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Title: How Justice Grew: Virginia Counties, An Abstract of Their Formation
Author: Hiden, Martha Woodroof, 1883-1959
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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      Text in italics is surrounded by underlines (_italics_).



HOW JUSTICE GREW

Virginia Counties: An Abstract of Their Formation

by

MARTHA W. HIDEN

Member of Executive Board of
Virginia Historical Society



Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation
Williamsburg, Virginia
1957

Copyright©, 1957 by
Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration
Corporation, Williamsburg, Virginia

Jamestown 350th Anniversary
Historical Booklet, Number 19



HOW JUSTICE GREW

Virginia Counties: An Abstract of Their Formation


In addition to their human cargo, the poultry and fruit acquired in the
West Indies, the clothing, household gear, and other possessions of the
passengers, the _Susan Constant_, _Godspeed_ and _Discovery_ had a large
though imponderable cargo of English laws, customs and religion. The
colonists had left England, neither driven out nor seeking escape, but
to found a new England in a new world.

Though the seat of government was at "King James His Towne," the natural
curiosity to explore and the economic necessity for means of livelihood
caused settlements to spring up farther and farther away. Despite the
fact that the colonists were in a region where rivers and numerous
streams afforded easy transportation interrupted only for short periods
by ice in winter, attendance at court in Jamestown was burdensome.


THE FOUR CORPORATIONS

By 17 June 1617, Governor Samuel Argall had established the four great
divisions of the colony, namely: "the incorporations and parishes of
James City, Charles City, Henrico and Kikotan" (later Elizabeth City).
The Eastern Shore settlements were not included in this division.

Each of the incorporations mentioned above and the Eastern Shore
contained one or more boroughs or settlements. Eleven of the settlements
in the four incorporations were represented by two Burgesses each, in
the first General Assembly. This, the first legislative assembly of
English speaking people in the Western hemisphere, convened on 30 July
1619 in the church at Jamestown. Itself based on the English Parliament
as a model, it became the model followed by all succeeding British
colonies including Australia. The colonial assembly next in age to
Virginia's is that of Bermuda established in 1620. In the _Journals of
the House of Burgesses_, the names of the Burgesses for the 1619
Assembly are arranged by the cities and plantations they represented. In
the Journal of the second Assembly that is extant, 1623/24, for the
first and only time, the plantations are grouped under the corporations
of which they were a part, except Eastern Shore, which, as has been
noted, was a separate entity.

In 1621, a charter from the Company confirmed former grants and provided
"that the Governor should call the General Assembly once a year, and
initiate the policy of the form of government, laws, customs, manner of
trial and other administration of justice used in England." Governor
Wyatt at the same time was ordered to make arrangements for "dividing
the colony into cities, boroughs, etc., ... and to appoint proper times
for administration ... and law suits." William Stith in his _History of
Virginia_ states: "Inferior courts were therefore in the beginning of
the year 1621 appointed in convenient places to relieve the Governor and
Council of the vast burthen of business and to render justice more cheap
and accessible. This was the original and foundation of our County
Courts, although the country was not yet laid off in counties."

The General Assembly of 1623/24 provided "that there shall be courts
kept once a month in the corporations of Charles City and Elizabeth City
for the deciding of suits and controversies not exceeding the value of
one hundred pounds of tobacco and for punishing of petty offenses." As a
consequence of this act, the question of the metes and bounds of these
corporations, Charles City, Henrico, Elizabeth City and James City,
became important, since suits must perforce be instituted in the court
having jurisdiction over that particular area. Mr. Nathaniel C. Hale,
in his interesting book on William Claiborne called _Virginia Venturer_,
shows that William Claiborne in 1621, was appointed a surveyor for the
colony and comments that heretofore boundaries of land had been located
with ungraduated mariners' compasses and described by careless
references to natural limits.

Apparently the Jamestown Court with those of Charles City and Elizabeth
City was adequate for several years, but in February 1631/32 the
Assembly passed an act adding five more as follows: "for the upper
parts"; "for Warwick River; for Warrosquyoake; for Elizabeth City; for
Accawmacke." Presumably, since the order had been that the new courts
were to be held "in remote parts of the colony," the phrase "upper
parts" would mean the most western part of Henrico Corporation, and the
Elizabeth City Court would be for the south side of Hampton Roads. This
seems logical since the north side had been settled first, was more
populous and was not remote from Jamestown.


THE EIGHT ORIGINAL SHIRES

But the colony was growing too fast for this arrangement to continue
adequate for long. With a population of about 5,000 persons, the time
for division into shires or counties was at hand. It may be noted that,
though these units were designated as shires in the Act of the General
Assembly creating them, they were, after that, always called counties.
Their functions were the same as those of their English prototypes, but
conditions here required two changes which will be mentioned later.

The names of the four corporations, Charles City, Henrico, James City
and Elizabeth City were kept for four of the newly created counties, but
their areas were lessened. The four new divisions were: Warwick River,
later called Warwick; Warrosquyoake, later Isle of Wight; Charles River,
later changed to York, and Accomack which embraced all the settlements
on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

[Illustration: 1619
Rapid Growth of Settlement along the James River. Marked by Introduction
of Representative Government.]

The tender feeling for the homeland is evidenced by the fact that six
out of the "eight original shires," as they are generally called, bore
names reminiscent of England. Henrico perpetuated Henry, Prince of
Wales, son of James I whose early death made even more difficult the
first years of the Colony. Charles City honored his brother Charles,
later Charles I, who combined, to his undoing, the charm and obstinacy
of the Stuarts. Elizabeth City and the river of the same name derive
from Princess Elizabeth, the oldest sister of Henry and Charles. She
married Frederick, for a time King of Bohemia, but later overthrown and
exiled. Though her life was bitter and tragic, her descendants since
1714 have occupied the throne of Britain. James City was, of course, for
King James I, of whom it was said that his instructors had given him an
abundance of knowledge but had been unable to give him sense. Warwick's
name was for Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, leader of one of the factions
of the Virginia Company, who had founded and cared for the colony. He
belonged to the "Court Party" which wished to continue martial law in
the colony and opposed the liberal views of Sir Edwin Sandys and the
Earl of Southampton. For awhile the Sandys faction was in control and
the "Great Charter of Laws, Orders and Privileges" brought over by Sir
George Yeardley was the expression of their views on colonial
government. But the "Court Party" prevailed in the end and the charter
of the Virginia Company was revoked in 1624. Charles River County
presumably took its name from Charles I, who was King when it was
formed. In 1642/43 when it became York, the change was made to honor
James, the second son of Charles I, who in that year was created Duke of
York. Warrosquyoake, an Indian word, was later Isle of Wight County
since some of its most prominent residents were from the small island of
that name lying off the English coast. The Parish lying in and
coterminous with Isle of Wight County was called Newport from the
largest city in the English island. Accomack honored the friendly tribe
of Indians of that name residing on the Eastern Shore.

The bounds of these eight counties as noted in Tyler's _The Cradle of
the Republic_ were as follows:

Elizabeth City County extending on both sides of Hampton Roads, on the
south side to Chuckatuck Creek and on the north side to Newport News and
including a small part thereof.

Warrosquyoake County, later Isle of Wight, extending on the south side
of James River from Chuckatuck Creek to Lawne's Creek.

Warwick River County extending on the north side of James River from
Elizabeth City County to Skiffe's (Keith's) Creek. This is the only
original shire from which no other county was formed. The name was
changed to Warwick County in 1643.

James City County extending on both sides of James River, on the south
side from Lawne's Creek to Upper Chippokes Creek and on the north side
from Skiffe's Creek to above Sandy Point.

Charles City County also extending on both sides of James River, on the
south side from Upper Chippokes Creek to Appomattox River and on the
north side from Sandy Point to Turkey Island Creek.

Henrico County extending from Charles City County on both sides of James
River indefinitely westward.

Charles River County, later York, lay to the north of Warwick County and
adjoined Elizabeth City County on the east. Its north and west
boundaries were indefinite. The colonists soon crossed the York River to
establish plantations along its northern bank and settled as far west as
the Pamunkey River.

Accomack, the eighth shire, like York County, showed the vitality of the
colonists in pushing settlements away from the vicinity of Jamestown
into uncharted wilds.

The Potomac River was the dividing line between Virginia and Maryland,
and on the Eastern Shore the division was approximately in line with the
mouth of this river. Settling on the Shore in 1616, the colonists moved
slowly northward. The Indians were friendly, transportation easy,
climate mild, and soil fertile. There was no impediment to growth.

The population of the colony is estimated to have been around 5,000
persons in 1634 as has been noted. Six years later it had increased
about 50%, being 7,466 persons. One factor in this growth was the unrest
in England at this time which culminated a few years later in bitter
civil war.


THE COLONIAL COURTS

We have mentioned that the creation of counties with their courts had in
view to render justice more accessible to all. There were by 1642, in
the colony six kinds of courts for the administration of justice.

The first of these was the magistrate's court. In 1642, an Act of the
Assembly empowered a magistrate or justice to try a case involving not
over twenty shillings in currency or 200 pounds of tobacco in value. In
1657/58, the amount could be as much as 1,000 pounds of tobacco if two
magistrates were present but only 350 pounds if but one magistrate tried
the case. The appeal from the magistrate's court was to the monthly
court.

The next court was the parish court. In the seventeenth century only one
of these courts existed in Virginia and that only for a short time. This
was the court of Bristol Parish which most likely sat in the old
Merchants Hope Church, still standing and still in use. The court was
discontinued before the end of the seventeenth century, and its papers
passed into the custody of the Henrico County Court. A parish court was
in a way a vestigial body, a relic of days when the authority of the
church was preeminent in both civil and ecclesiastical matters.

The third recourse for justice was to the monthly court, developed
according to Stith, from the inferior court established in 1621. The
Governor named the first justices of a new county, renamed justices in
the old counties and filled every vacancy as it occurred. By Act of
Assembly in 1628/29, the number of justices was to be eight, but later
it was increased to ten. Four constituted a quorum. Three other members
of the bench associated with one member of the quorum, who had a
different status from the other justices, formed a sufficient number to
make a valid court. The person whose name appeared at the head of the
list of those constituting the quorum probably served as presiding
justice; in his absence, the one named second and so on down the list.
No pay was provided for the justices.

In 1642, the Assembly ordered that at least six monthly courts be held
every year and the justices were empowered to determine when extra
sessions were necessary. At the same time, another Act of Assembly
provided that Henrico should hold court on the first day of every month;
Charles City on the third; James City on the sixth; Isle of Wight on the
ninth; Upper Norfolk (later Nansemond) on the twelfth; Elizabeth City on
the eighteenth; Warwick on the twenty-first; York on the twenty-fourth;
and Northampton, (formerly Accomack) on the twenty-eighth. The careful
spacing between these courts enabled attorneys to appear in cases in
different counties with no conflict of dates.

The range of cases that could come before a monthly court was naturally
wider than could come before a magistrate. As much as ten pounds
sterling could be involved in a suit and there was no appeal from the
decision; when larger amounts were involved, the defeated litigant could
appeal to the General Court. All questions where injury to life or limb
was at stake went before the General Court.

The monthly county courts had, in a general way, a jurisdiction
resembling the combined jurisdiction of the English Chancery Court,
King's Bench, Common Pleas, Court Exchequer, Admiralty and
Ecclesiastical. The justices of the monthly courts looked after the poor
and afflicted, held special orphan courts at least once a year, granted
probates of wills, passed on appraisements of estates as presented to
them for inspection, on inventories and estate accounts which also were
presented for their scrutiny, and recorded conveyances of land.

Recordation of land conveyances is one of the two differences between
the monthly court of a Virginia county and its British prototype. There
conveyances were private property and retained in private ownership.
Manor houses of old English estates often had a room called the
"Muniment room" where deeds, inventories, rent rolls and such family
papers, often including copies of wills, were kept. The name derived
from a Latin word meaning to fortify or strengthen, since the deeds
strengthened the validity of ownership claimed by the holder of the
land. The other function of the monthly court in Virginia different from
the English Shire Court was the power to probate wills. In England
probate of wills was in the prerogative courts of Canterbury and York.
Probably since there was no diocesan see in Virginia, Virginia being in
the diocese of London, the monthly court offered the most feasible place
of probate.

It has been noted that there was a limit to the powers of this court and
that cases which it could not hear went before the General Court. This
court was composed of the Governor and his Council of State. It met
semi-annually, 15 April and 15 October, each term lasting at least
eighteen days. The Governor presided at these sessions. The presence of
five members was necessary for the transaction of business. The _Minutes
of the Council and General Court_ are extant for the years 1622-1632 and
abstracts for the years 1670-1676. They were published in one volume by
the Virginia State Library in 1924 and are helpful in acquiring a
general picture of life in the colony in the seventeenth century.

The General Assembly was also a judicial body with power to render
decisions. At its afternoon session the 22nd day of September 1674, a
cause came before the Council and General Court which had originated in
Accomack County. The Court made no decision but ordered it "referred to
the Assembly by reason it very much concern the country." From that one
would infer that causes involving general principles were deemed proper
for discussion and decision by the Burgesses who represented the entire
colony, since all would be affected by the decision.

The Court of Admiralty, the last dispenser of justice in the colony,
seems to have been established about 1697 under the governorship of Sir
Edmund Andros. Previously such matters as would come within the province
of this court had been handled by other judicial procedures, as they
were later. The instances of piracy were not numerous enough to justify
the maintenance of a Court of Admiralty in Virginia. No records of this
court survive.

It may seem we have wandered far from the formation of counties, but
since the accessibility of justice for all was a prime consideration in
their creation, it would appear well to examine the means by which the
average citizen could have his grievances heard and decided. The
importance of the county monthly court in his life cannot be
overestimated. While on business at court, he had opportunity to see his
friends, play cards, gamble, race horses, fight, drink, "swap" horses
and other livestock, attend the muster of county militia to which he
belonged, and see the newest articles imported from England. The county
court and his parish church services were his chief contacts with the
world that lay beyond his plantation.


"JUSTICE ACCESSIBLE TO ALL." COUNTY DIVISIONS BEGIN

Scarcely had the eight original counties begun to function before the
expansion of population forced the erection of a new one. In 1636 that
part of Elizabeth City County lying on the south side of Hampton Roads
became a separate entity under the name of New Norfolk, a name probably
derived from the English shire. No court records of this year survive.
The next year 1637, New Norfolk itself was divided into Lower Norfolk
and Upper Norfolk counties.

Also in 1637, Warrosquyoake County lost its Indian name, becoming Isle
of Wight. By Act of Assembly passed in January 1639/40, the bounds
between these three counties were set as follows: Isle of Wight to begin
at Lawne's Creek, thence down the main river to Richard Hays's, formerly
John Seaward's, including the said plantation and families and from
thence from the main river into the woods southerly to the plantation of
William Nowell and Mr. Robert Pitt, with the said plantation and
families, and thence south as aforesaid. The Upper County of New Norfolk
to begin at the aforesaid plantation of Richard Hays, from thence
southerly into the woods as aforesaid, and by the main river, from
thence to extend down by the main river unto the creek near the
plantation of Francis Bullock being the first creek to the westward of
Crany Point including the plantation of the said Francis Bullock and no
ways intrenching upon the Western Branch of Elizabeth River nor the
creek thereof which do belong to the county of Lower Norfolk. The
parishes in these counties were ordered to be coterminous with the
bounds of the counties. Upper Norfolk County kept its name only a few
years; in March 1645/46, the Assembly directed it should "be from
henceforth nominated and called county of Nansemun."


INDIAN DISTRICT CHICKACOAN BECOMES NORTHUMBERLAND

Whether because of the Puritan element in Nansemond or because of
Quakers resident there, who on account of their aversion to war were of
no aid against the Indians, settlement for the first time turned away
from Tidewater to the area lying between the Rappahannock and the
Potomac Rivers. Because of its fertile soil, easy transportation and
healthful climate, the colonists patented land in this favored region in
increasing numbers. By 1645 the county of Northumberland had been formed
and organized. Although we have no Act of Assembly to establish the
date of its formation, an item from a volume of _Maryland Archives_
under date of 1645 referring to Lieutenant Colonel John Trussell of the
county of Northumberland shows the county was then functioning.

The area from which Northumberland was formed had borne the Indian name
of Chickacoan. It was a border settlement with no stable government and
in need of law and order. Northumberland extended from the Potomac to
and across the Rappahannock River and from the tip of "Northern Neck,"
as the territory lying between the two rivers was called, indefinitely
westward. The name derives from the English shire, Northumberland.

Population of the colony is estimated to have been about 15,000 in 1649,
500 of whom were negroes, and in 1654, 21,600 persons. This rapid growth
was due largely to the Civil War in England which made Virginia a haven
of refuge for many.


NORTHUMBERLAND DIVIDED

In 1651, that portion of Northumberland lying on both sides of the
Rappahannock River was divided and a new county, called Lancaster from
the English shire of that name, was formed.

Colonists were moving westward in Northumberland and the distance to its
courthouse made attendance at court difficult. In 1653, the new county
of Westmoreland was set up from the western end of Northumberland to
take care of these new residents. Its boundaries were "from Machoatoke
River where Mr. Cole lives and so upwards to the falls of the great
river of Potomac above the Necostins Town." It did not extend across the
Rappahannock River. The "Mr. Cole" referred to is probably the Richard
Cole, who in his will, directed that an elaborate tombstone be ordered
for him carrying the following inscription:

    "Here lies Dick Cole a grievous sinner
    Who died shortly before dinner
    Yet hopes in Heaven to find a place
    To satiate his soul with grace."

Westmoreland, destined to share with Charles City County the distinction
of being the birthplace of two Presidents of the United States, is a
beautifully situated area with famous estates on its fertile lands.
Among these should be mentioned "Stratford," the birthplace of two
Signers of the Declaration of Independence, Richard Lee and Francis
Lightfoot Lee, and of General Robert E. Lee.


NEW TIDEWATER COUNTIES

Leaving the rapidly growing Northern Neck of Virginia, we return to the
Tidewater area to see the developments there. Just as the 1622 Massacre
had retarded settlements on the south bank of the York River, so the
1644 Massacre had delayed expansion on the north side of the York.
Although in 1648 a petition was presented to the Assembly reciting "the
great and clamorous necessities of divers of the inhabitants occasioned
and brought upon them through the mean produce of their labours upon
barren and over-wrought grounds" and praying leave to settle on the
north side of Charles (York) and Rappahannock Rivers, the Assembly
postponed the date of such settlement until 1 September 1649. It seems
to have been about two years later, 1651, before Gloucester County was
established, and Burgesses from the new county are first listed in April
1652.

It may be mentioned that this is an early example of the cause
underlying a great deal of the migration in Virginia: "barren and
over-wrought grounds," the toll that tobacco yearly exacted from the
soil and the continuing need for new land to cultivate in order to
produce profitable crops of tobacco.

Only a little later than the northward expansion of York, evidenced by
the new county of Gloucester, came its growth to the west. In 1654,
Captain Robert Abrell appeared in the Assembly as Burgess from New Kent
County. Like Gloucester, it derived from an English shire of the same
name, and was bestowed in honor of Colonel William Claiborne of
Crayford, Kent, England, at this date a distinguished resident of the
new county. Its bounds were "from the west side of Skimeno Creek to the
heads of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers and down to the head of the west
side of Poropotank Creek."

Expansion also had taken place on the south side of James River directly
across from Jamestown. The easterly bound of James City across the river
was Lawne's Creek established in 1634 when the county of Warrosquyoake
(Isle of Wight) was formed. The west boundary on the south side of the
river was Upper Chippokes Creek. This, too, had been set up in 1634. Now
in 1652, this area lying between these two creeks became Surry. Though
named for the English shire, the spelling of the Virginia county has
always omitted the "e" the English Surrey uses. It is said the name was
selected because Surrey in England has the same geographical position to
London as the Virginia Surry has to Jamestown, then the seat of
government.

With the formation of Surry County the needs of the population were
satisfied for exactly 51 years. Not until 1703 was another south side
division needed.


THE NORTHERN NECK AND THE EASTERN SHORE DIVIDE

Not so along the Rappahannock, for by 1656 only three years after
Westmoreland was created, a petition was presented to the Assembly by
"the inhabitants of the lower part of Lancaster County showing their
vast distance from the county courts" and praying that a division be
made. The Assembly acceded to their wishes, ordering "the upper part of
Mr. Bennett's land known by the name of Naemhock on the south side of
the easternmost branch of Morattico Creek on the north side the river be
the lowermost bounds of the upper county; the lower county to retain the
name of Lancaster and the upper county to be named Rappahannock County."
This division followed the bounds of two parishes previously
established.

[Illustration: Virginia State Chamber of Commerce
King William County Courthouse, King William, Virginia]

[Illustration: Virginia State Chamber of Commerce
Hanover County Courthouse, Hanover, Virginia]

[Illustration: Virginia State Chamber of Commerce
Isle of Wight County Clerk's Office, Isle of Wight, Virginia]

The formation of Rappahannock County in 1656 ended the list of counties
formed in the decade 1650 to 1660.

The next development was on the Eastern Shore. It had become
sufficiently populous to support two county governments and in an Act of
the Assembly March 1661/62 reference is made to the two counties. The
southern part of the peninsula retained the name it had borne for twenty
years, Northampton, and the county to the north assumed the name once
borne by the entire peninsula, Accomack. The question of the boundary
line between the two divisions dragged on for twenty-five years, being
settled 22 March 1687/88. It has remained fixed. The boundary between
Virginia and Maryland also was long in dispute, but Watkins Point at the
mouth of Pocomoke River on its north side is the western end of the
line. The line across the peninsula was set at a little north of the
point.

With Eastern Shore divided into two counties, no further growth was
possible and the peninsula remains two counties.

The next county to be formed in the colony was Stafford, which lies on
the north side of the Rappahannock River to the west of Westmoreland.
The name is in honor of an English shire. When formed in 1664, it was a
border county with constant fear of Indian attacks since an established
Indian trail regularly used by their hunting parties lay within its
territory. Its north and west boundaries were not well defined, but
included the area later Fairfax, Prince William, Fauquier, Loudoun and
Alexandria (now Arlington) Counties.

Middlesex County, next to be noted, was functioning as a county in 1669
as Mr. F. W. Sydnor demonstrated in an article in _Virginia Magazine of
History and Biography_, Volume 42. It was taken from Lancaster County,
being the portion that lies on the south side of the Rappahannock River
and extends to Dragon Run, the northern boundary of Gloucester. It had
been the southern part of Christ Church Parish in Lancaster and retained
the same parish name. Christ Church was the only parish and coterminous
with Middlesex County. By good fortune, Christ Church in Lancaster and
Christ Church in Middlesex are still preserved and in use. Both the
Register and Vestry Book of the latter have survived the years, the
former begins in 1653 and the latter ten years later. No Register of
Christ Church Lancaster survives, and the extant Vestry Book covers only
the years 1739 to 1786. Middlesex, never large, was, in colonial days,
the home of numerous distinguished families, among them the Wormeleys,
whose house "Rosegill" has seen many important historical events. The
name Middlesex is for the English shire, doubtless the birthplace of
many early residents of the Virginia County.


THE COLONY PROSPERS UNDER A KING AND QUEEN AND TWO NEW COUNTIES HONOR
THE ROYAL FAMILY

After Middlesex in 1669, there was a hiatus of 22 years before a new
county was created. In that period, the colony's fortunes had been
checkered, and unrest and depression had been widespread. Troubles with
the Indians, Bacon's Rebellion and economic ills, which led to tobacco
cutting, all combined to make Virginia a gloomy place. The accession of
James II brought no improvement in England, and the time was ripe for
revolution. James II was forced to flee. He was succeeded by his
daughter Mary and her husband, who was his nephew, Prince William of
Orange. Under their rule, both England and Virginia became more
prosperous. The next new county, King and Queen, created 1691, was named
in their honor. This was formed from New Kent, "so that Pamunkey River
divide the same, and so down York River to the extent of the county, and
that the part which is now on the south side of York and Pamunkey River
be called New Kent, and the north side with Pamunkey Neck be called and
known by the name of King and Queen county." It was enacted further
"that the inhabitants of Pamunkey Neck, that now belong to St. Peter's
Parish be restored and added to St. John's Parish from which they
formerly were taken, and that the Pamunkey River be the bounds betwixt
the two parishes."

About the same time Lower Norfolk became populous enough to justify the
formation of a new county. This was to begin "at the new inlet of Little
Creek and so up the said creek to the dams between Jacob Johnson and
Richard Drout and so out of the said dams up a branch the head of which
branch lyeth between the dwelling house of William Moseley, Senr., and
the new dwelling house of Edmond Webb, and so to run from the head of
the said branch on a direct line to the dams at the head of the Eastern
branch of Elizabeth River, the which dams lie between James Kemp and
Thomas Ivy, and so down the said branch to the mouth of a small branch
or gutt that divides the land which Mr. John Porter now lives on from
the land he formerly lived on, and so up the said small branch according
to the bounds of the said plantation where the said Porter now liveth,
and from thence to the great swamp that lieth on the east side of John
Showlands and so along the said great swamp to the North River of
Currituck and down the said North River to the mouth of Simpson's Creek
and so up the said creek to the head thereof and from thence by a south
line to the bounds of Carolina." The name of this new division was
Princess Anne honoring the second daughter of James II by his first wife
Anne Hyde, and the sister of Queen Mary. Later Princess Anne became a
very popular Queen, Fluvanna County, the Rivanna River, the North Anna
and South Anna and the Rapidan River all being named for her. At the
same time that Princess Anne was formed, the name of Lower Norfolk was
changed to Norfolk County.


RICHMOND AND ESSEX FROM OLD RAPPAHANNOCK

Settlers had long found the Rappahannock River area attractive. The
county of this name, established in 1656, and lying on both sides of the
river, had grown steadily and its population was sufficient to support
two county governments. It was enacted that the river be the dividing
line, "that part which is now on the north side thereof be called and
known by the name Richmond County and that that which is now on the
south side thereof be called and known by the name of Essex County." It
was further ordered "that the records belonging to the county court of
Rappahannock before this division be kept in Essex County, that
belonging wholly to their majesties and the other to the proprietors of
the North Neck." This was a seemingly casual reference to the grant
Charles II had made to some of his supporters while he was in exile and
had confirmed on his coming to the throne; it comprised over five
million acres lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers from
their headsprings to the Chesapeake Bay. Not until the colony became
independent was the Proprietary abolished.

In 1702 another division was created. The land lying between the
Pamunkey and Mattaponi Rivers, known as Pamunkey Neck was taken from
King and Queen and became King William County. This honored the reigning
monarch, King William, now a widower since the death of Queen Mary in
1694.

King William died the same year his namesake county was formed and his
sister-in-law, Queen Anne came to the throne. The first county formed
thereafter honored her husband, the Prince Consort, George of Denmark.
The new county, Prince George, embraced that portion of Charles City
lying on the south side of James River. The estate, "Brandon," and the
third oldest church building in Virginia known as Merchants Hope, are
within its confines.

After a reign of twelve years Queen Anne died and the Elector of Hanover
ascended the throne as King George I of England. Several years before
this, the Tangier-born Alexander Spotswood was appointed Lieutenant
Governor of Virginia and took up his residence in Williamsburg.
Williamsburg had become the capital in 1699. It was on higher land than
malarial Jamestown and a more healthful place to live.

Governor Spotswood was active and eager to explore the resources of the
colony. One of his achievements was to lead a group of adventurous
persons to the summit of the Blue Ridge and blaze the way for westward
expansion. He also was interested in bringing over from the German
Palatinate colonists adept in iron mining, and establishing them on the
edges of older settlements. This brought about the creation of several
counties as we shall see later.

In 1721 the "Upper Inhabitants" of Richmond County because of their
great distance from the courthouse petitioned to become a separate
county. The eastern part lying below "Charles Beaver Dams and from the
head thereof by a north course to Westmoreland County" was to retain the
name Richmond and the part above the said dams and course was to be King
George County. The name, of course, honored George I.

When New Kent was formed in 1654 its western bounds were indefinite. By
1721, however, the "Upper Inhabitants" of this county were sufficiently
numerous to petition for division on account of their great distance
from court. It was ordered that "that part of the county lying below the
Parish of St. Paul" was to remain New Kent and the part lying in St.
Paul's Parish was to be known as Hanover County. The name again honors
the reigning monarch.

Also in 1721, a third new county was formed and called Spotsylvania for
the energetic and capable Governor. Spotsylvania was taken from Essex,
and parts of King and Queen and King William. The bounds of Spotsylvania
specifically laid out in the Act creating it were "upon Snow Creek up to
the mill, thence by a southwest line to the river, North Anna, thence up
the river as far as convenient and thence by a line to be run over the
high mountains to the river on the northwest side thereof, so as to
include the northern passage through the said mountains, thence down the
said river until it comes against the head of Rappahannock thence, by a
line to the head of Rappahannock River; and down that river to the mouth
of Snow Creek." Within the portion of Spotsylvania that was taken from
Essex, the Governor, some years before, had located a group of German
immigrants at a place called Germanna on the Rapidan River.

Besides the Germans, there was a group of Huguenots who had come over a
few years earlier and settled on the James River some 20 miles above the
Falls. There were also immigrants, both from England and Scotland, who
were loyal to the Stuart cause, and its leader, James, son of James II
by his second wife, Mary of Modena. The rising of the Scotch clans in
his favor in 1715 was crushed by the battle of Preston. Many of the
captured Highlanders were deported to America and others, fearing
capture, emigrated. These three new factors in the life of the colony
are worthy of notice.

In 1727/28, an Act was passed by the Assembly to take effect the next
year dividing the county of Henrico. The division was to be "by a line
on the north side James River beginning at the mouth of Tuckahoe Creek
thence up the said creek to Chumley's Branch thence along a line of
marked trees north twenty degrees east to Hanover County and on the
south side James River beginning at the Lower Manachin Creek from thence
along a line of marked trees in a direct course to the mouth of
Skinquarter Creek on Appomattox River." The land to the east of this
line was to remain Henrico and that to the west to comprise the new
county of Goochland. Sir William Gooch had become Lieutenant Governor of
Virginia in 1727 and served 22 years. He was probably the most popular
of the colonial governors, seemingly able to work harmoniously with the
Council which was necessary for success.

At the same time that Goochland was formed another new county came into
being. This was described in the bill brought before the House of
Burgesses as "An act for erecting a new county on the heads of Essex,
King and Queen and King William Counties and for calling the same
Caroline County." The name derives from Caroline of Anspach, Queen of
George II who had succeeded his father, George I as King the year
before. It will be recalled that Queen Caroline gave money to Thomas Lee
to aid him in building "Stratford" when his former house had been burned
by criminals whom he, as a magistrate, had sentenced for their misdeeds.
Caroline County was not an expansion of settlements as most of the other
counties had been for it was bounded completely by already established
governments. Its creation, however, was in line with the thesis already
laid down "to make justice accessible to all", and made court attendance
more convenient for dwellers in the northwest portions of Essex, King
and Queen and King William.

Three years later, in 1731, a new county was created from the northwest
portions of Stafford and King George "above Choppawomsick Creek on
Potomac River and Deep Creek on Rappahannock River and a southwest line
to be made from the head of the north branch of the said creek to the
head of the said Deep Run." This area was to be known as Prince William
County honoring by this title, William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, the
King's brother. He was later known as "The Butcher of Culloden" because
of the ferocity of his treatment of the Scotch Highlanders after the
battle of Culloden in 1745. This battle, so sanguinary and devastating
in its effects, wiped out the Stuart sympathizers and there were no
further attempts to depose the Hanoverian dynasty from the British
throne. The county seat is Manassas, near which were fought two battles
of the Civil War.


BRUNSWICK AND MIGRATION SOUTHWARD

In 1720, the Assembly passed an act to be effective in 1721, creating
Spotsylvania County as has been mentioned. At the same time, there was
an act to form a county from the southern part of Prince George County
and name it Brunswick for the Duchy of Brunswick which was then a
possession of the Electorate of Hanover. The description is as follows:
that Brunswick County should begin "on the south side of the River
Roanoke at the place where the line lately run for ascertaining the
uncontroverted bounds of this colony towards North Carolina intersects
the said river Roanoke and to be bounded by the direction of the
governor with consent of council so as to include the southern pass." No
steps were taken for carrying out this act because of the small number
of settlers in the area, until May 1732, when it was enacted that the
earlier legislation become effective the first of January ensuing.
Setting up the county government had been made possible by adding parts
of Surry and Isle of Wight, thus increasing the number of tithables and
lessening the amount of taxes each would pay. The preamble to the act
expresses this thought in more precise phrase when it says "whereas by
reason of the small number of tithables in the county of Brunswick the
poll taxes must necessarily be very grievous and burthensome to them,
which by an addition of parts of the counties of Surry and Isle of Wight
would be remedied, and divers of the inhabitants of the two last
mentioned counties would thereby also be freed from hardships and
inconveniences which at present they labour under."

The reference to the line lately run "between Virginia and North
Carolina" is the famous survey made by Col. William Byrd, Major William
Mayo, John Irvine and others which forms the subject of _The History of
the Dividing Line_ written by Colonel Byrd. The Mayo River in Patrick
and Henry Counties perpetuates the name of Major Mayo, the skilled
surveyor in the party. The entire boundary was not surveyed then, in
fact it was a good many years later before it was necessary to have a
clear limit between the two colonies for the entire area.

[Illustration: Virginia State Chamber of Commerce
Lancaster County Clerk's Office, Lancaster, Virginia]

[Illustration: Virginia State Chamber of Commerce
Essex County Clerk's Office, Tappahannock, Virginia]

[Illustration: Virginia State Chamber of Commerce
Richmond County Clerk's Office, Warsaw, Virginia]

Brunswick County began to function in 1732 and grew rapidly. The
"overwrought ground" mentioned long before had in the interval became a
more and more disturbing factor in agriculture. Tobacco was king, it
demanded new land, hence new land must be provided. In Brunswick there
was not only new land but the sort of land to raise good tobacco
profitably, a condition equally true today. Settlers from Essex, King
and Queen, Gloucester, York, Elizabeth City and other older counties
soon made their way into Brunswick. It may not be amiss to observe that
with the better living made possible by better tobacco crops a
gastronomic delicacy was developed there, a rich and succulent stew
called "Brunswick Stew" in honor of the county. So far as the writer is
aware no other county in the state has achieved similar fame.


ORANGE COUNTY REACHES TO THE MISSISSIPPI

In 1734, an expansion to the northwest took place in the creation of
Orange County so named to honor William, Prince of Orange, later William
III of England. The City of Williamsburg, King William and King and
Queen counties had been prior evidences of his popularity. The new
division was to embrace that part of Spotsylvania County lying in Saint
Mark's Parish "Bounden southerly by the line of Hanover County,
northerly by the grant of Lord Fairfax and westerly by the utmost limits
of Virginia." This western boundary was the Mississippi River. The
Assembly further enacted "for the encouragement of the inhabitants
already settled and which shall speedily settle on the westward of
Sherrendo (Shenandoah) River" that "all who had established themselves
by 1st January 1734/35 should be free of country, county and parish
levies for the next three years."

Part of this expansion was due to the natural increase of population,
the allure of new settlements where there was greater opportunity for
advancement of fortunes, and part to the tide of immigration. Years of
warfare in Germany had left ruined communities along the Rhenish
Palatinate. For these people, Rotterdam was the most convenient port of
embarkation and Philadelphia was often their port of debarkation.
Following in the steps of John Van Metre, Adam Miller, Jacob Stover and
Jost Hite who had come to the Valley of Virginia between 1725 and 1731,
many immigrants, finding land cheaper in Virginia, left Pennsylvania and
took up residence in Virginia.

In 1735, the act of the Assembly passed the year before for creating the
new county of Amelia became effective. By this act, it was ordered that
"the said county of Prince George and that part of the parish of Bristol
which lies in the same be divided from the mouth of Namozain Creek up
the same to the main, or John Hamlin's, fork of the said creek, thence
up the south or lowest branch thereof to White Oak Hunting Path and
thence by a south course to strike Nottoway River." The land below these
courses retained the name of Prince George. The land lying above these
courses bounded "southerly by the Great Nottoway River including part of
the county of Brunswick and parish of Saint Andrew as far as to take the
ridges between Roanoke and Appomattox Rivers and thence along those
ridges to the great mountains westerly by the said mountains and
northerly by the southern boundaries of Goochland and Henrico Counties"
became Amelia County and Raleigh Parish. The name was in honor of the
youngest daughter of George II.

By 1738, people living across the Blue Ridge Mountains found them a
barrier to frequent attendance at Orange County Court. For their
convenience, a division was ordered. "All that territory and tract of
land at present deemed to be a part of the county of Orange lying on the
northwest side of the said mountains (Blue Ridge) extending from thence
northerly, westerly and southerly beyond the said mountains to the
utmost limits of Virginia" shall be "separated from the rest of the said
county and erected into two distinct counties and parishes; to be
divided by a line to be run from the head spring of Hedgman River to the
head spring by the River Potomac." "That part of the said territory
lying to the northeast of the said line beyond the top of the said Blue
Ridge shall be one distinct county, to be called and known by the name
of the county of Frederick and parish of Frederick. And that the rest
of the said territory lying on the other side of the said line beyond
the top of the said Blue Ridge shall be one other distinct county and
parish to be called by the name of the county of Augusta and parish of
Augusta." The counties thus created honored Frederick, Prince of Wales,
eldest son of George II, and his wife, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess
of Wales. Frederick predeceased his father and it was Frederick's son
who became George III.

The Assembly had repeated with reference to Augusta and Frederick
Counties its action in the case of Brunswick; namely: created counties
before they were financially able to function. Not until 1743 did
Frederick have sufficient tithables to begin to hold court, and it was
two years later before Augusta set up her county organization.

In 1742, it was enacted that Prince William County be divided. The
bounds of this county were set as follows: "all that part thereof lying
on the south side of Occoquan and Bull Run and from the heads of the
main branch of Bull Run by a straight course to the Thoroughfare of the
Blue Ridge of Mountains known by the name of Ashby's Gap or Bent."
Hamilton was the parish for Prince William County. That portion of
Prince William which had, in 1732, been placed in Truro Parish became
the new county of Fairfax. The name was, of course, in honor of Lord
Fairfax, the Proprietor of the Northern Neck Grant.

Pohick, one of the churches in Truro Parish, is still standing and in
use. General George Washington, who lived at nearby "Mount Vernon,"
George Mason of "Gunston Hall" and Lord Fairfax of "Greenway Court" were
vestrymen; and planned for the erection of this present building in
1769.

In the same year that Fairfax was formed in the northern part of the
colony, Hanover County in the middle section was divided. The Act
ordered "all that tract of land now deemed to be a part of the said
county of Hanover lying above a straight course to be run from the
mouth of Little Rockey Creek on the River Northanna south, twenty
degrees west until it intersects the line of Goochland County" should
become a distinct county and known by the name of Louisa County. The
name honored a daughter of George II, as Amelia had done a few years
earlier.

Two years later the first of the eight counties eventually cut from
Goochland was created and given the name Albemarle. This was in honor of
William Anne Keppel, second Earl of Albemarle, Governor-General of the
Colony, 1737-1754. Like most of the Governors-General, he did not come
to Virginia, but the Lieutenant Governor as his deputy, performed the
duties of his office.

The bounds of Albemarle were to be divided from Goochland on the west
"by a line run from the point of fork of James River north, thirty
degrees east to the Louisa County line, and from the said point of fork
a direct course to Brooks mill and from thence the same course continued
to Appomattox River." "The point of fork" is the junction of the Rivanna
with the James. It will be noted by the reference to the Appomattox
River that Albemarle extended across James River just as Goochland did.
"Monticello" the beloved home of Thomas Jefferson, is in Albemarle
County, and in architecture and planning is another example of the
amazing versatility of his genius.

In 1746, the settlements in Brunswick County had grown to such an extent
that a new division was required. The line was ordered "to be run from
the county line where it crosses Roanoke River below the place called
the Horse Ford to strike Nottoway River at the south." The territory
above this line was to be called Lunenburg County. This title,
anglicized from the German form, Luneburg, was chosen since the Duchy of
Luneburg, like that of Brunswick, belonged to the Electorate of Hanover.
Lunenburg embraced a vast acreage stretching from the rolling country
where bright tobacco came to perfection as far west as the mountains and
on the south to the North Carolina boundary.


CUMBERLAND, CULPEPER, SOUTHAMPTON AND CHESTERFIELD CREATED, 1749

The western portion of Goochland lying on both sides of the James had,
in 1744, been taken to form the new county of Albemarle; now, five years
later, the southeast portion of Goochland was made into the new county
of Cumberland. The name was further honor for the Duke of Cumberland,
"The Butcher of Culloden." The growth in this locality had been hastened
by the arrival of numerous Huguenot families seeking asylum from
persecution in France. Manakintown was the name of their settlement. The
name is perpetuated in a newly erected Episcopal church not far from the
site of the settlement where the Agee, Fourqurean, Legrand, Michaux,
Guerrant, Flournoy and other families worship now, as they have done for
some 250 years.

In the same year that Cumberland was formed, a new county was taken from
Orange and named Culpeper, presumably in honor of Lord Culpeper,
Governor of Virginia 1680-1683, a compliment to Lord Fairfax "who had
inherited from him the ownership of the Northern Neck." Culpeper lay on
the south side of the Rappahannock and north of the Conway River
commonly called the fork of the Rappahannock River. The fork of the
Rappahannock was the area between the Rappahannock River and its
tributary, the Conway, now called the Rapidan. "Horseshoe Farm" is in
Culpeper County and takes its name from the bend or horseshoe made by
the Rapidan within which it is situated. While the residence is modern,
the farm is of colonial times and was once owned by Governor Spotswood.
It was from this house that, in 1741, he went to Annapolis, Maryland
expecting to sail with an expedition to join Admiral Vernon and attack
Cartagena in the Spanish Main. He died unexpectedly in Annapolis but,
strangely enough, considering his prominence, his burial place is
unknown.

Besides Culpeper and Cumberland, a third county, Southampton, was
formed in 1749. This was taken from that portion of Isle of Wight's
territory that lay west of Blackwater River. The name is said to honor,
tho belatedly, Henry Wriothesley, second Earl of Southampton, friend of
Shakespeare and a leading member of the Virginia Company of London. The
City of Hampton and Hampton River honor the same person. Southampton is
one of the cotton-raising counties of Virginia, and in the fall the
fields of cotton are a beautiful sight.

Still a fourth county was formed in 1749 and that was Chesterfield.
This, as was the case with the other three, represented no great
expansion, but was in line with the thesis long before laid down--"to
make justice accessible to all." Chesterfield is that part of Henrico
that lay on the south side of James River. Again we go to England for
the reason for this name and learn that it honors Philip Dormer
Stanhope, fourth Earl of Chesterfield, the celebrated Lord Chesterfield.
Though we think of him primarily as the epitome of good manners,
courtesy and tact, his political career was important too. His services
in Parliament, his lord lieutenancy of Ireland, his achievements on
different embassies, and as Secretary of State were of value to his
country. In Chesterfield County are the sites of the earliest iron works
in the colony and of the projected college just beginning to operate
when the 1622 Massacre destroyed everything.

In 1752, two new divisions were made. One of these was Halifax, the
first of the nine counties that were destined to be carved out of the
vast expanse of Lunenburg County. The bounds of Halifax were "all that
part thereof lying on the south side of Black-Water Creek and Staunton
river, from the said Black-Water creek to the confluence of the said
river with the river Dan and from thence to Aaron's creek to the county
line." The parish of Antrim coterminous with the county was established
when the county was created. The name Halifax honors George Montagu
Dunk, the second Earl of Halifax "who was First Lord of the Board of
Trade about that time and as such greatly interested himself in the
trade of the colonies." Halifax, Nova Scotia is a further memorial to
Lord Halifax.

The other county created in 1752 was Dinwiddie, taken from the southern
portion of Prince George. Its bounds began at the lower side "of the run
which falls into Appomattox river between the town of Blanford and
Bollings point warehouses to the outermost line of the glebe land and by
a south course and by the said outermost line of the glebe land to Surry
County." The name honored Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of
Virginia 1751-58. He held office during the troubled period of the
French and Indian Wars, in which George Washington, as a Colonel in the
Virginia Militia, participated.

In 1754 that part of Amelia County divided "by a line to run from Ward's
ford on Appomattox River to the mouth of Sail's creek on Nottoway river
and all that part of the said county which lies on the upper side of the
said line shall be one distinct county and called and known by the name
of Prince Edward." The name was in honor of a younger brother of King
George III, Prince Edward, Duke of Gloucester. This Prince was one of
the two brothers of George III, whose marriages to commoners led to the
passage of the famous Royal Marriage Act in 1772. Its well-known
provisions are that no descendant of King George III may marry when
under 25 years of age without consent of the reigning monarch or, if
over that age, without a consenting Act of Parliament. Prince Edward
Street in Fredericksburg is also named for this Prince as the city
itself is for his father.

Also in 1754, a second county was created from Lunenburg and called
Bedford. It comprised the area lying on the upper side of Falling-river
from its mouth "up the said river to the fork, thence up that fork
running by John Beard's to the head, thence by a line to be run from the
head thereof north, twenty degrees east to the line dividing the said
county from the county of Albemarle." It should be remembered that at
this time both the present Buckingham and Appomattox were a part of
Albemarle County. The new county honored "John Russell the fourth Duke
of Bedford who was Secretary of State of Great Britain February 13th
1748 to June 26th 1757." The parish, coterminous with the county and
created at the same time, also honored the Duke, being called Russell.

Another expansion at this time also on the south side of James River was
the formation of Sussex from Surry County. Sussex lies to the south of
Seacock Swamp on the line dividing Surry "from the county of
Southampton, thence a straight course to Blackwater at the mouth of
Coppohawk and up Blackwater to the line dividing" Surry from the county
of Prince George. Sussex took its name from the English shire. Albemarle
Parish formed in 1739 had included the area now made into Sussex, and,
in addition, a small portion of Surry. It was enacted that the portion
in Surry be added to Southwark Parish, and Albemarle Parish be made
coterminous with Sussex.

The fourth county formed in 1754 was Hampshire named for the English
shire. It is now in West Virginia. Since, however, its creation affected
the bounds of two already established Virginia Counties, the Act of
Assembly for its bounds is cited: "Whereas part of the county and parish
of Augusta lies within the bounds of the territory or tract of land
called the Northern Neck belong to the right honorable Thomas, Lord
Fairfax, Baron of Cameron and it will be more convenient if the dividing
line between the said territory and the other part of this colony be
established as the line of the said county and that part of the said
county be added to the county and parish of Frederick," it was enacted
therefore that the part of Augusta above mentioned be added to Frederick
which should then be divided into two counties and "all that part
thereof lying to the westward of the ridge of mountains commonly called
and known by the name of the Great North or Cape Capon mountains and
Warin spring mountain extending to Potomac river be one distinct county
and called and known by the name of Hampshire." When Augusta and
Frederick were authorized in 1738, the western bounds of the Northern
Neck Grant had not been surveyed. This was done in 1747, and the above
Act changed the previous limits of Augusta so that the entire county
would not be a part of the proprietary.

The name of the next new county reflected current happenings. For about
six years, 1754-1760, the colony was actively participating in the
struggle to crush French power in America. The Commander-in-Chief of the
British Forces in America was, for a time, John Campbell, fourth Earl of
Loudoun. His conduct of the war was severely criticized, and he was
recalled in December 1757. He was, for almost two years, titular
"Governor and Captain-General of Virginia," though his deputy
Lieutenant-Governor Robert Dinwiddie performed all the duties of the
office. Loudoun, the new county named for the Earl, was formed from
Fairfax County in 1757. It included "all that part thereof lying above
Difficult Run which falls into Potomac river and by a line to be run
from the head of the said run or straight course to the mouth of Rocky
run." The part "thereof below the said run and course" retained its
status as a distinct county and the name of Fairfax.

In 1759, the inhabitants of Prince William County complained of many
inconveniences "by reason of the great extent thereof and their remote
situation from the courthouse." Mindful that justice be accessible to
all, the Assembly enacted that Prince William be divided and "all that
part of the said county that lies above a line to be run from the head
of Bull Run and along the top of Bull run mountains to Chapman's mill,
in Broad run thoroughfare, from thence by a direct line till it
intersects the nearest part of the line dividing Stafford and Prince
William Counties" be known as Fauquier. This again honors an English
official but in this case a very popular one, Francis Fauquier, who, in
1758, succeeded Robert Dinwiddie as Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. He
served the colony for nearly ten years, dying in Williamsburg on 3 March
1768 "after a tedious illness which he bore with the greatest patience
and fortitude." Among the eulogies in prose to his memory, the following
verse may be noted:

    "If ever virtue lost a friend sincere
    If ever sorrow claimed Virginia's tear
    If ever death a noble conquest made
    'Twas when Fauquier the debt of nature paid."

With tobacco as the medium of exchange and as the most valuable export,
the economic base was too small for the large superstructure erected on
it. The taxes, fees, and commissions on exported tobacco were numerous
and onerous, the net return to the planter often did not cover the goods
he had ordered and his debt to his London agent increased. It was
British policy that her colonies should send her raw materials and buy
from her manufactured articles, thus giving her merchants a double
advantage and placing the colonists at double disadvantage. During the
1750's, the colony had been put to such great expense in prosecuting the
French and Indian War that for the first time an issue of paper money
was required. Economic conditions grew worse throughout the colony.


"WESTWARD-HO" TWENTY-SIX NEW COUNTIES, 1750-1770

The unceasing westward trek of settlers continued. In 1750-60, eight
counties were formed, between 1760-1770, eighteen new divisions
occurred, which evidences the great growth of population.

Albemarle was the next county to be divided. In 1761, it was enacted
that the portion "of the said county which lies on the south side of the
Fluvanna river" [old name for the James River above Richmond] "shall be
one distinct county and called and known by the name of Buckingham." By
the same legislation, "that other part of the said county which lies on
the north side of the Fluvanna river shall be divided from the
confluence of Rockfish river with the Fluvanna by Rockfish river to the
mouth of Green creek and thence a straight line to the house of Thomas
Bell to the Blue mountains, and all that part which lies above Rockfish
river and the lines aforesaid" shall be called Amherst County. Amherst
Parish at the same time was formed from Saint Anne's Parish and made
coterminous with the county of Amherst. Several years earlier, Tillotson
Parish had been formed from Saint Anne's to take care of the residents
of Amherst who lived on the south side of James River. It was now made
coterminous with the county of Buckingham.

The name Buckingham is probably for the Duke of Buckingham. Amherst
derives its name from "the hero of Ticonderoga, Major-General Sir
Jeffrey Amherst, the most successful as well as the most popular of all
the English Colonial Governors-General." He was titular Governor-General
of Virginia 1759-1768 while Francis Fauquier performed the duties of the
office.

Four years passed, and two more divisions were made in the western
portion of Lunenburg. The part of Lunenburg comprised in the parish of
Cornwall became Charlotte County and the portion in the parish of St.
James became Mecklenburg.

These counties were named, as is the city of Charlottesville, after
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became Queen of England on her
marriage to King George III.

We next find in 1767 that Halifax has grown to the point of division and
a new county, Pittsylvania, has been taken from its western portion.
Pittsylvania lay on the upper or western side "of a line to be run
across the mouth of Strait Stone creek on Staunton river to the country
line, near the mouth of the country line creek on Dan river." At the
same time, Antrim, which was the parish for Halifax, was divided and the
part lying in Pittsylvania became Camden. Pittsylvania honored "Sir
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, the celebrated English statesman" whose
sympathy with them had endeared him to the colonists. A statue of him in
Westmoreland county, Virginia and another in Charleston, South Carolina
are further expressions of the affection felt for him.


BOTETOURT, 1770 HONORS A POPULAR COLONIAL GOVERNOR

The next county was, in the main, a rearrangement of already settled
territory bearing always in mind that easy access to justice was the
purpose of every division. The new county, Botetourt, was formed from
Augusta in 1770 and lay on the south side of a dividing "line beginning
at the Blue Ridge, running north fifty-five degrees west, to the
confluence of Mary's creek, or the south river, with the north branch of
James River, thence up the same to the mouth of Carr's creek, thence up
the said creek to the mountain, thence north, fifty-five degrees west as
far as the courts of the two counties shall extend it." The phrase to
note in the above is: "as far as the courts of the two counties shall
extend it," in other words, there was no limit to the western boundary.
The name Botetourt was for Norborne Berkeley, Lord de Botetourt,
Governor of Virginia 1768-1770. He died in Williamsburg in October 1770,
lamented and beloved for his interest in the colony and the College of
William and Mary. The House of Burgesses voted a sum of money to have a
statue of him made in London to stand in the old Capitol building. The
statue still exists, one of the most treasured possessions of the
College of William and Mary, and adorns its campus.


FREDERICK SUBDIVIDED

Two years later, the county of Frederick had a division on both its
eastern and northern ends. It was enacted by the Assembly that the
territory of Frederick be divided into three distinct counties: "on the
north by a line beginning in the line that divides the counties of
Frederick and Loudoun one mile and an half northward of the corner in
Williams' gap that at present divides the parishes of Frederick and
Norborne thence westward with a line exactly parallel to the line that
now divides the said parishes of Frederick and Norborne till it
intersects the line of Hampshire county; thence with the Hampshire line
to the corner dividing the parishes of Frederick and Beckford; thence
with the lines dividing the said parishes of Frederick and Beckford east
southeast to the south eastwardly bank of Cedar creek, thence binding on
the same to its confluence with the river Shenandoah; thence across the
said river east to the easterly bank of the same; thence down the said
river and binding on the same to the mouth of Passage creek; and thence
with a right line to the line of Culpeper, at the intersection of the
road leading through Chester's gap; thence with the Culpeper, Fauquier,
and Loudoun lines to the beginning." This area, so described, was to
remain Frederick County. "All that part of the county which lies between
the first mentioned line running from the said beginning in the line of
Loudoun county and Potomac river shall be ... known by the name of
Berkeley county." The remainder of what had been Frederick now became
Dunmore County. There had been three parishes in Frederick; of these
Frederick remained in the county, while Norborne appropriately became
the parish for Berkeley and Beckford for Dunmore.

Berkeley County named for Norborne Berkeley, Lord de Botetourt, later
became a part of West Virginia. It was further evidence of this
governor's popularity, Botetourt County having previously been named for
him.


DUNMORE RENAMED SHENANDOAH

Dunmore honored the new Governor, John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, who
succeeded Lord Botetourt. His popularity was short lived, and his
tyrannical acts, when he attempted to keep the colony loyal to the
crown, so enraged the people that he was forced to take refuge with his
family on a British warship. In 1777, still smarting over his behavior,
the Assembly changed the name of the county to Shenandoah for the
beautiful river that flows through it; the change to take effect
February 1, 1778.


FINCASTLE REACHES TO THE OHIO RIVER

In 1772, the county of Fincastle was formed from the western portion of
Botetourt. It is an evidence of rapidly growing settlements when for the
first time mention is made of "inhabitants and settlers on the waters of
Holston and New rivers." The territory of Fincastle was "within a line
to run up the east side of New river to the mouth of Culberson's creek,
thence a direct line to the Catawba road where it crosses the dividing
ridge between the north fork of Roanoke and the waters of New river,
thence with the top of the ridge to the bent where it turns eastwardly,
thence a south course crossing Little river to the top of the Blue Ridge
of mountains." The reason for the name Fincastle seems uncertain; one
version has it as being for George, Lord Fincastle, Lord Dunmore's son,
and the other that it was for the town of Fincastle established in 1772
and so named for Lord Botetourt's home in England.


VIRGINIA COUNTIES EXTENDED TO THE OHIO RIVER AND INCLUDE KENTUCKY

Fincastle County was an expansion of Augusta to the west but an
expansion to the northwest had been in progress since before 1754. In
that year, Governor Dinwiddie ordered a fort built on the present site
of Pittsburgh and issued a proclamation offering land in the area to
those who would enlist as soldiers for the French and Indian War. The
French captured the fort and named it Fort Duquesne. This outpost of
great strategic importance fell to the English in 1758 and was renamed
Fort Pitt. The area was under Virginia jurisdiction and called the
district of West Augusta being considered a part of Augusta County.
"County courts were held at Pittsburgh under Virginia jurisdiction and
the great section of country from the Alleghany mountains northwest to
the Ohio came to be called West Augusta. It was represented under this
name in the Conventions of 1775 and 1776. In October 1776, the district
of West Augusta was divided into the counties of Ohio, Yohogania and
Monongalia. A portion of this territory, including Pittsburgh, was
claimed by Pennsylvania and there was much disorder and some bloodshed
between the officers and adherents of the two Colonies. In 1779,
commissioners from Virginia and Pennsylvania finally settled the line
and Pittsburgh and the adjoining area were surrendered to Pennsylvania."
The above is the concise account, by the late W. G. Stanard, in an early
volume of the _Virginia Magazine of History and Biography_, of an almost
forgotten episode in western development. It explains why in the Augusta
County records in Staunton, Virginia are found deeds for land now in
Pennsylvania.

The bounds of these three new counties, Ohio, Yohogania and Monongalia
are set forth in detail in the Act of Assembly creating them, but are
not quoted here since they neither adjoin nor are a part of the
Commonwealth of Virginia now.


KENTUCKY A VIRGINIA COUNTY, 1776

The next division of a county occurred in this same year 1776, and was
further expansion toward the beckoning west; this division was not to
take effect until January first, 1777. Fincastle became extinct as a
county, its territory becoming Kentucky, Washington and Montgomery
Counties. The Act of Assembly recites that the part of Fincastle lying
"to the south and westward of a line beginning on the Ohio at the mouth
of Great Sandy creek and running up the same and the main, or
north-easterly, branch thereof to the Great Laurel Ridge or Cumberland
Mountain, thence south westerly along the said mountain to the line of
North Carolina shall be one distinct county and called and known by the
name of Kentucky; and all that part of the said county of Fincastle
included in the lines beginning at the Cumberland Mountain where the
line of Kentucky county intersects the North Carolina line, thence east
along the said Carolina line to the top of Iron mountain, thence along
the same easterly to the source of the south fork of Holstein river,
thence northwardly along the highest part of the high lands, ridges and
mountains that divide the waters of the Tennessee from those of the
Great Kanawha, to the most easterly source of Clinch river, thence
westwardly along the top of the mountains that divide the waters of
Clinch river from those of the Great Kanawha and Sandy Creek to the line
of Kentucky county thence along the same to the beginning" shall be
known "by the name of Washington; and all the residue of the said county
of Fincastle shall be" known as Montgomery.

It is said that Washington County is the first place or area named for
General Washington in the United States. It is also the first time the
words Kentucky and Tennessee occur in a county division and show the
scope of western settlements. Montgomery County was named for General
Richard Montgomery, a Revolutionary officer, who fell 31 December 1775,
while trying unsuccessfully to scale the city walls and capture Quebec
from the English.

The next formation was a division of Pittsylvania County in 1777, ten
years after its creation. The new county lay on the west side of "a line
beginning at the mouth of Blackwater on Staunton river and running
parallel with the line of Halifax county till it strikes the country
line." The name Henry honored Patrick Henry, the famous orator of the
Revolution and first Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. He
purchased a large acreage in Henry County but resided in nearby Campbell
County.

Also, in 1777, Albemarle was divided "by a line beginning at the most
western point in the line of Louisa County and running thence directly
to the lower edge of Stott's ferry on the Fluvanna river and that part
which lies south eastward of the said line together with the islands in
the Fluvanna river adjacent thereto shall be called by the name of
Fluvanna county." The county was named for the river and the river was
so called in honor of Queen Anne whose name is borne by four other
Virginia rivers. Fluvanna, used for most of the eighteenth century, was
the title given the James River above its falls at Richmond. Tobacco and
other merchandise was taken in bateaux down this river to Richmond.

Both Henry and Fluvanna Counties had been formed mostly because of
natural increase in population rather than of any tide of immigration.
The creation of Powhatan County in 1777 was of the same type. This
county embraced the portion of Cumberland lying on the south side of
James River and in Southam Parish, which was the eastern end of
Cumberland and adjoined Chesterfield County. The name Powhatan honored
the celebrated Indian chieftain.

In 1778, the vast sprawling territory of Augusta underwent changes. One
was an addition to Hampshire County of the territory on the north of "a
line beginning at the north side of the North Mountain opposite to the
upper end of Sweedland Hill and running a direct course so as to strike
the mouth of Seneca creek on the north fork of the south branch of
Potomac river and the same course to be continued to the Allegheny
mountain, thence along the said mountain" to the county line. "The
residue of the county and parish of Augusta" was divided by a line
beginning "at the South Mountain and running thence by Benjamin
Yardley's plantation so as to strike the north river below James Byrd's
house thence up the said river to the mouth of Naked creek, thence
leaving the river a direct course so as to cross the said river at the
mouth of Cunningham's branch in the upper end of Silas Hart's land to
the foot of North Mountain, thence fifty-five degrees west to the
Allegheny mountain and with the same to the line of Hampshire"; all the
portion north eastward of this line was to be called Rockingham. It is
supposed the name of this county honors the Marquis of Rockingham, Prime
Minister of England in 1765-66 when the unpopular Stamp Act was
repealed.

In the same Act of Assembly, 1778, by which Rockingham was created
Greenbrier County, now in West Virginia, was formed from Montgomery and
Botetourt Counties to the west of "a line beginning on the top of the
ridge which divides the Eastern from the Western Waters, where the line
between Augusta and Botetourt crosses the same, and running thence the
same course continued north fifty-five degrees west to the Ohio, thence
beginning at the said ridge at the said lines of Botetourt and Augusta,
running along the top of the said ridge, passing the Sweet Springs to
the top of Peter's mountain, thence along the said mountain to the line
of Montgomery county, thence along the same mountain to the Kanawha or
New river, thence down the said river to the Ohio." Greenbrier County
takes its name from its principal river. It is the anglicized version of
the French word "ronce" for brier or bramble and "verte" for green. The
town Ronceverte, situated on the river, keeps the French word.

At the same time Rockbridge County was formed from parts of Botetourt
and Augusta. It was bounded "by a line beginning in the top of the Blue
Ridge near Steele's mill and running thence north fifty-five degrees
west passing the said mill and crossing the North mountain to the top
and the mountain dividing the waters of the Calf Pasture from the waters
of the Cow Pasture and thence along the said mountain crossing Panther's
gap to the line that divides the counties of Augusta and Botetourt." The
remainder of Botetourt shall be divided "by a line to begin at Audley
Paul's and running thence south fifty-five degrees east crossing James
river, to the top of the Blue Ridge, thence along the same crossing
James river, to the beginning of the aforesaid line dividing Augusta
county; then beginning again at the said Audley Paul's, and running
north fifty-five degrees west till the said course shall intersect a
line to be run south forty-five degrees west from the place where the
above line dividing Augusta terminated."

The enabling acts setting forth the bounds for the counties when created
have been quoted fully, both for the information they contain and for
the comprehensive geographical knowledge they reveal. They show
painstaking surveys and study to achieve accuracy under the handicap of
lack of roads and bridges. In addition to technical knowledge, the
surveyor needed a sturdy physique to withstand the daily hardships that
were part of his routine work.

Rockbridge, the name of the new county whose bounds have been described,
commemorated the unique scenic wonder within its confines known as
Natural Bridge. This is a span of stone 215 feet high over Cedar Creek.
Once a trail passed over it and now a modern highway. It has been known
and visited since 1770.


WEST OF THE OHIO AND TO THE MISSISSIPPI. ILLINOIS COUNTY FORMED

Illinois, the last county to be formed in the decade 1770 to 1780 was an
area on the western side of the Ohio River which had been a part of
Augusta County. In the preamble to the Act creating this county, the
Assembly noted with satisfaction that "by a successful expedition
carried on by the Virginia militia on the western side of the Ohio river
several of the British posts within the territory of this commonwealth
in the country adjacent to the river Mississippi have been reduced."
This, of course, was a reference to George Rogers Clark whose exploits
secured the Mississippi Valley area for Virginia and the United States.
Illinois County was a part of the large territory given by Virginia to
the nation in 1783.


KENTUCKY COUNTY DIVIDED

The next event was the division of the unwieldy county of Kentucky into
three parts; Jefferson, Fayette and Lincoln, with the towns of
Louisville, Lexington and Harrodsburg for their respective county seats.
Jefferson County was so named to honor Thomas Jefferson, and was the
first honor of this sort accorded him. Fayette was for the beloved ally,
the Marquis de la Fayette and Lincoln for General Benjamin Lincoln of
the Revolution. When compelled to surrender Charleston, South Carolina
to the British, he had endured the humiliation of giving up his sword to
Sir Henry Clinton. In return, when Yorktown was captured and Lord
Cornwallis required to yield his sword, General Lincoln was awarded the
distinction of receiving it. Cornwallis, however, did not appear in
person, and it was his aide who handed the sword to General Lincoln.
From these three counties was formed the present Commonwealth of
Kentucky.

A division of Brunswick in the south eastern part of the state took
place now and Greensville County came into being. This lay to the east
of a line beginning "two miles above Chapman's ford on Meherrin river
and running a due south course to the boundary line between this state
and North Carolina and from the station aforesaid by another line due
north to Nottoway river." The name selected for this county commemorated
General Nathanael Greene of the Revolution who marched into this area on
his return from the Battle of Guilford Court House.

In 1782, occurred a division of Bedford County. The eastern end was cut
from the whole and named for General William Campbell, the hero of
King's Mountain, one of the decisive battles of the Revolution. Campbell
lies to the east of a line beginning "at the mouth of Judy's creek on
James river, thence to Thompson's mill on Buffalo creek, thence to the
mouth of Back creek on Goose creek thence the same course continued to
Staunton river." Staunton is the name given the Roanoke River as it
passes through Bedford, Campbell, Charlotte and Halifax Counties. In
Mecklenburg, it resumes its original name of Roanoke and so continues
into Albemarle Sound.

The next development was Harrison, taken from Monongalia County.
Neither is now a Virginia county, but it is mentioned since it honors
Benjamin Harrison, one of the seven Virginia Signers of the Declaration
of Independence who also completed in 1784, the year the county was
formed, a three year term as Governor of the Commonwealth.

In the next year, a new county, Nelson, now in Kentucky, was created.
This, too, honored a former Governor and Signer of the Declaration of
Independence, Thomas Nelson. It was his home in Yorktown that Lord
Cornwallis used as his headquarters during the siege and battle.

In 1786, Franklin was formed out of "that part of the county of Bedford
lying south of Staunton river together with so much of the county of
Henry lying north of a line to be run from the head of Shooting creek to
the west end of Turkeycock mountain, thence along the top of the
mountain to intersect the dividing line between the counties of Henry
and Pittsylvania, thence along that line to the mouth of Blackwater
river." The reason for this name is obvious: all America honored the
achievements of Benjamin Franklin.


DEED OF CESSION. VIRGINIA GIVES THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY

The tempo of western expansion had increased to such an extent that four
counties were formed in 1786. One of these, Hardy, lies now in West
Virginia as does its parent county of Hampshire. It might be well to
explain now, even though out of chronological sequence, the genesis of
West Virginia. In May 1861 when Governor Letcher called out the Virginia
militia, many persons living beyond the Alleghanies throughout that
section of Virginia bordering on Ohio and Pennsylvania were not in
sympathy with his action. The residents of some forty counties held a
convention and were almost unanimous in their desire to break away from
Virginia and form a new state. A constitution was framed which was
ratified by the people in May 1862. The following year, 1863, West
Virginia became a state of the Union and at one blow, Virginia lost a
third of her territory. The loss of the rich coal fields and other
natural resources of West Virginia impoverished the Old Dominion more
severely and made "Reconstruction Days" longer and more difficult than
they might otherwise have been.

Returning to Hardy County, we learn that it was named for Samuel Hardy
formerly of Isle of Wight County "one of the number who signed the Deed
of Cession which transferred the Northwest Territory to the General
Government."

Virginia's claim to territory was of long standing, her charters of 1609
and 1612 giving her dominion to the Pacific Ocean, but no exploration
beyond the Mississippi had been attempted. Her claim of dominion to the
Mississippi, however, was of more substantial character. In 1778 with a
picked force of 180 Virginia riflemen, George Rogers Clark captured the
great Northwest Territory from the English "in one of the most amazing
exploits in American history." This territory Virginia organized as "the
county of Illinois." "But for Clark's conquest the treaty of 1783 might
well have fixed the nation's western boundary at the Alleghanies instead
of at the Mississippi." Almost all the Ohio Valley and parts of
Wisconsin and Michigan were included in this voluntary gift that
Virginia made in 1783 to the weak confederated colonies. In 1785
Congress passed a Land Ordinance providing for the sale of this land.
"Thus this cession provided the infant republic with its only sure
source of revenue" since at that time "Congress had neither the power to
impose nor the machinery to collect any taxes."

The other three counties formed in 1786 lie now in Kentucky which, in
1792, was "organized as a state out of Virginia territory with her
consent." These divisions are Mercer and Madison, created out of
Lincoln, and Bourbon out of Fayette. Mercer honored General Hugh Mercer
of the Revolution; Madison, James Madison, later known as the "Father of
the Constitution," and Bourbon, the French reigning family,
particularly Louis XVI who had given aid in the Revolution.

The next county, Russell, was taken from Washington. Its bounds are:
"all that part of the said county lying within a line to be run along
the Clinch mountain to the Carolina line; thence with that line to the
Cumberland mountain, and the extent of country between the Cumberland
mountain, Clinch mountain and the line of Montgomery county shall be one
distinct county and called and known by the name of Russell." The name
was selected as a tribute to General William Russell "who distinguished
himself at the Battle of King's mountain." Russell remains a Virginia
county.

Five westward expansions now occur in quick succession. In 1787, from
Harrison was formed Randolph County named for Edmund Randolph, first
Attorney General of the Commonwealth and a member of the Continental
Congress. Both Harrison and Randolph are in West Virginia. Pendleton,
also now in West Virginia, was formed in 1788 from portions of Hardy,
Augusta, and Rockingham counties. It is named for Edmund Pendleton,
President of the Virginia Convention of 1775.

The next year two new Kentucky counties were formed; Mason from Bourbon
and Woodford from Fayette. The former took its name from George Mason of
"Gunston Hall," author of the Bill of Rights and the latter from General
William Woodford, a native of Caroline County, Virginia who rendered
distinguished service in the Revolution and later moved to Kentucky.

At the same time, a new county destined to be in West Virginia was
formed from Greenbrier and part of Montgomery counties and given the
name of Kanawha from the river.

The only one of the counties formed in 1789 that is now in Virginia is
Nottoway. This was comprised of that part of Amelia County "lying south
of a line to begin at a place called Wells bridge on Namozene creek
which divides the said county from the county of Dinwiddie, thence
running through the said county of Amelia so as to strike the line of
Prince Edward county five miles west of a place called Ward's ford on
Appomattox river." Nottoway is an Indian word meaning "a snake, that is,
an enemy." Nottoway River derives its name from the Indian tribe and the
county honors both.


1790-1800 EXPANSION IN THE FIRST DECADE AFTER THE REVOLUTION

The next year a county was cut from Montgomery and named Wythe. It lies
to the "south-west of a line beginning on the Henry line at the head of
Big Reedy Island, from thence to the waggon ford on Peck creek, thence
to the clover bottom on Blue Stone, thence to the Kanawha county line."
The name is for George Wythe, eminent jurist and a Signer of the
Declaration of Independence. Elected in 1779 to the Chair of Law and
Police, recently established at the College of William and Mary, he
"became the first occupant of a chair of law in America, and the second
in the English speaking world." The first chair of law established in
England was at Oxford University, and Sir William Blackstone was the
first professor.

The year 1791 saw the formation of three counties, all of them
rearrangement of lines in established communities rather than expansion
into new territory. The first was the division of Henry into two
counties: "all that part of the said county lying west of a line
beginning on the line dividing the counties of Henry and Franklin one
mile above where it crosses Town creek, a branch of Smith's river,
thence a parallel line with Pittsylvania line to the country line shall
be one distinct county and called and known by the name of Patrick." The
name, of course, was the given name of the great orator, and since Henry
County bore his surname, the new division took his given name. It is a
county of beautiful mountains with panoramic views. The Fairy Stone
State Park is within its borders. On Fairy Stone Mountain and in the
streams at its base are found tiny stones shaped like crosses. The story
is that the gentle fairy folk when they heard of our Lord's Crucifixion
wept profusely and their tears turned to stone crosses as they fell, a
lasting memorial of their grief.

The next county, formed in 1791, was Bath. Its bounds are thus
described: "All those parts of the counties of Augusta, Botetourt and
Greenbrier within the following bounds, to wit: beginning at the west
corner of Pendleton county, thence to the top of the ridge dividing the
headwaters of the South branch from those of Jackson's river, thence a
straight line to the lower end of John Redman's plantation on the
Cow-pasture river, thence to the top of the ridge that divides the
waters of the Cow-pasture from those of the Calf-pasture thence along
the same as far as the ridge that divides Hamilton's creek from Mill
creek, thence to the Mill mountain, and with the same to the north
corner of the line of Rockbridge county, thence along the said mountain
crossing the line of Botetourt county to the ridge that divides the
waters of Pad's creek from those of Simpson's creek, thence along the
said ridge to the Cow-pasture river, thence crossing the said river a
direct course and crossing Jackson's river at the mouth of Dunlap's
creek, thence up the same as far as the narrows above the plantation of
David Tate, Senr., so as to leave the inhabitants of the said creek in
Botetourt county, thence a direct course to the top of the Allegany
mountain where the road from the Warm Springs to Greenbrier court house
crosses the said mountain, thence along the top of the said mountain
opposite the headwaters of Anthony's creek, thence a direct course
crossing Greenbrier river to the end of the Droop mountain, thence up
the same to the great Greenbrier mountain thence along the said mountain
to the line of Randolph county thence with the same along the said
mountain dividing the waters of Monongalia and Cheat from those of
Greenbrier river, and thence to its beginning shall form one distinct
county."

The above is quoted in full since the names used are still in use, and
it is possible to judge from them the extent of the county. Warm Springs
is still in Bath, but Narrows is in Giles County, and Alleghany County
lies between Bath and Giles.

The name Bath derives from the medical springs within its boundaries,
which for many years during the summer months were visited by persons
from as far south as Louisiana. Families drove up in their carriages and
stayed for months to enjoy the curative effects of the waters and
bracing mountain air.

The third county formed in 1791 was Mathews which was taken from
Gloucester. It lies "to the eastward of a line to begin at the mouth of
North river, thence up the meanders thereof to the mill, thence up the
eastern branch of the millpond to the head of Muddy creek thence down
the said creek to Piankatank river." The name is said to be in honor of
a Major Thomas Mathews of the Revolution who afterwards was prominent in
the legislature representing the Borough of Norfolk in the House of
Delegates from 1785 to 1791.

In 1793, there were also three counties formed. One of these, Grayson,
was taken from Wythe as follows: "Beginning in the Washington line where
it joins the Iron Mountain, thence along the said mountain to a spur of
the same that forms Ewing mountain, keeping the ridge that divides the
waters of Cripple and Bush creeks to the top of the said mountain,
thence a straight course to the Popular Camp mountain by Rose's mill
thence to the mouth of Greasy creek thence a straight course to the
Montgomery line." Grayson took its name from Colonel William Grayson, an
officer in the Revolution, member of the Continental Congress and one of
the first two senators elected from Virginia after the adoption of the
Constitution to serve in the Congress of the United States.
Unfortunately his tenure of office was short; he died 12 March 1790.

Also in 1793, Russell County was divided and all that part "which lies
westwardly of a line beginning on the top of Clinch mountain, one mile
eastwardly of big Maukason gap, thence a direct course to the mouth of
Stock creek thence up the same to Powell's mountain, thence due north to
the Kentucky boundary shall form one distinct county and be called and
known by the name of Lee." The name honored General Henry Lee who was
Governor of Virginia 1791-1794. He is more often called "Light Horse
Harry Lee" from the fact that he commanded, during the Revolution, light
horse cavalry. He was the father of General Robert E. Lee. Lee is the
county farthest to the west and adjoins Tennessee and Kentucky.

Also in 1793, the county of Madison was formed from Culpeper. Its bounds
were within a line "Beginning at the mouth of Robinson river thence up
the same to the mouth of Crooked run, thence up the said run to the
mountain road where Tennant's church formerly stood, thence a straight
course to the head of Hugh's river in the Blue Ridge, thence the same
course continued to the top of the ridge and to the line of Shenandoah
county, thence westwardly on the top of the ridge with the lines of the
counties of Shenandoah and Rockingham to the line of Orange county to
the beginning." One may wonder that the name Madison was used again, but
at this date the earlier Madison County lay in Kentucky. When in 1792
Kentucky achieved statehood, it was composed of nine counties formerly
in Virginia; namely: Fayette, Lincoln, Jefferson, Madison, Mercer,
Nelson, Bourbon, Mason and Woodford.

Four years after Madison County, Virginia was formed, Brooke was cut
from Ohio County. This name was for Robert Brooke, Governor of Virginia
1794 to 1796. He was a grandson of the Robert Brooke who, in 1716,
accompanied Governor Spotswood on the famous expedition across the Blue
Ridge Mountains. Both Brooke and Ohio are now in West Virginia.

In 1798, Wood was established from Harrison County. It is named for
James Wood, Governor of Virginia 1796 to 1799, and son of Colonel James
Wood, an early settler in the Valley of Virginia, and founder of the
city of Winchester. Wood and Harrison are also West Virginia counties.

The next county created, also destined to lie in West Virginia, was
Monroe. This was formed from Greenbrier County and named to honor James
Monroe. Born, like General Washington, in Westmoreland County, he had a
long political career culminating in the Presidency of the United
States. The creed he expounded, called the "Monroe Doctrine", is still
followed by our government.


THE NEW CENTURY BRINGS SIX NEW COUNTIES 1800-1810

As the new century, 1800, came in, Tazewell was formed from Wythe and
Russell counties. Its bounds were all that part of the aforesaid
counties "beginning on the Kanawha line and running with the line which
divides Montgomery and Wythe counties to where the said line crosses the
top of Brushy mountain, thence along the top of the said mountain to its
junction with the Garden mountain, thence along the top of the said
mountain to the Clinch mountain, thence along the top of the said
mountain to the head of Cove creek, a branch of the Maiden Spring fork
of Clinch river; thence a straight line to Mann's gap in Kent's ridge;
thence north forty-five degrees west, to the line which divides the
state of Kentucky from that of Virginia; thence along said line to the
Kanawha line and with said line to the place of beginning." The name
honored Henry Tazewell, United States senator from Virginia 1794-1799.

In 1801, Virginia made a second attempt to honor Thomas Jefferson by
naming the new county taken from Berkeley in his honor. The Jefferson
County formed in 1780 was, in 1801, a part of Kentucky and this new
county was destined to fall in West Virginia; hence no county within the
present confines of the state honors this great Virginian.

Harper's Ferry, situated in Jefferson County at the confluence of the
Shenandoah with the Potomac River, is as well known for the beauty of
its location as for being the site of John Brown's Raid, the prelude to
civil warfare. Incidentally it may be noted that the Shenandoah afforded
an outlet to market for the produce of the Valley of Virginia since
boats could pass down its waters into the Potomac and thus to Chesapeake
Bay.

In 1804, the new county of Mason was formed from Kanawha. It was bounded
as follows: "beginning at the mouth of Little Guyandotte River running
from thence to the northwest corner of a survey of 1437-1/2 acres made
for Thomas Lewis in Teaze's valley near the house of Joshua Morris, from
thence to the mouth of Little Hurricane creek, thence crossing the
Kanawha river and taking a dividing ridge between Eighteen Mile and
Pocatallico creeks to the end thereof, thence pursuing a northeast
direction till it intersects the Wood County line to the Ohio, thence
down the Ohio to the beginning."

Within this county lies Point Pleasant, scene of the famous battle.

This was the second time that Virginia had attempted to pay honor to
George Mason of "Gunston Hall", author of the Bill of Rights. The
earlier Mason County formed in 1789 became a part of Kentucky three
years later, and the later Mason was destined to lie in West Virginia.
George Mason, Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de la Fayette are not
represented in the list of Virginia counties.

The county of Giles formed in 1806 was created from portions of
Montgomery, Monroe and Tazewell counties, and is now a border county
between Virginia and West Virginia. Its boundaries are thus described:
"Beginning at the end of Gauley mountain on New River, where the
counties of Greenbrier and Kanawha intersect, thence up the river with
the Greenbrier and Montgomery lines to the intersection of Monroe line;
thence with the Monroe and Montgomery line to the upper end of Pine's
plantation; thence a straight line to the mouth of Rich creek, leaving
the plantation of Hugh Caperton on the right; thence with the Monroe
line to the intersection of Botetourt County line and with the Botetourt
and Montgomery lines to the top of Gap mountain; thence along the top of
the said mountain to New River crossing the same to the end of Walker's
creek mountain; thence along the top of the said mountain to the
intersection of Wythe county line; thence northwestwardly with said line
to the intersection of Tazewell line, and with the Tazewell and
Montgomery line to the top of Wolf creek mountain; thence along Wolf
creek mountain to a path leading from the Round Bottom to Harman's mill
about three miles below the mouth of Clear Fork of Wolf creek; thence a
straight line to the mouth of Militin's fork; thence a direct line to
the head of Crane creek on the top of the Flat-top mountain; thence a
direct line to the three forks of Guyandotte river; thence down said
river until it intersects Kanawha county line; thence with said line to
the beginning."

Mountain Lake is situated in Giles County, and is a well-known summer
resort. It is also of interest for the wide range of plant life found in
its vicinity. Members of the University of Virginia's Biological
Department maintain a field station there and in the summer study the
wide variety of plants growing nearby.

Giles County was named in honor of William B. Giles who in 1800 was
prominent in Virginia politics. He later served as Governor 1827-1830.

In 1808 Amherst County was divided according to its parish lines, the
western or upper part of the county which lay in Lexington Parish
retained the name of Amherst, and the lower or more eastern part took
the name of Nelson. This as will be recalled was the second attempt to
honor Governor Thomas Nelson, whose Yorktown home still holds buried in
its eastern wall two cannon balls, grim mementoes of the battle of
Yorktown.

Virginia has believed in honoring the men who have held the
gubernatorial office, nineteen having been thus commemorated, and Cabell
County formed in 1809 carried on the tradition. It honored William H.
Cabell, who served from 1805 until 1808 when he was chosen judge of the
General Court. It later fell into West Virginia, and lies along the Ohio
River.


1810-1820, DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES, FIVE NEW COUNTIES

In 1814, a Virginia county was formed from parts of Lee, Russell and
Washington and named Scott. This name was selected because of General
Winfield Scott, a native of Virginia who achieved fame because of his
successes in the War of 1812. Later in the Mexican War he decisively
defeated the Mexicans at Chapultepec, entering Mexico City as conqueror.
As a result of this war some 850,000 square miles became United States
territory.

The bounds of Scott County are as follows: "Beginning at the head of
Reedy creek where the wagon road crosses the same in the county of
Washington thence down the Tennessee line to the south fork of Clinch
river thence northward passing the Flag Pond to the top of Powell's
mountain in Lee County and along it to the county of Russell and with it
to the Kentucky line, thence along Cumberland mountain to the head of
Guese's river thence down the Clinch mountain thence to the western end
of Samuel Hensley's plantation and thence to the beginning."

"The wagon road" mentioned in the above description is most likely the
so-called "Wilderness Road" over which many west bound settlers
laboriously toiled. The other route west that was often used was north
to the present Pittsburgh and down the Ohio river. Powell's Mountain and
the river of that name commemorate Ambrose Powell of Culpeper County,
one of the earliest explorers of Kentucky who accompanied Doctor Thomas
Walker there in 1749. In Scott County is the Natural Tunnel, a rare
formation through which the trains of the Southern Railway Company pass
regularly en route to Tennessee.

Tyler, the next county established, lies now in the northwestern part of
West Virginia along the Ohio River but commemorates a Tidewater
Virginian, John Tyler, Sr. He was born at "Greenway" Charles City
County and served as Governor 1808-1811. His fame has been somewhat
obscured by that of his son, John Tyler, junior, President of the United
States.

The next county formed, Lewis, which was cut from Harrison, also lay
later in West Virginia in the north central area. It derived its name
from a heroic soldier, Colonel Charles Lewis who was killed at the
Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. Point Pleasant, situated near the
confluence of the Great Kanawha with the Ohio River was the scene of a
day-long bloody battle between the Virginia troops and Indian warriors
led by Cornstalk and Logan. General Andrew Lewis, brother of Colonel
Charles, was the commanding officer. The battle was hardly decisive and
General Lewis wished to follow and annihilate the fleeing enemy. Lord
Dunmore, in command of another detachment which arrived later, forbade
this and allowed the Indians to escape. This may have been one of the
reasons that influenced the Indians throughout the Revolution to espouse
the British cause.

The establishment of Lewis County in 1816 was followed two years later
by that of another county, Preston, formed from Monongalia, lying in the
northeast corner of West Virginia, and adjoining Pennsylvania and
Maryland. Preston County honored James Patton Preston, Governor of
Virginia 1816-1819.

Parts of Greenbrier, Kanawha and Randolph were made into the new county
of Nicholas in the same year that Preston was organized. Nicholas lies
to the east of Charleston, the capital of West Virginia. Its name
derives from Wilson Cary Nicholas, Governor of Virginia 1814-1816, and
predecessor of Governor Preston.


1820-1830 TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS IMPROVE, FOUR NEW COUNTIES

The next county to be created was taken from Hampshire and Berkeley and
represented a northern rather than a western expansion. It received the
name Morgan from General Daniel Morgan, one of the outstanding generals
of the Revolution who defeated Colonel Tarleton in the Battle of the
Cowpens.

The bounds of Morgan County are thus set forth: "Beginning at the mouth
of Cherry's Run at the river Potomac in the county of Berkeley, thence
up the middle of said Run to its source, thence due west to the top of
Sleepy Creek Mountain, thence along the top of said mountain to the line
that separates the counties of Frederick and Berkeley, thence with the
said line to the county of Hampshire, thence a direct line until it
strikes the river Potomac opposite Mitchell's Rock and thence by the
river Potomac to the beginning."

Pocahontas County created in 1821, a year after Morgan had been formed,
and likewise a West Virginia county, lies in the southeastern section of
the state opposite the Virginia county of Alleghany. Its name was a long
delayed tribute to the fine character and achievements of the Indian
maid Pocahontas. She both aided the settlers at Jamestown with gifts of
sorely needed food, and by her marriage to John Rolfe secured eight
years of peace for them. This period was vital to their survival.

Pocahontas lies in a mountainous region rich in bituminous coal
deposits, so much so that Pocahontas coal is known everywhere. The
description of the county's bounds notes the lines of Greenbrier, Bath,
Randolph and Pendleton counties and "Randolph court House." This is the
first mention of a courthouse anywhere in this area.

After discussing eight counties now in West Virginia, we come to a
Virginia county, Alleghany, formed in 1822 from Botetourt, Bath and
Monroe counties. It is the name the Delaware Indians gave both the Ohio
and the Alleghany rivers, but its origin is uncertain. Presumably, the
mountains took their name from the river. Within the bounds of Alleghany
County the Jackson and the Cow-pasture rivers unite to form the James
River, the longest river in the state and the most important in its
early history.

Its bounds were thus described: "beginning at the top of the middle of
Potts' mountain, where the road leading from Fincastle to the Sweet
Springs crosses the same; thence with said road to the top of Peter's
mountain; thence a straight line to the Greenbrier county line on the
top of the Alleghany mountain so as to pass between the Sweet and Red
springs; thence with the top of the Alleghany or Greenbrier line to a
certain point so that a straight line drawn thence to include in the new
county Captain Henry Massie's plantation in the Falling Spring Valley
may also include Archibald Morriss's plantation on Jackson's river in
said new county; thence a straight line from the said Massie's across
the Cow-pasture river immediately below William Griffin's on said river
to the Rockbridge county line; thence with said line to a point in the
Rockbridge and Botetourt line so that a line drawn from thence will pass
at or near the junction of Jackson's and Cow-pasture rivers to the
nearest part of the Rich Patch mountain; and this line to be so run as
to leave the house and yard of Captain John Jordan in the county of
Botetourt; thence with the highest points of the said Rich Patch
mountain next to Craig's creek so as to include the inhabitants of the
Rich Patch in said new county, to a point at which it unites with Potts'
mountain, thence with the top of the said mountain to the beginning."

In 1824 the county of Logan was formed from portions of Giles, Cabell,
Tazewell and Kanawha counties. It lay in the southwestern part of the
present West Virginia not far from the Kentucky line. The name derives
from the Mingo Indian chieftain whose famous speech preserved by Thomas
Jefferson was long a popular selection for young would-be orators.


1830-1840 LARGE INCREASE IN POPULATION NECESSITATES FOURTEEN NEW
COUNTIES

For seven years, there was no further expansion until in 1831 when the
Virginia county of Floyd was formed. This was taken from that part of
Montgomery County adjacent to the counties of Franklin, Patrick and
Grayson. The name is in honor of John Floyd, Governor of Virginia
1830-1834. It is a beautiful county of high mountains, fertile valleys
and good blue-grass pasture land.

Its bounds were thus prescribed: "Beginning at the widow Litterell's,
thence a straight line to John Thrasher's; thence a straight line to
John Cooper's old place; thence a straight line to where the Waggon road
crosses the Laurel ridge; from thence along the highest part of said
ridge to Little river; and down the same to Mack's mountain; and with
the same to the Grayson line and with the same to the Patrick line and
with the same to the Franklin line and with the same to the line of
Montgomery and Franklin, opposite the widow Litterell's; from thence a
straight line to the beginning."

In addition to Floyd, Fayette County was also formed in 1831. This
county, the second attempt Virginia had made to honor the Marquis de la
Fayette, fell later into West Virginia. Taken from parts of Logan,
Greenbrier, Nicholas and Kanawha, Fayette lies in the southeastern part
of the state, and is traversed by the New River.

The lengthy description of its bounds notes several streams besides the
New River; namely: Lick creek, Meadow river, Mill creek, Gauley river,
Twenty Mile creek, Kanawha river, Guyandotte and Cole (Coal) river. For
the first time we find mention of a turnpike, "the Kanawha turnpike." In
the decade 1820-1830, a great interest in highways developed, and
turnpikes and toll roads became numerous. In Virginia a well-known toll
road ran through the Valley of Virginia called "the Valley Pike."
National highway Route Number 11 largely follows its path.

The third county created in 1831 also is now a West Virginia county,
Jackson. Formed from Mason, Kanawha and Wood, Jackson lies in the
western part of the state along the Ohio River south of Parkersburg. It
was named for General Andrew Jackson, then in his first term as
President of the United States. A song popular at that time carried
these two lines complimenting his exploits:

    "Glory be to Jackson for the Battle of New Orleans
    For there he gave the enemy the hot butter-beans"

referring to his victory over the British in the battle of that name.

We come back to Virginia now and discuss the fourth county created in
1831. Formed from Shenandoah and Rockingham counties, it lies in the
Valley of Virginia with the famed Luray Cavern within its borders. It
was named in honor of John Page, Governor of Virginia 1802-1805.

Its bounds are as follows: "Beginning at a point in the line of the
counties of Rockingham and Orange on the top of the Blue Ridge opposite
to the headwaters of Naked creek in the county of Rockingham; thence a
straight line to the headwaters of said creek; thence with the
meanderings of said creek to its junction with the South river; thence
down the bed of said river to the upper end of Michael Shuler's island;
thence a straight line to the mouth of Shuler's run; thence with the
main branch of said run to its source; thence a straight line to the top
of the Massanutten mountain; thence with the top of said mountain to its
termination near Daniel Clem's; thence to the top of the eastern Fort
mountain; thence with the top of said mountain to a point opposite to
the mouth of Cunningham's run in the county of Shenandoah; thence a
straight line to the mouth of said run; thence with the said run to its
source; thence to a point in a direct line to the top of the Blue Ridge
in the line of the two counties of Shenandoah and Culpeper; and thence
with the top of the Blue Ridge to the beginning."

From Washington and Wythe in 1832 was established the new county of
Smyth situated in the southwestern section of Virginia and extending to
the North Carolina line. The name derives from General Alexander Smyth
of Wythe County, Inspector General of the Army in 1812 and Member of
Congress 1817-1825, 1827-1830. A portrait of him by Saint Memin is in
the Corcoran Art Gallery.

The bounds of the county are set forth as follows: "Beginning on the
main stage road at a bridge in a hollow at a point where the spring
branch of Phillip Griever deceased crosses the same; thence a direct
line, passing equidistant between Preston's and King's salt wells to the
line of Russell county; and from the said point on the main stage road
aforesaid where the said spring branch crosses the same running south
twenty-five degrees east to the southern boundary of Washington county;
and beginning on the main stage coach road leading by Abingdon and Wythe
courthouse, ten miles by the said road dividing Washington and Wythe
counties; running thence northwest to the northern boundary of Wythe
county and southeast to the southern boundary of Wythe county. The said
line through Wythe county running precisely parallel with the line
aforesaid through Washington County."

In the above we note the great development that had taken place in this
section, a "stagecoach road" and two towns, Abingdon and Wythe
Courthouse, being mentioned for the first time. A road over which a
heavy stagecoach could travel was a big advance over the bridle paths
and "rolling roads" of the preceding century.

In 1833, Rappahannock also a Virginia county, was established. This was
taken from Culpeper County and named for the river which traverses it,
and which, likely took its name from the Indian tribe living along its
banks. The settlers first called this river Pembroke in honor of William
Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke and brother-in-law of the famous Sir
Philip Sydney. The Earl was a member of the Virginia Company of London
and invested four hundred pounds sterling in the enterprise.

The bounds of Rappahannock County were as follows: "Beginning at the
corner of Madison and Culpeper counties upon the top of the Blue Ridge
of mountains and running thence with the line of said counties to the
point where it is intersected by Hugh's river above the junction of
Hugh's and Hazel's rivers; thence with Hugh's river to the junction of
the aforesaid rivers; thence to a bend in the river near a point called
the Giant's castle; thence to Horner's mill upon the Fauquier and
Culpeper line; thence with said line to the corner of the aforesaid
counties upon the top of the Blue Ridge, thence with said mountain to
the beginning."

The next county established in this continuous effort to make due
processes of law and order accessible to all lies now in the northern
tip of West Virginia. It is called Marshall, honoring John Marshall who
died in 1835, the year of the county's creation. John Marshall's career
and achievements are too well known to be recounted here; suffice it to
say that in his lengthy tenure as its Chief Justice he gave plan,
directive and purpose to the Supreme Court of the United States.

The bounds of Marshall County were set forth as being "all that part of
the lower end of the county of Ohio lying south of a line beginning on
the Ohio river at a stone to be fixed on the bank of said river, one
half mile above the mouth of Buggs' run; thence a direct line to the
northern boundary of the town of West Union and thence continuing the
same course to the Pennsylvania line."

In 1836 Braxton, also at present a West Virginia county, was created
from portions of Lewis and Nicholas counties. Its name honors Carter
Braxton, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence, the last one of
the Virginia signers to receive this distinction.

The description of its bounds though long is of interest because of the
number of place names used and is therefore quoted: "beginning at Salt
Works road at the head of Barbecue run and running thence with the
dividing ridge of the Kanawha and Monongalia waters to the head of the
Fall run; thence along the leading ridge to the forks of the Little
Kanawha; thence up the right hand fork to its head; thence with the
dividing ridge between Kanawha, Buchanan and Elk waters, to the corner
of Randolph and Nicholas county line; thence with the said line to the
top of the Point mountain above the Fork lick; thence along the top of
the Point mountain to the end thereof; thence a straight line to Joseph
Priam's (so as to include Joseph Priam's lands within the boundary of
the new county); thence a straight line to the top of the ridge between
Big and Little Birch rivers, and down said ridge to the mouth of Little
Birch river; thence a straight line to the mouth of the Rock-camp fork
of Big Buffalo (above Young's Bottoms); thence down the same to its
mouth, crossing Elk river; thence to the Lewis and Kanawha county line
at a point where a straight line to the mouth of the Long Shoal run will
include Jacob Shock on Steer creek within the boundary of the new
county; thence up the said Long Shoal run to the top of the ridge
between the Sand fork and Little Kanawha; thence with the dividing ridge
to the head of the left hand fork of the Three lick fork of Oil creek;
thence to its mouth; thence to the main fork of Oil creek; thence up the
Clover lick fork to the beginning."

From almost the center of the present state of West Virginia, we now
return to Virginia and note the creation from Frederick of the new
county of Clarke. Braxton, Clarke and Warren were all established in the
year 1836. Clarke, though incorrectly spelled pays honor to that native
of Albemarle County who won the Northwest Territory for the Continental
Congress, George Rogers Clark. The county, cut from the eastern part of
Frederick, adjoins Jefferson, Loudoun and Fauquier.

Its bounds are thus given: "Beginning at the point in the Blue Ridge
where the line dividing the counties of Jefferson and Loudoun meets the
line dividing the counties of Frederick and Loudoun, thence with the
line dividing the counties of Jefferson and Frederick to the middle of
the Opequon creek; thence up the middle of the Opequon to the mouth of
Wright's branch; thence up that stream to the mouth of Nations Spring
run; thence a direct line until it reaches Colin Leach's corner, next
to major Seth Mason's land on the road to Nineveh; thence eastwardly by
a direct line, passing south of the buildings and curtilages of doctor
James Hay and James M. Hite, to a point on the Shenandoah river, at the
mouth of Fauntleroy's mill run, on the north side of the Shenandoah
river; thence from the mouth of said run a straight line to the nearest
top of the Blue Ridge of mountains; and thence on the eastern boundary
of Frederick county to the beginning."

Curtilage, used for the first time in any description, is a law term
denoting the fenced-in area adjoining a dwelling house or a courtyard.
The term often used now is dependencies.

Warren, the third county created in 1836, lies over the Blue Ridge from
and a little to the south of Clarke. Its territory was taken from those
portions of Shenandoah and Frederick counties that adjoined "the
counties of Rappahannock and Fauquier in the southern part thereof." The
name honors the brave soldier Major General Joseph Warren who fell in
the Battle of Bunker Hill.

The bounds of Warren County which mention some places noted in Clarke
County's bounds are as follows: "Beginning at the top of the Blue Ridge
where the counties of Shenandoah and Page corner on the Rappahannock
county line; thence west with the Page line to the top of the southeast
Fort mountain; thence north with the top of said mountain to its
termination at the mouth of Powel's fort; thence a straight line from
the top of said mountain to the nearest top of the Three top mountain;
thence with the top of said mountain to the high peak opposite
Strasburg; thence a straight line to Hoffman's ford across the north
branch of Shenandoah river; thence down the bed of said river to the
mouth of Cedar creek on the north side of said river; thence up said
creek to where the Winchester and Staunton stage road crosses said
creek; thence a straight line to Zion meeting-house in Frederick county;
thence with the main road leading towards the White post until it
reaches Colin Leache's corner, a point on said road; then eastwardly by
a direct line passing south of the buildings and curtilages of doctor
James Hay and James M. Hite; to a point on Burden's March run; thence by
a direct line to a point on the Shenandoah river at the mouth of
Fauntleroy's mill run on the north side of the Shenandoah river; thence
from the mouth of said run a straight line to the nearest top of the
Blue Ridge; thence a southwest course with the top of said Blue Ridge to
the beginning."

The next year, 1837, Mercer, now in West Virginia but adjoining Giles
County, Virginia, was formed. The Act authorizing its creation is as
follows: "All that part of the counties of Giles and Tazewell contained
within the following boundary lines ... shall form one distinct and new
county and be called and known by the name of Mercer county in memory of
general Hugh Mercer who fell at Princeton." Appropriately the county
seat of Mercer County is Princeton.

In 1838 the Virginia counties of Greene and Roanoke were set up.

The Act for the former county is as follows: "So much of the county of
Orange as it lies next to and adjoining the counties of Madison,
Rockingham and Albemarle and west of a line beginning at Cave's old mill
(now James Jackson's) on the Madison county line and running thence a
straight line to where Whitelow's mill run intersects the Albemarle
county line shall form one distinct and new county and be called and
known by the name of Greene county in memory of general Nathaniel Greene
who served his country in the revolutionary war."

It may be mentioned that this is the second county in Virginia honoring
General Greene. The correct spelling for his first name is Nathanael.

In Greene County lies Swift Run Gap. This is the gap in the Blue Ridge
mountains over which in September 1715, Governor Spotswood led his
adventurous band into the beautiful Valley of Virginia. Westward
expansion began at this date.

The second county created in 1838 was Roanoke composed of that portion
of Botetourt lying next to the southwestern parts of Montgomery,
Franklin and Bedford. Roanoke was the name applied by the early
colonists to the shell-beads of different colors used by the Indians as
a medium of exchange. The river had long been known as Roanoke, hence it
seems likely that the county took its name from the river.

Roanoke County is thus bounded: "beginning at a point on the Blue ridge
which divides the counties of Bedford and Botetourt, thence northwest to
the house now the residence of John Bonsack on Glade creek so as to
include the said Bonsack in the new county, thence a line to the house
of Thomas Barnes including said Barnes in the county, and so as to leave
John W. Thompson in the county of Botetourt, thence a straight line
crossing the Catawba Valley at a point one mile due north of Mrs.
Garwood's; thence crossing Craig's creek (passing the house of John
Spessard on Craig's creek so as to leave the said Spessard in the old
county) to the top of the mountain which divides the waters of Craig's
creek and Sinking creek, thence westwardly along the top of the mountain
to the point where the lines of Botetourt, Montgomery and Giles counties
meet, thence with the line which divided the county of Botetourt from
the county of Montgomery to the point at which the said line joins the
Bedford line, thence with the Bedford line to the beginning."

In this same area in the following year the county of Pulaski was
created from the western end of Montgomery and the eastern end of Wythe.
Its name honored the Polish patriot Count Casimir Pulaski who, exiled
from his homeland, came to America and joined General Washington's army.
He participated in important engagements and finally fell on 11 October
1779 unsuccessfully defending Savannah, Georgia.

The bounds of Pulaski County are thus set forth: "beginning at a line
dividing the county of Giles from Montgomery on New river, thence with
same line to the head of a hollow above Hiram Davis's on Little Walker's
creek; thence to a point on the main road between the lands of John T.
Sayers and Harvey Shepherd including the plantation of David G.
Shepherd, thence to the mouth of Pine run on New river, thence to the
Grayson county line; including Sally King's plantation on Reed island;
thence with the Grayson line to the Floyd line, and with the same to the
mouth of Indian creek on Little river, and with the same including the
farm of Creed Taylor to New river, and with the same to the beginning."


1840-1850 FLOOD TIDE, SIXTEEN NEW COUNTIES

Three years elapsed before another county was needed and it was not
until 1842 that the county of Marion was formed from the southern part
of Monongalia and the northern part of Harrison. The name given it was
"in honor to and in memory of general Francis Marion who served his
country in the war of the revolution." This county now lies in West
Virginia.

Also in 1842, a new county in the southwestern area of Virginia was
formed from Grayson. It was thus bounded: "beginning on the North
Carolina line at or near Fisher's peak and running thence a straight
line across the said county of Grayson (so as to cross Chestnut creek
near the ford at major James Anderson's) to the line of Wythe county
thence along said Wythe line to the line of Pulaski county thence along
said Pulaski line to line of Floyd county, thence along said Floyd line
to the line of Patrick; thence along the said Patrick line to the North
Carolina line thence along said North Carolina line to the point of
beginning ... and be called and known by the name of Carroll in memory
of Charles Carroll of Carrollton." Charles Carroll, one of the Maryland
Signers of the Declaration of Independence, had been the last survivor
of this noble group, dying in 1832 at the age of 95 years.

The third county created in 1842, Wayne, taken from the western part of
Cabell lay along the Ohio river and is now in West Virginia. This new
division was to "be called and known by the name of Wayne county in
memory and in honor of general Anthony Wayne."

Two counties destined to be in West Virginia were set up in 1843. The
first of these was Ritchie in the western part of the state created from
portions of Lewis, Harrison and Wood. The name honors Thomas Ritchie,
"founder and long the able editor of the _Richmond Enquirer_ and 'father
of democracy' in Virginia."

The other county, Barbour, lying in the northeastern part of the state
was established from areas of Harrison, Lewis and Randolph. The
description of its bounds besides mentioning the usual rivers and ridges
names also several persons which always draws the reader's interest.
Some of these are: "Rueben Davisson's farm," "the old farm now occupied
by Samuel Bartlett," "William Bean's," "Samuel Black's residence" and
"the widow Corley's corner tree."

The name of the county was "in honour to and in memory of Philip Barbour
of Virginia." Appropriately the county seat is Philippi. Judge Barbour,
a native of Orange County, Virginia, where his home "Frascati" still
stands, achieved distinction as a Judge of the Supreme Court. He had
died the year before the county was formed.

Taylor County, also in the northeastern part of West Virginia was formed
in 1844 from sections of Harrison, Barbour and Marion. Its bounds
mention "the residence of Anderson Corbin," "the residence of James
M'Daniell," "the residence of Joseph Bailey," "the farm of John H.
Woodford" and others.

The name of the county honors General Zachary Taylor, twelfth President
of the United States, a native of Orange County, Virginia. He had a
distinguished military career, serving in the Black Hawk, Seminole and
Mexican Wars.

The determination on the part of Virginia's General Assembly to render
justice more easy and accessible to all its citizens was as strong in
1845 when parts of Lewis and Kanawha counties became Gilmer County as it
had been two centuries earlier. It was the unifying purpose in all
development.

The name Gilmer takes us to Albemarle County, Virginia, where Thomas
Walker Gilmer, elected Governor of Virginia in 1840, was born. He was
grandson of Doctor Thomas Walker of "Castle Hill," Albemarle County who
was the first to explore Southwest Virginia and Kentucky.

At the same time that Gilmer was formed, the county which lies to the
north of it was established. Both are now in West Virginia. The bounds
of Doddridge County, as noted in the Act of Assembly creating it, list
several waterways including Hughes's and Monongahela rivers but the most
interesting land mark named is "the Northwestern turnpike road at
tollgate number eleven." This shows steadily advancing development in
transportation, for earlier there had been references to wagon roads,
then to stagecoach roads and now to a turnpike with the regular
tollgates to provide funds for maintenance.

The name honors the memory of Philip Doddridge of Brooke County, who was
a prominent member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1829-30.
He was an advocate of the wishes of the western portion of the state to
have representation based upon white population exclusively. This motion
failed and a compromise constitution was agreed upon. Philip Doddridge
died in Washington, D. C. in 1832 while serving as a member of Congress.

After discussing six counties now in West Virginia, we come now to the
county of Appomattox formed in 1845 from portions of Buckingham, Prince
Edward, Charlotte and Campbell. The name derives from the river which
traverses the county.

Its bounds are thus defined: "Beginning at the mouth of David's creek on
James river; thence a straight line to the head of Holleway creek;
thence down the same as it meanders to Appomattox river; thence down
the same to the Cutbanks; thence a straight line to the mouth of Cabin
branch on Vaughan's creek; thence up the said creek to its head; thence
a straight line to Merryman's or Land's; thence along the public road
leading by M'Kinney's old store to the fork of the Lynchburg road about
a mile north of the Red house; thence a straight line to the old mill
formerly owned by William Harvey; thence along the Lynchburg road to the
mill formerly owned by Samuel Branch, esquire, on Falling river; thence
up the said river to the mouth of Reedy creek; thence a straight line to
Hunter's old tavern (now Glovers); thence a straight line to Sterling C.
Anderson's; thence a straight line to the mouth of Scott's branch about
a mile before the mouth of Joshua's creek on James river; and thence
down the said river to the beginning."

In 1846, in the northwestern portion of the present state of West
Virginia, the new county of Wetzel was set up from Tyler. The following
landowners are named as living within its bounds: "James Peden (or
Paden), Richard Anchrom and Rueben Martin, esquire." The county was so
called "in honor of Louis Wetzel, the distinguished frontiersman and
Indian scout, the Boone of Northwestern Virginia."

As if feeling this action a little unfair, the Assembly next year, when
a new county was to be created, named it Boone "in honor to and in
memory of Daniel Boone the well known pioneer of the western frontier
settlements." Boone was taken from parts of Kanawha, Cabell and Logan
counties and lies south of Charleston, the state capital.

In this same year, the county of Alexandria was added to Virginia's
jurisdiction. The Assembly enacted "That the territory comprising the
county of Alexandria in the District of Columbia heretofore ceded by
this commonwealth to the United States and by an act of congress
approved on the ninth day of July eighteen hundred and forty-six
retroceded to this commonwealth, and by it accepted, is hereby declared
to be an integral portion of this commonwealth and the citizens thereof
are hereby declared to be subject to all the provisions, and entitled to
all the benefits, rights and privileges of the bill of rights and
constitution of this commonwealth."

In 1791, to aid in establishing the Federal City, as Washington was
sometimes called, Virginia gave to the United States certain land taken
from Fairfax County to form a part of the District of Columbia. In the
Act quoted above it has been seen that the United States retroceded to
Virginia that part of the District of Columbia which comprised the
county of Alexandria. The name in 1920 was changed to Arlington.

Across the state from Alexandria the new county of Highland came into
being in 1847, being taken from parts of Pendleton and Bath. Its bounds
are thus given: "Beginning where the North river gap road crosses the
Augusta county line, and running thence to the top of Jackson's mountain
so as to leave Jacob Hiver's mansion house in Pendleton county; thence
to Andrew Fleisher's so as to include his mansion house in the new
county; thence to the highlands between the Dry run and Crab bottom; and
thence along the top of the High Knob; thence north sixty-five degrees
west to Pocahontas county line; thence along said county line to the
plum orchard on the top of the Alleghany mountains; thence to Adam
Stephenson's mansion house on Jackson's river in Bath county so as to
include Thomas Campbell's mansion house on Back creek and also said Adam
Stephenson's in the new county; thence to Andrew H. Byrd's mansion house
on the Cow-pasture river so as to include the same in the new county,
and so as to leave the dwelling house of William M'Clintick, jr. in Bath
county; thence south sixty-five degrees east to the Augusta county line
and thence with said line to the beginning."

The name of the county is derived from its exceptionally high altitude,
and the name of its county seat, Monterey, reflects the popular interest
felt in the victory General Taylor had just won over the Mexicans at the
Battle of Monterey.

After the formation of Highland County five counties destined to lie in
West Virginia were established. The first of these, Hancock, created in
1848 out of Brooke, lies in the extreme northern tip of the present
state between the Ohio river and the Pennsylvania state line. Its name
honors the first Signer of the Declaration of Independence, whose
distinguished signature is familiar through countless reproductions.

In this same year from portions of Jackson and Wood counties was formed
Wirt. This is in the northwestern area of the state not far from
Parkersburg. In the description of bounds, only three land owners are
named, John Stephens, junior, John P. Thomasson and William Goff.

The name of the county honored the distinguished lawyer, William Wirt,
who had died a few years before. He had served as Attorney General of
the United States from 1817 to 1829 and had been a candidate for the
Presidency on the Anti-Masonic ticket in 1832. He is best remembered for
his life of Patrick Henry.

The third county created in 1848 was Putnam, composed of parts of
Kanawha, Cabell and Mason counties, and lying to the west of the city of
Charleston. Its name recalls a hero of the Revolutionary War, General
Israel Putnam who distinguished himself at the Battle of Bunker Hill and
became a popular hero.


1850-1860 EBBING TIDE, TWELVE COUNTIES

The year 1850 saw the formation of two more counties now in West
Virginia. The first one, Raleigh, was taken from the southern part of
Fayette. In its bounds, the lands of Isaac Sonners and Jackson Jarrell,
and the New, Coal, and Guyandotte rivers are noted. The name was "in
memory of Sir Walter Raleigh who made the earliest effort to colonize
Virginia." It is pleasant to see that Virginia finally recognized her
debt to this valiant soul, even though it was tardily done, for he died
in 1618.

A few days after Raleigh became a county, the Virginia Assembly enacted
that the county of Wyoming be erected out of the county of Logan.
Wyoming lies in the southern central portion of West Virginia. The
reason for the name is obscure, whether it was for the beautiful Wyoming
Valley in north central Pennsylvania watered by the Susquehanna River,
or for the brutal massacre of its inhabitants on 4 July 1778 by a
British and Indian force is unknown.

Half of the nineteenth century has passed and our narrative has only a
few more years to chronicle. In 1851, three counties were formed. One of
these, Craig, remained in Virginia. It was taken from parts of
Botetourt, Roanoke, Giles and Monroe.

Its bounds were as follows: "Beginning on the top of the Middle mountain
at the corner of Monroe and Alleghany counties, near Achilles Dews, and
running with the Alleghany line to the top of Peters' mountain; thence
westward along the top of said mountain to a point nearby opposite to
the house of Boston Rowan; thence crossing Potts' creek to a point one
fourth of a mile below said Rowan's so as to leave said Rowan's in the
county of Monroe; thence a southwestern direction to the top of Potts'
mountain, so as to leave Armentrout, Fridley and Rose in Monroe; thence
westward along the top of said mountain to a point opposite Colonel R.
M. Hutchinson's on John's creek, and thence a straight line including
said Hutchinson in the new county, and crossing Sinking creek valley to
William Niday's, including said Niday in the new county, to the
Montgomery line; thence eastward with the Montgomery line to the corner
of Roanoke and Montgomery; thence with the Roanoke line to the top of
Brush mountain; thence eastward along said mountain, crossing the Cove
branch where John Carper formerly lived; thence along the same range of
mountains passing near Lilburn Doss's, crossing Stone Coal gap; thence
along the same range of mountains, crossing Price's turnpike road to a
point opposite Daniel Sizer's; thence a northwestern direction crossing
Craig's creek above said Sizer's to a point one mile from Craig's creek
on the ridge; thence to Andrew Persinger's on Barber's creek; thence to
the Alleghany line and with the same to the beginning."

The name of the county honored Robert Craig, member of Congress from
Virginia 1829-1834, 1835-1841.

In the same month in which Craig was set up, the new county of Upshur
was created from parts of Randolph, Barbour and Lewis, all now in West
Virginia. The starting point in the description of its bounds reads as
follows: "Beginning at a rock or milestone on the Staunton and
Parkersburg turnpike road ten miles east of Weston in Lewis County."
This shows that transportation had developed sufficiently to connect
places on the Ohio River with other sections of Virginia.

Upshur County took its name from Abel P. Upshur whom President Tyler
appointed Secretary of State to succeed Daniel Webster. Upshur was
killed 28 February 1844 by the explosion of a new type of cannon which
was being tested on the U.S.S. _Princeton_.

Also in March 1851, from the counties of Tyler, Wood and Ritchie the new
county of Pleasants was established. This lies in the area around
Parkersburg in the northwestern part of West Virginia, along the Ohio
River. The name honored the memory of James Pleasants, Governor of
Virginia, 1822 to 1825, member of a family long resident and prominent
in the state.

Five years passed and in the interval population had increased to such
an extent in the western part of Virginia that four county governments
had to be set up to take care of legal needs. One of these, Wise, formed
from portions of Lee, Scott and Russell counties, remains in Virginia.
The name honored Henry A. Wise, Governor of Virginia 1856-1860.

The bounds of the county were as follows: "Beginning at the break of
Cumberland mountain on the Kentucky and Virginia line where the Pound
fork of Sandy breaks through the Cumberland mountain; thence up the
Pound fork to the mouth of Crane's nest, a water of said Pound fork;
thence with the dividing ridge between the waters of Crane's nest and
McLure's, to William Taylor's farm, including said Taylor's farm in the
new county; thence a straight line to the mouth of Lick creek; thence
down Clinch river to the mouth of Guest's river; thence up Guest's river
one mile; thence a straight line to the Camp rock south of the High
Knob; thence a straight line to the Pole fence on Little Powell's
mountain, on the line dividing Scott and Lee counties; thence with said
county line to the head of Stock creek including the farm of Zachariah
N. Wells in the said county; thence a straight line to the Cedar gap
near Powell's river; thence a straight line to the dividing ridge
between the waters of Crab orchard and Pigeon fork; thence with said
dividing ridge to the Kentucky line and thence with the Kentucky line to
the beginning."

In the Act creating the county it was ordered that the "said seat of
justice shall be known as Gladesville," but the present county seat is
called Wise.

As has been said, Wise was the only one of the four counties erected in
1856 that remains in Virginia. The next county formed was Calhoun taken
from the lower portion of Gilmer County beginning at the West Fork of
the Little Kanawha River. The name derives from the great South Carolina
statesman who succeeded Abel P. Upshur as Secretary of State and was
long outstanding in politics.

At the same time that Calhoun became an entity, parts of the counties of
Kanawha, Jackson, and Gilmer lying a little to the west of Calhoun
became Roane County. The description of its bounds is startling when it
mentions "the Ravenswood and California turnpike in Jackson county," but
later we learn that California is a town in Jackson County.

With regard to Roane County, "its name and that of its seat of justice,
Spencer, commemorate that of him [Spencer Roane] whose life and public
services added lustre to the annals of Virginia jurisprudence." Spencer
Roane was "judge of the Supreme Bench 1794 to 1822."

The next county was Tucker formed out of the northeastern portion of
Randolph County and adjoining also the counties of Hardy, Preston and
Pendleton. The county seat appropriately bore the name of Saint George.
The county was "named in honor of Saint George Tucker the eminent
Virginia jurist while the seat of justice derives its name from Saint
George Tucker who was Clerk of the House of Delegates at the time the
county was formed."

Two years later in 1858, three more counties were established, one of
which, Buchanan, was destined to remain in Virginia, and the other two
in West Virginia.

McDowell, one of the two, was taken from the northwest portion of
Tazewell County and remains a border county between the two states, "The
ridge between Abb's Valley and Sandy" is one of the bounding lines noted
in the description; it recalls the Indian Massacre that occurred in that
Valley and the many stories related about it.

The name of the county honors James McDowell, elected Governor of
Virginia in 1843 and serving until 1846.

Clay County formed also in 1858 was created out of the southern part of
Braxton County and the northern part of Nicholas. Among the property
owners whose lands were mentioned as within its bounds, were Thomas
Jarvis, jr., James Rogers, Charles Ruffner, who with others owned a
twelve thousand acre tract "(near the farm of William Nichol, Sr.),"
Strother B. Grose and Abraham Dilly.

The county was so named in honor of Henry Clay, the great Kentucky
statesman who had died only a few years before its formation.

The Virginia county established in 1858 from parts of Tazewell and
Russell was Buchanan, named for James Buchanan, President of the United
States 1857-1861.

Its bounds were as follows: "Beginning at the state line between
Kentucky and Virginia and with said line to its intersection with the
line of Wise county, to the top of the dividing ridge between the waters
of Sandy and Clinch and with said ridge eastwardly to the head of
Dismal, a branch of the Lavica fork of Sandy river; then with the
dividing ridge between the waters of Dismal and the waters of the Dry
fork of Sandy and with the ridge between the waters of the Lavica fork
and the Dry fork to the ridge between Knox creek and Bull creek to Tug
river and down Tug river to the beginning."


1860-1870 RECESSION, TWO COUNTIES

In 1860, an Act was passed to create the new county of Webster from
portions of the counties of Nicholas, Braxton and Randolph, all to be
later in West Virginia. The name honored Daniel Webster, the prominent
statesman who had died only a few years previously.

In March 1861, the new county of Bland, taken from portions of Giles,
Wythe and Tazewell and named for Richard Bland of Revolutionary War fame
came into being. Its bounds are thus set forth: "beginning at the top of
Walker's Little mountain at the line between Wythe and Pulaski and
running northwards with said line of Pulaski, to the top of Walker's Big
mountain; thence eastward along the top of said last mentioned mountain
to a point opposite the mouth of Kimberling creek; thence by a line
northward passing through the mouth of said Kimberling creek to a point
on the top of the mountain which lies south of Wolf creek, three miles
east of the present county line between Giles and Tazewell counties;
thence to a point on the top of East river mountain two miles east of
the present county line between Giles and Tazewell so as to include the
homestead of Madison Allen and his lands adjoining thereto; thence with
the top of the said East River mountain westward to a point two miles
west of George Steel's house on Clear fork; thence across and by a line
as near as may be at right angles to the course of the valley between to
the top of Rich mountain and westward along the top of said Rich
mountain so far as to include the settlement of Wolf creek, thence
across the top of Garden mountain; thence along the top of Garden
mountain to a point through which the line between Wythe and Smyth would
pass if prolonged; thence by said prolonged line to the said line
between Wythe and Smyth and by the last mentioned line to the top of
Walker's Big mountain; thence eastward with the top of said Walker's Big
mountain to a point opposite the headwaters of Walker's Little creek;
thence across to the top of Walker's Little mountain, thence to the top
of said mountain eastward to the beginning."

Hardly was the ink dry on the Act quoted above when war precluded
further settlements and expansion. Not for nearly twenty years would
another and the last county be established.


FINIS--ONE COUNTY

In March 1880, out of the counties of Russell, Wise, and Buchanan was
formed the new county of Dickenson, named for a prominent member of the
Readjuster Party, then dominant in Virginia.

Its bounds noted in great detail are as follows: "beginning at Osborn's
gap in Cumberland mountain on the state line; thence a straight line to
the top of George's Fork mountain at a point where the road crosses said
mountain; thence with the top of the mountain to the head of Lick
branch, a tributary of Crane's nest creek; thence a straight line to the
mouth of Birchfield creek; thence up Crane's Nest creek to the mouth of
Lion's fork; thence up said creek to the forks of said branch; thence
up the Fork spur to the top of Crane's Nest bridge; thence a straight
line to Sandy Ridge meeting-house in the county of Wise on the top of
Sandy Ridge; thence with the top of Sandy ridge to the James Porter farm
at the head of Nancy's ridge; thence a straight line to Trammel gap on
Sandy ridge, thence with the top of Sandy ridge with a line of Russell
county to the James P. Kiser farm, thence a straight line to Henry
Kiser's farm on the top of Sandy ridge at the Russell county line;
thence with the Russell county line to James Rasnaker's farm, including
said farm in the new county; thence down the Cany ridge to the mouth of
Cany creek; thence down Indian creek to its mouth; including J. H.
Duly's farm; thence down Russell's fork of Sandy river to the mouth of
Panpan creek, including Andrew Owen's dwelling house; thence a straight
line to the mouth of Greenbrier creek, a tributary of Prater creek;
thence a straight line to the Big meadow gap; thence down a branch to
Gressy creek; thence down said creek to the mouth of Russell's fork of
Sandy river; thence down said river to the state line of Virginia and
Kentucky; thence with the state line to the beginning."

The formation of Dickenson County in 1880 completed all the local
organizations authorized by the Virginia Assembly from 1634 up to the
present, though in many counties minor changes in bounds have been
enacted from time to time.

We have seen the little feeble settlements along the James River extend
like a rising tide now east, now south, now north and finally with great
impetus to the west. Each settlement as it was established proceeded to
put into effect the concepts of law and order as practiced at Jamestown,
and handed down from father to son. The principle of representative
constitutional government as evidenced in the first General Assembly of
1619 may be called the sacred fire each settlement took with it and
carefully tended. It was the one thing all shared whether they lived by
the James River or high on the Blue Ridge. A settlement, a county, a
state, each one must have law, order, ready justice, representative
government. That is the theme underlying the development of Virginia
which we have traced step by step. It is the theme underlying the
development of our nation. Every American is a debtor to Jamestown for
his heritage of representative constitutional government.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


     _Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia_, 1808-1880.

     Daniel, J. R. V., _A Hornbook of Virginia History_, Richmond, 1950.

     Hening, William Waller, _The Statutes at Large_, Being _a
     Collection of All the Laws of Virginia_, 1619-1792, Richmond,
     1809-1823, 13 Vols.

     Robinson, Morgan P., _Virginia Counties, Bulletin of the Virginia
     State Library_, Vol. 9, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1916.

     Shepherd, Samuel, _Statutes at Large_, 1793-1806. Continuation of
     Hening.

     Richmond 1835-1836. 3 Vols.

     Stith, William. _History of First Discovery and Settlement of
     Virginia._ Williamsburg, 1747.

     Tyler, Lyon G., _Cradle of the Republic._ 2 ed. Richmond, 1900.



KEY TO CHARTS


                            No.

  Accawmack, 1634 (Ex.)      1
  Accomack, 1663             1
  Albemarle                  5
  Alexandria (Ex.)           9
  Alleghany                 10
  Amelia                     2
  Amherst                    5
  Appomattox                 5
  Arlington                  9
  Augusta                9, 10

  Barbour (W. Va.)          10
  Bath                      10
  Bedford                    2
  Berkeley (W. Va.)          9
  Bland                     11
  Boone (W. Va.)            11
  Botetourt, 10             11
  Bourbon (Ky.)             11
  Braxton (W. Va.)          10
  Brooke (W. Va.)           10
  Brunswick                  2
  Buchanan                  11
  Buckingham                 5

  Cabell (W. Va.)           11
  Calhoun (W. Va.)          10
  Campbell                   2
  Caroline                   9
  Carroll                   11
  Charles City               2
  Charles River (Ex.)        3
  Charlotte                  2
  Chesterfield               5
  Clarke                     9
  Clay (W. Va.)             10
  Craig                     11
  Culpeper                   9
  Cumberland                 5

  Dickenson                 11
  Dinwiddie                  2
  Doddridge (W. Va.)        10
  Dunmore (Ex.)              9

  Elizabeth City (Ex.)       4
  Essex                      9

  Fairfax                    9
  Fauquier                   9
  Fayette, 1780 (Ky.)       11
  Fayette, 1831 (W. Va.)    11
  Fincastle (Ex.)           11
  Floyd                     11
  Fluvanna                   5
  Franklin                   2
  Frederick                  9

  Giles                     11
  Gilmer (W. Va.)           10
  Gloucester                 3
  Goochland                  5
  Grayson                   11
  Greenbrier (W. Va.)       11
  Greene                     9
  Greensville                2

  Halifax                    2
  Hampshire (W. Va.)        10
  Hancock (W. Va.)          10
  Hanover                    3
  Hardy (W. Va.)            10
  Harrison (W. Va.)         10
  Henrico                    5
  Henry                      2
  Highland                  10

  Illinois (Ex.)            10
  Isle of Wight              7

  Jackson (W. Va.)          11
  James City                 6
  Jefferson, 1780 (Ky.)      11
  Jefferson, 1801 (W. Va.)   9

  Kanawha (W. Va.)          11
  Kentucky (Ex.)            11
  King and Queen             3
  King George                9
  King William               3

  Lancaster                  9
  Lee                       11
  Lewis (W. Va.)            10
  Lincoln (Ky.)             11
  Logan (W. Va.)            11
  Loudoun                    9
  Louisa                     3
  Lower Norfolk (Ex.)        4
  Lunenburg                  2

  McDowell (W. Va.)         11
  Madison, 1786 (Ky.)       11
  Madison, 1793              9
  Marion (W. Va.)           10
  Marshall (W. Va.)         10
  Mason, 1789 (Ky.)         11
  Mason, 1804 (W. Va.)      11
  Mathews                    3
  Mecklenburg                2
  Mercer, 1786 (Ky.)        11
  Mercer, 1837 (W. Va.)     11
  Middlesex                  9
  Monongalia (W. Va.)       10
  Monroe (W. Va.)           11
  Montgomery                11
  Morgan (W. Va.)            9

  Nansemond                  4
  Nelson, 1785 (Ky.)        11
  Nelson, 1808               5
  New Kent                   3
  New Norfolk (Ex.)          4
  Nicholas (W. Va.)         11
  Norfolk                    4
  Northampton                1
  Northumberland             9
  Nottoway                   2

  Ohio (W. Va.)             10
  Orange                     9

  Page                      10
  Patrick                    2
  Pendleton (W. Va.)        10
  Pittsylvania               2
  Pleasants (W. Va.)        10
  Pocahontas (W. Va.)       10
  Powhatan                   5
  Preston (W. Va.)          10
  Prince Edward              2
  Prince George              2
  Prince William             9
  Princess Anne              4
  Pulaski                   11
  Putnam (W. Va.)           11

  Raleigh (W. Va.)          11
  Randolph (W. Va.)         10
  Rappahannock, 1656 (Ex.)   9
  Rappahannock, 1833         9
  Richmond                   9
  Ritchie (W. Va.)          10
  Roane (W. Va.)            11
  Roanoke                   11
  Rockbridge                10
  Rockingham                10
  Russell                   11

  Scott                     11
  Shenandoah                 9
  Smyth                     11
  Southampton                7
  Spotsylvania               9
  Stafford                   9
  Surry                      6
  Sussex                     6

  Taylor (W. Va.)           10
  Tazewell                  11
  Tucker (W. Va.)           10
  Tyler (W. Va.)            10

  Upper Norfolk (Ex.)        4
  Upshur (W. Va.)           10

  Warren                     9
  Warrosquyoake (Ex.)        7
  Warwick (Ex.)              8
  Warwick River (Ex.)        8
  Washington                11
  Wayne (W. Va.)            11
  Webster (W. Va.)          11
  Westmoreland               9
  Wetzel (W. Va.)           10
  Wirt (W. Va.)             10
  Wise                      11
  Wood (W. Va.)             10
  Woodford (Ky.)            11
  Wyoming (W. Va.)          11
  Wythe                     11

  Yohogania (Ex.)           10
  York                       3

CHART 1

Accawmack ---------- Northampton ---------- Accomack
  1634-1642/3 (Ex.)    1642/3                 1662

CHART 2

                                       |- Hali- -- Pittsyl- -- Henry -- Patrick
                                       |   fax      vania       1777     1791
                                       |   1752     1767
                                       |
                                       |             |-- Campbell
                                       |             |     1782
                                       |- Bedford ---|
                                       |    1754     |
                            |- Lunen- -|             |-- Franklin
                            |   burg   |                    1786
                            |   1746   |- Charlotte
                            |          |     1765
                 |- Bruns- -|          |
                 |   wick   |          |
                 |   1732   |          |- Mecklenburg
                 |          |                1765
                 |          |- Greenville
                 |               1781
Charles  Prince  |
 City -- George -|                                |-- Prince Edward
 1634     1703   |                                |    1754
                 |-- Amelia ----------------------|
                 |    1735                        |-- Nottoway
                 |                                      1789
                 |
                 |-- Dinwiddie
                      1752

  Abbreviations:

     Ex.--Extinct
     Ky.--Kentucky
     W. Va.--West Virginia

CHART 3

                    |-- Gloucester ---- Mathews
                    |      1651          1791
  Charles -- York --|
  River      1642/3 |
  1634-1642/3       |                |-- King and Queen ---- King William
  (Ex.)             |                |       1691               1702
                    |-- New Kent ----|
                         1654        |
                                     |-- Hanover ---- Louisa
                                          1721         1742

CHART 4

                                                            |-- Norfolk
                                                            |    1691
                                       |-- Lower Norfolk ---|
                                       |   1637-1691(Ex.)   |
                                       |                    |-- Princess Anne
                                       |                           1691
Elizabeth City -------- New Norfolk ---|
1634-1952(Ex.)         1636-1637(Ex.)  |
                                       |-- Upper Norfolk ---- Nansemond
                                           1637-1646(Ex.)       1646

CHART 5

                                                 |-- Amherst ------- Nelson
                                                 |     1761            1808
                                                 |
                            |-- Albemarle -------|-- Buckingham ---- Appomattox
                            |      1744          |     1761            1845
                            |                    |
           |-- Goochland ---|                    |-- Fluvanna
           |      1728      |                          1777
           |                |
Henrico ---|                |-- Cumberland --------- Powhatan
 1634      |                       1749                1777
           |-- Chesterfield
                  1749

CHART 6

James City -------- Surry -------- Sussex
   1634             1652            1754

CHART 7

Warrosquyoake -------- Isle of Wight -------- Southampton
1634-1637(Ex.)            1637                   1749

CHART 8

Warwick River --------     Warwick
1634-1642/3(Ex.)       1642/3-1952(Ex.)

CHART 9


                                         |-- Caroline       |- Augusta (See Chart 10)
                                         |     1745         |     1745
                                         |                  |                    Jeffer-
                                         |                  |                  |-- son
                                         |                  |                  |   1801
                                         |                  |           Ber-   | (W. Va.)
                               |- Essex -|                  |        |- keley -|
                               |  1692   |                  |        |  1772   |
                               |         |                  | Frede- | (W. Va.)|
                               |         |                  |- rick -|         |- Morgan
                               |         |                  |  1743  |             1820
                               |         | Spotsyl-         |        |           (W. Va.)
                               |         |- vania - Orange -|        |
                               |             1721     1734  |        |
                       Rappa-  |                            |        |
                   |- hannock -|                            |        |
                   | 1656-1692 |                            |        |
                   |    (Ex.)  |                            |        |  Dun-   Shenan-  War-
                   |           |                            |        |- more -- doah -- ren
                   |           |                            |        |1772-1778 1778    1836
                   |           |                            |        |  (Ex.)
                   |           |- Richmond -- King George   |        |
                   |                1692         1721       |        |
             Lan-  |                                        |        |
         |- caster |                                        |        |
         |   1651  |                                        |        |-- Clarke
         |         |                                        |             1836
         |         |                                        |
         |         |-- Middlesex                            |
         |                1669                              |
         |                                                  |
         |                                                  |         |-- Madison
         |                                                  |         |    1793
         |                                                  |   Cul-  |
         |                                                  |- peper -|
         |                                                  |  1749   |   Rappa-
         |                                                  |         |-- hannock
         |                                                  |              1883
         |                                                  |
Northum- |                                                  |
berland--|                                                  |
  1645   |                                                  |
         |                                                  |
         |                                                  |-- Greene
         |                                                       1838
         |
         |                                             |-- Loudoun
         |                                             |    1757
         |                                             |
         |                                 |- Fairfax -|
         |                                 |    1742   |
         |                                 |           | Alexan-
         |                                 |           |- dria --- Arlington
         |                                 |            1847-1920    1920
         |   West-      Staf-    Prince    |               (Ex.)
         |- moreland -- ford -- William ---|
             1653       1664      1731     |
                                           |-- Fauquier
                                                 1759


Chart 10

(Continuation of Chart 9)

                                                              |- Upshur
                                                              | 1851 (W. Va.)
       |- Hampshire -------- Hardy                   |- Ran- -|
       |  1754 (W. Va.)      1786 (W. Va.)           |  dolph |
       |                                             |  1787  |- Tucker
       |                                             | (W. Va.) 1856 (W. Va.)
       |- Botetourt (See Chart 11)                   |
       |  1770                                       |
       |                                             |        |- Wirt
       |                                             |        | 1848 (W. Va.)
       |- Monon- -----------------------|            |- Wood -|
       |  galia                         |            |  1798  |
       |  1776                          |            |(W. Va.)|- Pleasants
       |  (W. Va.)                      |            |          1851 (W. Va.)
       |          |- Brooke -- Hancock  |            |
       |          |  1797      1848     |            |
       |          |  (W. Va.)  (W. Va.) |            |        |-Gilmer -Calhoun
       |          |                     |            |        | 1845    1856
       |- Ohio ---+- Tyler -- Wetzel    |            |-Lewis -|(W. Va.)(W. Va.)
       |  1776    |   1814     1846     |            | 1816   |
       |  (W. Va.)|  (W. Va.) (W. Va.)  |            |(W. Va.)|- Brax- - Clay
Au-  --|          |                     | |- Harri- -|           1836    1858
gusta  |          |                     | |  son     |        (W. Va.) (W. Va.)
1745   |          |- Marshall           | |  1784    |- Barbour
       |- Yohogania   1835 (W. Va.)     | | (W. Va.) |  1843 (W. Va.)
       |  1776-1786 (Ex).               | |          |
       |                                | |          |- Ritchie
       |- Rockbridge                    | |          |  1843 (W. Va.)
       |  1778                          |-|          |
       |                                  |          |- Taylor
       |- Rockingham ---- Page            |          |  1844 (W. Va.)
       |  1778            1831            |          |
       |                                  |          |- Doddridge
       |- Illinois                        |             1845 (W. Va.)
       |  1778-1784 (Ex.)                 |
       |                                  |- Preston
       |                                  | 1818 (W. Va.)
       |- Pendleton ------- Highland      |
       |  1788 (W. Va.)      1847         |
       |                                  |- Marion
       |              |---- Pocahontas      1842 (W. Va.)
       |              |    1821 (W. Va.)
       |- Bath -------|
          1791        |---- Alleghany
                              1822

CHART 11

(Continuation of Chart 10)

                                                     |--- Bourbon -- Mason
                                                     |  1786 (Ky.)  1789 (Ky.)
                                                     |
                                    |-- Fayette -----|
                                    |  1780 (Ky.)    |
                                    |                |
                                    |                |--- Woodford
                                    |                    1789 (Ky.)
                                    |
                |---- Kentucky -----+-- Jefferson ------- Nelson
                |  1777-1780 (Ex.)  |   1780 (Ky.)       1785 (Ky.)
                |                   |
                |                   |                      |----- Madison
                |                   |                      |     1786 (Ky.)
                |                   |                      |
                |                   |-- Lincoln -----------|
                |                      1780 (Ky.)          |
                |                                          |
                |                                          |---- Mercer
                |                                              1786 (Ky.)
                |
                |                             |- Gray- - Carroll  |-- Buchanan
                |                             |  son       1842   |    1858
                |                             |  1793             |
                |                   |- Wythe -|           |-------|
                |                   |  1790   |           |       |
                |                   |         |           |       |
       |- Fin- -|                   |         |- Taze- ---|       |-- McDowell
       | castle |                   |            well                  1858
       | 1772-  |                   |            1800                 (W. Va.)
       | 1777   |                   |
       | (Ex.)  |                   |                    |- Fayette - Raleigh
       |        |                   |                    |  1831       1850
       |        |                   |                    | (W. Va.)  (W. Va.)
       |        |                   |                    |
       |        |                   |         |- Logan --|
       |        |                   |         |  1824    |
       |        |                   |         | (W. Va.) |
       |        |                   |         |          |- Wyoming
       |        |                   |         |             1850
       |        |                   |         |            (W. Va.)
       |        |---- Montgomery ---|- Giles -|
       |        |       1777        |    1806 |
       |        |                   |         |
       |        |                   |         |- Mercer
       |        |                   |         | 1837 (W. Va.)
       |        |                   |         |
Bote- -|        |                   |- Floyd  |
tourt  |        |                   |   1831  |
1770   |        |                   |         |
       |        |                   |         |- Bland   |-- Scott ---- Smyth
       |        |                   |            1861    |    1814       1832
       |        |                   |                    |
       |        |                   |- Pul-    |-- Lee --|
       |        |                      aski    |  1793   |
       |        |                      1839    |         |
       |        |                              |         |-- Wise
       |        |                              |             1856
       |        |                              |
       |        |---- Washington --  Russell --|
       |                 1777         1786     |
       |                                       |
       |                                       |-- Dickenson
       |                                            1880
       |
       |                           |---- Mason --------- Jackson
       |                           |  1804 (W. Va.)    1831 (W. Va.)
       |                           |
       |                           |---- Cabell -------- Wayne
       |                           |  1809 (W. Va.)    1842 (W. Va.)
       |                           |
       |          |---- Kanawha ---|
       |          |  1789 (W. Va.) |
       |          |                |
       |          |                |---- Boone
       |          |                |  1847 (W. Va.)
       |          |                |
       |- Green- -|                |
       |  brier   |                |
       |  1776    |                |
       |  (W. Va.)|---- Monroe     |
       |          |  1799 (W. Va.) |
       |          |                |
       |          |                |---- Putnam
       |          |                |   1848 (W. Va.)
       |          |                |
       |- Roanoke |                |
       |   1838   |                |
       |          |                |
       |          |                |---- Roane
       |          |                   1856 (W. Va.)
       |          |
       |- Craig   |
           1851   |
                  |
                  |---- Nicholas -------- Webster
                    1818 (W. Va.)       1860 (W. Va.)



INDEX


  Aaron's creek, 28

  Abb's valley, 74

  Abingdon, 59

  Abrell, Robert, 13

  Accomack (Accawmack) county, 3, 6, 8, 10, 15

  Accomack Indians, 6

  Admiralty, Courts of, _see_ Courts, admiralty

  Agee family, 27

  Albemarle, William Anne Keppel, 2d Earl of, 26

  Albemarle county, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 38, 61, 63, 67

  Albemarle parish, 30

  Albemarle sound, 42

  Alexandria county, 15, 68, 69

  Alleghany county, 48, 55, 56, 71, 72

  Allegheny mountains, 36, 39, 43, 44, 47, 56, 69

  Allegheny river, 55

  Allen, Madison, 75

  Amelia, Princess, 24

  Amelia county, 24, 26, 29, 45, 46

  Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, 33

  Amherst county, 33, 52

  Amherst parish, 33, 52

  Anchrom, Richard, 68

  Anderson, James, 65
    Sterling C., 68

  Andros, Sir Edmund, 10

  Annapolis, Md., 27

  Anne, Queen, 17, 18, 39

  Anthony's creek, 47

  Antrim parish, 28, 33

  Appomattox county, 29, 67, 68

  Appomattox river, 6, 20, 24, 26, 29, 46, 67, 68

  Argall, Sir Samuel, 1

  Arlington county, 15, 69

  Armentrout, 71

  Ashby's gap (or bent), 25

  Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales, 25

  Augusta county, 25, 30, 31, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 45, 47, 69

  Augusta parish, 25, 30, 39


  Back creek, 42, 69

  Bacon's Rebellion, 16

  Bailey, Joseph, 66

  Barbecue run, 60

  Barber's creek, 72

  Barbour, Philip, 66

  Barbour county, 66, 72

  Barnes, Thomas, 64

  Bartlett, Samuel, 66

  Bath county, 47, 48, 55, 69

  Bean, William, 66

  Beard, John, 29

  Beckford parish, 35

  Bedford, John Russell, 4th Duke of, 30

  Bedford county, 29, 42, 43, 64

  Bell, Thomas, 33

  Bennett (Mr.), 14

  Berkeley county, 35, 50, 54, 55

  Bever, Charles, dams of, 19

  Big Birch river, 61

  Big Buffalo river, 61

  Big Meadow gap, 77

  Big Reedy island, 46

  Birchfield creek, 76

  Black, Samuel, 66

  Blackstone, Sir William, 46

  Blackwater river, 28, 30, 38, 43

  Bland, Richard, 75

  Bland county, 75, 76

  Blanford, 29

  Blue mountains, 33

  Blue Ridge mountains, 19, 24, 25, 34, 36, 40, 49, 58, 59, 60, 61,
   62, 63, 64, 77

  Blue Stone river, 46

  Bollings point, 29

  Bonsack, John, 64

  Boone, Daniel, 68

  Boone county, 68

  Boroughs _see_ Settlements

  Botetourt, Norborne Berkeley, Lord, 34, 35, 36

  Botetourt county, 34, 35, 36, 40, 47, 52, 55, 56, 64, 71

  Bourbon, family of, 45

  Bourbon county, 44, 45, 49

  Branch, Samuel, 68

  Brandon, 18

  Braxton, Carter, 60

  Braxton county, 60, 61, 74, 75

  Bristol parish, 7, 24

  Broad run, 31

  Brooke, Robert (Governor of Virginia), 49
    Robert (Surveyor, Knight of Golden Horse Shoe), 49

  Brooke county, 49, 67, 70

  Brook's mill, 26

  Brown, John, raid of, 51

  Brunswick, Duchy of, 21, 26

  Brunswick county, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 42

  Brunswick stew, 23

  Brush mountain, 71

  Brushy mountain, 50

  Buchanan, James, 74

  Buchanan county, 74, 76

  Buchanan river, 61

  Buckingham, Duke of, 33

  Buckingham county, 29, 32, 33, 67

  Buffalo creek, 42

  Bugg's run, 60

  Bull creek, 75

  Bull run, 25, 31

  Bull Run mountains, 31

  Bullock, Francis, 11

  Bunker Hill, Battle of, 62, 70

  Burden's March run, 63

  Bush creek, 48

  Byrd, Andrew H., 69
    James, 39
    Colonel William, 2nd, 22


  Cabell, William H., 52, 53

  Cabell county, 52, 56, 66, 68, 70

  Cabin branch, 68

  Calf-pasture river, 40, 47

  Calhoun, John Caldwell, 73

  Calhoun county, 73

  California, West Va., 73

  Camden parish, 33

  Camp rock, 73

  Campbell, Thomas, 69
    William, 42

  Campbell county, 38, 42, 67

  Canterbury, England, 9

  Cany creek, 77

  Cany ridge, 77

  Cape Capon mountains, 30

  Caperton, Hugh, 51

  Caroline of Anspach (Queen of George II), 20, 21

  Caroline county, 20, 21, 45

  Carper, John, 71

  Carroll, Charles, 65

  Carroll county, 65

  Carrollton, 65

  Carr's creek, 34

  Cartagena, Colombia, 27

  Castle Hill, 67

  Catawba road, 36

  Catawba valley, 64

  Cave's old mill, 63

  Cedar creek, 35, 41, 62

  Cedar gap, 73

  Chancery courts _see_ Courts, chancery

  Chapman's ford, 42

  Chapman's mill, 31

  Chapultepec, Mexico, 53

  Charles I, 5

  Charles II, 18

  Charles City corporation, 1, 2, 3

  Charles City county, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13, 18, 54

  Charles river, 13, 19

  Charles River county, 3, 5, 6
    _see also_ York county

  Charleston, S. C., 33, 42

  Charleston, West Va., 42, 54, 68, 70

  Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Queen of George III), 33

  Charlotte county, 33, 42, 67

  Charlottesville, 33

  Charters of Virginia, 2, 5, 44

  Cheat river, 47

  Cherry's run, 55

  Chesapeake bay, 18, 51

  Chesterfield, Philip D. Stanhope, 4th Earl of, 28

  Chesterfield county, 27, 28, 39

  Chester's gap, 35

  Chestnut creek, 65

  Chickacoan, 12

  Choppawomsick creek, 21

  Christ Church parish, Lancaster county, 15, 16

  Christ Church parish, Middlesex county, 16

  Chuckatuck creek, 6

  Chumley's branch, 20

  Cities (political division), 2

  Claiborne, William, 3, 13, 14

  Clark, George Rogers, 41, 44, 61

  Clarke county, 61, 62

  Clay, Henry, 74

  Clay county, 74

  Clear fork, 52, 75

  Clem, Daniel, 58

  Clinch, 75

  Clinch mountain, 45, 48, 50, 53

  Clinch river, 38, 50, 53, 73, 75

  Clinton, Henry, Sir, 42

  Clover Lick fork, 61

  Coal (Cole) river, 57, 70

  Cole, Richard, 12

  Cole (Coal) river, 57, 70

  College, at Henrico, 28

  Common Pleas courts _see_ Courts, common pleas

  Compasses, mariners', 3

  Convention, 1775 and 1776, 36, 37

  Conway river, 27

  Cooper, John, 57

  Coppohawk river, 30

  Corbin, Anderson, 66

  Corley (Mrs.), 66

  Cornstalk (Indian), 54

  Cornwall parish, 33

  Cornwallis, Charles, 2nd Earl, 1st Marquis, 42, 43

  Corporations, 1, 2

  Cotton, in Southampton county, 28

  Council, 2, 9, 20
    _Minutes_, 9

  Counties (political division), 2
    division of Colony into, 3

  County courts _see_ Courts, county

  "Court Party", 5

  Courts, admiralty, in England, 8;
      in Virginia, 10
    chancery, in England, 8
    common pleas, in England 8
    county, in Virginia, 2, 7, 8, 10
    ecclesiastical, in England, 8
    general court, in Virginia, 8, 9
    inferior, in Virginia, 2, 7
    king's bench, in England, 8
    magistrate's or justice, in Virginia, 7, 8
    monthly, in England, 8, 9;
      in Virginia, 7, 8, 9, 10
    of exchequer, in England, 8
    parish, in Virginia, 7
    prerogative, in England, 9

  Cove branch, 71

  Cove creek, 50

  Cow-pasture river, 40, 47, 55, 56, 69

  Cowpens, Battle of, 55

  Crab bottom, 69

  Crab orchard, 73

  Craig, Robert, 72

  Craig county, 71, 72

  Craig's creek, 56, 64, 71

  Crane creek, 52

  Crane's nest bridge, 76

  Crane's nest creek, 73, 76

  Crane's nest river, 72, 73

  Crany point, 11

  Crayford, England, 13

  Cripple creek, 48

  Crooked run, 49

  Crosses in Fairy Stone Park, 47

  Culberson's creek, 36

  Culloden, Battle of, 21

  Culpeper, Thomas, Lord, 27

  Culpeper county, 27, 35, 49, 53, 58, 59, 60

  Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of, 21, 27

  Cumberland county, 27, 39

  Cumberland mountains, 37, 45, 53, 72, 76

  Cunningham's branch, 39

  Cunningham's run, 58

  Currituck, 17

  Cutbanks, 68


  Dan river, 28, 33

  David's creek, 67

  Davis, Hiram, 65

  Davisson, Rueben, 66

  Deep creek, 21

  Deep run, 21

  Delaware Indians, 55

  Dews, Achilles, 71

  Dickenson, William J., 76

  Dickenson county, 76, 77

  Difficult run, 31

  Dilly, Abraham, 74

  Dinwiddie, Robert, 29, 31, 36

  Dinwiddie county, 29, 46

  Discovery, (_Ship_), 1

  Dismal branch, 75

  District of Columbia, 68, 69

  Doddridge, Philip, 67

  Doddridge county, 67

  Doss, Lilburn, 71

  Dragon run, 15

  Droop mountain, 47

  Drout, Richard, 17

  Dry fork, 75

  Dry run, 69

  Duly, J. H., 77

  Dunlap's creek, 47

  Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, 35, 36, 54

  Dunmore county, 35


  East river mountain, 75

  Eastern branch, Elizabeth river, 17

  Eastern Shore, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 15

  Eastern waters, 40

  Ecclesiastical courts, _see_ Courts, ecclesiastical

  Edward, Duke of Gloucester, 29

  Eighteen Mile creek, 51

  Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, 5

  Elizabeth City corporation, 1, 2, 3

  Elizabeth City county, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 23

  Elizabeth river, 5, 11, 17

  Elk river, 61

  England, civil war in, 7, 12, 16;
    immigrants from, 20;
    names for Virginia counties from, 5;
    unrest in, fosters immigration, 7

  Essex county, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23

  Ewing mountain, 48


  Fairfax, Thomas, 6th Lord of, 23, 25, 27, 30

  Fairfax county, 15, 25, 31, 69

  Fairy Stone mountain, 46, 47

  Fairy Stone State Park, 46

  Fall run, 60

  Falling river, 29, 68

  Falling Spring valley, 56

  Falls of James river, 20, 39

  Fauntleroy's mill run, 62, 63

  Fauquier, Francis, 31, 32, 33

  Fauquier county, 15, 31, 35, 60, 61,62

  Fayette county, Ky., 41, 42, 44, 45, 49

  Fayette county, West Va., 57, 70

  Federal City, _see_ Washington, D. C.

  Fincastle, Lord, 36

  Fincastle, England, 36

  Fincastle county, 36, 37, 38, 56

  Fisher's peak, 65

  Flag pond, 53

  Flat-top mountain, 52

  Fleisher, Andrew, 69

  Flourmoy family, 27

  Floyd, John, 57

  Floyd county, 56, 57, 65

  Fluvanna county, 17, 39

  Fluvanna river, 32, 33, 38, 39

  Fork lick, 61

  Fork spur, 76

  Fort Duquesne, 36

  Fort mountain, 58, 62

  Fort Pitt, 36

  Fourqurean family, 27

  France, Huguenot settlers from, 27

  Franklin, Benjamin, 43

  Franklin county, 43, 46, 57, 64

  Frascati, 66

  Frederick, King of Bohemia, 5

  Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, 25, 29

  Frederick county, 24, 25, 30, 31, 34, 35, 55, 61, 62

  Frederick parish, 24, 30, 34, 35

  Fredericksburg, 29

  French and Indian war, 29, 32, 36

  Fridley, 71


  Gap mountain, 52

  Garden mountain, 50, 76

  Garwood (Mrs.), 64

  Gauley mountain, 51

  Gauley river, 57

  General courts _see_ Courts, general

  George I, 18, 19, 21

  George II, 20, 24, 25, 26

  George III, 25, 29, 33

  George, Consort of Queen Anne, 18

  George's Fork mountain, 76

  Germanna, 20

  Germany, immigrants from, 19, 20, 23

  Giant's castle, 60

  Giles, William B., 52

  Giles county, 48, 51, 52, 56, 63, 64, 65, 71, 75

  Gilmer, Thomas Walker, 67

  Gilmer county, 67, 73

  Glade creek, 64

  Gladesville, 73

  Gloucester county, 13, 15, 23, 48

  Gloucester county, England, 13

  Glovers' tavern, 68

  Godspeed (_Ship_), 1

  Goff, William, 70

  Gooch, Sir William, 20

  Goochland county, 20, 24, 26, 27

  Goose creek, 42

  Grayson, William, 48

  Grayson county, 48, 57, 65

  Greasy creek, 48

  Great Kanawha river, 38, 54

  Great Laurel ridge, 37

  Great North mountains, 30

  Great Nottoway river, 24

  Great Sandy creek, 37

  Green creek, 33

  Greenbrier county, 40, 45, 47, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57

  Greenbrier Court House, 47

  Greenbrier creek, 77

  Greenbrier mountain, 47

  Greenbrier river, 40, 47

  Greene, Nathanael, 42, 63

  Greene county, 63

  Greensville county, 42

  Greenway, Charles City, 54

  Greenway Court, 25

  Gressy creek, 77

  Griever, Philip, spring branch of, 59

  Griffin, William, 56

  Grose, Strother B., 74

  Guerrant family, 27

  Guese's river, 53

  Guest's river, 73

  Guilford Court House, N. C., Battle of, 42

  Gunston Hall, 25, 45, 51

  Guyandotte river, 52, 57, 70


  Haies, Richard, 11

  Hale, Nathaniel C. _Virginia Venturer_, 3

  Halifax, George Montagu Dunk, 2d Earl of, 28, 29

  Halifax, Nova Scotia, 29

  Halifax county, 28, 33, 38, 42

  Hamilton parish, 25

  Hamilton's creek, 47

  Hamlin's fork, 24

  Hampshire county, 30, 35, 39, 43, 54, 55

  Hampshire county, England, 30

  Hampton, 28

  Hampton river, 28

  Hampton Roads, 3, 6, 10

  Hancock, John, 70

  Hancock county, 70

  Hanover county, 19, 20, 23, 25

  Hardy, Samuel, 44

  Hardy county, 43, 44, 45, 74

  Harman's mill, 52

  Harper's Ferry, 50

  Harrison, Benjamin, 43

  Harrison, county, 42, 45, 49, 50, 54, 65, 66

  Harrodsburg, Ky., 42

  Hart, Silas, 39

  Harvey, William, 68

  Hay, James, 62, 63

  Hays, Richard, 11

  Hazel's river, 60

  Hedgman river, 24

  Henrico corporation, 1, 2, 3

  Henrico county, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 20, 24, 28

  Henry, Prince of Wales, 5

  Henry, Patrick, 38, 46, 70

  Henry county, 22, 38, 39, 43, 46

  Hensley, Samuel, 53

  High Knob, 69, 73

  Highland county, 69, 70

  Hite, James M., 62, 63 Jost, 23

  Hiver, Jacob, 69

  Hoffman's ford, 62

  Holleway creek, 67

  Holstein river, 38

  Holston river, 36

  Horner's mill, 60

  Horse ford, 26

  Horseshoe farm, 27

  Hughes's river, 67

  Hugh's river, 49, 60

  Huguenots in Virginia, 20, 27

  Hunter's old tavern, 68

  Hutchinson, R. M., 71

  Hyde, Anne, wife of James II, 17


  Illinois county, 41, 44

  Immigration, to Virginia, 20

  Indian creek, 65, 77

  Indians, 7, 11, 15, 16, 54

  Iron mining and works, 19, 28

  Iron mountain, 38, 48

  Irvine, John, 22

  Isle of Wight county, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 14, 22, 28, 44

  Isle of Wight Island, England, 5

  Ivy, Thomas, 17


  Jackson, Andrew, 57, 58
    James, 63

  Jackson county, 57, 70, 73

  Jackson's mountain, 69

  Jackson's river, 47, 55, 56, 69

  James I, 5

  James II, 5, 16, 17, 20

  James, son of James II, 20

  James City corporation, 1, 2, 3

  James City county, 3, 5, 6, 8, 14

  James river, 6, 14, 18, 20, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 39, 40, 42,
       55, 67, 68, 77

  James river falls, 20, 39

  Jamestown, 1, 2, 3, 6, 14, 18, 55, 77

  Jarrell, Jackson, 70

  Jarvis, Thomas, Jr., 74

  Jefferson, Thomas, 26, 42, 50, 51, 56

  Jefferson county, Ky., 41, 42, 49, 50

  Jefferson county, West Va., 50, 61

  John's creek, 71

  Johnson, Jacob, 17

  Jordan, John, 56

  Joshua's creek, 68

  Judicial system, in Virginia, 7, 8, 9, 10

  Judy's creek, 42


  Kanawha county, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 61, 67, 68, 70, 73

  Kanawha river, 40, 45, 51, 57, 60, 61

  Kanawha turnpike, 57

  Kemp, James, 17

  Kent, England, 13

  Kent's ridge, 50

  Kentucky, 38, 42, 44, 49, 53, 56, 72, 73, 75, 77

  Kentucky county, 37, 38, 41

  Kikotan (Kiccowtan, Kigwohtan, Kikotank, Kecoughtan), 1
    _see also_ Elizabeth City corporation

  Kimberling creek, 75

  King, Sally, 65

  King and Queen county, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23

  King George county, 19, 21

  King William county, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23

  King's bench courts _see_ Courts, king's bench

  King's Mountain, Battle of, 42, 45

  King's salt wells, 59

  Kiser, Henry, 77
    James P., 77

  Knox creek, 75


  Lafayette, Marquis de, 42, 51, 57

  Lancaster county, 12, 14, 15

  Lancaster county, England, 12

  Land grants, 3, 9

  Land Ordinance, 1785, 44

  Land's, 68

  Laurel ridge, 57

  Lavica fork, 75

  Lawne's creek, 6, 11, 14

  Lee, Francis Lightfoot, 13
    Henry, "Light Horse Harry", 49
    Richard Henry, 13
    Robert E., 13, 49
    Thomas, 21

  Lee county, 49, 53, 72, 73

  Legislative assembly, first, 1, 2

  Legrand family, 27

  Letcher, John, 43

  Lewis, Andrew, 54
    Charles, 54
    Thomas, 51

  Lewis county, 54, 60, 61, 66, 67, 72

  Lexington, Ky., 42

  Lexington parish, 52

  Lick branch, 76

  Lick creek, 57, 73

  Lincoln, Benjamin, 42

  Lincoln county, 42, 44, 49

  Lion's fork, 76

  Litterell, Mrs., 57

  Little Birch river, 61

  Little creek, 17

  Little Guyandotte river, 51

  Little Hurricane creek, 51

  Little Kanawha river, 60, 61, 73

  Little Powell's mountain, 73

  Little river, 36, 57, 65

  Little Rockey creek, 26

  Little Walker's creek, 65

  Logan (Indian chief), 54, 56

  Logan county, 56, 57, 68, 71

  London, England, 14

  London, Diocese of, 9

  Long Shoal run, 61

  Loudoun, John Campbell, 4th Earl of, 31

  Loudoun county, 15, 31, 34, 35, 61

  Louis XVI, 45

  Louisa, daughter of George II, 26

  Louisa county, 26, 38

  Louisville, Ky., 42

  Lower Manachin creek, 20

  Lower Norfolk county, 11, 17

  Luneburg, Duchy of, Germany, 26

  Lunenburg county, 26, 28, 29, 33

  Luray cavern, 58

  Lynchburg road, 68


  M'Clintick, William, Jr., 69

  M'Daniell, James, 66

  McDowell, James, 74

  McDowell county, 74

  Machoatoke river, 12

  M'Kinney's store, 68

  Mack's mountain, 57

  McLure (McClure) river, 73

  Madison, James, 44, 49

  Madison county, Ky., 44, 49

  Madison county, Va., 49, 59, 63

  Magistrate courts _see_ Courts, magistrate's

  Maiden Spring fork, 50

  Manakintown, 27

  Manassas, 21

  Mann's gap, 50

  Marion, Francis, 65

  Marion county, 65, 66

  Marshall, John, 60

  Marshall county, 60

  Martin, Rueben, 68

  Mary II, Queen, 16, 17, 18

  Mary of Modena, 20

  Maryland, 15

  _Maryland Archives_, 12

  Mary's creek, 34

  Mason, George, 25, 45, 51
    Seth, 62

  Mason county, Ky., 45, 49, 51

  Mason county, West Va., 51, 57, 70

  Massacres, 1622, 13, 28
    1644, 13
    1778, 71
    in Abb's valley, 74

  Massanutten mountain, 58

  Massie, Henry, 56

  Mathews, Thomas, 48

  Mathews county, 48

  Mattaponi (Mattopony) river, 14, 18

  Maukason gap, 49

  Mayo, William, 22

  Mayo river, 22

  Meadow river, 57

  Mecklenburg county, 33, 42

  Meherrin river, 42

  Mercer, Hugh, 44, 63

  Mercer county, Ky., 44, 49

  Mercer county, West Va., 63

  Merchants Hope Church, 7, 18

  Merryman's, 68

  Mexico City, Mexico, 53

  Michaux family, 27

  Middle Mountain, 71

  Middlesex county, 15, 16

  Middlesex county, England, 16

  Militin's fork, 52

  Mill creek, 47, 57

  Mill mountain, 47

  Miller, Adam, 23

  Mississippi river, 23, 41, 44

  Mississippi valley, 41

  Mitchell's rock, 55

  Monongahela (Monongalia) river, 47, 60, 67

  Monongalia county, 37, 42, 54, 65

  Monroe, James, 50

  Monroe county, 50, 51, 55, 71

  Monroe doctrine, 50

  Monterey, 69

  Monterey, Battle of, 69

  Montgomery, Richard, 38

  Montgomery county, 37, 38, 40, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 56, 57, 64,
       65, 71

  Monthly courts _see_ Courts, monthly

  Monticello, 26

  Morattico creek, 14

  Morgan, Daniel, 54, 55

  Morgan county, 54, 55

  Morris, Joshua, 51

  Morriss, Archibald, 56

  Moseley, William, Sr., 17

  Mount Vernon, 25

  Mountain Lake, 52

  Muddy creek, 48


  Naemhock, 14

  Naked creek, 39, 58

  Namozene (Namozain) creek, 24, 45

  Nancy's ridge, 76

  Nansemond (Nansimum) county, 8, 11

  Narrows, 48

  Nations Spring run, 61

  Natural bridge, 41

  Natural tunnel, 53

  Necostins town, 12

  Nelson, Thomas, 43, 52

  Nelson county, Ky., 43, 49

  Nelson county, Va., 52

  New Kent county, 13, 16, 19

  New Kent county, England, 13

  New Norfolk county, 10, 11

  New Orleans, Battle of, 58

  New river, 36, 40, 51, 52, 57, 65, 70

  Newport, England, 5

  Newport News, 6

  Newport parish, 5

  Nichol, William, Sr., 74

  Nicholas, Wilson Cary, 54

  Nicholas county, 54, 57, 60, 61, 74, 75

  Niday, William, 71

  Nineveh, 62

  Norborne parish, 34, 35

  Norfolk borough, 48

  Norfolk county, 17

  Norfolk county, England, 10

  North Anna river, 17, 19, 26

  North Carolina, 17, 22, 26, 37, 38, 42, 58, 65

  North mountain, 39, 40

  North river, 17, 39, 48

  North River Gap road, 69

  Northampton county, 8, 15

  Northern Neck, 12, 13, 14, 18, 25, 27, 30, 31

  Northumberland county, 11, 12

  Northumberland county, England, 12

  Northwest territory, 43, 44, 61

  Northwestern turnpike, 67

  Nottoway county, 45, 46

  Nottoway Indians, 46

  Nottoway river, 24, 26, 29, 42, 46

  Nowell, William, 11


  Occoquan river, 25

  Ohio, 43

  Ohio county, 37, 49, 51, 60

  Ohio river, 36, 37, 40, 41, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 60, 66, 70, 72

  Ohio valley, 44

  Oil creek, 61

  Opequon creek, 61

  Orange county, 23, 24, 27, 49, 58, 63, 66

  Osborn's gap, 76

  Owen, Andrew, 77


  Pacific ocean, 44

  Pad's creek, 47

  Page, John, 58

  Page county, 58, 62

  Pamunkey neck, 16, 18

  Pamunkey river, 6, 14, 16, 17, 18

  Panpan creek, 77

  Panther's gap, 40

  Parkersburg, West Va., 57, 70, 72

  Passage creek, 35

  Patrick county, 22, 46, 57, 65

  Paul, Audley, 40

  Peck creek, 46

  Peden (Paden), James, 68

  Pembroke, William Herbert, 3rd, Earl of, 59

  Pembroke river, 59

  Pendleton, Edmund, 45

  Pendleton county, 45, 47, 55, 69, 74

  Pennsylvania, 37

  Persinger, Andrew, 72

  Peter's mountain, 40, 56, 71

  Philadelphia, Pa., 23

  Philippi, 66

  Piankatank river, 48

  Pigeon fork, 73

  Pine run, 65

  Pine's plantation, 51

  Piracy, in Virginia, 10

  Pitt, Robert, 11
    William, Earl of Chatham, 33, 34

  Pittsburgh, Pa., 36, 37, 53

  Pittsylvania county, 33, 38, 43, 46

  Pleasants, James, Jr., 72

  Pleasants county, 72

  Pocahontas, 55

  Pocahontas county, 55, 69

  Pocatallico creek, 51

  Pocomoke river, 15

  Pohick church, 25

  Point mountain, 61

  Point Pleasant, 51, 54

  Point Pleasant, Battle of, 54

  Popular Camp mountain, 48

  Population, 1634, 3, 7
    1640, 7
    1649, 12
    1654, 12

  Poropotank creek, 14

  Porter, James, 76
    John, 17

  Potomac river, 6, 7, 11, 12, 18, 21, 24, 30, 31, 32, 35, 39, 50,
       51, 55

  Potowoc river, 24

  Potts' creek, 71

  Potts' mountain, 56

  Pound fork, 71, 72

  Powell, Ambrose, 53

  Powell's mountain, 49, 53

  Powell's river, 53, 73

  Powell's fort, 62

  Powhatan, 39

  Powhatan county, 39

  Prater creek, 77

  Preston, James Patton, 54

  Preston, Battle of, 20

  Preston county, 54, 74

  Preston's and King's salt wells, 59

  Priam, Joseph, 61

  Price's turnpike, 71

  Prince Edward county, 29, 46, 67

  Prince Edward street, Fredericksburg, 29

  Prince George county, 18, 21, 24, 29, 30

  Prince William county, 15, 21, 25, 31

  Princess Anne county, 17

  Princeton, 63

  Princeton (_Ship_), 72

  Pulaski, Count Casimir, 64

  Pulaski county, 64, 65, 75

  Puritans, in Nansemond county, 11

  Putnam, Israel, 70

  Putnam county, 70


  Quakers, in Nansemond county, 11


  Raleigh, Walter, Sir, 70

  Raleigh county, 70

  Raleigh parish, 24

  Randolph, Edmund, 45

  Randolph county, 45, 47, 54, 55, 61, 66, 72, 74, 75

  Randolph Court House, 55

  Rapidan river, 17, 20, 27

  Rappahannock county (1656-1692), 14, 15, 17, 18

  Rappahannock county (1833), 59, 60, 62

  Rappahannock Indians, 59

  Rappahannock river, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 27, 59

  Rasnaker, James, 77

  Ravenswood and California turnpike, 73

  Reconstruction, in Virginia 44

  Red house, Appomattox county, 68

  Red springs, 56

  Redman, John, 47

  Reed island, 65

  Reedy creek, 53, 68

  Representative government, origin of, in U. S., 77

  Rich, Robert, Sir, 5

  Rich creek, 51

  Rich mountain, 76

  Rich Patch mountain, 56

  Richmond, 32, 39

  Richmond county, 18, 19

  _Richmond Enquirer_, 66

  Ritchie, Thomas, 66

  Ritchie county, 66, 72

  Rivanna river, 17, 26

  Roane, Spencer, 73, 74

  Roane county, 73

  Roanoke (Indian money), 64

  Roanoke county, 63, 64, 71

  Roanoke river, 22, 24, 26, 36, 42, 64

  Robinson river, 49

  Rock-camp fork, 61

  Rockbridge county, 40, 41, 47, 56

  Rockfish river, 33

  Rockingham, Marquis of, 40

  Rockingham county, 39, 40, 45, 49, 58, 63

  Rocky run, 31

  Rogers, James, 74

  Rolfe, John, 55

  Ronceverte, 40

  Rose, 71

  Rosegill, 16

  Rose's mill, 48

  Rotterdam, Holland, 23

  Round bottom, 52

  Rowan, Boston, 71

  Royal Marriage Act, 1772, 29

  Ruffner, Charles, 74

  Russell, William, 45

  Russell county, 45, 48, 50, 53, 59, 72, 74, 76, 77

  Russell parish, 30

  Russell's fork, 77


  Sail's creek, 29

  St. Andrew's parish (Brunswick county), 24

  St. Anne's parish, 33

  Saint George, 74

  St. James parish, 33

  St. John's parish (New Kent county), 16

  St. Mark's parish, 23

  St. Memin, Julien F. de, 59

  St. Paul's parish (New Kent county), 19

  St. Peter's parish (New Kent county), 16

  Salt works road, 60

  Sand fork, 61

  Sandy creek, 38

  Sandy Point, 6

  Sandy ridge, 76, 77

  Sandy river, 72, 74, 75, 77

  Sandys, Edwin, Sir, 5

  Savannah, Ga., 64

  Sayers, John T., 65

  Scotland, immigrants from, 20

  Scott, Winfield, 53

  Scott county, 53, 72, 73

  Scott's branch, 68

  Seacock swamp, 30

  Seaward, John, 11

  Seneca creek, 39

  Shenandoah county, 35, 49, 58, 62

  Shenandoah (Sherrendo) river, 23, 35, 50, 62, 63

  Shenandoah valley, 23, 51, 64

  Shepherd, David G., 65
    Harvey, 65

  Shires, (political division), 3, 5

  Shock, Jacob, 61

  Shooting creek, 43

  Showlands, John, 17

  Shuler's island, 58

  Shuler's run, 58

  Simpson's creek, 17, 47

  Sinking creek, 64

  Sinking creek valley, 71

  Sizer, Daniel, 71

  Skiffe's (Keith's) creek, 6

  Skimeno (Skimino) creek, 14

  Skinquarter creek, 20

  Sleepy creek mountain, 55

  Smith's river, 46

  Smyth, Alexander, 58, 59

  Smyth county, 58, 59, 76

  Snow creek, 19

  Sonners, Isaac, 70

  South Anna river, 17

  South branch, 47

  South mountain, 39

  South river, 34, 58

  Southam parish, 39

  Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, 2d Earl of, 5, 28

  Southampton county, 27, 28, 30

  Southwark parish, 30

  Spencer, West Va., 73

  Spessard, John, 64

  Spotswood, Alexander, 18, 19, 20, 27, 49, 64

  Spotsylvania county, 19, 20, 21, 23

  Stafford county, 15, 21, 31

  Stafford county, England, 15

  Stanard, William Glover, 37

  Staunton, 37

  Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike, 72

  Staunton river, 28, 33, 38, 42, 43

  Steel, George, 75

  Steele's mill, 40

  Steer creek, 61

  Stephens, John, Jr., 70

  Stephenson, Adam, 69

  Stith, William. _History of Virginia_, 2, 7

  Stock creek, 49, 73

  Stone Coal gap, 71

  Stott's ferry, 38

  Stover, Jacob, 23

  Strait Stone creek, 33

  Strasburg, 62

  Stratford Hall, 13, 21

  Surrey county, England, 14

  Surry county, 14, 22, 29, 30

  Surveyors of land, 3

  Susan Constant (_Ship_), 1

  Susquehanna river, 71

  Sussex county, 30

  Sussex county, England, 30

  Sweedland hill, 39

  Sweet Springs, 40, 56

  Swift Run gap, 63

  Sydney (or Sidney), Philip, Sir, 59

  Sydnor, F. W., 15


  Tarleton, Banastre, 55

  Tate, David, Sr., 47

  Taylor, Creed, 65
    William, 73
    Zachary, 66, 69

  Taylor county, 66

  Tazewell, Henry, 50

  Tazewell county, 50, 51, 52, 56, 63, 74, 75

  Teaze's valley, 51

  Tennant's church, 49

  Tennessee, 38, 49, 53

  Tennessee river, 38

  Thomasson, John P., 70

  Thompson, John W., 64

  Thompson's mill, 42

  Thrasher, John, 57

  Three Lick fork, 61

  Three Top mountain, 62

  Ticonderoga, N. Y., 33

  Tidewater, 11, 13

  Tillotson parish, 33

  Tobacco, 22, 23
    as a medium in court cases, 2, 7
    as a medium of exchange, 32
    effect of, upon Virginia migration, 13
    in Brunswick county, 22, 23
    in Lunenburg county, 26
    taxes, fees, etc. on, 32

  Town creek, 46

  Trammel gap, 77

  Treaty of 1783, 44

  Truro parish, 25

  Trussell, John, 12

  Tuckahoe creek, 20

  Tucker, St. George (Clerk of House of Delegates), 74
    St. George (Jurist), 74

  Tucker county, 74

  Tug river, 75

  Turkey Island creek, 6

  Turkeycock mountain, 43

  Twenty Mile creek, 57

  Tyler, John, (President of U. S.), 54, 72
    John, (Governor of Virginia), 53, 54
    Lyon G. _Cradle of the Republic_, 6

  Tyler county, 53, 68, 72


  Upper Chippokes creek, 6, 14

  Upper Norfolk county, 8,11

  Upshur, Abel P., 72, 73

  Upshur county, 72


  Valley of Virginia, 23, 50, 51, 57, 58, 64

  Valley pike, 57

  Van Metre, John, 23

  Vaughan's creek, 68

  Vernon, Edward, 27

  Virginia, boundary dispute with Maryland, 15
    ceding of territory in 1781, 44
    Charter of 1609, 44
    Charter of 1612, 44
    division into counties, 3
    divided into political divisions, 2
    economic conditions, 32
    emigration to, 20
    fight against French power, 31
    formation of West Virginia, 43
    land cheap in, 24
    loss of coal fields, 44
    loss of territory, 43, 44
    population of 1634, 3, 7
    population of 1640, 7
    population of 1649, 12
    population of 1654, 12
    territorial claim, 44
    unrest in, 16
    wills probated in, 9

  Virginia, unrest in, 16

  Virginia, University of, 52

  Virginia company, 2, 5, 28, 59

  _Virginia Magazine of History and Biography_, 15, 37

  Virginia militia, 29, 41, 43, 44, 54

  Virginia State Library. _Minutes of Council and General Court_, 9


  Walker, Thomas, 53, 67

  Walker's Big mountain, 75, 76

  Walker's Creek mountain, 52

  Walker's Little creek, 76

  Walker's Little mountain, 75, 76

  Ward's ford, 29, 46

  Warm Spring mountain, 30

  Warm Springs, 47, 48

  Warren, Joseph, 62

  Warren county, 61, 62, 63

  Warrosquyoake county, 3, 5, 6, 11, 14
    _see also_ Isle of Wight county.

  Warwick (Warrick), Robert Rich, Earl of, 5

  Warwick county, 3, 5, 6, 8

  Warwick River county, 3, 6

  Washington, George, 25, 29, 38, 50, 64

  Washington, D. C., 69

  Washington county, 37, 38, 45, 48, 53, 58, 59

  Watkins' point, 15

  Wayne, Anthony, 66

  Wayne county, 66

  Webb, Edmond, 17

  Webster, Daniel, 72, 75

  Webster county, 75

  Wells, Zachariah N., 73

  Wells bridge, 45

  West Augusta district, 36, 37

  West fork, 73

  West Union, West Va., 60

  West Virginia, 43, 44

  Western branch, Elizabeth river, 11

  Western waters, 40

  Westmoreland county, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 33, 50

  Weston, West Va., 72

  Wetzel, Louis, 68

  Wetzel county, 68

  White Oak hunting path, 24

  White Post, Clarke county, 63

  Whitelow's mill run, 63

  Wilderness road, 53

  William III, 16, 18, 23

  William and Mary College, 34, 46

  Williams' gap, 34

  Williamsburg, 18, 23, 31, 34

  Wills, Probating of, in England, 9;
      in Virginia, 9

  Winchester, 50

  Winchester and Staunton stage road, 62

  Wirt, William, 70

  Wirt county, 70

  Wise, Henry A., 72

  Wise, 73

  Wise county, 72, 73, 75, 76

  Wolf creek, 52, 75, 76

  Wolf Creek mountain, 52

  Wood, James, (Governor of Virginia), 49
    James, (Colonel), 49

  Wood county, 49, 50, 51, 57, 66, 70, 72

  Woodford, John H., 66
    William, 45

  Woodford county, 45, 49

  Wormeley family, 16

  Wright's branch, 61

  Wyatt, Francis, Sir, 2

  Wyoming county, 71

  Wyoming Valley, 71

  Wythe, George, 46

  Wythe county, 46, 48, 50, 52, 58, 59, 64, 65, 75, 76

  Wythe Court House, 59


  Yardley, Benjamin, 39

  Yeardley, George, Sir, 5

  Yohogania county, 37

  York, Duke of, 5

  York, England, 9

  York county, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13, 23
    _see also_ Charles River county

  York river, 6, 13, 16

  Yorktown, 42, 43, 52

  Young's bottoms, 61


  Zion meeting-house, 62



      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

(1) All apparent typographical errors, misspellings and
    punctuation errors have been corrected without comment.

(2) In some instances, "cowpasture" was so spelled; these
    have now been hyphenated to conform with "calf-pasture".

(3) "Boroughs" and "Settlements" have been deleted from the
    index, as neither is in the text.

(4) "Federal City" has been linked directly in the index,
    as it is not mentioned under "Washington D.C.".





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