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Title: Outline Studies in the Old Testament for Bible Teachers
Author: Hurlbut, Jesse Lyman, 1843-1930
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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OUTLINE STUDIES

IN

THE OLD TESTAMENT

FOR

BIBLE TEACHERS

By

JESSE L. HURLBUT, D.D.

[Illustration]

  NEW YORK: EATON & MAINS
  CINCINNATI: JENNINGS & GRAHAM



  Copyright, 1905, by
  EATON & MAINS



PREFATORY


THIS book has been prepared at the request of the New York State Sunday
School Association, through its Normal Committee. The desire was
expressed for a teacher-training course to include two years in the
Bible: one year upon subjects contained in the Old Testament, taking the
historical point of view, and presenting with the history the lands and
the Israelite people, their institutions of worship; and a second year
upon the New Testament, following the same plan.

Those who have studied "Revised Normal Lessons" and "Studies in Old
Testament History" will find most of these "Outline Studies" familiar;
for it has not been my purpose, as it was not the desire of the
committee, to furnish a series of new lessons, but to have the subjects
of Old Testament study brought together in one volume. Each subject,
however, has been studied anew, and the results of recent knowledge,
especially in the chronology, have been incorporated in this revision.
At the request of the committee new lessons on "The Old Testament as
Literature" and "How We Got Our Bible" have been added.

It is my earnest desire that through these studies the Bible may be
better understood and more thoroughly taught by the Sunday school
teachers of our land.

                                JESSE L. HURLBUT.

  South Orange, New Jersey,
  September, 1905.



CONTENTS


                                              PAGE
  PREFATORY                                      3
     I. THE OLD TESTAMENT WORLD                  7
    II. OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY                   12
   III. THE BEGINNINGS OF BIBLE HISTORY         21
    IV. THE WANDERING IN THE WILDERNESS         26
     V. INSTITUTIONS OF ISRAELITE WORSHIP       33
    VI. THE LAND OF PALESTINE                   41
   VII. THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN                  46
  VIII. THE AGE OF THE HEROES                   51
    IX. THE RISE OF THE ISRAELITE EMPIRE        57
     X. THE REIGN OF SOLOMON                    63
    XI. THE TEMPLE ON MOUNT MORIAH              69
   XII. THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL                   75
  XIII. THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH                    81
   XIV. THE CAPTIVITY OF JUDAH                  84
    XV. THE JEWISH PROVINCE                     92
   XVI. THE OLD TESTAMENT AS LITERATURE         99
  XVII. HOW WE GOT OUR BIBLE                   104



Outline Studies in the Old Testament



FIRST STUDY

The Old Testament World


The Bible is primarily a book of history, and without some knowledge of
its historical contents no one can rightly understand its revelation of
divine truth. But in order to know the history contained in the Old
Testament we must obtain a view of the lands in which that history was
wrought. We therefore study first of all the =Old Testament World=.

I. =Location and Extent.= The history of the Old Testament was enacted
upon a field less than half the area of the United States. It extended
from the river Nile to the lands east of the Per´sian Gulf and from the
northern part of the Red Sea to the southern part of the Cas´pi-an. The
world of Old Testament history was thus 1,400 miles long from east to
west and 900 miles wide from north to south, and it aggregated 1,110,000
square miles, exclusive of large bodies of water.

II. Let us begin the construction of the map by drawing upon its borders
=Six Seas=, four of which are named in the Old Testament.

1. The =Cas´pi-an Sea=, of which only the southern portion appears in
the northeastern corner of our map.

2. The =Per´sian Gulf=, south of the Cas´pi-an, on the southeast.

3. The =Red Sea=, on the southwest (Exod. 15. 4; Num. 33. 10; 1 Kings 9.
26).

4. The =Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an Sea=, on the central west. Note its names in
Josh. 1. 4 and Deut. 34. 2.

5. The =Dead Sea=, north of the eastern arm of the Red Sea (Gen. 14. 3;
Deut. 4. 49; Joel 2. 20; Ezek. 47. 18).

6. =Lake Chin´ne-reth= (ch pronounced as k), the name in the Old
Testament for the Sea of Gal´i-lee (Num. 34. 11; Josh. 13. 27).

III. Next we indicate the =Mountain Ranges=, most of which, though
important as boundaries, are not named in the Bible.

1. We find the nucleus of the mountain system in =Mount Ar´a-rat=, a
range in the central north (Gen. 8. 4). From this great range three
great rivers rise and four mountain chains branch forth.

2. The =Cas´pi-an Range= extends from Ar´a-rat eastward around the
southern shore of the Cas´pi-an Sea.

[Illustration: MAP OF THE OLD TESTAMENT WORLD.]

3. The =Za´gros Range= extends from Ar´a-rat southeasterly to the
Per´sian Gulf, which it follows on the eastern border.

4. The =Leb´a-non Range= extends from Ar´a-rat in a southwesterly
direction toward the Red Sea. Mount Her´mon, the mountain region of
Pal´es-tine, Mount Se´ir, on the south of the Dead Sea, and even Mount
Si´nai, all belong to this chain (Deut. 3. 25; Josh. 13. 5; 1 Kings 5.
6).

5. The =Tau´rus Range=, from Ar´a-rat westward, following the northern
shore of the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an.

IV. The =Rivers=, for the most part, follow the lines of the mountain
ranges.

1. The =A-rax´es=, from Ar´a-rat eastward into the Cas´pi-an Sea, may be
taken as the northern boundary of the Old Testament world.

2. The =Ti´gris=, called in the Bible _Hid´de-kel_, flows from Ar´a-rat,
on the southwestern slope of the Za´gros mountains, in a southeasterly
direction into the Per´sian Gulf (Gen. 2. 14; Dan. 10. 4).

3. The =Eu-phra´tes=, the great river of the Bible world, rises on the
northern slope of Ar´a-rat, flows westward to the Tau´rus, then
southward, following Leb´a-non, then southeasterly through the great
plain, and finally unites with the Ti´gris (Gen. 2. 14; 15. 18; Josh. 1.
4; 24. 2).

4. The =Jor´dan= flows between two parallel chains of the Leb´a-non
range southward into the Dead Sea (Gen. 13. 10; Num. 22. 1; Judg. 8. 4).

5. The =Nile=, in Af´ri-ca, flows northward into the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an
Sea (Gen. 41. 1; Exod. 2. 2).

V. The Old Testament world has three =Natural Divisions=, somewhat
analogous to those of the United States.

1. The =Eastern Slope=, from the Za´gros mountains eastward to the great
desert.

2. The =Central Plain=, between the Za´gros and Leb´a-non mountains, the
larger portion a desert.

3. The =Western Slope=, between Leb´a-non and the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an
Sea.

VI. We arrange the =Lands= according to the natural divisions, giving
locations, and not boundaries, as these changed in every age.

1. On the eastern slope lie:

      1.) =Ar-me´ni-a= (Rev. Ver., "Ar´a-rat"), between
      Mount Ar´a-rat and the Cas´pi-an Sea (2 Kings 19. 37).

      2.) =Me´di-a=, south of the Cas´pi-an Sea (2 Kings 17.
      6; Isa. 21. 2).

      3.) =Per´sia=, south of Me´di-a and north of the
      Per´sian Gulf (Ezra 1. 1; Dan. 5. 28).

2. In the central plain we find:

      (_a_) Between Mount Za´gros and the river Ti´gris:

      4.) =As-syr´i-a=, on the north (2 Kings 15. 19; 17. 3).

      5.) =E´lam=, on the south (Gen. 10. 22; 14. 1).

      (_b_) Between the rivers Ti´gris and Eu-phra´tes:

      6.) =Mes-o-po-ta´mi-a=, on the north (Gen. 24. 10;
      Deut. 23. 4).

      7.) =Chal-de´a=, on the south (Jer. 51. 24; Ezra 5.
      12).

      (_c_) Between the river Eu-phra´tes and the Leb´a-non
      range:

      8.) The great desert of =A-ra´bi-a= (2 Chron. 17. 11;
      26. 7).

3. On the western slope we find:

      9.) =Syr´i-a=, extending from the Eu-phra´tes to
      Pal´es-tine (2 Sam. 8. 6; 1 Kings 22. 1).

      10.) =Phoe-ni´cia=, a narrow strip between Mount
      Leb´a-non and the sea, north of Pal´es-tine.

      11.) =Pal´es-tine=, "the Holy Land," south of Syr´i-a
      and north of the Si-na-it´ic wilderness. Note its
      ancient name in Gen. 12. 5.

      12.) The =Wilderness=, a desert south of Pal´es-tine,
      between the two arms of the Red Sea (Exod. 13. 18;
      Deut. 1. 19).

      13.) =E´gypt=, on the northeast corner of Af´ri-ca
      (Gen. 12. 10; 37. 28).

VII. In these lands out of many =Places= we name and locate only the
most important.

      1. =E´den=, the original home of the human race,
      probably at the junction of the Ti´gris and
      Eu-phra´tes (Gen. 2. 8).

      2. =Shu´shan=, or Su´sa, the capital of the Per´sian
      empire, in the province of E´lam (Esth. 1. 2).

      3. =Bab´y-lon=, the capital of Chal-de´a, on the
      Eu-phra´tes (Gen. 10. 10; 2 Kings 25. 1).

      4. =Nin´e-veh=, the capital of As-syr´i-a, on the
      Ti´gris (Gen. 10. 11; Jonah 3. 3).

      5. =Ha´ran=, a home of A´bra-ham, in Mes-o-po-ta´mi-a
      (Gen. 11. 31).

      6. =Da-mas´cus=, the capital of Syr´i-a, in the
      southern part of that province (Gen. 15. 2).

      7. =Tyre=, the commercial metropolis of Phoe-ni´cia
      (Ezek. 27. 3).

      8. =Je-ru´sa-lem=, the capital of Pal´es-tine (Judg.
      1. 8).

      9. =Mem´phis=, the early capital of E´gypt, on the
      Nile (Hos. 9. 6).

Other names of places might be given indefinitely, but it is desirable
not to require the student to burden his memory with lists of names, and
therefore the most important only are given.


Hints to the Teacher

      Have a good blackboard for the map drawing, and see
      that each scholar is supplied with a tablet or pad of
      paper.

      1. Let the teacher first draw on the board in presence
      of the class the boundaries of the _Seas_, and require
      the class to draw them also on tablet or pad, holding
      the pad so that its longest side will be from right to
      left. Inspect each pupil's design, and see that it is
      fairly correct, but do not seek for finished drawing.
      A rough sketch is all that should be desired.

      2. Next draw the lines representing _Mountain Ranges_,
      and require the class to do the same. Review the names
      of the Seas, and also of the Mountain Ranges.

      3. Place on the board the lines representing the
      _Rivers_, and let the pupils do the same, and review
      Seas, Mountains, and Rivers.

      4. Show the three Natural Divisions; indicate on the
      map the _Lands_ in the order given, and let the pupils
      do the same. See that the pupils know the name and
      location of each Land, and review Seas, Mountains,
      Rivers, and Lands.

      5. Indicate on the blackboard the _Places_ named in
      the lesson, and have the pupils also locate and name
      them. Review Seas, Mountains, Rivers, Lands, and
      Places.

      6. Let the pupils redraw the map at home from copy,
      and at the next session of the class call upon five
      pupils to go in turn to the board--the first to draw
      the Seas, and then receive criticism from the class,
      the second the Mountains, the third the Rivers, the
      fourth the Lands, and the fifth the Places.

      7. If another review could be given it would be an
      excellent plan to call for the reading of the Bible
      references in the lesson, and require a student to
      name and locate on the blackboard the Sea or Mountain
      or River or Land or Place named in the reference. It
      will abundantly reward the teacher to occupy three or
      four sessions of the class on this map and its
      reviews.

      8. Let the pupils read all the facts of the lesson
      from the hints given in the following Blackboard
      Outline and answer all the Review Questions.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Loc. Ex.=  N.--P. G.   R. S.--Cas. 1,400.  900.  1,110,000.
   II. =Se.= Cas.  Per. G.   R. S.   Med. S.   D. S.   L. Ch.
  III. =Mtn. Ran.=  Ar.   Cas.   Zag.   Leb.   Tau.
   IV. =Riv.=  Ar.   Tig.   Eup.   Jor.   Ni.
    V. =Nat. Div.=   Ea. Sl.   Cen. Pl.   Wes. Sl.
   VI. =La.= 1. Ar.  Me.  Per.  2. Ass.  El.  Mes.  Chal.  Ar.  3. Syr.
            Phoe.  Pal.  Wil.  Eg.
  VII. =Pla.= Ed.  Sh.  Bab.  Nin.  Har.  Dam.  Ty.  Jer.  Mem.


Review Questions

      How large was the Old Testament world? Between what
      bodies of water was it located? What were its
      dimensions? Name its six important bodies of water.
      Locate each of these bodies of water. Name and
      describe its mountain ranges. Name and locate its five
      important rivers. State and describe its three natural
      divisions. Name and locate the lands of the eastern
      slope. Name and locate the lands of the central plain.
      Name and locate the lands of the western slope. Name
      its nine important places. Locate each of the nine
      places.



SECOND STUDY

Old Testament History


The divine revelation which the Bible contains is given in the form of a
history. God revealed his plan of saving men not in a system of
doctrine, but in the record of his dealings with the world at large, and
especially with one people. To understand this revelation it is
necessary for us to view the great stream of history contained in the
Bible. Our study on this subject will include the principal events from
the creation of man, at a date unknown, to the birth of Christ.[1]


PART ONE

We begin by dividing the entire field of time to the opening of the New
Testament into five periods. Each of these we write at the head of a
column. (See the Blackboard Outline.)

    I. The Period of the Human Race.
   II. The Period of the Chosen Family.
  III. The Period of the Is´ra-el-ite People.
   IV. The Period of the Is´ra-el-ite Kingdom.
    V. The Period of the Jew´ish Province.

I. We find in the opening of the Bible that the =Human Race= is the
subject of the history. This theme extends through the first eleven
chapters of Genesis, which narrate the history of much more than half of
the time included in the Bible. During this long period no one tribe or
nation or family is selected; but the story of all mankind is related by
the historian.

1. This period begins with the =Creation of Man= (not the creation of
the _world_), at some unknown time which scholars have not been able to
fix; and it ends with the =Call of A´bra-ham=, also at a date uncertain,
though given with some doubt at about B. C. 2280. With this event Bible
history properly begins.

2. Through this period it would appear that God dealt with each person
_directly_, without mediation or organized institutions. We read of
neither priest nor ruler, but we find God speaking individually with
men. (See Gen. 3. 9; 4. 6; 5. 22; 6. 13; and let the class find other
instances.) We call this, therefore, the period of =Direct
Administration=.

3. All the events of this period may be connected with three epochs:

      1.) =The Fall= (Gen. 3. 6), which brought sin into the
      world (Rom. 5. 12), and resulted in universal
      wickedness (Gen. 6. 5).

      2.) =The Deluge= (Gen. 7. 11, 12). By this destruction
      the entire population of the world, probably confined
      to the Eu-phra´tes valley, was swept away (Gen. 7.
      23), and opportunity was given for a new race under
      better conditions (Gen. 9. 18, 19).

      3.) =The Dispersion= (Gen. 10. 25). Hitherto the race
      had massed itself in one region, and hence the
      righteous families were overwhelmed by their evil
      surroundings. But after the deluge an instinct of
      migration took possession of families, and soon the
      whole earth was overspread.

4. In this period we call attention to three of its most important
=Persons=:

      1.) =Ad´am=, the first man (Gen. 5. 1, 2). His
      creation, fall, and history are briefly narrated.

      2.) =E´noch=, who walked with God (Gen. 5. 24), and
      was translated without dying.

      3.) =No´ah=, the builder of the ark (Gen. 6. 9), and
      the father of a new race.


Hints to the Teacher

      Let the teacher place the outline of the period on the
      blackboard, point by point, as the lesson proceeds,
      and let the class do the same on paper or in
      notebooks. Let every Scripture text be read in the
      class by a student, and let its bearing be shown. Call
      upon members of the class to give more complete
      account of the events and the persons named, and for
      this purpose let the first eleven chapters of Genesis
      be assigned in advance as a reading lesson.


Blackboard Outline

  +---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+
  |I. Per. Hu. Ra.|II. Per.   |III. Per.  |IV. Per.   |V. Per.     |
  |               |   Ch. Fam.|   Is. Peo.|   Is. Kin.|   Je. Prov.|
  +---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+
  | C. M.         |           |           |           |            |
  | C. A.         |           |           |           |            |
  +---------------+           |           |           |            |
  | Dir. Adm.     |           |           |           |            |
  +---------------+           |           |           |            |
  | Fa.           |           |           |           |            |
  | Del.          |           |           |           |            |
  | Dis.          |           |           |           |            |
  +---------------+           |           |           |            |
  | A. E. N.      |           |           |           |            |
  +---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+


Review Questions

      What is the central theme of the Bible? How is this
      theme presented in the Bible? Why should we study the
      history in the Bible? What are the five periods of Old
      Testament history? What is the subject of the history
      during the first period? With what events does the
      first period begin and end? What is said concerning
      the dates of early events? What kind of divine
      government in relation to men is shown in the first
      period? Into what epochs is the first period
      subdivided? What results followed the first man's
      falling into sin? Where was the population of the
      world confined up to the time of the flood? How did
      the flood become a benefit to the world? What new
      instinct came to the human family after the flood?
      Name three important persons in the first period?
      State a fact for which each of these three men is
      celebrated.


PART TWO

II. A new chapter in Bible history opens at Gen. 12. 1. Here we find one
family of the race is selected and made the subject of the divine
revelation. This was not because God loved one family more than others,
but because the world's salvation was to be wrought through that family
(Gen. 12. 2, 3). Hence we call this the =Period of the Chosen Family=.

1. This period extends from the =Call of A´bra-ham= (Gen. 12. 1), B. C.
2280?, to the =Exodus from E´gypt=, B. C. 1270?.

2. In this period we notice the recognition of _the family_. God deals
with each family or clan through its head, who is at once the priest and
the ruler (Gen. 17. 7; 18. 19; 35. 2). We call this period, therefore,
that of the =Patriarchal Administration=.

3. We subdivide this period into three epochs:

      1.) =The Journeyings of the Patriarchs= (Gen. 12. 5;
      13. 17, 18; 20. 1, etc.). As yet the chosen family
      had no dwelling place, but lived in tents, moving
      throughout the land of promise.

      2.) =The Sojourn in E´gypt.= In the lifetime of the
      patriarch Ja´cob, but at a date unknown, the
      Is´ra-el-ite family went down to E´gypt, not for a
      permanent home, but a "sojourn," which lasted,
      however, many centuries (Gen. 46. 5-7; 50. 24).

      3.) =The Oppression of the Is´ra-el-ites.= Toward the
      close of the sojourn the Is´ra-el-ite family, now
      grown into a multitude (Exod. 1. 7), endured cruel
      bondage from the E-gyp´tians (Exod. 1.13, 14). This
      was overruled to promote God's design, and led to
      their departure from E´gypt, which is known as "the
      exodus," or going out.

4. From the names of men in this period we select the following:

      1.) =A´bra-ham=, the friend of God (James 2. 23).

      2.) =Ja´cob=, the prince of God (Gen. 32. 28).

      3.) =Jo´seph=, the preserver of his people (Gen. 45. 5).


Blackboard Outline

  +------------+------------+-------------+------------+-------------+
  |I. Per. Hu. |II. Per.    |III. Per.    |IV. Per.    |V. Per.      |
  |    Ra.     |    Ch. Fam.|    Is. Peo. |    Is. Kin.|    Je. Prov.|
  +------------+------------+-------------+------------+-------------+
  | C. M.      | C. A.      |             |            |             |
  | C. A.      | E. E.      |             |            |             |
  +------------+------------+             |            |             |
  | Dir. Adm.  | Patr. Adm. |             |            |             |
  +------------+------------+             |            |             |
  | Fa.        | Jou. Pat.  |             |            |             |
  | Del.       | Soj. Eg.   |             |            |             |
  | Dis.       | Opp. Isr.  |             |            |             |
  +------------+------------+             |            |             |
  | A. E. N.   | A. J. J.   |             |            |             |
  +------------+------------+-------------+------------+-------------+


Review Questions

      What is the name of the second period? Why is it so
      named? With what events does the second period begin
      and end? What kind of divine administration do we
      notice in the second period? Into what three epochs is
      the second period divided? What were the beneficial
      results of the bondage in E´gypt upon the
      Is´ra-el-ites? Name three persons of the second
      period? For what fact or trait is each of these three
      persons distinguished?


PART THREE

III. When the Is´ra-el-ites went out of E´gypt a nation was born, and
the family became a state, with all the institutions of government.
Therefore we call this the =Period of the Is´ra-el-ite People=.

1. It opens with the =Exodus from E´gypt=, B. C. 1270? (Exod. 12.
40-42), and closes with the =Coronation of Saul=, B. C. 1050?.

2. During this period the government of the Is´ra-el-ites was peculiar.
The Lord was their only King (Judg. 8. 23), but there was a priestly
order for religious service (Exod. 28. 1), and from time to time men
were raised up by a divine appointment to rule, who were called judges
(Judg. 2. 16). This constituted the =Theocratic Administration=, or a
government by God.

3. We subdivide this period as follows:

      1.) =The Wandering in the Wilderness.= This was a part
      of God's plan, and trained the Is´ra-el-ites for the
      conquest of their land (Exod. 13. 17, 18). It lasted
      for forty years (Deut. 8. 2).

      2.) =The Conquest of Ca´naan=, which immediately
      followed the crossing of the Jordan (Josh. 3. 14-17).
      The war was vigorously carried on for a few years, but
      the land was only seemingly conquered, for the native
      races remained upon the soil, and in some places were
      dominant until the time of Da´vid.

      3.) =The Rule of the Judges.= From the death of
      Josh´u-a, B. C. 1200?, the people were directed by
      fifteen judges, not always in direct succession.

4. This period has been justly called "the Age of the Heroes"; and from
many great men we choose the following:

      1.) =Mo´ses=, the founder of the nation (Deut. 34.
      10-12).

      2.) =Josh´u-a=, the conqueror of Ca´naan (Josh. 11.
      23).

      3.) =Gid´e-on=, the greatest of the judges (Judg. 8.
      28).

      4.) =Sam´u-el=, the last of the judges (1 Sam. 12. 1,
      2).


Blackboard Outline

  +---------------+------------+------------+------------+-------------+
  |I. Per. Hu. Ra.|II. Per.    |III. Per.   |IV. Per.    |V. Per.      |
  |               |    Ch. Fam.|    Is. Peo.|    Is. Kin.|    Je. Prov.|
  +---------------+------------+------------+------------+-------------+
  | C. M.         | C. A.      | E. E.      |            |             |
  | C. A.         | E. E.      | C. S.      |            |             |
  +---------------+------------+------------+            |             |
  | Dir. Adm.     | Patr. Adm. | The. Adm.  |            |             |
  +---------------+------------+------------+            |             |
  | Fa.           | Jou. Pat.  | Wan. Wil.  |            |             |
  | Del.          | Soj. Eg.   | Con. Can.  |            |             |
  | Dis.          | Opp. Isr.  | Ru. Jud.   |            |             |
  +---------------+------------+------------+            |             |
  | A. E. N.      | A. J. J.   | M. J. G. S.|            |             |
  +---------------+------------+------------+------------+-------------+


Review Questions

      What is the third period of Bible history called? With
      what events did it begin and end? How was Is´ra-el
      governed during this period? What are its
      subdivisions? How many judges governed the
      Is´ra-el-ites after Josh´u-a? Name four important
      persons of the third period. State for what each of
      these persons was distinguished.


PART FOUR

IV. With the reign of the first king a new period opens. We now study
the history of the =Is´ra-el-ite Kingdom=. The kingdom was divided after
the reign of three kings, but even after the division it was regarded as
one kingdom, though in two parts.

1. This period extends from the =Coronation of Saul=, B. C. 1050? (1
Sam. 11. 15), to the =Captivity of Bab´y-lon=, B. C. 587.

2. During this period the chosen people were ruled by kings; hence this
is named the =Regal Administration=. The king of Is´ra-el was not a
despot, however, for his power was limited, and he was regarded as the
executive of a theocratic government (1 Sam. 10. 25).

3. This period is divided into three epochs, as follows:

      1.) =The Age of Unity=, under three kings, Saul,
      Da´vid, and Sol´o-mon, each reigning about forty
      years. In Da´vid's reign, about B. C. 1,000, the
      kingdom became an empire, ruling all the lands from
      E´gypt to the Eu-phra´tes.

      2.) =The Age of Division.= The division of the kingdom
      took place B. C. 934, when two rival principalities,
      Is´ra-el and Ju´dah, succeeded the united empire, and
      all the conquests of Da´vid were lost (1 Kings 12. 16,
      17). The kingdom of Is´ra-el was governed by nineteen
      kings, and ended with the fall of Sa-ma´ria, B. C.
      721, when the Ten Tribes were carried into captivity
      in As-syr´i-a (2 Kings 17. 6) and became extinct.

      3.) =The Age of Decay.= After the fall of Is´ra-el,
      Ju´dah remained as a kingdom for one hundred and
      thirty-four years, though in a declining condition. It
      was ruled by twenty kings, and was finally conquered
      by the Chal-de´ans. The Jews were carried captive to
      Bab´y-lon in B. C. 587 (2 Chron. 36. 16-20).

4. The following may be regarded as the representative =Persons= of his
period, one from each epoch:

      1.) =Da´vid=, the great king (2 Sam. 23. 1), and the
      true founder of the kingdom.

      2.) =E-li´jah=, the great prophet (1 Kings 18. 36).

      3.) =Hez-e-ki´ah=, the good king (2 Kings 18. 1-6).


Blackboard Outline

  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+------------+
  |I. Per. Hu. |II. Per. Ch. |III. Per. Is. |IV. Per. Is. |V. Per. Je. |
  |     Ra.    |      Fam.   |       Peo.   |       Kin.  |      Prov. |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+------------+
  | C. M.      | C. A.       | E. E.        | C. S.       |            |
  | C. A.      | E. E.       | C. S.        | C. B.       |            |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+            |
  | Dir. Adm.  | Patr. Adm.  | The. Adm.    | Reg. Adm.   |            |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+            |
  | Fa.        | Jou. Pat.   | Wan. Wil.    | Ag. Un.     |            |
  | Del.       | Soj. Eg.    | Con. Can.    | Ag. Div.    |            |
  | Dis.       | Opp. Isr.   | Ru. Jud.     | Ag. Dec.    |            |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+            |
  | A. E. N.   | A. J. J.    | M. J. G. S.  | D. E. H.    |            |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+------------+


Review Questions

      What is the fourth period called? With what events did
      it begin and end? What were the dates of these two
      events? How were the people governed during this
      period? What were the three subdivisions of this
      period? Under whom did the kingdom become an empire?
      What was the extent of its empire? When did the
      division of the kingdom take place? What was the
      result of the division? How many were the kings of the
      Ten Tribes? With what event, and at what date, did the
      kingdom of Is´ra-el end? How long did Ju´dah last
      after the fall of Is´ra-el? How many kings reigned in
      Ju´dah? By what people was Ju´dah conquered? To what
      city were the Jews carried captive? Name three
      representative persons of the period of the kingdom.


PART FIVE

V. In the closing period of Old Testament history we find the tribe of
Ju´dah alone remaining, and during most of the time under foreign rule;
so we name this the =Period of the Jew´ish Province=.

1. It extends from the beginning of the =Captivity at Bab´y-lon=, B. C.
587, to the =Birth of Christ=, B. C. 4.[2]

2. During this period Ju-de´a was a subject land, except for a brief
epoch. This may be called, therefore, the =Foreign Administration=, as
the rule was through the great empires in succession.

3. This period may be subdivided into five epochs. For the first and a
part of the second we have the Old Testament as our source of history;
all the rest fall in the four centuries of silence between the Old and
the New Testament.

      1.) =The Chal-de´an Supremacy.= Fifty years from the
      captivity, B. C. 587, to the conquest of Bab´y-lon by
      Cy´rus, B. C. 536, by which the Chal-de´an empire was
      ended, and the Jews were permitted to return to their
      land (Ezra 1. 1-3).

      2.) =The Per´sian Supremacy.= About two hundred years
      from the fall of Bab´y-lon, B. C. 536, to the battle
      of Ar-be´la, B. C. 330, by which Al-ex-an´der the
      Great won the Per´sian empire. During this epoch the
      Jews were permitted to govern themselves under the
      general control of the Per´sian kings.

      3.) =The Greek Supremacy.= Al-ex-an´der's empire
      lasted only ten years, but was succeeded by Greek
      kingdoms, under whose rule the Jews lived in
      Pal´es-tine for about one hundred and sixty years.

      4.) =The Mac-ca-be´an Independence.= About B. C. 168
      the tyranny of the Greek king of Syr´i-a drove the
      Jews to revolt. Two years later they won their liberty
      under Ju´das Mac-ca-be´us, and were ruled by a line of
      princes called As-mo-ne´ans, or Mac-ca-be´ans, for one
      hundred and twenty-six years.

      5.) =The Ro´man Supremacy.= This came gradually, but
      began officially in the year B. C. 40, when Her´od the
      Great received the title of king from the Ro´man
      senate. Thenceforth the Jew´ish province was reckoned
      a part of the Ro´man empire.

4. In each epoch of this period we select one important =Person=.

      1.) In the Chal-de´an supremacy, =Dan´iel=, the
      prophet and prince (Dan. 2. 48; 5. 12).

      2.) In the Per´sian supremacy, =Ez´ra= the scribe, the
      framer of the Scripture canon and the reformer of the
      Jews (Ezra 7. 6, 10).

      3.) In the Greek supremacy, =Si´mon the Just=, a
      distinguished high priest and ruler.

      4.) In the Mac-ca-be´an independence, =Ju´das
      Mac-ca-be´us=, the liberator of his people.

      5.) In the Ro´man supremacy, =Her´od the Great=, the
      ablest but most unscrupulous statesman of his age.
      This Ro´man supremacy lasted until A. D. 70, when
      Je-ru´sa-lem was destroyed by Ti´tus, and the Jew´ish
      state was extinguished by the emperor of Rome.


Blackboard Outline

  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  |I. Per. Hu. |II. Per. Ch. |III. Per. Is. |IV. Per. Is. |V. Per. Je.   |
  |     Ra.    |      Fam.   |       Peo.   |       Kin.  |       Prov.  |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  | C. M.      | C. A.       | E. E.        | C. S.       | C. B.        |
  | C. A.      | E. E.       | C. S.        | C. B.       | Bi. Ch.      |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  | Dir. Adm.  | Patr. Adm.  | The. Adm.    | Reg. Adm.   | For. Adm.    |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  | Fa.        | Jou. Pat.   | Wan. Wil.    | Ag. Un.     | Ch. Sup.     |
  | Del.       | Soj. Eg.    | Con. Can.    | Ag. Div.    | Per. Sup.    |
  | Dis.       | Opp. Isr.   | Ru. Jud.     | Ag. Dec.    | Gk. Sup.     |
  |            |             |              |             | Mac. Ind.    |
  |            |             |              |             | Rom. Sup.    |
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  | A. E. N.   | A. J. J.    | M. J. G. S.  | D. E. H.    |D. E. S. J. H.|
  +------------+-------------+--------------+-------------+--------------+


Review Questions

      What is the closing period of Old Testament history
      called? With what events and dates did it begin and
      end? How were the Jews governed during most of this
      time? Name its five epochs. Under whom did the Jews
      obtain independence? Name one person in each epoch of
      the fifth period, and for what he is distinguished.



THIRD STUDY

The Beginnings of Bible History


Having taken a general view of Bible history from the creation to the
coming of Christ, we now turn again to the record for a more careful
study of each epoch. The aim will be not to give a mere catalogue of
facts, but as far as possible to show the relation of cause and effect,
and to unfold the development of the divine purpose which is manifested
through all the history in the Bible.

I. We begin with the =Deluge= as the starting point of history. Back of
that event there may be studied biography, but not history; for history
deals less with individuals than with nations, and we know of no nations
before the flood. With regard to the deluge we note:

1. The _fact_ of a deluge is stated in Scripture (Gen. 7), and attested
by the traditions of nearly all nations.

2. Its _cause_ was the wickedness of the human race (Gen. 6. 5-7).
Before this event all the population of the world was massed together,
forming one vast family and speaking one language. Under these
conditions the good were overborne by evil surroundings, and general
corruption followed.

3. Its _extent_ was undoubtedly not the entire globe, but so much of it
as was occupied by the human race (Gen. 7. 23), probably the Eu-phra´tes
valley. Many Christian scholars, however, hold to the view that the book
of Genesis relates the history of but one family of races, and not all
the race; consequently that the flood may have been partial, as far as
mankind is concerned.

4. Its _purpose_ was: 1.) To destroy the evil in the world. 2.) To open
a new epoch under better conditions for social, national, and individual
life.

II. =The Dispersion of the Races.= 1. Very soon after the deluge a new
_instinct_, that of _migration_, took possession of the human family.
Hitherto all mankind had lived together; from this time they began to
scatter. As a result came tribes, nations, languages, and varieties of
civilization. "The confusion of tongues" was not the cause, but the
result, of this spirit, and may have been not sudden, but gradual (Gen.
11. 2, 7).

2. _Evidences of this migration_ are given: 1.) In the Bible (Gen. 9.
19; 11. 8). 2.) The records and traditions of nearly all nations point
to it. 3.) Language gives a certain proof; for example, showing that the
ancestors of the Eng´lish, Greeks, Ro´mans, Medes, and Hin´dus--races
now widely dispersed--once slept under the same roof. At an early period
streams of migration poured forth from the highlands of A´sia in every
direction and to great distances.

III. =The Rise of the Empires.= In the Bible world four centers of
national life arose, not far apart in time, each of which became a
powerful kingdom, and in turn ruled all the Oriental lands. The strifes
of these nations, the rise and fall, constitute the matter of ancient
Oriental history, which is closely connected with that of the Bible.
These four centers were: 1. _E´gypt_, in the Nile valley, founded not
far from B. C. 5000, and in the early Bible history having its capital
at Mem´phis. 2. _Bab-y-lo´ni-a_, called also Shi´nar and Chal-de´a, on
the plain between the Ti´gris and Eu-phra´tes Rivers, near the Per´sian
Gulf, where a kingdom arose about B. C. 4500; of which Ba´bel or
Bab´y-lon was the greatest, though not the earliest, capital. 3.
_As-syr´i-a_, of which the capital was Nin´e-veh (Gen. 10. 11). 4.
_Phoe-ni´cia_, on the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an seacoast, north of Pal´es-tine,
having Si´don for its earlier and Tyre for its later capital, and
holding its empire not on the land, but on the sea, as its people were
sailors and merchants.

IV. =The Migration of A´bra-ham=, B. C. 2280?. No other journey in
history has the _importance_ of that transfer of the little clan of
A´bra-ham from the plain of Bab-y-lo´ni-a to the mountains of
Pal´es-tine in view of its results to the world. Compare with it the
voyage of the Mayflower. Its causes were: 1. Probably the _migratory
instinct_ of the age, for it was the epoch of tribal movements. 2. The
_political cause_ may have been the desire for liberty from the rule of
the Ac-ca´di-an dynasty that had become dominant in Chal-de´a. 3. But
the deepest _motive_ was _religious_, a purpose to escape from the
idolatrous influences of Chal-de´a, and to find a home for the worship
of God in what was then "the new West," where population was thin. It
was by the call of God that A´bra-ham set forth on his journey (Gen. 12.
1-3).

V. =The Journeys of the Patriarchs.= For two centuries the little clan
of A´bra-ham's family lived in Pal´es-tine as strangers, pitching their
tents in various localities, wherever pasturage was abundant, for at
this time they were shepherds and herdsmen (Gen. 13. 2; 46. 34). Their
home was most of the time in the southern part of the country, west of
the Dead Sea; and their relations with the Am´o-rites, Ca´naan-ites, and
Phi-lis´tines on the soil were generally friendly.

[Illustration]

VI. =The Sojourn in E´gypt.= After three generations the branch of
A´bra-ham's family belonging to his grandson Ja´cob, or Is´ra-el,
removed to E´gypt (Deut. 26. 5), where they remained more than four
hundred years. This stay in E´gypt is always called "the sojourn." The
event which led directly to the descent into E´gypt was the selling of
Jo´seph (Gen. 37. 28). But we can trace a providential purpose in the
transfer. Its objects were:

1. _Preservation._ The frequent famines in Pal´es-tine (Gen. 12. 10; 26.
1; 42. 1-3) showed that as shepherds the Is´ra-el-ites could not be
supported in the land. On the fertile soil of E´gypt, with three crops
each year, they would find food in abundance.

2. _Growth._ At the end of the stay in Ca´naan the Is´ra-el-ites counted
only seventy souls (Gen. 46. 27); but at the close of the sojourn in
E´gypt they had increased to nearly two millions (Exod. 12. 37; Num. 1.
45, 46). The hot climate and cheap food of E´gypt have always caused an
abundant population. In E´gypt, Is´ra-el grew from a family to a nation.

3. _Isolation._ There was great danger to the morals and religion of the
Is´ra-el-ites in the land of Ca´naan. A´bra-ham had sent to his own
relatives at Ha´ran for a wife for I´saac (Gen. 24. 3, 4) in order to
keep both the race and the faith pure. One of I´saac's sons married
Ca´naan-ite wives, and as a result his descendants, the E´dom-ites, lost
the faith and became idolaters (Gen. 26. 34, 35). Ja´cob sought his
wives among his own relatives (Gen. 28. 1, 2). We note a dangerous
tendency in Ja´cob's family to ally themselves with the Ca´naan-ites
(Gen. 34. 8-10; 38. 1, 2). If they had stayed in Ca´naan the chosen
family would have become lost among the heathen. But in E´gypt they
lived apart, and were kept by the caste system from union with the
people (Gen. 46. 34; 43. 32). It was a necessary element in the divine
plan that Is´ra-el should dwell apart from other nations (Num. 23. 9).

4. _Civilization._ The E-gyp´tians were in advance of other nations of
that age in intelligence, in the organization of society, and in
government. Though the Is´ra-el-ites lived apart from them, they were
among them and learned much of their knowledge. Whatever may have been
their condition at the beginning of the sojourn, at the end of it they
had a written language (Exod. 24. 7), a system of worship (Exod. 19. 22;
33. 7), and a leader who had received the highest culture of his age
(Acts 7. 22). As one result of the sojourn the Is´ra-el-ites were
transformed from shepherds and herdsmen to tillers of the soil--a higher
manner of living.


Hints to the Teacher

      1. Let the map of the Old Testament world be drawn by
      a pupil on the blackboard, and let all the lands and
      places referred to in this lesson be noted upon it.
      Indicate on this map the regions of the deluge, the
      four empires, the journey of A´bra-ham, and the route
      of the Is´ra-el-ites to E´gypt.

      2. Let the references be read and their connection
      with the lesson be shown by the students.

      3. Place on the board (and in the scholar's notebook)
      the outline of the lesson, and let additional details
      from the book of Genesis be given.

      4. See that each pupil can read the Blackboard Outline
      and answer the Review Questions given below.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Del.= 1. Fac. Scrip. trad. 2. Cau. wick. rac. 3. Ext. 4. Pur.
          1.) Des. ev. 2.) New ep.
   II. =Disp. Rac.= 1. Inst. mig. 2. Evid. 1.) Bib. 2.) Trad. 3.) Lang.
  III. =Rise Emp.= 1. Eg. 2. Chal. 3. Ass. 4. Sid. and Tyr.
   IV. =Mig. Abr.= Causes. 1. Mig. inst. 2. Pol. cau. 3. Rel. mot.
    V. =Jour. Patr.= Str. in Pal. Shep. Hom. Relat.
   VI. =Soj. in Eg.= Obj. 1. Pres. 2. Gro. 3. Isol. 4. Civ.


Review Questions

      At what point does history begin? Name the six great
      events in early Bible history? How is the fact of a
      deluge attested? What was the moral cause of the
      flood? What was its extent? What was its purpose in
      the plan of God? What new spirit took possession of
      men soon after the flood? To what results did this
      lead? What was the relation of this fact to the
      confusion of tongues? What evidences of these
      migrations are found? What were the four great centers
      of national life in the Oriental world? What was the
      most important journey, in its results, in all
      history? What three causes are given for this
      migration? What was especially the religious motive of
      this journey? How long did A´bra-ham's descendants
      remain in Pal´es-tine? In what part of the country did
      they live? What were their relations with the native
      peoples in Pal´es-tine? What is meant by "the
      sojourn"? What was its immediate cause? What four
      providential results came to Is´ra-el through this
      sojourn? How long was the time of the sojourn? How
      were the Is´ra-el-ites protected from corruption
      through this sojourn? What was the effect of the
      sojourn upon their civilization?



FOURTH STUDY

The Wandering in the Wilderness


PART ONE

I. =Preliminary Events.= As preparatory to the wilderness stage in the
history of Is´ra-el certain events and processes are to be noted.

1. =The Oppression of the Is´ra-el-ites= (Exod. I. 8-13). If the
Is´ra-el-ites had been prosperous and happy in E´gypt they would have
remained there, and the destiny of the chosen people would have been
forgotten. Therefore, when E´gypt had given to Is´ra-el all that it
could the wrath of man was made to praise God; and by suffering the
Is´ra-el-ites were made willing to leave the land of their sojourn and
seek the land of promise. The nest was stirred up, and the young eaglet
was compelled to fly (Deut. 32. 11, 12). The Pha´raoh of the oppression
is generally identified with Ram´e-ses II, who was reigning about B. C.
1320.

2. =The Training of Mo´ses.= Therein was another element of preparation.
No common man could have wrought the great work of liberation, of
legislation, and of training which Is´ra-el needed.

3. =The Ten Plagues.= But if it was needful to make the Is´ra-el-ites
willing to depart it was also needful to make the E-gyp´tian king and
his people willing to let them depart; and this was accomplished by the
plagues which fell upon E´gypt, showing Is´ra-el as under God's peculiar
care and the gods of E´gypt powerless to protect their people.

4. =The Passover= (Exod. 12. 21-28). This service represented three
ideas: 1.) It was the springtide festival. 2.) It commemorated the
sudden departure from E´gypt, when there was not even time to "raise the
bread" before leaving (Exod. 12. 34-39). 3.) It was an impressive
prophecy of Christ, the slain Lamb of God (Exod. 12. 21, 22).

5. =The Exodus= (Exod. 12. 40, 41). The word means "going out." This was
the birthday of a nation, the hour when the Is´ra-el-ites rose from
being merely a mass of men to become a people. The date of the exodus
is uncertain, but the best scholars have concluded that it took place in
the reign of the King Me-neph´thah (or Me-re-neph´thah), who may have
reigned about B. C. 1270.

[Illustration: JOURNEYS OF THE ISRAELITES]

II. In order to follow the journeys of the Is´ra-el-ites we must draw a
map of the =Wilderness of the Wandering=.

1. Draw the coast lines, and note =three Seas=. 1.) The "great sea," or
_Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an_ (Josh. 1. 4). 2.) The _Red Sea_ (Exod. 13. 18),
(Gulfs of Su-ez´ and Ak´a-ba). 3.) The _Dead Sea_.

2. Draw the mountain ranges, and note =five Deserts=. 1.) The _Desert of
Shur_ (Exod. 15. 22), between Go´shen and Ca´naan. 2.) The _Desert of
Pa´ran_, in the center of the Si-na-it´ic triangle (Num. 10. 12). This
is the wilderness in which thirty-eight of the forty years were passed
(Deut. 1. 19). 3.) The _Desert of E´tham_ (Num. 33. 8), on the shore of
the Gulf of Su-ez´. 4.) The _Desert of Sin_, near Mount Si´nai (Exod.
16. 1). 5.) The _Desert of Zin_, the desolate valley between the Gulf of
Ak´a-ba and the Dead Sea, now called the Ar´a-bah (Num. 13. 21).

3. Locate also the =five Lands= of this region. 1.) _Go´shen_, the land
of the sojourn (Exod. 9. 26). 2.) _Mid´i-an_, the land of Mo´ses'
shepherd life (Exod. 2. 15), on both sides of the Gulf of Ak´a-ba. 3.)
_E´dom_, the land of E´sau's descendants, south of the Dead Sea (Num.
21. 4). 4.) _Mo´ab_, the land of Lot's descendants, east of the Dead Sea
(Num. 21. 13). 5.) _Ca´naan_, the land of promise (Gen. 12. 7).

4. Fix also the location of =three Mountains=. 1.) _Mount Si´nai_, where
the law was given (Exod. 19. 20). 2.) _Mount Hor_,[3] where Aar´on died
(Num. 20. 23-28). 3.) _Mount Ne´bo_ (Pis´gah), where Mo´ses died (Deut.
34. 1).

5. Notice also =seven Places=, some of which are clearly, others not so
definitely, identified. 1.) _Ram´e-ses_, the starting point of the
Is´ra-el-ites (Exod. 12. 37). 2.) _Ba´al-ze´phon_, the place of crossing
the Red Sea (Exod. 14. 2). 3.) _Ma´rah_, where the bitter waters were
sweetened (Exod. 15. 22-25). 4.) _E´lim_, the place of rest (Exod. 15.
27). 5.) _Reph´i-dim_, the place of the first battle, near Mount Si´nai
(Exod. 17. 8-16). 6.) _Ka´desh-bar´ne-a_, whence the spies were sent
forth (Num. 13. 26). 7.) _Ja´haz_, in the land of Mo´ab, south of the
brook Ar´non, where a victory was won over the Am´or-ites (Num. 21. 23,
24).


Blackboard Outline

     I. =Pre. Even.= 1. Opp. Isr. 2. Tra. Mos. 3. Ten Pla. 4. Pass.
          5. Exod.
    II. =Wil. Wan.= 1. Seas. 1.) M. S. 2.) R. S. [G. S., G. A.] 3) D. S.
  2. Des. 1.) D. Sh. 2.) D. Par. 3.) D. Eth. 4.) D. Si. 5.) D. Zi.
  3. Lan. 1.) Gos. 2.) Mid. 3.) Ed. 4.) Mo. 5.) Can.
  4. Mts. 1.) Mt. Sin. 2.) Mt. H. 3.) Mt. Neb.
  5. Pla. 1.) Ram. 2.) B.-zep. 3.) Mar. 4.) El. 5.) Rep. 6.) Kad.-bar.
          7.) Jah.


Review Questions

      Name five events which were preparatory to the
      wandering. What made the Is´ra-el-ites willing to
      leave E´gypt? What three ideas were connected with the
      passover? What is meant by the exodus? What are the
      three seas of the map illustrating the wandering? Name
      five deserts of this region? In which desert were the
      most years passed? What were the two deserts on the
      shore of the Red Sea? Where was the Desert of Zin?
      Which desert was between E´gypt and Pal´es-tine? Name
      and locate five lands of this region. Which land was
      nearest to E´gypt? Which land was on the eastern arm
      of the Red Sea? Which land lay east of the Dead Sea?
      Which land was south of the Dead Sea? Name three
      mountains in this region. What event took place on
      each of these mountains? Name two places between
      E´gypt and the Red Sea. Name three places on the route
      between the Red Sea, and an event at each place. What
      place was south of Ca´naan and near it? What events
      occurred at this place? What two places were
      battlefields?


PART TWO

III. On our map we indicate the =Journeys of the Is´ra-el-ites=, and at
the same time note the principal events of the wandering.

1. _From Ram´e-ses to the Red Sea_ (Exod. 12. 37; 14. 9). With this
note: 1.) The crossing of the Red Sea.

2. _From the Red Sea to Mount Si´nai._ Events: 2.) The waters of Ma´rah
(Exod. 15. 23-26). 3.) The repulse of the Am´a-lek-ites (Exod. 17.
8-16). 4.) The giving of the law at Mount Si´nai. Here the camp was kept
for a year, and the organization of the people was effected.

3. _From Mount Si´nai to Ka´desh-bar´ne-a._ At the latter place
occurred: 5.) The sending out of the spies and their return (Num. 13.
1-26). 6.) The defeat at Hor´mah, north of Ka´desh-bar´ne-a (Num. 14.
40-45). It was the purpose of Mo´ses to lead the people at once from
Ka´desh up to Ca´naan. But their fear of the Ca´naan-ite and Am´or-ite
inhabitants made them weak; they were defeated and driven back into the
Desert of Pa´ran, where they wandered thirty-eight years, until the
generation of slavish souls should die off, and a new Is´ra-el, the
young people, trained in the spirit of Mo´ses and Josh´u-a and fitted
for conquest, should arise in their places.

4. _From Ka´desh-bar´ne-a through the Desert of Pa´ran and Return._ This
was the long wandering of thirty-eight years. We trace the route from
Ka´desh, around the Desert of Pa´ran, to Mount Hor, to E´zi-on-ge´ber at
the head of the Gulf of Ak´a-ba, and at last to Ka´desh once more (Num.
20. 1). There occurred: 7.) The water from the rock at Ka´desh and
Mo´ses's disobedience (Num. 20. 10-12). 8.) The repulse by A´rad (Num.
21. 1). It would seem that the Is´ra-el-ites made a second attempt to
enter Ca´naan on the south, and were again defeated, though not so
severely as before.

5. _From Ka´desh-bar´ne-a around E´dom to the River Jor´dan._ After this
second defeat Mo´ses desired to lead the people through the land of the
E´dom-ites, and to enter Ca´naan by crossing the Jor´dan (Num. 20. 14).
But the E´dom-ites refused to permit such an army to pass through their
land (Num. 20. 18-21). Hence the Is´ra-el-ites were compelled to go down
the Desert of Zin, past E´dom, as far as the Red Sea, then east of
E´dom--a very long and toilsome journey (Num. 21. 4). Note with this
journey: 9.) The brazen serpent (Num. 21. 6-9; John 3. 14, 15). 10.) The
victory over the Am´or-ites (Num. 21. 23,24). This victory gave to the
Is´ra-el-ites control of the country from Ar´non to Jab´bok, and was the
first campaign of the conquest. The long journey was now ended in the
encampment of the Is´ra-el-ites at the foot of Mount Ne´bo, on the
eastern bank of the Jor´dan, near the head of the Dead Sea. 11.) The
last event of the period was the death of Mo´ses, B. C. 1451 (Deut. 34.
5-8).

IV. =The Results of the Wandering.= These forty years of wilderness life
made a deep impress upon the Is´ra-el-ite people, and wrought great
changes in their character.

1. It gave them certain _Institutions_. From the wilderness they brought
their tabernacle and all its rites and services, out of which grew the
magnificent ritual of the temple. The Feast of Passover commemorated the
exodus, the Feast of Pentecost the giving of the law, the Feast of
Tabernacles (during which for a week the people lived in huts and
booths) the outdoor life in the desert.

2. Another result was _National Unity_. When the Is´ra-el-ites left
E´gypt they were twelve unorganized tribes, without a distinct national
life. Forty years in the wilderness, meeting adversities together,
fighting enemies, marching as one host, made them a nation. They emerged
from the wilderness a distinct people, with one hope and aim, with
patriotic self-respect, ready to take their place among the nations of
the earth.

3. _Individual Liberty._ They had just been set free from the tyranny of
the most complete governmental machine on the face of the earth. In
E´gypt the man was nothing; the state was everything. The Is´ra-el-ite
system was an absolute contrast to the E-gyp´tian. For centuries after
the exodus the Is´ra-el-ites lived with almost no government, each man
doing what was right in his own eyes. They were the freest people on
earth, far more so than the Greeks or the Ro´mans during their
republican epochs. Mo´ses trained them not to look to the government for
their care, but to be a self-reliant people, able to take care of
themselves. If they had passed this initial stage of their history
surrounded by kingdoms they would have become a kingdom. But they
learned their first lessons of national life in the wilderness,
untrammeled by environment and under a wise leader, who sought to train
up a nation of kings instead of a kingdom.

4. _Military Training._ We trace in the history of those forty years a
great advance in military discipline. After crossing the Red Sea, Mo´ses
did not wish to lead them by the direct route to Ca´naan lest they
should "see war" (Exod. 13. 17, 18). Attacked by the Am´a-lek-ites soon
after the exodus, the Is´ra-el-ites were almost helpless (Exod. 17.
8-16; Deut. 25. 17-19). A year later they were the easy prey of the
Ca´naan-ites at Hor´mah (Num. 14. 40-45). Forty years after they crossed
the Jor´dan, and entered Ca´naan a drilled and trained host, a
conquering army. This discipline and spirit of conquest they gained
under Mo´ses and Josh´u-a in the wilderness.

5. _Religious Education._ This was the greatest of all the benefits
gained in the wilderness. They were brought back from the idolatries of
E´gypt to the faith of their fathers. They received God's law, the
system of worship, and the ritual which brought them by its services
into a knowledge of God. Moreover, their experience of God's care taught
them to trust in Je-ho´vah, who had chosen them for his own people. Even
though the mass of the people might worship idols, there was always from
this time an Is´ra-el of the heart that sought and obeyed God.


Blackboard Outline

    III. =Jour. and Even.= Jour. 1. Ram.--R. S. 1.) Cr. R. S.
  Jour. 2. R. S.--Mt. Sin. 2.) Wat. Mar. 3.) Rep. Am. 4.) Giv. 1.
  Jour. 3. Mt. Sin.--Kad.-bar. 5.) Sen. sp. 6.) Def. Hor.
  Jour. 4. Kad.-bar.--Des. Par.--Ret. 7.) Wat. roc. Kad. 8.) Rep. Ar.
  Jour. 5. Kad.-bar.--Ed.--Riv. Jor. 9.) Bra. ser. 10.) Vic. ov. Amo.
         11.) Dea. Mos.
     IV. =Res. Wan.= 1. Ins. 2. Nat. Un. 3. Ind. Lib. 4. Mil. Tra.
         5. Rel. Ed.


Review Questions

      State the route of the first journey. What was the
      great event of this journey? What was the second
      journey? What events are named with this journey? What
      was the third journey? What two events took place with
      this journey? What was the longest journey? Name four
      places of this journey? Name two events near its
      close. What was the last journey? What events took
      place at this time? Where was the last encampment of
      the Is´ra-el-ites? What institutions originated during
      this period? What was the political effect of this
      epoch upon the people? How did it give them liberty?
      What was the influence in military affairs? What were
      its results upon the religion of the people?



FIFTH STUDY

Institutions of Israelite Worship


PART ONE

In the Old Testament we note certain forms and institutions for worship,
and as some of these received their shaping during the wilderness life
of the Is´ra-el-ites, we give a brief account of such institutions at
this place in the history.

I. Earliest of all institutions for worship we find the =Altar=, and
throughout the Old Testament the altar worship stands prominent.

1. =Its Principle=, the root idea underlying the altar, was of a meeting
between God and man. As the subject always came to his ruler with a gift
in his hands, so the worshiper brought his offering to his god, whether
Je-ho´vah, the God of Is´ra-el, or Ba´al, the divinity of the
Ca´naan-ites.

2. =Its Origin= is unknown, but it was early sanctioned by a divine
approval of the worship connected with it (Gen. 4. 3, 4; 8. 20; 12. 8).

3. =Its Universality.= There was scarcely a people in the ancient world
without an altar. We find that the worship of every land and every
religion was associated with altars. (See allusions in Isa. 65. 3; 2
Kings 16. 10; Acts 17. 23, to altars outside of the Is´ra-el-ite faith.)

4. =Its Material.= Among the Is´ra-el-ites it was of earth or unhewn
stone. Where metal or wood was used it was merely for a covering, the
true altar being of earth inside. The laws of Is´ra-el forbade any
carving of the stone which might lead to idol worship (Exod. 20. 24,
25).

5. =Its Limitation.= In the patriarchal age the chief of the clan was
the priest, the altar stood before his tent, and there was but one altar
for the clan, which thus represented one family. When Is´ra-el became a
nation only one altar was allowed by the law, carrying out the idea that
all the Twelve Tribes were one family (Deut. 12. 13, 14; Josh. 22. 16).
Yet the law, if known to the Is´ra-el-ites, was constantly ignored by
the prophets (1 Sam. 7. 9; 1 Kings 18. 31, 32).

6. =Its Prophetic Purpose=, as revealed in the New Testament, was to
prefigure the cross whereon Christ died (John 1. 29; Heb. 9. 22; 1 Pet.
3. 18).

II. The =Offerings=, as fully developed and named in the law, were of
five kinds, as follows:

1. =The Sin Offering.= 1.) This regarded the worshiper as a sinner, and
expressed the means of his reconciliation with God. 2.) The offering
consisted of an animal. 3.) The animal was slain and burned without the
camp. 4.) Its blood was sprinkled on the altar of incense in the Holy
Place (Lev. 4. 3-7).

2. =The Burnt Offering.= 1.) This regarded the worshiper as already
reconciled, and expressed his consecration to God. 2.) It consisted of
an animal, varied according to the ability of the worshiper. 3.) The
animal was slain and burned on the altar. 4.) Its blood was poured out
on the altar, a token that the life of the worshiper was given to God
(Lev. 1. 2-9).

3. =The Trespass Offering.=[4] 1.) This represented the divine
forgiveness of an actual transgression, whether against God or man, as
distinguished from the condition of a sinner represented in the sin
offering. 2.) The offering consisted of an animal, generally a ram,
though a poor person might bring some flour. 3.) The animal was slain
and burned on the altar. 4.) The blood was poured out at the base of the
altar (Lev. 5. 1-10).

4. =The Meat Offering.=[5] 1.) This expressed the simple idea of
thanksgiving to God. 2.) It consisted of vegetable food. 3.) The
offering was divided between the altar and the priest; one part was
burned on the altar, the other presented to the priest to be eaten by
him as food (Lev. 2. 1-3).

5. =The Peace Offering.= 1.) This expressed fellowship with God in the
form of a feast. 2.) It consisted of both animal and vegetable food. 3.)
The offering was divided into three parts, one part burned upon the
altar, a second eaten by the priest, a third part eaten by the worshiper
and his friends as a sacrificial supper. Thus God, the priest, and the
worshiper were all represented as taking a meal together.



Blackboard Outline

  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  | I. =Alt.= 1. Prin. 2. Orig. 3. Univ. 4. Mat. 5. Lim. 6. Proph. Pur.|
  |II. =Off.=                                                          |
  |  1. Si. Off. |Sin. rec. G.|An.     |Sl. bur.      |Spr. alt. inc.  |
  |  2. Bu. Off. |Con. G.     |An.     |Sl. bur.      |Pou. alt.       |
  |  3. Tre. Off.|For. trans. |An.     |Sl. bur.      |Pou. ba. alt.   |
  |  4. Me. Off. |Tha. Gd.    |Veg.    |Alt. pri.     |                |
  |  5. Pea. Off.|Fel. G.     |An. veg.|Alt. pri. wor.|                |
  +--------------+------------+--------+--------------+----------------+


Review Questions

      What two institutions of the Old Testament are here
      presented? What shows the universality of the altar in
      connection with worship? What is said of the origin of
      the altar? Of what material were the earliest altars
      made? What was the religious idea in the altar? What
      prophetic purpose did the altar have? Name the five
      kinds of offerings. How did the sin offering regard
      the worshiper? What did the sin offering express? Of
      what did the sin offering consist? What was done with
      the offering? What was done with the blood? What was
      the design of the burnt offering? Of what did the
      burnt offering consist? What was done with the animal?
      What was done with the blood in the burnt offering?
      Wherein did the trespass offering differ from the sin
      offering? Of what did the trespass offering consist?
      What was done with the sacrifice? What did the meat
      offering express? Of what did it consist? How was the
      meat offering used? What was expressed by the peace
      offering? Of what did it consist? What was done with
      the peace offering?


PART TWO

The Tabernacle

1. When the family of A´bra-ham grew into a people its unity was
maintained by regarding the altar--and but one altar for all the Twelve
Tribes--as the religious center of the nation.

2. To the thought of the altar as the meeting place with God was added
the conception of God dwelling among his people in a sanctuary and
receiving homage as the King of Is´ra-el (Exod. 25. 8).

3. Thus the altar grew into the Tabernacle, which was the sanctuary
where God was supposed to dwell in the midst of the camp. As was
necessary among a wandering people, it was constructed of such materials
as could be easily taken apart and carried on the march through the
wilderness.

In considering the Tabernacle and its furniture we notice the following
particulars:

I. =The Court=, an open square surrounded by curtains, 150 by 75 feet in
extent, and occupying the center of the camp of Is´ra-el (Exod. 27.
9-13). In this stood the Altar, the Laver, and the Tabernacle itself.

II. =The Altar of Burnt Offerings= stood within the court, near its
entrance. It was made of wood plated with "brass" (which is supposed to
mean copper), was 7½ feet square and 4½ feet high. On this all the
burnt sacrifices were offered (Exod. 27. 1; 40. 29), except the sin
offering.

III. =The Laver= contained water for the sacrificial purifyings. It
stood at the door of the tent, but its size and form are unknown (Exod.
30. 17-21).

IV. =The Tabernacle= itself was a tent 45 feet long, 15 feet wide. Its
walls were of boards, plated with gold, standing upright; its roof of
three curtains, one laid above another. Whether there was a ridge-pole
or not is uncertain. It was divided, by a veil across the interior, into
two apartments, the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (Exod. 36. 8-38).

V. =The Holy Place= was the larger of the two rooms into which the tent
was divided, being 30 feet long by 15 wide. Into this the priests
entered for the daily service. It contained the Candlestick, the Table,
and the Altar of Incense (Heb. 9. 2).

[Illustration: DIAGRAM SHOWING LOCATION OF THE OBJECTS WITHIN THE
TABERNACLE COURT.]

VI. =The Candlestick= (more correctly, "lampstand") stood on the left
side of one entering the Holy Place; made of gold, and bearing seven
branches, each branch holding a lamp (Exod. 25. 31-37).

VII. =The Table= stood on the right of one entering the Holy Place; made
of wood, covered with gold; 3 feet long, 1½ feet wide, 2¼ feet
high; contained 12 loaves of bread, called "the bread of the presence"
(Exod. 37. 10, 11).

VIII. =The Altar of Incense= stood at the inner end of the Holy Place,
near the veil; made of wood, covered with gold; 1½ feet square and 3
feet high. On it the incense was lighted by fire from the Altar of Burnt
Offerings (Exod. 30. 1, 2).

IX. =The Holy of Holies= was the innermost and holiest room in the
Tabernacle, into which the high priest alone entered on one day in each
year (the Day of Atonement); in form a cube of 15 feet. It contained
only the Ark of the Covenant (Heb. 9. 3).

X. =The Ark of the Covenant= was a chest containing the stone tablets of
the Commandments; made of wood, covered on the outside and inside with
gold; 3 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches wide and high. Through gold
rings on the sides were thrust the staves by which it was borne on the
march. Its lid, on which stood two figures of the cherubim, was called
"the mercy seat." On this the high priest sprinkled the blood on the Day
of Atonement (Exod. 25. 17, 18; Heb. 9. 7).


Blackboard Outline

                     THE TABERNACLE

     I. =Cou.= sq. 150. 75. (Al. Lav. Tab.)
    II. =Alt.= woo. br. 7½. 4½.
   III. =Lav.= do. ten.
    IV. =Tab.= 45. 15. bds. cur. (H.P. H.H.)
     V. =Ho. Pl.= 30. 15. (Can. Tab. Alt. Inc.)
    VI. =Can.= go. 7 bran.
   VII. =Tab.= 3. 1½. 2¼. 12 loa.
  VIII. =Alt. Inc.= woo. gol. 1½. 3.
    IX. =Ho. Hol.= 15. 15. 15. (Ar. Cov.)
     X. =Ar. Cov.= wo. go. 3,9. 2,3. "mer. se."


Review Questions

      How was the unity of the Is´ra-el-ite people
      maintained? What was the conception or thought in the
      Tabernacle? Why was it constructed of such material?
      What was the court of the Tabernacle? What were the
      dimensions of the court? What stood in the court? What
      were the materials of the Altar of Burnt Offerings?
      What was the size of this altar? What was the laver,
      and where did it stand? What was the Tabernacle
      itself? Into what rooms was it divided? How was it
      covered? What were the dimensions of the Holy Place?
      What did the Holy Place contain? What was the form of
      the candlestick? Where did the candlestick stand? Of
      what was the Altar of Incense made? What were its
      dimensions? For what was this altar used? What were
      the dimensions of the Holy of Holies? What did the
      Holy of Holies contain? Who alone entered this room,
      and how often? What was the Ark of the Covenant? What
      was the "mercy seat"?


PART THREE

The Sacred Year

I. Among the Is´ra-el-ites certain institutions of worship were observed
at regular intervals of time which have been called the =Periodical
Institutions=. These were:

1. =The Sabbath=, observed one day in seven; of which the root idea is
the giving to God a portion of our time. (See references in the Old
Testament: Gen. 2. 3; Exod. 20. 8-11; Isa. 56. 2; 58. 13.) In the New
Testament we find the first day of the week gradually taking its place
among the early Christians (Acts 20. 7; 1 Cor. 26. 2; Rev. 1. 10).

2. =The New Moon=, which was the opening day of each month; regarded as
a sacred day, and celebrated with religious services (Num. 10. 10; 2
Kings 4. 23).

3. =The Seven Annual Solemnities=, the important occasions of the year,
six feasts and one fast day.

4. =The Sabbatical Year.= One year in every seven was to be observed as
a year of rest, and the ground was not to be tilled (Lev. 25. 2-7).

5. =The Year of Jubilee.= Once in fifty years the Is´ra-el-ites were
commanded to give liberty to slaves, freedom to debtors, and general
restitution of alienated inheritances (Lev. 25. 9, 10). How far the
"Sabbatical Year" and "the Year of Jubilee" were actually kept among the
Is´ra-el-ites we have no means of knowing; but the commands concerning
them were given in the law.

II. We take for special notice among these periodical institutions the
=Seven Annual Solemnities= of the =Sacred Year=. Most of these were
instituted in the time of Mo´ses, but two of them arose later. We
consider them all, however, in this place, rather than at the closing of
the history, where two of the feasts properly belong. These may be
classified as:

1. =The Three Great Feasts=: Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles; all
observed at the capital, and requiring the people to make annual
pilgrimages to Je-ru´sa-lem.

2. =The Annual Fast=: the Day of Atonement.

3. =The Three Lesser Feasts=: Trumpets, Dedication, Purim. These were
observed throughout the land, as well as in Je-ru´sa-lem.

With regard to each of these we will note: 1.) Its time. 2.) The event
which it commemorated. 3.) How it was observed.

1. =The Feast of Passover= (Luke 22. 1).

      1.) Was held in the spring, on the fourteenth of the
      month Abib, or Nisan, corresponding to parts of March
      and April (Exod. 12. 18).

      2.) Commemorated the exodus from E´gypt (Exod. 12.
      42).

      3.) Observed with the eating of unleavened bread and
      the slain lamb (Exod. 12. 19-21).

2. =The Feast of Pentecost= (Acts 2. 1).

      1.) Was held early in the summer, on the fiftieth day
      after Passover, in the month Sivan, corresponding to
      May and June.

      2.) Commemorated the giving of the law.[6] (See Exod.
      19. 1, 11.)

      3.) Observed by "first fruits" laid on the altar, with
      special sacrifices (Lev. 23. 15-21).

3. =The Feast of Tabernacles= (John 7. 2, 10).

      1.) Held in the fall, after the ingathering of crops,
      from the 15th to the 21st of the seventh month,
      Ethanim, corresponding to September and October (Lev.
      23. 34).

      2.) Commemorated the outdoor life of the wilderness
      (Lev. 23. 43).

      3.) Observed by living in huts or booths, and by
      special sacrifices (Lev. 23. 35-42).

4. =The Day of Atonement=, the only fast required by the Jew´ish law.

      1.) Held in the fall, on the tenth day of the month
      Ethanim (Lev. 23. 27), five days before the Feast of
      Tabernacles.

      2.) Showing the sinner's reconciliation with God.

      3.) On this day only in the year the high priest
      entered the Holy of Holies (Exod. 30. 10).

5. =The Feast of Trumpets.=

      1.) Held on the first day of the seventh month,
      Ethanim, corresponding to September or October (Lev.
      23. 24).

      2.) This feast recognized the "New Year Day" of the
      civil year.[7]

      3.) It was observed with the blowing of trumpets all
      through the land.

6. =The Feast of Dedication=, not named in the Old Testament. (See John
10. 22.)

      1.) This was held in the winter, on the 25th of the
      month Chisleu (December), and for eight days
      thereafter.

      2.) It commemorated the reconsecration of the Temple
      by Ju´das Mac´ca-be´us, B. C. 166, after its
      defilement by the Syr´i-ans.

      3.) It was observed by a general illumination of
      Je-ru´sa-lem; hence often called "the feast of
      lights."

7. =The Feast of Purim=, not named in the New Testament, unless it be
referred to in John 5. 1.

      1.) Held in the early spring, the 14th and 15th of the
      month Adar (March) (Esth. 9. 21).

      2.) Commemorating Queen Esther's deliverance of the
      Jew´ish people (Esth. 9. 22-26).

      3.) Observed with general feasting and rejoicing.


Blackboard Outline

  I. =Per. Inst=. 1. Sab. 2. Ne. Mo. 3. Sev. Ann. Sol. 4. Sab. Ye.
          5. Ye. Jub.

  II. =Sac. Yea.=

                    {1. Pass.   spr. ex. Eg. sla. la.
        1. Gr. Fe.  {2. Pen.   sum. giv. la. fir. fru.
                    {3. Tab.   fal. lif. wil. liv. huts.

        2. Ann. Fa.  4. Day.   At. fal. sin. rec. pr. H. Hol.

                    {5. Trum.   fal. N. Ye. bl. trum.
        3. Les. Fe. {6. Ded.   win. rec. Tem. ill. Jer.
                    {7. Pur.   spr. Esth. del. fea. rej.


Review Questions

      What is meant by "Periodical Institutions"? Name the
      five general periodical institutions of the
      Is´ra-el-ites. What did the Sabbath commemorate? What
      were the new moons? How many times in the year were
      observed by the Is´ra-el-ites? What was the Sabbatical
      Year? What was the Year of Jubilee? Name the three
      great feasts. When was each great feast observed? What
      did each feast commemorate? How was each feast
      observed? What took place on the Day of Atonement?
      What did the Day of Atonement represent? What were the
      three lesser feasts? When was each observed? What did
      each lesser feast commemorate? How were these feasts
      observed?



SIXTH STUDY

The Land of Palestine


PART ONE

We have followed the history of the Is´ra-el-ites to their encampment on
the border of their promised land. Before taking up the study of their
conquest of Ca´naan let us obtain some conception of the country with
which the greater part of Bible history is connected--the land of
Pal´es-tine.

I. Let us notice its =Names= at different periods:

1. The earliest name was =Ca´naan=, "lowland," referring only to the
section between the river Jor´dan and the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an Sea, of
which the inhabitants most widely known were the Ca´naan-ites, dwelling
on the lowland plains (Gen. 12. 5).

[Illustration: PALESTINE]

2. After the conquest by Josh´u-a it was called =Is´ra-el=, though in
later times of Old Testament history the name referred only to the
northern portion, the southern kingdom being called Ju´dah (Judg. 18. 1;
1 Kings 12. 20).

3. In the New Testament period its political name was =Ju-de´a=, which
was also the name of its most important province (Mark 1. 5).

4. Its modern name is =Pal´es-tine=, a form of the word "Phi-lis´tine,"
the name of a heathen race which in early times occupied its
southwestern border (Isa. 14. 29).

II. The following are the principal =Dimensions= of Pal´es-tine:

1. =Ca´naan=, or western Pal´es-tine, has an area of about 6,600 square
miles, a little less than Massachusetts.

2. =Pal´es-tine Proper=, the domain of the Twelve Tribes, embraces
12,000 square miles, about the area of Massachusetts and Connecticut.

3. The =Coast Line=, from Ga´za, the southernmost town, to Tyre, on the
north, is not far from 140 miles long.

4. The =Jor´dan= is distant from the coast at Tyre about 25 miles; and
the =Dead Sea=, in a line due east from Ga´za, about 60 miles.

5. The =Jor´dan Line=, from Dan, one of the sources of the Jor´dan, to
the southern end of the Dead Sea, is 155 miles.

III. The most important =Waters= of Pal´es-tine are:

1. The =Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an Sea=, which bounds the land on the west
(Josh. 1. 4; Exod. 23. 31; Deut. 11. 24).

2. The =River Jor´dan=, rising in three sources in Mount Her´mon, and
emptying into the Dead Sea in a direct line 105 miles long, but by its
windings over 200 miles (Deut. 9. 1; Josh. 4. 1; 2 Sam. 17. 22).

3. =Lake Me´rom=, now called _Hu´leh_, a triangular sheet of water, 3
miles across, in a swamp in northern Gal´i-lee (Josh. 11. 5).

4. The =Sea of Gal´i-lee=,[8] a pear-shaped lake, 14 miles long by 9
wide, and nearly 700 feet below the sea level. (Note other names in
Josh. 13. 27; 11. 2; Luke 5. 1; John 6. 1.)

5. The =Dead Sea=, 47 miles long by 10 wide, and 1,300 feet below the
sea level (Gen. 14. 3; Deut. 4. 49; Joel 2. 20).

IV. The land of Pal´es-tine lies in five =Natural Divisions=, nearly
parallel:

1. The =Maritime Plain=, or sandy flat, extending along the
Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an Sea, from 8 to 20 miles wide.

2. The =Sheph´e-lah=, or foothills, from 300 to 500 feet high and very
fertile.

3. The =Mountain Region=, the backbone of the land, consisting of
mountains from 2,500 to 4,000 feet high.

4. The =Jor´dan Valley=, a deep ravine, the bed of the river and its
three lakes, from 500 to 1,200 feet below the level of the sea, and from
2 to 14 miles wide.

5. The =Eastern Table-land=, a region of lofty and precipitous
mountains, from whose summit a plain stretches away to the A-ra´bi-an
Desert on the east.


Hints to the Teacher

      1. Let the map be drawn by the teacher in presence of
      the class, and each part carefully taught, while the
      class also draw the map in their notebooks.

      2. Then erase the map from the board, and call upon
      one scholar, in presence of the class, to draw the
      lines representing natural divisions: another the
      river and lakes, etc., etc.

      3. If chalk of different colors can be used for the
      different departments of the map, coast line and
      Jordan line one color, mountain lines another, it will
      add to the interest.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Na.= Ca. Isr. Jud. Pal.
   II. =Dim.= Ca. 6,600. Pal. 12,000. C. L. 140. To =Jor.= 25. To D. S.
          60. Jor. L. 155.
  III. =Wat.= Med. Jor. L. Me. S. Gal. D. S.
   IV. =Nat. Div.= M. P. Sh. M. R. J. V. E. T.-L.


Review Questions

      Why is a knowledge of the land of Pal´es-tine
      important? Give and explain the four different names
      of this land. What is meant by "Ca´naan" proper? How
      large is Ca´naan? How large was the domain of the
      Twelve Tribes? How long is the coast line? How far is
      the Jor´dan distant from the coast near its source?
      How far is the Dead Sea from the coast? What is meant
      by the Jor´dan line? How long is the Jor´dan line?
      Name the most important waters of Pal´es-tine.
      Describe the river Jor´dan, sources, elevations,
      length, etc. Describe and locate Lake Me´rom. Describe
      the Sea of Gal´i-lee. Describe the Dead Sea. What are
      the five natural divisions of Pal´es-tine?


PART TWO

V. Pal´es-tine is a land of =Mountains=, among which we notice only a
few of the most important, beginning in the north.

1. =Mount Her´mon=, is near the source of the Jor´dan, on the east, and
is the highest mountain in Pal´es-tine.

2. =Mount Leb´a-non=, west of Her´mon, was famous for its cedars (1
Kings 5. 6; Psa. 29. 5).

3. =Mount Ta´bor=, the place of Deb´o-rah's victory, is southwest of the
Sea of Gal´i-lee (Judg. 4. 6).

4. =Mount Gil-bo´a=, where King Saul was slain, is south of Ta´bor (1
Sam. 31. 1; 2 Sam. 1. 21).

5. =Mount Car´mel=, the place of E-li´jah's sacrifice, is on the
Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an, due west of the Sea of Gal´i-lee (1 Kings 18. 20,
42; Isa. 35. 2).

6. =Mount E´bal=, "the mount of cursing," lies in the center of the land
(Deut. 11. 26).

7. =Mount Ger´i-zim=, "the mount of blessing," is south of E´bal (Josh.
8. 33; John 4. 20).

8. =Mount Zi´on=, on which Je-ru´sa-lem stood and still stands, is due
west of the head of the Dead Sea.

9. =Mount Ne´bo=, where Mo´ses died, is directly opposite Zi´on, on the
east of the Dead Sea (Deut. 34. 1).

VI. We note a few of the most important places, selecting only those
connected with Old Testament history; and we arrange them according to
the natural divisions of the land.

1. On the _Seacoast Plain_ were:

      1.) =Ga´za=, on the south, the scene of Sam´son's
      exploits and death (Judg. 16. 21).

      2.) =Jop´pa=, principal seaport of Pal´es-tine (2
      Chron. 2. 16; Jonah 1. 3).

      3.) =Tyre=, just beyond the northern boundary of
      Pa´les-tine, a great commercial city of the
      Phoe-ni´cians (Josh. 19. 29).

2. In the _Mountain Region_ were:

      1.) =Be´er-she´ba=, in the southern limit of the land
      (Gen. 21. 31, 33; 1 Sam. 3. 20; 1 Kings 19. 3).

      2.) =He´bron=, burial place of the patriarchs (Gen.
      23. 19; 49. 29-31).

      3.) =Beth´le-hem=, the birthplace of Da´vid (1 Sam.
      17. 12).

      4.) =Je-ru´sa-lem=, "the city of the great king,"
      which stands due west of the northern point of the
      Dead Sea (2 Sam. 5. 6-9).

      5.) =Beth´el=, nine miles north of Je-ru´sa-lem, the
      place of Ja´cob's vision (Gen. 28. 19).

      6.) =She´chem=, between the twin mountains Ger´i-zim
      and E´bal, in the center of the land (1 Kings 12. 1).

      7.) =Sa-ma´ri-a=, the capital of the Ten Tribes (1
      Kings 16. 24).

3. In the _Jor´dan Valley_ were:

      1.) =Jer´i-cho=, near the head of the Dead Sea (1
      Kings 16. 34).

      2.) =Dan=, at one of the sources of the Jor´dan, the
      northernmost place in the land (Judg. 18. 28; 20. 1).


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Na.= Ca. Isr. Jud. Pal.
   II. =Dim.= Ca. 6,600. Pal. 12,000. C. L. 140. To Jor. 25. To D. S.
           60. Jor. L. 155.
  III. =Wat.= Med. Jor. L. Me. S. Gal. D. S.
   IV. =Nat. Div.= M. P. Sh. M. R. J. V. E. T.-L.
    V. =Mtns.= Her. Leb. Tab. Gil. Car. Eb. Ger. Zi. Ne.
   VI. =Pla.= 1. _Sea. Pl._ Ga. Jop. Ty. 2. _Mtn. Reg._ Beer. Heb.
           Beth. Jer. Bet. She. Sam. 3. _Jor. Val._ Jer. Da.


Review Questions

      Name nine mountains on the map of Pal´es-tine. State
      the location of each mountain. State a fact for which
      each mountain is celebrated. Name and locate three
      places on the Maritime Plain. Name and locate seven
      places in the Mountain Region. Name and locate two
      places in the Jor´dan Valley.



SEVENTH STUDY

The Conquest of Canaan


I. Let us notice the =Ca´naan-ites=, the peoples who were dispossessed
by the Is´ra-el-ites.

1. They were of =one stock=, according to the Scriptures, belonging to
the Ham´ite race, and all descended from the family of Ca´naan (Gen. 10.
15-19).

2. They were divided into =various tribes=, from seven to ten nations,
arranged mainly as follows: 1.) On the seacoast plain, the Phi-lis´tines
on the south, the Ca´naan-ites in the middle, and the Phoe-ni´cians, or
Zi-do´ni-ans, on the north of Mount Car´mel. 2.) In the mountain region,
the Am´or-ites in the south, the Jeb´u-sites around Je-ru´sa-lem, the
Hi´vites in the center of the land, and the Hit´tites in the north. 3.)
The Jor´dan valley was held by the Ca´naan-ites. 4.) On the eastern
table-land, the Mo´ab-ites east of the Dead Sea, the Am´or-ites east of
the Jor´dan, and the Ba´shan-ites in the north.

3. Their =government= was =local=. Not only was each tribe independent,
but each little locality, often each city, had its own "king," or chief.
There was no unity of government, and scarcely any combination to resist
the invasion of Is´ra-el, a fact which made the conquest far less
difficult.

4. They were =idolatrous= and, as a result, grossly =immoral=. Idolatry
is always associated with immorality; for the worship of idols is a
deification of sensuality. Ba´al and Ash´e-rah (plural Ash´to-reth) were
the male and female divinities worshiped by most of these races (Judg.
2. 13).

5. They had been =weakened= before the coming of the Is´ra-el-ites
either by war or by pestilence. The allusions in Exod. 23. 28; Deut. 7.
20; and Josh. 24. 12, have been referred to an invasion before that of
Israel, or to some plague, which destroyed the native races.

II. =The Campaigns of the Conquest.= These may be divided as follows:

1. =The Campaigns East= of the Jor´dan. These were during the lifetime
of Mo´ses, and gained for Is´ra-el all the territory south of Mount
Her´mon.

[Illustration: CAMPAIGNS OF THE =CONQUEST=]

1.) The conquest of Gil´e-ad was made at the battle of Ja´haz, near the
brook Ar´non (Num. 21. 21-31). In one battle the Is´ra-el-ites gained
the land of Gil´e-ad east of the Jor´dan.

2.) The conquest of Ba´shan was completed at the battle of Ed´re-i, in
the mountainous region (Num. 21. 33-35).

3.) The conquest of Mid´i-an (Num. 31. 1-8) was led by the
warrior-priest Phin´e-has, and by smiting the tribes on the east
protected the frontier toward the desert. The land won by these three
campaigns became the territory of the tribes of Reu´ben, Gad, and the
half tribe of Ma-nas´seh (Deut. 32).

2. =The Campaigns West of the Jor´dan= were led by Josh´u-a, and showed
great tactical skill and resistless energy of action. Josh´u-a led his
people across the Jor´dan and established a fortified camp, the center
of operations during all his campaigns, at Gil´gal (Josh. 4. 19).

1.) The first invasion was of _Central Pal´es-tine_, beginning with
Jer´i-cho (Josh. 6), taking A´i on the way (Josh. 8), and ending with
She´chem, which apparently fell without resistance (Josh. 8. 30-33).
This campaign gave to Is´ra-el the center of the land and divided their
enemies into two sections.

2.) Next came the campaign against _Southern Pal´es-tine_. At this time
was fought the battle of Beth-ho´ron (Josh. 10. 10), the most momentous
in its results in all history, and one over which, if ever, the sun and
moon might well stand still (Josh. 10. 12, 13).[9] After this great
victory Josh´u-a pursued his enemies and took the towns as far south as
He´bron and De´bir (Josh. 10. 29-39).

3.) Lastly, Josh´u-a conquered _Northern Pal´es-tine_ (Josh. 11). The
battle in this campaign was near Lake Me´rom (Josh. 11. 7), and, as
before, it was followed by the capture of many cities in the north. Thus
in those marches Josh´u-a won all the mountain region of western
Pal´es-tine.

3. There were certain =supplementary campaigns=, partly in Josh´u-a's
time, partly afterward.

1.) Caleb´s capture of He´bron, which had been reoccupied by the
Am´or-ites (Josh. 14; Judg. 1. 10-15).

2.) The Ju´dah-ites' capture of Be´zek, an unknown place between
Je-ru´sa-lem and the Phi-lis´tine plain (Judg. 1. 1-8).

3.) The Dan´ites' capture of La´ish, in the extreme north, which
afterward bore the name of Dan (Judg. 18).

But, after all these campaigns, a large part of the land was still
unsubdued, and the war of the conquest did not end until the days of
Da´vid by whom every foe was finally placed under foot.

III. =General Aspects of Is´ra-el at the Close of the Conquest.=

1. With regard to the =native races=. They were not destroyed nor driven
away, as had been commanded.[10] They remained as subject people in some
places, as the ruling race on the seacoast and in the Jor´dan valley. We
see their influence, always injurious, throughout all Is´ra-el's
history (Exod. 23. 31-33; Deut. 7. 1-5); and some think that the present
inhabitants of the country belong to the original Ca´naan-ite stock.

2. The =Is´ra-el-ites= did not occupy all the country. They possessed
most of the mountain region, but none of the seacoast plain on the
Jor´dan valley. They were like the Swiss in modern times, living among
the mountains. Even in the New Testament period the lowlands were
occupied mainly by Gen´tiles.

3. The =landed system= was peculiar. =Estates= were inalienable. They
might be leased, but not sold; and on the year of jubilee (every
fiftieth year) all land reverted to the family originally owning it.
Thus every family had its ancestral home, the poor were protected, and
riches were kept within bounds.

4. The =government= was a republic of families without an executive
head, except when a judge was raised up to meet special needs. Each
tribe had its own rulers, but there was no central authority after
Josh´u-a (Judg. 21. 25). This had its evils, for it led to national
weakness; but it had its benefits: 1.) It kept Is´ra-el from becoming a
great worldly kingdom like E´gypt and As-syr´i-a, which would have
thwarted the divine purpose. 2.) It promoted individuality and personal
energy of character. There would have been no "Age of Heroes" if
Is´ra-el had been a kingdom like E´gypt.

5. The =religious system= was simple. There was but one altar at Shi´loh
for all the land and for all the tribes, and the people were required to
visit it for the three great feasts (Deut. 12. 11, 14; Josh. 18. 1).
This was the religious bond which united the people. If it had been
maintained they would have needed no other constitution, and even its
partial observance kept the people one nation.

6. The =character= of the people was diverse. Throughout the history we
trace the working of two distinct elements: There was the true
Is´ra-el--the earnest, religious, God-worshiping section, the Is´ra-el
of Josh´u-a and Gid´e-on and Sam´u-el. Then there was the underlying
mass of the people--secular, ignorant, prone to idolatry, the Is´ra-el
that worshiped Ba´al and Ash´to-reth, and sought alliance with the
heathen. One element was the hope of the nation; the other was its bane.
We shall constantly see the evidences of these two elements in the story
of the Is´ra-el-ites.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Can.= 1. One st. 2. Var. tri. 1.) S. P. Phil. Can. Phoe.
           2.) M. R. Am. Je. Hiv. Hitt. 3.) J. V. Can. 4.) E. T.-L. Mo.
           Am. Bash. 3. Gov. loc. 4. Idol. imm. 5. Weak.

   II. =Camp. Conq.= 1. Camp. Eas. Jor. 1.) Gil. Jah. 2.) Bash. Ed.
           3.) Mid.
       2. Camp. Wes. Jor. 1.) Cent. Pal. Jer. Ai. She. 2.) Sou. Pal.
           Beth-hor. 3.) Nor. Pal. L. Mer.
       3. Supp. Camp. 1.) Cal. cap. Heb. 2.) Jud. cap. Bez. 3.) Dan.
           cap. Lai.

  III. =Gen. Asp. Isr. at Clo. Conq.= 1. Nat. rac. sub. 2. Isr. in
           mtn. reg. 3. Land. sys. 4. Gov. rep. fam. 5. Rel. sys.
           6. Char. peo.


Questions for Review

      To what race did the Ca´naan-ite tribes belong? What
      were their tribes, and where located? What was their
      government? What was their worship? What was the
      effect of their worship on their character? What had
      taken place shortly before the coming of the
      Is´ra-el-ites? What campaigns of conquest were made
      before the death of Mo´ses? What battles were fought
      in these campaigns? What tribes took possession of
      this territory? On which side of the Jor´dan were
      Josh´u-a's campaigns? What traits as a military leader
      did he show? What places were captured on the first of
      Josh´u-a's campaigns? What was the effect of this
      campaign on the enemies? Against what section was
      Josh´u-a's second campaign? Where was the great battle
      fought? What is said to have taken place at this
      battle? What cities were captured at this time? Where
      was the third campaign of Josh´u-a directed? Where was
      the battle fought in this campaign? What were the
      three supplementary campaigns? What city was conquered
      by Ca´leb? What city was occupied by the tribe of Dan?
      What king, long after Josh´u-a, completed the conquest
      of Ca´naan? What was the condition of the native races
      after the conquest? What was the result of their
      continuance in the land? What portion of the country
      was occupied by the Is´ra-el-ites? What modern analogy
      is given to them? What was the system of land tenure
      among the Is´ra-el-ites? What were some of its
      benefits? What was the form of government? Wherein was
      the system defective? What were its excellences? What
      was the religious system of the Is´ra-el-ites? What
      was the effect of this system? What was the religious
      character of the people? What was the condition of the
      mass of the Is´ra-el-ites?



EIGHTH STUDY

The Age of the Heroes


From the death of Josh´u-a to the coronation of Saul the Twelve Tribes
of Is´ra-el were without a central government, except as from time to
time men of ability rose up among them. It was not, as some have
supposed, an "age of anarchy," for anarchy is confusion; and during most
of the time there were peace and order in Is´ra-el. It was rather an
"age of heroes," for its rulers were neither hereditary nor elective,
but men called forth by the needs of the hour and their own qualities of
leadership.

I. =The Condition of Is´ra-el during This Period.= This was partly
favorable and partly unfavorable. The _favorable_ elements were:

1. =The Mountain Location= of Is´ra-el. The tribes were perched like
Switzerland in the Alps. There was a desert on the south and on the
east, while on the west lay the plain by the sea, the great route of
travel between E´gypt and the Eu-phra´tes. Great armies passed and
repassed over this plain, and great battles were fought by E-gyp´tians,
Hit´tites, and As-syr´i-ans, while Is´ra-el on her mountain peaks was
unmolested. This mountain home left Is´ra-el generally unnoticed, and,
when attacked, almost inaccessible.

2. =The Racial Unity= of Is´ra-el. The two finest races of the world,
the Greek and the Is´ra-el-ite, were both of pure blood. The
Is´rael-ites were one in origin, in language, in traditions, in
aspirations. This national unity often brought the tribes together in
times of distress, though not always when the union was needed.

3. =The Religious Institutions.= In Greece every town had its own god
and its own religion; hence the many parties and petty nationalities.
But in Is´ra-el there was in theory but one altar, one house of God, one
system of worship, with its annual pilgrimage to the religious capital
(1 Sam. 1. 3). Just to the measure in which these institutions were
observed Is´ra-el was strong against all foes, and as they were
neglected the land became the prey of oppressors (Judg. 2. 7-14; 1 Sam.
7. 3).

But there were also _unfavorable_ elements in the condition of Is´ra-el,
which threatened its very existence. These were:

1. =The Native Races.= These were of two kinds: the subject people left
on the soil, more or less under the domination of the conquerors; and
the surrounding nations, Am´mon, Mo´ab, Syr´i-a, and the Phi-lis´tines.
There was danger from their enmity, a rebellion of the subject tribes,
allied with the enemies around, for the destruction of Is´ra-el. And
there was far greater danger from their friendship, which would lead to
intermarriage, to idolatry, to corruption of morals, and to ruin (Judg.
3. 1-7).

2. =Lack of a Central Government.= Is´ra-el was in the condition of the
United States at the close of the Revolution, from 1783 to 1789, a loose
confederation with no central authority. There were twelve tribes, but
each governed itself. Only under some great chieftain like Gid´e-on or
Sam´u-el were all the twelve tribes united. Most of the judges ruled
only over their own district of a few adjoining tribes. Often the
northern tribes were in peril, but we never read of Ju´dah going to
their assistance; and in Ju´dah´s wars with the Phi-lis´tines the
northern tribes stood aloof.

3. =Tribal Jealousy.= Until the establishment of the American republic
the world never saw, for any length of time, a league of states on an
equal footing. In Greece the strongest state claimed the _hegemony_, or
leadership, and oppressed its allies. In Italy the Ro´mans reduced all
their neighbors to subjection. In Europe it now requires an army of more
than a million men to maintain the "balance of power." So in Is´ra-el
there was a constant struggle for the leadership between the two great
tribes of Ju´dah and E´phra-im. During the period of the judges
E´phra-im was constantly asserting its rights to rule the other tribes
(Judg. 8. 1-3; 12. 1-6). We trace this rivalry through all the reign of
Da´vid; and at last it led to the division of the empire under
Re-ho-bo´am.

4. =Idolatrous Tendencies.= We note constantly "the two Is´ra-els"--a
spiritual minority and an irreligious, idolatrous mass. For many
centuries the greatest evil of Is´ra-el-ite history was the tendency to
the worship of idols. Causes which operated to promote it were: 1.) The
natural craving for a visible object of worship, not altogether
eradicated from even the Christian heart; for example, Ro´mish images
and the use of the crucifix. 2.) The association of Is´ra-el with
idolaters on the soil or as neighbors. 3.) The opportunity which idol
worship gives to gratify lust under the guise of religion. As a result
of these forces we find idol worship the crying sin of the Is´ra-el-ites
down to the captivity in Bab´y-lon.

II. =The Judges of Is´ra-el.= These were the heroes of that age, the men
who in turn led the tribes, freed them from their enemies, and restored
them to the service of God.

1. =Their Office.= It was not generally to try legal cases between man
and man or between tribe and tribe. It might be regarded as a military
dictatorship blended with a religious authority. The judge was a union
of the warrior and the religious reformer.

2. =Their Appointment=, not by election, nor the votes of the people.
The Orientals have never chosen their rulers by suffrage. The judges
were men whom the people recognized as called of God to their office
(Judg. 2. 16; 3. 9; 6. 11-13).

3. =Their authority= rested not on law, nor on armies, but on the
personal elements of integrity and leadership in the men, and on the
general belief in their inspiration. They spoke to the people with the
authority of a messenger from God. They arose in some hour of great
need, and after the immediate danger was over held their power until the
end of their lives.

4. =The Extent of Their Rule= was generally local, over a few tribes in
one section. Deb´o-rah ruled in the north (Judg. 5. 14-18); Jeph´thah
governed only the east of the Jor´dan (Judg. 11. 29). Often more than
one judge was ruling at the same time; probably Sam´son and E´li were
contemporaneous. Gid´e-on and Sam´u-el alone ruled all the twelve
tribes.


Blackboard Outline

   I. =Cond. Isr.= _Fav._ 1. Mtn. Loc. 2. Rac. Un. 3. Rel. Inst.
           _Unfav._ 1. Nat. Rac. 2. Lac. Cent. Gov. 3. Tri. Jeal.
           4. Idol. Ten.
  II. =Jud. Isr.= 1. Off. 2. App. 3. Auth. 4. Ex. Ru.


Review Questions

      Between what events was this period? What were its
      traits? What were the conditions favorable to Is´ra-el
      during this period? How did their location aid the
      Is´ra-el-ites? Wherein were the Is´ra-el-ites one
      people? How did their religious institutions keep them
      together? What were the unfavorable and dangerous
      elements in the condition of Is´ra-el? How were they
      in danger from the native races? What was lacking in
      the government of Is´ra-el? What two tribes were in
      rivalry? What was the effect of this jealousy? What
      analogy is found in ancient history? How was the same
      principle illustrated in modern times? What evil
      tendency was manifested in Is´ra-el through nearly all
      its history? What causes are assigned for this
      tendency? What was the office of a judge in Is´ra-el?
      How were the judges appointed? What was their
      authority? How widely did their rule extend?

III. =The Oppressions and Deliverers.= During these centuries the
influences already named brought Is´ra-el many times under the
domination of foreign power. The story was always the same: forsaking
God, following idols, subjection, reformation, victory, and temporary
prosperity. We notice the seven oppressions. Some of these were
undoubtedly contemporaneous.

1. =The Mes-o-po-ta´mi-an Oppression= (Judg. 3. 7-11). Probably this was
over the southern portion, and the invaders came by the east and around
the Dead Sea, as earlier invaders from the same land had come (Gen. 14.
1-7). The deliverer was Oth´ni-el, the first judge, and the only judge
of the tribe of Ju´dah.

2. =The Mo´ab-ite Oppression= (Judg. 3. 12-30). Over the eastern and
central section, including E´phra-im (verse 27); deliverer, E´hud, the
second judge; battle fought at the ford of the river Jor´dan (verse 28).

3. =The Early Phi-lis´tine Oppression= (Judg. 3. 31). Over the
southwest, on the frontier of Ju´dah; deliverer, Sham´gar.

4. =The Ca´naan-ite Oppression= (Judg. 4). Over the northern tribes;
deliverer, Deb´o-rah, the woman judge; battle at Mount Ta´bor.

5. =The Mid´i-an-ite Oppression= (Judg. 6. 1-6). Over the northern
center, especially Ma-nas´seh, east; the most severe of all; deliverer,
Gid´e-on, the greatest of the judges (Judg. 6. 11, 12); battle, on Mount
Gil-bo´a (Judg. 7), followed by other victories (Judg. 8).

6. THE AM´MON-ITE OPPRESSION (Judg. 10. 7-9). Note an alliance between
the Am´o-rites and Phi-lis´tines, which is suggestive; mainly over the
tribes on the east of Jor´dan; deliverer, Jeph´thah[11] (Judg. 11);
victory at A-ro´er (verse 33).

7. THE PHI-LIS´TINE OPPRESSION (Judg. 13). This was the most protracted
of all, for it extended, with intervals of freedom, for a hundred
years; embraced all the land, but was most heavily felt south of Mounts
Car´mel and Gil-bo´a. The liberation was begun by Sam´son (Judg. 13. 5),
but he was led astray by sensual lusts and became a failure. Freedom was
later won by Sam´u-el at the battle of Eb-en-e´zer (1 Sam. 7. 7-14); but
the oppression was renewed in the time of Saul, and became heavier than
ever (1 Sam. 13. 17-20). Finally the yoke was broken by Da´vid, in a
succession of victories, ending with the capture of Gath, the
Phi-lis´tine capital (2 Sam. 5. 17-25; 1 Chron. 18. 1).

Note with each oppression: 1.) The oppressor. 2.) The section oppressed.
3.) The deliverer. 4.) The battlefield.

IV. =The General Aspects of the Period.=

1. It was an age of =individuality=. There was no strong government to
oppress the people, to concentrate all the life of the nation at the
court, and to repress individuality. Contrast Per´sia with Greece; Rome
under the emperors with Rome as a republic. As men were needed they were
raised up, for there was opportunity for character. Hence it was an age
of heroes--Oth´ni-el, E´hud, Sham´gar, Gid´e-on, Jeph´thah, Sam´son,
Sam´u-el, etc. Free institutions bring strong men to the front.

2. It was an age of =neglect of the law=. During all this period there
is no allusion to the law of Mo´ses. Its regulations were ignored,
except so far as they belonged to the common law of conscience and
right. The laws of Mo´ses were not deliberately disobeyed, but were
ignorantly neglected. Even good men, as Gid´e-on and Sam´u-el, built
altars and offered sacrifices (Judg. 6. 24; 1 Sam. 7. 9) contrary to the
letter of the law of Mo´ses, but obeying its spirit.

3. Nevertheless, it was an age of =progress=. There were alternate
advancements and retrogressions; yet we see a people with energy, rising
in spite of their hindrances. By degrees government became more settled
(1 Sam. 7. 15-17), foreign relations arose (1 Sam. 7. 14; Ruth 1. 1),
and the people began to look toward a more stable system (1 Sam. 8.
4-6).


Hints to the Teacher

      1. See that the outline is thoroughly committed to
      memory, and test the pupil's knowledge by calling upon
      him to read at sight the Blackboard Outline below.

      2. Draw on the board an outline map of Pal´es-tine,
      and indicate upon it in succession the portions
      occupied in each of the oppressions.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Cond. Isr.= _Fav._ 1. Mtn. Loc. 2. Rac. Un. 3. Rel. Ins.
                    _Unfav._ 1. Nat. Rac. 2. Lac. Cent. Gov.
                         3. Tri. Jeal. 4. Idol. Ten.
   II. =Jud. Isr.= 1. Off. 2. App. 3. Auth. 4. Ext. Ru.
  III. =Opp. and Deliv.= _Opp._      _Sec._      _Deliv._   _Batt.-fie._
                      1. Mes.        Sou.        Oth.
                      2. Moab.       Ea. cen.    Ehu.         For. Jor.
                      3. Ea. Phil.   So.-wes.    Sham.
                      4. Can.        Nor.        Deb.         Mt. Tab.
                      5. Mid.        Nor. cen.   Gid.         Mt. Gil.
                      6. Amm.        East.       Jeph.        Aro.
                      7. Phil.       All.        Sams. Saml.  Eben.
                                                   Dav.       Gath.
   IV. =Gen. Asp. Per.= 1. Ind. 2. Neg. Law. 3. Prog.


Review Questions

      What resulted from these evil tendencies in Is´ra-el?
      How many oppressors were there? Who were the first
      oppressors? Over what part of the country was the
      first oppression? Who delivered Is´ra-el from it? What
      was the second oppression? What part of the country
      suffered from it? Who was the deliverer? Where was the
      battle fought? What was the third oppression, and
      where? Who delivered Is´ra-el? What was the fourth
      oppression? Where was it? Who was the deliverer? Where
      was the victory won? What was the fifth oppression?
      Over what part of the country was it? Who delivered
      Is´ra-el from it? What was the sixth oppression? Over
      what part of the land was it? Who delivered from it?
      What was the last oppression? How did it differ from
      the others? What three names are associated in the
      deliverance from its power? What are the three general
      aspects of this period?



NINTH STUDY

The Rise of the Israelite Empire


PART ONE

The coronation of Saul marks an epoch in the history of Is´ra-el. From
that point, for five hundred years, the chosen people were under the
rule of kings.

I. =The Causes Leading to the Monarchy.= The kingdom was not an
accidental nor a sudden event. There had been a gradual preparation for
it through all the period of the judges.

1. Notice the =tendency toward settled government=. In the time of
Gid´e-on the people desired him to become a king (Judg. 8. 22, 23). His
son attempted to make himself a king, but failed (Judg. 9). We find
judges setting up a semi-royal state, and making marriages for their
children outside of their tribe (Judg. 12. 9, 13, 14); and associating
their sons with themselves (Judg. 10. 4; 1 Sam. 8. 1, 2). All these show
a monarchical trend in the time.

2. Another cause was the =consolidation of the surrounding nations=. In
the days of the conquest there were few kings in the lands neighboring
Pa´les-tine. We read of "lords" and "elders," but no kings, among the
Phi-lis´tines, the Mo´ab-ites, the Am´mon-ites, and the Phoe-ni´cians
(Judg. 3. 3; 1 Sam. 5. 8; Num. 22. 7). But a wave of revolution swept
over all those lands, and very soon we find that every nation around
Is´ra-el had its king (1 Sam. 21. 10; 12. 12; 22. 3; 2 Sam. 5. 11). The
movement of Is´ra-el toward monarchy was in accordance with this spirit.

3. There was a =danger of invasion=, which impelled the Is´ra-el-ites to
seek for a stronger government (1 Sam. 12. 12). They felt themselves
weak, while other nations were organized for conquest, and desired a
king for leader in war.

4. Then, too, the =rule of Sam´u-el= led the Is´ra-el-ites to desire a
better organization of the government. For a generation they had enjoyed
the benefit of a wise, strong, and steady rule. They felt unwilling to
risk the dangers of tribal dissension after the death of Sam´u-el, and
therefore they sought for a king.

5. But underlying all was the =worldly ambition= of the people. They
were not willing to remain the people of God and work out a peculiar
destiny. They wished to be like the nations around, to establish a
secular state, to conquer an empire for themselves (1 Sam 8. 5-20). It
was this worldly spirit, whose results Sam´u-el saw, which made him
unwilling to accede to the wish of the Is´ra-el-ites. But the very
things against which he warned them (1 Sam. 8. 11-18) were just what
they desired.

II. =The Character of the Is´ra-el-ite Kingdom.= When men change their
plans God changes his. He desired Is´ra-el to remain a republic, and not
to enter into worldly relations and aims. When, however, the
Is´ra-el-ites were determined God gave them a king (1 Sam. 8. 22); but
his rule was not to be like that of the nations around Is´ra-el. We
ascertain the divine ideal of a kingdom for his chosen people:

1. =It was a theocratic kingdom.= That is, it recognized God as the
supreme ruler, and the king as his representative, to rule in accordance
with his will, and not by his own right. Only as people and king
conformed to this principle could the true aims of the kingdom be
accomplished (1 Sam. 12. 13-15). And if the king should deviate from
this order he should lose his throne. Disobedience to the divine will
caused the kingdom to pass from the family of Saul to that of Da´vid (1
Sam. 13. 13, 14; 15. 26).

2. =It was a constitutional kingdom.= The rights of the people were
carefully guaranteed, and there was a written constitution (1 Sam. 10.
25). Nearly all the Oriental countries have always been governed by
absolute monarchs, but Is´ra-el was an exception to this rule. The
people could demand their rights from Re-ho-bo´am (1 Kings 12. 3, 4).
A´hab could not take away nor even buy Na´both's vineyard against its
owner's will (1 Kings 21. 1-3). No doubt the rights of the people were
often violated, but the violation was contrary to the spirit of the
monarchy.

3. =It was regulated by the prophets.= The order of prophets had a
regular standing in the Is´ra-el-ite state. The prophet was a check upon
the power of the king, as a representative both of God's will and the
people's rights. He spoke not only of his own opinions, but by the
authority of God. Notice instances of the boldness of prophets in
rebuking kings (1 Sam. 15. 16-23; 2 Sam. 12. 1-7; 1 Kings 13. 1-6; 17.
1; 22. 7-17). The order of prophets was like the House of Commons,
between the king and the people.

III. =The Reign of Saul.=

1. This may be divided into two parts: 1.) A _period of prosperity_,
during which Saul ruled well, and freed Is´ra-el from its oppressors on
every side (1 Sam. 14. 47, 48). 2.) Then a _period of decline_, in which
Saul's kingdom seems to be falling in pieces, and only preserved by the
prowess and ability of Da´vid. After Da´vid's exile the Phi-lis´tines
again overran Is´ra-el, and Saul's reign ended in defeat and death.

2. We observe that Saul's reign was =a failure=, and left the tribes in
worse condition than it found them. 1.) He failed _in uniting the
tribes_; for tribal jealousies continued (1 Sam. 10. 27), and at the
close of his reign broke out anew in the establishment of rival thrones
(2 Sam. 2. 4, 8, 9). 2.) He failed _in making friends_. He alienated
Sam´u-el, and with him the order of prophets (1 Sam. 15. 35); he
alienated Da´vid, the ablest young man of his age and the rising hope of
Is´ra-el, and drove him into exile (1 Sam. 21. 10); he alienated the
entire order of the priests, and caused many of them to be massacred (1
Sam. 22. 18). 3.) He failed _to advance religion_, left the tabernacle
in ruins, left the ark in seclusion, broke up the service, and drove the
priests whom he did not murder into exile (1 Sam. 22. 20-23). 4.) He
failed _to liberate Is´ra-el_; at his death the yoke of the
Phi-lis´tines was more severe than ever before (1 Sam. 31. 1-7). The
most charitable view of Saul was that he was insane during the latter
years of his life. The cause of his failure was a desire to reign as an
absolute monarch, and an unwillingness to submit to the constitution of
the realm.

    [For Blackboard Outline and Review Questions see end of the lesson.]


PART TWO

IV. =The Reign of Da´vid.= This was a brilliant period; for it was led
by a great man, in nearly every respect the greatest, after Mo´ses, in
Is´ra-el-ite history.

1. Notice the =condition of Is´ra-el at his accession=. This will throw
into relief the greatness of his character and his achievements.

1.) It was a _subject people_. Under Phi-lis´tine yoke; its warriors
slain, many of its cities deserted; Da´vid himself probably at first
tributary to the king of Gath.

2.) It was a _disorganized people_. The tribes were divided; national
unity was lost; and two thrones were set up, one at He´bron, the other
at Ma-ha-na´-im (2 Sam. 2. 4-9).

[Illustration: EMPIRE OF =DAVID=]

3.) It was a _people without religion_. The tabernacle was gone; the ark
was in neglect; there was no altar and no sacrifice; the priests had
been slain.

We can scarcely imagine Is´ra-el at a lower ebb than when Da´vid was
called to the throne.

2. We ascertain =Da´vid's achievements=, the results of his reign. 1.)
_He united the tribes._ At first crowned king by Ju´dah only, later he
was made king over all the tribes, by the desire of all (2 Sam. 5. 1-5).
During his reign we find but little trace of the old feud between
E´phra-im and Ju´dah, though it was not dead, and destined yet to rend
the kingdom asunder.

2.) _He subjugated the land._ The conquest of Pal´es-tine, left
incomplete by Josh´u-a, and delayed for nearly three hundred years, was
finished at last by Da´vid in the capture of Je´bus, or Je-ru´sa-lem (2
Sam. 5. 6, 7), in the overthrow of the Phi-lis´tines (2 Sam. 5. 17-25),
and in the final capture of their capital city (1 Chron. 18. 1). At last
Is´ra-el was possessor of its own land.

3.) _He organized the government._ He established a capital (2 Sam. 5.
9). He built a palace (2 Sam. 5. 11); notice that the builders were from
Tyre, showing that the Is´ra-el-ites were not advanced in the arts. He
established a system of government, with officers in the court and
throughout the realm (1 Chron. 27. 25-34). Contrast all this with Saul,
who ruled from his tent, like a Bed´ou-in sheik.

4.) _He established an army._ There was a royal bodyguard, probably of
foreigners, like that of many European kings in modern times (2 Sam. 8.
18; 15. 18). There was a band of heroes, like Arthur's Round Table (2
Sam. 23. 8-39). There was "the host," the available military force,
divided into twelve divisions, one on duty each month (1 Chron. 27.
1-15).

5.) _He established religion._ No sooner was Da´vid on the throne than
he brought the ark out of its hiding place, and gave it a new home in
his capital (1 Chron. 16. 1). The priesthood was organized, and divided
into courses for the service of the tabernacle (1 Chron. 23. 27-32; 24.
1-19). He wrote many psalms, and caused others to be written, for the
worship of God. Two prophets stood by his throne (1 Chron. 29. 29), and
two high priests stood by the altar (1 Chron. 24. 3). This organization
and uplifting of the public worship had a great effect upon the kingdom.

6.) _He conquered all the surrounding nations._ These wars were largely
forced upon Da´vid by the jealousy of the neighboring kingdoms. In turn
his armies conquered and annexed to his dominions the land of the
Phi-lis´tines (1 Chron. 18. 1), Mo´ab (2 Sam. 8. 2), Syr´i-a, even to
the great river Eu-phra´tes (2 Sam. 8. 3-6); E´dom (2 Sam. 8. 14),
Am´mon, and the country east of Pal´es-tine (2 Sam. 10. 1-14; 12.
26-31). The empire of Da´vid thus extended from the frontier of E´gypt
to the Eu-phra´tes River, fulfilling the promise of Josh. 1. 4. It was
at least six times the area of the twelve tribes.

7.) We may add that _he reigned as a theocratic king_. He realized more
than any other monarch the divine ideal of a ruler, and so was "the man
after God's own heart" (1 Sam. 13. 14); if not altogether in personal
character, yet in the principles of his government. He respected the
rights of his subjects, had a sympathy for all people, obeyed the voice
of the prophets, and sought the interests of God's cause.[12]


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Cau. Lea. Mon.= 1. Ten. tow. set. gov. 2. Con. sur. nat. 3. Dan.
          inv. 4. Ru. Sam. 5. Wor. am. peo.
   II. =Char. Isr. Kin.= 1. Theo. kin. 2. Cons. kin. 3. Reg. by pro.
  III. =Rei. Sau.= 1. Pros. and dec. 2. Fai. 1.) Un. tri. 2.) Mak. fri.
          3.) Adv. rel. 4.) Lib. Isr.
   IV. =Rei. Dav.= 1. Con. Isr. acc. 1.) Sub. 2.) Dis. 3.) Wit. rel.
          2. Dav. achiev. 1.) Uni. tri. 2.) Sub. la. 3.) Org. gov.
          4.) Est. ar. 5.) Est. rel. 6.) Conq. surr. nat. 7.) Rei. theo.
          kin.


Questions for Review

      What event marks an epoch in Is´ra-el-ite history?
      What were the causes leading to the monarchy? What
      events in the period of the judges show a tendency
      toward settled government? What changes in government
      in the surrounding nations helped to bring on the
      monarchy in Is´ra-el? From what source did external
      danger lead the Is´ra-el-ites to desire a king? How
      had Sam´u-el unconsciously helped to prepare the way
      for a kingdom? What worldly spirit promoted the same
      result? What kind of a kingdom did God intend for
      Is´ra-el? What is a theocratic kingdom? Wherein was
      Is´ra-el an exception among Oriental kingdoms? By what
      institutions was the kingdom regulated? Name some
      instances of prophets rebuking kings. Into what two
      parts may Saul's reign be divided? Wherein was Saul a
      failure? How did he fail in gaining and holding
      friends? What was the condition of Is´ra-el when
      Da´vid came to the throne? What were the achievements
      of Da´vid? What great incomplete work did Da´vid
      finish? What did he do in the organization of his
      kingdom? What was the arrangement of his army? What
      were his services to the cause of religion? What
      nations did he conquer? What was the extent of his
      empire? In what spirit did he rule?



TENTH STUDY

The Reign of Solomon

PART ONE


The reign of Sol´o-mon may be regarded as the culminating period in the
history of Is´ra-el. But, strictly speaking, the latter part of Da´vid's
reign and only the former part of Sol´o-mon's constitute "the golden age
of Is´ra-el"; for Sol´o-mon's later years manifested a decline, which
after his death rapidly grew to a fall.

I. =Sol´o-mon's Empire= embraced all the lands from the Red Sea to the
Eu-phra´tes, and from the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an to the Syr´i-an desert,
except Phoe-ni´cia, which was isolated by the Leb´a-non mountains. 1.
Besides Pal´es-tine, he ruled over E´dom, Mo´ab, Am´mon, Syr´i-a (here
referring to the district having Da-mas´cus as its capital), Zo´bah, and
Ha´math. 2. On the Gulf of Ak´a-ba, E´zi-on-ge´ber was his southern port
(1 Kings 9. 26); on the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an, Ga´za (Az´zah) was his
limit; in the extreme north, Tiph´sah, by the Eu-phra´tes (1 Kings 4.
24); in the desert, Tad´mor, afterward Pal-my´ra (1 Kings 9. 18).

II. =His Foreign Relations= were extensive, for the first and only time
in the history of Is´ra-el. 1. His earliest treaty was _with Tyre_
(Phoe-ni´cia), whose king had been his father's friend (1 Kings 5. 1).
(What this alliance brought to Sol´o-mon see 1 Kings 5. 6-10; 2 Chron.
2. 3-14.) 2. His relations _with E´gypt_: in commerce (1 Kings 10. 28,
29); in marriage, a bold departure from Is´ra-el-ite customs (1 Kings 3.
1). Perhaps Psalm 45 was written upon this event. 3. _With A-ra´bi-a_,
the land bordering on the southern end of the Red Sea (1 Kings 10. 1-10,
14. 15). 4. _With the Far East_, perhaps India, referred to in 1 Kings
9. 21-28. 5. _With the West_, perhaps as far as Spain, the Tar´shish of
1 Kings 10. 22.

III. =His Buildings.= No king of Is´ra-el ever built so many and so
great public works as did Sol´o-mon. Among these are named:

1. _The temple_, on Mount Mo-ri´ah, to be described later.

[Illustration: PLAN OF SOLOMON'S PALACE.

(According to Stade.)

"Reprinted from Kent's History of the Hebrew People, from the Settlement
in Canaan to the Division of the Kingdom. Copyrighted, 1896, by Charles
Scribner's Sons."]

2. _His own palace_, south of the temple precincts, on the slope of
O´phel and Mo-ri´ah. This consisted of several buildings, as follows:
1.) The House of the Forest of Leb´a-non, so called because of its many
columns of cedar; this was the forecourt, or entrance. 2.) The Porch to
the Palace. 3.) The Throne Hall. 4.) The King's Palace. 5.) The Queen's
Palace, or Harem.

3. _His fortified cities_, forming a cordon around his kingdom. (See the
lists of these in 1 Kings 9. 17-19.)

4. _His aqueducts_, some of which may still be seen (Eccl. 2. 4-6).

IV. But all was not bright in the reign of Sol´o-mon. We must notice
also =His Sins=, for they wrought great results of evil in the after
years. 1. That which led to all his other sins was his _foreign
marriages_ (1 Kings 11. 1-4). These were the natural and inevitable
results of his foreign relations, and were probably effected for
political reasons as well as to add to the splendor of his court. 2. His
_toleration of idolatry_, perhaps actual participation in it (1 Kings
11. 5-8). We cannot overestimate the harm of Sol´o-mon's influence in
this direction. At once it allied him with the lower and evil elements
in the nation, and lost to him the sympathy of all the earnest
souls.[13] 3. Another of Sol´o-mon's sins, not named in Scripture, but
referred to in many legends of the East, may have been a _devotion to
magical arts_. He appears in Oriental traditions as the great master of
forces in the invisible world, engaging in practices forbidden by the
law of Mo´ses (Lev. 19. 31; Deut. 18. 10, 11).


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Sol. Emp.= Pal. Ed. Mo. Amm. Syr. Zob. Ham. E.-G. G. T. T.
   II. =For. Rel.= Ty. Eg. Ar. F. E. W.
  III. =Buil.= 1. Tem. 2. Pal. 1.) H. F. L. 2.) P. 3.) T. H. 4.) K. P.
          5.) Q. P.
   IV. =Sins.= 1. For. mar. 2. Tol. idol. 3. Mag.


Review Questions

      What is the reign of Sol´o-mon called? How far is that
      a correct title? What lands were included in
      Sol´o-mon's empire? What cities were on its
      boundaries? With what countries did Sol´o-mon have
      treaties and foreign relations? How was Sol´o-mon
      connected with the court of E´gypt? What were some of
      Sol´o-mon's buildings? Name the various parts of his
      palace. What were the sins of Sol´o-mon?

PART TWO

V. =General Aspects of Is´ra-el in the Reign of Sol´o-mon.=

1. =It was a period of peace.= For sixty years there were no wars This
gave opportunity for development, for wealth, and for culture.

2. =It was a period of strong government.= The age of individual and
tribal energy was ended, and now all the life of the nation was gathered
around the throne. All the tribes were held under one strong hand;
tribal lines were ignored in the government of the empire; every
department was organized.

3. =It was a period of wide empire.= It was Is´ra-el's opportunity for
power in the East; for the old Chal-de´an empire had broken up, the new
As-syr´i-an empire had not arisen, and E´gypt was passing through a
change of rulers and was weak. For one generation Is´ra-el held the
supremacy in the Oriental world.

4. =It was a period of abundant wealth= (1 Kings 3. 12, 13; 4. 20; 10.
23, 27). The sources of this wealth were: 1.) The _conquests_ of Da´vid,
who had plundered many nations and left his accumulated riches to
Sol´o-mon (1 Chron. 22. 14-16). 2.) The _tribute_ of the subject
kingdoms, doubtless heavy (1 Kings 10. 25). 3.) _Commerce_ with foreign
countries (E´gypt, A-ra´bi-a, Tar´shish, and O´phir) in ancient times
was not carried on by private enterprise, but by the government. The
_trade_ of the East from E´gypt and Tyre passed through Sol´o-mon's
dominions, enriching the land. 4.) There were also _taxes_ laid upon the
people (1 Kings 4. 7-19; 12. 4). 5.) The erection of _public buildings_
must have enriched many private citizens and made money plenty.

5. =It was a period of literary activity.= The books written during this
epoch were Sam´u-el, Psalms (in part), Prov´erbs (in part), and perhaps
Ec-cle-si-as´tes and Sol´o-mon's Song. Not all the writings of Sol´o-mon
have been preserved (1 Kings 4. 32, 33).

VI. =Dangers of the Period.= There was an A-ra´bi-an tradition that in
Sol´o-mon's staff, on which he leaned, there was a worm secretly gnawing
it asunder. So there were elements of destruction under all the splendor
of Sol´o-mon's throne.

1. =The absolute power of the king.= Da´vid had maintained the
theocratic constitution of the state; Sol´o-mon set it aside and ruled
with absolute power in all departments. He assumed priestly functions (1
Kings 8. 22, 54, 64); he abolished tribal boundaries in his
administration (1 Kings 4. 7-19); he ignored both priests and prophets,
and concentrated all rule in his own person.

2. =The formal character of the worship.= There was a magnificent temple
and a gorgeous ritual, but none of the warmth and personal devotion
which characterized the worship of Da´vid. The fervor of the Da-vid´ic
Psalms is wanting in the literature of Sol´o-mon's age.

3. =Luxury and corruption of morals.= These are the inevitable results
of abundant riches and worldly association. We do not need the warnings
of Prov. 2. 16-19; 5. 3-6, etc., to know what a flood of immorality
swept over Je-ru´sa-lem and Is´ra-el.

4. =The burden of taxation.= With a splendid court, an immense harem,
and a wealthy nobility came high prices and high taxes; the rich growing
richer rapidly, the poor becoming poorer. The events of the next reign
show how heavy and unendurable these burdens grew.

5. =Heathen customs.= With the foreign peoples came the toleration of
idolatry, its encouragement, and all the abominations connected with it.
Jer-o-bo´am could not have established his new religion (1 Kings 12. 28)
if Sol´o-mon had not already patronized idol worship.

6. Underlying all was the old =tribal jealousy= of E´phra-im and Ju´dah,
fostered by an able leader (1 Kings 12. 26), ready to break out in due
time and destroy the empire.


Blackboard Outline

   V. =Gen. Asp. Isr.= 1. Pea. 2. Str. gov. 3. Wi. emp. 4. Abun. weal.
          1.) Conq. 2.) Trib. 3.) Com. 4.) Tax. 5.) Pub. build. 5. Lit.
          act.
  VI. =Dan. Per.= 1. Abs. pow. 2. For. wor. 3. Lux. cor. mor. 4. Bur.
          tax. 5. Hea. cus. 6. Tri. jeal.


Questions for Review

      Name five general aspects of Is´ra-el in Sol´o-mon's
      reign? What were the benefits of the peace at that
      time? What was the characteristic of Sol´o-mon's
      administration? What opportunity did the age give to a
      great empire for Is´ra-el? What were the sources of
      the wealth in Sol´o-mon's age? How was it a period of
      literary activity? What ancient legend illustrates the
      dangers of Sol´o-mon's age? What were some of the
      dangers? Wherein did Sol´o-mon set aside the
      Is´ra-el-ite constitution? What was the defect in the
      religion of Sol´o-mon's time? What evils resulted from
      the wealth of that time? What caused heavy taxation?
      What heathen customs were introduced? What showed that
      tribal jealousy was still existing?

Hints to the Teacher and Class

1. See that the outline of the lesson is learned, with all its divisions
and subdivisions. Let a scholar place each division of the outline on
the blackboard in the form given in the Blackboard Outline, and then let
another scholar read it to the class.

2. Have a map of Sol´o-mon's empire drawn, with each of the subject
lands shown upon it. "Bound" the empire; that is, name the countries
surrounding it.

3. Let the diagram of buildings on Mount Mo-ri´ah and O´phel be drawn by
one pupil, and explained by another.

4. Let the Review Questions be studied until they can be answered
correctly.



ELEVENTH STUDY

The Temple on Mount Moriah


The most famous of all the buildings erected by Sol´o-mon, though by no
means the largest, was the temple. It is so frequently mentioned in the
Bible, and was so closely connected with the religious and secular
history, both in the Old Testament and the New, that a detailed study of
it is needed.

I. =The Three Temples.= All these stood in succession upon the same
site, and were arranged upon the same general plan.

1. _Sol´o-mon's Temple._ Built about B. C. 970, and standing until B. C.
587, when it was destroyed by the Bab-y-lo´ni-ans (2 Kings 25. 8, 9).

2. _Ze-rub´ba-bel's Temple._ After lying desolate more than fifty years
the second temple was begun about B. C. 534, under Ze-rub´ba-bel, the
ruler of the exiles returned from Bab´y-lon (Ezra 3. 8). This temple was
far inferior in splendor to the first, but soon became the object of
pilgrimage to Jews from all lands and the center of Jew´ish national and
religious life.

3. _Her´od's Temple._ The second temple having become dilapidated,
Her´od the Great undertook its restoration on a magnificent scale. The
work was begun about B. C. 20 and was not completed until A. D. 64. In
the lifetime of Je´sus it was not yet finished (John 2. 20). This temple
was destroyed by the Ro´mans under Ti´tus, A. D. 70. Its site is now
occupied partially by the Dome of the Rock, miscalled the Mosque of
O´mar, in Je-ru´sa-lem.

[Illustration]

II. =The Situation.= The city of Je-ru´sa-lem stood upon hills separated
by three valleys radiating in a fanlike order, from a point at the
southeast. Northward runs the valley of the Kid´ron; northwest the
valley of the Ty-ro´poe-on, now almost obliterated; almost westward,
with a curve northward, the valley of Hin´nom. Between the valley of the
Kid´ron and the valley of the Ty-ro´poe-on were two hills--on the north
Mount Mo-ri´ah, and a little to the south a spur of lower elevation
known as O´phel. On Mount Mo-ri´ah stood the temple, on O´phel the
buildings of Sol´o-mon's palace. Later the temple area was enlarged to
include both these hills. West of Mo-ri´ah, across the Ty-ro´poe-on
valley, was Mount Zi´on, upon which the principal part of the city
stood.

III. =The House of the Lord.= This was a building not large, but
magnificent and costly; made of stone and cedar, and decorated lavishly
with gold and precious stones. It consisted of four parts:

1. _The Porch_, a lofty tower facing the east. Two pillars, either in
the tower at the entrance or standing apart before it, are named (1
Kings 7. 21). The interior dimensions of the porch were about 30 feet
from north to south, and 15 feet east and west[14] (1 Kings 6. 3).

2. _The Holy Place_ was west of the porch, and was a chamber 60 feet
long by 30 wide, and perhaps 30 feet high. In it stood, on the north,
the table for "the showbread"--that is, the twelve loaves shown before
the Lord; on the south, the golden candlestick, or lampstand[15]; and at
the western end the golden altar of incense.

3. _The Holy of Holies_, or "the oracle" (1 Kings 6. 19, 20), was a
cube, each dimension being 30 feet. It had no windows, but received a
dim light through the veil which separated it from the adjoining room.
This place was entered by the high priest only, and on but one day in
the year, the day of atonement. The only article of furniture in the
room was the Ark of the Covenant, containing the two stone tables of the
law. The Ark doubtless was destroyed with the first temple, and in the
second and third temples its place was indicated by a marble block, upon
which the blood was sprinkled.

[Illustration: THE TEMPLE]

4. _The Chambers_ were rooms for the priests, situated around the house,
with entrance from without. They were in three stories, and were set
apart for the residence of the priests while employed in the services of
the temple. Each priest served two weeks in the year; not, however, two
weeks in succession, but six months apart, and lived at his home for the
rest of the time. In similar chambers around the old tabernacle E´li and
Sam´u-el slept (1 Sam. 3. 2, 3).

IV. The =Court of the Priests= was an open, unroofed quadrangle
surrounding the House of the Lord, but mainly in front, toward the east.
It was about 200 feet wide, north and south, by 275 feet long, east and
west, a few feet lower in elevation than the floor of the temple proper.
Here stood the great _Altar of Burnt Offering_, upon which the daily
sacrifice was offered, its site now shown under the Dome of the Rock;
and near the door to the house _the Laver_ for washing the sacrifices.
Sol´o-mon built also a great "_Sea_," or reservoir of water, standing on
the backs of twelve oxen, all of "brass," probably copper (1 Kings 7.
23-26). This was broken up by the Bab-y-lo´ni-ans, B. C. 587 (2 Kings
25. 13), and was not replaced in the later temples.

V. Around the Court of the Priests was another and larger corridor, the
=Court of Is´ra-el=, or "the men's court." In the later temples this was
320 by 240 feet in dimensions, 26 feet wide on the north and south, 24
feet wide on the east and west. The size of this court in Sol´o-mon's
temple is not given, but was probably the same as in later times. This
was the standing place of the worshipers (exclusively men) as they
witnessed the service.

VI. These were the only courts around the first temple, as the space to
the south of the last-named court was occupied by Sol´o-mon's palaces,
from which a magnificent flight of steps ascended to the temple area (1
Kings 10. 5). After these buildings were destroyed the latest temple,
that of Her´od, included their site in additional courts and buildings
for the worship. East of the Court of Is´ra-el, and a little lower,
stood the =Court of the Women=, 200 feet square, having a lattice
gallery on the western side, from which the women could look on the
services of the altar. This court was also called "the Treasury" (John
8. 20) from the gift boxes fastened upon the wall (Mark 12. 41, 42). In
each corner of this court was a room said to be 60 feet square, with an
open roof.

VII. Around all these buildings and courts, with Her´od's temple, but
not with Sol´o-mon's, was the =Court of the Gen´tiles=, an irregular
quadrangle of about 1,000 feet on each side (north 990, east 1,000,
south 960, west 1,060). The wall on the east was surmounted by a double
row of columns, and called Sol´o-mon's Porch (John 10. 23; Acts 3. 12).
The "Beautiful Gate" was from the Court of the Gen´tiles to the eastern
side of the Court of the Women (Acts 3. 1), through which the people
passed on their way to the public worship. The narrow corridor
extending entirely around the Court of the Women and the Court of
Is´ra-el was called "Chel"--that is, the sacred inclosure--and no one
except an Is´ra-el-ite was permitted to enter it. The Court of the
Gen´tiles was not regarded by the Jews as sacred, since foreigners were
allowed within it, and in its area had grown up a market for the sale of
animals for sacrifice and tables for the exchanging of foreign money.
Twice this court was purged of these desecrations by Je´sus (John 2.
13-17; Matt. 21. 12, 13).

The principal access to the temple in the time of Christ was a bridge
over the Ty-ro´poe-on valley from Mount Zi´on. Of this bridge a fragment
of one arch still remains, known as "Rob´in-son's Arch."

The immediate surroundings of the temple, in the New Testament period,
were the following: 1. On the north stood the Castle or Tower of
An-to´ni-a, erected by the Ro´mans for the control of the temple area.
2. On the east was the valley of the Kid´ron. 3. On the south and west
lay the curving valley of the Ty-ro´poe-on.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Thr. Tem.= 1. Sol. 970-587. 2. Zer. 534. 3. Her. B. C. 20.
          A. D. 70.
   II. =Situa.= Vall. Kid. Tyr. Hin. Mts. Mor. Oph. Zi.
  III. =Hou. Lor.= 1. Por. 30x15. 2. H. P. 30x60. 3. H. H. 30x30.
          4. Chamb.
   IV. =Cou. Pri.= 200x275. Alt. Lav. "Sea."
    V. =Cou. Isr.= 240x320.
   VI. =Cou. Wom.= 200x200. "Treas." Rooms.
  VII. =Cou. Gen.= 1,000. "Chel." Market. Bridge.


Hints to the Teacher and the Class

Let each pupil in turn draw on the blackboard one of the departments or
courts of the temple, state its dimensions, and explain its uses.

Let a pupil recite the history of each temple.

Let one pupil state in what parts of the temple Je´sus walked and
taught, and another events in the life of Saint Paul connected with the
temple.


Review Questions

      Who built the first temple, how long did it stand, and
      by whom was it destroyed? Who built the second temple,
      and at what time? Who built the third temple? When was
      it begun, finished, and destroyed? What building now
      stands on the site of the temple? Between what three
      valleys was Je-ru´sa-lem situated? Give a description
      of each valley. Where were Mo-ri´ah, O´phel, and Zi´on
      located? Into what four parts was the "House of the
      Lord," or temple proper, divided? What were the
      dimensions and what was the location of the Porch?
      Describe the Holy Place and its contents. Describe the
      Holy of Holies. What took the place of the Ark in the
      later temples? What were the Chambers, and where were
      they situated? Where was the Court of the Priests?
      What were its dimensions? What stood in this court?
      Where was the Court of Is´ra-el? What were its
      dimensions and uses? What stood outside the Court of
      Is´ra-el adjoining Sol´o-mon's temple? Where was the
      Court of the Women in the latest temple? Describe this
      court and its uses? What was the exterior court to the
      temple in the time of Christ? What were the dimensions
      of this court? Where was the "Beautiful Gate"? Where
      was the "Chel"? Where was Sol´o-mon's Porch? How was
      this court used by the Jews? What did Je´sus do in
      this court? What was the principal means of access to
      the temple? What were the immediate surroundings of
      the temple?



TWELFTH STUDY

The Kingdom of Israel

PART ONE


The splendors of Sol´o-mon's reign passed away even more suddenly than
they arose. In less than a year after his death his empire was broken
up, and two quarreling principalities were all that was left of
Is´ra-el.

I. Let us ascertain the =Causes of the Division of Is´ra-el=. These
were:

1. =The oppressive government of Sol´o-mon= (1 Kings 12. 3, 4). How far
the complaints of the people were just, and to what degree they were the
pretexts of an ambitious demagogue, we have no means of knowing. But it
is evident that the government of Sol´o-mon, with its courts, its
palaces, its buildings, and its splendor, must have borne heavily upon
the people. Probably, also, the luxury of living among the upper
classes, so suddenly introduced, led to financial crises and stringency
of money, for which the government was held responsible by the
discontented people.

2. =The opposition of the prophets= (1 Kings 11. 11-13, 29-33). It is a
suggestive fact that the prophets were opposed to Sol´o-mon and friendly
to Jer-o-bo´am. Their reason was a strong resentment to the foreign
alliances, foreign customs, and especially to the foreign idolatries
which Sol´o-mon introduced.

3. =Foreign intrigues=, especially in E´gypt. The old kingdoms were not
friendly to this Is´ra-el-ite empire, which loomed up so suddenly, and
threatened to conquer all the East. Sol´o-mon's attempt to win the favor
of E´gypt by a royal marriage (1 Kings 3. 1) was a failure, for two
enemies of Sol´o-mon, driven out of his dominions, found refuge in
E´gypt, were admitted to the court, married relatives of the king, and
stirred up conspiracies against Sol´o-mon's throne (1 Kings 11. 14-22,
40). Another center of conspiracy was Da-mas´cus, where Re´zon kept up a
semi-independent relation to Sol´o-mon's empire (1 Kings 11. 23-25).

4. =Tribal jealousy=; the old sore broken out again. Notice that
Jer-o-bo´am belonged to the haughty tribe of E´phra-im (1 Kings 11. 26),
always envious of Ju´dah, and restless under the throne of Da´vid. The
kingdom of the ten tribes was established mainly through the influence
of this tribe.

5. =The ambition of Jer-o-bo´am= was another force in the disruption. It
was unfortunate for Sol´o-mon's kingdom that the ablest young man of
that time in Is´ra-el, a wily political leader and an unscrupulous
partisan, belonged to the tribe of E´phra-im, and from his environment
was an enemy of the then existing government. The fact that he was sent
for from E´gypt to the assembly at She´chem showed collusion and
preparation of the scheme (1 Kings 12. 2, 3).

6. But all these causes might have been insufficient but for =the folly
of Re-ho-bo´am= (1 Kings 12. 13, 14). If Da´vid had been on the throne
that day an empire might have been saved. But Re-ho-bo´am, brought up in
the purple, was without sympathy with the people, tried to act the part
of a tyrant, and lost his ancestral realm (1 Kings 12. 16).

II. =The Results of the Division.= These were partly political, partly
religious, and were neither of unmixed good nor unmixed evil.

1. The =political results= were: 1.) The entire _disruption_ of
Sol´o-mon's empire. Five kingdoms took the place of one: Syr´i-a on the
north, Is´ra-el in the center, Ju´dah west of the Dead Sea, Mo´ab east
of the Dead Sea, and E´dom on the extreme south. Mo´ab was nominally
subject to Is´ra-el, and E´dom to Ju´dah; but only strong kings, like
A´hab in Is´ra-el and Je-hosh´a-phat in Ju´dah, could exact the tribute
(2 Kings 3. 4; 1 Kings 22. 47). 2.) With the loss of empire came
_rivalry_, and consequent _weakness_. For fifty years Is´ra-el and
Ju´dah were at war, and spent their strength in civil strife, while
Syr´i-a was growing powerful, and in the far northeast As-syr´i-a was
threatening. 3.) As a natural result came at last _foreign domination_.
Both Is´ra-el and Ju´dah fell under the power of other nations and were
swept into captivity, as the final result of the disruption wrought by
Jer-o-bo´am.

2. =The religious results= of the division were more favorable. They
were: 1.) _Preservation of the true religion._ A great empire would
inevitably have been the spiritual ruin of Is´ra-el, for it must have
been worldly, secular, and, in the end, idolatrous. The disruption broke
off relation with the world, put an end to schemes of secular empire,
and placed Is´ra-el and Ju´dah once more alone among their mountains. In
this sense the event was from the Lord, who had higher and more enduring
purposes than an earthly empire (1 Kings 12. 15-24). 2.) _Protection of
the true religion._ Is´ra-el on the north stood as a "buffer," warding
off the world from Ju´dah on the south. It was neither wholly idolatrous
nor wholly religious, but was a debatable land for centuries. It fell at
last, but it saved Ju´dah; and in Ju´dah was the unconscious hope of the
world. 3.) _Concentration of the true religion._ The departure of
Is´ra-el from the true faith led to the gathering of the priests,
Le´vites, and worshiping element of the people in Ju´dah (2 Chron. 11.
13-16). Thus the Jew´ish kingdom was far more devoted to Je-ho´vah than
it might otherwise have been.

Blackboard Outline

   I. =Cau. Div.= 1. Opp. gov. 2. Opp. pro. 3. For. int. 4. Tri. jeal.
          5. Am. Jer. 6. Fol. Re.
  II. =Res. Div.= 1. Pol. res. 1.) Dis. emp. 2.) Riv. and weak. 3.) For.
          dom.
     2. Rel. res. 1.) Pres. rel. 2.) Pro. rel. 3.) Conc. rel.


Review Questions

      What causes may be assigned for the division of
      Is´ra-el? How far was Sol´o-mon's government
      responsible? What was the relation of the prophets to
      the revolution? What foreign intrigues contributed to
      break up the kingdom? Who were connected with these
      intrigues? What ancient jealousy aided, and how? What
      man led in the breaking up of the kingdom? Whose folly
      enabled the plot to succeed? What were the political
      results of the division? What were its religious
      results? How was this event from the Lord?


Part Two

III. =The Kingdom of Is´ra-el.= From the division the name _Is´ra-el_
was applied to the northern kingdom and _Ju´dah_ to the southern. We
notice the general aspects of Is´ra-el during its history, from B. C.
934 to 721.

1. =Its extent.= It embraced all the territory of the twelve tribes
except Ju´dah and a part of Ben´ja-min (1 Kings 12. 19-21), held a
nominal supremacy over Mo´ab east of the Dead Sea, and embraced about
9,375 square miles, while Ju´dah included only 3,435. Is´ra-el was about
equal in area to Massachusetts and Rhode Island together.

2. =Its capital= was first at _She´chem_, in the center of the land (1
Kings 12. 25); then, during several reigns, at _Tir´zah_ (1 Kings 15.
33; 16. 23); then at _Sa-ma´ri-a_ (1 Kings 16. 24), where it remained
until the end of the kingdom. That city after a time gave its name to
the kingdom (1 Kings 21. 1), and after the fall of the kingdom to the
province in the center of Pal´es-tine (John 4. 3, 4).

3. =Its religion.= 1.) Very soon after the institution of the new
kingdom Jer-o-bo´am established a national religion, the _worship of the
calves_ (1 Kings 12. 26-33). This was not a new form of worship, but had
been maintained in Is´ra-el ever since the exodus (Exod. 32. 1-4). In
character it was a modified idolatry, halfway between the pure religion
and the abominations of the heathen. 2.) A´hab and his house introduced
the Phoe-ni´cian _worship of Ba´al_, an idolatry of the most abominable
and immoral sort (1 Kings 16. 30-33), but it never gained control in
Is´ra-el, and was doubtless one cause of the revolution which placed
another family on the throne. 3.) Through the history of Is´ra-el there
remained a remnant of _worshipers of Je-ho´vah_, who were watched over
by a noble array of prophets, and though often persecuted remained
faithful (1 Kings 19. 14, 18).

4. =Its rulers.= During two hundred and fifty years Is´ra-el was
governed by nineteen kings, with intervals of anarchy. Five houses in
turn held sway, each established by a usurper, generally a soldier, and
each dynasty ending in a murder.

1.) _The House of Jer-o-bo´am_, with two kings, followed by a general
massacre of Jer-o-bo´am's family (1 Kings 15. 29, 30).

2.) _The House of Ba´a-sha_, two kings, followed by a civil war (1 Kings
16. 16-22).

3.) _The House of Om´ri_, four kings, of whom Om´ri and A´hab were the
most powerful. This was the age of the prophet E-li´jah and the great
struggle between the worship of Je-ho´vah and of Ba´al (1 Kings 18.
4-21).

4.) _The House of Je´hu_, five kings, under whom were great changes of
fortune. The reign of Je-ho´a-haz saw Is´ra-el reduced to a mere
province of Syr´i-a (2 Kings 13. 1-9). His son Jo´ash threw off the
Syr´i-an yoke, and _his_ son, Jer-o-bo´am II, raised Is´ra-el almost to
its condition of empire in the days of Sol´o-mon (2 Kings 14. 23-29).
His reign is called "the Indian summer of Is´ra-el."

5.) _The House of Men´a-hem_, two reigns. Is´ra-el had by this time
fallen under the power of As-syr´i-a, now dominant over the East, and
its history is the story of kings rising and falling in rapid
succession, with long intervals of anarchy. From the fall of this
dynasty there was only the semblance of a state until the final
destruction of Sa-ma´ri-a, B. C. 721.

5. =Its foreign relations.= During the period of the Is´ra-el-ite
kingdom we see lands struggling for the dominion of the East. The
history of Is´ra-el is interwoven with that of Syr´i-a and As-syr´i-a,
which may now be read from the monuments.

1.) There was a _Period of Division_. During the reign of the houses of
Jer-o-bo´am and Ba´a-sha there were constant wars between Is´ra-el,
Syr´i-a, and Ju´dah; and as a result all were kept weak, and "a balance
of power" was maintained.

2.) Then followed a _Period of Alliance_--that is, between Is´ra-el and
Ju´dah, during the sway of the House of Om´ri. The two lands were in
friendly relations, and the two thrones were connected by marriages. As
a result both Is´ra-el and Ju´dah were strong, Mo´ab and E´dom were kept
under control, and Syr´i-a was held in check.

3.) Next came the _Period of Syr´i-an Ascendency_. During the first two
reigns of the House of Je´hu, Syr´i-a rose to great power under
Haz´a-el, and overran both Is´ra-el and Ju´dah. At one time Is´ra-el was
in danger of utter destruction, but was preserved. Near the close of
these periods the dying prophecy of E-li´sha was uttered (2 Kings 13.
14-25).

4.) _The Period of Is´ra-el-ite Ascendency._ Is´ra-el under Jer-o-bo´am
II took its turn of power, and for a brief period was again dominant to
the Eu-phra´tes, as in the days of Sol´o-mon.

5.) _The Period of As-syr´i-an Ascendency._ But its glory soon faded
away before that of As-syr´i-a, which was now rapidly becoming the
empire of the East. Its rise meant the fall of Is´ra-el; and under the
unfortunate Ho-she´a, Sa-ma´ri-a was taken, what was left of the ten
tribes were carried captive, and the kingdom of Is´ra-el was
extinguished (2 Kings 17. 1-6).

IV. =The Fate of the Ten Tribes.= There has been much idle discussion
over this subject and some absurd claims set up; for example, that the
Anglo-Saxon race are descended from the ten lost tribes--a statement
opposed to all history, to ethnology, and to every evidence of language.

1. After their deposition nearly all the Is´ra-el-ites, having lost
their national religion and having no bond of union, =mingled with the
Gen´tiles= around them and lost their identity, just as hundreds of
other races have done. The only bond which will keep a nation long alive
is that of religion.

2. Some remained in Pal´es-tine, others returned thither and formed the
=nucleus of the Sa-mar´i-tan people=, a race of mingled origin (2 Kings
17. 24-29).

3. Some of those who remained in the East retained their religion, or
were revived in it, and later became a part of the =Jews of the
dispersion=; though "the dispersion" was mainly Jew´ish, and not
Is´ra-el-ite.

4. A few =families united with the Jews=, returned with them to
Pal´es-tine after the exile, yet retained their tribal relationship; for
example, An´na (Luke 2. 36).

Blackboard Outline

  III. =Kin. Isr.= 1. Ext. 9,375. 2. Cap. 1.) Sh. 2.) Tir. 3.) Sam.
          3. Rel. 1.) Wor. cal. 2.) Wor. Ba. 3.) Wor. Jeh. 4. Rul.
          1.) Hou. Jer. 2.) Hou. Ba. 3.) Hou. Om. 4.) Hou. Je.
          5.) Hou. Men. 5. For. Rel. 1.) Per. Div. 2.) Per. All.
          3.) Per. Syr. Asc. 4.) Per. Isr. Asc. 5.) Per. Ass. Asc.
   IV. =Fat. Ten. Tri.= 1. Min. Gen. 2. Sam. Peo. 3. Disp. 4. Jews.


Review Questions

      How long did the new kingdom of Is´ra-el last? What
      was its extent? What were its three successive
      capitals? What three forms of religion were found in
      it? Who was the first king of the ten tribes? What
      family introduced foreign idolatry? How many kings
      ruled over the ten tribes? What were the five royal
      houses? Which house raised Is´ra-el almost to its
      ancient power? What is this period of prosperity
      called? Who was the greatest king of Is´ra-el? With
      what other history is that of Is´ra el interwoven?
      What were the five periods in the foreign relations of
      Is´ra-el? By what kingdom was Is´ra-el destroyed? Who
      was its last king? What finally became of the ten
      tribes?



THIRTEENTH STUDY

The Kingdom of Judah


I. =General Aspects of the Kingdom of Ju´dah.=

1. =Its territory.= It embraced the mountain portion of the tribe of
Ju´dah, from the Dead Sea to the Phi-lis´tine plain; a part of
Ben´ja-min, in which tribe the larger part of Je-ru´sa-lem stood; and
also a part of Dan (Chron. 11. 10). Sim´e-on was nominally within its
border, but was practically given up to the A-ra´bi-ans of the desert;
E´dom was tributary, though often in rebellion, and finally independent
(1 Kings 22. 47; 2 Kings 8. 20); Phi-lis´ti-a was outside of its
boundary. Its extent was about 3,435 square miles, about half the area
of Massachusetts.

2. =Its government= was a monarchy, with but one family on the throne,
the line of Da´vid, in direct succession, with the exception of
Ath-a-li´ah´s usurpation (2 Kings 11. 1-3), through nineteen reigns.

3. =Its religion.= Through all the history we find two forms of worship
strongly opposed to each other, yet both rooted in the nation. 1.) The
worship of Je-ho´vah through the temple, the priesthood, and the
prophets. 2.) But side by side with this pure religion was the worship
of idols upon "high places," probably begun as a form of worshiping
Je-ho´vah, but degenerating into gross and immoral idolatry. There was a
struggle going on constantly between these two elements in the state,
the spiritual and the material. Notwithstanding the efforts of reforming
kings like Je-hosh´a-phat, Hez-e-ki´ah, and Jo-si´ah, the general
tendency was downward.

II. =The Duration of the Kingdom.= The kingdom lasted from B. C. 934 to
587--more than one hundred and thirty years longer than Is´ra-el.
Reasons for its endurance may have been:

1. =Its retired situation=: hemmed in by mountains and deserts; at a
distance from the ordinary lines of travel; not in the direct path of
conquest from any other nation. Ju´dah had few foreign wars as compared
with Is´ra-el.

2. =The unity of its people.= They were not ten tribes loosely
connected, but one tribe, with a passionate love of their nation and a
pride in their blood.

3. =Its concentration at Je-ru´sa-lem.= Through all its history there
was but one capital, where the palace of the king and the temple of the
Lord were standing together.

4. =The reverence for the House of Da´vid= also kept the people
together. There was no change in dynasty, and the loyalty of the people
grew stronger through the generations toward the family on the throne.
There being no usurpers, the throne was permanent until destroyed by
foreign power.

5. =The purity of its religion= tended to keep the nation united and to
keep it in existence. No bond of self-interest or of blood will hold a
people together as strongly as the tie of religion. Ju´dah's strength
was in the measure of her service of God, and when she renounced
Je-ho´vah her doom came speedily.

III. =Periods in the History.= Though Ju´dah was not without political
contact with other nations, yet its history is the record of internal
events rather than external relations. We may divide its history into
four epochs.

1. =The first decline and revival.= 1.) The reigns of Re-ho-bo´am and
A-bi´jah marked a decline indicated by the E-gyp´tian invasion and the
growth of idolatry. 2.) The reign of A´sa and Je-hosh´a-phat showed a
revival in reformation, progress, and power. Under Je-hosh´a-phat,
Ju´dah was at the height of prosperity. This was the time of peace with
Is´ra-el and of strength at home and abroad (2 Chron. 17. 5; 20. 30).

2. =The second decline and revival.= 1.) For nearly two hundred years
after the death of Je-hosh´a-phat the course of Ju´dah was downward.
E´dom was lost under Je-ho´ram (2 Chron. 21. 8); the Ba´al-ite idolatry
was introduced by the usurping queen, Ath-a-li´ah (2 Kings 11. 18); the
land was again and again invaded under Jo´ash and Am-a-zi´ah, and
Je-ru´sa-lem itself was taken and plundered. 2.) But a great reformation
was wrought under Hez-e-ki´ah, who was the best and wisest of the kings
of Ju´dah, and the kingdom again rose to power, even daring to throw off
the As-syr´i-an yoke and defy the anger of the mightiest king then on
the earth. At this time came the great event of the destruction of the
As-syr´i-an host (2 Kings 19. 35).

3. =The third decline and revival.= 1.) The reforms of Hez-e-ki´ah were
short-lived, for his son Ma-nas´seh was both the longest in reigning and
the wickedest of the kings, and his late repentance did not stay the
tide of corruption which he had let loose (2 Kings 21. 10-17; 2 Chron.
33. 1-18). The wickedness of Ma-nas´seh's reign was the great moral
cause of the kingdom's destruction, for from it no reform afterward
could lift the mass of the people. 2.) Jo-si´ah, the young reformer,
attempted the task, but his efforts, though earnest, were only
measurably successful, and after his untimely death the kingdom hastened
to its fall (2 Kings 23. 29).

4. =The final decline and fall.= 1.) The political cause of the
destruction of the kingdom was the rise of Bab´y-lon. The old
As-syr´i-an empire went down about B. C. 625, and a struggle followed
between Bab´y-lon and E´gypt for the supremacy. Ju´dah took the side of
E´gypt, which proved to be the losing side. 2.) After several
chastisements and repeated rebellions Je-ru´sa-lem was finally destroyed
by Neb-u-chad-nez´zar, king of Bab´y-lon, and the kingdom of Ju´dah was
extinguished, B. C. 587.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Gen. Asp. Kin. Jud.= 1. Terr. Tri. Jud. 3,435 m. 2. Gov. mon.
          3. Rel. 1.) Jeh. 2.) Idol.
   II. =Dur. Kin.= 1. Ret. sit. 2. Un. peo. 3. Conc. Jer. 4. Rev. Ho.
          Dav. 5. Pur. rel.
  III. =Per. Hist.= 1. Fir. dec. rev. 1.) Dec. Reho. Abi. 2.) Rev.
          As. Jehosh.
          2. Sec. dec. rev. 1.) Dec. 200 y. 2.) Rev. Hez.
          3. Thi. dec. rev. 1.) Dec. Man.   2.) Rev. Jos.
          4. Fin. dec. fal. 1.) Ris. Bab.   2.) Des. Jer.


Review Questions

      What was embraced in the kingdom of Ju´dah? What was
      its area? How was it governed? What was its religion?
      What was associated with the worship of Je-ho´vah?
      What was the religious tendency of the people? How
      long did the kingdom of Ju´dah last? What were the
      causes of this duration? What were the periods in its
      history? Under what kings was the first decline? Who
      led in a revival and reformation? Who was the greatest
      of the kings of Ju´dah? What took place during the
      second decline? Who was the usurping queen? What did
      this queen try to do? Who wrought the second great
      reformation? What was the character of this king? What
      great destruction of Ju´dah's enemies took place at
      this time? Which reign was both longest, wickedest,
      and most evil in its results? Who attempted a third
      reformation? What was the result of his endeavor? What
      was the political cause of the fall of Ju´dah? By what
      nation and by what king was Je-ru´sa-lem finally
      destroyed?



FOURTEENTH STUDY

The Captivity of Judah


PART ONE

I. We must distinguish between the =Captivity of Is´ra-el= and that of
=Ju´dah=.

1. The captivity of Is´ra-el took place B. C. 721, that of Ju´dah B. C.
587. The southern kingdom lasted one hundred and thirty-four years
longer than the northern.

2. Is´ra-el was taken captive by the As-syr´i-ans under Sar´gon; Ju´dah
by the Chal-de´ans under Neb-u-chad-nez´zar.

3. Is´ra-el was taken to the lands south of the Cas´pi-an Sea (2 Kings
17. 6); Ju´dah to Chal-de´a, by the river Eu-phra´tes (Psa. 137. 1).

4. Is´ra-el never returned from its captivity, which was the end of its
history; but Ju´dah was brought back from its captivity and again became
a flourishing state, though subject to foreign nations during most of
its after history.

II. There were =Three Captivities= of Ju´dah, all in one generation and
all under one Chal-de´an king, Neb-u-chad-nez´zar:

1. =Je-hoi´a-kim's captivity=, B. C. 607. Je-hoi´a-kim was the son of
Jo-si´ah, placed upon the throne after the battle of Me-gid´do, in which
Jo-si´ah perished (2 Kings 23. 34). For three years Je-hoi´a-kim obeyed
Neb-u-chad-nez´zar; then he rebelled, but was speedily reduced to
subjection, and many of the leading people among the Jews were carried
captive to Bab´y-lon (2 Kings 24. 1, 2). Among these captives was
Dan´iel the prophet (Dan. 1. 1-6). From this event the _seventy years_
of the captivity were dated (Jer. 27. 22; 29. 10), though the kingdom of
Ju´dah remained for twenty years longer.

2. =Je-hoi´a-chin's captivity=, B. C. 598. Je-hoi´a-chin was the son of
Je-hoi´a-kim (called Jec-o-ni´ah, 1 Chron. 3. 16; Jer. 24. 1; and
Co-ni´ah, Jer. 22. 24). He reigned only three months, and then was
deposed by Neb-u-chad-nez´zar and carried to Bab´y-lon. With the young
king and the royal family were taken thousands of the people of the
middle classes, whom the land could ill spare (2 Kings 24. 8-16). Among
these captives was E-ze´ki-el, the prophet-priest (Ezek. 1. 1-13).

3. =Zed-e-ki´ah's captivity=, B. C. 587. He was the uncle of
Je-hoi´a-chin and the son of the good Jo-si´ah (2 Kings 24. 17), and had
been made king by Neb-u-chad-nez´zar. But he too rebelled against his
master, to whom he had taken a solemn oath of fidelity (2 Chron. 36.
13). The Chal-de´ans were greatly incensed by these frequent
insurrections, and determined upon a final destruction of the rebellious
city. After a long siege Je-ru´sa-lem was taken, and the king was
captured while attempting flight. He was blinded and carried away to
Bab´y-lon, the city was destroyed, and nearly all the people left alive
were also taken to the land of Chal-de´a (2 Kings 25. 1-11). After this
captivity the city lay desolate for fifty years, until the conquest of
Bab´y-lon by Cy´rus, B. C. 536.

III. Let us ascertain the =Causes of the Captivity=--why the Jews were
taken up bodily from their own land and deported to a distant country.

1. Such deportations were a frequent =policy of Oriental conquerors=.
The Orientals had three ways of dealing with a conquered people: that of
extermination, or wholesale butchery, which is frequently described upon
the As-syr´i-an monuments; that of leaving them in the land under
tribute, as subjects of the conqueror; and that of deporting them _en
masse_ to a distant land. Frequently, when the interests of the empire
would be served by changing the population of a province, this plan was
carried out. Thus the ten tribes were carried to a land near the
Cas´pi-an Sea, and other people were brought to Sa-ma´ri-a in their
place (2 Kings 17. 6, 24). A similar plan regarding Ju´dah was proposed
by Sen-nach´e-rib (2 Kings 18. 31, 32), but was thwarted by the
destruction of the As-syr´i-an host.

2. We have already noticed another cause of the captivity in the
frequent =rebellions of the kings of Ju´dah= against the authority of
Bab´y-lon. The old spirit of independence, which had made Ju´dah the
leader of the twelve tribes, was still strong, and it was fostered by
the hope of universal rule, which had been predicted through centuries,
even while the kingdom was declining. The prophets, however, favored
submission to Bab´y-lon; but the nobles urged rebellion and
independence. Their policy was pursued, and the unequal strife was
taken up more than once. The rebellions always failed; but after several
attempts the patience of Neb-u-chad-nez´zar was exhausted, and the
destruction of the rebellious city and the deportation of the population
were ordered.

3. But underneath was another and a deeper cause--in =the rivalry of
E´gypt and Bab´y-lon=. Pal´es-tine stood on the border of the
As-syr´i-an empire toward E´gypt; and in Pal´es-tine there were two
parties, the As-syr´i-an and the E-gyp´tian: one counseling submission
to As-syr´i-a, the other seeking alliance with E´gypt against As-syr´i-a
(Isa. 31. 1-3; 37. 6). After Bab´y-lon took the place of Nin´e-veh the
Chal-de´an party took the place of the As-syr´i-an, as the Chal-de´an
empire was the successor of the As-syr´i-an empire. The prophets, led by
Jer-e-mi´ah, always counseled submission to Bab´y-lon, and warned
against trusting to E´gypt, which had never given anything more than
promises; but the nobles were of the E-gyp´tian party, and constantly
influenced the kings to renounce the yoke of Bab´y-lon and to strike for
independence by the aid of E´gypt. The necessity of making the frontier
of the Chal-de´an empire safe on the side toward E´gypt was the
political cause for the deportation of the tribe of Ju´dah.

4. There was underlying all these political reasons a moral cause in
=the divine purpose to discipline the nation=. The captivity was a
weeding-out process, to separate the precious from the vile, the false
from the true, the "remnant" from the mass. There had always been two
distinct elements in Is´ra-el and Ju´dah--the spiritual, God-fearing
few, and the worldly, idol-worshiping many. The worldly and irreligious
took part in the resistance to the king of Bab´y-lon, and the worshipers
of Je-ho´vah, led by the prophets, urged submission. As a result the
nobles and the warriors, for the most part, perished; while the better
part, the strength and hope of the nation, were carried away captive.
Notice that the captives were mainly of the middle class, the working
element (2 Kings 24. 14-16). Those who had submitted to the Chal-de´ans
were also taken away (2 Kings 25. 11). The prophet expressed greater
hope for those taken away than for those left behind (Jer. 24. 1-10).
The captives were the root of Ju´dah, out of which in due time a new
nation should rise; and, as we shall see, the captivity in Bab´y-lon
proved to be the most benign experience in all the history of God´s
chosen people.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Cap. Isr. Jud.= 1. Isr. 721. Jud. 587. 2. Ass. Sar.--Chal.
          Neb. 3. Cas. Sea.--Riv. Eup. 4. Nev. ret.--Bro. b.
   II. =Thr. Cap. Jud.= 1. Jeh. cap. 607. 2. Jehn. cap. 598. 3. Zed.
          cap. 587.
  III. =Caus. Cap.= 1. Pol. Or. conq. 2. Reb. kgs. Jud. 3. Riv. Eg.
          Bab. 4. Div. pur. dis.


Review Questions

      From what earlier captivity must that of Ju´dah be
      distinguished? What were the dates of these two
      captivities? By whom was each nation taken captive?
      Where was each nation carried captive? What followed
      the captivity in each nation? What were the three
      captivities of Ju´dah? What were the events of the
      first captivity of Ju´dah? Who were carried away at
      this time? What date is connected with this captivity?
      What were the events of the second captivity of
      Ju´dah? Who were then taken away? What were the events
      of the third captivity? How long was Je-ru´sa-lem left
      in ruins? By whom and when were the Jews permitted to
      return from captivity? What causes may be assigned for
      the carrying away of the Jews? What were the customs
      of ancient Oriental conquerors? How did the conduct of
      the kings of Ju´dah bring on the captivity? What
      rivalry between nations was a cause of the captivity?
      What were the two parties in the kingdom of Ju´dah?
      How was the carrying away of the Jews a political
      necessity? What was the moral cause of the captivity?


PART TWO

IV. =The Condition of the Captives in Chal-de´a= was far better than we
are apt to suppose.

1. They received =kind treatment=; were regarded not as slaves or
prisoners, but as colonists. At a later captivity by the Ro´mans the
Jews were sold as slaves and dispersed throughout the empire. Such
wholesale enslavement was common after a conquest. For some reason the
Chal-de´ans did not enslave the Jews at the time of their conquest, but
colonized them as free people. This may have been because the captives
as a class were of the "Chal-de´an party" among the Jews, and hence were
treated in a measure as friends. The letter of Jer-e-mi´ah to the exiles
(Jer. 29. 1-7) shows that they were kindly dealt with in Chal-de´a. Some
of them were received at the court and rose to high station in the realm
(Dan. 1. 1-6).

2. =Their organization was maintained.= The exiles were not merged into
the mass of the people where they were living, but retained their own
system and were recognized as a separate colony. Their dethroned kings
had a semi-royal state and at death an honorable burial (Jer. 52. 31-34;
34. 4, 5). The captives were governed by elders, rulers of their own
nation (Ezek. 8. 1; 14. 1; 20. 1). There was a "prince of Ju´dah" at the
close of the captivity (Ezra 1. 8). This fact of national organization
was a fortunate one for the exiles. If they had been dispersed as slaves
throughout the empire, or even had been scattered as individuals, they
would soon have been merged among the Gen´tiles, and would have lost
their identity as a people. But being maintained as a separate race, and
in Jew´ish communities, they were readily gathered for a return to their
own land when the opportunity came.

3. =Their law and worship were observed.= There were no sacrifices, for
these could be offered only at Je-ru´sa-lem in the temple. But the
people gathered for worship and for the study of the law far more
faithfully than before the exile; for adversity is a school of religious
character far more than prosperity. The exile would naturally exert an
influence in the direction of religion. While the irreligious and
idolatrous among the captives would soon drop out of the nation and be
lost among the Gen´tiles, the earnest, the spiritual, and the
God-fearing would grow more intense in their devotion.

4. =They were instructed by prophets and teachers.= Jer-e-mi´ah lived
for some time after the beginning of the captivity, made a visit to
Bab´y-lon, and wrote at least one letter to the exiles (Jer. 13. 4-7;
29. 1-3). Dan´iel lived during the captivity, and, though in the court,
maintained a deep interest in his people, and comforted them by his
prophecies. E-ze´ki-el was himself one of the captives, and all his
teachings were addressed to them (Ezek. 1. 1-3). Many evangelical and
eminent Bible scholars are of the opinion that the latter part of
I-sa´iah, from the fortieth chapter to the end, was given by a "later
I-sa´iah" during the exile; but whether written at that time or earlier,
it must have circulated among the captives and given them new hope and
inspiration. The radical change in the character of the Jews which took
place during this period shows that a great revival swept over the
captive people and brought them back to the earnest religion of their
noblest ancestors.

5. =Their literature was preserved and enlarged.= Internal evidence
shows that the books of the Kings were finished and the books of the
Chronicles written at this time or soon afterward; the teachings of
Dan´iel, E-ze´ki-el, Ha-bak´kuk, and other of the minor prophets were
given; and a number of the best psalms were composed during this epoch,
as such poems are likely to be written in periods of trial and sorrow.
Out of many psalms we cite Psa. 124, 126, 129, 130, 137, as manifestly
written during the captivity. The exile was an age of life and vigor to
He´brew literature.

V. =The Results of the Captivity.= In the year B. C. 536 the city of
Bab´y-lon was taken by Cy´rus, king of the combined Medes and Per´sians.
One of his first acts was to issue an edict permitting the exiled Jews
to return to their own country and rebuild their city. Not all the Jews
availed themselves of this privilege, for many were already rooted in
their new homes, where they had been for two generations. But a large
number returned (Ezra 2. 64), and reestablished the city and state of
the Jews. The captivity, however, left its impress upon the people down
to the end of their national history, and even to the present time.

1. =There was a change in language=, from He´brew to Ar-a-ma´ic, or
Chal-da´ic. The books of the Old Testament written after the restoration
are in a different dialect from the earlier writings. After the
captivity the Jews needed an interpreter in order to understand their
own earlier Scriptures. Allusion to this fact is given in Neh. 8. 7. The
Chal´dee of Bab´y-lon and the He´brew were sufficiently alike to cause
the people during two generations to glide imperceptibly from one to the
other, until the knowledge of their ancient tongue was lost to all
except the scholars.

2. =There was a change in habits.= Before the captivity the Jews were a
secluded people, having scarcely any relation with the world. The
captivity brought them into contact with other nations, and greatly
modified their manner of living. Hitherto they had been mostly farmers,
living on their own fields; now they became merchants and traders, and
filled the world with their commerce. Rarely now do we find a Jew who
cultivates the ground for his support. They are in the cities, buying
and selling. This tendency began with the Bab-y-lo´ni-an captivity, and
has since been strengthened by the varied experiences, especially by the
persecutions, of the Jews during the centuries.

3· =There was a change in character.= This was the most radical of
all. Before the captivity the crying sin of Ju´dah, as well as of
Is´ra-el, was its tendency to idolatry. Every prophet had warned against
it and rebuked it, reformers had risen up, kings had endeavored to
extirpate it; but all in vain--the worshipers of God were the few; the
worshipers of idols were the many. After the captivity there was a
wonderful transformation. From that time we never read of a Jew bowing
his knee before an idol. The entire nation was a unit in the service of
Je-ho´vah. Among all the warnings of the later prophets, and the reforms
of Ez´ra and Ne-he-mi´ah, there is no allusion to idolatry. That crime
was utterly and forever eradicated; from the captivity until to-day the
Jews have been the people of the one, invisible God, and intense in
their hatred of idols.

4. =There were new institutions= as the result of the captivity. Two
great institutions arose during the captivity:

1.) The _synagogue_, which grew up among the exiles, was carried back to
Pal´es-tine, and was established throughout the Jew´ish world. This was
a meeting of Jews for worship, for reading the law, and for religious
instruction. It had far greater influence than the temple after the
captivity; for while there was but one temple in all the Jewish world,
there was a synagogue in every city and village where Jews lived; and
while the temple was the seat of a priestly and ritualistic service, the
synagogue promoted freedom of religious thought and utterance. Out of
the synagogue, far more than the temple, grew the Christian church.

2.) _The order of scribes_ was also a result of the captivity. The days
of direct inspiration through prophets were passing away, and those of
the written Scripture, with a class of men to study and interpret it,
came in their place. During the captivity the devout Jews studied the
books of their literature, the law, the psalms, the histories, and the
prophets. After the captivity arose a series of scholars who were the
expounders of the Scriptures. Their founder was Ez´ra, at once a priest,
a scribe, and a prophet (Ezra 7. 1-10), who arranged the books and in a
measure completed the canon of Old Testament Scripture.

5. =There was a new hope, that of a Mes-si´ah.= From the time of the
captivity the Jew´ish people looked forward with eager expectation to
the coming of a Deliverer, the Consolation of Is´ra-el, the "Anointed
One" (the word Mes-si´ah means "anointed"), who should lift up his
people from the dust, exalt the throne of Da´vid, and establish an
empire over all the nations. This had been promised by prophets for
centuries before the exile, but only then did it begin to shine as the
great hope of the people. It grew brighter with each generation, and
finally appeared in the coming of Je´sus Christ, the King of Is´ra-el.

6. From the captivity there =were two parts of the Jew´ish people=: the
Jews of Pal´es-tine, and the Jews of the dispersion, 1.) The Jews of
Pal´es-tine, sometimes called He´brews (Acts 6. 1), were the lesser in
number, who lived in their own land and maintained the Jew´ish state.
2.) The Jews of the dispersion were the descendants of those who did not
return after the decree of Cy´rus (Ezra 1. 1), but remained in foreign
lands and gradually formed Jew´ish "quarters" in all the cities of the
ancient world. They were the larger in number, and later were called
"Gre´cian Jews," or Hellenists, from the language which they used (Acts
6. 1). Between these two bodies there was a close relation. The Jews of
the dispersion had synagogues in every city (Acts 15. 6), were devoted
to the law, made constant pilgrimages to Je-ru´sa-lem, and were
recognized as having one hope with the Jews of Pal´es-tine. The traits
of the two bodies were different, but each contributed its own elements
toward the making of a great people.


Blackboard Outline

  IV. =Con. Cap.= 1. Kin. tre. 2. Org. main. 3. La. wor. obs. 4. Ins.
          pro. tea. 5. Lit. pre. enl.
   V. =Res. Cap.= 1. Ch. Ian. 2. Ch. hab. 3. Ch. char. 4. Ne. ins.
          (syn. scr.) 5. Hop. Mess. 6. Two. par. peo.


Review Questions

      How were the captive Jews treated? What evidences show
      that their national organization was continued during
      the captivity? Why was this fact a fortunate one for
      the exiles? What customs of the Jews were observed
      during the captivity? What instructors did the Jews
      have during this period? What was the condition of
      Jew´ish literature during the captivity? What events
      followed the decree of Cy´rus? Did all the exiles of
      the Jews return? What change in language was wrought
      by the captivity? What change in habits followed the
      captivity? What great change in religion came as the
      result of the captivity? How can that change be
      accounted for? What two institutions arose during the
      captivity? What new hope arose at this time? How were
      the Jews divided after the captivity?



FIFTEENTH STUDY

The Jewish Province


PART ONE

From the return of the exiles, B. C. 536, to the final destruction of
the Jew´ish state by the Ro´mans, A. D. 70, the history of the chosen
people is closely interwoven with that of the East in general. During
most of this time Ju-de´a was a subject province, belonging to the great
empires which rose and fell in succession. For a brief but brilliant
period it was an independent state, with its own rulers. As most of this
period comes between the Old and New Testaments its events are less
familiar to Bible readers than the other portions of Is´ra-el-ite
history. We therefore give more space than usual to the facts, selecting
only the most important, and omitting all that have no direct relation
with the development of the divine plan in the Jewish people.

I. The history divides itself into =Four Periods=, as follows:

1. =The Per´sian period=, B. C. 536 to 330, from Cy´rus to Al-ex-an´der,
while the Jew´ish province was a part of the Per´sian empire. Very few
events of these two centuries have been recorded, but it appears to have
been a period of quiet prosperity and growth. The Jews were governed by
their high priests under the general control of the Per´sian government.
The principal events of this period were:

1.) _The second temple_, B. C. 535-515. This was begun soon after the
return from exile (Ezra 3. 1, 2, 8), but was not completed until
twenty-one years afterward (Ezra 6. 15, 16). It was smaller and less
splendid than that of Sol´o-mon, but was built upon the same plan.

2.) _Ez´ra's reformation_, B. C. 450. The coming to Je-ru´sa-lem of
Ez´ra the scribe was a great event in Is´ra-el-ite history; for, aided
by Ne-he-mi´ah, he led in a great reformation of the people. He found
them neglecting their law and following foreign customs. He awakened an
enthusiasm for the Mo-sa´ic law, aroused the patriotism of the people,
and renewed the ancient faith. His work gave him the title of "the
second founder of Is´ra-el."

3.) _The separation of the Sa-mar´i-tans_, B. C. 409. (For the origin
of the Sa-mar´i-tans see 2 Kings 17. 22-34.) They were a mingled people,
both in race and religion; but until the captivity were permitted to
worship in the temple at Je-ru´sa-lem. After the return from Bab´y-lon
the Sa-mar´i-tans and the Jews grew farther and farther apart. The
Sa-mar´i-tans opposed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4. 9-24), and
delayed it for many years; and a century later strove to prevent
Ne-he-mi´ah from building the wall of Je-ru´sa-lem (Neh. 4. 2). Finally
they established a rival temple on Mount Ger´i-zim, and thenceforth the
two races were in bitter enmity (John 4. 9).

4.) _The completion of the Old Testament canon._ The prophets after the
restoration were Hag´ga-i, Zech-a-ri´ah, and Mal´a-chi; but the author
or editor of most of the latest books was Ez´ra, who also arranged the
Old Testament nearly, perhaps fully, in its present form. Thenceforward
no more books were added, and the scribe or interpreter took the place
of the prophet.

2. =The Greek period=, B. C. 330-166. In the year B. C. 330 Al-ex-an´der
the Great won the empire of Per´sia in the great battle of Ar-be´la, by
which the sovereignty of the East was transferred from A´sia to Eu´rope,
and a new chapter in the history of the world was opened. Al-ex-an´der
died at the hour when his conquests were completed, and before they
could be organized and assimilated; but the kingdoms into which his
empire was divided were all under Greek kings, and were all Greek in
language and civilization. Ju-de´a was on the border between Syr´i-a and
E´gypt, and belonged alternately to each kingdom. We divide this period
into three subdivisions:

1.) _The reign of Al-ex-an´der_, B. C. 330-321. The Jews had been well
treated by the Per´sian kings and remained faithful to Da-ri´us, the
last king of Per´sia, in his useless struggle. Al-ex-an´der marched
against Je-ru´sa-lem, determined to visit upon it heavy punishment for
its opposition, but (according to tradition) was met by Jad-du´a, the
high priest, and turned from an enemy to a friend of the Jews.

2.) _The E-gyp´tian supremacy_, B. C. 311-198. In the division of
Al-ex-an´der's conquests Ju-de´a was annexed to Syr´i-a, but it soon
fell into the hands of E´gypt, and was governed by the Ptol´e-mies
(Greek kings of E´gypt) until B. C. 198. The only important events of
this period were the rule of Si´mon the Just, an exceptionally able
high priest, about B. C. 300, and the translation of the Old Testament
into the Greek language for the use of the Jews of Al-ex-an´dri-a, who
had lost the use of He´brew or Chal´dee. This translation was made about
B. C. 286, according to Jew´ish tradition, and is known as the
Septuagint version.

3.) _The Syr´i-an supremacy_, B. C. 198-166. About the year B. C. 198
Ju-de´a fell into the hands of the Syr´i-an kingdom, also ruled by a
Greek dynasty, the Se-leu´ci-dæ, or descendants of Se-leu´cus. This
change of rulers brought to the Jews a change of treatment. Hitherto
they had been permitted to live undisturbed upon their mountains, and to
enjoy a measure of liberty, both in civil and ecclesiastical matters.
But now the Syr´i-an kings not only robbed them of their freedom, but
also undertook to compel them to renounce their religion by one of the
most cruel persecutions in all history. The temple was desecrated and
left to ruin, and the worshipers of Je-ho´vah were tortured and slain,
in the vain endeavor to introduce the Greek and Syr´i-an forms of
idolatry among the Jews. Heb. 11. 33-40 is supposed to refer to this
persecution. When An-ti´o-chus, the Syr´i-an king, found that the Jews
could not be driven from their faith, he deliberately determined to
exterminate the whole nation. Uncounted thousands of Jews were
slaughtered, other thousands were sold as slaves, Je-ru´sa-lem was
well-nigh destroyed, the temple was dedicated to Ju´pi-ter O-lym´pus,
and the orgies of the Bacchanalia were substituted for the Feast of
Tabernacles. The religion of Je-ho´vah and the race of the Jews seemed
on the verge of utter annihilation in their own land.


Blackboard Outline

  1. =Four Per.= 1. Per. per. 1.) Sec. tem. 2.) Ez. ref. 3.) Sep. Sam.
          4.) Com. O. T. can.

  2. Gk. per. 1.) Rei. Alex. 2.) Eg. sup. 3.) Syr. sup.


Review Questions

      With what history is that of the Jews interwoven
      during this period? What was the political condition
      of the Jews at this time? What are the four periods of
      this history? Who were the rulers of the Jews during
      the first period? What building was erected after the
      return from captivity? What great deliverance was
      effected by a woman? What great reforms were effected
      by a scribe? What title has been given to him? What
      were the events connected with the separation of the
      Sa-mar´i-tans? Who were the prophets of the
      restoration? By whom was the Old Testament canon
      arranged? What brought on the Greek period? What
      events of Jew´ish history were connected with
      Al-ex-an´der the Great? Under what people did the Jews
      fall afterward? What were the events of the E-gyp´tian
      rule? What is the Septuagint? How was its translation
      regarded by the Jews of Pal´es-tine? In what kingdom,
      after E´gypt, did Ju-de´a fall? How was it governed by
      its new masters? Who instituted a great persecution?


PART TWO

3. =The Mac-ca-be´an period=, B. C. 166-40. But the darkest hour
precedes the day; the cruelties of the Syr´i-ans caused a new and
splendid epoch to rise upon Is´ra-el.

1.) _The revolt of Mat-ta-thi´as._ In the year B. C. 170 an aged priest,
Mat-ta-thi´as, unfurled the banner of independence from the Syr´i-an
yoke. He did not at first aim for political freedom, but religious
liberty; but after winning a few victories over the Syr´i-an armies he
began to dream of a free Jew´ish state. He died in the beginning of the
war, but was succeeded by his greater son, Ju´das Mac-ca-be´us.

2.) _Ju´das Mac-ca-be´us_ gained a greater success than had been dreamed
at the beginning of the revolt. Within four years the Jews recaptured
Je-ru´sa-lem and reconsecrated the temple. The anniversary of this event
was ever after celebrated in the Feast of Dedication (John 10. 22).
Ju´das ranks in history as one of the noblest of the Jew´ish heroes, and
deserves a place beside Josh´u-a, Gid´e-on, and Sam´u-el as a liberator
and reformer.

3.) _The Mac-ca-be´an dynasty._ Ju´das refused the title of king, but
his family established a line of rulers who by degrees assumed a royal
state, and finally the royal title. In the year B. C. 143 Jew´ish
liberty was formally recognized, and the Mac-ca-be´an princes ruled for
a time over an independent state. Between B. C. 130 and 110 E´dom,
Sa-ma´ri-a, and Gal´i-lee were added to Ju-de´a. The latter province had
been known as "Gal´i-lee of the Gen´tiles" (Isa. 9. 1); but by degrees
the foreigners withdrew, and the province was occupied by Jews who were
as devoted and loyal as those of Je-ru´sa-lem.

4.) _The rise of the sects._ About B. C. 100 the two sects, or schools
of thought, the Phar´i-sees and Sad´du-cees, began to appear, though
their principles had long been working. The Phar´i-sees ("separatists")
sought for absolute separation from the Gen´tile world and a strict
construction of the law of Mo´ses, while the Sad´du-cees "moralists")
were liberal in their theories and in their lives.

4. =The Ro´man period=, B. C. 40 to A. D. 70. It is not easy to name a
date for the beginning of the Ro´man supremacy in Pal´es-tine. It began
in B. C. 63, when Pom´pey the Great (afterward the antagonist of
Ju´li-us Cæ´sar) was asked to intervene between two claimants for the
Jew´ish throne, Hyr-ca´nus and Ar-is-to-bu´lus. Pom´pey decided for
Hyr-ca´nus, and aided him by a Ro´man army. In his interest he besieged
and took Je-ru´sa-lem, and then placed Hyr-ca´nus in power, but without
the title of king. From this time the Ro´mans were practically, though
not nominally, in control of affairs.

1.) _Her´od the Great._ We assign as the date of the Ro´man rule B. C.
40, when Her´od (son of An-tip´a-ter, an E´dom-ite, who had been the
general of Hyr-ca´nus) received the title of king from the Ro´man
Senate. From this time Pal´es-tine was regarded as a part of the Ro´man
empire. Her´od was the ablest man of his age and one of the most
unscrupulous. He ruled over all Pal´es-tine, I-du-me´a (ancient E´dom),
and the lands south of Da-mas´cus.

2.) _Her´od's temple._ Her´od was thoroughly hated by the Jews, less for
his character than for his foreign birth. To gain their favor he began
rebuilding the temple upon a magnificent scale. It was not completed
until long after his death, which took place at Jer´i-cho about the time
when Je´sus Christ, the true King of the Jews, was born (Matt. 2. 1, 2).

3.) _The tetrarchies._ By Her´od's will his dominions were divided into
four tetrarchies ("quarter-rulings," a title for a fourth part of a
kingdom). Three of these were in Pal´es-tine: Ar-che-la´us receiving
Ju-de´a, I-du-me´a, and Sa-ma´ri-a; An´ti-pas (the Her´od of Luke 3. 1;
9. 7; 23. 7-11) receiving Gal´i-lee and Pe-re´a; and Phil´ip (Luke 3. 1)
having the district of Ba´shan. About A. D. 6 Ar-che-la´us was deposed,
and a Ro´man, Co-po´ni-us, was appointed the first procurator of
Ju-de´a, which was made a part of the prefecture of Syr´i-a. The rest of
Jew´ish annals belongs properly to the New Testament history.

II. Through these periods we notice the gradual =Preparation for the
Gospel=, which was steadily advancing.

1. =There was a political preparation.= Six centuries before Christ the
world around the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an was divided into states, whose
normal condition was war. At no time was peace prevalent over all the
world at once. If Christ had come at that time it would have been
impossible to establish the gospel except through war and conquest. But
kingdoms were absorbed into empires, empires rose and fell by turns,
each with a larger conception of the nation than its predecessor. From
the crude combination of undigested states in the As-syr´i-an empire to
the orderly, assimilated, systematic condition of the Ro´man world was a
great advance. Christ appeared at the only point in the world's history
when the great nations of the world were under one government, with a
system of roads such that a traveler could pass from Mes-o-po-ta´mi-a to
Spain and could sail the Med-i-ter-ra´ne-an Sea in perfect safety.

2. =There was a preparation of language.= The conquests of Al-ex-an´der,
though accomplished in ten years, left a deeper impress upon the world
than any other two centuries of history. They gave to the whole of that
world one language, the noblest tongue ever spoken by human lips, "a
language fit for the gods," as men said. Through Al-ex-an´der, Greek
cities were founded everywhere in the East, Greek kingdoms were
established, the Greek literature and Greek civilization covered all the
lands. That was the language in which Paul preached the gospel, and in
which the New Testament was written--the only language of the ancient
world in which the thoughts of the gospel could be readily expressed.
While each land had its own tongue, the Greek tongue was common in all
lands.

3. While these preparations were going on there was another in progress
at the same time, the =preparation of a race=. We might point to the
history of the Is´ra-el-ites from the migration of A´bra-ham as a
training; but we refer now to their special preparation for their
mission after the restoration, B. C. 536. There was a divine purpose in
the division of Ju´da-ism into two streams: one a little fountain in
Pal´es-tine, the other a river dispersed over all the lands. Each branch
had its part in the divine plan. One was to concentrate its energies
upon the divine religion, to study the sacred books, to maintain a
chosen people, whose bigotry, narrowness, and intolerance kept them from
destruction; the other branch was out in the world, where every Jew´ish
synagogue in a heathen city kept alive the knowledge of God and
disseminated that knowledge, drawing around it the thoughtful, spiritual
minds who were looking for something better than heathenism.
Pal´es-tine gave the gospel, but the Jews of the dispersion carried it
to the Gen´tiles, and in many places synagogues in the foreign world
became the nucleus of a Christian church, where for the first time Jew
and Gen´tile met as equals.

4. Finally, there was the =preparation of a religion=. The gospel of
Christ was not a new religion; it was the new development of an old
religion. As we study the Old Testament we see that each epoch stands
upon a higher religious plane. There is an enlargement of spiritual
being between A´bra-ham and Mo´ses, between Mo´ses and Da´vid, between
Da´vid and I-sa´iah, between I-sa´iah and John the Bap´tist. Phar´i-see
and Sad´du-cee each held a share of the truth which embraced the best
thoughts of both sects. The work of many scribes prepared the way for
the coming of the Lord, and just when revelation was brought up to the
highest level, when a race was trained to apprehend and proclaim it,
when a language had been created and diffused to express it, when the
world was united in one great brotherhood of states, ready to receive
it--then, in the fullness of times, the Christ was manifested, who is
over all, God blessed forever.


Blackboard Outline

   I. =Four Per.= (Cont.) 3. Macc. per. 1.) Rev. Mat. 2.) Jud. Macc.
          3.) Macc. dyn. 4.) Ri. sec. 4. Rom. per. 1.) Her. Gr.
          2.) Her. tem. 3.) Tetr.
  II. =Prep. Gosp.= 1. Pol. prep. 2. Prep. lan. 3. Prep. rac. 4. Prep.
          rel.


Review Questions

      What was the effect of the Syr´i-an persecution? Who
      led the Jews in revolt? What great hero arose at this
      time? What line of rulers came from his family? What
      was the growth of the Jew´ish state at that time? What
      sects of the Jews arose? How did Ju-de´a fall under
      the Ro´man power? Whom did the Ro´mans establish as
      king? What were his dominions? What building did he
      erect? How was his kingdom divided after his death?
      What finally became of Ju-de´a? Name five ways in
      which there was a preparation for the gospel during
      this period. What was the political preparation? How
      was a language prepared for preaching the gospel to
      the world? What race was prepared, and how? What part
      had each of the two divisions of the Jew´ish race in
      the divine plan? What was the preparation of a
      religion for the world?



SIXTEENTH STUDY

The Old Testament as Literature[16]


PART ONE

1. =Importance.= In order rightly to understand the Bible we must not
only study it as a book of history, as a book of morals or ethics, as a
book of doctrine, and as a book of devotion; we must also examine it as
_literature_, and ascertain the different types of forms of literature
shown in its pages. The literary study of the Bible is often of the
highest importance. For example, the incident narrated in Josh. 10.
12-14, printed as prose in most of our Bibles, is shown as poetry in the
Revised Version; and we all know that poetry is to be interpreted upon
principles different from prose.

II. =Difficulties.= In the study of the Bible as literature two
difficulties arise and must be overcome:

1. _The division into chapters and verses_, and the printing of the
Bible throughout in the form of prose, forms an obstacle to the student
of the Bible as literature. Suppose that every history of England, the
poetry of Milton, the dramas of Shakespeare, and the romances of Scott
were printed in the form of our Bibles--broken up into short
paragraphs--what a hindrance that would prove to the understanding and
the enjoyment of these works! Except in the Revised Version of England
and America, that is the condition in which we read our Bibles. Only in
the Revised Version can the Bible be read as literature.

2. Another obstacle is in the fact that in the Bible all the different
_forms of literature are mingled together_. The prose has poetry here
and there; history, personal narrative, drama, and lyric are all united
in the same writings. We have Scott's prose and his poetry separate,
Matthew Arnold's poems and his essays in separate volumes; but in the
Old Testament all these forms of literature are found together, and
generally more than one form in the same book. There are few books in
the Old Testament that are either all prose or all poetry.

III. =Classification.= We may arrange the different kinds of literature
found in the Old Testament under six classes, as follows:

1. The larger portion of the Old Testament belongs to the department of
_History_. In its books we trace the early history of the world and the
history through two thousand years of the Is´ra-el-ite people. This
history may be classified as:

1.) _Primitive_ history, in the book of Gen´e-sis.

2.) _Constitutional_ history, or the record of laws and institutions, in
Ex´o-dus, Le-vit´i-cus, Num´bers.

3.) _National_ history, or historical events, in Josh´u-a, Judg´es,
Sam´u-el, Kings, and Ez´ra. Although in some of these books are many
narratives more biographical than historical, yet nearly all these
stories have a bearing upon the national history.

4.) _Ecclesiastical_ history, in the books of Chron´i-cles, which tell
the story of the kingdom of Ju´dah from a priestly point of view.

2. Next to the history comes _Personal Narrative_ as a literary form in
the Bible; such stories as those of Jo´seph, Ba´laam, Ruth, Da´vid,
E-li´jah, E-li´sha, Jo´nah, and Es´ther; not historical, as the story of
the nations, but personal, as the record of individuals. These
narratives belong to the class called by scholars "prose epics," an epic
being a work of narration, generally in poetry, as the epics of Homer,
Dante, and Milton. The epics in the Bible are poetic in their thought,
but prose in their form.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Imp.= The Bible as Hist. Eth. Doc. Dev. Lit. [Illust.]
   II. =Diff.= 1. Div. chap. ver. 2. Lit. ming.
  III. =Class.= 1. Hist. 1.) Prim. 2.) Const. 3.) Nat. 4.) Eccl.
          2. Per. narr. J. B. R. D. E. E. J. E.


Review Questions

      With what various purposes may the Bible be studied?
      What is meant by the study of the Bible as literature?
      Give an instance showing that this study is important
      for the right interpretation of the Bible. How does
      the form in which our Bibles are printed hinder in
      the study of it as literature? What other difficulty
      is met in the literary study of the Bible? How many
      classes of literature are found in the Bible? What is
      the department of literature most prominent in the
      Bible? Name four kinds of history in the Bible, define
      each kind, and give an example of it. To what class of
      literature do the stories of the Bible belong? What
      are the subjects of some of these stories? What is an
      epic? Name some great epics in literature? Wherein do
      these differ from the epics in the Bible?


PART TWO

Review I, II, and parts 1 and 2 of III.

3. Far more of the Old Testament belongs to the department of _Poetry_
than appears in the Authorized Version, the Bible in common use. The
He´brew mind was poetic rather than prosaic, and the thought of this
people naturally fell into the form of poetry. But there is a great
difference between our poetry or verse and that of the He´brews. With us
there is apt to be rhyme, never sought by the Bible poet; or else a
certain measure in length of line or emphasis on certain vowel sounds,
the "feet" or "meter," in the verse, equally unknown in the Bible.
He´brew verse consists in a peculiar symmetry and balance of clauses,
which is called "parallelism," for instance:

  "He will not suffer thy foot to be moved:
   He that keepeth thee will not slumber.
   Behold, he that keepeth Is´ra-el
   Shall neither slumber nor sleep"    (Psa. 121. 3, 4).

Poetry is to be found in nearly all parts of the Old Testament. There
are:

1.) _Odes_, as the song of Mir´i-am (Exod. 15), of Deb´o-rah (Judg. 5),
and the book of Lam-en-ta´tions. In the latter book there is an
acrostical arrangement, each stanza beginning in the original text with
a letter of the He´brew alphabet, and arranged in their order.

2.) _Lyric poems_, songs of emotion or feeling, as most of the Psalms.

3.) _Dramatic poems_, illustrative of action, as Job and the Song of
Sol´o-mon.

4. _Oratory_ figures extensively in the Old Testament, as we should
expect to find in the literature of any Oriental people, among whom the
public speaker exercises a mighty influence. The orations or discourses
of the Bible are sometimes in prose, sometimes in poetry, sometimes in
both forms of expression. The speeches in the book of Job, Sol´o-mon's
dedicatory prayer (2 Chron. 6), almost the entire book of
Deu-ter-on´o-my, the opening chapters of Prov´erbs, and many of the
discourses of the prophets belong to this department. Note how readily
the passage in Deut. 8. 7-9 falls into verse:

  "For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land,
   A land of brooks of water,
   Of fountains and depths,
   Springing forth in valleys and hills;
   A land of wheat and barley,
   And vines and fig trees and pomegranates;
   A land of oil olives and honey," etc. (Rev. Ver.)

5. _Philosophy_, or "wisdom-literature," is also found in the Old
Testament. The book of Prov´erbs is a collection of the "sayings of the
sages" among the Is´ra-el-ites; while Ec-cle-si-as´tes is a series of
connected essays on human life.

6. _Prophecy_ is a distinct form of literature in the Bible. The word
"prophecy" in the Scriptures means not "foretelling," or "prediction,"
but "_forth_telling," speaking under a divine power, whether of past,
present, or future. It is not to be forgotten that the books of
Josh´u-a, Judg´es, Sam´u-el, and Kings were called by the Jews "the
former prophets," and were all regarded as prophetic, although they
contained history. The prophets used freely either the prose form or
verse form in their messages. Their writings may be classified under:

1.) _Prophetic Discourse_, the message of the Lord concerning nations,
often called "the burden," the counterpart of the modern sermon, as in
Isa. 1. 1-31; Ezek. 34.

2.) _Lyric prophecy_, in the form of song, as in Zeph-a-ni´ah, Isa. 9. 8
to 10. 4, and many other instances.

3.) _Symbolic prophecy_, or the use of emblems, as Jer-e-mi´ah's girdle
(Jer. 13), the potter's wheel (Jer. 18), or E-ze´ki-el's tile (Ezek. 4).

4.) _The prophecy of Vision_, of which instances are: I-sa´iah's call
(Isa. 6); Jer-e-mi´ah's vision (Jer. 1. 11-16); E-ze´ki-el's vision of
the cherubim (Ezek. 1); "the valley of dry bones" (Ezek. 37); and
Zech-a-ri´ah's vision of the candlestick (Zech. 4).

5.) _The prophecy of Parable_, as "the vineyard" (Isa. 5), also in Ezek.
15; "the eagle" (Ezek. 17). There are many parables in the Old
Testament, but the master in this form of teaching was the Prophet of
Gal´i-lee in the gospels.

6.) _The prophecy of Dialogue_, either between the prophet and Je-ho´vah
or more frequently between the prophet and the people, as in the book of
Mal´a-chi.

7.) _Dramatic prophecy_, in which Je-ho´vah himself is represented as
speaking, generally introduced by the words "Thus saith Je-ho´vah."

A close analysis will perhaps show other forms of prophetic teaching, as
"The Doom Song" and "The Prophetic Rhapsody"; but in our judgment these
also may be included in the classification given above. (See footnote
with the opening of this lesson.)


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Imp.= The Bible as Hist. Eth. Doc. Dev. Lit. [Illust.]
   II. =Diff.= 1. Div. chap. ver. 2. Lit. ming.
  III. =Class.= 1. Hist, 1.) Prim. 2.) Const. 3.) Nat. 4.) Eccl.
           2. Per. Narr. J. B. R. D. E. E. J. E.
           3. Poet. Heb. ver. 1.) Od. 2.) Lyr. 3.) Dram.
           4. Orat. Sol. Deut. Prov. Proph.
           5. Phil. "Wis.-Lit." Prov. Eccl.
           6. Proph. "Forthtell." "For. proph." 1.) Pro. Disc.
                2.) Lyr. pro. 3.) Sym. pro. 4.) Pro. Vis. 5.) Pro.
                Par. 6.) Pro. Dia. 7.) Dram. pro.


Review Questions

      Review the questions with PART ONE of this lesson.
      What are the first and second classes of literature in
      the Bible? What is the third class? Wherein does
      He´brew poetry differ from Eng´lish verse? What three
      kinds of poetry are found in the Old Testament? Give
      examples under each kind. What is the fourth class of
      literature in the Bible? Name some instances under
      this class. Are the discourses of the Bible in prose
      or in poetry? What is the fifth class of biblical
      literature? By what other name is this class known?
      Give two examples of this class, and state the
      differences between them. What is the sixth literary
      department in the Bible? What is the meaning of the
      word "prophecy"? In what form, prose or poetry, did
      the prophets speak? What are the seven kinds of
      prophecy found in the Bible? Define each kind. Give
      illustrations of each class.



SEVENTEENTH STUDY

How We Got Our Bible


PART ONE

I. =Name.= Here is a volume which we call "The Holy Bible." The word
"bible" means "books"--_biblia_, plural of Greek _biblion_, "book." So
the Bible is "The Sacred Book," and by its very name calls attention to
the fact that it is not one book, but many: 39 books in the Old
Testament, 27 in the New--66 books in the Bible. Its composite nature is
not less important for us to keep in mind than its unity. Especially is
this true of the Old Testament, of which we speak mainly in this lesson.

II. =Origin.= How came these books into being? This is a question of the
"higher criticism"--that is, the study of subjects back of and above
those belonging to the meaning of the text; not higher because more
important, but higher because pertaining to an earlier period. Certain
conclusions, however, may be accepted.

1. Much of the contents of the Bible, especially of the Old Testament,
was given _orally_, through stories, songs, and poems recited, through
prophetic discourses, and through traditions handed down from generation
to generation--a method of instruction universal before books were
printed.

2. These oral teachings were _written_, some at the time when they were
given, others later, sometimes after generations of oral repetition. The
writing of different portions of the Bible was carried on at various
times, in various places, and by various writers; perhaps through 1,600
years, and by more than 40 writers, most of whom have remained unknown.
In the writing and rewriting He´brew scholars of Old Testament times did
not hesitate to modify the older works as they saw reasons for so doing.
We respect the "works of authors," and would not alter the language of
Chaucer or Milton or Macaulay; but He´brew prophets and scribes in early
times cared more for the contents than for the authorship of their
sacred books.

3. As long as there were prophets in Is´ra-el and Ju´dah to declare the
will of the Lord the need of a written and authoritative Scripture was
scarcely recognized. But prophecy ceased about B. C. 450, and then
began the _work of the great scribes_, of whom Ez´ra was the chief, in
bringing together, editing, and copying the sacred books. Perhaps about
B. C. 400 the Old Testament was practically complete. But it is evident
that the precise text was not fixed for centuries afterward, as the
earliest translation (the Septuagint; see below) shows that a text was
followed different from that now read. The text of the He´brew Bible was
not finally adopted until later than A. D 200.

III. =Language.= 1. Nearly all the Old Testament was written in He´brew,
the language of the Is´ra-el-ites, called by the As-syr´i-ans on their
monuments "the tongue of the west country," in the Bible "the lip of
Ca´naan" (Isa. 19. 18) or "the Jews' language" (2 Kings 18. 26).

2. Certain parts of Dan´iel and Ez´ra and one verse of Jer-e-mi´ah (Jer.
10. 11) were written in Ar-a-ma´ic (2 Kings 18. 26, "Syr´i-an
language"), often, though inaccurately, called Chal´dee.

IV. =Form.= 1. The books of the Old Testament were _written upon
parchment_, the prepared skins of animals. The letters were large, and a
manuscript roll embraced generally only one book; and several rolls were
needed for the longer books.

2. Their use was almost entirely _limited to the synagogue_, and few
copies were ever owned by private persons. After touching the roll of an
inspired book one must wash his hands in running water before touching
anything else.

3. When the synagogue rolls were well worn they were cut up into smaller
pieces for _use in the schools_, where the Bible was the only text-book.
When worn out they were burned or buried. The Jews did not preserve
ancient writings, which is one reason why all the manuscripts of the
Bible are of comparatively modern date.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Name.= "H. B." _Biblia._ 39. 27. 66.
   II. =Orig.= "Hi. Crit." 1. _Ora._ St. so. po. pro. trad.
          2. _Writ._ 1,600 y. 40 wri. "Works of authors."
          3. _Work of scr._ B.C. 400. Text not uniform.
  III. =Lang.= 1. Heb. 2. Aram.
   IV. =Form.= 1. Writ. parch. 2. Use in syn. 3. Use in sch.


Review Questions

      What is the origin and meaning of the word "Bible"?
      What does this word suggest as to the books of the
      Bible? How many books does the Bible contain? What is
      meant by "the higher criticism"? How was much of the
      Bible given? How and when were the books written? How
      long was the writing in progress? Did the writers of
      the Bible change the documents as they wrote them? How
      long was there little need of a written revelation?
      When were the writings of the Old Testament brought
      together? Name the leader in this work. At what time
      was the Old Testament completed? Was the precise text
      of the Bible fixed at that time? What evidence is
      there of more than one accepted text? In what language
      was most of the Old Testament written? What other
      language was also used? What parts of the Old
      Testament were in this other language? In what form
      were the books of the Old Testament preserved? What
      was their principal use? What hindered the private
      ownership of the books? What use was made of the old
      rolls of the Scriptures? How were they finally
      disposed of?


PART TWO

V. =Early Versions.= The captivity of the Jews in Bab-y-lo´ni-a led to a
change in their spoken language, so that they could no longer understand
the ancient Hebrew of the Bible, and translations, or "versions," became
necessary. Note that in Ez´ra's Bible class (Neh. 8. 7) translators were
employed, and their names are given.

1. _The Targums_. These translations from the Hebrew to the vernacular,
or common speech, of the Jews were called _Targums_. Men were trained to
give them, as the sacred text was read, sentence by sentence, in the
synagogue. This translator was called a "meturgeman." For centuries
these translations, or Targums, remained unwritten, were handed down
orally, and were jealously guarded. Not until after A. D. 200 was the
writing of the Targums authorized by Jewish custom.

2. _The Septuagint._ The conquests of Al-ex-an´der, B. C. 330, made the
Greek language dominant in all the lands of the east, and the Jews
dispersed among these countries needed their writings in the _Greek
tongue_, which was used almost everywhere in the synagogues outside of
Ju-de´a. To meet this need the _Septuagint_ version arose in
Al-ex-an´dri-a, beginning about B. C. 285. The name Septuagint, meaning
"seventy," arose from a legend that the version was made by seventy men,
each in a separate room, translating all the books; and the result
showed the rendering alike, word for word! The Septuagint became the
current Bible of the Jews in all lands except, perhaps, Pal´es-tine.

3. _The Vulgate._ After Rome became the world's capital, and the Latin
language came into general use, especially west of Al-ex-an´dri-a, in
the Christian churches came a demand for the Bible in Latin. Many
versions of certain books were made, but the one that at last superseded
all the earlier translations was that prepared by Jerome, about A. D.
400. This was called "the Vulgate," from the Latin _vulgus_, "the common
people." This was the Bible in general use until the Reformation. But as
the Latin language in its turn ceased to be spoken the Bible was lost to
the common people throughout Europe, and was known only to scholars,
mostly in the monasteries.

VI. =Modern Versions.= Of these multitudes have been made; but we will
notice only a few of the most important in the line of succession
leading to our English Bible.

1. _Wyclif's Bible._ John Wyclif was "The Morning Star of the
Reformation," preaching in England one hundred and fifty years before
Luther in Germany. Finding the Latin Bible inaccessible to the common
people, he prepared a version in the English of his time, aided by other
scholars. The New Testament was first translated, beginning with the
book of Revelation, in 1357, and nearly all the Old Testament was
translated by 1382, two years before Wyclif died. This translation was
made from the Vulgate, not from the original Hebrew and Greek. As
printing had not yet been invented it was circulated in manuscript only,
yet was read widely.

2. _Tyndale's Bible._ After the invention of printing and the great
Reformation there was an awakened interest in the Bible. William
Tyndale, a scholar in Hebrew and Greek, gave his life to the translation
of the Scriptures, was exiled, and was martyred in 1536 on account of
it. His New Testament in 1525 was the first printed in English, and it
was followed by the Pentateuch in 1530. No one man ever made a better
translation than Tyndale, which has been followed in many renderings by
nearly all the later versions.

3. _The Great Bible._ Omitting the versions of Coverdale, Matthew, and
Taverner, we come to the first authorized version, made under the
direction of the English prime minister, Thomas Cromwell, edited by
Miles Coverdale, and published in 1539. It received its name from its
size, and from the fact that a copy of it was required to be placed in
every church in England.

4. _The Geneva Bible_ was translated by a company of English exiles in
Switzerland, and appeared in 1560. It was more convenient in form than
the earlier editions, was divided into verses, and printed in Roman
letters--traits which made it popular, especially among the
nonconformists in England.

5. _The Bishops' Bible_ was prepared under the direction of Matthew
Parker, archbishop under Queen Elizabeth, by eight bishops of the Church
of England, and appeared in 1572. It had a limited circulation, because
it was really not quite as good as the Geneva Bible; but it was the
official version in England from 1572 to 1611.

6. _The Douai Bible._ All the above-named versions, and many others,
were the work of Protestants. The Roman Catholics of England found a
version of their own a necessity; and, as they were not allowed to
prepare and publish one in England, the task was undertaken by exiled
Roman Catholics on the Continent. The New Testament was published at
Rheims, in France, in 1582; the Old Testament at Douai, in Belgium, in
1610. This translation was made from the Latin Bible of Jerome, and its
marginal notes set forth the Roman Catholic views. It is still the
English Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

7. _The King James Version._ In the reign of James I of England many
versions were in circulation, and for the sake of uniformity a new
translation was ordered by the king. This was made by forty-seven
scholars, occupying about three years, and was issued in 1611. It became
by degrees the standard English Bible, "The Authorized Version," as it
is called. It is the Bible which is still circulated by the million
every year, the Bible familiar to every reader.

8. _The Revised Version._ The advance in scholarship, the increasing
knowledge of the ancient world, and the discovery of old manuscripts
unknown to earlier translators, caused a demand, not for a new Bible,
but for a revision of the text and of the translation in common use. The
Church of England led in the movement, but invited the coöperation of
scholars in every denomination of Great Britain and America. In 1881 the
New Testament appeared, and in 1885 the entire Bible. Students
everywhere recognized the Revised Version as a great improvement upon
the Authorized Version, but it comes very slowly into use by the people.

9. _The American Revised Version._ In the preparation of the Revised
Version of 1885 the American scholars proposed more radical changes than
the English revisers would admit. It was arranged that the Americans
should have their list of proposed changes published at the end of the
version, but they should not publish any Bible containing them in the
text until 1900. The American revisers continued their organization,
and, aided by experience, made a new revision throughout, which was
published both in England and America as "The American Revised Version,"
in 1901. This work is by most students regarded as, upon the whole,
better than the Revised Version of 1885 and the best translation of the
Bible that has yet appeared.


Blackboard Outline

    I. =Name.= "H. B." _Biblia._ 39. 27. 66.
   II. =Orig.= "Hi. Crit." 1. _Ora._ St. so. po. pro. trad.
          2. _Writ._ 1,600 y. 40 wri. "Works of authors."
          3. _Work of scr._ B. C. 400. Text not uniform.
  III. =Lang.= 1. Heb. 2. Aram.
   IV. =Form.= 1. Writ. parch. 2. Use in syn. 3. Use in sch.
    V. =Ear. Ver.= 1. Tar. 2. Sept. 3. Vul.
   VI. =Mod. Ver.= 1. Wyc. 1382. 2. Tyn. 1525, 1530. 3. Gr.
          Bib. 1539. 4. Gen. Bib. 1560. 5. Bish. Bib. 1572.
          6. Dou. Bib. 1582, 1610. 7. K. Jam. Ver. 1611. 8. Rev.
          Ver. 1881, 1885. 9. Am. Rev. Ver. 1901.


Review Questions

      Review and answer again the questions on Sections I,
      II, III, IV of this lesson. What is meant by
      "versions"? How did versions of the Old Testament
      become necessary to the Jews? What were these versions
      called, and how did they arise? How were they
      preserved? What called forth the Septuagint Version?
      In what language was it? When was it prepared? What
      was the Jewish legend concerning it? How did the
      Vulgate arise? Who made it? Why did it receive that
      name? What did the Vulgate become? Repeat the names of
      the three most important early versions. Name the nine
      most important modern versions. Who was Wyclif? When
      did he live? When did his translation of the Bible
      appear? How was it circulated? What two events in
      modern times increased the desire for the Bible in the
      language of the people? What is said of Tyndale's
      version? What was the Great Bible? Who directed its
      preparation? Who edited it? When was it published?
      What was the Geneva Bible? Wherein did it differ from
      earlier Bibles? Give the facts concerning the Bishops'
      Bible--originator, translators, date, characteristics.
      What was the history of the Douai Bible? Where is that
      Bible used? Tell the facts about the Authorized
      Version. How did the Revised Version arise? How was it
      prepared? What new version has recently appeared, and
      how is it regarded?


FOOTNOTES:

[1] The chronology of the Bible is not a matter of the divine
revelation, and scholars are not agreed with respect to the dates of
early Scripture history. The system of chronology commonly found in
reference Bibles is that of Archbishop Usher, who lived 1580-1656, long
before the modern period of investigation in Bible lands. According to
this chronology A´dam was created B. C. 4004, the flood took place B. C.
2348, and the call of A´bra-ham was B. C. 1928. But it is now an
attested and recognized fact that kingdoms were established in the
Eu-phra´tes valley and beside the Nile more than 4000 years before
Christ. All of Usher's dates earlier than the captivity of the Jews in
Bab´y-lon are now discarded by scholars. We give in these lessons no
dates earlier than the call of A´bra-ham, which is doubtfully placed at
B. C. 2280, and regard none as certain before B. C. 1000.

[2] When the birth of Christ was adopted as an era of chronology, about
A. D. 400 a mistake of four years was made by the historian who first
fixed it. Hence the year in which Christ was born was in reality B. C.
4.

[3] We give Mount Hor the traditional location, east of the Desert of
Zin; but there is strong reason for finding it west of the Desert of
Zin, near Ka´desh-bar´ne-a.

[4] Called in the Revised Version "guilt offering."

[5] This is called in the Revised Version "the meal offering"; that is,
the offering to God of a meal to be eaten. It might be called "food
offering."

[6] According to Josephus; the fact is not stated in the Bible.

[7] The ecclesiastical year began with the month Abib, or Nisan, in the
spring: the civil year with the month Ethanim in the fall.

[8] The Old Testament name for the Sea of Gal´i-lee is Chin´ne-reth (ch
as k), a word meaning "harp-shaped."

[9] The account of the sun and moon standing still is an extract from an
ancient poem, and is so printed in the Revised Version. The subject is
discussed in Geikie's Hours with the Bible, footnote with chapter 13.

[10] With regard to the destruction of the Ca´naan-ites: 1. Such
destruction was the almost universal custom of the ancient world. 2. It
was observed by the Ca´naan-ites, who were among the most wicked of
ancient peoples. 3. It was necessary if Is´ra-el was to be kept from the
corruption of their morals, and upon Is´ra-el´s character depended the
world in after ages. 4. As a result of failing to extirpate the
Ca´naan-ites a vastly greater number of the Is´ra-el-ites were destroyed
during the succeeding centuries.

[11] With Jeph´thah is associated the only instance of human sacrifice
offered to Je-ho´vah in all Bible history; and this was by an ignorant
freebooter, in a part of the land farthest from the instructions of the
tabernacle and the priesthood. When we consider that the practice of
human sacrifice was universal in the ancient world, and that not only
captives taken in war, but also the children of the worshipers, were
offered (2 Kings 3. 26, 27; Mic. 6. 7), this fact is a remarkable
evidence of the elevating power of the Is´ra-el-ite worship.

[12] With regard to Da´vid's crimes against U-ri´ah and his wife, note
that no other ancient monarch would have hesitated to commit such an
act, or would have cared for it afterward; while Da´vid submitted to the
prophet's rebuke, publicly confessed his sin, and showed every token of
a true repentance.

[13] Notice that while the prophets had been friendly to Da´vid, they
were strongly opposed to Sol´o-mon, and gave aid to his enemy
Jer-o-bo´am (1 Kings 11. 29-39).

[14] The dimensions as given in the Bible are all in cubits, a measure
of uncertain length, which I have estimated at eighteen inches;
consequently all the figures given in this study are to be regarded as
approximate, not exact.

[15] There is no mention of either the table or the candlestick in
Sol´o-mon's temple, but instead ten tables and ten candlesticks in the
Holy Place (2 Chron. 4. 7, 8). The table and candlestick were in the
tabernacle, and were also in the second and third temples; but it is
uncertain whether they actually stood in the temple of Sol´o-mon.

[16] Nearly all the material in this lesson is drawn in an abbreviated
form from The Literary Study of the Bible, by Richard G. Moulton (Boston
D. C. Heath & Co.), a masterpiece on this subject, strongly recommended
to the student. I have, however, ventured to vary from Dr. Moulton's
classification on some minor points--J. L. H.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.





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