddenly from their canoes; they
had probably fed the fire, which they always carry in the middle of their
canoe, with green boughs and leaves, for the purpose of attracting our
attention, and inviting us to communicate with them.

It was remarked that the country begins to be covered with trees at Cape
Negro; but they are stunted, compared with those at Freshwater Bay. Near
this place, also, the country assumes a more verdant aspect, becoming also
higher, and more varied in appearance. In the neighbourhood of Rocky Point
some conspicuous portions of land were noticed, which, from the regularity
of their shape, and the quantity as well as size of the trees growing at
the edges, bore the appearance of having been once cleared ground; and our
pilot Robinson (possessing a most inventive imagination) informed us that
they were fields, formerly cleared and cultivated by the Spaniards, and
that ruins of buildings had been lately discovered near them. For some time
his story obtained credit, but it proved to be altogether void of
foundation. These apparently cleared tracts were afterwards found to be
occasioned by unusual poverty of soil, and by being overrun with thick {25}
spongy moss, the vivid green colour of which produces, from a distance, an
appearance of most luxuriant pasture land. Sir John Narborough noticed, and
thus describes them: "The wood shows in many places as if there were
plantations: for there were several clear places in the woods, and grass
growing like fenced fields in England, the woods being so even by the sides
of it."[18]

The wind, after leaving Freshwater Bay, increased, with strong squalls from
the S.W., at times blowing so hard as to lay the ship almost on her
broadside. It was, however, so much in our favour, that we reached the
entrance of Port Famine early, and after some little detention from
baffling winds, which always render the approach to that bay somewhat
difficult, the ships anchored in the harbour.

       *       *       *       *       *


{26}

CHAPTER III.

  Prepare the Beagle, and our decked boat (the Hope) for surveying the
  Strait--Beagle sails westward, and the Hope towards the south-east--
  Sarmiento's voyage--and description of the colony formed by him at Port
  Famine--Steamer-duck--Large trees--Parroquets--Mount Tarn--Barometrical
  observations--Geological character--Report of the Hope's cruize.

In almost every account published of the Strait of Magalhaens, so much
notice has been taken of Port Famine, that I had long considered it a
suitable place for our purposes; and upon examination I found it offered so
many advantages, that I did not hesitate to make it our head-quarters. As
soon, therefore, as the ship was moored, tents were pitched, our
decked-boat was hoisted out and hauled on shore, to be coppered and
equipped for the survey;--and Captain Stokes received orders to prepare the
Beagle for examining the western part of the Strait; previous to which she
required to be partially refitted, and supplied with fuel and water.

For several days after our arrival, we had much rain and strong
south-westerly wind, with thick clouds, which concealed the high land to
the southward; allowing us only now and then a partial glimpse. One evening
(11th) the air was unusually clear, and many of the mountains in that
direction were distinctly defined. We had assembled to take leave of our
friends in the Beagle, and were watching the gradual appearance of
snow-capped mountains which had previously been concealed, when, bursting
upon our view, as if by magic, a lofty mountain appeared towering among
them; whose snowy mantle, strongly contrasted with the dark and threatening
aspect of the sky, much enhanced the grandeur of the scene.

[Illustration: THE HOPE, IN THE STRAIT OF MAGALHAENS.]

[Illustration: THE ADELAIDE, IN HUMMING BIRD COVE.]

[Illustration: P. P. King S. Bull

DISTANT VIEW OF MT. SARMIENTO.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{27} This mountain was the "Snowy Volcano" (_Volcan Nevado_) of Sarmiento,
with whose striking appearance that celebrated navigator seems to have been
particularly impressed, so minute and excellent is his description. It is
also mentioned in the account of Cordova's voyage.[19] The peculiar shape
of its summit as seen from the north would suggest the probability of its
being a volcano, but we never observed any indication of its activity. Its
volcanic form is perhaps accidental, for, seen from the westward, its
summit no longer resembles a crater. From the geological character of the
surrounding rocks its formation would seem to be of slate. It is in a range
of mountains rising generally two or three thousand feet above the sea; but
at the N.E. end of the range are some, at least four thousand feet high.
The height of the "Snowy Volcano," or as we have called it, Mount
Sarmiento,[20] was found, by trigonometrical measurement, to be six
thousand eight hundred feet[21] above the level {28} of the sea. It is the
highest land that I have seen in Tierra del Fuego; and to us, indeed, it
was an object of considerable interest, because its appearance and
disappearance were seldom failing weather guides. In our Meteorological
Diary, a column was ruled for the insertion of its appearances.[22]

This clear state of the atmosphere was followed by a heavy fall of rain,
with northerly and easterly winds, which did not, however, last long.

In the vicinity of our tents erected on the low land, on the S.W. side of
the bay, were several ponds of water, perfectly fit for immediate use; but,
perhaps, too much impregnated with vegetable matter to keep good for any
length of time. Captain Stokes, therefore, filled his tanks from the river;
but as that water did not keep well, it was probably taken into the boat
too near the sea. This, however, was unavoidable, except by risking the
boats among a great number of sunken trees in the bed of the river.

The Beagle sailed on the 15th, to survey the western entrance of the
Strait, with orders to return to Port Famine by the end of March.

Our decked boat, the Hope, being ready, the command of her was given to Mr.
Wickham, who was in every way qualified for the trust. We were, however,
much mortified by finding that she leaked so considerably as to oblige us
to unload, and again haul her on shore. When ready for sea, she sailed
under the direction of my assistant-surveyor, Mr. Graves, to examine the
St. Sebastian channel and the deep opening to the S.E. of Cape Valentyn.
Her crew consisted of seven men, besides Mr. Wickham, and Mr. Rowlett, the
purser.

Having despatched the Beagle and the Hope, I was at leisure to carry on the
survey of the coast in the neighbourhood of Port Famine, and to make a plan
of the port itself. The {29} Transit, and Altitude circle, were set up; but
from the very unfavourable state of the weather, and the interference of
other occupations, I was only enabled to procure a series of zenith
distances of the sun, and stars, for the latitude.

Port Famine, a name well known to all who have interested themselves about
the Strait of Magalhaens, was selected by Sarmiento as the most convenient
place for the site of an establishment formed, at his suggestion, by Philip
II. King of Spain.

The voyage of Sir Francis Drake through the Strait into the Pacific, and
his successes against the Spanish colonies and trade on the western side of
the continent of America, induced the Viceroy of Lima to send an Expedition
to pursue the "Corsair," with orders to fight and take him, dead or
alive.[23] This Expedition, commanded by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, who had
already been engaged twice with Drake, consisted of two ships, containing
in all two hundred armed men, sailors and soldiers; a force which was
considered sufficient to ensure the capture.[24]

The Strait of Magalhaens being the most likely place to meet with Drake,
Sarmiento was ordered to proceed through it, and take the opportunity of
exploring its coasts.

All this he performed in a manner highly creditable, as well for the
excellent description handed down in his unpretending journal, as for the
enterprising zeal, and steady perseverance, shown among difficulties of no
trifling nature. To his accounts of various places there will be frequent
occasion to refer. Our object, at present, is to give a short account of
the Colony.

Sarmiento sailed from Peru (1583), and entered the Strait from the Pacific.
After experiencing many serious difficulties, and escaping imminent
dangers, in the western part of the Strait, where the climate is so
rigorous and the country so desolate, it was not surprising that he should
become enraptured with the verdant, and picturesque appearance of the
shores to the eastward of Cape Froward, and with the open country in {30}
the neighbourhood, and to the northward of Cape Virgins.[25] After much
opposition from the Duke of Alva[26] and other powerful people, he
succeeded in convincing the King of the expediency of fortifying the shores
of the First Narrow, and forming several establishments within the Strait,
to prevent the passage of strange ships, to the prejudice of the King's
colonies in Chile and Peru; for at that time the passage round Cape Horn
was not known. Accordingly, an Expedition was prepared, consisting of
twenty-three vessels, under the joint command of Diego Florez de Valdez and
Sarmiento; the former being appointed Captain-general of the fleet, and of
the coast of Brazil; and the latter, Captain-general of the Strait of
Magalhaens, and Governor of all the Establishments that should be formed
within it.

Of the twenty-three ships which sailed from Spain, five only reached the
entrance of the Strait; and these, after experiencing many difficulties
from bad weather and foul winds, returned to Rio de Janeiro to refit, where
Sarmiento met four vessels which had been sent from Spain to his succour.
His colleague and General in chief, Florez, who had deserted the
Expedition, did all in his power to impede Sarmiento, to the latest moment
of his stay at the Brazils. At last, however, five ships, commanded by
Ribera, and manned by five hundred and thirty men,[27] sailed; and, without
encountering further loss or detention, arrived off the Strait in December
(1584), and soon after reached an anchorage, between the First and Second
Narrows.

Ribera would go no further; but landed about three hundred men, under
Sarmiento. A city was marked out, and named Jesus,[28] in a valley well
provided with water. The {31} ships were blown away to sea, leaving the
colonists very destitute; fortunately, however, they were enabled to
return, but were four times, afterwards, obliged to put to sea, from stress
of weather. On the last return, one of the ships, La Trinidad, was run on
shore. The ardour of Ribera being damped by repeated misfortunes, he
returned to Spain, without the knowledge or consent of Sarmiento, leaving,
for the use of the colony, only one ship, the Maria.

While unloading the Trinidad, the Spaniards were attacked by Indians, whom
they dispersed.

Sarmiento, after making the necessary arrangements at Jesus, set out by
land with one hundred men, to go to Point St. Anna,[29] the ship Maria
being ordered to follow. On the journey, the sufferings of the party were
very great, as well from the fatiguing nature of the march, as from their
being harassed by the natives, with whom they had an engagement, in which
one was killed, and ten men were wounded. A mutiny among his people then
broke out, which was quelled by assistance from the ship. At last they
reached their destination, and founded, with the usual solemnities, the
city of King Philip (or San Felipe).

At the latter end of March, while preparing habitations, the winter set in
so suddenly, that for fifteen days it did not cease to snow. Sarmiento,
then, after quelling a mutiny which had broken out afresh among the
soldiers, embarked with thirty men to visit the first encampment at Jesus,
and to superintend the erection of forts in the Narrow; but upon reaching
the anchorage, a gale of wind forced him to sea, and, lasting twenty days,
obliged him (with his people blinded and frost-bitten) to bear up for Rio
de Janeiro.

Here his ship was stranded; upon which he chartered a vessel to convey
flour to the Strait, and went himself to Pernambuco, to procure large boats
for carrying supplies to his {32} colony, and assisting in the recovery of
his stranded ship; she had, however, drifted off, and sunk near Bahia; and
all his boats were destroyed. Still Sarmiento persevered in his zealous
efforts to succour his friends in the Strait; and succeeded in procuring a
vessel of fifty or sixty tons, which, loaded with arms and whatever he
considered useful, sailed, and reached Rio de Janeiro a month after the
departure of the first vessel (January 1585). He followed, but in the
latitude of 39° met with a furious gale, which drove him back to Rio de
Janeiro, where the vessel that had preceded him had returned in distress.

Disappointed in his attempts to carry succour to the colony, he determined
to go to Spain; but on his voyage thither, to complete the catalogue of his
misfortunes, his ship was captured by three English vessels, and taken to
England, after which the ill-fated colony in the Strait was neglected, if
not entirely forgotten.

Two months after Sarmiento's departure from the Strait of Magalhaens, in
the month of August, the middle of the winter of that region, the party
belonging to the first establishment at Jesus set off by land, and joined
that at San Felipe, with the unwelcome tidings of their deserted state. But
as the provisions at San Felipe were insufficient to support all the
people, Andres de Viedma, who, after Sarmiento's departure, had assumed the
command, detached two hundred soldiers, under the command of Juan Iniguez,
back to Jesus, for the purpose of communicating with any ship that might
make her appearance, and awaiting the expected return of Sarmiento; but the
winter and following summer passed by without any relief.

In this unhappy state, the colonists were obliged to think only of
providing for their safety, and built two boats; in which fifty people
embarked, besides Viedma, Suarez, a Franciscan friar named Antonio, and
five Spanish women. They had not proceeded farther than Point Santa
Brigida,[30] {33} when one of the boats struck upon a reef, and was lost,
but the people were saved. The loss of this boat caused them to give up
every hope of saving themselves in that way; and Viedma, with Suarez, the
friar, and twenty soldiers, returned in the remaining boat to San Felipe,
leaving the rest of the party, consisting of thirty men and five women, to
support themselves through the approaching winter as they could. After that
season had passed, Viedma sent to collect the wanderers; but fifteen men,
and three women only, could be found; the rest having died of hunger and
disease. The survivors then determined upon going to the first
establishment at Jesus; on their way to which they passed by the skeletons
of the two hundred who had been first detached. Travelling onwards, they
observed three ships entering the strait, which anchored at a distance to
the southward.

During the night, Viedma and his companions kept up large fires, supposing
that the ships belonged to their own nation. Next morning a boat was
despatched from them; and three of Viedma's party obtained permission to go
and reconnoitre her. Having approached near enough, a signal was made; upon
which, the people in the boat pulled towards the beach, and said they were
from England, bound to Peru, and that if the Spaniards wanted a passage,
they had better embark. After some hesitation, arising from the fear of
trusting themselves in the power of heretics, they consented; and one was
permitted to get in, but the other two were left on the beach. In the boat
was the enterprizing Cavendish[31] himself, who, on hearing the particulars
of their story, sent the other two soldiers to Viedma, offering to take him
and the residue of his people on board. Cavendish returned to his ship;
but, without further delay, sailed on to the Isla dos Patos (Santa
Magdalena Island), where he leisurely salted down six casks of penguins;
and then proceeded to San Felipe, for wood and water; he remained there
four days (during which time he destroyed the houses of the Spaniards, and
embarked six guns); and thence continued his voyage. The person saved {34}
by Cavendish, whose name was Tomé Hernandez, afterwards escaped from him at
Quintero, near Valparaiso; and, proceeding to Peru, gave an account of the
fate of this cruelly neglected colony.

This was the first, and perhaps will be the last, attempt made to occupy a
country, offering no encouragement for a human being; a region, where the
soil is swampy, cold, and unfit for cultivation, and whose climate is
thoroughly cheerless.

The name, San Felipe, ceased with the colony; for Cavendish called it Port
Famine, in allusion to the fate of the colonists, all of whom, except the
man he took away, and one saved two years afterwards (in 1589), by Andrew
Mericke,[32] perished from hunger and its attendant diseases; and by this
appellation the bay has since been universally known. To commemorate the
ill-fated town, a very thickly-wooded mountain at the bottom of the bay,
which forms a conspicuous and picturesque object, has been named by us
Mount San Felipe.

At this port, Sarmiento, on his first voyage through the Strait,
communicated with a large party of Indians, in consequence of which he
called it Bahia de la Gente; and the river, which now bears the name of
Sedger, he named San Juan. Of this river Sarmiento took formal possession,
as well as of the whole Strait, for the 'Mui Poderoso y mui Católico Señor
Phelipe Segundo,' &c. &c. It was also here that, in consequence of the
miraculous preservation of his vessel on many {35} occasions, he attempted
to change the name of the strait to Estrecho de la Madre de Dios; but it
had been too long called Magalhaens, for even the influence of Sarmiento,
backed by the power of Philip, to persuade the world to countenance so
great an injustice.

 "Magallanes, Señor, fué el primer hombre
  Que abriendo este camino le dió nombre."
                      Ercilla Araucana, Cant. I. oct. 8.

During an excursion with Mr. Tarn to Eagle Bay,[33] beyond Cape San Isidro,
we found many wigwams. They were then novelties to us, and we were ignorant
of their being such certain indications of very sheltered places, as
subsequent experience has shown them to be. We often used them, after they
had been well cleaned out: a boat's sail, thrown over the hemispherical
roof, was a sufficient protection from rain;--and from wind they are always
well defended by their situation. Here we saw, for the first time, that
most remarkable bird the Steamer-duck. Before steam-boats were in general
use, this bird was denominated, from its swiftness in skimming over the
surface of the water, the 'race-horse,' a name which occurs frequently in
Cook's, Byron's, and other voyages. It is a gigantic duck, the largest I
have met with. It has the lobated hind-toe, legs placed far backwards, and
other characteristics of the oceanic ducks.[34] The principal peculiarity
of this bird is, the shortness and remarkably small size of the wings,
which, not having sufficient power to raise the body, serve only to propel
it along, rather than through the water, and are used like the paddles of a
steam-vessel. Aided by these and its strong, broad-webbed feet, it moves
with astonishing velocity. {36} It would not be an exaggeration to state
its speed at from twelve to fifteen miles an hour. The peculiar form of the
wing, and the short rigid feathers which cover it, together with the power
this bird possesses of remaining a considerable length of time under water,
constitute it a striking link between the genera _Anas_ and _Aptenodytes_.
It has been noticed by many former navigators. The largest we found
measured forty inches, from the extremity of the bill, to that of the tail,
and weighed thirteen pounds; but Captain Cook mentions, in his second
voyage, that the weight of one was twenty-nine pounds.[35] It is very
difficult to kill them, on account of their wariness and thick coat of
feathers, which is impenetrable by any thing smaller than swan shot. The
flavour of their flesh is so strong and fishy, that at first we killed them
solely for specimens. Five or six months, however, on salt provisions,
taught many to think such food palatable, and the seamen never lost an
opportunity of eating them. I have preferred these ducks to salt-beef, but
more as a preventive against scurvy, than from liking their taste.

I am averse to altering names, particularly in natural history, without
very good reason, but in this case I do think the name of 'steamer' much
more appropriate, and descriptive of the swift paddling motion of these
birds, than that of 'race-horse.' I believe, too, the name of 'steamer' is
now generally given to it by those who have visited these regions.

Many shells[36] were taken from the bottom by means of a fizgig which Mr.
Tarn found in one of the wigwams: it was a {37} rough pole, eight or ten
feet long, split crosswise at one end, and opened so as to form four
prongs, kept apart by two small pieces of wood. Although rudely made, it
was excellently adapted for a shell-gatherer, and is used by the Indians
for collecting sea-eggs, which are found in the Strait of very large size,
and are doubtless, to them, a great delicacy.

During our excursion we ascertained the best place to ascend the snowy
mountain, since named 'Tarn;' and the surgeon, whose name it bears, set off
with a party of officers to make the attempt, in which he succeeded, and
obtained such an extensive view as induced me to decide upon ascending it,
a few days afterwards, to procure bearings from the summit, and for the
purpose of measuring its height with a barometer.

In the meantime I visited the Sedger river (Sarmiento's 'Rio de San Juan de
Posesion'), and found some difficulty in entering it, because of several
banks which are dry at low water. Between them, however, the stream keeps a
small channel open, by which we effected our purpose. Every gale of wind
causes the banks to shift, and between the times of our first, and last,
visit to Port Famine, the river's mouth underwent many changes. The bed of
the river is so full of fallen trees, that we could not go, with the boat,
more than three miles and a half above the entrance; there it was about
fifteen yards wide, bounded on each side by thickly wooded banks, of
moderate height. The trees on these banks are large, chiefly the two
species of Beech before-mentioned, and Winter's-bark; there are besides
many shrubs, and an impenetrable underwood of Arbutus, Berberis, and
currant bushes. The largest Beech-tree that we saw could not have been more
than thirty or forty inches in diameter, which was insignificant compared
with those noticed by Commodore Byron. In describing his excursion up this
river, he mentions "trees that would supply the British navy with the best
masts in the world."[37] "Some of them are of a great height, and more than
eight feet in diameter, which is proportionally more than eight yards in
{38} circumference."[38] The Commodore may have been pleased by the
appearance of these trees, but must have fancied their quality and
dimensions such as he describes. The largest are generally rotten at the
heart, and all are more or less defective. Their wood is heavy, and far too
brittle for masts: we could not use it even for boat-hook staves. It makes,
however, tolerable plank for boat-building, and, when seasoned, might be
used in ships. For common purposes, such as houses, or fences, it is very
serviceable.

We wandered about to examine the country; but, excepting the track of some
quadruped, whose foot was small and cloven, rather like a pig's, we saw
nothing new. The traces of foxes were numerous every where. We found no
fish of any description in the river. Geese and wild ducks were numerous,
whose young were at this time scarcely fledged, and an easy prey. We also
observed here, for the first time, the parroquet, which Bougainville
described to be common in the Strait. He carried specimens home with him;
but some naturalists of those days decided that there must have been a
mistake, because, as they averred, parroquets did not exist in so high a
latitude. Bougainville, however, made no mistake, for the species[39] is
very abundant in the neighbourhood of Port Famine, and has been seen by us
in all parts of the Strait. It feeds principally upon the seeds of the
Winter's-bark. The existence of this bird in Tierra del Fuego is also
mentioned by Cook and Narborough.[40]

{39}

All accounts of Port Famine informed us of its abounding in fish, but as
yet we had taken none excepting with hook and line, although the seine had
been frequently shot. At last, however, in the first week of February, we
had a successful haul of mullet and smelts, many of the former weighing
eight pounds, and the latter measuring fifteen inches in length. After this
we were often very fortunate, and on one occasion caught, at one haul of
the seine, sixteen hundred-weight of smelts, some weighing two pounds, and
measuring twenty inches in length. A few days previously we had a draught
of mullet, which served the crews of both Adventure and Beagle for three
days. Geese, wild ducks and teal, snipe, and now and then woodcocks, were
to be found by taking a short walk; there were, however, no quadrupeds fit
for food which we could take. Foxes and wild cats were occasionally seen,
and a foot-mark of some large animal of the feline race, probably a puma,
was once observed upon the beach. We found many traces of horses, which
showed that the Patagonian Indians sometimes come thus far south. Had we
been so fortunate as to meet them here, we might have procured, perhaps, a
regular supply of guanaco meat.

On the 9th of February, as the weather seemed favourable for ascending
Mount Tarn,[41] Lieutenant Cooke, the Surgeon, and Anderson, the botanical
collector, set off in advance to select a convenient place for passing the
night, carrying with them a tent and provisions. I followed later in the
day, and, while the boat's crew were arranging their loads, made some
observations with a barometer on the beach.

Our way led through thick underwood, and then, with a gradual ascent, among
fallen trees, covered with so thick a coating of moss, that at every step
we sunk up to the knees {40} before firm footing could be found. It was
very laborious work, and the ground being saturated, and each tree dripping
with moisture, we were soon wet through. We proceeded along the same sort
of road up a steep ascent; some one of the party constantly falling into
deep holes covered by moss, or stumbling over fallen trunks of trees. As I
carried a barometer I was obliged to proceed with caution, and succeeded in
emerging from this jungle without accident. After about three quarters of
an hour spent in this way, we reached an open space, where we rested, and I
set up the barometer. Here we found a cypress of very stunted growth.

Our road hence was rather more varied: always steep, but sometimes free
from impediment. Here and there we observed the boggy soil was faced with a
small plant (_Chamitis sp._) of a harsh character, growing so thick and
close as to form large tufts, over which we walked as on hard ground. We
struggled through several thickets of stunted beech-trees, with a thick
jungle of Berberis underneath, whose strong and sharp thorns penetrated our
clothes at every step; and began to find the fatigue very oppressive: some
of my boat's crew suffered much, being unused to such exercise. At last we
approached the place where Mr. Cooke and his party had established
themselves, and upon hailing, were invigorated by a cheer in reply. We
reached the bivouac in a very way-worn condition, and found, to our great
comfort, the tent pitched, and a good fire burning.[42]

The ground was so exceedingly wet, that although we slept upon branches,
forming a layer at least a foot thick, we found ourselves, in the night,
lying as if in a morass, and suffering from cold, even with a large fire
blazing at our feet. At daylight next morning, just as we were starting, a
boat was seen sailing round Cape San Isidro, which, by the aid of a
telescope, I made out to be the Hope.

We resumed the ascent, and passed over, rather than through, thickets of
the crumply-leaved beech, which, from {41} their exposure to the prevailing
winds, rose no higher than twelve or fourteen inches from the ground, with
widely-spreading branches, so closely interwoven, as to form a platform
that bore our weight in walking. We next traversed an extent of
table-land,[43] much intersected by ponds of water. Mr. Tarn shot two
plovers of a new species (_Charadrius rubecola_, Zool. Jour. vol. iv. p.
96), and a snipe. We then ascended three or four hundred feet, and crossed
a deep ravine. The bottom of the ravine was clay-slate in a decomposing
state, but the surface of the ground was strewed with pebbles of granite.
Another plain, with many ponds, succeeded; the intervening spaces being
covered with tufts of chamitis, and studded here and there with small
clusters of dwarf beech; but the ground was so hard, and firm, that we
proceeded rapidly, without fatigue, until we attained the height of 1,800
feet, when the ascent became very steep. Near the summit lay a large mass
of snow, rapidly melting away. We reached the highest pinnacle of the mount
at seven o'clock (having left our resting-place at four), and immediately
set up the instruments. I was obliged to avail myself of Mr. Tarn's
assistance to hold the barometer, whilst two of my boat's crew held the
legs of the theodolite-stand, for the wind was blowing very strongly, and
the edge of a precipice was close to us, perpendicular for many hundred
feet, and thence downwards so steep, that any body going over would fall at
least a thousand feet. The theodolite-stand was unavoidably placed within a
very few inches of the edge, and I took a round of angles, suffering,
however, intense pain from the piercing coldness of the wind, which, heated
as we were by the ascent, was much felt, though the temperature was not
lower than 39°. I was lightly clothed, and should have fared badly, had not
one of the party lent me his Flushing jacket, while he descended under the
lee of the mountain-top to make a fire. The barometer stood at 26,618, the
temperature of the air being 40°, and of {42} the mercury 43°.[44]
Unfortunately the day was very cloudy, and many squalls of sleet and rain,
which obscured the hills, passed whilst I was taking bearings. To the N.E.,
towards the supposed Sebastian Channel, the horizon was too hazy to allow
much view. A deep inlet was seen in that direction; but whether the land
closed round, or whether a channel was at the bottom, we could not
distinguish. A considerable body of water was observed to the southward of
Cape St. Valentyn, behind Lomas Bay, but its extent was screened from our
view by the intervention of the Lomas hills. It appeared to be a channel,
the opposite or eastern side of it being formed by the high ranges
previously seen from Point St. Mary. Cordova's Ports San Antonio and Valdez
were distinctly made out; but, to the southward, every thing was enveloped
in mist.

The bearings and observations, which occupied me nearly two hours, being
completed, we all adjourned to a sheltered cleft in the rock close to our
station, where we soon recovered the use of our fingers.[45]

{43}

Having accomplished our object, we began the descent. In a comparatively
mild and agreeable spot, I again set up the theodolite and barometer, while
some of the party employed themselves in fruitless attempts to kindle a
fire. The height, by the barometer, proved to be 1,845 feet above the sea;
and the bearings from this station were much better than those I had taken
from the exposed summit.

We reached our tent at noon, having been absent seven hours. At three we
reached the beach, where the barometer stood at 29,312 (air 61.°3,[46] and
mercury 62,°5).

Excepting near the sea, where clay-slate (very similar to that of Point St.
Anna, but with an opposite dip) showed itself, the side of the hill is
clothed with trees and underwood, and no rock is visible until one arrives
at the ravine. Around the summit of Mount Tarn the ground is bare, but so
covered with small decomposed fragments, that the solid rock only appears
occasionally: it is very hard, and breaks with a conchoidal fracture: some
of the specimens which we detached bore indistinct impressions of organic
remains. We also found, projecting from the rock in which they were
embedded, nodules, or small rounded masses of stone, in an advanced state
of decomposition, mouldering away in laminar forms somewhat resembling the
inner leaves of a cabbage. Several were brought away carefully, but before
we arrived on board they had crumbled to pieces: the nucleus was quite
hard, but was surrounded by concentric laminæ, more brittle the nearer they
approached to the outer surface. It seemed as if the face of the summit
{44} above-mentioned was covered with the decomposing fragments of these
nodules.

The highest parts of the Mount form a ridge extending S.E. and N.W., being
a succession of strata of slaty rock, dipping to the eastward, at an angle
of 15° or 20° from the horizon. The strata are very narrow, and separated
from each other by a vein of quartz, much of which is in a crystallized
state. We reached the ship about seven o'clock, and found that the Hope and
her party had done well. Her cruize proved interesting, with regard to the
geography of the Strait, and a summary of it is subjoined.

Mr. Graves's orders were to survey the Sebastian Channel; but in the event
of his seeing any thing more interesting to the S.E., he was allowed to
defer that service to another opportunity. The Hope crossed the Strait, and
anchored in a small bay, formed between the two projecting points of Cape
Valentyn, where some few defects in the vessel were remedied, and a good
round of angles obtained from the summit of the Cape, whence there was a
fine view. The country was low, undulating, and destitute of trees. From a
station about two miles overland, to the eastward, a large body of water
was observed to the southward, forming a channel, or deep sound, and it was
determined to follow up its examination, rather than risk the crew in the
deep bay that was supposed to communicate with the San Sebastian Channel,
on board a vessel whose capabilities were unknown. Several fire-places and
remains of wigwams were seen; the latter were, however, very different,
both in shape and material, from those at Port Famine, for the country
being destitute of trees, they were built of driftwood, piled up in a
conical form.

Passing round Cape Valentyn, the Hope hauled to the southward, keeping the
land on board. At night she anchored in Philip Gidley Cove, at the bottom
of Willes Bay, where she was weather-bound until the 29th of January. The
shores of Willes Bay are thickly clothed with wood, growing to the water's
edge, except at the S.W. side. The great abundance of muscles and limpets
attracts the Indians, whose wigwams {45} were found standing, and from the
green appearance of the branches with which they were formed, seemed to
have been lately erected. After leaving Willes Bay, the Hope visited Fox
Bay, and Sir Edward Owen's Sound, which, it was thought, would lead into
Lomas Bay, opposite to Port Famine; but, after running ten miles up, they
got into shoal water, and as there was no current, or stream of tide, they
landed, and found that a mile and a half farther on, the sound was
terminated by low land. Another day, while proceeding along the south side
of Brenton Sound, the smoke of Indians' fires was noticed near the beach.
As this was the first time the Natives of this part had been seen, the
course was shaped towards them, until the Hope anchored. Three Indians then
approached, holding up the skins of some animal, and inviting them to land.
The small boat was hoisted out, and Messrs. Wickham and Rowlett, with
Robinson the pilot, went on shore. The Fuegians presented a fox skin to
each of the party, who in return gave them some trifles. After a short
interview the boat left them, and no further communication was held that
night. The following morning a canoe came off to the vessel, containing
three young men, two women, and three children, the youngest not more than
four months old. They were no sooner alongside than the men went on board,
and commenced an active traffic with all the valuables they possessed; and
for a few buttons, a glass bottle, or an empty preserved-meat canister,
many of their goods were bartered. They had several fox-skins with them,
but no other kind of peltry, except their clothing, obtained from the seal
or guanaco: and though many of them wore a penguin skin suspended from
their girdle, some were without even that covering. This canoe was followed
by another, containing an old man, sixty or seventy years of age, with a
grey beard; an elderly woman, and two children. Before they came alongside
they put their dogs on shore.

Although the visit from these Indians did not last very long, they had time
enough to pilfer. One of the young men, who was seen going into a canoe,
excited, by his manner, a {46} suspicion of his having stolen something,
and a tin pot was found concealed under his mantle. As there was every
probability of their soon separating, and Mr. Graves feared that punishment
would cause a rupture, he only turned him out of the vessel: the rest soon
followed him, and landed. Having made a fire, the men squatted round it;
while the women were despatched to collect shell-fish.

As soon as the Natives had finished their meal, they embarked, and
proceeded eastward. Next day they again visited the Hope, but in
consequence, perhaps, of the occurrence the day before, did not venture
alongside, until invited by the words, 'ho-say, ho-say,' which mean, 'come,
come.' In a few minutes confidence was restored, and they began to barter.
The trade was opened by one of the women making a peace-offering of a shell
necklace, in return for which, red caps and medals were given to each of
the women and children. The Hope went thence to Soapsuds Cove, where the
crew washed their clothes, and replaced a broken spar.

In a S.E. direction from this cove there appeared to be a considerable
channel leading to the S.E., and to the southward was a deep sound, towards
which they were proceeding the next morning; but having advanced about two
miles, the land of Cape Expectation trended suddenly round to the eastward,
and a long narrow channel presented itself, which seemed likely to
communicate with the Strait, to the southward of Port San Antonio. They
proceeded through this channel, which takes a very straight course, and
gradually narrows from Port Waterfall, where it is two miles and a half
wide, to Passage Cove, where it is scarcely three quarters of a mile; and
there they anchored.

Between Port Waterfall and Passage Cove, a party of Natives was seen; but,
being probably the same who were met at Indian Cove, no attention was paid
to their hallooings and fires of invitation.[47] The Hope came into the
Strait, eastward of an opening then called Magdalen Sound; her passage {47}
must therefore have been through Sarmiento's 'San Gabriel' Channel.

At night, when between Cape Froward and Port San Antonio, a heavy squall
from S.W. carried the little vessel rapidly towards Cape San Isidro, and,
at daylight the next morning, she was in the position observed by us, while
ascending Mount Tarn.

       *       *       *       *       *


{48}

CHAPTER IV.

  Deer seen--Hope sails again--Eagle Bay--Gabriel Channel--'Williwaws'--
  Port Waterfall--Natives--Admiralty Sound--Gabriel Channel--Magdalen
  Channel--Hope returns to Port Famine--San Antonio--Lomas Bay--Loss of
  boat--Master and two seamen drowned.

From Mr. Graves's report of the appearance of the channel to the S.E. of
Dawson Island, I decided to proceed there as soon as the Hope was ready,
for she required some alteration, and repairs.

A deer having been seen on Point St. Anna, Mr. Tarn landed, very early in
the morning, eager for the prize, but could only get an ineffectual shot.
At another time a few deer were seen by our party, near the river; but
instead of returning with the information, they fired their guns, loaded
with small shot only, which served but to scare them away. As the animal
was new to us, and we had evidence of its being equally new to Science, I
was anxious to procure a specimen, but never afterwards had an opportunity.
Here Sarmiento saw the only deer which he mentions in his journal.

The morning of the 16th seeming more favourable, I set out in the Hope. The
heights were covered with snow which had fallen the preceding night, the
thermometer had been at freezing point, and much ice had formed; but the
appearance of the weather deceived us: we had scarcely left the ship, when
it began to rain, and by the time we reached Cape San Isidro the wind had
freshened to a gale, which obliged me to anchor in Eagle Bay.

Having landed, a tent was pitched, and a blazing fire made to dry our
clothes. In the evening the gale blew with great {49} violence from S.W.,
and the Hope, at her anchor, sheered about by the squalls, was occasionally
laid over so as to dip her gunwale under water.

The following day (17th), although the rain had ceased, the wind was still
strong. Towards evening it fell, and early on the 18th we left Eagle Bay
with a fresh breeze from E.N.E., and passed close to Port San Antonio; but
were then delayed by calms and squalls. At noon a westerly wind sprung up,
and we proceeded down the Gabriel Channel, with the wind aft, and the tide
in our favour. Port Waterfall sheltered us for the night.

The apparently artificial formation of this channel is very striking. It
seems to have been formerly a valley between two ridges of the range, in
the direction of the strata (of which there are frequent instances, such as
the valley in the Lomas Range, opposite Cape San Isidro, the valley of
Valdez Bay, and one immediately to the north of the channel itself, besides
many others), and that at some remote period the sea had forced its way
through, effecting a communication between the Strait and the waters behind
Dawson Island: as if one of those great 'northern waves,' of which we once
heard so much, had rolled down the wide reach of the Strait (the
parallelism of whose shores is also remarkable) from the north-west,
towards Cape Froward; and finding itself opposed by the Lomas Range, had
forced a passage through the valley until stopped by the mountains at
Fitton Bay. Having imagined such a wave in motion, the reader may fancy it
uniting with another northern roller from Cape San Valentyn, attacking the
hills and carrying all before it, until Mount Hope, at the bottom of
Admiralty Sound, arrested its course. I have already noticed the remarkably
straight direction in which this curious channel trends. At both
extremities the width may be from two to three miles; but the shores
gradually approach each other midway, and the coast on each side rises
abruptly to the height of fifteen hundred feet. The south shore, sheltered
from the prevailing and strongest winds, is thickly covered with trees and
luxuriant underwood, which, being chiefly evergreen, improve {50} the
scenery greatly, particularly in the winter season: the north shore is also
well wooded for about two-thirds up; but the summit is barren and the
outline very much serrated, as is usual in slate formations.

On the north shore we noticed some extraordinary effects of the whirlwinds
which so frequently occur in Tierra del Fuego. The crews of sealing vessels
call them 'williwaws,' or 'hurricane-squalls,' and they are most violent.
The south-west gales, which blow upon the coast with extreme fury, are pent
up and impeded in passing over the high lands; when, increasing in power,
they rush violently over the edges of precipices, expand, as it were, and
descending perpendicularly, destroy every thing moveable. The surface of
the water, when struck by these gusts, is so agitated, as to be covered
with foam, which is taken up by them, and flies before their fury until
dispersed in vapour. Ships at anchor under high land are sometimes suddenly
thrown over on their beam-ends, and the next moment recover their
equilibrium, as if nothing had occurred. Again a squall strikes them,
perhaps on the other side, and over they heel before its rage: the cable
becomes strained, and checks the ship with a jerk, that causes her to start
a-head through the water, until again stopped by the cable, or driven
astern by another gust of wind.

At all these anchorages, under high land, there are some parts more exposed
than others; and by watching for those places which are least troubled by
these squalls, a more secure, or rather a more quiet, spot may be selected.
I do not consider ships so anchored to be in danger if their ground tackle
be good; but every thing that offers a stiff resistance must suffer from
the fury of these blasts. In many parts of this country trees are torn up
by the roots, or rent asunder by the wind; and in the Gabriel Channel the
'williwaws' bursting over the mountainous ridge, which forms the south side
of the channel, descend, and striking against the base of the opposite
shore, rush up the steep, and carry all before them. I know of nothing to
which I can better compare the bared track left by one of these squalls
than to a bad broad road. After {51} having made such an opening, the wind
frequently sweeping through prevents the growth of vegetation. Confused
masses of up-rooted trees lie at the lower ends of these bared tracks, and
show plainly what power has been exerted.

The southern shore of the channel is formed by the base of that range of
hills, which extends, from the eastern side of the Magdalen Channel,
towards the E.S.E. It is the highest part of Tierra del Fuego, and on it
are several remarkable mountains, besides Sarmiento, towering over all.

Close to the east end of the Gabriel Channel is Mount Buckland, a tall
obelisk-like hill, terminating in a sharp needle-point, and lifting its
head above a chaotic mass of 'reliquiæ diluvianæ,' covered with perpetual
snow, by the melting of which an enormous glacier on the leeward, or
north-eastern side, has been gradually formed. This icy domain is twelve or
fourteen miles long, and extends from near the end of the channel to Port
Waterfall, feeding, in the intermediate space, many magnificent cascades,
which, for number and height, are not perhaps to be exceeded in an equal
space of any part of the world. Within an extent of nine or ten miles,
there are upwards of a hundred and fifty waterfalls, dashing into the
channel from a height of fifteen hundred, or two thousand feet. The course
of many is concealed, at first, by intervening trees, and, when half-way
down the descent, they burst upon the view, leaping, as it were, out of the
wood. Some unite as they fall, and together are precipitated into the sea,
in a cloud of foam; so varied, indeed, are the forms of these cascades, and
so great their contrast with the dark foliage of the trees, which thickly
cover the sides of the mountain, that it is impossible adequately to
describe the scene. I have met with nothing exceeding the picturesque
grandeur of this part of the Strait.

There are several coves on the south shore, but opposite to them there is
no shelter until you reach a deep bay in which are several islets; and
where, I think, there is a communication with Brenton Sound, but we did not
enter it.

Port Waterfall may easily be known by a large flat-topped bare rock, lying
across the summit of the eastern head, and {52} by a magnificent cascade
formed by the union of two torrents.

All the plants of the Strait grow here: a sweet-scented Callixene (_C.
marginata_, Lam^k.) filled the air with its odour; and a beautiful flower
we had not previously seen, was found by Mr. Graves: it was pendulous,
tubular, about two inches long (Class. Hexand. Monog. Cal. 2 Pet. 3.
pointed), and of a rich carnation colour.

The trees are small and stunted; they are of the usual species, Beech and
Winter's-bark. Here we first noticed a large fern,[48] having a stem two or
three feet long, and five or six inches in diameter, very similar to the
Zamia of New Holland. We saw very few birds, and no quadrupeds. Among the
former was a king-fisher, which at the time was new to us; but it is
distributed over a large tract of South America, and I have since seen a
specimen said to have been shot at Rio de Janeiro.

Fitton Harbour is a deep inlet, surrounded on all sides by precipitous
land, rising to the height of three, or four thousand feet, and terminated
by peaks, of most fantastic shape, covered with ice and snow.

Between Fitton Harbour and Cape Rowlett are high mountains, two of which,
more conspicuous than the rest, we called 'Mount Sherrard,' and 'Curious
Peak.'

Card Point proved to be clay-slate, and I think the projection of Cape
Rowlett, and the mountains, are also of this rock.

While crossing over towards Cape Rowlett, (the south head of a deep sound,
trending to the S.E., which it was my intention to examine), we were met by
three canoes, containing, together, about twenty-four people, and ten or
twelve dogs. Mr. Wickham recognised them to be the same party who had
visited the Hope on her last cruize; the thief, however, was not amongst
them, fearing probably he might be known.

[Illustration: PORT FAMINE

(Looking Northwards).]

[Illustration: PORT FAMINE

(Looking Southwards).]

[Illustration: P. P. King S. Bull

CURIOUS PEAK, ADMIRALTY SOUND.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{53} These natives conducted themselves very quietly, and, except one of
the women, who wished to keep a tin-pot in which some water had been given
her, made no attempt to pilfer. One of the party, who seemed more than half
an idiot, spit in my face; but as it was not apparently done angrily, and
he was reproved by his companions, his uncourteous conduct was forgiven.

If possessed of any furs, they had left them, perhaps concealed, near their
wigwams: only a few arrows, a necklace of shells, and a fillet for the
head, made of ostrich feathers, were obtained by barter. Their canoes were
paddled by the women, occasionally helped by the men. One or two of the
former were young, and well-featured, but the rest were hideous; and all
were filthy and most disagreeable, from the quantity of seal-oil and
blubber, with which they had covered their bodies. After we had obtained,
by barter, all the articles they had to dispose of, I presented them with
red caps and medals, of which they were very proud: the latter they
requested might have a hole drilled through them, that they might be
suspended by a string round their necks. Their astonishment was much
excited, and they were pleased by hearing a watch tick; but I believe I had
very nearly, though unintentionally; given great offence, by cutting off a
lock of hair, from the head of one of the men. Assuming a grave look, he
very carefully wrapped the hair up, and handed it to a woman in the canoe,
who, as carefully, stowed it away in a basket, in which she kept her beads
and paint: the man then turned round, requesting me, very seriously, to put
away the scissors, and my compliance restored him to good-humour.

The features of these people bore a great resemblance to those of the
Patagonian Indians, but in person they were considerably shorter and
smaller. The elderly people of both sexes had hideous figures; the
children, however, and young men, were well-formed; particularly one of the
boys, whom they called 'Y[=a]l-l[)a]-b[)a],' which, I believe, meant a
youth, or a young warrior. The word 'Sh[=e]rr[=o]o' was used to denote a
canoe, or vessel.

They were ill-clothed, with mantles made of guanaco, or otter skins, but
not so neatly as those of the Patagonians. {54} Their bodies were smeared
over with a mixture of earth, charcoal, or red-ocre, and seal-oil; which,
combined with the filth of their persons, produced a most offensive smell.
Some were partially painted with a white argillaceous earth; others were
blackened with charcoal; one of the men was daubed all over with a white
pigment. Their hair was bound by a fillet of plaited twine, made perhaps
with strips of bark, and a few of them had it turned up; but to none did it
appear to be an object of attention, except one of the young women, who
repeatedly combed and arranged her's with the well-toothed jaw of a
porpoise.

During a remarkably calm night, we were frequently startled by the loud
blowing of whales, between us and the shore. We had noticed several of
those monsters on the previous day, but had never heard them blow in so
still a place.

At dawn, a light air carried us towards some broken land to the S.E. of
Cape Rowlett, between the eastern trend of which, and the projecting point
of an island, we found a secure and land-locked harbour, with two
entrances, one to the north and the other to the south of High Islet. The
south side of the port, which I called Port Cooke,[49] is a narrow strip of
land, forming the head of a deep inlet or sound, called[50] Brook Harbour.
It seemed to extend to the base of the high mountainous range, and to be
separated only by a narrow isthmus from Fitton Harbour.

We had scarcely been at anchor half an hour when the same party of Fuegians
was seen arriving. The men hastened to us in their canoes, as soon as the
women had landed, to cover or thatch the wigwams, which they found
standing, and to light fires.

We afterwards went ashore, and, sitting down near them, commenced a brisk
trade for arrows, skins, necklaces, and other commodities. The furs which
covered their backs they parted with, for a few beads, and went quite naked
the whole evening.

Among them was a young man, who appeared to be treated {55} with some
deference by the others; he was one of the best-looking of the party; and
there was a good-natured smile on his countenance during our communication,
while the rest frequently manifested displeasure, even about trifles. He
was, at least, the master of one of the two families; his wigwam contained
his wife, and two children, his, or his wife's father, and mother, as well
as the idiot, and his wife, who, from her appearance, must have been a
Patagonian, or else a woman of unusual size among these people. The old
woman was very inquisitive, and the man, in a long speech, described to her
all the wonders I had shown him, applying to me, from time to time, to
point out to her the articles he was trying to describe.

Their dexterity with the sling is extraordinary; and, I should think, when
used as a weapon of offence, it must be very formidable. Upon asking the
same man to show us its use, he picked up a pebble, about the size of a
pigeon's egg, and placed it in the sling; then intimating that he was going
to strike a canoe, he turned his back to the mark, and threw the stone in
an opposite direction, against the trunk of a tree, whence it rebounded
over his head, and fell close to the canoe.

I have seen them strike a cap, placed upon the stump of a tree, fifty or
sixty yards off, with a stone from a sling. In using the bow and arrow,
also, with which they kill birds, they are very dexterous. The spear is
principally for striking porpoises and seals, but is also used in war; and
from the nature of the barb, must be an efficient weapon. For close
quarters, they use clubs, stones held in the hand, and short wooden
daggers, pointed with very sharp-edged quartz, pitch-stone, or flint.

The next morning, seeing us underweigh, they came alongside and tried to
induce us to anchor again. The young man, of whom I have spoken, was very
importunate, and at last offered us his wife, as a bribe, who used all her
fancied allurements to second his proposal.

So highly did they esteem beads and buttons, that a few of each would have
purchased the canoe, the wife, and children, {56} their dogs, and all the
furniture. Seeing us proceed to the southward, with the apparent intention
of sailing down the inlet, they motioned to us to go to the north,
repeatedly calling out 'Sherroo, sherroo,' and pointing to the northward;
which we thought intimated that there was no passage in the direction we
were taking.

At noon, I landed to observe the latitude, and take bearings down the Sound
to the S.E., at the bottom of which was a hill, standing by itself, as it
were, in mid-channel. The view certainly excited hopes of its being a
channel; and as we had begun to calculate upon reaching Nassau Bay in a few
days, we named this hill, Mount Hope.

The point on which we landed was at the foot of a high snow-capped hill,
called by us Mount Seymour; whence, had not the Indians been near, I should
have taken bearings.

We sailed south-eastward, close to the south shore, until the evening; when
from the summit of some hills, about three hundred feet above the sea, we
had a view down the Sound, which almost convinced us it would prove to be a
channel. The rock at this place differed from any we had seen in the
Strait. The mountains are high, and evidently of clay-slate; but the point,
near which we anchored, is a mass of hard, and very quartzose sand-stone,
much resembling the old red sand-stone formation of Europe, and precisely
like the rock of Goulburn Island, on the north coast of New Holland.[51]

The following morning (23d), we proceeded towards Mount Hope, while running
down to which some squalls passed over, clouding the south shore, and as we
passed Parry Harbour it bore so much the appearance of a channel, that we
stood into it; but the clouds clearing away soon exposed the bottom to our
view, where there seemed to be two arms or inlets. In the south-eastern
arm, the shores were covered with thick ice (like the bottom of Ainsworth
Harbour, to the west of Parry Harbour, where an immense glacier slopes down
to the water's edge). The south-west arm appeared to be well sheltered, and
if it affords a moderate depth of water, would be an excellent harbour.

{57}

After satisfying ourselves that there was no channel here, we bore up on
our original course; but, before long, found ourselves within two miles of
the bottom of the Sound; which is shallow, and appears to receive two
rivers. The great quantity of ice water, which mingles here with the sea,
changed its colour to so pale a blue, that we thought ourselves in fresh
water.

Mount Hope proved to be an isolated mass of hills, lying like the rest N.W.
and S.E., having low land to the southward, over which nothing was visible
except one hill, thirty or forty miles distant, covered with snow, to which
the rays of the sun gave the appearance of a sheet of gold. Finding
ourselves embayed, we hastened out of the scrape, and, after beating for
some hours, anchored in Parry Harbour.

Our entrance into a little cove in Parry Harbour disturbed a quantity of
ducks, steamers, shags, and geese. Their numbers showed that Indians had
not lately visited it.

Next day we reached Ainsworth Harbour, which is of the same character as
Parry Harbour, and affords perfect security for small vessels: by dint of
sweeping, we reached a secure anchorage in a cove at the south-east corner.

The bottom of the port is formed, as I before said, by an immense glacier,
from which, during the night, large masses broke off and fell into the sea
with a loud crash,[52] thus explaining the nocturnal noises we had often
heard at Port Famine, and which at the time were thought to arise from the
eruption of volcanoes. Such were also, probably, the sounds heard by the
Spanish officers during their exploration of the Straits, whilst in the
port of Santa Monica, where they had taken refuge from a violent gale of
wind.[53]

{58}

The harbour was full of fragments of ice, the succeeding morning, drifting
into the Sound, where the sea-water, being at a higher temperature than the
air, rapidly melted them.

Since our departure from Port Waterfall, the weather had been mild, clear,
and settled; but as it wanted only three days of the change of the moon, at
which period, as well as at the full, it always blew a gale, I wished to
reach a place of security in the Gabriel Channel or Magdalen Sound.

Near the islands of Ainsworth Harbour, three canoes passed us, steering
across the Sound, each with a seal-skin fixed up in the bow for a sail; and
we recognised in them the party left at Port Cooke, among whom was the
Indian who had been detected in stealing a tin pot. They did not come
along-side; but as we went by, pointed to the north, apparently urging us
to go in that direction.

We had noticed several wigwams at Parry and Ainsworth Harbours, which shows
that they are much frequented by Indians, perhaps on their way to the open
low country east of Mount Hope, where numerous herds of guanacoes may be
found.

Porpoises and seal were not scarce in this inlet, and in the entrance there
were many whales. The presence of seal and whales made me think it probable
there was a channel; but I believe every person with me was satisfied of
its being a sound, terminating under Mount Hope. Since my later experience
of the deceptive character of some passages in Tierra del Fuego (the
Barbara Channel, for example), I have felt less certain that there may not
be a communication with the low land, behind Mount Hope, round its northern
base. The improbability was, however, so great,--from the bottom of the
sound {59} being shoal,--from the very slight tide-stream,--and from the
information of the Natives; who evidently intended to tell us we could not
get out to sea,--that we did not consider it worth while to make another
examination.

I have before observed that the strata of the slate rocks, in the Strait,
dip to the S.E.; and I found that they dip similarly all the way to the
bottom of this inlet, which I named Admiralty Sound.

The north side, like that of the Gabriel Channel, is steep, without
indentations, excepting where there is a break in the hills; but on the
south shore there are many coves, and bights, the cause of which is shown
in the accompanying imaginary section of the Gabriel Channel. The same
cause operates on the outline of the north shore of the reach of Cape
Froward, westward as far as Cape Holland, where the rock assumes a still
more primitive form. Its general character, however, is micaceous slate,
with broad veins of quartz; the latter being particularly conspicuous at
Port Gallant.

The following slight sketch, intended to represent an imaginary section of
such an opening as the Gabriel Channel, may also serve to give a general
idea of many Fuegian anchorages;--of deep water passages existing between
the almost innumerable islands of Tierra del Fuego;--and of the effects of
those sudden, and violent gusts of wind,--so frequent and
dangerous,--commonly called hurricane-squalls,[54] or williwaws.

{60}

[Illustration]

The rock, of course, decomposes equally on both sides; but on that exposed
to the south wind, it breaks off in flakes parallel to the direction of the
strata, and therefore does not make the course of the beach more irregular;
while on the other side it moulders away transversely to the direction of
the dip, leaving holes, in which water lodges, and hastens decomposition by
entering deeply into the interstices. Water, air, and frost decompose the
rock, and form a soil, which, if not too much exposed to the wind, is soon
occupied by vegetation.

The rugged faces of the cliffs, on the southern shore, caused by the rock
decomposing across the grain, collect sand and mud; and hence it happens
that anchorages are frequently found on one side, whilst, on the other, the
anchor will not hold, from the steepness of the ground; there being nothing
upon the smooth declivity to retain mud and sand before it gets to the
bottom; which, in most cases known to me, lies far beyond the reach of the
anchor.

After a tedious and difficult passage through the Gabriel Channel, we
anchored in a snug harbour within the entrance of Magdalen Channel, on the
west side, under a peaked hill called by Sarmiento 'El Vernal,'--in our
plan, the 'Sugar-loaf.' The entrance is about a quarter of a mile wide; but
after a few hundred yards the harbour opens, extending in for nearly a
mile. It is of easy depth; seven fathoms in the entrance, and four, five,
and six fathoms within; so that it is {61} very convenient for a small
vessel: to us, indeed, it was a most welcome discovery. The land rises,
around this cove, to the height of two or three thousand feet. It is
covered with Beech, and Winter's-bark, and near the water is adorned with
large groves of Fuchsia, Berberis, and the common shrubs of Port Famine,
growing so thickly as to form an almost impenetrable jungle; but,
notwithstanding the picturesque character of its scenery, the towering
height of the hills, which exclude the sun's rays for the whole day, during
the greater portion of the year, renders it a gloomy and melancholy
spot.[55]

We found a family of Fuegians in the inner harbour. Three canoes were
hauled up on the beach, but their owners were not at first visible. At
last, after our repeatedly calling out 'Ho-say, ho-say,' they appeared,
and, rather reluctantly, invited us, by signs, to land. There seemed to be
fourteen or fifteen people, and seven or eight dogs. Mr. Wickham and Mr.
Tarn went on shore to these natives, who exhibited some timidity, until a
hideous old woman began to chatter, and soon made them understand that the
young men (L[=a]-[=a]-pas) were absent on a hunting excursion, but were
every moment expected to return. There were only three men with the women
and children. To inspire them with confidence in our good intentions, Mr.
Wickham gave each man a red cap, and some other trifles. One of them
complained of being sick, but I rather imagine his illness was feigned, and
the others did not at all seem to like our visit. By degrees their fears
subsided, and, restraint being laid aside, an active trade began; in which
several otter skins, shell-necklaces, spears, and other trifles, were
obtained from them in exchange for beads, buttons, medals, &c. The otters
are caught by the help of dogs, on which account, principally, the latter
are so valuable.

These people were slightly clothed with skins of the seal and otter, but
some had pieces of guanaco mantles over their shoulders, whence we supposed
that they were either of the same tribe, or at peace, with the Indians of
Admiralty Sound: {62} unless, indeed, they trade with the Patagonian
Indians; but such is the poverty of the Fuegians, they can scarcely possess
any thing of value sufficient to exchange with the goods of their northern
neighbours, unless it be iron pyrites, which I think is not found in the
open country inhabited by the Patagonian Indians, and, from the facility
with which it yields sparks of fire, must be an object of importance.

We were not a little amused by the surprise which these natives showed at
the things in our possession, and by the effect produced in their
countenances when they saw any thing extraordinary: the expression was not
that of joy or surprise, but a sort of vacant, stupified, stare at each
other. They must have been very suspicious of our intentions, or very much
excited by what they had seen during the day, as throughout the night an
incessant chattering of voices was heard on shore, interrupted only by the
barking of their dogs.

Looking down the Magdalen Inlet, we saw two openings, which, while the
hills were enveloped in mist, had the appearance of being channels. We
proceeded for some distance into the more westerly of the two, but found
that it was merely a sound, terminated by high land. The boat was then
steered under a steep mass of black mountainous land,[56] the summit of
which is divided into three peaks, which Sarmiento called 'El Pan de Azucar
de los Boquerones' (the Sugar-loaf of the Openings). We ran southward,
fifteen miles down this sound, and reached the Labyrinth Islands; but
finding there no suitable anchorage, resumed our course towards the bottom
of what we thought another sound, terminated by mountains. At noon, the
furthest point, on the west shore, which we called Cape Turn, was within
three miles of us, and we should soon have discovered the continuation of
the channel (as it has since been proved); but a breeze set in from the
S.W., and in a short time it blew so strong as to oblige us to turn back.
'Williwaws' and baffling eddy winds kept us seven hours under Mount
Boqueron. These squalls were at first alarming, but by taking in all sail,
before they passed, we sustained no injury. At {63} sunset we were abreast
of Hope Harbour, in which we purposed taking shelter from the gale. Our
late neighbours, the Indians, had lighted a fire at the entrance to invite
our return; but wind and tide were against us, and as we knew of no port to
leeward, our only resource was to run out of the sound. Furious squalls
carried us into the true, or steady, wind, which we found very strong; and
as Port San Antonio was on the lee-bow, we had to carry such a press of
sail, that our excellent boat had nearly half the lee side of her deck
under water. By daylight we got into smooth water, and, with less wind and
better weather, steered for Port Famine. The smoother water enabled us to
light a fire and cook a meal, not an unimportant affair, as we had eaten
nothing since six o'clock on the preceding morning.

In our absence Mr. Graves had surveyed Lomas Bay, and, after his return,
Mr. Ainsworth had crossed the Strait with the gig and cutter to survey Port
San Antonio. They were victualled for five days; the gig was manned by my
own boat's crew, and the cutter by volunteers: but although they had not
come back, we felt no anxiety about their safety, being assured that Mr.
Ainsworth would not run the risk of crossing the Strait during bad weather.
The tempestuous state of the two following days, however, made us uneasy,
and on the third morning, when the wind moderated much, we looked out
anxiously for their arrival. In the evening the cutter returned; but, alas!
with the melancholy information of the loss of Mr. Ainsworth, and two
seamen, drowned by the upsetting of the gig. One of the latter was my
excellent coxswain, John Corkhill. The remainder of the gig's crew were
only rescued from drowning by the strenuous exertions of those in the
cutter.

Mr. Ainsworth, anxious to return to the ship, thought too little of the
difficulty and danger of crossing the Strait during unsettled weather. He
set out from Port San Antonio under sail, and, while sheltered by the land,
did very well; but as soon as they got into the offing, both wind and sea
increased so much that the gig was in great danger, although under only a
small close-reefed sail.

{64}

The people in the cutter were anxiously watching her labouring movements,
when she disappeared! They hastened to the spot--saved three men; but the
other two had gone down. Poor Ainsworth was still clinging to the gig's
gunwale when his shipmates eagerly approached; but letting go his hold from
extreme exhaustion, and being heavily clothed, he sunk from their sight to
rise no more.

He had been cheering the drowning crew, and trying to save his companions,
till the moment his grasp relaxed. Just before Ainsworth himself let go,
Mr. Hodgskin lost his hold, exclaiming, Ainsworth, save me! when, exhausted
as he was, with one hand he rescued his friend, and, directly afterwards,
his strength failing, sunk.

This addition of three people to the already loaded cutter, made her cargo
more than was safe, therefore Mr. Williams, who commanded her, very
prudently bore up for the first convenient landing-place, and happily
succeeded in reaching the only part of the beach, between Lomas Bay and
Cape Valentyn, where a boat could land.

The following morning, the weather being more favourable, they crossed
under sail to Freshwater Bay, and thence pulled to Port Famine.

This melancholy disaster was much felt by every one. Ainsworth was a
deserving officer, and highly esteemed. Corkhill was captain of the
forecastle, and had served in the Polar voyages under Sir Edward Parry. On
the Sunday following, the colours were hoisted half-mast high, and the
funeral service was read after morning prayers: for although to recover the
bodies was impossible, their watery grave was before our eyes; and the
performance of this last sad duty was a melancholy satisfaction.

 "Ours are the tears, tho' few, sincerely shed,
  When ocean shrouds and sepulchres our dead."

A tablet was subsequently erected, on Point St. Anna, to record this fatal
accident.

       *       *       *       *       *


{65}

CHAPTER V.

  Lieutenant Sholl arrives--Beagle returns--Loss of the Saxe Cobourg
  sealer--Captain Stokes goes to Fury Harbour to save her crew--Beagle's
  proceedings--Bougainville's memorial--Cordova's memorial--Beagle's
  danger--Difficulties--Captain Stokes's boat-cruize--Passages--Natives--
  Dangerous service--Western entrance of the Strait of Magalhaens--Hope's
  cruize--Prepare to return to Monte Video.

The Beagle's time of absence had expired on the 1st of April, and our
anxiety, more excited by our recent loss, was becoming painful. I detained
the Hope from going upon a service for which she was prepared, in case she
might be required to search for our consort: but on the 6th a strange
whale-boat was descried pulling towards us from the southward, in which we
soon distinguished Lieut. Sholl. His appearance, under such circumstances,
of course raised fears for the Beagle's safety; but, on approaching, his
gratifying shout, "all's well!" at once removed anxiety.

Mr. Sholl informed me, that the Beagle had picked up a boat, belonging to
the schooner 'Prince of Saxe Cobourg,' wrecked in Fury Harbour, at the
south entrance of the Barbara Channel; and that she had put into Port
Gallant, whence Captain Stokes had gone with the boats to assist the
Sealers, leaving Lieut. Skyring on board.

The safety of the Beagle being established, I despatched Mr. Graves, in the
Hope, to examine some openings between the Magdalen Channel and the Dos
Hermanos of Bougainville.

Several days earlier than I expected, the Beagle made her appearance, and
Captain Stokes soon gave me the agreeable intelligence of having succeeded
in saving the Prince of Saxe Cobourg's crew. Favoured by the weather,
though delayed by his guide having forgotten the way, Captain Stokes
reached Fury Harbour in two days, and embarked the master and {66} crew of
the wrecked vessel, with all their personal property, and the greater part
of the seal-skins which they had cured. He reached Port Gallant again on
the fourth day; sailed immediately in the Beagle, and two days afterwards
anchored in Port Famine.

The Prince of Saxe Cobourg, belonging to Mr. Weddel (whose voyage towards
the South Pole is so well known), and commanded by Mr. Matthew Brisbane,
who accompanied Weddel on that occasion, sailed from England in the summer
of 1826, on a sealing voyage. At South Shetland she encountered a
continuance of bad weather, was beset by a large body of ice for several
days, and received so much damage as to oblige her to run for the Fuegian
coast, and anchor in Fury Harbour, at the entrance of the Barbara Channel.
There (December 16th, 1826) she was driven on shore by the furious strength
of the williwaws, and wrecked. The crew were, however, enabled to save most
of the provisions and stores, as well as their three boats. Having made
tents, and established themselves on shore, they remained in anxious
expectation of the arrival of some vessel which might relieve them; day
after day however passed, without succour.

Two boats were despatched to look for any sealing vessel that might be in
the vicinity, but after fifteen days' absence they returned unsuccessful.
In this interval one of the crew, who had long been sickly, died; and
another, in carelessly discharging a musket, exploded twenty pounds of
gunpowder, by which he was very much burned. Three of the people being
mutinous, were punished by being sent, each to a different island, with
only a week's provisions.

Soon afterwards another boat was sent away, which reached Hope Harbour, but
found no vessel there. Seven of the people then obtained permission from
the master (who kept up a very proper state of discipline), to take the
largest whale-boat, and go towards the River Negro. Previous to their
departure they drew up articles of agreement for their general conduct, a
breach of which was to be punished by the offender being left upon the
coast, wherever they might happen to {67} be. The boat eventually arrived
safely at the place of her destination, and the crew entered as volunteers
on board of the Buenos Ayrean squadron, at that time engaged in the war
with Brazil.

Again a boat was despatched, directed to go westward through the Strait in
search of vessels. She had only reached as far as Playa Parda, when the
Beagle fell in with her (March 3d, 1827). While passing through the small
channels, before entering the Strait, she met several canoes, with Indians,
who endeavoured to stop her, and shot arrows at the crew; but, happily,
without doing any mischief.

After the last boat's departure, Mr. Brisbane began to build a small
vessel, and, while so employed, was visited by a party of natives, who
conducted themselves very peaceably, and went away. Their visit, however,
gave the shipwrecked people, now much reduced in number,[57] reason to
apprehend the return of a larger body, who might try to possess themselves
of the property which was lying about on the shore; they therefore buried a
great deal, and took means to preserve the rest by making preparations to
repel attack. When Captain Stokes appeared with his two boats, the Sealers
flew to their arms, calling out "the Indians, the Indians!" but in a very
few minutes excess of joy succeeded to their sudden alarm.

Captain Stokes found the vessel lying on the rocks, bilged, and an utter
wreck. The master and crew were extremely anxious to get away, he therefore
embarked them, with as much of the property as could be carried, and
succeeded (after another night in the boats, and a long pull of eighty
miles,) in conveying them safely to the Beagle.

The following is an abstract of Captain Stokes's journal of his cruise to
the western entrance of the Strait.

The Beagle sailed from Port Famine on the 15th of January, to explore the
Strait westward of Cape Froward, and to fix particularly the positions of
Cape Pillar, the rock called {68} Westminster Hall, and the Islands of
Direction, at the western entrance of the Strait.

For the first night Captain Stokes anchored in San Nicolas Bay, and in the
evening examined a harbour[58] behind Nassau Island, which Bougainville, in
the year 1765, visited for the purpose of procuring wood for the French
settlement at the Falkland Islands.

On the second night, after a day nearly calm, the Beagle was anchored in a
cove to the eastward of Cape Froward, and the next day (17th) passed round
the Cape, carrying a heavy press of sail against a dead foul wind. Captain
Stokes's account of this day's beat to windward will give the reader an
idea of the sort of navigation.

"Our little bay had screened us so completely from the wind, that though,
when (at five A.M.) we weighed, the breeze was so light as scarcely to
enable us, with all sail set, to clear its entrance; no sooner were we
outside, than we were obliged to treble reef the topsails. We continued to
beat to windward under a heavy press of sail; our object being to double
Cape Froward, and secure, if possible, an anchorage ere night-fall under
Cape Holland, six leagues further to the westward. At first we made
'boards' right across the Straits to within a third of a mile of each
shore, gaining, however, but little. We then tried whether, by confining
our tacks to either coast, we could discover a tide by which we might
profit; and for that purpose I began with the north shore, for though we
were there more exposed to violent squalls which came down the valleys, I
thought it advisable to avoid the indraught of various channels
intersecting the Fuegian coast; but having made several boards without any
perceptible advantage, we tried the south shore, with such success that I
was induced to keep on that side during the remainder of the day.

"And here let me remark, that in consequence of the westerly winds which
blow through the western parts of the Straits of Magalhaens, with almost
the constancy (as regards {69} direction, not force) of a trade-wind; a
current setting to the eastward, commonly at the rate of a knot and three
quarters an hour, will be found in mid-channel. The tides exert scarcely
any influence, except near either shore; and sometimes appear to set, up
one side of the Straits, and down the other: the weather tide is generally
shown by a rippling.(c)

"Heavy squalls off Cape Froward repeatedly obliged us to clew all up. By
day their approach is announced, in time for the necessary precautions, by
their curling up and covering with foam the surface of the water, and
driving the spray in clouds before them.

"At last we doubled Cape Froward. This Cape (called by the Spaniards El
Morro de Santa Agueda), the southernmost point of all America, is a bold
promontory, composed of dark coloured slaty rock; its outer face is nearly
perpendicular, and whether coming from the eastward or westward, it 'makes'
as a high round-topped bluff hill ('Morro').

"Bougainville observes, that 'Cape Froward has always been much dreaded by
navigators.'[59] To double it, and gain an anchorage under Cape Holland,
certainly cost the Beagle as tough a sixteen hours' beat as I have ever
witnessed: we made thirty-one tacks, which, with the squalls, kept us
constantly on the alert, and scarcely allowed the crew to have the ropes
out of their hands throughout the day. But what there is to inspire a
navigator with 'dread' I cannot tell, for the coast on both sides is
perfectly clear, and a vessel may work from shore to shore."

From Cape Holland, the Beagle proceeded to Port Gallant, and during her
stay there, Mr. Bowen ascended the Mountain de la Cruz. Upon the summit he
found some remains of a glass bottle, and a roll of papers, which proved to
be the memorials stated to have been left by Don Antonio de Cordova, {70}
and a copy of a document that had previously been deposited there by M. de
Bougainville. With these papers was found a Spanish two-rial piece of
Carlos III., which had been bent to admit of its being put into the bottle.
It was with considerable difficulty that any of the writing could be
decyphered, for the papers, having been doubled up, were torn, and the
words defaced at the foldings, and edges.

Bougainville's memorial was in Latin. Cordova's, besides a document in
Latin, was accompanied by an account of his voyage, written in four
languages, Spanish, French, Italian, and English. The legible part of the
former was as follows:--

  Viatori Benevolo salus ........
  ........ que a periculose admodum naviga ......
  ........ Brasilie Bonarve et insularum ..........
  ............................................
  .......... incertis freti Magellanici portubus ....
  ...................... historia astronomia ....
  .... Boug .................................
  .... Boug .... Duclos et de la Giranda 2 navium ..
  .............. Primaris
  .... Comerson .... Doct med naturalista Regio
    accu .... m. Veron astronomo de Romainville hidrographio
  .......... a rege Christianissimo demandans
  .......... Landais Lavan Fontaine navium
  Loco tenentibus et Vexillariis ........
  ........ itineris locus DD Dervi Lemoyne ....
  ............ Riouffe voluntariis.
  ................ vives .......... scriba
                Anno MDCCLXVI.

The Latin inscription of Cordova was as follows:--

              Benevolo Navigatori
                  Salutem
  Anno Domini MDCCLXXXVIII  Vir celeberrimus
  DD Antonius de Cordova Laso de Vega navibus duabus (_quarum_
  nomina SS Casilda et Eulalia _erant ad scrutamen_ Magellanici
  freti subsequendum _unâque_ littorum, portuum aliorumque notabilium
  .................... iter iterum fecit.
  .... e Gadibus classis tertio nonas Octobris habenas _immittit_
  quarto idus _ejusdem Nova_ ...... vidit
  {71}
  A Boreali ad Austra ...... _miserium_ postridie Kalendæ
  Novembris emigravit.

  Decimo quarto Kalendas Januarii Patagonicis recognitis
  litoribus ad ostium appulit freti.

  Tandem ingentibus periculis et horroribus tam in mari quam
  in freto magnanime et constanter super_atis_ et omnibus
  portubus atque navium _fundamentis_ utriusque litoris
  correctissime cognitis ad hunc portum Divini Jose vel
  Galante septimo idu Januarii pervenit ubi ad
  perpetuam rei memoriam in monte sanctissimæ crucis hoc
  monumentum reliquit.

          Tertio et excelso Carolo regnante potente
          Regali jussu facta fuere suo.

  Colocatum fuit nono Kalendæ Februarii Anno MDCCLXXXIX.

together with a list of the officers of both vessels, and enclosing a
memorial of Cordova's former voyage in the Santa Maria de la Cabeza. The
originals are placed in the British Museum; but before we finally left the
Strait, copies were made on vellum, and deposited on the same spot.

The Beagle left Port Gallant[60] with a fair wind, which carried her to
Swallow Harbour.

The next stopping place was Marian's Cove, a very snug anchorage on the
north shore, a few miles beyond Playa Parda. Proceeding thence to the
westward, with the wind 'in their teeth,' and such bad weather, that they
could only see the land of either coast at intervals, and failing in an
attempt to find anchorage under Cape Upright, the Beagle was kept under
weigh during a squally dark night.

In that very place, Commodore Byron, with the Dolphin and Tamar, passed the
anxious night, which he thus describes:--

"Our situation was now very alarming; the storm increased every minute, the
weather was extremely thick, and the rain seemed to threaten another
deluge; we had a long dark night before us, we were in a narrow channel,
and surrounded on {72} every side by rocks and breakers."[61] The Beagle
was under similar circumstances, but the land being known to be high and
bold, her danger was not considered so imminent.

Eastward of Cape Upright the water was smooth; but between it and Cape
Providence a heavy breaking sea was caused by the deep swell of the
Pacific. Captain Stokes found an anchorage the next night in a bay under
Cape Tamar; and the following evening very nearly reached another under
Cape Phillip; but the darkness of a rainy night, and strong squalls,
prevented their attempting to anchor in an unknown place, and the only
resource was to bear up for shelter under Cape Tamar, where the previous
night had been passed. Even this was a dangerous attempt; they could hardly
discern any part of the high land, and when before the wind could not avoid
the ship's going much too fast. While running about eight knots, a violent
shock--a lift forward--heel over--and downward plunge--electrified every
one; but before they could look round, she was scudding along, as before,
having fairly leaped over the rock.

It was afterwards found that a great part of the gripe and false keel were
knocked away. Captain Stokes's account of this day's beat will give an idea
of the difficulties which the Beagle's crew encountered, in working out of
the Strait.

January 31st. "The hands were turned up at daylight up anchor; but the
heavy squalls that came off the high land of the harbour, rendered it too
hazardous to weigh, until a temporary lull enabled us to make sail, and
re-commence beating to the westward against a dead foul wind, much rain,
hard squalls, and a turbulent cross sea.

"The squalls became more frequent and more violent after noon; but they
gave, in daylight, sufficient warning, being preceded by dark clouds
gradually expanding upwards, until their upper line attained the altitude
of about fifty degrees: then came heavy rain, and perhaps hail; immediately
after followed the squall in all its fury, and generally lasted fifteen or
twenty minutes.

{73}

"In working to windward we frequently extended our 'boards' to the south
shore (not without risk considering the state of the weather), with the
hope of making out Tuesday Bay, or some anchorage thereabout; but the coast
was covered with so thick a mist, that not a single point, mentioned by
preceding navigators, could be recognised.

"About seven in the evening we were assailed by a squall, which burst upon
the ship with fury far surpassing all that preceded it; had not sail been
shortened in time, not a stick would have been left standing, or she must
have capsized. As it was, the squall hove her so much over on her
broadside, that the boat which was hanging at the starboard quarter was
washed away. I then stood over to the north shore, to look for anchorage
under the lee of a cape, about three leagues to the north-west of Cape
Tamar. On closing it, the weather became so thick that at times we could
scarcely see two ships' lengths a-head.

"These circumstances were not in favour of exploring unknown bays, and to
think of passing such a night as was in prospect, under sail in the
Straits, would have been a desperate risk; I was obliged therefore to yield
the hard-gained advantage of this day's beat, and run for the anchorage
whence we had started in the morning.

"It was nearly dark ere we reached it; and in entering, desirous to keep
well up to windward, in order to gain the best anchorage, I went too close
to the outer islet, and the ship struck violently on a rocky ledge.
However, she did not hang a moment, and was soon anchored in safety."

Finding so much danger and difficulty, in proceeding with the ship, without
first knowing where to run for anchorages, Captain Stokes left her in Tamar
Bay, under the charge of Lieutenant Skyring; and, accompanied by Mr. Flinn,
set out in the cutter, with a week's provisions, to examine the south
coast.

In a very arduous and dangerous cruize he discovered several well-sheltered
anchorages, but experienced a "constant heavy gale from W.N.W., with thick
weather and incessant drenching rain." {74}

Captain Stokes says, "Our discomfort in an open boat was very great, since
we were all constantly wet to the skin. In trying to double the various
headlands, we were repeatedly obliged (after hours of ineffectual struggle
against sea and wind) to desist from useless labour, and take refuge in the
nearest cove which lay to leeward."

From the Harbour of Mercy, Captain Stokes attempted to cross the Strait, on
his return to the Beagle; but the sea ran too high, and obliged him to
defer his daring purpose until the weather was more favourable.

During his absence, Lieutenant Skyring surveyed Tamar Bay and its vicinity.

Again the Beagle weighed, and tried hard to make some progress to the
westward, but was obliged a third time to return to Tamar Bay. After
another delay she just reached Sholl Bay, under Cape Phillip, and remained
there one day, to make a plan of the anchorage, and take observations to
fix its position.

The Beagle reached the Harbour of Mercy (Separation Harbour of Wallis and
Carteret),[62] after a thirty days' passage from Port Famine, on the 15th,
having visited several anchorages on the south shore in her way. But
tedious and harassing as her progress had been, the accounts of Byron,
Wallis, Carteret, and Bougainville show that they found more difficulty,
and took more time, in their passages from Port Famine to the western
entrance of the Strait. Byron, in 1764, was forty-two days; Wallis, in
1766, eighty-two; Carteret, in the same year, eighty-four; and
Bougainville, in 1768, forty days, in going that short distance.

Five days were passed at this place, during which they communicated with a
few natives, of whom Captain Stokes remarks; "As might be expected from the
unkindly climate in which they dwell, the personal appearance of these
Indians does not {75} exhibit, either in male or female, any indications of
activity or strength. Their average height is five feet five inches; their
habit of body is spare; the limbs are badly turned, and deficient in
muscle; the hair of their head is black, straight, and coarse; their
beards, whiskers, and eyebrows, naturally exceedingly scanty, are carefully
plucked out; their forehead is low; the nose rather prominent, with dilated
nostrils; their eyes are dark, and of a moderate size; the mouth is large,
and the under-lip thick; their teeth are small and regular, but of bad
colour. They are of a dirty copper colour; their countenance is dull, and
devoid of expression. For protection against the rigours of these inclement
regions, their clothing is miserably suited; being only the skin of a seal,
or sea-otter, thrown over the shoulders, with the hairy side outward.

"The two upper corners of this skin are tied together across the breast
with a strip of sinew or skin, and a similar thong secures it round the
waist; the skirts are brought forward so as to be a partial covering. Their
comb is a portion of the jaw of a porpoise, and they anoint their hair with
seal or whale blubber; for removing the beard and eyebrows they employ a
very primitive kind of tweezers, namely, two muscle shells. They daub their
bodies with a red earth, like the ruddle used in England for marking sheep.
The women, and children, wear necklaces, formed of small shells, neatly
attached by a plaiting of the fine fibres of seal's intestines.

"The tracts they inhabit are altogether destitute of four-footed animals;
they have not domesticated the geese or ducks which abound here; of tillage
they are utterly ignorant; and the only vegetable productions they eat are
a few wild berries and a kind of sea-weed. Their principal food consists of
muscles, limpets, and sea-eggs, and, as often as possible, seal, sea-otter,
porpoise, and whale: we often found in their deserted dwellings bones of
these animals, which had undergone the action of fire.

"Former voyagers have noticed the avidity with which they swallowed the
most offensive offal, such as decaying seal-skins, {76} rancid seal, and
whale blubber, &c. When on board my ship, they ate or drank greedily
whatever was offered to them, salt-beef, salt-pork, preserved meat,
pudding, pea-soup, tea, coffee, wine, or brandy--nothing came amiss. One
little instance, however, happened, which showed what they preferred. As
they were going ashore, a lump of the tallow used for arming the lead was
given to them, and received with particular delight. It was scrupulously
divided, and placed in the little baskets which they form of rushes, to be
reserved for eating last, as the richest treat.

"To their dwellings have been given, in various books of voyages, the names
of huts, wigwams, &c.; but, with reference to their structure, I think old
Sir John Narborough's term for them will convey the best idea to an English
reader; he calls them 'arbours.' They are formed of about a couple of dozen
branches, pointed at the larger ends, and stuck into the ground round a
circular or elliptical space, about ten feet by six; the upper ends are
brought together, and secured by tyers of grass, over which is thrown a
thatching of grass and seal-skins, a hole being left at the side as a door,
and another at the top as a vent for the smoke. A fire is kept burning
within, over which the natives are constantly cowering; hence, when seen
abroad, instead of appearing to be hardy savages, inured to wet and cold,
you see wretched creatures shivering at every breeze. I never met people so
sensible of cold as these Fuegian Indians.

"The nature of their domestic ties we had no opportunity of discovering;
their manner towards their children is affectionate and caressing. I often
witnessed the tenderness with which they tried to quiet the alarms our
presence at first occasioned, and the pleasure which they showed when we
bestowed upon the little ones any trifling trinkets. It appeared that they
allow their children to possess property, and consult their little whims
and wishes, with respect to its disposal; for being in a boat, alongside
one of the canoes, bargaining for various articles, spears, arrows,
baskets, &c., I took a fancy to a dog lying near one of the women, and
offered a price for it; one of my seamen, supposing the bargain concluded,
laid {77} hands on the dog, at which the woman set up a dismal yell; so
bidding him desist, I increased my offers. She declined to part with it,
but would give two others. At last, my offers became so considerable, that
she called a little boy out of the thick jungle (into which he had fled at
our approach), who was the owner of the dog. The goods were shown to him,
and all his party urged him to sell it, but the little urchin would not
consent. He offered to let me have his necklace, and what he received in
exchange was put away in his own little basket.

"These people never evinced any thankfulness for our presents. Whatever was
offered they 'clutched at,' doubtful of getting it, although held out to
them; and when in their own hand, it was instantly stowed away, as if they
feared it would be recalled.

"I sometimes tried to discover whether they preferred any particular
colour, and for that purpose held out three strings of beads, black, white,
and red; they clutched at all three, in their usual manner, without showing
any preference.

"Their pronunciation is exceedingly harsh and guttural; not more than two
words, whose signification was at all ascertained, could be made out,
'sherroo,' a ship, boat, or canoe, and 'peteet,' a child. They have a
wonderful aptitude for imitating the sounds of strange languages: let a
sentence, of even a dozen words, be distinctly pronounced, and they will
repeat it with the utmost precision.

"Their only articles of traffic, besides such implements and weapons as
they use, are seal and otter skins; and I should say that the quantity of
peltry to be procured from them would be insignificant towards completing
the cargo of a sealing vessel."

During the next few days the Beagle was employed in the most exposed, the
least known, and the most dangerous part of the Strait. Fortunately, she
was favoured by weather, and effected her purpose without injury or loss;
but I never reflect upon this piece of service without an inward tribute of
admiration to the daring, skill, and seamanship of Captain Stokes,
Lieutenant Skyring, and Mr. Flinn. {78}

In his journal Captain Stokes says:

"Incessant rain and thick clouds prevented my completing, until this day
(19th), the observations necessary for making an island, just outside the
Harbour of Mercy, the southern end of my base, for the trigonometrical
connection of the coasts and islands near the western entrance of this
weather-beaten Strait.

"On the 20th, I weighed and beat to windward, intending to search for
anchorage on the north shore, where I might land and fix the northern end
of our base line. In the evening we anchored in an archipelago of islands,
the real danger of whose vicinity was much increased to the eye by rocks,
scattered in every direction, and high breakers, occasioned doubtless by
reefs under water. We observed that most of the larger islands have small
banks of sand at their eastern sides, on which anchorage may be found; but
for ordinary purposes of navigation, this cluster of islands[63] need only
be pointed out to be avoided. The number and contiguity of the rocks, below
as well as above water, render it a most hazardous place for any
square-rigged vessel: nothing but the particular duty on which I was
ordered would have induced me to venture among them. Fore-and-aft vessels
might work with far less risk; and as the rocks are frequented by vast
numbers of fur seal, a season or two might be profitably passed here by a
sealing vessel so rigged.

"This morning (21st) I landed on one of the larger islands, with Lieutenant
Skyring, and having ascended an eminence (Observation Mount) with the
necessary instruments, fixed its position, and made it the northern end of
our base.

"It was a beautiful, and clear day; the Isles of Direction (or
Evangelists), as well as every point of importance on the adjacent coast,
were seen distinctly during several hours.

"My next object was to fix the position of Cape Victory, and ascertain
whether anchorage could be found in its neighbourhood. Accordingly, we
weighed early next morning (22d,) and after extricating ourselves from this
labyrinth (not without much difficulty and danger), we beat to the
westward. Violent squalls, a heavy sea, and thick weather, which came on
about {79} noon, obliged me to choose the least evil, and run for the
Harbour of Mercy.

"On the 23d, we went out again, and beat towards the Isles of Direction,
off which we passed a night under sail.

"The morning of the 24th was very fine, and the wind moderate. Leaving the
Beagle to sound about the Isles of Direction, I set out in my boat, with
two days' provisions, towards Cape Victory. As we rowed along these rocky
shores, threading the mazes of the labyrinth of islets which fringe them,
we saw vast numbers of black whales, and the rocks were quite covered with
fur seal and brant geese.

"After pulling, in earnest, for six hours, we landed upon Cape Victory, the
north-western limit of the Strait of Magalhaens, and there, with a sextant,
artificial horizon, and chronometer, ascertained the position of this
remarkable promontory. From an eminence, eight hundred feet above the sea,
we had a commanding view of the adjacent coasts, as well as of the vast
Pacific, which enabled us to rectify former material errors. Late in the
evening we were fortunate enough to get safely on board again, which,
considering the usual weather here and the heavy sea, was unexpected
success. This night was passed under sail in the Pacific, and next morning
we commenced our return to Port Famine.

"When within four or five miles of Cape Pillar, and to the westward of it,
a current was found to set southward, at about two knots an hour. As we
neared the Cape the wind fell, and the Beagle was set rapidly towards those
dangerous rocks, called the Apostles. Fortunately, a commanding breeze
sprung up, and we extricated ourselves from the difficulty. While passing
Cape Pillar, I landed in a cove near it, and determined its position. By
sunset we had arrived near the Harbour of Mercy; and being becalmed, towed
the ship in, with her boats, until an anchor was dropped at the proper
place.

"On the 26th, we went to Tuesday Bay, and on the 27th crossed the Strait,
and anchored under Cape Parker. I have rarely witnessed such a high, cross,
and irregular sea as we this day passed through, near the strange mass of
rock, called by {80} Narborough, 'Westminster Hall.' The coast about our
unsafe anchorage was as barren and dismal-looking as any part of this
country, which, as the old navigator above-mentioned said, is 'so desolate
land to behold.'

"Next day (March 1st) we ran down to Cape Upright, and there remained until
the 3d, collecting the required data for our survey.

"While standing towards the bay called Playa Parda (on the 3d), a boat
under sail was seen making towards us from the southern coast. I fired
several guns, to show our position, before we became shut in by the land,
and soon after anchoring a whale-boat came alongside, with the second mate
and five men belonging to the sealing-vessel Prince of Saxe Cobourg.

"Anxious not to lose a moment in hastening to the relief of our shipwrecked
countrymen, I ran down next day to Port Gallant, and thence proceeded with
two ten-oared boats (on the 5th) through the Barbara Channel, and the
following evening reached Fury Harbour."

Having already given a short account of the Saxe Cobourg's loss, and the
rescue of her crew by Captain Stokes, I will not repeat the story by
extracting more from his journal.

Mr. Graves returned from his cruize in the Hope on the 17th, after
suffering much from stormy weather and incessant rain; but having made a
survey of the openings in the land to the west of Magdalen Channel as far
as the Sugar Loaf Point, at the west head of Lyell Sound, which he found to
be deep inlets, affording no anchorages of value to navigation.

The time having arrived for our return to Monte Video, preparations were
made for sailing, and in the mean time I went to the northward, in the
Hope, to survey the coast between Port Famine and Elizabeth Island,
including Shoal Haven.

At the bottom of Shoal Haven we were stopped by the water shoaling to five
feet, so that we were obliged to haul out till we could anchor in more than
two fathoms. During the night the wind shifted to N.E., and blew right in,
obliging us to weigh, and work under the S.W. end of Elizabeth Island into
a bay close to that shore. From the summit of the S.W. {81} point I
afterwards took angles, among which the most important gave Mount Sarmiento
bearing S. 1½° W. (true). Its distance must have been (by recent
observations) ninety-four miles.

Elizabeth Island is a long, low strip of land, lying parallel to the shores
of the Strait, which here take a N.N.E. direction. Compared with the land
to the southward it is very low, no part being more than two or three
hundred feet high. It is composed of narrow ranges of hills, extending in
ridges in the direction of its length, over which are strewed boulders of
the various rocks, which have been noticed before as forming the shingle
beaches of Point St. Mary and Point St. Anna; two kinds of rock, greenstone
and hornblende, being the most common. The vallies which divide the hilly
ridges were well clothed with grass, and in many places were seen hollows,
that had contained fresh water, but now were entirely dried up. These spots
were marked by a white crust, apparently caused by the saline quality of
the soil.

Geese and wild ducks, and the red-bill (_Hæmatopus_), seem to be the only
inhabitants of this island. The Indians sometimes visit it, for at the S.W.
end we found remains of wigwams and shell-fish. Perhaps it is a place
whence they communicate with the Patagonian natives, or they may in the
season frequent it for eggs.

We anchored in Laredo Bay, and visited a lake about a mile from the beach,
distinguished on the chart by the name of Duck Lagoon: it is very
extensive, and covered with large flights of gulls, ducks, and widgeons. We
shot one widgeon, which was a most beautiful bird, and of a species we had
not before seen.[64]

Here the country begins to be clothed with the deciduous leaved Beech tree
(_Fagus Antarctica_), which is stunted in growth, but very convenient for
fuel. Though the hardiest tree of this region, it is never found of large
size, the larger trees being the evergreen Beech (_Fagus betuloides_). We
also met with several small plants common to Cape Gregory. One {82} may
consider Cape Negro to be the boundary of two countries, as entirely
different from each other in geological structure and appearance, as they
are in climate, to which last difference may be attributed the
dissimilarity of their botanical productions.

Hence we returned to Port Famine. In our absence, a boat from the Beagle
had crossed the Strait to Lomas Bay, where a party of natives had kindled
fires of invitation.

The weather, since the sun crossed the equator, had been unusually fine;
and, with the exception of one day's heavy rain, the sky was so clear (the
wind being moderate from the N.E.) that all the heights were exposed to our
view, and amongst them Mount Sarmiento stood pre-eminent.

Our preparations for sailing being nearly completed, the Hope was unrigged
and hoisted in, and our temporary settlement on shore abandoned. It
consisted of a marquee and a large bell tent. In the former was Mr.
Harrison (mate), who had charge of the party, and of the meteorological
instruments: the bell tent held the crew. Near them were the observatory, a
sawpit, and a cooking place, where a cheerful fire was always blazing. The
carpenter's shop, cooper's bench, and armourer's forge had each its place,
as well as a rope-walk, close to which our rigging was refitted, and the
sails were repaired. After working-hours the shore party roamed about the
woods with guns, or at low water picked up shell fish,[65] by which they
usually procured a fresh meal twice, but always once, a week. Meanwhile the
ship was kept carefully clean and in order. The officers not immediately
employed in active duty made excursions with their guns; and although the
immediate vicinity of our tents was pretty well thinned of game, yet a walk
of a few miles was always rewarded by ample sport. When opportunities
offered, some of the men were permitted to amuse themselves on shore with
their guns, for which many had provided themselves with powder and shot.
Every Sunday, after divine service, which was performed as regularly as
possible under our circumstances, such of the ship's company as desired
{83} permission to land obtained it. On one occasion, however, we had
nearly suffered for this indulgence, which was conducive to the men's
health, and seldom abused: for one of them having made a fire at a little
distance from the tents, the flames spread, and the exertions of all hands,
for three hours, only just prevented it from communicating to the tents. On
another occasion, two men set out on a shooting excursion, intending to
cross the river Sedger, against doing which there had been no particular
orders, as such a proceeding was scarcely contemplated. Having reached the
bank near its mouth, and searched for a fordable place unsuccessfully, they
launched a log of wood, and sitting astride, without providing themselves
with a pole or paddle, pushed off from the shore, supposing it would go
across; but, on reaching the middle of the stream, it was soon carried, by
the current, out of the river, into the bay. One man, Gilly, seeing that
the log was still floating away with the ebb tide, plunged in, and just
reached the shore south of the river, in a very exhausted state; the other,
Rix, unable to swim, kept his place, and was carried out to sea on a voyage
that might have been fatal, had he not been seen from the ship, and saved
by a boat.

Before leaving Port Famine we hauled one of our boats ashore, and left her
(as we thought) securely hidden among the trees.

Being now ready to sail, and only waiting for wind, the officers of both
ships, twenty-seven in number, dined together on shore.

       *       *       *       *       *


{84}

CHAPTER VI.

  Trees--Leave Port Famine--Patagonians--Gregory Bay--Bysante--Maria--
  Falkner's account of the Natives--Indians seen on the borders of the
  Otway Water, in 1829--Maria visits the Adventure--Religious Ceremony--
  Patagonian Encampment--Tomb of a Child--Women's employment--Children--
  Gratitude of a Native--Size of Patagonians--Former accounts of their
  gigantic height--Character--Articles for barter--Fuegians living with
  Patagonians--Ships sail--Arrive at Monte Video and Rio de Janeiro.

While detained by northerly winds, the carpenter and a party of people were
employed in the woods selecting and cutting down trees to be ready for our
next visit. After felling thirteen trees, from twenty-four to thirty-six
inches in diameter, eight were found to be rotten at the heart; but by
afterwards taking the precaution of boring the trees with an augur, while
standing, much trouble was saved, and fifteen sound sticks of considerable
diameter were cut down. We found one tree, an evergreen beech, too large
for any of our saws: it measured twenty-one feet in girth at the base, and
from the height of six feet to twenty it was seventeen feet in
circumference; above this height, three large arms (each from thirty to
forty inches in diameter), branched off from the trunk. It is, perhaps, the
very tree described by Byron in his account of this place. We only once saw
it equalled in size, and that was by a prostrate trunk, very much decayed.

In this interval of fine weather and northerly wind, we had the thermometer
as high as 58°, and the barometer ranging between 29.80 and 30.00; but for
two days before the wind shifted, the alteration was predicted by a gradual
descent of the mercurial column, and a considerable increase of cold. On
the 7th May, as there was some appearance of a change, we got under weigh;
but were hardly outside the port, when a northerly wind again set in, and
prevented our going farther than {85} Freshwater Bay, where we passed the
night. At last, on the 8th, accompanied by the Beagle, we proceeded on our
course with a strong south-westerly breeze, which carried us quickly up to
Cape Negro, when it blew so hard that I anchored off Laredo Bay. At this
anchorage we certainly felt the air much colder and sharper than at Port
Famine, arising from our being in a more exposed situation, and from the
approach of winter, as well as from the severe south-west gale which was
blowing.

After the gale had abated, we proceeded with fair weather and a light
breeze to the Second Narrow, when the wind fell; but the tide being in our
favour, we passed rapidly through. On a hill near us we observed three or
four Patagonian Indians standing together, and their horses feeding close
to them. A fire was soon kindled, to attract our notice, to which signal we
replied by showing our colours; and had we not already communicated with
these people, we should certainly have thought them giants, for they
"loomed very large" as they stood on the summit of the hill. This optical
deception must doubtless have been caused by mirage: the haze has always
been observed to be very great during fine weather and a hot day arising
from rapid evaporation of the moisture so abundantly deposited, on the
surface of the ground, in all parts of the Strait.

As soon as the Patagonians found they were noticed, they mounted and rode
along the shore abreast of us, being joined by other parties, until the
whole number could not have been less than forty. Several foals and dogs
were with them. Having anchored in Gregory Bay, where I intended remaining
for two days to communicate with them, I sent up a rocket, burnt a
blue-light, and despatched Lieutenant Cooke on shore to ask for a large
supply of guanaco meat, for which we would pay in knives and beads. The
boat returned on board immediately, bringing off four natives, three men
and 'Maria.' This rather remarkable woman must have been, judging by her
appearance, about forty years old: she is said to have been born at
Assuncion, in Paraguay, but I think the place of her birth was nearer
Buenos Ayres. She spoke broken, but {86} intelligible, Spanish, and stated
herself to be sister of Bysante, the cacique of a tribe near the Santa Cruz
River, who is an important personage, on account of his size (which Maria
described to be immense), and his riches. In speaking of him, she said he
was _very_ rich; he had many mantles, and also many hides ("_muy_ rico,
tiene muchas mantas y tambien muchos cueros"). One of Maria's companions, a
brother of Bysante, was the tallest and largest man of this tribe; and
though he only measured six feet in height, his body was large enough for a
much taller man. He was in great affliction: his daughter had died only two
days before our arrival; but, notwithstanding his sad story, which soon
found him friends, it was not long before he became quite intoxicated, and
began to sing and roar on the subject of his misfortunes, with a sound more
like the bellowing of a bull than the voice of a human being. Upon applying
to Maria, who was not quite so tipsy as her brother, to prevent him from
making such hideous noises, she laughed and said, "Oh, never mind, he's
drunk; poor fellow, his daughter is dead" (Es boracho, povrecito, muriò su
hija); and then, assuming a serious tone, she looked towards the sky, and
muttered in her own language a sort of prayer or invocation to their chief
demon, or ruling spirit, whom Pigafetta, the companion and historian of
Magalhaens, called _Setebos_, which Admiral Burney supposes to have been
the original of one of Shakspeare's names in the "Tempest"--

 "------------ his art is of such power
  He would controul my dam's god Setebos.[66]"

Maria's dress was similar to that of other females of the tribe; but she
wore ear-rings, made of medals stamped with a figure of the Virgin Mary,
which, with the brass-pin that secured her mantle across her breast, were
given to her by one Lewis, who had passed by in an American sealing-vessel,
and who, we understood from her, had made them "Christians." The Jesuit
Falkner, who lived among them for many years, has written a long and,
apparently, a very authentic account {87} of the inhabitants of the
countries south of the River Plata, and he describes those who inhabit the
borders of the Strait and sea-coast to be, "Yacana-cunnees, which signifies
foot-people, for they have no horses in their country; to the north they
border on the Sehuau-cunnees, to the west on the Key-yus, or Key-yuhues,
from whom they are divided by a ridge of mountains; to the east they are
bounded by the ocean; and to the south by the islands of Tierra del Fuego,
or the South Sea. These Indians live near the sea on both sides of the
Strait, and often make war with one another. They make use of light floats,
like those of Chilóe, in order to pass the Straits, and are sometimes
attacked by the Huilliches and other Tehuelhets, who carry them away for
slaves, as they have nothing to lose but their liberty and their lives.
They subsist chiefly on fish, which they catch either by diving, or
striking them with their darts. They are very nimble afoot, and catch
guanacoes and ostriches with their bowls. Their stature is much the same as
that of the other Tehuelhets, rarely exceeding seven feet, and oftentimes
not six feet. They are an innocent, harmless people."[67]

To the north of this race, Falkner describes "the Sehuau-cunnees, the most
southern Indians who travel on horseback; Sehuau signifies in the Tehuel
dialect a species of black rabbit, about the size of a field rat; and as
their country abounds in these animals, their name may be derived from
thence: cunnee signifying 'people.'"

With the exception of their mode of killing the guanaco by bowls, or balls,
the description of the Key-yus would apply better to the Fuegian Indians;
and if so, they have been driven across the Strait, and confined to the
Fuegian shores by the Sehuau-cunnees, who must be no other than Maria's
tribe. The Key-yus, who are described to inhabit the northern shore of the
Strait, between Peckett's Harbour and Madre de Dios, are probably the tribe
found about the south-western islands, and now called Alikhoolip; whilst
the eastern Fuegians, or Yacana-cunnees, who have also been turned off the
{88} continent by their powerful neighbours, are now called Tekeenikas. Our
knowledge of the names of these two tribes, Alikhoolip and Tekeenika,
results from Captain Fitz-Roy's subsequent examination of the outer coast
of Tierra del Fuego in the Beagle (1830). A Cacique, belonging to the
nation of the Key-yus, told Falkner that he had been in a house made of
wood, that travelled on the water. A party of the Indians, in four canoes,
were met on the borders of the Otway Water by Captain Fitz-Roy in 1829,
whose arms, implements, and every thing they had, were precisely like the
Fuegian Indians, excepting that they had a quiver made from the skin of a
deer, and were in form a superior race, being both stronger and stouter.

For want of better information upon the subject, we must be content to
separate the natives into Patagonians and Fuegians. The sealing vessels'
crews distinguish them as Horse Indians, and Canoe Indians.

These people have had considerable communication with the sealers who
frequent this neighbourhood, bartering their guanaco skins and meat, their
mantles, and furs, for beads, knives, brass ornaments, and other articles;
but they are equally anxious to get sugar, flour, and, more than all, "aqua
ardiente," or spirits. Upon the arrival of a boat from any vessel, Maria,
with as many as she can persuade the boat's crew to take, goes on board,
and, if permitted, passes the night. As soon as our boat landed, Maria and
her friends took their seats as if it had been sent purposely for them. Not
expecting such a visit, I had given no order to the contrary, and the
novelty of such companions overcame the scruples of the officer, who was
sent on shore to communicate with them. Their noisy behaviour becoming
disagreeable, they were soon conducted from below to the deck, where they
passed the night. Maria slept with her head on the windlass; and was so
intoxicated, that the noise and concussion produced by veering eighty
fathoms of cable round it did not awake her. The following morning, whilst
I was at breakfast, she very unceremoniously introduced herself, with one
of her companions, and {89} seating herself at table, asked for tea and
bread, and made a hearty meal. I took the precaution of having all the
knives, and articles that I thought likely to be stolen, removed from the
table; but neither then, nor at any time, did I detect Maria in trying to
steal, although her companions never lost an opportunity of pilfering.

After breakfast the Indians were landed, and as many of the officers as
could be spared went on shore, and passed the whole day with the tribe,
during which a very active trade was carried on. There were about one
hundred and twenty Indians collected together, with horses and dogs. It is
probable that, with the exception of five or six individuals left to take
care of the encampment, and such as were absent on hunting excursions, the
whole of the tribe was mustered on the beach, each family in a separate
knot, with all their riches displayed to the best advantage for sale.

I accompanied Maria to the shore. On landing, she conducted me to the place
where her family were seated round their property. They consisted of
Manuel, her husband, and three children, the eldest being known by the
appellation of Capitan Chico, or "little chief." A skin being spread out
for me to sit on, the family and the greater part of the tribe collected
around. Maria then presented me with several mantles and skins, for which I
gave in return a sword, remnants of red baize, knives, scissors,
looking-glasses, and beads: of the latter I afterwards distributed bunches
to all the children, a present which caused evident satisfaction to the
mothers, many of whom also obtained a share. The receivers were selected by
Maria, who directed me to the youngest children first, then to the elder
ones, and lastly to the girls and women. It was curious and amusing, to
witness the order with which this scene was conducted, and the remarkable
patience of the children, who, with the greatest anxiety to possess their
trinkets, neither opened their lips, nor held out a hand, until she pointed
to them in succession.

Having told Maria that I had more things to dispose of for guanaco meat she
dismissed the tribe from around me, and, {90} saying she was going for meat
(carne), mounted her horse, and rode off at a brisk pace. Upon her
departure a most active trade commenced: at first, a mantle was purchased
for a string of beads; but as the demand increased, so the Indians
increased their price, till it rose to a knife, then to tobacco, then to a
sword, at last nothing would satisfy them but 'aqua ardiente,' for which
they asked repeatedly, saying "bueno es boracho--bueno es--bueno es
boracho;"[68]--but I would not permit spirits to be brought on shore.

At Marians return with a very small quantity of guanaco meat, her husband
told her that I had been very inquisitive about a red baize bundle, which
he told me contained "Cristo," upon which she said to me "Quiere mirar mi
Cristo" (do you wish to see my Christ), and then, upon my nodding assent,
called around her a number of the tribe, who immediately obeyed her
summons. Many of the women, however, remained to take care of their
valuables. A ceremony then took place. Maria, who, by the lead she took in
the proceedings, appeared to be high priestess[69] as well as cacique of
the tribe, began by pulverising some whitish earth in the hollow of her
hand, and then taking a mouthful of water, spit from time to time upon it,
until she had formed a sort of pigment, which she distributed to the rest,
reserving only sufficient to mark her face, eyelids, arms, and hair with
the figure of the cross. The manner in which this was done was peculiar.
After rubbing the paint in her left hand smooth with the palm of the right,
she scored marks across the paint, and again others at right angles,
leaving the impression of as many crosses, which she {91} stamped upon
different parts of her body, rubbing the paint, and marking the crosses
afresh, after every stamp was made.

The men, after having marked themselves in a similar manner (to do which
some stripped to the waist and covered all their body with impressions),
proceeded to do the same to the boys, who were not permitted to perform
this part of the ceremony themselves. Manuel, Maria's husband, who seemed
to be her chief assistant on the occasion, then took from the folds of the
sacred wrapper an awl, and with it pierced either the arms or ears of all
the party; each of whom presented in turn, pinched up between the finger
and thumb, that portion of flesh which was to be perforated. The object
evidently was to lose blood, and those from whom the blood flowed freely
showed marks of satisfaction, while some whose wounds bled but little
underwent the operation a second time.

When Manuel had finished, he gave the awl to Maria, who pierced his arm,
and then, with great solemnity and care, muttering and talking to herself
in Spanish (not two words of which could I catch, although I knelt down
close to her and listened with the greatest attention), she removed two or
three wrappers, and exposed to our view a small figure, carved in wood,
representing a dead person, stretched out. After exposing the image, to
which all paid the greatest attention, and contemplating it for some
moments in silence, Maria began to descant upon the virtues of her Christ,
telling us it had a good heart ('buen corazon'), and that it was very fond
of tobacco. Mucho quiere mi Cristo tabaco, da me mas, (my Christ loves
tobacco very much, give me some). Such an appeal, on such an occasion, I
could not refuse; and after agreeing with her in praise of the figure, I
said I would send on board for some. Having gained her point, she began to
talk to herself for some minutes, during which she looked up, after
repeating the words "muy bueno es mi Cristo, muy bueno corazon tiene," and
slowly and solemnly packed up the figure, depositing it in the place whence
it had been taken. This ceremony ended, the traffic, which had been
suspended, recommenced with redoubled activity.

{92}

According to my promise, I sent on board for some tobacco, and my servant
brought a larger quantity than I thought necessary for the occasion, which
he injudiciously exposed to view. Maria, having seen the treasure, made up
her mind to have the whole, and upon my selecting three or four pounds of
it, and presenting them to her, looked very much disappointed, and grumbled
forth her discontent: I taxed her with greediness, and spoke rather
sharply, which had a good effect, for she went away and returned with a
guanaco mantle, which she presented to me.

During this day's barter we procured guanaco meat, sufficient for two days'
supply of all hands, for a few pounds of tobacco. It had been killed in the
morning, and was brought on horseback cut up into large pieces, for each of
which we had to bargain. Directly an animal is killed, it is skinned and
cut up, or torn asunder, for the convenience of carrying. The operation is
done in haste, and therefore the meat looks bad; but it is well tasted,
excellent food, and although never fat, yields abundance of gravy, which
compensates for its leanness. It improves very much by keeping, and proved
to be valuable and wholesome meat.

Captain Stokes, and several of the officers, upon our first reaching the
beach, had obtained horses, and rode to their 'toldos,' or principal
encampment. On their return, I learned that, at a short distance from the
dwellings, they had seen the tomb of the child who had lately died. As
soon, therefore, as Maria returned, I procured a horse from her, and,
accompanied by her husband and brother, the father of the deceased, and
herself, visited these toldos, situated in a valley extending north and
south between two ridges of hills, through which ran a stream, falling into
the Strait within the Second Narrow, about a mile to the westward of Cape
Gregory.

We found eight or ten huts arranged in a row; the sides and backs were
covered with skins, but the fronts, which faced the east, were open; even
these, however, were very much screened from wind by the ridge of hills
eastward of the plain. Near them the ground was rather bare, but a little
{93} farther back there was a luxuriant growth of grass, affording rich and
plentiful pasture for the horses, among which we observed several mares in
foal, and colts feeding and frisking by the side of their dams: the scene
was lively and pleasing, and, for the moment, reminded me of distant
climes, and days gone by.

The 'toldos' are all alike. In form they are rectangular, about ten or
twelve feet long, ten deep, seven feet high in front, and six feet in the
rear. The frame of the building is formed by poles stuck in the ground,
having forked tops to hold cross pieces, on which are laid poles for
rafters, to support the covering, which is made of skins of animals sewn
together so as to be almost impervious to rain or wind. The posts and
rafters, which are not easily procured, are carried from place to place in
all their travelling excursions. Having reached their bivouac, and marked
out a place with due regard to shelter from the wind, they dig holes with
an iron bar or piece of pointed hard wood, to receive the posts; and all
the frame and cover being ready, it takes but a short time to erect a
dwelling. Their goods and furniture are placed on horseback under the
charge of the females, who are mounted aloft upon them. The men carry
nothing but the lasso and bolas, to be ready for the capture of animals, or
for defence.

Maria's toldo was nearly in the middle, and next to it was her brother's.
All the huts seemed well stored with skins and provisions, the former being
rolled up and placed at the back, and the latter suspended from the
supporters of the roof; the greater part was in that state well known in
South America by the name of charque (jerked beef); but this was
principally horse-flesh, which these people esteem superior to other food.
The fresh meat was almost all guanaco. The only vessels they use for
carrying water are bladders, and sufficiently disagreeable substitutes for
drinking utensils they make: the Fuegian basket, although sometimes dirty,
is less offensive.

About two hundred yards from the village the tomb was erected, to which,
while Maria was arranging her skins and {94} mantles for sale, the father
of the deceased conducted me and a few other officers.

It was a conical pile of dried twigs and branches of bushes, about ten feet
high and twenty-five in circumference at the base, the whole bound round
with thongs of hide, and the top covered with a piece of red cloth,
ornamented with brass studs, and surmounted by two poles, bearing red flags
and a string of bells, which, moved by the wind, kept up a continual
tinkling.

A ditch, about two feet wide and one foot deep, was dug round the tomb,
except at the entrance, which had been filled up with bushes. In front of
this entrance stood the stuffed skins of two horses, recently killed, each
placed upon four poles for legs. The horses' heads were ornamented with
brass studs, similar to those on the top of the tomb; and on the outer
margin of the ditch were six poles, each carrying two flags, one over the
other.

The father, who wept much when he visited the tomb, with the party of
officers who first went with him, although now evidently distressed,
entered into, what we supposed to be, a long account of the illness of his
child, and explained to us that her death was caused by a bad cough. No
watch was kept over the tomb; but it was in sight of, and not very far from
their toldos, so that the approach of any one could immediately be known.
They evidently placed extreme confidence in us, and therefore it would have
been as unjust as impolitic to attempt an examination of its contents, or
to ascertain what had been done with the body.

[Illustration: P. P. King T. Landseer

PATAGONIAN 'TOLDO' AND TOMB.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{95} The Patagonian women are treated far more kindly by their husbands
than the Fuegian; who are little better than slaves, subject to be beaten,
and obliged to perform all the laborious offices of the family. The
Patagonian females sit at home, grinding paint, drying and stretching
skins, making and painting mantles. In travelling, however, they have the
baggage and provisions in their charge, and, of course, their children.
These women probably have employments of a more laborious nature than what
we saw; but they cannot be compared with those of the Fuegians, who,
excepting in the fight and chace, do every thing. They paddle the canoes,
dive for shells and sea-eggs, build their wigwams, and keep up the fire;
and if they neglect any of these duties, or incur the displeasure of their
husbands in any way, they are struck or kicked most severely. Byron, in his
narrative of the loss of the Wager, describes the brutal conduct of one of
these Indians, who actually killed his child for a most trifling offence.
The Patagonians are devotedly attached to their offspring. In infancy they
are carried behind the saddle of the mother, within a sort of cradle, in
which they are securely fixed. The cradle is made of wicker-work, about
four feet long and one foot wide, roofed over with twigs like the frame of
a tilted waggon. The child is swaddled up in skins, with the fur inwards or
outwards according to the weather. At night, or when it rains, the cradle
is covered with a skin that effectually keeps out the cold or rain. Seeing
one of these cradles near a woman, I began to make a sketch of it, upon
which the mother called the father, who watched me most attentively, and
held the cradle in the position which I considered most advantageous for my
sketch. The completion of the drawing gave them both great pleasure, and
during the afternoon the father reminded me repeatedly of having painted
his child ("pintado su hijo.")

One circumstance deserves to be noticed, as a proof of their good feeling
towards us. It will be recollected that three Indians, of the party with
whom we first communicated, accompanied us as far as Cape Negro, where they
landed. Upon our arrival on this occasion, I was met, on landing, by one of
them, who asked for my son, to whom they had taken a great fancy; upon my
saying he was on board, the native presented me with a bunch of nine
ostrich feathers, and then gave a similar present to every one in the boat.
He still carried a large quantity under his arm, tied up in bunches,
containing nine feathers in each; and soon afterwards, when a boat from the
Beagle landed with Captain Stokes and others, he went to meet them; but
finding strangers, he withdrew without making them any present.

{96}

In the evening my son landed, when the same Indian came down to meet him,
appeared delighted to see him, and presented him with a bunch of feathers,
of the same size as those which he had distributed in the morning. At this,
our second visit, there were about fifty Patagonian men assembled, not one
of whom looked more than fifty-five years of age. They were generally
between five feet ten and six feet in height: one man only exceeded six
feet--whose dimensions, measured by Captain Stokes, were as follows:--

                          ft. in.
  Height                  6   1¾
  Round the chest         4   1-1/8
     Do.    loins         3   4¾

I had before remarked the disproportionate largeness of head, and length of
body of these people, as compared with the diminutive size of their
extremities; and, on this visit, my opinion was further confirmed, for such
appeared to be the general character of the whole tribe; and to this,
perhaps, may be attributed the mistakes of some former navigators.
Magalhaens, or rather Pigafetta, was the first who described the
inhabitants of the southern extremity of America as giants. He met some at
Port San Julian, of whom one is described to be "so tall, that our heads
scarcely came up to his waist, and his voice was like that of a bull."
Herrera,[70] however, gives a less extravagant account of them: he says,
"the least of the men was larger and taller than the stoutest man of
Castile;" and Maxim. Transylvanus says they were "in height ten palms or
spans; or seven feet six inches."

In Loyasa's voyage (1526), Herrera mentions an interview with the natives,
who came in two canoes, "the sides of which were formed of the ribs of
whales." The people in them were of large size "some called them giants;
but there is so little conformity between the accounts given concerning
them, that I shall be silent on the subject."[71]

As Loyasa's voyage was undertaken immediately after the return of
Magalhaens' expedition, it is probable that, from the {97} impressions
received from Pigafetta's narrative, many thought the Indians whom they met
must be giants, whilst others, not finding them so large as they expected,
spoke more cautiously on the subject; but the people seen by them must have
been Fuegians, and not those whom we now recognise by the name of
Patagonians.

Sir Francis Drake's fleet put into Port San Julian, where they found
natives 'of large stature;' and the author of the 'World Encompassed,' in
which the above voyage is detailed, speaking of their size and height,
supposes the name given them to have been _Pentagones_, to denote a stature
of "five cubits, viz. seven feet and a half," and remarks that it described
the full height, if not somewhat more, of the tallest of them.[72] They
spoke of the Indians whom they met within the Strait as small in
stature.[73]

The next navigator who passed through the Strait was Sarmiento; whose
narrative says little in proof of the very superior size of the
Patagonians. He merely calls them "Gente Grande,"[74] and "los Gigantes;"
but this might have originated from the account of Magalhaens' voyage. He
particularises but one Indian, whom they made prisoner, and only says "his
limbs are of large size:" ("Es crecido de miembros.") This man was a native
of the land near Cape Monmouth, and, therefore, a Fuegian. Sarmiento was
afterwards in the neighbourhood of Gregory Bay, and had an encounter with
the Indians, in which he and others were wounded; but he does not speak of
them as being unusually tall.

After the establishment, called 'Jesus,' was formed by Sarmiento, in the
very spot where 'giants' had been seen, no people of large stature are
mentioned, in the account of the colony; but Tomé Hernandez, when examined
before the Vice-Roy of Peru, stated, "that the Indians of the plains, who
are giants, communicate with the natives of Tierra del Fuego, who are like
them."[75]

Anthony Knyvet's account[76] of Cavendish's second voyage {98} (which is
contained in Purchas), is not considered credible. He describes the
Patagonians to be fifteen or sixteen spans in height; and that of these
cannibals, there came to them at one time above a thousand! The Indians at
Port Famine, in the same narrative, are mentioned as a kind of strange
cannibals, short of body, not above five or six spans high, very strong,
and thick made.[77]

The natives, who were so inhumanly murdered by Oliver Van Noort, on the
Island of Santa Maria (near Elizabeth Island), were described to be nearly
of the same stature as the common people in Holland, and were remarked to
be broad and high-chested. Some captives were taken on board, and one, a
boy, informed the crew that there was a tribe living farther in-land, named
'Tiremenen,' and their territory 'Coin;' that they were "great people, like
giants, being from ten to twelve feet high, and that they came to make war
against the other tribes,[78] whom they reproached for being eaters of
ostriches!"[79]

Spilbergen (1615) says he "saw a man of extraordinary stature, who kept on
the higher grounds to observe the ships;" and on an island, near the
entrance of the Strait, were found the dead bodies of two natives, wrapped
in the skins of penguins, and very lightly covered with earth; one of them
was of the common human stature, the other, the journal says, was two feet
and a half longer.[80] The gigantic appearance of the man on the hills may
perhaps be explained by the optical deception we ourselves experienced.

Le Maire and Schouten, whose accounts of the graves of the Patagonians
agree precisely with what we noticed at Sea Bear Bay, of the body being
laid on the ground covered with {99} a heap of stones, describe the
skeletons as measuring ten or eleven feet in length, "the skulls of which
we could put on our heads in the manner of helmets!"

The Nodales did not see any people on the northern side of the Strait;
those with whom they communicated were natives of Tierra del Fuego, of
whose form no particular notice is taken.

Sir John Narborough saw Indians at Port San Julian, and describes them as
"people of a middling stature: well-shaped. ... Mr. Wood was taller than
any of them." He also had an interview with nineteen natives upon Elizabeth
Island, but they were Fuegians.

In the year 1741, Patagonian Indians were seen by Bulkley and his
companions. They were mounted on horses, or mules, which is the first
notice we have of their possessing those animals.

Duclos de Guyot, in the year 1766, had an interview with seven Patagonian
Indians, who were mounted on horses equipped with saddles, bridles, and
stirrups. The shortest of the men measured five feet eleven inches and a
quarter English. The others were considerably taller. Their chief or leader
they called 'Capitan.'

Bougainville, in 1767, landed amongst the Patagonians. Of their size he
remarks: "They have a fine shape; among those whom we saw, not one was
below five feet ten inches and a quarter (English), nor above six feet two
inches and a half in height. Their gigantic appearance arises from their
prodigiously broad shoulders, the size of their heads, and the thickness of
all their limbs. They are robust and well fed: their nerves are braced and
their muscles strong, and sufficiently hard, &c." This is an excellent
account; but how different is that of Commodore Byron, who says, "One of
them, who afterwards appeared to be chief, came towards me; he was of
gigantic stature, and seemed to realise the tales of monsters in a human
shape: he had the skin of some wild beast thrown over his shoulders, as a
Scotch Highlander wears his plaid, and was painted so as to make the most
hideous appearance I {100} ever beheld: round one eye was a large circle of
white, a circle of black surrounded the other, and the rest of his body was
streaked with paint of different colours. I did not measure him; but if I
may judge of his height by the proportion of his stature to my own, it
could not be less than seven feet. When this frightful colossus came up, we
muttered somewhat to each other as a salutation, &c."[81] After this he
mentions a woman "of most enormous size;" and again, when Mr. Cumming, the
lieutenant, joined him, the commodore says, "Before the song was finished,
Mr. Cumming came up with the tobacco, and I could not but smile at the
astonishment which I saw expressed in his countenance upon perceiving
himself, though six feet two inches high, become at once a pigmy among
giants, for these people may, indeed, more properly be called giants than
tall men: of the few among us who are full six feet high, scarcely any are
broad and muscular, in proportion to their stature, but look rather like
men of the common bulk grown up accidentally to an unusual height; and a
man who should measure only six feet two inches, and equally exceed a stout
well-set man of the common stature in breadth and muscle, would strike us
rather as being of a gigantic race, than as an individual accidentally
anomalous; our sensations, therefore, upon seeing five hundred people, the
shortest of whom were at least four inches taller, and bulky in proportion,
may be easily imagined."[82]

This account was published only seven years after the voyage, and the
exaggeration, if any, might have been exposed by numbers. There can be no
doubt, that among five hundred persons several were of a large size; but
that all were four inches taller than six feet must have been a mistake.
The commodore says, that he "caused them all to be seated," and in that
position, from the length of their bodies, they would certainly appear to
be of very large stature.[83]

{101}

Shortly afterwards, Wallis, in the neighbourhood of Cape Virgins,
communicated with the same people, and as the story of the Patagonian
giants had been spread abroad, and was very much discredited, he carried
two measuring rods with him; and says, in his narrative, "We went round and
measured those that appeared to be the tallest. One was six feet seven
inches high, several more were six feet five, and six feet six inches; but
the stature of the greatest part of them was from five feet ten to six
feet."

In the voyage of the Santa Maria de la Cabeza,[84] 1786, it is related that
the height of one or two Patagonians, with whom the officers had an
interview, was six feet eleven inches and a half (of Burgos), which is
equal to six feet four inches and a half (English). This man wore a sword,
on which was engraved "Por el Rey Carlos III.," and spoke a few words in
Spanish, proofs of his having had communication with some of the Spanish
settlements. It does not, however, appear from the account that there were
many others, if any, of that height.

Of all the above accounts, I think those by Bougainville and Wallis the
most accurate. It is true, that of the number we saw, none measured more
than six feet two inches; but it is possible that the preceding generation
may have been a larger race of people, for none that we saw could have been
alive at the time of Wallis's or Byron's voyage. The oldest certainly were
the tallest; but, without discrediting the accounts of Byron, or any other
of the modern voyagers, I think it probable that, by a different mode of
life, or a mixture by marriage with the southern or Fuegian tribes, which
we know has taken place, they have degenerated into a smaller race, and
have lost all right to the title of giants; yet their bulky, {102} muscular
forms, and length of body, in some measure bear out the above accounts; for
had the present generation proportionate limbs, they might, without any
exaggeration, justify the account of Commodore Byron. The Jesuit Missionary
Falkner,[85] who, from an intercourse of forty years with the Indians of
South America, must be considered as one of the best authorities, says,
speaking of a Patagonian named Cangapol, "This chief, who was called by the
Spaniards the Cacique Bravo,[86] was tall and well-proportioned; he must
have been seven feet and some inches in height, because on tiptoe I could
not reach the top of his head: I was very well acquainted with him, and
went some journeys in his company: I do not recollect ever to have seen an
Indian that was above an inch or two taller than Cangapol. His brother
Sausimian was but about six feet high. The Patagonians or Puelches are a
large-bodied people; but I never heard of that gigantic race which others
have mentioned, though I have seen persons of all the different tribes of
the Southern Indians."

This is an account in 1746, only twenty years before that of Bougainville.
Taking all the evidence together, it may be considered, that the medium
height of the males of these southern tribes is about five feet eleven
inches. The women are not so tall, but are in proportion broader and
stouter: they are generally plain-featured. The head is long, broad and
flat, and the forehead low, with the hair growing within an inch of the
eyebrows, which are bare. The eyes are often placed obliquely, and have but
little expression, the nose is generally rather flat, and turned up; but we
noticed several with that feature {103} straight, and sometimes aquiline:
the mouth is wide, with prominent lips, and the chin is rather large; the
jaws are broad, and give the face a square appearance; the neck is short
and thick; the shoulders are broad; the chest is broad, and very full; but
the arm, particularly the fore-arm, is small, as are also the foot and leg;
the body long, large and fat, but not corpulent. Such was the appearance of
those who came under my observation.

As to their character, the Patagonians are friendly, without that
disposition to quarrel, after the novelty of first acquaintance has worn
off, which is so common among savages in general. This probably arises from
interested motives, certainly not from fear, unless it be the fear of being
avoided instead of visited by the ships which pass by, and from which they
procure many useful articles, and many temporary gratifications.

Swords, long knives, tobacco, Paraguay tea, bits, saddles, guns, lead for
balls, red cloth, beads (particularly of a sky-blue colour), flour, sugar,
and spirits, are much desired in exchange for their peltry and guanaco
meat; but they have no idea beyond that of satisfying the wants of the
moment.

After a few pounds of tobacco had been distributed amongst them, although
they are very fond of smoking, it became quite a drug, and it was necessary
to produce something new to excite their attention. From Maria's influence,
and the reference so constantly made to her, it would seem that she was
considered as cacique of the tribe; but her apparent superiority may arise
from her connexion with Bysante, of whom they all spoke as 'El Cacique
Grande,' or from the attention paid to her by ships with whom they
communicate.

The people of this tribe seemed to live together harmoniously; no
bickerings or jealous feelings were observed, and certainly none were
expressed by any one of our bulky friends on witnessing another receiving a
valuable present, or a good exchange for his property.

At sunset our people were ordered to embark, upon which the price of
Patagonian goods immediately fell, at least, a thousand per cent., though
many held back in expectation of {104} the next day. Maria put into the
boat, after my refusal to let her go on board to pass the night, two bags,
and asked me to send her flour and sugar. She was most importunate for aqua
ardiente, which, however, I refused. Her constant cry was "It is very good
to be drunk; I like drinking very much; rum is very good.--Give me some?"
('Muy bueno es boracho, mucho mi gusta, mucho mi gusta de beber, muy bueno
es aqua ardiente.--Da me no mas?')

Among them was a Fuegian Indian; but it did not appear clearly whether he
was living with them permanently, or only on a visit. Some of us thought we
understood the account of one of the Patagonians, who seemed to be the most
interested about him, to be, that a master of a sealer had left him amongst
them. We knew him instantly by his squalid and comparatively diminutive
appearance, and were confirmed in our ideas by his recognition of the words
'Hosay' and 'Sherroo.' The Patagonian name for a ship is 'Carro grande,'
and for a boat 'Carro chico,' a mixture of their own and the Spanish
language. All that I could understand of his history was, that he was
Cacique of some Indian tribes at a distance: he was evidently a great
favourite, and although Maria spoke generally with much contempt of the
Fuegian Indians, she had patronised this stranger, for he lived in her
toldo, and shared all the presents that were made to her.

The following morning it rained hard, and blew so fresh a gale, from the
westward, that it would have been dangerous to send a boat on shore: and I
was obliged to weigh without landing the things which I had promised. After
we were under weigh, the weather cleared partially, when we observed Maria
on the beach, mounted on her white horse, with others watching our
departure, and when it was evident that we were really gone, she rode
slowly back to her toldo, no doubt considerably vexed. I was very sorry to
treat them in this way, for their conduct towards us had been open and
friendly. All I could hope to do, to make amends, was to give something of
value at my return.

[Illustration: A. Earle T. A. Prior

MONTE VIDEO, MOLE.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{105} We steered across the Bay of St. Philip, accompanied by the
Beagle,[87] left the Strait of Magalhaens with a fair wind, and, after a
favourable passage, reached Monte Video on the 24th April 1827.

From Monte Video we went to Rio de Janeiro, to procure stores, and prepare
for another voyage to the Strait. On our arrival I received the
Commander-in-chief's leave to apply to the Lord High Admiral for permission
to employ a tender, to facilitate the surveys of the sounds and deep
channels, in the neighbourhood of the Strait, and the inner sounds on the
west coast; for which, neither the Adventure, nor the Beagle, were adapted;
and I thought it best to delay our departure until an answer to my
application was received.

       *       *       *       *       *


{106}

CHAPTER VII.

  Leave Rio de Janeiro--Santos--St. Catherine's--Monte Video--Purchase the
  Adelaide schooner, for a Tender to the Adventure--Leave Monte Video--
  Beagle goes to Port Desire--Shoals off Cape Blanco--Bellaco Rock--Cape
  Virgins--Possession Bay--First Narrow--Race--Gregory Bay--View--Tomb--
  Traffic with Natives--Cordial meeting--Maria goes on board--Natives
  intoxicated--Laredo Bay--Port Famine.

We were ready to resume our voyage early in September (1827); but not
having received any communication by the packet, from the Admiralty,
relative to the purchase of a tender, I determined to await the arrival of
the next, early in October. I was again disappointed, and very reluctantly
left Rio de Janeiro, on the 16th, for Monte Video; but that I might still
benefit by the orders which were sure to be in the following packet, I
determined upon calling at Santos, and St. Catherine's, for chronometrical
observations; leaving the Beagle to wait for letters conveying the decision
of his Royal Highness the Lord High Admiral.

We reached Santos on the 18th, and staid there until the 28th. In this
interval I paid a short visit to St. Paul's, for the purpose of making
barometrical observations.[88] At St. Catherine's we remained eight days,
and during the interval necessary for ascertaining the rates of the
chronometers, I obtained magnetic observations.

[Illustration: A. Earle T. Hair

MOLE, PALACE AND CATHEDRAL, RIO DE JANEIRO.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{107}

After a tedious voyage of nineteen days from St. Catherine's, I arrived at
Monte Video, and there received intelligence that the long-wished
permission from the Lord High Admiral, to procure a tender, had been
obtained. I accordingly purchased a schooner, which I named the Adelaide,
and appointed Lieutenant Graves to the command. Five months' additional
provisions for both vessels were purchased, and put into her; and on the
23d December, after running up the river to complete our water, we sailed
out by the southern entrance, passing to the westward of the Archimedes'
Shoal, and proceeded without farther detention to the southward.

On the 1st of January (in latitude 43° 17' and long. 61° 9'), I was
informed that we were close to a rock. Upon going on deck, I saw the
object; but in a very short time I perceived it was a dead whale, upon
whose half-putrid body large flocks of birds were feeding. Many on board
were, however, sceptical, until, on passing to leeward, the strong odour
testified the fact. Its appearance certainly was very like the summit of a
dark brown rock, covered with weeds and barnacles, and the myriads of birds
which surrounded it added to the deception. It could, however, be
distinguished by its buoyancy; for the water did not break over it, as of
course it would have done had it been a fixed body. Such is probably the
origin of half the 'vigias' that are found on the charts. Whales, when
struck by the fishers, frequently escape and perish; the carcass then
floats on the surface of the sea, until decomposed or eaten by birds and
fishes. A small vessel striking against such a mass, would probably be
severely injured; and at night, the {108} body, from its buoyancy and the
sea not breaking against it, would not be readily seen.

On the 4th, being about one hundred miles to the N.E. of Cape Blanco, I
communicated with Captain Stokes, and gave him directions to proceed to
Port Desire for chronometrical observations, and then follow me immediately
to Cape Fairweather or Cape Virgins. We had light winds during the night,
so that the Beagle made very little progress. In the afternoon, Cape
Blanco, a long level-topped ridge, came in sight, of which good views are
given in Lord Anson's voyage. We steered towards the land, and at six
o'clock were in eighteen fathoms, the rocky hill at the extremity of the
Cape bearing S. 10° E. thirteen miles; at seven o'clock, the same hill was
six miles and a half off, bearing S. 3° E., when we observed a line of
rippling water, extending from east to as far as we could see on the south
horizon. The depth was seventeen fathoms, but as we proceeded it gradually
decreased to twelve and ten, and soon afterwards to seven fathoms, when the
Beagle was observed to be firing guns; but whether they were intended to
warn us of danger, or as signals of her own distress, we could not
determine, and I hauled to the wind to cross where the ripple appeared
least violent. In passing through it we had not less than seven fathoms,
and then it deepened to twelve and fifteen fathoms. We had now leisure to
attend to the Beagle, and soon saw that her signals were only to warn us,
for she had resumed her course under a press of sail.

After steering four miles to the S.E., we again found ourselves in the
midst of ripplings, in which the water shoaled to six fathoms. It being
then dark, and not knowing how to proceed, we shortened sail and brought to
the wind, in order that if the ship struck it might be with less force; but
happily we passed on without any further decrease of soundings. In going
through the ripple, the Adelaide, though deeply laden, behaved well.

Commodore Byron passed over these shoals, which he describes as lying at a
greater distance from the shore: it was to avoid them that we passed so
near the land.

{109}

During the following evening there was a very heavy dew, the never-failing
prognostic of a northerly wind; the horizon, also, was very hazy, and the
water perfectly smooth. We were not more than ten miles off shore, yet the
land was completely distorted in appearance by mirage.

Next morning we were very close to the position assigned to the Bellaco, or
St. Estevan's Shoal, the existence of which has been very much doubted. It
was discovered by the Nodales, and in the diary of their voyage is thus
described: "At five o'clock, or later in the evening, we discovered a rock
a-wash ('una baxa que lababa la mar en ella') about five leagues from the
shore, more or less. It is a very deceitful rock ('Es muy bellaco baxo'),
because it is under water, over which, in fine weather and smooth water,
the sea breaks. We sounded near it, and found twenty-six fathoms stony
bottom. Its latitude is 48½°, according to our noon observation, and the
course and distance we have since run."[89]

The late Don Felipe Bauza, one of the companions of Malespina, informed me,
that on the voyage of the Descubierta and Atrevida, their boats were sent
to look for it, but were unsuccessful.

At noon we were in lat. 48° 40' S., long. 66° 6', depth forty-two fathoms,
but without any signs of the Bellaco. Sailing on, the coast was seen in the
neighbourhood of Beachy Head (so named from its resemblance to the
well-known promontory). Afterwards, Cape Fairweather came in sight, and on
the 10th Cape Virgins, which we passed in the evening, and, half an hour
afterwards, rounding Dungeness, we again entered the Strait of Magalhaens;
and anchored near the northern shore.

In Possession Bay we were detained several days, although repeated attempts
to pass the First Narrow were anxiously made.

One evening, clouds gathered, and the weather assumed such a threatening
appearance, that I expected to be obliged to run to sea; but to our
surprise, when the cloudy mass seemed on {110} the point of bursting over
us with a deluge of rain, it suddenly vanished, and was succeeded by a
beautifully clear and fine night. This favourable appearance gave us hopes
of being able to make good our entrance on the following day; but a fresh
gale set in, and kept us at our anchorage.

Early on the 14th we made another fruitless attempt to pass the First
Narrow. As the Adelaide sailed under our stern, Lieutenant Graves informed
me that he had lost an anchor, and had only one left, to which he had bent
his chain-cable; and that she had shipped so much water in attempting to
beat through, that he was on the point of asking permission to bear up when
we ourselves gave up the attempt. It blew too hard to give any assistance
to the Adelaide, but next morning, when the weather was more moderate, I
seized an opportunity of sending our two kedge anchors; and in the
afternoon we supplied her with some water and other necessaries, so that
she was comparatively well off, and my anxiety on her account much
relieved.

Fires on the Fuegian side had been kept up since our arrival, but we could
not distinguish any inhabitants; on the Patagonian shores we saw a great
number of guanacoes feeding quietly, a proof of there being no Indians near
them.

On the 16th, the weather appearing favourable, our anchor was weighed, and,
with the Adelaide, we soon entered the sluice of the Narrow, proceeding
rapidly, though the wind blew hard against us. The tide carried us to an
anchorage, about four miles beyond the western entrance, and it was slack
water when the anchor was dropped; but, no sooner had the stream turned,
than we found ourselves in the midst of a 'race,' and during the whole
tide, the water broke furiously over the ship. At slack water we got
underweigh, but the Adelaide not being able (from the strength of the
tide), to purchase her anchor, was obliged to slip the cable: it was
fortunate that we had supplied her with our kedges, or she would then have
been without an anchor. The night was tempestuous, and although we reached
a much quieter birth, the Adelaide drifted considerably; had she remained
at the morning's anchorage, {111} in order to save her anchor and cable, we
should probably never have seen her again.

The succeeding morning, after a hard beat to windward, both vessels
anchored in Gregory Bay. No Indians were in the neighbourhood, or we should
have seen their fires. In the afternoon the wind moderated, and as there
was every appearance of fine weather, I remained to survey the coast.

On the summit of the land, about half a mile northward of the extremity of
the Cape, while Lieutenant Graves and I were taking bearings, and making
observations, two guanacoes came up and stood neighing at us; the
observation, however, was of consequence, and as they were not disturbed,
they remained watching us for some minutes before they took alarm and fled.

Lieutenant Wickham and Mr. Tarn made an excursion to the summit of the
Table Land, previously described as extending from the low land behind the
Second Narrow to the N.E., in the direction of Mount Aymond, and were amply
repaid for a fatiguing walk, with the thermometer at 81°, by a magnificent
view: Cape Possession to the eastward, and to the south the mountains near
Mount Tarn, eighty miles distant, were plainly distinguished. The view to
the westward, stretching over a large extent of grassy plains, was bounded
by lofty ranges of snow-capped mountains; but to the north it was
intercepted by another summit of the mountain upon which they stood. The
country they passed over was covered with short grass, through which a mass
of granite occasionally protruded. Neither trees nor shrubs were observed,
excepting a few herbaceous plants, and the berberis; a goose, some ducks,
snipe, and plovers were shot; and guanacoes were seen at a distance, but no
ostriches, nor did they meet any Indians. Large fires were, however,
kindled on both shores of the Strait, in answer to the fire which they made
for cooking. In consequence of those on the Patagonian coast appearing so
close to us, we expected a visit from the natives before night, but none
made their appearance.

Next morning, Mr. Graves accompanied me in a boat to a {112} station three
miles within the Second Narrow on the north side, and in our way we found
the geological structure of the cliffs to be of a decomposed clay-slate,
arranged in strata, much distorted by the violent action of the water, and
dispersed in vertical and inclined directions in very thin laminæ.

These cliffs are about one hundred feet high, the soil a sandy alluvium, of
a sterile character, scantily covered with a wiry, stunted grass, and here
and there a berberis bush, loaded with ripe fruit, which, from the poverty
of the soil, was tasteless and dry; the ground was also, in many parts,
over-run to a considerable extent with an insipid cranberry, scarcely worth
the trouble of gathering.

We struck across the country, with the view of examining the place where
the Indians were residing at our last visit, and the tomb which had then
been erected. Grass had grown up, and effaced the traces of feet; but the
tomb had suffered no farther alteration than the weather might have
effected. We found that the place had been recently visited by the natives,
for within a few yards of the entrance were strewed the ashes of a large
fire, containing vestiges of the former decorations of the tomb, and the
end of one of the flag-staffs, with the unburnt corner of one of the
banners. Amongst the ashes, also, we found calcined bones; but whether they
were human or not, we could not ascertain.

The discovery of the bones impressed us with the idea that the body had
been burnt, and determined me to examine the tomb. The bushes that filled
up the entrance appeared to be placed exactly as when we first saw them,
and indeed the whole pile seemed to have remained quite undisturbed; but
there was no appearance of the brass ornaments, or of the effigies of the
horses.

Having effected an opening in the bushes, we found an inner covering, made
of horse-skins. Having cut two holes opposite each other, for the admission
of light, we saw nothing but two parallel rows of stones, three in each
row, probably intended as a bier for the body or a covering for the grave;
but the ground around and between them bore no appearance {113} of having
been disturbed for burial.[90] As we hourly expected the Indians would
arrive (the place being in the direct line of their journey to the ships),
and were unwilling to let them know we had disturbed the sanctuaries of
their dead, we restored the former appearance of the tomb; and it was
fortunate we did so, for three women on horseback, carrying their children
in cradles, with a quantity of skins, provisions, and other merchandise,
evidently the harbingers of the tribe, made their appearance, and
immediately began to erect their tents.

When we next went on shore we found several Indians arrived, and divided
into three groups, with mantles, ostrich-feathers, skins, and joints of
guanaco meat displayed for sale.

As the meat appeared fresh, it is probable that, on seeing us, the women
were despatched to place the toldos, while the men set out to provide
guanaco meat, for they knew our partiality for this excellent food. When we
landed, an active barter began.

From the haste and avidity shown in offering their goods, and closing the
bargains, it seemed as if they were anxious to monopolize our articles of
barter before the rest of their party, or tribe arrived. One old man
attempted to cheat; but my interdiction of all farther traffic with him
brought him to a sense of his error, and I then made him a present of some
tobacco and allowed him to trade, which he afterwards did, with
cheerfulness and honesty.

One of the party was the Fuegian chief, whom I previously noticed, as a
squalid, meagre-looking man; but he was now enlarged to Patagonian
dimensions, by his improved diet and more cheerful mode of life. The
appearance of bad weather obliged us to suspend the barter and get on
board. After we had reached the ship, successive parties of the tribe
arrived, {114} and formed the encampment. Among them, mounted on her white
horse, was Maria, who, duly escorted, paraded on the beach to challenge our
recognition. In the centre of the encampment, a large flag suspended from a
pole was a signal to us, and showed the position of her toldo.

The next morning being fine, we landed near the encampment, and were most
cordially received. Maria was particularly attentive, and embraced me
closely, while her companions chaunted in chorus a song of delight at our
arrival.

When we reached her toldo, a mat was spread out for me to sit on. Maria and
her family placed themselves in front of me, while the rest sat round.
Almost the first question was an inquiry for my son Philip, whom they
called Felipe,[91] and two or three skins were given to me for him. They
then asked for our pilot on the former voyage, and were much disappointed
to find he had left the ship. After a short conversation I returned the two
bags (which I had so unwillingly carried away at our last visit), having
filled them with flour and sugar, and then proceeded to deliver our
presents. As each article was delivered into her hands, she repeated, in
Spanish, I'll pay for this; but upon a bit for her horse being presented, a
general burst of admiration followed, and it was handed round the tents,
whilst each individual, as it passed on, looked, I thought, anxious to be
its possessor.

Maria then began to consider what adequate requital she could possibly make
me. The result was, a present of two mantles, one new, of guanaco skin, and
the other well worn, of zorillo skin, besides two or three skins of the
puma. She then produced a piece of paper, carefully wrapped up in canvas,
containing a letter, or memorandum, left by Mr. Low, master of the Uxbridge
sealer, addressed to any shipmaster passing through the Strait, apprising
him "of the friendly disposition of the Indians, and impressing him with
the necessity of treating them well, and not deceiving them; for they had
good memories, and would seriously resent it."

The advice, no doubt, was good; but I think the fear of {115} forfeiting
advantages and comforts to be derived from traffic would induce them to
restrain their resentment.

I brought no spirits; for which, after a short time, Maria asked,
complaining that she was very ill, and had sore eyes, and for some time
past had nothing but water to drink, and wood to smoke. Her illness was
evidently assumed, but her eyes seemed highly inflamed; and no wonder, for
the upper part of her face was smeared over with an ochrous red pigment,
even to the very edge of her eyelids: indeed, the whole tribe had
ornamented themselves similarly, in compliment, I suppose, to our visit.

As I prepared to return on board, Maria's importunity induced me to allow
her to accompany me; upon which she began to muster up all her empty bags,
old mantles, and skins, and, attended by her husband, her brother-in-law,
his wife and daughter, got into the boat. While going on board, the spray
washed the painted countenances of our visitors, much to their regret.

Upon reaching the ship, I ordered them to be regaled with meat and biscuit,
of which they partook very sparingly, but took care to put what remained
into their bags. Some spirits and water, too, which I thought would be soon
dispatched, and which had been plentifully diluted to prevent their being
made tipsy, they emptied into bottles to take on shore "for the evening,"
when, as Maria said, they would be "very drunk."

Among various things shown to amuse them was a musical snuff-box, which I
had procured for the express purpose of exciting their astonishment; but I
was surprised to find, that a penny-whistle produced a ten-fold greater
effect upon their senses. This indifference to musical sounds I should not
have suspected, because they frequently sing, though certainly in a
monotonous manner.

As soon as their repast was concluded, the party, except Maria and the
girls, commenced bartering their mantles and skins, and, by the time their
stock was expended, they had amassed a large quantity of biscuit, and a
bundle of various {116} trifles, some of which they had attempted to get by
pilfering. They made themselves so contented, that it was not without much
difficulty we could persuade them to go on shore. Maria had made her mind
up to pass the night on board, and so anxious were they all to remain, that
it was only by giving Maria two bottles of spirits (which had been well
diluted) that they were induced to get into the boat, and accompany me
ashore. Being a lee-tide, and low water, the boat grounded at a
considerable distance from the beach; seeing this, some of the Indians rode
into the water, and taking us up behind them, conveyed us to the
encampment, my place being behind Maria, the smell of whose zorillo-skin
mantle was hardly bearable; but it was necessary to conceal our dislike of
our companions as much as possible, for they are very sensitive, and easily
offended.

While waiting for the tide, we witnessed a drunken scene at Maria's toldo.
Fifteen persons, seated around her, shared the spirits she had obtained on
board, until all were intoxicated. Some were screaming, others laughing,
some stupified, and some bellowing. The uproar drew all the other Indians
round the tent, who tendered their assistance to compose their friends, and
we returned to the ship. When we visited them the next day, they were quite
recovered, and gave us some guanaco meat, which had been brought in that
morning. On communicating my intention of proceeding on the voyage, Maria
wished to know when we should finish our "seal-killing," and come back. I
told her "in five moons," upon which she endeavoured to persuade me to
return in four, because she would then have plenty of skins to barter.

I wrote a few lines to Captain Stokes, who, I expected, would arrive in a
day or two, communicating my desire that he should follow, as soon as
possible, to Port Famine, and committed the letter to Maria's care, who
promised to deliver it to him; then, taking leave of her and her
companions, I embarked, and proceeded through the Second Narrow to an
anchorage off Cape Negro.

Our visit to Gregory Bay, and communication with the {117} Indians,
furnished us with many additions to our zoological collection; among them
was a tiger-cat, which seemed, from the description, to be the _Felis
pajaros_ of the Encyclopédie Méthodique (the "Chat de Pampa" of D'Azara).
Maria gave me a very large bezoar stone, that was taken from the stomach of
a guanaco. It is used medicinally by the Indians, as a remedy for bowel
complaints.[92]

Whilst we were at the anchorage before Cape Negro, Mr. Tarn and Mr. Wickham
visited the lake at the back of Laredo Bay, and saw two swans, which, from
the colour of their plumage, seemed to be the black-necked swan of the
River Plata and of the Falkland Islands[93] (Dom Pernettey, ii. p. 148).
They brought on board with them a new species of duck, which is described
in the proceedings of the Zoological Society as _Anas specularis_ (Nob.),
and a small burrowing animal, of the rat tribe, that, from the character of
its teeth, is probably of a genus not hitherto noted: it approaches nearest
to F. Cuvier's _Helamys_.

We next anchored in Port Famine, where the tents, &c. were replaced in
their former positions, the ship was unrigged and secured for the winter,
and all hands set to work, preparing the Adelaide for service.

       *       *       *       *       *


{118}

CHAPTER VIII.

  Find that the Cutter had been burned--Anxiety for the Beagle--Uxbridge
  Sealer--Beagle arrives--Her cruize--Bellaco Rock--San Julian--Santa
  Cruz--Gallegos--Adeona--Death of Lieutenant Sholl--Adelaide Sails--
  Supposed Channel of San Sebastian--Useless Bay--Natives--Port San
  Antonio--Humming-birds--Fuegians--Beagle sails--Sarmiento--Roldan--
  Pond--Whales--Structure--Scenery--Port Gallant.

Port Famine bore evident marks of having been visited in our absence by the
Indians, for a large fire, apparently recent, had over-run the grass, and
burned the trees upon Point Santa Anna, particularly in that part where our
boat had been so carefully concealed. Eager to know whether she had escaped
the fire, I lost no time in hastening to the spot, directly after the
Adventure anchored, and found, as our fears had anticipated, that she had
been completely destroyed, scarcely a vestige of her wood remaining, and
most of the iron-work having been carried away; for which, doubtless, the
Indians had set her on fire.

The sheds for the cooper and armourer, which had been erected with some
pains, were also entirely consumed, and every thing portable had been
carried away. Those things which were of no use to them were either broken
or burnt; but some of our station poles on Point Santa Anna were left
uninjured; as well as the tablet erected to the memory of Mr. Ainsworth and
the boat's crew; which was singular, because it was secured by iron
hoops--of great value, in their eyes.

From the fresh traces of horses in the neighbourhood, we at first suspected
the conflagration to have been caused by the Patagonians; but we soon found
we owed our loss to the Fuegians, for in two new wigwams were strewed some
remains of our boat.

The last winter appeared to have been milder than that preceding it, for
last January, Mount Sarmiento and the hills to {119} the southward, over
Fitton Bay, were so covered with snow, that not a particle of the rock
could be seen; but this year many bare spots were visible. Every thing
else, however, indicated a bad season, and the berberis bushes and arbutus
shrubs had scarcely any show of fruit; which was rather a disappointment,
as the berries of the former plant proved an agreeable addition to our food
last year. However, there was no scarcity of birds, and with the seine we
procured plenty of fish.

The Beagle's long and unexpected absence caused us much uneasiness, and
some apprehension for her safety. Her visit to Port Desire ought not to
have occupied more than three days, and her superior sailing should have
enabled Captain Stokes to rejoin us in the entrance of the Strait. People
were sent daily to look out for her, and every succeeding day increased our
anxiety.

A long succession of blowing and rainy weather much impeded our progress
with the Adelaide; but the Hope was hoisted out, and prepared for service.

Before daylight on the 14th I was informed that the Beagle was seen in the
offing. Blue lights were burnt, and lanterns immediately shown to guide her
to the anchorage; but our disappointment was great when the stranger proved
to be Mr. W. Low's schooner, the Uxbridge. He had been sealing since
November in the neighbourhood of Noir Island, near the outer entrance of
the Barbara Channel, and was on his way to Cape Gregory to meet his elder
brother, who had been collecting sea-elephant oil at South Shetland. The
Uxbridge had entered the Strait from the Pacific, by the Magdalen
'Channel,' which last year we thought a Sound, and had attempted to explore
in the Hope, but had been deceived by the abrupt change in the direction of
the Channel at Cape Turn.

At last (on the 28th), after the Beagle's absence had been protracted to
more than a month beyond the time intended, we were relieved from painful
anxiety, and much rejoiced, by Mr. Tarn's telling us he had just seen her,
and in two hours afterwards she arrived.

Captain Stokes, to my great surprise, told me that he had {120} been
examining the whole coast between Port Desire and Cape Virgins, and for the
last ten days had been detained in the Gallegos River by heavy gales of
wind. He had sounded round, and fixed the position of the Bellaco Rock, or
St. Estevan's Shoal, the existence of which had been so long doubted. He
had also visited and partially surveyed, the harbours of Port San Julian
and Santa Cruz, besides Coy Bay, and had made almost a complete survey of
the River Gallegos, which he found to be a large and rapid river, whose
entrance forms a spacious port: instead of being blocked up by a mound of
shingle four or five feet above the level of the sea, and having so small a
stream as to escape the notice of Mr. Weddell as he walked along the
beach.[94] Cape Fairweather is so remarkable, and so correctly placed upon
the chart, that Mr. Weddell, in his search for the river, must have very
much deceived himself. I should think he must have mistaken the ravine
described upon my former visit, since that is the only part which answers
his description: it could not be Coy Bay, because that opening, although of
minor importance, has a broad boat communication with the sea.

Captain Stokes described the tide at the anchorage, within the mouth of the
Gallegos, as running at the rate of five knots, and rising forty-six feet.
From Mr. Weddell's account, he was on the point of passing by without
examining it; but the weather being fine, he determined to go in his boat
and ascertain the truth of that description. It was soon evident that the
river was large, and, returning to his ship, he lost no time in anchoring
her within the entrance, where she rode out a heavy gale from S.W.

The Beagle left the Gallegos on the 23d, and reached Port Famine on the
28th, a very short passage, since she remained for a night and the greater
part of a day at Gregory Bay, to communicate with the natives. When
approaching the First Narrow, Captain Stokes observed a brig, apparently at
anchor, under Cape Orange, and supposing her either to have found a good
anchorage, or to be in distress, steered towards her. {121} Before he had
reached within two miles of her, the Beagle touched the ground, but was
extricated from the danger most fortunately, because it was nearly high
water; and had she remained a-ground during the tide, the consequences
might have been serious--at least, she could not have been got off without
lightening her considerably. The brig proved to be the Adeona (Mr. Low's
vessel), on her way to meet the Uxbridge. In attempting to enter the
narrow, she grounded on the shoals, and had been left dry. The following
tide again floated her, and she was on the point of getting underweigh,
when the Beagle hove in sight. Captain Stokes finding that the Adeona had
received no damage, proceeded to Gregory Bay.

By the Beagle's arrival we were informed of the death of Lieutenant Robert
H. Sholl, after an illness of ten days. His remains were interred at Port
San Julian, where a tablet was erected to his memory.

This excellent young man's death was sincerely regretted by all his
friends, and by none more than by me. He was appointed to the expedition,
as a midshipman, solely on account of his high character.

During our voyage from England, he made himself conspicuously useful in
saving the cargo of a vessel, which was stranded in Port Praya; and on our
arrival at Rio de Janeiro, the Commander-in-chief appointed him to a vacant
lieutenantcy on board the Beagle: an appointment which, up to the period of
his lamented death, he filled zealously and most creditably.[95]

On the 1st of March we were surprised by the appearance of three Europeans,
walking round Point St. Anna. A boat {122} was sent for them, and we found
they were deserters from the Uxbridge, who had come to volunteer for our
ships.

The following day the Adeona and Uxbridge arrived, on their way to Port San
Antonio, to boil their oil; but I recommended Bougainville, or (as the
sealers call it) Jack's Harbour, as more convenient for their purpose, and
more secure from storms, as well as from troublesome visits of the natives.

Upon my offering to restore the three deserters to the Uxbridge, Mr. Low
requested me to keep them, and another, also, who was anxious to join the
Adventure, to which I consented, as the Adelaide wanted men.

A few days after Mr. Low's departure, he returned in a whale-boat to ask
assistance in repairing the Uxbridge's rudder. By our help it was soon made
serviceable, and she was enabled to prosecute her voyage, which could not
otherwise have been continued.

The Adelaide being ready for sea: her first service was to be an
examination of the St. Sebastian Channel, which, from its delineation on
the old charts, would seem to penetrate through the large eastern island of
Tierra del Fuego. In the voyage of the Nodales (in the year 1618), an
opening on the eastern coast, supposed to be the mouth of a channel,
communicating with the Strait of Magalhaens, was discovered. After
describing the coast to the south of Cape Espiritu Santo, the journal of
that voyage states: "We found, in the channel of St. Sebastian, twenty
fathoms clear ground. The north shore is a beach of white sand, five
leagues in extent, stretching out from the high land that terminates at
Cape Espiritu Santo, and giving the coast here the appearance of a deep
bay; but, on a nearer approach, a projecting tract of low shore is
observed. The south extremity of this low beach is a sandy point, round
which the channel trends; the mouth is a league and a half wide. The south
shore is higher than the land to the northward, and in the middle of the
bay the depth is from fifteen to twenty fathoms clear ground, and a good
bottom; but from mid-channel to the south shore the bottom is stony, and
the water, of little depth, there being only six and seven fathoms. From
{123} hence the channel shows itself, and continues, as far as we could
see, of the same breadth. It seemed to be a large sea. The latitude was
observed to be 53° 16'."[96]

From the above account, and from the chart that accompanies it, in which
this inlet is made to communicate with the Strait of Magalhaens by the
opening round Cape Monmouth, our knowledge of the supposed St. Sebastian
Channel was derived. That there is a deep bay, in the latitude of 53° 16',
not only appears from the account of the Nodales, who were within the
heads, although it seems they did not proceed beyond the stony ground on
the south side of the entrance; but also from the accounts of vessels who
have lately seen it; and of one ship-master who was deterred from entering,
by the formidable notice on our charts of its being "only navigable for
small vessels," whence he conjectured that the tides would be very strong,
and the channel occasionally narrow, as well as narrow, and shoal.

Sarmiento, Narborough, Byron, Wallis, Bougainville, and Cordova, have
severally noticed an opening, which corresponds to this supposed channel,
namely, that between Capes Monmouth and Valentyn; but the object of those
voyagers having been to make the passage through the known Strait, to
explore this opening was, in all probability, considered a waste of time;
yet, that such a channel was supposed to exist, we must conclude from the
conspicuous figure it makes in the charts of Tierra del Fuego.

Had there been a knowledge of its affording any communication with the sea,
surely Sarmiento and Narborough, as well as the Nodales, who navigated the
Strait from west to east, would have been induced to attempt to pass
through; and avoid the dangers, as well as difficulties, of the channels to
the northward.

Anxious to set the question at rest, I gave Captain Stokes orders to
proceed to survey the western coasts, between the Strait of Magalhaens and
latitude 47° south, or as much of {124} those dangerous and exposed shores
as he could examine, with the means at his disposal, and sailed myself, in
the Adelaide, to explore the supposed St. Sebastian Channel. Every
discretionary power was given to Captain Stokes to act as he pleased, for
the benefit of the service; but he had strict orders to return to Port
Famine by the 24th of July, when I hoped to move the Adventure to some
other part of the Strait, and to recommence operations with the earliest
days of spring, if the winter should be unfit for our work.

Having crossed over to the southward of Point Boqueron, we proceeded, on
the 13th of March, to the N.E. (in which direction the opening trended), at
no great distance from the northern shore; behind which the country seemed
to rise gradually to the summit of a long ridge of table-land, terminating
near the First Narrow, and appearing like that in the neighbourhood of Cape
Gregory. It was inhabited; for here and there we observed the smoke of
fires, perhaps intended as invitations for us to land.

The south side of the opening seemed (after forming a small bay under Nose
Peak) to extend in a direction parallel to the northern coast of the bay,
for three or four leagues, when it dipped beneath the horizon. Neither
shore had any opening or indenture in its coast line, of sufficient size to
shelter even a boat; so that a vessel caught here, with a south-westerly
gale, would have little chance of escape; unless a channel should exist, of
which, from the stillness of the water and the total absence of tide, we
had very little hope. The soundings were variable between twenty and thirty
fathoms, and the bottom seemed to be of shells, probably covering a
substratum of clay or sand. As we stood on, a small rocky lump came in
sight, which appeared to be the termination of the northern shore, and
again we flattered ourselves with the expectation of finding a passage; but
in less than half an hour afterwards, the bay was distinctly seen to be
closed by low land, and the rocky lump proved to be an isolated mass of
rock, about two miles inland. As every person on board was then satisfied
of the non-existence of any channel, we put about to return, and {125} by
bearings of Mount Tarn, crossed by angles from Mount Graves, Nose Peak, and
Point Boqueron, our position, and the extent of this bay, were determined.
As it affords neither anchorage nor shelter, nor any other advantage for
the navigator, we have named it Useless Bay. It was too much exposed to the
prevailing winds to allow of our landing to examine the country, and its
productions, or to communicate with the Indians; and as there was not much
likelihood of finding anything of novel character, we lost no time in
retreating from so exposed a place. Abreast of Point Boqueron the patent
log gave for our run twenty-six miles, precisely the same distance which it
had given in the morning; so that from five o'clock in the morning until
ten, and from ten o'clock until four in the afternoon, we had not
experienced the least tide, which of itself is a fact confirmatory of the
non-existence of a channel.

From the fires of the natives in this part having been noticed at a
distance from the beach, it would seem that they derive their subsistence
from hunting rather than fishing; and as there are guanacoes on the south
shore of the First Narrow, it is probable the people's habits resemble
those of the Patagonians, rather than the Fuegians; but as they have no
horses, the chase of so shy and swift an animal as the guanaco must be
fatiguing and very precarious.[97]

Sarmiento is the only person on record who has communicated with the
natives in the neighbourhood of Cape Monmouth. He calls them in his
narrative a large race (Gente grande). There it was that he was attacked by
the Indians, whom he repulsed, and one of whom he made prisoner.

We remained a night in Port Famine, and again set out in the Adelaide to
survey some of the western parts of the Strait. {126} Bad weather forced us
into Port San Antonio; of which Cordova gives so favourable an account,
that we were surprised to find it small and inconvenient, even for the
Adelaide.

He describes the port to be a mile and a half long, and three quarters of a
mile broad: we found the length a mile and a quarter, and the mean breadth
scarcely a quarter of a mile. It possesses no one advantage that is not
common to almost every other harbour and cove in the Strait; and for a
ship, or square-rigged vessel of any kind, it is both difficult to enter,
and dangerous to leave. Besides the local disadvantages of Port San
Antonio, the weather in it is seldom fair, even when the day is fine
elsewhere. It lies at the base of the Lomas Range, which rises almost
perpendicularly to the height of three thousand feet, fronting the great
western channel of the Strait, whence it receives upon its cold surface the
western winds, and is covered by the vapour, which is condensed from them,
while in all other parts the sun may be shining brightly.

This port is formed by a channel, a quarter of a mile wide, separating two
islands from the shore. The best anchorage is off a picturesque little bay
on the south island, which is thickly wooded to the water's edge with the
holly leaved berberis,[98] fuchsia, and veronica, growing to the height of
twenty feet; over-topped and sheltered by large beech, and Winter's-bark
trees, rooted under a thick mossy carpet, through which a narrow Indian
path winds between arbutus and currant bushes, and round prostrate stems of
dead trees, leading to the seaward side of the island. Upon the beach, just
within the bushes, and sheltered by a large and wide-spreading fuchsia
bush, in full flower, stood two Indian wigwams, which, apparently, had not
been inhabited since the visit of poor Ainsworth. He had occupied these
very wigwams for two days, having covered them over with the boat's sail;
and remains of the ropeyarns that tied it down were still there: a
melancholy memento.

[Illustration: P. P. King S. Bull

FUEGIAN WIGWAMS AT HOPE HARBOUR IN THE MAGDALEN CHANNEL.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{127} In no part of the Strait did we find the vegetation so luxuriant as
in this little cove. Some of the Winter's-bark and currant trees had shoots
more than five feet long, and many of the Winter's-bark trees were two feet
in diameter. The veronica (I believe _V. decussata_) grows in the sheltered
parts to the height of twenty feet, with a stem six inches in diameter. It
was found too on the windward side of the island in abundance, and of large
size, rooted in the very wash of the sea-beach, and exposed to the full
force of the cold winds and hail-storms, which rush down the wide western
reach of the Strait.

The fuchsia also grows to a large size; but it is a more delicate plant
than the veronica, and thrives only in sheltered places. Many were observed
six inches in diameter; the stems of the two last plants were used by us,
during our stay, for fuel.

The day after our arrival, the gale subsided, and the weather became very
fine indeed. The stillness of the air may be imagined, when the chirping of
humming-birds, and buzzing of large bees, were heard at a considerable
distance. A humming-bird had been seen at Port Gallant last year, and was
brought to me by Captain Stokes, since which none had been noticed. Here,
however, we saw, and procured several; but of only one species.[99] It is
the same as that found on the western coast, as high as Lima; so that it
has a range of 41° of latitude, the southern limit being 53½°, if not
farther south.

The islets, at the north part of the port, were well stocked with geese and
other birds, which supplied our people with fresh meals. The steamer duck
we found difficult to shoot, from its excessive wariness, and power of
remaining, for a great length of time, under water.

Our fine weather lasted but a few hours, and (no unusual occurrence in
these regions) was succeeded by a week's rain and wind, during which we
were confined to the small space {128} of the Adelaide; and for some days
had three anchors down, owing to the violent squalls. Farenheit's
thermometer ranged between thirty-six and forty-six degrees, and we had
several snow storms, but the snow did not lie on the low grounds.

On the 28th the gale began to subside, and there was a change for the
better; but we were again disappointed, and not until the 31st could we
effect our departure from this dreary and confined little place.

The day before we sailed, three canoes, containing in all sixteen persons,
of whom six only were men, came alongside.

For about an hour they had hesitated to approach; but when once near us,
very little invitation was necessary to induce them to come on board. One
was clothed in a duck shirt, which was recognised by one of our people, who
had joined us from the Uxbridge, as having been given to them a few weeks
before, when that vessel passed through Magdalen Channel: another wore a
red flannel shirt, and in the canoe we observed an European boarding-pike,
painted green, and a part of the iron-work of the cutter, burned at Port
Famine during our absence; also some relics of the boat in which Mr.
Ainsworth was drowned, which last they had doubtless found thrown up on the
beach. Upon our inquiring how they became possessed of the iron-work, they
pointed towards Fort Famine; and I have no doubt they were concerned in the
fire; but as we could not explain to them the mischief they had occasioned,
it was thought better not to notice the affair, and the articles were
returned to them. They could have had no idea of our being the owners of
the boat, or they would have concealed all that belonged to her.

They conducted themselves very quietly during their stay on board, with the
exception of one, who tried to pick my pocket of a handkerchief; the
offender was ordered out of the vessel, and there was no further attempt to
pilfer. They wished to go below; but this was not permitted, because the
odour of their oily persons was scarcely tolerable, even in the open air.
As to food, tallow-candles, biscuit, beef, plumb-pudding, were {129}
equally liked, and swallowed most voraciously. One of them was discovered
taking the tallow out of the end of the deep sea lead and eating it,
although mixed with sand and dirt.

Before sunset their canoes were despatched on shore to prepare the wigwams,
during which operation three of the men remained on board; and as soon as
the preparations were made they called for a canoe and went on shore. We
obtained several spears, baskets, necklaces, bows and arrows from them in
barter; but they seemed to have very few skins. Perhaps those they
possessed were hidden in the bushes, because they had no wish to part with
them.

One woman was covered with a guanaco mantle; another merely wore a
seal-skin over her back and shoulders, which, while she crouched in the
canoe, was sufficient to cover her person. One had a black stripe down the
nose, but she was the only female among them who was so painted.

Next morning the Indians visited us with a fresh assortment of bows and
arrows, in the manufacture of which they had evidently passed the night,
for every one was quite new; the bows were of green wood, and the arrows
not even pointed. They found, however, a ready sale. One of the party was a
man who had been turned out of our vessel the preceding evening, for
picking my pocket; but he was daubed over with a whitish pigment to deceive
us, and would probably have escaped detection, but for the unusual ugliness
of his person, which was not so easily disguised. He was much disconcerted
by our recognition; and our refusal to barter with him made him angry and
sullen.

The women had daubed their faces all over with bright red ochre; to add to
their beauty, no doubt.

We sailed out of the port by the northern passage, and standing across the
Strait, anchored in San Nicolas Bay. Mr. Graves went to Bougainville
Harbour, to communicate with the Adeona, and take letters from me to
Lieutenant Wickham. He brought back an account of all being well at Port
Famine, and of the Beagle having sailed on the 17th.

When we left Port Famine my intention was to examine {130} the Magdalen
Channel; but, upon leaving San Nicolas Bay (1st April), the weather was so
favourable for our proceeding to the westward, that I changed my mind and
steered round Cape Froward in order to get to Port Gallant, whence, with a
westerly wind, we might more easily survey the coast in returning. An
easterly breeze carried us near Cape Holland, into Wood's Bay, where we
anchored, and obtained a bearing of Mount Sarmiento, which, being clear of
clouds, was a conspicuous, and even splendid object; for the sun's setting
rays, shining upon the projecting snowy ridges on its western side, gave it
the appearance of a mass of streaky gold. It had been in sight the whole
day, as well as the preceding evening, when its bearings were taken from
the islet in San Nicolas Bay.

The next day was so calm that we only reached an anchorage in Bradley Cove,
on the west side of Bell Bay, of which a plan was made; an extensive set of
bearings was also taken on the west point of the bay, evidently that called
by Sarmiento Tinquichisgua.[100] The conspicuous mountain at the back of
the bay, on its south-eastern side, is particularly noticed by him, and,
according to his opinion, is the "Campana de Roldan" of Magalhaens.[101]
Between Bradley Cove and Point Tinquichisgua are two coves, over which a
high double-peaked mountain forms a conspicuous object upon rounding Cape
Froward; and they were named in compliment to Mr. Pond, the late Astronomer
Royal.

While at Point Tinquichisgua we were discovered by some natives to the
westward, who immediately got into their canoes, and paddled towards us;
but, as we had no arms in the boat, I did not think it prudent to await
their arrival; and therefore, after taking the requisite angles, embarked
and returned to the Adelaide, examining the inlets under Mount Pond on our
way. Nothing more was seen of the Indians until the following morning,
when, as we sailed out of the bay, they made their appearance, but we did
not communicate {131} with them. They were as vociferous as usual, and
pointed to the shore, inviting us to land. One of them, who stood up in the
canoe while we passed, was ornamented about the hair and body with white
feathers.

This part of the Strait teems with whales, seals, and porpoises. While we
were in Bradley Cove, a remarkable appearance of the water spouted by
whales was observed; it hung in the air like a bright silvery mist, and was
visible to the naked eye, at the distance of four miles, for one minute and
thirty-five seconds before it disappeared.

A glance at the chart of this part of the Strait will show the difference
of geological structure in the opposite coasts. The north shore, from Cape
Froward to Port Gallant, forms a straight line, with scarcely a projection
or bight; but on the opposite side there is a succession of inlets,
surrounded by precipitous mountains, which are separated by ravines. The
northern shore is of slate; but the other is principally of greenstone, and
its mountains, instead of running up into sharp peaks, and narrow serrated
ridges, are generally round-topped. The vegetation on both sides is almost
equally abundant, but the trees on the south shore are much smaller. The
smooth-leaved beech (_Fagus betuloides_) and Winter's-bark are the
principal trees; but here and there a small tree was observed, like a
cypress, which does not grow to the eastward, excepting on the sides of
Mount Tarn, where it only reaches the height of three or four feet.

The scenery of this part of the Strait, instead of being as Cordova
describes it, "horrible," is at this season exceedingly striking and
picturesque. The highest mountains certainly are bare of vegetation; but
their sharp peaks and snow-covered summits afford a pleasing contrast to
the lower hills, thickly clothed with trees quite to the water's side,
which is bordered by masses of bare rock, studded with ferns and moss, and
backed by the rich dark-green foliage of the berberis and arbutus shrubs,
with here and there a beech-tree, just beginning to assume its autumnal
tints.

In working into the narrow entrance of Port Gallant, the {132} schooner
grounded upon a bank that extends off the mouth of the river; but the water
being perfectly smooth, no damage was caused. As a secure cove, Port
Gallant is the best in the Strait of Magalhaens; from the stillness of its
waters, it is a perfect wet dock, and from its position it is invaluable.
There are many coves as safe and convenient when once entered; but the
prevailing steepness of the shores, as well as the great depth of water,
are obstacles of serious importance. Here, however, is an exception: the
bottom is even and the depth moderate; besides, Fortescue Bay, close by, is
an excellent roadstead or stopping-place, to await an opportunity of
entering.

For repairing a ship, Port Famine is more convenient, on account of the
quantity and size of well-seasoned timber lying about the beach, and also
from the open character of the country. At Port Gallant the trees are much
stunted, and unfit for present use, while the shore, as is the case around
almost every cove to the westward of Cape Froward, is covered with shrubs
and brushwood, quite to the high-water mark; so that there is no
possibility of walking easily to any distance from the sea-side. A shingle,
or sandy beach, twenty or thirty yards in length, occasionally intervenes,
but is scarcely preferable to a vessel's deck, for a walk.

       *       *       *       *       *


{133}

CHAPTER IX.

  Detention in Port San Antonio--Humming-birds in snow showers--Fuegians--
  Geological remarks--Canoes--Carving--Birds--Fish--Shag Narrows--
  Glaciers--Avalanches--Natives--Climate--Winter setting in--Adelaide
  loses a boat--Floods--Lightning--Scurvy--Adelaide's survey--Bougainville
  Harbour--Indians cross the Strait, and visit Port Famine--Sealing vessels
  sail--Scurvy increases--Adelaide sent for guanaco meat--Return of the
  Beagle--Captain Stokes very ill--Adelaide brings meat from the
  Patagonians--Death of Captain Stokes.

Our stay at this port was prolonged beyond my intention by thick snowy
weather and hard gales, which cut off our communication with the shore; for
notwithstanding we were in so sheltered a place, and the vessel had three
anchors down, we did not consider her quite secure against the violent
squalls. We had been fortunate in procuring observations, and took
advantage of our detention to lay down the operations of the preceding days
on paper. Muscles were found in great abundance on the mud flats. There are
three varieties, one of which has a bitter, disagreeable taste, but the
others are exceedingly good and wholesome. One of the latter is of large
size (_Mytilus Magellanicus_ of the Ency. Méth.) The other is of a more
globose form than the bitter sort, and has a very obtuse hinge and margin.
The bitter kind contains pearls, which are valueless, because small, and of
a bad colour.

At first there were plenty of sea-birds[102] in the cove, which took refuge
at the head of the bay; till after two days, they deserted us altogether.
There appeared to be an abundance of fish; but as we had not provided
ourselves with a seine, and they {134} would not take bait, we were
confined for refreshments principally to shell-fish.

No traces of quadrupeds, excepting an Indian dog, were noticed. Here
Wallis's people saw a large cloven-footed animal, which they described to
be as "big as a jack-ass." It was probably a deer, one or two of which had
occasionally appeared at Port Famine.(e)

It has been mentioned that we found many humming-birds at Port San Antonio,
which we attributed to the sheltered situation of the place, and the
luxuriant growth of fuchsias and other plants, upon the sweets of whose
flowers they feed. Here, however, one of the same species was seen sporting
about in a most exposed place and during the falling of a snow shower, a
proof of the hardy character of this little bird, which, if it does migrate
upon the approach of winter to a warmer clime, lingers, at least, as long
as it possibly can. This was the middle of April, the winter had, in fact,
already commenced, and all the mountains around us were clothed with snow,
while the ground was also coated with the same dazzling covering. Mr.
Graves intended to ascend the Mountain de la Cruz; but a heavy fall of snow
prevented the attempt, and we lost the opportunity of obtaining a round of
angles from that elevation, which would have materially assisted our
operations. We should also have obtained a bird's-eye view of the Barbara
Channel and the Sounds on the opposite side of the Strait, whose extent and
nature we did not know; for Cordova's notice of San Simon's Bay, and a deep
inlet which exists to the westward of it, is very unsatisfactory.

There were no signs of a recent visit from the Fuegians, though at the
entrance of the cove we found three or four wigwams in good repair; whence
it seems probable, that the place is one of their frequent haunts. When the
Beagle came here last year, some station staves were left standing; but,
before her return, every one had been removed; and when Captain Stokes went
down the Barbara Channel, to the relief {135} of the Saxe Cobourg's crew,
those staves were seen in the possession of the Indians.

A fine morning (11th) induced us to leave this quiet anchorage, to examine
the openings of the south shore; and in the afternoon, the anchor was
dropped in a convenient place, on the west side of the western inlet, named
by us Warrington Cove. While crossing the bay from Point Elvira, the north
extremity of Cayetano Island, several 'smokes' were observed on the low
land, at the bottom of the inlet; and after we anchored two canoes visited
us, containing six men, four women, and two or three children. They
approached very cautiously, and could not be induced to come alongside. At
last the men landed, and invited us to communicate with them. I therefore
went on shore with two or three officers, and remained with them half an
hour, during which they gradually lost the distrust they had at first
evinced; but each man still carried a number of pebbles in the corner of
his wrapper, ready to repel any attack we might make upon them; from the
knowledge we have since obtained of their character, I think it probable
that they had lately committed some act of aggression on a sealing-vessel,
and were afraid of retaliation. Our conduct tended to assure them of our
friendship; and, shortly after we left the shore, they came alongside in
their canoes, and were very familiar, eagerly bartering their necklaces and
baskets. In their way to us they had probably landed their more valuable
goods, such as otter and seal-skins, as well as their weapons and dogs,
without which they never go far.

The natives of this part are considered by the sealers to be the most
mischievously inclined of any in the Strait, or Tierra del Fuego. The
appearance of our visitors was certainly against them; but they did not
commit themselves during our two or three days' communication, by any act
which could make us complain, or cause suspicion of their honesty and
friendship. We, however, kept too good a look-out, to enable them to take
advantage of our seeming good-nature.

Among bushes behind the high beach were three wigwams, but the Indians had
no intention of remaining with us for the {136} night. They went away, to
our great satisfaction, at an early hour, and returned to the bottom of the
sound, where a large party of their countrymen was assembled. Their
departure enabled us to look round, in the vicinity of our anchorage, and
examine its productions, which differed in no way from those of other parts
of the coast. Its geological structure is, however, different: the rocks
are greenstone, or granite, without slate. Mount Maxwell, rising
immediately over the cove, is the termination of a rocky mountain range,
whose summits are crowned with snow. The verdant sides of the hill,
interspersed at intervals with large masses of bare rock, produced, from a
distance, rather a pleasing effect; but, upon examination, the verdure was
found to consist principally of moss, or a stunted vegetation, covering a
soft and swampy soil. The upper portions of the mount are so precipitous as
not to be easily reached; and, indeed, many parts rise with a perpendicular
ascent for more than a hundred feet. On the south side of Mount Maxwell is
Smyth Inlet, which contains anchorage on the north shore, particularly one
in Earle Cove; but in the centre the water is deep, and on that account, it
is not an inviting place for a ship. During Mr. Graves's absence in Smyth
Harbour, I examined the coast as far as Cape Edgeworth, where I obtained an
extensive set of bearings. The afternoon was particularly favourable for
the purpose, the snow-capped mountains of the north shore were perfectly
distinct; and among them was a very high one, shaped like a Highland
target, the peak of the mountain answering to the central spike of the
shield. We never afterwards saw it, nor could I, on this occasion, fix its
position better, than by estimating its distance. The rock is chiefly
greenstone, accompanied by considerable masses of granite. A little islet,
off Dighton Cove, is composed of granite, of a lamelliform structure. Mr.
Graves brought me a specimen of lamelliform granite attached to a mass of
greenstone.

The Indians visited us every day, their number being generally from twelve
to sixteen, of which five or six only were men, the rest were women, and
children of all ages. One of the latter could not have been more than three
weeks old; yet the {137} mother, apparently about sixteen years of age, was
always occupied in the laborious employment of paddling the canoes. The
child was secured in the mother's lap, with its head on her bosom, by a
mantle, which was drawn tightly round both mother and child. Their canoes
were similar to those of the eastern parts of the Strait, about ten feet
long, holding four or five grown persons and two or three children, besides
their dogs, implements, and weapons: they are formed of bark, and kept in
shape by wooden cross supports secured to the gunwale, which is lined by a
long, slender pole. They are divided into three compartments, the foremost
occupying about one-third of the length, contains the spears, placed ready
for immediate use; in the second are the grown persons, with the fire-place
between them, the men sitting between the fire-place and the spears, to be
ready to use them upon the approach of seals or porpoises; on the opposite
side of the fire-place are seated the women who paddle the canoe, in which
the men sometimes assist, when great expedition is necessary. Behind the
women, in the third division, are the elder children and the dogs, the
younger children being generally stowed away in the women's laps, for the
sake of mutual warmth. The fire is made upon a layer of clay, several
inches thick, at the bottom of the canoe; and above the fire, across the
gunwales, are laid several pieces of half-burnt wood, for fuel.

During our communications with these visitors they conducted themselves
peaceably, and made no attempt to pilfer, although there was some little
roguery displayed by them in barter. One of the men having parted with all
his disposable property, tendered one of his daughters, a fine girl of
fourteen or fifteen years of age, for some mere trifle, and, being refused,
became very pressing and importunate to close the bargain for the price
that was jestingly offered; nor was it without difficulty that he was
convinced we were not in earnest. They were as poor as the rest of their
countrymen, very badly clothed, and possessing few skins to barter. Two of
them exchanged their otter skin mantles for cotton shirts, which they
continued to wear without complaining of cold.

{138}

As their visits lasted all day they always brought their food, consisting
of the blubber of seals and porpoises. The method used by them in cutting
it up is nearly similar to that adopted by the Esquimaux Indians, as
described by Sir Edward Parry in his second voyage, and also resembles the
process of the natives of King George's Sound, which I have described in
the account of my survey of Australia (vol. ii. p. 140): a piece of blubber
being held in the left hand, a corner of it is taken between the teeth, and
it is then cut by a knife, held underhanded, into strips backward and
forward, without passing the instrument entirely through: so that when the
operation is finished the piece draws out into a long band, about an inch
thick, formed by the connected strips. The whole affair from first to last
is most offensive to the sight; and the countenance of the carver is beyond
description, for his eyes being directed to the blubber, squint shockingly,
and give his ugly face a hideous appearance. The strip of blubber is next
divided among the party, each of whom proceeds to extract its oily juices
by drawing it through his teeth and sucking it, after which it is warmed in
the fire to facilitate its division into small pieces, which are swallowed
or bolted without mastication. Morsels of this dainty food were given not
only to the elder children, but even to infants at the breast.

On the 14th, while preparing to weigh, the Indians came on board and helped
to heave in the cable, but without rendering us much real assistance. When
the sails were loosed, the women in the canoes began to chatter and scream
for fear we should carry off their friends, and their alarm was no sooner
given than the deck was cleared of our visitors, who seemed to be quite as
much frightened for their safety as the women were. In a few minutes
afterwards we were proceeding to the southward, and first tried to anchor
in a bay on the south side of Smyth Harbour, but finding the depth too
great, I sent Lieut. Graves to sound behind an islet where there were
indications of a place of shelter, but he returned unsuccessful. During his
absence I went to a very narrow passage, which he had discovered, leading
to a large channel or sound; but finding it {139} intricate, I deferred
trying to enter with the vessel until a more favourable opportunity should
offer, and we returned to the place south of Warrington Cove, called
Dighton Bay, where we anchored off a sandy beach in twenty fathoms, and
secured the vessel by laying the kedge on the shore. This sandy beach was
the first we had found in the eastern part of the Strait. The sand is
quartzose, of a white colour, and being a novelty, rendered the place
interesting. A stream, supplied by the ravines of Mount Maxwell, runs over
the beach into the sea, and from it an abundant supply of excellent water
may be obtained without difficulty.

We observed no quadrupeds; but, of the feathered tribe, we found
woodpeckers, kingfishers, and woodcocks, and in the sheltered nooks several
humming-birds were darting about the flowery underwood of berberis,
fuchsia, and arbutus. In the tide-way, at the narrow passage, the sea
teemed with fish; over which hovered corvorants and other sea-fowl, preying
upon the small fry that were trying to elude their voracious enemies, the
porpoises and seals, thousands of which were seen sporting about as we
proceeded on our way. Whales were also numerous in the vicinity, probably
because of an abundance of the small red shrimp, which constitutes their
principal food.

I went again to examine the passage, and the tide being against us, we were
obliged to pull close to the western shore to benefit by the partial
eddies, otherwise we could not have proceeded until the turn of the tide.

These narrows, named 'Shag' Narrows, from the quantity of birds there so
called by seamen, are not a hundred yards wide. The south end is fronted by
an island, from whose summit, about four hundred feet high, I hoped to
obtain a good view southward, and after passing the narrows we landed and
reached the summit. While looking around at the view, and preparing the
theodolite, a woodcock started up from the long grass and walked away so
leisurely, that Mr. Tarn nearly succeeded in striking it with a stick. This
bird afforded us a name for the station, which we found to be at the
northern side of a large basin, ten miles wide, and six long, terminated at
{140} its south end by a channel leading to the open sea, but crowded with
islands and rocks. A deep inlet or chasm in the land, at the N.W. corner of
this basin, was filled with masses of floating ice, broken from an enormous
glacier.

After obtaining all the bearings and embarking, we pulled three miles to
the westward, and took a round of angles at Point Cairncross, the
south-west point of Field's Bay, and again another set at the south head of
Icy Sound, near Dinner Cove, where we found a very convenient anchorage for
small vessels. Through Icy Sound we found some difficulty in penetrating,
as the channel was much obstructed by ice.

Three miles within this sound the rocky shore became more precipitous, and
at two miles farther, where the width across was not more than one hundred
and fifty yards, the rocks rise perpendicularly on each side to the height
of seven or eight hundred feet. Beyond this remarkable part the channel
opens out to a basin about half a mile in diameter, bounded by a sloping
glacier, from which immense masses of ice broke off frequently, and falling
with a noise like the discharge of a ship's broadside, threw up the foaming
water with terrific violence.

As we entered the basin, we were startled by a sudden roar, occasioned by
the fall of one of these avalanches, followed by echoes which reverberated
round the basin and among the mountains. We remained for half an hour
afterwards waiting for another fall, but were not gratified. Several were
heard at a distance, probably high up the sides of the glacier. The
examination of Icy Sound occupied us until dark, when we returned to the
schooner.

During our absence, Indians had again visited the Adelaide, the greater
number of whom were strangers. We had also seen a party in a canoe close to
Mount Woodcock, who were striking seal, and too intent upon their object to
pay much attention to any thing else.

On the 16th, the term of our absence having expired, we left Dighton Bay on
our return: at night we anchored in St. Nicholas Bay, and the day after
arrived at Port Famine. {141} Natives had discovered and visited the ship
while I was away, but Lieut. Wickham did not encourage them to remain; and
two or three attempts to pilfer being detected, they were treated with very
little ceremony; so finding their company was not desired, they went across
the Strait to Lomas Bay, where for several days afterwards the smoke of
their fires was seen. They were the same Indians whom we had met at Port
San Antonio.

That these Indians should be received so coolly, may seem to have been
impolitic on our side, when it is considered that our smaller vessels and
boats might be met with, and their crews ill-treated by way of retaliation.
It was, however, time that they should know our superiority; for, of late,
several very treacherous attacks had been made by them on sealing vessels,
and this party was the most forward and insolent we had seen. One of them
was teazing several of the men to box, an accomplishment he had probably
learnt from the crews of sealing vessels; among others, he fixed upon the
serjeant of marines, who very unceremoniously pushed him over the side, and
made him return to his canoe, which he resented by pushing off from the
ship's side, and throwing a stone at the serjeant, who was standing at the
gangway. As it missed him, and did no harm, no notice was taken of his
mischief. We afterwards heard that the same party had visited Bougainville
Harbour, where the Adeona was at anchor; but as Mr. Low neither gave them
encouragement to remain, nor permitted them to go on board his brig, they
very soon went away.

The difference between the climates of the western and eastern portions of
the Strait was very striking. To the westward the country, being
principally clothed with evergreens, such as the smooth-leaved beech, and
Winter's-bark, with an underwood of arbutus and berberis, seems to possess
a constant verdure, nor until the snow covers all, does it assume any thing
like the appearance of winter. To the eastward, evergreens are less common,
their place being occupied by the beech (_Fagus Antarctica_), whose leaves
fall very early. Snow had also begun to cover the lower grounds, giving
signs of winter. April {142} terminated with finer weather than we had
experienced for some weeks, but May set in with north-easterly winds and
much rain, succeeded by a heavy fall of snow.

 "Tristis hyems montes niveo velamine vestit."

As yet the thermometer had not been very low. On one or two occasions it
had fallen during the night to 28°, but generally it ranged between 45° and
33°.

The Adelaide was again despatched on the 30th April, to carry on an
examination of the openings on each side of Cayetano Island; but she
returned on the 21st of May, with the disagreeable intelligence of having
had her only serviceable boat stolen by the Indians. This was a serious
loss, not only on account of so much time being thrown away, but also
because we had no other boat to substitute for her. To prevent delay, I
sent to Mr. Low, at Bougainville Harbour, requesting that he would sell one
of his boats; but he was himself so badly off, from similar losses, that he
could only assist us by lending one for a few weeks, and as it was the only
boat he possessed, it could not be spared to go far from his vessel. I,
therefore, despatched Mr. Graves, in the Adelaide, to Bougainville Harbour,
to employ himself in examining the coast thence to Cape Froward, and in the
mean time began to build a whale-boat, to be ready for the Adelaide's use
as soon as winter had passed over; for, from Mr. Graves's report of the
state of the climate to the westward, very little could be done during the
winter months.

The following is Lieut. Graves's account of the loss of his boat:--Upon
leaving Port Famine he proceeded at once to Port Gallant, and surveyed
Cordes Bay; after which he crossed the Strait to St. Simon's Bay, and
anchored in Millar Cove, on its western side, immediately to the north of
Port Langara, from which it is only separated by a narrow neck of land. The
Adelaide remained there at anchor while Mr. Graves visited the different
parts of the bay. Her presence had attracted a large party of Indians, who,
occupying several wigwams near the entrance of the cove, paid daily visits
to {143} our people, and were apparently very familiar and well-disposed.

But they had cast a longing eye on the whale-boat, which, when equipped for
service, contained many things very useful to them, and they laid a plan to
carry her off, which succeeded. One evening she was prepared for going away
at an early hour the following day, and, to save time, every thing that
might be required was placed in her, and she was made fast for the night.
Two or three Indians were then on board, and observing what was done, laid
their plan, and at sunset took their leave as usual. The night was pitchy
dark, and at nine o'clock the boat was missed from alongside. The alarm was
given, and instant search made at the wigwams of the Indians, who had all
decamped, without leaving the least trace of themselves or the boat. The
'painter,' or rope by which she had been fastened to the vessel, had been
cut through with some sharp instrument, most probably a knife, which our
people had sharpened for them on the grindstone that very day.

Every possible search was made next morning, but without success; the boat
that was left was one which could not be used with any advantage, and Mr.
Graves returned to Port Famine. Vexatious as the accident was, I could not
blame him for what had occurred, for no one had suspicions of such conduct
from the Indians, who, on all other occasions, had kept at a distance from
us after night-fall. The boat was properly secured alongside, and the night
was so cold that no person would have thought the Indians would expose
themselves to such a temperature (28°); for they must have swum alongside
to cut her adrift, and then must have towed her away very gradually, to
prevent the theft being discovered, for there were two persons walking the
deck at the time.

Mr. Tarn, who accompanied Mr. Graves on this occasion, brought me a very
fine sea-eagle (_Polyborus Novæ Zealandiæ_), and some other birds, and a
specimen from a shrub which we had not before observed, a species of
_Desfontanea_.

In order to prevent a similar loss in future, the Adelaide {144} was
forthwith fitted with cranks outside, for hoisting up her boats when in
harbour.

Winter advanced rapidly; the ground was constantly covered with snow, from
one to two feet deep, and every night more fell. In the early part of June
we had a gale of wind from the N.W., which flooded the low ground upon
which our tents stood; but fortunately the large tent had been accidentally
placed on a higher part, and escaped. This flood filled, and, of course,
spoiled the water in all the ponds about the tents; and we had afterwards
to procure our supplies from a considerable distance.

On the 8th of June much lightning was observed to the northward, and
repeated rumbling noises were heard, which continued for long periods; one
lasted distinctly for the space of twenty minutes. At first, they were
thought to be eruptions of some distant volcano; but, from the frequent
lightning, they were probably echoes of thunder, reverberating through the
deep ravines that intersect the rocky ridges of the Cordillera, from which
we were distant at least one hundred and fifty miles.

A succession of bad weather followed, during which the barometer fluctuated
rapidly. On the 14th, the mercury fell to 28. 17. inches, after which it
gradually rose, with fine settled weather, until it reached 30. 50., when
bad weather again set in. The people at the tents experienced another
inundation. Had the water risen six inches more, it would have carried
every thing away; and as the wind was blowing dead upon the shore, while a
heavy surf was beating upon the beach, we could have rendered them very
little assistance from the ship.

The severity of the weather brought a most disagreeable accompaniment.
Scurvy appeared, and increased; while the accidental death of a seaman,
occasioned by falling down a hatchway, followed by the decease of two
others, and also of Mr. Low, of the Adeona, whose body was brought to me
for burial, tended to create a despondency amongst the crew that I could in
no way check. The monotony of their occupations, the chilling and gloomy
appearance of the country, and the severity of the climate, all tended to
increase the number of the {145} sick, as well as the unfavourable symptoms
of their disease. The Beagle's term of absence was, however, drawing to a
close, and I caused a rumour to be spread, that upon her appearance we
should quit Port Famine. To give a semblance of reality to this report, the
topmasts were ordered to be fidded, and the ship otherwise prepared for
sea, which had a manifest effect upon the scorbutic, of whom several were
in a bad stage of that horrid disease, and many others were just attacked.
We found ourselves now, too, thrown on our own resources for fresh food:
scarcely a fish was taken with the hook, and the seine, although frequently
shot, never caught anything. Of birds, only a few hawks and small finches
were procured, which were all reserved for the sick, the greater number of
whom lived on shore, at the tents, where they might walk about, and amuse
themselves as they pleased.

The Adelaide returned from Bougainville Harbour on the 18th of June, having
succeeded in the object for which she was sent. The extremity of Cape
Froward, a bluff head, over which is a round-topped hill (precisely the
French 'Morre') is what Sarmiento called the Morro de Santa Agueda. Any
name given by this excellent old navigator is too classical and valuable to
be omitted; therefore, while the extremity itself may retain the modern
appellation of Cape Froward, the mountain by which it is formed may still
be allowed to keep his distinction. Behind it, the land rises to a higher
ridge, the edge of which is remarkably serrated, and probably of a slaty
character.

The specimens procured from the Cape were clay-slate, much intermixed with
iron pyrites, and crossed by small veins of white quartz. Of the anchorages
examined by Mr. Graves, Bougainville Harbour, better known to sealers by
the name of Jack's Cove, or Harbour, is the most sheltered.

It is surrounded on all sides by high precipitous hills, thickly clothed
with trees. The depth is moderate, and the water so beautifully clear, that
the anchors, and even shells and stones, were distinctly seen upon the
bottom. It was here that Bougainville procured wood for the use of the
settlement {146} at the Falkland Islands. Captain Stokes says of this
place: "After seeing the abundant supplies of timber which Freshwater Bay
and Port Famine afford, I had shared in the surprise which Byron expresses,
that any one should have come so far up the Strait to get it; but on
examining the spot, I found that a happier selection could not have been
made. It is a little cove, just round the eastern point of the Bay of San
Nicolas, about a hundred yards wide and three times as long. Here, moored
to the shore, a ship may lie in eight fathoms, perfectly sheltered from any
wind, the water as smooth as in a wet-dock. Shapely trees, of all
dimensions, are growing within a few yards of the shore; and the wood, when
felled, may be hoisted on board from the beach, by tackles from the
yard-arms. Here, too, with very little trouble, a supply of water may be
got from the many streams that make their way through the underwood which
skirts the cove. As we pulled up this sequestered nook, the unusual sound
of our oars and voices put to flight multitudes of birds, and the surface
of the water was broken by the jumping of fine fish. Some very eatable
geese were shot. Our stay was too short to admit of hauling the seine; but
my boat's crew contrived to half-fill the boat with excellent muscles and
limpets, which are found here in great plenty."

The geological character of the coast between Cape St. Isidro and San
Nicolas Bay is clay-slate; near the beach, however, this rock is not
visible, since it is there covered with a kind of breccia of rounded
pebbles, in an indurated sandy rock, of green colour. The pebbles are
principally of slate; but some were found to be of granite and other
quartzose rock, perhaps greenstone.

One of the headlands, called by M. Bougainville Cape Remarquable, was
examined by Mr. Graves for fossil shells, of which the French navigator
speaks. Half the rock was beaten to pieces, without detecting anything like
organic remains. Living shells were in the greatest abundance about the
base of the Cape, but that is the case every where. The species generally
found are limpets and muscles, but with little variety and no novelty.

{147}

On the 21st of June, after a heavy north-east gale, we had an unusually
fine day. The hills at the bottom of Magdalen Channel were more distinct
than we had ever noticed them, and Mount Sarmiento was particularly clear;
indeed its outline was so sharply defined, that the distance did not appear
to be more than ten miles. This extraordinary transparency of the air was
at first considered a presage of wet weather; yet the clear and sharp
appearance of the distant land was unlike that which usually precedes a
fall of rain. The long series of rainy weather we had experienced made us
look for a good result from such an unusual atmosphere, and we were not
deceived. The following day our hopes were still further confirmed by
seeing three Indian canoes, coming across the Strait, towards us, from
Lomas Bay, which they would not have attempted had they not been sure of
its continuing fine; for their canoes are ill adapted to encounter the
short cross sea found during bad weather in mid-channel of the Strait.

Although the presence of the natives did not in general please me, because
it naturally put a stop to all work; yet, on this occasion it was
agreeable, as it tended in some measure to enliven the monotonous manner in
which we passed our days.

Upon reaching the bay, the Indians did not approach the ship, but paddled
into the coves under Point Santa Anna, where our boat was employed
watering. Mr. Graves went to them, to prevent mischief, and found they were
the same party who had before visited us. When our boats returned, they
paddled over to the wigwam at the head of the port, about a quarter of a
mile beyond our tents, and began to repair it, and by sunset were housed
and sheltered for the night. We had, however, so lately experienced their
treacherous disposition, that no confidence was placed in appearances.
Sentinels were posted at the tents, to give the alarm, should any of them
approach; and at eight o'clock a volley of musketry was fired, by way of
intimidation, and to impress them with the idea that we kept a watch upon
their movements, and were prepared.

While the wigwams were repairing, a few of the Indians visited our tents;
but were not allowed to pass within a rope {148} that, by my orders, was
stretched around our property, a restriction which they did not attempt to
evade. At sunset all were told to go away, and they immediately, as well as
cheerfully, complied.

The next morning, and indeed throughout the whole day, the neighbourhood of
the wigwams exhibited the appearance of a fair. I visited them, and found
that they had not only repaired an old wigwam, but erected another. Both
together contained the whole party, consisting of twenty-six individuals,
among whom were an old man, and two old women. They had brought over a
collection of baskets, bows and arrows, stone heads of knives, &c. to sell
to our people, who had always shown eagerness to possess these curiosities.
The knife-heads were made generally of pitch-stone; but the greater number
were of broken glass bottles, which they had collected when they visited us
last year. A few strings of beads purchased all their riches; after which
they sold their dogs, and Mr. Graves procured one of them for a knife and a
string of beads. It was a remarkably fine animal, and showed great
reluctance to be handled by our people, several of whom were bitten in
their attempts to take him to the boat.

At night one of the canoes was despatched to collect shell-fish, probably
sea-eggs, from the reef of Rocky Bay. The following morning all their goods
were embarked, and then they paddled their canoes to the beach, near the
tents, where some of their men landed. They had nothing to offer in
exchange for several things which tempted them, and were beginning to grow
troublesome. One of them, the individual who threw a stone at the sergeant,
persisting to pass the boundary that was marked upon the ground, which no
one of them had before presumed to do, was pushed back by the sentinel;
upon which he ran to his canoe and took out several spears, doubtless
intending to try to force a passage; but the appearance of two or three
muskets brought him to his senses, and the spears were returned to the
canoe; after which he became familiar, and apparently friendly. This
affair, however, was soon followed by their departure, which gave me much
{149} satisfaction. They went southward, landing for the night in Voces
Bay, and the following day went to the Adeona, in Bougainville Harbour,
where they remained some days.

The day after the Indians left us, a boat came from the Adeona, to acquaint
us that, in a day or two, she and her companions, the Uxbridge and Mercury,
intended to leave the Strait for the Falkland Islands; upon which I
prepared letters for England, and a report of my proceedings for the
Secretary of the Admiralty. The ships passed by on the 30th, and took my
letters.

This last month (June) set in with snow or rain, which continued until the
11th, when the weather assumed a very threatening appearance. On the 14th
the barometer fell to 29. 27, and the wind blew a hard gale from N.E.; but
in the afternoon it veered round to S.W., and the mercury rose rapidly. A
gale from S.W. followed, and then to the end of the month we had a series
of moderate weather, but much snow. The mean temperature for June was
32°,97 the range being between 19°,2 and 48°,7.

July commenced with an unusually low temperature and a high barometer; the
former, on the 4th was 12°,2, and the latter, at the same time, at 30,5
inches, having risen since the 14th of June 1.82 of an inch. After this we
had a few mild and fine days, but paid dearly for them; a northerly gale
set in, bringing with it unwholesome damp weather, in which the temperature
rose to between 35° and 42°, and melted much of the snow that had covered
the ground, quite to the water's edge, during the last two months. Our
sick-list, particularly of cases of scurvy, increased so much, during this
damp, trying weather, that I determined upon sending the Adelaide to the
northward, to procure a supply of fresh meat from the Patagonians; and, at
the same time, to survey that part of the Strait lying between Cape Negro
and the Second Narrow.

Lieutenants Graves and Wickham, and Mr. Tarn, went upon this service, the
latter being most anxious to procure some change of diet for the sick under
his care, for some of whom he was much alarmed. The appearance and severity
of this {150} disease, although every precaution had been used, and
subsequent attention paid to their diet, are not easy to account for: fresh
provisions, bread baked on board, pickles, cranberries, large quantities of
wild celery, preserved meats and soups, had been abundantly supplied; the
decks were kept well-aired, dry, and warm, but all to no purpose; these
precautions, perhaps, checked the disease for a time; but did not prevent
it, as had been fully expected.

The Adelaide sailed on the 16th of July, with every prospect of fine
weather. The same evening, an American sealing schooner anchored near us,
on her way to Staten Land. She had entered the Straits by Cutler and Smyth
Channels, and in forty-eight hours arrived at Port Famine. After obtaining
some trifling assistance from our forge, she sailed.

On the 25th, three new cases of scurvy appeared, one being the
assistant-surgeon, which increased our sick-list to fourteen. Feeling the
necessity of doing something, I ordered the hands to be turned up, 'Prepare
ship for sea!' No sooner had the words escaped the boatswain's lips, than
all was life, energy, and delight. The preliminary preparations were made,
and every one looked forward with pleasure to the change, except myself. I
had hoped to pass the twelve months at Port Famine, with the intention of
completing a meteorological journal, for which this place afforded peculiar
advantages. My plan was, on the Beagle's return, to despatch her and the
schooner along the West Coast, and join them in the Adventure at Chilóe.

As our departure was now supposed to depend on the Beagle's arrival, every
eye was on the stretch to watch for her, and every morning some one of our
party ascended the heights, to look out. On the 27th she was seen, beating
up from the southward; but as the wind was contrary, she did not anchor in
the bay until the evening. Her return was greeted with three most hearty
cheers; but on passing under our stern, Lieutenant Skyring informed me that
Captain Stokes was confined to his cabin by illness, and could not wait on
me. I therefore went to the Beagle, and found Captain Stokes looking very
ill, and in low spirits. He expressed himself much distressed by the {151}
hardships the officers and crew under him had suffered; and I was alarmed
at the desponding tone of his conversation. He told me that the Beagle had
been up the western coast as high as Cape Tres Montes, in latitude 47°, had
surveyed the Gulf of Peñas and other portions of the coast, particularly
Port Henry, at Cape Three Points, the entrance of the Gulf of Trinidad, and
Port Santa Barbara, at the north end of Campana Island.

During the survey of the Gulf of Peñas they had experienced very severe
weather, both stormy and wet, during which the Beagle's crew were
incessantly employed, and had consequently suffered greatly. Captain Stokes
seemed not to have spared himself. He appeared much gratified by my
visiting him, and before we parted he was for a time restored to his usual
energy, detailing the circumstances of the voyage, and conversing upon the
plan of our future operations with considerable animation.

The return of the Beagle cheered our ship's company, and on the 30th the
Adelaide came back, with a large quantity of guanaco meat, which had been
procured from the Patagonian Indians at Peckett's Harbour.

When the Adelaide anchored there, about thirty natives appeared on the
shore. Mr. Tarn landed, and communicated our wants, saying that he would
give tobacco and knives for as much guanaco meat as they could procure;
with them was the Fuegian, who seemed to be a leading man, and to have
become one of the most active of the party. He was the principal spokesman,
and upon commencing the hunt he pointed to the snow upon the ground, and
called it 'bueno' (good), because it would show the traces of the animals,
and the direction they had taken. Mr. Wickham thus described to me the
manner in which they hunted: Two men ascended a hill, placed themselves one
at each end of its summit, and stood motionless for some time, on the
look-out. As soon as guanacoes were seen, their position and movements were
communicated, by signs, to the men in the valley, who were thus enabled to
approach their game unawares. The guanacoes are taken with the bolas, which
entangle their legs and throw them down. As soon as they are killed, {152}
they are skinned and cut up. The first night seven hundred pounds of meat
were brought, and two thousand and forty-six pounds were obtained in a few
days.

This ample change of diet inspired me with the hope that our sick, at least
those affected by scurvy, would recover, and that after another large
supply, which we now knew how to obtain, we might be enabled to prosecute
our voyage as was first intended. All hands were therefore allowed fresh
meat for a week, and the residue was placed at the disposal of the surgeon,
for the use of the sick, but all ineffectually; the list still increased,
and Lieutenant Wickham, with a violent cold, and Mr. Rowlett, with scurvy,
were added to it. The assistant-surgeon's became the worst case of scurvy
on board; and our people, finding that the preparations for quitting the
place were not going on, began to despond again. Captain Stokes was anxious
to prepare his vessel for another cruize, being very averse to giving up
our plans and returning to Monte Video, since he thought the crews, from
utter disgust at the privations and hardships they had endured, would not
be persuaded to go on another voyage; but that if they were to go to Chilóe
or Valparaiso, to refresh, they might recover their strength and spirits,
and be willing to renew the survey; which, however, he himself seemed to
dread, for he never mentioned the subject without a shudder. He was
evidently much excited, and suspicions arose in my mind that all was not
quite right with him. I endeavoured to prevail on him to give his people a
longer rest, but he was the more anxious to make preparations. On the 31st
July he sent an application for provisions, and in the evening I received a
note from him, which was written in his former usual flow of spirits. The
officers, however, knew more of the diseased state of his mind than I did;
and it was owing to a hint given to me, that I desired Mr. Tarn to
communicate with Mr. Bynoe, and report to me whether Captain Stokes's
health was sufficiently restored to enable him to commence another cruize.
This was on the 1st of August. The provisions had been sent, in compliance
with his application, and the surgeons were on board the Adventure, {153}
considering upon their report, which was, as I afterwards found, very
unfavourable, when a boat came from the Beagle, with the dreadful
intelligence that Captain Stokes, in a momentary fit of despondency, had
shot himself.

The surgeons instantly repaired on board, and finding him alive, had
recourse to every means in their power, but without hope of saving his
life. During the delirium that ensued, and lasted four days, his mind
wandered to many of the circumstances, and hair-breadth escapes, of the
Beagle's cruize. The following three days he recovered so much as to be
able to see me frequently; and hopes were entertained by himself, but by no
one else, that he would recover. He then became gradually worse, and after
lingering in most intense pain, expired on the morning of the 12th.

Thus shockingly and prematurely perished an active, intelligent, and most
energetic officer, in the prime of life. The severe hardships of the
cruize, the dreadful weather experienced, and the dangerous situations in
which they were so constantly exposed--caused, as I was afterwards
informed, such intense anxiety in his excitable mind, that it became at
times so disordered, as to cause the greatest apprehension for the
consequences. On the return of the Beagle he got better; and the officers
were so sanguine in hoping for his complete restoration to health, on
account of his progressive recovery, that nothing which had transpired was
communicated to me until after his decease.

His remains were interred at our burial-ground, with the honours due to his
rank, and a tablet was subsequently erected to his memory.

       *       *       *       *       *


{154}

CHAPTER X.

  Account of the Beagle's cruize--Borja Bay--Cape Quod--Stuart Bay--Cape
  Notch--Remarks on weather, and errors of Chart--Evangelists--Santa
  Lucia--Madre de Dios--Gulf of Trinidad--Port Henry--Puma's track--
  Humming-birds--Very bad weather--Campana Island--Dangers--Gale--Wet--
  Sick--Santa Barbara--Wager's beam--Wigwams--Guaianeco Islands--Cape Tres
  Montes--St. Paul's--Port Otway--Hoppner Sound--Cape Raper.

The following account of the Beagle's cruize is drawn up from Captain
Stokes's unfinished journal, and from detached memoranda, which were found
amongst his papers.

It will be recollected that, on my departure from Port Famine, in the
Adelaide, in the month of March, to survey portions of the southern side of
the Strait, I left instructions with Captain Stokes to proceed in the
execution of his orders as soon as the Beagle was ready. The details of
those orders it is unnecessary to repeat here, as they were performed to my
entire satisfaction; it will be merely requisite, as briefly as possible,
to follow him through a most arduous and distressing service. It is the
sequel that embitters the record.

"On the 18th of March, I sailed from Port Famine, and next day reached Port
Gallant.

"On the 23d, we anchored in the little cove called Borja Bay, which, though
very confined, and rather difficult of access, suited our purpose extremely
well. (See Sailing Directions). While there we measured the height of one
of the principal hills in the neighbourhood, and found it 1,800 feet.

"Bad weather detained us until the 26th, when we passed Cape Quod, and
reached Stuart Bay. Many places were left unexamined, because my object was
to hasten westward before the year was farther advanced.

"(27th.) We left Stuart Bay, and continued our progress to the westward,
with westerly winds, thick weather, and rain. {155} The shores of the
Straits were seldom visible to us, from a thick mist with which they were
clouded: it is, however, a bold coast on each side, otherwise the Strait
would be utterly unnavigable in such weather. Near Cape Notch the mountains
spire up into peaks of great height, singularly serrated, and connected by
barren ridges. About their bases there are generally some green patches of
jungle; but, upon the whole, nothing can be more sterile and repulsive than
the view. This afternoon we passed Playa Parda, and in the evening anchored
in Marian Cove.

"In the course of the next day the wind freshened to a strong and squally
gale from the W.N.W., with much rain; the weather was so thick that we
could scarcely make out the coast. In this kind of weather, the lower parts
of the shore are screened from view by mist, and the upper ones are seen
looming through it in lofty masses, in a manner which would lead a stranger
to believe that the ship was completely environed with islands.

"In the evening we anchored in the little cove called Half Port Bay, and
next morning resumed our daily struggle against wind, tide, and weather.

"We crossed the mouth of a deep sound on the north shore,[103] where no
tide or current was remarked: the delineation of the coast about this point
is particularly defective in the old charts; fortunately, however, for the
navigator, he has here to deal with shores where the omission of a whole
island, or even the addition of a few that do not exist, is of less
consequence to his safety than the exact limit of one sand-bank in other
parts of the world. This night we anchored in Upright Bay, which, though
affording excellent shelter from the prevailing winds, is bad with a
southerly one; as, from the steepness of the bottom requiring a vessel to
anchor close to the shore, sufficient scope is not left for veering cable.

"Sheltered by the high land under which we were anchored, {156} with the
exception of occasional gusts down the ravines and sounds, we had the wind
light at W.S.W.; but the rapid travelling of the scud over-head showed that
the usual weather prevailed. We weighed early next morning (30th), and by
noon had reached so far to the westward that the easternmost of the round
islands in Cape Tamar Bight bore north about two miles. By nightfall we
were off Cape Cortado; but the weather seeming settled and the wind drawing
to the southward, I resolved to keep under weigh, and try to get out to sea
that night. Circumstances favoured us; the weather was fine, the moon
remained unclouded, and the wind held at S.S.W. An hour after midnight Cape
Pillar bore W.S.W., distant about two miles, and thence we shaped our
course for the Evangelists, which we passed at the distance of a mile.

"The Evangelists, as they are called by the early Spanish voyagers, or as
they were afterwards named (1670) by Sir John Narborough, the Isles of
Direction,[104] are a group of four rocky islets, and some detached rocks
and breakers, occupying altogether a space of three miles; they are
exceedingly rugged and barren, and suited only to afford a resting-place
for seals and oceanic birds. From the heavy sea prevalent there, and the
raging surf that generally breaks around, landing on them can be rarely
practicable; yet sealers effect it. The mate of a sealing vessel told me
that he had landed on the largest in a whale-boat, and killed several
thousand seals. The Evangelists are of sufficient height to be seen in
clear weather from a ship's deck, at the distance of six or seven leagues,
but the superior elevation of the coast on both sides will usually render
it visible, before these islands can be observed.

"Immediately on rounding the Evangelists a cape was distinguished,
appearing to terminate the northern coast line, which we made out to be
'Cape Isabel' of the Spanish charts. It is a steep, rocky promontory of
great height, having at its base some detached columnar masses of rock, and
at its summit a peak, and a serrated ridge; off it is a steep-sided island,
{157} which proved to be that (Beagle Island) of which Lieut. Skyring and I
took the bearing last year, when we were on the summit of Cape Victory.

"Northward of Cape Victory the land forms a deep bight, of which Cape Santa
Lucia is the north-eastern headland. The coast in the interval is
exceedingly rugged and mountainous. Cape Santa Lucia may be distinguished
by a portion of flat table-land, about one-third of the altitude of the
mountain from which it proceeds, and terminating at its outer face with a
perpendicular precipice.

"The coast between Capes Isabel and Santa Lucia is dangerous to approach
nearer than ten miles, for there are within that distance many sunken
rocks, on which the sea only occasionally breaks. Some of these breakers
were seen to seaward of us, as we proceeded along the coast, at the
distance of five or six miles. When off Santa Lucia, whales were very
numerous around us.

"The general aspect of this portion of the coast is similar to that of the
most dreary parts of the Magalhaenic regions: bare, rugged, rocky, and
mountainous, intersected by inlets, and bordered by islets, rocks, and
breakers.

"The information we possessed respecting the prevalent winds on this coast
was very scanty; yet, since all we could procure represented them as
prevailing from the northward and north-westward, I considered it advisable
to take advantage of the present southerly wind to proceed to the northern
part of the coast assigned for our survey, instead of stopping to explore
the bight between Cape Isabel and Cape Santa Lucia.

"From the bearings at sunset,[105] we ran along the land with bright
moonlight, sounding every hour; and at daylight were about ten miles from
the Island of Madre de Dios.

"We closed the land and proceeded to the northward, keeping at a distance
of about three miles off shore, sounding {158} between twenty-eight and
thirty-three fathoms, sandy bottom. The weather was clear and fine, and we
were enabled to make observations, and take the bearings and angles,
necessary for laying down the coast satisfactorily.

"At noon we were in latitude 50° 12' south, and in the meridian of Cape
Tres Puntas, between which and a cape bearing from us N. 13° E. (magnetic),
distant eight miles, there was evidently an inlet: this cape is marked on
the chart as Cape William. The character of the land is the same with that
which we had hitherto passed, bare, rugged, rocky mountains, with peaks,
and sharply serrated ridges. From daylight to noon we had run twenty-one
miles along the coast; in that interval only one inlet was seen, which was
in the latitude of 50° 27' south, agreeing well with the 'West Channel' of
the Spanish chart. It was four miles wide at its mouth, and appeared to
follow a winding course to the eastward. The land of Cape Tres Puntas
curved in to the eastward, until it closed with Cape William; at dusk we
were abreast of Cape William, and two leagues off shore, where we lay-to
till daylight, as I wished to examine the inlet between it and Cape Tres
Puntas, which subsequently proved to be Sarmiento's Gulf of Trinidad. The
old navigator thus describes its discovery:

"'At daylight, 17th of March, 1579, in the name of the most holy Trinity,
we saw land, bearing E.S.E., ten leagues distant, towards which we steered
to explore it. At mid-day, being near the land, we observed the latitude
49½°, but Hernando Alonzo made it 49° 9'. In approaching the shore we saw a
great bay and gulf, which trended deeply into the land towards some snowy
mountains. To the south there was a high mountain, with three peaks,
wherefore Pedro Sarmiento named the bay 'Golfo de la Sanctisima Trenidad.'
The highest land of the three peaks was named 'Cabo de Tres Puntas ó
montes.' This island is bare of vegetation, and at the water-side is low
and rugged, and lined with breakers; on the summit are many white, grey,
and black-coloured portions of ground, or rock. Six leagues to the north of
Cape Tres Puntas is the opposite side of the gulf, where it forms a large
high mountain, backed {159} to the north by low land, and fronted by many
islands. This high mountain, which appears to be an island from the offing,
was called 'Cabo Primero.''[106]

"The following night was clear, and the wind moderate from S.E., but in the
course of next morning it shifted to N.E., with squalls, rain, and thick
weather; we worked into the inlet notwithstanding, and by noon had reached
three miles within its S.W. head-land, Cape William, and were abreast of a
bay, into which I sent a boat to look for anchorage. On her return we stood
into it, and anchored in the excellent harbour, afterwards named Port
Henry, where we remained from the 2d to the 5th of April, employed in
making a correct survey of the harbour and its adjacencies, and determining
the latitude and longitude.[107]

"The inner harbour, distinguished in the plan by the name of 'Aid Basin,'
is perfectly land-locked, and sufficiently spacious to contain a numerous
squadron of the largest ships in twenty fathoms water, over a mud bottom,
and as completely sheltered from the effects of wind and sea as in
wet-docks. At the south-west side of the basin is a fresh-water lake, which
discharges itself by a small stream, whence casks might be conveniently
filled by means of canvas hoses, and the shores around have wood for fuel
in abundance; but, from the lofty surrounding mountains, some rising almost
perpendicularly to an elevation of two thousand feet, the thick clouds with
which this basin was generally overhung, and the dense exhalations that
arose from it during the rare intervals of sunshine, together with the
exceeding prevalence of heavy rain on this coast, this place must be
disagreeable and unhealthy. Such objections do not apply to the outer
harbour, for while its shores afford shelter, they do not obstruct a free
circulation of air. It is sufficiently large to afford convenient and
secure anchorage for five or six frigates.

"We hauled the seine with very poor success, as a few smelt only were
taken; we had no better luck with our fishing-lines; {160} but the trial
might have been more profitable at another season, judging from the number
of seals we saw on the rocks off the Port, which live principally upon
fish. Muscles, limpets, and sea-eggs abound here, and are good and
wholesome of their kind. Birds are few in number, and of the species most
common in these regions. No quadruped of any kind was seen; but the purser
told me that he had observed, near the sandy beach, traces of a four-footed
animal, resembling those of a tiger: he followed them to a cavern, and
thence to the jungle. He also said that he had seen several humming-birds.

"With the exception of wild celery and the arbutus berry, I know not of any
useful vegetable production that this place affords, unless the
'Winter's-bark tree' may be mentioned. Some coarse grass, fit perhaps for
animals, may be there procured. The only signs of inhabitants were some
wigwams on the western point, which seemed to have been long forsaken: in
their construction they were precisely similar to those erected by the
migratory tribes in the Straits of Magalhaens: and the shells of muscles,
limpets, and sea-eggs, within and about them, showed that the former
tenants of these hovels drew, like the Magalhaenic tribes, a principal part
of their subsistence from shell-fish.

"Around the harbour are granite mountains, perfectly bare at their summits
and north-western sides, but the lower parts are thickly covered in
sheltered places and ravines, partly with trees, and partly with brushwood:
among the trees growing here we observed, as usual, two kinds of beech, a
tree like the cypress, but of small size, and the Winter's-bark. The
underwood is composed of all the various shrubs we had met with in the
Straits of Magalhaens; and this brushwood is so thickly spread over the
lower parts of the shores of the harbour, that it is only by crawling over
it that the distance of a few yards from the rocks can be gained; and being
generally of insufficient strength to support a man's weight, it frequently
gives way beneath him, and he is so completely buried, as to make it
difficult for him to extricate himself.

"Scarcely any of the trees attain a size to render them fit {161} for any
thing but firewood; of those we felled there was scarcely one that was not
more or less rotten at the heart, a defect probably caused by the extreme
humidity of the climate.

"During our stay, the master, accompanied by our boatswain's mate,(f) an
experienced sealer, went to take seal on the rocks, and returned in a few
hours with some of the inferior sort, called 'hair seal,' which were
numerous; but the surf was in most places too heavy to allow them to land
without much risk. The fry of the young seals we thought extremely good,
not exceeded even by the finest lamb's fry.

"On the morning of the 5th we worked to the westward, to clear the land on
each side of the inlet; and at sunset, Capo Tres Puntas bore N.b.W. ½ W.,
distant two leagues. The northerly breeze, which we had worked with since
leaving Port Henry, increased rapidly to a hard gale, and by 8 P.M. we were
reduced to the close-reefed main-topsail and reefed foresail. The gale
continued with unabated violence during the 6th, 7th, and 8th, from the
north, N.W., and S.W., with a confused mountainous sea. Our decks were
constantly flooded, and we could rarely show more than the close-reefed
main-topsail and reefed foresail. Only two accidents occurred: the little
boat which we carried astern was washed away by a heavy sea that broke over
us, while hoisting her in-board; and the marine barometer was broken by the
violent motion of the vessel. At noon, on the 8th, Cape Corso bore from us,
by account, S.E. (true), distant fifty-five miles. I had tried to gain a
wide offing to get a less turbulent sea, and because not even an outline of
the sea-coast of Campana Island was drawn in the chart. We had not, during
these three days, a glimpse of the sun or of a star, for it blew a constant
gale, accompanied by squalls, thick weather, and rain. According to the
time of year, the season of winter had not arrived, but the weather seemed
to say it was already come--

  Sullen and sad, with all it's rising train
  Of vapours, clouds, and storms.

{162}

"The wind abated at daylight on the 9th, and drew to the southward, and
thence to the S.E. (the fair weather quarter of this coast). We bore up to
make the land, and at about 10 A.M. the 'loom' of it was seen from the
mast-head. At noon, high mountains were visible from the deck; our
latitude, by observation, was 48° 51', and our longitude, by chronometer,
00° 27' west of Port Henry. No soundings were obtained with one hundred and
ten fathoms of line. Hence we steered east (magnetic) towards a remarkable
mountain, which, from our being nearly in the parallel of it at noon, has
been marked in the chart as Parallel Peak. The coast we were upon was that
of the Island 'Campana,' and, in its general appearance, did not differ
from that of Madre de Dios. It was late before we got very close to the
land; but, for a couple of leagues to the northward, and about a league to
the southward of the parallel of our latitude at noon, we could distinguish
rocks and breakers skirting the coast to a distance of two leagues from the
shore.

"At dusk we hauled off for the night; but instead of being able to resume
the examination of the coast next morning, we had to encounter another gale
of wind from the N.W., which, before noon, reduced us to close-reefed
main-topsail and reefed foresail. This gale suddenly subsided in the
western quarter, which was singular; for those we have experienced
generally commenced at north, thence drew round to the westward, from which
point to S.W. they blew with the greatest fury, and hauling to the
southward, usually abated to the eastward of south.

"During the afternoon, we again made the land near Parallel Peak, but could
not close it. Next morning (11th), with fine weather, and a fresh breeze at
S.W.b.W., we once more saw the land about Parallel Peak; and when distant
from the shore about eight miles, steered N.b.E. along the coast. At noon
our latitude was 48° 47'.

"Throughout our run along the coast this day, we skirted a number of rocky
islets, rocks, and breakers, lying off shore at the distance of three or
four miles. Some of the islets were elevated several feet above the surface
of the sea; others were {163} a-wash, and there were breakers that showed
themselves only occasionally. Along this line the surf beat very heavily,
and, outside, a long rolling sea prevailed, in which the ship was very
uneasy.

"This line of dangers is not altogether continuous; for there is an opening
about two miles wide, abreast of Parallel Peak, to the southward of which
is a bight, where possibly a harbour may exist; but, considering the
prevalence of heavy westerly gales and thick weather, if there be one, few
vessels would venture to run for it; and this line must, I should think, be
considered as a barrier that they ought not pass. As seal are found on the
rocks, vessels engaged in that trade might not, perhaps, be deterred by
these dangers, but every other would give all this extent of coast a wide
berth. We ran past the breakers at the distance of about a mile, having
rocky soundings, from thirty to twenty-three fathoms.

"The termination of the coast line northward was a high, rugged island,
with a small peak at the north end. The extremity of the main land was
rather a high bluff cape, whence the coast extends southward, with craggy,
mountainous peaks and ridges, as far as Parallel Peak. At sunset, the N.W.
end of Campana bore north (magnetic), distant three leagues, and from the
mast-head I could see very distinctly the belt of rocks and breakers
extending uninterruptedly to the northward, as far as the end of Campana.

"We hauled off for the night, and had light variable airs, or calms, until
2 A.M. of the 12th, when a breeze from the northward sprung up, and
freshened so rapidly, that by noon we were again reduced to a close-reefed
main-topsail and foresail. The gale was accompanied, as usual, by incessant
rain and thick weather, and a heavy confused sea kept our decks always
flooded.

"The effect of this wet and miserable weather, of which we had had so much
since leaving Port Famine, was too manifest by the state of the sick list,
on which were now many patients with catarrhal, pulmonary, and rheumatic
complaints. The gale continued undiminished until the morning of the 13th,
{164} when, having moderated, we bore up and steered N.E. to close the
land. At noon a good meridional altitude gave our latitude 48° 30' south,
and about the same time we saw the land bearing N.E.b.E., which we soon
made out to be Parallel Peak. After allowing amply for heave of sea, and
lee-way, we were considerably southward of our reckoning, which indicates a
southerly current; but under such circumstances of wind and weather its
exact direction, or strength, could not be ascertained.

"We proceeded along the land, taking angles and bearings for the survey,
and at sunset the N.W. end of Campana bore from us north (magnetic),
distant five leagues. Being now off the N.W. end of the island of Campana,
which forms the south-western headland of the Gulf of Peñas, I considered
that, before I proceeded to examine its inlets, I ought to look for the
Harbour of Santa Barbara, which has been placed on the old charts in this
neighbourhood. Accordingly we lay-to during the night, and at 4 A.M. bore
up to close the land; at daylight the extremes of it were seen indistinctly
through a very cloudy and hazy atmosphere, from N. 39° E. to S. 53° E.
About noon the weather cleared off, and we got the meridian altitude of the
sun, which gave our latitude 48° 09' south.[108] We directed the course for
our Dundee Rock, and when abreast of it, steered N.E. (compass) for an
opening in the low part of the coast ahead, backed by very high mountains,
which we found was the entrance of Port Santa Barbara. The coast to the
southward was lined with rocky islets, rocks, and breakers, extending a
league to seaward, and there were others to the northward. We were in a
channel half a mile wide, through which we continued our course, sounding
from fifteen to eleven fathoms, and in the evening anchored near the
entrance of the harbour.

{165}

"As our present situation was completely exposed to westerly winds, I went
to examine a deep bight in the southern shore, which proved to be a good
harbour, perfectly sheltered from all winds, with a depth of three and a
half fathoms over a fine sandy bottom. In the afternoon we weighed anchor
and warped into a berth in the inner harbour, where we moored in three
fathoms. I found lying, just above high-water mark, half buried in sand,
the beam of a large vessel.[109] We immediately conjectured that it had
formed part of the ill-fated Wager, one of Lord Anson's squadron (of whose
loss the tale is so well told in the narratives of Byron and Bulkeley): the
dimensions seemed to correspond with her size, and the conjecture was
strengthened by the circumstance that one of the knees that attached it to
the ship's side had been cut, which occurred in her case, when her decks
were scuttled to get at the provisions; all the bolts were much corroded;
but the wood, with the exception of the outside being worm-eaten, was
perfectly sound. Our carpenter pronounced it to be English oak.

"The land about this harbour is similar to that about Port Henry. Its
shores are rocky, with some patches of sandy beach, but every where covered
with trees, or an impervious jungle, composed of dwarfish trees and shrubs.
The land, in most places, rises abruptly from the shore to mountains, some
of which attain an altitude of more than two thousand feet, and are quite
bare at their summits and on their sides, except in sheltered ravines,
where a thick growth of trees is found. These mountains, or at least their
bases, where we could break off specimens, were of basalt, with large
masses of quartz imbedded in it; but on some parts of the shores the rocks
were of very coarse granite.

"As in the vicinity of Port Henry, the thickness of the jungle prevented
our going far inland; the greatest distance was gained by Lieut. Skyring,
who, with his wonted zeal to prosecute the survey, ascended some of the
mountains for the {166} purpose of obtaining bearings of remote points: he
remarked to me, 'that many miles were passed over in ascending even
moderate heights; the land was very high and very irregular; the mountains
seemed not to lie in any uniform direction, and the longest chain that was
observed did not exceed five miles. The flat land between the heights was
never two miles in extent: the ground was always swampy, and generally
there were small lakes receiving the drainage of mountain-streams. Indeed
the whole country appeared broken and unconnected.'

"Some of the mountains were ascertained to be 2,500 feet high, but the
general height was about 2,000 feet. A large island, on the northern side
of the harbour, is an excellent watering-place, at which casks may be
conveniently filled in the boat. It is also an object of great natural
beauty: the hill, which forms its western side, rises to seven or eight
hundred feet, almost perpendicularly, and when viewed from its base in a
boat, seems stupendous: it is clothed with trees, among which the
light-green leaves of the Winter's-bark tree, and the red flowers of the
Fuchsia, unite their tints with the darker foliage of other trees. This
perpendicular part extends to the northward till it is met by the body of
the mountain, which is arched into a spacious cavern, fifty yards wide and
a hundred feet high, whose sides are clothed with a rich growth of shrubs;
and before it a cascade descends down the steep face of the mountain.

"On the shore we found two Indian wigwams and the remains of a third; but
they had evidently been long deserted, for the grass had grown up both
around and within them to the height of more than a foot. These wigwams
were exactly similar to those in the Strait of Magalhaens: one was larger
than any I had met with, being eighteen feet in diameter. The only land
birds I saw were two owls, which passed by us after dusk with a screeching
noise.

"On the patches of sandy beach, in the inner harbour, we hauled the seine,
but unsuccessfully; we expected to find fish plentiful here, from seeing
many seals on the rocks outside, and from finding the water quite red with
the spawn of {167} crayfish. Muscles and limpets were pretty abundant, and
the shells (_Concholepas Peruviana_) used by the Magalhaenic tribes as
drinking cups, were found adhering to the rocks in great numbers.

"Nothing; could be worse than the weather we had during nine days' stay
here; the wind, in whatever quarter it stood, brought thick heavy clouds,
which precipitated themselves in torrents, or in drizzling rain. We were
well sheltered from the regular winds; but many troublesome eddies were
caused by the surrounding heights, while the passing clouds showed that
strong and squally north-west winds were prevalent.

"On the morning of the 24th, we put to sea with a southerly breeze. The
extent of coast from the eastern part of Port Santa Barbara to the outer of
the Guaianeco Islands presents several inlets running deep into the land;
but it is completely bound by rocks and rocky islets, which, with its being
generally a lee-shore, renders it extremely unsafe to approach. Observing
an opening between some islets, of which we had taken the bearing at noon,
we stood in to see whether it afforded anchorage; and approaching the
extremity of the larger island, proceeded along it at the distance of only
half a mile, when, after running two miles through a labyrinth of rocks and
kelp, we were compelled to haul out, and in doing so scarcely weathered, by
a ship's length, the outer islet. Deeming it useless to expend further time
in the examination of this dangerous portion of the gulf, we proceeded
towards Cape Tres Montes, its north-western headland.

"At sunset Cape Tres Montes bore N. 25° W., distant eighteen miles. In this
point of view the cape makes very high and bold; to the eastward of it,
land was seen uninterruptedly as far as the eye could reach. We stood in
shore next morning, and were then at a loss to know, precisely, which was
the cape. The highest mountain was the southern projection, and has been
marked on the chart as Cape Tres Montes: but none of the heights, from any
point in which we saw them, ever appeared as 'three mounts.' The land,
though mountainous, seemed more wooded, and had a less {168} rugged outline
than that we had been hitherto coasting, since leaving the Strait. We
steered along the western coast of the land near Cape Tres Montes, and at
noon, being three miles from the shore, observed, in latitude 46° 5. south,
the cape, bearing N. 80° E. (mag.), distant seven miles. The northernmost
cape in sight N. 26° W., distant ten miles, soundings ninety-seven fathoms.
Shortly afterwards another cape opened at N. 37° W. (mag.).

"The parallel of forty-seven degrees, the limit assigned for our survey,
being already passed, I did not venture to follow the coast further,
although we were strongly tempted to do so by seeing it trend so
differently from what is delineated on the old charts. An indentation in
the coast presenting itself between mountainous projections on each side of
low land (of which the northernmost was the cape set at noon), we hauled in
to look for an anchorage; but it proved to be a mere unsheltered bight, at
the bottom of which was a furious surf. We then stood to the southward,
along the land of Cape Tres Montes, with the view of examining the north
side of the Gulf of Peñas.

"The following morning was fine: Cape Tres Montes bore N.E., distant about
three leagues. We lay off and on during the day, while the master went in
the whale-boat, to examine a sandy bay (of which Cape Tres Montes was the
easternmost point) for anchorage: he returned about sunset, and reported
that it did afford anchorage; but was quite unsheltered from wind, and
exposed to a great swell. The boat's crew had fallen in with a number of
seals, and the quantity of young seal's fry they brought on board afforded
a welcome regale to their mess-mates and themselves.

"At daylight (27th) we were four leagues from Cape Tres Montes, bearing N.
68° W. (magnetic) a remarkable peak, marked in the chart the 'Sugar Loaf,'
N. 19° E., distant twenty-four miles, and our soundings were sixty-eight
fathoms. This peak resembled in appearance, the Sugar Loaf at Rio de
Janeiro: it rises from a cluster of high and thickly-wooded islands,
forming apparently the eastern shore of an inlet, of which {169} the land
of Cape Tres Montes is the western head. Further to the N.E. stands a lofty
and remarkable mountain, marked in our chart as 'the Dome of Saint Paul's.'
It is seen above the adjacent high land. The height of the Sugar Loaf is
1,836 feet, and that of the Dome of Saint Paul's, 2,284 feet.

"During the day we worked up towards the land, eastward of Cape Tres
Montes, and at night succeeded in anchoring in a sandy bay, nine miles from
the Cape, where our depth of water was twelve fathoms, at the distance of a
cable and a half off shore. We lay at this anchorage until noon the
following day, while Lieut. Skyring landed on some low rocks detached from
the shore, where he was able to take some advantageous angles; and on his
return we weighed and worked up the gulf, between the eastern land of Cape
Tres Montes, and high, well wooded islands. The shores of the main land, as
well as of the islands, are bold, and the channel between them has no
dangers: the land is in all parts luxuriantly wooded. About a mile and a
half to the northward of the sandy beach which we had left, lies another,
more extensive; and a mile further, a considerable opening in the main
land, about half a mile wide, presented itself, having at its mouth two
small thickly-wooded islands, for which we steered, to ascertain whether
there was a harbour. The water was deep at its mouth, from thirty-eight to
thirty-four fathoms; but the comparative lowness of the shores at its S.W.
end, and the appearance of two sandy beaches, induced us to expect a
moderate depth within. As we advanced, a long white streak was observed on
the water, and was reported from the mast-head as a shoal; but it was soon
ascertained to be foam brought down by the tide, and we had the
satisfaction of anchoring in sixteen fathoms over a sandy bottom, in a very
excellent port, which we named Port Otway, as a tribute of respect to the
Commander-in-chief of the South American Station, Rear Admiral Sir Robert
Waller Otway, K.C.B."

       *       *       *       *       *

A deficiency here occurs in Captain Stokes's journal, which the Beagle's
log barely remedies. From the 30th of April to {170} the 9th of May there
was a succession of stormy weather, accompanied by almost incessant and
heavy rain, which prevented the ship being moved; but proved, in one
respect, advantageous, by affording a very seasonable cessation from work
to the fatigued crew, and obliging Captain Stokes to take some little rest,
which he so much required; but regretted allowing himself, and submitted to
most reluctantly. He continues his journal on the 9th of May, stating that,
"Among the advantages which this admirable port presents to shipping, a
capital one seems to be the rich growth of stout and shapely timber, with
which its shores, even down to the margin of the sea, are closely
furnished, and from which a frigate of the largest size might obtain spars
large enough to replace a topmast, topsail-yard, or even a lower-yard. In
order to try what would be the quality of the timber, if, in case of
emergency, it were used in an unseasoned state, I sent the carpenter and
his crew to cut two spars for a topgallant-mast and yard. Those they
brought on board were of beech-wood; the larger being thirteen inches in
diameter, and thirty feet in length.

"On the 10th, the weather having improved, the Beagle was moved to the head
of the inlet, to an anchorage in Hoppner Sound, and on the 11th I went with
Lieut. Skyring to examine the opening, off which we were anchored.

"On each side of it we found coves, so perfectly sheltered, and with such
inexhaustible supplies of fresh water and fuel, that we lamented their not
being in a part of the world where such advantages could benefit
navigation. The depth of water in mid-channel was generally forty fathoms;
in the bights, or coves, it varied from sixteen to twenty-five fathoms,
with always a sandy bottom. We saw a great many hair seals, shoals of
pie-bald porpoises, and birds of the usual kinds in considerable numbers.
On several points of the shores were parts of the skeletons of whales; but
we no where saw a four-footed animal, or the slightest trace of a human
habitation. The unusual fineness of the morning, the smoothness of the
water, and the proximity of the adjacent lofty mountains, clothed almost to
their summits by the fullest foliage, with every {171} leaf at rest,
combined with the stillness around to give the scene a singular air of
undisturbed repose. We reached the extremity of the inlet, which we found
was about six miles from its mouth; and thinking that it was the inner
shore of an isthmus, of no great width, curiosity prompted us to endeavour
to see its outer shore: so we secured the boat, and accompanied by five of
the boat's crew, with hatchets and knives to cut their way, and mark the
trees to guide us on our way back, we plunged into the forest, which was
scarcely pervious on account of its entangled growth, and the obstructions
presented by trunks and branches of fallen trees.

"Our only guide was an occasional glimpse, from the top of a tree, of the
ranges of mountains, by which we steered our course. However, two hours of
this sort of work were rewarded by finding ourselves in sight of the great
South Sea. It would be vain to attempt describing adequately the contrast
to the late quiet scene exhibited by the view we had on emerging from this
dark wood. The inlet where we left our boat resembled a calm and
sequestered mountain lake, without a ripple on its waters: the shore on
which we now stood was that of a horrid rock-bound coast, lashed by the
awful surf of a boundless ocean, impelled by almost unceasing west winds.

"Our view of the coast was limited on each side by rocky mountainous
promontories: off the northernmost, which I called Cape Raper, were rocks
and breakers, extending nearly a mile to seaward. Having taken the few
bearings our situation enabled us to obtain, we retraced our steps to the
boat, and by aid of the marks we had left on the trees, reached her in an
hour and forty-three minutes.

"Some of the beech-trees of this wood were fifteen feet in circumference;
but I noticed none differing in their kind from those already observed
about Port Otway. A few wrens were the only living creatures we saw; not
even an insect was found in our walk. In the beds of some of the streams
intersecting the woods was a singularly sparkling sand, which had so much
the appearance of gold, that some of our party carried {172} a bag-full on
board to be tested. The shining substance proved to be, as I had supposed,
the micaceous particles of disintegrated granite. It was not our good
fortune to discover streams similar to those sung of by the poet,

 "Whose foam is amber, and whose gravel gold."

       *       *       *       *       *


{173}

CHAPTER XI.

  Leave Port Otway--San Quintin's Sound--Gulf of Peñas--Kelly Harbour--St.
  Xavier Island--Death of Serjeant Lindsey--Port Xavier--Ygnacio Bay--
  Channel's mouth--Bad weather--Perilous situation--Lose the yawl--Sick
  list--Return to Port Otway--Thence to Port Famine--Gregory Bay--Natives--
  Guanaco meat--Skunk--Condors--Brazilians--Juanico--Captain Foster--
  Changes of officers.

The Beagle returned to Port Otway the following day, and in an interval of
better weather obtained the observations necessary for ascertaining the
latitude and longitude of the port, and for rating the chronometers.

Captain Stokes's journal continues on the 19th of May: "We left Port Otway,
and as soon as we had cleared its entrance, steered E.N.E. across the gulf;
leaving to the northward all that cluster of islands, distinguished in the
chart as the 'Marine Islands,' and went to within a mile from the eastern
shore. Thence we ran four miles and a half parallel with the direction of
coast E.S.E. (mag.), at the mean distance of a mile off shore. The aspect
of the eastern and western portions of this gulf is very different, and the
comparison is much to the disadvantage of the eastern. Ranges of bare,
rugged, rocky mountains now presented themselves, and where wood was seen,
it was always stunted and distorted. A long swell rolled in upon the shore,
and every thing seemed to indicate a stormy and inclement coast. There are
a few bays and coves, in which is anchorage depth, with a pretty good
bottom of dark coarse sand: but rock-weed in large patches, seen in some of
them, denoted foul ground; and they are all more or less exposed, and
extremely unsafe. As night advanced, the weather became rainy and thick; so
having reached a bight which seemed less insecure than others that we
passed, I hauled in, and at about seven P.M., guided only by the gradual
decrease of our soundings, from {174} fourteen to eight fathoms, and the
noise of the surf, came to an anchor.

"Next morning (20th) we found that we had anchored in a small bay, at about
half a mile from a shingle beach, on which a furious surf was breaking so
heavily as to prevent our landing any where. We were completely exposed to
S.W. winds, with a heavy rolling sea; and the surf on all points cut off
communication with the shore. A breeze from the S.W. would have rendered it
difficult to get out, and would have exposed us to imminent hazard. It is
called on the chart Bad Bay. We left it eagerly, and proceeded to trace the
coast to the E.S.E., until we were nearly abreast of a moderately high and
thickly-wooded island, called Purcell Island. We passed to the northward of
Purcell Island, leaving on the left a rock only a few feet above the
surface of the sea, which lies about midway between that island and the
main land. As we advanced to the eastward, a large and very remarkable
field of ice was seen lying on the low part of the coast, which, at a
distance, we took for a dense fog hanging over it, as nothing of the kind
was observable in any other part. When nearly abreast of San Xavier Island,
a deep sound was observed to the left, or north, which we concluded was the
San Quintin Sound of the Spanish chart: it seemed to be about five-miles in
breadth, and following a westerly direction. We kept sight of the Sugar
Loaf, and other points we had fixed, until more could be established, which
enabled us to chart the coast as we went along. My next object was to trace
the Sound of San Quintin to its termination, and at nightfall we succeeded
in getting an anchorage at the entrance.

"On the 21st we proceeded up the sound, passing to the northward of Dead
Tree Island. Our soundings, until abreast of it, were from sixteen to ten
fathoms, on a mud bottom; it then shoaled to four fathoms, and after
running about three miles in that depth, we came to an anchor at the
distance of a mile from the north shore of the sound, in four fathoms.

"Exceedingly bad weather detained us at this anchorage. From the time of
our arrival, on the evening of the 21st, {175} until midnight of the 22d,
it rained in torrents, without the intermission of a single minute, the
wind being strong and squally at W., W.N.W., and N.W.

"When the weather improved, on the 23d, we weighed, and made sail along the
northern side of the sound, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it
admitted of a passage to the northward. We kept within a mile of the shore,
sounding from eight to fifteen fathoms, generally on a sandy bottom; and a
run of seven miles brought us within three miles of the bottom of the
inlet, the depth of water being four fathoms, on sand. The termination of
this sound is continuous low land, with patches of sandy beach, over which,
in the distance, among mountains of great height, we were again able to
make out and take the bearing of that remarkable one, named the 'Dome of
St. Paul's.' The shores of this inlet are thickly wooded; the land near
them is, for the most part, low, but rises into mountains, or rather hills,
from twelve to fifteen hundred feet in height, from which many streams of
water descend. As soon as a ship has passed Dead Tree Island, she becomes
land-locked; and as in all parts of the sound there is anchorage depth,
with a muddy or sandy bottom, the advantages offered to shipping would be
of great consequence in parts of the world more frequented than the Gulf of
Peñas.

"Whales were numerous, and seals were seen in this inlet, now called the
Gulf of San Estevan.

"Hence we went to Kelly Harbour, at the north-eastern side of the Gulf of
Peñas, four miles N.E. of Xavier Island. The land around it is rocky and
mountainous, but by no means bare of wood. Near the entrance it is low, as
compared with the adjacent land; but in the interior are lofty snow-capped
mountains.

"A large field of ice, lying on the low land near Kelly Harbour, was
remarkable. There was none on the low grounds at the other (southern) side
of the port, though it was almost the winter solstice at the time of our
visit.

"Another day and night of incessant rain. In the morning of the 25th we had
some showers of hail, and at daylight found {176} that a crust of ice,
about the thickness of a dollar, had been formed in all parts of the
harbour. The water at our anchorage being fresh at half-tide, was, no
doubt, in favour of this rapid congelation. Lieutenant Skyring having
completed the examination of the harbour, we left it and steered between
St. Xavier Island and the mainland, through a fine bold channel, nearly
four miles wide, with a depth of more than thirty fathoms. The land on both
sides is closely wooded, and rises into high mountains. About dusk we stood
into Port Xavier, a little bight, with a sandy beach, on the eastern side
of the island; and, at a distance of two cables' length from the beach,
anchored for the night in seventeen fathoms.

"(26th). This sandy beach extended about half a mile between the points of
the bay, and, at fifty yards from the water, was bounded by thick woodland,
which rose with a rapid ascent to the height of a thousand feet. The trees
were like those in the neighbourhood of Port Otway, and were stout and
well-grown. A tree, large enough for a frigate's topmast, might be selected
close to the shore. The Winter's-bark tree attains here a greater size than
I had before seen. One, which was felled by our wood-cutters, measured
eighty-seven feet in length, and was three feet five inches in
circumference. All the trees were in full foliage and verdure, though the
season corresponded to the latter part of November in our northern
latitudes. At the south end of the sandy beach was a stream of fresh water,
several yards in width, and various waterfalls descended from the
mountains. The shore to the southward was composed of fragments of granite,
lying at the base of a lead-coloured clay cliff, at least three hundred
feet in height. In this cliff the mountain-torrents had formed deep chasms,
and strewed the beach with its débris, and with uprooted timber. The only
living creatures seen were steamer-ducks, king-fishers, and
turkey-buzzards.

"While on shore, I received a melancholy message, announcing the death of
Serjeant Lindsey, of the Royal Marines. During the last few days he had
suffered from inflammation of the bowels, which brought his existence to a
close.

{177}

"The following day (27th) a grave was dug, and we discharged the last sad
duties to our departed shipmate. A wooden cross was erected at the head of
his grave, on which was an inscription to his memory: we also named the
south point of the bay after him. About noon we left Port Xavier, and
coasted the island, at the mean distance of a mile, examining it for
anchorages, until, after a run of eight miles, we reached its south point.
For the first four or five miles of that distance, the coast of the island
consisted of a high steep cliff, having at its base a narrow beach,
composed of various-sized masses of rock. In the interior there were
heights, rising twelve or fourteen hundred feet, wooded nearly to the
summits, with many streams of water descending from them; but for the
remainder of the distance the coast was low, and the wood stunted and
scanty. All along the shore rolled a heavy surf, that would have rendered
any attempt to land exceedingly hazardous; there was no place fit for
anchorage, except a small bight, near the extreme south point, into which
we stood, and with some difficulty succeeded in anchoring at a cable's
length from the shore. The bay proved to be that called by the Spanish
missionary voyagers 'Ygnacio Bay.' Over the south point,--a narrow tongue
of land, about five hundred yards across, with rocks and breakers
stretching off shore, to the distance of two miles,--we took bearings and
angles to various fixed points in the northern part of the gulf. The
latitude, chronometric differences of longitude, and magnetic variation,
were determined on shore at this southern point.

"Our observations being completed, we left this anchorage; and as it is
little likely to be visited again, it will be enough to say that it is
exceedingly dangerous. Nothing would have induced me to enter it, but the
duty of examining the coast for anchorage, and the danger of remaining
under sail close to an unexplored shore.

"Under an impression that the island of St. Xavier[110] was the {178} scene
of the Wager's wreck, I wished to examine its western side; but a strong
N.N.E. wind did not permit my doing so, without risking the loss of more
time than could be spared for an object of mere curiosity. I steered,
therefore, to the south-eastward for an inlet, which proved to be the
Channel's Mouth of the Spanish charts, and reached it, after running
seventeen miles from the south end of Xavier Island. We got no soundings
with ninety fathoms of line, when at its entrance; but making no doubt that
we should get anchorage within, we left, at the distance of half a mile,
the islets of the northern point; passed between two others distant apart
only one-fifth of a mile, and shortly after anchored in twenty fathoms,
sheltered by an island to the westward, but with rocky islets around us in
all directions, except the S.E., some of which were less than a cable's
length from us.[111] Here we were detained until the 10th of June by the
worst weather I ever experienced: we rode with three anchors down and the
topmasts struck; and though we lay within a couple of hundred yards of the
islands and rocks, and less than half a mile from the shores of the inlet,
such a furious surf broke on them all, that it was but rarely a boat could
land, even in the least exposed situations the inlet afforded. The evening
of our arrival was fine, and we put up the observatory tent, on the island
to the westward of us; but the weather was so bad, during the next day,
that we could effect no landing to remove it, although we anticipated the
result that followed, namely, its being washed away.

"In the short intervals of the horrible weather that prevailed, boats were
sent to the northern shore of the inlet, for the purpose of procuring water
and fuel; but though they sometimes succeeded, by dint of great
perseverance, in landing through a raging surf, it was but seldom they
could embark the small casks (barecas) which had been filled, or the wood
they had cut.

"Upon this shore the master observed remains of some Indian wigwams, that
seemed to have been long forsaken, and {179} he described them to be
exactly like those we had hitherto met to the southward.

"This was the northernmost point at which we noticed traces of human
beings.

"Finding the boats' crews suffer much from their unavoidable exposure
during continually wet weather, I ordered some canvas to be given to each
man for a frock and trowsers, to be painted at the first opportunity, as a
protection against rain and spray.

"Nothing could be more dreary than the scene around us. The lofty, bleak,
and barren heights that surround the inhospitable shores of this inlet,
were covered, even low down their sides, with dense clouds, upon which the
fierce squalls that assailed us beat, without causing any change: they
seemed as immovable as the mountains where they rested.

"Around us, and some of them distant no more than two-thirds of a cable's
length, were rocky islets, lashed by a tremendous surf; and, as if to
complete the dreariness and utter desolation of the scene, even birds
seemed to shun its neighbourhood. The weather was that in which (as
Thompson emphatically says) 'the soul of man dies in him.'

"In the course of our service since we left England, we have often been
compelled to take up anchorages, exposed to great risk and danger. But the
Beagle's present situation I deemed by far the most perilous to which she
had been exposed: her three anchors were down in twenty-three fathoms of
water, on a bad bottom of sand, with patches of rock. The squalls were
terrifically violent, and astern of her, distant only half a cable's
length, were rocks and low rocky islets, upon which a furious surf raged.

"I might use Bulkeley's words in describing the weather in this
neighbourhood, and nearly at this season: 'Showers of rain and hail, which
beat with such violence against a man's face, that he can hardly withstand
it.'

"On the 10th, the wind being moderate, and the weather better, preparations
were made to quit this horrid place. We put to sea, with a moderate breeze
from N.b.W., which {180} increased rapidly to a strong gale; and scarcely
were we fairly freed from the channel, than we found ourselves in a heavy
confused sea. Anxious to clear the entrance, I had not waited to hoist in
the yawl, with which we had weighed one of our anchors, expecting to find
smooth water as we went out; but the sea we met made it unsafe to tow her,
and while hauling up to hoist her in, she was so badly stove by blows
received from the violent motion of the ship, that we were obliged to cut
her adrift. This was a heavy loss. She was a beautiful boat, twenty-eight
feet in length,--pulled and sailed well, and was roomy, light, and buoyant;
her loss was second only to that of the ship.

"We endeavoured to clear the Guaianeco Islands, by carrying a heavy press
of sail, but soon after midnight were obliged to furl the reefed mainsail.
Before daylight the wind shifted suddenly to W.b.N., taking us aback by a
violent squall, with much vivid lightning and heavy rain. Our admirable
little vessel paid off without sustaining any damage; but for a minute her
situation was critical. At daylight, the land of Cape Tres Montes bore W. ½
N. (magnetic), distant four leagues. The violence of the gale we had just
had put it out of our power to clear the gulf; and, from the state to which
we were reduced by the loss of our yawl, both gigs being in bad condition,
and our cutter so much stove as to be useless, I considered that it would
not be justifiable to attempt proceeding in a lone ship to an unknown and
most stormy coast, without a single efficient boat; so I resolved to hasten
to Port Otway, and put the boats into an effective state. We had baffling
winds all day; but in the evening succeeded in reaching the harbour, and
anchoring nearly in our old berth. On the 13th and 14th, we had a continued
hard gale, with the usual accompaniment of heavy rain. The carpenters were,
however, kept constantly at work to render the cutter effective. On the
15th, the state of the sick list caused me to require from the surgeon, his
opinion as to the 'necessity of a temporary cessation of surveying
operations.' Mr. Bynoe's reply stated 'that in consequence of great
exposure to a long-continued succession of {181} incessant and heavy rain,
accompanied by strong gales, the health of the ship's company had been
seriously affected, particularly with pulmonic complaints, catarrhal, and
rheumatic affections; and that, as a recurrence of them would probably
prove fatal in many instances, a temporary cessation would be of the
greatest advantage to the crew, by affording an opportunity of recruiting
their health.'

"On receiving the above communication from the surgeon, I ordered the yards
and topmasts to be struck, and the ship covered over with sails. Precaution
was used to prevent the people from being subjected to frequent exposure,
by not employing any of them in boats, except once a day in procuring
muscles, and every thing was avoided that could in the least interfere with
the recovery of their health: but this place is exceedingly ill adapted for
the winter quarters of a ship's company, as the woods that surround it,
down even to the water's edge, allow no space for exercise on shore, and
there is neither game nor fish to be procured, except shell-fish; of which,
fortunately (muscles and clams), we found an abundance, and they proved
useful in removing symptoms of scurvy, besides affording a change of diet.
The place being destitute of inhabitants, is without that source of
recreation, which intercourse with any people, however uncivilized, would
afford a ship's company after a laborious and disagreeable cruise in these
dreary solitudes. Every port along this coast is alike ill suited for a
winter's residence, and it was only our peculiar situation that induced me
to determine on making a short stay at this place."

       *       *       *       *       *

Here poor Captain Stokes's remarks and notes end. Those who have been
exposed to one of such trials as his, upon an unknown lee shore, during the
worst description of weather, will understand and appreciate some of those
feelings which wrought too powerfully upon his excitable mind.

The Beagle remained quiet until the 29th of June, when the surgeon reported
"the crew sufficiently healthy to perform their duties without any material
injury to their constitutions." {182} Leaving Port Otway, she steered along
the coast with, strange to say, easterly winds and fine weather, which
enabled Lieut. Skyring to add much to the survey of the coast of Madre de
Dios. Captain Stokes now began to show symptoms of a malady, that had
evidently been brought on by the dreadful state of anxiety he had gone
through during the survey of the Gulf of Peñas. He shut himself up in his
cabin, becoming quite listless, and inattentive to what was going on; and
after entering the Strait of Magalhaens, on his return to Port Famine, he
delayed at several places without any apparent reason; conduct quite
opposite to what his would naturally have been, had he then been of sound
mind. At last, want of provisions obliged him to hasten to Port Famine; and
the day on which he arrived every article of food was expended.

The fatal event, which had cast an additional gloom over every one, decided
our quitting the Strait. Both ships were immediately prepared, and we
sailed on the 16th August; but previously, I appointed Lieutenant Skyring
to act as commander of the Beagle; Mr. Flinn to be master of the Adventure;
and Mr. Millar, second master of the Adventure, to act as master of the
Beagle. The day we sailed, Mr. Flinn was taken ill; and, Lieutenant Wickham
being on the sick list, I was the only commissioned officer able to keep
the deck. As the wind was from the N.W., we were obliged to beat to
windward all night, and the next morning were off Sandy Point; but it blew
so very strong from the westward, and the weather was so thick from
snow-squalls, which passed in rapid succession, that we bore up, and
anchored in Freshwater Bay, where the ships were detained by northerly
winds until the 21st, when we proceeded; the wind, however, again opposing,
we anchored about half a mile from the shore, in a bight, seven miles
southward of Sandy Point. The following day we were underweigh early, and
reached Gregory Bay. When off Elizabeth Island, I despatched the Beagle to
Pecket's Harbour to recall the Adelaide, in which Lieutenant Graves had
been sent to procure guanaco meat. The Beagle worked through, between
Elizabeth Island and Cape Negro, and was seen by {183} us at anchor off
Pecket's Harbour before we entered the Second Narrow.

Upon our anchoring under Cape Gregory, two or three Patagonians were seen
on the beach, and before half an hour had elapsed others joined them. By
sunset several toldos, or tents, were erected, and a large party had
arrived. When the Adelaide first went to Pecket's Harbour, Mr. Tarn told
the Indians that the Adventure would be at Gregory Bay in twenty-five days,
and, accidentally, we arrived punctually to the time. The Patagonians must
have been on their way to meet us, for they could not have travelled from
Pecket's Harbour in the short space of time that we were in sight. To their
great mortification, however, we held no communication with them that
evening, and the next day the weather was so bad we could not even lower a
boat. At noon the wind blew harder than I had ever witnessed; but since we
were on good holding-ground, and the water was smooth, no danger was
anticipated.

As the snow-squalls cleared off, we looked towards the Patagonians, with
the full expectation of seeing their huts blown down:--to our astonishment,
they had withstood the storm, although placed in a very exposed situation.
We counted twelve or fourteen of them, and judging by our former experience
of the number belonging to each, there must have been, at least, one
hundred and fifty persons collected. During the gale they kept close; and
it was only now and then that a solitary individual was observed to go from
one toldo to another.

The weather having moderated, the Beagle and Adelaide joined us on the
following day. They rode the gale out, without accident, off the entrance
of Pecket's Harbour. The next morning being fine, we prepared to proceed;
but previous to weighing I landed, and communicated with our old
acquaintances. Maria was with them, and, if possible, dirtier, and more
avaricious than ever. We collected the guanaco meat they had brought for
us; distributed a few parting presents, and then returned on board.

The Adelaide brought sixteen hundred pounds of meat, which, with what was
first obtained, amounted to four thousand {184} pounds weight; and cost
altogether ten pounds of tobacco, forty biscuits, and six pocket-knives. At
first a biscuit was considered equivalent to forty or fifty pounds of meat;
but as the demand increased, the price rose four or five hundred per cent.
With the Patagonians were two of Mr. Low's crew, who had left him. They
were Portuguese, in a miserable state, and appeared to be thoroughly
ashamed of being the companions of such a dirty set: they could not speak
English, and could give us very little information. They had not then
assumed the Indian garb, although, from the state of their clothes, they
would very soon be obliged to adopt it.

At Pecket's Harbour a few words of the native language were collected,
which are very different from those given by Falkner, in his description of
the Patagonian natives: he says himself, that the language of the northern
Indians differs materially from that of the 'Yacana Cunnees.'

During Lieutenant Graves's communication with the natives, at Pecket's
Harbour, he obtained some interesting information respecting these Indians,
which will be given in a subsequent part of the work.

The Adelaide brought me a few very gratifying additions to my zoological
collection, among which was the Zorillo, or Skunk, of the Pampas; differing
in no way whatever from the species found about the River Plata, in such
numbers as to impregnate the air with their disagreeable odour for many
miles around.

I have frequently found the scent of this offensive little animal
distinctly perceptible when I was on board the Adventure, lying at anchor
about two miles from Monte Video, with the wind blowing from the land.[112]

{185}

A very large condor was shot by one of the Adelaide's party, which
measured, in length, four feet three inches and a half, and nine feet two
inches between the extremities of the wings. It was presented to the
British Museum. Many exaggerated accounts of this bird have been given by
old voyagers; but the largest dimensions stated, of whose accuracy there
exists no doubt, are those of one that was preserved in the Leverian
Museum, which measured thirteen feet one inch, from wing to wing. This,
however, must have been an old bird; for the one we killed is larger than
the usual size of specimens which have been obtained. Molina states, in his
account of this bird, vol. i. p. 298, that the largest he ever saw measured
fourteen feet and some inches (Spanish measure), from the tip of one wing
to that of the other. M. Humboldt also gives a detailed description.

It is with the condor, says this celebrated voyager, "as with the
Patagonian, and many other objects of natural history; the more they are
examined, the more they diminish in size." They inhabit the highest
mountains of the Andes, and only descend to the plains when pressed by
hunger. Frequently, in troops, they attack cattle, deer, guanacoes, and
even the puma, and always succeed in killing them; but their principal food
is carrion, of which, in a country so abundantly stocked with quadrupeds,
there is probably no want.

Our departure from the Strait was attended with beautiful weather; the moon
was full, and the wind fair and moderate. {186} Cape Virgins was passed
soon after sunset, and we proceeded on our course with rapidity.

The timely supply of guanaco meat had certainly checked the scurvy, for we
had no new cases added to the number of the sick, now amounting to twenty.
The Beagle was not so sickly; but, during the last cruise, upwards of forty
cases, principally pulmonic, had occurred, and several were not yet
recovered. On the passage, a man fell overboard from the Beagle, at night,
and was drowned.

In latitude 45° S. we were delayed three days, by northerly winds and damp
foggy weather, after which a fresh S.W. gale carried us into the River
Plata. Having obtained good chronometer sights in the afternoon, we steered
on through the night, intending to pass to the westward of the Archimedes
Shoal; which would have been rather a rash step, had we not been well
assured of the correctness of our chronometrical reckoning. At this time
Brazil and Buenos Ayres were at war, and some of the blockading squadron of
the former were generally to be met with in the mouth of the river; but we
saw none, until half-past two in the morning, when several vessels were
observed at anchor to leeward, and we were soon close to a squadron of
brigs and schooners, whose number was evident by a confusion of lights,
rockets, and musketry, on board every vessel. I bore down to pass within
hail of the nearest, which proved to be the Commodore's, the Marañao of
eighteen guns; and on approaching, explained who and what we were; but they
were so confused, I could not even make myself understood. The breeze, at
the time, had fallen so light, that, fearing to get foul of the brig, the
ship was hove up in the wind, and the anchor ordered to be let go.
Unluckily a stopper was foul, and before another bower could drop, the
Brazilians had fired several muskets into us, happily without doing any
mischief; and threatened us, if we did not immediately anchor, with a
broadside, which, in their utter confusion, I am astonished they did not
fire.

[Illustration: A. Earle T. A. Prior

MONTE VIDEO.--CUSTOM HOUSE.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{187} Having anchored, and lowered the topsails, I sent a boat to inform
the Brazilian who we were, and to request, that in consequence of the
number of our sick (we had only ten serviceable men on deck), we might not
be detained, as even a few hours might prove of serious consequence; but
all I could urge was unavailing, and we were detained until daylight with
trifling excuses. We were so situated, that unless the brig veered her
cable, or dropped out of our way, we could not move without getting foul of
her, else I should have proceeded without permission. After daylight, the
brig gave us room, by tripping her anchor; and upon an officer coming on
board to release us, I told him my opinion of the affair, and said I should
report the captain's conduct to his admiral. This report was afterwards
made, in a very spirited manner, by Captain Henry Dundas, of H.M.S.
Sapphire; but the admiral defended the conduct of his officer by saying
that he had merely acted, "magna componere parvis," as an English
blockading squadron would have done in a similar case.

Whether the act was borne out, or not, by the law or custom of blockade, it
was very uncivil; and one for which, after the explanation given, and the
proofs offered, there could not be the slightest occasion. Owing to this
detention, we did not reach the anchorage at Monte Video until too late in
the day to procure refreshments for the sick. We found, to our sorrow, that
fresh provisions were so extremely scarce, owing to the war, that none
could be procured for our ships' companies; and had it not been for the
kindness of Señor Juanico, a well-known, and highly esteemed resident at
Monte Video, who supplied us plentifully with bitter (Seville) oranges, we
might have been much distressed. The free use, however, of this fruit alone
caused a rapid change in the health of those affected by scurvy, and in
less than a week every man was at his duty.

A few days after our arrival, through the intervention of the British
minister, a peace was concluded between the belligerents, in which Buenos
Ayres gained all it had contended for, and Brazil gave up what she had so
imperiously demanded.

I was extremely gratified by meeting, at this port, the late Captain Henry
Foster, in H.M.S. Chanticleer, on his pendulum voyage. He was established
at an observatory on a small island, called Rat, or Rabbit Island, whither
I lost no {188} time in proceeding, and found him deeply engaged in that
series of observations which has reflected so much honour upon his memory.

Before he sailed, I made an arrangement to meet the Chanticleer, either at
Staten Land or Cape Horn, for the purpose of supplying her with provisions,
to enable him to proceed thence to the Cape of Good Hope, without returning
to Monte Video.

On the 13th of October, we sailed for Rio de Janeiro to procure some
stores, which had been sent from England for our use, and to be caulked and
refitted. The Beagle remained at Monte Video, to prepare for our next
cruise. Before we were ready to leave Rio de Janeiro, the
Commander-in-chief, Sir Robert Otway, arrived from Bahia, in his flag-ship,
the Ganges. Sir Robert acquainted me, that he considered it necessary for
the Beagle to be hove down and repaired;--that he intended to supersede
Lieutenant Skyring; and had sent the requisite orders to Monte Video. When
the Beagle arrived, Lieutenant Robert Fitz Roy, flag lieutenant of the
Ganges, was appointed as commander; Mr. J. Kempe, mate, as lieutenant; and
Mr. M. Murray, second master of the Ganges, as master.

Although this arrangement was undoubtedly the prerogative of the
Commander-in-chief, and I had no reason to complain of the selection he had
made to fill the vacancies, yet it seemed hard that Lieutenant Skyring, who
had in every way so well earned his promotion, should be deprived of an
appointment to which he very naturally considered himself entitled.

The conduct of Lieutenant Skyring, throughout the whole of his service in
the Beagle,--especially during the survey of the Gulf of Peñas, and the
melancholy illness of his captain,--deserved the highest praise and
consideration; but he was obliged to return to his former station as
assistant surveyor: and, to his honour be it said, with an equanimity and
good-will, which showed his thorough zeal for the service.

Captain FitzRoy was considered qualified to command the Beagle: and
although I could not but feel much for the bitterness of Lieutenant
Skyring's disappointment, I had no other cause for dissatisfaction.

[Illustration: A. Earle S. Bull

CORCOVADO MOUNTAIN, RIO DE JANEIRO.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

       *       *       *       *       *


{189}

CHAPTER XII.

  Adventure sails from Rio de Janeiro to the River Plata--Gorriti--
  Maldonado--Extraordinary Pampero--Beagle's losses--Ganges arrives--
  Another pampero--Go up the river for water--Gale, and consequent
  detention--Sail from Monte Video--Part from our consorts--Port Desire--
  Tower Rock--Skeletons--Sea Bear Bay--Fire--Guanacoes--Port Desire Inlet--
  Indian graves--Vessels separate--Captain Foster Chanticleer--Cape
  Horn--Kater's Peak--Sail from St. Martin Cove--Tribute to Captain
  Foster--Valparaiso--Santiago--Pinto--Heights--Chilóe--Aldunate.

The Adventure sailed from Rio de Janeiro on the 27th of December 1828,
leaving the Beagle to complete her repairs, and follow to the River Plata.
The day before our arrival at Maldonado, we were overtaken by the
Commander-in-chief, in H.M.S. Ganges, and entered the river in company. The
Ganges proceeded to Monte Video; but we went into Maldonado Bay, where I
had determined to wait for the Beagle.

Since our last visit to this place, the Island of Gorriti had been occupied
by Brazilian troops, who, before going away, set fire to the buildings, and
destroyed all the wood-work. As one object of my stay was to obtain
observations for the latitude and longitude, I erected our portable
observatory, and set up an azimuth altitude instrument.

On the 30th of January, after some intensely hot and sultry weather, we
experienced a very severe 'Pampero.' It was preceded by the barometer
falling to 29.50, and by a strong N.W. wind, which suddenly veered round to
S.W., when the pampero burst upon us. Our ship and boats fortunately
escaped any bad effects from the violence of the squall, which was so
strong as to lay the former, at anchor, upon her broadside; but on shore
our tent was blown down, and a boat that had been lately built, and fresh
painted, on the Island Gorriti, was completely destroyed. The part above
the thwarts, was torn away from the bottom of the boat, and carried, by the
violence of the wind, for two hundred yards along the beach. A boat, also,
{190} on the opposite shore, was blown to atoms. When the squall commenced,
one of our boats was coming off from the island; the officer being quite
unconscious of the approaching hurricane, and as she was overloaded with
people, I felt very uneasy until after the squall cleared away, when I
observed her beached on the opposite shore, many yards above high water
mark, to which position she had been driven by the force of the wind. The
violence of this pampero, during the twenty minutes it lasted, was
terrific. Old inhabitants of Maldonado declared, that they had experienced
nothing like it for the last twenty years. The spray was carried up by
whirlwinds, threatening complete destruction to every thing that opposed
them. In less than half an hour it had diminished to a strong S.W. gale,
which lasted during the night.

Just before the pampero commenced, L'Aréthuse, French frigate, was observed
over the point of land under all sail; but not being seen after the squall
cleared off, we were much alarmed for her safety. At daylight, however, the
next morning, she was seen at anchor under Lobos Island, and near her was
our consort, the Beagle, of whose approach we had known nothing; but she
appeared to be lying quietly, with topmasts struck, under the lee of the
island. L'Aréthuse slipped her cable in the afternoon, and ran out to sea.

On the 1st of February the wind moderated, and enabled the Beagle to join
us, when we found that she had been nearly capsized by the pampero; and had
suffered a considerable loss of sails and masts, besides injury to her
boats. Both topmasts, and jib-boom, with all the small spars, were carried
away; and her jib and topsails, although furled, were blown to pieces. The
vessel was on her beam ends for some time; but letting go both anchors
brought her head to wind and righted her, which prevented the necessity of
cutting away the lower masts. To add to their misfortune, two men were
blown overboard, from aloft, and drowned.

These severe losses caused considerable detention; but, fortunately, the
Ganges arrived, and rendered every assistance in repairing and replacing
the Beagle's damages.

{191}

On the night of the 2d of February we experienced another very severe
pampero, during which one of the Beagle's boats, hauled up on shore, was
blown to atoms. The barometer had previously fallen to 29.39.

On the 9th of February, we went to Monte Video, and on the 17th ran up the
north side of the river for water; but did not find it fresh until we were
within four miles of Cape 'Jesus Maria.' The wind was against our return,
so that we had to beat down the river, in doing which the Adelaide
grounded, but without receiving any injury. We anchored twice in our
passage out, and, at the second anchorage,[113] experienced a very heavy
westerly gale. In attempting to weigh at its commencement, our windlass was
so much injured, that we were obliged to ride the gale out, which we did by
veering to one hundred and ten fathoms of chain cable; and the Beagle, to
one hundred and fifty fathoms. Owing to a short heavy sea, in which the
Adventure frequently pitched her bowsprit and stern alternately under
water, her jolly-boat was washed away. This loss we could ill afford, as we
were already three boats short of our establishment, and wants; and as the
Adelaide had suffered severely, by losing her topmast and jib-boom, and
carrying away the head of her bowsprit, we were obliged to return, very
reluctantly, after the gale had subsided, to Monte Video; whence we finally
sailed on the 1st of March. On the 5th a S.S.E. gale separated us from our
consorts, our course, therefore, was directed for the first rendezvous, at
Port Desire.

When off Cape Blanco, the high land of Espinosa, in the interior, was
clearly distinguished at a distance of sixty miles, and might probably be
seen twenty miles further; so that its height must be, at least, four
thousand feet. This range is of irregular form, and has several peaked
summits, so very different from the general features of this coast, where
the heights are either flat-topped, or of an undulating outline, that I
suppose the rock to be of a character unlike that of the porphyry hills
common hereabouts.

{192}

On anchoring off Port Desire (14th), we found that the Beagle had arrived,
but had not met the Adelaide. The following afternoon I landed to examine
the Tower Rock, a very conspicuous object, on the south side of this
harbour, having the appearance of an enormous dead tree with its branches
lopped off. On our way to it we passed over an undulating plain, composed
of a sandy light soil, lying on a rocky basis, which in many parts
protruded. The soil was so poor, as only to produce a few tufts of grass,
and here and there a straggling bush of Berberis, or Piccoli, a dwarf woody
shrub, which is much esteemed as firewood by the sealers who frequent the
coast. Sir John Narborough, in describing this place, says, "The soil is
gravelly and sandy, with tufts of dry seared grass growing on it;" again:
"from the tops of the hills I could see a great way into the land, which is
all hills and downs, like Cornwall, toilsome travelling to those who were
not used to it."

The Tower Rock is evidently the remains of what was once probably a
considerable rocky mass, which has either been partially destroyed by some
convulsion, or, more probably, has been gradually worn away by the effect
of weather. Like all the débris around, it is of a fine-grained red
porphyritic claystone, much decomposed, but very hard, and difficult to
break.[114]

It stands erect at the summit of a mound or heap of broken stones, of all
sizes, some being very large blocks, from ten to twenty, or thirty tons
weight. It is about forty feet high, and twelve in diameter, having its
upper portion cleft, as it were, for about one-third down the middle, which
gives it a resemblance to the forked branch of an immense tree. It is
covered with moss and lichen, and, from its peculiar shape and prominent
situation, presents a very remarkable object.

Near it we observed traces of an Indian visit, among which was a horse's
skull. From the sterility of the soil and absence of fresh water, it is
probable that it is but little frequented by them. Port Desire is
celebrated as being the place where {193} Schouten, the Dutch navigator, is
said to have found skeletons measuring eleven or twelve feet in length!

Captain Fitz Roy informed me that he had not seen the Adelaide since we
separated. The Beagle had lost another boat in the gale; the eleventh we
had lost in the expedition since leaving England. As the Adelaide did not
make her appearance, I determined upon proceeding in the Adventure to Sea
Bear Bay, a few miles to the southward of Port Desire, to await her arrival
with the Beagle. While standing into the bay, we were amused by a chase of
a novel description: a guanaco was observed following a fox, which had much
difficulty in keeping his pursuer at a distance. As the guanaco is not
carnivorous, it may have been in playfulness: Reynard, however, by his
speed, and anxiety to escape, did not seem to think it an amusement. How
the chase terminated we did not see, for they disappeared in a valley.

While the ship was being moored, I landed to examine some wells near the
outer point, which have been said to afford some tuns of good water. I
found them to be deep holes in the solid rock, within the wash of a heavy
surf, and large enough to contain two hundred gallons of water; but in one
only was the water fresh, the sea having broken into the others, and, of
course, spoiled their contents. They receive the rain from the ravines, and
are much depended upon by sealing vessels which frequent this coast.

Sea Bear Bay was discovered in the voyage of the Nodales, in the year 1618;
they describe the place, but give it, as it deserves, a very poor
character. "The port," they say, "for a short stay, is not bad, since it
affords a good depth of water and a clear bottom; but otherwise it
possesses nothing to make it worth a ship visiting it, for there is neither
wood nor water, which are what ships most require." Nodales called the bay
'Sea Lion,' from the multitude of sea-lions (_Phoca jubata_) found on
Penguin Island. Why it has been changed to Sea Bear Bay I cannot determine.

In one of Mr. Tarn's excursions into the country, he observed a sail in the
offing, which he thought was a whale-boat; and {194} supposing it might be
in distress, if not one of the Adelaide's, kindled a fire to attract
attention. As the grass was very dry, it blazed furiously, and spread
rapidly around, yet without exciting fear that it could do us any injury;
but the next morning flames being observed on the crest of the hills,
behind the valley in which our tent had been erected, a boat was sent to
save it, and remove the instruments. Our men had just left the ship, when,
fanned by a land breeze which rose with the sun, the flames flew on with
rapidity, descended the valley, and before the boat reached the shore, had
consumed every vestige of the tent, and several articles of minor
consequence. The sextant and artificial horizon, lying on the ground,
escaped destruction, and the dipping-needle had fortunately been taken on
board. Before the fire burned itself out, the whole country for fifteen or
twenty miles around was completely over-run, so that all hope of procuring
guanacoes was destroyed. Previous to the fire, Mr. Tarn had shot one; but
being young, the carcase only weighed one hundred pounds, and was scarcely
worth the trouble of sending fifteen miles for; however, as an amusement to
the people, I sent a party to bring it on board, and it proved sufficient
to furnish the ship's company with a fresh meal.

We had seen several herds within four miles of the ship before the
conflagration; but the country was so very level and open, that these shy
animals were always warned of the approach of our people by their vigilant
scouts. So watchful and attentive is the look-out at his post, that he
never drops his head even to feed, and it is only with the greatest cunning
and care a man can get near the herd. The best way is, to lie concealed
near the water holes, and await their coming to drink. A small stream of
fresh water trickled over the beach into the bay, fringed by a patch of
grass which the fire had spared, at which having once observed a guanaco
drinking, we set a watch; but whether the animals were aware of it or not,
none came until the morning we sailed, when a small herd walked down to the
place quite unconcernedly, having no doubt first ascertained that there was
no danger. {195}

The little vessel Mr. Tarn saw was an American sealer, which anchored in
the bay next morning.

Besides the guanacoes, and fox, above-mentioned, we saw no quadrupeds,
although two or three sorts of cavia and the puma are common in this
neighbourhood. Of birds, nothing interesting was seen, except a plover
(_Totanus fuscus_?), oyster-catcher (_Hæmatopus niger, rostro rubro,
pedibus albis_), and one of the night bitterns, very much resembling the
young of the European bird;[115] but these three species had previously
been found at Port Famine. Several lizards were taken, and preserved.

This extremely sterile and barren country is very unfavourable for animals
of any kind. The soil is like that already described about Port Desire. The
rock is of the same character as at Port St. Elena and Port Desire: red
porphyritic claystone.[116]

On the 23d of March, a week having passed since we came to Port Desire, my
anxiety for the Adelaide's safety was much increased; especially as both
wind and weather had been favourable for her approach to this rendezvous. I
therefore despatched Lieut. Wickham overland to Port Desire to order the
Beagle to join us, and proceed with us to the other points of rendezvous,
Port San Julian and Cape Fairweather. Lieut. Wickham reached Port Desire
after a fatiguing walk, and early next morning the Beagle was beating into
Sea Bear Bay against a very strong wind which increased, and detained us. I
seized this opportunity of completing our consort's provisions to five
months. Captain Fitz Roy informed me that he had taken advantage of his
stay at Port Desire, to ascend the inlet to the head. It extended for
thirty miles, and the water was salt to its very extremity; but, from the
height of the old banks on each side, it appeared likely that at times
there may be considerable freshes. At the head of the river he lighted a
fire, {196} which spread, and soon joined that which Mr. Tarn had made.
Their union probably burned many square leagues of country.

On the 27th, we were still detained by a southerly gale. Captain Fitz Roy
accompanied me in search of Indian graves, which are described to be on the
summits of the hills. We found the remains of two, one of which had been
recently disturbed, but the other had been opened a considerable time.

No vestiges of bones were left. It is said that the corpse is extended in
an east and west direction, on the top of the highest pinnacle of the hill,
and then covered over with large stones until secure from beasts of prey.
Decomposition takes place, or the flesh is consumed by small animals or
insects, without the bones being removed, so that complete skeletons are
formed. According to Falkner, the bones are collected at a certain period,
and removed to some general cemetery, where the skeletons are set up, and
tricked out with all the finery the Indians can collect. The avidity they
evince for beads and other ornamental trifles is, perhaps, caused by this
desire of adorning the remains of their ancestors.

The next morning we left Sea Bear Bay and proceeded to San Julian, off
which we anchored for a few hours, while Captain Fitz Roy entered the port
to look for the Adelaide, or for some vestige of Lieutenant Graves's visit.
Finding nothing in the port, nor any tracks upon the shore, we went on
towards Cape Fairweather, and in our way met the Adelaide. After parting
from us during the gale in which all her sails were split, she went to Port
Desire, where she arrived first, and, not seeing us, proceeded to the two
other places of rendezvous, and had been lying at anchor eight days off
Cape Fairweather. Finding we were not there, she was returning to Port San
Julian, when we met her.

The weather being calm, so good an opportunity of supplying the Adelaide
with provisions was not lost, and she was completed to six months.

On the 1st of April we were off Cape Virgins, and parted from the Beagle
and Adelaide; Captain Fitz Roy having previously received orders from me to
proceed through the Strait of Magalhaens, and despatch the Adelaide to
survey the {197} Magdalen and Barbara Channels, while he was to survey part
of the south shore of the Strait and the Jerome Channel, and then proceed,
in company with the Adelaide, to Chilóe.

The Adventure then proceeded along the coast of Tierra del Fuego towards
Staten Land, for the purpose of communicating with the Chanticleer, or
obtaining some intelligence of her. The appointed rendezvous was New Year's
Harbour, and the day on which I had promised to be there was past.

It was so foggy that no part of the coast of Tierra del Fuego could be
seen; but as any detention might cause Captain Foster inconvenience, I did
not wait for fair weather, but went at once to the place appointed.

When crossing Strait le Maire, we were very nearly drifted through by the
tide, which, however, changed just in time to admit of our keeping on the
north side of Staten Land.

With a strong squally breeze we entered New Year's Harbour, and seeing
nothing of the Chanticleer, should have sailed without further
investigation, had we not observed a cleared white space on one of the
islands, which being near the place where I had requested Captain Foster to
leave a document, I concluded was intended to attract our attention. The
anchor was therefore dropped in twenty-five fathoms (the island bearing
from N. to N.W. ¼ W.), nearly in the spot where Captain Cook anchored, and
a boat was sent to the white mark, near which a flag-staff was observed, at
whose foot was a tin canister, containing a letter from Captain Foster,
which informed me of his having been obliged, in consequence of a longer
detention here than he had anticipated, to alter his arrangements, and
requesting me to meet him at St. Martin's Cove, near Cape Horn, about this
day. We therefore lost no time in getting under weigh, but in doing so,
broke an anchor. We passed round Cape St. John, and with a fair wind made
rapid progress to the westward. At noon, the next day, being seventy-five
miles from Cape Horn, bearing W. by S., the high mountains on the S.E. end
of Tierra del Fuego came in sight, among which the 'Sugar Loaf'(g) was a
conspicuous object. {198} By an angular measurement of its altitude, and
the distance given by the chart, its height must be nearly five thousand
feet, and the average height of its neighbouring mountains full three
thousand.

A south-west gale now set in, and delayed our reaching Cape Horn until the
16th, when we anchored off the entrance of St. Martin's Cove and found the
Chanticleer moored within. A boat soon after came with the welcome
information of all being well on board her. We were not able to warp into
the Cove until next day, and in doing so found much difficulty, owing to
the violence of the squalls, which repeatedly obliged us to slacken the
hawsers quickly, else we should have carried them away.

The Adventure was moored in seventeen fathoms, about a cable's length
within the low green point on the south side: and the Chanticleer lay in
ten fathoms near the head of the Cove. The summit of Cape Horn being in a
line with the south point of entrance, we were quite land-locked, and
perfectly sheltered from all winds, excepting the williwaws, or furious
gusts from off the high land, which sometimes suddenly struck the ship, and
threw her on her broadside; but being as momentary in duration as they were
sudden in approach, we found them more disagreeable than dangerous.

During our stay here I made a partial survey of the Bay of St. Francis,
which has since been completed by Captain Fitz Roy. St. Joachim's Cove, to
the southward of St. Martin's Cove, is more exposed than the latter, but is
of easier depth. These coves are separated from each other by a steep and
precipitous mass of hills of greenstone, which in many parts appear to be
stratified, the dip being to the westward, at an angle of 40°. I landed at
the point, and ascended the hill, which I found more difficult to do than I
supposed, the whole surface being covered with stunted beech bushes, so
thickly matted or interwoven together, that I was obliged to walk or crawl
over their tops. Among them were occasionally seen the berberis ilicifolia
and veronica, the latter of very small size. Another day, Lieutenant
Kendall, of the Chanticleer, accompanied me {199} to Weddel's Port Maxwell,
which is evidently St. Bernard's Cove of D'Arquistade.(h) Port Maxwell is
contained between Jerdan Island, Saddle Island, and a third island, forming
a triangle. It has four entrances, the principal one being to the north of
Jerdan Island, and affords tolerable anchorage in the centre, in nineteen
and twenty fathoms, sand;[117] nearer the shores of the island the depth is
more moderate, but the bottom is very rocky.

The summit of Saddle Island, which I ascended for bearings, is composed of
large blocks of greenstone rock, on one of which the compass (Kater's
Azimuth, without a stand) was placed; but the needle was found to be so
much influenced by the ferruginous nature of the rock, composed of quartz
and feldspar, thickly studded with large crystals of hornblende, that the
poles of the needle became exactly reversed. An experiment was then made,
by taking bearings of a very distant object, at several stations around,
about fifty yards from the magnetic rock, when the extreme difference of
the results amounted to 127°. The block upon which the compass stood, in
the first instance, is now conspicuously placed in the museum of the
Geological Society.[118]

Saddle Island, like the others near it, is clothed with low stunted
brushwood of beech, berberis, and arbutus, and the ground is covered with a
species of chamitis, and other mountain plants. While Mr. Kendall and I
were absent from the boat, the crew caught several kelp fish, which are
very delicate and wholesome food. On the following day, while going with
Mr. Kendall to Wollaston Island, we passed a great many whales, leaping and
tumbling in the water. A blow from one {200} of them would have destroyed
our boat, and I was glad to cross the Sound without getting within their
reach. We returned by the west side of Jerdan Island, where there are
bights which might afford shelter to a small vessel.

The Sound that separates Wollaston Island from the Bay of St. Francis, I
named after Sir John Franklin, and the harbour to the east of the point on
which we landed, after Lieutenant Kendall, who was one of Sir John
Franklin's companions in his last journey to the north-west coast of
America.

On the west point of Kendall Harbour, I observed a magnetic property in the
rock, which is of the same character as that on Saddle Island. Weddel
noticed the same at St. Martin's Cove; but I placed the compass in various
parts of that cove, without observing any difference from the correct
bearing. This was, perhaps, owing to the rock being much covered with soil;
for, being of the same character with that of the places above-mentioned,
it should cause a similar effect.

The next day S.W. gales and thick weather set in, and confined us almost to
the ship. Taking advantage of a short interval of more moderate weather, I
ascended the highest peak on the south side of the cove, immediately over
the anchorage, taking two barometers, one of the Englefield construction,
and the other a syphon barometer, on M. Gay Lussac's plan, made by Bunten,
of Paris. Mr. Harrison accompanied me, taking charge of one barometer,
whilst I carried the other. My coxswain carried a theodolite. On landing,
the barometers were set up at the edge of the water and read off, and at
the same moment the barometer on board was read off. We then ascended, but
the rise was so precipitously steep as to offer very great impediments; and
had it not been for a water-course, in whose bed we climbed for the first
part, the ascent, with delicate instruments, would have been almost
impracticable. We had ascended but little way, when the unfortunate
theodolite escaped from my coxswain, rolled down the ravine, and was much
damaged. It was an excellent magnetic transit, and for that purpose was
irremediably injured; but, as a theodolite, it was yet useful. The first
third of the ascent, from the {201} comparative facility offered by the
water-course, was only impeded by loose stones, which frequently yielded to
the foot, and rolled down the gully, to the great danger of those who
followed. The banks of the ravine were saturated with water, and covered
either with spongy moss, or matted with plants,[119] which afforded no
assistance; had it not therefore been for straggling shrubs of arbutus, or
veronica, and tufts of rushes, growing on the steeper parts, we should have
had many a fall; and however unimportant we might think bruises and
scratches, a broken barometer would have been a serious accident, and much
care was required to avoid it. We had to leave the bed of the torrent, when
it became full of wood, and then our difficulty increased much; for in many
places we had to scramble over the thickly-matted and interwoven branches
of the stunted bushes of beech which frequently yielded to our weight, and
entangled our legs so much, that it was no easy matter to extricate
ourselves.

At the height of one thousand feet, vegetation became much more stunted; we
found the plants and shrubs of very diminutive size, consisting principally
of the deciduous-leaved beech, one plant of which, though not more than two
inches high, occupied a space of four or five feet in diameter, its
spreading branches insinuating themselves among wild cranberry, chamitis,
donacia, arbutus, and escalonia, so closely matted together, as to form
quite an elastic carpet. For the last two hundred feet, we walked over the
bare rock, on which no other vegetation was observed than lichens. The
summit of the peak is formed by a loose pile of green-stone rock, in which
the hornblende appears in very varied forms, sometimes in large crystals,
and again so small and disseminated, as to be scarcely visible; on the
summit it is seen, in very long, narrow (? filiform) crystals, and the
feldspar predominating, gives it a white appearance.[120]

The only living creatures we saw were a solitary hawk and {202} one insect,
a species of Oniscus. Nothing, in fact, could be more desolate, and we had
only the satisfaction of a good observation for the height, and an
excellent bird's-eye view of the surrounding islands and channel, to repay
us for the labour of the ascent. On reaching the top, the barometers were
suspended under the lee of the rock, twelve feet below its summit, and I
then proceeded to set up the theodolite, which I found more damaged than I
had anticipated; but not so much as to deprive me of a very extensive round
of angles, in which were contained bearings of the Ildefonso Islands. We
were thus occupied about an hour and half, which afforded me an opportunity
of obtaining two good readings of the barometer.

The view to the N.W. was very extensive, and bounded by long ranges of
snow-clad mountains of great height; the atmosphere was remarkably clear,
and every object unusually distinct. Bearings of the islands of Diego
Ramirez would have been taken, but for the extreme force of the wind, which
more than once blew me from the theodolite, and once actually threw me on
the ground. The temperature was not below 38°; but, owing to the wind, the
cold was intense, and the rapid evaporation produced the most painful
sensations, particularly in our feet and legs, which were thoroughly wet
when we reached the top.

Our descent was not effected in less than an hour and twenty minutes, owing
to the difficulty of passing through the beech thickets; but we reached the
base without injury to the barometers, which was being more fortunate than
I expected. They were again set up on the beach, and read; after which we
returned on board, amply gratified and rewarded for our fatigue.

The height of the peak, which, from its vicinity to the station selected by
Captain Foster for the pendulum experiments, could not receive a more
appropriate name than Kater's Peak, was found to be 1,742 feet above the
high-water mark.[121]

{203}

The next day, after a beautifully clear and mild morning, with a fresh
northerly breeze, the weather became cloudy, and the wind veered to the
S.W. blowing excessively hard, with hail and rain. The gusts, or williwaws,
rushed through the valley of the cove with inconceivable violence, heaving
the ship over on her broadside every minute, so that we were obliged to
have every thing lashed as if at sea. Fortunately, we had completed wood
and water, and now only waited for observations, to rate the chronometers,
for our run to Valparaiso, whither it was my intention to proceed. Days,
however, passed without a glimpse of the stars, and the sun only appeared
for a few minutes above the hills. Captain Foster had completed his
observations, and embarked all his instruments, excepting the transit,
which remained for taking the passages of stars; but the bad weather
continued, with little intermission. On the 3d, the gale was most violent,
and the williwaws became short hurricanes, in some of which the ship
drifted and fouled her anchors. On the 10th, we had a dry and fair day,
which permitted us to sight the anchors and moor again.

The fine weather was of only a few hours duration, when the gale again
sprung up, and lasted, with little intermission, until the day of our
departure (the 24th). From the 4th to the 22d the sky was so perpetually
clouded, that the only transits obtained in that interval were, one of
Antares, one of Regulus, and one of the limb of the moon, though Captain
Foster even slept close to the telescope, in the greatest anxiety to obtain
observations. On the night of the 22d four stars were {204} observed, by
which the error of the clock was satisfactorily ascertained.

Captain Foster's pluviameter, a cubic foot in size, placed on a stand two
feet above the ground, at an elevation of forty-five feet above the sea,
contained eight inches and a quarter of rain, after standing thirty days;
therefore, with the quantity evaporated, at least twelve inches must have
fallen. The day after the above was registered, the vessel only contained
seven inches and a quarter; so that in twenty-four hours one inch had
evaporated, by which an idea may be formed of the sort of weather we
experienced, and of the humidity of the climate.

With respect to the geological features, I can only add, that all the
islands on which I landed, and, I believe, all the others, are composed of
green-stone of various characters. The lower portion, or base, being less
decomposed, is a fine-grained green-coloured rock, in which the component
parts are so blended as not to be distinguished from each other. It appears
sometimes in strata, dipping at various angles, from 20° to 45° from the
vertical; and is very similar to the rock which alternates with granite in
the Straits of Magalhaens, at the entrance of the Barbara; and also to that
about Pond Harbour, and Bell Bay. At a greater elevation the feldspar
predominates, the hornblende is observed in distinct crystals,[122] and the
rock contains a considerable quantity of iron, which is observed in the
reddish tinge of its surface. I have before noticed the magnetic property
of this rock, which was more or less according to the quantity of
hornblende: the beach-stones are different sorts of green-stone.

The lower parts of the hills, around St. Martin's Cove, are thickly wooded
with the smooth-leaved, evergreen beech, which I have before described. Its
leaves were as fresh and vivid, when we sailed, as if it were the height of
summer; but those of the deciduous-leaved beech had assumed their autumnal
tint, and were falling fast. Neither species attained a greater size, in
diameter, than six or eight inches. The Winter's-bark was {205} found in
sheltered places, but not larger in dimensions than the beech.[123] Where
no trees are produced, the ground is covered with tufts of chamitis and
donacia, which, being of a bright-green colour, give the sides of the hills
a lively and verdant appearance. Had the state of the weather permitted our
boats to leave the neighbourhood of the cove, or had the woods afforded any
addition to collections for natural history, our detention would have been
more agreeable; but, with the exception of a few corvorants, divers, and
'steamers,' with now and then a solitary hawk, or a Patagonian 'warbler,'
we saw no traces of animal life. No Indians came near us, having been
frightened away by the Chanticleer; for when Captain Foster was absent at
night, after attempting to land at Cape Horn, several rockets were fired
off as signals, and a few Indians who were then in the cove were so much
alarmed, that they went away next day, and never afterwards showed
themselves, although I dare say we were very narrowly watched by them.

Having supplied the Chanticleer with the provisions she required, we
prepared to leave St. Martin's Cove. On the 24th the Chanticleer sailed,
and in two hours after we also left this dismal cove, in which we
experienced a succession of very bad weather, an almost constant S.W. wind,
and for the last month a scarcely ceasing fall of either rain, hail, or
snow. The Chanticleer bore away round Cape Horn, and was soon out of sight.

This was my last meeting with Captain Foster, who, the night before we
sailed, communicated to me a presentiment, which he could not shake off,
that he should not survive the voyage. I cannot now resist indulging in the
melancholy satisfaction of saying a few words to the memory of my late
excellent {206} friend, and lamenting, with many others, the severe loss
which science suffered in his death. He was a fellow of the Royal, and
Astronomical Societies, and to the former had contributed, to use the words
of His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, as President of the Royal
Society, a most valuable and extensive series of observations upon the
diurnal variation, diurnal intensity, and dip of the magnetic needle; and
upon other subjects connected with the terrestrial magnetism and
astronomical refraction, which formed an entire fourth part of the
Philosophical Transactions for the year 1826. For these papers he received
the Copley medal; and the Lords of the Admiralty acknowledged their sense
of the honour which was thus conferred upon the profession to which he
belonged, by immediately raising him to the rank of Commander, and by
appointing him to the command of the Chanticleer, upon a voyage of
discovery and observation in the South Seas. The address of the President
of the Royal Astronomical Society, at the anniversary meeting,[124] also
bears ample testimony to his active and useful services in the expedition,
under Captain Parry, towards the North Pole; as well as to his ardent zeal,
very great attention, and accuracy, in every thing which he undertook for
the promotion of science; and concludes the notice of his death in the
following words: "In the premature death of this young and accomplished
officer, the Society has to deplore the loss of a zealous and active votary
to science; and his memory will be long held dear by those who were more
intimately acquainted with him in the relations of private life." Captain
Foster was unfortunately drowned, near the close of his voyage, while
descending the River Chagres in a canoe.

No sooner had we cleared the land, than we found a strong westerly wind,
and a heavy sea; so that if we had entertained any expectation of making a
quiet passage to the westward, we should have been disappointed.

The land of Hermite Island, and its vicinity, has a most remarkable
appearance when seen from the south. Its outline is a series of peaks,
following each other in regular succession, {207} and resembling the worn
teeth of an old saw. Mount Hyde is made sufficiently distinct by its
rounded apex, and by being higher than any land near it. Kater's Peak also
is remarkable in this view, from its conical form and very pointed summit,
and from being situated at the eastern end of the island. The 'Horn' itself
needs no description; it cannot easily be mistaken.[125]

Westerly winds carried us as far as 60° south latitude before we could make
any westing, and then we had a slant from the eastward, followed by
variable winds. Our run to Valparaiso was much like all other voyages in
this climate; we had the usual quantity of foul and fair winds, with a
share of tempestuous weather, and arrived at Valparaiso Bay on the 22d of
June. While remaining here our chronometers were cleaned, and some of them
repaired; and the ship was refitted and provisioned, with a full supply for
the Beagle and Adelaide as well as herself.

At the latter end of July, Lieutenant Wickham accompanied me to Santiago,
the capital of Chile, ninety miles from the port, for the purpose of
waiting upon General Pinto, the Director; and communicating to him the
purpose of our voyage, to prevent exciting suspicion, or receiving any
interruption on the part of the authorities of places we might visit,
particularly Chilóe, where our stay might be viewed with distrust or
apprehension; for rumour had already said that the English were about to
take that island. Ridiculous as such a report was, I deemed it sufficiently
important to induce me to explain to the Chilian Government our views and
orders, which could be done better by personal explanation than by a
correspondence.

We commenced our journey early on the 11th of July, travelling in a covered
chaise, drawn by three horses, one in {208} the shafts, and the others
outside, attached to the carriage by a single trace of hide; and preceded
by a drove of horses, from which, at the end of every stage of twelve or
fifteen miles, we selected a relay. The day was so very stormy, that we saw
but little of the country. Immediately after leaving the Almendral, or
suburbs of Valparaiso, we ascended twelve hundred feet, and then descended
about four hundred feet to an extensive plain, reaching to the Cuesta de
Zapato, the summit of which, at least the highest part of the road over it,
we found by barometrical measurement to be 1,977 feet above the sea. In the
interval we passed through the village of Casa Blanca, lying eight hundred
and three feet above the sea. After passing the Cuesta de Zapato, between
it and the Cuesta de Prado, is another extensive valley, through which runs
the River Poangui. At Curacavi, where we crossed the river, the height
above the sea is six hundred and thirty-three feet;[126] and the road
proceeds by a gentle ascent to the foot of the Cuesta de Prado, near which
is the village of Bustamente, eight hundred and eight feet above the sea.

This 'cuesta' is passed by a very steep road, and is ascended by
twenty-seven traverses, which carry one to a height of 2,100 feet above the
plain, or 2,950 feet above the sea. When we reached the summit of this
mountain the weather was so cloudy, that the Andes were almost concealed
from view. Beneath us was the extensive plain of Maypo, with the city of
Santiago in the distance, a view of considerable extent, and possessing
very great interest; but from the state of the weather, its beauty would
not have been seen to advantage, had not portions of the towering Andes,
raised by optical deception to apparently twice their height, appeared at
intervals among the clouds. On {209} a fine day, when the range of
mountains is uncovered, the view is grand; but not so imposing as when
their lower portions are concealed, and their summits partially exposed.
This part of the Andes rises about 11,000 feet above the plain, and is
covered half way down the sides with snow, the lower edge of which is
regularly defined, and presents a change of colour so abrupt and horizontal
as to appear unnatural, and therefore diminish the grandeur of the scene
very much. But under whatever circumstances this view is seen from the
Cuesta de Prado, it is magnificent, and produces an effect beyond
description. The road descends down the eastern side of this Cuesta, to a
plain about 1,100 feet below the summit. So much rain had fallen during the
two preceding days, and last night, that our driver expressed some doubt
whether we should be able to cross the Podaguel, a river which is
frequently impassable from the strength of its current. The idea of
spending a night at the miserable hovel we were leaving was enough to
induce us to run a considerable risk, and we set off to make the attempt.
The water was very deep, and the current sufficiently strong to render it a
performance of some danger; but, this difficulty being passed, we soon
reached the city of Santiago, and in the house of Mr. Caldcleugh, enjoyed
the hospitality and society of a warm-hearted friend.

I waited on the Director (Pinto), who received me with the greatest
politeness. He entered into the particulars of our past voyage with much
interest, assuring me that every facility should be afforded, and every
assistance rendered, whenever it might be required; and in this assurance
we never found ourselves deceived, for on all occasions the conduct of the
executive authorities towards us was marked in attention, and even
kindness. I make this observation with the more pleasure, as it was very
unusual in our communications with the authorities of those governments we
had previously visited, to find the objects of our voyage considered in the
least interesting.

Although the weather, during our visit to Santiago, was not there
considered fine, we left the city and its neighbourhood with a strong
impression of the salubrity of the climate, and the {210} mildness of its
temperature, which even in the middle of winter, and at the height of
nearly 2,000 feet above the sea, ranged no lower than 45° Fahrenheit, and
during the day the maximum height of the thermometer never exceeded
62°.[127](k)

We returned to Valparaiso on the 26th of July, and made preparations to
sail; but were detained by a strong northerly gale for many days, in which
we were enabled to render assistance to a large Indian trader that would
otherwise have been wrecked. On the 10th of August, we sailed for Chilóe;
and on our way were greatly delayed by southerly winds, which carried us in
sight of the island of Juan Fernandez. We reached our destination on the
26th, and found the Beagle, to our great delight, arrived, and all well.
Captain Fitz Roy came on board before we anchored, and gave me an outline
of his proceedings, and those of the Adelaide, which had not {211}
returned, but was daily expected, having been despatched to survey some
interior channels on her way to Chilóe. Our anchorage was off Point Arenas,
which is not only the best in the bay, but appeared to be well adapted to
our wants. The Beagle had arrived early in July, and had sent to Valparaiso
for stores with which to refit, and make preparations for another cruize to
the south.

The harbour master, Mr. Williams, an Englishman, visited us soon after our
anchoring, and by him I forwarded to the Yntendente (or governor), Don José
Santiago Aldunate, the letters brought for him from Chile.

In the afternoon I received his acknowledgments, and offers of all the
assistance in his power to render. As it was probable that our stay would
occupy some weeks, I established myself at a house in the town, obtained by
his kindness; and there fixed my portable observatory, and set up an
azimuth altitude instrument.

       *       *       *       *       *


{212}

CHAPTER XIII.

  Beagle and Adelaide anchor in Possession Bay--Beagle passes the First
  Narrow--Fogs--Pecket Harbour--Adelaide arrives with Guanaco-meat--
  Portuguese Seamen--Peculiar light--Party missing--Return--Proceed towards
  Port Famine--Fuegians--Lieut. Skyring--Adelaide sails to survey Magdalen
  and Barbara Channels--Views--Lyell Sound--Kempe Harbour--Cascade Bay--San
  Pedro Sound--Port Gallant--Diet--Rain--Awnings--Boat cruise--Warning--
  Jerome Channel--Blanket bags--Otway Water--Frequent rain--Difficulty in
  lighting fires.

The following is an account of the Beagle's and Adelaide's operations,
after separating from the Adventure, on the 1st of April, at the entrance
of the Strait of Magalhaens.

Light northerly winds were favourable for their entering the Strait, and
they reached Possession Bay the first night. The following day was foggy,
and almost calm, until the afternoon, when both vessels weighed, and
proceeded with the tide. At sunset the Adelaide anchored on the north
shore; but the Beagle stood on, and entered the Narrow. After dark, when
within it, with a rapid tide running, the wind fell light, and an anchor
was let go, under the north shore, in eight fathoms; but the cable being
accidentally checked too soon, snapped like a small rope, and the vessel
was hustled out into deep water. As it would have been both useless and
imprudent to let go another anchor, the Beagle was kept underweigh, and
worked to the westward, aided by a very powerful tide, which speedily
carried her through the Narrow, without accident, although the night was
dark; and they had no guide but the chart and lead. At eleven o'clock she
was anchored within the Narrow, in twelve fathoms, soon after which the
tide turned, and ran with great strength; but the night was calm, as well
as the next morning.

While waiting for wind, and the change of tide, several Patagonian Indians
were observed on horseback hunting {213} guanacoes. A very large dead
cod-fish was also seen, floating past, which was taken on board; on its
skin were several parasites.[128]

With the evening tide the Beagle reached Gregory Bay; and the next day
(April 4th) worked through the Second Narrow, and anchored in Pecket
Harbour.

As soon as she arrived people were sent on shore to make a large fire, to
show the natives where the ship was, and attract them to her. Next morning,
the 5th, it had spread very much, and overrun several acres of ground,
which showed either a very dry soil, or that there had not been much rain
for some time. The ground was covered with cranberries; so much so, that it
had quite a red tinge; they were very good. Plenty of wild celery was
found, but no wood of any kind. Water was obtained in small quantities,
from a spring about eighty yards from the beach, abreast of the anchorage:
it may also be procured by sinking wells. Early on the 6th of April the
Adelaide anchored near the Beagle. Captain Fitz Roy went on board, and
found that Lieutenant Graves had seen the Indians in Gregory Bay; and had
anchored there for the purpose of obtaining guanaco meat, of which he got
about nine hundred pounds weight. Thick fogs had prevented his getting
through the First Narrow until the 4th. At Gregory Bay, Lieutenant Graves
took three Portuguese seamen on board, who claimed his protection, having
been left by an English sealing vessel nearly a year before. One of them
asked to be again put ashore, and was landed on Quoin Hill to carry a
message to the Indians, from whom he promised to bring a supply of meat in
two days. The other two were entered on the books as supernumeraries, and
employed in the Adelaide. Having given the Beagle two-thirds of the meat,
the Adelaide weighed; and in two hours was out of sight, on her way to Port
Famine.

{214}

The following are extracts from Captain Fitz Roy's journal of this cruise
of the Beagle.

"Monday 7th April. Several of our people were employed in gathering
cranberries, and preserving them for future use; they are anti-scorbutic,
as well as the wild celery, much of which has been used with our guanaco
soup.

"Wednesday, 8th. I went to Oazy Harbour with Lieutenant Skyring, who
surveyed the harbour while I examined the cove to the northward.

"Oazy Harbour appears large, but the part where there is anchorage is very
small, and a strong tide sets in and round it, by which a bank is thrown
up, a short distance inside the entrance; there is very little wood, and
some difficulty in obtaining fresh water, even in a small quantity. The
anchorage outside might be more convenient for procuring guanaco meat from
the Indians than Gregory Bay, but it is exposed to winds between W.S.W. and
S.S.E.

"At my return to the Beagle, I was much surprised to find that Lieutenant
Kempe, Mr. Bynoe, and a boy, had not yet come back from a shooting
excursion. A boat had been to the appointed place at sun-set, and had
waited an hour without seeing them. At seven, a light was seen on the top
of Quoin Hill, and I sent a boat to the spot, with cautions about landing,
being in doubt whether it was shown by them or by the Indians; but the
boatswain, who went with her, could find no person, nor any light. He
waited some time, and returned on board.(l) A similar light was again seen,
more than once, during the dark and gloomy weather, with small misty rain
falling, and a light breeze from the westward, which we had all night.

"Thursday, 9th. No signs of our officers, nor any appearance of the
Indians. Fearing that some accident had happened, I sent two boats away,
with arms and provisions, to look for them all round the harbour, and the
large lagoon which communicates {215} with it. Both boats were thoroughly
cautioned about the Indians, for I had thoughts of their treachery. Just as
the boats got out of sight, three people were observed on the ridge of a
hill, about six miles distant; and, at the same time two other persons
appeared, much nearer the ship, on the east side of the harbour. Which was
our party, and who the others were, it was perplexing to say. Both
disappeared again for about two hours, when our stragglers came over a
hill, very near the ship. Upon their arrival on board, they were scarcely
able to move: they had been on their legs, almost without food, and without
shelter from the rain, since they left the ship. Their intention had been
to walk round the harbour, which appeared an employment for two hours only;
but at its head they found a lake, and beyond that lake a much larger one,
joined to the first by a passage, which they could not cross. When they
arrived at this passage, it was too late to return by the way they went,
and their best chance seemed to be going on. After dark, they tried to make
a fire, but the rain prevented them. It was too dark to see their way, and
the cold rain obliged them to keep moving about, though in one place. When
daylight came, they travelled on, and until they reached the ship at two
o'clock, were constantly walking.

"The other people seen by us must have been Indians; none were met by our
wanderers, but several places were passed where fires had been made by
them.

"April 10th. Directly our boats returned, we weighed and made sail; but the
wind soon failed, and the tide setting against us, obliged me to anchor.

"April 11th. Made sail towards the passage between Elizabeth Island and
Cape Negro, and anchored there to wait for the tide, which ran past us when
at anchor, at the rate of three knots an hour. About Cape Negro the
appearance of the land entirely changes. A low barren country gives way to
hills covered with wood, increasing in height, and becoming more rocky and
mountainous as you go southward.

"On the 13th, when working near the land, against a light southerly breeze,
we saw a small canoe paddling along shore, {216} and some people walking on
the beach. While the ship was standing off, I went to them, being the first
savages I had ever met. In the canoe were an old woman, her daughter, and a
child, and on shore were two Fuegian men with several dogs. Their figures
reminded me of drawings of the Esquimaux, being rather below the middle
size, wrapped in rough skins, with their hair hanging down on all sides,
like old thatch, and their skins of a reddish brown colour, smeared over
with oil, and very dirty. Their features were bad, but peculiar; and, if
physiognomy can be trusted, indicated cunning, indolence, passive
fortitude, deficient intellect, and want of energy. I observed that the
forehead was very small and ill-shaped; the nose was long, narrow between
the eyes, and wide at the point; and the upper lip, long and protruding.
They had small, retreating chins; bad teeth; high cheek-bones; small
Chinese eyes, at an oblique angle with the nose; coarse hair; wide
ill-formed mouths, and a laugh as if the upper lip were immoveable. The
head was very small, especially at the top and back; there were very few
bumps for a craniologist. They asked earnestly for 'tabac, tabac,' but
seemed very timid. We bartered some biscuit and old knives for a few of
their arrows, skins, spears, &c.

"Their canoes, twenty-two feet long, and about three wide, were curiously
made of the branches of trees, covered with pieces of beech-tree bark,
sewed together with intestines of seals. A fire was burning in the middle,
upon some earth, and all their property, consisting of a few skins and
bone-headed lances, was stowed at the ends.

"The young woman would not have been ill-looking, had she been well
scrubbed, and all the yellow clay with which she was bedaubed, washed away.
I think they use the clayey mixture for warmth rather than for show, as it
stops the pores of the skin, preventing evaporation and keeping out the
cold air. Their only clothing was a skin, thrown loosely about them; and
their hair was much like a horse's mane, that has never been combed.

"April 14th. Anchored in Port Famine."

{217}

"April 16th. Lieutenant Skyring went on board the Adelaide with Mr. Kirke,
five seamen, and one of the Beagle's whale-boats. Mr. Bynoe, the
assistant-surgeon, also went as a volunteer.

"April 17th. The Adelaide sailed to survey the Magdalen and Barbara
Channels; after which she was to rejoin the Beagle at Port Gallant. She
soon got into a strong southerly wind, and could make no progress, as the
current was against her; she therefore again stood into the bay, and
anchored.

"A sharply cold night made us remember we were far south, although the
weather by day had been mild. I have said little about this anchorage, as
it has already been described. The appearance of the surrounding country is
striking and picturesque. Mount Tarn, with its patches of snow, rising from
thick woods, and the high snow-covered mountains in the distance, with dark
blue sea at their base, are very remarkable objects.

"We sailed on the 19th with the Adelaide, which had been prevented from
going sooner by strong and unfavourable winds: and about noon we parted
from our consort, whose course was southerly, into the Magdalen Channel,
while we went towards Lyell Sound.

"I cannot help here remarking, that the scenery this day appeared to me
magnificent. Many ranges of mountains, besides Mount Sarmiento, were
distinctly visible, and the continual change occurring in the views of the
land, as clouds passed over the sun, with such a variety of tints of every
colour, from that of the dazzling snow to the deep darkness of the still
water, made me wish earnestly to be enabled to give an idea of it upon
paper; but a necessary look-out for the vessel, not having a commissioned
officer with me who had been in the Strait before, kept my attention too
much occupied to allow me to make more than a few hasty outlines. Under the
high land the Beagle had but little wind, and night closed upon us before
we could gain an anchorage in Lyell Sound, so we shortened sail after dark,
and kept near mid channel until the morning.

{218}

"The night was one of the most beautiful I have ever seen; nearly calm, the
sky clear of clouds, excepting a few large white masses, which at times
passed over the bright full moon: whose light striking upon the
snow-covered summits of the mountains by which we were surrounded,
contrasted strongly with their dark gloomy bases, and gave an effect to the
scene which I shall never forget.

"At daylight, on the 20th, we were close to Lyell Sound, and stood along
its west side, looking for an anchorage, until we found a very good
harbour, about a mile inside Mazaredo Point.

"I then went away, with two boats, to examine the Sound, leaving the master
to sound and plan the inner harbour.

"Kempe Harbour, within Lyell Sound, would hold six large ships in security;
but, like most of the harbours hereabouts, access is difficult, on account
of the squalls off the high land, which are so irregular, and often
violent.

"During the night of the 21st, it blew strong in squalls, and the
chain-cable kept us awake by rattling very much over rocks; yet when the
anchor was hove to the bows next morning, it appeared to have been well
bedded in stiff clay. To these sounds we afterwards became familiarised.

"Wednesday, 22d. Strong squalls from the south-eastward during the night,
and in the morning; when, being anxious to reach Cascade Bay, I weighed,
though the weather was thick, and the wind against us. The flaws were so
variable, that we were two hours knocking the helm and sails about before
we could clear the anchorage, and move half a mile in still water. I should
recommend warping in and out of these harbours, in preference to making
sail: as it is far easier, if a ship is provided with small hawsers and
kedges: and the hawsers can often be made fast to the rocks, or roots of
trees.

"The tide rises about four feet in Kempe Harbour; and there is a place
where a vessel might be grounded or careened with perfect safety.

"Mazaredo Peak (Bougainville's Sugar Loaf) is an excellent guide to Kempe
Harbour; the valley-like appearance of {219} the land also shows its
situation to a vessel in the Straits. What at first appears to be Lyell
Sound is Kempe Harbour, the Sound lies more to the left.

"After passing Mazaredo Point, the land is rugged and less woody; it is not
very high, and has a peculiar, rounded appearance, like the tops of loaves
of bread.

"There was slate in Kempe Harbour, which seemed to me fit for roofing
purposes.

"In Cascade Bay we found the abundance of limpets and muscles usual on
these shores, and of particularly good quality. The Indians live almost
entirely upon them and sea-eggs, though birds, and occasionally a seal, add
to their subsistence. Vegetation, both on shore and in the water, is most
abundant. At every step one sinks knee-deep in moss, grass, fern, or low
bushes. Trees seem to arrive but seldom at perfection; the climate is so
moist that they rot while growing, before they attain any size. Moss grows
every where; each bough is covered with it: and the water appears to be as
favourable to the growth of kelp as the land is to that of plants. The
large kind (_Fucus giganteus_) shoots up, from many fathoms depth, to the
surface, with strong stalks and large leaves.

"23d. A bad day; blowing strong, and at times raining. Mr. Murray, Mr.
Stokes, and I, went with three boats to continue our work of exploring and
sounding.

"Saturday, 25th. We weighed and made sail; but the breeze failed, and flaws
came against us. While laying out warps, and hanging by the stream-cable, a
squall took the ship and drove her against the rocks, but without doing her
any injury, for they were quite wall-sided. The main-yard and spanker-boom
were among the trees. We again laid out warps, and had made some progress,
when another strong squall obliged us to go back into our anchorage, to
remain until the hail, snow, wind, and rain should cease.

"26th. An unpromising and wet morning; but the heavy rain being over, we
weighed, and in a few hours reached the western side of San Pedro Sound.

"About a mile from the point we anchored in Murray Cove, {220} which
affords good shelter from westerly winds, and is very easy of access, being
a small roadstead rather than a harbour.

"27th. We set out early with the boats, but the weather was too bad to do
much; however, something was done, and at dusk we went ashore on a small
island in the Sound. It rained very hard all the afternoon and during part
of the night. We sheltered ourselves as well as we could with the boat's
sails and tarpaulins; but during the night the wind shifted, and blew so
hard, that it threw down our slight shelter, and made me very anxious about
the ship; for I was doubtful of the security of the anchorage where she
lay.

"28th. This morning was very cold, it rained hard and blew strong; but when
it cleared away for a short time, we set to work again, to explore what
appeared to be a channel.

"After a three hours' pull against wind, snow, and hail, my channel proved
to be only one of the numerous inlets which encroach upon the Fuegian
territory; and the boats returned to the Beagle, with the help of strong
squalls from the S.W. I was not a little glad to see the ship in the place
where I had left her. During the night another anchor had been let go; but
she had not moved from her position. This anchorage is so easy of access,
that I hope it will be of use to vessels passing through the Strait. There
is room for one large sized ship to lie conveniently, or for two or three
small craft.

"The weather has not yet been so cold as I expected it would be: snow lies
on the deck a short time, but the thermometer has not been lower than 31°
(Fahrenheit).

"29th. A rainy, blowing morning: Mr. Stokes and I set out in the boats; but
it rained so much, that we could only make a fire to dry our clothes, and
remove the numbness, caused by sitting a long time in the wet.

"On the 3d of May, we anchored in Port Gallant: though perfectly secure,
this is a dismal harbour in winter, being so surrounded by high mountains,
that the sun is seldom visible. Until the 7th, in addition to our usual
daily duties, we were occupied in preparing for an excursion, in boats, to
the Jerome Channel. Salt provisions were entirely withheld from the crew
{221} for three days, and instead of them, preserved meat, shell-fish, and
a large pig, brought from Monte Video, were substituted. We found in this,
as in almost every Fuegian harbour, abundance of muscles, limpets, and wild
celery; some fish and some wild-fowl. Many of our party thought shags good
eating, but only one person could be found daring enough to try whether old
Sir John Narborough was quite warranted in saying that a fox was 'savoury
food,' and that one repented of his experiment during a week's serious
illness.

"My reason for entirely stopping the use of salt-meat, for a few days, was
the belief that, at least, two or three days' change of diet is necessary
to cause any real alteration in the system; and that it is better to give
fresh provisions for three days in succession, and salt-meat during the
remainder of three weeks, than to give fresh-meat at three separate
intervals in the same period.

"During the wet weather of these regions, we derived great benefit from
awnings, painted for the purpose, while refitting at Rio de Janeiro and
Maldonado: they kept the lower, and a great part of the upper deck quite
dry, even in heavy rain.

"May 7th. Mr. Stokes and I set out with a cutter and whale-boat, to explore
the Jerome Channel. We were well provided, with as much as the boats could
stow, of what we thought likely to be useful during a month's cruise. Of
water we took but little, trusting to the wetness of these regions for a
supply. Each man had his clothes covered with canvas, or duck, well
painted; and instead of a hat, every one had a 'south-wester' (like a
coal-heaver's cap).

"Our provisions, being sufficient for twenty-eight days, made the boats
rather deep; and I soon found the cutter pulled very heavily, and was
obliged to take her in tow. All our party slept in the cutter the first
night, the whale-boat being made fast astern. Towards midnight it blew
fresh, and as the boats were anchored near the wash of the beach, they
rolled a good deal; and soon afterwards, feeling the whale-boat hanging
heavily on her rope, I hauled her up alongside, and found she was almost
swamped; in a few minutes she {222} must have sunk with all her heavy
cargo, to us invaluable. The plug had worked out by her rolling:--I seldom
left her afloat at night after this warning. Having saved the boat, made me
think less of all our things being wetted, and of some of the instruments
being almost spoiled.

"At daylight, on the 8th, we pulled along shore, with the wind against us,
and reached Point York before the tide made strongly; but that place we
could not pass; and sooner than give up an inch of ground, let go our
grapnels, in the middle of a race of tide, that tumbled in over both
gunwales, and ran past us at the rate of five knots. At one P.M. it
slackened, and we pulled on into Bachelor River, very glad to get so good a
place to dry our clothes, and put the boats to rights. Three deserted
wigwams gave us shelter; and while some made fires, others went to collect
shell-fish, or shoot birds. Though the season was so far advanced, some
shrubs were in flower, particularly one, which is very like a jessamine,
and has a sweet smell. Cranberries and berberis-berries were plentiful: I
should have liked to pass some days at this place, it was so very pretty;
the whole shore was like a shrubbery. I cannot account for the exaggerated
accounts of the Fuegian coasts given by some voyagers: it is true that the
peaks of the mountains are covered with snow, and those sides exposed to
the prevailing west winds are barren, and rugged; but every sheltered spot
is covered with vegetation, and large trees seem to grow almost upon the
bare rock. I was strongly reminded of some of the Greek islands in winter,
when they also have a share of snow on their mountains.

"May 9th. The tide carried our boats rapidly up the Jerome Channel, which,
though narrow, is quite free from danger. The west shore is very high, and
steep, and well covered with wood; the eastern is lower, and less woody.

"Having passed this channel, we entered the mysterious Indian Sound, with
all that anxiety one feels about a place, of which nothing is known, and
much is imagined. I hoped to find a large river; and the strong tide
setting up the channel convinced me that there was a body of water inland,
but of what nature {223} remained to be discovered. At dusk we put into a
small creek, and secured the boats, hauling up the whale-boat on the sand.
When too late to remove, we found the place of our bivouac so wet and
swampy, that nearly two hours were occupied in trying to light a fire.
Supper and merry songs were succeeded by heavy rain, which continued
throughout that night and the next day without intermission.

"10th. Continual hard rain prevented our moving: the whale-boat's men were
thoroughly drenched in their tent during the night; but made a better one
in the morning. The cutter, having a tarpaulin cover, gave her crew a
better lodging; and although a small and loaded boat, only twenty-four feet
long, could not be expected to allow much room to a dozen sleepers, during
such weather, with the help of our blanket bags,(m) we did very well.

"11th. During this night, also, it rained very hard. Early the next
morning, however, it cleared a little, and we got under-weigh. When in the
fair-way our hopes were much excited; for beyond a high island, like a
sugar-loaf, appeared an opening without land. I tasted the water
repeatedly, fancying it less salt, and that we were approaching a river.

"Less salt it might have been, from the number of waterfalls dashing down
the mountains on each side of the channel, which is here about two miles
wide, with a current, or rather stream of tide, running at the rate of two
knots an hour.

"At noon, we reached the Sugar Loaf: it cost a struggle to get to the top
with the instruments; but the view repaid me. For three points of the
compass towards the north-east, I could see no land, except two islands;
and the farthest extreme to the eastward, appeared to me distant, at least,
thirty miles. No mountains or high land could be seen to the north or east;
the country seemed there to change its character, and become {224} lower
and less wooded. This was, indeed, an animating view: I stood considering
what might be the boundary of this water, till I recollected, that the
longer I thought about it, the longer I should be finding it out; so we
pushed on with the boats, of course taking the necessary bearings and
angles, until we reached the 'Point of Islets' in 'Otway Water.'

"On the 12th, our oars were going early.

"The two islands, 'Englefield' and 'Vivian,' were the only land upon the
horizon for six points of the compass. The southern coast trended away
nearly east from Cape Charles, preserving the high mountainous character of
the Fuegian shores, while that to the northward was low, though as yet well
wooded.

"I was nearly tempted to try whether Fanny Bay led towards the Gulf of
Xaultegua; but fortunately did not, as I should have regretted the time so
employed.

"Point Hamond is thickly-wooded with evergreens, similar to those of the
Strait; and with a species of pine, about thirty or forty feet in height.

"To the S.E. three remarkable promontories stand out in bold relief from
the Fuegian shore; but beyond them the land sinks into the tame flatness of
Patagonia.

"The water on the west shore is not deep; from ten to thirty fathoms at a
quarter of a mile off shore, but getting more shallow advancing northward.
There is anchorage for a vessel after passing Indian Channel, the whole way
along; and as the prevailing winds are off shore, it would generally be
safe. In Indian Channel I only know of two anchorages, Cutter Bay and
Bending Cove.

"Such constant rain fell during this evening, that it was not until after
much trouble that we at last made fires. Carrying dry fuel in the boats we
found indispensable, and I would recommend any person who passes a night on
shore in this wet climate, with a boat, to carry a sheet of copper, or a
piece of flat iron, in preference to any boat-stove, as a fire can be
lighted upon it much more easily, and it does not take much stowage: the
great difficulty about fires here is getting fuel to burn when the ground
is wet, or when snow lies on it.

{225}

"13th. Raining so steadily all day, that it was useless to proceed: I could
neither see my way, nor notice any thing but wind and rain.

"14th. So mild was the weather, that I bathed this morning, and did not
find the water colder than I have felt it in autumn on the English coast;
its temperature, at a foot below the surface, averaged 42°; that of the air
was 39°. From this place, Point Hamond, I saw seven points of the compass
clear of land, my eye being twenty feet above the level of the sea. The
water was quite salt, therefore we were certain of being in an unexpected
inland sea, or large lagoon. Four miles from Point Hamond lie Englefield
and Vivian Islands, rather low, but well wooded with evergreens. They are
the only islands of any note in the Otway Water. The farthest point I could
discern I called Cape Marvel, for much I wondered at the hitherto
unsuspected extent of this inlet.

"At noon we were off the north end of Englefield Island. Mr. Stokes and I
observed the sun's meridian altitude satisfactorily from the boats, so
smooth was the water. This quiet day was too fine, for it was hard work
pulling from nine till five, without any help from sails. Towards evening a
breeze sprung up in our favour, and with its assistance we ran along the
land about ten miles. Taking advantage of the moonlight, I did not look out
for a resting-place till past seven o'clock, when we had a great deal of
trouble in landing; the coast having quite changed its character; and
instead of deep water with a rocky shore, we found a flat shingly beach and
shoal water, with very large stones scattered between high and low water
marks, so numerously as to make it dangerous for a boat, especially at
night. Upon landing, we found the ground quite changed into a fine light
soil, with stunted bushes and trees; and so dry was the wood, that a fire
was easily kindled, but not a drop of water could be got any where to cook
our supper. A considerable rise and fall of tide was observed, much greater
than near Indian Channel.

"15th. No breakfast this morning, for want of water--a decided proof of the
change of climate and country. North of {226} us the sky was clear; but to
the southward, over the Strait, hung thick clouds. The trees were not
evergreen, and at this time their leaves were withered and falling.

"While pulling along shore, and passing a low projecting point, we saw the
smoke of three fires, and approaching nearer, observed four canoes lying on
the beach, near several wigwams. Their owners soon appeared, running along
the shore, hallooing and jumping. The first who came near us reminded me of
an old-fashioned sign of the 'Red Lion,' for he was painted red all over,
and looked more like a wild beast than a human being; another was covered
with a bluish mixture; a third was quite black. Several had the lower half
of the face blacked, and the oldest men and women were painted entirely
black. There were about eight men, six or eight boys, and perhaps a dozen
women and girls. Some had a skin over their shoulders, but others had no
covering at all, except paint; they seemed apprehensive, and hid several
skins and other things in the wood, as soon as they saw us approaching.

"When they found we were peaceably disposed, and had tobacco and knives,
they were eager to barter with us. How they have learned the use of tobacco
is curious, but they are fond of it to excess. Guanaco, as well as seal and
otter skins, are in their possession; therefore they probably barter with
the Patagonians. They have also the skins and horns of a deer, which, as I
understood them, inhabits their country.(n) They catch small animals with
snares, made of whalebone, just like hare-snares. This tribe was very rich
in Fuegian wealth, such as skins, arrows, lances, &c. They appeared to be
of a race similar, but superior, to the Fuegians, being stronger, stouter,
more lively, and more active. I persuaded one of their boys to have his
face washed, and found his natural complexion was scarcely darker than that
of a European. Their language sounds like that of the Fuegians, and the
huts and weapons are precisely similar to their's. We asked them for water,
and they pointed to a place about a mile further, {227} making signs to us
that we must dig in the earth for it. We went there, and near a
green-looking spot some good water was found. We then landed, and enjoyed
our breakfast at one o'clock, being not a little thirsty.

"The natives were still with us; they seemed inquisitive and cunning; and
shewed great surprise at a sextant and artificial horizon, by which they
sat down, attentively watching what was done. I put my watch to their ears;
they were much astonished, and each came in his turn to hear it tick. I
pointed to the watch and then to the sky; they shook their heads and
suddenly looked so grave, that from their manner in this instance, and from
what I could understand by their signs, I felt certain they had an idea of
a Superior Being, although they have nothing like an image, and did not
appear to us to have any form of worship. We could learn scarcely any words
of their language, because of their trick of repeating whatever we said.

"They saw how we lighted a fire, by means of a tinder-box, and took an
opportunity to tread it out of sight. Our loss was not known until leaving
the spot, when that material necessary was missed. It was evident they had
stolen it; and while I was meditating a reprisal, one of our men by chance
trod upon the missing box, which was artfully hid under the sand. After
this discovery, they seemed rather inclined for a skirmish, all having
clubs, while our men appeared to have no weapons. However, we parted
without a quarrel.

"The features of these people differed from those of the Fuegians whom I
had previously seen, in being better formed, and having a less artful
expression.

"We pulled hence along a low shore until evening, when distant land began
to show itself, stretching to the northward and eastward, and bounding this
supposed inland sea. At dusk we discovered an opening, which appeared to be
either a river or a channel, and I steered for its north bank, securing the
boats for the night in a place we named Donkin Cove, as a mark of respect
to the preserver of meat, to whom we had been so often thankful. A little
of this meat, mixed with wild fowl, and some wild celery, makes a wholesome
and {228} agreeable mess. On boat service, meat preserved in tin is
particularly useful, being already cooked, and therefore fit for dinner
without the aid of fire.

"We were surprised at the mildness of the weather. Indeed, the change of
climate was as pleasant as it was sudden and unexpected.

"16th. At daylight, we found ourselves in the entrance of what was thought
a river. Under this impression, I hoped to penetrate into the interior of
the country, and meet some new tribes of Patagonians. As soon as we could
get underweigh, we pulled and sailed along a winding channel, on one side
of which was a pleasant-looking, woody country, extending towards Tierra
del Fuego; and on the other, a low, barren district, like Eastern
Patagonia. The banks on both shores were from five to forty feet high,
sloping, and covered with grass.

"The current was in our favour, which with the saltness of the water,
inclined me to think it a channel, and not the mouth of a river. In this
opinion I was confirmed in a short time, by seeing surf breaking against
some land beyond an opening, which showed that we were approaching a large
body of water. Soon after, we reached the extreme west point of this small
channel; and, to our surprise, saw an expanse, at least thirty miles across
from east to west, and twenty from north to south. I thought it more at
first, but probably was deceived. West and south of it I observed high
snow-covered mountains; and the summit of one was remarkable, being like a
castle with a high tower. Northward, the land was low; excepting a few
ranges of down-like hills with large plains between them.

"It happened to be a very clear day, and all that could be seen at any time
was visible. In two places there seemed to me to be openings to the
westward; in the southernmost I could see no land at all; the other was
backed by distant mountains, but still had the appearance of an opening.
After this I went to the top of a hill near me, about three hundred feet
high, to gain a better view, yet so small an elevation made but little
difference, and I rather thought the opposite coast farther off than I had
at first supposed.

{229}

"Having sent the cutter back a short distance, to make a fire and land our
things, I crossed the channel to a fine level plain, and measured a base
line. In crossing, I found a most rapid tide, at least five or six knots at
neap tides, and to pull against it was out of the question. It caused a
considerable swell and race at the entrance, which is not a quarter of a
mile wide, though it averages twelve fathoms in depth. On the plain was
growing thick grass, like that in the vicinity of the river Plata. So rich
and good were the grass and trefoil, that I saved a few seeds, hoping some
day to see their produce in England. No tree was seen; the soil seemed dry,
rich, and light. Skunks, and a small kind of cavy, had burrowed every
where, which proves the climate to be of a different nature from that of
the Strait. The bones and traces of guanacoes were numerous, and some
horses' tracks were found; as also part of a dead guanaco, which appeared
to have been a prey to wild beasts. Water was not so plentiful as to the
southward; but quite sufficient for all useful purposes, many small brooks
being noticed, besides springs in the sides of the low hills. We shot a
swan(o) and some coots; the swans were so fat, or so tame, that they would
not rise from the water.

"17th. While on Whitestone Plain, a very heavy squall of wind and hail
passed over from the S.W., so cuttingly cold, that it showed me one reason
why these plains, swept by every wind from S.S.W. to N., are destitute of
trees.

"After dark, we returned to the cutter and partook of a large mess, made of
the swan we had shot, the coots, some limpets, and preserved meat. The
shortness of the days was becoming very inconvenient; from eight to four
were the only hours of daylight; but some of the nights were so fine, that
I got many sets of observations of the moon and stars.

       *       *       *       *       *


{230}

CHAPTER XIV.

  Place for a Settlement--Frost--Boats in danger--Narrow escape--Sudden
  change--Beagle Hills--Fuegian painting--Tides--Medicine--Water warmer
  than the air--Jerome Channel--Mr. Stokes returns to the Beagle--Cape
  Quod--Snowy Sound--Whale Sound--Choiseul Bay--Return to the Beagle--
  Adelaide returns--Plan of operations--Difficulties removed--
  Preparations--Wear and tear of clothing--Ascend the Mountain de la Cruz--
  Sail from Port Gallant--Tides--Borja Bay--Cape Quod--Gulf of Xaultegua--
  Frost and snow--Meet Adelaide--Part--Enter Pacific--Arrive at Chilóe.

"18th of May. Very cold, raining heavily, and blowing strong from S.W. The
tide turned this day (full moon), and set to the westward at 1.15. I only
say 'turned,' because I could not distinguish the ebb from the flood, so
little rise and fall was there. No sooner had the tide ceased to run in one
direction, than it began to run as strongly in the other, for about six
hours. For the last four nights I noticed, that soon after sunset the sky
was suddenly overcast, a trifling shower fell, and afterwards the heavens
became beautifully clear. The climate must be much like that of the east
coast of Patagonia, as shrubs grow here like those I saw at Port Desire.
While walking, the leaves and dry sticks crackled under foot, which is very
different from what one observes about the Strait of Magalhaens, where
everything is wet and spungy. I was inclined to think this place suitable
for a settlement. There is water, wood, and good soil, fit for planting,
besides pasture land; the climate is not bad; and probably the Patagonian
Indians might be induced to trade in guanaco meat, as they now do at
Gregory Bay; while any of their hostile incursions would be prevented by
the channel.

"19th. Two natives, a man and a boy, came to our boats this morning; they
seemed to have neither curiosity, nor fear, nor even a relish for tobacco.
They took a piece of tinder, picked up a stone, and went away to some
wigwams, at a little distance, where we soon afterwards saw a fire burning.

{231}

"During this night and the preceding it froze sharply; but the sky was so
clear, that I observed many sets of distances, on each side the moon.

"20th. We went eastward through the little channel. Every thing was frozen;
and the boat's sails were useless until thawed. We left Donkin Cove
directly after noon, and with a fresh and fair wind, steered towards Pecket
Harbour. I may as well mention here my reasons for taking this course,
instead of going farther westward.

"Considering our very limited time, and provisions, I wished to do first
what was most useful; and to find a new passage, seemed to me the primary
object. Having surveyed the narrow winding channel, and proved its
navigability for vessels of any class; I thought it desirable to ascertain
next the nature of the separation between Otway Water and the Strait of
Magalhaens, between Laredo Bay and Pecket Harbour.

"A western passage might be sought by the Adelaide schooner, or by myself,
at a future time. If we tried to cross the Skyring Water, our success would
be very doubtful, for during the whole time we had been in the channel, the
wind blew strong from S.W., raising so much sea, that it was with great
difficulty I could sound outside the western entrance, even in a
whale-boat.

"A fine breeze carried us rapidly eastward; but it freshened too fast, reef
after reef was taken in, until at two o'clock we were obliged to lower the
sail, and pull to windward; for as far as we could see, the shore continued
unbroken, flat, and low, with a high surf breaking on it. To have attempted
to land, would have been folly; and as the wind continued to increase, and
a current setting to windward caused a very short awkward sea, I sent Mr.
Stokes off in the cutter, under his small close-reefed sails, to hang to
windward as long as he could carry sail, while I kept the whale-boat head
to wind. At three o'clock, we were embayed, and about a mile from the
shore. My boat was deeply laden, and as our clothes and bags got soaked,
pulled more heavily. We threw a bag of fuel overboard, but kept everything
else to the last. At sunset the sea {232} was higher, and the wind as
strong as ever. I saw the cutter a little before, about three miles from
us, standing to the eastward on a wind; but whether she would clear the
shore I could not make out.

"After dark, finding we could not well be worse off as to risk, I bore up,
and pulled with the sea rather abaft the beam, twisting the boat 'end on'
to each wave as it came, hoping to get into smoother water to the westward.
Night, and having hung on our oars five hours, made me think of beaching
the boat to save the men; for in a sea so short and breaking, it was not
likely she would live much longer. At any time in the afternoon, momentary
neglect, allowing a wave to take her improperly, would have swamped us; and
after dark it was worse. Shortly after bearing up, a heavy sea broke over
my back, and half filled the boat: we were baling away, expecting its
successor, and had little thoughts of the boat living, when--quite
suddenly--the sea fell, and soon after the wind became moderate. So
extraordinary was the change, that the men, by one impulse, lay on their
oars, and looked about to see what had happened. Probably we had passed the
place where a tide was setting against the wind. I immediately put the
boat's head towards the cove we left in the morning, and with thankful
gladness the men pulled fast ahead. In ten minutes the sea was smooth, and
the breeze so moderate, as not to impede our progress. Our only anxiety was
then about the cutter; for we could not tell how she had weathered the
gale. I was sure she would have prospered if kept by the wind; but some
accident, or change of purpose, was to be feared.

"About an hour after midnight, we landed in safety at Donkin Cove; so
tired, and numbed by the cold, for it was freezing sharply, that we could
hardly get out of the boat. The embers of our morning fire were still
burning; so we put on some wood, and lay down round them. No men could have
behaved better than that boat's crew: not a word was uttered by one of
them; nor did an oar flag at any time, although they acknowledged, after
landing, that they never expected to see the shore again. We resolved to
start early to look for {233} the cutter, and fell asleep: but before
daylight I was roused by some one, and to my joy, saw Mr. Stokes standing
by me. He had just arrived with the cutter, having kept his wind till the
sea fell; and since that time had been pulling towards this spot: with what
thankful feelings all hands lay down to sleep may be easily supposed.

"21st. This morning I believe no one waked before ten o'clock. Drying our
clothes, and putting the boats to rights, occupied most of the day. Our
time was now so short, besides having almost expended our provisions, that
I gave up the idea of crossing the Otway Water, and decided to return
nearly the way we came, after taking a view from the higher ground.

"22d. A sharp frost, during the past night and this day, hardened the
ground, and with four of my boat's crew, I walked to the Beagle Hills. Our
way led through a scattered wood, the only one seen on the north side of
the channel, and in which most of the trees appeared to have been burned.
We gained the summit of the heights soon after noon, and were amply
rewarded by an extensive view.

"Although not more than eight hundred feet above the sea, I could discern
the Gregory Hills (so plainly as to make out their yellowish brown colour);
Cape Bartholomew, Nassau Island; Cape Monmouth; the high peaks over Cape
Froward; the range of mountains thence to the Jerome Channel, and from the
Jerome, westward to all those about Cape Phillip, and Cape Parker; and the
whole extent of the Otway and Skyring Waters; the latter being bounded to
the N.W. by down-like hills, about six or eight hundred feet high. North of
the Beagle Hills, a range of similar downs extended; and to the east was a
succession of lagoons, completely intersecting the flat country towards
Pecket Harbour.

"We left a memorial, cut in lead, at the foot of a post sunk in the ground;
but the air was so cold, that the men, who wished to add their names, were
unable to mark them on the lead. It was eight o'clock before we regained
our bivouac, much fatigued by the day's work.

"23d. I went into a wigwam, where there was a woman {234} and two children.
A rough likeness made of her did not please at all, because it was white:
she took out her red paint, and put some on her own cheeks, as drawn on the
paper, and then was quite satisfied, sitting as still as a mouse, while I
made another sketch. In return for the compliment paid to her countenance,
she daubed my face, as well as my coxswain's, with the same red mixture.

"24th. A sharp frost during the night. We left Donkin Cove, as soon as I
had taken observations for the chronometers. A fine breeze in our favour
carried us rapidly along, and at dusk we were near Englefield Island. The
last few nights have been so clear, that two or three of the men, and
myself, have slept in the open air without any other covering than our
blanket-bags, and clothes. My cloak has been frozen hard over me every
morning; yet I never slept more soundly, nor was in better health.

"We had a good view of Mount Misery this day. It is about 3,000 feet in
height; twice as high as the surrounding mountains, and quite bare, even of
snow, on the summit. The night tides here rise more than those of the day
at this season: the times of high water do not differ much on the opposite
shores. About an hour after dusk we reached Englefield Island, having made
a capital run, with a fresh and fair wind. Creeping in the dark, along
shore, we at last found shelter for the boats, and formed a snug place
amongst the bushes for our tent and fires. One of my boat's crew was ill
this day; the first man that had been seriously so, although several had
been slightly affected by the muscles and limpets; and one had fits. A
draught of hot port wine and Winter's-bark, certainly seemed to be an
efficient medicine for the slighter complaints.

"25th. Blowing strong from the westward, with much rain. I forced a way,
with much difficulty, among thick bushes, to the top of the island, and
when I got there found, to my mortification, that by no possible
contrivance could I see round, for I was encompassed by lofty trees of
nearly equal height.

"26th. We crossed over to the east shore: the temperature of {235} the
water, between Englefield Island and the nearest land, one foot beneath the
surface, was 42°; the air at the same time being 38°. While the sea water
preserves this temperature, it must tend much to moderate the severity of
cold, one would naturally expect in this latitude, near so many
snow-covered mountains. We arrived at the Point of Islets, soon after
sunset, on the 27th.

"28th. Almost every night I observed that the wind subsided soon after
sunset, the clouds passed away, and the first part of the night was very
fine; but that, towards morning, wind and clouds generally succeeded. From
Point of Islets, we sailed southward; and were again close to the
mountains: from whose appearance at this spot, no one would suppose that
any passage lay between them; so intricate and winding are the channels.

"I was sorry to leave the open country, behind me; but time pressed; and
there was yet much to do with our loaded boats, which could not make very
great progress in the short daylight afforded by this season. After passing
Bennett Island the land became rugged, and mountainous on each side,
covered, however, with wood and vegetation wherever it could grow; and we
were again in the Magalhaenic regions.

"This day I examined as much of the west side of the channel, as time would
allow, and reached Corona Creek at about eight o'clock. What I called the
Sugar Loaf must be the Corona Island of Cordova's officers; for at some
distance it looks somewhat like a crown. It is singular that they inserted
(in their chart) an island near their Corona, which cannot be distinguished
from the main-land, until one is within two miles of it; and as at that
distance the Otway Water is plainly visible, must they not have seen the
opening? Tired of their job, did they return without prosecuting the
discovery, or was the weather too thick to see far? Their description of
the Jerome Channel, leads to the supposition of a continual current setting
through in one direction, instead of a regular ebb and flood; and the
surest sign of a passage between places in Tierra del Fuego, is a current
or stream. {236} Many large inlets and sounds look like channels; but on
going a short distance into them, you find dead water.

"29th. We passed through Jerome Channel, and reached the bar, off Bachelor
River, after dark; but the cutter got aground, and gave us some trouble to
float her again. Afterwards one of the men was landed on the bar, and by
his walking in the deepest water, and the whale-boat going next, we got
into the little river at nine o'clock, not sorry to be in safety. There are
tide races between the Jerome Channel, and Bachelor River, which are
sometimes dangerous; but as the breeze was moderate, we passed them without
difficulty.

"May 30th. Employed chiefly in stowing the cutter afresh, packing
specimens, and preparing my boat to take what remained of our provisions.
At two next morning, when the tide served, Mr. Stokes set out to return to
the Beagle: and having both wind and tide in his favour arrived early at
Port Gallant.

"The wind increased after daylight, and blew strong, with squalls. I waited
a short time, but, having no hopes of its improving, left the river. My
boat was much lumbered, having the chronometer-box, and more instruments
than before; yet she pulled pretty well, even against the heavy squalls.
After landing at the west side of the entrance to the Jerome Channel, to
take bearings and angles, we pulled along shore to the westward, and at
dark hauled the boat up in a small sheltered corner. After she was secured,
we employed ourselves looking for limpets and muscles for supper, by the
light of a lanthorn, as we had good appetites, and our provisions were
scanty.

"June 1st. We pulled along shore against a strong and squally wind, and
before evening nearly reached Cape Quod; but not being able to pass it,
stopped in a cove on the east side.

"2d. At the oars again, early, having a fine clear morning, with the tide
rather in our favour. By eleven, Cape Quod was astern of us; and a long
view of the Strait presented itself. This part is very rugged and barren,
and looks triste, indeed; still wherever a tree can take root it tries to
grow. This night was passed on a small island at the west point of Snowy
Sound.

{237}

"3d. We began at daylight, and worked, from point to point, up the sound,
thinking it a channel. Two good anchorages were found on the west side, but
none on the east, except a trifling cove between the little island and the
land, which would only shelter a small vessel. The night was passed on an
island five miles within the sound. It rained hard for an hour before we
landed, and all the night afterwards. Our rest was not the most
satisfactory, as the ground was wet and swampy.

"Two of the boat's crew got into a hole under a tree thinking they should
be warm; but in the middle of the night they complained of not being able
to get up, and of being half frozen.

"4th. The rain ceased at times this morning, but the wind continued. After
going to the top of an island, we pulled and sailed onwards, not having a
doubt of soon getting into Whale Sound. At noon, the passage appeared
suspiciously small; yet I could not doubt the fine large opening laid down
in our old charts, and proceeded until the shore made a sudden turn, when,
to my astonishment, I saw a high black cliff stopping farther progress.
After a hearty growl, we turned back, and landed to look for a sleeping
place. Not a spot could we find that was not wet like a sponge; but night
was closing in, and obliged us to stay where we were. It was bitterly cold,
all of us were wet through, the ground was a mere swamp, we could not get a
fire to burn, and the frost was sharp.

"After daylight on the 5th, we succeeded in making a large fire, and spent
two hours drying our clothes and warming ourselves. In order to lighten the
boat, no one carried more clothes, since leaving the cutter, than those he
wore, except one shirt. We hastened back towards Charles Island, passing
some very remarkable glaciers, one of which looked like an enormous frozen
river, covering the whole side of a mountain. Many portions were of a
transparent blue colour, which, contrasted with the snowy whiteness of
others, and with the dark shadows of bare rocky places, had a very striking
effect. At noon, we passed out of the sound, and steered for Charles
Island, with a {238} light breeze in our favour. Seeing a canoe coming
across, we made towards it, and found a wretched-looking family, consisting
of a man, his wife, and three children, with some small dogs, seemingly
more miserable than their owners. A few wooden-headed spears were all the
property they possessed, excepting the worn-out skins thrown over their
shoulders. The man sold me a little dog for a bit of tobacco, and
afterwards wanted to have him again, because his wife would not consent to
the bargain. However, I kept the dog, and they began to abuse us in right
earnest, the woman alternately crying and scolding, and the man apparently
calling on the wind and water to destroy us. His gestures were very
expressive and animated. I was surprised to see so much feeling for a
wretched little half-starved puppy, and made them happy by returning him,
without asking for the tobacco.

"El Morrion(p) (the helmet) was certainly an excellent name for the
promontory we passed this day. It reminded me of the 'Castle of Otranto.'

"We reached a small islet, at the west point of Charles Bay, and passed a
good night on the top of a bare rock. So often had we slept in wet places,
that a dry, though stony berth, was thought very comfortable. The boat's
two sails, oars, and boat-hook, formed our tent.

"6th. We left the islet as soon after day-light as we could get breakfast,
and take the required bearings and angles; went into Spot Cove, thence
crossed to Charles Island, and to the narrow opening between it and the
nearest land. Ulloa's memory can no longer be preserved here in an island,
though it may in a peninsula. This small channel is narrow, and has a
strong tide setting through it. There is anchorage all the way, though
generally over a rocky bottom, and it is navigable for small vessels: its
average width is a quarter of a mile, and its length about three miles. For
a boat going westward through the Strait, it is far preferable to the
regular channel. Two old Fuegians were living here, a man and a woman.

"When in Whale Sound, appearances were such that had I {239} not been to
the bottom of Snowy Sound, I should have thought they joined. After going
far enough, to see quite to the end, we returned, hauled the boat on a
shingle beach, and secured her for the time. When a bit of shingle beach
could be found, it was a prize; for on it we could always make a good tent,
and have a dry bed, besides hauling the boat up easily. There is a greater
rise and fall of tide here, than at the other side of Charles Island, being
not less than seven or eight feet, at springs. During the night, a dog
stole a small piece of pork, which we had reserved for our last dinner;
and, until his track was discovered, there was no little distrust among our
party.

"Whale Sound is a large and deep inlet, ending in a valley between
mountains. On the south side, a vessel may anchor in one place, at the west
side of Last Harbour; but there, though the harbour appears large, the
anchorage is small, and close to the shore. We pulled and sailed along the
south shore, landing occasionally to take bearings, until we reached
Choiseul Bay, and in a cove, at its west side, we passed the night. This is
a place no ship need approach: it is a large, deceiving bay, full of islets
and patches of kelp, under which, probably, there are rocks, and between
the islets the water is deep and unfit for anchorage. The temperature of
the sea this day, in the middle of the sound, one foot below the surface,
was 45°.

"8th. As it rained heavily, we remained under such shelter as we could
obtain; and prepared for our return to the Beagle, by making use of the
only razor we had. When the rain ceased, we left the cove and sailed across
to Port Gallant, with a fresh breeze. The smoke of natives' fires was seen
near the entrance of the Barbara Channel; and on Prince Island, where we
stopped a few minutes, the first man seen had on an old pair of sailor's
trowsers, which he had obtained from the Beagle, tied round his legs in six
places. The wigwam these people were living in was not half covered: both
wind and rain passed through it. How they bear the cold is surprising,
being without clothes: one minute sitting close to the fire, and the next
perhaps up to the waist in water, getting muscles or sea-eggs. The women
dive for sea-eggs, even in the middle of winter; {240} but the water is
never very cold (42° to 44°).(q) In the afternoon we saw the Beagle's
mast-heads, and soon afterwards arrived on board, and enjoyed the happiness
of finding all hands well, and every thing ready for farther progress.
Lieutenant Kempe had turned the few hours of light, each day afforded, to
the best account. Those who have had the care of ships in remote places,
will know my feelings at finding all as it should be, after a long absence,
in a country little known. Not a man had been ill; and the weather had been
very tolerable compared with what was expected. There was less snow on the
mountains than when I left Port Gallant early in May. One thing only
disappointed me,--the Adelaide had not arrived. It was past the time
appointed for her, but she might have found much more to do than was
expected, or might have been obliged to return by the Magdalen, instead of
coming through the Barbara Channel.

"During my absence, two sealing vessels had been at Port Gallant, on their
way through the Strait. From one (an American), which arrived on the 7th of
May from Staten Land, information was received that the Adventure had not
been there. The Chanticleer had remained some time, but had sailed for the
Cape of Good Hope. The master of the American had a brother staying with a
boat's crew in Staten Land, during the whole of April, who would probably
have seen the Adventure, had she called. The other was Mr. Cutler's vessel,
the Uxor, bound to the United States; he had been through a channel which
leads from the Gulf of Trinidad to Cape Tamar, and spoke well of it; but
could give no drawing, nor precise information; having passed through
rapidly.

"Lieutenant Kempe had been at the summit of the Mountain de la Cruz, and
left a memorial. No rare animals had been seen, nor any new birds. Small
fish were still caught with hook and line, but very few with the seine.

"I never was fully aware of the comfort of a bed until this {241} night.
Not even a frost-bitten foot could prevent me from sleeping soundly for the
first time during many nights.

"9th. At one o'clock this day, I heard an exclamation of 'The schooner!'
and soon saw her standing across from the Barbara Channel with a fair wind.
Before she anchored in Port Gallant, I went on board, and, to my joy, found
Lieutenants Skyring and Graves, and all their companions well, having
thoroughly completed the work they had to perform, without loss, or even an
accident. The difficulty of their task was increased by very bad weather;
but they succeeded in tracing and surveying the Magdalen Channel to its
junction with the sea, and thence returned by the Barbara Channel to Port
Gallant; carrying on a regular chain of triangles, and connecting their
work with points previously fixed in the Strait of Magalhaens. A multitude
of small islands, and much bad weather, detained them longer than was
expected.

"While Lieutenants Skyring and Graves, assisted by Mr. Kirke, were employed
surveying, Mr. Bynoe collected geological and other specimens.[129]

"11th. We had nearly reached the shortest day; the sun did not rise above
the hills until past eleven; it disappeared again before two (the land
being less high towards the N.W.), and even in those three hours was seldom
visible.

"12th. Finding that Lieutenant Skyring agreed with me in thinking that the
channel from Cape Tamar to the Gulf of Trinidad might be surveyed by the
Adelaide, in her way to San Carlos de Chilóe, I resolved to send him and
Lieutenant Graves on that service, hoping that it would lead to the
discovery of a passage into the Skyring Water, and give vessels another way
of getting into or out of the Strait, should thick weather or adverse winds
oppose them in the usual channel.

"In making this arrangement there was much to be considered. As I had
received no orders from Captain King to employ the Adelaide in surveying,
after her return from the Magdalen Channel; and as I had been desired to
repair, with her, to San Carlos, in Chilóe, during which voyage Lieutenant
{242} Skyring was to be on board his own vessel, the Beagle, it would be
incurring considerable responsibility, to order a new piece of service to
be undertaken, which might not be successful; and would require officers,
men, a boat, provisions, and stores from the Beagle.

"I did not doubt that the measure would be approved by Captain King,
because he had discussed the feasibility of such a plan with me, and had
expressed a wish that it should be tried; but as I had not received any
orders, I could not decide without anxiety.

"Another, though a minor difficulty, arose from sending Lieutenant Skyring
in command of the Adelaide, over Lieutenant Graves, her proper commander,
who had expected to take her to Chilóe, and was quite competent to
undertake this or any other service in which she might be employed. Both
these officers excelled in their professional duties; but Skyring had been
on the western coasts of Patagonia before, and was the senior.

"Much to the credit of Lieutenant Graves, he removed one weight, by
volunteering to go any where I thought proper to direct, either alone or
with Lieutenant Skyring, and the necessary orders were forthwith given.
(See Appendix). Mr. Kirke was again to form one of their party, as well as
Mr. Bynoe, who exchanged temporarily with Mr. Park. The Beagle's whale-boat
was also lent, with five able seamen to man her; and good care was taken
that nothing the ship could give should be wanting in their outfit for a
service which, at that time of year, must be severe and tedious.

"Anchors and cables, hawsers and kedges, were abundantly supplied, because
in warping into unknown places, or anchoring hastily, many an anchor is
unavoidably broken or lost.

"The boat's crew, who had been away with the Adelaide, and were going in
her again, were supplied with extra clothing at the expense of Government,
the wear and tear of their clothes having been far beyond what they could
be expected to make good out of their pay.

{243}

"As an instance, I may mention, that a careful north countryman carried
with him, when he left the Beagle, two new pair of shoes (besides those on
his feet), and three pair of new stockings: but brought back only a ragged
pair of stockings and the remains of one shoe. The others had been fairly
worn out, or lost, in scrambling over rocks and ascending mountains.

"One height ascended by Lieutenant Skyring was so steep, that the men were
obliged to pass the instruments from one to another, at a great risk of
their own lives; and when they reached the summit, the wind was so strong,
that a heavy theodolite and stand, firmly placed, was blown over; and even
a Kater's compass could scarcely be used.

"With good clothing and provisions, weather may be almost defied, and work
may be done at the less unfavourable times; but without them, ill-humour
and ill-health must inevitably appear in such a climate as this.

"14th, Sunday. I had the satisfaction of keeping this day in a proper
manner, for the first time since we entered the Strait. So much had
depended upon employing every minute of our time while the weather would
allow, that there had been little distinction of days.

"17th. The morning being fine, with not much wind, though a sharp frost, I
left the ship with Mr. Murray and four men, and landed in Fortescue Bay,
intending to ascend the mountain 'De la Cruz,' if the snow and ice did not
prevent me.

"On the beach, close to the water, I suspended the mountain barometer, and
let it remain half an hour before we began the ascent, which, from the snow
lying so deep, was troublesome; for at one step a hard rock received one's
foot, and at the next, perhaps, a deep hole amongst broken trees. Sometimes
we tumbled head foremost into soft snow, slightly covering rotten mossy
boughs and swampy ground; and at others, slipped between the concealed
trunks of trees, which, though much decayed, were hard enough to cause many
a bruise. Each movement of our arms or legs shook down a shower of snow
from the trees, among which we were forcing our way.

"At noon we gained the part that is clear of wood, but {244} so very steep
and slippery was the summit, that we were obliged to go on our hands and
knees, forcing them as deeply into the snow as possible, to avoid sliding
down again. The highest point is not visible from Port Gallant.

"While I took angles with the theodolite, the seamen made a fire. It was
well we carried some fuel and a tinder-box, with a sheet of copper, upon
which to kindle it; for without a fire we should have been quite numbed.
Standing in one place for two hours, after being much warmed by exertion,
made us more sensible of the cold. The highest spot is but a few yards
wide, and by barometrical measurement is 2,280 feet above the sea.[130] The
height is, in truth, small; but as the mountain is so steep, and rises so
abruptly from the sea, it appears considerable.

"When we had finished our observations with the barometer and theodolite,
we deposited a Memorial, containing a list of the officers and crews of the
Beagle and Adelaide--an account of the object of their voyage, how far it
had succeeded, and where we were going--and a collection of coins,
well-soldered up in a tin case--upon the bare rock; and made a great pile
of stones over it.

"Having again examined the barometer, we began to descend; for the sun
disappearing behind the distant mountains, warned us that it was time to
return. We had enjoyed a magnificent view on all sides, and were reluctant
to leave our station. In descending, we made rapid progress at first,
sliding many yards together down the soft snow; but, by the time we reached
the woody part, it was getting dark, and having foolishly tried to return
by a straight line, instead of going round, we found steep cliffs, and
ravines covered with rotten trees, which perplexed us exceedingly.
Darkness, and the deep snow, much increased our dilemma; yet we could not
resist laughing heartily at the ludicrous scrapes some of the party got
into: one man was rather a-head, looking for a way to descend a steep
place, when the snow slipped from under him, and down he went, about eighty
feet, partly sliding, {245} partly falling, but quite against his consent.
What he did by accident, we were obliged to do, because there was no
alternative; so away we slid, one after another, like so many sledges upon
Russian ice-hills, holding the instruments as we could, by one hand, while
the other was employed to check or steady us. With a little more of this
sort of work, and some struggling through the wood at the bottom, we
reached the shore, where a boat was waiting for us, and at about eight
arrived on board, in a half-wet, half-frozen condition.[131]

"19th. Every thing was brought on board, the ship unmoored, and all made
ready for our departure next morning.

"20th. Sailed from Port Gallant, leaving the Adelaide to rate her
chronometers, and rejoin us before leaving the Strait. In the evening we
anchored in Elizabeth Bay, after a severe day's struggle against a strong
and contrary wind, with much rain.

"21st. Blowing hard again this morning from the N.W., with a great deal of
rain. Weighed and made sail under reefed courses and treble reefed
topsails, but the wind and tide were more than a match for us, so we stood
across into Whale Sound, and worked up under the lee of Carlos Island,
finding the tide there rather in our favour. The 'williwaws' (I know no
better name for the sudden gusts that come off the high land) gave us some
trouble, occasionally laying us almost on our beam ends. At half past two I
was induced to anchor under the lee of the south-east extremity of Carlos
Island, and thought our day's work was repaid by a snug position close to a
weather-shore, besides having made some little progress; but after dark the
wind became more violent, and a williwaw drove us out into deep water. We
set the storm sails, which, with the weather-tide, known to be then making
strongly, I hoped would take her a-head sufficiently to clear Rupert Island
(lying under our lee), and all hands then went to the capstan; but while
heaving-in the cable, our bower anchor again caught the ground and brought
us up. We veered away cable {246} directly, let go another anchor, and rode
out the rest of the gale, which was extremely violent, without driving.

"The instant our anchor caught, I knew we must be on a ridge, of which
Lieut. Skyring had spoken to me, lying between Rupert and Carlos Islands,
across which the tide makes strongly, at the rate of about three knots.
Rupert Island was still under our lee, distant less than half a mile.

"22d. Blowing hard and raining. At 9 A.M. it cleared and moderated, but so
strong a tide set past us, to the south, that we could not attempt to
weigh. It differs here from that in mid-channel by two hours, which may
much assist a vessel if she manages so as to take eight hours tide in her
favour.

"At eleven we unmoored, and got ready for moving at the turn of tide.[132]
At one we weighed and made sail with a moderate wind from N.W., and by
keeping close to Carlos Island, and making short boards, we had a
weather-tide, while in the fairway of the Strait the stream was running to
the S.E. We anchored in Bachelor's Bay (or York Roads), choosing an outside
berth in order to have more room to weigh again and work with the morning
tide. It blew hard in the night, but we rode securely, although the tide
ran at least three knots where we were.

"23d. We started and worked to the westward, and at nine were abreast of
Borja Bay; but by trying for too much, nearly lost all that we had gained,
for in standing across from the bay, hoping to weather Cape Quod, the flood
tide took us so strongly, that it cost three hours close working to get to
an anchor even in Borja Bay. We had rain and sleet continually through the
day, and it blew hard at night, but as plenty of chain was out, the
topsails and courses were close reefed, and the top-gallant masts on deck,
we were ready for anything.

"24th. Heavy squalls, with almost constant rain, prevented our moving
westward, and similar weather continued throughout the day, becoming worse
at night. Had we had plenty of provisions I should not have minded this
delay, because we might have remained at anchor till it was over; but so
much {247} had been said about the difficulty sometimes found in working
through the Strait, that it concerned us greatly not to lose a chance of
making progress. During this night the squalls were very heavy. The holding
ground must have been excellent, for williwaws drove the ship from one side
to the other as if she had been a chip upon the water.

"26th. Weighed this morning, weathered Cape Quod, and worked to the
westward, the weather having cleared and become very fine. The part where
most tide is felt was then past. Cape Quod projects so far south that the
Strait is there extremely narrow, and though very deep, has a strong tide.

"27th. At daylight we found ourselves to windward of Marian's Cove. Looking
eastward upon the land about Cape Quod, it has a very bleak and rugged
appearance. The almost perennial west winds prevent vegetation from growing
on the heights exposed to their action. Hence the desolate look of the
western shores of Tierra del Fuego. We saw a sail beyond Cape Notch, and,
just before we moored, close to the shore in Half-port Cove, we made her
out to be the Adelaide.

"28th. A bad morning, snowy and blowing, but the wind being moderate
between the squalls, I went in a whale boat to examine the Gulf of
Xaultegua, and pulled along the south shore towards Cape Monday. Having
gained some distance to windward, while the snow was so thick it was
impossible to see the shore, we made sail across the Strait, and hit the
place within a cable's length. When the snow ceased falling, we saw a large
space of water before us, the land opposite being at least five miles
distant. We sailed towards a strange looking islet in the middle of the
gulf, very similar to the old mouldering figures of the fabled Sphinx, but
the snow becoming again almost incessant, only allowing us to see our way
at intervals, while the wind was too strong for even a close reefed sail,
we landed, and hauled the boat up on an island. I was in hopes of finding
an opening which would lead me to the Skyring Water; and my boat's crew,
being almost as eager as I was, cared little for the wind or snow. This
night we made a larger tent than usual, with a top-gallant studding sail,
and {248} the consequence was, we were extremely cold, as there was a sharp
frost, and the snow was lying every where very deep. Next night we were
wiser, and reduced our tent to the smallest dimensions.

"29th. Early in the morning we resumed our search. I had a chronometer with
me, but as we never saw the sun, nor even a star, I should have been as
well without it. We pulled and sailed towards the northernmost corner
first, but found no opening, and went thence to the eastward, with a strong
and favourable breeze. Passing Still-hope Point I felt sure of finding a
passage, for before me were the tops of mountains seen from the Otway
Water. I was, however, deceived, the gulf ended in two bights, or inlets,
unconnected with other waters: so we returned to Still-hope Point and
hauled up the boat. The night passed very well, in a snug place among
trees, although the snow was falling thickly. Early next morning we left
the shore, having employed a quarter of an hour in clearing the snow out of
our boat. When we started, it snowed fast but without wind, and we steered
by compass for the Sphinx. I sketched what I could see of the south side of
this gulf, but did not consider it worth delaying longer, in such weather,
for so unimportant a place, while anxious that the Beagle should reach
Chilóe before her provisions were expended, and that I should fall in with
the Adelaide before leaving the Strait. If ever a minute survey is made of
this gulf, it should be after all others have been examined, as it is
utterly useless. The temperature of the water within it we found to be 40°
Fahr. We landed on St. Anne's Island, having run near thirty miles since
the morning, and thence we sailed across the Strait, reached His Majesty's
little vessel, and found that the Adelaide had not yet passed by. All
looked cold and wintry, every thing being covered with snow; and our sails
were hard frozen, for the first time.

"July 1st. After beating loose the sails, we stood out in the ship to meet
the Adelaide, which was seen coming towards us. I went on board, and found
every one well. They too, in attempting to anchor off Carlos Island, had,
like ourselves, been driven {249} out: we compared chronometers, and
supplied her with a few things not thought of before (keeping under all
sail meanwhile to profit by an easterly wind); and the Beagle's officers
lent the Adelaide their own stove.

"In the afternoon, we parted company; the Adelaide stood towards Upright
Bay, and anchored at dusk, while we steered out of the Strait, with a
freshening breeze from the east, which increased much as we made westing.
At midnight, we were in the Pacific, and all our anxiety about weeks of
beating to windward upon short allowance of provisions, vanished as quickly
as the land astern. The glass falling, with the wind in the S.E. quarter,
foretold unusually bad weather; we therefore shortened sail by degrees,
making all secure.

"2d. At six o'clock in the morning, it was blowing a gale of wind, with so
much sea, that it was necessary to steer right before it,--or
heave-to,--which with a fair wind was not preferable; and we found the
vessel scud extremely well, under close reefed fore and main topsails, and
double reefed foresail. Our quarter boats caused anxiety, for the davits
were low, and at every lurch the boats were risked. Frequently they dipped
in the sea, and sometimes were half filled; but they hung fast till by a
moment's neglect of the steerage, a sea broke over the whale-boat, and
carried her away. The other, being much smaller and stronger, held on well,
though frequently under water. Towards midnight the gale broke; by the next
morning the weather was more moderate; and from that time it continued
fine, until our arrival at Chilóe.

"On the 5th, at daylight, we saw land at a great distance, which afterwards
proved to be the Island of Guafo, and in the afternoon the south end of
Chilóe was seen.

"On the 8th, we were working towards the Port of San Carlos, being off
Point Huapilacuy, and next day (9th) anchored in the port of San Carlos,
which seemed to be well sheltered by a country, the appearance of which was
very agreeable when contrasted with that of Tierra del Fuego.

"The town reminded me of a Cornish village. I thought, from their
appearance and colour, that the houses were built {250} of stone, and
roofed with slate; but afterwards found they were of wood, from their
foundations, to the tops of their roofs. Except a few cleared spaces, the
island is entirely covered with trees, even on the highest hills. The
Captain of the Port (an Englishman) boarded us as we neared the anchorage,
and was very obliging in his offers. From him I learnt that the Adventure
had not yet arrived, nor even been heard of on the coast. We anchored under
the lee of Barcacura Heights, in a good berth, and moored ship. I went on
shore immediately, and paid my respects to the Governor, Don José Santiago
Aldunate, a brigadier-general in the Chilian Service, whose kind manner,
and friendly offers of every assistance he could render us, were very
gratifying. From the master of a merchant ship, lately arrived, I was
surprised and concerned to learn, that the Adventure had not reached
Valparaiso before the time of his sailing thence (20th of June).[133]

"Refitting the Beagle, repairing and building boats, occupied most of the
officers, and all the crew, while Mr. Stokes and I were engaged in the work
of the survey, during our stay in the Port of San Carlos. Our ship required
caulking, which, in so rainy a climate, was difficult to accomplish. So
continually wet was the weather, that had we not dried our sails, and
unbent them, during three fine days which we had(r) on our arrival, they
would not have been dry during our stay."

       *       *       *       *       *


{251}

CHAPTER XV.

  Extracts from the Journals of Lieutenants Skyring and Graves--Magdalen
  Channel--Keats Sound--Mount Sarmiento--Barrow Head--Cockburn Channel--
  Prevalence of south-west winds--Melville Sound--Ascent of Mount Skyring--
  Memorial--Cockburn and Barbara Channels--Mass of Islets and Rocks--Hewett
  Bay--Cypress trees useful--Adelaide rejoins Beagle in Port Gallant--
  Captain King's narrative resumed--Plan of future proceedings--Adelaide
  arrives at Chilóe--Abstract of Lieutenant Skyring's account of her
  proceedings--Smyth Channel--Mount Burney--'Ancon sin Salida'--Natives--
  Kirke Narrows--Guia Narrows--Peculiar tides--Indians in plank canoes--
  Passage to Chilóe.

The extracts from Captain Fitz Roy's first journal being ended, I shall now
give some passages from the journals of Lieutenants Skyring and Graves,
while employed in the Adelaide, exploring and surveying the Magdalen and
Barbara Channels.

The reader will remember, that the Adelaide parted company with the Beagle,
at the entrance of the Magdalen Channel, on the 19th of April; and steered
to the southward under the direction of Lieutenant Skyring.

Lieutenant Graves says:--

"The east and west shores of the Magdalen Channel run nearly parallel to
each other: but the east side is broken by a large opening, named Keats
Sound, which runs into the land for eight miles, and appears very like a
channel.(s)

"At the S.W. angle of the Magdalen Channel stands Mount Sarmiento: the most
conspicuous, and the most splendid object in these regions. Rising abruptly
from the sea, to a height of about 7,000 feet, it terminates in two sharp
peaks, which seem absolutely in the sky: so lofty does the mountain appear,
when you are close to its base.

{252}

"Two thirds of the height are covered with snow; and two enormous glaciers
descend into the deep blue waters of the sea beneath. When the sun shines,
it is a most brilliant and magnificent sight.

"Many days were almost lost to us, in consequence of heavy gales,
accompanied by torrents of rain; but we profited by intervals of fine
weather to move from cove to cove.

"On the 5th of May, while working out of Stormy Bay, we grounded, and
remained fixed upon a rock several hours, but were lifted off again by the
next tide, without having sustained material injury.

"To vessels navigating this channel, I should strongly recommend giving a
preference to the south shore, where there are many openings, and I have no
doubt good anchorages, which, as our time was limited, and the weather very
tempestuous, we had not an opportunity of examining. If any such exist they
would have a decided advantage over those on the north shore, from being
generally to windward, and therefore easy to leave, as well as more secure.
King and Fitz Roy Islands, lying in mid-channel, between Stormy and Park
Bays, are of bold approach, as are also the Kirke Rocks, which lie further
to the S.W.

"One morning, being anxious to obtain a more secure situation for the
vessel, we started in search of a better berth, intending, if possible, to
reach a bay on the other shore, near Barrow Head, apparently affording good
anchorage; but after beating about, from nine until four o'clock, without
being able to reach it, the breeze freshening, and sea increasing, we bore
up, and again anchored under the lee of the same island. S.W. winds prevail
in these parts throughout the year: in confirmation of which, besides the
experience we ourselves have had, all the trees which stand exposed, are
bent in an opposite direction; and on the S.W. side of all the land open to
that point, not only does the vegetation commence much further from the
water's edge, but it is scarcer, and more stunted. In sheltered places the
trees grow to within a foot of high-water mark.

[Illustration: C. Martens T. Landseer

MOUNT SARMIENTO.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{253}

"May 11th. We remained at the above-mentioned anchorage; and while
Lieutenant Skyring was examining a cluster of islands in the vicinity, I
obtained observations for the latitude and longitude; and as it was the
first fine day, indeed the only one since entering this channel in which we
had a fair proportion of sunshine, it was taken advantage of to dry and air
all our clothes and bedding, and clean out the vessel thoroughly.

"The next anchorage we took, was in a cove just large enough to hold the
schooner, at the entrance of Dyneley Sound, on the north shore. In crossing
over, we had a fine view of Mount Sarmiento; and looking to seaward, from
the hill over this cove, the Tussac, and the Fury Rocks, at the entrance of
Melville Sound, which are much resorted to by sealers, were clearly
distinguishable.

"During our stay here, until May 15th, the neighbouring coast was examined,
whenever the weather permitted. We also communicated with several canoes
full of Indians, but gained no additional information respecting the habits
of the natives.

"The next start carried us through the islands of Melville Sound, to an
anchorage in a small cove, at the N.E. end of the largest of the Magill
Islands, upon which is Mount Skyring. Having resolved to ascend to the top,
as it offered so commanding a view, and was so centrally situated, we
remained for that purpose." The weather, for several days, was very
unfavourable, and it was not until the 21st, that there was any reasonable
prospect of obtaining a view from the summit; when Lieutenant Skyring and
Mr. Kirke had a most laborious excursion, and the latter was nearly
frost-bitten in ascending the mountain; but they were fully recompensed for
the trouble and difficulty they had experienced.

Lieutenant Skyring says:--

"We gained the summit after three hour's hard travelling. During the last
five hundred feet of ascent, the mountain was almost precipitous, and we
had the utmost difficulty in passing the instruments from hand to hand. Its
formation is remarkable, although, I believe, the same structure exists
throughout the hills around. The base is a coarse granite, but this solid
{254} formation cannot be traced half the height; above is an immense heap
of masses of rock, irregularly and wonderfully thrown together, many huge
fragments overhanging, with apparently very little hold. This station was
the most commanding we had chosen during the survey, and answered well for
the object we desired; which being attained, we returned on board, and I
rejoiced when all were safe, for it was neither an easy, nor a pleasant
enterprise."

A document, of which the following is a copy, was enclosed in a bottle and
a strong outer case, and left at the summit of the mountain.

     (Copy.)

    This Memorial was left by the officers of H.M. Schooner Adelaide, while
    employed on a survey of the Magdalen, Cockburn, and Barbara Channels;
    and any person finding it is requested to leave the original document,
    and build the pile, under which it is placed, at least six feet higher.

      Signed this 16th day of May 1829, by

      W. G. Skyring, Lieut. and assist. surveyor of H.M.S. Beagle.
      Thomas Graves, Lieut. of H.M. Schooner Adelaide.
      James Kirke, Midshipman H.M.S. Beagle.
      Alex. Millar, Master assist. H.M.S. Adelaide.
      Benj. Bynoe, Assist. surgeon H.M.S. Beagle.
      Jno. Park, Assist. surgeon H.M.S. Adventure.

                  God save the King.

"In the Cockburn Channel,[134] the flood-tide sets to seaward; {255} but it
was not found to be of consequence to a vessel in working through. The rise
and fall is not more than six, or at most, eight feet, at spring-tides.

"May 22d. We quitted this anchorage; and having worked to the westward,
through the Adelaide Passage, took up a berth in a small bay, two miles and
a half to the northward, where we remained during the night, and next
morning; then, after examining the neighbouring coast sufficiently to carry
on our triangulation, proceeded to an anchorage on the north side of Bynoe
Island. From the summit of this place an extensive view was obtained of the
islands in Melville Sound, as well as of the entrance to the Cockburn and
Barbara Channels. Such a complicated mass of islands and rocks, I never
before saw; to lay them all down correctly would occupy a long time.
Sufficient, however, has been done to take the navigator through this
labyrinth; but I am well aware, that very much is still wanting to complete
the survey.

"Fury and North Harbours, of which the former became more particularly
known to us from the Prince of Saxe Cobourg having been wrecked there in
December 1826, were laid down from an eye-sketch only; but the peaks of the
island, and its extremes, were fixed by triangulation.[135]

"Melville Sound is formed by the islands which separate the Cockburn from
the Barbara Channels. Generally speaking, they, as well as the coasts in
the immediate neighbourhood which are exposed to seaward, present a most
barren and desolate appearance.

"Until the 26th of May, we were much occupied among the surrounding
islands; but time being short, we took advantage of a southerly wind to run
up the Barbara Channel, and soon reached an anchorage in Hewett Bay. While
securing the vessel, a canoe, containing only a man, woman, and child, and
three dogs, was seen coming round the south point of the bay. As they
seemed very unwilling to pay us a visit, remaining at a distance, and
vociferating as usual, 'Ho-say,' 'Ho-say!' Mr. Bynoe and I communicated
with them in the dinghy; but {256} finding they had not an article worth
bartering for, we soon left them, and returned on board. It was suspected
their companions were not far off, and indeed, the day after, Lieutenant
Skyring saw several canoes; but the moment he was discovered, they were
beached, and the men, taking to the woods, kept at a distance.

"On the 29th, we left Hewett Bay, and, after threading the needle through a
multitude of islands, islets, and small rocks, for more than three miles,
reached an anchorage in a small cove, at the north entrance of Brown Bay,
where we were detained, and confined to the vessel, by heavy gales, and
stormy weather, until June 2d; when, having a fine day, we reached a spot
(marked in the chart as North anchorage) sufficiently secure for a small
vessel; but not to be recommended to any other.

"Between Hewett Bay, and the above anchorage, there are several rocks,
among patches of kelp, which, as they only show themselves at half ebb, or
near low water, render the navigation rather intricate. A good maxim in
these channels is, 'Avoid kelp, and you avoid danger.' Forty-three days had
passed since we left Port Famine; and in this interval, I find we had nine
favourable days, twelve partially favourable, some hours of which we could
employ in the work about which we were engaged, and the remaining
twenty-three were days of rain and wind, far too unfavourable to serve our
purpose in the least.

"June 4th. While turning to windward, we, for the first time, felt the
influence of the tide, which, from the channel's narrowing, begins to be
sensible: here it was sufficiently strong to prevent our gaining ground in
beating to windward, although with a good working breeze; we therefore ran
into a bay on the west side, and anchored. The country around had rather a
pleasing appearance, the shores being partially covered with the evergreen,
and deciduous-leaved beech, and a few stunted cypress-trees. These last are
serviceable for boat-hook spars, or boats' masts; and, when seasoned, work
up very smoothly, and wear well: the beech-trees do not equal those found
further northward in the Strait, except here and there in sheltered
corners.

{257}

"With a leading wind, the next morning, we reached the south narrows of the
Barbara Channel, through which we were carried by a strong tide, and
anchored in Bedford Bay.

"Here, as well as throughout the Barbara channel, the flood tide sets to
the southward. We obtained at this place angles which connected our
triangulation with points fixed by Captain King during the previous year,
and finished our examination of these channels within a very few days of
the time allotted.

"On the 8th of June we attempted to pass through the Shag Narrows, but not
saving the tide, were obliged to anchor for the night in Field Bay, which
is small and much exposed to southerly winds; the bank also is very abrupt,
and the water is deep close to the shore.

"On the 9th we succeeded in clearing the Narrows, and reached Port Gallant
early in the afternoon, where we rejoined the Beagle."

Having given these brief extracts from Journals kept on board the Beagle
and Adelaide, during the time occupied by the Adventure about Cape Horn, or
on her way to Chilóe, I will resume my own narrative.

As it was my intention to remain at this port[136] until the Beagle and
Adelaide were equipped, the Adventure was made snug, and, by way of
relaxation, such of the officers as could be spared from the duties of the
ship, resided in turns at the town, where also the ship's company had
frequently permission to amuse themselves.

The Hoxsley schooner arrived from Valparaiso and brought me letters from
the Admiralty, acquiescing in my request to return to England direct,
instead of proceeding by way of New South Wales and the Cape of Good Hope,
as was originally intended. I therefore determined to return to Valparaiso
as soon as our consorts had taken their departure, proceed thence to Port
Famine, where we were to be joined by the Adelaide, and afterwards repair
to Rio de Janeiro to await the Beagle's arrival, when we should sail for
England.

{258}

On the 20th of September my anxiety for the Adelaide was relieved by her
appearance, and by finding all on board her in good health. She had gone up
the coast by the channels that communicate with the Strait of Magalhaens at
Beaufort Bay, passing inside of Hanover Island and Madre de Dios; and
Lieut. Skyring gave me a very interesting account of their discoveries, of
which the following is an abstract.

It will be remembered that the Beagle left the Adelaide at anchor under
Cape Upright. While there the wind freshened up from the eastward, and
threw a swell into the bay, which rendered the anchorage very unsafe, as
the schooner's stern was in the foam of the sea that broke on the rocky
shore close to her. Much anxiety was felt for their safety, but the anchors
held well. As soon as the weather permitted they sailed, entered Beaufort
Bay, and steered towards a deep opening to the eastward of Cape Phillip,
into which they ran with a steady S.E. wind, and found an anchorage on the
west side in Deep Harbour.

On the 5th of July Lieut. Skyring and Mr. Kirke were absent in a whaleboat,
exploring a deep opening eastward of Cape Tamar, which they found to
terminate in two sounds, named by them Icy Sound and Glacier Bay; the first
from its being covered with a sheet of ice, and the latter from its being
full of large masses which had been detached from an extensive glacier
occupying the bottom of the bay. The examination of this opening was made
in search of a channel, through which, vessels had entered the Strait, and
the schooner was to proceed to her rendezvous. The result proved that the
Adelaide was already in the channel they were looking for, therefore they
returned on board, and proceeded (7th) to the northward. In passing Mount
Joy a strong tide was observed, the certain indication of a channel; for,
as has been before remarked, within sounds the tide has no perceptible
stream. To gain a better knowledge of their way they anchored early in
Good's Bay; the course of the channel, from the intersection of points, and
intervention of islands, being by no means distinct. Lieut. Graves made a
plan of the bay, while {259} Lieut. Skyring, and his assistant,[137]
completed the survey of the entrance to the passage, which was named Smyth
Channel, as a compliment to Capt. W. H. Smyth, R. N., under whom, while
surveying the Mediterranean, both Lieuts. Skyring and Graves had served.

The best channel they found to the eastward of Renouard Island, and the
Adelaide took that course, but stopped a night in a small cove on the
eastern side of the island, and in passing Shoal Island next day struck on
a rock; she was got off however without injury, and anchored afterwards,
for a night, on the north side of the Island of the Narrows.

The two following days (10th and 11th) were spent in examining the coast,
and exploring Clapperton Inlet, which had the appearance of being a
channel. From the hills at the bottom Lieut. Skyring noticed a considerable
tract of low land and open plain, extending to the northward. On the 12th,
being Sunday, they remained quiet, and on the 13th the weather was so calm
that they only reached Hose Harbour, on the east side; and the next day
Oake Bay. Thence crossing the channel in a whaleboat they explored some
distance along that shore; and on the 15th anchored in Otter Bay. This slow
progress was unavoidable, owing to the calm state of the weather, and to
the survey being principally, if not entirely, carried on in boats.

On the 16th the schooner was towed onwards, and passing over an extensive
shoal flat of three fathoms, reached the Summer Islands, where she might
have stopped, but, as the tide was still favourable, she proceeded to an
anchorage under Long Island, the most northern in the Elson group.

The eastern shore of the channel was there very different in character from
what they had so long been accustomed to, being nearly level; and,
extending for some distance off every low point, there was shoal water.

For some days a lofty mountain, covered with snow, had been in sight;
which, by angular measurement, proved to {260} be 5,800 feet in height. It
was named Mount Burney, in compliment to the admiral.

On the 17th the Adelaide reached Fortune Bay, situated at the east extreme
of a headland, on each side of which is a channel, leading, apparently,
towards Cape Isabel. The northern seemed to be the principal one, and
therefore was followed next day (18th) as far as Welcome Bay.

Continuing the survey onwards they reached Victory Passage, which they
entered, thinking they were in the mouth of the 'Ancon sin Salida,' as laid
down from Sarmiento's journal by Admiral Burney. The weather, however,
became so bad, that they were obliged to take shelter in Island Bay, and
the next day the wind setting in from the eastward, they gave up, for a
time, their search for the 'Ancon sin salida,' and proceeded by Smyth
Channel, as far as Hamper Bay, where they were again detained by bad
weather. Here a few rock fish were caught, but at no other time during this
cruise were the fishermen successful, although the channel was so filled by
porpoises and seals, that it is probably well stocked with fish at the
proper season: and there are many places where the seine might be shot.
Proceeding slowly on the 25th, the Adelaide struck on a rock, and remained
fast for a few hours, but as the tide rose she swung off without damage.
Upon examining Rocky Bay they found it a complete bed of rocks; yet, bad as
it was, the Adelaide was obliged to remain there five days, owing to the
tempestuous state of the weather. On the 30th they reached the north end of
Smyth Channel, and anchored in Narrow Creek.

On the 31st Lieut. Skyring went to a remarkable hill, which he called Mount
Trafalgar, but thought it might have been the 'Monte Trigo'[138] of
Sarmiento, so much did its appearance remind him of a corn stack. The day
was most favourable: a round of angles, and an extensive view down Lord
Nelson's Strait, were obtained from the summit. They remained on an island
all night, sheltered by the boat, and next morning went to two points,
called by Sarmiento 'Oueste,' and 'Mas {261} al Oueste,' (west and more
west,) returning to the Adelaide in the evening.

The following morning was fine, and the Adelaide moved out of Smyth
Channel, the survey of which was completed very satisfactorily, although
their progress was slow, owing to constant northerly winds.

By towing the Adelaide during tedious calms, they reached Montague Bay in
the evening, and next day anchored in Relief Harbour, on the S.W. side of
Vancouver Island.

As it was evident that the 'Ancon sin salida' was within Piazzi and Ceres
Islands, up the west coasts of which they had passed, Lieut. Skyring left
the schooner moored in Relief Harbour, and proceeded, on the 4th August, to
the southward, in a whale-boat with Mr. Kirke; but he took no more than a
week's provisions, that time being all he could devote to this exploration.

The 4th, 5th, and 6th, Lieutenant Skyring employed in pulling or sailing to
the southward and eastward, through winding and intricate passages;
although strong winds and much heavy rain annoyed him, and impeded his
progress.

On the 7th the weather was much more favourable than it had lately been.
The boat pulled and sailed to the southward, and at noon Lieutenant Skyring
ascended a height,[139] having on each side of it a deep opening, but he
was disappointed in the view; and, after taking bearings, pulled round the
adjacent bights, one of which was exactly opposite Artist Bay, in Smyth
Channel, and so near it that the two waters were only separated by a few
hundred yards;[140] the other,[141] eastward of the height, was large, and
closed at the bottom by very low lands. It was directly supposed to be the
'Ancon sin Salida;'[142] but Sarmiento's description, and the chart
compiled by Burney, {262} were insufficient to enable them to decide with
any degree of certainty. After looking round this bay, they continued to
the eastward, and passed a point beyond which there was apparently a wide
channel; having run about six miles down it without discovering any
termination, they hauled their boat up on the beach for the night.

On the 8th, two canoes were noticed on the west shore; but seeing strangers
the natives, apparently much frightened, all landed, except an old man; and
taking with them what they most valued, hid themselves among the
brush-wood, leaving their canoes fastened to the sea-weed. By some Fuegian
words of invitation, the men were, however, induced to approach and
traffic, receiving for their otter skins whatever could be spared. In
appearance and manner these Indians were exactly similar to the Fuegians;
and by their canoes only, which were built of planks, could they be
distinguished as belonging to another tribe.

After leaving the natives, the boat passed Cape Earnest, and Lieutenant
Skyring observed a wide channel leading north and then N.N.W.;[143] also,
another opening to the eastward. The wind being easterly, he ran some
distance to the northward, to gain more knowledge of the first inlet; and
having gone ten or twelve miles from Cape Earnest, and observing the
opening for eight miles beyond to be as wide as where they then were, he
concluded it to be a channel, or else a deep sound terminated by low land,
for there was evidently a division in {263} the mountains, such as to
justify this belief. Returning, they entered the smaller opening to the
eastward, and were almost assured of its being a channel; for when they
were between the points, many porpoises and seals were observed, and a tide
was found setting westward, at the rate of two knots. At dark, they hauled
their boat on the beach of an excellent bay, at the north side of the
narrow reach, and secured her for the night.

On the 9th, shortly after daylight, they set out in a N.E. direction to
ascertain the truth of their supposition; and before noon knew, beyond a
doubt, that they were correct in their belief, being in the narrows of a
channel before unknown, that had eluded Sarmiento's notice. These narrows,
which Lieutenant Skyring felt assured would lead to a large opening, were
upwards of three miles in length, and generally about one-third of a mile
in breadth. A strong tide took the boat through; and at the N.E. extremity,
where the narrows were reduced to four hundred yards in width, the water,
although a neap-tide, rushed at the rate of four knots, forming whirling
eddies, which were carefully avoided by Lieutenant Skyring. At spring-tide,
the strength of these rapids would probably not be less than seven knots.

Having passed through them, a clear channel was seen, upwards of two miles
wide, running to the N.b.E. for, at least, eight miles, and then turning
directly eastward, between moderately high land. Another channel, nearly a
mile and a half wide, trended to the S.E. for two or three miles, and then
also turned to the eastward. Here they stopped. Lieutenant Skyring
regretted extremely not being able to prosecute the discovery, and have one
more view from the eastern point of the N.E. channel; but as only one day's
provisions remained, it would have been imprudent to delay his return. It
was evident, that they had passed through the range of the
Cordilleras,[144] for to the eastward the country appeared totally
different, the highest hill not being above seven hundred feet. The opening
to the N.E. was thought to communicate with the 'waters' lately discovered
by Captain Fitz Roy. The latitude {264} was obtained on Point Return; and
in the afternoon, reluctantly but anxiously, they retraced their way, and
passed that night at their former quarters, in Whale-boat Bay.

On the 10th, at daylight, they proceeded on their return. The wind was fair
until they reached Cape Earnest, when it drew right against them; and they
had the unpleasant prospect of a tedious pull to the schooner, with very
little provision.

The 11th was a thoroughly wet day, and the wind was so strong from the
northward, with a very heavy sea running, that it was impossible to
proceed.

On the 12th, they left the bay soon after daylight, and having pulled along
shore a few miles, crossed Union Sound, and gained the Narrows of San
Benito, the wind being still fresh from the northward; thence they
continued pulling until they hauled up, after dark, in a bay, opposite
Point Benito, and waited till the morning of the 13th, when with a fresh
S.W. wind they made good progress, which was of the more consequence, as
their provisions were expended, although they had eked them out with
corvorants and muscles. At last, the sight of the Adelaide rejoiced them,
and they soon afterwards reached her. Their appearance was a relief to all
who were on board, as they were becoming very anxious, and Lieut. Graves
was preparing to send the other whale-boat in search of them. During their
absence he had made the necessary astronomical observations, and finished
the examination of those shores adjacent to the harbours.

From the 13th to the 17th, the schooner was detained by bad weather, and
the following day only succeeded in reaching Escape Bay, in San Estevan
Channel, which was found to be a good and well-sheltered anchorage,
although small.

On the 19th, after angles had been taken on each side of the Channel, the
Adelaide got under weigh, and steered up the Channel. At noon she passed
the mount which they supposed to be Sarmiento's Monte Trigo, and soon
after, nearing Esperanza Island, they sought for some mark by which to
recognise the Mountain of the Fox ('Monte de la Zorra'). In the white part
of a cliff, they fancied some resemblance to an {265} animal, and noticed a
harbour opposite, in which they anchored. They had such trouble in getting
to the northward, that this day's run, though only eighteen miles, was a
cause of much satisfaction.

On the 20th, at daylight, the boats were employed around the anchorage, and
at nine o'clock the vessel was underweigh, and working to the northward,
although it rained hard then, as well as throughout the whole day: after
beating until the evening, she anchored on the west shore.

Constant rain fell through the whole night, and during the 21st; it was
therefore impossible to make any progress to the northward.

On the 22d the Adelaide weighed, and the weather being calm, was towed
during the whole forenoon. At noon a southerly wind sprung up, and by the
evening she was in the Guia Narrows (of Sarmiento). They tried for
anchorage in Unfit Bay, conceiving it to be Sarmiento's Port Ochavario; but
none being found, the vessel was towed into a cove, and securely moored.

Next day the boats surveyed the Guia Narrows. Although long, they did not
appear hazardous to pass, for the tides are not very rapid. The ebb tide
runs to the northward, but at the south entrance of the San Estevan
Channel, the ebb sets to the southward; which difference in direction,
within so short a distance, is extraordinary, and difficult to account for
without knowing more of the coast. Certainly there is a meeting of tides
between the two entrances; probably, all the land westward of San Estevan
is a collection of large islands, and water flows into this channel, from
the Pacific, through many openings, which may be the cause of this
peculiarity.

24th. With light breezes from the eastward, the schooner weighed and stood
through the Narrows; passed Point San Juan, and continued along the eastern
shore of Concepcion Strait to Guard Bay, where she was moored.

25th. Rainy weather until near noon, when the boats were employed.

On the 26th the schooner was towed out, and, as it was calm, {266} kept a
boat a-head the whole day. She anchored in a small bight, formed by Chance
Islands, about seven miles from Guard Bay.

The 27th was rainy, but the boats went to different points, and angles were
taken before the schooner weighed and worked northward. At noon she came to
an anchor in a small bay, northward of the Hocico de Caiman. Constant rain
during the remainder of the day.

On the 28th it rained too incessantly the whole morning, to allow the party
to work, even in boats; and the day was passed in laying down former
observations.

29th. After angles had been taken near the anchorage, the schooner was
moved, and worked along the coast. A strong wind from the N.W., with a
heavy sea, brought the vessel under close-reefed sails, and obliged her to
anchor in Walker Bay.

On the 30th, the Adelaide anchored in Molyneux Sound. To give a clearer
idea of the delays experienced in making progress to the northward through
these intricate channels, I shall now extract part of Lieutenant Skyring's
Journal, in his own words:

"31st. Wind N.N.W. with a heavy swell in the Strait; the boats at daylight
went north and south of the anchorage, and angles were obtained. At nine,
ready for starting; but the weather was too unfavourable, and continued so
until the 4th of September, when, at seven o'clock in the morning, we
weighed. At nine, squally--obliged to double-reef; but the tide serving, we
gained a few miles to windward, and at one, P.M., stood among a mass of
islands on the west side, and moored in Tom's Bay, steadying the vessel
with the stream anchor. In the afternoon the survey was continued, and from
the heights a view was obtained of the Gulf of Trinidad, and of several
points observed last year. Another detention of two days, owing to bad
weather.

"7th. Cloudy; weighed at daylight, and stood for the narrows. At eight,
squally, with thick snowy weather; but, being once under weigh, we
refrained from returning, until compelled. It certainly was not a
favourable day for working {267} through; but the wind moderated, and our
attempt succeeded. No anchorage being found by the boats on the north side
of the narrows, we made for the weather-shore of the gulf, and anchored
early in Windward Bay. In the afternoon, angles were taken on Middle
Island, and east and west of the anchorage. The time of our departure
drawing near, it became doubly necessary to work constantly, that we might
join this survey with that of last year, in the Beagle.

"8th. Weighed at daylight; wind light from N.W.; but, falling calm, boats
were detached for continuing the angles, and the latitude was observed on
Red Beak Rocks. At five o'clock, we gained an anchorage, close to the
eastward of the Ancon del Morro, on the S.E. side of Division Isle, in a
bay which answered our purpose, although it was rather a confined place.
Some angles were taken on Point Candelaria, preparatory to continuing our
course next morning.

"9th. At daylight weighed and stood over to the northern shore, and at
eleven, anchored in Neesham Bay, in eleven fathoms. Boats employed in the
afternoon, on the survey. While at anchor, two canoes, containing together
thirty-two Indians, came alongside; they were chiefly men, a finer race of
people, better formed, and better featured than the Fuegians, and much less
noisy. Their canoes were made of planks, the longest upwards of
twenty-three feet in length: they appeared exceedingly buoyant, and pulled
quickly.

"10th. At daylight, we sailed out of the bay, with a light breeze from the
eastward; at seven, the wind increased, and a heavy sea rose in the gulf.
It was my intention to get an anchorage under Mount Corso; but, as that was
now a leeward coast, with a heavy sea setting upon the shore, it would have
been improper to attempt seeking for one. If it had answered our purpose,
we might have gone to Port Henry, and, indeed, this was the only safe
course we could have pursued, if our object had been to remain in the gulf;
but no time was left to wait for favourable weather; therefore I chose in
preference to leave the gulf, and take advantage of the fair wind to gain
an offing, the time of our return being so near.

{268}

"We left the gulf two days before I had expected to have done so; but we
all rejoiced at our departure. No crew could have performed their duty more
willingly than the Adelaide's; but such lengthened fatigue as they had
undergone, was sufficient to make any men feel happy at the prospect of a
respite.

"It was a pleasing reflection to Lieutenant Graves and myself, that the
orders had been fully executed; that the coast we had passed was throughout
well connected; and that this service was concluded without any illness or
accident among the crew, without any damage to the vessel, without any loss
of boats, or even the slightest misfortune."

During the Adelaide's passage to Chilóe, Lieutenant Skyring and his
companion were assiduously employed in transferring their observations to
paper, notwithstanding the violent motion of their little vessel, during
ten days of rough weather.

       *       *       *       *       *


{269}

CHAPTER XVI.

  Chilóe--Its probable importance--Valdivia founds seven cities;
  afterwards destroyed by the Indians--Migration of Spanish settlers--
  Province and Islands of Chilóe--Districts and population--Government--
  Defence--Winds--Town--Durability of wooden buildings--Cultivation--Want
  of industry--Improvement--Dress--Habits of lower classes--Morality--
  Schools--Language--Produce--Manufactures--Exports and imports--Varieties
  of wood--Alerse--Roads--Piraguas Ploughs--Corn--Potatoes--Contributions--
  Birds--Shell-fish--Medical practitioners--Remedies--Climate.

As the Island of Chilóe was formerly shrouded from notice, by the policy of
its master, the King of Spain, and therefore little known to the world; I
have considered it not irrelevant to the narration of the voyage, to
introduce a short account of its present state, particularly as since the
trade of the whole coast has been opened, a new era has dawned upon this
interesting island; and although it has been, as yet, the least frequented
of the South American States, I think the time is not far distant, when it
will become an important part of the Chilian territory.

After the foundation of the city of Penco, or Concepcion, by Don Pedro de
Valdivia, in the year 1550, he passed on towards the south in search of
convenient situations for other cities; and crossing the river Bio Bio,
which separates Concepcion from the territory of the Araucanian Indians,
successively founded Imperial, Valdivia, Villa Rica, Angol, Cañete, and
Osorno; the last being effected in the year 1558. The necessary
distribution of the Spanish forces, to protect so many points, made them
comparatively defenceless, in a country inhabited by a large population of
Indians, who contemplated the hostile occupation of their native land, by
the invading army, with a deep dissatisfaction. They had for some time
endured, with sullen patience, the yoke of the Spaniards; but at last,
incensed by the servility and bondage to which they were reduced, and,
probably, by no small portion of ill-treatment; the whole population rose
simultaneously, and waged a most destructive and {270} harassing war
against the Spaniards, in which the above-mentioned cities were all
destroyed, and the greater number of their inhabitants put to death.

The destruction of the city of Osorno caused the province of Chilóe, or, at
least, the adjacent districts of Calbuco and Carelmapu, to be occupied.
This town, being more distant from the seat of war, where the main body of
the Indian army was actively employed, was enabled to hold out for some
time; but, at last, cut off from assistance, prevented from communicating
with friends, and utterly destitute of supplies, the inhabitants retired to
the fort, or citadel; which they maintained, until compelled, by absolute
want of provisions, to abandon their position, and proceed to the south,
with a view of establishing themselves in Carelmapu and Calbuco; where they
hoped to be safe from attack.

Their retreat was attended by much suffering; many died from fatigue, and
many were cut off by the Indians, who hovered about them and murdered all
who fell into their hands.[145] At last they reached their destination, and
established themselves first at Carelmapu, which is on the main-land, on
the north side of the Boca de Chilóe, opposite to San Carlos; and
afterwards at Calbuco, on an island at the entrance to the Gulf of
Reloncavi. The latter position by its insularity, was effectually protected
against any attack from Indian tribes, who, for many years, continually
harassed the inhabitants of Carelmapu.

At what date this journey was made does not appear; nor is it certain that
these places were occupied before the foundation of the city of Castro, in
1566, by the Licentiate Lope Garcia de Castro, in pursuance of an order
from the Viceroy of Peru, Marshal Don Martin Ruiz de Gamboa.[146]

The island of Chilóe, from its situation, is a place of considerable
importance, and may be termed the key of the Pacific. {271} It is the
northernmost of that vast archipelago, which borders the coast from
latitude 42° south to Cape Horn.

The province of Chilóe, one of the eight divisions of the Chilian Republic,
includes several islands, and extends on the main-land, as far as the south
bank of the River Maullin;[147] which takes in the districts of Carelmapu
and Calbuco. Its southern extent is not defined; but as the existence of
Chilian authority is not known, to the southward of the Chonos Archipelago,
certainly not farther south than the land of Tres Montes, the parallel of
47° may be considered its southern limit. The country thence, to the Strait
of Magalhaens, is known by the appellation of Western Patagonia.

Besides the Isla Grande, as Chilóe is called, the following islands are
inhabited:--Achao, or Quinchao, Lemuy, Quehuy, Chelin, Linlin, Llignua,
Quenac, Meulin, Caguach or Cahuache, Alao, Apiao, Chaulinec, all in front
of Castro; the Chaugues Islands, opposite to Tenoun; Calbuco, Llaichua,
Quenu, Tabor, Abtao, Chiduapi (on which is the fort); Huar in the
neighbourhood, and district of Calbuco; and, to the South, Tanqui, to which
may be added Caylin, which is also called El fin de la Cristiandad.[148]

Of the above, next to the Isla Grande, the principal are Quinchao and
Lemuy, both of which are very populous, and {272} almost entirely
cultivated. The other islands are small, and very close to each other; but
separated by navigable channels, which offer many dangers to the frail
vessels in which the islanders move about.

The province is divided into ten districts, or Partidos, as follows:--

   1. San Carlos, containing the northern coast of the island, as far as
       Chacao.
   2. Chacao. The N.E. part of the island.
   3. Carelmapu and Maullin.
   4. Calbuco.
   5. Dalcahue, extending from Chacao to Tenoun.
   6. Quenac.
   7. Quinchao.
   8. Castro.
   9. Lemuy.
  10. Chonchi, which extends from Castro to the south extremity of the
      island.

By the census of 1828, the population of the large island, and those in its
neighbourhood would appear to be, comparatively, very considerable; the
number of souls being 43,131:[149] particularly as the greater portion of
the interior, and much of the sea-coast, are quite uninhabited. The
population of the district of San Carlos is confined principally to the
town; for between it and Chacao, there are very few inhabitants. At Chacao
there are only about two hundred houses, and Dalcahue is but thinly
occupied: but Castro, Quinchao, and Lemuy, are very populous. These three
districts are the most fertile and productive part of the island,
particularly for seven or eight miles round Castro. The peninsula opposite
to that town, which is entirely cleared, would abundantly repay its
cultivators, were industry more common among them.

Chilóe is governed by an 'Yntendente,' or civil governor, who exacts
obedience to the constitutional laws, as well as to the orders of the
executive powers, and the resolutions of the provincial assembly, which is
composed of members, elected {273} by the people, at the rate of one deputy
for 7,500 souls; but whatever the number may be, short of 90,000, twelve
deputies are to be elected. The duration of the assembly is biennial, and
its business is to superintend the civil regulations of the province.

Under the Yntendente each province has a local governor, whose principal
duties are to maintain order, preside in the municipal meetings, see their
regulations carried into execution, and obey the orders of the Yntendente
of the province. Whilst we were at Chilóe, the duties of Yntendente, and
military commandant, were performed by one person, Brigadier-general Don
José Santiago Aldunate; but, upon his resignation, the offices were
separated: the military commandant retaining the charge of the treasury.
The duties of the military chief, are to dispose of the troops under his
command, as he sees occasion, so as to ensure the quietness, and
subordination of the province, for which he is responsible; and to render
the Yntendente such assistance as he may require; but, for all ordinary
purposes, the Militia, who are under the immediate control of the
Yntendente, are employed. For the administration of the law there is a
Judge (Juez de letras), who tries all civil as well as criminal actions.
The province sends two deputies to the Chilian congress, one from San
Carlos, and the other from Castro. At the beginning of the year 1829, the
Militia amounted to more than seven thousand men, and the regular troops to
three hundred and thirty, which was quite sufficient for the province.

The port of San Carlos is capable of being well defended, and, during the
time of the Spaniards, was in a good state of defence. The entrance was
protected by a battery on the highland of the Corona, and by the castle of
Aguy, which effectually commands it. Farther in, on the same side of the
port, was the small, but well-placed, two-gun battery of Barcacura; close
under which is the anchorage. On the town side there are several batteries;
but, towards the Pudeto it is weak, although capable of being made very
strong. Fort San Carlos, which, for some years past, has been used as a
cemetery, was well-selected as to position, and constructed in a manner
very {274} creditable to the engineer. It was surrounded by a deep and wide
ditch; and under it lay two small batteries: one, San Antonio, commanding
the passage between the small island of Cochinos, and the Main; and the
other flanking the anchorage off the town. At the Mole were two guns, and
opposite to it, under the governor's house, was the battery, Del Carmen,
mounting twelve or fourteen guns. In the town, in a convenient situation,
there were excellent barracks, capable of containing more than one thousand
men.

The original establishment was at the Sandy Point, on the western side of
the port, where the situation is better sheltered, and, perhaps, equally
capable of being well defended. It is, also, on the windward side of the
harbour, and close to the safest anchorage which the port affords; but the
inconvenience of water-carriage was found to be so great, that the
establishment was removed to its present site. A still better situation
might have been selected opposite to Sandy Point, at Leche Agua; where the
anchorage is perfectly safe, and the communication with Castro could be
more advantageously made.

Northerly and westerly winds prevail, and the town is exposed to all their
fury, which, at times, is extreme. The anchorage nearest to it, for the
sake of convenience, and expedition in loading and unloading cargoes, is
often taken up, but is very unsafe, many vessels having been lost there,
from the bottom being shoal, and rocky; and the swell, during a northerly
gale, is so short and deep, that anchors will not hold.

The town is built on two rising grounds, and in the valley that separates
them; through which a rivulet runs into the bay, at a mole which affords
sufficient protection to the boats and piraguas frequenting the port. The
houses, which are all of wood, are generally small, and have but little
comfort. The plaza, or square, without which no town in Chile of the least
importance is to be found, is situated on a flat piece of ground at the
summit of the southern hill, and commands an extensive view. It is about
one hundred and eighty yards square, with a flag-staff in the centre.

[Illustration: SAN CARLOS DE CHILÓE.]

[Illustration: C. Martens S. Bull

SAN CARLOS DE CHILÓE.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{275} On the north side there is a strong, well-built stone storehouse, and
opposite to it is the church, also built of stone. On the side next the sea
is the Yntendente's residence, a low range of wooden buildings, erected
without regard to taste, convenience, or comfort; and opposite to this are
two or three dwellings, very little superior to common huts, or ranchos.

Within the last few years, however, some substantial buildings have been
erected by the more wealthy people in the town, an example which is likely
to be followed. During our visit, several were built equally creditable for
strength and convenience; and not a little remarkable for the rapidity,
with which they were completed.

Wood, being abundant, and cheap, as well as easily worked, is the only
material used in the construction of houses, which, with the exception of
the provision-store, and the church, are all built of it; and
notwithstanding the perishable nature of the material, which is not
protected by paint, or any external coating, from the humidity of the
climate, they are of extraordinary durability. The treasury, one of the
oldest houses in the place, has been built upwards of seventy years; and is
even now tight, and dry, and by no means unserviceable: but its removal has
been ordered, and, probably ere this, it has been replaced by another. In
Chacao, where, in former days, the Yntendente resided, the greater number
of the government-buildings, not less than sixty or seventy years old, are
still standing. This durability can only be accounted for by the nature of
the wood, and the practice of charring the ends of the timbers before they
are inserted in the ground. The lower frame is of 'Roble;'(t) the beams are
of laurel, and the floors and partitions, as well as the weather-boarding
and shingles, of 'Alerse:' the latter forms an excellent substitute for
tiles, or slate, being much lighter, and almost as durable. Some of the
houses are thatched with reeds; but this shift is only used by those who
cannot afford the expense of shingling.

The inclosures, round the houses, are fenced with stakes of {276} Luma,
three or four yards in length, fastened above and below to cross-rails, by
ligatures of creeping plants, of which there is an abundance in the woods
close to the town: the general name for them is Buque.

The land in the vicinity of San Carlos, which is a peninsula, is cleared of
timber, and partially cultivated. In the valley, through which the rivulet
runs into the sea near the mole, there are a few attempts at gardens; but
the extent to which the inhabitants cultivate, seems to be confined to a
rood of potatoes and wheat, which, with a litter of pigs, and an
inexhaustible store of shell-fish on the coast, are the principal support
of their families. It is not surprising, when so little personal trouble is
necessary to provide subsistence, that the Chilotes(u) should not be an
industrious race. Byron, in his narrative of the loss of the Wager, has
given a most excellent and correct account of the inhabitants of this
island; which, excepting for those about San Carlos and Castro, may well
serve at the present time. In the town, trade, a free communication with
other parts of South America, and the residence of several Europeans, have
introduced approaches towards refinement; and besides the articles of
luxury that occasionally make their appearance, such as chairs and tables,
crockery-ware, and similar domestic comforts; shoes and stockings are now,
on feast days, in common use among the females; although in many instances
one can easily observe, that the wearer is actuated by vanity, rather than
by any comfort or pleasure she derives, from a confinement to which her
feet have not been accustomed.[150] This is one of the steps towards
civilization, which the Chilote peasantry are making, and among the higher
classes 'el ultimo modo' (the latest fashion), is not less the theme of
conversation than it is in other parts of the Republic.

In style of dress, among the upper ranks, the men are more advanced than
the women, many having been in other countries. {277} They have given up
the use of the poncho, and in this particular, they say they are before the
gentry at Concepcion, who wear it on all occasions: and probably are quite
right, for, with respect to comfort, there is much to admire in the poncho,
as, of all cloaks, it is the most generally convenient, and the best
adapted for protecting the person, especially on horseback, where it is
indispensable: its use, however, offers the wearer such an opportunity to
neglect the other part of his dress, which it effectually conceals, that
sometimes, beneath the poncho, the body is very ill-clothed.

The dress of men in the lower orders, consists of a pair of trowsers, and a
shirt, over which is thrown the all-concealing poncho. The women are as
slightly clad; but instead of a poncho, they wear a rebozo, or shawl,
which, however, is very often dispensed with, and their persons are left
too much exposed.

These lower classes, or Indians, as they, with much reason, are termed, are
scarcely superior to the uncivilized savages of the southern coasts; and
live principally upon shell-fish, with what little they are enabled to
procure besides by the sale of a few pigs, or poultry, which they rear on
the scanty store of potatoes and wheat, that remains after their new crop
comes to maturity. One roof shelters a whole family. Father and mother,
sons and daughters, dogs and pigs, all live and sleep in their only room,
in the middle of which, a fire is made; whence the smoke escapes by
numerous apertures in the roof and sides of the dwelling.

As to their morals, within the precincts of their habitations, I have
reason to believe they have not much to boast of, although they are
described, by Agüeros and other writers, as most innocent, and
well-conducted. Agüeros speaks highly of their character; and cites Padre
Ovalle, who, writing upon Chilóe, between the years 1629 and 1636, says:
"The natives of these islands are the most docile and noble (dociles y
nobles) of all Chile, and are the least given to drunkenness, and other
vices; therefore they are best disposed to be edified by the light of the
Gospel."

Since the province became subject to the Chilian Republic, {278} the
government has made several attempts to improve the condition of the
inhabitants; among which, the instruction of public schools, was not the
least important. From an official report there appear to be ninety schools,
in which 3,840 children receive an education, according to the abilities of
the masters, who are employed; but these, from the small salary attached to
the situation, cannot be expected to be superior.

The language in common use, is Spanish; the original Indian tongue being
almost forgotten: but it is supposed to be the same as that spoken by the
Indians of Madre de Dios; for, on a late occasion, a whaler which had been
upon the coast of those islands, and had taken on board an Indian, as a
pilot, called at Castro; and during her visit, the Indian communicated with
those who understood the language of the Chonos, and by them was tolerably
well understood. This Indian has been frequently embarked on board American
or English sealers, which frequent those coasts, to serve as a pilot to the
seal-rookeries.[151] He is known by the name of Dan.

The products of the island, for the year 1828, according to the census, and
returns, officially made, were--

  Wheat       64,935 fanegas (175 lbs. in a fanega) about 200,000 bushels.
  Barley      21,645.
  Potatoes   194,805.

and the muster of stock, and apple-trees, as follows:--

  Horned cattle       5,411 head.
  Sheep              86,580
  Swine              21,645
  Apple trees        75,754

The manufactures of the province are Carro, a coarse woollen cloth, two and
a half, or three yards long, and three quarters of a yard wide, used for
men's garments, and of very durable quality.

Ponchos--both these and the carro are manufactured by women, in a rude sort
of loom, of wool dyed of various colours from plants that are found in the
island, or imported for the {279} purpose. Of the latter indigo is much
used, and it is the general colour for the ground-work of the ponchos.

Frezadas, bordillas, sabanillas, mantillas de lana, blankets or rather
counterpanes of different textures, are also among the manufactures: none
of the above are exported, being made merely for their own use.

Cables, hawsers, and rope, they make of a plant, called Quilineja, which is
supposed to be the root of a species of _Callixene_.

No wine or spirit is made in the province, but Chicha (a very good cyder)
is manufactured from apples. The only other fruit produced is the
'Frutilla,' a kind of strawberry.

The exports must very nearly amount to the value of foreign imports, which
consist principally of sugar, wine, brandy, salt, wearing apparel, and
household furniture. The import duty on European and North American produce
is twenty-seven per cent.; from which, however, some articles, such as arms
and munitions of war, instruments of music, and other things of less
importance, are exempt. Spirits of all kinds, foreign wines, tobacco, tea,
and cards, are monopolized by the government, and sold at an immense
profit. The unauthorized sale of these goods is declared illegal, and is
punishable by a heavy fine, and sequestration of goods.

The exports, during the year 1828, consisted of wood in beams, planks, and
boards; hams, wheat, a small quantity of dried fish, fire-wood, and
brooms,[152] to the amount of 52,320 dollars, of which 35,683 dollars were
for wood, and 10,887 for wheat. These articles were exported in sixteen
vessels under national, and eight under foreign flags. The exports are said
to be increasing very much. In the year 1791, Agüeros describes the exports
of alerse planks (tablones) to Lima, to be between fifty and sixty thousand
in number; and some years previous to have been in a much greater quantity.
The number of alerse boards exported, during the last year, was 328,928,
but of planks only 2,623.

The island, and neighbouring part of the main land, produce {280} a great
abundance, as well as variety, of wood fit for exportation, as well as home
consumption. The following is a list of the principal trees, with their
qualities, and the use to which they are most adapted.

Avellana (_Quadra heterophylla_), a handsome tree, in appearance like the
ash of Europe, of a light wood, which shrinks very much when dry, and may
be used with advantage for oars, being light, strong, and springy, as well
as for planking small vessels below the water, and for the ceiling within;
it is bad for firewood, being too light. The seed is a nut, about the size
of a cherry, the kernel of which is roasted and eaten. The tree abounds at
Concepcion, and in the country to the south, and grows on the Peninsula of
Lacuy.

Roble (_Fagus obliqua_, Mirb.), a large tree; and, from the durable quality
of its timber, considered the best in the island, for ground-frames of
houses, planks for vessels, and beams. The piraguas are built chiefly of
this wood. There are two sorts, one an evergreen, and the other a
deciduous-leaved tree. It is evidently a beech, and the same that grows in
all parts of the Strait of Magalhaens; the smooth-leafed sort is _F.
obliqua_ of Mirb.--see Bertero, in Mercurio Chileno, No. 14, p. 640.

Tiqui, heavy wood; but esteemed strong and durable. Piraguas are sometimes
built of it.

Laurel, used for house building in-doors, for beams and rafters, and posts;
durable when not exposed to damp, in which it soon perishes.

Mañu, a tree of great dimensions, tall and straight, the leaf is like that
of a yew; it is a very useful wood in ship-building, for planks, and, next
to alerse, is the best for spars which the island produces; but the large
trees have a great tendency to become rotten at the heart, owing possibly
to the humidity of the climate, and to the very wet soil.

As the Adelaide wanted a mast, I sent her round to Castro for a mañu spar,
for which I agreed to pay eighty dollars; but of twenty trees that were cut
down, not one was sound at the heart. The wood is heavy, with large knots,
which penetrate into the trunk to a great depth. A great deal of this
timber grows in the Gulf of Peñas.

{281}

Muermo. There is no wood produced on the island more useful than the
muermo. It is used for timbers, and knees, and all other purposes of
ship-building: and is excellent for the planks of boats, as it bears wet
and dry without suffering from either. It is abundant, and much used as
firewood, for which it is well suited.

Luma (_Myrtus Luma_), a very tough and useful wood, used for tree-nails,
for stakes in fencing, for rafters in the roofs of houses; and is exported
in large quantities to Lima, for shafts and poles of carriages. The fruit
is sweet, and might yield a strong spirit; it is called cauchao.

Ciruelillo, a small tree, used only for washing-bowls and boxes; it is of
little value.

Quiaka. Of no value.

Tapu, a very crooked tree, growing along the ground in swampy places. It
might serve for floors, and timbers for small vessels; but it is not used,
from its being so very hard.

Tenu, something like muermo, and considered a good wood.

Peta, a species of _Myrtus_, of which hoops for barrels are made.

Ralral, considered to be like the wood of the walnut-tree, and of general
use, on account of its toughness and durability; it is made into blocks for
ships.

Meli, more tough than luma: of this the country people make pick-axes, for
cultivating the ground (Agüeros, p. 127).

Pelu, also tough; useful for axle-trees and gun-carriages (Agüeros, p.
127).

Mayten, useful for turning; and lasts long under water.

The above mentioned are produced on the island; but the two following,
alerse and cypress, are from the main-land, in the neighbourhood of the
Cordilleras. They are not only in general use in Chilóe, but are exported
in large quantities to all the ports to the northward. The alerse, near
Chilóe, is of better quality than that which comes from Concepcion.

The Cypress is brought to the island in 'tablones' (or planks), seven or
eight feet long, two inches thick, and nine or ten inches wide, as is also
the alerse; but the latter, from the facility with {282} which it splits,
is brought in boards also, four feet long, half an inch thick, and six
inches broad, which, as I have before remarked, are the principal articles
of barter.

The Alerse is found in great quantities near Calbuco; but at so great a
distance from the beach that it cannot easily be conveyed thither for
embarkation, except in the above form. The tree is cut down and squared,
then hewn by the axe into as many logs of seven or eight feet long as it
will afford; and these, with the assistance of iron wedges, are split into
planks and boards, in which state, without being further trimmed, they are
tied together in bundles, and carried on men's backs, or dragged over the
ground to the beach.

The extraordinary straightness of the grain of this tree enables the
natives to split it, so as to make it appear as if it had been dressed with
an adze, or even with a plane; but, as I have said, the axe is the only
instrument used. So great is the difficulty of obtaining a spar of this
wood, that when I wished to procure a new mast for the Adelaide, I offered
four times the value of an alerse spar to the natives, besides the
assistance of twenty men, and tackles, &c. to assist in conveying it to the
beach. The temptation was almost too great to be withstood; but the man to
whom I applied, who had before been employed to get masts for a schooner in
the Chilian service, and a flag-staff for the town, said that it would take
his own party two months to bring one to the beach: with the assistance of
our people, however, it might be done in a month. The trees were distant,
and there were two or three ridges of heights to cross, that would cause
much delay. The facility with which these people usually handle timber was
a sufficient proof to me that such a task, if refused by them, must be very
difficult indeed, and I gave it up, as the Yntendente was so obliging as to
give me the flag-staff, which had taken the same party two months to
procure.

The Hoxsley, a national schooner, built at Chilóe, for the government, was
masted with alerse spars, which proved to be very strong.

Alerse is used principally for the floors, partitions, and {283}
weather-boards of houses, also for shingling the roof; for which purpose it
is very superior and durable: after exposure to the weather it turns blue,
and has the appearance of slate. It does not shrink or warp; and though
brittle, is of a very close grain, and well adapted for furniture. Of this
wood the country people make staves for casks; and the bark of the tree is
used for caulking the seams of vessels, for which it answers remarkably
well, being extremely durable when constantly wet, though it soon decays
when exposed to the sun and air.

Spars of alerse, eighty or ninety feet in length, may be procured; and from
eight hundred to a thousand boards are frequently obtained from a single
tree. I was told that as many as one thousand five hundred have sometimes
been cut out of one trunk. Alerse is found on the island, but not of any
size. It is also common in the Strait of Magalhaens, in all those parts
west of Cape Froward; but there, from the poverty of the soil, it is of
very stunted growth.

The cypress is thought to be a different tree, but I rather imagine it to
be only a variety; the wood being white, whilst that of the alerse is of a
deep red colour. As the trade of the island is principally carried on by
water, roads are seldom used for that purpose, for which, indeed, the few
that exist are far from being convenient. Between San Carlos and Castro
there is a road cut through the forest, forty or fifty feet in width, in
the middle of which is a causeway, four or five feet wide, formed of logs
of wood, laid transversely. This is the only way of communication, unless,
which rarely occurs, the weather has been dry during some days; for, off
the causeway, there is a mere bog, in which a horse frequently sinks up to
the girths in mud. In many parts of the causeway, indeed, where the logs
have decayed, and have not been repaired, the passage is equally bad, so
that in wet weather, only persons without a load are able to pass. For the
greater part of the way, the trees on each side prevent an extensive view;
but on approaching within five or six miles of Castro, the country becomes
more open, having been cleared by cultivation, and there, of course, the
road improves.

{284}

There is a track branching off from the main road to the district of
Dalcahue; but on it, I believe, there is no causeway.

As the only mode of supplying the town of San Carlos with provisions is by
water-carriage, it is frequently ill supplied during winter, when N.W.
winds prevent the arrival of the piraguas. A southerly wind for two days,
at that season, brings from fifty to a hundred piraguas from Dalcahue and
Castro, laden with hams, potatoes, pigs, grain, fowls, calves, dried fish,
and charcoal, which are sold at a cheap rate, paying one-tenth to the
government.

The arrival of so many piraguas at San Carlos creates no slight bustle in
the neighbourhood of the mole; and a stranger happening to arrive at the
time would think it a place of considerable trade; the return, however, of
the N.W. wind, with all its attendant "vapours, clouds, and storms," very
soon dispels the illusion: the piraguas depart, one after another, and in
two days all is dull and monotonous.

These piraguas, the boats used by the natives of the archipelago of Chilóe,
are all similar in form and material; but vary much in size, according to
the voyage they have to perform. The largest are from thirty-five to forty
feet long. The head and stern are alike, and resemble those of a
whale-boat, being sharp at both ends. The transverse section is that of a
thick wedge, so that they have no bearings, and must be extremely
unsafe,(v) particularly with so lofty a sail as they hoist; and yet these
vessels have made long, and even dangerous passages, as is fully attested
in Agüeros's account of the missionaries' visit to the archipelago
southward of Tres Montes. These boats are literally sewn together, there is
not a nail used in their construction; every portion of the hull is of a
vegetable nature. The lower, or garboard strake, is sewn to the keel by
strips of the stem of a creeping plant, called Pepoi,[153] and the seam is
caulked with bark of the alerse, which, while under {285} water, is
admirably adapted for the purpose. The upper planking consists of three or
four broad boards on each side, sewn together, and their seams caulked. The
wood of which they are made is the roble, or sometimes tiqui.

Agüeros's description of the construction of a piragua cannot be improved.
"They are constructed of five or seven planks, each of which is from two to
four fathoms long, half or three-fourths of a yard wide, and two or three
inches thick. These are fashioned, or worked, narrow at each end, so as to
form the bow and stern, and afterwards are exposed to the fire, in order to
burn the outer surface on both sides. To unite these planks, they bore or
burn holes, two inches from each other, along the edges of the planks,
through which they sew them together with a rope of solid reeds
(soquillas), or twisted cane (coligues), forming a junction as close as a
seam of cloth. To prevent water from passing through the seams, they apply
along the plank, within and without, pounded leaves of trees, over which
they pass the stitches, and with the same preparation of leaves the holes
are filled up. Thus constructed, it is in appearance a perfect boat, or
vessel, but without keel or deck. That they may resist the pressure of the
water, and retain their shape, curved pieces (curbas) of wood, called
'barrotes' are fitted inside, and fastened by wedges of wood, instead of
nails. For all this, they are dangerous; and, since their sails, oars, and
other furniture are very inferior to what boats require, they are much
exposed to be easily sunk, and the risk is greatly increased by want of
care and management in those who navigate them."

In the above description Agüeros has given a very good account of the rude
manner in which they are built, and has not in the least magnified the
danger attendant on their use. It is, indeed, a miserable and unsafe
vessel; and for the rudeness of its construction, and the poverty of its
equipment, is a perfect prototype of the crew which it conveys.

The largest have from eight to ten people, each of whom furnishes one
poncho, and the 'patron,' who steers, and directs {286} the course and all
their movements, provides two ponchos, all which are sewn together to form
their sail, which is hoisted by 'lazos,' or thongs of bullock's hide.

These sails are generally in a wretched state, the name Santisima is
applied to them all by the crews, with the hope of securing the protection
of their patron saint. The anchor is of wood, formed of four crooked
pieces, in the shape of a grapnel with four flukes, at the bottom, or crown
of which a large stone is fastened, to increase its weight. The crews are
exceedingly timid, and instead of making exertions to extricate their
vessel from any impending danger, they throw themselves on their knees,
beating their breasts and calling loudly upon their saint, for
'misericordia.'

I was given to understand that very few of them can swim, which seems
extraordinary, since they are born and bred in the immediate vicinity of
the sea, and depend chiefly upon its productions for subsistence. The fact
speaks strongly for the indolence of their character, even although the
rigour of the climate forms a bar to bathing as a mere amusement. Several
piraguas were lost while we were at Chilóe, and, as may be inferred, their
crews were all drowned.

With regard to the cultivation of land, they are very far behind, and,
comparing the present state with the description of Byron (1740), and of
Agüeros (1791), very little improvement seems to have been made. The ground
is prepared by make-shift ploughs, of a very rude construction. Two poles
of hard wood (luma), about three yards long and proportionably large,
trimmed to a sharp point at one end and rounded at the other, are held by
the middle, one in each hand, and pointed very obliquely into the ground;
in this direction they are forced forward, by pressing against the blunt
end with the abdomen, which is defended by a sheepskin, suspended in the
form of an apron. After these have penetrated twelve or fourteen inches
into the soil, a second person, generally a woman or a boy, places a stout
stick under the poles, or 'lumas,' as they are called, close to the earth,
to form a solid support for them.

[Illustration: P. P. King T. Landseer

BREAST PLOUGHING AT CHILÓE.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{287} The large ends are then forced down, the ground turned up, and the
lumas pushed forward again, while the woman uses her stick to turn the
clods over, to the right and left, alternately. These clods are afterwards
broken up by a wooden tool, in the shape of a pick-axe, called 'hualate,'
made of the wood named meli. Rude as this process is, the operation is
rapidly performed, and I have seen a field, ploughed in this way, that
would not do much discredit to an expert ploughman with a European plough.

The soil is a rich, sandy loam, of a dark red colour; and although rarely,
if ever manured, produces fair average crops. According to the usual
allowance of 175lbs for a fanega of wheat,[154] the weight of a bushel
would not be more than 51½lbs., which shews that the grain is but poor.
Wheat is sown in the month of April, and cut in the same month of the
following year; but from the humidity of the climate, and constant rain,
particularly at that season (the commencement of winter), it is frequently
reaped before it is ripe, and almost always gathered in wet. Every
subsequent sunny day is taken advantage of, to dry the grain, but a part
must be spoiled by mildew. The evaporation, however, is so great, that
merely moving it about, and keeping it thinly strewed in granaries, will
effect much. It is trodden out by oxen, and to clean it, the grain is
thrown up in the wind by means of broad wooden shovels, and effectually
separated from the chaff. This rude winnowing takes place frequently in the
principal streets of San Carlos, and even at the mole, where one would
suppose that a great deal must be lost; but from the adroitness of the
operation, it is not only well cleaned, but suffers no diminution.

Potatoes are planted in September, October, and November, and are fit to
dig up in May.

Of the proceeds of harvest, one-tenth is paid as a tribute, or {288} tax,
to the government; but forced contributions may be required, when the
necessities of the state demand them. These contributions are sometimes
unfairly levied in Chile; for the subsidy is only taken from those who
possess grain, or some equally tangible article which can easily be turned
into money; so that persons who are rich enough to live without cultivating
land, or trading for their support, contribute nothing towards the
emergency of the State. How does this accord with republican principles? or
how can a republican government, so conducted, expect to become respectable
among nations?

I am not aware that such contributions have yet been levied in Chilóe. From
the character of General Aldunate, I do not for a moment think he would
commit such an act of injustice; but it is in the power of any Yntendente
to call for them, and I afterwards witnessed an example of this, during my
visit to Concepcion. A considerable quantity of wheat, purchased by a
Russian vessel, for the use of their settlements on the coast of
California, was brought down to the port, at a time when the government was
much in want of money, and knew no just way of obtaining it. They therefore
very unceremoniously seized the wheat, and applied its value in dollars to
their own use, giving only an uncertain, almost a nominal security to the
owner for the recovery of his money. The only way of accounting for such an
arbitrary proceeding is, that the country was distracted by civil war, and
that the person who owned the property was opposed to that party, which at
the time happened to have the upper hand, and which held, by main strength
alone, the reins of government.

Among the birds of Chilóe, the most remarkable are the 'Cagge,' the
'Cancania,' or 'Canqueña,' and the 'Barking bird.'[155]

{289}

The shell-fish,[156] for which this island is justly famed, are principally
brought from Calbuco, and consist of the finest {290} muscles, of which
there are two sorts: the Choro (_Mytilus Choras_, Molina), and Cholgua
(_Mytilus Magellanicus_, Lamarck), Picos (_Balanus psittacus nob. Lepas
psittacus_ Molina, 1, p. 223), a large barnacle,[157] and the oyster (_O.
Edulis_), which is exceedingly well-flavoured. Besides which there are
several kinds of shell-fish of less value, but equally abundant, such as
Navajuelas (_Solen sp._); Caracoles (_Turbo_); Cornes (_Pholas Chiloensis_,
Molina); Campaña (_Calyptræa_); Lapas (_Crepidula_); Tacas (_Chama Thaca_,
Molina); Locos (_Concholepas Peruviana_, _Murex Loco_ of Molina);
Quilmagues; Piures (_Pyura sp._ Molina); and others.

The apparently inexhaustible abundance of shell-fish with which nature has
provided the inhabitants of these islands, the facility with which they are
obtained, and their consequent cheapness, is the principal cause of that
want of industry which is so remarkable in the Chilotes.

Of the above-mentioned shell-fish, those deserving more particular notice
are the large muscle, the oyster, and the pico.

Molina has described the choro of Conception, which is not at all different
from that of Chilóe. It is often found seven or eight inches long. The fish
is as large as a goose's egg, and of a very rich flavour: there are two
kinds, one of a dark brown, and the other of a yellow colour; but the last
is most esteemed. There is also another sort, much larger than the choro,
yet equally delicate and good, the fish of which is as large as a swan's
egg: it is called cholgua; but as the shells seem to be of the same
species, I think the distinction can only be owing to size. In Febres's
Dictionary of the Chileno language, the word {291} cholchua is rendered
into Spanish by "cascara de choros blancos," or shell of the white muscle.
Cholhua, or cholgua (the letters g and h are indiscriminately used), must
be a corruption; for it is now used in Chilóe to distinguish the large from
the small choros.

The manner in which the natives of these islands, both Indians and
descendants of foreigners, cook shell-fish, is very similar to that used
for baking in the South Sea Islands, and on some parts of the coast of New
Holland. A hole is dug in the ground, in which large smooth stones are
laid, and upon them a fire is kindled. When they are sufficiently heated,
the ashes are cleared away, and shell-fish are heaped upon the stones, and
covered, first with leaves or straw, and then with earth. The fish, thus
baked, are exceedingly tender and good; and this mode of cooking them is
very superior to any other, as they retain, within the shell, all their own
juiciness.

The oyster, which is a true _Ostrea edulis_, is found in beds, at low
water, or taken with the dredge. It is about the size of the native oyster
of England, and not at all inferior to it in flavour. In Agüeros's account
of Chilóe, he notices this excellent shell-fish; but remarks, that the
islanders are ignorant of the value at which it is appreciated. It is
rather curious, that, excepting in the neighbourhood of Chilóe, the oyster
is very rarely to be met with on the South American coast, while there it
is in the greatest abundance. We have never observed any shells of this
fish anywhere between the river Plata and Chilóe; nor is it known elsewhere
upon the western coast, I believe, to the southward of Guayaquil, which is
very near the equinoctial line.[158] The oyster-shells at Port San Julian
are fossils. Of the Linnæan genus, Ostrea, there are many sorts, on all
parts of the coast, both east and west, but they are what we call the
pecten or scollop. At Coquimbo, a species of scollop is much used as an
article of food, and called oyster; but it has no further right to the name
than because Linnæus classed them all as _Ostrea_, and Molina describes
this to be _Ostrea edulis_.

{292}

The pico, which is a barnacle, grows to a very large size; at Concepcion,
however, it is still larger, being six or seven inches in length. It has,
when properly cooked, very much the flavour of a crab, and by the
inhabitants of this Archipelago is considered preferable to any other
shell-fish.

Before concluding this imperfect description of the shell-fish of Chilóe,
the piure claims some consideration, if it be only for its peculiar and
disagreeable appearance. It was considered by Molina as a genus allied to
_Ascidia_ (Mol. i. 214), none of the varieties of which are inviting in
their look, as an edible substance, but the piure is still less so. It is
thus described by Molina: "The piure, scarcely deserving the name of a
living animal, is as remarkable for its figure, as for the manner in which
it is lodged. The body is about the size and shape of a small pear, an inch
in diameter; or it may be described as a small, conical, fleshy bag, of a
red colour, filled with saline liquor, and provided with two trunks or
processes in the upper part, one of which is the mouth, similar to that of
the Tetias; and between these processes are seen two small, black, and
shining points, which are supposed to be the eyes. I could distinguish no
other organs, nor any viscera in the fleshy substance of which it is
composed, which is smooth without and spongy within. They are extremely
sensitive, and when touched, spout water out of both apertures. These small
animals are shut up in a firm, but glutinous case, of various shapes; one
case often contains eight or ten distinct bodies, separated from each other
by cells, formed of a strong membraneous substance. They are attached to
rocks or stones, under water, excepting when left uncovered by a low tide.
The natives eat them boiled, or roasted in their shells. They also dry them
for exportation to the province of Cusco, where their flavour is much
esteemed, and considered equal to that of the lobster."

At Chilóe, the piure is said to be a remedy for barrenness; and to such an
extent has this idea prevailed, that a Chilote woman, eating this fish,
literally says, if asked what she is doing, that "she is making children."
One would not, however, suppose, from the number of children which are seen
{293} crowding round the doors, that the Chilotes had any necessity for
such food.

If one may judge from the few applications made to our medical men for
advice, the climate is either very healthy, or the natives prefer their own
mode of cure. They have very few medical advisers, and those few are not
held in much estimation, being people of little or no education. A
prejudice against medical men has been, even in late years, extended to
foreign practitioners, and carried to great lengths. This illiberal feeling
is, however, fast wearing away; but, among the lower orders, the
application of herbs and other simples is yet wholly resorted to for the
removal of their complaints. One day, when I was employed in making some
astronomical observations, at Sandy Point, a woman passed me, and forcing
her way through a thicket of thorny plants, began to gather branches of a
species of arbutus (_A. rigida._), a small shrubby plant, which is every
where abundant, especially to the south, and in the Strait of Magalhaens.
My curiosity prompted me to inquire her reason for collecting it with such
apparent anxiety. She replied, with a desponding air, "It is chaura[159]
for a poor, sick child. These branches," she said, "are to be put into the
fire, and, being green, will produce a thick smoke, and yield a very strong
aromatic smell. The child, who is only five months old, is to be held over
it, which, as they say, is a good remedy; but," she added, with an air of
doubt, "I know not (dicen que es bueno, pero yo no sé)." "Who says so?" I
asked. "Los que saben (those who know)," replied the half-credulous mother,
with a deep sigh, partly doubting the efficacy of the remedy, but unwilling
to lose the advantages of whatever virtue it might possess, for the benefit
of her sick infant.

The climate of Chilóe is considered, by those who live in other parts of
Chile, to be "rigorous, cold, and damp." Certainly there is much reason for
such an opinion, particularly in the winter months, when it almost always
rains, and the wind, with little cessation, blows hard, from N. to N.W.,
and, {294} by the W. to S.W.; but notwithstanding the great quantity of
rain that falls, the evaporation is great, and it cannot therefore be
called unhealthy; indeed, from experience, it is considered quite
otherwise. Agüeros, to whose excellent account of Chilóe I have so often
referred, dilates much upon this subject, and from having resided there a
considerable time, may be taken as the best authority. Those who now reside
upon the island speak very much against it, and all whom I met, previous to
my visit, condemned it, as being "the worst in the world." Perhaps we, who
had lately been experiencing a much more disagreeable climate, went to
Chilóe with the expectation of finding it exceed in severity that to which
we had been accustomed in the Strait of Magalhaens, but we found ourselves
agreeably mistaken. Our visit certainly was in the better season, and we
had, perhaps, no right to form a decided opinion upon the other part of the
year. I shall, therefore, first quote Agüeros, and then describe what we
found the weather from September to December; yet as these months were
considered by the inhabitants to be finer than is usual at that season, we
can only form a vague idea of the spring and summer. For the autumn and
winter I must depend upon the accounts of others.

After explaining the contra-position of the seasons, to what is experienced
north of the equator, with regard to the months of the year; Agüeros says,
"Chilóe has also its four seasons, but does not enjoy the benefit of those
changes, as do other parts of Chile; for there is neither that abundance of
fruit, nor are its fields adorned with so many and such beautiful flowers,
and useful medicinal plants. The summer is the best time; for in the month
of January, from ten o'clock in the morning till three in the afternoon,
the heat is excessive. Between these hours, however, a sea-breeze, which is
called 'Vira-zon,' refreshes the air. In the winter the temperature is very
cold; but the frosts are by no means so severe as in Europe. I have never
seen ice, even in the small streams, nor does snow lie any length of time
on the ground.

"In the winter months, as well as in other parts of the year, there are
falls of rain, and heavy gales from N.N.W., and west, {295} which last
frequently for the whole moon, with scarcely a cessation, and the wind, at
times, is so furious, that the houses are not secure, and the largest trees
are torn up by the roots. The weather, when it is fine, cannot be depended
upon for any length of time; not even in summer; for in the month of
January I have frequently experienced gales, and rain, as severe and
copious as in the winter. During the summer months southerly winds are more
prevalent, and, while they last, the weather is fine, and clear, and the
air particularly dry.

"Although the winter months, and a considerable part of the other seasons,
are very disagreeable, owing to the severity of the winds, and exceeding
quantity of rain, it cannot be denied that the climate is healthy. In
Chilóe no epidemic diseases are experienced. The small-pox and measles are
not known;[160] nor have tertian fevers, so common in the north, ever been
experienced on the island. Spotted fever (tabardillo), and acute pains in
the stomach, are the only disorders to which the inhabitants of this
archipelago are subject. Thunder and lightning are rarely experienced; but
earthquakes have occurred at intervals. In the year 1633 the church and
houses were destroyed, and in the year 1737 much damage to the village of
Isla grande was caused by earthquakes."

So far Agüeros. On the whole, the climate is not so unfavourable as we had
been led to expect from all that we had heard.

Captain Fitz Roy arrived there in July, during the latter part of which,
and the month of August, the weather was very wet, with some heavy gales
from the N.W.; but in his Meteorological Journal for those months there is
no record of the thermometer falling below 38°, and it is recorded to have
fallen to that degree only on one occasion, the general height being from
45° to 50°. The first part and the middle of September were boisterous and
wet; but towards the end of the month the wind was chiefly from the
southward, and the weather dry and {296} extremely fine. In October it was
rather changeable; but for the last ten days, with the exception of one, on
which there was a fresh gale with a heavy fall of rain, it was fine and
dry, and the winds were moderate.

The month of November was generally fine, but the first half of December
continued tempestuous and wet. The mean temperature of the months, and
other meteorological remarks, are as follows:

  Column Headings:
  A - 3 P.M. water at anch.
  B - Pressure reduced to 32°.
  C - Dew Point.
  D - Dew Point less than Air.
  E - Expansion.
  F - Dryness by Thermo. Scales.
  G - Weight of a cubic foot of air.
  H - Quantity fallen.
  I - Quantity evaporated.
  J - Remaining in the gage at end of month.

  +-------------+-------------------+------+----------------------------+
  |     1829    |    Temperature    |      |   Hygrometer (Daniells')   |
  +-------------+-------------------+------+----------------------------+
  |             |  Mean   | Ex. of  |      |    |    |     |     |      |
  |             |at 9 A.M.|  Temp.  |      |    |    |     |     |      |
  |             |----+----+----+----|      |    |    |     |     |      |
  |    Months   |Air |  A |Max.|Min.|  B   | C  | D  |  E  |  F  |  G   |
  +-------------+----+----+----+----+------+----+----+-----+-----+------+
  | July 22 days|46.9|47.9| -- | -- |29.927| -- | -- | --  | --  |  --  |
  | Aug. 31     | -- | -- | -- | -- |  --  | -- | -- | --  | --  |  --  |
  | Sept.30     |47  | -- |64.5|35.2|30.061|40.9|6.18|296.9|806.2|3.3854|
  | Oct. 31     |50.9| -- |73  |37  |29.979|45.8|5.14|349.8|845.0|3.9575|
  | Nov. 30     |53.5| -- |68.5|42  |29.898|48.4|4.79|416.2|844.5|4.3361|
  +-------------+----+----+----+----+------+----+----+-----+-----+------+

  +-------------+-----+-----+---------+-----+
  |     1829    |No. of Days|  Rain   |     |
  +-------------+-----+-----+---------+-----+
  |             |     |     |    |    |     |
  |             |     |     |    |    |     |
  |             |     |     |    |    |     |
  |    Months   |Fine.|Rain.| H  | I  |  J  |
  +-------------+-----+-----+----+----+-----+
  | July 22 days| --  | --  | -- | -- | --  |
  | Aug. 31     | --  | --  | -- | -- | --  |
  | Sept.30     |  7  |  7  |1.68|0.48|1.2  |
  | Oct. 31     | 21  | 10  |4.22|2.25|1.97 |
  | Nov. 30     | 14  | 16  |4.89|2.28|2.61 |
  +-------------+-----+-----+----+----+-----+

{297}

This table partly shows the state of the weather during three spring
months. The greatest quantity of rain in the gage at the end of the month
of November did not exceed 2.6 inches. At St. Martin's Cove, near Cape
Horn, after thirty days' observation, the rain-gage contained eight inches;
so that although Chilóe bears the character of being a very wet place, it
is not one-third so bad as Cape Horn. The time of our visit to San Carlos
was certainly the finest part of the year; and I believe that the weather
we experienced was unusually dry even for the season; therefore, the above
table does not present a fair criterion of the climate: I do not, however,
think it is by any means so bad as has been represented.

       *       *       *       *       *


{298}

CHAPTER XVII.

  Chilóe the last Spanish possession in South America--Freyre's
  Expedition--Failure--Second Expedition under Freyre and Blanco--
  Quintanilla's capitulation--Chilóe taken--Aldunate placed in command--
  Chilóe a dependency of Chile--Beagle sails to sea coast of Tierra del
  Fuego--Adelaide repaired--Adelaide sails--Adventure goes to Valparaiso--
  Juan Fernandez--Fishery--Coats--Dogs--Geology--Botany--Shells--Spanish
  accounts--Anson's voyage--Talcahuano--Concepcion--Pinoleo--Araucanian
  Indians--Re-enter the Strait of Maghalhaens--Fuegians.

The island of Chilóe was the last place the King of Spain possessed in
South America; and even to this day he is not without friends there, who
would gladly restore his absolute monarchy, notwithstanding the advantages
that are acknowledged to have been derived from the change of masters, and
the consequent opening of trade, which has added very much to the comfort,
as well as civilization of the inhabitants.

During the struggle for independence, this island was too distant from the
seat of war to render it important; but when all other parts of Chile were
freed from the king's troops, the new government despatched an expedition,
consisting of between three and four thousand men, commanded by the
Director-General Freyre, to attack it. Upon the appearance of this
expedition off the harbour of San Carlos, the Spanish governor,
Quintanilla, was inclined to capitulate; but, instead of anchoring in the
roads, the squadron proceeded to Chacao, landed troops there, and
despatched some of their forces to Castro, where they were repulsed by the
Spanish and native troops, and obliged to re-embark. In this interval, one
of the ships left the squadron, and returned to Valparaiso, whence she was
immediately ordered back; but meanwhile the Director had embarked his
troops, and returned to Concepcion. Not long afterwards, in January 1826, a
second expedition, under the same general, sailed from Valdivia, convoyed
by a strong squadron, under the command of Admiral Blanco.

{299}

"Upon this occasion the troops landed, on the 8th, at the little inlet of
the Bay of Huechucucuy; and Fort Corona was immediately taken. On the 10th,
the disembarkation of the troops was completed. A battalion was left to
mask Fort Aguy, while a force, under Colonel Aldunate, passed on, and took
the battery of Barcacura. On the 10th, Admiral Blanco shifted his flag;
and, leaving the O'Higgins outside, stood into the bay with the rest of the
squadron, which anchored off Barcacura.

"The governor, Quintanilla, with upwards of three thousand Royalists, took
up a strong position on a hill, at the S.E. side of the bay, flanked on the
left by an impenetrable wood, on the right by the shore, and supported by
three gun-boats in shallow water. These were taken by the boats of the
squadron, under Captain Bell, and turned against the Royalists. Their
position was thus enfiladed, and they retired. Freyre then advanced: some
skirmishing took place: Quintanilla capitulated; and the territory of Chile
was no longer sullied by the Spanish flag.

"Colonel Aldunate, Majors Maruri, Asagra, and Tupper (a native of Jersey);
and Captain Bell, of the navy, greatly distinguished themselves.--Miller's
Memoirs."

Colonel Aldunate was afterwards invested with the government of the island;
but, owing to the disaffection of the troops, who were urged on by the King
of Spain's agents, a revolution took place, Aldunate was imprisoned, and
afterwards sent to Valparaiso, and the Spanish flag once more waved in
Chilóe. It was, however, for a short time only; Aldunate was despatched
once more, and with a small force of three hundred veteran troops, headed
by Colonel Tupper, and accompanied by the Aquiles, brig of war, again
obtained possession of the island, which he has since kept, though not
quietly, for the Royalists were constantly on the alert, and made several
futile attempts to recover the place for their king. Time has now
reconciled the greater number to the change; and, I believe, Chilóe may be
considered a contented dependency of the republic of Chile.

{300}

The Beagle being ready to resume her voyage, sailed on the 19th of November
to survey the southern coasts of Tierra del Fuego; after which, she was to
rejoin the Adventure at Rio de Janeiro.[161]

As the Adelaide had received some damage in getting aground, it was
requisite to lay her on the beach for examination and repair. Her mainmast,
also, was found to be sprung so badly, as to render a new one necessary;
which we should have found much difficulty in obtaining, but for the
kindness of General Aldunate, who, finding that we were at a loss, proposed
to give us the flag-staff of the town, a beautiful spar of alerse, that was
in every way suitable. Previously, however, to accepting his offer, being
aware that such an act might expose him to much reproach from the people of
the town, who were all very proud of it, I caused inquiry to be made
whether a spar of the necessary dimensions could be brought from Calbuco;
and in the meantime we proceeded with the repairs.

A creek behind Sandy Point offering every convenience for heaving her down,
the Adelaide was moved into it, and laid on the beach. On stripping her
copper off, the injury proved to be considerable; but not beyond our means
to repair. Upon examination, the foremast was found to be in a bad state,
but could be rendered effective by fishing it with the sound portion of the
other mast, therefore our only real difficulty was to get a mainmast. From
the account I received from Calbuco, I found that, without a great delay,
not less than two months, and sending a portion of our people with ropes
and tackles, there was no chance of procuring a spar: it could only be
obtained at a considerable distance from the shore, and when felled must be
dragged over several high ranges of hills, which might be called mountains,
before it could be got to the water-side. General Aldunate, through whom
this inquiry was made, then renewed his offer of the flag-staff, which I
accepted most thankfully; and by his order it was taken down, and conveyed
to the ship, soon after which it was converted into an excellent mainmast
for the schooner. Before it was moved, a new, but shorter staff, with a
topmast, was fitted for the flag; notwithstanding which, many unpleasant
observations were made, and absurd reports circulated, which spread to
Chile, and even to Peru, that the English were about to take possession of
Chilóe, and had already removed the flag-staff of San Carlos.

[Illustration: OLD CHURCH AT CASTRO.]

[Illustration: NEAR PT. ARENA.]

[Illustration:

PT. ARENA.--SAN CARLOS CHILOE.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{301}

By Lieutenant Mitchell's activity in superintending the Adelaide's repairs,
she was got ready for sea at the beginning of December, and sailed on the
8th, under the command of Lieutenant Skyring, with orders[162] to survey
those parts of the Gulf of Peñas which had not been examined by the Beagle;
particularly the River San Tadeo, in San Quintin's Sound; the openings
behind Xavier Island; the Channel's Mouths; and the Guaianeco Islands,
where the Wager was wrecked: and then to proceed down the Mesier Channel,
behind the Island Campana, which was supposed to communicate with
Concepcion Strait, by the Brazo Ancho (or Wide Channel) of Sarmiento. He
was then to go to the Ancon sin Salida, examining all the openings into the
main land, on his way, and search for a communication with the large
waters, discovered by Captain Fitz Roy, through which he was to try to
enter the Strait, and join the Adventure, at Port Famine, during the month
of April.

Lieutenant Skyring again took with him, by Captain Fitz Roy's permission,
Mr. Kirke and Mr. Bynoe, of the Beagle; Mr. Alexander Millar and Mr. Parke
also accompanied them.

Having thus despatched our companions, we prepared, on board the Adventure,
to return to Valparaiso; intending to proceed to Rio de Janeiro; by way of
Concepcion, Port Famine, and Monte Video; for the sake of adding some links
to our chronometric chain: with a view to which, I had taken the
opportunity of having the chronometers cleaned at Valparaiso by Mr.
Roskell, agent for Messrs. Roskell chronometer-makers at Liverpool. General
Aldunate being on the point of returning to Valparaiso, I had an
opportunity of obliging him, and showing my sense of the assistance, and
essential kindness we had {302} received, by offering him and all his
family a passage in the Adventure, which he accepted; and on the 17th we
left Chilóe. In our way we touched at Concepcion, and anchored at
Valparaiso on the 2d of January.

We remained there until the 11th of February, and then sailed on our return
to Rio de Janeiro, with the intention of passing though the Strait of
Magalhaens, and taking that opportunity of completing some few parts, which
our former surveys had left unfinished. As the breeze, which, on this
coast, blows with the constancy of a trade wind, would carry us close to
the island of Juan Fernandez, I determined upon visiting it, for a few
days; and then proceeding again to Concepcion.

We reached Cumberland Bay, on the north side of Juan Fernandez, on the
16th, and anchored, within two cables lengths of the beach, in ten fathoms.

I have seldom seen a more remarkable and picturesque view, than is
presented by the approach to Juan Fernandez. When seen from a distance, the
mountain of the 'Yungue' (Anvil), so called from its resemblance to a
blacksmith's anvil, appears conspicuously placed in the midst of a range of
precipitous mountains, and is alone an object of interest. It rises three
thousand feet above a shore, which is formed by an abrupt wall of
dark-coloured bare rock, eight or nine hundred feet in height, through
whose wild ravines, broken by the mountain torrents, views are caught of
verdant glades, surrounded by luxuriant woodland.

The higher parts of the island are in general thickly-wooded; but in some
places there are grassy plains of considerable extent, whose lively colour
contrasts agreeably with the dark foliage of myrtle-trees, which abound on
the island.

The Yungue is wooded, nearly from the summit to its base; whence an
extensive and fertile valley extends to the shore, and is watered by two
streams, which take their rise in the heights, and fall into the sea.

This valley appears to have been formerly cleared and cultivated by the
Spaniards, who had a colony here; for the stone {303} walls, which served
to divide their enclosures, still remain. From Walter's account of Anson's
voyage, and the view given with it of the commodore's tent, there is no
difficulty in determining this valley to be the spot on which his
encampment was placed.

The island is now (1830) occupied, or rather rented from the governor of
Chile for a term of years, by Don Joachim Larrain. The establishment
consists of a superintendent (mayor-domo), there called, 'the governor;'
and forty persons, who are employed in the seal and cod fishery, and in
drying fish for the Chilian market. Their dwellings are erected on the flat
land, at the north side of the bay, where the soil is richer than in other
parts; and where it is more sheltered from the squalls, which, during
strong southerly gales, rush down the valley of the Yungue, the situation
of the former establishment, with great violence.

The remains of a fort, called San Juan Baptiste, are yet in a tolerable
state; and from an inscription on the wall, it appears to have been
repaired, or completed, in the year 1809. It is situated on a rising
ground, about one hundred and thirty feet above the sea, at the S.W. part
of the bay, and overlooks the village; there are now no guns mounted, but,
with a few, it might be made very effective in a short time; and, from its
situation, would command the bay.

In the middle of the beach are some ruins of a four-gun battery, and there
are also traces of a fort at the N.W. end of the bay.

At present, except wild-goats, wild peaches, figs, abundance of fish, and
excellent fresh water, no refreshments can be procured. An establishment of
forty persons, with very little to do, might naturally be expected to
cultivate the land, raise vegetables and fruit, and rear poultry and pigs,
to supply the vessels, which frequently touch here for wood and water; but
it is not the character of the Chileno to take any trouble, unless obliged,
although his own comfort and advantage may be materially concerned.

The mayor-domo, however, told me that their attempts to {304} cultivate the
soil, and raise potatoes, had been defeated by the destructive ravages of a
worm.

By sending a boat to the east point of the bay, to fish in forty fathoms
water, a most delicious kind of cod-fish may be taken, in such numbers,
that two men, in half an hour, could fill the boat. Craw-fish, of large
size, are almost equally abundant; they are taken with a hooked stick: one
of our boats caught forty-five in a very short time. The inhabitants catch
them, and cure their tails, by exposure to the sun, for exportation to
Chile, where they are much esteemed, and fetch a high price.

Wild-goats are very numerous among the inaccessible parts of the island,
but are not easily obtained; they are sometimes shot, or taken with a lazo.
These animals, according to Woodes Rogers, and other writers, were
originally left on the island by Juan Fernandez, who, for a short time,
lived there. According to the 'Noticias Secretas,' p. 50 to 56, they are
supposed to have been landed by the Buccaneers, who frequented this island.
Certain it is, that, without such refreshments, the Buccaneers would not
have been able to carry on their harassing war of plunder against the
Spanish possessions on the American coast to such an extent; nor should we,
perhaps, have heard anything more about Commodore Anson, and the crews of
the Centurion and Gloucester, who were, on their arrival at this island, in
the last stage of scurvy.

To prevent Juan Fernandez from being so tempting a resort to Buccaneers,
the Viceroy of Peru caused a great many dogs to be landed, which hunted
down and destroyed the goats in great numbers: this in some measure has
prevented their subsequent increase. The dogs however drove the goats to
places where they could not follow them, and were then obliged to destroy
seals for food. Large troops of these dogs still range about the lower
grounds; but the heights are in the undisturbed possession of wild-goats;
which may be seen in numbers browsing on elevated and almost inaccessible
places, where they live in safety.

The geological character of this island, according to Mr. Caldcleugh, who
accompanied me in this trip, is of basaltic {305} green-stone, and trap,
which appears, at first sight, to be volcanic; but, on a more particular
examination, the lava-like appearance of the rock does not seem to arise
from an igneous origin.

The green-stone is full of crystals of olivine, which, as they decompose,
leave hollows, resembling those of scoriæ. Mr. Caldcleugh communicated an
account of the structure to the Geological Society.[163] In Captain Hall's
interesting journal, there is a list of Geological and Mineralogical
specimens, of which one from Mas-a-fuéra[164] is named 'Vesicular Lava.'
May it not be this same rock in a decomposed state?

The late Signor Bertero, whose botanical collections from Chile have
enriched many of the principal herbaria in Europe, accompanied me to make a
collection of the Flora of the island; and he considered that the character
of the vegetation was very little allied to the Chilian, but partook more
of that of California. The sandal-wood, which has been described as
indigenous to this island, was not found by us, growing, but a large
quantity was collected about the hills and vallies, in a dry state, and
apparently very old. It is of the red kind, and still preserves a strong
scent. The mayor-domo told me there were no sandal-wood trees in the
island; but we had reason to think his information was incorrect, for one
of the inhabitants would have taken us to a place where he said they were
growing in large quantities, had not our arrangements for sailing
interfered.

The island produces several kinds of grass; but the most abundant
herbaceous plant is a species of oat, which grows very luxuriantly, and
towards the westward covers the ground for many miles. The neighbourhood of
Cumberland Bay is over-run with strawberry plants, wild radishes, mint, and
balm, besides peach, apple, cherry, and fig trees, which are {306} found
wild every where, and remind one of Lord Anson's visit.[165]

Not only in its botanical productions does this island differ from the
Chilian coast, but also in its shells: the shell fish being extremely
scarce, and dissimilar in character. On the rocks we found a patella and a
small chama, but we saw no mytilus. From the deep water I fished up some
coral, and attached to one fragment was a new species of arca.[166] The
fishing-lines brought up, from the depth of eighty fathoms, a branch of
coralline, to which an infinite number of a species of caryophyllia were
attached. The existence of coral is mentioned in Mr. Barry's translation of
the 'Noticias Secretas de America; por Don J. Juan, y Don A. de Ulloa,' a
work which contains a long and, generally speaking, good account of the
island; but their description of the anchorage does not agree with ours.
They say, "The distance between the two points, which form the bay, is two
miles, and its depth about half a league; and, although the depth is nearly
the same in all parts, the best berth to moor ships is in the front of the
'Playa del Este;' but it is necessary to be close to the stones of the
beach, for at one or two cables' length there are fifty fathoms water, and
the outer anchor is in the depth of seventy or eighty fathoms; but if the
vessel is three or four cables off, it will be necessary to drop the outer
anchor in one hundred fathoms, which, even with two cables an end, will
scarcely secure the ship." Now, at three cables' length from the beach, we
had only ten fathoms, our outer anchor was dropped in seventeen fathoms,
and in a line between the two points of the bay there is not more than
fifty fathoms.

If the accounts of those Spanish officers were correct, the earthquakes,
which certainly affect these islands, must have caused a considerable
uprising of the base of the island; but, on referring to the plan in
Anson's voyage, the soundings in 1741 do not appear to have been different
from ours. The innermost ship, whose berth we occupied, is, in that plan,
at anchor in {307} nineteen fathoms, and the depth between the points of
the bay is shown to be about fifty fathoms.

There are few persons who have not read, with much interest, Mr. Walter's
account of the Centurion's voyage, and who are not well acquainted with his
description of this island, which we found exceedingly correct. The views
of the land, although old-fashioned in execution, are most correctly
delineated, and the plan of the bay is quite sufficient for every common
purpose of navigation; but as we had an opportunity of fixing its latitude
and longitude more correctly, it became desirable to make a more detailed
plan than Commodore Anson's.

The seals and sea-lions, which were so abundant formerly, are now reduced
to such a small number, as to make the seal-fishery scarcely worth notice.
They have been destroyed by taking them indiscriminately, without regard to
age or sex, leaving none to propagate the race but those who by chance
escaped. At present the island is let to a tenant, who is not permitted to
kill them until the young have taken to the water, by which means an
opportunity is given for them to increase.

I am not aware that there are any indigenous animals. Dogs, goats, and
rats, have been imported. Land birds are not numerous; some pigeons, said
to have been imported, and a few hawks, are occasionally seen, besides
three species of humming-birds, two of which are new to science.[167] Of
sea-birds we saw very few; but were informed that the 'Goat Islands,' at
the south-west end of Juan Fernandez, are completely covered by them at the
breeding season.

During our stay, several excursions were made, in various directions, from
the village, and much facilitated by beaten paths, one of which leads up a
valley, westward of that of the {308} Yungue, and thence to a pass over the
principal range, communicating with the other side of the island. This
pass, called the Puertozuela, is 1,800 feet high, and was visited several
times by the officers. On one occasion, they went to the western part of
the island, to hunt wild goats. The party set out in boats with the
mayor-domo, or governor, as their guide; but before they reached the proper
landing-place, became so impatient that they landed, intending to walk
back. The governor, however, persevered, and returned, in the evening, with
five fine she-goats, which he had taken with 'lazos.' Our pedestrians found
their return by no means so easy as they had contemplated, being obliged to
pass the night in a cave, which they fortunately found at sunset, and they
did not reach the ship until the following afternoon, fatigued, but much
pleased by their ramble.

The thermometer on board ranged, during the day, between 63° and 82°, and
the barometer between 29.98, and 30.16. On shore the thermometer stood
higher, in fine, unclouded weather, and lower when the summits of the hills
were covered with clouds.

We put to sea on the 22d, anchored at Talcahuano on the 3d of March, and
sailed again on the 17th, to proceed through the Strait of Magalhaens.

While at Concepcion I had an opportunity of seeing Pinoleo,[168] the Indian
chief, from whom Captain Basil Hall endeavoured to obtain the release of a
captured Araucanian female, whose husband had been murdered in cold blood
before her eyes.[169]

Mr. Rouse, our consul, procured for me the necessary introduction, and,
with one of the governor's aides-de-camp, accompanied us to the Indian
quarters, situated on the {309} outskirts of the town, towards the river
Bio-Bio. We found the chief's residence (little better than a rancho, or
hut of the country), surrounded by Indians, some of whom were armed; and at
the door were his two daughters, young, and rather good-looking, whose
persons and dress we had leisure to examine, whilst waiting the chiefs
pleasure to receive us. They were clothed with a mantle, or wrapper, of
green baize, enveloping the body from the neck to the feet, and fastened at
the breast by a toup, or tupu[170] (a silver pin, or skewer, headed with a
round silver plate, three inches in diameter), over which hung a string of
beads. Their hair, which was remarkably fine and clean, as well as neatly
dressed, was divided into two plaited tails ('trensas'), and their
foreheads were ornamented with a broad fillet, worked over with beads.[171]
They also wore necklaces, bracelets, ear-rings, and anklets of similar
manufacture.

Our names having been announced to Pinoleo, he came to the door to receive
us, and invited us to enter. Some of our party he recognized, and seemed
pleased at their visiting him. We were early, and found him sober; but from
his bloated and haggard appearance, it seemed that he had not been long so.
On entering the hut, we observed a number of Indians, scarcely sober,
seated round, near the walls. Some turbid wine was presented to us, in a
silver cup, which we sipped as it passed round; but the last of our party
knowing that to return the cup without emptying it, would be an offence,
was obliged to drink the contents, and a bitter potion they were. Pinoleo
was then stout and rather corpulent, five feet ten inches in height, of a
fairer complexion than the generality of his countrymen, and had lost much
of his hair. He had laid aside the Indian {310} dress, and wore the
deshabille of a Spaniard, a shirt and pair of trowsers, in a very slovenly
manner. He spoke Spanish with great facility, and appeared to be quite at
his ease in conversation. He has the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the
Chilian army, and receives pay, as a retainer for his friendship.

A very short visit was sufficient to satisfy us, and we took the first
opportunity of retiring, for fear of a second cup of wine. While leaving
the hut, we were beset by some of his followers, asking for money. The
Indian quarter is a scene of drunkenness the whole day; the women, however,
are prevented from thus injuring themselves; they are industrious and
cleanly, and are principally occupied in the manufacture of ponchos. These
Indians are frequently at war with other tribes, who live on the south side
of the Bio-Bio river, and who have never yet been conquered by white men,
of which they are not a little proud.(w)

These Araucanians are by no means to be despised. The Cacique
Mariloan,[172] who resides near San Carlos, on the Bio-Bio, has three
hundred fighting men under his own command; and from the influence he holds
over neighbouring Caciques, could bring upwards of one thousand men into
the field. Upon the occasion of a late revolution in Chile, a deputation of
chiefs was sent by the Araucanian Caciques to inquire into the cause of
those disturbances, of which they had received intelligence. They first
asked for an interpreter, whom they cautioned to give a true and literal
translation of their speech; and then they made a long harangue, in which
they explained the cause of their visit, and declared their willingness to
assist their friends, if their aid should be required, to expel a foreign
foe; but if the troubles were caused only by the quarrels and dissensions
of parties, they would not take an active part. They were then given to
understand that an attempt had been made by one party to put down another,
upon which they declined assisting either. The conference being ended, some
horses were {311} slaughtered and skinned. Large holes were dug, and the
skins put into them, to form substitutes for vessels, into which barrels of
wine were poured, and the Indians commenced their feast of horses' flesh
and turbid wine, which threw them rapidly into a state of excitement and
intoxication, that lasted some hours after the wine was all drunk.

In this neighbourhood, the Araucanian pine (_Araucaria imbricata_) is
found, but very few of the trees grow near the sea. One beautiful specimen
which I saw in a garden was, at least, forty feet in height, with branches
sweeping the ground. The cones of these trees, called piñones, are brought
to the town from the mountains where they grow, and are roasted, to be sold
in the streets.

On the 31st of March, the land about Cape Lucia was seen, and at noon it
bore E.b.N., distant twelve miles, when the wind ceased, and a heavy swell
setting us towards the land, made our situation an anxious one. A breeze,
however, sprung up, and by carrying a press of sail, we succeeded in
gaining an offing before dark. The night was very squally, but next morning
(1st April) the weather was better, so we stood in, and made the
Evangelists, which were seen from the mast-head, at a distance of
twenty-two miles. Between these islands and Cape Pillar we found a most
turbulent sea; yet no sooner had we entered the Strait, than the water
became perfectly smooth. I intended anchoring in the Harbour of Mercy; but
the night proved fine, and the wind was so favourable, that we proceeded by
the chart, using a patent log, and passing within two miles of the
headlands. Sail was reduced as much as possible, to give us space
sufficient to run on during the night, steering E. ¾ S. by compass. Towards
midnight the weather became cloudy, and occasionally the land was concealed
from our view.

Abreast of Cape Tamar, and as far as Cape Providence, some sharp squalls
raised a sea, rather heavy, considering we were in the Strait; but
afterwards the water became smooth again. Off the latter cape, the patent
log indicated a distance run equal to that shown by the chart, which proved
that we had {312} experienced no current. At daylight we were in the
entrance of the 'Long Reach,' abreast of Cape Monday.

While passing the opening opposite to Playa Parda, a schooner was observed
at anchor, and a boat was seen coming out to us. It contained the mate of
the schooner Industry, of New Bedford, who informed us that she had been
lying there, weather-bound, for nearly a month. He came to make inquiries
about good anchorages to the westward (having already lost two anchors),
and to learn in what part of the Strait he was; his own idea being, that
the vessel was under Cape Monday. Having given him the required
information, we proceeded; but the wind fell light, and we were glad to
anchor in the cove of Playa Parda. With our chains we found it safe; but
the bottom, being rocky, would probably do much injury to hempen cables.

The opening opposite to us, where the schooner was lying, was evidently
Sarmiento's 'Abra.' It appeared to us to be a mile and a half wide, with an
island in the entrance. Within, it seemed to take a south, then a
south-west direction, and afterwards to trend round a low hummocky point of
the eastern shore, under a high, precipitous ridge, on the opposite or
western shore, towards the S.E.; beyond this its course could not be
observed. When passing through this part of the Strait, Captain Stokes
found the weather so bad, that although the distance across was only two or
three miles, the shores were often concealed by clouds and rain, so as to
render it impossible for him to make any survey of them.

We were detained the two following days by bad weather. On the 5th we
proceeded, but before we got abreast of Snowy Sound, heavy rain set in,
which lasted all day.

As we passed Borja Bay, a schooner was observed at anchor in it, so like
the Adelaide, that we altered our course to communicate with her. From a
boat which came off to us, we learned that it was a sealing-vessel, called
the Hope, of New York, going through the Strait, from Staten Land. She had
seen nothing of the Adelaide.

When abreast of Bachelor River, a canoe, containing two {313} men and two
women, came out to us; but we did not delay long, and at five the anchor
was dropped in Fortescue Bay.

As it did not appear that the Adelaide had preceded us, I determined upon
remaining, to make a chronometric measurement from Port Gallant to Port
Famine; and the next morning Lieutenant Graves landed, and obtained a set
of sights for time.

In the early part of the day, two canoes, containing eight or ten Fuegians,
entered the bay. They came from the westward; but we did not recognize
among them any of those who visited the ship as we passed Bachelor's River.
Several had red baize shirts, and some had 'Union caps,' such as are
supplied to our men-of-war; which they must have procured from the Beagle
or Adelaide, or from the Chanticleer, at Cape Horn.(x) After hanging about
us all day, they landed at sunset, and took up their quarters in some old
wigwams in the inner harbour.

The canoes of these natives were very different in their construction from
any we had seen to the eastward. Instead of being paddled, they were pulled
with oars; one of which was an ash oar, probably obtained from some
sealing-vessel. The canoes were large; at the bottom was a plank, twenty
inches wide, to which were sewn the sides, in the manner of the piraguas,
and they were caulked with bark, in a similar way.

We did not remark any thing peculiar among these people which we had not
perceived in other natives of Tierra del Fuego, except that they frequently
used the word 'pecheray,' a word particularly noticed by Bougainville, who
thought that it meant the name of the tribe; and, in consequence, the
Fuegians have been often called Pecherays.

On one of the officers cutting a lock of hair from a woman's head, the men
became angry, and one of them taking it away, threw half of it into the
fire, and, rolling up the other portion between the palms of his hands,
swallowed it. Immediately {314} afterwards, placing his hands to the fire,
as if to warm them, and looking upwards, he uttered a few words, apparently
of invocation: then, looking at us, pointed upwards, and exclaimed, with a
tone and gesture of explanation, 'Pecheray, Pecheray.' After which, they
cut off some hair from several of the officers who were present, and
repeated a similar ceremony.

From this fact, one might suppose the word to be connected with their ideas
of divine worship; but we had heard it used for so many opposite things,
that I could not consider it of so much importance as some of the officers
were inclined to think it.

The next day a party ascended the Mountain de la Cruz, to deposit a pewter
plate, on which were cut the names of the ship and officers. At the summit
they found the pile of stones made by Captain Fitz Roy, which they left
undisturbed; but made another, in which a bottle was placed, containing the
little Spanish coin, and copies, on vellum, of the memorials we had
formerly taken from it, also several English coins, and some medals. The
bottle was corked, covered with resin, and enveloped in sheet lead. Our
party returned in the evening, having been seven hours in going up and
descending.

The next day I obtained an angular measurement of the Mountain de la Cruz,
with a theodolite, having measured a base of 2,608 feet, which gave for its
elevation 2,364 feet, 74 feet more than Captain Fitz Roy's barometrical
determination.

During the day several Fuegian families had arrived, and, by the evening,
ten canoes, containing altogether about sixty natives, were collected. I
landed to visit them, for I had never before seen so many assembled. We
entered all the wigwams but one, which was said to be occupied by a woman
in labour. In the opening stood her husband, painted all over with a red
ochrous earth, and his head and breast ornamented with the white down of
birds. The other Fuegians called him 'Pecheray;' and appeared to consider
him, while in the character he had assumed, as a being superior to
themselves.

{315}

Hence, there evidently is something of a superstitious nature connected
with the word; but our frequent attempts to find out its precise meaning,
were unsuccessful. On repeating this expression to a group of natives, one
of them immediately coughed up a piece of blubber, which he had been
eating, and gave it to another, who swallowed it with much ceremony, and
with a peculiar guttural noise; then, looking up, and pointing with his
finger to the skies, solemnly pronounced the talismanic 'Pecheray,' This
word is also used in pointing to the sun.

On the 10th April, I went to Charles Islands, and surveyed them. There is
very good anchorage for a small vessel, in eighteen fathoms, at the north
end of the passage which separates them; and at the bottom, or elbow, under
the eastern island, in thirteen or fourteen fathoms. The next day, a fresh
arrival in two canoes increased the number of Indians to eighty; rather a
formidable body for a small vessel to encounter. They conducted themselves,
on the whole, very peaceably, but seemed determined that our curiosity
should not be gratified by finding out the contents of the 'tabooed'
wigwam. It was always guarded by the 'Pecheray,' who seemed ready and
determined to dispute all access to it, by means of a heavy club. One of
the midshipmen, however, with a little coaxing, persuaded the man to let
him put his head in; but those who were inside, having received their
lesson, threw ashes in his face, and nearly blinded him. After this, seeing
they were determined on the point, I desired that no further attempt should
be made to ascertain what was really going on inside the wigwam.

We sailed the next day (11th), not without some apprehension that the
Adelaide might meet this large concourse of Indians before they separated;
as Port Gallant was a place rarely passed by vessels without stopping, and
the natives being all housed behind a point of land, could not be seen
until too late.

We were abreast of Cape Froward at noon; in the evening we anchored in
French Bay, and next day (13th) reached Port Famine. As I purposed
remaining until the Adelaide should arrive, the tents were set up, the
boats landed for repair, and the transit instrument was set up, in the hope
that a comet {316} might be visible, which we had seen in our passage from
Concepcion to the Strait; but the weather was at first too cloudy, and
afterwards the comet itself was too faint to be discerned.[173]

On the 21st, nine canoes arrived in the bay, containing a large party of
Fuegians, principally those who frequent the Magdalen Channel, and probably
the sea-coast. They had generally shown themselves disposed to be
mischievous, and I determined upon preventing their encamping near us; for
their presence would greatly impede our watering and wooding parties, by
distracting the attention of the people. I, therefore, went to meet them at
the watering-place, under Point St. Anna, where they had landed, near one
of our boats which was on the beach. Among them we only recognised three
who had visited us before, and those three were brought to our remembrance
by their former misconduct. I had always made it a rule to treat them
kindly, with the view of obtaining their good-will; but I found it was the
wrong way to gain their respect, for it only made them expect more from me,
the consequence of which was, that when we separated, neither party was
pleased with the other. I used on this occasion a more dictatorial tone
than I had hitherto done; for, seeing several with slings in their hands,
and a collection of large, round pebbles wrapped up in the corner of their
mantles, I desired them to throw the stones away, which they did not
hesitate to do. The Indians were now all landed, and evidently presuming
upon their numerical strength, upwards of eighty being assembled, began to
make themselves very familiar.

I thought it best to check their advances, by desiring them not to visit
the side of the bay where our tents stood, but to go round Point St. Anna,
to an adjoining cove. They seemed to understand me perfectly, and soon
afterwards embarked, while I returned on board. The natives, however,
landed again, in the middle of the bay, at the north side, and there
encamped.

Next morning, the men of the tribe visited our tents, but found them
surrounded by a rope I had caused to be fixed, {317} and which they were
not permitted to pass. At noon, after observing the sun's transit, I went
to the barrier, and while the people were at dinner, endeavoured to amuse
our visitors, who were from fifteen to twenty in number, by showing them
several trifles; among the rest, a pocket set of coloured glasses,
belonging to the transit. They looked through them at the sun, but handled
them rather roughly, and broke the frame; upon which I expressed my anger,
and turned them away. Soon afterwards, however, I walked towards them, and
selecting the Indian who had offended me, gave him a bunch of beads, and
thus restored peace; but desired them, at the same time, to go to their
wigwams, which they did. In their way, they mischievously broke down a part
of my meridian mark; seeing which, I sent a carpenter, attended by a
marine, to repair it, and went myself to inspect its being again set up.
The natives were collected round it, evidently in expectation of my being
angry, and awaited my approach. Upon my coming near, I showed them that I
was much displeased, and ordered them into their canoes; when one of the
party, muttering a few words, picked up a stone from the ground, and was
fixing it in his sling, when I took the marine's musket, and presented it
at him, upon which the whole took to their heels; the principal offender
and another ran along the beach, and the rest to their canoes. I could not
resist the opportunity of letting them know we were prepared for them, by
firing over the heads of the two who were running near the water.

The report of the musket attracted the attention of Lieutenant Mitchell,
who was on board on the look-out, expecting some fracas would, sooner or
later, take place; and seeing four or five canoes paddling across, and the
two Indians running along the beach, he manned a boat, and pulled towards
the canoes, which tried to evade him, and stones were thrown at him as he
approached. A musket fired over their heads, soon quieted them, when he
pulled round their canoes, to show them they were in his power, but did not
molest them, and then allowed the party to proceed.

This affair alarmed the women at the wigwams, and hastily {318} gathering
up their effects, they hurried into their canoes, and joined the others,
who all paddled round Point St. Anna. The men, however, landed there, and
remained on shore, armed with slings, spears, and bows, ready to defend
themselves, and, by their gestures, defying us to land. No attention was
paid to them, and, after a short time, they went over the hills to the
coves on the north side of the point. As we had now openly quarrelled, I
thought it better that they should keep at a distance; and therefore,
taking two boats, pulled round the point, to tell them to go five miles
farther, to Rocky Bay; but the canoes were already beached, and the women
had taken up their quarters. As we approached, the hills echoed with the
screams of the women and the shouts of the men; all of whom, stark naked,
armed, and daubed with white paint, their heads being stuck full of white
feathers, hastened down to the point of the bay. The place, from its
nature, offered a good defence, as the beach was lined by large rocks,
behind which they could conceal themselves from our view, and yet assail us
with stones. When within a few yards of the beach, we held a parley--the
object of which was, that they should go farther to the northward; to this
they vociferously replied, by desiring us to leave them. Seeing there was
no chance of enforcing our demand, without shedding blood, I ordered the
boats away; and on getting about a musket-shot from the beach, one of the
Fuegians threw a stone, which fell close to us. In an instant, every one of
them was concealed behind the rocks; but we returned their fire, and
another large stone fell within two feet of the boat. A second musket was
fired, and another stone was returned, with equal precision. After the
interchange of a few more stones for bullets, they ceased throwing them,
and we returned on board. It was very unlikely that any of our shot took
effect; for we were at a long distance, and could only see their heads
above the rocks. Fortunately, none of the stones struck us, for they were
large enough to have caused a severe bruise. It is astonishing how very
correctly they throw them, and to what a distance. When the first stone
fell close to us, we all thought ourselves out of musket-shot.

{319}

The next morning, five or six natives were seen crouching down among high
grass, on the hill over our watering-well, waiting for the people to go for
water; probably with the intention of assailing them, for it appeared
afterwards that their slings and bows were in readiness. To show them they
were not out of our reach, I caused a six-pound shot to be fired over their
heads, which, as it went high above them, made no impression. The gun was
then pointed lower, and another ineffectual shot fired. A third, however,
fell close to them, when they jumped up, shook their mantles in the air,
with the most violent gestures, and, apparently in a furious rage,
scampered off; but the last man, before he disappeared, threw an immense
stone, which did not reach one quarter of the distance.

We saw nothing more of the natives until the evening, when Lieutenant
Mitchell, who went to look for them, found they had moved away to Rocky
Bay, where they had encamped on the open beach. The next day, I sent him to
endeavour to make peace, which he very easily effected, by the interchange
of a few trifles.

After this we had much bad weather, during which most of the Indians kept
close to their wigwams; but a few occasionally communicated with our
watering party, quite peaceably, as if nothing had happened. A day or two
after, the weather improved, and the Fuegians dispersed, probably for want
of food, some going to the northward, but the greater part along shore to
the southward. These people pointed upwards to the sky, when they were
going away, repeating the word 'Pecheray.'

This was our last interview with the wretched Fuegians. Naturally petulant
and quarrelsome, they are also ever intent upon mischief; the fear of
punishment alone restraining them. Weakly-manned vessels passing through
this Strait should always avoid them, if they are numerous; for unless they
are given what they want, they try to steal it, and any consequent
punishment probably brings on a quarrel. Their conduct, and servile
bearing, at our first seeing them, gave them an appearance of being timid
and inactive; while, in reality, they {320} are the very reverse. Had we
attempted to land on the last occasion, I do not think we should have
effected our object, without receiving some severe contusions from their
stones, which they sling with such extraordinary precision and force: so
much so, that I consider the sling, in their dexterous hands, to be equal
to a musket in ours. Indeed, with many of us, a native would have had the
advantage. It has been too much the practice, when obliged to fire upon
them, to fire over their heads; by which proceeding the savages are led to
consider our weapons as so uncertain in their effect, that they become much
depreciated in their estimation. It would be almost preferable to inflict a
slight wound, in order to show the nature of our arms, and as a warning
against further hostilities.

When the Uxbridge, sealer, was at anchor in a harbour in the Magdalen
Channel, some Indians, who were on board, angry at being ordered out of the
vessel at sunset, threw stones at the person who was walking the deck, as
they returned to the shore. Several muskets were fired over their heads, at
which they expressed neither fear nor concern; but paddled leisurely away,
and the next morning came off again to the vessel, as if nothing had
happened. At Port Famine, Duclos Guyot had a skirmish with natives, the
particulars of which are described in Dom Pernetty's History (ii. 653).
Three of the Indians were killed, and three of the French were severely
wounded. It may be here remarked, that the chief's name, according to M.
Duclos Guyot, was 'Pach-a-chui,' which is not unlike 'Pecheray;' the women
were called 'Cap, cap,' probably a mistake for 'Cab, cab;' which evidently
means 'no, no!' for it was an expression we frequently used, and was never
misunderstood. Their cunning is sufficiently proved by the theft of the
Adelaide's boat, in St. Simon's Sound (page 142).

The absence of the Fuegians permitted us to move about a little; and among
other places, we visited their late encampment at Rocky Bay, our approach
to which was offensively indicated by a most sickening smell. On our way, I
found two fossils; one was very interesting, bearing the appearance of a
{321} large orthoceratite:[174] the other was a Venus. From Rocky Point we
descried a strange sail, which, by her movements, we thought must be the
Beagle: I returned, therefore, and sent Lieutenant Mitchell out to her. She
arrived in the evening, but proved to be a ship belonging to the Hudson Bay
Company, called the Dryad, bound to the Columbia River, and last from the
Falkland Islands. She came to wait for Mr. Low, of the Adeona, who had
promised to pilot her through the Magdalen Channel. The Adeona arrived on
the 3d of May; and the following day, to our great joy, the Adelaide hove
in sight: and being becalmed, was towed to an anchorage.

The result of her cruise proved to be very interesting, although no
communication had been discovered between the 'Ancon sin Salida,' and the
Skyring Water. The only loss they had sustained was, however, a severe one;
Mr. Alexander Millar having died of inflammation in the bowels. The death
of this promising young man threw a damp over the happiness we felt at
meeting again, after having so nearly completed this long and tedious
voyage.

We had, for some days, been getting ready for sea, and now hastened to
complete our preparations. The Dryad, after receiving some assistance from
us, sailed in company with the Adeona, and passed out to the Pacific, by
going through the Magdalen Channel. The day afterwards we took our final
departure--crossed the shoal that extends off Magdalena Island, in five
fathoms, sailed on rapidly, and passed Gregory Bay at noon. Seeing us
approach, a large party of Patagonians, at least a hundred in number,
assembled at the usual place of communication; but as both wind and tide
were in our favour, and we could derive no novel information from them, we
continued on our course. The Indians were probably much mortified and
disappointed; but all on board were delighted by avoiding the anticipated
delay. We showed our colours to them, but I dare say our friend, Maria, was
not very well pleased with my want of courtesy, in passing by so old an
acquaintance {322} without a salutation; or, what she coveted much more,
such presents as she had always received when we anchored.

Just before entering the First Narrow, we passed through a furious
'tide-race,' which broke over the Adelaide, and not a little impeded her
progress. No accident, however, was the consequence; and a rapid tide,
running at the least nine knots an hour, swept us through the Narrow, and
round the reef off Cape Orange: after which we proceeded rapidly, and
rounded Cape Virgins at ten P.M., not a little elated by leaving behind us,
with no expectation of ever seeing it again, the famous Strait of
Magalhaens.

Our voyage to Monte Video was rather long; but we delayed there only to
water the ship, in the usual place, off Cape Jesu Maria, and then proceeded
to Rio de Janeiro, where we awaited the arrival of the Beagle. Our anxiety
for her safety, during so hazardous a survey as that of the sea-coasts of
Tierra del Fuego, was soon removed, by hearing that she had touched at
Monte Video; and, on the 2d of August, our consort was seen entering the
harbour; when we were delighted by finding all well on board, and the
little vessel quite ready for sea, having refitted on her passage.

       *       *       *       *       *


{323}

CHAPTER XVIII.

  Adelaide's last cruise--Port Otway--San Quintin--Marine Islands--Unknown
  river or passage--San Tadeo--Isthmus of Ofqui--San Rafael--Sufferings and
  route of the Wager's party--Channel's Mouth--Byron--Cheap--Elliott--
  Hamilton--Campbell--Indian Cacique--Passage of the Desecho--Osorio--
  Xavier Island--Jesuit Sound--Kirke's report--Night tides--Guaianeco
  Islands--Site of the Wager's wreck--Bulkeley and Cummings--Speedwell
  Bay--Indigenous wild potato--Mesier Channel--Fatal Bay--Death of Mr.
  Millar--Fallos Channel--Lieutenant Skyring's illness--English Narrow--
  Fish--Wigwams--Indians--Level Bay--Brazo Ancho--Eyre Sound--Seal--
  Icebergs--Walker Bay--Nature of the country--Habits of the natives--
  Scarcity of population.

I will now relate the principal incidents of the Adelaide's last cruise.
The following pages contain extracts from Lieutenant Skyring's journal, and
also notices obtained from other sources.

The Adelaide sailed from Chilóe on the 8th of December 1829, made Cape Tres
Montes on the 14th, and anchored in Port Otway the same evening. Of this
place Lieutenant Skyring writes: "Good anchorage, wood, water, and
shell-fish (such as muscles and clams), Port Otway affords: but no more.
Excepting in one or two sandy bights, a landing is hardly to be effected;
walking along shore is impossible, and it is scarcely practicable to enter
the country, the land being so thickly wooded, from the summits of the
hills down to the water-side. No soil is to be discovered; the shrubs, and
even the trees, which are of large growth, rise out of moss, or decomposed
vegetable substances. The climate is very wet; none but amphibious animals
were seen, among which hair-seals were numerous. There were very few birds,
excepting turkey buzzards; and not a trace of human beings; indeed, I do
not believe Indians ever go there--(y) they rarely leave the direct
channels; as a proof {324} of which, some articles left by the Beagle, in a
conspicuous place, were found by us untouched." During the Adelaide's stay
at Port Otway, the openings on the east side of Hoppner Sound were
explored, yet they proved to be only small inlets. Mr. Kirke examined some,
which appeared to communicate with San Quintin Sound; but found them to be
merely channels dividing the group of the Marine Islands,[175] excepting
the most southern, which is the entrance of Newman Inlet, a deep bight,
without anchorage, but abounding with hair-seal.

From Byron's Narrative it would appear, that there is a channel somewhere
hereabouts communicating with the Gulf of San Rafael, to the east of the
Peninsula of Tres Montes; for the Indian guide wanted to conduct the
Wager's barge through it, but was prevented by the strength of the current.

The Adelaide sailed from Port Otway on the 18th, and the same evening
reached San Quintin Sound, anchoring opposite an opening northward of
Dead-tree Island, that proved to be the mouth of the River San Tadeo, by
which Byron and his unfortunate companions effected their escape to Chilóe.

The sufferings of this party, which are so affectingly described in Byron's
narrative of the loss of the Wager, made so deep an impression on our
minds, that I thought it not irrelevant to the object of this voyage to
endeavour to trace their steps. Among the numerous incidents that occurred
to them, the passage of the 'Desecho,' or carrying-place over the Isthmus
of Ofqui, is, from all the circumstances connected with it, one of the most
interesting. It may be remembered, that, upon the departure of Captain
Cheap, and his shipwrecked crew, from the place of the wreck (Byron's
Narrative, p. 69), they proceeded round the shores of the Gulf of Peñas,
with an intention of tracing the Coast of Chilóe. They first attempted to
steer for Cape Tres Montes, which headland they had seen, in one of the
intervals of fair weather, from the summit of Mount Misery, and which
appeared to be twenty or thirty leagues distant. The wind, {325} however,
freshened to a gale, and they were obliged to run before it, and throw all
their provisions overboard to lighten the boat.

At night they took refuge in a small opening, which led to a secure
harbour, and next day advanced a little farther, till they reached some
small islands, where they were detained three or four days by bad weather.

After leaving that place, they found an opening, into which they rowed,
flattering themselves it would prove to be a passage; but, being
disappointed, they were obliged to return. This was probably the inlet,
called 'Channel's Mouth.' Xavier Island was the next place they went to,
named by them Montrose Island. Byron describes this island so exactly, that
there cannot be the least doubt of its identity. "The next morning," he
says, "being calm, we rowed out; but as soon as clear of the island, we
found a great swell from the westward: we rowed to the bottom of a very
large bay, which was to northward of us, the land very low, and we were in
hopes of finding some inlet through, but did not; so kept along shore to
the westward. This part, which I take to be fifty leagues from Wager
Island, is the very bottom of the large bay it lies in. Here was the only
passage to be found, which (if we could by any means have got information
of it) would have saved us much fruitless labour. Of this passage I shall
have occasion to say more hereafter."--Byron's Nar. p. 74. This is
evidently San Quintin Sound. They proceeded to the westward and northward,
entered a larger bay (Holloway Sound), and discovered another headland at a
great distance to the westward (Cape Tres Montes), which they reached with
much difficulty; but being unable to get round it, and losing the boat that
accompanied them, besides being obliged to leave four of the marines
behind, they became quite disheartened, and returned to Wager Island, to
linger out their miserable lives, without the least prospect of again
seeing home. This expedition occupied two months, during which they lived
principally upon sea-weed, called 'tangle;' but sometimes passed whole days
without eating anything at all. While they {326} were absent, some Indians
had visited the wreck; and, about a fortnight after their return, they
arrived a second time, in two canoes. Among them was an Indian Cacique of
the Chonos tribe, who live in the neighbourhood of Chilóe. It was supposed
that a report of the wreck had reached that place; and that this Cacique,
and another Indian, had come to derive some advantage from it. As the
Cacique spoke Spanish, the surgeon, Mr. Elliot, made himself so far
understood, as to let him know that they wished to reach some of the
Spanish settlements; and eventually bargained to give him the barge, and
every thing in it, if he would conduct them to Chilóe. The party consisted
of Captain Cheap; Mr. Elliot, the surgeon; Mr. Campbell, Mr. Hamilton, and
Mr. Byron, midshipmen; and eight men, besides the two Indians; in all
fifteen. The first night they slept on an island, and the next laid upon
their oars, to the westward of Montrose Island, not being able to land.

They then pulled, "to the bottom of a great bay, where the Indian guide had
left his family, a wife and two children." There they staid two or three
days; after which, taking on board the family, they proceeded to a river,
"the stream of which," Byron says, "was so rapid, that after our utmost
efforts, from morning to evening, we gained little upon the current; and,
at last, were obliged to desist from our attempts, and return."

This was probably a river, or channel, to the westward of San Quintin
Sound, which eluded our search; and, if so, it must communicate with
channels north-eastward of the Peninsula of Tres Montes. The Indians,
anxious to get the barge to the Chonos, had no other way to effect their
purpose; for the usual route was over the 'Desecho;' to pass which, it was
necessary to take a boat or canoe to pieces, and carry her, piecemeal, over
a high mountain.

After losing the barge, they crossed the Peninsula of Forelius, by hauling
canoes over a narrow neck of land, and reached the water of San Quintin
Sound; where they met another native family, with whom they proceeded to
the River San Tadeo, "up which they rowed four or five leagues; and then
{327} took to a branch of it that ran first to the eastward, and then to
the northward." There they landed, took the canoes to pieces, and carried
them over the isthmus; then putting them together again, re-embarked, and
proceeded through the Chonos Archipelago to Chilóe.

When at Chilóe, I saw an old man, Pedro Osorio, who had been in two of the
last missionary voyages (in 1769 and 1778), to the Guaineco Islands; where
the Wager was wrecked. He related to me the particulars of these voyages,
and gave me an account of the 'Desecho,' over which the missionaries
transported their piraguas. He also remembered Byron and his companions;
and described them by the following names:--Don David (Captain David
Cheap); Don Juan (John Byron); Hamerton (Hamilton); and Plasta. The name
Plasta is not once mentioned in Byron's Narrative; but on referring to
Bulkeley's and Cumming's account, one Plastow is described as the captain's
servant; and perhaps he was one of the number who remained with Captain
Cheap.(z) Pedro Osorio must have been upwards of ninety years of age, in
1829.(a) A detailed account of these voyages is given in Agüeros's
Historical Description of the province of Chilóe, p. 205.

Captain Stokes's 'Dead-tree Island,' in the entrance of San Estevan Gulf,
is near the 'Cirujano Island' (Surgeon Island) of those voyages. Pedro
Osorio told me that it was so called, because the surgeon of the Wager died
there. From Byron's Narrative it would appear, that the surgeon died, and
was buried, just before they embarked to cross the sound.--See Byron, p.
147.

As the examination of the River San Tadeo, and the discovery of the
'Desecho,' formed a part of Lieutenant Skyring's instructions, he proceeded
up it, in a whale-boat, accompanied by Mr. Kirke. The entrance of the river
is blocked up by a bar of sand and stones, which, at low spring-tide, must
be nearly dry; and a heavy swell breaks upon its whole length, joining the
surf of the beach, on each side; so that there is {328} no deep channel;
and, except in very fine weather, an attempt to cross is hazardous.

At its mouth, the breadth is about a quarter of a mile, but within the
entrance it increases for a short distance: at three miles up, it is three
hundred yards, and thence gradually diminishes. The shores are a mixture of
clay and sand; and the country, on both sides, is low and marshy, abounding
with brant-geese, ducks, teal, and snipe.

The land, near the mouth of the river, is studded with dead trees (a
species of pine, about twenty feet high), which appear to have been killed
by the sea overflowing the banks;(b) as it does at high-water for several
miles.

Three miles from the entrance this river divides into two branches, one
leading N.W., and the other eastward. Considering the latter, from Byron's
description, to be the proper course, Lieutenant Skyring followed it. At
nine miles from the mouth, a stream was found falling into the river from
the north, in every respect differing from the principal stream; the water
being fresh, dark, and clear, and the current constantly running down,
uninfluenced by the tide; while the water of the river was brackish and
turbid, and affected by the ebbing and flowing of the tide, although, at
that distance, its effect was much diminished.

The shores of the Black River, as this new stream was called, are thickly
wooded, which is not the case with the principal stream. They had entered
it about a hundred yards before they discovered that they had left the main
river; but being desirous of proceeding, they followed its windings, the
next day, for three leagues; during the greater part of which distance,
they found a strong current against them, and were also much impeded by
fallen trees lying in the bed of the river. In many parts they dragged
their boat along by the help of overhanging branches, or projecting roots;
and the width, generally, was not more than fifty yards. As no piragua
could pass there, Lieutenant Skyring felt assured that he was not in the
right stream; therefore, returning to the main river, he proceeded {329} up
it during the next two days. At two miles above the junction, the tide
ceased to be felt; and a rapid current met them, which increased in
strength until they were unable to stem it; and as they were prevented from
tracking the boats, by trees growing on the banks, they could ascend no
farther.

This place was not more than eleven miles from the sea; although, from the
tortuous course of the stream, they had gone double that distance, and were
about two miles from the foot of a mountain, whence the river descends. The
mountain was very high, and the vallies, or ravines, were filled with
glaciers. From Byron's description, it seems probable that Lieutenant
Skyring was near the carrying place; but as further delay could answer no
good end, he very prudently returned, looking carefully about, as he
proceeded, for some signs of a landing-place, but without success. He
re-crossed the bar, reached the Adelaide without accident, and the next day
went on in her to Xavier Island. On the way they passed Dead-tree Island;
where, observing seal on the rocks, a boat was sent ashore, and her crew
succeeded in killing a few sea-elephants, twenty feet long.

Favoured with fine weather, they were enabled to land on the north side of
Xavier Island, to improve the former survey; and in the evening anchored in
Xavier Bay, where they remained four days; during which, Jesuit Sound was
explored, and found to terminate in two narrow inlets. Being a leewardly
opening, it is unfit for any vessel to enter.

The name Jesuit Sound, and those of the two inlets at the bottom, Benito
and Julian, are memorials of the missionaries, who, in the expedition of
1778, entered and explored it.[176] (Agüeros, p. 232.)

The Adelaide anchored the next night in Ygnacio Bay, at the south end of
Xavier Island, which Lieutenant Skyring {330} recommends for small vessels;
the depth of water being six or eight fathoms, and the anchorage well
sheltered from the wind.

On the 31st they anchored under the Hazard Islands, in the Channel's Mouth:
"preparatory," writes Lieutenant Skyring, "to commencing new work with the
new year; for since entering the gulf, except while examining the San
Tadeo, we had followed the Beagle's track, and only completed what she left
unfinished; but from this place all would be new. This was the last wild
anchorage she had taken; and although now fixed in the best situation, and
in the height of summer, we found our position almost as dangerous as hers.

"Early on the 1st of January 1830, Mr. Kirke went in a whale-boat to
examine the openings, at the mouth of which we had anchored: he returned on
the 9th, having traced to the end, all which had the least appearance of
being channels. The two largest, the south and the east, penetrated into
the Cordillera for thirty miles. All these inlets are narrow but deep arms
of the sea, running between ranges of very steep hills; their sides
affording not the least shelter, even for a boat, and apparently deserted;
for neither seal, nor birds of any kind were seen, nor were there even
muscles on the rocks."

Mr. Kirke, in his report, says: "The three northernmost of the inlets of
the Channel's Mouth end with high land on each side, and low sandy beaches
at the head, beyond which there rises a ridge of high mountains, about two
miles from the beach. The S.E. inlets end in rivers rushing down from the
mountains, and a rocky shore: not the smallest shelter could I find, even
for the boat. Two days and nights I was forced to keep her hauled up on a
rock, just above high-water mark, in a strong gale, while the williwaws
were so violent, that we were all obliged to add our weight to that of the
boat, to prevent her from being blown off: and twice we were washed out of
our resting-places, on the beach, by the night tide rising about fifteen or
sixteen inches above that of the day."

This opening in the coast is noticed by the pilot Machado (Agüeros, p.
210); but by whom the name of Channel's Mouth was given, does not appear.
It is by no means descriptive of {331} what it has been proved to be; but
as Lieutenant Skyring thought that a change in the name would not answer
any good purpose, he very properly left it unaltered.

The day after Mr. Kirke returned, very bad weather set in, and detained the
Adelaide nine days, during which nothing could be done, out of the vessel.

January 19th, Lieutenant Skyring writes, "with moderate weather, and an
easterly wind, we left the Channel's Mouth, and, standing for the Guaianeco
Islands, passed those of Ayautau (between which and the mainland are
several rocky reefs, though the passage seems to be sufficiently clear for
any vessel); and skirting Tarn Bay, we distinguished the Mesier Channel,
and could see many leagues down it. The entrance of the Mesier Channel is
very remarkable, from having two high and singular peaks on the islands at
its mouth: the northernmost very much resembling (although higher than)
Nelson's monument, near the Strait; and the other, more to the southward,
and much higher, resembling a church with a cupola, instead of a spire.
Both are easily made out from the westward, at a distance of twenty or
thirty miles.

"We reached the Guaianeco Islands in the afternoon. The two largest are
divided by a narrow passage, on the west side of which we anchored, in ten
fathoms, in a spacious and secure haven, which proved to be Speedwell Bay
of Bulkeley and Cummings; the boats were employed next day, and, while the
examination of the coast was pursued, I sought to ascertain the exact spot
of the wreck of the Wager, but never could discover it: not a fragment of
that ill-fated vessel was seen in any of our excursions. A few pieces of
the boat lost by the Beagle last year were picked up; but nothing more that
could tend to denote the misfortunes which have occurred near these
islands.

"From the description of the Wager's wreck, in Bulkeley and Cummings, there
seems to be little doubt of the place being at the N.W. end of the eastern
Guaianeco Island, near my Rundle's Passage, which is the place so often
mentioned in their account as the 'Lagoon.'

{332}

"Being well supplied with powder and small shot, the people provided
themselves plentifully, during our stay at Speedwell Bay, with a variety of
wild-fowl, namely, geese, ducks, redbeaks, shags, and the ibis; curlew,
snipe, plover, and moorhens, were also met with, and fish were observed in
shoals near the vessel, but, as we had no seine, they escaped. With hooks
and lines our fishermen had no luck; the baits were no sooner at the
bottom, than they were taken away, and for a day or two the cause of their
loss was unknown; but being accidentally ascertained, small trap-nets were
made, and great numbers of crabs were taken, about a pound each in weight.

"In almost every bay we noticed the potato, growing among wild celery,
close above high-water mark: but in so unfavourable a situation, choked by
other vegetables, its produce was very small.

"The trees are not of large growth in these islands, neither is the land
thickly wooded; but above the beach, and almost round the coast, there is a
breast-work of jungle and underwood, from fifty to one hundred yards broad,
and nearly impenetrable; beyond which is a great extent of clear, but low
and swampy ground.

"On the 25th, we left this port, and ran to the S.E., through what I have
named Rundle's Passage. This small channel, where the islands approach each
other, is about a quarter of a mile wide, perfectly clear in the whole
extent, and also at its southern entrance; but at the northern there are
many detached rocks, which are obstacles to entering Speedwell Bay, except
in daylight. Rounding the islets, at the S.E. extreme of Byron Islands, we
anchored in Muscle Bay, which lies on the northern side: by no means a
secure place,--but the only one that could be found, by the boats, after
many hours' search. I selected this situation in order that the entrance to
the Fallos Channel, and the whole outline of these islands, might be laid
down, and properly connected with the land of Port Barbara; which was
thoroughly executed by Mr. Kirke and Mr. Millar, although delayed in the
completion of their {333} work until the 1st of February.(c) On that day we
sailed, and entered the Mesier Channel, anchoring in a small open bay, the
only stopping-place we could perceive; which, from the loss we sustained
shortly after our arrival, was called Fatal Bay. It is insecure, and the
anchorage ground confined: the only convenience was, that wood and
fresh-water were near. During our stay we had much rain, which retarded us.
Mr. Kirke went away in a boat, whenever the weather permitted, and, on the
8th, we sailed for an anchorage, about ten miles to the southward, where he
had previously been; but a sad event happened before our departure.

"On the afternoon of the 3d, we had the misfortune to lose Mr. Alexander
Millar, who died in consequence of a severe attack of inflammation of the
bowels, which carried him off, after an illness of only three days.

"On Thursday afternoon he was buried, close to the shore, near the
anchorage, and just within the edge of the wood.

"That our progress had been so slow during the last month, was a great
disappointment; but we had had many causes of detention. All the early part
of January the weather was stormy: eighteen days we were anchored within
the Channel's Mouth; yet during two only could our boats leave the vessel.

"Among the Guaianeco islands we had moderate weather, but also much wet:
still the chief cause of our delay, I fear, was my own illness. From the
beginning of January, I had been confined to my bed, with a tedious and
obstinate disease; and from that time most of the angles were taken, and
all the observations were made, by Mr. Kirke, who was ever exceedingly
willing and indefatigable. After the loss of Mr. Millar, not only almost
the whole duty of surveying fell upon him, but much of the duty of the
vessel.

"At noon this day (8th), we moored in Island Harbour, a small but excellent
landlocked anchorage, with good holding {334} ground, and abundance of wood
and water. The two following days, Mr. Kirke was away examining the coast;
the third we were confined by bad weather; and, indeed, during our whole
continuance at this place, we had very much rain.

"We sailed early on the 12th from Island Harbour, and by night reached
Waterfall Bay, an anchorage about fifteen miles to the southward: the wind
all day was light, and the tide, the greater part of the time, against us;
so that, with every exertion, we scarcely gained anchoring ground before it
was quite dark: the strength of the tide was upwards of a mile an hour, at
neap-tides: the ebb and flood were of equal duration, the former running to
the S.b.E., the latter N.b.W. Thirty miles within the Mesier Channel it is
as wide as at the entrance, and for several miles to the southward appears
clear: so that no one is liable thus far to mistake its course.

"The land on the west side appears to be a number of large islands, with
here and there wide passages leading to the S.W., rendering it probable
that there are many (although not direct) communications between the Mesier
and the Fallos Channels. Our anchorages were chiefly on the eastern shore,
that the openings on that side might be more readily examined; but all
which appeared to run far inland were found to be merely narrow inlets, or
sounds ending abruptly. On each side the land is hilly, but not high; and
this distinguishes the Mesier Channel from many others, whose shores for
miles are formed by ranges of steep-sided mountains. Here, in many places,
there is much low land, which is generally thickly wooded, yet with no
greater variety of trees than is to met with in the Strait of Magalhaens.
The beech, birch, pine, or cypress, Winter's-bark, and a kind of red-wood,
form the forests; but none were observed that could be at all serviceable
for the larger spars of a vessel.

"(16th). Left Waterfall Bay, and with a N.W. breeze passed Middle Island,
entered Lion Bay, and moored in White Kelp Cove. The coast survey was soon
finished, but we were confined at our anchors here four days; not by bad,
but by extraordinarily fine weather. During such intervals, so very rare
{335} in these regions, the wind, if there is any, is almost always
southerly, and light.

"At every anchorage we had found Indian wigwams, but as yet had not met
with any natives. Here we took a great number of fish; and, among them, one
like the ling, found on the east coast of Patagonia, off Cape Fairweather,
but of smaller size, for the largest did not weigh more than two pounds.
Very few water-fowl were seen; steamers and shags were the only ones shot;
but in the woods we noticed king-fishers, woodpeckers, barking-birds,
parroquets, and humming-birds.

"(21st.) With a light northerly wind we left this cove, and about ten miles
to the southward the appearance of the channel changed greatly. Instead of
sailing through unconnected land, of moderate height, we were confined
between two mountainous ridges.[177] At noon we were obliged to anchor in
Halt Bay, no opening appearing to the right or left, and being apparently
embayed. On the west side, the high land was skirted by several low
islands, among which our only way of proceeding seemed to lie. This day and
the next Mr. Kirke was away, seeking a passage; and having found one, and
noticed the tides, we sailed through on the 23d, and gave it the name of
the English Narrow. It is long and intricate, chiefly formed by islands;
and in three places, where the shores approach each other, the distance
across is less than four hundred yards, yet with a fair wind and slack
tide, there is no hazard in passing. In the afternoon, we moored in ten or
twelve fathoms in Level Bay, a spacious anchorage near the southern
entrance of the Narrow; the bottom mud and sand, and the depth of water
equal throughout. Mr. Kirke, who was among the islands opposite this bay,
saw numerous shoals {336} of fish in many of the bights; with a seine,
therefore, an abundant supply might be obtained.

"The woodland eastward of our anchorage had very recently been on fire, and
the conflagration must have been extensive, and very destructive; for
throughout a space of ten or twelve miles along shore, all the trees had
been consumed, the dead trunks of the larger ones alone remaining. We left
Level Bay on the morning of the 25th, and passed a canoe full of Indians;
but they pulled to the shore, and ran into the woods; therefore, since they
avoided us, and we had a fair wind, I did not seek their acquaintance. We
had noticed traces of them in the neighbourhood of the Narrow, on each side
of which many wigwams, that had been recently occupied, were seen.

"For the next ten or twelve miles we went through a fine reach, whose
shores were low, and whose channel was interspersed with several islands,
affording probably excellent anchorages; but to the southward the hills
became more steep, and, except in the ravines, were destitute of
vegetation. At four or five leagues to the E.S.E., beyond the English
Narrow, an opening, apparently a channel, presented itself, and the reach
in which we were sailing seemed to end. Doubtful which course to follow, we
anchored the vessel in Rocky Bight, and despatched the boats to examine
both passages. That to the E.S.E. was found to run direct nearly ten miles,
and to communicate with a fine clear channel, trending to the S.S.W., which
proved afterwards to be the Wide Channel (Brazo Ancho) of Sarmiento. At the
junction, a considerable arm extended to the N.N.E., apparently a
continuation of the Wide Channel.

"On Mr. Kirke's return from examining the passage in which we were sailing,
I learnt that the same width continued about five miles southward of our
present anchorage, and that there the shores approached closely, forming
the intricate passage called Rowlett Narrow; which, after a S.E. course of
many miles, also joins Wide Channel. The island formed by the two channels
was named Saumarez Island, in honour of the gallant admiral.

"It rained hard and blew strongly the whole day, which {337} prevented our
moving; but on the 27th we shifted our anchorage to Fury Cove, in Wide
Channel.

"Mr. Kirke, on the 28th, examined an opening to the northward, called Sir
George Eyre Sound, which terminates in a wide fresh-water river, running
through low land from a large glacier. The low grounds extend two or three
miles from it, and then the land becomes high. Behind the glacier there is
a ridge of high mountains, covered with snow, which we had seen twice
before; first, from near White Kelp Cove, and again from Halt Bay. In the
sound, we saw three whales, and being the first we had observed, since
leaving the Gulf of Peñas, they inclined us to think we were near the Gulf
of Trinidad. A great number of fur seal, besides two of their rookeries, or
breeding-places, were also seen. Several icebergs were floating out of the
sound, some of which were dark-coloured; and upon one I found a quantity of
rock that had come down with it from the mountains. There was serpentine
and granite, specimens of which were collected, and given to Captain King.
One of the bergs, which was large, was aground. It was nearly seven fathoms
above the water, and bottom could not be found by sounding round it with
twenty-one fathoms of line.

"Fury Cove is diminutive; there is not more than sufficient space for two
small vessels; but the ground is good, and in every other respect it is a
secure haven. We sailed on the 3d of March with the expectation of soon
recognizing some known points in the Gulf of Trinidad; but as the wind
failed, we were obliged to anchor for the night in Sandy Bay, in eight
fathoms.

"As we proceeded to the southward, the appearance of the country gradually
changed: the mountains seemed more barren, the trees and shrubs more
stunted, the land rose more suddenly, and the shores of the channel became
bolder, and presented an uniform rocky line of coast.

"(4th.) We again steered southward, and at noon an opening appearing on the
east side, which ran several miles inland, I sought an adjacent anchorage,
in order that it might be explored. Our boats were examining the shore all
day, and {338} sounding in the coves, but no fit spot was found; therefore
we were forced to stop in an ill-sheltered nook, termed Small Craft Bight,
which just served us (having fair weather) as a resting-place until morning
(5th), when we set out again to find a better anchorage; for I still
desired to ascertain whether the opening to the eastward was a sound or a
channel. In our course to the southward we traced both shores in search of
a stopping-place; but there was neither bight nor cove where it was
possible to anchor, until we arrived at Open Bay, which lies near the
entrance of Wide Channel. Even this was such a very insecure place, that
although I remained the next day, to examine the neighbouring coast, it was
far too exposed an anchorage for the vessel to continue in while the boats
were away at a distance.

"Disappointed by not finding a place for the schooner near the opening I
wished to explore, I was yet averse to leaving it unexamined, having traced
every inlet to its extremity for upwards of two hundred miles along the
continent. I wished to continue so sure a mode of proceeding; and although
I felt certain that this opening terminated like the rest, and Mr. Kirke
held the same opinion, I would gladly have prevented any doubt by following
its course in the boats, could we have gained a safe anchorage for the
vessel. The nearest harbour that could be found was thirty miles from the
opening, and it would have detained us too long to send the boats such a
distance; so considering that we had yet a great extent of coast to
examine; that my state of health did not permit me to undertake any very
exposed or arduous service; and that Mr. Kirke was the only person to whom
such duty could be entrusted, I was induced to relinquish our former
practice of exploring every opening to its end.

"We left Open Bay on the 7th, and soon entered Concepcion Strait, keeping
along the east shore, and sending a boat, at every opening, to seek a
situation for the vessel. In the afternoon, a tolerably sheltered bay was
found, at the south end of the North Canning Island, open only from S.E. to
S.W.; but those winds being frequent and violent, and the {339} bay exposed
to a long reach of sea from that quarter, it cannot be accounted a safe
harbour; yet it was very far preferable to many places in which we had been
obliged to anchor.

"This bay (Portland Bay) is on the north side of an opening called by
Sarmiento 'Canal de Tres Cerros,' and from the broken state of the interior
high land, one is led to imagine a channel might be found there. His
conclusion, I have no doubt, was drawn from this appearance, since the view
down the opening is very limited, and, at the distance of three or four
miles within the entrance, is interrupted by several small islands. Mr.
Kirke passed between those islets, and followed an opening to the S.E., for
upwards of eight leagues. On his return, he reported that he had found a
fine channel, of which the principal entrance was the opening of
Sarmiento's 'Canal San Andres.'

"On the 12th, in full anticipation of making some interesting discovery, we
sailed into the 'Canal San Andres,' anchoring in the afternoon in
Expectation Bay, where we remained until the 15th. During that time, Mr.
Kirke was employed examining the different openings, and tracing this
supposed channel farther. At his return, he said that he had found a
termination to every opening, even to that in which we then were, which he
had previously thought to be a channel. Like the rest, it extended only to
the base of the snowy Cordillera, and then was suddenly closed by immense
glaciers.

"This information caused great disappointment, as all hope of passing
through the Cordillera, thus far northward, was now given up; and I was
fearful we should be delayed many more days before we could extricate
ourselves from this (as we then supposed) false channel. We were many miles
within the entrance; in that distance there were no anchorages, and the
wind being generally from the westward, I anticipated much labour before we
could effect our return; but the very next day we were so fortunate as to
have a slant of fair wind, by which we cleared this opening, and a second
time entered Concepcion Strait. Knowing, by our former survey, that there
was no anchorage along the coast to the southward of Cape San Andres before
reaching Guard Bay, I ran over to Madre {340} de Dios, and brought up in
Walker Bay. Fortunate we were, too; for before midnight the weather became
so stormy as to oblige us to strike the topmasts and yard, let go a second
anchor, and veer a long scope of cable. At few places in these channels
where we had anchored, could we have veered even half a cable. We remained
the following day, and on the 21st, the weather being moderate, ran for the
Guia Narrow, and having a favourable tide, passed through easily.

"It was my wish to have anchored among the islands to the southward of Cape
Charles, since that would have been the most convenient place for the
Adelaide, while examining the opening beyond Cape San Antonio; but hauling
round the headland into a bay formed by those islands, no soundings could
be gained; and not perceiving any bight at all likely to afford shelter, I
continued my course for Puerto Bueno, where Sarmiento thought there was
good anchorage. In the evening, with the assistance of the boats, we moored
in Schooner Cove, Puerto Bueno, and the next day, Mr. Kirke went to examine
the opening north of San Antonio.

"While we remained, a plan was made of this port, which lies five miles
S.E. from Cape Charles and three and a-half from Bonduca Island. The shore
is steep, and without any indenture. To the southward is Lear Bay, a mile
in extent, affording anchorage, but not to be chosen when such an excellent
haven as Puerto Bueno is near. The south extreme of this bay forms the
north point of Puerto Bueno, and a few hundred yards south of that point is
Rosamond Island, which is low and pointed; four hundred yards S.S.E. of
this, is a small round islet, bold to on every side; and between this islet
and a low point, a quarter of a mile to the S.E., is the widest channel to
the anchorage. Sarmiento, indeed, most appropriately named it Puerto Bueno.
It has both an inner and an outer port, the depth of water throughout is
from nine to six fathoms, and any position in either I consider safe; but
excepting that it affords better shelter, it differs in no respect from
other anchorages in these regions. Wood and water are generally found in
abundance near them all: fish may be caught; geese, ducks, shags, and {341}
steamers may be shot; and shell-fish gathered. The country, also, has the
same appearance, and is of a similar nature; for if you force a passage
through the woods, it is over fallen trees and moss; if you walk over clear
flat ground, the place is found to be a swamp; and if you ascend the hills,
it is by climbing over rocks, partially covered with spongy moss.

"Mr. Kirke returned on the 24th, having found that the opening beyond San
Antonio led to the N.E., and at ten miles from the cape communicated with
that called the Canal San Andres.

"At daylight we left Schooner Cove, and in passing down Sarmiento Channel I
tried, though unsuccessfully, to reconcile some of his remarks with our own
observations. South of San Marco and San Lucas there are two extensive
bays, which we afterwards found communicated with an opening between San
Mateo and San Vicente, separating the greater part of the eastern shore of
this channel from the main land.

"I wished to anchor near Cape San Lucas, but around that opening no place
could be distinguished likely to afford shelter, the shore in every part
being bold, steep, and rocky. A like uniformity of coast presented itself
as far as Cape San Mateo; but on the west side, along both Esperanza and
Vancouver Island, lie many bays that are well adapted for vessels. Sailing,
however, under Cape San Lucas, we stood for San Mateo, and succeeded in
anchoring in a small port, formed by Weasel Island, scarcely large enough,
but perfectly safe, when once we were secured. From this place the boats
were despatched. An opening east of our present station was to be traced,
and this part of Sarmiento Channel, with the entrance between San Mateo and
San Vicente, was to be laid down. These operations, which in moderately
fair weather would not have occupied three days, were not completed before
the 31st, from our being delayed by violent winds, and almost continual
rain. We had also had exceedingly bad weather during our stay in Puerto
Bueno, and those employed in the boats had undergone very severe fatigue,
and had suffered much from wet and cold. A short distance within the
entrance of the {342} opening, between Cape San Mateo and San Vincent, it
turns suddenly to the south and S.b.E., continues in that direction for
nearly thirty miles, washing the base of the Cordillera which rises from it
precipitously, and is closed by a low isthmus, two miles across, dividing
this inlet from Stewart Bay, and over which Mr. Kirke passed to take the
bearings of several points that he recognised in Collingwood Strait.

"In the prosecution of the survey northward of our anchorage, those
passages were discovered which separate so much of the east coast of
Sarmiento Channel from the main land; and the islands thus made known I
named after Commodore Sir Edward Owen,[178] the channel of separation being
called Blanche Passage.

"One of the boats met with a canoe containing eight Indians; this was only
the second that had yet been seen during our cruise.

"An interview, which two of the schooner's men had with these people, is so
characteristic of the habits of the natives who wander in canoes, that I
add the account, as given by one of those men: 'When we arrived at the
wigwam, there were two women and five children inside, and a dozen dogs
near it. At our entrance, the children crept close to one side of the
wigwam, behind their mothers, who made signs for us to sit down on the
opposite side, which we did. The women, seeing that we were wet, and meant
to do them no harm, sent the two eldest children out to gather sticks, and
made up a large fire; so we cut some pieces of bread from a loaf which we
had, and distributed them. They all appeared to like the bread,
particularly the youngest, which was sucking at the breast; for it eat its
own slice, besides one we gave its mother. After we had been there about
half an hour, and had given them some beads and buttons, a man came in from
behind the wigwam, where he had concealed himself when we entered, and sat
down beside us. By signs, he asked where our boat was, and how many men
there were with us. We told him the men and boat were a little way off, and
made signs that we wanted to {343} stay all night with him. We then gave
him some bread, which he smelt, and afterwards eat. He offered us some
sea-elephant blubber, about two inches and a-half thick; we took it, and
making signs it was not good, flung it on the fire. As soon as it began to
melt, he took it from the fire, put one part in his mouth, and holding the
other drew it back again, squeezing out the oil with his teeth, which were
nearly shut. He put the same piece on the fire again, and, after an
addition to it, too offensive to mention, again sucked it. Several more
pieces were served the same way, and the women and children partook of
them. They drank large draughts of water as soon as they had done eating.
As it grew dark at about eight o'clock, the man began to talk to the women
about our 'sherroo' or boat, and our men, who he thought were near. They
seemed to be alarmed, for the women shortly after left the wigwam, and did
not return. They were quite naked. The man took the youngest child in his
arms, squatted down with the rest, and making signs that he was going to
sleep, stretched himself by the fire, the children lying between him and
the side of the wigwam. Soon afterwards another man came in, who seemed to
be about twenty-two years of age, younger by ten years than the first we
saw. He had a piece of platted grass round his head, in the form of a band.
After talking some time with his companion, he talked and laughed with us,
ate some bread, and would have eaten all we had, if we had not kept it from
him. He ate about two pounds of blubber, broiling and squeezing it, as the
other had done, and drank three or four pints of water. We had only one
case knife, which he was very fond of borrowing now and then, to cut the
blubber, pretending that the muscle shells, which he broke for the purpose,
were not sharp enough. He examined all our clothes, felt our limbs and
breasts, and would have taken our clothes off, if we had let him. He wanted
a knife, and was continually feeling about us for one, as we did not let
him know that we had only one. He opened a rush basket, and took out
several trifles, such as fire-stone,[179] feathers, spear-heads, a sailor's
old mitten, part of {344} a Guernsey-frock, and other things, some of which
he offered for the knife.

"'About midnight it rained very hard, and the inside of the wigwam became
soaked with wet; so they all roused up, and made a large fire; then ate
some blubber, and drank some more water. They always carried a firebrand
with them when they went out in the dark to get water, or for any thing
else they might want. When they had well warmed themselves they lay down
again. The young man lay close to us, and, when he supposed we were asleep,
began to search the man who had the knife, but we kept watch and he could
not get it. About two hours afterwards he made up the fire, and went out,
as we thought, for firewood: but for no other purpose than to take away
bushes from the side of the wigwam, that he might have a clear passage for
what he intended to do. Returning, he took up a piece of blubber, and asked
for the knife to cut it. As soon as he had cut a slice, and put it on the
fire, he darted through the part of the wigwam, which he had weakened, like
an arrow. The other man seemed to be very much vexed, and thinking,
perhaps, that we should do some mischief in consequence of the loss of the
knife, watched an opportunity, when he thought we were asleep, to take out
all the children, and leave us quite by ourselves. About two hours after,
he returned, and pulling down dry branches, from the inside of the wigwam,
made up a large fire. We had no doubt that the younger man was at hand
watching us, and just at daybreak, as we were preparing to start, he jumped
into the wigwam with his face streaked almost all over with black, and
pretended to be quite a stranger. When we asked for the knife, he would not
know what we meant, but took up one of our shoes that lay on the ground,
and gave it to us. The band of grass was taken off his head, and his hair
was quite loose. There were neither skins, spears, nor arrows in the
wigwam, but no doubt they were in the bushes; for when we threatened to
take the canoe he jumped into the wood, resting on one knee, with his right
hand on the ground; and eyed us sharply till we were out of sight.'

{345}

"The other family seen in the Mesier Channel we did not communicate with,
and it may be remarked that in this passage, although between four and five
hundred miles in extent, we did not meet twenty human beings; a strong
evidence that these regions are very thinly inhabited, particularly when it
is considered that we made no rapid progress, and that our boats traversed,
through different channels, at least twice the distance run by the vessel."

       *       *       *       *       *


{346}

CHAPTER XIX.

  Sarmiento Channel--Ancon sin Salida--Cape Earnest--Canal of the
  Mountains--Termination of the Andes--Kirke Narrow--Easter Bay--
  Disappointment Bay--Obstruction Sound--Last Hope Inlet--Swans--Coots--
  Deer--River--Lagoon--Singular eddies--Passage of the Narrow--Arrival at
  Port Famine--Zoological remarks.

"(April 1st). This morning the weather was very unsettled, squally, and
thick: but as no delay could be admitted, when there was a possibility of
moving, we left at eight o'clock, and followed the course of Sarmiento
Channel. I have no doubt that a passage exists eastward of Point San
Gaspar, leading to Collingwood Strait, and forming an island between that
point and Cape San Bartolomé: but with the N.W. wind and bad weather we
then had, that bight was too leewardly for us to venture into.

"The knowledge of an opening there could be of no great importance, yet had
I been able to find an anchorage near Cape San Bartolomé I would gladly
have profited by it, in order to assure myself of the existence of a
passage. In hauling round, the appearance of the land favoured my
impression; but our chief object being to seek a channel through the high
mountains, I stood toward Stewart Bay, the most southern part examined by
the boats. Finding I could not anchor there without entering the bight and
risking delay, which I was unwilling to do, as I wished to reach Whale-boat
Bay as soon as possible, we proceeded and anchored in the evening in
Shingle Roads, ready for moving the next morning. Having, last year, passed
along the whole line of coast, from Cape Earnest to this place, there
seemed to me no necessity for a closer examination, for I knew there was no
opening within that distance, and I could very little improve what was then
laid down on the {347} chart. The weather was very unpromising, and at
daylight the next morning it blew hard from the N.W., but we weighed and
ran to the southward. When in the 'Ancon sin Salida' of Sarmiento the wind
suddenly shifted to the S.E., and was so strong that we were quite unable
to beat between Cape Earnest and the northern island of the 'Ancon,' but
passing round, found anchorage near the east end in a small bay: however,
as the wind had moderated, and the Canal of the Mountains was open to us,
on the east side of which there appeared to be several secure bays, we kept
under sail, and in the evening anchored in Leeward Bay, which we at first
thought would afford excellent shelter, but on reaching it found we had
erred exceedingly. There was no time to look for another, so we moored, and
prepared for bad weather, which, as usual, was soon experienced; and we
were kept two days without a possibility of moving, or doing any thing to
make our situation more secure. We had heavy squalls during the whole time;
the wind being generally west or W.N.W., but at times nearly S.W., when
more swell was thrown into the bay.

"On the 5th we got clear of this bad and leewardly anchorage, the wind
being more to the N.W.; but we had still such very squally weather, with
rain, that it was a work of several hours to beat to Whale-boat Bay, where
we moored in the evening, and prepared for examining the coast with our
boats, both to the east and west. Before leaving Leeward Bay, a round of
angles was taken from high ground north of the anchorage, and it was
satisfactory to reflect that the 'Ancon sin Salida' was traced far more
correctly than could be done in our former visit. There was constant rain
and squally weather all the morning, and only in the latter part of the day
could any work be performed in the boats. On the following morning Mr.
Kirke went to trace the Canal of the Mountains, and I rejoice to say that I
was again able to assist in the boat service, and went to examine some
openings. After leaving Kirke Narrow on the right hand a wide sound
appeared, about nine miles in length; and having traversed it, we turned to
the east, through a narrow intricate channel (White Narrow), {348}
obstructed by several small islets, and passed suddenly out into a clear,
open bay. Our prospect here became wholly different to that which for
months before we had daily witnessed. North and south of us were deep bays,
while to the east, between two points seven or eight miles apart, our view
was unobstructed by land, and we were sanguine in hoping that we had
discovered an extensive body of water. There was also a considerable change
in the appearance of the country, which no less delighted than astonished
us; for so gratifying a prospect had not been seen since leaving Chilóe.
Eastward, as I said before, we could perceive no land; to the north-east
and south-eastward lay a low flat country, and the hills in the interior
were long, level ranges, similar to that near Cape Gregory, while behind
us, in every direction westward, rose high rugged mountains. I fully
believed that our course hereafter would be in open water, along the shores
of a low country, and that we had taken leave of narrow straits, enclosed
by snow-capped mountains: the only difficulty to be now overcome was, I
imagined, that of getting the vessel safely through the Kirke Narrow;
which, hazardous as I thought the pass, was preferable to the intricate
White Narrow, through which we had just passed. Such were my expectations;
and with so noble a prospect in view, I hastened to look for anchorage for
the schooner, which I succeeded in finding at a place named by me Easter
Bay, and returned on board the next day through Kirke Narrow. Mr. Kirke
employed three days about his work, having traced the inlet, which trended
northward from Cape Grey for nearly eleven leagues. He found that it was
bordered on each side by a steep range of mountains, broken here and there
by deep ravines, which were filled with frozen snow, and surmounted by
extensive glaciers, whence huge avalanches were continually falling. The
western side of this canal is formed by the southern termination of the
Andes. At the northern end are two bays, with sandy beaches, backed by low
land, which, however, rises gradually to high peaked mountains, distant
about two miles.

"Early on Easter Tuesday we left Whale-boat Bay, and {349} proceeded
towards the Kirke Narrow. We had been unvarying in watching and trying the
strength of the tides during our stay; but the observations never accorded
with those in the narrow, and our calculations this morning, after all the
trouble we had taken, were found to be erroneous. On approaching the place
we met a stream of tide setting to the S.W. between two and three knots;
the wind was light; we sometimes gained ground--at others were forced back
by the strength of the tide--and thus kept hovering near the entrance until
eleven o'clock; when the tide slackened, and we neared the eastern end,
which is by far the narrowest part, and where, I apprehended, every
exertion would be required to clear the rocks; but fortunately it was at
the moment of slack water--we passed through easily, and our anticipated
difficulty vanished. This eastern entrance is narrowed by two islands,
which contract the width, at one part, to a hundred and fifty yards. When
clear of this passage, Point Return, Point Desire, and Easter Bay were in
sight, and we found ourselves in a channel much wider than those to which
we had been lately accustomed. To the south was a deep sound, apparently
branching in different directions between high land, but our principal
object was the low country to the N.E., and through this we were so
sanguine as to make sure of finding a passage. In the evening we anchored
in Easter Bay, and moored the schooner in four and six fathoms, over a
muddy bottom.

"Next morning (12th) the boats were prepared for going away to gain a
better knowledge of the country around, to find out the best anchorage, and
to become acquainted with some of the many advantages that, from the
prospect before us, we considered ourselves sure of experiencing. Mr. Kirke
went to examine Worsley Sound, and he was desired to examine every opening
as he proceeded eastward. As soon as he was gone, I set about measuring a
base between Easter Bay and Focus Island; which, being of moderate height,
appeared to be a favourable position for extending the triangulation. This
work was soon finished; but I was greatly disappointed, when on the summit
of the island, with the view that presented itself {350} to the eastward.
The low points, before mentioned, beyond which, from Easter Bay, we could
distinguish no land, and between which we expected to make good our course
to the S.E., appeared to be connected by a low flat country. An extensive
sheet of water was indeed observed to the eastward, yet I could only, from
its appearance, conclude that it was a spacious bay.

"My attention was next drawn to the southward, in which direction, to the
east of Woolley Peninsula, appeared a wide and deep opening, and this I
determined to explore on the morrow; for it was now the only course likely
to lead us to Fitz Roy Passage, where it became every day more
indispensable that we should arrive, since our provisions were getting
short. At my return on board, I learnt from Mr. Kirke that he had examined
the greater part of Worsley Sound, whose eastern shore formed a line of
coast almost connected with that of the bight before us, to which the name
of Disappointment Bay was given.

"It was arranged that he should proceed from his last point, and carefully
trace the shore of Disappointment Bay to the eastern headland of the
southern opening, down which it was my intention to proceed. With these
objects in view, we left the schooner next morning. A fair wind soon
brought me to the entrance, where I landed to take bearings on the west
side, and arrived at the promontory of 'Hope' by noon. There I ascended to
the summit of the hills, but found them so thickly wooded, that my
anticipated view of the land was almost intercepted, and the angles taken
were in consequence very limited.

"At this promontory the course of the channel trends slightly to the
eastward; and its direction is afterwards to the S.S.E., being open and
clear for eight or ten miles, when low land stretching across from the west
side intercepts the view. In passing to the southward, I landed frequently
to continue the angles, and hauled up, at the close of day, in Rara Avis
Bay, still doubtful of the nature of the opening.

"Next morning, passing Point Intervene, we pulled into an extensive reach;
and having landed, to take bearings, on the {351} east side, near Cape
Thomas, I proceeded, in hopes that beyond the next point some better
prospect would be gained: on arriving there, however, my expectations were
instantly checked by a bold rising shore, continuing uninterruptedly as far
as the Oliver Islands, which we passed soon afterwards.

"The width of the channel between the Oliver Islands and the northern shore
is not more than a mile, but it afterwards increases, and turns sharply
first to the west, and then S.S.W. In the west reach there are many small
islands, and the high ranges on both sides being detached from each other,
gave me yet some hopes of finding a passage between them. Proceeding in the
afternoon, a bight appeared to the S.S.E., about two miles to the westward
of Cape Up-an'down, which was examined, although there was no prospect of
meeting with success by tracing it, and in it were found two small passages
leading to the S.E., suitable only for boats. We ran down the largest, and
a mile within the entrance were embayed. At the bottom of this bight the
land was low, and I tried to get on some eminence, that I might command a
view to the S.E., but was always impeded by an impervious wood. I observed,
however, distant high land in that direction, and could see a sheet of
water, about six miles from me: but whether it was a lagoon, or a part of
the Skyring Water, was doubtful. I could not, at this prospect, rejoice as
Magalhaens did, when he first saw the Pacific, for my situation, I began to
think, resembled that of Sterne's starling.

"Keeping along the south shore, until late in the evening we gained the
west end of this reach, and finding no shelter for the boat, crossed to the
broken land on the west side, and passed that night in Hewitt Harbour.

"On the following morning, we pursued our course to the S.S.W., and at
eleven o'clock reached the extremity of this extensive sound. All our
suspense was then removed, and all our hopes destroyed; for the closing
shores formed but a small bay in the S.W., and high land encircled every
part without leaving an opening.

"Throughout the examination of this sound, we did not {352} distinguish any
decided stream of tide, and the rise and fall did not appear to have ever
exceeded a foot: that there was a slight tidal movement of the water seemed
evident, from the streams of foam coming from the cascades; and also from
the fallen leaves which were borne on the water, from the shores of the
bays, in long lines; but signs like these are indicative of there being no
strength of tide: I have frequently noticed such appearances in large
sounds, or inlets, but never in any channel where there was a current.

"The bays between Hope Promontory and Point Intervene are frequented by
immense numbers of black-necked swans (_Anser nigricollis_): hundreds were
seen together; they appeared not at all wild when we first passed; but, on
our return, there was no approaching them within musket shot. Many ducks
and coots were also observed. On a rock, near the Oliver Islands, was a
small 'rookery' of hair-seal; and, in our progress down the sound, we
passed some few shags and divers. This is the enumeration of all we saw,
and these few species seem to possess, undisturbed, this Obstruction Sound;
for we neither observed any wigwams, nor saw any traces of inhabitants.

"Having no interest in remaining, after some necessary angles were taken on
Meta Islet, we commenced our return; and, with a fair wind, made good
progress, landing only where it was necessary for angles, and reached the
vessel on the evening of the next day (16th). I have fully stated the
examination of this sound, and have been, perhaps, unnecessarily particular
and diffuse; but I think that when its near approach to the Skyring Water
is known by others, it will be considered very singular that no
communication exists between them. To every one on board the Adelaide it
was a great disappointment. The only inlet now remaining to be explored was
through the S.S.E. opening, east of Point Return; which, on the 18th, I
went to examine. Mr. Kirke returned on the same day as myself, having
traced the coast as far as he had been directed, and found the large
expanse of Disappointment Bay nearly bounded by a flat stony beach; and the
water so shallow, that even his whale-boat could seldom approach the shore
within a quarter of a {353} mile; but he had left a small opening in the
N.E. unexplored, which, as our last hope, I thought it necessary to
examine; and he went for that purpose the next morning. Situated as we
were, we had great reason to be very earnest in the search for a passage;
and, I think, that no channel into the Skyring Water, however small and
intricate, would have been left unattempted at this crisis. During the
vessel's continuance in Easter Bay, the men, who remained on board, were
employed in clearing the hold, and completing wood and water to the utmost,
in order that we might not be delayed at any anchorage after our departure
thence.

"On the 18th, I went, in a boat, down the opening east of Point Return; and
by noon reached Virginia Island. Two miles to the southward the channel
branches to the S.E., and to the S.W.; I followed the latter branch,
landing where necessary to continue the angles, and arrived in the evening
at the extremity, which was closed by low land; in the middle was a wide
and rapid stream. The slot of a deer was seen along the margin of the
shore. Next day we proceeded down the S.E. branch to the Centre Island,
thence steered towards an opening that appeared in the S.W., and passing
through a narrow winding passage, entered a large bay, which was closed at
the bottom by low land, similarly to the branch examined yesterday. Only an
opening to the N.E. now remained to be explored; but night coming on, we
hauled up in Tranquil Bay, near the northern extremity. The N.E. opening
was found to trend eastward for three miles, and then turn to the S.E.,
forming an extensive bay, whose shores were encircled by low land, and only
separated from Obstruction Sound, by an isthmus two miles broad. Our search
being concluded, I hastened back, and arrived on board the schooner late in
the evening. Finding Mr. Kirke had not returned, I still entertained some
little hope, and the vessel was prepared to move either one way or the
other as soon as he came back.

"Late on the 21st, Mr. Kirke arrived. The opening in the N.E. had been
traced for nearly thirty miles from the entrance, first to the N.E., and
then to the W.N.W., till it was closed {354} by high land far to the
northward of Worsley Bay. Many deer were seen on the plains eastward of the
inlet, and some were shot at, but escaped. Swans, ducks, and coots had been
killed in such numbers, that on their return all the schooner's crew were
plentifully supplied. Of this place Mr. Kirke says: 'At the commencement of
the N.E. sound there is low land, which extends about thirteen miles up its
shores. The entrance is three or four miles wide; but five miles up, the
inlet is contracted to about half a mile in width, by a shoal connecting
three islets with the western shore. These islets were literally surrounded
by black-necked swans, mixed with a few which had black-tipped wings: the
male of the latter has a peculiar note, which sounds like 'ken kank,' but
the female only sounds 'kank.'

"'A few coots were shot in this neighbourhood, out of an immense quantity
seen. In each of two flocks, I think, there must have been upwards of a
thousand.

"'From these islets the sound trends nearly north for seven or eight miles,
when it is again narrowed by an island, on each side of which there is a
narrow passage for a vessel; but the eastern one is the best. The few bays
near here are fit for small vessels only.

"'Beyond this island the face of the country begins to alter from low to
mountainous land, with long flats in the valleys, and the sound also
changes its course more to the N.W. Near a high bluff on the eastern shore,
eight miles further up the sound, the land becomes higher and covered with
snow; yet there are still a few level patches between the mountains. From
this bluff the sound trends about a point more westerly for five or six
miles, to a place where there is a small inlet, on the left, between two
snow-covered, mountainous ridges. The water there was changed to a
clayey-colour, and had a brackish taste. Continuing our course for two
miles, I found a large expanse of water, the north end of which was limited
by low land, backed by high snowy mountains in the distance; its southern
extreme terminated at the foot of high mountains, also covered with snow;
and had a large run of water from a {355} glacier on the western side. In
returning we saw some deer on the eastern shore of the low land, between
the islands of the second reach, but could not get within gun-shot: they
appeared to be of a dark colour, and fully as large as a guanaco. Some of
our men thought they could distinguish small straight horns, but I could
not myself see them.(d) I endeavoured to cross the isthmus, where
Lieutenant Skyring had seen water from Focus Island, near Easter Bay, and
first attempted it by the course of a fresh water river, at the head of the
bay; but I found the country so thickly covered with stunted wood, about
eight feet high, and exceedingly prickly, that I lost my way twice, and
returned to the shore; I tried again however, about half a mile more to the
eastward, and at last got to a high part of the land. When there, and
mounted on another man's shoulders, I could scarcely see above the trees
(which, at the roots, were not thicker than a man's wrist): there was
evidently a large expanse of water, but I could not distinguish much of it.
I think it probable that it is fresh, as the river, fifty yards wide, is
rapid, and appears to run out of it. There is not any high land in the
neighbourhood, whence such a run of fresh water could be supplied.

"'I saw numbers of deer tracks about this place, and the boat's crew
observed three deer similar to those above-mentioned.'--(Kirke MS.)

"We weighed on the 22d, and towed out of Easter Bay, with the hope of
repassing Kirke Narrow; but shortly afterwards so dense a fog arose, that
we could distinguish no land, and were unable to profit by the advantage of
a light fair wind, with otherwise favourable weather. In the afternoon,
when it cleared up a little, we anchored in Fog Bay, on the west side of
the channel, about three miles from Kirke Narrow.

{356}

"(23d.) A thick fog confined us at our anchorage till eight, when, having
some hopes of the weather clearing, we weighed, and stood for the Narrow,
but a continued haze prevented us from entering until after noon. As we
approached, no tide could be perceived, and again we were doubtful of our
calculations, having expected to find it favourable, however, we steered
for the islands. To give a better idea how we were driven about as we tried
to approach this Narrow, I have attempted, in the subjoined plan, to show
the direction of the currents, and the courses we were carried by the
eddies.

[Illustration]

"The wind was light from the north-eastward. Upon our reaching the station
marked 1, without having previously {357} noticed any current, we observed
a strong rippling in the Narrow, and immediately sent the boats a-head to
tow us towards mid-channel. We proceeded rather quickly until we arrived at
2, when our progress was checked, and we were carried rapidly back, as far
as 3. In the Narrow the tide was evidently against us; but in crossing to
the N.W. at 4, we were forced by the counter-current against all the
efforts of the boats--were carried close to the large island--and for the
space of thirty yards, were brushing the overhanging trees with our
main-boom. This part was, most fortunately, quite steep; for had the vessel
touched in her swift course, she must have been swung with violence against
the rocks, and much damaged, perhaps irreparably.

"No sooner had we passed the end of this island, than we were shot into
mid-channel to 5, and then as suddenly and swiftly carried back by the
stream of the tide. The boats could never keep hold of the vessel while in
these whirlpools; and it was several times fortunate that they had cast off
the tow-rope in time, for thrice we were twisted round, as if on a pivot,
by those violent eddies.

"A favourable moment was seized, the boats were again sent a-head; and, by
great exertions, we were towed out of the influence of the tide, and then
waited for the time of slack water.

"At three o'clock Mr. Kirke was sent to Guard Point, to ascertain the time
of high water; and at half-past four, in consequence of his signal, we
towed in with both boats, and passed the islands with a favouring tide; but
one quarter of a mile farther, we met ripplings, which we had no sooner
entered than a reverse of tide was found, as if the waters from the sounds
were gradually forcing back the tide of the channel. We still, however,
made progress to the S.W.; but it was not before eight o'clock that we
anchored in the west entrance of this Narrow, pleased, indeed, to be again
secure, and to have escaped unharmed.

"24th. Thick, hazy weather in the morning; but at eight o'clock it cleared
a little, so we weighed, and soon reached the {358} Ancon of Sarmiento. A
strong S.E. wind, during the forenoon, carried us past Cape Año Nuevo, and
at noon we were near the opening into Smyth Channel, which I have called
Victory Passage. We moored in Sandy Bay, in eight fathoms, purposing to
remain during the next day (Sunday); and on the 26th, with a moderate wind
from the northward, we left Sandy Bay, and stood to the south, passed the
Elson Islands by noon, and at three moored in Hose Harbour. Next day we
cleared Smyth Channel, and anchored in Deep Harbour.

"(28th.) Wind light and northerly. We towed out of Deep Harbour at
daylight, stood across Beaufort Bay, and anchored in Tamar Bay; where, the
weather being unfavourable, we remained during all the next day, filling
water and cutting wood,--preparatory to our run to Monte Video,--in case of
not finding the Adventure at the appointed rendezvous, Port Famine.

"On the 30th, with a moderate breeze from the N.W., we left Tamar Bay; but
the wind soon after becoming contrary, we made but little progress, and
anchored that evening in a small cove, near the east point of Upright Bay,
where we passed the following day, in consequence of the wind continuing
easterly, and causing much sea in the Strait.

"2d. Weighed, stood out, and made all sail, steering through the Strait. We
passed Playa Parda early that afternoon, and Cape Quod soon afterwards, and
as there was every appearance of a moderately fine night, continued our
course. We hauled in near Port Gallant, when it grew dark, and burned a
blue light, to call the attention of any vessel lying there; but no return
was made, so we passed on. At midnight we were between Cape Holland and
Cape Froward, the wind being light and the weather moderate.

"3d. On rounding Cape Froward, we beat up in-shore against a N.N.E. breeze,
and in the evening were three or four miles to the northward of Point St.
Isidro. After a tempestuous night, we reached Port Famine, where, to our
great joy, we found the Adventure."

With the exception of such fish and birds as had been {359} previously
observed near the Strait, Lieutenant Skyring and his party saw few living
creatures. One novelty which Mr. Bynoe gave me was a splendid corvorant,
which, being quite new, and the most beautiful of the genus, I named
_Phalacrocorax Imperialis_.[180]

I also received a species of swan, quite distinct from the common one of
the Strait, which has been long known as the black-necked swan (_Anser
nigricollis_ of Ind. Orn., ii. 834; and Latham, x. 223). Considering it an
undescribed species, it was named _Cygnus anatodoides_.[181]

Several deer were seen, but none obtained. There is reason, however, to
suppose them to be of a novel species. The horns are short and straight.

       *       *       *       *       *


{360}

CHAPTER XX.

  Beagle sails from San Carlos--Enter Strait--Harbour of Mercy--Cape
  Pillar--Apostles--Judges--Landfall Island--Cape Gloucester--Dislocation
  Harbour--Week Islands--Fuegians--Latitude Bay--Boat's crew in distress--
  Petrel--Passages--Otway Bay--Cape Tate--Fincham Islands--Deepwater
  Sound--Breaker Bay--Grafton Islands--Geological remarks--Barbara
  Channel--Mount Skyring--Compasses affected--Drawings--Provisions--
  Opportunities lost.

Captain Fitz Roy having received his orders on the 18th of November (see
Appendix), sailed the following morning from San Carlos, and proceeding to
the southward, approached the entrance of the Strait of Magalhaens on the
night of the 24th. The following are extracts from his Journal:--

"At daylight on the 25th, with the wind at S.W., we made Cape Pillar right
a-head (E.N.E. by compass), distant seven or eight leagues. The wind became
lighter, and we were set by a current to the S.W., which obliged us, in
nearing the Cape, to alter our course from E.N.E. to N.N.E., to avoid being
carried too near the Apostle Rocks. A dangerous rock, under water, on which
the sea breaks, lies half a mile more towards the north than either of the
Apostles. Cape Pillar is a detached headland, and so very remarkable that
no person can fail to know it easily.

"A very good latitude was obtained at noon, from which, and the
astronomical bearing of the Cape, we made its latitude within half a mile
of that given in the chart by Captain Stokes and Lieutenant Skyring; and
the weather being clear and fine, sketches were taken of all the
surrounding land. At one, we passed the Cape, and at three, anchored in the
Harbour of Mercy. By the distance we had run, as shown by the patent log
and compared with the chart, there had been a current against us of more
than a knot an hour.

{361}

"In working into the harbour we passed over several patches of kelp, under
which the bottom was plainly visible; but the lead never showed less than
five fathoms, until we were about to anchor, when the vessel shot a-head
into a weedy place, where we had three fathoms. This was about a cable's
length in-shore (towards the highest mountain) of the spot marked by
Lieutenant Skyring as good holding ground, to which we warped and anchored.
It proved to be very good ground, being extremely tough clay.

"27th. A promising morning tempted me to try to obtain observations and a
round of angles on or near Cape Pillar. I therefore left the ship with the
master, and went in a boat to the Cape. To land near it in much swell was
not easy upon such steep and slippery rocks: at last we got ashore in a
cove, and hauled the instruments up the rocks by lines, but could get no
further, on account of precipices. I, therefore, gave up that attempt, and
went outside the Cape, to look for a better place; but every part seemed
similar, and, as the weather was getting foggy, it was useless to
persevere. In going to the Cape, and in returning, I measured the distance
by a patent log, and found the mean of the two measurements agree with the
chart. What current there was, ran to the westward.

"A small ox, which we had carried from Chilóe, was doomed to end his voyage
at this place, and probably we were the first people who ever eat fresh
beef in the Strait of Magalhaens.

"28th and 29th. Gloomy days, with much wind and rain; and the gusts coming
so violently over the mountains, that we were unable to do any work, out of
the ship.

"30th. Still blowing and raining.

"Dec. 1st and 2d. Cloudy days, with strong wind; but one short interval of
sunshine was gladly made use of for rating our chronometers.

"3d. This morning we weighed, and worked out; and at one P.M. we were three
miles westward of Cape Pillar, with every appearance of a N.W. gale.
Shortly after, the weather became so thick, that I could not see any part
of the coast; and therefore stood off shore, under low sail, expecting a
bad {362} night. Contrary to my expectation, the wind did not much
increase; but the thick weather, and a heavy swell, induced me to stand
farther out than I had at first intended. At eleven, P.M., we wore and
stood in until daylight on the 4th, when we found ourselves so much to the
southward, that the land about Cape Pillar bore N.b.W., the Cape itself
being shut in. We steered for the land, hoping to turn the day to some
account; but those hopes soon ceased, for before we had run sufficient
distance to make a serviceable base line, the weather became so thick as to
oblige us to haul our wind. We saw just enough to make out a number of
rocks and breakers, lying at a considerable distance off shore. After noon
it was clearer, and we again stood in-shore; but found that the current was
setting us so fast to the southward, that it was necessary to carry all
sail and keep on a wind, to avoid losing ground; yet, with a fresh,
double-reefed topsail breeze and a deeply laden weatherly vessel, we could
not hold our own, and at seven in the evening were close to an islet which
lies off Cape Sunday. We had seen very little of the coast thus far: the
current had rendered the patent log useless for measuring bases, and the
weather was very unfavourable for astronomical observations. The land
appeared to be high and mountainous, as far as Cape Deseado, whence it
seemed lower and more broken, forming a large bay between that cape and
Cape Sunday. Many rocks on which the sea breaks violently lie at a distance
from the shore, besides those two clusters called the 'Apostles' and the
'Judges:' the latter off Cape Deseado, and the former off Apostle Point, a
little south of Cape Pillar.

"5th. To our mortification, we found ourselves a great way off shore; and
Landfall Island, which was eight miles to leeward the last evening, was now
in the wind's eye, at a distance of about six leagues. A strong wind, with
much swell, prevented our regaining lost ground in a northerly direction, I
therefore preferred standing to the S.E. by the wind, intending to seek for
a harbour, as it seemed hopeless to try to survey this coast while under
sail, with such obstacles to contend against as a current setting about a
mile an hour, and a sky {363} generally clouded over. Our only chance
appeared to be, going from harbour to harbour and keeping close in-shore.

"Behind Landfall Island the coast forms a deep bay, apparently full of
islands, and it is said there is in that part a communication with the
Strait of Magalhaens. Looking from seaward there seems to be an opening.

"From the southern point of this bay the coast presents a high and regular
line for a few miles, and then there is a succession of islets, rocks, and
broken land. We stood in close to the breakers, but too late in the evening
to find an anchorage. I observed kelp on the surface of the water, growing
up from the bottom, while the lead gave a depth of forty-five fathoms. This
was in a wild-looking, open bight, full of rocks and breakers, and much
exposed.

"We stood off, close to the wind, hoping to make northing and westing
during the night; but at midnight it fell calm, and at day-break on the
6th, to our astonishment, we found ourselves to the southward of Cape
Gloucester, a high, remarkable promontory, standing out from the land as if
it were an island, with a peaked top, which, from the southward, appears
notched. The day proved very fine, and as a breeze sprung up from the S.E.
and gradually increased, I had hopes of seeing more of the coast, along
which we had been hustled so fast, and so much against our inclination.

"In running along shore, I noticed several inlets that seemed likely to
afford good harbours. This coast has not, by any means, such a rugged and
harsh appearance as I expected; but the number of islets and breakers is
quite enough to give it a most dangerous character. The land is not very
high near the sea, and seems to be wooded wherever the prevailing winds
will allow trees to grow. Soundings were taken at various distances within
four miles of the shore, and the depth generally was between twenty and one
hundred fathoms. A good idea may be formed of the current which had taken
us to the S.E., when I say that, even with a fresh and fair wind, it
occupied us the whole of the 6th to regain the place we had left the
previous evening.

{364}

"7th. At daylight it blew half a gale of wind; but we stood in, a little
south of the cluster of rocks, called the Judges, towards a part of the
shore which promised to afford a harbour. On closing it we saw an inlet,
apparently large; but so fortified at the entrance by rocks and breakers,
that I did not like to run in, without first sending a boat; yet it blew
too strong, and there was too much sea, to lower one; therefore I stood off
to wait for more moderate weather, for the place suited my purpose exactly,
being near enough to the Judges, and Apostles, to fix their situation. This
morning, Mr. Murray slipped across the forecastle and dislocated his
shoulder: an accident which deprived us of his services for some time, and
on account of it, we called the place where we anchored soon afterwards,
Dislocation Harbour. So many rocks lie off this coast, that a vessel ought
not to approach it unless she has daylight and clear weather. The lead will
give warning, should the weather be thick, as soundings extend at least to
four miles off shore, at which distance there are from thirty to one
hundred fathoms, and generally speaking, there is less water as you
approach the land.

"On the 8th, 9th, and 10th, we were busily occupied in surveying the
harbour and adjacent coast. In this place water may be obtained very
easily, as boats can lie in a fresh water stream which runs from the
mountains. Wood is also plentiful. The harbour is large enough for four
small vessels, and the bottom is very even, from fifteen to twenty-five
fathoms, fine white sand. The entrance is narrow, but all dangers are
visible, and now are laid down in the chart. It is much exposed to west
winds, and the westerly swell, which might for weeks together prevent a
vessel from getting out to sea.

"11th. A strong wind and much haziness prevented my weighing until near
noon, when it became more moderate, though the weather was still thick. We
then worked out with a light and variable breeze, which baffled us near the
entrance, but at last we gained a good offing. I rejoiced to be outside,
for our business in the harbour was over, and I had feared that west winds
would detain us. The promontory, just to the southward of Dislocation
Harbour, appeared to me to be 'Cape {365} Deseado,' and that to the
northward I called Chancery Point. Mr. Wilson ascended some heights at the
back of the harbour, from which he saw many lakes, among barren and rugged
hills; but a farther view was obstructed by other mountains.

"An oar was picked up near the watering place, and recognised by one of the
men as the same which was left on a rock near Cape Pillar (in Observation
Cove) by Captain Stokes, in January 1827. There could be no doubt of the
fact, as the man's initials were on the oar, and it is curious as a proof
of an outset along the south side of the Strait (near Cape Pillar), and of
its continuation along shore. Traces of a fire were found, which showed
that the natives visit even this most exposed part of the coast. The land
about here is high, and craggy; and very barren, except in the valleys,
where much wood grows. Some wild fowl were seen and shot.

"From Cape Deseado, the coast is high and unbroken for three miles; (a
rocky islet lies about a mile from the shore) then there is an opening
which probably leads into a good harbour behind a number of islands.
Several islands succeed, for a space of two miles, after which is Barrister
Bay; an exposed place, full of islets, rocks, and breakers, extending
nearly to Murray Passage. In sailing along this coast we passed inside of
several breakers; and, I hope, noted all that lie in the offing: but, we
cannot be sure, for breakers on rocks which are under the surface of the
sea do not always show themselves. As it was getting dark, we hauled to the
wind, near Cape Sunday, and, in doing so, were startled by a huge breaker
which suddenly foamed up at a small ship's length from us. Although looking
out on all sides we had not previously seen any break near that spot.
During the night we carried a heavy press of sail to avoid being drifted to
the S.E., and at daylight I rejoiced to find that we had not lost ground,
so we steered for the land, and rounded Graves' Island. Observing several
openings, I hauled close round a point, and tried to enter one of them; the
wind, however, baffled us, and our anchor was let go in an exposed berth,
but on good holding ground. We found a cluster of islands with so many
anchorages between {366} them, that thinking they ought to be surveyed, I
returned on board, weighed, and worked towards the nearest opening. We shot
into it, and warped to a berth four cables' lengths up a narrow passage,
and anchored in twenty-four fathoms, upon sand and clayey mud.

"13th. Many wigwams were found in this neighbourhood, which showed that our
Fuegian acquaintances were occasional visitors. The inner harbour seemed to
be a fine basin; but the bottom was found inferior to that of the anchorage
at which the Beagle lay moored.

"15th. Strong wind and frequent rain prevented much being done out of the
ship this day. I went to the top of a mountain near the ship, but could not
take many angles because of the violent squalls and the rain. At night it
blew a hard gale: the squalls came furiously over the heights, and obliged
us to let go a third anchor and strike topmasts. We were quite sheltered
from the true wind; but were reached most effectually by the williwaws,
which came down with great force. However vexed we might have been at not
being able to go far from the ship, we were certainly very fortunate in
escaping this gale at a secure anchorage. It appeared to be blowing very
heavily at sea.

"16th. A strong gale all day, with much rain, prevented our leaving the
ship. In coming down a height on the 15th, I found some red porphyry rock,
like that about Port Desire; and the first I had seen in these parts.
Another novelty was a tract of about two acres of pure white sand thinly
covered with grass.

"Though the middle of summer, the weather was not much warmer than in
winter. The average height of the thermometer was about ten degrees
greater; being nearly the same, as during the months of August and
September, in Chilóe.

"17th. A continuance of bad weather: no work was done in the boats this
day. In the afternoon I tried to go up the mountain I had ascended on
Tuesday, to bring down a theodolite which I had left at the top; but the
wind obliged me to return unsuccessful.

"18th. Similar weather continued until noon: frequent strong {367} squalls,
and rain: the sky being so constantly overcast that we saw neither sun nor
stars. Although no progress was made in this weather, it was some
satisfaction to think that we lost nothing but time; and that we saved much
wear of the vessel by lying at anchor instead of being at sea. Being more
moderate in the afternoon, our boats went away, and the ship was prepared
for sailing. We tried to get some fur-seal, which were seen on a rock near
the harbour, but they were too wary.

"My boat was almost capsized by a 'blind breaker,' which rose suddenly
underneath her, and in an instant she was surrounded by and floated upon a
white wave of foam, which broke all round and over, but without upsetting
or swamping her.

"19th. Weighed and ran across to an anchorage in Landfall Island which I
had seen from the heights. We anchored in a sheltered bay lying on the
north side of the larger island, at the east opening of a passage which
separates it from the smaller. These islands are high and, towards the sea,
barren; but the sides of the hills, towards the east, are thickly wooded.

"A large smoke made near the bay showed us, that the Fuegians were in
possession of our intended quarters; and soon after we anchored, a canoe
came off to us full of men, women, and children, sixteen in all. They were
in every respect similar to those we had so frequently met before; and from
their unwillingness to part with furs or skins, unless for serviceable
articles, such as knives, &c. appeared to have had dealings with Europeans:
beads and trinkets they did not value. They had, in the canoe, many eggs,
and dead birds, which they eat raw: the birds were a light blue, or
dove-coloured, petrel, about eight inches long, which goes on land for a
part of the year to lay eggs in holes in the ground. During this and the
following day, we were fortunate enough to obtain observations, and nearly
all the necessary bearings and angles.

"As yet I was pleased with the anchorage; the bottom shoaled gradually from
twenty to five fathoms (fine sand), and it was sheltered from west winds,
besides others, except north. Having obtained particularly good
observations for latitude at {368} this spot; I called it Latitude Bay. It
is remarkably easy of access, and is also easy to leave: rather rare
qualities in a Fuegian Harbour. Cape Inman being prominently situated, is a
good guide to the anchorage.

"Sunday 20th. A fine day; and, knowing its value, we turned it to account.
From a height I saw Cape Gloucester and the point of land on this (the
northern) side of it; and to the northward I could distinguish the land
about the entrance to the Strait. The Landfall Islands appeared to be the
top of a ridge of mountains lying (partly below the sea) in the same
direction as most of the neighbouring ranges. Many dangerous rocks lie off
the S.W. side; and there is no passage for a ship between the islands, for
the opening is narrow, and has only two fathoms in some places.

"21st. This morning I sent the master and Mr. Wilson[182] in a whale-boat
to the east end of the island, to make a plan of that part, and get some
angles and bearings necessary for continuing the survey.

"22d. A bad day, blowing hard and raining. The wind being from north and
N.N.W. threw in a swell; and as we were not yet sure of the quality of the
bottom, though apparently good, we struck topmasts and veered away a long
scope of cable.

"24th. The wind shifted to the S.W. and became rather more moderate, though
still squally, with much rain. It freshened again in the night, and backed
to the northward.

"Christmas-day. Blowing strong from N.N.W. with a thickly clouded sky and
heavy rain. I was very anxious to see the master return, but he could not
in such weather. I feared that his provisions would be exhausted, having
taken only enough for four days; yet they had a good tent, guns, and
ammunition.

"26th. A strong wind with thick weather and much rain throughout the whole
day. There was no possibility of sending a boat to the master, or of his
returning by water. The island being very narrow he, or some of his party,
could walk across, {369} if they were in want of provisions, so as we did
not hear from them I trusted that they had found wild fowl enough, and were
not in distress.

"27th. Rather a more moderate morning with clearer weather. We looked out
anxiously for the whale-boat, as, in such weather, she might get back to
the ship without much difficulty. Before noon Mr. Wilson and the coxswain
were seen on shore making signals to the ship; and a boat was sent
immediately to bring them on board. They were very weak and tired, having
walked across the island during the preceding afternoon and night, and
having had no food for the last two days. The master and the other four men
were said to be in a cove at the back of the island, and to have been
without provisions since the 24th, not having been able to find either
shell-fish or wild fowl.

"At the time Mr. Wilson arrived on board, I was absent taking angles and
bearings, but was soon informed of his return, and at noon left the ship
with a week's provisions for the master's party and my own boat's crew. I
had not lost sight of the Beagle when I met the former returning. Having
given them some food, and two fresh hands to help them in pulling to the
ship (it being then quite moderate and fine) I continued my course to the
place they had left, in order to do what the bad weather had prevented the
master from doing. Being favoured with a fine afternoon I succeeded in
obtaining the necessary angles and bearings, and returned to our vessel the
following morning.

"28th. At my return I found the master and his party nearly recovered. They
had tried every day to return to the ship, but had been repeatedly forced
back, at the risk of being driven out to sea. The gusts of wind from off
the high land were so powerful as almost to upset the boat, although she
had not even a mast up. Continual rain had wetted their ammunition and
tinder, and they were then without fire or victuals: upon which Mr. Wilson
and the coxswain set out, on Saturday afternoon, to acquaint us with their
situation.

"When they came down to the sea-side the Fuegians took {370} advantage of
their weak state to beat the coxswain and take away some of his clothes;
therefore after my return I went in search of them. They had however taken
the alarm, and were all gone away. This party consisted of about twenty
persons, eight of whom were men, and the rest women and children. When some
of our officers went to their wigwams they appeared armed with clubs,
spears, and swords, which seemed to have been made out of iron hoops, or
else were old cutlasses worn very thin by frequent cleaning. They must have
obtained these, and many trifles we noticed, from sealing vessels. By the
visits of those vessels, I suppose, they have been taught to hide their
furs and other skins, and have learned the effects of fire-arms. The chief
part of their subsistence on this island appeared to be penguins, seal,
young birds, and petrel which they take in a curious way. Having caught a
small bird they tie a string to its leg and put it into a hole where blue
petrels lay eggs. Several old birds instantly fasten upon the intruder, and
are drawn out with him by the string.

"We weighed and worked out of the bay, increasing our depth of water very
gradually as we left the shore, but having always the same bottom, fine
speckled sand. I can safely recommend this bay as a good anchorage for
shipping, and two cable's lengths N.N.W. of the Beagle's berth as the best
place. Wood and water are not to be found so close to the anchorage as in
other Fuegian harbours, but they may be obtained with very little trouble,
and in any quantity, by going up the passage (between the islands) to one
of many streams which run from the high land. There is plenty of water also
very near the best berth, on the south side, but frequently a surf breaks
on that beach. Two particular advantages which this roadstead[183]
possesses, consist in the ease with which a vessel can enter or leave it,
during any wind; and in its situation being well pointed out by a
remarkable headland, named Cape Inman (in compliment to the Professor),
which is high, with perpendicular cliffs, and almost detached from other
land; so that a vessel, {371} knowing her latitude within five miles of the
truth, cannot fail to make it out, if the weather is tolerably clear. Wild
fowl and shell-fish were very scarce there, probably because the Fuegians
had scared or consumed them. From the top of a mountain, at the east end of
the large island, I saw a great way down two channels or openings, which
appeared to run far to the eastward, among many islands and very broken
land. Such a succession of islets, rocks, and breakers, as the coast
presented, was astonishing: many hundreds were counted while looking
eastward from one station only.

"I wished much to know where these openings led, and whether there was a
direct communication through them to the Strait, as seemed almost certain;
but considering the time already spent, the extent of coast to be surveyed,
and the small advantage of such information, except to satisfy curiosity, I
determined to proceed to the next prominent headland, a mountain at the
S.E. extremity of Otway Bay, whose position I had already fixed with
respect to stations on Landfall Island.

"If there is a passage through those openings into Otway Bay, it must be
unfit for vessels, being hampered with outlying rocks and breakers among
which she could find no shelter in the event of rainy weather coming on
before she cleared them; and clouds and rain are prevalent. As yet we had
been extremely fortunate, in being under sail at intervals of fine weather,
and anchored during the gales; but this was partly owing to a very careful
attention to the barometer and sympiesometer.

"Having left Latitude Bay, we stood off until midnight, and then in shore
again, carrying a press of sail all the time, in order to 'hold our own'
against our old enemy, the current.

"At daylight (29th), not having been swept to leeward by the current, we
were in a good position for continuing the survey from the place left the
previous night. We bore up as soon as the land could be distinctly
seen,--rounded Landfall Island very near the outer rocks, and then steered
for Cape Tate (the extremity of the mountain I mentioned yesterday). Those
outlying rocks are not very dangerous, as the sea {372} always breaks
violently upon them. In crossing Otway Bay, the morning being clear, I was
enabled to add considerably to what had been already learned respecting the
shores and dangers around it.(e)

"Off Cape Tate, to the north and west, lie the College Rocks. Those nearest
the Cape are also nearest the track of a ship running along the land, and
half a mile west of them lies a detached and dangerous rock, under water.
The sea generally breaks on it.

"We had very thick weather when close to those rocks, which obliged us to
'haul our wind' for half an hour; when, as it cleared, we steered round
Cape Tate, about a mile off shore. I was in hopes of gaining an anchorage
between it and the Fincham Islands, and therefore kept as near the land as
I could; but seeing numerous breakers a-head and outside of me, I altered
our course, and steered to go outside of all the rocks. After we had passed
some of them, a large bight opened out to the north-eastward, and tempted
me to haul up for it. We entered the sound at noon, and stood on for nearly
four miles without finding an anchorage, or even gaining bottom with fifty
fathoms of line, although at the entrance we had from twenty to ten
fathoms. Thick weather coming on, made me very anxious to anchor somewhere,
and we were now too much hampered to stand out again. We appeared to be
among a multitude of islands, very near each other, yet without any
anchorage between them; therefore, having no other resource, we let go both
anchors upon the end of a steep-sided islet, where one fell into seven, the
other into ten fathoms water, and hooked the rocks. Veering half a cable on
each, we found forty fathoms under the stern, with a similar rocky bottom;
so that we had the pleasant prospect of shouldering both our anchors, and
drifting into deep water, with the first strong squall. During the
remainder of that day, our boats were looking for better anchorage, but
without success; they found patches of rocky {373} ground with from ten to
twenty fathoms here and there, but not one that could be preferred to our
islet.

"30th. One Fuegian family was found here, consisting of a man and woman,
with their children. During this day it rained too hard for anything to be
done out of the ship; the wind was moderate; yet much as I disliked our
rocky berth, it could not be changed.

"31st. Moderate wind, with clearer weather. Mr. Murray and Mr. Stokes went
away to different parts of the sound, while I was employed near the ship.
Observations for latitude, longitude, and variation were made.

"1st January. During part of the last night and this morning, the wind blew
strongly in squalls, and made me very anxious; but the weather rendered it
impossible to move voluntarily, for it was raining hard as well as blowing.
At about eight it cleared, and the wind shifted to the southward, when we
weighed, and worked down the sound; but it was after noon before we had
cleared its entrance, and seven in the evening before we were outside of
all the breakers, the wind having been light and contrary the whole time.

"(2d.) At five this morning, being close to the Fincham Islands, with clear
weather, and a fresh breeze from the N.W., we steered into Breaker Bay,
towards a ragged-looking projecting point. Having approached as near as we
could, and sounded, and taken angles, we steered so as to pass outside of
some very outlying rocks, near the middle of the bay; for in-shore of them,
I saw from the mast-head numerous breakers, rocks, and islets, in every
direction. A worse place for a ship could scarcely be found; for, supposing
thick weather to come on when in the depth of the bay, she would have
lurking rocks and islets just awash with the water, on all sides of her,
and no guide to take her clear of them, for soundings would be useless; and
in such weather, the best chart that could be constructed would not help
her. With this idea of the place, and for reasons similar to those which
induced me to pass hastily across Otway Bay, I steered for Cape Gloucester,
after passing the Midbay Rocks, at the distance of a quarter of a {374}
mile. The land at the bottom of the bay appeared to be distant, and much
broken. Indeed, from the Week Islands to Cape Gloucester,(f) there is an
almost innumerable succession of islands and rocks, without any continued
tract of land, so that channels might be found in all directions; valuable,
no doubt, to Fuegians in their canoes, but not often to seamen in ships,
nor even to sealers; for where the natives go with their canoes, seals are
never found in any numbers.

"In crossing Breaker Bay, even with a moderate wind, there was a very cross
and awkward sea, owing, doubtless, to the ocean swell rolling into this
deep bight. Such a swell would add much to the difficulty which vessels
might find in getting out of this bay: I should therefore recommend them to
avoid it particularly. Cape Gloucester is a most remarkable promontory,
which can never be mistaken, after seeing even an indifferent sketch of it.
At a distance it makes like a mountain rising out of the sea, but, on
approaching nearer to it, a narrow neck of land appears.

"We found from twenty to thirty fathoms water, at the distance of a mile
from the cape; and saw several outlying breakers about half a mile off
shore. From the steep and rocky nature of these coasts one would not expect
to find soundings until close to the land: but on every outer part of this
coast, that we have visited, the bottom may be reached with the sounding
line. Some natives were seen under the cape, who made a large fire. We
stood into two bights, looking for anchorage, but, finding only rocks and
breakers, steered along shore, rounded Ipswich Island, and hauled into a
spacious bay, at the northern side of which there appeared to be several
openings like harbours. In working across, we were agreeably surprised to
find it a continued roadstead, open only towards the S.E., and having
regular soundings, from twenty to fourteen fathoms. We anchored about a
mile from the entrance of what seemed to be a harbour, at the N.W. corner,
having worked up against a fresh N.W. wind. Our anchor was dropped in
sixteen fathoms, and held well. I went directly to {375} look at the
opening, and found a passage, in which were good soundings, leading into a
very snug basin, perfectly sheltered from wind and sea, in which the bottom
was composed of sand and clay, and the depth of water from five to fifteen
fathoms. As soon as I returned we weighed and worked up to the entrance of
the basin; then anchored, warped into it, and moored with half a cable each
way.

"This was the most secure and sheltered cove I had yet seen. It was called
Laura Basin; and the bay we had crossed was named Euston Bay. I was very
glad to discover so safe a place, because it enabled me to ascertain the
position of Cape Gloucester and the neighbouring land, with the correctness
which so prominent a place required, and because I hoped that it would
prove useful as a harbour for vessels. From the top of a high ridge
surrounding the basin, I thought Cape Gloucester seemed to be about seven
miles off, and seeing a valley lead some distance in the desired direction,
determined to go to it overland. I was so much pleased with the bay and the
basin, that I did not hesitate to spend some time in the examination of
their vicinity. The mountains hitherto examined between Cape Pillar and
these (the Grafton) islands, consist of greenstone, slate, or sandstone
(excepting those near Deep-water Sound, which are of very coarse-grained
whitish granite); and from the continual action of such heavy seas as break
on those shores, the sandstone and slate rocks wear away, and by their
detritus not only the bottoms of harbours are covered, but a bank is formed
which extends into the offing. A moderate depth of water and good
anchorages were found near slaty or sandstone hills, but exactly the
reverse in the vicinity of granite.(g)

"4th. Early this morning I sent Mr. Murray in a whale-boat to examine and
plan some openings I had noticed on the north side of Euston Bay; and Mr.
Stokes to make a plan of the harbour, and the basin in which we were lying.
The master carried six days' provisions with him, in case he should be
detained, as on a former occasion, by bad weather. No place {376} could be
more convenient than this for such purposes as wooding and watering; and we
took advantage of it to the utmost by filling the ship's hold. The water
casks were filled in our boat, in perfectly smooth water, and the wood was
cut close to the water side.

"6th. A party of twelve, consisting of the Purser, Mr. W. Wilson, Mr.
Megget, eight seamen and myself, set out from the ship, intending to walk
to Cape Gloucester. We landed in a valley at the N.W. corner of the harbour
and began our march, two men carrying the tent, and the others our
instruments and provisions: we had arms also, in case of meeting Indians.
Difficult travelling, with such a cargo, very soon obliged us to stop and
rest, but by continual changes with the heaviest loads, and great exertion
on the part of those who carried them, we got over two-thirds of our
journey in the course of the day, and at night pitched our tent, and defied
the rain which poured incessantly until seven the following morning: when
every height was covered with snow, as if it had been the middle of winter.

"7th. As soon as we had breakfasted we moved on again, and at noon reached
the foot of a mountain which forms the Cape. Leaving the others to pitch
our tent and cook some victuals, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Megget, and two seamen,
ascended the mountain with me. A very severe task we had, but at last
gained the highest pinnacle, where there was just room to place the
theodolite and kneel by it, at the risk of a puff of wind canting us over
either side. A stone moved from its place, would have reached the water as
soon from one side as from the other. It was not a very clear day, but
sufficiently so to enable me to gain the desired angles and bearings. From
this summit I had a clear view of that dangerous place Breaker Bay, and was
more confirmed in the idea I had formed of it, and rejoiced that I did not
stand farther in with the Beagle. Having thus succeeded, and buried two
memorials, one cased in tin and the other in a bottle, we filled our
pockets with pieces of the rock and returned; rather too quickly, for the
steepness of the hill assisted us more than we wished. During our absence
some Fuegians had appeared, who were quiet and {377} inoffensive; but they
seemed very distrustful of us, and, before sun-rise next morning, were all
gone except one man. These natives seemed to be very active and went up the
mountain in about half the time that our party required. They had two
canoes with them, but how they had reached this place by water was
puzzling, when the exposed bay they must have crossed and the prevailing
weather were considered. Perhaps they had carried their canoes overland,
being rather like the Chilote piraguas, made of boards sewed together.

"8th. We heard the voices of the Fuegians at day-break this morning; but at
four o'clock only one old man remained, who was probably left to watch us.
We began our return, rather stiff from previous days' exertions, and
looking dismally at the high rugged hills between the Beagle and ourselves.
The first ascent on our way back was the worst of all: how the men carried
their cargo so well astonished me, for with a very light load I was glad to
rest frequently. Breakfast revived us, and by taking afterwards a better
line we avoided the steepest hills and found much easier walking. While
resting at our meal the weather was so clear that I got bearings of Cape
Inman and other points more than fifty miles distant. There was very little
variety or novelty in this walk through a Fuegian island. The same kind of
scenery and the same species of plants and shrubs were found which we had
seen every where else in Tierra del Fuego. Being more or less rocky made
the only change. Of quadrupeds, excepting otters and dogs, I saw no traces,
nor do I think any were to be found. A large kind of snipe, by some called
a woodcock, and quails, of a large and, I think, peculiar species, were
often seen and shot. The latter are not by any means so well tasted as the
European quail, and their flesh is darker and coarser. At seven this
evening we were again on board the Beagle, not a little tired.

"Should any future voyager feel inclined to make a similar excursion
towards Cape Gloucester, he had better not think too lightly of his task.

"9th. Mr. Murray returned, having been into many openings between the
islands to the eastward, and having collected {378} much information. This
afternoon it blew a heavy gale, but in such a sheltered place we only felt
a few williwaws. From Mr. Murray's account it appeared that this island and
those adjoining it to the eastward are a cluster lying together, but quite
separated from the mainland, or rather the main body of islands, by a
channel opening northward into Breaker Bay, and to the southward into
Stokes Bay. They were called the Grafton Islands.

"10th. We had a heavy gale throughout this day with much rain. Bad weather,
while at a good anchorage, I did not at that time regret, as the materials
for our charts accumulated fast, and afforded no leisure time while we were
detained on board.

"11th. A favourable day allowed us to examine and sound the outer roads,
and obtain a round of angles from the western extreme of Ipswich Island,
which completed my triangulation. Landing there was dangerous, and
ascending the hill extremely difficult, on account of thick tangled
brushwood which grows about three or four feet high on every part of the
east side, and is so matted together as to be almost impenetrable. We
generally scrambled over this jungle, but sometimes crept under it.

"12th. A tolerably fine day. The sun was visible both in the morning and
afternoon; and from different summits Mr. Stokes and I took angles. The sky
being clear near the horizon gave us a wide range. Meanwhile the ship was
prepared to sail in search of a new place at which to employ our
instruments. I hoped that this basin, harbour, and roadstead, might be of
service, and therefore spared no pains about them. Eight latitudes were
obtained by sets of circum-meridional altitudes; with four different
sextants: two by Mr. Stokes, the rest by me: and as they all agreed, within
fifteen seconds, I supposed their mean to be nearly correct. The sights for
time were good, and the chronometers were going so steadily that dependence
may be placed upon the accuracy of their results. To a vessel bound round
Cape Horn and meeting with an accident, or in want of wood or water, this
place might be useful. It is very easy to find, and easy to enter or depart
from with the prevailing westerly winds.

{379}

"13th. We weighed and left the harbour, but the morning proved too hazy to
allow of our running down the coast, therefore until eight o'clock we kept
under easy sail in the roads. Being clear and moderate after that time, we
passed Leading Island, and hove-to, to watch for a breaker near it. It
broke but twice during the hour that we waited, therefore probably there is
water enough to allow any vessel to pass in safety. At ten we bore up, and
ran towards Isabella Island; my first object being to look for a place
called by sealers 'Hope Harbour,' which, from what I could learn, ought to
lie thereabouts. Its situation was not recognised by our boatswain,(h) who
had been in it when sealing on this coast; so passing close to Isabella
Island, we hauled our wind under the lee of the land, and came to an anchor
in fifteen fathoms, sheltered from north to S.W.b.S. A high peaked hill,
over the cove where I took observations, made this a suitable place for the
business of the survey. Mr. Murray went up the height, while Mr. Stokes and
I were employed near the water, till rain set in and drove us on board.
This is the easternmost of the Grafton Islands. Beyond the channel, which
separates them from the main body of islands, appeared a succession of
broken land, not very high, but reaching apparently to a distant range of
snowy mountains. The part nearest to us was a labyrinth of islets and
rocks. Towards night the wind increased much, and drew to the S.W. and
S.W.b.S. I was doubtful of our anchorage, and had the wind drawn one point
more to the southward, we should have had a heavy sea to deal with, and
must have slipped our cable.

"14th. It moderated again, and the sun showed himself enough to enable us
to get sights, and be on board in time to weigh at nine. We had reason to
think a sealing vessel had been along this coast not long before us, by the
traces our boats found in several places. Indians also had frequented these
islands, for their wigwams were found everywhere. Observations on shore
made our anchoring here of some consequence, although as a {380} safe
anchorage for other vessels, it is out of the question, being an exposed
roadstead, with many rocks, both to seaward and in-shore. A sealer might
use it, but not willingly I should think. As we ran towards the Agnes
Islands, before a strong W.N.W. wind, many rocks and breakers showed
themselves, and when we neared the islands, became numerous on each side of
us. It would have been more prudent to have kept outside all of them; but I
was anxious to find Hope Harbour, or run into the entrance of the Barbara
Channel, and anchor in the north cove of Fury Island. Having passed the
three Agnes Islands, and being nearly abreast of Cape Kempe,[184] our view
became far from agreeable, for the sea, on all sides, seemed strewed with
breakers; and how to steer so as to pass between them was perplexing. We
were at this time running free, under treble reefed topsails, with
top-gallant yards and masts on deck; the wind being strong from W.N.W., but
the weather tolerably clear. Suddenly the boatswain hailed, 'Hard-a-port, a
rock under the bows!' Round the little vessel turned, almost as fast as the
order was given; but the thrill that shot through us was happily not the
precursor of our destruction; for the supposed rock proved to be a huge
whale which had risen close to the bows, and was mistaken for the top of a
rock by the boatswain, who was looking out on the forecastle, while I was
at the mast-head, and the 'hands' were upon deck. This part of the coast,
from the Agnes Islands to Cape Schomberg, is the worst I have seen, it is
so very broken, and has so many rocks and dangerous breakers lying at a
long distance from the shore.

"At noon we were close to Fury Island; but the wind fell and prevented our
making much progress. Fury Harbour, where the Saxe Cobourg was lost, is a
wild exposed place, and, as the bottom is bad, it ought to be avoided by
all vessels: there is but one patch of good ground, and that is very small.

"Passing round Fury Island, we entered the Barbara Channel, at the entrance
to which stands Mount Skyring, a high, peaked, and most barren mountain,
visible at a great distance. {381} We all felt much additional interest in
what was then seen, on account of the late survey in the Adelaide. Cape
Schomberg and the Astrea Rock were easily known by Lieutenant Graves's
sketch. To a high mountain, which in some views very much resembled the
dome of St. Paul's, I gave that name (finding it out of the limits of
Lieutenant Skyring's survey): it lies a short distance east of Cape
Schomberg. A passage appeared to go to the eastward, passing from the
Barbara channel, northward of Cape Schomberg and St. Paul's. Light baffling
winds and an ebb-tide, of about a knot an hour, setting out of the Barbara,
detained us until six P.M., between the Magill and Fury Islands; but soon
after that hour we anchored in North Cove, a small but perfectly secure
place. By reaching this anchorage, I had the satisfaction of being enabled
to connect my work with Lieutenant Skyring's, and to take a fresh start for
the next piece of coast. Hitherto we had been extremely fortunate, both
with the ship and the boats; but such success could not be expected always.

"15th. Early this morning, Mr. Murray went in a whale-boat to the islands,
near Cape Kempe, to ascertain the situations of some reefs and islets
thereabouts, and sketch the outer coast. Mr. Stokes went in another boat to
look for Hope Harbour, and examine part of the coast. The boatswain
accompanied him, as he thought he knew his way by passages among the
islands, although he had failed to recognise the place from the offing.

"16th. Bad weather, blowing a gale of wind and raining nearly all the day.

"17th. A squally and disagreeable day; but our boats made some progress.

"18th. Some Natives came alongside for a short time. As usual, we would not
allow them to come on board, because of their being such dexterous thieves.
A man to whom the canoe appeared to belong was far better featured, and
more stoutly made, than any we had seen among the Fuegians. After bartering
some of their very valuable property they left us.

"19th. Early this morning Mr. Stokes returned: he had {382} been near
enough to Hope Harbour, to see that it was in the Grafton Islands, and was
one of the coves examined by Mr. Murray. He then returned as he had been
desired; but made very good use of his time while away, by collecting
materials for the charts. He fell in with a canoe under sail (the sail
being a seal-skin); the first instance I had then known of a Fuegian canoe
sailing. As far as Mr. Stokes could see to the northward, the land was very
broken, or rather it was a mass of islands reaching to the base of a range
of snowy mountains.

"North Cove is large enough to hold any vessel when moored; but the
passage, in and out, is too narrow and difficult for a ship of more than
three or four hundred tons, unless she uses warps. Being on the weather
side of high land, but sheltered by low islands, williwaws do not annoy
during westerly winds; but in a southerly gale I think they would be
furious.

"My next task was to ascend Mount Skyring. As there was but little snow on
it, and the ground quite clear of wood, the ascent was easy; but when at
the summit I could not see far, because of low misty clouds. I had taken
only a compass with me, intending to look round, and ascend a second time
with my usual companion, a theodolite. After taking a few bearings, I moved
the compass off its stand, and placed it on a stone; when, to my surprise,
I found the bearing of a point, I had just been looking at, altered twenty
degrees. Suspecting the cause, I put it on another stone, a few feet
distant, and found the bearing again altered many degrees. I then examined
the stones, and found there was much pyrites in them;[185] and that when
broken, or struck against one another, they smelt strongly of sulphur. The
compass was then replaced on its stand, and bearings of the same point
taken from various spots, only a few feet apart, the point being many miles
distant, and at each spot the compass gave a different bearing, and was
very dull and sluggish, although it was a good Kater's compass, with a
light card. Having thus satisfied myself of the very strong local
attraction existing, I returned to the ship, {383} intending to make no
further use of a compass in this place; and as Lieutenant Skyring might
have been deceived in his bearings from a similar cause, I hoped to procure
a round of angles, with a theodolite set to a true bearing, which might be
serviceable for his work, as well as my own. Many pieces of the stone, from
different heights, were brought down; and in most of them were traces of
metal.

"The peaked top of this mountain is a mere heap of loose stones of all
sizes. Whether the rock has been shattered in this manner by frost, by
volcanic fire, or by lightning, I cannot tell; but I should think, from its
appearance, by all three. Many of the stones are vitrified, and many are
porous, like pumice-stones, although not so light.

"20th. I again went up Mount Skyring, taking a theodolite with me; and as
the day was perfectly clear, and free from clouds, every point of land was
visible, which can at any time be seen from that summit. Mount Sarmiento
appeared in all its grandeur, towering above the other mountains to at
least twice their height, and entirely covered with snow. Having set the
theodolite to a painted post, fixed on shore near the Beagle (five miles
distant), from which I had previously obtained the exact astronomical
bearing of the spot on which the theodolite was placed; I obtained a most
satisfactory round of angles, including most of the remarkable peaks,
islands, and capes, within a range of forty miles from the mountain. The
day was so fine, that it was not cold on the height, nor was there any wind
to disturb the adjustment of the instrument.

"This business being completed, I returned on board with Mr. Wilson, who,
during the time I was on the height, made some very good sketches. Even at
this early period his drawings were becoming a valuable addition to the
gleanings of our cruise, and their number increased fast; for he took much
pains with them, and produced not only good drawings, but most accurate
delineations of the coast.

"21st. Fine weather for this climate. Mr. Murray returned in the
whale-boat, having had a successful trip.

"By shooting and fishing we obtained frequent change of {384} diet, for we
shot much wild fowl (geese, shags, and ducks), and caught fish in the kelp,
which were excellent eating. All that could be procured was regularly and
equally distributed to the different messes in turn, and an account kept in
a 'game book.' (Appendix.)

"22d. Mr. Stokes went to examine Fury Harbour, and returned late at night.
In consequence of his account of the remains of the Saxe Cobourg sealing
schooner, lost in that harbour, I sent a boat with the carpenter to collect
from it some wood and bolts which might be useful to our ship, and remained
at anchor for a day longer than I had intended.

"This day all hands were put upon two-thirds' allowance, but as it was a
measure which affected the crew much and myself not at all, I was reluctant
to give the necessary order, without first proposing the measure openly,
and giving the following reasons:--

"Having succeeded beyond expectation in the examination of the coast thus
far, and hoping to be able to continue the survey in the same manner, while
our provisions lasted, I thought it better to shorten the allowance while
all hands were well and hearty, and could obtain supplies of fish and wild
fowl, rather than at a later period, when we might be otherwise situated.
An extent of coast lay before us, and the parts particularly pointed out by
Captain King, were yet unexamined.

"24th. A tolerably fine day; I tried all the compasses on shore, in three
different places, placing them in a line to a distant mark; because in
taking bearings, for the variation of the compass, during previous days, I
had found very wide differences between the results of the same, as well as
different compasses; and they were also very sluggish; the light cards
being more so than the heavy ones. I found it impossible to reconcile their
results by change of place or position, therefore it is probable that all
the rock affected the needle; and I suspect that not only this island and
the one on which Mount Skyring is situated, but most of the islands near
are magnetic: particularly a cluster lying about a mile to seaward of the
Magill Islands, on which, I believe, Lieutenant Skyring, or some of his
party, took bearings. A boat was sent to {385} watch the tide, on the day
of new moon, at the entrance of the channel, and brought back a piece of
the rock of which the last-mentioned cluster of islets consists. It is
similar to that of Fury Island and Mount Skyring, apparently metallic, with
a sulphureous smell, when struck or broken.[186] Small pieces put near the
compass did not seem to affect it sensibly; but I did not spend time in
trying the experiment with nicety, being satisfied of the general result.
There may be metal in many of the Fuegian mountains, and I much regret that
no person in the vessel was skilled in mineralogy, or at all acquainted
with geology. It is a pity that so good an opportunity of ascertaining the
nature of the rocks and earths of these regions should have been almost
lost.

"I could not avoid often thinking of the talent and experience required for
such scientific researches, of which we were wholly destitute; and inwardly
resolving, that if ever I left England again on a similar expedition, I
would endeavour to carry out a person qualified to examine the land; while
the officers, and myself, would attend to hydrography."

       *       *       *       *       *


{386}

CHAPTER XXI.

  Skyring's chart--Noir Island--Penguins--Fuegians--Sarmiento--Townshend
  Harbour--Horace Peaks--Cape Desolation--Boat lost--Basket--Search in
  Desolate Bay--Natives--Heavy gale--Surprise--Seizure--Consequences--
  Return to Beagle--Sail to Stewart Harbour--Set out again--Escape of
  Natives--Unavailing search--Discomforts--Tides--Nature of Coast--Doris
  Cove--Christmas Sound--Cook--York-Minster--March Harbour--Build a boat--
  Treacherous rocks--Skirmish with the Natives--Captives--Boat-memory--
  Petrel.

"25th. We weighed, and went round to Fury Harbour, for the carpenter and
his cargo, and met him with a spar and a raft of plank, taken from the
wreck. Having hoisted the boat up, and got the plank on board, we stood out
towards the West Furies, by the wind; my intention being either to sail
round Noir Island, or anchor under it, before running to the eastward, in
order that no part of the sea-coast might be left unexamined. We passed
very near some of the rocks, but as the day was fine and the weather clear,
a good look-out at the mast-head could be trusted.

"Before leaving the vicinity of Mount Skyring, I should remark that the
true bearing of Mount Sarmiento's summit, which I obtained from the top of
Mount Skyring, laid off on Lieutenant Skyring's chart, passed as truly
through his position of the summit as if the line had been merely drawn
between them. This is highly creditable to his work, for I know he did not
himself see Mount Sarmiento, when upon Mount Skyring.

"The breeze freshened, and drew more to the westward towards evening, I had
therefore no hopes of nearing Noir Island. We saw the Tower Rocks
distinctly before dark, and stood on towards them until ten o'clock,
closing Scylla to avoid Charybdis, for in-shore of us lay all those
scattered rocks, {387} among which we had steered when passing the Agnes
Islands and Cape Kempe.

"The night was spent in making short boards, under reefed topsails, over
the same two miles of ground, as nearly as possible, with the lead going,
and a thoroughly good look-out. At daylight next morning the wind became
strong and the weather thick, with rain, but we made as much sail as we
could carry, and worked to windward all the day. In the afternoon it
moderated, and before dark we anchored in a very good roadstead, at the
east end of Noir Island, sheltered from all winds from N. to S.b.E. (by the
west); over a clear, sandy bottom; and with a sheltered cove near us where
boats may land easily, and get plenty of wood and water. In working up to
the Island, we passed very near a dangerous rock, under water, lying four
miles off shore; and another, near the anchorage. The sea does not break on
either of them when there is not much swell.

"27th. A fine day favoured us; the master went to one part of the island,
and Mr. Stokes to another, while I went to a third. Having taken angles at
the extreme west point (which ends in a cluster of rocks like needles), I
passed quite round the island, and returned to the anchorage after dusk,
landing here and there for bearings, in my way.

"There is a cove at the south part of the island, where boats would be
perfectly safe in any weather, but the entrance is too narrow for decked
vessels. The island itself is narrow and long, apparently the top of a
ridge of mountains, and formed of sand-stone,[187] which accounts for the
bottom near it being so good, and for the needle-like appearance of the
rocks at the west end; as the sand-stone, being very soft, is continually
wearing away by the action of the water.

"Multitudes of penguins were swarming together in some parts of the island,
among the bushes and 'tussac'[188] near the shore, having gone there for
the purposes of moulting and {388} rearing their young. They were very
valiant in self-defence, and ran open-mouthed, by dozens, at any one who
invaded their territory, little knowing how soon a stick could scatter them
on the ground. The young were good eating, but the others proved to be
black and tough, when cooked. The manner in which they feed their young is
curious, and rather amusing. The old bird gets on a little eminence, and
makes a great noise (between quacking and braying), holding its head up in
the air, as if it were haranguing the penguinnery, while the young one
stands close to it, but a little lower. The old bird having continued its
clatter for about a minute, puts its head down, and opens its mouth widely,
into which the young one thrusts its head, and then appears to suck from
the throat of its mother for a minute or two, after which the clatter is
repeated, and the young one is again fed; this continues for about ten
minutes. I observed some which were moulting make the same noise, and then
apparently swallow what they thus supplied themselves with; so in this way
I suppose they are furnished with subsistence during the time they cannot
seek it in the water. Many hair seal were seen about the island, and three
were killed. Wild fowl were very numerous. Strange to say, traces of the
Fuegians (a wigwam, &c.) were found, which shows how far they will at times
venture in their canoes.

"No danger lies outside of Noir Island, except in the Tower Rocks, which
are above water, and 'steep-to,' but many perils lie to the south-eastward.
Indeed, a worse place than the neighbourhood of Cape Kempe and the Agnes
Islands could not often be found, I think: the chart of it, with all its
stars to mark the rocks, looks like a map of part of the heavens, rather
than part of the earth.

"28th. At daylight, we sailed from these roads, and passed close to the
Tower Rocks (within half a cable's length): they are two only in number, a
mile and a half apart, and steep-sided. Thence we steered towards St.
Paul's, my intention being to seek an anchorage in that direction. This day
proved very fine and so clear that when we were becalmed, off St. Paul's,
we saw Mount Sarmiento distinctly from the deck. A breeze {389} carried us
through Pratt Passage, which separates London Island from Sydney Island, to
an anchorage in a good harbour, under a high peaked hill (Horace Peaks),
which is a good mark for it. Finding no soundings in the Passage as we
approached, gave us reason to be anxious; but in the harbour, the bottom
proved to be excellent, and the water only of a moderate depth. As soon as
we anchored, I tried to ascend Horace Peaks, but returned without having
reached their summits before dark; however, I saw enough to give me a
general idea of the distribution of the land and water near us. I thought
that this anchorage would be favourable for ascertaining the latitude of
Cape Schomberg[189] with exactness: having found a considerable difference
between our chart and that of Lieutenant Skyring, respecting the latitude
of that promontory.

"Meanwhile I contemplated sending the master to a headland called by Cook,
Cape Desolation, and which well deserves the name, being a high, craggy,
barren range of land. I was not sorry to find myself in a safe anchorage,
for the weather seemed lowering; and after being favoured with some
moderate days, we could not but expect a share of wind and rain.

"29th. This morning the weather looked as if we should be repaid for the
few fine days which we had enjoyed; but as we felt it necessary to work in
bad weather as well as in good, it did not prevent the master from setting
out on his way to Cape Desolation; near which, as a conspicuous headland,
whose position would be of great consequence, he was to search for a
harbour, and obtain observations for connecting the survey. He could not
have been in a finer boat (a whale-boat built by Mr. May, at San Carlos);
and as he well knew what to do with her, I did not feel uneasy for his
safety, although after his departure the wind increased rapidly, and
towards evening blew a hard gale. The barometer had not given so much
warning as usual; but it had been falling gradually since our arrival in
this harbour, and continued to fall. The sympiesometer had been more on the
alert, and had fallen more rapidly.

"(30th.) A continued gale, with rain and thick weather {390} throughout the
day. During the night the weather became rather more moderate; but on the
morning of the 31st, the wind again increased to a gale, and towards noon,
the williwaws were so violent, that our small cutter, lying astern of the
ship, was fairly capsized, though she had not even a mast standing. The
ship herself careened, as if under a press of sail, sending all loose
things to leeward with a general crash (not being secured for sea, while
moored in so small a cove), but so rapidly did these blasts from the
mountains pass by, that with a good scope of chain out, it was hardly
strained to its utmost before the squall was over. While the gale was
increasing, in the afternoon, the topmasts were struck; yet still, in the
squalls, the vessel heeled many strakes when they caught her a-beam. At
night they followed in such rapid succession, that if the holding-ground
had not been excellent, and our ground-tackle very strong, we must have
been driven on the rocks.

"Under the lee of high land is not the best anchorage in these regions.
When good holding-ground can be found to windward of a height, and low land
lies to windward of the anchorage, sufficient to break the sea, the place
is much to be preferred; because the wind is steady and does not blow home
against the height. The lee side of these heights is a great deal worse
than the west side of Gibraltar Rock while the strongest Levanter is
blowing.

"Considering that this month corresponds to August in our climate, it is
natural to compare them, and to think how hay and corn would prosper in a
Fuegian summer. As yet I have found no difference in Tierra del Fuego
between summer and winter, excepting that in the former the days are
longer, and the average temperature is perhaps ten degrees higher, but
there is also then more wind and rain.

"The gale still continued, and prevented any thing being done out of the
ship. However safe a cove Mr. Murray might have found, his time, I knew,
must be passing most irksomely, as he could not have moved about since the
day he left us. He had a week's provisions, but with moderate weather would
have returned in three days. {391}

"Feb. 2d. Still very squally and unsettled. This gale began at N.N.W., and
drew round to S.S.W. Much rain comes usually from the N.W. quarter; and as
the wind draws southward, the weather becomes clearer. The squalls from the
southern quarter bring a great deal of hail with them.

"3d. I was enabled to take a round of angles from Horace Peaks, over the
ship, the sky being clear near the horizon. The theodolite had been left
near the top since the 28th, each day having been too bad to use it. These
peaked hills required time and exertion in the ascent; but the wide range
of view obtained from their summits on a clear day, amply repaid us for
both. If the height was sufficient, it gave a bird's-eye view of many
leagues, and showed at a glance where channels lay, which were islands, and
what was the nature of the surrounding land and water. The shattered state
of all these peaks is remarkable: frost, I think, must be the chief cause.

"After being deceived by the magnetism of Mount Skyring and other places, I
never trusted the compass on a height, but always set up a mark near the
water, at some distance, and from it obtained the astronomical bearing of
my station at the summit. This afternoon we prepared the ship to proceed as
soon as the master should arrive.

"4th. Moderate weather. I was surprised that the master did not make his
appearance; yet, having full confidence in his prudent management, and
knowing that he had been all the time among islands, upon any one of which
he could haul up his boat and remain in safety during the gales, I did not
feel much anxiety, but supposed he was staying to take the necessary angles
and observations, in which he had been delayed by the very bad weather we
had lately experienced.

"At three this morning (5th), I was called up to hear that the whale-boat
was lost--stolen by the natives; and that her coxswain and two men had just
reached the ship in a clumsy canoe, made like a large basket, of
wicker-work covered with pieces of canvas, and lined with clay, very leaky,
and difficult to paddle. They had been sent by the master, who, with the
other people, was at the cove under Cape Desolation, where {392} they
stopped on the first day. Their provisions were all consumed, two-thirds
having been stolen with the boat, and the return of the natives, to
plunder, and perhaps kill them, was expected daily.

"The basket, I cannot call it a canoe, left the Cape (now doubly deserving
of its name) early on the morning of the 4th, and worked its way slowly and
heavily amongst the islands, the men having only one biscuit each with
them. They paddled all day, and the following night, until two o'clock this
morning (5th), when in passing the cove where the ship lay, they heard one
of our dogs bark, and found their way to us quite worn out by fatigue and
hunger. Not a moment was lost, my boat was immediately prepared, and I
hastened away with a fortnight's provisions for eleven men, intending to
relieve the master, and then go in search of the stolen boat. The weather
was rainy, and the wind fresh and squally; but at eleven o'clock I reached
the cove, having passed to seaward of the cape, and there found Mr. Murray
anxiously, but doubtfully, awaiting my arrival. My first object, after
inquiring into the business, was to scrutinize minutely the place where the
boat had been moored, (for I could not believe that she had been stolen;)
but I was soon convinced that she had been well secured in a perfectly safe
place, and that she must, indeed, have been taken away, just before
daylight, by the natives. Her mast and sails, and part of the provisions
were in her; but the men's clothes and the instruments had fortunately been
landed. It was the usual custom with our boats, when away from the ship, to
keep a watch at night; but this place appeared so isolated and desolate,
that such a precaution did not seem necessary. Had I been with the boat, I
should probably have lost her in the same manner; for I only kept a watch
when I thought there was occasion, as I would not harass the boat's crew
unnecessarily; and on this exposed and sea-beaten island, I should not have
suspected that Indians would be found. It appeared that a party of them
were living in two wigwams, in a little cove about a mile from that in
which our boat lay, and must have seen her arrive; {393} while their
wigwams were so hidden as to escape the observation of the whale-boat's
crew. At two o'clock on the first morning, Mr. Murray sent one of the men
out of the tent to see if the boat rode well at her moorings in the cove,
and he found her secure. At four another man went to look out, but she was
then gone. The crew, doubtful what had been her fate, immediately spread
about the shore of the island to seek for traces of her, and in their
search they found the wigwams, evidently just deserted: the fire not being
extinguished. This at once explained the mystery, and some proceeding along
the shore, others went up on the hills to look for her in the offing; but
all in vain. The next morning Mr. Murray began the basket, which was made
chiefly by two of his men out of small boughs, and some parts of the tent,
with a lining of clayey earth at the bottom. Being on an island, about
fifteen miles from the Beagle, their plan was as necessary as it was
ingenious: though certainly something more like a canoe than a coracle
could have been paddled faster.

"The chronometer, theodolite, and other instruments having been saved, Mr.
Murray had made observations for fixing the position of the place, and had
done all that was required before I arrived, when they embarked, with their
things, in my boat, which then contained altogether eleven men, a
fortnight's provisions, two tents,[190] and clothing; yet with this load
she travelled many a long mile, during the following week, a proof of the
qualities of this five-oared whale-boat, which was also built by Mr.
Jonathan May, our carpenter, while we were at San Carlos.

"The very first place we went to, a small island about two miles distant,
convinced us still more decidedly of the fate of our lost boat, and gave us
hopes of retrieving her; for near a lately used wigwam, we found her mast,
part of which had been cut off with an axe that was in the boat. Our next
point was then to be considered, for to chase the thieves I was determined.
North and east of us, as far as the eye could reach, lay an extensive {394}
bay in which were many islands, large and small; and westward was a more
connected mass of large islands reaching, apparently, to the foot of that
grand chain of snowy mountains, which runs eastward from the Barbara
Channel, and over the midst of which Sarmiento proudly towers. I resolved
to trace the confines of the bay, from the west, towards the north and
east, thinking it probable that the thieves would hasten to some secure
cove, at a distance, rather than remain upon an outlying island, whence
their retreat might be cut off. In the evening we met a canoe containing
two Fuegians, a man and a woman, who made us understand, by signs, that
several canoes were gone to the northward. This raised our hopes, and we
pushed on. The woman, just mentioned, was the best looking I have seen
among the Fuegians, and really well-featured: her voice was pleasing, and
her manner neither so suspicious nor timid as that of the rest. Though
young she was uncommonly fat, and did justice to a diet of limpets and
muscles. Both she and her husband were perfectly naked. Having searched the
coves for some distance farther, night came on, and we landed in a
sheltered spot.

"The next day (6th), we found some rather doubtful traces of the thieves.
Towards night it blew a strong gale, with hail-squalls and rain.

"On the 7th, at a place more than thirty miles E.N.E. of Cape Desolation,
we fell in with a native family, and on searching their two canoes found
our boat's lead line. This was a prize indeed; and we immediately took the
man who had it into our boat, making him comprehend that he must show us
where the people were, from whom he got it. He understood our meaning well
enough, and following his guidance we reached a cove that afternoon, in
which were two canoes full of women and children; but only one old man, and
a lad of seventeen or eighteen. As usual with the Fuegians, upon perceiving
us they all ran away into the bushes, carrying off as much of their
property as possible--returning again naked, and huddling together in a
corner. After a minute search, some of the boat's gear was found, part of
her sail, and {395} an oar, the loom of which had been made into a
seal-club, and the blade into a paddle. The axe, and the boat's tool-bag
were also found, which convinced us that this was the resort of those who
had stolen our boat; and that the women, six in number, were their wives.
The men were probably absent, in our boat, on a sealing expedition; as a
fine large canoe, made of fir-plank, perhaps from the wreck of the Saxe
Cobourg, was lying on the beach without paddles or spears. She did not come
there without paddles: and where were the spears of which every Fuegian
family has plenty? It was evident that the men of the party had taken them
in our boat, and had cut up our oars like the one they had accidentally
left. The women understood what we wanted, and made eager signs to explain
to us where our boat was gone. I did not like to injure them, and only took
away our own gear, and the young man, who came very readily, to show us
where our boat was, and, with the man who had brought us to the place,
squatted down in the boat apparently much pleased with some clothes and red
caps, which were given to them. We had always behaved kindly to the
Fuegians wherever we met them, and did not yet know how to treat them as
they deserved, although they had robbed us of so great a treasure, upon the
recovery or loss of which much of the success of our voyage depended.
Following the guidance of these two natives, we pulled against wind and
rain until dark, when it became absolutely necessary to secure our boat for
the night, deeply laden as she was with thirteen people. As we were then at
a great distance from the place, whence we brought the natives, having
pulled for four hours alongshore, and as they seemed to be quite at their
ease, and contented, I would not secure our guides as prisoners, but
allowed them to lie by the fire in charge of the man on watch. About an
hour before daylight, although the look-out man was only a few yards
distant from the fire, they slipped into the bushes, and as it was almost
dark were immediately out of sight. Their escape was discovered directly,
but to search for them during darkness, in a thick wood, would have been
useless; besides, our men were tired with their day's work, and wanted
rest, so {396} I would not disturb them until daylight (8th), when we
continued our search in the direction the natives had indicated; but after
examining several coves without finding any traces of Fuegians, we hastened
back towards the wigwams we had visited on the previous day. Sailing close
along-shore, a large smoke suddenly rose up, out of a small cove close by
us, where we immediately landed, and looked all round; but found only the
foot-prints of two Fuegians, probably the runaways, who had just succeeded
in lighting a fire at the moment we passed by. This shows how quickly they
find materials for the purpose, for when they left us, they had neither
iron nor fire-stone (pyrites), nor any kind of tinder. They had carried off
two tarpaulin coats, which Mr. Murray had kindly put on to keep them warm;
although, treated as he had so lately been, one might have thought he would
not have been the first to care for their comfort. I mention these
incidents to show what was our behaviour to these savages, and that no
wanton cruelty was exercised towards them.

"After looking for these two natives, and for Mr. Murray's coats, which at
that time he could ill spare, we returned to our boat, and pushed on
towards the wigwams. The moment the inmates saw us, they ran away, and we
gave chase, trying, in vain, to make them stop. Disappointed in the hope of
obtaining a guide, we determined to prevent these people from escaping far,
and spreading any intelligence likely to impede the return of our boat,
which we daily expected: we therefore destroyed two canoes, and part of a
third, that the natives were building, and burned every material which
could be useful to them in making another canoe.

"(9th). Next day, we went straight across the bay to Cape Desolation,
against a fresh breeze: by pulling in turns, the boat was kept going fast
through the water, and late in the evening we reached the cove from which
the thieves had first started, when they stole the boat; but no traces of
their having been there again, were found. I thought it probable that they
would return to see what had become of our party, and whether our people
were weak enough to be plundered again, or perhaps attacked. {397}

"This idea proving wrong, we retraced (10th) much of our former course,
because the direction pointed out by the Fuegians who ran away from us
seemed to lead towards the place we now steered for, Courtenay Sound, and
was a probable line for the thieves to take. During the night it blew a
gale from the southward, which increased next day (11th), and became more
and more violent until the morning of the 12th, when it abated.

"We continued our search, however, sometimes under a close-reefed sail;
sometimes on our oars, and sometimes scudding with only the mast up.
Although the wind was very violent, too strong for a close reefed sail
(with four reefs), the water was too much confined by islands to rise into
a sea, but it was blown, as 'spoon drift,' in all directions. This day the
Beagle had her topmasts and lower yards struck, for the gale was extremely
heavy where she lay. The barometer foretold it very well, falling more than
I had previously seen, although the wind was southerly. In an exposed
anchorage, I do not think any vessel could have rode it out, however good
the holding ground.

"12th. This morning the weather was better, and improving fast. We went
over much ground without the smallest success, and in the afternoon steered
to the eastward again, for a third visit to the boat stealers' family. As
it was late when we approached the place, I landed half our party, and with
the rest went to reconnoitre. After a long search we discovered the Indians
in a cove, at some distance from that in which they were on the previous
day; and having ascertained this point, taken a good view of the ground,
and formed our plans, we returned to our companions, and prepared for
surprising the natives and making them prisoners. My wish was to surround
them unawares, and take as many as possible, to be kept as hostages for the
return of our boat, or else to make them show us where she was; and,
meanwhile, it was an object to prevent any from escaping to give the alarm.

"13th. Whether the men belonging to the tribe had returned during our
absence, was uncertain, as we could not, {398} without risk of discovery,
get near enough to ascertain: but, in case we should find them, we went
armed, each with a pistol or gun, a cutlass, and a piece of rope to secure
a prisoner. We landed at some distance from the cove, and, leaving two men
with our boat, crept quietly through the bushes for a long distance round,
until we were quite at the back of the new wigwams; then closing gradually
in a circle, we reached almost to the spot undiscovered; but their dogs
winded us, and all at once ran towards us barking loudly. Further
concealment was impossible, so we rushed on as fast as we could through the
bushes. At first the Indians began to run away; but hearing us shout on
both sides, some tried to hide themselves, by squatting under the banks of
a stream of water. The foremost of our party, Elsmore by name, in jumping
across this stream, slipped, and fell in just where two men and a woman
were concealed: they instantly attacked him, trying to hold him down and
beat out his brains with stones; and before any one could assist him, he
had received several severe blows, and one eye was almost destroyed, by a
dangerous stroke near the temple. Mr. Murray, seeing the man's danger,
fired at one of the Fuegians, who staggered back and let Elsmore escape;
but immediately recovering himself, picked up stones from the bed of the
stream, or was supplied with them by those who stood close to him, and
threw them from each hand with astonishing force and precision. His first
stone struck the master with much force, broke a powder-horn hung round his
neck, and nearly knocked him backwards: and two others were thrown so truly
at the heads of those nearest him, that they barely saved themselves by
dropping down. All this passed in a few seconds, so quick was he with each
hand: but, poor fellow, it was his last struggle; unfortunately he was
mortally wounded, and, throwing one more stone, he fell against the bank
and expired. After some struggling, and a few hard blows, those who tried
to secrete themselves were taken, but several who ran away along the beach
escaped: so strong and stout were the females, that I, for one, had no idea
that it was a woman, whose arms I and my coxswain endeavoured to pinion,
until I heard some {399} one say so. The oldest woman of the tribe was so
powerful, that two of the strongest men of our party could scarcely pull
her out from under the bank of the stream. The man who was shot was one of
those whom we had taken in the boat as a guide, and the other was among our
prisoners. Mr. Murray's coats were found in the wigwams divided into
wrappers to throw over the shoulders. We embarked the Indians (two men,
three women, and six children), and returned to the spot where we had
passed the preceding night. One man who escaped was a one-eyed man we had
seen before; he was more active than any, and soon out of our reach. Two or
three others escaped with him, whom I did not see distinctly.

"That a life should have been lost in the struggle, I lament deeply; but if
the Fuegian had not been shot at that moment, his next blow might have
killed Elsmore, who was almost under water, and more than half stunned, for
he had scarcely sense to struggle away, upon feeling the man's grasp relax.
When fairly embarked, and before we asked any questions, the natives seemed
very anxious to tell us where our boat was; but pointed in a direction
quite opposite to that which they had previously shown us. We guarded them
carefully through the night, and next morning (14th) set out upon our
return to the Beagle, with twenty-two souls in the boat. My object was, to
put them in security on board, run down the coast with the ship to some
harbour more to the eastward, and then set out again upon another search;
carrying some of my prisoners as guides, and leaving the rest on board to
ensure the former remaining, and not deceiving us. We made tolerable
progress, though the boat was so over-loaded, and on the 15th reached the
Beagle with our living cargo. In our way we fell in with a family of
natives, whose wigwams and canoes we searched; but finding none of our
property, we left them not only unmolested, but gave them a few things,
which in their eyes were valuable.

"This conduct appeared to surprise our prisoners, who, as far as we could
make out, received a wholesome lecture, instead {400} of assistance, from
the strangers. At all events, when they parted, our passengers were as
discontented as the others were cheerful. When we got on board, we fed our
prisoners with fat pork and shell-fish, which they liked better than any
thing else, and clothed them with old blankets.[191]

"Next morning (16th) we weighed, and sailed along the coast towards Cape
Castlereagh, at the east side of Desolate Bay. Many straggling rocks and
rocky islets were observed lying off Cape Desolation and in the Bay. That
afternoon, we stood into a narrow opening, which appeared to be the outlet
of a harbour close to Cape Castlereagh, and found a very good anchorage,
well suited for the purposes both of continuing the survey and looking for
the lost boat.

"(17th.) The master and I, with the cutter and a whale-boat, set out upon a
second chase, taking a week's provisions. In the first cove I searched, not
two miles from the Beagle, I found a piece of the boat's lead-line, which
had been left in a lately deserted wigwam. This raised our hopes; and, in
addition to the signs made by our prisoners, convinced us we were on the
right track.

"I took with me a young man as a guide, and in the cutter the master
carried the two stoutest of the women, having left all the rest of our
prisoners on board. As far as we could make out, they appeared to
understand perfectly that their safety and future freedom depended upon
their showing us where to find the boat.

"We intended to go round the Stewart Islands; and after examining many
coves, and finding signs that a party of natives had passed along the same
route within the last two days, we stopped in a sheltered place for the
night. Having given our prisoners as much food as they could eat, muscles,
limpets, and pork, we let them lie down close to the fire, all three
together. I would not tie them, neither did I think it necessary to keep an
unusual watch, supposing that their children being {401} left in our vessel
was a security for the mothers far stronger than rope or iron. I kept watch
myself during the first part of the night, as the men were tired by pulling
all day, and incautiously allowed the Fuegians to lie between the fire and
the bushes, having covered them up so snugly, with old blankets and my own
poncho, that their bodies were entirely hidden. About midnight, while
standing on the opposite side of the fire, looking at the boats, with my
back to the Fuegians, I heard a rustling noise, and turned round; but
seeing the heap of blankets unmoved, satisfied me, and I stooped down to
the fire to look at my watch. At this moment, another rustle, and my dog
jumping up and barking, told me that the natives had escaped. Still the
blankets looked the same, for they were artfully propped up by bushes. All
our party began immediately to search for them; but as the night was quite
dark, and there was a thick wood close to us, our exertions were
unavailing.

"Believing that we could not be far from the place where the natives
supposed our boat to be, I thought that they would go directly and warn
their people of our approach; and as the island was narrow, though long, a
very little travelling would take them across to the part they had pointed
out to us, while it might take a boat a considerable time to go round; I
therefore started immediately to continue the search in that direction, and
left the master to examine every place near our tents.

"In the afternoon of the same day I returned to him, having traversed a
long extent of coast without finding an outlet to sea-ward, or any traces
of the lost boat. Meanwhile Mr. Murray had searched every place near our
bivouac without success; but he found the spot where the Fuegians had
concealed themselves during the night, under the roots of a large tree,
only a dozen yards from our fire.

"As it was possible that the thieves might have returned to the place
whence we had taken the natives, I desired the master to cross the sound
and go there, and afterwards return to meet me, while I continued the
search eastward. With a fair and fresh wind I made a good run that evening,
found a {402} passage opening to the sea,[192] and a wigwam just deserted.
Here was cause for hope; and seeing, beyond the passage, some large islands
lying to seaward of that which we had been coasting, it appeared probable
that our boat had been taken there for seal-fishing. Our prisoners had
given us to understand plainly enough that such was the object of those who
had stolen her, and outlying islands were the most likely to be visited, as
on them most seal are found.

"Next day (19th) I passed over to Gilbert Island, and in a cove found such
recent marks of natives, that I felt sure of coming up with the chase in
the course of the day. When the Fuegians stop anywhere, they generally bark
a few trees, to repair their canoes or cover their wigwams; but those whose
traces we were following, had made long journeys without stopping; and,
where they did stay, barked no trees, which was one reason for supposing
them to be the party in our boat. In the course of the day we pulled nearly
round the islands,[193] looking into every cove.

"On the 20th, we discovered three small canoes with their owners in a
cove.[194] All the men ran away, except two. As we saw that there were no
more persons than the canoes required, we did not try to catch them,
knowing that this could not be the party we were in search of. We had now
examined every nook and corner about these islands, and I began to give up
all hope of finding our boat in this direction. Having no clue to guide me
farther, and much time having been lost, I reluctantly decided to return to
the Beagle. Our only remaining hope, that the master might have met with
the boat, was but very feeble.

"(21st.) All this day we were pulling to the westward, to regain the
Beagle. At night-fall I met Mr. Murray, with the cutter, in the cove where
I had appointed a rendezvous. He had not found any signs of the boat upon
the opposite shore, and therefore returned; but he saw the people who had
escaped from us when we surprised the whole family. They fled as soon as
his boat was seen. Leaving, therefore, three men to {403} watch in the
bushes, he stood out to sea in the boat; and the stratagem succeeded
sufficiently to enable our men to get very near to the natives, but not to
catch any of them. One old man squinted very much, and in other respects
exactly answered the description of a Fuegian who ill-treated some of the
Saxe-Cobourg's crew, when they were cast away in Fury Harbour. I wish we
could have secured him; but he was always on the alert, and too nimble for
our people. In their canoe, which was taken, was found the sleeve of Mr.
Murray's tarpaulin coat, a proof that these people belonged to the tribe
which had stolen our boat. The canoe was a wretchedly patched affair,
evidently put together in a great hurry.

"Next morning (22d) the master and I set out on our return to the Beagle;
but seeing a great smoke on the opposite shore, in Thieves' Sound, I
thought it must be made by the offenders, who, having returned and found
their home desolate, were making signals to discover where their family was
gone: sending the cutter therefore on board, I pulled across the sound
towards the smoke. As the distance was long, and the wind fresh against us,
it was late before I arrived; yet the smoke rose as thickly as ever,
exciting our expectations to the utmost:--but, to our disappointment, not a
living creature could be seen near the fire, nor could any traces of
natives be found. The fire must have been kindled in the morning, and as
the weather was dry, had continued to burn all day.

"We were then just as much at a loss as ever, for probably (if that was the
party), they had seen us, and would, for the future, be doubly watchful. At
first we had a chance of coming upon them unawares, but the time for that
had passed: every canoe in the sound had been examined, and all its
inhabitants knew well what we were seeking.

"It blew too strong, and it was too late, to recross Whale-boat Sound that
night, so I ascended a height to look round. Next morning (23d) we again
searched many miles of the shores of Thieves' Sound without any success;
and afterwards sailed across to Stewart Harbour. We reached the Beagle in
the evening, but found that all the other prisoners, excepting {404} three
children, had escaped by swimming ashore during the preceding night. Thus,
after much trouble and anxiety, much valuable time lost, and as fine a boat
of her kind as ever was seen being stolen from us by these savages, I found
myself with three young children to take care of, and no prospect whatever
of recovering the boat. It was very hard work for the boats' crews, for
during the first ten days we had incessant rainy weather, with gales of
wind; and though the last few days had been uncommonly fine, the men's
exertions in pulling about among the coves, and in ascending hills, had
been extremely fatiguing.

"While the bad weather lasted, the men's clothes were seldom dry, either by
day or night. Frequently they were soaked by rain during the greater part
of the day, and at night they were in no better condition; for although a
large fire (when made) might dry one side, the other as quickly became wet.
Obliged, as we were, to pitch our small tent close to the water in order to
be near our boat;--and because every other place was either rocky or
covered with wood;--we were more than once awakened out of a sound sleep by
finding that we were lying partly in the water, the night-tide having risen
very much above that of the preceding day: although the tides should have
been at that time 'taking off' (diminishing).

"Sometimes extreme difficulty was found in lighting a fire, because every
thing was saturated with moisture; and hours have been passed in vain
attempts, while every one was shivering with cold,--having no shelter from
the pouring rain,--and after having been cramped in a small boat during the
whole day.

"In Courtenay Sound I saw many nests of shags (corvorants) among the
branches of trees near the water: until then, I had understood that those
birds usually, if not invariably, built their nests on the ground or in
cliffs.

"Much time had certainly been spent in this search, yet it ought not to be
considered as altogether lost. Mr. Stokes had been hard at work during my
absence, making plans of the harbours, and taking observations, and I am
happy to say, that {405} I had reason to place great confidence in his
work, for he had always taken the utmost pains, and had been most careful.
My wanderings had shown me that from the apparent sea coast to the base of
that snowy chain of mountains which runs eastward from the Barbara Channel,
there is much more water than land, and that a number of islands, lying
near together, form the apparently connected coast; within which a wide
sound-like passage extends, opening in places into bays and gulfs, where
islands, islets, rocks and breakers, are very numerous. These waters wash
the foot of the snowy chain which forms a continued barrier from the
Barbara Channel to the Strait of Le Maire. This cruise had also given me
more insight into the real character of the Fuegians, than I had then
acquired by other means, and gave us all a severe warning which might prove
very useful at a future day, when among more numerous tribes who would not
be contented with a boat alone. Considering the extent of coast we had
already examined, we ought to be thankful for having experienced no other
disaster of any kind, and for having had the means of replacing this loss.

"I became convinced that so long as we were ignorant of the Fuegian
language, and the natives were equally ignorant of ours, we should never
know much about them, or the interior of their country; nor would there be
the slightest chance of their being raised one step above the low place
which they then held in our estimation. Their words seemed to be short, but
to have many meanings, and their pronunciation was harsh and guttural.

"Stewart Harbour, in which the Beagle remained during the last boat cruise,
proved to be a good one, and, having three outlets, may be entered or
quitted with any wind, and without warping. Wood and water are as abundant
as in other Fuegian harbours; and it may be easily known by the remarkable
appearance of Cape Castlereagh, which is on the island that shelters the
anchorage from the S.W. wind and sea. The outlets are narrow, and can only
be passed with a leading wind; but if one does not serve, another will
answer. It should be {406} noticed, that there are two rocks nearly in the
middle of the harbour, which are just awash at high water. A heavy swell is
generally found outside, owing to the comparatively shallow water, in which
there are soundings to about three miles from the Cape. In the entrances
are from ten to twenty fathoms, therefore if the wind should baffle, or
fail, an anchor may be dropped at any moment.

"In my last search among the Gilbert Islands, I found a good harbour for
shipping, conveniently situated for carrying on the survey, in a place
which otherwise I should certainly have overlooked: and to that harbour I
decided on proceeding.

"For two miles to the eastward of Stewart Harbour, the shore projects, and
is rocky and broken, then it retreats, forming a large bay, in which are
the Gilbert Islands, and many rocky islets. We passed between Gilbert and
Stewart Islands, anchored at noon under a point at the west entrance of the
passage, and in the afternoon moved the Beagle to Doris Cove, and there
moored her.

"I had decided to build another boat as quickly as possible, for I found it
so much the best way to anchor the vessel in a safe place and then work
with the boats on each side, that another good one was most necessary. Our
cutter required too many men, and was neither so handy, nor could she pull
to windward so well as a whale-boat; and our small boat was only fit for
harbour duty. The weather on this coast was generally so thick and blowing,
as not to admit of any thing like exact surveying while the vessel was
under sail: the swell alone being usually too high to allow of a bearing
being taken within six or eight degrees: and the sun we seldom saw. If
caught by one of the very frequent gales, we might have been blown so far
to the eastward that I know not how much time would have been lost in
trying to regain our position. These coasts, which are composed of islands,
allow boats to go a long distance in safety, and, from the heights near the
sea, rocks and breakers may be seen, and their places ascertained, much
better than can possibly be done at sea. For building a new boat we had all
the materials on board, except prepared plank; and for this we cut up a
spare spar, which was intended to supply the place of a defective or
injured lower mast or bowsprit. With reluctance this fine spar, which had
been the Doris's main-topmast, was condemned to the teeth of the saw; but I
felt certain that the boat Mr. May would produce from it, would be valuable
in any part of the world, and that for our voyage it was indispensable.

[Illustration: CAPE HORN.]

[Illustration: CAPE HORN.]

[Illustration: CAPE SPENCER AND CAPE HORN.]

[Illustration: ST FRANCIS BAY AND ENTRANCE OF ST MARTIN COVE.

([Two birds] Kater Peak)]

[Illustration: YORK MINSTER.]

[Illustration: FALSE CAPE HORN.]

[Illustration: CAPE NOIR.]

[Illustration: CAPE NOIR.]

[Illustration: W. W. Wilson S. Bull

SOUTH WEST OPENING OF COCKBURN CHANNEL.

([One bird] Mount Skyring)

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{407}

"Profiting by a clear day, I went to a height in the neighbourhood, whence
I could see to a great distance in-shore, as well as along the coast, and
got a view of Mount Sarmiento. While away from the Beagle, in search of the
lost boat, we had enjoyed four succeeding days of fine weather, during
which that noble mountain had been often seen by our party. The
astronomical bearing of its summit was very useful in connecting this coast
survey with that of the Strait of Magalhaens.

"25th and 26th. Mr. Murray went to the S.W. part of the island, taking
three days' provisions. Mr. Stokes and I were employed near the ship, while
every man who could use carpenter's tools was occupied in preparing
materials for our new boat. The rock near here is greenstone, in which are
many veins of pyrites. Specimens are deposited in the museum of the
Geological Society.

"28th. Weighed, warped to windward, and made sail out of Adventure Passage.
I was very anxious to reach Christmas Sound, because it seemed to me a good
situation for the Beagle, while the boats could go east and west of her,
and the new boat might be built. Running along the land, before a fresh
breeze, we soon saw York Minster, and in the evening entered Christmas
Sound, and anchored in the very spot where the Adventure lay when Cook was
here. His sketch of the sound, and description of York Minster, are very
good, and quite enough to guide a ship to the anchoring place. I fancied
that the high part of the Minster must have crumbled away since he saw it,
as it no longer resembled 'two towers,' but had a ragged, notched summit,
when seen from the westward. It was some satisfaction to find ourselves at
anchor at this spot in {408} February, notwithstanding the vexatious delays
we had so often experienced.

"As we had not sufficiently examined the coast between this sound and
Gilbert Islands, I proposed sending Mr. Murray there with the cutter, while
I should go to the eastward, during which time our new boat would be
finished.

"1st March. This morning I went to look for a better anchorage for our
vessel, that in which we lay being rather exposed, and very small. Neither
Pickersgill Cove nor Port Clerke suited; so I looked further, and found
another harbour, nearer to York Minster, easier of access for a ship
arriving from sea, and with a cove in one corner where a vessel could lie
in security, close to a woody point. Having sounded this harbour, I
returned to move our ship. Cook says, speaking of Port Clerke, 'South of
this inlet is another, which I did not examine:'--and into that inlet,
named March Harbour, the Beagle prepared to go, but before we could weigh
and work to windward, the weather became bad, which made our passage round
the N.W. end of Shag Island rather difficult, as we had to contend with
squalls, rain, and a narrow passage between rocks. The passage between
Waterman Island and the south end of Shag Island is more roomy; but there
is a rock near the middle which had not then been examined. We worked up to
the innermost part of the harbour, and moored close to a woody point, in
the most sheltered cove. Finding this to be a very convenient spot for
building our boat, and in every point of view a good place for passing part
of the month of March, I decided to keep the Beagle here for that purpose.
This harbour might be useful to other vessels, its situation being well
pointed out by York Minster (one of the most remarkable promontories on the
coast), and affording wood and water with as little trouble as any place in
which the Beagle had anchored.

"March 2d. The master set out in the large cutter, with a fortnight's
provisions, to examine the coast between the north part of Christmas Sound
and Point Alikhoolip, near which we passed on the 28th, without seeing much
of it. With {409} moderate weather and a little sunshine, he might have
been expected to return in a week or ten days. He carried a chronometer and
other necessary instruments. Two of the three children, left by their
mother at Stewart Harbour, I sent with Mr. Murray, to be left with any
Fuegians he might find most to the westward, whence they would soon find
their friends. The third, who was about eight years old, was still with us:
she seemed to be so happy and healthy, that I determined to detain her as a
hostage for the stolen boat, and try to teach her English. Lieutenant Kempe
built a temporary house for the carpenters, and other workmen, near the
ship and the spot chosen for observations, so that all our little
establishment was close together. The greater part of the boat's materials
being already prepared, she was not expected to be long in building, under
the able direction and assistance of Mr. May.

"3d. Some Fuegians in a canoe approached us this morning, seeming anxious
to come on board. I had no wish for their company, and was sorry to see
that they had found us out; for it was to be expected that they would soon
pay us nightly as well as daily visits, and steal every thing left within
their reach. Having made signs for them to leave us, without effect, I sent
Mr. Wilson to drive them away, and fire a pistol over their heads, to
frighten them. They then went back, but only round a point of land near the
ship; so I sent the boat again to drive them out of the harbour, and deter
them from paying us another visit. Reflecting, while Mr. Wilson was
following them, that by getting one of these natives on board, there would
be a chance of his learning enough English to be an interpreter, and that
by his means we might recover our lost boat, I resolved to take the
youngest man on board, as he, in all probability, had less strong ties to
bind him to his people than others who were older, and might have families.
With these ideas I went after them, and hauling their canoe alongside of my
boat, told a young man to come into it; he did so, quite unconcernedly, and
sat down, apparently contented and at his ease. The others said nothing,
either to me or to him, but paddled out of the harbour as fast as they
could. {410} They seemed to belong to the same tribe as those we had last
seen.

"4th. This afternoon our boat's keel was laid down, and her moulds were set
up. Fuegia Basket[195] told 'York Minster'[196] all her story; at some
parts of which he laughed heartily. Fuegia, cleaned and dressed, was much
improved in appearance: she was already a pet on the lower deck, and
appeared to be quite contented. York Minster was sullen at first, yet his
appetite did not fail; and whatever he received more than he could eat, he
stowed away in a corner; but as soon as he was well cleaned and clothed,
and allowed to go about where he liked in the vessel, he became much more
cheerful.

"At Cape Castlereagh and the heights over Doris Cove in Gilbert Island, the
rock seemed to contain so much metal, that I spent the greater part of one
day in trying experiments on pieces of it, with a blowpipe and mercury. By
pounding and washing I separated about a tea-spoonful of metal from a piece
of rock (taken at random) the size of a small cup. I put the powder by
carefully, with some specimens of the rock--thinking that some of these
otherwise barren mountains might be rich in metals. It would not be in
conformity with most other parts of the world were the tract of mountainous
islands composing the Archipelago of Tierra del Fuego condemned to internal
as well as external unprofitableness. From the nature of the climate
agriculture could seldom succeed; and perhaps no quadrupeds fit for man's
use, except goats and dogs, could thrive in it: externally too, the land is
unfit for the use of civilized man. In a few years its shores will be
destitute of seal: and then, what benefit will be derived from it?--unless
it prove internally rich, not in gold or silver, but perhaps in copper,
iron, or other metals.

"5th. This day all hands were put on full allowance, our savings since we
left San Carlos having secured a sufficient {411} stock of provisions to
last more than the time allotted for the remainder of our solitary cruise.

"By using substitutes for the mens' shoes, made of sealskin, we secured
enough to last as long as we should want them. I have never mentioned the
state of our sick list, because it was always so trifling. There had been
very little doing in the surgeon's department; nothing indeed of
consequence, since Mr. Murray dislocated his shoulder.

"The promontory of York Minster is a black irregularly-shaped rocky cliff,
eight hundred feet in height, rising almost perpendicularly from the sea.
It is nearly the loftiest as well as the most projecting part of the land
about Christmas Sound, which, generally speaking, is not near so high as
that further west, but it is very barren. Granite is prevalent, and I could
find no sandstone. Coming from the westward, we thought the heights about
here inconsiderable; but Cook, coming from the South Sea, called them 'high
and savage.' Had he made the land nearer the Barbara Channel, where the
mountains are much higher, he would have spoken still more strongly of the
wild and disagreeable appearance of the coast.

"6th. During the past night it blew very hard, making our vessel jerk her
cables with unusual violence, though we had a good scope out, and the water
was perfectly smooth. We saw that the best bower-anchor had been dragged
some distance, it was therefore hove to the bows when its stock was found
to be broken, by a rock, in the midst of good ground, having caught the
anchor. It had been obtained at San Carlos from a merchant brig, but being
much too light for our vessel, had been woulded round with chains to give
it weight: its place was taken by a frigate's stream-anchor, well made and
well tried, which I had procured from Valparaiso.[197] In shifting our
berth, the small bower chain was found to be so firmly fixed round another
rock that for several hours we could not clear it. Such rocks as these are
very treacherous and not easily detected, except by sweeping the bottom
with a line and weights. A very {412} heavy squall, with lightning and
thunder, passed over the ship this afternoon, depressing the sympiesometer
more than I had ever witnessed. Very heavy rain followed.

"8th. In the forenoon I was on a height taking angles, when a large smoke
was made by natives on a point at the entrance of the harbour; and at my
return on board the ship, I found that two canoes had been seen, which
appeared to be full of people. Supposing that they were strangers, I went
in a small boat with two men to see them, and find out if they possessed
any thing obtained from our lost whale-boat, for I thought it probable she
might have been taken along the coast eastward, to elude our pursuit. I
found them in a cove very near where our carpenters were at work. They had
just landed, and were breaking boughs from the trees. I was surprised to
see rather a large party, about fourteen in number, all of whom seemed to
be men, except two women who were keeping the canoes. They wanted me to go
to them, but I remained at a little distance, holding up bits of iron and
knives, to induce them to come to me, for on the water we were less unequal
to them. They were getting very bold and threatening in their manner, and I
think would have tried to seize me and my boat, had not Lieutenant Kempe
come into the cove with six men in the cutter, when their manner altered
directly, and they began to consult together. They were at this time on a
rock rising abruptly from the water, and the canoes, which I wanted to
search, were at the foot of the rock. Under such local disadvantages I
could not persevere without arms, for they had stones, slings, and spears,
ready in their hands. Lieutenant Kempe and myself then returned on board
for arms and more men, for I resolved to drive them out of the harbour, as
it was absolutely necessary. Already they, or their countrymen, had robbed
us of a boat, and endangered the lives of several persons; and had they
been allowed to remain near us, the loss of that part of another boat which
was already built would have followed, besides many things belonging to the
carpenters and armourer, which they were using daily on shore.

"Another motive for searching the canoes, arose from {413} seeing so many
men without women, for I concluded that some of the whale-boat thieves were
among them, who, having seen our cutter go to the westward full of people,
might suppose we had not many left on board: one boat's crew, as they
perhaps imagined, being left on an island, and another away in search of
them. They had hitherto seen only merchant-vessels on this coast, and
judging of the number of a crew by them, might think there could not be
many persons on board, and that the vessel would be easy to take. At all
events they came prepared for war, being much painted, wearing white bands
on their heads, carrying their slings and spears, and having left all their
children and dogs, with most of their women, in some other place.

"Two boats being manned and armed, I went with Lieut. Kempe and Mr. Wilson
to chase the Fuegians, who were paddling towards another part of the
harbour. Seeing the boats approaching, they landed and got on the top of a
rock, leaving the canoes underneath with the two women. From their manner I
saw they were disposed to be hostile, and we therefore approached
leisurely. Their canoes being within our reach, I told the bowman to haul
one alongside that we might search it; but no sooner did his boathook touch
it, than a shower of stones of all sizes came upon us, and one man was
knocked down, apparently killed, by the blow of a large stone on the
temple. We returned their volley with our fire-arms, but I believe without
hitting one of them. Stones and balls continued to be exchanged till the
cutter came to our assistance. The Fuegians then got behind a rock, where
we could not see them, and kept close. Their canoes we took, and finding in
them some bottles[198] and part of our lost boat's gear, we destroyed them.
The man of my crew who was knocked down by a stone was only stunned, and
soon recovered, but the blow was very severe and dangerous. Not choosing to
risk any further injury to our people, and seeing no object to be gained, I
would not land, though our numbers were much superior, and we had {414}
fire-arms. It appeared that the savages knew of no alternative but escape
or death, and that in trying to take them they would certainly do material
injury to some of our party with their spears, stones, or large knives made
of pieces of iron hoops. Remaining therefore with Lieut. Kempe, in the
cutter, to watch their motions, I sent my boat on board with the man who
was hurt. The Fuegians made their escape separately through the bushes, and
were quickly out of sight and reach: we fired a few shots to frighten them,
watched their retreat over the barren upper part of the hills, and then
went to look for their wigwams, which could not be far distant, as I
thought; but after unsuccessfully searching all the coves near us, a smoke
was seen at the opposite side of the sound, on one of the Whittlebury
islands; so concluding it was made by the rest of their tribe, and being
late, I returned on board.

"9th. At daylight, next morning, I went to look for the wigwams, on the
Whittlebury Islands, at the north side of the sound: we saw their smoke
when we were half-way across, but no longer. The natives had probably seen
us, and put out their fire directly, well knowing the difference between
our boat and their own canoes, and noticing her coming from a part of the
sound distant from the point whence they would expect their own people, and
crossing over against a fresh breeze, which a canoe could not attempt to
do. The wigwams were entirely deserted, and almost every thing was taken
away; but near their huts a piece of 'King's white line,' quite new, was
picked up; therefore our boat[199] had been there, or these were some of
the people who stole her. For the late inmates of the wigwams we searched
in vain--only their dogs remained, they themselves being hidden. Looking
round on the other side of that islet, we saw two canoes paddling right
away from the islands, though it was blowing a fresh breeze, and a
considerable sea was running. Knowing, from the place they were in, and
their course, that they were the fugitives from the wigwams, we gave chase,
and came up with them before {415} they could land, but so close to the
shore that while securing one canoe, the other escaped. From that which we
seized a young man and a girl jumped overboard, deserting an old woman and
a child, whom we left in order to chase the young man; but he was so active
in the water that it was fully a quarter of an hour before we could get him
into our boat. Having at last secured him, we followed the others, but they
had all landed and hidden, so we returned across the sound with our
captive. In our way a smoke was seen in a cove of Waterman Island, and
knowing that it must be made by those who escaped us yesterday, as there
were no other natives there, we made sail for it; but the rogues saw us,
and put out their fire. When we reached the spot, however, we found two
wigwams just built, and covered with bark; so that there they had passed
the night after their skirmish. I would not let any one land, as the
Fuegians might be lurking in the bushes, and might be too much for two or
three of us on shore,--but left the place. They would think us gone for
more boats, as at the former meeting, and would shift their quarters
immediately; so by thus harassing them, I hoped to be freed from any more
of their visits while we remained in the neighbourhood.

"The bodily strength of these savages is very great ('York Minster' is as
strong as any two of our stoutest men), which, with their agility, both on
shore and in the water, and their quickness in attack and defence with
stones and sticks, makes them difficult to deal with when out of their
canoes. They are a brave, hardy race, and fight to the last struggle;
though in the manner of a wild beast, it must be owned, else they would
not, when excited, defy a whole boat's crew, and, single-handed, try to
kill the men; as I have witnessed. That kindness towards these beings, and
good treatment of them, is as yet useless, I almost think, both from my own
experience and from much that I have heard of their conduct to sealing
vessels. Until a mutual understanding can be established, moral fear is the
only means by which they can be kept peaceable. As they see only vessels
which when their boats are away have {416} but a few people on board, their
idea of the power of Europeans is very poor, and their dread of fire arms
not nearly so great as might be imagined.

"From this cove we returned to the Beagle. My Fuegian captive, whom I named
'Boat Memory,' seemed frightened, but not low-spirited; he eat enormously,
and soon fell fast asleep. The meeting between him and York Minster was
very tame, for, at first, they would not appear to recognise or speak to
each other. 'Boat' was the best-featured Fuegian I had seen, and being
young and well made, was a very favourable specimen of the race: 'York' was
one of the stoutest men I had observed among them; but little Fuegia was
almost as broad as she was high: she seemed to be so merry and happy, that
I do not think she would willingly have quitted us. Three natives of Tierra
del Fuego, better suited for the purpose of instruction, and for giving, as
well as receiving information, could not, I think, have been found.

"10th. This morning, having been well cleaned and dressed, 'Boat' appeared
contented and easy; and being together, kept York and him in better spirits
than they would probably otherwise have been, for they laughed, and tried
to talk, by imitating whatever was said. Fuegia soon began to learn
English, and to say several things very well. She laughed and talked with
her countrymen incessantly.

"12th. Some evenings, at dusk, I observed large flights of birds, of the
petrel kind, skimming over the sea (like swallows), as if in chase of
insects. These birds were black, about the size of a 'Cape Pigeon.' We
tried to shoot one, but did not succeed."

       *       *       *       *       *


{417}

CHAPTER XXII.

  Mr. Murray returns--Go to New Year Sound--See Diego Ramirez Islands from
  Henderson Island--Weddell's Indian Cove--Sympiesometer--Return to
  Christmas Sound--Beagle sails--Passes the Ildefonso and Diego Ramirez
  Islands--Anchors in Nassau Bay--Orange Bay--Yapoos--Mr. Murray discovers
  the Beagle Channel--Numerous Natives--Guanacoes--Compasses affected--Cape
  Horn--Specimens--Chanticleer--Mistake about St. Francis Bay--Diego
  Ramirez Islands Climate--San Joachim Cove--Barnevelt Isles--Evouts Isle--
  Lennox Harbour.

"14th. This morning the master returned, having succeeded in tracing the
coast far enough to join our former work, although the weather had been
very unfavourable. He met with many Fuegians, most of whom were armed with
slings, spears, and cutting weapons made with pieces of iron hoop fastened
on a stick. They were very troublesome, especially at night, and obliged
him to keep them at a distance. Their respect for a musket was not so great
as might have been expected, and unless they saw it tolerably close, and
pointed directly at them, they cared not. The boat's crew bought some fish
from them, for buttons and other trifles. From forty to fifty men, besides
women and children, were seen in one place alone; and many were met
elsewhere.

"Mr. Murray penetrated nearly to the base of the snow-covered mountains,
which extend to the eastward in an unbroken chain, and ascertained that
there are passages leading from Christmas Sound to the large bay where the
whale-boat was stolen; and that they run near the foot of the mountains. He
also saw a channel leading farther to the eastward than eye-sight could
reach, whose average width seemed to be about a mile. He left the two
children in charge of an old woman whom they met near the westernmost part
which his party reached, who appeared to know them well, and to be very
much pleased at having them placed in her care.

"15th. Raining and blowing:--as usual, I might say. When {418} it moderated
I left the Beagle, and set out in a boat with Mr. Wilson (mate), taking a
fortnight's provisions; though I hoped to be again on board in less than
ten days, by which time our new boat would be finished, and Mr. Stokes, as
well as Mr. Murray, would have laid down his last work. My object was to go
eastward towards Indian Sound and Nassau Bay, but the weather soon stopped
our progress, and obliged us to put into a small cove on the west side of
Point Nativity, where we hoped to get shelter from the increasing wind,
though not from the rain, which poured down in torrents. The cove proved to
be much exposed, but we staid there till daylight on the following morning,
when we pulled out, and round the point to the eastward, gladly enough, for
we had been in a bad berth during the night, exposed to wind and rain,
besides swell. We ran along the land, with a moderate westerly wind,
stopped for a time near Cape Rolle, the point of land next to Weddell's
'Hope Island;' and in the evening went into some openings among the
adjacent islands.

"17th. At daylight we set out again, and ran along-shore with a fresh west
wind, crossed the mouth of a bay which seemed likely to afford shelter, but
did not then delay to look at it closely. Soon after noon we passed
Weddell's 'Leading Hill,' which is a very singular double-peaked height,
conspicuous from a long distance, and remarkable in every point of view.
Between it and Black Point (a projecting craggy rock) lies a bay or sound,
which appears to extend some distance northward. This part of the coast is
bad for vessels to close with, being much broken, and having several rocky
islets scattered near it; but two miles off shore there is no danger.
Having found a secure cove near Leading Hill, we landed, and the men set up
our tent, while Mr. Wilson and I ascended the heights to look round. The
wind soon freshened to a gale, and made us rejoice at having reached a
sheltered place.

"18th. The whole of this day was lost by us, for it blew a strong gale with
continual rain. Collecting limpets and muscles--cutting wood--and drying
our clothes on one side by the fire, while the other got wet, were our only
occupations.

{419}

"19th. Still a strong wind, but less rain. Between the squalls I obtained a
few sights of the sun, for time, and at noon a tolerably good set for
latitude. Being then better weather, and likely to improve, we crossed in
the boat to Leading Hill, and from its summit took the necessary angles. It
was very cold and windy, but we effected all that was then required.

"20th. Decamped very early and ran across Duff Bay, towards Henderson
Island, with a moderately fresh breeze off the land; and as my object was
to obtain a good view and a round of angles from the summit of a height on
that island, I passed Weddell's Morton Isle, Blunder Cove, &c. without
stopping, and reached the north end of Henderson Island soon enough to get
sights for time. From that spot we went a short distance to a cove, where
the boat might remain during my absence on the hill, observed the latitude,
and then ascended. Before we were half-way up, a squall came on from S.W.
and increased rapidly, but having ascended so far, I was not disposed to
turn back, so we pushed on and reached the summit; yet, when there, I could
not use a theodolite, on account of the wind. Towards the east I could see
a long distance, to the farthest of the Hermite Islands; but towards the
west the view was obscured by haze; so leaving the instruments, I hastened
down to the boat and found her safe, though she had been in great danger.
By this time the wind had moderated, and before dark we measured the
distance between the morning and noon stations: that from the latter to the
summit of the hill I had measured, when at the top, by a micrometer. We
then passed round the north end of the island, and in the dark searched the
east side for a resting-place, which after some time was found.

"21st. A fine clear day enabled me to make the necessary observations, and
I then went up the height and succeeded in obtaining a distinct view of the
Diego Ramirez Islands. As this hill is distant from them between fifty and
sixty miles, I felt sure of getting a good cross bearing from the south end
of the Hermite Islands, distant from them, as I then thought, only about
forty, and thus fixing their position.

"New Year Sound appears to be a large body of water {420} extending towards
the N.W., with a multitude of islands scattered about it. From its east
side the land trends away towards a point which is curiously peaked, like a
horn, and which I supposed to be the western point of Nassau Bay.[200]

"22d. We had hardly left our cove, when steady rain set in; however, we
went across towards New Year Sound, sometimes favoured by the wind, but
could do little. As far as I saw the day before, the snowy chain of
mountains continued to the eastward, therefore I had little hope of finding
a body of water in the interior of Tierra del Fuego, about the head of
Nassau Bay. About noon we were near Weddell's 'Indian Cove,' but the
weather being thick I did not recognise it, so we stood up the sound with a
fresh breeze from the W.S.W. I soon found that it led only to the north and
west, and probably communicated with some of the passages which Mr. Murray
saw leading to the eastward from the neighbourhood of Christmas Sound.
Towards the north and east I had already noticed a long range of mountains.
Concluding therefore from what I then observed, and from views obtained
from the heights, that no passage leads from this sound direct to Christmas
Sound, and that to return to the Beagle I must go part of the way by the
sea-coast, or else go round, by a series of intricate passages, to the
places which Mr. Murray had seen in the cutter; I preferred the coast, as a
second view of it would be of use, while a traverse among the islands could
not be very beneficial.

"Putting about, we returned down the sound, the breeze still allowing us to
sail fast. We closed the western shore to look for Indian Cove, and, as the
weather had cleared up, found it without difficulty. It is not so good a
place as I expected; for except at the inner corner close to a run of
water, I found only rocky soundings. The few casts of good ground were so
close to the shore that the place can only be considered fit for a cutter,
or small craft, which could lie quite close to the land. This cove is, in
my opinion, too far inland to be of general use; and an anchorage under
Morton Island would be far preferable {421} for a vessel arriving from sea.
We found an empty North-American cask, apparently left that season: on a
height near the cove there was a pile of stones we had not time to examine:
and much wood appeared to have been cut down lately by the crew of some
vessel. We saw several wigwams, but no Indians. That night we stopped near
the S.W. point of the sound, close to Gold-dust Island.

"23d. After examining the cove, in which we passed the night, and taking
observations, we crossed Duff Bay, towards Leading Hill. I wished to have
seen more of a promising bay on the east side of Morton Island, where I
thought there was good anchorage, but could not afford time, as it was
probable that we should be delayed in our return along this exposed part of
the coast against the prevailing winds. There is a considerable tide
between Morton Isle and the point next to Gold-dust Isle. The flood comes
from the westward, about one knot, or at times two knots, an hour. With the
ebb it is nearly slack water, or perhaps there is a slight tendency towards
the west; and such appears to be the case all along this coast, from
Christmas Sound. We reached Leading Hill late in the afternoon, although
the wind had increased much and was directly against us: at night it blew a
gale from the westward.

"24th. A strong gale prevented our moving, or making any beneficial use of
our time.

"25th. Still blowing very fresh; but I thought we could pull round into the
next bay, and there do some good by planning the harbour, &c., although we
might get no farther for some days. From the season, the state of the
sympiesometer, and the appearance of the weather, I did not expect any
favourable change until about the end of the month. The sympiesometer was
my constant companion: I preferred it to a barometer, as being much more
portable and quicker in its motions. By great exertion on the part of the
men, for it required five hours' hard pulling, we got round a headland into
the next bay, a distance of only four miles. It rained great part of the
time, and in the afternoon poured steadily, but we succeeded in finding a
sheltered spot for our lodging, and soon put ourselves into {422} somewhat
better plight than we had been in during the greater part of the day, the
men having been constantly soaked through, and their hands quite numbed
with cold and wet. I was disappointed by this place; the various coves were
sounded, without getting bottom with twenty-five fathoms of line; and I
could find no anchorage without going further up the inlet than would suit
any vessel running in from sea for a temporary shelter.

"26th. A strong gale prevented our going outside, but in hopes that there
might be an inland passage I set out to look for one. Having pulled and
sailed about six miles up the inlet, we reached its termination, and thence
returned to our bivouac. There seemed to be an opening into Duff Bay not
previously seen, which would have saved us some time and trouble had we
known of its existence.

"27th. The gale continued with more or less violence, and during the
greater part of the day we were occupied in gathering limpets and muscles,
as a stock of food in case of being detained longer than our provisions
would last. Shooting did not succeed, because the sea-birds were very wild
and scarce. I regretted that there was no harbour in the inlet which could
be planned during our stay. Every cove we could find had deep water, and so
rocky a bottom that we found difficulty in securing even our small boat;
for this continued gale raised so much swell that we were kept on the alert
at night to shift her berth as often as the wind changed.

"28th. This day, and the preceding night, the wind was exceedingly violent,
from N.W. to S.W., but generally southward of west. In pulling across the
cove to get limpets, the squalls at times forced the oars out of the men's
hands, and blew them across or away from the boat. Much rain fell during
most nights, but after sunrise it generally ceased; sometimes however the
rain poured down by day as much as by night.

"I here saw many seals teaching their young ones to swim. It was curious to
see the old seal supporting the pup by its flipper, as if to let it breathe
and rest, and then pushing it away into deep water to shift for itself.

{423}

"29th. This morning, with better weather, we sailed very early in hopes to
get round Black Point; the wind being moderate promised well, but, with the
sun, it rose again. However, we tried hard for about six hours, during four
of which I hardly hoped to succeed, for it blew strong, and the tide race
was dangerous: but before evening we gained the sheltered part of Trefusis
Bay. The men were on their oars from five in the morning till four in the
afternoon, and, excepting two rests of a quarter of an hour each, pulling
hard all the time. We landed in a sheltered spot, about half a mile within
the entrance of a passage which leads from Trefusis Bay to Christmas Sound.
Our fatigue and thorough drenching, by sea and rain, was then little cared
for, having gained our point, and being only a day's pull from the Beagle.

"I had seen along this passage from Christmas Sound, as well as from
Leading Hill, and rejoiced to get into it, for the outer coast is a wild
one for a boat at any period of the year--and this was the month of March;
about the worst time.

"30th. A fine clear morning. We started with the sun, and pulled so fast
along in the smooth water, that by the evening we reached our little
vessel, and found that all was well on board; that there had been no more
visits from the Fuegians, nor any troubles. The new boat was finished on
the 23d, only twenty days having been occupied by Mr. May and three men in
building her. Appearance was very much in her favour, notwithstanding the
disadvantages under which she was built. Lieutenant Kempe had finished all
the ship's work with his usual promptness: new topmast rigging had been
fitted, and every thing prepared for sea. I was two days over the time for
which we carried provisions, but by my coxswain's care of them, and by
using limpets and other shell-fish, we still had a sufficiency.

"Having seen as much as seemed necessary of the coast between Christmas
Sound and Nassau Bay (I mean necessary in proportion to our limited time
and provisions), the Ildefonsos and Diego Ramirez Isles were to be our next
objects.

"31st. A strong wind, with much rain, prevented our {424} moving early--but
as the sun rose higher the weather improved, and we tried to weigh,--yet
were provokingly delayed, for the chain was so fast round a rock, that for
nearly an hour we could not move it. At last we succeeded, without injury
to anything--left the harbour, and stood away for the Ildefonsos with a
strong W.S.W. wind and a confused high swell.

"March Harbour (so called from our having passed the month of March in it)
is not so good as I at first thought. The bottom is certainly excellent in
some parts; it is well sheltered, and easy of access, but there are many
rocky places which would injure a hemp cable. Besides, there is a dangerous
rock under water in the wide part of the harbour, hidden by a large patch
of kelp.

"We passed along the S.W. side of the Ildefonsos, at the distance of half a
mile. They appeared like the higher parts of a mountain almost under water,
lying N.W. and S.E., nearly broken through by the sea in several places, so
as to form several islets, of which the highest and largest is about two
hundred feet above the sea, and one-third of a mile in length; another is
about one-quarter of a mile long; the rest are mere rocks. The two larger
are covered with tussac,[201] among which we saw numerous seal which had
scrambled up to the very summits. Having seen enough of these islets, we
hauled our wind, and shortened sail, to prepare for the night: for it blew
a fresh gale, with every appearance of its increasing and drawing to the
southward. I wished to make the Diego Ramirez Islands the next morning, and
thence run to the north-eastward; and, had the wind been moderate, could
have done so without difficulty; but after carrying a press of sail during
the night, and making southing, with as little easting as possible, I found
myself, at daylight next morning, five miles to leeward of the
above-mentioned islands, with the wind strong from the N.W., and too much
sea to allow me to hope to see more of them without remaining under sail
until the weather moderated. This would not have {425} suited the
chronometers, or our limited time; therefore we wore round and steered (by
Weddell's chart) for the western part of the Hermite Islands, intending to
run along the land from West Cape. The wind became more moderate towards
noon, but the weather got so thick that no part of the land could be made
out distinctly; and supposing that a point of land which I saw was Cape
Spencer, we steered directly for it, as the day was drawing to a close and
obliged me to give up my intention of coasting. Nearing the land, I found
it resembled the point I had seen from Henderson Island, and supposed to be
the S.W. extreme of Nassau Bay, but did not correspond to any part of the
Hermite Islands, as shewn by Captain King's plan. Evening was approaching,
thick misty clouds shut out other land from our view, but being a weather
shore, I trusted to finding anchorage somewhere, and stood on.

"The wind increased, and blew in very strong squalls off shore, obliging us
to carry low sail until we had run several miles along the land in smooth
water, when we anchored at the entrance of a bay, in thirteen fathoms
water, over a coarse sandy bottom. A low projecting point covered us from
the force of the wind as it then blew; and the land on each side from all
other westerly winds: but the squalls increased so violently in the early
part of the night, that although in smooth water, with eighty fathoms of
chain out, the top-gallant masts down, and yards braced up, the vessel
drove, and we were obliged to let go another anchor, and veer a long scope
of cable; after which she held on firmly through the night.

"2d. At daylight we hove up the best bower, but found one fluke broken off.
After getting the sheet anchor to the bows, and the broken one in-board, we
weighed and made sail to windward, in search of a good anchorage. When the
weather cleared in the morning, I had discovered that we were in Nassau
Bay, near Orange Bay, and that the curiously-peaked headland we had passed
was 'False Cape Horn,' the same which I had seen from Henderson Island.
Finding this the case, I determined to turn the mistake to account, and at
once set to work in this quarter, postponing our visit to the Hermite {426}
Islands. Short runs were essential, because of the chronometers, and this
last had been a long one for them, with much motion, therefore it was
necessary I should get observations.

"Towards noon the weather cleared and became very fine, with a light breeze
from the northward. We stood across near the north end of the Hermite
Islands, carrying soundings right across; but the view we obtained of the
head of Nassau Bay, did not encourage us to hope for either interior waters
or a passage, as the mountains seemed to continue in an unbroken chain to
the eastward of New Island, and from the mast-head I saw other high
mountains far to the eastward. In the afternoon we stood into a
fine-looking clear bay, well sheltered, and with regular soundings, from
twelve to twenty fathoms over fine sand. I afterwards found that this was
Orange Bay, and that the bay at the south point of which we anchored last
night was that called, by the Dutch, Schapenham Bay. Being a large, roomy
place, with even bottom, we remained at single anchor; but the glass had
been falling so much, and was then so extremely low, that I thought it
prudent to prepare for the worst, and struck topmasts.

"During the latter part of our stay in Christmas Sound, and up to the
present time, our sick-list had been considerable, therefore I was not
sorry to gain a safe anchorage in a place which appeared likely to afford
the means of recruiting our invalids, and restoring them to health. Colds
and rheumatisms, owing to bleak winds and much wet, were the chief
complaints. This was the only time since the Beagle left Rio de Janeiro
that her sick-list had been worthy of notice.

"Notwithstanding the unusual fall of the barometer and sympiesometer and
their still continuing to sink, this day was as fine, and seemed as likely
to continue so, as any day I had ever seen, therefore we took advantage of
it, by getting the necessary observations for time, latitude, and true
bearing; by airing bedding, and cleaning the ship throughout. This appeared
to be an excellent place for vessels: the land around is rather low, and
looked much more cheerful than the high dismal mountains under which we
last anchored. Wood and water {427} were plentiful, and easily obtained.
Wild-fowl were numerous, and our people brought on board a serviceable
supply, enough for all the sick, and for most of those who were in health.

"3d and 4th. Still very fine weather, although the barometer and
sympiesometer were lower than I had yet seen them in this country. Our
Fuegians were becoming very cheerful, and apparently contented. We gave
them as much fresh provision (birds and fish) as we could obtain with guns
and lines, and hitherto they had fared very well. All that was shot went to
one stock, from which it was divided in rotation to the messes, the sick
being first provided for, and then the Fuegians.

"5th and 6th. Two more fine days, with a very low glass, shook my faith in
the certainty of the barometer and sympiesometer.[202] During those days,
the wind had been light from N.N.W., and twice before I had known these
instruments to be similarly affected during exactly similar wind and
weather: once at Port Desire, on the coast of Patagonia; and once at Port
Gallant, while I was in the Otway Water.

"The master went towards the head of Nassau Bay, and Mr. Stokes set out in
the opposite direction. Mr. Murray had one of our best chronometers, kept
in a box, well packed in wool, but exposed to the temperature of the air.
Before going away and after returning, it was kept and rated in the same
box on deck, because the variations of temperature in the open air of this
climate are small; much less than a chronometer would experience if
alternating between a warm cabin and a cold boat. I was sadly grieved at
finding that some Fuegians who arrived were not of the same tribe as our
captives, nor even spoke the same language. On the contrary, much enmity
appeared to exist between them; though their colour, features, and habits
were similar. At first, 'York' and 'Boat' would not go near them; but
afterwards took delight in trying to cheat them out of the things they
offered to barter; and mocked their way of speaking and laughing; {428}
pointing at them, and calling them 'Yapoo, yapoo.' 'Fuegia' went on deck;
but the instant she saw them, screamed and ran away. Some one told her, in
jest, to go into their canoe and live with them, which frightened her so
much, that she burst into tears and ran below to hide herself. After they
were gone, 'Boat' and 'York' made us understand they had had fights with
that tribe, and shewed the scars of wounds received from them. By the help
of signs we could comprehend much of their meaning; but very few words were
yet learned on either side. We afterwards found that these Yapoos built
their wigwams in a manner differing from that of the western tribes, being
made of a number of poles, or pieces of wood, placed on end around a small
space, and meeting at the top.

"Our Yapoo acquaintances established themselves in the bay near our forge,
but without attempting to steal any thing. They frequently came alongside
the ship with fish, which they caught in the kelp. They take these fish by
means of a line without a hook, having only a small piece of bait at the
end, with which to entice them to the top of the water, close to the side
of the canoe. A fish bites, and before it can detach its small teeth from
the soft, tough bait, the hand holding the line jerks the prize above the
water, and the other catches it. The fisher then bites out a large piece of
its belly, takes out the inside, and hangs the fish on a stick by the fire
in the canoe.

"10th. Still fine steady weather, notwithstanding the unusually low fall of
the barometer already mentioned.

"12th. By the assistance of Mr. May, at the forge, we made one good anchor
out of two broken ones, and fitted new hawse-plates where they were worn
through, by constantly using the chains. Fortunately, we brought from San
Carlos a good supply of iron and coals, and applied the latter only to the
use of the armourer and the small stoves, so that we were enabled to use
the forge very often; and between the wants of the ship and those of the
boats, there was always much work for that most useful appendage.

{429}

"The glasses had at last been rising; and during the past night and this
day, the wind was very strong with much rain. The wind shifted from the
northern quarter into the southern, drawing round to the S.E.; which, of
course, would make the mercury rise higher after being so very low, though
the weather might prove extremely bad.

"14th. The master returned, and surprised me with the information that he
had been through and far beyond Nassau Bay. He had gone very little to the
northward, but a long distance to the east, having passed through a narrow
passage, about one-third of a mile wide, which led him into a straight
channel, averaging about two miles or more in width, and extending nearly
east and west as far as the eye could reach. Westward of the passage by
which he entered, was an opening to the north-west; but as his orders
specified north and east, he followed the eastern branch of the channel,
looking for an opening on either side, without success. Northward of him
lay a range of mountains, whose summits were covered with snow, which
extended about forty miles, and then sunk into ordinary hills that, near
the place which he reached, shewed earthy or clayey cliffs towards the
water. From the clay cliffs his view was unbroken by any land in an E.S.E.
direction, therefore he must have looked through an opening at the outer
sea. His provisions being almost exhausted, he hastened back.

"On the south side of the channel there were likewise mountains of
considerable elevation; but, generally speaking, that shore was lower than
the opposite. Mr. Murray saw great numbers of natives near the narrow
passage and upwards of a hundred canoes were seen in one day, each
containing from two to six people. These Fuegians had much guanaco skin,
and many of the bones of that animal made into spear-heads, but very little
seal-skin. The wigwams were large and commodious, compared with those of
the western tribes, being built of small trees piled up endwise, and tied
together at the top, their outside being covered with bushes, grass, &c. to
keep out the cold, and the earth inside scooped out much below the surface
of the ground. Some could hold about twice as many people {430} as the
western wigwams: but all were not so large. Every canoe gave chase to our
boat, eager to see the strangers, and exchange small fish, spear-heads, or
arrows, for buttons, beads, and other trifles. No arms or offensive weapons
were seen among them, excepting fish spears, bows, arrows, and slings: they
had not even clubs, nor such lances as are used by the western tribes. They
seemed to be more tractable, and less disposed to quarrel than those of the
west. Wherever the boat went, she was followed by a train of canoes, each
full of people, and having a fire smoking in the middle. Where they got the
guanaco skins was a question not easy to answer. Was there a passage to the
northward, by which they could trade with the people living there?--or were
there guanacoes in the southern part of Tierra del Fuego? Both the bones
and skins seemed abundant; but the people made signs to Mr. Murray that
they came from the eastward:--none pointed towards the north. One native
showed how they ran, and their shape, and how they were killed, also the
kind of noise they made.

"15th. Mr. Stokes returned, after going a long way to the north and west,
without finding a passage into New Year Sound. His examination, united to
Mr. Murray's, almost completed the north and west part of Nassau Bay; and
only the east side remained to be explored. Our anchorage, called Orange
Bay, is excellent; and one of the few on this coast which are fit for a
squadron of line-of-battle ships. Its approach from the sea is as easy as
the harbour is commodious. There are three fathoms close to the shore; yet
in no part are there more than twenty; and every where there is a sandy
bottom. Water is abundant; wood grows close to the sea; wild-fowl are
numerous; and although shell-fish are scarce, plenty of small fish may be
caught with hook and line among the kelp, and in the summer a seine will
furnish abundance.

"On the 16th we left Orange Bay, but light winds prevented our reaching the
open sea that day, or during the following night. I was equally disposed to
run out again to the Diego Ramirez--to look at the coast west of False Cape
for about ten miles--or to run for the Bay of St. Francis; but the {431}
wind failed entirely. During the night we had a breeze that would have
carried us down to the latter spot, but wishing to see, and take bearings
of the land as I went, I did not profit by it; and in the morning was
baffled with light airs and a current setting to the northward.

"17th. During the early part of the day we had light variable winds,
scarcely sufficient to help us against the current which seemed to set
constantly into the bay, from the sea, at the rate of about one knot an
hour. The manner in which our compasses were affected in this bay was
remarkable; all of them being extremely sluggish, and, unless continually
shaken, they did not show the proper magnetic bearings, or agree together,
nearer than two points. I sharpened the centres with much care, and
examined the agate caps, without improving the results. The compasses
considered the best in other places, were here as bad as the worst; an
excellent one, upon Alexander's principle, with central jimbals, being
nearly useless. In trying the compasses on shore, the heavy cards with
large needles had been less affected by local influence than light delicate
cards of Kater: the heavy ones having averaged 24° variation along the
whole coast, though Kater's differed in some places as much as from 19° to
28°; agreeing nearly with each other, but not with Gilbert's or Alexander's
compasses, in both of which were cards comparatively heavy.

"We passed much too close to West Cape, but having fortunately cleared it,
ran along the land before a moderate breeze, and rounded Cape Spencer at
dusk. The weather was so thick that Cape Horn could not be seen, and we
mistook the former for the famous cape; especially as, in that view, the
lower part of Cape Spencer looked like the head of a double-horned
rhinoceros: but as we drew nearer, Cape Horn appeared. The wind failed as
we entered the Bay of St. Francis, and left us to the alternative of
anchoring in deep water, or driving about with the current: we therefore
anchored off San Joachim Cove, near the Seal Rock. The night proved fine,
so we lay quietly till next morning, and then made sail to a breeze from
the northward and anchored in San Martin {432} Cove. I afterwards went in a
boat to Horn Island, to ascertain the nature of the landing, and whether it
was practicable to carry any instruments to the summit of the Cape. Many
places were found where a boat might land; and more than one spot where she
could be hauled ashore: so that taking instruments to the summit did not
seem likely to be a very difficult task. As the weather continued
favourable I returned on board that night, and the next morning (19th)
arranged for a visit to Cape Horn; a memorial having been previously
prepared, and securely enclosed in a stone jar.

"After taking observations at noon for latitude, we set out, carrying five
days' provisions, a good chronometer, and other instruments. We landed
before dark, hauled our boat up in safety on the north-east side, and
established ourselves for the night on Horn Island.

"20th. At daybreak we commenced our walk across the island, each carrying
his load; and by the time the sun was high enough for observing, were near
the summit, and exactly in its meridian; so we stopped while I took two
sets of sights and a round of angles. Soon afterwards we reached the
highest point of the Cape, and immediately began our work; I and my
coxswain, with the instruments; and Lieut. Kempe with the boat's crew
raising a pile of stones over the memorial.

"At first the Diego Ramirez Islands were seen, but before I could get the
theodolite fixed and adjusted, the horizon became hazy. At noon
satisfactory sets of circum-meridional altitudes were obtained with two
good sextants. A round of angles, compass bearings for the variation, and
good afternoon sights for time completed our success. The pile made over
our memorial was eight feet high, and in it were stones which required the
united exertions of all seven men to raise to the top. We drank the health
of His Majesty King George the Fourth, and gave three hearty cheers,
standing round the Union Jack. Directly all was finished we travelled
towards our boat as fast as possible: but darkness surrounded us before we
were more than half-way. Those who had loads which would not be hurt by
tumbling about among bushes, travelled on; but, having the chronometer and
a sextant to take care of, I waited till one of the men returned with a
lantern. All reached the boat before nine o'clock, without losing or
injuring any thing; but the cargo of stones, for specimens, which each
brought back, delayed our returning progress materially.

[Illustration: C. Martens S. Bull

NORTH-EAST SIDE OF WOLLASTON ISLAND NEAR CAPE HORN.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1838]

{433} "At day-light (21st) we launched and stowed our boat, and set out on
our return. We reached the ship that afternoon, well laden with fragments
of Cape Horn.

"22d. Since the end of March the weather had been more settled, and much
finer than we had yet had it on any part of the coast; but our visit to
Horn Island was only just in time, for it soon changed again to blowing and
raining. Being close to the head of the cove, we did not feel the
williwaws--though they appeared to blow sharply enough about the middle of
it. I did not wonder at the American, whom we met in the Strait of
Magalhaens, saying that he saw 'marks of a very large establishment;' for
the head of this cove appeared to have been colonized by the Chanticleer,
so many remains of wooden roads and wooden houses were visible every where.

"23d-24th. Bad weather. I was waiting anxiously for an opportunity of
getting a true bearing of Diego Ramirez, from the top of Kater Peak, or
Cape Spencer, to cross the bearings obtained from Henderson Island.

"25th. I went up to the summit of the Peak, but found so thick a haze, that
no distant object could be seen. Leaving the instruments at the top, after
taking a few angles, and observations of the sun for true bearings, I
descended, and afterwards examined St. Bernard Cove, which appeared to be a
good harbour. By comparing the old charts with this place and Nassau Bay, I
became convinced that there had been a great mistake, and that the Bay of
Nassau is, or rather was, the bay of St. Francis; and that the plan given
in the Admiralty charts is a very fair sketch of its west side, from False
Cape to Packsaddle Island; but the bottom and east side of the bay are
evidently put in at random, and would have been better left out to give
place to the words, 'Land was seen in this direction.' Neither in shape,
bearings, distance, or {434} soundings, does that plan correspond with the
place now called St. Francis Bay; but it does agree very closely,
considering the date of its being made, with the part I have mentioned. The
words Cape Horn may have misled the compiler, as the plan does not show any
latitude or longitude, and those who since visited the place, previously to
the Beagle's arrival, had not been in Nassau Bay.

"26th. Another fine day. I went up the peak again and obtained the desired
angles; but Diego Ramirez appeared nearly as distant as when seen from the
top of Henderson Island. Meanwhile the Beagle was unmoored and got under
sail. I reached her outside the cove, and stood to seaward; but the day was
too fine, there being little or no wind till dark, when a light breeze
carried us out of the bay. I steered for the Diego Ramirez Islands, anxious
to profit by the fine weather, and examine them more closely.

"27th. The water being smooth, we had a good opportunity of taking angles
for placing the coast between West Cape and Cape Spencer, which completed
what was wanting in that part; afterwards, we again steered towards the
Diego Ramirez.

"28th. A fine morning with a fresh breeze, just such as we desired. Having
kept our wind under easy sail during the night, we bore up, and, at
daylight, ran along the east side of the rocky cluster, the wind being from
the N.E. We hove-to frequently to take angles and soundings, and sailed
quite round the islands at the average distance of half a mile, and then
stood away to the northward. They are quite similar to the Ildefonsos; the
top of a ridge of hills showing above the water, and broken through by the
sea. The two largest are about two hundred feet high, and are covered with
tussac: there is a shingle beach on one (the second in size), where a boat
may be hauled up in safety; and there is enough good water on the east side
of the same island to supply thirty men. A furious surf breaks against the
west shore, and sends a spray over the whole island. There is no sheltered
anchorage for a vessel: for though she might bring up in deep water, on the
eastern side of the group, for a short time, she would even then risk {435}
losing her anchor. The least water I found was fifty fathoms, though
Weddell's chart shows that there is less than forty off the S.E. end. The
heavy swell prevented my landing; but the appearance of the rocks induced
me to suppose that they were greenstone. If not of that nature, and similar
to the rock about Cape Horn, they may be of very hard sandstone.

"29th. In this climate, during the few intervals of settled fine weather,
the sky is frequently overcast soon after sunset, and a slight shower
falls. I noticed this frequently here, as well as during the preceding
April, May, and June, in the Strait.

"We stood into the bay which lies between False Cape and New Year Sound;
but it offered nothing inviting to a ship, being a leeward bight, with
rocks and islets scattered along it near the shore. Perhaps there is
shelter for a vessel amongst them; but I would not choose their
neighbourhood, if it could be avoided, as the bay is exposed to the S.W.
winds, which on this coast are the worst. The breeze freshening, and
drawing to the northward, enabled us to reach Cape Spencer in the evening,
when, as the weather promised ill, I was glad to anchor in eighteen
fathoms, over a sandy bottom, off the entrance of San Joachim Cove.

"Expecting wind, we sent top-gallant masts on deck, braced up, and veered
to eighty fathoms. After eight the weather cleared, and appeared likely to
remain fine, but the glasses continued to fall. At ten a sudden heavy
squall came over the land, and the tops of the hills became thickly covered
with clouds. Successive furious gusts followed: we let go a second anchor,
and veered a whole cable on each. The squalls came most violently from the
S.W., and in half an hour the bank of clouds disappeared; but a strong gale
from S.W. continued till daylight, when it moderated. Cape Spencer
protected us very well, both from wind and sea: should a ship wish to enter
San Martin Cove, and the wind or daylight fail her, she will find this spot
a convenient stopping-place.

"30th. The Beagle unmoored, got under sail, and stood towards Cape Horn: at
noon she was close to the famous Cape, with beautifully fine weather, more
like the climate of {436} Madeira than that of fifty-six south latitude.
During this day I had excellent opportunities of taking angles, bearings,
and soundings, which I hoped would be sufficient for the south and east
sides of the Hermite Islands. The following night we worked to the
northward, near the Barnevelt Islands, the weather being fine, and the moon
shining brightly.

"May 1st. A beautiful day--May-day indeed. I landed on the Barnevelt
Islands, and took sights for time, latitude, and true bearing, besides a
round of angles, while the Beagle was making slow progress to the
northward, the wind being very light, and variable. There is no good
landing-place on those islands; but as the water was then comparatively
smooth, we were enabled to land upon a steep rocky part, where the surf did
not break much. They are two low islets, lying nearly north and south,
covered with grass, tussac, and weeds. The largest is about half a mile
long, and one-third of a mile wide; the other is about two cables' length
square. Several rocks lie off the south end, towards both the east and
west; and one above water lies detached, towards the Hermite Islands,
nearly in mid-channel: but no other appearance of danger was visible. The
angles gained here, crossing those from Orange Bay, bounded the Hermite
Islands towards the north--though the detail of their coast-line,
northwards, yet remained to be ascertained.

"2d. As fine a day as the preceding. We were close to Evouts, an islet
similar to the Barnevelts, but rather higher. The weather enabled Mr.
Wilson to continue his sketches of the coast: but indeed no part along
which we sailed had been quite omitted. In the afternoon we closed the
shore near New Island, and were looking out sharply for banks and shoals,
fancying, because the land looked lower, and the Nassau flat had shoal
soundings, that we should find banks detached from the land. Shoaler water
we certainly found, compared with that to which we had been lately
accustomed, namely, from fifteen to twenty fathoms, gradually decreasing as
we neared the shore, but we never had less than ten till we were standing
into a harbour in the evening. I could here trace no {437} resemblance
whatever to any published chart; but seeing a place at the back of some low
islets which appeared likely to afford sheltered anchorage, we steered for
it, and at sunset anchored in a well-sheltered harbour on the east side of
a large island, to the west of New Island. The water shoaled gradually,
over a fine sandy bottom; but we ran in rather too far, and had only three
fathoms after veering cable, so we were obliged to shift our berth.

"3d. Mr. Murray prepared to go along the coast towards Cape Good Success,
carrying one of the chronometers, and other necessary instruments, and
taking three weeks' provisions. He set out, in a whale-boat, with six men,
well armed and equipped in every way. Having despatched the master, I
prepared for an excursion into the interior passages of this part of Tierra
del Fuego: while Mr. Stokes, in another boat, was to continue the survey of
the coast from the east side of the head of Nassau Bay to the vicinity of
New Island; and Lieut. Kempe would take care of the ship, and forward her
refitting, besides wooding and watering.

       *       *       *       *       *


{438}

CHAPTER XXIII.

  Set out in boats--Find Guanacoes--Murray Narrow--Birch Fungus--Tide--
  Channel--Glaciers--View--Mountains--Unbroken chain--Passages--
  Steam-vessels--Jemmy Button--Puma--Nest--Accident--Natives--Murray's
  Journal--Cape Graham--Cape Kinnaird--Spaniard Harbour--Valentyn Bay--Cape
  Good Success--Natives--Lennox Island--Strait Le Maire--Good Success Bay--
  Accident--Tide Race--San Vicente--San Diego--Tides--Soundings--North-east
  Coast--San Sebastian--Reflections--Port Desire--Monte Video--Santa
  Catalina--Rio de Janeiro.

"4th. Mr. Stokes and I each began another trip in the boats, taking
chronometers, and the necessary instruments. He steered to the northward,
to get to the mainland; I kept outside to the south-westward, to make the
most direct course towards the communication between Nassau Bay and the
newly discovered passage or channel. I was surprised to find that the
eastern shore of Nassau Bay resembled much of the coast of Patagonia (being
a stratum of earth without rock), and differed entirely from the general
character of the coasts and islands of Tierra del Fuego. At sunset we
landed, and hauled up our boat on a shingle beach which extended several
miles, and upon walking only a few yards inland I saw the prints of large
cloven hoofs, almost the size of those of a cow. This discovery gave an
answer to the question about the guanaco skins and bones found among the
Fuegians, but made me less sanguine of finding a passage northward through
the interior of the country. Much brushwood was found near this place; and
a profusion of rich grass covered an extensive plain.

"5th. We launched the boat, and continued our course along-shore, finding
rather shoal water (three to six fathoms within about half a mile), with a
very thick bed of kelp, through which it was difficult to force the boat.
We had not advanced far, when, passing round a low point of land, we saw
{439} four fine guanacoes feeding close to the water. They did not seem to
be much alarmed; but walked away from us round a projecting part of the
shore, which prevented our getting a shot at them. They appeared to be much
larger than those I had seen near Port Desire, on the Patagonian coast,
their bodies being far heavier, and their tails longer and more bushy.
These differences might be the natural result of a different climate, as
cool weather, with plenty of food and water, would probably increase their
size. I would not delay, on their account, hoping to fall in with others,
but pushed on along the shore. These animals were near what is called in
the chart 'Windhond Bay.' In the afternoon, we were again among rocky
mountains and deep-water shores, and being so fortunate as to get a fresh
breeze from the S.E., made much progress before night. We saw several
canoes, full of natives; but did not turn aside to speak to them, as time
was too precious.

"6th. A very cold and blowing morning, the wind being against us, yet we
made better progress than I had hoped for, as our boat proved to be so
excellent; and whether sailing or pulling, was all we could wish for. This
night we bivouacked close to the Murray Narrow, but took care not to land
till after dark, and then carefully concealed the fire, so that our rest
might not be disturbed by visits from the Fuegians. A sharp look-out was,
of course, kept by the watch; and by my two dogs, who were very useful in
that way.

"7th. Soon after we set out, many canoes were seen in chase of us; but
though they paddled fast in smooth water, our boat moved too quickly for
them to succeed in their endeavours to barter with us, or to gratify their
curiosity. The Murray Narrow is the only passage into the long channel
which runs so nearly east and west. A strong tide sets through it, the
flood coming from the channel. On each side is rather low land, rising
quickly into hills, behind which are mountains: those on the west side
being high, and covered with snow. When we stopped to cook and eat our
dinner, canoes came from all sides, bringing plenty of fish for barter.
None of the natives had any arms; they seemed to be smaller in size, and
less disposed {440} to be mischievous, than the western race: their
language sounded similar to that of the natives whom we saw in Orange Bay.
We found a very large wigwam, built in a substantial manner, and a much
better place to live in than many of the huts which are called houses in
Chilóe. I think twenty men might have stood upright in it, in a circle;
but, probably, of these Fuegians, it would house thirty or forty in the
cold weather.

"While our men were making a fire and cooking, I walked into the wood, but
found it bore little resemblance to that which our eyes had lately been
accustomed to. The trees were mostly birch, but grew tall and straight. The
ground was dry and covered with withered leaves, which crackled as I
walked; whereas, in other parts where we had lately passed our time, the
splashing sound of wet, marshy soil had always attended our footsteps, when
not on rock. These Fuegians appeared to think the excrescences which grow
on the birch trees, like the gall-nuts on an oak, an estimable dainty. They
offered us several, some as large as an apple, and seemed surprised at our
refusal. Most of them had a small piece of guanaco, or seal-skin, on their
shoulders or bodies, but not enough for warmth: perhaps they did not
willingly approach strangers with their usual skin dress about them, their
first impulse, on seeing us, being to hide it. Several, whom I surprised at
their wigwams, had large skins round their bodies, which they concealed
directly they saw me. Fish and the birch fungus must be their chief food,
for shell-fish are scarce and small; but they catch an abundance of
excellent rock-fish, smelt, and what might be called a yellow mullet.
Guanaco meat may occasionally be obtained by them, but not in sufficient
quantity to be depended upon as an article of daily subsistence.

"Leaving the natives, we sailed across towards the western arm of the long
channel, and continued making our way westward, with oar and sail, until
dusk, when we landed, unperceived, as we thought, and established ourselves
for the night. Just as we had moored the boat, kindled a fire, and pitched
our tent, a canoe came into the cove; another and another followed, until
we were surrounded with natives. Knowing {441} we must either drive them
away by force, or be plagued with them all night, we at once packed up our
things, and wished them good evening. About three miles further westward,
we again landed, and fixed our tent in a cove, which gave us good shelter
through the night, without any interruption. It was high water this
afternoon at four o'clock (being the day of full moon), and the tide rose
three feet. The channel here, and opposite the Narrow, is about three miles
wide; on its north side is an unbroken line of high mountains, covered with
snow to within about a thousand feet of the water. Southward are likewise
snow-covered heights, so that the channel is formed by the valley lying
between two parallel ridges of high mountains.

"8th. This morning it froze very sharply. We started at sun-rise, with a
fine breeze from the eastward, and made a long run before it. The channel
preserved the same character, and nearly the same width; on the north, the
mountains continued without any opening; but a few miles farther, we saw
what appeared to be one. I soon found that there was one passage leading
westward, and another rather to the southward of west, which appeared to
open into the sea. The easterly breeze failing, and squalls from the N.W.
succeeding, we did not make much progress in the afternoon; yet before dark
had reached the place where the two channels commence, and stopped for the
night on a small island. Soon after dark, one of the boat's crew was
startled by two large eyes staring at him, out of a thick bush, and he ran
to his companions, saying he had seen the devil! A hearty laugh at his
expense was followed by a shot at the bush, which brought to the ground a
magnificent horned owl.

"Next day, we continued our westerly route. No natives were seen, though a
few wigwams, of the round-topped kind, were passed. The westernmost
sharp-pointed, or Yapoo wigwam, was on the main-land, close to the island
of the Devil; it was made of small trees, piled up in a circle (the
branches and roots having been broken off) with the smaller ends meeting at
the top. The boat's crew said it had been a 'Meeting-House,' and perhaps
they were not far wrong; for being so {442} large, and just on what might
be called neutral ground between the two tribes, it is not unlikely that
there may have been many a meeting there--perhaps many a battle. At the
separation, or meeting of the two channels, it was high water at a quarter
before five this morning, and the flood came from the west, about a knot an
hour; the ebb-tide set to the west at about half that strength. Much
drift-wood and large fragments of ice were carried along with it. Between
some of the mountains the ice extended so widely as to form immense
glaciers, which were faced, towards the water, by lofty cliffs. During a
beautifully fine and still night, the view from our fireside, in this
narrow channel, was most striking, though confined. Thickly-wooded and very
steep mountains shut us in on three sides, and opposite, distant only a few
miles, rose an immense barrier of snow-covered mountains, on which the moon
was shining brightly. The water between was so glassy, that their outline
might be distinctly traced in it: but a death-like stillness was sometimes
broken by masses of ice falling from the opposite glaciers, which crashed,
and reverberated around--like eruptions of a distant volcano.

"10. Before daylight this morning, we were on our oars; and by the time the
sun was high enough for observing, were many miles westward of our
resting-place. After sights, while the men were cooking, I obtained a few
bearings, and prepared to return, not intending to go further westward. I
saw water from that spot, more than twenty miles to the west (by compass);
and then my view was limited by the channel turning towards the south. In
those twenty miles, not the slightest appearance of an opening to the
northward could be seen; mountain succeeded mountain, in unbroken
succession. Three ridges, or ranges, could be traced, lying parallel to
each other; and the nearest summits of those in the third, or furthest
range, stretching from the northward and eastward of me, and continuing, as
far as eye could reach, towards the north and west, were at least five
leagues distant. Their height I supposed to be about four thousand feet:
that of those nearest to me, about two thousand: and of those in the middle
range, mentioned {443} just now, about three thousand. At a distance, the
channel appeared to trend to the southward of west, and there the sides of
the mountains seemed to be very bare, and weather-beaten, while near me
they were covered with wood. This led me to conclude that farther westward
they were open to the sea winds, and that there the channel ended. By the
observations, I found that we were[203] nearly in the longitude of
Christmas Sound, and in latitude 54° 54' S., being therefore twenty miles
south of the end of Admiralty Sound, but considerably to the westward of
it. This position, and the bearings and estimated distances, showed me that
the other arm of this long channel opened near the spot where Mr. Murray
laid down (near the head of Christmas Sound) a 'channel, running to the
eastward, beyond eyesight;' and that the branch in which I was must lead
towards the bay or sound to the N.W. of Christmas Sound, at the base of
very high land, which Mr. Murray laid down as 'an unbroken range of
snow-covered mountains.' The time of high water in this channel exactly
corresponded with that on the adjacent sea-coast, but did not nearly agree
with that of the Strait of Magalhaens. These facts, and the appearance of
the land, removed every doubt in my mind of the existence of an unbroken
chain of mountains, reaching from the Barbara Channel to the Bell Mountain,
and I therefore decided to spend no further time in searching thereabouts
for a passage northward, but make all haste to examine the exterior shores.

"The channel here was about a mile wide, but the mountains on each side
rising so abruptly, made it appear much narrower. It might be a good
passage for a ship to sail through, from the westward, were it not for the
trouble and anxiety of getting in with the land at the right place; and
that a ship might sail on her course, in the open sea, by night as well as
by day; but here she could hardly choose to run at night, because there are
a few low islets, near mid-channel, in some parts. For a boat, in case of
shipwreck, or other urgent reason, it might be convenient: but going
through to the westward would be very difficult, because it would be {444}
necessary to ply to windward all day, and every day, making half-mile
boards in defiance of squalls strong enough to capsize a vessel. A
steam-vessel might answer in this region, as there is plenty of wood every
where. Directly the noon observations were finished, and the instruments
safely stowed, we began our return, and as a fresh breeze sprung up from
the westward, we dashed along with a favouring tide at a great rate.

"11th. Next day we landed, for dinner and rest, near the Murray Narrow, and
close to a wigwam, whose inmates ran away; but soon returned, on seeing us
seated quietly by their fire. We bought fish from them for beads, buttons,
&c., and gave a knife for a very fine dog, which they were extremely
reluctant to part with; but the knife was too great a temptation to be
resisted, though dogs seemed very scarce and proportionably valuable.
Afterwards we continued our route, but were stopped when in sight of the
Narrow by three canoes full of natives, anxious for barter. We gave them a
few beads and buttons, for some fish; and, without any previous intention,
I told one of the boys in a canoe to come into our boat, and gave the man
who was with him a large shining mother-of-pearl button. The boy got into
my boat directly, and sat down. Seeing him and his friends seem quite
contented, I pulled onwards, and, a light breeze springing up, made sail.
Thinking that this accidental occurrence might prove useful to the natives,
as well as to ourselves, I determined to take advantage of it. The canoe,
from which the boy came, paddled towards the shore; but the others still
paddled after us, holding up fish and skins to tempt us to trade with them.
The breeze freshening in our favour, and a strong tide, soon carried us
through the Narrow, and half an hour after dark we stopped in a cove, where
we had passed the second night of this excursion. 'Jemmy Button,' as the
boat's crew called him, on account of his price, seemed to be pleased at
his change, and fancied he was going to kill guanaco, or w[)a]n[)a]k[=a]ye,
as he called them--as they were to be found near that place.

"12th. We continued our course with a fresh and favouring {445} breeze from
the N.E.; passed Windhond Bay, and at sunset hauled the boat up, though a
surf on the stony beach made it a difficult task. Several guanacoes were
seen near the shore as we passed along.

"At daylight this morning (13th), we went in search of guanacoes; but,
seeing none, soon returned to the boat, and launched her. I lost my new dog
in the bushes, yet we could not stop to recover him. During our walk this
morning, I observed traces of a large land-animal, which I supposed to be a
puma; and two of the men noticed a place, like a large nest, made in the
trees by the natives, in which I have no doubt they watch for the
guanacoes, to spear them as they pass underneath. We reached the Beagle in
the evening, and found all well on board excepting one man, who, in
carrying a guanaco,[204] shot by the cutter's crew, had slipped and broken
his leg. Mr. Stokes, with whom he was, contrived to set it for him; but
very properly made the best of his way to our ship with the man, whose leg
was there found to be so well set, and bandaged up with splints, by those
in the boat, that the surgeon had nothing to alter. Mr. Stokes went away
again directly; and both he and Mr. Murray were absent at my return; but
Lieut. Kempe, with the few men left on board, had done what was required,
and gave a good account of the harbour, with respect to safety as well as
shelter from wind. Ten canoes had come, at different times, to the ship;
but the natives were extremely quiet and inoffensive, and sold our people a
large quantity of fish. By success in shooting, Lieut. Kempe had been
enabled to stop the issue of salt provisions for two days. Our Fuegians
were in high spirits, and the meeting between them and Jemmy Button was
droll enough: they laughed at him, called him Yapoo, and told us to put
more clothes on him directly.

"17th. Mr. Murray returned from his excursion to Cape Good Success, having
done all that was expected, but not without incurring considerable danger
on so exposed a coast. Had not his boat been a very fine one, his crew
good, and {446} he himself a most skilful manager, I do not think he could
have gone so far along an unprotected shore, through 'races' of tide, and
yet have returned in safety."

The following are extracts from his Journal.

"'Near Cape Graham we saw a large party of Indians, with several canoes,
one of which, paddled by two men and a woman, came alongside of our boat,
and they sold us some fine fish, for the large price of two metal buttons
and a small string of beads. Finding no place at which I could land, on
account of the rocks and heavy swell, we steered for the shore about
fifteen miles to the northward. Approaching a flat-topped bluff, covered
with grass, I saw a large guanaco, and just afterwards a whole herd
feeding, for which he seemed to be doing the duty of a sentinel. The shore
was inviting, and earthy soil seemed abundant; but too many rocks showed
their sharp points at the water's edge to allow of our landing. At last we
found a small patch of shingle between two reefs of rocks, and there we
succeeded in beaching the boat, through a heavy surf. I ascended a steep
woody height to obtain a view of the neighbourhood, and found that for some
miles the country was level, and apparently covered by thick grass. Traces
of, and paths made by, guanacoes, were very numerous in every direction.
Next day we pulled to the eastward against a tumbling sea, caused by a
weather tide, and at sunset tried to land; but were disappointed, by
finding that the shore was so fronted every where by rocks, that we could
not approach. We therefore hastened towards a long reef of outlying rocks,
which might afford some shelter, as a breakwater, during the night, but
found such overfalls near them, that we were again obliged to continue our
route alongshore in the dark. At last I heard the noise of a large
waterfall, between the breakings of high surf on the rocks, and fancied a
cove could be made out, towards which we cautiously advanced, sounding with
the lead and a long pole, and succeeded in obtaining a place of temporary
security.

"'In passing along the shore on the following day, many herds of guanacoes
were seen feeding. At night we again had {447} much embarrassment in
obtaining a place for the boat. On the 7th there was too much sea and wind
to admit of our proceeding, so I went to various points suited for
obtaining angles and bearings. One of these stations was a large rock,
looking like a tower, which stood alone on a level plain.

"'The weather being less unfavourable and the sea smoother on the 8th, we
launched our boat and sailed to the eastward. In passing round Cape
Kinnaird, great numbers of fur-seal were observed, so many indeed that they
completely covered several of the large rocks.

"'Spaniard Harbour proved to be a shallow bay, full of rocks, and dangerous
reefs lining the shore, and without shelter, although there is anchorage
for a vessel.

"'In a large cave in a rock, which forms the south head of a little cove
where our boat was secured, I found the recent traces of Indians, who had
left bones of guanacoes and birds lying about near the ashes of a large
fire. I went into the cave for a considerable distance, until it became too
dark to find my way farther, but did not reach the end. Afterwards we
sailed to the eastward again, under a treble reefed sail, and landed before
dark in a corner between projecting rocks. Numbers of guanacoes were
feeding around; but, after our shooting one of them, they made off. In
every place at which we landed, traces of Indians had been found; yet
hitherto we had seen only one party during this trip. The country near us,
on the east side of Spaniard Harbour, or rather Bay, seemed level, though
here and there were low hills, whose eastern sides were thickly covered
with wood: some of the trees (beech) growing large and straight enough to
make topmasts or lower yards for a small ship; though probably their
qualities would be unsuitable.

"'May 10th. During a heavy gale, I ascended the highest hill, near the sea,
and noticed many rocks, on which the sea was breaking, that I had not seen
before. On the 11th we passed through a very dangerous 'tide-race' off Bell
Cape. There was little or no wind, but it was scarcely possible to use our
oars, so much was the water agitated: it was heaving {448} and breaking in
all directions, like water boiling in an immense caldron. When through, and
again in safety, I was astonished at our fortunate escape. Looking back
upon it, only a mass of breakers could be seen, which passed rapidly to the
westward, and therefore led me to suppose that the 'race' was caused by a
meeting of tides; not by a strong tide passing over a rocky ledge.

"'The land near Bell Cape is steep, high, and so rocky, that we could not
find any place at which to land. We went into all the small coves, but they
were so guarded by rocks as to be impracticable. Sailing eastward, I at
last found a small cove, near Valentyn Bay, in which we hauled the boat
ashore. A small stream ran into it, near which were many wigwams, but no
natives could be seen.

"'12th. We crossed Valentyn Bay, and landed near Cape Good Success. I
walked to the summit, and thence obtained a good view of Staten Island, on
the east; and all the coast westward, as far as New Island. In the
north-east corner of Valentyn Bay, we found some Indians, living in one
large wigwam, without any canoes. There were eight men, each of whom had a
bow and a few arrows in his hand, and all, except one, were clothed in
guanaco-skins hanging down to their heels, the woolly side being outwards.
We obtained several bows from them, by barter, but they were reluctant to
part with many arrows. One of the number wore a large seal-skin, that I
purchased with a knife, which, to my surprise, he distinctly called
'cuchillo.' They had some fine dogs, one being much like a young lion; but
nothing we could offer seemed, in their eyes, to be considered an
equivalent for his value. Afterwards we examined Valentyn Bay, and found it
unfit for vessels, being exposed to a heavy swell, and affording but bad
anchorage.

"'On the 13th and 14th, a heavy gale confined us to our cove, into which
such numbers of wild-fowl came, for shelter I suppose, that we shot as many
as we wanted.

"'On the 15th, 16th, and 17th, we were returning to the Beagle, not without
meeting difficulties and risks similar to {449} those already mentioned,
but which it would be as tedious as unnecessary to relate.'"

"Soon after the Master came alongside, Mr. Stokes also returned, having
been a long way into the channel first discovered by Mr. Murray, and having
examined all the shores about its eastern communication with the sea. He
met many groups of Indians, but managed so as not to have any collision or
trouble with them.

"18th. Digging in various places on Lennox Island, showed me that the soil
is unlike that where the guanacoes were seen on Navarin island, which is
fit for cultivation; this being very moist, and too full of tussac and
other roots, to be serviceable in any agricultural point of view.

"19th. Natives had come alongside at various times, during the last few
days, to sell fish for old buttons and other trifles. It was amusing to
witness York and Boat taking in these people, by their bargains. The same
men who, two months back, would themselves have sold a number of fish for a
bit of glass, were seen going about the decks collecting broken
crockery-ware, or any trash, to exchange for the fish brought alongside by
these 'Yapoos,' as they called them; not one word of whose language did
they appear to comprehend. Lieut. Kempe returned from an unsuccessful
excursion to Navarin island in search of guanacoes. He saw many, but could
not get within shot. The footmarks of a puma were noticed by him in several
places.

"23d. After obtaining a few sights of the sun, for the chronometer rates,
we sailed from Lennox harbour, a very secure place for small vessels; but,
as it is rather shallow, ships drawing more than fourteen feet of water
should anchor outside the entrance, where they would be safe, and in smooth
water, excepting when a south-east gale blows, with which wind they would
not, in all probability, wish to remain at anchor. The soundings are
regular in the offing, and there is anchoring ground every where in the
vicinity. Wood and water may be obtained, in any quantity: wild fowl and
fish are also to be had, but not in abundance. The easiest way {450} of
getting fish is to give bits of broken glass or buttons to the natives, who
catch them in the kelp, by a baited line, without a hook, enticing the fish
to the top of the water and then seizing them with the hand, or, if the
fish has swallowed the bait, jerking it out of the water before it can
disengage itself; as I mentioned before.

"At daylight (24th), being off Cape Good Success, we bore up, and ran
towards the Strait of Le Maire, with a fresh gale at south, and thick snow
squalls. The strait appeared clear of all obstacles, no rocks, nor even
kelp being visible. The shore from Cape Success to the north head of
Success Bay is high and bold, with water for a ship as near to it as she
could desire, or ought to go. We hauled our wind during a severe snow
squall, lest we should run beyond the harbour, and afterwards bearing up,
ran into Good Success Bay, and anchored under the lee of its south head as
a temporary berth. As soon as the ship was secure, I went to look for the
best anchorage; and when it moderated, we weighed and shifted to a position
where I supposed the ship secure when moored in smooth water, with sixty
fathoms on our seaward anchor, and fifty on the other, the anchors lying
respectively in eight and seven fathoms, over a clear, sandy bottom. The
gale continued during the day, and towards night increased, drawing more to
the eastward, and sending a swell into the bay. The wind was very cold, and
the snow and hail froze fast, as they lodged upon any exposed part of the
ship. Between eight and nine it blew heavily; afterwards it became much
more moderate; and at midnight there was only a fresh wind from E.S.E. A
long swell then began to set into the bay from the same quarter; but the
ship rode so easily, and the night seemed to be improving so fast, with the
glass rising steadily, that I went to bed without an anxious thought
respecting her safety: however, I was hardly asleep when I was told that
the small bower, our seaward cable, had parted. I ran instantly upon deck,
when finding the night fine, and no increase of swell, I thought at first
it was a mistake; but was quickly set right by the ship turning her
broadside to the swell, and dropping {451} down upon her lee anchor. The
critical nature of our situation at once struck me: it was evident, that
the frost had rendered our chains, so often tried, a doubtful security
against the jerk of rollers which occasionally set into the bay--one or
two, perhaps, in half an hour--though the swell was at other times
trifling. We veered a whole cable on the in-shore anchor (a small one, got
at San Carlos), cleared away and let go the sheet-anchor, shackled the
remainder of the small bower chain to the best bower, and rode with
two-thirds of a cable on the sheet, and a cable and a half on the bower,
close to the beach, though in six fathoms water, keeping the cables
constantly streaming wet at the hawse-holes, with sea-water, to prevent
their freezing: the temperature of the water being 44°, though the snow and
hail lay frozen on the weather-side of the masts. The link that broke, of
the chain, was in the hawse exposed to a current of cold air through the
hawse-hole. It certainly appeared defective, when examined next day; but as
it had withstood many a heavy strain, I attribute its parting to the action
of the frost, and would caution seamen to be on their guard when using
chain cables in similar weather. The wind moderated, and the swell
decreased towards morning; so we became again at ease with respect to the
safety of the ship, after a few hours of anxious suspense, for we had no
hemp cables, and were close to the surf of the shore.

"25th. The wind drawing southward brought the vessel's broadside to the
swell, and prevented our getting the boats out for some time, as she rolled
heavily, and I would not risk their being injured without absolute
necessity. In the evening we crept for the end of the chain, weighed, and
bent a stout hawser to it; and next day hove up the sheet anchor, and
moored afresh, at a greater distance from the land.

"27th and 28th. Blowing a furious gale of wind.

"May 29th. The first tolerable day in this place was employed by the
officers in taking bearings and soundings in the bay; and by the ship's
company in wooding and watering. Some wigwams and the traces of guanacoes'
hoofs were seen, but the land is high, and being thickly wooded shut us out
{452} from the best guanaco country. I was not sure which was the height
Mr. Banks ascended; but the broad road mentioned by Cook is still a good
mark for the bay, if the inbend of the land does not show it sufficiently.
The weather here was colder than we had yet found it, the wind being so
much in the south quarter; there were very sharp frosts at night, and snow
lay deep, even close to the sea water-mark.

"May 30th. I was in hopes of finding a harbour between Cape San Diego and
Cape San Vicente, or a little farther along the coast, where we might be
able to fix the position of Cape San Diego and the adjacent land; for I did
not like sending a boat along this coast, the tides being so very strong,
and the shore so rocky, without any inlets, where she could be secured at
night. (During Mr. Murray's last trip, he was extremely fortunate in having
a fine interval; as the coast he passed would have been impracticable for a
boat in blowing weather. Had these last strong southerly gales begun before
he came back, his situation would have been extremely critical.) We
therefore stood into the strait, the wind being variable and light with us,
though blowing strongly over the tops of the hills, and striking the water
nearest them in strong squalls. At half a mile from the land there was
little wind; but from that distance to the shore was torn up by williwaws.
This strange appearance must have been caused by the cold air rushing from
the snow-covered hills and displacing the warmer air near the surface of
the water.

"With the ebb tide and what flaws of wind we could catch we stood to the
southward, to get some angles and bearings, and see more of the shore
between Cape Good Success and the bay. In the afternoon we had a steady
wind from N.N.W.; and having done what was necessary, to the southward,
returned, and anchored after dark near the middle of the bay.

"May 31st. At daylight this morning, we weighed and made sail with a fresh
northerly breeze. I trusted to the weather improving, as the glasses were
rising; but, indeed, our time was becoming too short to allow of a choice
of days. We worked to the northward with the flood-tide, taking the
required {453} angles and bearings, and at noon were close to Cape San
Diego, where the flood-tide opposed the north wind very strongly, and in
addition to a heavy swell from the northward, made such an irregular high
sea, as nearly caused the loss of our new boat, and would have damaged many
a vessel. The weather became worse; and as the swell continued high from
the northward, I was obliged to stand to sea, and carry a press of sail to
keep off the land, which by that time was too much obscured by haze and
clouds to admit of our running back.

"June 1st. Bad weather, with rain nearly all day. At about twelve miles to
the northward of Cape San Vicente, by estimation, we stood off and on until
in the latter part of the day we got a breeze from south, to which sail was
made to close the land about Cape San Vicente.

"At noon, on the 2d, we were well in-shore, and stood along the land,
looking for a harbour. Seeing a promising place, we anchored off it, in
twenty-two fathoms water; and, as the night proved to be fine, remained
quiet in smooth water, with the wind off the land, and a regular tide
setting past the ship.

"At daylight next morning, I went to look at the opening, which, from the
masthead, seemed like a spacious harbour; but I found it to be so shallow
an inlet, that at its entrance, just within the heads, there was no more
than one fathom of water. Nevertheless this cove must be the place which
the Spaniards dignified with the name of Port San Policarpo.

"We weighed and sailed along-shore, but the wind being scant, and the tide
against us, it was late before we could get into San Vicente Bay, where we
anchored in a line between that cape and Cape San Diego, but nearest to the
former. In a cove at the head of this bay, Mr. Banks landed when Cook was
here. During the night we were tossed about by a very heavy swell, opposing
a strong tide; the wind being moderate, not enough to steady the vessel.

"Finding this morning (June 4th), that the swell was too high to allow a
boat to be lowered in safety, I gave up my intention of examining the cove,
and hastened back to the Bay {454} of Good Success, to complete wood and
water, and obtain rates for the chronometers, previously to leaving the
coast. Wind and tide favoured us, and at noon we were moored in Good
Success Bay. Soon afterwards I left the Beagle, in my boat, with a week's
provisions, intending to try to land near Cape San Diego, and thence walk
to the cape with the instruments; but I found a cross swell in the strait,
and a rocky shore without a place in which the boat could land: though I
risked knocking her to pieces by trying to land in the only corner where
there seemed to be any chance. After this escape I tried farther on,
without success; by which time it became dark, and if I had not returned
immediately, while the ebb-tide made, the flood would have begun and
obliged me to lie at a grapnel, during a frosty night, in a strong
tide-way, with the boat's crew wet through: I turned back, therefore, and
pulled towards Success Bay, assisted by the tide, but the cockling sea it
made half filled the boat more than once, and we were thankful when again
safely on board the Beagle.

"Having failed in this scheme for settling the latitude of Cape San Diego,
I thought of effecting it by bringing the Beagle to an anchor in the
strait, two or three miles to the eastward of Good Success Bay, and thence
connecting the Cape to known points by triangulation; the heads of this bay
and Cape Good Success, quite correctly placed, serving as the foundation.

"June 5th. I obtained some sights of the sun this morning and observations
at noon, besides bearings and angles to verify former ones. All hands were
busy wooding and watering, preparatory to returning to Monte Video. A large
albatross was shot by my coxswain, which measured nearly fourteen feet
across the wings.

"6th. The snow which covered the ground when we were first here was quite
gone, and the weather was comparatively mild. The frost at night was not
more than in a common winter's night in England, the thermometer ranging
from 27° to 32°. The tide was carefully noticed this day, being full {455}
moon. It was high water at a quarter past four, and the tide rose seven
feet.

"7th. We unmoored, weighed, stood to the eastward and anchored with the
stream anchor, and a large hawser, in fifty fathoms water, about three
miles from Success Bay. After taking the required angles and bearings we
weighed at eleven, and stood towards Cape San Diego with the first of the
flood. The tide being strong, we made rapid progress, and were soon out of
the strait; but wishing to see as much of the N.E. coast as possible, in
our progress northward, we hauled to the wind and kept near the land during
the night, as the weather was fine and settled.

"Before leaving Good Success Bay and the Strait of Le Maire, I felt
satisfied that we had acquainted ourselves with the tides, which are as
regular and as little to be dreaded as in any part of the world where they
run with strength. They will materially assist any vessel in her passage
through the strait; which is very wide, perfectly free from obstacles of
any kind, and has Good Success Bay close at hand, in case wind or tide
should fail. When the tide opposes the wind and swell, there is always a
heavy, and, for small vessels, dangerous 'race' off Cape San Diego, where
the water is more shoal than elsewhere (k), we found it so at a neap
flood-tide, but let it be remembered that on another day, at the top of the
springs, being the day after full moon, we passed the same spot, at half
flood, with the water perfectly smooth, and although strong eddies were
seen in every direction, the vessel's steerage was but little affected by
them. It is high water in Success Bay soon after four in the afternoon, on
the full and change days, and low water exactly at ten in the morning. The
flood tide-stream begins to make to the northward about an hour after low
water, and the ebb, to the southward, about the same time after high water.
The tides rise from six to eight feet, perpendicularly. At Cape Pillar the
turn of tide, with high water, is at noon: but along the S.W. and S.E.
coast the time {456} gradually increases to this coast. From Cape San Diego
the flood tide sets north and west along the shore, from one knot to three
knots each hour, as far as twenty miles along shore; and the ebb in a
contrary direction, but not so strongly, except in San Vicente Bay. The
flood in the Strait of Le Maire runs about two knots in mid channel, more
or less according to the wind, and the ebb about one knot an hour. Perhaps,
at times, when a strong spring tide is retarded in its progress by a
northerly wind, there will be a dangerous overfall off Cape San Diego, like
the bores in some parts of the world.

"The soundings are tolerably regular, and may give notice of an approach to
Staten Land, or to the N.E. coast, and may guide a ship to the fairway of
the strait; but I should not place much confidence in them, near such a
rocky coast as that of Staten Land.

"Good Success Bay is an excellent anchorage for vessels of any size to stop
in for wood or water; but it would not answer if a vessel required to lie
steady for repair, as a swell frequently rolls in. It is quite safe, yet,
in the winter season, when easterly gales are common, no vessel should
anchor so near the head of the bay as she might in summer; for heavy
rollers at times (though rarely) set in. Fish we did not try to get, not
having spare time, and only a few birds were shot.

"On the 8th, a very fine day with but little wind, we were off the
flat-topped hill, called the Table of Orozco; and, from the mast-head, I
had an extensive view of the adjacent country. About Success Bay and Bell
Mount the land is high, but north of Success Bay it slopes away towards
Cape San Diego, which is a long, low, projecting point. Thence, as far as I
could see, the N.E. coast extended, low, excepting a few hills here and
there, and unbroken by inlets; the country near it being a pleasant looking
hill and dale land, well wooded and quite free from snow. I could
distinguish a snow-covered chain of mountains which must have lain near
Admiralty Sound, the country on this side of them appearing to be a
continued succession of hill and valley, with only a few of the hills
capped with snow, although this was the depth of winter. {457} Smoke was
seen at but one place, about two miles inland. In the evening we got a
breeze off shore, and stood along the coast, the moon shining brightly and
the weather being fine. I kept rather close to the land, during the night,
in order to be near the entrance of the supposed St. Sebastian Channel in
the morning.

"At midnight Cape Santa Inez was distant from us three or four miles, but
thence we saw very little of the land, till three, near Cape Peñas, after
which the weather became thick, and the wind drew round to the N.E., which
made me keep more off shore until daylight (9th), when we bore up and stood
for the land. Having found Cape Santa Inez and Cape Peñas correctly laid
down on the chart we used, I thought Cape St. Sebastian would not be far
wrong, and we had taken several observations during the early part of the
night to correct our reckoning. Standing towards the shore, we quickly
shoaled our water, and found a ground swell increasing. Having made what I
supposed to be Cape Sebastian, and seeing from the mast-head a large
opening to the northward of it similar to that laid down in the chart, with
low distant land yet farther northward corresponding to the shores of
'Bahia de Nombre de Jesus,' I stood on confidently, thinking how well the
chart of this coast had been laid down, and regardless of the soundings
decreasing as we went on. Seeing, however, from the mast-head, what seemed
to be a tide-ripple, two or three miles distant, I called the boatswain,
who had been much among the tide-races on this coast, to ask his opinion of
it: but before he could get up aloft to me, I saw that it was very low
land, almost level with the sea, and what I thought the ripple, was the
surf on the beach. Standing on a little farther we had but seven fathoms
water over a bottom of dark muddy sand, with bits of black slate. At this
time, the weather had cleared enough to see the land fifteen or twenty
miles on each side, but nothing like an opening appearing, on the contrary,
a plain extending to the westward, as horizontal as the sea, I hauled to
the wind and stood alongshore to the S.E., to look for an inlet, fancying
{458} I had overshot the proper place; especially as the land continued
flat, and unbroken, for many miles to the N.W., while to the S.E. it seemed
hilly and irregular.

"Having ranged along shore several miles, yet still seeing from the
mast-head a continuation of the same kind of coast-line, as far as an eye
could trace the surf on the beach, without any opening, we wore ship and
stood to the northward, satisfied that the St. Sebastian channel did not
exist within many miles of the position laid down in the chart.

"In the afternoon the weather became very thick, with rain, a fresh wind
blowing right on shore, and the glasses falling; so we carried sail to get
off the land and out of the shoal water, in which there was a heavy ground
swell. At midnight we had obtained a good offing.

"On the 10th, a fresh breeze from the N.E., a low glass, and thick weather,
with constant rain, would have prevented my nearing the land again if I had
been disposed to do so. Though reluctant to leave any part of the coast of
Tierra del Fuego unexplored, while I had so effective a vessel, and all
with me in good health, I was bound to remember our distance from the
appointed rendezvous; the state of our provisions, of which we had only
three weeks left on board; and that I was ordered to be at Rio de Janeiro
on the 20th of this month. I therefore decided to hasten to Port Desire,
for the sake of the chronometer measurements; and from thence proceed to
Monte Video and Rio de Janeiro. I had previously made up my mind to carry
the Fuegians, whom we had with us, to England; trusting that the ultimate
benefits arising from their acquaintance with our habits and language,
would make up for the temporary separation from their own country. But this
decision was not contemplated when I first took them on board; I then only
thought of detaining them while we were on their coasts; yet afterwards
finding that they were happy and in good health, I began to think of the
various advantages which might result to them and their countrymen, as well
as to us, by taking them to England, educating them there as far as might
be practicable, and then {459} bringing them back to Tierra del Fuego.
These ideas were confirmed by finding that the tribes of Fuegians, eastward
of Christmas Sound, were hostile to York Minster's tribe, and that
therefore we could not, in common humanity, land them in Nassau Bay or near
the Strait of Le Maire. Neither could I put the boy ashore again, when once
to the eastward of Nassau Bay, without risking his life; hence I had only
the alternative of beating to the westward, to land them in their own
districts, which circumstances rendered impracticable, or that of taking
them to England. In adopting the latter course I incurred a deep
responsibility, but was fully aware of what I was undertaking.

"The Fuegians were much slower in learning English than I expected from
their quickness in mimickry, but they understood clearly when we left the
coast that they would return to their country at a future time, with iron,
tools, clothes, and knowledge which they might spread among their
countrymen. They helped the crew whenever required; were extremely
tractable and good-humoured, even taking pains to walk properly, and get
over the crouching posture of their countrymen.

"When we were at anchor in Good Success Bay, they went ashore with me more
than once, and occasionally took an oar in the boat, without appearing to
harbour a thought of escape.

"During the night of the 13th, we were near the land about Sea Bear Bay;
the wind, however, drew to the northward, and with a strong current setting
to the S.E., drove us off again.

"The 14th was foggy; clouds preventing any observations, but at three in
the afternoon we made the land, a little north of Port Desire, near what is
called in the chart 'Rivers Peak.' The wind having hauled to the southward,
and the current setting northward, prevented our approaching nearer to the
port on that day.

"At daylight on the 15th, we were again off Rivers Peak, notwithstanding
our having carried a press of sail in order to make southing during the
night. We were set twenty miles to the northward during that time; but a
slant of wind and {460} the turn of tide in our favour carried us towards
the entrance of the harbour, into which we worked, the tide of ebb having
just ended; and we moored abreast of the ruins. My first care was to look
for traces of the Adventure or Adelaide, but I found none. A bottle which I
had deposited for the Adelaide, at our last visit, by Captain King's
direction, was exactly where I then left it, and the papers it contained
were untouched. While in this port I got good observations, the weather
being clear, though very cold. No guanacoes were shot although many were
seen, but numbers of sea-birds were brought on board.[205] A quince was
given to me which was found in a place where the Spanish colony had made a
garden. We remarked that the tracks of the guanacoes on shore here were not
so large, by one-half, as those we had so lately seen in Tierra del Fuego.
Having noticed the currents particularly, in order to compare them with
what I observed formerly and with the tide in the port; I can now say,
decidedly, that the flood tide comes from the southward, and that the ebb
sets to the south-east. North of Port Desire, or from Port Desire to Cape
Blanco, the flood is much the strongest, but off Penguin Island the ebb is,
I think, the strongest, setting two or three knots an hour. It is
high-water and slack-water, in Port Desire, at half-past twelve, on the
days of full and change. The tides, if not attended to, would baffle a ship
much in making this port.

"On the 21st we sailed, with a fresh breeze from the S.W.; and at nine A.M.
on the 25th when about one mile southward of the alleged position of the
Ariel rocks, and near the nominal longitude, I hauled to the wind and ran
some distance on their parallel, looking out for broken water. There was a
very irregular and heavy swell, as much as would be raised by a gale of
wind, but caused apparently by a current; and while waiting for the
meridian altitude, before bearing up, having run twenty miles on the same
parallel, a heavy swell rose on the quarter, which struck our weather
quarter boat, and turned {461} her in upon the deck, breaking both iron
davits. One of the davits of the lee-boat was also unshipped by the jerk,
and the after-part of the vessel well drenched with water. We secured both
boats again, but the one to windward was badly stove. For a moment, I
thought we had indeed found the rocks, and the huge black back of a dead
whale which just then shewed itself very near the vessel, much increased
the sensation. I imagined that we were in a meeting of tides or currents;
where old trees, dead whales, &c. are often found, and have frequently
caused reports of rocks; for the water was not more shallow than we had
found it during the day, the soundings having varied from forty to fifty
fathoms; so having obtained the meridional altitude we bore up, and steered
our course again.

"On the 26th we entered the Plata, and at one A.M. on the 27th, Lobos
Island was seen, and soon afterwards the high land about Pan de Azucar. We
continued working to the westward, and at daylight were off Whale Point,
but the wind fell light, and the current being against us, we lost during
the day what had been gained in the night. At seven P.M. the current set so
strongly out of the river that we were obliged to drop a kedge with a stout
hawser, and ride by it, though keeping all sail set and going between four
and five knots through the water. When the hawser bore a strain, the log
was hove, and the current found to be setting more than five knots. This
was off Maldonado; Lobos bearing N.N.E., distant four miles. Soon after
nine the stream slacked, we tripped the kedge and worked up the river, the
wind being still westerly, but the current having turned in our favour. The
U.S. frigate Hudson passed, steering to the eastward:--she was the first
sail we had seen since leaving San Carlos de Chilóe. At daylight next
morning (28th), we were in sight of Flores Lighthouse, which was reported
to be a vessel under sail. Soon after which another vessel was reported as
being under all studding sails; this was the Mount itself: so curiously
were objects distorted by the haze. Soon after noon we anchored off Monte
Video, and from Captain Talbot, of H.M.S. Algerine, I heard of the arrival
there, and subsequent departure of the Adventure and the Adelaide. {462}

"On the 9th of July we sailed from Monte Video,--on the 18th made the high
land over the island of Santa Catharina, and after dark anchored in the
bay. My object in calling there was to continue the chronometric chain,
between Tierra del Fuego and Rio de Janeiro, by as short intervals as
possible: and the results so obtained proved to be very satisfactory.

"While in Monte Video I tried to have the Fuegians vaccinated, but the
virus did not take any effect on them. Little Fuegia was living several
days with an English family, who were extremely kind to her; and the others
were on shore at different times with me. No one noticed them; being so
very like the Indians of the neighbourhood.

"The apparent astonishment and curiosity excited by what they saw,
extraordinary to them as the whole scene must have been, were much less
than I had anticipated; yet their conduct was interesting, and each day
they became more communicative. It was here that I first learned from them
that they made a practice of eating their enemies taken in war. The women,
they explained to me, eat the arms; and the men the legs; the trunk and
head were always thrown into the sea.

"On the 23d we sailed from Santa Catalina; and on the 2d of August anchored
in the harbour of Rio de Janeiro."

Here the extracts from Captain Fitz Roy's Journal end.

The Adventure and the Beagle sailed together from Rio de Janeiro on the 6th
of August, having left the Adelaide as a tender to the flag-ship, but
reimbarked her officers and crew; and, after a most tedious passage,
anchored in Plymouth Sound on the 14th of October. Both vessels were soon
afterwards paid off; the Beagle at Plymouth, and the Adventure at Woolwich.

[Illustration: Engraved by J. Gardner.

Published by Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough Street, 1839.]

       *       *       *       *       *


{463}

CHAPTER XXIV.

    A FEW NAUTICAL REMARKS UPON THE PASSAGE ROUND CAPE HORN; AND UPON THAT
    THROUGH THE STRAIT OF MAGALHAENS, OR MAGELLAN.

Ships bound from the Atlantic to any of the ports in the Pacific, will find
it advantageous to keep within one hundred miles of the coast of Eastern
Patagonia, as well to avoid the heavy sea that is raised by the westerly
gales, which prevail to the eastward, and increase in strength according to
the distance from the land, as to profit by the variableness of the wind
when it is in the western board. Near the coast, from April to September,
when the sun has north declination, the winds prevail more from the W.N.W.
to N.N.W. than from any other quarter. Easterly gales are of very rare
occurrence, but even when they do blow, the direction being obliquely upon
the coast, I do not consider it at all hazardous to keep the land on board.
In the opposite season, when the sun has south declination, the winds will
incline from the southward of west, and frequently blow hard; but, as the
coast is a weather shore, the sea goes down immediately after the gale. In
this season, although the winds are generally against a ship's making quick
progress, yet as they seldom remain fixed in one point, and frequently
shift backward and forward six or eight points in as many hours, advantage
may be taken of the change so as to keep close in with the coast.

Having once made the land, which should be done to the southward of Cape
Blanco, it will be beneficial to keep it topping on the horizon, until the
entrance of the Strait of Magalhaens be passed.

With respect to this part of the voyage, whether to pass through Strait Le
Maire or round Staten Island, much difference of opinion exists. Prudence,
I think, suggests the {464} latter; yet I should very reluctantly give up
the opportunity that might offer of clearing the strait, and therefore of
being so much more to windward. With a southerly wind it would not be
advisable to attempt the strait; for, with a weather tide, the sea runs
very cross and deep, and might severely injure and endanger the safety of a
small vessel, and to a large one do much damage. In calm weather it would
be still more imprudent (unless the western side of the strait can be
reached, where a ship might anchor), on account of the tides setting over
to the Staten Island side; where, if it becomes advisable to anchor, it
would necessarily be in very deep water, and close to the land. With a
northerly wind the route seems not only practicable, but very advantageous,
and it would require some resolution to give up the opportunity so
invitingly offered. I doubt whether northerly winds, unless they are very
strong, blow through the strait--if not, a ship is drifted over to the
eastern shores, where, from the force of the tides, she must be quite
unmanageable.

Captain Fitz Roy seems to think there is neither difficulty nor risk in
passing the strait. The only danger that does exist, and that may be an
imaginary one, is the failure of the wind. Ships passing through it from
the south, are not so liable to the failure of the south-westerly wind,
unless it be light, and then a breeze will probably be found from N.W., at
the northern end of the strait. The anchorage in Good Success Bay, however,
is at hand, should the wind or tide fail.

In passing to leeward of Staten Island, the tide race, which extends for
some distance off Cape St. John, at the N.E. end of the island, must be
avoided: otherwise there exist no dangers.

The anchorage under New Year Islands, although it is a wild one, the bottom
bad, and the tide very strong, yet offers good shelter from south-west
winds, and might be occupied with advantage during the existence of a gale
from that quarter, which is so unfavourable for ships bound round the Horn.

After passing Staten Island, if the wind be westerly, the {465} ship should
be kept upon the starboard tack, unless it veer to the southward of S.S.W.,
until she reaches the latitude of 60° south, and then upon that tack on
which most westing may be made. In this parallel, however, the wind is
thought to prevail more from the eastward than from any other quarter.
Never having passed round Cape Horn in the summer season, I may not perhaps
be justified in opposing my opinion to that of others, who, having tried
both seasons, give the preference to the summer months. The advantage of
long days is certainly very great, but, from my experience of the winds and
weather during these opposite seasons at Port Famine, I preferred the
winter passage, and in our subsequent experience of it, found no reason to
alter my opinion. Easterly and northerly winds prevail in the winter off
the cape, whilst southerly and westerly winds are constant during the
summer months; and not only are the winds more favourable in the winter,
but they are moderate in comparison to the fury of the summer gales.

Having passed the meridian of Cape Pillar, it will yet be advisable to take
every opportunity of making westing in preference to northing until the
meridian of 82° or 84° be reached, which will enable a ship to steer
through the North-westerly winds that prevail between the parallels of 50°
and 54°. (See Hall's South America, Appendix.)

With respect to the utility of the barometer as an indicator of the weather
that is experienced off Cape Horn, I do not think it can be considered so
unfailing a guide as it is in the lower or middle latitudes. Captain
Fitz-Roy, however, has a better opinion of the indications shewn by this
valuable instrument: my opinion is, that although the rise or fall at times
precedes the change, yet it more frequently accompanies it. The following
sketch of the movement of the barometer, and of the weather that we
experienced, may be not without its use.

Being to the north of Staten Island for three days preceding full moon,
which occurred on the 3d April (1829), we had very foggy weather, with
light winds from the eastward and {466} northward, causing a fall of the
mercury from 29.90 to 29.56. On the day of full moon the column rose, and
we had a beautiful morning, during which the high mountains of Staten
Island were quite unclouded, as were also those of Tierra del Fuego. At
noon, however, a fresh gale from the S.W. set in, and enveloped the land
with a dense mist. No sooner had the wind changed, than the mercury rose to
29.95, but fell again the next morning; and with the descent the wind
veered round to N.W., and blew strongly with thick cloudy weather and rain,
which continued until the following noon, when the wind veered to S.W., the
barometer at 29.54, having slightly risen; but after the change it fell,
and continued to descend gradually until midnight, when we had a fresh gale
from W.S.W. When this wind set in, the mercury rose, and continued to rise,
as the wind veered without decreasing in strength to S.S.W., until it
reached 29.95, when it fell again and the weather moderated, but without
any change of wind. During the descent of the mercury, the sky with us was
dull and overcast, with squalls of wind and rain, but on shore it seemed to
be very fine sunshiny weather.

The column now fell to 29.23, and during its descent the weather remained
the same, dull and showery; but as soon as the mercury became stationary, a
fresh breeze set in from the southward, with fine weather.

After this to new moon the weather was very unsettled, the wind veering
between South and W.S.W.; the barometer rising as it veered to the former,
and falling as it became more westerly; but on no occasion did it precede
the change.

The mean height of the barometer is about 29.5.

The mercury stands lowest with N.W. winds, and highest with S.E.

With the wind at N.W. or northerly the mercury is low; if it falls to 29
inches or 28.80, a S.W. gale may be expected, but it will not commence
until the column has ceased to descend. It frequently, however, falls
without being followed by this change. In the month of June, at Port
Famine, the barometer fell to 28.17, and afterwards gradually rose to 30.5,
{467} which was followed by cold weather, in which the thermometer stood at
12°.

The following Table shews the mean temperature and pressure as registered
at the Observatory at Port Famine in the Strait.

  +----------+--------------+-----------+
  |   1828.  | Temperature. | Pressure. |
  +----------+--------------+-----------+
  | February |     51.1     |   29.40   |
  | March    |     49.4     |   29.64   |
  | April    |     41.2     |   29.57   |
  | May      |     35.5     |   29.30   |
  | June     |     32.9     |   29.28   |
  | July     |     33.0     |   29.57   |
  | August   |     33.2     |   29.28   |
  +----------+--------------+-----------+

The difficulties that present themselves to Navigators in passing round
Cape Horn, as well from adverse winds as the severe gales and heavy sea to
which they are exposed, are so great, that the Strait of Magalhaens has
naturally been looked to as a route by which they may be avoided. Hitherto
no chart has existed in which much confidence could be placed; but by the
present survey, the navigation through it, independent of wind and weather,
has been rendered much easier; since a correct delineation of its shores,
and plans of the anchorages, have been made; and in the preceding pages,
sufficient descriptions of them have been given to assure the navigator of
his place, and furnish him with advice as to his proceedings. The local
difficulties therefore have been removed; but there remain much more
serious ones, which I should not recommend a large, or even any but a very
active and fast-sailing square-rigged vessel to encounter, unless detention
be not an object of importance.

For a square-rigged vessel bound through the Strait, the following
directions will be useful:-- {468}

In the eastern entrance the winds will frequently favour a ship's arrival
off the First Narrow; where, if she selects a good anchorage on the bank
which bounds the northern side of the channel, she may await an opportunity
of passing through the First Narrow and of reaching Gregory Bay; where also
a delay may safely be made for the purpose of passing the Second Narrow and
arriving at the neighbourhood of Cape Negro; at which place the
difficulties and dangers of the eastern entrance cease.

The dangers being carefully placed on the chart, and now sufficiently
described, nothing need be repeated here; and indeed much must be left to
the judgment and discretion of the navigator.

The tides answer best for vessels entering the Strait at the period of full
and change of the moon, since there are two westerly tides in the day. In
the winter season, if the morning tide be not sufficient to carry a vessel
through the First Narrow, she may return to Possession Bay, select an
anchorage, and be secured again before night; or, in the summer, if she has
passed the Narrow, and has been enabled to anchor for the tide, there will
be sufficient daylight for her to proceed with the following tide to
Gregory Bay, or at least to a safe anchorage off the peaked hillocks on the
north shore.

I have twice attempted to pass the First Narrow, and been obliged to return
to the anchorage in Possession Bay; and twice I have passed through it
against a strong breeze blowing directly through, by aid of the tide; which
runs, in the narrower parts, at the rate of ten or twelve miles an hour.
When the tide and wind are opposed to each other, the sea is very deep and
heavy, and breaks high over the decks; it is therefore advisable to close
reef, or lower the topsails on the cap, and drift through; for the tide, if
at the springs, will generally be sufficient to carry a ship to an
anchorage, although, not always to one where it would be safe to pass the
night. On this account, it would be prudent to return; for, although the
holding ground is exceedingly good, yet, to part in the night, or drift
towards, or through the Narrow, could scarcely happen without accident.
{469}

In leaving the anchorage in Gregory Bay, attention must be paid to the
tide, which continues to run to the eastward in the Second Narrow, three
hours after it has commenced setting to the S.W. at the anchorage.

With a leading wind through the Second Narrow, a ship will easily reach an
anchorage off Laredo Bay, but, if the tide fails upon emerging from it, she
should seek for a berth in the bay to the north of Elizabeth Island, as
near to the island as possible, but to the westward of its N.E. end, to be
out of the influence of the tide. The depth of water, however, will be the
best guide.

Directions for passing round the south side of Elizabeth Island are given
elsewhere; and as this part offers some dangers, the chart and the
description should be carefully referred to.

The only advice that seems wanting, to improve the directions for the coast
from this to Port Famine, is, with a south-westerly wind, to keep close to
the weather shore, in order to benefit by the flaws down the valleys; but
this must be done with caution, in consequence of the squalls off the high
land, the violence of which cannot be well imagined by a person
unaccustomed to them.

Of the anchorages between Port Famine and Cape Froward, the only convenient
one for a ship is St. Nicholas Bay, to which, if defeated in passing round
the Cape, she had better return; for it is easy to reach as well as to
leave, and extremely convenient for stopping at, to await an opportunity of
proceeding.

From Cape Froward to the westward, unless favoured by a fair wind, it is
necessary to persevere and take advantage of every opportunity of advancing
step by step. There are several anchorages that a ship may take up, such as
Snug Bay, off Woods Bay, near Cape Coventry, in Fortescue Bay, Elizabeth
Bay, and York Roads. To the westward, in Crooked Reach, the anchorages are
not so good, and excepting Borja Bay, none seem to offer much convenience.
Borja Bay, however, is well calculated to supply the deficiency, although
for a square-rigged vessel there must be some difficulty in reaching it.
{470}

Long Reach is both long and narrow, and ill supplied with anchorages for a
ship; such as they are, Swallow Harbour, Playa Parda, Marian Cove, and Half
Port Bay, seem to be the best. In thick weather, although the channel is
very narrow, yet one side is scarcely visible from the other, and the only
advantage it has over other parts of the strait is the smoothness of the
water. In Sea Reach there is a heavy rolling swell, with a short and deep
sea, which renders it very difficult to beat to windward.

Tamar Harbour, Valentine Harbour, Tuesday Cove, and the Harbour of Mercy,
are the best anchorages; and the latter is particularly convenient to
occupy, while awaiting an opportunity of sailing out of the strait.

In the entrance, the sea runs very heavy and irregularly during and after a
gale; so that a ship should not leave her anchorage in the Harbour of
Mercy, without a fair or a leading wind to get her quickly through it.

For small vessels, particularly if they be fore-and-aft rigged, many, if
not all of the local difficulties vanish; and inlets which a ship dare not
or cannot approach, may be entered with safety, and anchorage easily
obtained by them. A large ship will perhaps be better off in entering and
leaving the Strait where there is open space and frequently a heavy sea;
but for the navigation of the Strait, a small vessel has considerably the
advantage. She has also the opportunity of passing through the Cockburn
Channel should the wind be north-westerly, which will very much reduce the
length of the passage into the Pacific.

One very great advantage to be derived from the passage through the Strait
is, the opportunity of obtaining as much wood and water as can be required,
without the least difficulty; and another benefit is, that by hauling the
seine during the summer months, from January to May, at the mouth of the
river or along the beaches in Port Famine, at the first quarter flood, a
plentiful supply of fish may be obtained. Excellent fish are also caught at
the anchorage with the hook and line, at all seasons, early in the morning
or late in the {471} evening. Fish may also be obtained with the seine at
any other place where there are rivers. Freshwater Bay and Port Gallant are
equally productive. On the outer coast of Tierra del Fuego an excellent
fish may be caught in the kelp.

The advantage which a ship will derive from passing through the Strait,
from the Pacific to the Atlantic is very great; and it ought to be great to
induce the seaman to entangle his ship with the land when fair winds and an
open sea are before him. After passing through the Strait, the prevailing
winds being westerly, and more frequently from the northward than from the
southward of west, they are fair for his running up the coast; or if not,
the ship is not liable to receive much injury from the sea, which is
comparatively smooth; whereas, to a ship passing round the Horn, if the
wind be north-west she must go to the eastward of the Falkland Islands, and
be exposed to strong gales and a heavy beam sea, and hug the wind to make
her northing. To a small vessel the advantage is incalculable; for, besides
filling her hold with wood and water, she is enabled to escape the severe
weather that so constantly reigns in the higher latitudes of the South
Atlantic Ocean.

Coming from the northward, it will be advisable to keep an offing until the
western entrance of the Strait is well under the lee, to avoid being thrown
upon the coast to the northward of Cape Victory, which is rugged and
inhospitable, and, forming as it were a breakwater to the deep rolling
swell of the ocean, is for some miles off fringed by a cross hollow sea
almost amounting to breakers.

The land of Cape Victory is high and rugged, and much broken; and if the
weather be not very thick, will be seen long before the Evangelists, which
are not visible above the horizon, from a ship's deck, for more than four
or five leagues.[206] Pass to the southward of them, and steer for Cape
Pillar, {472} which makes like a high island. In calm weather do not pass
too near to the cape, for the current sometimes sets out, and round the
cape to the southward; but with a strong wind, get under the lee of it as
soon as you please, and steer along the shore. In the night it will be
advisable to keep close to the land of the south shore; and if a patent log
be used, which no ship should be without, your distance will be correctly
known. The course along-shore, by compass, is E. ¾ S.; and if the weather
be hazy, by keeping sight of the south shore, there will be no difficulty
in proceeding with safety.

The Adventure entered the Strait on the 1st of April, 1830, at sunset; and
after passing within half a mile of the islets off the Harbour of Mercy,
steered E. ¾ S. magnetic, under close-reefed topsails, braced by, the
weather being so squally and thick that the land was frequently concealed
from us; but being occasionally seen, the water being quite smooth, and the
course steadily steered, with the patent log to mark the distance run, we
proceeded without the least anxiety, although the night was dark, and the
squalls of wind and rain frequent and violent. When abreast of Cape Tamar,
that projection was clearly distinguished, as was also the land of Cape
Providence, which served to check the distance shewn by the patent log; but
both giving the same results, proved that we had not been subjected to any
current; whereas the account by the ship's log was very much in error, in
consequence of the violence of the squalls and the long intervals of light
winds, which rendered it impossible to keep a correct account of the
distance. At daybreak we were between Cape Monday and the Gulf of
Xaultegua; and at eight o'clock we were abreast of Playa Parda, in which,
after a calm day, the ship was anchored.

In the summer season there is no occasion to anchor any where, unless the
weather be very tempestuous, for the nights are short, and hardly dark
enough to require it, unless as a precautionary measure, or for the purpose
of procuring wood and water; the best place for which is Port Famine, where
{473} the beaches are strewed with abundance of logs of well-seasoned wood,
which is very superior to the green wood that must otherwise be used.

Notwithstanding that the Adventure experienced no current in the western
part of the Strait, there is generally a set to the eastward, which is more
or less felt according to circumstances. The direction and strength of the
currents are caused by the duration of the gales.

The chart will be a sufficient guide for vessels bound through from the
westward as far as Laredo Bay; after which a few directions will be
necessary. The land here should be kept close on board, to avoid the Reef
off the south-west end of Santa Magdalena. Being abreast of it, bear away,
keeping the N.E. extremity of Elizabeth Island on the starboard bow, until
you see Santa Marta in one with, or a little to the southward of, the south
trend of the Second Narrow (Cape St. Vincent), which is a leading mark for
the fair channel until you pass the spit of shoal soundings, which extends
across to Santa Magdalena. There are also shoal soundings towards the
south-west end of Elizabeth Island; at half a mile off we had five
fathoms,--Cape St. Vincent being then the breadth of Santa Marta open to
the northward of that island. Keeping the cape just in sight to the
northward of Santa Marta, steer on and pass round the low N.E. extremity of
Elizabeth Island, off which are several tide eddies. The tide here sets
across the channel.

Now steer for the Second Narrow, keeping Cape Gregory, which will be just
discernible as the low projecting extreme of the north side of the Second
Narrow, on the starboard bow, until you are three miles past Santa Marta;
the course may then be directed for the cape, opening it gradually on the
larboard bow as you approach it, to avoid the shoal that extends off it.

If you anchor in Gregory Bay, which is advisable, in order to have the
whole of the tide for running through the First Narrow, haul up and keep at
a mile and a half from the shore. When {474} the north extremity of the
sandy land of the Cape is in a line with the west extreme of the high
table-land, you will be near the anchorage; then shorten sail, and when the
green slope begins to open, you will have fourteen fathoms: you may then
anchor or keep away to the N.E., and choose a convenient depth, taking care
not to approach the shore, so as to bring Cape Gregory to the southward of
S. by W. ¼ W. (by compass). The best berth is with the Cape bearing S.S.W.

Hence to the First Narrow, the course by compass is due N.E. by E.[207] The
land at the entrance being low, will not at first be perceived; but,
steering on, you will first see some hummocky land, making like islands.
These are hills on the eastern, or Fuegian side of the Narrow. Soon
afterwards, a flat, low sand-hill will be seen to the northward, and this
is at the S.W. extremity of Point Barranca. On approaching the narrow, at
four miles off, keep a cliffy head, four or five miles within the east side
of the narrow, open of the trend of Point Barranca, by which you will avoid
the shoal that extends off the latter point. You should not go into less
depth than six fathoms. At most times of the tide there are long lines and
patches of strong ripplings, through which you must pass. The shoal is
easily distinguished by the kelp.

When the channel through the narrow bears by compass N. by E. ¾ E., steer
through it; and that, or a N.N.E. course, will carry you through. On each
side, the bank extends off for some distance; but by keeping in
mid-channel, there is no danger until the cliffy coast be past, when reefs
extend off either shore for some distance, particularly off Cape Orange.
The N.N.E. course must be kept until the peak of Cape Orange bears south,
and the northern Direction Hill W.S.W., or W. by S. ½ S. by compass. Then
steer E.N.E. for Cape Possession, taking care not to approach too near to
the bank {475} off Cape Orange, or to that on the north side of Possession
Bay, for which the chart must be consulted.

For a small vessel, the passage through the strait, from west to east, is
not only easy, but strongly to be recommended as the best and safest route.
Indeed, I think the passage would be quite as expeditious, and perhaps much
safer, to enter the Gulf of Trinidad, and pass down the Concepçion Strait,
the Sarmiento or St. Estevan Channels, and Smyth Channel, and enter the
Strait at Cape Tamar. In these channels northerly winds prevail, and there
is no want of convenient and well-sheltered anchorages for the night, many
of which have already been mentioned, and multitudes of others, perhaps
much better ones, might be found.

       *       *       *       *       *


APPENDIX.

------

TABLES of LATITUDE and LONGITUDE, VARIATION of the COMPASS, TIDE, and
HEIGHT.

MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, discussed by MAJOR SABINE, R.A., F.R.S.

ZOOLOGY; including MAMMALIA--BIRDS--and SHELLS.

COPIES of ORDERS.

EXTRACTS from a PAPER published in the JOURNAL of the ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL
SOCIETY.

EXTRACT from a GAME-BOOK.

INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

{479}

TABLES

OF

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE, VARIATION OF THE COMPASS, AND TIDE.

------

I.

COASTS OF BRAZIL, RIVER PLATA, AND EASTERN PATAGONIA.

------

The Latitudes to which the character * is prefixed, have resulted from
Astronomical Observation. The Longitudes which have been determined by
Chronometers, are designated by C.; and those by Lunar Distances by *).
Those without distinguishing marks are the result of Triangulation.

The Longitudes in the following Tables depend upon that of Villegagnon
Island at Rio de Janeiro, which was found by fourteen Chronometers from
Plymouth to be 43° 05' 03" West of Greenwich.

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+-----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Coast of Brazil.           |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  ================           |         |          |      |     |
  Santos                     |         |          |      |     |
    Arsenal                  |*23 55 51|C.46 16 33|  4 22|     |
    Moela Lighthouse         |*24 03 06|C.46 12 20|      |     |
  Alcatrasse Island          |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   |*24 08 10|C.45 39 15|      |     |
  Abrigo Island              |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   |*25 07 28|C.47 52 51|      |     |
  Figuera Island             |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   |*25 21 29|C.47 54 11|      |     |
  Paranagua                  |         |          |      |     |
    Fort on the Bar          |*25 30 14|C.48 17 10|  5 44|     |
    West Point of Cotinga    |*25 29 50|C.48 26 32|  5 34|     |
    Church of Sta Antonina   |*25 25 42|C.48 39 52|      |     |
  St. Catherine              |         |          |      |     |
    Sta Cruz d'Anhatomirim   |*27 25 35|C.48 29 41|  6 30|     |
    City, President's House  |*27 35 30|          |      |     |
  Cape St. Mary              |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 34 40 20|C.54 05 58|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  River Plata.               |         |          |      |     |
  ============               |         |          |      |     |
  Gorriti Island             |         |          |      |     |
    Well at N.E. end         |*34 57 00|C.54 53 38| 13 48|     |
                             |         |*)54 53 40|      |     |
  Monte Video                |         |          |      |     |
    Rat Island, Flagstaff    |*34 53 23|  56 09 30| 11 23|     |
    Cathedral, Cupola        |*34 54 37|  56 07 35| 12 07|     |
    Lighthouse on Mount      |*34 53 21|  56 11 04|      |     |
  Buenos Ayres               |         |          |      |     |
    Cathedral                | 34 35 50|C.58 17 53|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  East Coast of Patagonia.   |         |          |      |     |
  ========================   |         |          |      |     |
  Port Sta Elena             |         |          |      |     |
    Observy marked on Plan   |*44 30 45|C.65 17 25| 19 10| 4  0|17 feet
  Cape Two Bays              |         |          |      |     |
    Hill at projecting Point | 44 58 00|          |      |     |
  Cape Blanco                |         |          |      |     |
    North Point              | 47 15 00|          |      |     |
  Port Desire                |         |          |      |     |
    Ruins                    |*47 45 05|C.65 51 45| 19 42|12 10|18½ feet
  {480}
  Penguin Island             |         |          |      |     |
    Mount at North end       | 47 54 45|  65 41 30|      |     |
  Sea Bear Bay               |         |          |      |     |North
    Sandy Beach at S. side   |*47 56 49|C.65 44 00| 20 47|12 45|20 feet
  Shag Rock                  |         |          |      |     |
    Rock                     | 48 08 25|  65 52 56|      |     |
  Watchman Cape              |         |          |      |     |
    Monte Video              | 48 18 55|  66 18 00|      |     |
  Bellaco Rock               |         |          |      |     |
    Rock                     | 48 30 50|C.66 09 25|      |     |
  Port St. Julian            |         |          |      |     |Northward
    Shag Island, in Harbour  |*49 16 00|C.67 38 02| 22 17|10 30|rises 38
                             |         |          |      |     |feet,
                             |         |          |      |     |(observed
                             |         |          |      |     |off the
                             |         |          |      |     |river's
                             |         |          |      |     |mouth.)
    Wood Mount               | 49 14 00|  67 43 34|      |     |
    Cape Curioso             | 49 11 10|  67 34 30|      |     |
  C. Franc. de Paulo         |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 49 41 18|  67 34 30|      |     |
  Santa Cruz                 |         |          |      |     |
    Observatory opposite     |         |  68 25 00| 20 54|10 15|33 feet
      Sea-Lion Island        |*50 06 43|C.68 22 42|      |     |
    Mount Entrance           |*50 08 30|  68 19 10|      |     |
    Station up the River     |*49 57 30|  68 52 55|      |     |
    ----                     |*50 07 30|  69 08 00|      |     |
  Broken Cliff Peak          |         |          |      |     |
    Brink                    | 50 14 30|  68 31 15|      |12 15|Northw.
  Lion Mount                 |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 50 20 00|  68 49 30|      |     |
  Observation Mt.            |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   |*50 32 35|  69 00 40|      |     |
  Coy Inlet                  |         |          |      |     |
    Height on South side     |*50 58 27|  69 06 50|      | 9 30|
      of Entrance            |         |C.69 05 17|      |     |
    Station up the Inlet     | 51 06 30|  69 24 10|      |     |
  Cape Sanches               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 51 06 56|  69 03 30|      |     |
  Tiger Mount                |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 51 21 36|  69 01 50|      |     |
                             |         |C.69 03 28|      |     |
  C. Fairweather             |         |          |      |     |
    South extreme.           | 51 32 05|  68 55 15|      | 9  0|N.W.28 feet
  Gallegos River             |         |          |      |     |
    Observatory Mound        |*51 33 21|  68 57 50| 21 47| 8 50|46 feet
                             |         |C.68 56 42|      |     |
  North Hill                 |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     | 51 49 56|  69 24 30|      |     |
  Friars                     |         |          |      |     |
    Smallest & Northernm.    | 51 49 12|  69 10 00|      |     |
    Largest & Southernm.     | 51 50 08|  69 09 00|      |     |
  Convents                   |         |          |      |     |
    Northern                 | 51 52 09|  69 18 40|      |     |
    Southern                 | 51 53 01|  69 17 00|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

{481}

TABLE II.

------

STRAIT OF MAGALHAENS,

INCLUDING

THE COCKBURN AND BARBARA CHANNELS, AND THE OTWAY AND SKYRING WATERS.

  Column 1 titles:
  A - Coast, &c.
  B - East Entrance
  C - Possession Bay
  D - Eastern part (2d Narrow to Port Famine)

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  East Entrance              |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  =============              |         |          |      |     |
  Cape Virgins               |         |          |      |     |
    S.E. extreme.            |*52 18 35|  68 16 55| 22 30|     |Northward.
                             |         |C.68 17 46|      |     |
  Dungeness                  |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 52 22 40|  68 21 50|      |     |
  Mount Dinero               |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 52 18 25|  68 30 00|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Possession Bay             |         |          |      |     |
  ==============             |         |          |      |     |
  Cape Possession            |         |          |      |     |
    Centre of Cliff          | 52 16 35|  68 53 35|      |     |
  Mount Aymond               |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 52 06 35|  69 30 30|      |     |
  Cape Orange                |         |          |      |H. W. about 3 0,
    Peak on the S. side of   | 52 28 10|  69 26 05|      |but the tide
      the entrance of the    |         |          |      |begins to set to
      first Narrow           |         |          |      |the N.E. at noon.
                             |         |          |      |     | 36 feet.
  C. Espiritu Santo          |         |          |      |     |
    Summit 5 miles inland    | 52 42 30|  68 40 51|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Eastern part (2d Narrow to Port Famine)         |      |     |
  =======================================         |      |     |
  Cape Gregory               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 52 38 18|  70 09 50|      |     |
    Bush on summit of land   |*52 38 03|C.70 09 51| 23 34|     |
  Elizabeth Island           |         |          |      |     |
    North-east bluff.        |*52 49 18|C.70 33 25|      |     |
  Oazy Harbour               |         |          |      |     |
    Entrance                 | 52 42 20|  70 31 06|      |     |
  Pecket Harb.               |         |          |      |     |
    Beach opposite the       | 52 46 45|  70 40 31| 23 49| 12 0|
      anchorage outside.     |         |          |      |     |
  Cape Negro                 |         |          |      |     |
    South-east extreme       | 52 56 44|C.70 45 30|      |     |
  Sandy Point                |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 09 00|  70 49 31|      |     |
  Point St. Mary             |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     |*53 21 40|  70 54 01| 23 26|     |
                             |         |C.70 53 26|      |     |
  Rocky Point                |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     | 53 35 18|  70 51 58|      |     |
  Port Famine                |         |          |      |     |
    Observatory              |*53 38 12|C.70 54 01| 23 30|12  0|South.
                             |         |*)        |      |     |5 or 6 ft.
    Point Santa Anna         | 53 37 55|  70 51 19|      |     |
  Cape Monmouth              |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 23 30|  70 24 01|      |     |
  Point Boqueron             |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     | 53 28 35|  70 12 01|      |     |
  Cape St Valentyn           |         |          |      |     |
    Summit at extreme        | 53 33 30|  70 30 01|      |     |
  Nose Peak                  |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 53 32 30|  70 01 36|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------

{482}

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  Admiralty Sound            |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  ===============            |         |          |      |     |
  Port Cooke                 |         |          |      |     |
    Rivulet in the Bay       | 54 17 10|  69 58 01|      |     |
  Latitude Point             |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 54 16 45|  69 50 51|      |     |
  Bottom of Admiralty Sound  |         |          |      |     |
    Summit of Mount Hope     | 54 26 30|  68 59 11|      |     |
  Curious Peak               |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 19 35|  70 08 31|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  East Coast of Dawson Island|         |          |      |     |
  ===========================|         |          |      |     |
  Mount Seymour              |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 19 05|  69 46 36|      |     |
  Ainsworth Harb             |         |          |      |     |
    Project point on W. side | 54 23 00|  69 34 01|      |     |
  Parry Harbour              |         |          |      |     |
    Outer point on W. side   | 54 25 20|  69 16 31|      |     |
  Card Point                 |         |          |      |     |
    Point                    | 54 21 00|  69 12 01|      |     |
  Willes Bay                 |         |          |      |     |
    Islet in Ph. Gidley Cove |*53 48 15|  70 31 46|      |     |
  Cannon Point               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                |*54 03 47|  70 25 31|      |     |
  Soapsuds Cove              |         |          |      |     |
    Rivulet                  |*54 16 28|  70 13 46|      |     |
  Sharp Peak                 |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 06 50|  70 23 01|      |     |
  Cape Expectation           |         |          |      |     |
    South Extremity, or      | 54 19 00|  70 15 21|      |     |
      trend at entrance of   |         |          |      |     |
      Gabriel Channel        |         |          |      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Gabriel Channel            |         |          |      |     |
  ===============            |         |          |      |     |
  Port Waterfall             |         |          |      |     |
    Port                     | 54 20 20|  69 19 01|      |     |
  Nar. of Gabriel C.         |         |          |      |     |
    Midway                   | 54 15 08|  69 32 31|      |     |
  Cone Point                 |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 06 35|  70 48 01|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Dawson Island              |         |          |      |     |
  =============              |         |          |      |     |
  Mount Graves               |         |          |      |     |
    South summit             | 53 45 00|  70 33 46|      |     |
  St. Peter and St. Paul Isle|         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 53 42 10|  70 42 01|      |     |
  Port San Antonio           |         |          |      |     |
    Humming Bird Cove        |*53 53 52|  70 50 26|      |     |
                             | 53 54 25|          |      |     |
    S.W. pt of North Island  | 53 54 03|  70 51 51|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Coast from Pt. Famine to C. Froward  |          |      |     |
  ===================================  |          |      |     |
  Mount Tarn                 |         |          |      |     |
    Peak at North end        | 53 45 06|  70 58 26|      |     |
  Cape San Isidro            |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 47 00|  70 55 03| 23 30| 1  0|8 feet
                             |         |          |      |     |Southw.
  C. Remarquable             |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 49 25|  71 00 31|      |     |
  Nassau Island              |         |          |      |     |
    South-east point         | 53 50 23|  71 00 56|      |     |
  St. Nicholas Bay           |         |          |      |     |
    Islet in the centre      | 53 50 38|  71 03 13|      | 2  6|
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------

{483}

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  Cape Froward to the Jerome |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  Channel, and North shore   |         |          |      |     |
  of Clarence Island         |         |          |      |     |
  ==================         |         |          |      |     |
  Cape Froward               |         |          |      |     |
    Summit of the Morro      | 53 53 43|  71 14 31|      | 1  0|N.E.
  Cape Holland               |         |          |      |     |
    S. point of Wood Bay     | 53 48 33|  71 35 41|      |     |
  Bougainville Sugar Loaf    |         |          |      |     |
    Summit of Peak           | 53 57 32|  71 24 13|      |     |
  Cascade Harb.              |         |          |      |     |
    Small rock in Harbour    |*53 57 48|  71 27 46| 24 18|     |
  Cordes Bay                 |         |          |      |     |
    Outer-point West side    | 53 42 55|  71 53 08|      |     |
  Bell Bay                   |         |          |      |     |
    N.W. pt. Bradley Cove    |*53 53 15|  71 47 16|      |     |
  Cape Inglefield            |         |          |      |     |
    Islet off it             | 53 50 20|  71 51 41|      |     |
  Cape Gallant               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                |*53 42 11|  71 59 01| 24 35|     |
  Port Gallant               |         |          |      |     |
    Wigwam Point             |*53 41 43|C.71 56 57| 24 04| 9  3|5 or 6 ft.
  Charles Island             |         |          |      |     |
    Wallis Mark              | 53 43 57|  72 02 00|      |     |
  Rupert Island              |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 53 42 00|  72 08 00|      |     |
  Monmouth Islds             |         |          |      |     |
    Summit of largest island | 53 39 40|  72 08 39|      |     |
  Point Elizabeth            |         |          |      |     |
    Passage Point Reef       | 53 37 00|  72 08 41|      |     |
  Point York                 |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                |*53 32 35|          |      |     |
  Bachelor River             |         |          |      |     |
    Entrance                 | 53 33 00|C.72 17 11| 24 06| 1 46|
                             |         |  72 15 41|      |     |
  Jerome Channel             |         |          |      |     |
    Bluff extremity, or      | 53 31 00|  72 20 41|      |     |
      W. point of entrance   |         |          |      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Crooked Reach              |         |          |      |     |
  =============              |         |          |      |     |
  Cape Cross-tide            |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 33 03|  72 22 16|      |At Borja Bay.
                             |         |          |      | 1 50|6 feet
  El Morrion, or St. David He|         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 33 20|  72 28 31|      |     |
  Cape Quod                  |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 32 10|  72 29 41|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Long Reach                 |         |          |      |     |
  ==========                 |         |          |      |     |
  Snowy Sound                |         |          |      |     |
    Centre of Ulloa Island   | 53 31 30|  72 36 13|      |     |
  Cape Notch                 |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 25 00|  72 45 11|      |     |
  Playa Parda Cove           |         |          |      |     |
    Anchorage                | 53 18 30|  72 56 00|      | 1  8|
  Half-port Bay              |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   |*53 11 36|C.73 14 57|      |     |
  Cape Monday                |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 09 12|  73 18 16|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Sea Reach                  |         |          |      |     |
  =========                  |         |          |      |     |
  St. Anne Island            |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 53 06 30|  73 12 46|      |     |
  Cape Upright               |         |          |      |     |
   Extremity, North trend    | 53 04 03|  73 32 16|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------

{484}

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  Sea Reach                  |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  =========                  |         |          |      |     |
  Cape Providence            |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     | 52 59 00|  73 31 00| 23 22|     |
  Cape Tamar                 |         |          |      |     |
    Observatory, Tamar Bay   |*52 55 06|C.73 44 02| 23 24| 3  5|5 feet
    Extremity of Cape        | 52 55 30|  73 44 26|      |     |Eastwd.
  Beaufort Bay               |         |          |      |     |
    Stragglers, Southernmost | 52 48 03|  73 46 00|      |     |
  Cape Phillip               |         |          |      |     |
    Sholl Bay                |*52 44 05|C.73 48 20|      |     |
    Summit over the Cape     | 52 44 20|  73 53 00|      |     |
  Cape Parker                |         |          |      |     |
    Station near it          |*52 41 49|C.74 07 10|      |     |
  Point Felix                |         |          |      |     |
    Station on its East side |*52 56 31|          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 52 56 00|  74 09 00|      |     |
  Valentine Harb.            |         |          |      |     |
    Mount (see Plan)         | 52 55 00|  74 15 00|      | 2  0|
  Cape Cuevas                |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                |*52 53 19|  74 17 30|      |     |
  Cape Cortado               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 52 49 37|  74 22 56| 23 40|     |
  Westminst. Hall            |         |          |      |     |
    Eastern summit           | 52 37 18|  74 20 26|      |     |
  Observation Mt.            |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     |*52 28 58|C.74 32 18| 25 09| 3  0|
  Harbour of Mercy           |         |          |      |     |
    Observation Islet        |*52 44 57|C.74 35 31| 23 48| 1 47|4 feet
                             |         |          |      |  or |
                             |         |          |      | 0 58|
  Cape Pillar                |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 52 42 53|C.74 37 41|      | 1  0|
                             |         |  74 39 31|      |     |
  Cape Victory               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                |*52 16 10|C.74 50 55|      |     |
  Evangelists, or Isles of   |         |          |      |     |
    Direction                |         |          |      |     |
    Sugar Loaf to South      | 52 24 18|  75 02 56|      |     |Variable
      Eastward               |         |          |      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Magdalen Channel           |         |          |      |     |
  ================           |         |          |      |     |
  Vernal                     |         |          |      |     |
    Pinnacle on summit       | 54 06 28|  70 57 40|      |     |
  Anxious Point              |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 54 06 50|  70 53 26|      |     |
  Mount Boqueron             |         |          |      |     |
    Centre pinnacle          | 54 10 40|  70 56 00|      |     |
  Labyrinth Islands          |         |          |      |     |
    Summit of Jane Island    | 54 19 10|  70 57 36|      |     |
  Cape Turn                  |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 54 24 08|  71 04 00|      |     |
  Warping Cove               |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     | 54 24 08|C.71 05 25| 24 57|     |
  Mnt. Sarmiento             |         |          |      |     |
    N.E. peak (6800 feet)    | 54 27 00|  70 47 30|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------

{485}

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  Cockburn Channel           |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  ================           |         |          |      |     |
  King Island                |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 22 38|  71 13 15|      |     |Westw^d
                             |         |          |      |     |6 or 8 ft.
  Prowse Islands             |         |          |      |     |
    Station                  | 54 22 13|  71 20 57|      |     |
  Park Bay                   |         |          |      |     |
    Beach on isthmus         | 54 19 00|  71 15 00| 24 56| 0 30|6 or 7 ft.
  Bayne Islands              |         |          |      |     |
    Cove at the N. end of    | 54 18 15|  71 35 50|      |     |
      of South-east island   |         |          |      |     |
  Eliza Bay                  |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 54 17 45|  71 37 00|      |     |
  Kirke Rocks                |         |          |      |     |
    Body                     | 54 22 30|  71 42 30|      |     |
  Enderby Island             |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 54 13 00|  71 53 31|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Melville Sound             |         |          |      |     |
  ==============             |         |          |      |     |
  Mount Skyring              |         |          |      |     |
    Summit (3000 feet)       | 54 24 44|  72 07 40|      |     |
  Tom Harbour                |         |          |      |     |
    Cove near it             |*54 24 23|C.72 02 07| 25 19|     |
                             |         |  72 02 31|      |     |
  North Cove                 |         |          |      |     |
    Entrance                 |*54 24 27|C.72 14 51|      |     |
                             |         |  72 14 30|      |     |
  Fury Harbour               |         |          |      |     |
    West Point               | 54 28 25|  72 15 00|      |     |
  West Furies                |         |          |      |     |
    Body                     | 54 34 30|  72 17 00|      |     |
  East Furies                |         |          |      |     |
    Body                     | 54 38 00|  72 08 00|      |     |
  Cape Schomberg             |         |          |      |     |
    Summit over extremity    | 54 38 48|  72 02 46|      |     |
  Cape Kempe                 |         |          |      |     |
    Peaks over               | 54 23 30|  72 26 46|      |     |
  Copper Kettle              |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 23 50|  72 21 41|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Barbara Channel            |         |          |      |     |
  ===============            |         |          |      |     |
  Bynoe Island               |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 54 19 30|  72 09 00|      |     |
  Mortimer Island            |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 18 12|  72 16 00|      |     |
  Hewett Bay                 |         |          |      |     |
    South point              | 54 15 30|  72 16 51| 24  0| 0 30|6 or 7 ft.
                             |         |          |      |     |Southw.
  Brown Bay                  |         |          |      |     |
    Anchorage                | 54 12 20|  72 16 00|      |     |
  Bell Mount                 |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 54 09 54|  72 11 51|      |     |
  North Anchorage            |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     | 54 09 25|C.72 11 21| 24 12|     |
  Bedford Bay                |         |          |      |     |
    Entrance                 | 54 00 15|  72 18 31| 24  0| 0 30|7 or 8 ft.
                             |         |          |      |     |Southw.
  Field Bay                  |         |          |      |     |
    Point Cairncross         | 53 51 06|  72 16 31|      |     |
  Cayetano Peak              |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 53 53 04|  72 06 00|      |     |
  Shag Narrow                |         |          |      |     |
    North end                | 53 51 24|  72 10 31|      | 0  0|[208]
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------

{486}

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  Barbara Channel            |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  ===============            |         |          |      |     |
  Dighton Bay                |         |          |      |     |
    Latitude Beach           |*53 48 40|  72 09 36|      |     |
  Point Elvira               |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 49 12|  72 00 11|      |     |
  Cape Edgeworth             |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 53 47 03|  72 05 16|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Jerome Channel             |         |          |      |     |
  ==============             |         |          |      |     |
  Bachelor Peak              |         |          |      |     |
    Northernmost             | 53 29 30|  72 15 46|      |     |
  Three Island Bay           |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 53 28 30|  72 20 20|      |     |
  Real Cove                  |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 53 24 30|  72 23 55|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Indian Sound               |         |          |      |     |
  ============               |         |          |      |     |
  Cutter Cove                |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 53 21 45|  72 23 20|      | 4  0|
  False Corona               |         |          |      |     |
    Smallest islet           |*53 21 49|C.72 28 55|      |     |
                             |         |  72 26 00|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Otway Water                |         |          |      |     |
  ===========                |         |          |      |     |
  Bennett Island             |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     |*53 13 14|  72 16 46|      |     |
  Fanny Bay                  |         |          |      |     |
    Gidley islet at S.       | 53 11 00|  72 08 30|      | 5  0|
      entrance               |         |          |      |     |
  Point Martin               |         |          |      |     |
    ----                     |*53 07 00|C.72 00 51| 23 58| 5  0|
                             |         |  71 58 00|      |     |
  Inglefield Island          |         |          |      |     |
    North Point              |*53 04 20|C.71 52 27| 23 56| 4  0|
                             |         |  71 49 30|      |     |
  Shell-note Point           |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                |*52 51 34|  71 29 50|      |     |
  Point Hall                 |         |          |      |     |
    Extremity                | 52 49 45|  71 22 10|      | 4  0|N.W.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Fitz-Roy Passage           |         |          |      |     |
  ================           |         |          |      |     |
  Donkin Cove                |         |          |      |     |
    Spot marked on Plan      |*52 45 30|C.71 21 36| 23 40|     |
                             |         |  71 19 55|      |     |
  Wigwam Cove                |         |          |      |     |
             Do.             |*52 39 30|C.71 25 20| 23 34|Sets to East
                             |         |  71 24 10|      |until 1 30
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------
  Skyring Water              |         |          |      |     |
  =============              |         |          |      |     |
  Euston opening             |         |          |      |     |
    Centre                   | 52 52 40|  72 18 00|      |     |
  Dynevor Castle             |         |          |      |     |
    Summit                   | 52 34 30|  72 28 40|      |     |
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+-----------

       *       *       *       *       *

{487}

TABLE III.

------

THE WESTERN COAST, AND INTERIOR SOUNDS,

FROM

THE STRAIT OF MAGALHAENS TO THE NORTH EXTREMITY OF THE GULF OF PEÑAS.

  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+----------------
          Name of            |         |          |      |     TIDE
  ---------------------------+         |          |      |-----+----------
                             |         |          |      |     | Direction
                             |         |          |      |H. W.| of Flood,
  Place.                     |Latitude |Longitude |Variat|  at | and Rise
    Particular Spot.         | South.  |  West.   | East.|F.&W.| of Tide.
  ---------------------------+---------+----------+------+-----+----------
  Smyth Channel              |  °  '  "|   °  '  "|  °  '|H. M.|
  =============              |